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In publifhing for the firft time, all the letters of Roger Williams, as far as they 
have come to the knowledge of the editor, it is proper to mention the fources from 
which they have been obtained. 

With the exception of a very few letters, printed in various controversial books of 
the period when Williams lived and wrote, the firft which appeared in print were 
in Backus's Hiftory of New England with reference to the Baptifts, printed in 1777. 
A few ifolated letters next appeared in the early volumes of the Collections of the 
Maffachu Setts Hiftorical Society, and a large number in Profeffor Knowles' Life of 
Williams, publilhed at Bofton in 1834, few of which had before appeared in print. 
But the moft considerable acceffion was in the " Winthrop Papers." Thefe let- 
ters were written by Williams to Governor Winthrop of Maffachufetts, and to 
his fon John Winthrop, Jr., Governor of Connecticut, and had remained in the 
poffeflion of the Winthrop family until prefented to the Maflachufetts Hiftorical 
Society. They were published by the Society at different times, as they came into 
its poffeffion ; hence, are net found in one volume, but in many ; the larger num- 
ber being in volume VI., of the fourth feries of its " Collections." 

Williams doubtlefs had other correspondents, but his letters to fuch were un- 
known to thofe who have written upon his life, or who have edited the recent re- 
publications of his feveral works. The editor of the prefent compilation of thefe 
letters has made further Search in various Hiftorical Collections and in other 
books, and he has alfo confulted gentlemen familiar with the writings of Williams; 
but only in a fingle inftance has he been able to find a letter, not already in print. 
For this letter, which is an important one, the editor is indebted to Charles Deane, 
Efq.,of Cambridge. 

In prefenting the letters of Williams, it was the defire of the editor to give them 
precilely as they were written, by preferving the language and the original orthog. 
raphy ; a plan which was found to be impracticable. Had all been printed as thofe 
are in the later volumes of the Maflachufetts Hiftorical Society, where the language 

x. Editor s Preface. 

and orthography remain as originally written, this plan might ^ave been carried 
out ; but, unfortunately, in nearly one-half the letters, the language, as well as the 
fpelling, had been modernized, fo that it was impracticable to attempt a piefenta- 
tion of all the letters as originally written. Under thefe circumltances, the editor 
was compelled to modernize the whole, in order to preferve a uniformity. In 
doing this, he has printed all the letters found in Backus's Hiftory of the Baptifts ; 
in Knowles' Memoir of Williams ; in Elton's Life of Williams, and in fome of the 
Hiftorical Collections which had been modernized, precifely as they appear ; no al- 
teration being necefTary. Thofe among the " Winthrop Papers" printed in the later 
volumes of the Collections of the Maflachufetts HHtorical Society, have been 
modernized in their fpelling, but preferve the original language. 

In fpelling the Indian names, no fyftem feems to have been followed either by 
Mr. Williams or other early New England writers. Thus we find Narraganfett 
fpelled Naniganjick, Nanibiggonfick, Narrogonjett, Nariganfet, and Nanbiggonfet. 

For Connecticut, we have £)uinnibticut, ^unnticut. 

For Nyantic, we have Nayantakick, Nayantaquit, Nayantuqiut. 

For Mohawks, Mauquahogs, Mawquatvogs, Mobowazuogs, Mowbauogs, and Maw- 

For Uncas, we have Okace, Qwokace, Wocafe, Qnkace, Onkas, and Oncas. 

For Mohegan, Monabiganenchs, Monabig, Monbiggin, Monabiggen. 

The fpelling of thefe and other Indian names have been changed into the orthog- 
raphy of the prefent day. 

Many of the letters of Williams ar'e without dates ; fome only bear the day of 
the week, while a majority of them are dated in the manner following: (Nar. 16. 
12. 49. fo call'd) meaning Narraganfett, the 16th of the 12th month, i. e. the 1 6th 
February, 1649-50; according to the Old Style, then in vogue, when March was 
the firft month. Where the date is entirely wanting the editor has endeavored to fix 
upon the month and year, by the fubjedl of the letter, or by the endorfement of 
Gov. Winthrop when the letter was received by him. The editors of the " Win- 
throp Papers" have labored to afcertain the dates of many, which dates in almoil 
every inftance have been adopted ; but ftill fome remain, the contents of which are 
of fuch a general character, that it has not been poffible even to fix the probable 
year when they were written. The date of every letter, however obfcure, if it 
bore any, is given as it appears in the original, while the probable or aflumed date 
is given in brackets. But with every effort to arrive at the truth, it is poffible 
that errors have been made. 

The notes which have been added are neceflarily numerous, and might have 
been extended, but it was deemed advifable not to enter into any of the contro- 
verfies in which Mr. Williams was involved. 

Editor s Preface. xi. 

In the notes the fource has been given whence all the letters in the volume were 
obtained. The larger number is from the " Winthrop Papers," which papers in- 
clude letters from men prominent in New England during the feventeenth century 
all being a portion of the correfpondence of three generations of the Winthrops. 

The public eilimate of fome men famous in hiftory has been leffened by the 
reading of their letters; but no one can read thefe from the founder of Rhode Ifland 
in this volume without having his refpect and admiration for him increafed. Mr. 
Knowles was the fir il of Williams's biographers to introduce his letters. Even 
thefe tended to elevate his character ; but their were periods, relating to which no 
letters from his pen were known to be in exiilence The publication of the Win- 
throp papers brought letters to light, which tend to elucidate many events in Wil- 
liams's life. 

In fpeaking of the correfpondence of the Winthrop's, Mr. Lowell in his charm- 
ing effays {'■''Among my Books" p. 246) thus writes : — 

" Let me premife that there are two men above all others, for whom our rei- 
peft is heightened by their letters, — the elder John Winthrop and Roger Williams. 
Winthrop appears throughout as a truly magnanimous and noble man in an unobtru- 
five way, — a kind of greatnefs that makes lefs noife in the world, but is on the 
whole more folidly fatisfying to moil others." ..." Charity and tolerance flow 
fo noticeably from the pen of Williams that it is plain they were in his heart. He 
does not fhow himfelf a llrong or very wife man, but a thoroughly gentle and good 
one. His affection for the two Winthrops is evidently of the warmeft." 

For the better underftanding of certain letters of Mr. Williams's in this volume, 
it has been deemed advifable to include a few from other perfons. Among thefe 
are the letters of Mrs. Sadlier, daughter of Sir Edward Coke, in reply to Wil- 
liams's letters to that lady during his vifit to England in 1653 — and two from Sir 

Henry Vane. 

J. R. B. 

Providence, October, 1874. 




To John 



Gov. ofMafs. ; Plymouth, 




The Church at Salem to the Elders of the Church of 

To JohnW 
To do. 

at Boilon, after July, 
inthrop, Dep. Gov. of Mais. ; 
do. Gov. ; Providence, Oct. 24 

l6 35> 

., do. 

7 1 


To do. 


Gov. ; New Providence, 



To do. 


Governor; May, 



To do. 


New Providence, do. 



To do. 





To Gov. 

Henry Vane, or Dep. Gov. John Winthrop, 

To John 



May 3, 
New Providence, June 2, 


2 3 


To do. 


do. do. do. 21, 


3 2 

To do. 
To do. 


do. do. July, 
do. do. do. 10, 



To do. 


do. do. do. 10, 



To do. 




To do. 


New Providence, do 15, 



To do. 


do. do. do. 2i, 



To do. 


do. do. Aug. 20, 



To do. 


. . . . Ocl. or Nov. 






To John Winthrop, New Providence, July 31, 1637, 

To do. do. .... September 12, do. 

To do. do No date, 

To do. do October, 

To do. do. .... do. 28, 

To do. do. .... November 10, 

To do. do. .... do. 20, 

To do. do. Providence, January 10, 1638, 

To do. do. do. February 28, do. 

To do. do. do. April 16, do. 

To do. do. do. May 22, do. 

To do. do. do. do. 27, do. 

To do. do. do. June, do. 

To do. -do. .... do. do. 

To do. do. Providence, do. do. 

To do. do. do. July 23, do. 

To do. do. do. Auguft, do. 

To do. do. do. do. 14, do. 

To do. do. do. Sept. 10, do. 

To do. do. .... Sept. or Oct. do. 

To do. do. .... September, do. 

To do. do. Providence, December 30, do. 

To do. do. do. (no date) 

To do. do. do. May 3, 1639, 

To do. do. do. do. 9, do. 

To do. do. .... Auguft, do. 

To do. do. Providence, July 21, 1640, 

To do do. do. Auguft 7, do. 

To do. do. do. March 8, 1641, 

To J. Winthrop, Jr., Narraganfett, June 22, 1645, 

To do. do. Providence, do. 25, do. 

To do. do. Cawcawmfquffick, May 28, 1647, 


5 2 







1 10 

JI 5 



I3 1 

x 33 

l 37 





Contents. xv. 


To J. Winthrop, Jr., Cawcaumfquffick, Aug. 20, 1647, 147 

To Town of Providence; Providence, Aug. 31, 1648, 149 

To J. Winthrop, Jr., Cawcawmfquffick, Sept. 11, 1648, 152 

To do. do. do. do. 23, do. 153 

To do. do. do. Oct. ic, do. 155 

To do. do. do. Nov. 7, do. 158 

To do. do. Narraganfett, do. 159 

To do. do December, do. 161 

To do. do. Narraganfett, Feb. 1649, 163 

To do. do. Cawcawmfquffick, Jan. do. 166 

To do. do. do. do. 29, do. i 63 

To do. do. do. March, do. 170 

To do. do do. do. 171 

To do. do. Narraganfett, April 15, do. 173 

To do. do April or May, do. 174 

To do. do. Narraganfett, April, do. 177 

To do. do. do. May 9, do. 178 

To do. do do. 13, do. 179 

To do. do. Narraganfett, do. 26, do. 180 

To do. do. Cawcawmfquffick, June 13, do. 181 

To do. do. Narraganfett, Aug. 26, do. 185 

To do. do. do. OcT:. 25, do. 1 86 

To do. do. do. Dec. 10, do. 187 

To do. do. do. Feb. 16,1650, 190 

To do. do. do. do. 24, do. 192 

To do. do. [no place or date,] do. 193 

To do. do. Narraganfett, March 20, do. 194 

To do, do. [no place or date,] May, do. 195 

To do. do. no place or date,] June, do. 197 

To do. do. Narraganfett, Oct. 9, do. 200 

To du. do. do. do. 17, do. 203 

To do. do. [no place or date,] do. do. 205 

xvi. Contents. 


To J. Winthrop, Jr., Narraganfett, Feb. 22, 1 65 1 , 206 
To do. do. I no place or date,] Aug. do. 210 
To do. do. [no place or date,] do. do. 213 
To Gov. Endicott, Narraganfett, do. do. 214 
To J. Winthrop, Jr., do. Odt. 6, do. 228 
To the General Court of Mafs., Ocl. or Nov. do. 231 
To J. Winthrop, Jr., Whitehall, April 20, 1652, 234 
To Gregory Dexter, do. Sept. 8, do. 235 
To Mrs. Sadlier, London, 1652-53, 237 
Mrs. Sadlier to Roger Williams, in reply, [no date, | 241 
Mrs. Sadlier, London, 1652-53, 242 
Mrs. Sadlier to Roger Williams, in reply, [no date,] 244 
To Mrs. Sadlier, London, 1652-53, 245 
Mrs. Sadlier to Roger Williams, in reply, 249 
To the Towns of Provi'e and Warwick, April 1, 1653, 235 
Sir Henry Vane to the Colony of R. I., Feb. 8, 1654, 257 
To J. Winthrop, Jr., Providence, July I2 » do. 258 
To the Town of Providence, Auguft, do. 262 
Town of Providence to Sir H. Vane, do. 27, do. 266 
To the General Court of Malfachufetts Bay, Provi- 
dence, October 5, 1654, 269 
To John Winthrop, J., do. do. 277 
To the Town of Providence, January, J655, 278 
To John Winthrop, Jr., February 15, 1654-55, 280 
To do. do. do. March 23, 1655, 2^7 
To do. do. do. do. 1, do. 289 
To do. do. do. Providence, April 26, do. 291 
To the General Court of Malfachufetts Bay, Provi- 

idence, November 15, 1655, 293 
To John Winthrop, Jr., Providence, Feb. 21, 1656, 297 
To the General Court of MaiTachufetts Bay, Provi- 
dence, May, 12, 1656, 299 

Contents. xvii. 


To the General Court of Maflachufetts Bay, 

Bofton, May 17, 1656, 304 
Teftimony of Roger Williams relative to deed of 

Rhode Ifland, Auguft 25, 1658, 305 

John Winthrop, Gov. of Conn., Prov., Feb. 6, 1660, 306 

do. do. do. do. do. Sept. 8, do. 310 

do, do. do. do. Oct, 27, do. 314 

Teftimony relative to the purchafe of lands in See- 

konk and Providence ; Providence, Dec. 13, 1661, 316 

To the Town of Providence, 1662, 318 

J. Winthrop, Jr., Providence, May 28, 1664, 319 

To the Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Carr, do. March 1, 1665, 321 

To the Inhabitants of Provid'ce, do. Feb. 10, 1668, 324 
To the General Court of Maflachufetts Bay, 

Providence, May 7, 1668, 326 

To John Whipple, Jr., Providence, July 8, 1669, 327 

To J. Winthrop, Gov. of Conn., do. Aug. 19, 1669, 331 

To Major Mafon, do. June 22, 1670, 333 

To John Cotton, do. Mar. 25, :6ji, 351 

To George Fox, do. July 15, 1672, 357 

To Samuel Hubbard, do. 361 

To J. Winthrop, Gov. of Conn., Mr. Smith's at 

Wakefield, J une 13, l (>75> 363 

To J. Winthrop, Narraganfett, do. 25, do. 366 

To do. do. do. do. 27, do. 370 

To Gov. Leverett at Bofton ; Provid'e, Ocl. 11, do. 373 

To J. Winthrop, Gov. of Conn., do. Dec. 18, do. 377 

To Gov. Leverett, do. Jan. 14, 1675-6, 379 

To Gov. Leverett and Gov. Winilow, 

Providence, 06t. 16, 1676, 3^5 
To the Court of Commiffioners of the United Colo- 
nies, Providence, Oct. 18, 1677, 387 

xviii. Contents. 


To Thomas Hinckley, Commiffioner, United Colo- 
nies, Providence, Oc~l. 4, 1678, 395 

To Thomas Hinckley, Commiffioner, United Colo- 
nies, Providence, July 4, 1679, 396 

Teftimony of Roger Williams relative to the firft 
fettlement of the Narraganfett country by 
Richard Smith, Narraganfett, July 21, 1679, 399 

Daniel Abbott, Town Clerk of Providence ; 

Providence, Jan. 15, 1680-81, 400 

To Gov. Bradftreet, Providence, May 6, 1682, 403 

TefHmony of Roger Williams relative to his firft 
coming into the Narraganfett country ; Nar- 
raganfett, June 18, 1682, 406 



For the right PVorJhipful John Winthrop, Efq., Governor of the 
Englijli in the Maffachufetts. 1 

Plymouth. 2 [1632.] 

Much honored and beloved in Christ Jesu, — Your 
Chriitian acceptation of our cup of cold water is a blelTed 
cup of wine, ftrong and pleafant to our wearied fpirits. 
Only let me crave a word of explanation : among other 
pleas for a young councellor (which I fear will be too light 
in the balance of the Holy One) you argue from twenty- 
five in a Church Elder: 'tis a riddle as yet to me whether 

1 John Winthrop, the friend and cor- 
reipondent of Roger Williams, came from 
England to Salem in 1630 ; but foon 
after removed to Charlellon, and felecled 
the fite where the city of Bolton Hands. 
He was annually elected Governor of 
MafTachufetts Bay until 1634; a g am m 
1637-40, 1642-44, and from 1646 to 
his death, March 26, I649. In 1636, 
when Sir Henry Vane was elected gov- 
ernor, Winthrop was chofen Deputy- 
governor. Vane and Winthrop were 
on oppofite fides in the Hutchinfon con- 
troverfy. Winthrop was oppofed to an 
unlimited democracy ; and when the peo- 
ple of Connecticut were forming a gov- 
ernment, he wrote them a letter, in 

which he laid that "the belt, part of a 
community is always the leaft, and of 
that leaft part the wifer are ftill lefs." 
His firm and decided management of af- 
fairs fometimes made him unpopular. 
His private character was moll amiable. 
His eldeft fon John was the founder of 
the Saybrook colony, and governor of 
Connecticut. His valuable "Journal" 
of the public occurrences in the MafTa- 
chufetts Colony from March 29, 1630 
to January 1 1, 1649, was firft printed in 
1790, and again with notes by James 
Savage, in 1826 and 1853. 

z 4 Ma/s. HijL Coll. vol. vi. p. 184. 

Moil of the letters of Roger Williams 
printed in this volume are without full 

2 Letters of Roger Williams. 

you mean any elder in thefe New Englim churches, or 
(which I believe not) old Engliffi, — diforderly functions, 
from whence our Jehovah of armies more and more re- 
deemed his Ifrael, — or the Levites who ferved from 
twenty-five to fifty, Numb. 8., 24 ; or myfelf but a child 
in every thing, (though in Chrift called, and perfecuted 
even in and out of my father's houfe thefe 20 years), I 
am no Elder in anv church, no more nor fo much as vour 
worthy felf, nor ever fhall be, if the Lord pleafe to grant 
my defires that I may intend what I long after, the na- 
tives fouls, and yet if I at prefent were, I mould be in 
the days of my vanity nearer upwards of 30 than 25 ;* or 
whether Timothy or Titus be in thought, &c, at your lei- 
fure I crave interpretation. Sorry I am iince Rationals fo 
much circumround and trouble you, that bejliale quid (and 
mine efpecially) mould come near you : but lince the 
Lord of heaven is Lord of earth alfo, and you follow him 
as a dear child, I thankfully acknowledge your care and love 

dates. Some give only the day of the 
week, and others only the day of the 
month. In many, the year is omitted ; 
while fome have neither the month or 
year. In moil of them the editor has 
been able to affign dates which have 
been adopted by hillorians, or by the 
biographers of Williams. 

This letter was probably written be- 
tween June and October, 1632. The 
queltion arofe in the " Congregation at 
Boilon" whether one perfon might be a 
civil magirlrate and a ruling elder at the 
fame time. Nowell affigns his pofition 
as ruling elder, doubtlefs from that caufe. 
Gov. Winthrop vifited Plymouth in Oc- 
tober, 1632. This letter was probably 
written between thofe dates. — Drake 

Hift, of B oft on, p. 140. Winthrop, Hift. 
of N. Eng. vol. 1, p. 108-109, 

1 This, with other authorities, has giv- 
en the vear I 599 as the date of Williams' 
birth. See Roger Williams' teilimony 
in favor of Richard Smith's title to his 
land at Narraganfett, 1679. This date 
I 599 is now generally conceded as the 
year of Williams' birth. — Arnold, Hift. 
R. I. vol. 1, p. 50. Guild, Mem. of 
Williams, Narr. Club, vol. I, pp. 5 
and 6. 

The order for Williams's baniihment 
was palled Sept. 3, 1635. He is fup- 
pufed to have left Salem about January, 
1635-6; and to eilablifhed himfelf at 
Providence in the following June. 

Letters of Roger Willi 'ams. 3 

about the cattle, and further entreat if you may (as you 
give me encouragement) procure the whole of that lec- 
ond, and let me know how, and how much payment will 
be here accepted, or in money in England. The Lord 
Jefus be with your Spirit, and your dearefl one, and mine, 
in their extremities. To you both and all the Saints our 
due remembrances. 

Yours in all unfeigned and brotherly affections, 

Roger Williams. 

The brethren falute you. 

You lately fent muiic to our ears, when we heard you 
perfuaded (and that effectually and fuccefsfully) our be- 
loved Mr. Nowell to furrender up one fword : and that you 
were preparing to feek the Lord further; a duty not io fre- 
quent with Plymouth as formerly : but Spero meliora. 

For his much honored, Mr. "John Winthrop, Deputy Governor 


[1636 or 1637. ]' 

Much honored Sir, — The frequent experience of your 
loving ear, ready and open toward me (in what your con- 
fcience hath permitted) as alio of that excellent fpirit of 
wifdom and prudence wherewith the Father of Lights 

»4 Majf. Hiji. Coll. vol. vi. p. 1 86. litical year ending May 17, 1637. It 

This letter, which is without date, is was evidently written fhortly after the 

addrefled to Winthrop, as Deputy Gov- fettlement at Providence, which it is be- 

ernor, which office he held for the po- lieved was in June, 1636. The letter 

4 Letters of Roger Williams. 

hath endued you, embolden me to requeft a word of pri- 
vate advife with the foonevt convenience, if it may be, by 
this meiTenger. 

The condition of myfelf and thofe few families here 
planting with me, you know full well: we have no Patent: 
nor doth the face of Magistracy fuit with our prefent con- 
dition. Hitherto, the mafters of families have ordinarily 
met once a fortnight and confulted about our common 
peace, watch, and planting ; and mutual confent have fin- 
iihed all matters with fpeed and peace. 

Now of late fome young men, lingle perfons (of whom 
we had much need) being admitted to freedom of inhabi- 
tation, and promiling to be fubjed: to the orders made by 
the confent of the houfeholders, are difcontented with 
their eftate, and feek the freedom of vote alio, and equali- 
ty, &c. 

Belide, our dangers (in the midft of thefe dens of lions) 
now efpecially, call upon us to be compact in a civil way 
and power. 

I have therefore had thoughts of propounding to my 
neighbors a double fubfcription, concerning which I mall 
humbly crave your help. 

The rirlf concerning ourfelves, the mafters of families : 

refers to preparations againfl the Pequots, refers to letters received bv him from 

probably to Endicott's expedition which Williams, July 26th and 30th, and Aug. 

failed trom Bollon the lail of Augult of 26th, but neither allude to the matters 

that year. After dellroying the Indian fpoken of in the letter in queftion. (vol. 

fettlement on Block Ifland, it failed for i. p. 227-230.) The letter is intereft- 

Thames River. Endicott reached Bof- ing, inafmuch as it is the earlieil account 

ton on his return on the 14th of Sep- extant relating to the fettlement at Provi- 

tember. — Winthrop, Hi/}. N. Eng. p. dence and of the manner in which the 

231-233. Drake, Hi/}. Bofion, p. 201. civil affairs of the little community there 

The letter, therefore, was probably writ- were conducted. 
ten in Augull or September. Winthrop 

Letters of Roger Williams. 5 

We whofe names are hereunder written, late inhabi- 
tants of the Maffachufetts, (upon occafion of fome differ- 
ence of confcience,) being permitted to depart from the 
limits of that Patent, under the which we came over into 
thefe parts, and being caff by the Providence of the God of 
Heaven, remote from others of our countrymen amongft 
the barbarians in this town of New Providence, do with 
free and joint confent promife each unto other, that, for 
our common peace and welfare (until we hear further of 
the King's royal pleafure concerning ourfelves) we will 
from time to time fubjecT: ourfelves in active or parlive 
obedience to fuch orders and agreements, as mall be made 
by the greater number of the prefent houfeholders, and 
fuch as (hall be hereafter admitted by their confent into 
the fame privilege and covenant in our ordinary meeting. 
In witnefs whereof we hereunto fubfcribe, &c. 

Concerning thofe few young men, and any who mall 
hereafter (by your favorable connivance) defire to plant 
with us, this, — 

We whofe names are hereunder written, being defirous 
to inhabit in this Town of New Providence, do promife 
to fubject ourfelves in active or paffive obedience to fuch 
orders and agreements as mall be made from time to time, 
by the greater number of the prefent houfeholders of this 
Town, and fuch whom they thall admit into the fame fel- 
lowship and privilege. In witnefs whereof, &c. x 

Hitherto we choofe one, (named the officer,) to call the 

1 This agreement was afterwards pear. — R. I. Col. Records, vol. i. p. 14. 

adopted by the people of Providence, See alfo " Confirmatory Deed " of Rog- 

in much the fame language, bearing er Williams and his wife of lands tranf- 

thirteen fignatures, among which, how- ferred by him to his aflbciates in the 

ever, the name of Williams does not ap- year 1638. Ibid. vol. i. p. 22. 

6 Letters of Roger Williams, 

meeting at the appointed time : now it is deiired by fome 
of us that the houfeholders by courfe perform that work, 
as alio gather votes and fee the watch go on, &c. 

I have not yet mentioned thefe things to my neighbors, 
but (hall as I fee caufe upon your loving counfel. 

As alfo fince the place I have purchafed, fecondly, at 
mine own charge and engagements, the inhabitants paying 
(by confent thirty millings a piece as they come, until my 
charge be out for their particular lots : and thirdly, that I 
never made any other covenant with any perfon, but 
that if I got a place he mould plant there with me : my 
query is this, — 

Whither I may not lawfully defire this of my neigh- 
bors, that as I freejy fubjecl: myfelf to common confent, 
and (hall not bring in any perfon into the town without 
their confent : fo alfo that againft my confent no perion 
be violently brought in and received. 

I defire not to ileep in fecurity and dream of a neft 
which no hand can reach. I cannot but expect changes, 
and the change of the laft enemy death, yet dare I not de- 
fpife a liberty, which the Lord feemeth to offer me, if for 
mine own or others peace : and therefore have I been thus 
bold to prefent my thoughts unto you. 

The Pequots hear of your preparations, &c, and com- 
fort themfelves in this, that a witch amongft them will 
link the pinnaces, by diving under water and making 
holes, &c, as alfo that they mail now enrich themfelves 
with ftore of guns, but I hope their dreams (through the 
mercy of the Lord) (hall vanim, and the devil and his ly- 
ing forcerers mall be confounded. 

You may pleafe, Sir, to take notice that it is of main 
confequence to take fome courfe with the Wunnamowa- 

Letters of Roger Williams. y 

tuckoogs 1 and Wufquowhananawkits, 2 who are the further- 
most Neepnet men, for the Pequots driven from the lea 
coaft with eafe, yet there fecure and Strengthen themfelves, 
and are then brought down fo much the nearer to you. 
Thus with my beft refpects to your loving felf and Mrs. 
Winthrop, I reft, 

Your Worfhips unfeigned, praying to meet you in this 
vale of tears or hills of mercy above. 

R. Williams. 

Providence the 24th of the 8th. 

Sir, worthy and well beloved, — I was abroad about 
the Pequot bulinefs when your letter arrived, and lince 
meifengers have not fitted, &c. 

I therefore now thankfully acknowledge your wifdom 
and gentlenefs in receiving fo lovingly my late rude and 
foolifh lines : you bear with fools gladly becaufe you are 

1 ftill wait upon your love and faithfulnefs for thofe poor 
papers, and cannot but believe that your heart, tongue, and 
pen mould be one, if I were Turk or Jew, &c. 

Your lix queries I welcome, my love forbidding me to 
furmife that a Pharifee, a Sadducee, an Herodian, &c, 

'Or Sbowatucks. Perfons going by fowl breed abundantly." — Williams' 

land from Maffachusetts Bay Colony to Key, p. 176. This was in the northern 

Connecticut, paffed through the country part of the Nipmuck country, in what 

of this tribe. is now Worceiler County, Mafs. — 

2 W ujkowhanan-auk-it " the pigeon Trumbull's notes to Williams's Key, 
country." The place "where thefe Narr. Club, vol. i. p. 116. 

8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

wrote them ; but rather that your love and pity framed 
them as a phyfician to the lick, &c. 

He that made us thefe fouls and fearcheth them, that 
made the ear and eye, and therefore fees and hears I lie 
not, but in his prefence have fadly fequeftered myfelf to 
his holy tribunal, and your interrogatories, begging from 
his throne thofe feven fiery lamps and eyes, his holy Spirit, 
to help the fcrutiny, delirous to fufped: myfelf above the 
old ferpent himfelf, and remembering that he that trufteth 
in his own heart is a fool. Prov. 28. 

While I anfwer let me importune from your loving 
breaft that good opinion that you deal with one (however 
fo and fo, in your judgment yet) ferious, and delirous in 
the matters of God's Sancluary to ufe (as the double 
weights of the Sanctuary teach us) double diligence. 

Your firft Querie then is this. 

What have you gained by your new-found practices? &c. 

I confefs my gains caft up in man's exchange are lofs of 
friends, efteem, maintenance, &c, but what was gain in 
that refpect I deiire to count lofs for the excellency of the 
knowledge of Chrift Jefus my Lord : &c. To His all 
glorious Name I know I have gained the honor of one of 
his poor witneiTes, though in fackcloth. 

To your beloved felves and others of God's people yet 
afleep, this witnefs in the Lord's feafon at your waking 
fhall be profperous, and the feed fown fhall arife to the 
greater purity of the kingdom and ordinances of the 
Prince of the kings of the earth. 

To myfelf (through his rich grace) my tribulation hath 
brought fome confolation and more evidence of his love, 
ringing Mofes his fongandthe Lambs, in that weak victory 
which (through His help) I have gotten over the beait, his 

Letters of Roger Williams. 9 

picture, his mark, and number of his name, Revel. 15. 2. 3. 

If you afk for numbers, the witneSfes are but two : 
Revel. 11., and how many millions of Christians in name, 
and thoufands of Christians in heart, do call the truths 
(wherein yourfelf and I agree in witneSfing^ new found 

Gideon's army was thirty-two thoufand ; but cowardice 
returned twenty-two thoufand back, and nine thoufand 
feven hundred worldlings fent but three hundred to the 

I will not by prophecy exafperate, but wiSb (in the black 
and Stormy day) your company be not lefs than Gideon's, 
to fight (I mean with the Blood of the Lamb and Word 
of Witnefs) for what you profefs to fee. 

To your fecond, viz. : Is your fpirit as even as it was 
feven years fince ? 

I will not follow the faShion either in commending or 
condemning of myfelf. You and I Stand at one dreadful, 
dreadful tribunal : yet what is paSt I defire to forget, and 
to prefs forward towards the mark for the price of the 
high calling of God in ChriSt. 

And for the evennefs of my fpirit. 

Toward the Lord, I hope I more long to know and do 
His holy pleafure only, and to be ready not only to be 
baniShed, but to die in New England for the name of the 
Lord Jefus. 

Towards yourfelves, I have hitherto begged of the Lord 
an even fpirit, and I hope ever Shall, as 

FirSt, reverently to efteem of, and tenderly to reSpect 
the perfons of many hundreds of you, &c. 

Secondly, To rejoice to fpend and be fpent in any fer- 
vice, (according to my confcience) for your welfares. 

io Letters of Roger Williams. 

Thirdly, To rejoice to find out the leaft fwerving in 
judgment or practice from the help of any, even the leaft 
of you. 

Laftly, to mourn daily, heavily, unceftantly, till the Lord 
look down from Heaven, and bring all his precious living 
ftones into one New Jerufalem. 

To your third, viz. : Are you not grieved that you have 
grieved fo many ? 

I fay with Paul, I vehemently forrow for the forrow of 
any of Zion's daughters, who mould ever rejoice in her 
King, &c, yet I muft (and O that I had not caufe) grieve be- 
came fo many of Zion's daughters fee not and grieve not for 
their fouls defilements, and that fo few bear John company 
in weeping after the unfolding of the feals, which only 
weepers are acquainted with. 

You thereupon propound a fourth, Do you think the 
Lord hath utterly forfaken us ? 

I anfwer Jehovah will not forfake His people for His 
great name's fake i. Sam. 12. That is, the fire of His love 
towards thofe whom once He loves is eternal, like Himfelf : 
and thus far be it from me to queftion His eternal love to- 
wards you, &c. Yet if you grant that ever you were as 
Abraham among the Chaldees, Lot among the Sodomites, 
the Kenites among the Amalekites, as Ifrael in Egypt or 
Babel, and that under pain of their plagues and judgments 
you were bound to leave them, depart, fly out, (not from 
the places as in the type,) but from the filthinefs, of their 
fins, &c, and if it prove, as I know afTuredly it (hall, that 
though you have come far, yet you never came out of the 
wildernefs to this day : then, I befeech you, remember 
that yourfelves, and fo alfo many thoufands of God's peo- 
ple muft yet mournfully read the 74, 79, 80, and 89 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 1 1 

Pfalms, the Lamentations, Daniel iith, and Revel, iith, 
i 2th, 13th, and this, Sir, I befeech you do more ferioufly 
then ever, and abftracl: yourfelf with a holy violence from 
the dung heap of this earth, the credit and comfort of it, 
and cry to Heaven to remove the {tumbling blocks, fuch 
idols, after which fometimes the Lord will give His own 
Ifrael an anfwer. 

Sir, You requeft me to be free with you, and therefore 
blame me not if I anfwer your requeft, defiring the like 
payment from your own dear hand, at any time, in any 

And let me add, that amongft all the people of God, 
wherefoever fcattered about Babel's banks, either in Rome 
or England, &c, your cafe is the worft by far, becaufe 
while others of God's Ifrael tenderly refpect fuch as defire 
to fear the Lord, your very judgment and confcience leads 
you to fmite and beat your fellow fervants, expel them 
your coafts, &c, and therefore, though I know the elect 
(hall never finally be forfaken, yet Sodom's, Egypt's, Ama- 
lek's, Babel's judgments ought to drive us out, to make our 
calling out ot this world to Chrift, and our election fure 
in him. 

Sir, Your fifth is, From what fpirit, and to what end do 
you drive ? 

Concerning my fpirit, as I faid before, I could declaim 
againft it, but whether the fpirit of Chrift Jefus, for whofe 
viiible kingdom and ordinances I witnefs, &c, or the fpirit 
of Antichrist (1 John 4) againft whom only I conteft, do 
drive me, let the Father of Spirits be pleafed to fearch, 
and (worthy Sir) be you alfo pleafed by the word to 
fearch : and I hope you will find that as you fay you do, 
I alfo feek Jefus who was nailed to the gallows, I afk the 

12 Letters of Roger Williams. 

way to loft Zion, I witnefs what I believe I lee patiently 
(the Lord afiifting) in fackcloth, I long for the bright 
appearance of the Lord Jefus to confume the man of iin : 
I long for the appearance of the Lamb's wife alfo, New 
Jeruialem: I wifh heartily profperity to you all, Governor 
and people, in your civil way, and mourn that you fee not 
your poverty, nakednefs, &c, in fpirituals, and yet I re- 
joice in the hopes that as the way of the Lord to Apollo, 
fo within a few years (through, I fear though, many tribu- 
lations) the way of the Lord Jefus, the firft and moft 
ancient path, mall be more plainly difcovered to you and me. 

Laftly, You afk whether my former condition would not 
have ftood with a gracious heart, &c. ? 

At this Query, Sir, I wonder much, becaufe you know 
what fins, yea all manner of fins, (the fin unto death ex- 
cepted,) a child of God may lie in, inftance I need not. 

Secondly, When it comes to matter of confcience 
that the ftroke lies upon the very judgment, that the 
thing practiced is lawful, &c, as the polygamy of the 
Saints, the building of the Temple, (if David had gone 
on,) the many falfe miniftries and miniftrations (like the 
ark upon the new cart) which from Luther's times to this 
day, God's children have confcientioufly practiced. Who 
then can wonder (and yet indeed who can not but won- 
der) how a gracious heart, before the Lord's awakening, 
and calling, and drawing out, may lie in many abomina- 
tions ? 

Two inftances I mall be bold to prefent you with. 
Firft, do you not hope Bifhop Ufher hath a gracious 
heart? and fecondly, Do you not judge that your own 
heart was gracious even when (with the poi/oned fhirt on 
your back) you, &c. ? 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

J 3 

But while another judgeth the condition fair, the foul 
that fears, doubts, and feels a guilt hath broken bones, &c. 
Now, worthy Sir, I muft. call up your wifdom, your love, 
your patience, your promife and faithfulnefs, candid inge- 
nuity, &x. My heart's defire is abundant, and exceeds my 
pen. My head and actions willing to live (as the Apoftle 
Paul) xa/wc iv Ttaac. Where I err, Chrift be pleafed to re- 
ftore me, where I ftand, to eftablim. If you pleafe I have 
alfo a few Queries to yourfelf, without your leave I will 
not : but will ever mourn, (the Lord affifting,) that I am 
no more (though I hope ever) yours, R : Will : 

Sir, Concerning natives : the Pequots and Nayantaquits 
refolve to live and die together, and not to yield up one. 
Lad night tidings came that the Mohawks, (the canni- 
bals,) have (lain fome of our countrymen at Connecticut. 
I hope it is not true. 1 

To yoh?i Winthrop, Governor, &c. 

1 The editor of the "Winthrop Papers" 
(4 Ma/s. Hift. Coll. vol. vi.) does not 
aflign any date for this letter and the one 
that follows. This one is dated " the 
24th of the 8th month," (or October 
24th.) Williams begins by limply allu- 
ding to the " Pequot bufinefs." We in- 
fer from this that the Pequot war had 
not begun. With the exception of this 
paragraph, the letter relates wholly to 
religious affairs : with replies to queries 
put to him by Winthrop, about his " new 
found practices." May not this refer 
to his entire freedom in the exercife of 
his religious opinions in his new abode ? 
In the letter which follows, Williams 
begins by fpeaking of reports of a league 

between the Pequots and Mohawks, that 
the Pequots had " flain both Englifh and 
natives at Connecticut Plantations." 
This muft have been before the deftruc- 
tion of the fort at Myftic, which oc- 
cured on the 26th of May, 1637, for 
the Pequots were fo completely annihi- 
lated in that fight, that there could have 
been no chance of making a league with 
the Mohawks ; and it is known that, from 
fear of the Englilh, the Mohawks des- 
troyed fuch of the Pequots as fought 
Ihelter among them. We think, therefore, 
that the firlt letter was written in Oc- 
tober, 1636, and the fecond foon after ; 
or, at any rate, before the attack on the 
Pequot fort. 

14 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To 'John Winthrop. 1 

New Providence, 2ndo 7manje, inftantis. 1 [1637.] 

Sir, — I have nothing certain to acquaint you with at 
prefent: there have been reports thefe ten days, that the 
Pequots are entered league by the hire of three or four 
bumels of beads, (black and white,) with the Mauquawogs 
or Mohawks which fignifies men-eaters in their lan- 
guage ; Thefe cannibals have been all the talk thefe ten 
days, and the Narraganfetts are much troubled at them. 

Two days fince came tidings that thefe Mohawks 
and Pequots have ilain many, both Englim and natives, at 
Connecticut Plantations. As yet I believe it not, and hope 
in the Lord's mercy it is falfe, yet fince you pleafe to make 
fuch good ufe of (poifon) bad and lying news, (which for 
that end to awaken people I confefs) I fcnt the laft : I 
would not conceal this : I hope to fend better in like man- 
ner after this; yet I fadly fear if the Lord pleafe to let 
loofe thefe mad dogs, their practice will render the Pequots 
cannibals too, and fecondly (at the leaft) cut off all hopes 
of fafe refidence at Connecticut, and yet they are one hun- 
dred miles to the weftward of Connecticut Plantations. I 
hope it will pleafe the Moil High to put his hook into 
their nofe, &c, as alfo to give wifdom in the managing of 
the war, that if it be poffible a league may rather be firm- 
ly ftruck with them : they are moft favage, their wea- 
pons more dangerous and their cruelty dreadful, roafting 
alive, &c. 

Sir, I hear of the danger of the innovation of your 
Government. The God of Heaven be pleafed to give you 
faithfulnefs and courage in his fear : I fear not fo much 

1 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 239. 2 Secundo feptima. i. e. the 2d day of 

the preient week. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 15 

iron and lleel as the cutting of our throats with golden 
knives. I mean that under the pleafing baits of execution 
of juftice to the eaftward, and enlargement of authority, 
beyond all queftion, lies hid the hook to catch your invalu- 
able liberties. Better an honorable death than a Have's 

Sir, I may not forget due thanks for your intended re- 
quitals of my poor endeavors towards the barbarous : if it 
pleafe the Lord to ufe (with any good fuccefs) fo dull a tool, 
fat is fuperque, &c. 

One kindnefs (yet according to true juftice) let me be 
bold to requeft. I have not yet got a penny of thofe two 
unfaithful ones, James and Thomas Haukins, of Boflon, 
concerning whom myfelf and wife have formerly troubled 
you. Mr. Coxall hath long had their bills: agreement of 
mitigation hath been made lince by arbitratois but to no 
purpofe. Their great earnings (if I had not lovingly re- 
leafed them) were mine own : my own debts lie unpaid, 
daily called for, and I hear for certain (though they can 
flatter and lie) they have fpent lavifhly and fared daintily 
of my purfe, while myfelf would have been glad of a 
cruft of their leavings, though yet I have not wanted, 
through his love that feeds the ravens, &c. John Throck- 
morton hath often demanded but in vain, he will now at- 
tend your loving helpfulnefs, and He who is moll: holy 
and blelTed, all mercy and all pity, help you mercifully to 
fteer (by his holy compafs and alio with his own moll: holy 
hand) in the ocean of troubles and trials wherein we fail. 
It is no fmall favor that once again (though the occafions 
are fad) we may fail and fpeak together, but the Harbor 
(fafe and large) will pay for all. Thus praying for our 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

meeting, with beft falutes to Mrs. Winthrop and all yours, 
and my true refpe&s to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, and 
other loving friends, I reft, 

Your worship's unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

For his much honored Mr. Governor, and Mr. Winthrop, 
Deputy Governor of the Maffachufetts, thefe. 

New Providence, this 2d of the week. 1 [May, 1637.] 

Sir, — The latter end of the laft week I gave notice to our 
neighbor princes of your intentions and preparations againft 
the common enemy, the Pequots. At my firft coming to 
them Canonicus {inorofus ceque ac bar bar ex fenex) was very 

>3 Matf. Hijl. Coll. vol. i. p. 159. 

R. I. Hijl. Coll. vol. iii. p. 137. 

Written probably a few days before 
the attack on the Pequot fort, May 26, 
1637. On the 10th of April, the au- 
thorities at Bofton concluded to fend 
Captain Underhill with twenty men to 
aid Connecticut Colony, in her attack 
againft the Pequots. To this Williams 
probably refers in his opening paragraph, 
and poffibly to the expedition under 
Captain Patrick. The Narraganfetts 
concluded a treaty at Bofton, in Oftober 
1636, making tie Pequots a common 
enemy. In the third of Williams' " ob- 
iervations" in this letter, he recommends 
Niantic as a place of rendevouz. This 
was apparently adopted, as Mafon, Un- 
derhill and Gardiner, the leaders of the 
expedition, arrived there May 25, (by 
way of Narraganlett Bay, May 23,) and 

on the next day taking " Wequafh" for 
their guide, the Pequot fort at " Mis- 
tick " was reached. — Drake, Hijl. of 
Boflon, p. 205-209. Book of the Indians, 
p. 105-106. Winthrop, Hijl. N. Eng. 
vol. 1. p. 268. 

Capt. Daniel Patrick in a letter of 
May 23, 1637, writes Gov. Winthrop, 
that " Mr. Williams informs your wor- 
fhip at large" ab ;ut the expedition againft 
the Pequot fort, — poflibly referring to 
this letter. We are difpofed to believe 
that the date of this letter is May 22, 
which was Monday, from the apparent 
reference to it in Capt. Patrick's letter 
above quoted of fame date, and that the 
" rude view" was a copy of the above 
defcription, having been probably ex- 
plained to R. W. at the date of the 
previous letter. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 17 

four, and accufed the Englifh and myfelf for fending the 
plague amongft them, and threatening to kill him efpecially. 

Such tidings (it feems) were lately brought to his ears 
by fome of his flatterers and our ill-willers. I dilcerned 
caufe of beftirring myfelf, and ftaid the longer, and at 
laft (through the mercy of the Moif High) I not only 
fweetened his fpirit, but pofTefTed him, that the plague and 
other fickneffes were alone in the hand of the one God, 
who made him and us, who being difpleafed with the 
Englifb for lying, ftealing, idlenefs and uncleannefs, (the 
natives' epidemical fins,) fmote many thoufands of us our- 
felves with general and late mortalities. 

Miantunnomu kept his barbarous court lately at my 
houfe, and with him I have far better dealing. He takes 
fome pleafure to vilit me, and fent me word of his coming 
over again fome eight days hence. 

They pafs not a week without fome fkirmimings, though 
hitherto little lofs on either fide. They were glad of your 
preparations, and in much conference with themfelves and 
others, (fifhing de induftria for inftructions from them,) I 
gathered thefe obfervations, which you may pleafe (as 
caufe may be) to confider and take notice of: 

1. They conceive that to do execution to purpofe on 
the Pequots, will require not two or three days and away, 
but a riding by it and following of the work to and again 
the fpace of three weeks or a month, that there be a fall- 
ing off and a retreat, as if you were departed, and a falling 
on again within three or four days, when they are returned 
again to their houfes fecurely from their flight. 

2. That if any pinnaces come in ken, they prefently 
prepare for flight, women and old men and children, to a 
fwamp fome three or four miles on the back of them, a 


1 8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

marvellous great and fecure fwamp, which they called 
Ohomowauke, 1 which fignifies owl's neft, and by another 
name, Cuppacommock, 2 which lignifies a refuge or hiding 
place, as I conceive. 

3. That therefore Nayantaquit,3 (which is Miantunno- 
mue's place of rendezvous,) to be thought on for the riding 
and retiring to of veifel or veifels, which place is faithful 
to the Narraganfetts and at prefent enmity with the Pe- 

4. They alio conceive it eafy for the Englifh, that the 
proviiions and munitions firft arrive at Aquedneck, called 
by us Rhode Ifland, at the Narraganfett's mouth, and then 
a meifenger may be defpatched hither, and fo to the bay, 
for the foldiers to march up by land to the verTels, who 
otherwife might fpend long time about the cape and rill 
more veifels than needs. 

5. That the aifault would be in the night, when they 
are commonly more fecure and at home, by which advantage 
the Englifh, being armed, may enter the houfes and do 
what execution they pleafe. 

6. That before the aifault be given, an ambuih be laid 
behind them, between them and the fwamp, to prevent 
their ilight, &c. 

7. That to that purpofe fuch guides as fhall be beft liked 
of to be taken along to direct, efpecially two Pequots, viz. : 
WequauV and Wuttackquiackommin, valiant men, efpeci- 

1 Koko'kehom, Oho'mous, An Owle. the fouthermofl. portion of Rhode Ifland, 

Williams' Key, vol. i. p. 174. being feparated from the Pequots by the 

2 Afterwards known as the Pine or Pawcatuck River. Their principal refi- 

Mall Swamp of Groton, Ct. — Caulkins' dence was at Wekapaug near Weilerly, 

Hijl. of New London, note, p. 376. R. I. — Drake, Book of Indians, p. 67. 

J The Niantics were a tribe fubfidary 4 Wequafli died previous to 1643. He 

to the Narraganfetts. They occupied was a renegade Pequot fachem and as a 

Letters of Roger Williatns. 19 

ally the latter, who have lived thefe three or four years 
with the Narraganfetts, and know every pafs and paifage 
amongft them, who defire armor to enter their houfes. 

8. That it would be pleating to all natives, that women 
and children be fpared, &c. 

9. That if there be any more land travel to Connecti- 
cut, fome courfe would alfo be taken with the Wunhowa- 
tuckoogs, who are confederates with and a refuge to the 

Sir, if any thing be fent to the princes, I find that Ca- 
nonicus would gladly accept of a box of eight or ten 
pounds of sugar, and indeed he told me he would thank 
Mr. Governor for a box full. 

Sir, you may pleafe to take notice of a rude view, how 
the Pequots lie : 

River Conneclicut. 

O a fort of the Nay antic men, confederate with the Pequots. 

River. I i 

Wein O shauks, where Ohom I | I ' owauke, the swamp, 

Sassaeus the chief Sachem is. three or four miles from 

Mis O tick, where is Mamoho, another chief sachim. 


Nayantic, O where is Wepiteammoch and our friends. 

Thus, with my beft falutes to your worthy felves 

guide did good fervice to the Englifh. Williams was not fo hopeful. Wequafh 

They attempted to convert him to chifti- is the Indian name for Swan. — Wil- 

anity, and according to fome authorities liams' Key, p. 175. Mr. Trumbull's 

were evidently fuccefsful, but Roger notes to Key, pp. 26-27. 

20 Letters of Roger Williains. 

and loving friends with you, and daily cries to the Father 
of mercies for a merciful iifue to all thefe enterprifes, I 

Your worship's unfeignedly refpedtive 

Roger Williams. 

To John Winthrop Governor of the Majfachufetts. 1 

New Providence, this laft of the week. 2 [May, 1637.] 

Sir, — I am much defired by Yotaafh (the bearer here- 
of, Miantunnomue's brother) to interpret his melTage to 
you, viz. : that Miantunnomu requefts you to beftow a 
Pequot fquaw upon him. 

I object, he had his (hare fent him, he anfwers that Ca- 
nonicus received but a few women and keeps them : and 
yet he faith his brother hath more right: for, himfelf and 
his brother's men firft laid hold upon that company. 

I object that all are difpofed of, he anfwers, if fo, he 
defires to buy one or two of fome Englifhman. 

I object that here are many run away, which I have de- 
fired himfelf might convey home to you: he replies, they 
have been this fortnight bufy (that is keeping of a kind 
of Chriftmas) : and fecondly, at prefent Miantunnomue's 
father-in-law lies a dying : as alfo that fome of the runa- 
ways perifhed in the woods ; three are at the Narraganfett, 
and three within ten miles of this place; which I think 

1 4 Mrf/>. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 241. were written juft before the attack on 

2 This letter and the one that follows the Pequot fort. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 21 

may beft be fetched by two or three Maffachufetts In- 
dians who may here get fome one or two more to accom- 
pany and help. 

Sir, you were pleafed fome while lince to intimate fome 
breach of league in Miantunnomu. I would not dif- 
hearten this man (from coming by my fpeech any way : 
but I could wifh you would pleafe to intimate your mind 
fully to him, as alfo that if there be any juft exception 
which they cannot well anfwer, that ufe be made of it, (if 
it may be with the fafety of the common peace,) to get 
the bits into their mouths, 1 efpecially if their be good af- 
furance from the Mohawks. So with my beft falutes and 
earneit. fighs to heaven, I reft 

Your worship's unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

For his much honored, Mr. Governor of the Maffachufetts > 

thefe. 2 

[May ,1637.] 

Much Honored Sir, — I was bold to prefent you with 
two letters by Thomas Holyway, fome weeks fince. I am 
occafioned again at prefent to write a word by this bearer 
Wequafh : whom (being a Pequot himfelf,) I commended 
for a guide in the Pequot expedition. 

I prefume he may fay fomething to yourfelf, or to fuch 
other of my loving friends as may report unto your wor- 
ship, what befel him at Cowefet.3 

1 "I mean the bit of awful refpeft, 2 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 242. 

that they fall not into mutinies at home." 1 Eall Greenwich. Cowazvefuck, a 

Note by Williams. pine tree. 

22 Letters of Roger Williams. 

He hath been five or fix days now at my houfe, in which 
time I have had much opportunity to fearch into particu- 
lars, and am able to prefent you with naked truth. 

He came from Monahiganick to Cowefet within night 
and lodged with his friend called Pananawokfhin. At 
Cowefit, an old man (Weeokamin,) hath made great 
lamentation for the death of two fons in the Pequot 
wars. This Weeokamun with divers of his conforts in 
the night time laid hold upon Wequafh, intending to bind 
him, charging him with the death of his two fons. Much 
bickering there was between them, but no hurt done, only 
Weeokamun ftruggling with one of Wequafh his com- 
pany was fore bitten on the hand, and alio bit the young 
man's fingers which are well again. So that their hoft 
kept peace in Canonicus his name, and brought them fafe 
to me the next day : yet in the fray they loft a coat and 
other fmall things, which (coming forth before day) they 
left behind them. 

I fent up a mefienger to the Sachims to demand a rea- 
fon of fuch ufage and their goods. Canonicus fent his 
fon, and Miantunnomu his brother (Yotaafh) who went to 
Cowefet and demanded the reafon of fuch ufage, and the 
goods, and fo came to my houfe, caufing the goods to be 
reftored, profeffing the Sachim's ignorance and ibrrow for 
fuch paifages, and given charge to all natives for their fafe 

Having thofe mefTengers and Wequafh at my houfe, I 
caufed them folemnly to parley of what I knew was griev- 
ance betwixt them, and what elfe I could any way pick 
out from either of them, concerning ourfelves the Eng- 
lifh, or the Pequots, or themfelves. All which I carefully 
writ down the particulars, and fhall readily, at your wor- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 23 

(hip's pleafure, acquaint you with them : either concern- 
ing fome fquaws which Wequafh acknowledged he parted 
with (and juftly) to Canonicus and Miantunnomu, or other 
brablings which I thought not fit to trouble your worihip 
with, without commiffion. 

Dear Sir, (notwithstanding our differences concerning 
the wormip of God and the ordinances miniftred by Anti- 
chrift's power) you have been always pleafed lovingly to 
anfwer my boldnefs in civil things : let me once more find 
favor in your eyes to gratify myfelf, Mr. James, and many 
or moft of the townsmen combined, in advifing what to 
fay or do to one unruly perfon who openly in town meet- 
ing more then once, profeffeth to hope for and long for 
a better government then the country hath yet, and lets not 
to particularize, by a general Governor, &c. The white 
which such a fpeech or perfon levels at can be no other 
then the railing of the fundamental liberties of the 
country, which ought to be dearer to us then our right 
eyes. But I am always too bold in prolixity, &c, therefore 
at prefent with humble refpecl remembered and cries to 
Heaven for mercy to you and yours, root and branches, 
and the whole country by your bleffing, I reft 
Your worship's moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

For bis much honored Mr. Governor [Henry Vane^\ or Mr. 
Deputy Governor , Vjohn JVinthrop^ thefe with J peed. 

This laftof the prefent week in the morning. 1 [May 13, 1637.] 

Sir, — Miantunnomu with a great train arrived the fame 

1 4 Maff. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 189. vol. vi., gives the date of this letter, as 
The editors of 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. perhaps May, 1637, and probably be- 

2 4 

Letters of Roger Willi a?ns. 

day that Anthony Dike 1 departed hence with his fad 
tidings, and confirmeth with the moft the report of An- 
thony. The Narraganfetts are at prefent doubtful of 
reality in all our promifes : I have alledged the beft argu- 
ments I have heard or could invent, to perfuade reality of 
purpofe and fpeedy performance, as alfo reafons of delay. 
Miantunnomu and his beft Council here with him, have 
requefted me earneftly to make this proffer to you. The 
Pequots are fcarce of provifion, and therefore (as ufually fo 
now efpecially) they are in fome numbers come down to 
the fealide (and two Iilands, by name Munnawtawkit 2 and 

fore the 17th of that month. We think 
the date of the letter is previous to the 
attacks on the Pequot fort, or rather 
prior to the march of the Narrangan- 
fetts to Niantic, May 22. The letter 
gives information of the Indians (Pe- 
quots,) having gone down to the iflands 
to fifh. Winthrop, under date of May 
17, fpeaks (p. 265,) of having " received 
intelligence from Miantunnomo, that the 
Pequots had fent their women and chil- 
dren to an ifland for their fafety," &c. 
Roger Williams, under probable date of 
May — , lays, " Miantunomo lately at 
my houfe held his barbarous court. — 
Drake, (Hif. of Bojion, p. 212,) fays, 
May 22, a company of forty men under 
Capt. Patrick was haftened away becaufe 
of intelligence received from Miantunnomo 
about the Indians having "fent their wo- 
men to an if and." A miftake in its date, 
as Patrick mult have been at Providence 
on that day. — See 4 Mafs. Hif. Coll. 
vol. vii. p. 328. 

The letter was probably written Sat- 
urday, May 13, the bearer in accord- 
ance with Puritan cuftoms not leaving un- 
til Monday 1 5, would poflibly not reach 
Winthrop until after the 17th, on which 

day the election took place, promoting 
Winthrop from Deputy Governor to 
Governor. As this election was very im- 
portant it probably had been thoroughly 
canvalfed, and Williams converfant with 
the fact addrefles Winthrop. 

1 Anthony Dike or Dick, came to Bof- 
ton in 1623, and was loft on Cape Cod 
in a very cold ftorm Decembe, 1 5, 1638. 
Winthrop, Hifl. N. Eng. vol.i. p. 345. 
"Anthony Dike mailer of a bark, hav- 
ing his bark at Rhode Ifland in the win- 
ter, was fent for by Mr. Vane, then 
Governor. Anthony came to Rhode 
Ifland by land, and from thence he came 
with his bark to me with a letter, where- 
in was dehred that I fhould confider 
the beft way I could to quell thefe Pe- 
quots, which I also did, and with my 
letter fent the man's rib as a token." 
Gardiner's Pequot Warres, 3 Mafs. 
Hifl. Coll. vol. iii. p. 144. The news 
brought by Dike was probably the at- 
tacks by the Indians on the fettlements 
at Saybrook and Weathersfield, on the 
Connecticut River. — 4 Mafs. Hif. Coll. 
p. 7-398. 

1 Munawtawkit, Montauk Point, for- 
merly Montauket, Montacut, and by 

Letters of Roger Williams. 25 

Manittuwond efpecially) to take fturgeon and other Mill, 
as alfo to make new fields of corn, in cafe the Engliih 
mould deftroy their fields at home. 

Miantunnomu delires to go himfelf with one Wequafh 1 
here at prefent with him, in this pinnace here left by An- 
thony, or any other that fhall take him in at the Narra- 

He will put in forty or fifty or more as the veffel will 

He will put in victuals himfelf for his men. He will 
direcl the pinnace to the places, and in the night land his 
men, defpoil them of their canoes, cut off the men he 
finds, (the greatest number being women and children, 
which for the moft of them he would cut off,) as alfo 
fpoil their fields: and this he proffers to do without land- 
ing an Englishman, with whom he will remain on board 
in Englifh clothes which he defires for himfelf. 

John, a feaman aboard, calls the Illand, Plum Illand, and 
is very willing to go on the defign, and thinks, as alfo Mian- 
tunnomu doth, that if within two or three days they went 
forth, they would be here again within four or five or lefs. 

Sir, for myfelf I dare not advife : but if my thoughts 
be afked I fhall (with all due fubmiffion) fay this : — 

It will at prefent wedge them in from any ftarting afide 
until your forces fhall follow. 

If they fpeed it will weaken the enemy and diffrefs them, 
being put by their hopes : as alfo much enrage the Pequots 
for ever againft them, a thing much delirable. 

Roger Williams Munnawtawkit, is of the Iflanders. — Conn. Hi/1. Coll. vol. 
probably from Manati, auke, and// loca- ii. p. 23. 

tive ; in the Ifland country, or country ' "The Pequot of whom I have for- 

merly wrote." — Williams' note. 

26 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Beiide, the charge or danger of the Englifh will be 
none, unleis Miantunnomue's coarfe clothes and a large 
coat for Wequafli, the Pequot guide, a man of great ufe. 
The Mod: Holy and only Wife be pleafed to lmile upon 
the face of the Englifh that be his : (we have all, if ever, 
caufe to examine ourfelves, our errands and work) in the 
face of Jefus Chrift. 

While I write, a MerTenger is come to Miantunnomu 
from Neepemut, reporting a far greater {laughter then that 
Anthony brought word of, and fince the former a great 
number at the Plantations, and fome perfonsare mentioned, 
but I will not name either, but hope and long to hear it 

In cafe that Anthony or other feamen cannot be gotten 
fuddenly, here is one with us willing to make up a third 
man, (to the other two left with the pinnace,) to carry the 
verlel, though T judge Anthony himfelf the fitteft. 

Sir, Miantunnomu defired me to give you a hint that 
the fix fathom of beads which he gave for the Haying of 
Audfah 1 be repaid him, and fent now if it may be; his 
war.s keep him bare. 

Your worfhip's unfeignedly refpeclive 

Roger Williams. 

For any gratuities or tokens Canonicus defires fugar; 
Miantunnomu powder. My humble refpects to all my 
loving friends. 

Sar, Miantunnomu is clofe in this his project, and there- 
fore I think the mellenger is fent only for the beads : it is 
very convenient that Miantunnomue's clothes and Wequafh 
his coat be fent by him. 

1 " Audfah the chiefe murtherer" of Oldham. — 4 Mafs. Hifl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 
208, 214, 216. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 27 

To his much honored Governor 'John Winthrop. 1 

New Providence, 

this 6th of the prefent week, towards midnight. [June 2, 1637. J 2 

Sir, — By John Throckmorton3 I was bold to advertife 
of the late merciful fuccefs it hath pleafed the Father of 
Mercies to vouchfafe to the firft attempts of our country- 
men againfr. thefe barbarians. 

After his departure toward you, I went over to the Nar- 
raganfett, partly for intelligence and partly to encourage 
the Narraganfetts in cafe the fad news of all their men and 
yours defeated were true. 

I found the firft. news of the cutting off the whole Fort 
of the Pequots at Myftic to be certain and unquestionably 
true, as I lent, with little or no variation, of which here- 

The news of the cutting off three hundred Narraganfetts 
and all the pLnglifh held ftill for current and confirmed 
that they were opprelfed with multitudes, their provilion 
being fpent and the Englifh wanting powder and mot and 
the Narraganfetts arrows. •* 

' 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 191. time and for the fame offences as Williams, 

2 Probably Friday, June 2, 1637, juft and was one of the original thirteen firft 
one week after the deftru&ion of the Pe- fettlers of Providence. Removed to 
quot fort, May 26, 1637. — Winthrop, Monmouth, N. J., and died before 1687. 
Hift. of N. Eng. vol. i. p. 268. Savage, Genealog. Die. vol. iv. p. 294. 

3 Probably Mr. Williams fent by John R. I. Col. Rec. vol. i. pp. 17-22 and 
Throckmorton news of the capture of 299. 

the fort at Myftic, and the fubfequent 4" Prefently upon this came news from 
tidings of the "cutting off three hun- Narraganfett, that all the Englifh, and 
dred Narraganfetts and all the Englifh." two hundred of the Indians were cut off 
This letter is to correct the laft " fad in their retreat, for want of powder and 
news." John Throckmorton came to victuals. Three days after, this was con- 
America with Roger Williams in 1630, firmed by a poll from Plymouth, with 
was excommunicated at Salem at the fame fuch probable circumilances, as it was gen- 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

I gave the beft reafons I could to perfuade that they 
were all either gone together to Connecticut for provifion, 
or upon fome iecond aifault upon the other of the Pequot 

As alfo I was bold to promife (in Mr. Governor's name) 
that although all thefe or more were cut off, yet there 
mould be frem fupplies of the Englifh who would never 
meathe their swords, &c. 

This fifth day paft toward night I have received tidings 
(bleifed for ever be the Lord of Hofts,) that the Narra- 
ganfetts are all came fafe home yefternight, (at noon I 
came from thence,) and brought word that the Englifh 
were all fafe, but the three firft (lain at the Fort with two 
of their own. 

As alfo that indeed they fought thrice that day of their 
firft victory with no lofs of their fide, and with the lofs of 
two Pequots more. 

That themfelves and the Englifh prepared next day after 
for their other Forts, found all lied, made themfelves lords 
of one, in which both Englifh and Narraganfetts now keep. 

That Maumanadtuck 1 one of their biggeft, with great 
troops, (as before he gave out he could) is gone to Wun- 
nailiowatuckqut (the further Neepmucks.) 

erally believed. But three days after, 
Mr. Williams having gone to the Narra- 
ganfetts to difcover the truth, found them 
mourning as being confident of it ; but 
that night fome came from the army, 
and aflured them all was well, and that 
all the Pequots were fled and had for- 
faken their forts." — Winthrop, Hift. 
N. Ettg. vol. i. p. 269. 

1 In a letter from Capt. Stoughton to 
Gov. Winthrop, he writes : " We fhall 

the next week join in feeing what we can 
do againfl SafTacus, and another great Saga- 
more, Momorrattuck." — Drake, Hiji. of 
Bojlorz, p. 215. This is probably the 
fame, Indian names being varioufly writ- 
ten by different perfons. Capt. Daniel 
Patrick, writes July 6, 1637 to Increafe 
Nowell, " Mamenatucke is at Quenepi- 
age, or lately gone to the Mohawks." — 4 
Majs. Hiji. Coll. vol. vii. p. 326. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


That Safacus 1 faid he would go to Long Illand, and thither 
is gone or hid in the fwamps, but not a Pequot is to be found. 

That Miantunnomu is come from Pequot to Nayanta- 
quit, and was refolved homeward to fend out to Wunnaf- 
howatuckqut where the enemy fhelters and have Forts. 

Now Sir, considering the work is effected (through the 
mercy of the Moil: High) in thefe parts, and that the Con- 
necticut Englifh, together with Capt. Patrick 2 and his, are 
fufficient to maintain what they have gotten, and purfue 
Safacus in all his motions thereabouts : I conceived (with 
fubmiifion) that it might fave the country no fmall charge, 
and hazard, and lofs, timely to advertife and give intelli- 

The Wunnafhowatuckoogs and Pequots with them are 
about the diftance from you that we are : on them I con- 
ceive and underfland the Narraganfetts next fall. 

If you fee caufe and grounds to make a ftop for a day 
or two, if the Lord pleafe, the fecond day or third of the 
next week I hope to acquaint you with Miantunnomues 
and Caunonicus their advice and defire, which it may be 
well to meet his companions at the hither Nipmucks 
and none to come this way, or fome the one way and fome 

1 " Saflacufe chief fachem of the Pe- 
quots." •* This Saflacufe, (the Pequots 
chief fachem) having fled to the Mo- 
hawks, they cutt off his head, with fome 
other of ye chiefs of them, whether to 
fatisfy the Englifh, or rather the Narra- 
ganfetts (who as I have fince heard, hired 
them to do it,) or for their own advant- 
age I now know not ; but it was thus this 
war took end." — Bradford, Hid. of Ply- 
wouth Plantations, p. 361. 

2 Capt. Daniel Patrick came to Ameri- 

ca in 1630, and fettled in Water town, 
and was there admitted a freeman. His 
manner of life was very unpuritanic, and 
he therefore removed to " within twenty 
miles of the Dutch and put himfelf un- 
der their protection." His death in 
1643 was occafioned by being (hot by a 
Dutchman; who had charged him with 
treacherous dealings between the Dutch 
and Indians. — Wi;^throp, vol. ii. p. 1 82, 
4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vii. p. 412. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

the other. This morning, I go over (if the Lord pleafe) 
to confult with them, hoping to be at home (if poffible) 
to-morrow evening, and fo to difpatch fome meilenger the 
fecond in the morning. 

Sir, your late merTage to the Nipmucks (through the 
Loid's mercy) have wrought this effect, that whereas they 
ftaggered as neuters, they brought this prefent week divers 
bafkets of their nokehick and cheftnuts to Canonicus to- 
wards his wars. 

Sir, I underftand that the caufe why the Englifh hurt fo 
many of the Narraganfetts, was want of figns or marks. 
You may pleafe therefore to provide fome yellow or red 
for their heads: The Connecticut Englifh had yellow but 
not enough. 1 

Thus befeeching the God of Peace to be at peace with 
us, that all the fruit may be the taking away of our fin, 
(which if not removed will unftop worfe vials) to guide 
your confultations and profper your expeditions to the 
praife of His own moft holy name, I reft 

Your worship's faithful and affectionate in all civil bonds, 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, for the young man that accompanies my man, the 
country may pleafe to recompenfe his time, or I fhall. 

Our beft refpects to Mrs. Winthrop and all your and our 
loving friends. 

1 Divers of the Indian friends were Note on the Pequot War. With- 

hurt by the Englifh, becaufe they had out entering into the particulars of the 
not fome mark to diltinguifh them from caufes which led to the war between the 
the Pequods as fome of them had. — Win- Englifh and the Pequots, it is fufficient 
throp, Hijf. N. England, vol. i. p. 268. to ltate, that, in coniequence of the many 

murders of the colonills, committed by 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

3 1 

this tribe, the Governor and Council of 
Maffachufetts declared war againtt the In- 
dians on Manifles, (Block Ifland). and 
late in September, 1636, lent Capt. John 
Endecott there with a force to subdue 
them. The Pequots now commenced 
more ferious depredations, fo that the 
Connecticut government determined to 
fend a force againft them. In May, 1637, 
Capt. John Mafon, with a command of 
ninety men ; and Uncas, the Mohigan 
chief, with a body of Indians failed 
down the Connecticut. The latter en- 
countered the Pequots near Saybrook 
lort and defeated them. They were 
now joined by Capt. John Underbill with 
nineteen men, when the two Captains 
at once refolved to make an attack upon 
one of the forts of SafTachus, the Pequot 
chief, fituate in or neat the prefent town 
of Myllic. The Englifh, with their In- 
dian allies, about five hundred in number, 
arrived in the vicinity of the fort on the 
25th of May, where they were joined 
bv a party of Narraganfetts. Before day- 
light the following morning they had 
completely inverted the fort. Both the 
Mohegans and Narraganfetts manifested 
great alarm in attacking this Itronghold 
of the Pequots and their fuperior force ; 
and the Englifh had reaibn to fear that 
they would be abandoned by their In- 
dian allies. 

The Englifh having fent a portion of 
their force from Saybrook back to Hart- 
ford, were now reduced to feventy-leven 
men. Thefe were divided into two com- 
panies, one led by Capt. Mafon, the 
other by Capt. Underhill. The fort 
had two entrances on oppofite fides, into 
which each party were led, fword in 
hand. The enemy being afleep were 
aroufed by the barking of a dog, and 
were heard to cry out Owanux (Englifh- 
men.) Their wigwams were now fet 
on fire, while the poor creatures with 

their fimple weapons, could make lit- 
tle defenfe, and in vain, attempted to 
efcape. They were purfued from wig- 
wam to wigwam, and flaughtered in 
every fecret place. Men, women and 
children were alike cut to pieces or con- 
fumed by the flames, which foon en- 
veloped the entire enclofure. Such as 
fucceeded in getting outfide the pallilade 
were fhot down by the lbldiers potted 
there. "And thus" writes Mafon " in a 
little more than one hour's fpace was 
their impregnable Fort, with themfelves, 
utterly deftroyed, to the number of fix 
or feven hundred, as fome of themfelves 
conferred. There were only feven taken 
captive and about feven efcaped." — Hiji. 
of the Pequot War, p. 10. 

Of the Englifh, two were killed and 
about twenty wounded. "All our In- 
dians" fays Mafon, " except Uncas, de- 
ferted us." SafTachus was in another 
fort, and hearing of the fuccefs of the 
Englifh, deftroyed h : s fort, and, with 
about eighty of his followers, efcaped to 
the Mohawks, who beheaded him and 
fent his fcalp to the Englifh. 

The Pequot war was a memorable 
event in the early hiitory of New Eng- 
land, refulting in the annihilation of this 
powerful tribe. Befides what is laid by 
Winthrop aud other hiltorians, there are 
four feparate works in relation to it as 
follows : 

1. John Underhill's News from 
America ; or a New and Experimentall 
Difcoverie of New England, containing a 
True relation of their warlike prooee dings 
thefe two yeares lajl paft, with a figure of 
the Indian Fort or Paiazado. London, 

2. P. Vincent. A True Relation 
of the late Battell fought in New Eng- 
land, betzveen the Englijh and the Pequot 
Salvages . In which wereflaine and taken 
pr if oners ah out 700 of the Salvages, ana 

3 2 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his much honored Mr. Governor thefe. Mr. Stoughton or 
Capt. Trajke, on their way, may pleafe to read this. 

New Providence, this 4th of the week. [June 21, 1637.] 1 

Sir, — John Gallop (bleifed be the Lord) is lately arrived 
at our doors, and hath brought from the Lord and you a 
merciful refrefhing to us. He be gracioully pleafed to 
recompenfe it a thoufand fold to the whole land and your- 
felves efpecially. 

tbofe which efcaped had their heads cut off 
by the Mohocks : with the prefent Jlate of 
things there. London, 1638. 

3. Major John Mason. A Brief 
Hiflory of the Pequot War; efpecially of the 
memorable Taking of their Fort at Miflick, 
m Connetlicutin 1637. Boston, 1736. 

4. Leift Lyon Gardiner. His 
Relation of the Pequot Warres. (1660.) 
A manufcript. Printed in 3d feries Mafs. 
Hiji. Coll. vol. iii. 

Underhill, Mafon and Gardiner were 
prominent actors in the war. Of Vin- 
cent nothing is known. 

1 4 Majf. HiJl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 194. 

This letter mull be of later date than 
June 19, 1637, as Capt. Daniel Patrick 
writing to Winthrop from Providence 
on that day, lays " William Quicke has 
been here this ten days, but none but he 
has yet come." Probably written in the 
latter part of June, 1637, either 21st or 
28th; more likely 21st, as Drake, (p. 
214) concludes that Stoughton mull have 
arrived at the mouth of the river before 
June 26. Trumbull, (pp. 1-35) fays 
" the party arrived at Pequot harbor the 
latter part of June. Mafon, fays "About 
a fortnight after our return home which 
was about one month after the fight at 
Miflick, there arrived in Pequot River 

feveral veffels from the Maffachufetts, 
Captain Ifrael Stoughton being Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and with him about 
one hundred and twenty men ; being 
fent by that colony to purfue the war 
againll the Pequots. — HiJl. of Pequot 
War, p. 14. 

John Gallup was with his pinnace at 
the Pequot River at the time when 
Stoughton's force was there. Hubbard, 
(p. 127) fays of the capture of fome 
hundred Pequots, " The men among 
them to the number of thirty were turned 
prefently into Charon's Ferry, but un- 
der the command of Skipper Gallop, 
who difpatched them a little without the 
harbor." Probably Gallop was on his 
way to join Stoughton, or poffibly he 
was in command of one of the veffels 
of Stoughton's fquadron. Stoughton 
having "failed" from Bolton, this letter 
was probably fent by water conveyance 
to Winthrop. 

John Gallop was of Dorchelter, in 
16 }o, and afterwards removed to Boflon. 
He was a fifherman and pilot, and alfo 
an Indian trader. On one of his expe- 
ditions he difcovered the murder of John 
Oldham by the Indians and bravely cap- 
tured Oldham's boat and all the mur- 
derers. A ftorm coming up, he was 
obliged to let them go, taking only one 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


He relates that there is now riding below three pinnaces, 
(the names of the matters, Quick, 1 Jigles and Robinfon,) 

and the two Shallops, as alfo that the other, whereof 

Jackfon 2 of Salem, is matter, was in company with them 
the night before, and weighed anchor together, but being 
not able to turn about was fain to chop to an anchor again, 
but they hope is in by this time. 

Sir, I hear our loving friends, Mr. Stoughton,3 Mr. 
Trafke,4 &c, are on their way, and one hundred and fixty 
(the intended number) with them. I hope the continu- 
ance of the number will be feafonable, if not for purluit 
of Safacous and the Pequots, (of whom it is faid that they 
are gone far and finally,) yet for the quelling of their con- 

Indian to Bofton. He and his Ion John 
rendered valuable fervices during the Pe- 
quot wars, and after the death of the 
father in 1650, the fon received "with 
refpedl unto fuch fervices," grants of 
land amounting to four hundred and fifty 
acres. Gallop's Ifland and Gallop's 
Point in MafTachufetts Bay were probably 
named for thole men. — Caulkins' Hiji. 
of New London. Savagl, Genealog. Die. 

1 William Quick, mariner, was of 
Charleilown in 1636, and afterwards 
removed to Newport, where he was ad- 
mitted a freeman, Dec. 27, 1638. — Sav- 
age, Genealog. Die. vol. iii. p. 499. 

2 John Jackfon, of Salem, who came to 
New England in 1635, from London. 
His houfe was destroyed by fire October, 
1636; he died June, 1656. — Savage, 
Genealog. Diet. vol. ii. p. 529. Win- 
throp, vol. i. p. 239. "a goodly man 
and experienced feaman." — vol. ii. p. 23. 

3 " We alfo provided to fend one hun- 
dred and fixty more men after them 

to profecute the war ; and Mr. Stough- 
ton, one of the magiftrates, was fent with 
them." — Winthrop, New Eng. vol. 1. 
p. 263. 

Col. Ifrael Stoughton, an early fettler 
of Dorchefter. Member of the firft 
General Court convened 1634, and again 
in 1635, 1636 and 1637; disabled from 
holding office for three yesrs for pub- 
lifhing a pamphlet denying to the Gover- 
nor and Affillants fome of the powers 
they claimed, but was reftored in I636. 
He returned to England and there died 
164.5. — Drake's Die. Am. Biog. 

4 William Trafk one of the early fet- 
tlers of Salem, and a reprefentative from 
that town a number of years. He was 
an important man in the colony, and one 
on whom Gov. Endicott greatly relied. 
In this expedition he commanded the 
Effex men, having Richard Davenport 
as his Lieutenant. He died in 1666, 
aged 11 

34 Letters of Roger Williams. 

federates the Wunnafhowatuckoogs and Monamackotoogs, 
&c, who live nearer to you on the weftward, &c. Some 
two hundred of thefe (iince the flaughter at the Fort) came 
in revenge upon the Narraganfetts : which the Narragan- 
fetts themfelves knew not until three Pequots (now fallen 
to them) related it : for it pleafed the Lord to fend a great 
mift that morning that they durft not fight, and fo returned : 
fo that there is caufe to take fome courfe with them, and 
efpecially if it be potfible for the clearing of land paifage 
to Connecticut. 

I underftand it would be very grateful to our neighbors, 
that fuch Pequots as fall to them be not enflaved, like thole 
which are taken in war : but (as they fay is their general 
cuftom) be ufed kindly, have houfes, and goods, and fields 
given them : becaufe they voluntarily choofe to come into 
them, and if not received, will go to the enemy or turn 
wild Irilh themfelves : but of this more as I mall under- 
ftand ; thus in hafte with belt falutations to Mrs. Win- 
throp and all yours, with my poor defires to the Lord for 
yours, I reft 

Your worship's unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

My beft refpecls to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, 
theirs, and other loving friends. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 35 

For his much honored Mr. Governor, [John W'inthrop?\ 

New Providence, this 6th inilantis. [July, 1637.] ' 

Much honored Sir, — It having again pleafed the 
Mod High to put into your hands another miferable 
drone of Adam's degenerate feed, and our brethren by 
nature, I am bold (if I may not offend in it) to requeft 
the keeping and bringing up of one of the children. I 
have fixed mine eye on this little one with the red about 
his neck, but I will not be peremptory in my choice, but 
will reft in your loving pleafure for him or any, &c. 

Sir, Capt. Patrick gives me a hint of the likely return 
of moft of your forces (Safacous and about a fcore of men 
with him and other companies, four fcore in one, furviving,) 
I lhall humbly piopound whether it be not considerable, 
that better now then hereafter the purfuit be continued. 

1st, Becaufe it may ftop a conglomeration between them 
and the Mohawks, which longer time is like to make. 

2ndly, Longer time will put many opportunities of oc- 
cafional revenge into their hand, as we fee in the three laft 
cut off upon the Connecticut river, after the fort cut off. 2 

Capt. Patrick alfo informs me of a great itch upon the 
soldiers to fall foul upon our neighbors. Little iparks 

■4 Mafs. Hi/?. Coll. vol. vi. p. 195, eight women and children. There were 

Drake fays, it appears by a letter from eighty taken as before is expreffed. They 

Capt. Stoughton received in Bofton, Ju- were difpofed of to particular perfons in 

ly 6, that Mr. Haynes and Mr. Ludlow the country." — Winthrop, HiJl.~N.Eng. 

were at Pequot River with the colonial vol. i. p. 278. 

forces. The letter was probably carried 2 "Saffachus, flying towards Conetticot 

by Jiglies, (previoufly mentioned) whole plantations, quartered by the river fide ; 

pinnace arrived at Bolton, on the fixth of there he met with a fhallop fent down to 

July, with forty-eight Indian priibners. Seabrooke fort, which had in it three 

Poflibly Williams may have received his men ; they let fly upon them, fhot many 

letter from Capt. Patrick by this pin- arrows into them. Courageous were the 

nace and then feletted the "little one Englifli, and died in their hands, but with 

with the red about his neck." — HiJ?. of a great deal of valor." — Underhill, 

Bo/ion, p. 214. News from America. London: 1638. 
"There were fent to Bofton, forty- 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

prove great fires. The God of Peace who is only wise be 
pleafed to guide us. Capt. Patrick confefieth that they 
were the chief actors in the laft captives, and had taken all 
by a wile and flain two before the Englifh came. I hear 
no speech at prefent about inequality, but content and af- 
fection towards us. 

I much rejoice that (as he fayeth) fome of the chiefs at 
Connecticut (Mr. Heynes 1 and Mr. Ludlow, 2 ) are almoft 
adverfe from killing women and children Mercy out- 
fhines all the works and attributes of him who is the 
Father of Mercies, unto whom with earneft fupplications 
for you and yours, I reft 

Your worfhip's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

My beft refpecls to good Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputy, 
Mr. Bellingham, and theirs. 

•John Haynes came to New England 
in 1633 with the Rev. Mr. Hooker. He 
was one of the beft educated of the early 
fettlers of the country, and during his 
life was always in prominent official po- 
fitions. Affiftant in 1634 an ^ 1636, he 
was in 1635 Governor of Mafs. In 
1637 he removed to Connecticut, was 
elected Governor in 1639, an< ^ was re ~ 
elected every alternate year until his 
death in 1654. 

2 Roger Ludlow, Deputy Governor of 
Maffachufetts and Connecticut, emigrated 
from England in 1630 and was one of 
the firft fettlers of Dorchefter. He was 
an affiftant judge for four years, having 
received his appointment in England. 
Failing to be elected Governor in 1634, 
he complained of the election as having 
been a fraud. He removed to Windfor, 
Connecticut, in 1635, where he was, for 
nineteen years one of the moil ufeful 

and diftinguifhed men. He was every 
year elected either a magiftrate or Depu- 
ty Governor, and was alfo one of the 
Commiffioners of the United Colonies. 
In 1653, the Commiffioners, in conle- 
quence of an alleged plot of the Dutch, 
voted to make war againft them ; but 
Maffachufetts refufed to concur. At 
this period the inhabitants of Fairfield 
determined to make war upon Manha- 
does, and chofe Mr. Ludlow commander- 
in-chief. The General Court of New 
Haven, difcountenanced the proceedings 
and punifhed his officers for attempting 
to create an infurrection. In confe- 
quence of this affair he removed to Vir- 
ginia with his family in 1654. He com- 
piled the firft code of laws adopted in 
Connecticut, which was printed in 1672. 
Ludlow was brother-in-law of John En- 
decott. — Blake, Biog. Die. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 37 

For his much honored 'John Wifithrop, Governor of the 


New Providence, this 2d 7 nas. [July 10, 1637.] ' 

Sir, — Concerning your prifoners taken at Block liland, 
I have informed the Sachems of your care not to injure 
them and deiire to have them cleared; accordingly Cut- 
mamaquene 2 v now come from purfuing Saffacous who is 
fled Southerly, far out of reach,) I fay he hath received 
teftimony from the Sachems Princes that they are Nayan- 
taquit men, (Wepiteammocks^ men) and fo all are Narra- 
ganfett men, and fo indeed Sir, I had thought to fend you 
word at this prefent, had I not received your letter, for it 
was continually affirmed to me for truth by all the Narra- 
ganfett men occalionally being here. 

Sir, the laft meflenger that carried letters from you to 
Pequot, related to the Sachems at Narraganfett, that you 
were difpleafed that the captives brought to the Bay lately, 
were taken by the Englim from the Narraganfetts, as alfo the 

1 4 Ma/s. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 197. people of Dorchefter, Uncatquiflet, be- 
ad Septimanae; or fecond day of the ing the part of that town, fince called 

week. Probably Monday, July 10. Milton. This it appears was at fome 

2 "A pinnace returning (from Capt. period his refidence." — Drake, Book of 
Stoughton's expedition) took a canoe Indians, p. 52. 

with four Indians near Block Ifland. We " The Bay Men killed not a man, fave 

fent to Miantonomoh to know what they that one Kichomiquin, an Indian Sachem 

were, and after we difcharged all fave of the Bay, killed a Pequit ; and thus be- 

one, who was a Pequot, whom we gave gan the war between the Indians and us 

Mr. Cutting to carry into England. — in thefe parts." — Gardiner. Pequot 

Winthrop, vol. 1. p. 277. Warres,! Ma/s. Hift. Coll. vol. iii. p. 140. 

3 "Kuchamakin, Cutfhamoquin, who This man was often employed as an in- 
was the fir ft fachem, and his people to terpreter, he being "acquainted with 
whom Mr. Elliot preached." — 1 Ma/s. the Englifh language," and alfo as a guide 
Hift. Coll. vol. i. p. 166. in the various expeditions of the colo- 

" In 1636, Kutfhamakin fold to the nifts. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

fpoil upon them, which was given to the Englim foldiers. 1 
I have anfwered that I think it was not fo, but I mail un- 
derftand the truth mortly ; and therefore, Sir, be pleafed in 
your next to intimate a word, that I may fatisfy them, for 
though I would not fear a jar with them yet I would fend 
off from being foul, and deal with them wifely as with 
wolves endowed with men's brains. 

The laft week is a battle fought between the hither 
Neepmucks and the further, the Wunnamowatuckoogs, 
&c, the fuccefs is not yet known : it will be of confe- 
quence, for it is faid they fortify, joining with fcattered 

Sir, The laft day of the week Wequafh the Pequot guide, 
near hand, Hew his countryman Saflawwaw, a Pequot, alfo 
Miantunnomue's fpecial darling, 2 and a kind of General 

Wepiteamock, was Miantunnomu's 
brother in-law The " Eaitern Nian- 
tics" were located about Weilerly, R. 
I., and were tributary to the Narragan- 
fetts. The " Weilern Niantics " were 
located between the Connecticut and Ni- 
antic Rivers, and were allies or tributa- 
ries of the Pequots. Early in the feven- 
teenth century before the Englifh came 
to New England, the Pequots migrated 
from the North to the country about 
New London, feparating the Niantics, 
who until that time had probably been 
one tribe. The confanguinity of the 
tribes was well known to the Englifh at 
the time. 

2 Saffawwaw, otherwife known as So- 
foa or Socho. He did not die at this 
time but was living in 1662. In 1660, 
he fold a tracl: of land called Mifquami- 
coke, what is now known as Welterly, 

R. I., to fome Newport parties, which 
land having been claimed bv Ninigret, a 
number of depofitions were taken to 
prove Sofoa the rightful owner. All 
thefe teltimonies proved that before the 
Englifh " had any warr with the Pequots, 
the Pequots, croffing the Pawcatuck, 
feated themfelves on the neck called Mil- 
quamicook, which were the Narragan- 
fett lands and territories : whereupon 
the Narraganfett Sachims, Canonicus 
and Miantonumy, employed a captain of 
thofe parts, their fubjecl:, to deltroy or 
beat off thofe intruding Pequots, and in 
cafe he fo did, they gave to him and his 
forever the faid land Mifquamicook." — 
" and that the aforefaid Sachim was named 
Sofoa; and is Hill living." — Trumbull, 
note to Williams' Key, p. 79. Potter's 
Narraganfett, p. 243. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 39 

of his forces. There was yefterday fome tumult about it, 
becaufe Wequafh lives with Canonicus, and Miantunnomu 
purfues the revenge and juftice, &c. 

By the way, although Wequafh it may be have treach- 
eroully almoft ilain him, yet I fee the righteous hand of 
the moft High Judge, thus : Saifawwaw turned to the 
Narraganfetts and again pretends a return to the Pequots, 
gets them forth the kft year againft the Narraganfetts and 
fpying advantage, Hew the chief Pequot Captain and whips 
off his head, and fo again to the Narraganfett : their treach- 
eries exceeds Machiavelli's, &c. 

Sir, Captain Stoughton, left fick at my houfe one fol- 
dier, a Bofton man, Thomas Roberts, 1 his matter is abfent, 
and Mr. Harding hath charge of him. I have fent to him, 
&c. The man was near death. Through the Lord's 
mercy my wife hath got him upon his legs, though very 
weak, only his hearing is quite gone, and I mould be glad 
to receive any help for him in that great lofs. So with 
my refpe&ive falutations to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, 
yours and theirs, and other loving friends and my poor 
lighs to heaven to meet you there if not here below, I reft 
Your Worfhip's unworthy yet unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

'Thomas Roberts was afterwards a William Harris, and died 1676. Pofli- 
freeman of Providence, holding honora- bly he may have been the fame, although 
ble pofitions. He married a fister of a Thomas Roberts died in Bofton, 1654. 

40 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor John Winthrop, thefe. 

New Providence, 2ndo Septimanae. [July 10, 1637.] ' 

Sir, — In the morning I wrote to John Throckmorton, 
what I heard and thought in general. It hath pleafed the 
Lord now this afternoon to fend this meifenger, (Affote- 
muit) 2 with variety and plenty, and ftrangenefs of news 
and tidings, I hope true, and for ought I can difcern, true, 
bleiTed be the holy name of the moft High, who breaks 
the bow and cuts the fpear, &c. Pfal. 46. 

This man was fent this morning from Miantunnomu 
and Canonicus (as I conceive alfo from all their chiefs in 
council) with charge to bring relation to myfelf of what 
hath lately happened amongft the Pequots : as alfo that 
with my letter he ihould make fpeed to yourfelf with 

He relates that a Pequot man and fome five Pequot 
women came two days fince to the Narraganfett, 3 and 
with their ordinary fubmiffion begged their lives, and lib- 
erty to declare in the name of many others what had hap- 
pened amongft them : before that Pequot came one 
fquaw, and a fecond came, but was queftioned much for 
their truth ; but upon the coming and report of the old 
Pequot, he faith, they all take his report for true. 

This man himfelf, AiTbtemuit, is a noted meifenger from 

1 4 Mafu Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 198. ?In a depofition made in 1682, Mr.Wil- 
Probably written on the fame day as liams faid, "that being inquifitive of what 
the preceding letter. root the title or denomination Nabigan- 
2 I find no other notice of this man, Jet mould come," he heard that it was "fo 
except that his name appears as witnefs named from a little ifland, between Put- 
to Deed of Canonicus and Miantunno- tiquomfett and Muiquomacuk, on the fea 
mue of Acquedneck lands to William and frefh water fide." For further re- 
Coddingtonand others. — R. I. Col. Rec. marks on this name fee Mr. Trumbull's 
vol. i. p. 46. note to Williams' Key to the Language 

of America, Narr. Clus Pub. vol. i. p. 22. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

4 1 

the Sachems, and one whom Miantunnomu hath com- 
mended to me for an efpecial meiTenger from him. 

This Pequot and the women report that (as I alfo heard 
before) all the Pequots were affembled fome ten days 
fince with Safacous in council : fome perfuaded to fight and 
fall firft upon the Narraganfetts, (this alio I heard before) 
the greater part diifented and were for removal : Safacous 
and about four fcore 1 refolved for Mauquowkit, alias 
Waukheggannick, where the men eaters are ; a hundred 
more for Long Illand ; another company, the leaft, for 
Connecticut, fome part of it, with purpofe to take final 
leave of their country. Seventy men, women, and child- 
ren, (of men between twenty and thirty,) refolved for the 
Narraganfetts to beg their lives, &c. 

Safacous and his company were wroth with thefe re- 
folved for the Narraganfett, and a fkirmim pan: between 
them where fome were wounded, but away they got, 
and each company packed up and departed their intended 
journeys. 2 

1 " The Pequots having received fo 
terrible a blow and being much affrighted 
with the deitru&ion of fo many, the next 
day fell into confutation. AfTembling 
their moft ableil men together, pro- 
pounded thefe three things : Firft, whe- 
ther they would fet upon a fudden re- 
venge upon the Narraganfetts, or attempt 
an enterprife upon the Englifh, or fly. 
They were in great difpute, one amongfl 
another. Safachus, their chief com- 
mander, was all for blood ; the reft for 
flight, alledging thefe arguments : We 
are a people bereaved of courage, our 
hearts are fadded with the death of fo 
many of our dear friends ; we fee upon 
what advantage the Englifh lie ; what 

fudden and deadly blows they firike; 
what advantage they have of their pieces 
to us, which are not able to reach them 
with our arrows at diitance. They are 
fupplied with everything neceffary ; they 
are flote and heartened in their viftory. 
To what end fhall we ftand it out with 
them ? We are not able ; therefore let us 
rather fave fome than lofe all. This pre- 
vailed. Suddenly after, thev fpoiled all 
thofe goods they could not carry with 
them, broke up their tents and wigwams 
and betook themfelves to flight." — Un- 
derbill, News from America, Lond. 1638. 
2 " The news of the flight of Salfa- 
chus, their fagamore is confirmed. He 
went with forty men to the Mohocks, 

42 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Miantunnomu lent word to this company remaining 
in the midway between Pequatit and Nayantakick, that he 
was in league with Mr. Governor, and therefore of him- 
felf would fay nothing, but defired them there to reft (at 
Cuppunaugunnit) in the midway, until he fent to Mr. 
Governor, and what he faid that he would alfent unto. 

They told Miantunnomu that they had brought three 
guns with them. He fent the women for the guns, who 
fetched them from that place, Cuppunnaugunnit, and there 
they are with him. Only he claims a promife of one to 
himfelf, which he deiires may be out of thefe three, as 
alfo fome powder and (hot to it, as indeed was promifed. 1 
I have much labored with this man to find, if it were 
poffible, any deceit or falfehood, but as he himfelf and the 
Sachems queftion not the Pequot man and women, fo I 
cannot queftion him. 

I afk him (in difcourfe) what he thinks were beft to be 
done, he anfwereth that as Miantunnomu himfelf when he 
fent to Canonicus to fpeak his mind, and Canonicus re- 
fufing, fent him to fpeak firft, Miantunnomu would fay 
nothing, but would fay as Mr. Governor faid fo himfelf 
would likewife fay nothing. Yet in difcourfe I fifhed out 
divers hints of their own defire and good liking. 

As firft, that there is not amongft thefe any Sachem or 

which are cruel, bloody canibals." — own advantage, I well know not ; but 

Vincent, Pequot War, 3 Mafs. Hiji. this their warr tooke end." — Bradford, 

Coll. vol. vi. p. 40. "This Saffachus, HiJl. Plymouth Plantations, p. 361. 
(the Pequots chiefe fachem) being fled to '"When Mr. Vane was Governor." 

the Mowhakes, they cutt off his head, Williams' note. Probably at the time 

with some other of ye chiefe of them, of the treaty when Miantonomy, at the 

whether to fatisfie the Englifh, or rather requeft of the authorities, Oct. 21, 1636, 

the Narraganfetts, (who I have fince went to Bofton. 
heard hired tftem to do it,) or for their 

Letters of Roger Williams. 43 

any of thofe who were murderers of the Engliih ; if there 
were they mould die. 

2. That if Mr. Governor were io minded, they incline 
to mercy and to give them their lives : and I doubt not 
but your own breafts are far more tender, like the merci- 
ful Kings of Ifrael. 

3. That divers more beiide thefe remain in the woods, 
and resolve to come in and fubmit if thefe be accepted. 

4. For the difpoiing of them, I propounded what if 
Mr. Governor did deiire to fend for fome of them into 
the Bay ; leave fome at the Narraganfett and fo fcatter and 
difperle them : this he liked well, that they mould live 
with the Engliih and themfelves as flaves. I then pro- 
pounded that if they lived amongft the Englim or them- 
felves, they might hereafter be falfe to the Englim, &c, 
and what if therefore they were appointed and limited to 
live upon Nayantacawniek or fome other Iiland : and this 
he thought alfo well of' if not beit, becaufe they were 
moil: of them families. 

5. That they deiire you would pleafe to fend fome Eng- 
lish to take poifeifion of the Pequot country and there to 
inhabit. 1 

6. That for their own hunting fake, Miantunnomu de- 
fires that the Englim would inhabit that part neareft Con- 
necticut, and that Myflic 2 and thereabout might be free 

1 "Captain Stoughton and his Com- referved two Sachems, hoping by them 

pany having puriued the Pequots beyond to get Saflachus, (which they promifed.) 

Connecticut, and mifhng of them, re- All the rell were women and children, 

turned to Pequot River, where they of whom they gave the Narraganfetts 

were advertized, that one hundred of thirty, and our Maflachufetts Indians 

them were newly come back to a place three, and the reil they fent hither." — 

fome twelve miles off. So they marched Winthrop, Hijl. N. Eng. vol. i. p. 277. 
thither by night and furprifed them all. 2 " Which is neareft, and where the 

They put to death twenty-two men, and flaughter was." — Williams' note. 

44 Letters of Roger Williams. 

for them. I told him that they might hunt in the woods 
as they do at Mailachufetts and here, notwithstanding the 
Englim did generally inhabit : and this fatisfied [him]. 1 

7. That they defire the Pequot's corn might be enjoyed 
by the Englim and themfelves, as Mr. Governor pleafe. 

8. That the Wunnafhowatuckoogs are alfo afraid and 
lied, fo that there is hope of a fafe palfage to Connecticut 
by land. 

9. That there is no hope that the Mohawks or any 
other people will ever affift Safacous, or any of the Pequots, 
againft the Englim, becaufe he is now, as it were, turned 
Have to beg his life. 

If all this be true (as I hope it is) we may all fee the 
God of Heaven delights in mercy, and to draw by love and 
pity than by fury and wrath. I hope Sir, now that trou- 
bles may arife from other parts, his holy Majefty is pleafed 
to quench thele nearer fires. He be pleafed to confirm this 
news, and tune all hearts to his prayers in the ordering of 
our converfation aright. So I reft praying 

Your worship's unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

This man relates that yefterday, the Lord's day in the 
morning, a Pinnace arrived, but he knows not yet what 
me is. 

I pray Sir, forget not to reward this melfenger with a 
coat, as alfo fome powder for Miantunnomu. 

My loving refpecls to Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputy, Mr. 
Bellingham, and theirs, &c. 

'Thefe proportions met with favor with lors. Pequot town was fubfequently fet- 
the Englifh, and the lands of the Pequots led and called London, but afterwards 
were divided among the foldiers and fai- changed to New London. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


To his much honored "John Winthrop, Governor of the 

MaJJachufetts. 1 

This 3rd. jx. [July 1 1, 1637. J z 

Sir, — Yefterday by our neighbor Throckmorton I 
wrote concerning thofe Nayantaquit men your pinnace 
took. This bearer, Juanemo,3 (one of the chief Sachems 
of that place and chief foldier) came laft night with 
near a fcore of his men to enquire after them. He was 

1 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 202. 

1 The third day of the week ; proba- 
bly July 11, 1637. 

3 Alias " Ninigret," Sachem of Nian- 
tick. A portrait of this chief is in pof- 
feflion of the Winthrop Family, from a 
copy of which (made for the late Lieut. 
Gov. Winthrop) an engraving was made 
for Drake's Hiltory of Bolton. There 
is an intereiting tradition that the life of 
John Winthrop, Jr., was once faved by 
him. Winthrop records the arrival of 
"Ayanemo " at Boiton, on the 12th Ju- 
ly, with feventeen men. This was Wed- 
nesday. Williams's letter was written 
on Tuefday, "3rd 7^" (that is, 3d fepti- 
manae) : probably the day before, or 
July 11. It appears by the letter which 
follows, that the bearer had returned to 
Williams by the next "Lord's day;" 
which fell on the i6th. — Note, 4 Mafs. 
Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 202. 

Winthrop under date of July 12th, 
1637, fays "Ayanemo, the fachem of 
Niantick, came to Bolton with (eventeen 
men. He made divers propofitions, 
which we promifed to give anfvver unto 
the next day ; and then, underltanding 
he had received many of the Pequots, 
lubmitting to him fince the former de- 
feat, we Aril demanded the delivery of 

them, which he flicking at, we refufcd 
further conference with him ; but the 
next morning, he came and offered what 
we defired. So the Governor referred 
him to treat with our captains at the Pe- 
quot, and wrote inltruitions to them how 
to deal with him, and received his pre- 
fent of ten fathom of wampum. He 
was lovingly difmifled with ibme fmall 
things given him." — Hijh of New Eng- 
land, vol. i. p. 278. He returned to 
Williams on the next Lord's day, July 
17. See fucceeding letter. 

This Indian is better known as Nini- 
gret. He was coufin to Miantunnomo, 
and his residence was at Wekapaug, now 
Welterly, R. I. Having vifited the 
Weltern Indians and the Dutch Gover- 
nor, Stuy vefant, he was fufpedted of plot- 
ting with them for the deltruftion of the 
Englifh ; and Sept. 1653, the Commif- 
fioners for the United Colonies declared 
war with him, but owing to oppofition 
from Malfachufetts it was not prolecuted. 
War was afterwards (1654) a g a ' n de- 
clared, Major Willard leading the expe- 
dition, who captured one hundred Pe- 
quots ; but Ninigret had fled. He joined 
in the war known as " King Philip's 
War," and died prior to 1680. 

46 Letters of Roger Williams. 

very defirous of a letter to you : I told him I hoped he 
would rind his men at liberty. He hath brought a mus- 
ket and a barrel of a leve [lever ?] piece which his men 
took from the Pequots. 

There was a fpeech that three of thefe men were Na- 
yantakoogs, and one a Pequot : it feems he is a Pequot 
born, but hath long fince been theirs, fallen to them, and 
done good fervice in their wars againrt: the Pequots. 

Sir, this Juanemo is a notable inftrument amongft them, 
&c, your wifdom, I know therefore, will lay hold of this 
his vifit, to engage him the more to you. 

Thus humbly begging mercies from the God of heaven 
for you and yours in all affairs, I reft, in hafte, 

Your worship's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

All due refpecls and falutations, &c. 

'To yoh?i Winthrop y Governor of Majfachufetts. 

New Providence, this 15th of the 5th. [July 15, 1637. J 1 

Sir, — For the captives and booty, I never heard any of 
thefe Natives queftion the A<5ts of the Englifh, only that 
Native who brought letters to you from Capt. Patrick, 
and was twice at Bolton, related fo much as I wrote of in 
my former, at his return to the Narraganfett, viz. : that 
yourfelf mould be angry with the Englifh, &c. I met 

! 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 203. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 47 

fince with him, and he faith he had it not from yourfelf, 
but an Englifli man at Roxbury. I thought good to clear 
your name, and remove fufpicions from Mr. Stoughton, &c. 

Wequaih is alive, fo is alfo the other like to recover of 
his wound : I never heard that Miantunnomu was dif- 
pleafed with Wequaih, for any fervice to the Englim, but 
that Wequaih was fufpecled to deal falfely when he went 
to hunt for the Pequots at the rivers mouth. ' Tis true 
there is no fear of God before their eyes, and all the cords 
that ever bound the Barbarians to Foreigners were made 
of felf and covetoufnefs : yet, if I miftake not, I obferve 
in Miantunnomu fome fparks of true friendship, could it 
be deeply imprinted into him that the Englifh never in- 
tended to defpoil him of the country, I probably conjec- 
ture his friendship would appear in attending of us with 
500 men (in cafe [he is wanted]) againff any foreign enemy. 

The Neepmucks are returned with three heads of the 
Wunnafhoatuckoogs, they Hew fix, wounded many, and 
brought home twenty captives. 

Thofe Inlanders are fled up toward the Mohawks : fo 
they fay is Safacous : our friends at Connecticut are to calf 
a jealous eye at that people; they fay (unlefs they are be- 
lied) that they are to war with the Englifh, &c. 

Truely Sir, to fpeak my thoughts in your ear freely, I 
blefs the Lord for your merciful dealing, &c, but fear that 
fome innocent blood cries at Connecticut. Many things 
may be fpoken to prove the Lord's perpetual war with 
Amalek extraordinary and myftical ; but the 2 Kings, xiv. 
5. 6. is a bright light difcovering the ordinary path where- 
in to walk and pleafe him. If the Pequots were murder- 
ers (though pretending revenge for Safacous his father's 
death, which the Dutch affirmed was from Mr. Governor) 

48 Letters of Roger Williams . 

yet not comparable to thofe treacherous fervants that flew 
their lord and king, Jofhua, King of Judah, and type of 
Jefus, yet the fathers only perim in their fin, in the place 
quoted, &c. The blefted Lamb of God warn away in- 
iquity and receive us gracioufly. 

Thus with beft falutes to your loving felf and yours, Mr. 
Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, and other loving friends with 
them, and daily cries to the Father of Mercies for you, 
I reft your worship's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Poftscript. — Sir, to yours brought by Juanemo on the 
Lord's day I could have little fpeech with him ; but con- 
cerning Miantunnomu I have not heard as yet of any un- 
faithfulnefs towards us; I know they belie each other; 
and I obferve our countrymen have almoft quite forgotten 
our great pretences to King and State, and all the world, 
concerning their fouls, &c. I (hall defire to attend with 
my poor help to difcover any perfidious dealing, and fhall 
defire the revenge of it for a common good and peace, 
though myfelf and mine mould perim by it : yet I fear 
the Lord's quarrel is not ended for which the war began, 
viz. : the little {enfe y (I fpeak for the general that I can 
hear of) of their foul's condition, and our large protefta- 
tions that way, &c. The general fpeech is, all muft be 
rooted out, &c. The body of the Pequot men yet live, 
and are only removed from their dens. The good 'Lord 
grant, that the Mohawks and they and the whole at the 
laft unite not. For mine own part I cannot be without 
fufpicions of it. ' 

Sir, I thankfully expect a little of your help (in a way 
of juftice and equity) concerning another unjuft debtor of 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


mine, Mr. Ludlow, 1 from whom alfo (in mine abfence) I 
have much fuffered. The good Lord fmile upon you and 
yours in the face oi his anointed. 

Your worfhip's unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

To his ??mch bo?iored Governor 'John Winthrop. 

New Providence, 21 of 5th monthe.* [July 21, 1637. 1 

Much honored Sir, — My unfeigned love and refpecl 
to your foul's eternal comfort, and firm perfuafion of your 
leveling at the higheit white,3 have emboldened me once 
more to tell you of fome poor thoughts of mine own, penned 
and lent to fome friends amongft you ; which happily, (if 
the good Lord fo pleafe) may fome way conduce to your 
foul's fatisfadtion in the midft of all your troubles. 

1 George Ludlow is fuppofed to have 
been a kinfman of Roger Ludlow, as 
before appears. He applied to be ad- 
mitted a freeman of Maifachufetts Colo- 
ny in 1630; but does not appear to have 
fettled in New England. Roger Wil- 
liams complains frequently of him as will 
be feen by feveral fubfequent letters. 
In 5 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. i. p. 250, is 
printed a letter from Ludlow to Roger 
Williams, to which is appended a note 
by Williams, which is as follows : "Mr. 
Coxall hath a letter of particulars, but 
in this Mr. Ludlow acknowledged I st an 
heifer, which was mine 4 years fince, the 

increafe of her is mine. 2 Dd,y - Upwards 
of 4 fcore weight of tobacco, y^- con- 
federation above 8" for 3 goats due to me 
when they were almolt 2 yeare fince, 
about 4 U a goate ; as allfo their increafe. 
4 ,hly - an houfe watch. ^- Another new 
gown of my wives, new come forth of 
England, and coft between 40 and 50 
{hillings." By Coxall, is doubtlefs meant 
the name of CoggeJhalL 

*4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 205. 

J" Higheft white." Mark at which an 
arrow is fhot, which ufed to be painted 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

I have been long requeued to write my grounds againft 
the Englim preaching, &c, and efpecially my anfwers to 
fome reafons of Mr. RobinfonV for hearing. 

In the midft of a multitude of barbarous diffractions, I 
have fitted fomething to that purpofe : and being not able 
at prefent to tranfcribe the whole ; yet having been long 
folicited by Mr. Buckley 2 (from whom I received fome 
objections,) and by many others, and of late by my wor- 
thy friend Mr. Peters,3 who had fight of them, I have 

'Rev. John Robinfon of Leyden, born 
in England, 1575, was educated at Cam- 
bridge. Removed to Holland fhortly 
after 1608, was paftor of the church at 
Leyden, remaining there until his death 
in 1625. He was very aftive in pro- 
moting the emigration in the Mayflower 
in 1620, intending fhortly to follow, but 
died before the confent of the affociation 
of Englifh merchants who controlled 
the enterprife could be obtained. His 
widow and children came out in 1630. 
He publifhed a number of his writings, 
but the one to which this probably re- 
fers is "A treatife of he lawfulnefs of 
hearing of the minifters in the Church 
of England," was not printed until 1634, 
nine years after his death and three years 
prior to the date of this letter. A com- 
plete edition of his writings was pub- 
lifhed at Boflon, in 185 1 in 3 vols. 

2 Rev. Peter Bulkley, of Concord, 
Mafs., one of its founders in 1636. He 
was a nonconformift in England and was 
therefore removed by Archbifhop Land. 
He was the author of fome Latin poems 
contained in Cotton Mather's Hillory of 
New England, and alfo of " The Gof- 
pel Covenant Opened." London: 1646. 

8 " Hugh Peters, born in 1599, ar- 
rived in America in Augull, 1635, with 
Richard Mather ; and in the following 

year, took charge of the church in Sa- 
lem, as fucceflbr of Roger Williams. 
Such was his fuccefs as a preacher, that 
during the five years of his miniftry in 
this place, one hundred and fixty perfons 
joined his communion. He was, at the 
fame time, occupied in mercantile pur- 
fuits, alfo engaged in political matters, 
and was one of the moil diflinguifhed 
citizens of that period in America. In 
1641 he failed tor England, with a view 
of procuring fome alteration in the laws 
of excife and trade ; but he did not 
again return to America. During the 
civil wars in England he advocated the 
caufe of Parliament, and contributed 
much to its aid by his preaching. He 
was accufed of great violence in urging 
the King's condemnation, but he affirmed 
that he was oppofed to it. Be that as it 
may, Cromwell appointed him to feveral 
public trufls. After the refloration he 
was tried for confpiring with Cromwell, 
and compaffing the King's death. His 
trial terminated in his condemnation ; 
and he was executed on December 16, 
1660, at the age of 61 years. His elo- 
quence was of a peculiar and ltriking 
character, was calculated to gain the at- 
tention of the lower clafs. He had 
thoufands of hearers in London." — 
Drake, Biog. Dictionary. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 51 

thought good to fend fo much as I have tranfcribed, to 
the hand of my loving friend, Mr. Buckley. 

Sir, I am bold to give you this intimation, becaufe in 
thefe firft loofe leaves, handling the ftate of a National 
church, from the thirty-eight page I have enlarged the 
differences between Ilrael and all other ftates. I know 
and am perfuaded that your mifguidings are great and la- 
mentable, and the further you pafs in your way, the fur- 
ther you wander, and have the further to come back, and 
the end of one vexation will be but the beginning of 
another, till confcience be permitted (though erroneous) to 
be free amongft you. 

I am ibrry my ftraits are fuch that I cannot tranfcribe 
the remainder, and efpecially what concerns the matter 
moil concerning your dear felf, and therein efpecially the 
affoiling of fome objections, but if the Lord pleafe I live 
I fhall endeavor the reft, and thankfully receive any inti- 
mation from yourfelf, yea from the leaft, whereby I might 
myfelf return from any wanderings. The Lord Jefus be 
to you and me the Way, the Truth, and he will be the 
Life alfo. So prays 

Your worfhip's moft unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

I have no news, but from Connecticut, the receiving of 
Safacous, his prefent and company by the Mohawks, and 
fome promifes of theirs to him to fettle him again at 
Pequot. This week Souwonckquawfir, 1 old Sequin's 2 fon, 

'William Pynchon of Springfield, in z "Sequin (in 1635) gave the Englifh 

1648, fpells this name Sowoquafle. — land there, (Weathersfield,) upon con- 
Winthrop, vol. ii. Appendix P. tradl that he might fit down by them, 

5 2 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

cut off twenty Pequot women and children in their paf- 
fage to the Mohawks, alio one Sachem who three years 
ago was with you in the Bay with a prefent. 1 

For his much honored Mr. Governor ; John Winthrop. 

New Phovidence, this 2nd of preient weeke. 2 [July 31, 1637.] 

Much honored Sir, — I am bold to interpoie (in all 
humble refpect) a word or two concerning the bearer, 
Mr. Greene. 3 Being at Salem this laft week to take order 

and be prote&ed, etc. When he came 
to Weathersfield and had let down his 
wigwams, they drove him away by 
force." — Winthrop, vol. i. p. 312. 
This chief was otherwife known as Sow- 

1 Under date of Nov. 6, 1634, Win- 
throp, vol. i. p. 176, writes "There 
came to the Deputy Governor about 
fourteen days fince, a meffenger from 
the Pequot fachem, to defire our friend- 
fhip He brought a fmall pre- 
fent with him, which the deputy re- 

1 4 Mafs. Hifl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 212. 

sAuguft I, 1637, "Mr. John Greene, 
of New Providence, having fpoken 
againft the magiilrates contemptuoufly, 
Hands bound in 100 marks to appear at 
next quarter court to be held the firft 
Tuefday of the 7th month enfuing-." — 
Mafs. Col. Rec. vol. i. p. 200. " The 
quarter court was adjourned from Sep- 
tember 5 to September 19, becaufe of 
the Synod meeting at Newtown," at that 
time. — ibid, vol. i, p. 202. September 
19, 1637, " Mr. John Greene, of New 

Providence, was fined 20 pounds, and 
committed until the fine of £'20, be 
payed, and enjoyned not to come into 
this jurisdiction upon paine of fine or im- 
prifonment at the pleafure of the court, 
for ipeaking contemptuoufly of the mag- 
iilrates. — Mafs. Col. Rec. vol. i. p. 203. 

We differ from the editors of the 
Williams' letters {^tb Mafs. Hi ft. Coll. 
vi. 212, note,) as to the date of this let- 
ter. It cannot be of Sept. 1 8th as there 
fhted, as the General Court, as appears 
by the Maffachufetts Records, was held 
Tuefday, Auguit 1. As Greene, doubt- 
lefs attended the court, the letter is prob- 
ably of the Monday previous, or July 

"One of the inhabitants of Warwick, 
was John Green, furgeon, a native of Sal- 
ifbury, England, who coming over in the 
next company after Roger Williams, with 
his wife and five children, had followed 
Williams to Providence, and Gorton to 
Shawomet, thus becoming an original 
proprietor in both places. — Geo. W. 
Greene, Life of GenU Natb'l Greene, 
vol. i. p. 4. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 53 

about the fale of his houfe, and coming away an ancient 
acquaintance meets him (Ed. Batter) and queftions whe- 
ther he would come and live there again, unto which he 
anfwered, how could he unlefs he might enjoy the freedom 
of his foul and confcience. Ed. Batter 1 replied, he might 
fo, to which he again replied he knew that could not be, 
for the power of the Lord Jefus was in the hand of civil 
authority ; upon this came by Mr. Endecott, 2 calls Ed. 
Batter and queftions him (as himfelf related to Mr. Greene) 
what was their conference : the fum whereof being told, 
Mr. Endecott warned Mr. Greene to appear at this Gene- 
ral Court. 

Sir, for myfelf I have no partial refpect to Mr. Greene 
nor relation, but of neighbors together : only for the better 
following of peace, (even when it flies from us), I am 
bold to acquaint with palfages of truth (as I cannot but 
hope) before hand : I mall grieve much that any molefta- 
tion or trouble mould arife unto you from hence, or that 
there be the appearance of any further jar. Sir, I know 
to whom I fpeak. Mr. Endecott had need have a true 

•Edmund Batter, maltfter, came from the government of the colony to New 

fame place and in fame veffel with John England ; and John Winthrop, who ar- 

Greene. rived in the following year was appointed 

z John Endecott, Governor of Mafia- Governor. In 1636 Mr. Endecott was 

chufetts, who was fent to America by a fent on an expedition againft the Indians 

company in England, as their agent, to fu- on Block Ifland and in the Pequot coun- 

perintend the plantation of Naumkeag, or try. He continued at Salem until 1644, 

Salem, arrived in September, 1628, and when he was elefted Governor of Maf- 

there laid the foundation of the firil per- fachufetts, and removed to Bofton. He 

manent town in within the limits of MafTa- was alfo Governor from 164910 1664, 

chufetts patent. In April, 1629, the com- excepting in 1650, and from 1655 to 

pany chofe him the Governor of "Lon- 1665. He died in 1665, in his 77th 

don's Plantation" ; but in Augufl it was year. — Blake, Bing. Diftionary. 
determined to transfer the charter and 

54 Letters of Roger Williams. 

compafs for he makes great way, &c. : the Father of 
Lights and Spirits merciful be pleafed to guide all our 

Mr. Greene here is peaceable, a peacemaker, and a lover 
of all Englifh that vifits us. I conceive he would not 
difturb peace in relating his judgment to his friend, (if I 
may fo call him) demanding it firft alfo of him, or elfe I 
prefume he mould not have heard a word of fuch mat- 
ters, if I know Mr. Greene. 

Sir, I hear yet nothing of any of the runaway captives 
amongft our neighbors. Yefterday I heard that two efcaped 
from them to the Pequots. If any be or do come amongft 
them I fuppofe they mail be fpeedily returned, or I fhall 
certify where the default is. 

Sir, I defire to be truly thankful for the boy intended : 
his father was of Safquankit, where the laft fight was : and 
fought not with the Englim, as his mother (who is with 
you and two children more) certified me : I fhall endeavor 
his good and the common, in him. I fhall appoint fome 
to fetch him, only I requeft that you would pleafe to give 
a name to him. 

Sir, concerning captives (pardon my wonted boldnefs) 
the Scripture is full of myftery and the old Teftament of 

If they have deferved death 'tis fin to fpare : 

If they have not deferved death then what punifhments ? 
Whether perpetual flavery. 

I doubt not but the enemy may lawfully be weakened 
and defpoiled of all comfort of wife and children, &c, 
but I befeech you well weigh it after a due time of train- 
ing up to labor, and reftraint, they ought not to be fet 

Letters of Roger Williams. 55 

free: yet fo as without danger of adjoining to the ene- 
my. Thus earnestly looking up to heaven for you and all 
yours, I reft 

Your worship's unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

My beft. refpe&s to Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputy, Mr. 
Bellingham, &c. 

To his much honored Governor, "John Winthrop. 

New Providence, 20th of the 6th. » [Auguft 20, 1637.] 

Much honored Sir, — Yours by Yotaafh 2 (Miantun- 
nomue's brother) received, I accompanied him to the 
Narraganfetts, and having got Canonicus and Miantunno- 
mu with their council together, I acquainted them faith- 
fully with the contents of your letter, both grievances and 
threatnings ; and to demonstrate, I produced the copy of 
he league, (which Mr. Vane fent me,) and with breaking 
of a ftraw in two or three places, I mowed them what they 
had done.3 

1 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. i. p. 162. fion of a treaty of peace," — which the 

Knowles. Mem. R. Williams, p. 134. Governor fubfcribed, and they alfo fub- 

1 Other wife Otafh and Yotnefh. This fcribed with their marks, and Outfhama- 

chief and Roger Williams were witneffes kins alfo. But becaufe we could not 

to the deed of the ifland of Rhode Is- make them underftand the articles per- 

land to William Coddington and others, feftly, we agreed to fend a copy to Mr. 

March, 1636-7. Williams, who could beft interpret it to 

1 October 21, 1636, Winthrop "no- them. — Winthrop, Hift. of N. Eng. vol. 

tices the arrival of Miantunnomoh and i. p. 237. 
other indians at Bofton, and the conclu- 

56 Letters of Roger Williams . 

In fome their anfwer was, that they thought they fhould 
prove themfelves honeft and faithful, when Mr. Governor 
underftood their anfwers ; and that (although they would 
not contend with their friends) yet they could relate many 
particulars, wherein the Englifh had broken (fince thefe 
wars) their promifes, &c. 

Firft then, concerning the Pequot fquaws, Canonicus 
anfwered, that he never faw any, but heard of fome that 
came into thefe parts, and he bade carry them back to Mr. 
Governor, but fince he never heard of them 'till I came, 
and now he would have the country fearched for them. 
Miantunnomu anfwered, that he never heard of but fix, 
and four he faw which were brought to him, at which he 
was angry, and afked why they did not carry them to me, 
that I might convey them home again. Then he bid the 
natives that brought them to carry them to me, who de- 
parting brought him word, that the fquaws were lame, and 
they could not travel. Whereupon he lent me word, that 
I fhould fend for them. This I mud: acknowledge, that 
this meifage I received from him, and fent him word, that 
we were but few here, and could not fetch them, nor con- 
vey them, and therefore defired him to fend men with 
them and to feek out the reft. Then, faith he, we were 
bufy ten or twelve days together, as indeed they were in a 
ftrange kind of folemnity, wherein the Sachems eat 
nothing but at night, and all the natives round about the 
country were feafted. In which time, faith he, I wifhed 
fome to look to them, which notwithstanding, in this 
time, they efcaped ; and now he would employ men in- 
stantly to fearch all places for them, and within two or 
three days to convey them home. Befides, he profeifed 
that he defired them not, and was forry the Governor 

Letters of Roger Williams. 57 

fhould think he did. I objected, that he fent to beg one. 
He anfwered, that Saflamun, being fent by the Governor 
with letters to Pequot, fell lame, and, lying at his houfe, 
told him of a fquaw he faw, which was a Sachem's daugh- 
ter, who while he lived was his, Miantunnomue's great 
friend. He therefore defired, in kindnefs to his dead 
friend, to beg her, or redeem her. 

Concerning his departure from the Englifli, and leaving 
them without guides, he anfwered, firft, that they had been 
faithful, many hundreds of them, (though they were 
folicited to the contrary,) that they ftuck to the Englifh 
in life or death, without which they were perfuaded that 
Uncas and the Mohigans had proved falfe, (as he fears 
they will yet,) as alfo that they never had found a Pequot, 
and therefore, faith he, fure there was fome caufe. I de- 
fired to know it. He replied in thefe words, Chenock 
eiufe wetompati nucks ? that is, Did ever friends deal fo 
with friends ? I urging wherein, he told me this tale : 
that his brother, Yotaalh, had feized upon Puttaquppuunck, 
Quame and twenty Pequots and three-fcore fquaws, they 
killed three and bound the reft, watching them all night, 
and fending for the Englifh, delivered them to them in 
the morning. Miantunnomu (who, according to promife 
came by land with two hundred men, killing ten Pequots 
in their march) was defirous to fee the great Sachem, whom 
his brother had taken, being now in the Englifli houfes, but 
(faith he) I was thruft at with a pike many times, that I 
durft not come near the door. I objected, he was not 
known. He and others affirmed, he was, and afked, if 
they fhould have dealt fo with Mr. Governor. I ftill de- 
nied, that he was known, &c. Upon this, he faith, all my 
company were difheartened, and they all and Cutfhamo- 

58 Letters of Roger Williams. 

quene defired to be gone ; and yet, faith he, two of my 
men (Wagonckwhut and Maunamoh) were their guides 
to Sefquankit from the river's mouth. 

Sir, I dare not ftir coals, but I faw them to be much 
difregarded by many, which their ignorance imputed to 
all, and thence came the mifprifon, and bleffed be the Lord, 
things were not worfe. 

I objected, they received Pequots and wampum without 
Mr. Governor's confent. Canonicus replied, that although 
he and Miantunnomu had paid many hundred fathom of 
wampum to their foldiers, as Mr. Governor did, yet he 
had not received one yard of beads nor a Pequot. Nor, 
faith Miantunnomu, did I but one fmall prefent from four 
women of Long Ifland, which were no Pequots, but of 
that ifle, being afraid, defired to put themfelves under my 
protection. 1 

By the next I (ball add fomething more of confequence, 
and which muft caufe our loving friends at Connecticut to 
be very watchful, as alfo, if you pleafe, their grievances, 
which I have labored already to anfwer, to preferve the 
Englim name; but now end abruptly with beft falutes and 
earneft prayers for your peace with the God of peace and 
all men. So praying, I reft 

Your worship's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

All loving refpedts to Mrs. Winthrop and yours, as alfo 
to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, theirs, and Mr. Wil- 
fon, &c. 

1 Under date of July 26, 1637, Win- antunnomoh fent here fome Pequot 
throp (voi. i. p. 283) writes ".nd Wi- iquaws which had run from us." 

Letters of Roger Williams. 59 

To bis kind friend, Mr. Richard Collicutt, thefe. 1 

This 1 2th of the 7th mon. (commonly called) 1637. [September 12.] 

Kind Friend, — I lately wrote unto you: once when 
I fent home your boy, and again when I fent the girl : 
concerning either of them, if you be minded to put either 
of them away, I deiire to give you your defire : otherwife 
I wifli you much comfort in the keeping of them. 

As I am many ways indebted, fo I have many debts 
coming to me. I take it very lovingly that you pleafe to 
help me concerning Mr. Ludlow. 2 I have accordingly 
fent you power to deal in it. In three refpedts I requeft 
you to be ferious and punctual. 

1 ft. It is now an old debt, efpecially my cow was mine, 
left behind four years ago, for me in Virginia, and fome 
goats. 3 

2ndly. I have requefted the laft year divers to help me 
and gave them power, but all failed me, fo that I (hall 
have caufe to be thankful to you above others. 

3rdly, If his payment like you, I (hall requeft you firft 
to fatisfy yourfelf, and mall remain 

Yours moft unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

I fhall gladly fatisfy not only your charge, but alfo your 
time and pains in dealing with M. Ludlow. 

'4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 21 1. ther he removed before 1656. He died 

1 Richard Collicott or Colcott, fettled in 1686, aged 83. Winthrop, who ap- 

in Dorchefter before 1633, and wasa fer- parently believed in the doftrine of fpe- 

geant in the Pequot war. He was one cial Providence, reports (vol. ii. p. 336,) 

of the twenty-three original or charter his prefervation from drowning by the 

members of the "Ancient and Honora- influence of praver in 1648. 
ble Artillery Company" of Bolton, whi- ' See note to Letter of July 15th. 

60 Letters of Roger Willi 'ams. 



Memorand : that I, Roger Williams of New Provi- 
dence, doe conftitute & ordaine Richard Collicut of Dor- 
chefter my true & lawfull Atturney, for me and in mv 
name to afke or demaund, fue or arreft, acquit or releafe 
George Ludlow of all fuch fummes of money or goods as 
are due unto me from him. 

per me Roger Williams. 

To his much hotiored Joh?i IVinthrop, Governor of the 


[No date; probably October or November, 1637.] 

Much honored Sir, — I was fearful that thofe dead 
hands were no pleafing fight (otherwife than a remarkable 
vengeance had feized upon the firfr. murderer of the Eng- 
lim, Wauphanck,) 2 yet I was willing to permit what I 
could not approve, leaft if I had buried the prefent myfelf, 
I mould have incurred fuipicion of pride and wronged my 
betters, in the natives and others eyes : I have always mown 
diflike to fuch difmembering the dead, and now the more, 
(according to your defire) in your name. 

I was alfo fearful that mine own hand (having no com- 
miifion from my heart (which is not in mine hand but in 

1 4 Mafs. Hi/i. Coll. vol. vi. p. 207. of thofe who murdered Capt. Stone," 
2 "The Narraganfetts fent us the Auguft 31, 1637. — Winthrop, vol. i. 
hands of three Pequots ; one the chief p. 283. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


the hand of its Maker, the Moft High) to write you ought 
of mine own return in fpirituals,) I fay fearful that mine 
own might not be fo grateful and pleaiing to you : but 
being called upon by your meifage and your love, (your 
paper), I am emboldened. 

Concerning the Pequots, the foldiers here 1 related to 
me that Uncas 2 the Mohiganie Sachem had about three 
hundred men with him on the Pequot river,3 fome fixteen 
miles from the houfe, which I believe are moft of them 
Pequots and their confederates the Wunnafhowatuckoogs 
and their Inlanders (whom he charged under pain of 
death not to come to Canonicus) and with whom he hath 
made himfelf great. This man is but a little Sachem, and 
hath not above forty or fifty Mohigans, which as the 
Englifli told me were all he could make. 

It is generally confirmed that Thomas Stanton,4 (as him- 
felf alfo confelfed to me at my houfe) was gioffly cou- 

1 Winthrop under date of Aug. 26, 
records " The captain and foldiers re- 
turned all from Pequot," (vol. i. p. 283:) 
Oft. 1 2, " A day of thankfgiving kept in 
all the churches for our victories againft 
the Pequods." — Ibid, vol. 1, p. 290. 

2 Uncus, was originally a Pequot. He 
revolted from Saflacous in 1634, became 
friendly to the Englifh, and was made 
chief of the Mohegans. His authority 
being fo recent, perhaps is the occafion 
for the flighting remark of Williams at 
the clofe of the paragraph. He has 
been characterized as treacherous, vicious 
and " an old and wicked wilful man." 
He died in 1683 at a great age. 

Drake, in his Book of the Indians, (p 
149,) gives the following epitaph from 
a tombllone of one of Uncas' ions: 

Here lies the body of Suttsee/o 
Own son to Uncas grandson to OneJLo 
Who were the famous sachems of Mohegan 
But now they're all dead, I think it is Wer- 

? " The reft of the Pequots were 
wholly driven from this place, and fome 
of them fubmitted themfelves to the Nar- 
iganfetts and lived under them: others 
of them betooke themfelves to the Mon- 
higts under Uncas their fachem, with 
the approbation of the Englifh at Con- 
ighteecutt, under whofe protection Un- 
cafs lived." — Bradford, Hifi. Plymouth 
Plant. Bofton : 1856. p. 361. 

4 Thomas Stanton at the age of 20, 
emigrated in 1635 from London to Vir- 
ginia. He afterwards removed to Con- 
necticut, and was one of the original pro- 

62 Letters of Roger Williams. 

fened and deluded by one Wequafhcuck 1 (a Nayantaquit 
Sachem) who fheltered four Pequot Sachems and lixty Pe- 
quots at Long Illand, where now they are, where peace 
was made with promife from the natives not to permit one 
Pequot ; yet Wequafhcuck marrying Saifacous his mother 
hath thus deceived you. This Wequafhcuck was the man 
(to my knowledge) that fheltered Audfah, the murderer of 
Mr. Oldham, and kept his head fo upon his moulders : yet 
to this man Thomas Stanton (as it appears) did too much 
liften, llighting I fear, too much the Narraganfetts. 

I find our Neighbors very eager to purfue thefe four 
Sachems and the lixty Pequots there, I prelTed them to pa- 
tience till Mr. Governor's mind be known, and Miantunno- 
mu (to my knowledge) doth all he can to reftrain them, 
or elfe long fince thev had been there. They plead that 
Mr. Governor may pleafe to accompany, or fend himfelf 
againft them, but cannot by any article in the league bind 
them to fuller fo many of their enemies in a knot fo near 

I prefs them to humane conlideration of fo much blood 
fpilt, they anfwer if they have the Sachems heads they 
will make the reft Narraganfetts, and for the Long Ifland- 
ers themlelves and Wequafhcuck, they will not meddle 
with them, becaufe of the peace Mr. Stoughton made with 

Concerning the kettles : Miantunnomu anfwers, that he 

prietors of Hartford, and in later years with Wequafh. Winthrop in fpeaking 

was of Stonington, where he died in of the death of the latter, calls him We- 

1678. He is many times mentioned in quafh Cook; Williams is more accurate, 

thefe letters, and was conflantly employed He was living in 1648, while Wequafh 

during his life as an Indian interpreter. died prior to 1643. 
1 This man has often been confounded 

Letters of Roger Williams. 63 

hath been much wronged by the reports of enemies and 
falfe friends to whom iome of us (as he faith) hath heark- 
ened before himfelf. 

He faith he never knew of more than two, one of 
which the Englifh ufed at the houfe, and the other as he 
hears is at the Fort itill : he faith, he hath many of his 
own, and indeed when I came firfb hither I faw near ten 
or twelve which himfelf or Canonicus had. 

He repaid me with a grievance about a Pequot canoe 
which he delired might be ordered by your own hearing, 
but it was denied him : his plea feems very fair : thus this 
brother Yoteafh having taken the great Sachem (Putta- 
quappuonckquame who was was kept in the pinnace alive 
fometime) took his canoe, which, faith he, the Englifh 
Captains fitting all together were very willing unto : this 
canoe Mr. Stoughton afterwards brought about homeward : 
Miantunnomu and his brother claim it : 'twas denied : he 
requeued that it might be left at my houfe till Mr. Gov- 
ernor's mind was known. Capt. Stoughton would not 
yield, but defired him to go along to me, but faith he, I 
would not truft myfelf with him, feeing he would not 
ftand to Mr. Governor's determination about the canoe : I 
would not have mentioned this leaft it might provoke Mr. 
Stoughton or any : but I know to whom I intimate it : 
and I have pretty well appeafed the matter already. 

He anfwers, all I can object to him with this : let Mr. 
Governor have the hearing of it : I will reft in his word, 
and objecting to him in the particular before divers, that the 
Englifh complain he was proud, he defired that I would 
prefcnt to Mr. Governor thefe particulars, that he had 
caufe to maintain his right, becaufe the Connecticut Eng- 
lish equalled Uncas and the Mohigans with himfelf 
and his men 

64 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Whereas faith he, thefe Mohigans are but as a twig, 
we are as a great tree. 

They fell to the Englim but laft year, we have been ever 
friends, &c. 

Uncas and his men had a hand in the death of all the 
Englim and fought againft the Rivers mouth (at Connec- 
ticut) we never killed nor confented to the death of an 
Englim man. 

When the Dutchmen and we fought with the Pequots 
the Mohigans joined againft us. 

When Capt. Endicott came againft the Pequots the 
Mohigans received the Pequot women and children 
and kept them, while the men fought with him, &c. 

Uncas brought prefents to Canonicus, and Miantunno- 
mu, yet at the fame time killed two of his women treach- 

They fell to the Englifh this year in fear or other policy, 
and we, (faith he) have continued friendship and love ever 
fince they landed. Thus he pleaded, &c, and yet proud 
and covetous and filthy they are, &c, only I was willing 
to gratify him in this, becaufe as I know your own heart 
ftudies peace, and their foul's good, fo your wifdom may 
make ufe of it unto others who happily take fome more 
pleafure in wars: The blerled God of Peace be pleafed to 
give you peace within, at home, and round about you 
abroad, So prays 

Your worfhip's unfeignedly refpective 

Roger Williams. 

To Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, &c, 
all refpective falutations. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 65 

I have at prefent returned Richard Collicut's Pequot 
girl which Miantunnomu found out, and defired me to 
fend home, with promife of further enquiring. 

To his much honored Governor 'John Wlnthrop. 1 

[No date.]2 

Sir, — Having ufed many means and many Attornies (in 
my abfence) to recover a debt of Mr. George Ludlow, and 
failed by all, and now laft of all by Richard Collicut who 
undertook feriouily, but comes off weakly in it: let me 
humbly beg what help in a righteous way may be afforded 
(now in his departure) to caufe him to deal honeftly with 
me who have many years and in many wants been patient 
toward him. The debt was for mine own and wife's bet- 
ter apparel put off to him at Plymouth. My bills are loft, 
but his own hand which the bearer will deliver is teftimo- 
ny fufficient. He hath ufed fo many flights and told fo 
many falfehoods, that Sir, if you believe more than you 
fee, I muft patiently give my debt for defperate : however 
with my beft refpedts to your kind felf and Mrs. Winthrop, 
and fighs to heaven for you, I reft 

Your worship's unfeignedly faithful till death, 

Roger Williams. 

'4 Ma/s. Hijl. Call. vol. vi. p. 212. from George Ludlow, and which is 
1 This letter is of later date than the printed in full in 5 Ma/s. Hijl. Coll. 
one preceding, as it evidently refers to it. vol. i. p. 250. To this R. W. has ad- 
It probably enclofed a letter received ded a note. (See previous letter.) 



Letters of Roger Williams. 

To bis much honored Governor jfo/in Winthrop} 

[No date; probably Ottober, 1637.] 

Sir, — Some while fince you were pleafed to delire me 
to fignify to the Sachems, the promife of the Block Iiland- 
ders to yourfelves, and therefore their exemption from all 
other fubmiffion and tribute. Their anfwer was, that as 
they had left them to Mr. Governor formerly upon Mr. 
Oldames death, fo have they done fince, and have had no 
other dealing with them then for the getting of the head 
of Audfah the chief murderer : as alio that they under- 
hand the one hundred fathom of beads to be yearly paid 
to Mr. Governor, in which refpedt they have been far from 
desiring a bead from them, and do acknowledge them to 
be wholly Mr. Governor's fubjects. 

Sir, I hear that there is now at Pequot with the Mohe- 
gans, 2 one William (Baker3 I think his name is) who was 

1 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 214. 

In this letter Roger Williams men- 
tions the probability of Miantonomo 
going to Bolton in a day or two. The 
letter of November 10th, reports the 
return of this " big indian." Win- 
throp, (vol. i. p. 291) records under 
date of November lit, "Miantonomo 
the Narraganfett Sachem came to Bof- 
ton." He alfo reports that Miantono- 
mo acknowledged that " all the Pequot 
country and Block Jfland were ours." 
He was alfo given " leave to right him- 
felf for the wrongs which Janemoh and 
Wequafh Co )k had done him." The 
letter is probably of a date not later than 
October 28, and perhaps not much ear- 

z Monahiganeucks — Mohegans. By 
the revolt of Uncas, the Pequot territo- 
ries became divided, and that part called 

Moheag or Mohegan, fell generally un- 
der his dominion, and extended from near 
the Connecticut River on the fouth, to a 
place of disputed country on the north, 
next the Narraganfetts. 

5 " William Baker, Plymouth, 1643, 
may I think, have been fir ft of Rhode II- 
land, as early as 1638, and probably went 
thither again, being counted among the 
freemen 1655 at Portfmouth " Savage, 
vol. i. p. 100. R. I. Col. Rec. vol. i. 
Williams in fubfequent letters fpeaks of 
him as of Plymouth, and that he was 
whipped at Hartford in the fame year. 
The next year November 12th, 1638, 
he was admitted an inhabitant of New- 
port. There was in Plymouth in 1632 
a William Baker an apprentice to Rich- 
ard Church, and poffibly this was the 
man to whom Roger Williams refers. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 67 

purfued, as is faid by the Englifli of Connecticut for un- 
cleannefs with an Indian fquaw, who is now with child by 
him. He hath there gotten another fquaw and lies clofe, 
unknown to the Englifli. They fay he came from a trad- 
ing houfe which Plymouth men have at Connecticut, and 
can fpeak much Indian. If it be he, when I lived at Ply- 
mouth, I heard the Plymouth men fpeak much of his evil 
course that way with the natives. 

The occafion that our neighbors know of him was this : 
fome eight days lince, fix Narraganfett men were coming 
from Connecticut, and by the way fell upon fome Pequots, 
who were refcued out of their hands by the Mohegans, 
who alfo bound thofe fix Narraganfetts many days toge- 
ther at Monahiganick (upon Pequot river, where this 
William was) and fpoiled them of their coats and what 
elfe they had. 

The Sachems and the men are greatly incenfed, affirm- 
ing that they can not but revenge this abufe offered to their 
men ; yet I have got this promife that they will not do 
ought without Mr. Governor's advice. 

Sir, I have long heard, and thefe fix men affirm, that 
there are many of the fcattered Pequots rendezvoufed with 
Uncas the Mohegan Sachem and Wequafh the Pequot, 
who being employed as one of the guides to the Englifli 
in their late wars, is grown rich, and a Sachem with the 
Pequots : and hath five or fix runaways. There are all 
the Runaways harbored (which upon long and diligent 
inquiry) I am certain and confident of, and can give good 
aflurance that there is not one amongft all the Narragansetts. 

Mr. Stoughton hath been long allured that Meikfah, 
Canonicus' elder! fon hath his fquaw, but having enquired 
it out, I find fhe was never at the Narraganfetts, but is mar- 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

ried to one Meikfomp a Sachem of Nayantick, which 
being nearer to Pequot is more friendly to the Pequots : 
and where as I hear that Wequamcuck v who long fhel- 
tered Audfah and fo groffly deluded Tho : Stanton in the 
late wars) hath filled many bafkets with beads from Pe- 
quots Sachems and one hundred and twenty Pequots which 
he (heltereth now at Nayantick. 

Uncas the Mohegan and Wequamcuck were lately at 
Long Ifland, from whence fome few days fince, Uncas car- 
ried away forty Pequots to Monahiganick, and Wequam- 
cuck thirty to Nayantick. 

While I write, Miantunnomu is come to my houfe and 
affirmeth the fame; profeffing if I would advife him, he 
would go over to Mr. Governor to acquaint the Governor 
that Canonicus 1 and himfelf hath no hand in thefe paf- 
fages. He afks me often if he may fafely go, and I allure 
him if he have an honeft heart he need not fear any de- 
ceit or treachery amongft the Engliih ; fo I think within 
a day or two he will be coming towards you. 

He tells me what I had not heard that of thofe Pequots 
to whom at the nrft by my hand you were pleafed to give 

1 "Canonicus, a Narraganfett chief, un- 
cle of Miantonomoh, was born about 
1565 ; died June 4, 1647 ; was the firm 
friend of the Englifh, efpecially of Ro- 
ger Williams. From him Williams ob- 
tained, March 24, 1638, the grant of 
land for his fettlement of the future 
State of Rhode Ifland. In 1622, two 
years after the Pilgrims landed at Ply- 
mouth, Canonicus fent as a challenge a 
bundle of arrows tied with a fnake-fkin. 
The (kin was returned filled with powder 
and ball ; but the peace was unbroken. 
In 1632-35, there was a war between 

the Pequots and Narraganfetts, about the 
ownerfhip of lands lying between Paw- 
catuck River and Wecapang Brook. Ca- 
nonicus, after lofing his fon, burned his 
own refidence and all his goods in it. 
Roger Williams calls him " A wile and 
peaceful prince." During his life, the 
Narraganletts, though engaged in war 
with other Indians, remained at peace 
with the whites. Many years after his 
death, however, under the famous King 
Philip, they made war on the Englifli 
and were exterminated." — Drake. Die. 
American Biography. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 69 

life, but feven came to them, of which five alfo long fince 
are gone to Monahiganick. 

Sir, I forget not your loving remembrance of me con- 
cerning Mr. Ludlow's debt. I yet know not where that 
tobacco is : but defire if Mr. Craddock's agent, Mr. Jolly 
would accept it, that it may be delivered to him in part 
of fome payments for which I have made over my houfe 
to Mr. Mayhew. 

Sir, your fervant Reprieve lodged here two nights, and 
Miantunnomu 1 tells me that five days fince he lay a night 
with him and is gone to Block Iiland. He is very hope- 
fully improved fince I firft faw him: and am bold to wim 
that he might now take his laft farewell of his friends, to 
whom you would be rather pleafed to give leave to vifit 
him at Bofton, for you cannot believe how hard it is for 
him to efcape much evil, and efpecially uncleannefs while 
he is with them. The good Lord be pleafed to blefs him 
to you and to make you a bleffing to him and many others. 
. . . run headlong (without once hearing of it,) into ever- 
lafting burnings. So prays daily 

Your worfhip's unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

To Mrs. Winthrup, Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, and 
theirs, refpecl:ive falutations. 

1 Miantonomo, Sachem of the Narra- with Uncas, Sachem of the Mohegans, 

ganfetts, was the nephew and fuccelfor not to make war upon one another with- 

of Canonicus, and affumed the govern- out firft appealing to the Englilh. Cited 

ment in 1636. He was the friend and in 1642, upon a mere rumor of intended 

benefactor of the fettlers in Rhode Is- hoitilities to appear at Bolton before the 

land, to whom he gave their territory. Governor and Council, he declared his 

In 1638 he entered into an agreement innocence, and called upon the Englilh 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor fohn Winthrop l 

The lafl of the week, I think the 28th of the 8th. [Oft. 28, 1637.] 

Sir, — This bearer, Miantunnomu, refolving to go on 
his vifit, I am bold to requeft a word of advice from you 
concerning a proposition made by Canonicus and himleH 
to me fome half year iince. Canonicus gave an ifland in 
this bay to Mr. Oldham, by name Chibachuvvefe, upon 
condition as it mould feem, that he would dwell there 
near unto them. The Lord (in whofe hands all hearts 
are) turning their affections towards myfelf, they delired 
me to remove thither and dwell nearer to them. I have 
anfwered once and again, that for prefent I mind not 
to remove; but if I have it from them, I would give them 

to produce his accufers. None appear- 
ing, he was di unified with honor. Gov. 
Winthrop, in his Journal, teftifies to the 
refpect in which the ability of the great 
chief was held. The rivalry between 
the Mohegans and Narraganfetts, which 
it was the policy of the Englifh to fo- 
ment, produced its inevitable refults. 
Driven by the infults and injuries of the 
unprincipled Uncas, he attacked him, but 
was defeated and made prifoner ; and by 
the advice and confent of the Englifh 
magifirates and elders, was executed. 
Brave and magnanimous, he was doubt- 
lefs the moll able of the Indians of New 
England. Drake. Biog. Dictionary. 

1 3d Ser. Mafs. Hift.Coll. vol. i. p. 165, 
affigns October 28, 1637, as the proba- 
ble date of this letter ; in which opinion 
Arnold, in his Hi/lory of Rhode Ijland 
agrees. Vol. i. p. 105. Knowles, and 
R. I. Col. Records copy from the Mafs. 
Hiji. Coll. 

* The R. I. Col. Records, (vol. 1. p. 

45) quotes the Deed from Canonicus 
and Miantonomo of the ifland of Aqued- 
neck to William Coddington and others, 
under date of March 24, 1637, "ex- 
cepting Chibachuwefa,/J?rw^r/y_/J)/(/unto 
Mr. Winthrop the now Governor of the 
Maflachufetts and Mr. Williams of Provi- 

We cannot reconcile the difference of 
dates, except that Winthrop's date refers 
poflibly to the time Gov. Vane lent for 
Miantonomoh. Miantonomoh alfo was 
at Bofton on Nov. I, 1637, (Winthrop, 
vol. i. p. 291.) If the date of the deed 
above mentioned is correct, and the for- 
merly fold is the "whole truth'" this let- 
ter is probably of 1636, if otherwife, 
probably 1637. We incline to the lat- 
ter date. Winthrop retained his half of 
the ifland leaving it by will to his fon 
Stephen. Williams fold his half with 
other lands to pay his expenfes in Eng- 
land when on fervice for the colony. 

Letters of Roger Williams. - j\ 

fatisfaction for it, and build a little house and put in fome 
fwine, as understanding the place to have ftore of fifh and 
good feeding for fwine. Of late I have heard, that 
Mr. Gibbons, upon occafion, motioned your delire and his 
own of putting fome fwine on fome of thefe iflands, which 
hath made me fince more delire to obtain it, becaufe I might 
thereby not only benefit myself, but alfo pleafure yourielf 
whom I more defire to pleafure and honor. I fpake of 
it now to this Sachem, and he tells me, that becaufe of the 
ftore of fifh, Canonicus defires that I would accept half, 
(it being fpeclacle-wife, and between a mile or two in cir- 
cuit, as I guefs,) and he would referve the other ; but I 
think, if I go over, I mall obtain the whole. Your loving 
counfel, how far it may be inorlenfive, becaufe it was once 
(upon a condition not kept) Mr. Oldham's. So, with re- 
ipeclive falutes to vour kind felf and Mrs. Winthrop, I reft 

Your worship's unfeigned, in all I may, 

Roger Williams. 

[No date. Probably written fcon after July, 1635.] 

The Church of fefus Cbrijl at Salem, to our dearly beloved 
and much efeemed in yefus, the Elders of the Church of 
Chrijl at Bojlon. 

Your letters (dear and well beloved in Chrift) dated the 
22 of this 5th month, have been read openly before us, 
wherein we underftand you fee not your way clear before 
you, for delivering of our humble complaint unto the 

n 2 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Church of Chrift with you ; as alfo your reafons why you 
dare not publim to the body our letters. Our dear Breth- 
ren, according to your loving and Chriftian defire, we 
dare not but gently and tenderly interpret this your delay 
as fpringing from your holy care and fear left dishonor 
mould redound to our Lord and King, in thefe weighty 
affairs of his holy government. We give you many and 
hearty thanks for your loving and faithful dealing in re- 
turning us a reafon of your holy fears and jealoulies. And 
we befcech you [in the bowjels of Chriftian tendernefs to 
bear with us while we firft add a word unto your felves, 
and afterwards to your reafons. We have not yet appre- 
hended it to be the choice of the officers of a Church, 
when public letters are fent from filter Churches, to deliver 
or not to deliver the letters unto the body ; we acknowledge 
it their liberty and duty to order wifely for convenience 
and due feason of prefenting the Church with them, but 
wholly to conceal or fupprels the letters of the Church, we 
yet fee not. Our reafons are, amongft others, thefe two: 
i ft, becaufe they are the Church's, not the officers'. The 
Church hath the right which the officers may not aiTume 
unto themfelves, and therefore it hath been questioned 
whether public letters fent to [a Church of] Chrift, ought 
not to be delivered publicly to the elders in the face of the 
Church met together according to what is written, [Acts] 
15. 30, when they had gathered the multitude (that is, the 
Church) together, then they [delivjered the letters. If this 
be the power and liberty of the officers, for ought we fee 
[if there] be but one elder in the Church that he may pri- 
vately put up the public letters of the whole. Our 2d rea- 
fon is, becaufe the prefence of our Lord Jefus is moft 
efpecially promifed and .... to the whole body 

Letters of Roger Williams. 73 

met together in his name, than to one or all the elders; and 
therefore in folemn feeking of God's face by the whole 
Church (his fpoufe and wife) we conceive a more clear and 
diftinct appreheniion of the mind of Chrift concerning an 
anfwer to be returned back doth ordinarily arife, than from 
the officers apart from [the Church.] For however it hath 
been the Prelate['s pjlea, the people are wea[k .... 
giddy and ram, and therefore mould not enjoy fuch liber- 
ties, we con[ceive per]fons truly gathered in his name mall 
find a wifdom great[er than theirs] in the midft amongft 
them even Jefus Chrift, who himfelf is made their wif| dom] 
1 Cor. i. 30. [Yjour reafons of not reading are three; 
two againft reading aft all, the third,] againft reading oji the 
Lord's day. The firft, more expreflly concerning . 

our admonition, you fay is a gift which mould not be 
offered up [until we have] reconciled ourfelves to our much 
honored and beloved the majiftrates [who are] againft ^us. 
Now we befeech you humbly, our dear brethren, con- 
fider . . . a gift ; our prayers and thanks and offerings, 
are alfo gifts, Mat. v. [23, 24.], and then if no gift may 
be offered while a cafe of offence de[pendeth, then furely] 
1. a brother, yea, a whole Church muft intermit their holy 
meet[ings, and] for a while the ordinances, yea, for the 
prefent, be un-churched. 2. And fo fecondly, if we fhould 
meet together to confider about, and find out the offence, 
we fh[ould not] offer up the incenfe of our prayers to the 
Lord for the difcovery of the offence unto [our brethren.] 
3. Further, for ought we fee we fhould not at all come to- 
gether, for the prefence of our fouls and bodies together in 
the prefence of the Lord is a gift. 4. Nay more, by that 
rule no Church in her members might have fellowmip 
with us, nor ourfelves with them, in cafe we have not pow- 

74 Letters of Roger Williams. 

er to offer up a gift while a matter of offence dependeth, 
though ourfelves are ready to receive light from our 
brethren concerning the offence. 5thly. If this rule be 
abfolute ye have failed fo far to communicate with us as to 
fend us thefe your letters, if | we cannot] meet together 
to read them and confider and feek the face of our God in 
Chrift for anfwer. 6th. Since that fome times brethren 
may be offended at a good and righteous acl, pleafing to 
Chrift, as fome were, Ads xi. [17, 18 J, by this ground 
it will follow that the Churches (hall offer up no gift to 
God nor man until they have repented of their duties and 
confeffed them as fin, both to God and man, in cafe others 
be offended. 

Laftly, be you pleafed to remember that hitherto in a 
church way (the way of Chrill for Church failings) we 
have not heard of any one brother offended with us, which 

mould have been in might any way have 

held forth .... argument unto us ; our reafon is 
• [grejat difference between a Church way, and the pro- 
ceeding of a Commonweal. 

Your fecond argument feems to be, the acf of the 
majiftrates gave . . [pub]lic offence, and befide that, 
a public action offenfive may be but private offence: unto 
this with all due fubmiffion we conceive the Court of Juf- 
tice is as public [as the gate of the city.] Amos. v. 1 2 : 
" They turn afide the poor from their right in the gate." 
2dly, we acknowledge in fome obfcure and dark paifages, 
one or two may ipy a blemifh where thoufands do not ; 
this is a fecret, and we defire to walk by the rule, Prov. 
xxv. 9., "debate the caufe with thy neighbor himfelf, and 
difcover not a fecret to another;" but to \_pu?iifli befor\e fie 
hath been conve\n\ted i to deal with a church out of a church way y 

Letters of Roger Williams. j§ 

[ to | ptmiflj two or three hundred of our town Jor the conceived 
failing of the Church, we fee [not] how any cloud of obfcurity 
can hide this evil from the eyes of all ; and therefore not 
two or three of ourfelves, but many of the prefent court, 
and many others, and ourfelves [of the | Church of (Thrift 
who cry to the Lord for mercy to ex ... fee a 

failing, yea fome hundreds of the whole town fmarting in 
their .... and the whole land may, and other 
lands hearing of it cannot choofe [but be bli]nded, weak- 
ened, ftumbled ; and therefore we conceive as the fun [can- 
not] be (hut up in a chamber, public finnings mud be openly 
[complained] of: i Tim. v. 20. "Them that fin rebuke 
before all, that others may fear." [Yo]u fay you cannot 
judge of our right and title, for our matters are only [ft]aved; 
we fignify thus much to your felves and humbly requeft 
if there be caufe you will fignify fo much to the brethren, 
that we are far from arguing our right with any in a 
church way. We hoped the proof that was defired by the 
court would have given fatisfa&ion might they have had 
leave to fpeak ; and furthermore the delay of a petition in 
cases of prefent neceffity (as ye well know) may be as 
grievous by the delay of a few months (fuch flood the 
prefent ftate of the town) as if it was a whole year; and 
therefore the Lord provides againff delays of a poor man's 
wages, Deut. xxiv. 14 15, not only becaufe of his prefent 
need, but alfo becaufe of the grief of his fpirit, which will 
make him cry unto God for redrefs againft the injurious. 
We doubt not but a petition may be both delayed and re- 
jected, but we must needs profefs our exceeding grief that 
a Church of Chrifl fliall undergo a punimment before 
convented, be punifhed (if there were due caufe) before ex- 
horted to repentance in a rule of Chriff, and hundreds of 

J 6 Letters of Roger lVillia??is. 

innocents punifhed of the town .... as the con- 
ceived nocents of the Church. This, to our apprehenfion, 
is fuch an evil as which (whether we refpecT: the perfons, 
or the public nature of the evil, as) God is not wont to 
expiate without fome public ftroke of jealoufly and difplea- 
fure. We hope we (hall ever be with the foremoft in all 
humble refpect and fervice to all higher powers, accord- 
ing to God. We fpeak now of our much honored breth- 
ren as brethren, whofe fouls are dear and precious to us 
in holy covenant, and therein conceive the only way to 
honor them in the Lord, is to befeech them to warn away 
the difhonor of the moil: high, by true, godly forrow and 
repentance ; and in this your fervice we conceive in the 
e[nd] you will find that moll true which the fpirit of G[od] 
writes, " open rebuke is better than fecret love." 

Your 3d argument is, that you dare not upon the Lord's 
day deal in a wordly bulinefs, no[r bring a] civil bufinefs in 
the Church. Firft, pleafe you to remember (our dear and 
well beloved in Chrift) that for any civil matter we open 
not our mouth. We fpeak of a fpiritual offence again ft 
our Lord Jefus, and again ft the holy covenant of brethren, 
and fo we do]ubt not though unclean .... oppref- 
fion be offences againft the c[ivil ft]ate which the Church 
meddles [not] with, yet the Church deals with members 
lawfully for their breach [of cove]nant, and difobedience 
againft the Lord Jefus. 

Again, we are not bold to limit you (our beloved) to the 
Lord's day ; we leave [it to your] wifdom and the wifdom 
of the Church, when to conlider of the matter : yet 
hither[to] we have conceived that the kingly office of our 
Lord Jefus ought to be as well adminiftered on the Lord's 
day, as his Prieftly and Prophetic [office,] and [alfo] that he 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


is as much honored in the [act of] cenfuring or par- 
doning of finners from his throne, Zach. vi. 13, in cafe 
of tranfgreffion againft his crown, as againftthe administra- 
tion of other his fvveet and bleiTed ordinances. 

Now our bleifed C[hrift Jefjus, who holdeth his ftars in 
his right hand, and out of whole mouth goes a fh[arp two-] 
edged fword, and whofe countenance mines as the fun in 
his Strength, Rev., mine mercifully and clearly upon your 
fouls in all holy . . . confolations and . . . lva- 

Your inoft unworthy brethren, unfeignedly refpective 
and affectionate in Chriit Jefus. 

Roger Williams. Samuel Sharpe. 

This letter for which we are indebted to Charles Deane, Esq., of Cambridge, 
was not received in time to inlert it in its proper place, according to its date. It 
was accompanied by the following note from that gentlemen : 

Note. — I copied this letter fome years July, 1635, that the "Salem men had 

ago from the original, in Roger Wil- preferred a petition, at the laft General 

liams's hand, belonging to the Prince col- Court, for fome land in Marblehead 

le&ion in the keeping of the Maffachu- Neck, which they did challenge as be- 

fetts Hiitorical Society. The letter was longing to their town ; but becaufe they 

confiderably imperfett, many of the nad chofen Mr. Williams their teacher, 

words quite obliterated and gone, lb while he ilood under quellion of authori- 

that the meaning is in many places quite ty, and lb offered contempt to the majif- 

oblcure. Enough however is pre- trates, &c, their petition was refufed, till 

ferved to fhew the general thought of &c. Upon this, the Church of Salem 

the writer, and to indicate the occafion wrote to other Churches, to admonifh 

on which it was written. It bears no 
date, but mull have been written in 
i63 5,andwasa reply to a letter from 
the elders of the Church of Bollon, 
dated " ye 22 of this 5th month" — ie. 
the 22d July. I apprehend the occafion 
on which the letter was written was this: 
We learn from Winthrop, under date 

the majiitrates of this as a heinous fin, 
and likewife the deputies ; for which at 
the next General Court, their deputies 
were not received until they mould give 
fatisfa&ion about the letter." (Vol. i p. 
164.) It would appear that the letter 
lent to the Bollon Church was retained 
by the elders and not laid before the 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his much honored Mr. Governor ', "John Winthrop. 

loth of 9th. [November 10, 1637. ]' 

Sir, — I acquainted this Indian Miantunnomu, 2 with 
the contents of your letter fent by him, who refts well 
perfuaded that if it break not firft with them, the league 
is firm and lafting, and the Englifh are unfeigned. 

I have bought and paid for the Illand,^ and becaufe I 
defired the beft confirmation of the purchafe to yourfelf 
that I could, I was bold to infert your name in the original 
here enclofed. 

The ten fathom of beads and one coat you may pleafe 
at leifure to deliver to Mr. Throckmorton : who will alfo 
be ferviceable in the conveyance of fwine this way. 

Your native, Reprive,* requefts me to write a word for 
himfelf and another for the Sachem of Block Ifland, Jac- 

For himfelf he tells me when he departed hence, being 
alone, he wandered toward Neepmuck: At Nayantick, 
Juanemo faid he was a fpy from Mr. Governor, and threat- 
ened to kill him, denied that there were Pequots, faying 

Church, they giving their reafons for lb 
doing in their reply to the Salem Church. 
The letter from the Bolton elders called 
forth, as I fuppoie, this letter from Wil- 
liams, figned by himfelf as teacher, and 
Samuel Sharp, as ruling elder, of Salem 
Church. Sharpe was foon afterward called 
to account by the General Court for his 
hand in this bufinels. In copying this 
letter of Williams, I have indicated the 
omiffions by ... I have modern- 
ized the orthography in this copy. c. d. 

1 4 Mafs. Hi/I. Coll. vol. vi. p. 217. 

2 See previous letters. This letter was 
probably written fhortly after Miantun- 
nomoh's vifit, Nov. 1, to Bolton. — Win- 
throp, vol. i. p. 291. 

5 The deed of Prudence Ifland, is 
dated Nov. 10, 1637, the fame day of 
this letter. (See R. I. Hifi. Coll. vol. iii. 
p. 29.) The consideration paid Mian- 
tunnomoh and Canonicus was twenty 
fathom of wampum and two coats, which 
Williams paid, and now afks to be reim- 
burfed one-half. 

4 Reprive, an Indian fervant of Gov. 
Winthrop. See letter of Ottober. 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 79 

though Reprive law many himfelf) that they were all 
gone to Monahiganick. So he came back in fear of his 
life to Wepiteammock (Miantunnomue's brother-in-law) 
who lent him a canoe to Block Ifland where he ftaid but 
fix days. 

From Jacquauntu, 1 Block Ifland Sachem, that he is pre- 
paring thirteen fathom of white, and two of blue to pre- 
fent you with about the firft month. 

That they are greatly in fear of the Nayantick men 
who threaten them, in cafe the Englifh fall upon Nayan- 

I am glad to fee this poor fellow Reprive careful to 
pleafe you, for he laid you gave him leave for twenty-eight 
days and though he could ftay but fix days where he de- 
fired to ftay longeft, yet he will not lie. 

He fays his brother goes along with him to ftay fome 
while, till the fpring. 

Sir, There are two Pequot fquaws, brought by the Nar- 
raganfetts, almoft ftarved ; viz. : Mr. Coles his native, and 
one girl from Winilimmit : there was a third (I think Mr. 
Blackftone's 2 ) who had efcaped before to Nayantick. I 
promifed thefe, if they would ftay at my houfe and not 
run away, I would write that they might be ufed kindly. 
The biggeft, Mr. Cole his native, complains that Ihe of all 

1 Referring to the tribute as required thence to Cumberland, R. I., near the 

by treaty made by Jaquauntu, the Block river fince called Blacklbone River, in 

Ifland Sachem. reference to his name. He died juft be- 

*His name in fome of the records of fore King Philip's war, when his refi- 

the period is fpelled Blaxtort. William dence and his fine library were con- 

Blackllone or Blaxton, firft fettled on fumed. See note to letter of June 13, 

the peninfula, now the city of Bofton ; 1675. 
removed to Rehoboth in 1633, and 

80 Letters of Roger Williams. 

natives in Bofton is the worfe ufed : is beaten with fire- 
fticks, and efpecially by fome of the fervants. 

The little one makes no complaint of ufage, but fays (lie 
was enticed by that other fquaw, which I think was Mr. 
Blackftone's. I afked the biggeft, who burnt her and why, 
me told me Mr. Penn 1 becaufe a fellow lay with her, but 
me faid, for her part (lie refufed. 

My humble defire is that all that have thofe poor 
wretches might be exhorted as to walk wifely and juftly 
towards them, fo as to make mercy eminent, for in that 
attribute the Father of mercy mod mines to Adam's mif- 
erable offspring. 

Sir, I fear I am tedious, yet muft I crave leave for a line 
more : I received a letter from lome in Charleftown, (in 
fpecial from one Benjamin Hubbard) 2 intimating his and 
others defire (with my help and furtherance) to be my 
neighbors in fome place near adjoining : Mr. James^ hath 
not declared himfelf to be one, but I guefs he is inclining 
to accompany them. On the Narraganfett fide the natives 
are populous, on the fide to Malfachufetward Plymouth 
men challenge, fo that I prefume if they come to the 
place where firft I was, Plymouth will call them theirs. 4 I 

•James Penn who at this time was one more fully in the confirmatory deed of 

of the over leers or magistrates of the 1666 which bears his name. Bradford, 

town of Bofton. calls him "a phifitian." — Hiji. of Ply- 

z Benjamin Hubbard came to Charlef- muutb, p. 364. 
town in 1633, was a prominent man, 4 No deed has ever been difcovered, 

poftibly removed, fays Savage, to Bof- we think, of the lands of Seekonk and 

ton, but he is known to have returned Rehoboth ; but a depofition of John Ha- 

to England, and probably never returned fell, taken in 1642, confirms fuch a pur 

to America. chafe. "John Hafell aftirmeth that Af- 

1 Thomas James, probably one of the famequime chofe out ten fathom of beads 

thirteen original proprietors of Provi- at Mr. Williams's and put them in a baf- 

dence, being firft mentioned in the " in- ket, and affirmed that he was fully latif- 

itial deed," fo called in 1638, and then fied therewith for his land at Seacunck ; 

Letters of Roger Willia??is. 


know not the perfons, yet in general could wifh (if it be 
either with countenance or connivance) that thefe ways 
might be more trod into thefe inland parts, and that 
amongft the multitudes of the barbarous, the neighbor- 
hood of fome Englilh Plantation (efpecially of men deli- 
ring to fear God) might help and ftrengthen. I (hall be 
thankful for a word of advice, and befeeching the Moft 
Holy and only Wife in mercy and goodnefs to know and 
guide the fouls of his in this remote wildernefs, and in this 
material defert, to difcover gracioully the myftical where 
twelve hundred and three fcore days his faints are hid. 
Revel. 12. I rest 

Your Worihip's, forry that I am not more yours and 
neither of us more the Lord's. 

Roger Williams. 

To Mrs. Winthrop all refpeclive remembrance. 

I (hall beg (this winter in fome leifure) your help with 
my bad debtors, James and Tho : Haukins, from whom as 
yet I get nought but words. 

but he flood upon it that he would have a pofed to go to Seekonk, but afterwards 

coat more, and left the beads with Mr. gave it up, and the lands were then taken 

Williams, and wifhed him to keep them in 1641 by Rev. Samuel Newman and 

until Mr. Hubbard came up." — Plymouth others of Weymouth and Hingham. We 

Col. Rec. vol. ii.p. 87. Our impreflion can trace no fettlement near Providence 

is that the Charleilown men fir 11 pro- to Charleftown men. 

1 1 

82 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor "John fVinthrop. 

20th of the 9th. [November 20, 1637. J 1 

Sir, — I reft thankfully fatisfied in your propounding of 
my motion to the Court, and the anfwer. (The earth is 
Jehovah's, and the plenitude of it.) I am not a little glad 
that the lot is fallen upon a branch of that root, in whofe 
good (prefent and eternal both of root and branches) I 
rejoice. For his lake I wifh it ground, and grafs, and 
trees ; yet what ufe fo ever he pleafe to make of it, I de- 
fire he would not fpare to make ufe of me in any fervice 
towards the natives on it or about it. 

Miantunnomu in his relations of paffages in the Bay 
with you, thankfully acknowledges to myfelf and others 
your loving carriage to him, and promifeth to fend forth 
word to all natives to ceafe from Prudence, trees, &c. 
Since your letter I travelled up to Nayantick by land where 
I heard Reprive was : there the Sachem (to whom he ad- 
heres, Wepiteammock) and the people related that he was 
gone to his wife at Mohegan : alfo that he, Wepiteam- 
mock, had fent to Uncas adviling and urging their return, 
but he could not prevail, and that if Reprive come within 
his reach he will fend him (though alone without his wife) 

I traveled to Mohegan and understood that they were 
all at Pequot, Nayantick, but Uncas not being at home 
(but at New Haven) I could not do ought. 

Sir, I have often called upon your debtor, Jofhua, 2 but 
his ill advifenefs of refufing my fervice and fpending of 
his time upon a houfe and ground hath difabled him. 

1 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 220. of land was adjoining Mr. Williams's. 

z Probably Jofhua Verin, whofe grant 

Letters of Roger Williams. 83 

Upon this occafion of your loving proffer of the half of 
the debt (8//J to myfelf, I mall be urgent with him to feek 
fome courfe of payment of the whole to yourfelf, from 
whom in recompenfe of any pains, &c, I defire no other 
fatisfaclion but your loving and wonted acceptation, yea, 
although the bufinefs had been effected. Sir, I had almoft 
been bold to fay my thoughts what I would do in this cafe, 
were the runaways 1 mine, but I will not more at prefent. 
If you fhall pleafe to require account of what my obfer- 
vation hath taught me, I fhall readily yield it in my next, 
ever begging mercy and truth to you and yours, and my 
loving friends with you. The Lord Jefus return us all 
(poor runaways) with weeping and fupplications to feek 
him that was nailed to the gallows ; in him I defire to be 
(and mourn I am not) more 

Your worship's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I received fix fathom of beads from Mr. Throck- 
morton, which though I will not return, yet I account 
them yours in my keeping. 

Sir, I pray my refpective remembrance to Mrs. Win- 

5 Poffibly refers to Reprive and other Indian fervants, before mentioned. 

8 4 

Letters of Roger Willia?ns. 

To his much honored Governor John Winthrop. 

Providence, loth of the nth month. [January 10, 1637-8.]' 

Much honored Sir, — It having pleafed the Moft 
High to befiege us all with his white legions, 2 I rejoice 
at this occafion from Connecticut (thefe letters fent to me 
by Mr. Hooker)3 that I may hear of your welfare and 
health, which I wifh and beg unfeignedly of the Lord. 

Mr. Hooker intimates a report to me that they hear 
from the Monahiganeucks that Miantunnomu intends 
Tho : Stanton's death. I have taken fome pains in it, and 
other paifages fent me, rinding them flanders : and fince (for 
many good ends and) for keeping a paifage open between 
yourfelves and Connecticut by natives, fummer and win- 
ter, a peace is much to be deiired between the Mohegan 
and the Narraganfett. I have proffered my pains in pro- 
curing a meeting of the adverfe Sachems, if it pleafe the 
Magiflrates of Connecticut to order Owokace (the Mohe- 
gan Sachem) to touch in at the Narraganfett mouth, where 
I hope to get the Narraganfett Sachems aboard, and it may 
pleafe the God of Peace to fave much blood and evil, &c. 

Only it behooves our friends of Connecticut, as I have 
writ to them, to look to the two or three hundred Pe- 

1 4 Mafs. Htft. Coll. vol. vi. p. 221. 

2 Snow. Winthrop fays, " This was 
a very hard winter. The fnow lay from 
November 4 to March 23 half a yard 
deep about the MafTachufetts," &c, vol. 
i. p. 317. 

3 The Rev. Thomas Hooker, of Hart- 
ford, to whom Williams here alludes, 
was an eminent divine, and one of the 
founders of the colony of Connecticut. 
He arrived at Bofton in company with 
John Cotton, September 3, 1633, and 

the following month became pallor of 
the church in Newton. In 1636, with 
his whole congregation, he removed to 
the banks of the Connecticut river, where 
they founded Hartford. In this new 
colony, Hooker was very influential in 
eflablilhing churches. He died in 1647, 
aged 61. He was the author of feveral 
volumes, the moft celebrated of which is 
A Survey of the Sum of Church Difcipline, 
printed at London, in 1648. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 85 

quots harbored by Wocafe 1 the Mohegan, as alfo William 
Baker 2 of Plymouth, (of whom formerly I wrote) who 
is there hid, is turned Indian in nakednefs and cutting of 
hair, and after many whoredoms, is there married: this 
fire-brand with thofe Pequots may fire whole towns : I 
have intimated how they may with eafe take him. 

Sir, let me be humbly bold to requeft a favor of you : 
I am at prefent deftitute of a man fervant, and much de- 
lire, if you light on one that defires to fear the Lord, re- 
member me. I have a lufty canoe, and fhall have occafion 
to run down often to your Iilands (near twenty miles from 
us) both with mine own and (I defire alfo freely) your 
wormip's fwine, fo that my want is great. I would fpare 
no charge, either out of thofe beads and coat in your own 
hand: the tobacco from Mr. Ludlow, and 8 or 10// in 
James and Tho : Hawkins hand of which I hear not yet. 

Sir, if any letters from yourfelf or other friends are for 
Connecticut, I intreat you make hafte and fpeed by this 
meiTenger, for I caufed four natives who came from Con- 
necticut to flay his coming : I have already paid him, fo 
that his expectation is not great. Thus longing to hear 
of your healths, and with earneft and daily wifhes for that 
peace which this world cannot give nor take from you, 
and my poor wife's and mine own belt, falutes to your 
deareft companion, I reft 

Your worship's to my power faithful 

Roger Williams. 

My due refpects to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, theirs, 
and other loving friends, &c. 

'Probably Uncas. ceding, relative to William Baker. 

2 See note to letter of October pre- 5 Prudence liland. 

86 Letters of Roger Williams . 

To. his much honored Governor 'John Winthrop. 

Providence, 28th of the 12th. [February 28, 1637-8.]' 

Sir, — Some few days iince I received letters from 
Mr. Hooker, who had fafely received your packet with 
thanks, &c. 

He intimated that according to Miantunnomue's infor- 
mation by myfelf, William Baker was hid at Mohegan, 
but they had made Uncas and Wequafh to bring him in. 
Since which time (Seargeant Holmes bailing him) he is 
again efcaped. 

He alfo fignified the delire of the Magistrates at Con- 
necticut that there the meeting fhould be : as alfo that in 
the mean feafon they had charged the Mohegans not to 
moled any natives in their palfage and travel, &c, requir- 
ing the fame of the Narraganfetts towards the Mohegans. 

Accordingly I have been fince at Narraganfett 2 and find 
Miantunnomu willing to go to Connecticut by the time 
limited, the end of the next month ; only firft he delired 
to know Mr. Governor's mind : fecondly, in cafe his father- 
in-law Canonicus his brother, (whom I faw near death 
with above a thoufand men mourning and praying about 
him) in cafe he recover, otherwife it is unlawful for them 
(as they conceive,) to go far from home till toward mid- 
fummer. Thirdly, he defires earnestly my company, as 
being not fo confident of the Englifh at Connecticut, who 
have been (I fear) to full of threatnings : fecondly, he can- 
not be confident of Tho : Stanton's faithfulnefs in point of 

1 4 Mafs. Hill. Coll. vol. vi. p. 223. fmall portion lying eaft of Pawcatuck 

z The Narraganfett country which oc- river ; and extended a little north of the 

cupied much the fame diftrift as Wafh- prefent line of Kent County. 

ington County now embraces, except a 

Letters of Roger Willia?ns. 87 

interpretation. Thefe things make me much defire (as 
I have written back) that you would both pleafe by fome 
deputed to make my poor houfe the centre where feems to 
be the faireft offer of convenience, and I hope no queftion 
of welcome. 

Vifiting Canonicus, lately recovered from the pit's 
brink this winter, he afked how Mr. Governor and the 
Englifh did, requesting me to fend him two words : firft, 
that he would be thankful to Mr. Governor for fome fu- 
gar (for I had fent him mine own in the depth of the win- 
ter and his iicknefs.) Secondly, he called for his fword, 
which faid he, Mr. Governor did fend me by you and 
others of the Englim, faying Mr. Governor protefted he 
would not put up his fword, nor would he have us put up 
ours, till the Pequots were fubdued, and yet faith he, at 
Mohegan there are near three hundred, who have bound 
and robbed our men (even of the very covering of their 
fecret parts) as they have paft from Connecticut hither : 
after much more to this purpofe, I told him that Mr. 
Governor had promifed him to fet all in order this fpring. 

Sir, I underftand that Uncas the Mohegan hath Safacous 
his lifter to wife, and one of the wives of Safacous his 
father Tattoapaine, and that is one reafon, befide his am- 
bition and nearnefs, that he hath drawn all the fcattered 
Pequots to himfelf and drawn much wealth from them : 
more I could trouble you with, &c. 

Canonicus and Miantunnomu both delired that there 
might be a divifion made of thefe furviving Pequots (ex- 
cept the Sachems and murderers) and let their lhare be at 
your own wifdom. 

I mall be humbly bold to prefent mine own thoughts 
concerning a divifion and difpofal of them : fince the 
Moft High delights in mercy, and great revenge hath been 

88 Letters of Roger Williams. 

already taken, what if (the murderers being executed) 
the reft be divided and difperfed, (according to their num- 
bers mall arife, and divifion be thought fit) to become fub- 
jects to yourfelves in the Bay and at Connecticut, which 
they will more eaiily do in cafe they may be fuffered to 
incorporate with the natives in either places : as alfo that 
as once Edgar the Peaceable did with the Welfh in North 
Wales, a tribute of wolves heads be impofed on them, &c, 
which (with fubmiffion) I conceive an incomparable way 
to fave much cattle alive in the land. 

Sir, I hope fhortly to fend you good news of great hopes 
the Lord hath fprung up in mine eye, of many a poor In- 
dian foul enquiring after God. I have convinced hundreds 
at home and abroad that in point of religion they are all 
wandering, &c. I find what I could never hear before, 
that they have plenty of Gods or divine powers : the Sun, 
Moon, Fire, Water, Snow, Earth, the Deer, the Bear, &c, 
are divine powers. I brought home lately from the Nar- 
raganfetts the names of thirty-eight of their Gods, all they 
could remember, and had I not with fear and caution with- 
drew, they would have fallen to worfhip, O God, (as they 
fpeak) one day in {even, but I hope the time is not long 
that fome mall truely blefs the God of Heaven that ever 
they faw the face of English men. So waiting for your 
pleafure and advice to our neighbors concerning this in- 
tended meeting for the eftablifhing of peace through all 
the bowels of the country, and befeeching the Moil High 
to vouchfafe his peace and truth through all your quarters, 
with my due refpects to Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputy, Mr. 
Bellingham, &c, I reft 

Your worfhip's in all true refpect and affection 

Roger Williams. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 89 

Sir, I heard no more as yet from Charleftown men 
coming this way. Mr. Coxall and Mr. Aipinwall 1 have 
lent to me about fome of thefe parts, and in cafe for mel- 
ter for their wives and children. 

Indorfed by Gov. Winthrop, " Provifions to be fent by the Salem Bark to Mr. 
Williams and Mr. Throckmorton, Mr. Harlackenden knows more." 

To his much honored Governor jfohn Wiyithrop. 

Providence, 16th of this 2d. [April 16, 1638. ] 2 

Much honored Sir, — I kindly thank you for your 
loving inclination to receive my late proteftation concern- 
ing myfelf, ignorant of Mr. Greene's letter,^ &c. I de- 
fire unfeignedly, to reft in my appeal to the Moft High in 
what we differ, as I dare not but hope you do : it is no 

1 William Afpinwall, was one of the it is now ordered, that faid John Greene 
figners of the compact at Portfmouth in mail not come into this jurifdiftion upon 
1638, and was chofen Secretary. The paine of imprisonment and further cen- 
following year he had lands alfigned him fure : and becaufe it appears to this 
in that town. Savage, fays he moved to Courte that fome other of the fame 
New Haven and afterwards returned to place are confident in the fame corrupt 
Bolton. — Genealogical Dicl.vo\.\. p. 71. judgment and practice; it is ordered, 
It is to be inferred from this letter that that if any other of the inhabitants 01 
fome of the family were Hill in the colo- the faid plantation of Providence mall 
ny of Rhode Ifland. come within this jurifdiftion, they ihall 

2 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 226. be apprehended and brought before fome 
i March 12, 1638. "Whereas a let- of the magiitrates ; and if they will not 

ter was fent to this Court, fubfcribed by difclaime the faid corrupt opinion and 
John Greene, dated from New Provi- cenfure, they fhall be commanded pre- 
dence, wherein the Court is charged fently to depart," etc. — Mafs. Col. Rec. 
with ufurping the power of Chriit over vol. i. p. 224; fee alfo Winthrop, four- 
ths Churches and men's confciences, nal, vol. i. p. 307 ; fee alfo note to letter 
notwithstanding he had formerly ac- of July 31, 1637. 
knowledged his fault in fuch fpeeches ; 

9 o 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

fmall grief that I am otherwife perfuaded, and that fome- 
times you fay (and I can fay no lefs) that we differ: the 
fire will try your works and mine : the Lord Jefus help 
us to make fure of our perfons that we feek Jefus that was 
crucified : however it is and ever fhall be (the Lord aflift- 
ing) my endeavor to pacify and allay, where I meet with 
rigid and cenforious fpirits, who not only blame your 
actions but doom your perions : and indeed it was one of 
the firft grounds of my diflike of John Smith 1 the miller, 
and efpecially of his wife, viz.: their judging of your per- 
fons as [devel's| 2 &c. 

I alfo humbly thank you for that fad relation of the 
monfter,3 &c. The Lord fpeaks once and twice : he be 
pleafed to open all our ears to his difcipline. 

'John Smith one of the earliefl fet- 
tlers in Providence. He is on the lift of 
thofewho received a "home lot" in 1638, 
and was one of the committee, with Ro- 
ger Williams and others, appointed May 
16, 1647, to organize a government. — 
R. I. Lot. Records, vol i. pp. 24 and 42. 
He was one of the moll prominent men 
in the colony for many years ; but it 
feems that he incurred the diflike of 

1 The word in brackets is expunged in 
the original manufcript. 

J This " monfler" was the deformed 
child of the wife of William Dyer, "a 
very proper and fair woman. The child 
was buried, (being Mill-born) and viewed 
of none but Mrs Hutchinl'on and the 
midwife." A particular account of this 
" monfler " is given by Winthrop under 
date of March 27, 1638. — Journal, vol. 
i. p. 226. 

Winthrop fays that Dyer and his wife 

" were notorioufly infected with Mrs. 
Hutchinibn's errors, (fhe being much 
addicted to revelations.)" Mrs. Hutch- 
inl'on endeavored to conceal the fact of 
the birth of the child, by advice, as fhe 
faid of Mr. Cotton. " The Governour, 
fpeaking with Mr. Cotton about it, told 
him the reafon why he advifed them to 
conceal it: 1. Becaufe he faw a provi- 
dence of God in it," etc., which apology 
was accepted. — Hiji. of N. Eng. vol. i. 

P- 3*3- 

This ftrange affair feems to have cre- 
ated a fenlation in the colony, and the 
midwife fuspected of being a witch, was 
obliged to leave the jurildiction. 

Gov. Bradford, of Plymouth, in a let- 
ter to Winthrop, lays " I thank you for 
your letter touching Mrs. Hutchinfon : 
I heard fince of a monllrous and pro- 
digious birth which fhe fhould difown 
amongil you. — Winthrop Papers, 4 Mafs. 
Hi/}. Coll. vol. vi. p. 156. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

9 1 

Mrs. Hutchinfon 1 (with whom and others of them I 
have had much difcourfe) makes her apology for the con- 
cealment of the monfter, that (lie did nothing in it with- 
out Mr. Cotton's 2 advice, though I cannot believe that he 

1 Anne Hutchinfon, founder of the 
Antinomian party in New England. Be- 
ing intereiled in the preachings of John 
Cotton, came to Bofton in 1634. " She 
foon acquired efteem and influence. She 
inflituted meetings of the women of the 
Church to difcufs fermons and doctrines, 
in which (he difplayed great familiarity 
with fcripture, but made enemies by her 
nnovating theories. Two years after 
her arrival, the itrife between her fup- 
porters and opponents broke out into 
public aftion. ' The difpute' fays Ban- 
croft, ' infilled its fpirit into every thing ; 
it interfered with the levy of troops for 
the Pequot war ; it influenced the ref- 
peft fhown to the magistrates, the diflri- 
bution of town lots, the affeffment of 
taxes, and at lall the continued exiftence 
of the two oppofing parties was con- 
fidered inconfiltent with the public peace.' 
Her peculiar tenents were condemned by 
the ecclefiaftical fynod in 1637, and after 
a two days trial before the General 
Court, fhe was fentenced to banifhment. 
She joined her friends, who, under John 
Clarke and Wm. Coddington, fettled in 
Rhode Ifland."— Drake, Biog. Dia. 

Mrs. Hutchinfon " was a woman of 
rare endowments of intellect, and bril- 
liant qualities of both perfon and char- 
after. Her mind, tinged with a (hade 
of fanaticifm, was of that impalfioned 
and fervid caft, which enabled her to 
clothe her peculiar doftrines in the 
charms of a fafcinating eloquence, and 

eafily to fubjeft to her fway the opinions 
of thole, who were not entirely quielcent 
beneath the defpotifm of the prevailing 

theology of the times The quef- 

tions at iflue were, in moil refpcfts, the 
fame as have perplexed the minds and 
divided the opinions of Chriltians in 
every age of the church, and about which 
uniformity of fentiment is never to be 
hoped for." — Gammell, Life of Roger 
Williams, p. 96. 

In 1642, on the death of her hufband, 
Mrs. Hutchinfon removed to Wellchef- 
ter County, New York, and took up her 
refidence near Hell Gate. The follow- 
ing year her houfe was attacked by the 
Indians, who fet it on fire, and murdered 
her whole family, comprifing fixteen 
perfons, with the exception of one daugh- 
ter who was carried away into an un- 
known captivity. "Her tragical death 
and the extiuftion of her family," writes 
Profeflbr Gammell, "ferved but to con- 
firm her enemies in Maflachufetts in 
their conviftions of her wickednefs, and 
the juftice of their proceedings againfl. 
her. They were confidently regarded 
as a revelation of the judgment of God. 

2 John Cotton, with whom Williams 
afterwards had a controverfy upon theo- 
logical matters. For the voluminous 
writings of thefe eminent men, fee the 
"Bloody Tenent" and other works, in 
the third and fourth volumes of the pub- 
lications of the Narraganfett Club. 

02 Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 

fubfcribes to her applications of the parts of it. The Lord 
mercifully redeem them, and all of us from all our delu- 
sions, and pity the defolations of Zion and the ftones 

I find their longings great after Mr. Vane, 1 although 
they think he can not return this year : the eyes of fome 
are fo earneftly fixed upon him that Mrs. Hutchinfon 
profeifeth if he come not to New, me muft to Old 

I have endeavored by many arguments to beat off their 
delires of Mr. Vane as G. G. and the chief are fatisfied 
unlefs he come fo for his life, but I have endeavored to 
difcover the fnare in that alfo. 

Sir, concerning your intended meeting for reconciling 
of thefe natives our friends, and dividing of the Pequots 
our enemies, I have engaged your name, and mine own; 
and if no courfe be taken, the name of that God of Truth 
whom we all profefs to honor will fuffer not a little, it be- 
ing an ordinary and common thing with our neighbors, 
if they apprehend any mow of breach of promife in 
myfelf, thus to object: do you know God, and will you 
lie ? &c. 

The Pequots are gathered into one, and plant their 
old fields, Wequafh and Uncas carrying away the people 
and their treafure, which belong to yourfelves : I mould 
be bold to prefs my former motion, or elfe that with the 
next convenience they might be sent for other parts, &c. 

1 Sir Henry Vane, Governor of Maf- other MafTachufetts people who were 

fachufetts the previous year, had jull re- perfecuting her. She and her followers, 

turned to England. While in Boiton, therefore, looked to him for protection. 

he had befriended Mrs. Hutchinfon, See an extended note to letter of O£to- 

having no fympathy with the clergy and ber 25, 1649, on Sir Henry Vane. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 93 

I hope it will never be interpreted that I prefs this out 
of fear of any revenge upon myfelf by any of them. I 
ever yet (in point of reafon to fay no more) conceived this 
place the fafeft of the land, and can make it appear, &c, 
but out of delire to clear your names and the name of the 
mod High, which will be ill reported of in cafe (accord- 
ing to io many promifes) an honorable and peaceable 
iifue of the Pequot war be not eftablifhed. 

Sir, the bearer hereof (not daring either to bring my 
letter or attend for an anfwer) I mud requeft you to fend 
your letter to Richard Collicut's, that io a native may con- 
vey it, or elfe to Nicholas Upfhall's : and I fhould be bold 
humbly to propound to the country whether in cafe 
there be a neceihty of keeping league with the natives, 
and fo confequently many occasions incident, (and fome 
which I will not write of) as alfo a conveniency of infor- 
mation this way, how matters may ftand with you on the 
fea-ihore, as I fay,, whither it be not requifite fo far to dif- 
penfe with the late order of restraint as to permit a mef- 
fenger freely. 

'Tis true I may hire an Indian : yet not always, nor 
fure, for thefe two things I have found in them : fome- 
times long keeping of a letter : fecondly, if a fear take 
them that the letter concerns themfelves they fupprefs it, 
as they did with one of fpecial information which I fent 
to Mr. Vane. 

Sir, there will be new Heavens and a new Earth fhortly 
but no more Sea. (Revel. 21. 2.) the mo ft holy God 
be pleafed to make us willing now to bear the toffings, 
dangers and calamities of this fea, and to leal up to ufe 
upon his own grounds, a great lot in the glorious ftate 
approaching. So craving pardon for prolixity, with mine 

94 Letters of Roger Williams. 

and wife's due refpeft to Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputy, 
Mr. Bellingham, &c, I reft 

Your worfhip's defirous to be ever yours unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Endorfed by Gov. Winthrop, "2. 16. 1638." 

To his much honored Governor 'John Winthrop} 

Providence, the 22 of 3d mon. [May 22, 1633.] 

Sir, — BlefTed be the Father of Spirits, in whofe hand 
our breath and ways are, that once irore I may be bold 
to falute you and congratulate your return from the brink 
of the pit of rottennefs. 2 

What is man that thou fhouldeft vilit him and try 
him? &c. Job 7th You are put off to this tempeftuous 
fea again, more ftorms await you, the good Lord repair our 
leaks, frefhen up the gales of his bleffed Spirit, fteady our 
courfe by the compafs of his own truth, refcue us from all 
our fpiritual adverfaries, not only men, but fiends of war, 
and affure us of an harbor at laft, even the bofom of the 
Lord Jefus. 

Sir, you have many an eye (I prefume) lifted up to the 
hills of mercy for you : mine might feem fuperiluous : yet 
privately and publicly you have not been forgotten, and I 
hope mall not while thefe eyes have fight. 

1 4 Mafi. Hi/I. Coll. vol. vi. p. 244. which brought him near death. — Hi/?. 

1 Alluding to the illnefs of Winthrop, of Nezo England, vol. i. p. 318. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


Sir, this laft night Mr. Allen of Hartford, and Lieutenant 
Holmes lodged with me, and relate that Mr. Haynes 1 or 
fome chief refolved to be with you this week. So that 
you may pleafe a little ftop till their coming. Lieutenant 
Holmes relates that William Baker, who lay hid fo long 
among the Mohegans and Pequots, for whom he gave bail, 
&c, was hid again the fecond time among the fame by 
Uncas, but the Lieutenant, by a Providence, heard of him 
and returned him to Hartford, where he hath fuffered for 
his much uncleannefs two feveral whippings. This fellow, 
notorious in villiany, and ftrongly affected by thofe wretches, 
both ftudying revenge, is worthy to be watched even by 
the. whole country, and to be difperfed from the Pe- 
quots, and they each from other, according as I have been 
bold to motion formerly. 

Sir, we have been long afflicted by a young man boifte- 
rous and defperate, Philip Verin's fon of Salem, 2 who as 
he hath refufed to hear the word with us (which we mo- 
lefted him not for) this twelve month, io becaufe he could 
not draw his wife, a gracious and modeft woman, to the 
fame ungodlinefs with him, he hath trodden her under foot 

'John Haynes, Governor of Connec- 
ticut. He came from England with 
Thomas Hooker in 1633. In 1637 he 
was prominent among the founders of 
Connecticut, and was choi'en its firft 
Governor in 1639, an ^ ever y alternate 
year afterward till his death. He was 
one of the five who, in 1638, drew up a 
written conltitution for the colony. Ban- 
croft fpeaks of him as a man " of large 
eilate, and larger affections : of heavenly 
mind, and fpotlefs life ; of rare fagacity, 
and accurate but unafluming judgment ; 

by nature tolerant and a friend to free- 
dom." He was one of the bell educated 
of the early fettlers of this country. — 
Drake, Biog. Dictionary. 

z Philip Verin's fon, of Salem. Proba- 
bly one of the family of Jofhua Verin, 
one of the firft fettlers of Providence, 
who accompanied Roger Williams when 
he paddled acrofs Seekonk River in his 
log canoe, but who foon after removed 
to Salem. See letter following that of 
October i oth, for a note on Jofhua Verin. 

g6 Letters of Roger Williams. 

tyrannically and brutifhly : which fhe and we long bear- 
ing, though with his furious blows fhe went in danger of 
life, at the laft the major vote of us difcard him from our 
civil freedom, or disfranchife, &c. : he will have jufHce (as 
he clamors) at other Courts : I wifh he might, for a foul 
and ilanderous and brutifh carriage, which God hath de- 
livered him up unto; he will [haul] his wife with ropes to 
Salem, where (lie muft needs be troubled and troubleiome, 
as differences yet (land. She is willing to flay and live 
with him or elfewhere, where me may not offend, &c. I 
mall humbly request that this item be accepted, and he no 
way countenanced, until (if need be) I further trouble 
you : So with due refpe£ts to Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Depu- 
ty, Mr. Bellingham, &c, I reft, 

Your wormip's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor John Winthrop} 

Providence, 27th of 3d. [May 27, 1638.] 

Much honored Sir, — I have prefumed to fend this 
Narraganfett man, to attend your plealure concerning the 
Pequots, and Canonicus and Miantunnomue's complaint 
againft them and their protectors. 

The fum of their deiire I lately acquainted you with, 
viz. : that you would pleafe (even all the Englifh) to fit 
ftill and let themfelves alone with them according to con- 

1 4 Mafs. Hi/}. Coll. vol. vi. p. 246. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 97 

Tent, when Miantunnomu was laft with you, who coming 
home, fell upon Nayantick men who fheltered the Pequots, 
but was flopped by our friends of Connecticut. 

Or, fecondly, that fome other courfe (in confultation) 
might be taken for difperiion of them : even as far as Old 
England or elfewhere, as they fpeak. 

Sir, I do conceive either courfe will be difficult, becaufe 
our friends at Connecticut are ftrangely bewitched with 
the fubjection of thefe Pequots to themfelves, and are alfo 
as ftrangely refolved upon righting and violent courfes, (as I 
understand by letters, and otherwife by fpeech) unlefs Mi- 
antunnomu come over perfonally to them to anfwer for 
proud fpeeches which they hear of. 

Miantunnomu hath long iince promifed, and ftill waits 
to go any whither you mall pleafe to make anfwer, to 
meet, &c. 

Some from Connecticut write me word, that Indians 
will teftify fuch fpeeches to Miantunnomu's teeth : and it 
may be fo whether true or falfe. 

I alfo, in cafe I mould liften to Indian reports, mail bring 
many who will affirm that Tho : Stanton hath received 
mighty bribes (whence origo malt ) that Uncas the Mohe- 
gan hath received little lefs than a thoufand fathom of 
beads, whence he carries out fome prefent to our friends at 
Connecticut, but I fay I will not believe it. 

But this I know, that according to league in two articles, 
that the Pequots (hall not be fheltered nor difpofed of 
without mutual confent of the Englifh and the two Narra- 
ganfett Sachems. 

Secondly, that if the Pequots be fuffered in the land to 
congregate and unite into four or five hundred together 
(as Lieutenant Howe confeft to me) it will cort more blood 

98 Letters of Roger Williams. 

on all fides then yet hath been fpllt ; for on the one part, 
the Narraganfetts can no more forbear them than a wolf 
his prey, and on the other fide for the Pequots upon all 
advantage the En^lilh mall find, that Vindicta levis vita in- 
candior ipfa eji. 

Thirdly, that our friends at Connecticut are marveiloufly 
deluded by the Mohegans, as to be fo confident or them, 
that Mr. Hooker writes no proof can be brought againft 
them for word or deed : when it is clear they were Pe- 
quots, and lately hid, (once and the fecond time) Wil- 
liam Baker from the Englifli, and that upon pain of death 
to any that mould reveal him, as Lieutenant Holmes told 
me. Sir, my defire is that it would therefore pleafe the 
Lord to guide you all to make a prudent difpofal and dii- 
perfion of the Pequots, which the Narraganfetts will fur- 
ther by peace or war. So with all due falutations I hum- 
bly reft, unfeigned in all defire of your prefent and 
eternal peace. 

Roger Williams. 

Mr. Allen told me that there were numbers of the Pe- 
quots at Narraganfett, but I fatisfied him that they were at 
Nayantick, (whence if themfelves had not flopped) they 
had long fince been removed. 

Letters of Roger Williams . 99 

For his much honored Mr. Governor, "John Winthrop. 

Providence, [June, 1638.]' 

Sir, — I fometimes fear that my lines are as thick and 
over bufy as the mufketoes, &c, but your wildom will con- 
nive, and your love will cover, &c. 

Two things at prefent for information. 

Firft in the affairs of the Moft High; his late dreadful 
voice and hand : that audible and fenlible voice, the Earth- 
quake. 2 

All thefe parts felt it, (whether beyond the Narraganfett 
I yet learn not), for myfelf I fcarce perceived ought but a 
kind of thunder and a gentle moving, &c, and yet it was 
no more this way to many of our own and the natives ap- 
preheniions, and but one iudden fhort motion. 

The younger natives are ignorant of the like : but the 
elder inform me that this is the fifth within thefe four 
fcore years in the land : the firft about three fcore and ten 
years fince : the fecond fome three fcore and four years 
fince, the third fome fifty-four years fince, thefourth fome 
forty-fix fince : and they always obferved either plague or 
pox or fome other epidemical difeafe followed ; three, four 
or five years after the Earthquake, (or Naunaumemoauke, 
as they fpeak). 

He be mercifully pleafed himfelf to interpret and open 

' 4 Mafs. HiJI. Coll. vol. vi. p. 229. at Narraganfett, at Pifcataquack, and all 

2 Winthrop, under date of June 1, parts round about. It fhook the fhips, 

thus records this event : " Between three which rode in the harbour, and all the 

and four in the afternoon, being clear, iflands, etc. The noile and the fhakings 

warm weather, the wind wefterly, there continued about four minutes. The 

was a great earthquake. It came with a earth was unquiet twenty days after, by 

noife like a continued thunder or the times. — Hijh of New England, vol. i. p. 

rattling of coaches in London, but was 319. 
prefently gone. It was at Connefticut, 

ioo Letters of Roger Williams. 

his own riddles, and grant if it be pleaiing in his eyes) it 
may not be for destruction, and but (as the Earthquake be- 
fore the Jailor's converlion) a means of making and turn- 
ing of all hearts, (which are his,) Englim or Indian, to him. 
To further this (if the Lord pleafe) the Earthquake 
fenfibly took about a thoufand of the natives in a mod 
folemn meeting for play, &c. 

Secondly, a word in mine own particular, only for infor- 
mation. I owe between 50 and 60// to Mr. Cradock 1 for 
commodities received from Mr. Mayhew. 2 Mr. Mayhew 
will teftify that (being Mr. Cradock's agent) he was content 
to take payment, what (and when) my houfe at Salem 
yielded : accordingly I long fince put it into his hand, and 
he into Mr. Jollies', 3 who befide my voluntary act and his 
attachment fince, fues as I'hear for damages, which I quef- 
tion : fince I have not failed againft contract and content 
of the firft agent, but the holy pleafure of the Lord be 
done : unto whofe merciful arms (with all due refpedls) I 
leave you, wifhing heartily that mercy and goodnefs may 
ever follow you and yours. 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, to your dear companion, Mr. Deputy, Mr. Belling- 
ham, and theirs, all refpective falutes, &c. 

1 Mathew Cradock, Governor of the Thomas Mayhew hath and doth Co much 
MafTachufetts Company. difquiet my mind, as I thank God never 

2 Thomas Mayhew was a member of any thing did in the lyke manner. The 
the General Court of MafTachufetts, and Lord in mercy free me from this, I ab- 
probably a merchant. Others befides folutely forbad charging moneys from 
Williams feem to have had trouble with thence, or buying any goods there." — 
him, for Cradock, whofe agent he was, Wintbrop Papers: 4 Mafs. HijL Coll. 
in a letter to Winthrop, January 13th, vol. vi. p. 122. 

1636, fays " The greyffe I have been 'Jollies or, JolifFe, an agent of Mr. 

put to by the moil vyle bad dealing of Cradock, fee previous letter. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 101 

To his much honored Governor "John IV bit hr op. 

[No date; June, 1638.] 

Sir, — I perceive by thefe your laft thoughts, that you 
have received many accufations and hard conceits of this 
poor native Miantunnomu, wherein I fee the vain and 
empty puff of all terrene promotions, his barbarous birth 
or greatnefs being much honored, confirmed and aug- 
mented (in his own conceit) by the folemnity of his league 
with the Englifh and his more than ordinary entertain- 
ment, &c, now all dallied in a moment in the frowns of 
fuch in whole friendlhip and love lay his chief advance- 

Sir, of the particulars, fome concern him only, fome 
Canonicus and the reft of the Sachems, fome all the na- 
tives, fome myfelf. 

For the Sachems, I lhall go over fpeedily, and acquaint 
them with particulars. At prefent, let me ftill find this 
favor in your eyes, as to obtain an hearing, for that your 
love hath never denied me, which way foever your judg- 
ment hath been (I hope and I know you will one day fee 
it) and been carried. 

Sir, let this barbarian be proud and angry and covetous 
and filthy, hating and hateful, (as we ourfelves have been 
till kindnefs from heaven pitied us, &c.,) yet let me hum- 
bly beg relief, that for myfelf, I am not yet turned Indian, 
to believe all barbarians tell me, nor fo bafely prefumptu- 
ous as to trouble the eyes and hands of fuch (and fo hon- 
ored and dear) with Ihadows and fables. I commonly 
guefs fhrewdly at what a native utters, and, to my remem- 

1 3 Ma/5. Hijl. Coll. vol. i. p. 166. Knowles's Mem. of Roger Williams, p. 149. 

102 Letters of Roger Williams. 

brance, never wrote particular, but either I know the bot- 
tom of it, or elfe I am bold to give a hint of my fufpenfe. 

Sir, therefore in fome things at prefent (begging your 
wonted gentlenefs toward my folly) give me leave to mow 
you how I clear myfelf from fuch a lightnefs. 

I wrote lately (for that you pleafe to begin with) that 
fome Pequots, (and fome of them actual murderers of the 
Englim, and that alfo after the fort cut off) were now in 
your hands. Not only love, but confcience, forced me to 
fend, and fpeedily, on purpofe, by a native, mine own ier- 
vant. I favv not, fpake not with Miantunnomu, nor any 
from him. I write before the All-feeing Eye. But thus 
it was. A Narraganfett man (Awetipimo) coming from 
the bay with cloth, turned in (as they ufed to do) to 
me for lodging. I queftioned of Indian paffages, &c. He 
tells me Uncas was come with near upon forty natives. I 
afked what prefent he brought. He told me, that Cut- 
fhamoquene had four fathom and odd 1 of him, and forty 
was for Mr. Governor. I afked him, how many Pequots. 
He told me iix. I afked him, if they were known. He 
faid Uncas denied that there were any Pequots, and faid 
they were Mohegans all. I afked, if himfelf knew any of 
them. He anfwered, he did, and fo did other Indians of 
Narraganfett. I afked, if the murderer of whom I wrote, 
Pametefick, were there. He anfwered, he was, and (I fur- 
ther enquiring) he was confident it was he, for he knew 
him as well as me, &c. 

All this news (by this providence) I knew before it came 
to Narraganfett. Upon this I fent, indeed fearing guilt to 

1 " Four fathom and odd " of wampum, by the yard or fathom. See note on 
or peage, which in firings, was meafured wampum. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 103 

mine own foul, both againft the Lord and my countrymen. 
But fee a ftranger hand of the Moft and Only Wife. Two 
days after, Uncas palfeth by within a mile of me (though 
he mould have been kindly welcome ) One of his com- 
pany (Wequaumugs) having hurt his foot, and difabled 
from travel, turns into me ; whom lodging, I queftioned, 
andrind him by father a Narraganfett, by mother a Mohe- 
gan, and fo freely entertained by both. I, further enquiring, 
he told me he went from Mohegan to the Bay with Uncas. 
He told me how he had prefented forty fathom to (my re- 
membrance) to Mr. Governor, (four and upwards to Cut- 
fhamoquene,) who would not receive them, but afked 
twice for Pequots. At laft, at Newtown, Mr. Governor 
received them, and was willing that the Pequots mould 
live, fuch as were at Mohegan, fubjecT: to the Englifh Sach- 
ems at Connecticut, to whom they mould carry tribute, 
and fuch Pequots as were at Narraganfett to Mr. Governor, 
and all the runaways at Mohegan to be fent back. I afked 
him, how many Pequots were at Narraganfett. He faid, 
but two, who were Miantunnomue's captives, and that at 
Nayantick with Wequafh Cook were about three lcore. 
I afked, why he faid the Indians at Narraganfett were to 
be the Governor's fubjeclis. He faid, becaufe Nayantick 
was fometimes fo called, although there had been of late 
no coming of Narraganfett men thither. I afked him, if 
he heard all this. He faid, that himfelf and the body of 
the company ftaid about Cutmamoquene's. I afked, how 
many Pequots were amongft them. He faid fix. I defired 
him to name them, which he did thus : Pametefick, Wee- 
augonhick, (another of thofe murderers) Makunnete, Kim- 
kontuckqua, Saufawpona, Quffaumpowan, which names I 
prefently wrote down, and {pace veftra dixerini) I am as 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

confident of the truth, as that I breathe. Again, (not to be 
too bold in all the particulars at this time,) what a grofs 
and monftrous untruth is that concerning myfelf, which 
your love and wifdom to myfelf a little efpy, and I hope 
fee malice and falfehood (far from the fear of God) whif- 
pering together? I have long held it will-worfhip to doff 
and don to. the Moft High in worfhip ; and I wifh alfo 
that, in civil worfhip, others were as far from fuch a vanity, 
though I hold it not utterly unlawful in fome places. Yet 
furely, amongft the barbarians, (the highest in the world,) 
I would rather lofe my head than fo practice, becaufe I 
judge it my duty to fet them better copies, and mould fin 
againft mine own perfuafions and relolutions. 

Sir, concerning the illands Prudence and (Patmos, if 
fome had not hindered) Aquednick, 1 be pleafed to under- 
ftand your great miftake : neither of them were fold pro- 
perly, for a thouland fathom would not have bought either, 
by ftrangers. The truth is, not a penny was demanded for 
either, and what was paid was only gratuity, though I 
choofe, for better alfurance and form, to call it fale. 

And, alas! (though I cannot conceive you can aim at the 
Sachems) they have ever conceived, that myfelf and Mr. 
Coddington 2 (whom they knew fo many years a Sachem 

1 Aquetneck, AquiJneck, the Ifland of 
Rhode Ifland. 

z William Coddington was a native of 
Lincolnfhire, England, and was there ap- 
pointed an affiltant judge for the colony 
of Maffachuletts Bay, in 1629. He 
came over with the Governor and the 
Charter in 1630, and was feveral times 
re-elefted to that office. He was alio, 
for fome time, treafurer oi that colony, 
as was alfo, fays Callender, " the chief- 

eft in all the public charges and a princi- 
pal merchant in Bolton, where he built 
the firlt brick houle." He came to 
Rhode Ifland with a few friends, and his 
name ftands firft among thofe who incor- 
porated themlelves into a body politic in 
the year 1638. They choofe him to 
be their judge, or chief ruler, and con- 
tinued to elect him Governor until the 
patent was received, and the ifland incor- 
porated with Providence Plantations. In 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


at Bolton), were far from being rejected by yourfelves, as 
you pleafe to write, for if the Lord had not hid it from 
their eyes, I am fure you had not been thus troubled by 
myfelf at prefent. Yet the earth is the Lord's and the full- 
nefs thereof. His infinite wifdom and pity be pleafed to 
help you all, and all that defire to fear his name and trem- 
ble at his word in this country, to remember that we all 
are reje&ed of our native foil, and more to mind the many 
ftrong bands, with which we are all tied, than any particu- 
lar diftafte each againft other, and to remember that excel- 
lent precept, Prov. 25, If thine enemy hunger, feed him, 
&c. ; for thou (halt heap coals of fire upon his head, and 
Jehovah mall reward thee ; unto whofe mercy and tender 
companions I daily commend you, defirous to be more 
and ever. 

Your worship's unfeigned and faithful 

Roger Williams. 

his depofition he ftates that he was one 
of thofe who made a peace with Canoni- 
cus and Miantonomi in the colony's be- 
half with all the Narraganfett Indians, 
and by order of Maflachufetts Bay, be- 
fore they made war with the Pequots. 
It was fubfequent to this that he removed 
to Rhode Ifland. 

In 1647 he aflifted in framing the 
body of laws which has fince been the 
balls of our conftitution and government. 
In 165 1 he had a commiffion from the 
fupreme authority in England to be Gov- 
ernor of the Ifland, feparate from the 
reft of the colony, purfuant to a power 
referved in the patent, but the peo- 
ple being jealous that " the commiflion 
might affeft their laws and liberties, as 
fecured to them by the patent," — " he 
readily laid it down " fays Callender, 

"on the firft notice from England that 
he might do fo." 

Many of the colonifts embraced the 
fentiments of the Society of Friends, 
amongwhomwas Governor Coddington. 
Their yearly meeting was held at his 
houfe until his death. 

Coddington appears to have enjoyed a 
high reputation, and was ever attive in 
promoting the welfare of the common, 
wealth which he had aflifted in founding. 
He was a warm advocate for liberty of 
confcience, as was fhown in his afts, and 
as may be ieen from his writings. Two 
lav letters from him on religious matters 
as preferved in Besse's Sufferings of the 
Quakers, London, 1753: 2 vols, folio; 
and in a tradl entitled " Demonjlration of 
True Love unto Tou the rulers of the 
colony of Majfachufetts " in New England. 
London, 1674. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

Sir, mine own and wife's refpective falutes to your dear 
companion and all yours ; as alio to Mr. Deputy, Mr. 
Bellingham, and other loving friends. 

I am bold to enclofe this paper, although the paffages 
may not be new, yet they may refrefh your memories in 
thefe Englim-Scotch diftrattions, 1 &c. 

To his much honored Governor John Winthrop. 

Providence, this 5th of the prefent weeke. [June, 1638. ] 2 

Much honored Sir, — BlefTed be the Father of mer- 
cies that once again I received your hand the laft night by 
the melfengers by whom I fent. 

By them I understand that according as you pleafe to 
intimate your expectation, Mr. Haynes is come: with Un- 
cas, thirty-four Mohegans, and fix Pequots.3 

One of the fix Pequots is Pametefick, who was one 
of the murderers that cut off the three Englifh, going in 

'"Scotch diftra&ions." " The trou- 
bles which arofe in Scotland about the 
book of Common Prayer, and the 
canons, which the King would have 
forced upon the Scotch churches, did fo 
take up the King and council, that they 
had neither heart or leifure to look after 
the affairs of New England." — Win- 
throp, Hift. of New England, vol. i. p. 

2 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 230. 

* Winthrop, under date of June 5, 
fays " Unkas the Monahegan Sachem in 
the twift of Pequot River, came to Bof- 
ton with thirty-feven men. He came 
from Connecticut with Mr. Haynes, 

and tendered the Governor a prefent of 
twenty fathom of wampom. This was 
at the Court, and it was thought fit by 
the council to refule it, till he had given 
fatisfadlion about the Pequods, etc. But 
two days after, having received good 
fatisfaftion of his innocency, etc., and 
he promifing to fubmit to the order of 
the Englifh touching the Pequods he had, 
and the differences between the Narra- 
ganfetts and him, we accepted his pre- 
fents. . . . The Governcr gave him a 
red coat, and defrayed his and his men's 
diet, and a letter of protection to all 
men, etc., and he departed very joyful." 
Hift. of New England, vol. i. p. 319. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 107 

a boat for clay upon Connecticut river, after the Fort was 
cut off. They not only fpilt their blood, but exercifed 
inhuman and tormenting revenge upon two of them, 
which cries for vengeance to heaven. 

So that I refer it humbly to your wifdom whether 
(although I delire not the destruction of the furviving Pe- 
quots, but a fafe difperfion of them, yet) the actual mur- 
derers be not to be furrendered up, and this Pametefick (I 
am partly confident this is he) at prefent apprehended : 
Our loving friends of Connecticut reported that fome Mo- 
hegan women were wronged (as their hair cut off, &c.,) 
by the Narraganfetts : but Uncas knows it was done by 
Wequafhcuck of Nayantick, to whom Uncas fent for a 
Pequot queen. They two have got in the Pequots (though 
Uncas have the harveft.) Againfl Wequafhcuck, Canoni- 
cus or Miantunnomu had long fince proceeded, but our 
loving friends of Connecticut interpofed : I hope for the 
beft to fave blood. So befeeching the great Councillor 
and Prince of Peace to guide your councils, I reft your 
Worfhip's moft unworthy yet unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 
All refpective falutes, &c. 

108 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor John Winthrop. 

Providence, 23d, 5th. [July 23, 1638. ]' 

Two days iince I was bold to prefent you with a line, 
and ftill (fo it pleafeth the mod High,) I am occasioned 
again to be a conftant trouble, &c. 

Thefe your Wormip's fervants viliting me in their tra- 
vel, I enquire after your runaways. The man faith he 
hath much to relate to yourfelf, and wanting utterance, 
defires me to write. He faith he hath enquired much 
after the runaways, and underftands for certain that they 
are all at Mohegan. 

That the flight was long fince plotted, for he hath now 
heard by a Pequot that came from Mohegan, that the ten 
Mohegans which came to your Worfhip in the fpring to 
buy one of the maidens, and offered ten fathom of beads, 
came from Uncas, who intended that maid for his wife. 

That he gave order to thofe ten men, that, (in cafe they 
could not buy her) they mould leave one man there at 
your houfe, to perfuade and work their efcape. 

That man was the Pequot Robin, who hath effected his 
bufinefs, for which (as he hears) Uncas promifed him and 
hath given him the ten fathom of Wampum. 2 

•4 Mafs. Hili. Coll. vol. vi. p. 231. fhell is broken off . . . The fecond 
z Wampum. Strings, or firings of is black, inclining to blue, which is made 
(hells, ufed by the Indians as money, of the fhell of a fifh ; and of this fort 
Thefe, when united, formed a broad three make a penny. Their white mo- 
belt, which was worn as a ornament or ney they call wampam, which fignifies 
girdle. It was fometimes called warn- white ; their black, funkabock fignifying 
pumpeage or peage. black." — Williams' Key to the Indian 

" The Indians are ignorant of Eu- Language, London, 1643 : Chap. xxvi. 
rope's coin. Their own is of two forts : "A Sagamore with a humbird in his 

one white, which they make of the Item ears for a pendant, a black hawk in his 

or flock of the periwinkle, when all the occipit for a plume, good flore of warn- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 109 

Uncas hath taken the two daughters, Marie and Jane 
both to wife, and fayth that now he hath done fending of 
prefents to Maifachufetts. 

Reprive was promifed Joane by the Old Squaw for the 
furtherance of the buiinefsand hath her. He advifed their 
efcape by Neepmuck, becaufe once before, efcaping through 
the Narraganfett country, himfelf was fent back by the 
Narraganfett Sachems. 

This man thinks alfo that no Indian means will be able 
to effect their return, but that the Englifh muft fetch them. 
It will be your worship's wifdom to forecaft fo much, and 
to prepare (Captain Patrick and many more may be occa- 
fioned to fetch theirs alfo.) Yet I requeft your Worship's 
patience a few days. 

Sir, this young man who comes along, is this woman's 
nephew, an ingenious, fober fellow, one of my long acquain- 
tance, whom I call Oldway, as his Indian name (Necaw- 
nimeyat) lignifies; he tells me he hath a good mind to 
abide one year with thefe his friends in your worship's fer- 
vice. I encourage him and prefent him to your wifdom 
and pity, not knowing but that the purpofe of the Only 
Wife and moft pityful God may be toward him for good. 
Unto the everflowing ftreams of the moft holy Fountain 
of living waters, (whofe drops are able to refrem and fave 
worlds of wandering fouls), I heartily recommend your 
worfhip, your deareft companion, and all yours, grieving 
that I dare be no more your worfhip's 

Roger Williams. 

pum-peage begirting his loins, his bow in "And there the fallen chief is laid, 

hand, his quiver at his back, with fix In taflell'd garb of fkins arrayed 

naked fpatterlafhes at his heels for his And girdled with his zvampum-bra\d." 
guard, thinks he is one with King Whittier, The Funeral Tree. 

Charles." — Wood's New England, Lon- 
don, 1634, p. 66. 

1 1 o Letters of Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor fohn JVinthrop. 1 

[Providence, Auguft, 1638.]' 

Much honored Sir, — The bearer lodging with me, I 
am bold to write an hafty advertifement concerning late 
pafiages. For himfelf, it feems he was fearful to go far- 
ther than forty miles about us, efpecially conlidering that 
no natives are willing to accompany him to Pequot or 
Mohegan, being told by two Pequots (the all of Mian- 
tunnomu's captives which are not run from him) what he 
might expect, &c. 

Sir, Captain Mafon 2 and Thomas Stanton landing at 
Narraganfett, and at Miantunnomu's announcing war within 
fix davs againft Juanemo, for they fay that Miantunnomu 
hath been fair in all the palfages with them, Juanemo fent 
two melfengers to myfelf, requeuing counfel. I advifed 
him to go over with beads to fatisfy, &c. 

He fent four Indians. By them Mr. Haynes writes me, 
that they confelfed fifteen fathom there received at Long 
Iiland. Thereabout they confelfed to me, (four being 
taken of Pequots by force, and reftored again,) as alfo that 

1 3 Mafs. Hi/I. Coll. vol. i. p. 170. ticut forces, which office he held to his 

Knowles' Mem. R. Williams, p. 153. death. He was a magi Urate from 1642 

R. I.HiJl. Coll. vol. iii. p. 14.8, abridged, to 1648, and Deputy-Governor from 

* Capt. John Mafon born in England 1660 to 1670. In 1659 he took up his 

about 1600, died at Norwich, Conn., refidence in Norwich. — Major? s Life by 

\6~jz. He was one of the firft fettlers Geo. E. Ellis, is in Sparks' Amer. Biogra- 

of Dorchefter, Mafs., in 1630, but re- pby, vol. iii. new feries. Mason drew 

moved to Windfor, Conn., in 1635. In up a hiflory of the Pequot war, which 

the celebrated attack on the Pequot fort, was printed in Increase Mathers' Re 

(mentioned in previous letters) Mafon lation of Troubles with the Indians, 1677. 

led the force, the Indians being under Reprinted, with notes by T. Prince, 

the command of Uncas and Miantono- Bofton, 1736; again by J. Sabin, New 

moh. Soon after this event he was ap- York, 1869. 
pointed Major General of the Connec- 

Letters of Roger Wil/iams. 1 1 1 

the iilanders lay fifty-one fathom, which fum he demanded, 
as alfo that the Nayantick meflengers laid down twenty-lix 
fathom and a half, which was received in part, with decla- 
ration that Juanemo mould within ten days bring the reft 
himlelf, or elfe they were refolved for war, &c. I have 
therefore fent once and again to Juanemo, to perfuade 
himlelf to venture, &c. Canonicus fent a principal man 
laft night to me, in hafte and fecrecy, relating that We- 
quam had fent word that, if Juanemo went over, he mould 
be killed, but I allure them the contrary, and perfuade Ca- 
nonicus to importune and haften Juanemo within his time, 
ten days, withal hoping and writing back perfuafions of 
better things to Mr. Haynes, proffering myfelf, (in cafe 
that Juanemo through fear or folly fail) to take a journey 
and negotiate their bufinefs, and fave blood, whether the 
natives' or my countrymen's. 

Sir, there hath been great hubbub in all thefe parts, as a 
general perfuafion that the time was come of a general 
llaughter of natives, by reafon of a murder committed 
upon a native within twelve miles of us, four days lince, 
by four defperate Englilh. I prefume particulars have 
lcarce as yet been prefented to your hand. The laft fifth 
day, toward evening, a native, palling through us, brought 
me word, that at Pawtuckqut, a river four miles from us to- 
ward the bay, four Englilhmen were almoft famimed. I 
fent inftantly provilions and ftrong water, with invitation, 
&c. The meflengers brought word, that they were one 
Arthur Peach of Plymouth, an Irifhman, John Barnes, 
his man, and two others come from Pafcataquack, travel- 
ling to Connecticut ; that they had been loft five days, and 
fell into our path but fix miles. Whereas they were im- 
portuned to come home, &c, they pleaded forenefs in trav- 
elling, and therefore their defire to reft there. 

1 1 2 Letters of Roger Williams. 

The next morning they came to me by break, of day, 
relating that the old man at Pawtuckqut had put them 
forth the laft night, becaufe that fome Indians faid, that 
they had hurt an Englishmen, and therefore that they lay 
between us and Pawtuckqut. 

I was bufy in writing letters and getting them a guide 
to Connecticut, and enquired no more, they having told 
me, that they came from Plymouth on the laft or the 
week in the evening, and lay ftill in the woods the Lord's 
day, and then loft their way to Weymouth, from whence 
they loft their way again towards us, and came in again 
fix miles off Pawtuckqut. 

After they were gone, an old native comes to me, and 
tells me; that the natives round about us were fled, relating 
that thofe four had llain a native, who had carried three 
beaver fkins and beads for Canonicus' fon, and came home 
with five fathom and three coats ; that three natives which 
came after him found him groaning in the path ; that he 
told them that four Englimmen had flain him. They 
came to Pawtuckqut, and enquired after the Englifh, 
which when Arthur and his company heard, they got on 
hofe and fhoes and departed in the night. 

I fent after them to Narraganfett, and went myfelf with 
two or three more to the wounded in the woods. The 
natives at firft were fhy of us, conceiving a general {laughter, 
but (through the Lord's mercy) I aiTured them that Mr. 
Governor knew nothing, &c. and that I have fent to appre- 
hend the men. So we found that he had been run through 
the leg and the belly with one thruft. We drefted him and 
got him to town next day, where Mr. James and Mr. 
Greene endeavored, all they could, to lave his life ; but his 
wound in the belly, and blood loft, and fever following, 
cut his life's thread. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 1 3 

Before he died, he told me that the four Englifh had 
flain him, and that (being faint and not able to fpeak) he 
had related the truth to the natives who firft came to him, 
viz. : that they, viz. : the Englilh, faw him in the Bay and 
his beads : that fitting in the fide of a fwamp a little way 
out of the path, (I went to fee the place, fit for an evil pur- 
pofe,) Arthur called him to drink tobacco, who coming 
and taking the pipe of Arthur, Arthur run him through 
the leg into the belly, when, fpringing back, he, Arthur, 
made the fecond thruft, but milfed him ; that another of 
them ftruck at hi:r, but milled him, and his weapon run 
into the ground ; that getting from them a little way into 
the fwamp, they purfued him, till he fell down, when they 
milfed him, and getting up again, when he heard them 
clofe by him, he run to and again in the fwamp, till he 
fell down again, when they loft him quite ; afterwards, 
towards night, he came and lay in the path, that fome paf- 
fenger might help him as aforefaid. 

Whereas they faid, they wandered Plymouth-wav, Ar- 
thur knew the path, having gone it twice ; and belide, Mr. 
Throckmorton met them about Naponfet River in the 
path, who, riding roundly upon a fudden by them, was 
glad he had pair, them, fufpecling them. They denied 
that they met Mr. Throckmorton. 

The melfenger that I fent to Narraganfett, purfuing after 
them, returned the next day, declaring that they ffiowed 
Miantunnomu letters to Aquednick, (which were mine to 
Connecticut,) and fo to Aquednick they paft, whither I 
fent information of them, and fo they were taken. Their 
fudden examination they fent me, a copy of which I am 
bold to fend your worlhip enclofed. 

The illanders (Mr. Coddington being abfent) refolved to 


1 1 4 Letters of Roger Williams. 

fend them to us, fome thought, by us to Plymouth, from 
whence they came. Sir, I (hall humbly crave your judg- 
ment, whether they ought not to be tried where they are 
taken It they be fent any way, whether not to Ply- 
mouth. 1 In cafe Plymouth refufe, and the iflanders fend 
them to us, what anfwers we may give, if others unjuftly 
fhift them unto us. I know that every man, quatenus man, 
and fon of Adam, is his brother's keeper or avenger ; but 
I defire to do bonum bene, &c. 

Thus, befeeching the God of heaven, moft holy and 
only wife, to make the interpretation of his own holy 
meaning in all occurrences, to bring us all by thefe bloody 
palfages to an higher price of the blood of the Son of 
God, yea of God, by which the chofen are redeemed, with 
all due refpe&s to your dear felf and dear companion, I 

Your worfhip's moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

This native, Will, my fervant, fhall attend your worfhip 
for anfwer. 

My due refpect to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, &c. 

1 Governor Winthrop advifed that the of the natives, and in promoting the 

prifoners be lent to Plymouth ; who be- peace and happinefs of all the inhabitants 

ing brought there and examined did all of the country, did not fail to fecure 

confefs the murder, and that they did it the abiding confidence of the Indian 

to get the Wampum ; but all the queflion chiefs. In every queftion that arofe be- 

was about the death of the Indian. — Hijl. tween them and the Englifh, Williams 

of New Eng., Savage's ed. vol. i. p. 323. was made their advifer, and often became 

" Conduft like this " obferves Prof, the mediator between the parties." Life 

Gammell, "in vindication of the rights of William i, p. 106. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 1 5 

To his much honored and beloved Mr. Governor of MaJJ'a- 


Providence, 14th of the 6th. [Auguft 14th, 1633. ]' 

Sir, — Since my laft (unto which you were pleafed to 
give anfwer with kind advice concerning the murder of 
the native) I have received divers letters from Connecti- 
cut : the fum of all is this; that it hath pleafed the Lord 
to incline all hearts to peace. Juanemo was perfuaded to 
go over in perfon and give that fatisfadtion which was de- 
manded : only concerning a mare killed by fome Nayan- 
ticks, (others fay by Pequots,) but as yet no proof; our 
friends have taken his promife to inquire and inform, and 
(o they difmiffed him. 

It hath pleafed the Magiftrates at Connecticut to invite 
Miantunnomu over to them to difcover fome Pequot paf- 
fages and murderers, which are denied, and to enter upon 
fome Articles with themfelves : 2 denying themfelves to be 
obliged in the Articles of the Bay. 

I have conceived that all the Englifh in the land were 
wrapped up in that Agreement (a copy of which you were 
pleafed Sir, to fend me,): neverthelefs I perfuade him to 
go over. His defire was (which Agowaun Sachem Maf- 
quanominity had in charge to exprefs to you) that Mr. 
Governor would pleafe to fpare four Englifh from himfelf 
as witneiles of paifages ; as alfo myfelf with Cutfhamo- 
quene and Mafquanominit. 

I have formerly engaged my promife to Miantunnomu : 
and refolve to take two or three Engliih from hence, and 

1 4 Ma/s. Hiji. Coll. vol. iv. p. 248. to fettle their perfonal difficulties and to 

x This has reference to a meeting to have an underftanding regarding the Pe- 

be held at Hartford, at which the Nar- quots. 

raganfetts and Mohegans were to appear 

1 1 6 Letters of Roger Williams. 

hope (through the Lord's mercy) that the journey may be 
for peace. 

Sir, unlefs any pafs by accident to Connecticut (if fo you 
mall fee good) that defire of three or four Englifh may be 
denied, and yet granted in effect: by the going of fome 
freely with myfelf. 

Only fir, be pleafed to give an hint of your pleafure in 
any matter considerable, which we mall endeavor to effecl:. 

The natives, friends of the flain had confultation to kill 
an Englishman in revenge: Miantunnomu heard of it, 
and delired that the Englifh would be careful on the high- 
ways, and lent himfelf exprefs threatenings to them, &c, 
and informed them that Mr. Governor would fee juftice 
done. Oufamequin coming from Plymouth told me that 
the four men were all guilty ; I anfwered, but one ; he 
replied, true, one wounded him, but all lay in wait two 
days, and alhfted. In conclulion : he told me that the 
principal muft not die, for he was Mr. Window's man : 
and alio that the man 1 was by birth a Neepmuck man; fo 
not worthy another man mould die for him : I anfwered 
what I thought fit, but conceive there will be need of wif- 
dom and zeal in fome, and remembrance of that Vox Coeli: 
He that doth violence to the blood of any perfon, let him 
flee to the pit : let none deliver him. The Lord merci- 
fully cleanfe the land from blood, and make the blood of 
his fon Jelus more precious in all our eyes. So prays 
Your Wormip's moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

To Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. Deputie and his, all yours, beft 
refpects, &c. 

1 In reference to the Indian killed by the fame Englifhmen, of which mention 
is made in the preceding letter. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


For the right JVorJJjipful and his much honored friend Mr. 
Governor of the Maffachufetts, thefe. 

At Narragansett, the 10th of the 7th, early. [September 10, 1638. ]' 

Much honored Sir, — Thefe Sachems with myfelf con- 
fulting the laft Lord's day as (bon as I here arrived ; I 
difpatched a letter to meet our Connecticut friends at 
Mohegan : defiring a fpeedy word from Captain Mafon 
(according as he found the bufinefs eafy or difficult) to 
give direction for the courfe of the Narraganfetts, either 
to Mohegan or Pequot. With all, the Meifenger had 
charge to deal with Uncas, from us all, Canonicus, Mian- 
tunnomu, &c, to be wife and faithful to us in what we 
mould propofe to him. 2 

The meifenger returned the laft night (and being a 
difcreet man to obferve palfages) he related that coming 
near the town, viz.: to wit, Mohegan, he heard fix 
guns, which perfuaded him that Englifh were come, but 

J 4 Mafs. Hi/}. Coll. vol. vi. p. 250. 

This letter chiefly relates to the dif- 
ficulties between the Narraganfetts and 
Mohegans, growing out of the difper- 
fion of the Pequots. 

2 From the vifit to Connecticut here 
alluded to, refulted " A Covenant and 
Agreement made between the Englifh 
and the Indians ;" Miantonomi repre- 
fenting the Narraganfetts, and Uncas 
the Mohegans. Thefe articles were 
figned at Hartford, on the 21ft of Sep- 
tember, 1638. They provide 

1. That there fhall be peace between 
the tribes and "all former injuries and 
wrongs offered each other remitted and 

2. That if further wrongs he com- 
mitted by either party, they fhall not re- 

venge them, but fhall appeal to the Eng- 
lifh, who fhall decide between them. If 
either party refufe to abide by the de- 
cihon, the Englifh may compel them to 
do fo. 

3. The tribes mentioned agree to 
bring in the chief Sachem of* the Pe- 
quots; and for the murderers known to 
have killed the Englifh "they fhall as 
foon as they can poffibly take off their 

4. Provides for the divifion of the 
Pequot prifoners, who " fhall no more 
be called Pequots, but Narraganfetts and 

The agreement bears the fignatures 
of Miantonomi, Uncas, Gov. Haines, 
Roger Ludlow and Edward Hopkins. — 
Potter's Hijl. of Narraganfett, p. 177. 

1 1 8 Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 

drawing nearer, he found they were the guns which for- 
merly the Pequots had got from the Englifh ! Enter- 
ing the court, he found the houfe mingled full of Mo- 
hegans and Pequots, who defired his news, but he filent! 
They told him that they heard that the Englifh were 
coming againft them, and they had fent up two chief men 
who found the Englifh training. They were examined of 
two things, viz. : why they had lately let go two of the 
murderers at Nayantick, whom they had bound, and why 
they had feized upon all the corn at Pequot, belonging to 
hither Nayantick Pequots : fo they were imprifoned and 
bound : word whereof coming to Uncas, forty men were 
fent up with their bead girdles to redeem them. The 
meffenger got Uncas private, who would not be drawn to 
yield up any of his Pequots, but alledging that he had 
bought them with his money of the Englifh (as the Na- 
yantick Sachems faid, for which purpofe I am bold to en- 
clofe Mr. Haynes his anfwer) he faid they found the Eng- 
lifh fo falfe, that the laft night in a general meeting they 
were refolved to fight it out, and for himfelf although the 
Englifh bound him and killed him he would not yield. 
He related that Mr. Haynes had given him a letter of 
fecurity to lie by him, in cafe that any Englifh fhould 
injure him, but in this purfuing his Pequots and binding 
his men, he had thrown away his letter, &c. Sir, your 
wifdom (I know) catcheth at my requeft before I make it, 
viz.: that in cafe I am directed from our friends of Con- 
necticut to fend for aid, you would pleafe to caufe a readi- 
nefs at little warning. I could make true relation of the 
brags of the chief of thefe wretches, viz. : that the Maf- 
fachufetts Englifh did but glean after the Connecticut men, 
&c, in the wars : but I am confident you defire their good, 

Letters of Roger Williams . 1 1 9 

with the fafety of your own ftate : therefore I reft with a 
defcription brief of the Pequot towns, now again under 
Uncas and the Nayantick Sachems eftablifhed : At Pe- 
quot Nayantick are upwards of twenty houfes, up the 
river at Mangunckakuck eight, up ftill at Sauquonckac- 
kock ten, up ftill at Paupattokmick fifteen, up ftill at 
Tatuppequauog twenty, three or mile further with 

Uncas at his town Mohegan, a great number mingled, 
which are all under Uncas, befides thofe at Quinnipiuck, 1 
and others of Long Ifland, and Safacous his confede- 
rates. At Nayantaquit 2 the hither, upwards of twenty 
houfes, all under Nayantaquit Sachems, except fix or feven 
men unto whom your worfliip was pleafed to give life, 
upon Miantunnomue's motion, by my letter, upon their 
fubmiflion. Thefe are ftill Miantunnomue's fubjects, yet 
refufing to live with him at Narraganfett, he diiclaims 
them, in cafe according to promife, they aflift not in this 
bufinefs. The moft High graciouily fanclify all his holy 
pleafure to us, profper thefe our prefent enterprifes to his 
praife, but efpecially againft thofe enemies (1. Pet. 2. 11.) 
lufts which fight againft our fouls : in him I defire to be 

Your worfhip's more and to eternity, 

Roger Williams. 

1 2>unnepiuck. New Haven. 2 Nayantaquit, Niantic. Wefterly and 


1 20 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To his much honored Governor fohn Winthrop. 

[September or October, 1638.] 1 

Much honored Sir, — Through the mercy of the Moft 
High, I am newly returned from a double journey to Con- 
necticut and Plymouth. I (hall prefume on your wonted 
love and gentlenefs to prefent you with a fhort relation of 
what ilTiie it pleafed the Lord to produce out of them, 
efpecially fince your worship's name was fome way en- 
gaged in both. 

I went up to Connecticut with Miantunnomu, 2 who had 
a guard of upwards of one hundred and fifty men, and 
many Sachems, and his wife and children, with him. By 
the way (lodging from his houfe three nights in the woods) 
we met divers Narraganfett men complaining of robbery 
and violence, which they had fuftained from the Pequots 
and Mohegans in their travel from Connecticut ; as alfo 
fome of the Wunnafhowatuckoogs (fubje£t to Canonicus) 
came to us and advertifed, that two days before, about fix 
hundred and fixty Pequots, Mohegans and their confede- 
rates had robbed them, and fpoiled about twenty-three 
fields of corn, and rifled four Narraganfett men amongft 
them ; as alfo that they lay in way and wait to ftop Mian- 
tunnomue's pafiage to Connecticut, and divers of them 
threatened to boil him in the kettle. 

These tidings being many ways confirmed, my company, 

1 Knowles' Mem. of Williams, p. 1 57. gans, and was doubtlefs inflrumental in 
3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. i. p 173. Pot- effecting the "Covenant and Agreement" 
ter's Hijl. of Narraganfett, p. 145. made on the 21 ft of September, before 

2 It appears from this letter that Wil- noticed. From Hartford, he went to 
liams accompanied Miantonomo to Hart- Plymouth to attend the trial of the four 
ford, for the purpoie of effecting a peace Englifhmen for killing the Indian be- 
between the Narraganfetts and Mohe- fore mentioned. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 121 

Mr. Scott (a Suffolk man) and Mr. Cope, advifed our flop 
and turn back ; unto which I alfo advifed the whole com- 
pany, to prevent bloodfhed, refolving to get up to Connec- 
ticut by water, hoping there to ftop fuch courfes. But 
Miantunnomu and his council refolved (being then about 
fifty miles, half-way, on our journey) that not a man mould 
turn back, refolving rather all to die, keeping ftridt watch 
by night, and in dangerous places a guard by day about the 
Sachems, Miantunnomu and his wife, who kept the path, 
myfelf and company always firft, and on either fide of the 
path forty or fifty men to prevent fudden furprifals. This 
was their Indian march. 

But it pleafed the Father of mercies, that (as we fince 
heard) we came not by till two days after the time 
given out by Miantunnomu, (by reafon of ftaying for me 
until the Lord's day was over,) as alfo the Lord fent a ru- 
mor of great numbers of the Englifh in company with 
the Narraganfetts, fo that we came fafe to Connecticut. 

Being arrived, Uncas had fent meffengers that he was 
lame, and could not come. Mr Haynes faid, it was a lame 
excufe, and fent earneftly for him, who at laft came, and 
being charged by Mr. Haynes with the late outrages, one 
of his company faid, they were but an hundred men. He 
faid, he was with them, but did not fee all that was done, and 
they did but roaft corn, &c. So there being affirmations 
and negations concerning the numbers of men and the 
fpoil, not having eye-witneffes of our own, thai fell, as 
alfo many other mutual complaints of rifling each other, 
which were heard at large to give vent and breathing to 
both parts. 

At laft we drew them to fhake hands, Miantunnomu 

and Uncas ; and Miantunnomu invited (twice earneftly) 

122 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Uncas to fup and dine with him, he and all his company 
(his men having killed fome veniibn;) but he would not 
yield, although the magiftrates perfuaded him alfo to it. 

In a private conference, Miantunnomu, from Canonicus 
and himfelf, gave in the names of all the Pequots Sachems 
and murderers of the Englifh. The names of the Sach- 
ems were acknowledged by Uncas, as alfo the places, which 
only I (hall be bold to fet down: 

Naufipouck, Puttaquappuonckquame his fon, now on 
Long Ifland. 

Nanafquiouwut, Puttaquappuonckquame his brother, at 

Puppompogs, Safacous his brother, at Mohegan. 

Maufaumpous, at Nayantick. 

Kithanm, at Mohegan. 

Attayakitch, at Pequot or Mohegan. 

Thefe, with the murderers, the magistrates defired to 
cut off, the reft to divide, and to abolifh their names. An 
inquifition was made; and it was affirmed from Canonicus, 
that he had not one. Miantunnomu gave in the names of 
ten or eleven, which were the remainders of near feventy, 
which at the firft fubjected themfelves, of which I adver- 
tifed your worfhip, but all again departed, or never came 
to him ; fo that two or three of thefe he had with him ; 
the reft were at Mohegan and Pequot. 

Uncas was delired to give in the names of his. He 
anfwered, that he knew not their names. He faid there 
were forty on Long Ifland ; and that Juanemo and three 
Nayantick Sachems had Pequots, and that he himfelf had 
but twenty. Thomas Stanton told him and the magif- 
trates, that he dealt very falfely; and it was affirmed by 
others, that he fetched thirty or forty from Long Ifland at 

Letters of Roger Williams. 123 

one time. Then he acknowledged, that he had thirty, but 
the names he could not give. It pleated the magistrates 
to requeft me to fend to Nayantick, that the names of 
their Pequots might be fent to Connecticut ; as alfo to give 
Uncas ten days to bring in the number and names of his 
Pequots and their runaways, Mr. Haynes threatening 
alfo (in cafe of failing) to fetch them. 

Sir, at Plymouth, it pleafed the Lord to force the prifo- 
ners to confefs, that they all complotted and intended 
murder ; and they were, three of them, (the fourth having 
efcaped, by a pinnace, from Aquedneck,) executed in the 
prefence of the natives who went with me. Our friends 
conferled, that they received much quickening from your 
own hand. O that they might alfo in a cafe more weighty, 
wherein they need much, viz.: the ftanding to their pre- 
fent government and liberties, to which I find them weakly 

They have requefted me to enquire out a murder five 
years fince committed upon a Plymouth man (as they now 
hear) by two Narraganfett Indians, between Plymouth and 
Sowwams. I hope (if true) the Lord will difcover it. 

Sir, I underftand that there hath been fome Englishmen 
of late come over, who hath told much to Cutfhamo- 
quene's Indians (I think Auhaudin) of a great Sachem in 
England (ufing the King's name) to whom all the Sach- 
ems in this land are and (hall be nothing, and where his 
fhips ere long mail land; and this is much news at prefent 
amongft natives. I hope to enquire out the men. 

Mr. Vane 1 hath alfo written to Mr. Coddington and 

• Sir Henry Vane left Bofton for Eng- feared troubles in Bolton, and advifed 
land in 1637. It would appear by this Coddington's early removal. The lat- 
remark of Williams's that Sir Henry ter purchafed the Ifland of Aquidnerk 


Letters of Roger Wilha?ns. 

others on the ifland of late, to remove from Bofton as 
fpeedily as they might, hecaufe fome evil was ripening, &c. 
The mod: holy and mighty One blaft all mifchievous buds 
and blollbms, and prepare us for tears in the valley of tears, 
help you and us to trample on the dunghill of this prefent 
world, and to fet affedions and caft anchor above thefe 
heavens and earth, which are referved for burning. 

Sir, I hear, that two malicious perfons, one I was bold 
to trouble your worfhip with not long lince,) Jofhua 
Verin, 1 and another yet with us, William Arnold, have 
mo ft falfely and flanderouily (as I hope it mall appear) 
complotted together (even as Gardiner did againft your- 
felves) many odious accufations in writing. It may be, 
they may fome way come to your loving hand. I pre- 
fume the end is, to render me odious both to the King's 
majefty, as alfo to yourfelves. I mall requeft humbly your 

in 1637, and in March 1638 the firft 
covenant was entered into by the pur- 
chafers, and Coddington chofen Judge. 

1 Jofhua Verin was one of the five who 
accompanied Williams to Providence in 
1636, but removed foon after to Salem, 
in confequence of a vote of cenfure "for 
a breach of a covenant for retraining 
liberty of confcience." — R. I. Col. Re- 
cords, vol. i. p. 16. He now feems to 
be giving Williams fome trouble, as ap- 
pears from this letter, which is thus men- 
tioned by Winthrop : 

"At Providence, alfo, the devil was 
not idle. For whereas at their firft 
coming thither, Mr. Williams and the 
reft did make an order, that no man 
fhould be molefted for his confcience, 
now men's wives and children, claiming 
to go to all religious meetings, though 
never lb often, or though private, upon 
the week days ; and becaufe one Verin 

refufed to let his wife go to Mr. Wil- 
liams fo oft as fhe was called for, they 
required to have him ceniured. But 
there ftood up one Arnold, a witty man 
of their own company and withftood it, 
telling them that, when he confented to 
that order, he never intended it fhould 
extend to the breach of any ordinance 
of God, fuch as the fubje&ion of wives 
to their hufbands. Then one Greene 
replied, that if they fhould reftrain their 
wives, all the women in the country 

would crv out of them, &c In 

conclufion, when they would have cen- 
fured Verin, Arnold told them, that it 
was againft their own order, for Verin 
did that he did out of confcience ; and 
their order was, that no man fhould be 
ceniured for his confcience. — Savage's 
Winthrop, Hid. of New Eng land, vol. i. 
P- 34°- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 25 

wonted love and gentlenefs (if it come to your worship's 
hand) to help me with the fight of it, and I am confident 
yourielf mall be the judge of the notorious wickednefs 
and malicious falfehoods therein, and that there hath not 
pari aught from me, either concerning the maintaining of 
our liberties in this land, or any difference with yourfelves, 
which fhall not manifeft loyalty's reverence, modefty and 
tender affection. 

The Lord Jefus the Son of righteoufnefs, mine brightly 
and eternally on you and yours, and all that feek him that 
was crucified. In him, I defire ever to be 

Yours worship's moft unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

All refpeclive falutations to kind Mrs. Winthrop, Mr. 
Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, and theirs. 

For his much honored Mr. Governor, "John Winthrop. 

[September, 1638.]' 

Much honored Sir, — Some while fince I wrote to you 
a mort narration 2 of the ilTue of my voyage to Connecticut 
and Plymouth. I defire only to know whether it came to 
hand. I have been carefully fearching into that rumor of 
the Plymouth man ilain four years fince. The perfons to 
whom I was directed by our Plymouth friends for informa- 
tion are yet abfent on hunting : and Miantunnomu is but 
new returned from Connecticut, yet with what innruc~tion 
I have already gotten I am this morning taking a journey 
to the Sachems about it. 

1 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 252. may be feen in 3 Mafs. HiJI. Coll. vol. i. 

1 The communication here referred to p. 173; of date about September, 1638. 

1 26 Letters of Roger Williams. 

I hear of three Cowefet 1 men in hold about Mr. Ha- 
thorne's 2 cow. The Sachems affirm they cannot difcover 
the party. Thefe three were three of fix then there hunt- 
ing, yet they fay two things : Firft, that many Northern 
and Sauguft3 Indians hunt there ; alfo and fecondly, it may 
be that fome adverfe perfon might, out of fubtle envy, fhoot 
the beaft, to render them odious to the Englifh, and to 
caufe their deferting of the place, which they would have 
done but that Englifh were very deiirous (efpecially Mr. 
Endicott) that they fhould kill and fell venifon, &c. 

For myfelf, I fhall faithfully enquire and difclofe : al- 
though divers understanding perfons of Salem have affirmed 
that the cow dying about three months after, when fo 
many head of cattle died, it is very queftionable whether 
the arrow occafioned the death, &c. 

Sir, this is the occaiion of this enclofed : I underftand 

that a fervant of yours, Jofhua is fome trouble to 

yourfelf, as alfo to others, and confequently cannot (if he 
defire to fear the Lord) but himfelf be troubled and grieved 
in his condition, though otherwife I know not where 
under Heaven he could be better. 

If it may feem good in your eyes (wanting a fervant) I 
fhall defire him (not limply from you) but for your peace 
and his. I (hall delire your beft and full fatisfaction in 
payment, and what fum you pitch on, to accept it either 
from this bill, or if you better like from that debt of Mr. 
Ludlow, for which he promifed your worfhip to pay me 
eight hundred weight of tobacco but did not, and I pre- 
fume your worfhip may with eafe procure it; but I fub- 

1 Cowefet. Eaft Greenwich. 2 Mr. Hathorne, of Salem. 

J Saugus. Lynn, Mafl'achfuetts. 

Letters of Roger Williams. ] 27 

(bribe ex animo to your choice, and with refpeclive faluta- 
tions and continued fighs to Heaven for you and yours, 
reft defirous to be 

Your worship's unfeigned though unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I am loath, but I prefume once more to trouble you 
with that deceitful man James Hawkings, craving that you 
would pleafe to lend a hand that by yourfelf or the Court 
at Bofton, I may find mercy againft fuch injuftice. 

Sir, my wife (together with her beft refpects) to Mrs. 
Winthrop, requefts her acceptance of an handfull of chef- 
nuts, intending her (if Mrs. Winthrop love them) a bigger 
bafket of them at the return of Jigles. 

For his much honored and beloved Mr. John Winthrop at his 

houfe at Bojlon. 

Providence, loth, 30. [December 30, 1638.]' 

Sir, — Hoping of your health this dead feafon, with 
refpedtive falutations: I am bold to requeft a little help, 
and I hope the laft, concerning mine old and bad debtor 
about whom I have formerly troubled your worfhip, Mr. 
George Ludlow. 

I hear of a pinnace to put into Newport, bound for Vir- 
ginia, and I underftand that if you pleafe to teftify what 
you remember in the cafe, I may have fome hope at laft 
to get fomething. 

1 4 Ma/s. Hi/I. Coll. vol ': p. 256. 

128 Letters of Roger Williams. 

You were pleafed, after dealing with him at Bofton, to 
certify me that he had promifed to difcharge unto me 800// 
of tobacco, which you afterwards thought to have been dif_ 
charged : but he failing, although my due came to much 
more, I requeft if you can remember in a line or two to 
teftify : and I mall defire to blefs the Lord for you, and to 
beg of him a merciful requital into your bofom, even from 
his holy left and right hand efpecially : my writings are 
(from hand to hand about the bufinefs) loft; fo that all my 
evidence will be from your hand, of his acknowledgment 
and promife. Sir, I reft uncelTantly mourning that I am 
no more Your worship's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I may not omit my thankful acknowledgment of 
that counfel of peace you were pleafed to give to a young 
man who (when I was at Block Iiland) repaired to your 
worfhip for advice in fome jar between him and his neigh- 
bors : your counfel was profperous, and I defire you may 
have the jov of it. For fo faith the Lord, to the counfel- 
lors of peace and joy. 

Sir, I purpofe within twenty days (if God will) to tra- 
vel up to Mohegan : at my return I fliall trouble you with 
a line from Uncas, if I can fpeak with him about your 

Sir, I pray let your fervant direct the native with this 
letter to Mr. David Yale, 1 Mrs. Eaton's fon. 

1 David Yale of Bofton, fon-in-law of land, vol. i. p. 273. Note. — He was 

Governor Eaton of New Haven, men- the anceftor of Elihu Yale from whom 

tioned in the will of Edward Hopkins. Yale College takes its name. — Savage, 

Savage's Winthrop, HijL of 'New Eng- Genealogical Diil. vol. iv. p. 666. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 29 

For the right Worjhipful a fid his much honored friend Mr. 
Governor of the Maffdchufetts, thefe. 

Providence. [No date. J 1 

Sir, — Upon the receipt of your laft (anfwering my que- 
ries) I have acquainted the Sachems with the bufinefs : I 
am not yet furnifhed with anlwer fufficient : what I have 
at preient I mail humbly and faithfully fubmit to conrid- 
eration : one from them, two from myfelf. 

From them: upon folemn confultation with them about 
the 100// demanded of themfelves, they fay — 

Firft, that they remember not that either in the rirft 
Agreement and League (in the beginning of the Pequot 
wars) or iince, in any expreilion, that ever they undertook 
to anfwer in their own perfons or purfes what their fub- 
jec~ts mould fail in. 

Second. Nor do they believe that the Englifh Magif- 
trates do fo practice, and therefore they hope that what is 
righteous amongft ourfelves we will accept of from them. 

Third. Therefore they profefs that what evil foever fhall 
appear to be done by any (fubject to them) againft the 
bodies or goods of the Englim, fatisfaclion fhall readily be 
made out of the bodies or goods of the delinquents. 

For the 100// demanded, they fay concerning the Salem 
cow, they have to this day enquired, and can difcover no 
guilt either in the perfons imprifoned or the reft, but do 
believe that it was falfely laid upon them by fuch northern 
natives whofe traps they were, who themfelves were guilty. 

For the horfes, they have fent for Wuttattaaquegin who 
hath not been with them thefe three years, but keeps at 

1 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 254. 

13° Letters of Roger Williams. 

MafTachufetts : they intend alfo to call a general meeting 
of the Country at his coming, within a few days, when I 
(hall have further anfwer from them. 

Sir, a word more from myfelf : I have long lince be- 
lieved that as it is with the Moil High (Prov. 21. 3.) fo 
with yourfelves. To do judgment and juitice is more 
acceptable then facririce. And therefore that it mall not 
be ungrateful in your eyes, that I humbly requeft leave to 
fay that I fee the bulinefs is ravelled, and needs a patient 
and gentle hand to rectify mifunderftanding of each other 
and mifprifons. The Sachems to prevent the fears of their 
men in hunting or traveling, &c, earneftly defired me to 
fatisfy the Englifh, that if the bearers of a writing from 
me mould offend any ways, that they, the Sachems, would 
upon information from myfelf, caufe the delinquents to 
make fatisfa6lion out of their goods or bodies; to the end 
that the Englifh might not imprifon or tranfport away 
their perfons, (which the natives fufpect,) two of their men 
having been not long fince carried away in an Englifli fhip 
from the Bay, and two of their women the laft fummer 
from Conanicut in this Bay. 

In two particulars (as I conceive) neither the natives or 
myfelf were rightly understood. Firft, in the fcope of the 
writing, which was not to afk. leave to hunt as before. 
Secondly, in the promife, which was not to pay off them- 
felves (I mean the Sachems) but to caufe their men to deal 
juftly and to give fatisfaclion for offences committed out 
of their goods or bodies. 

I hope it will pleafe the Lord to perfuade your hearts to 
believe what I affirm, and again to review the writing. 
However, rather than any labor or pains of mine (well 
meant to preferve peace) fhall caufe or occafion dilfention, 

Letters of Roger Williams. 131 

I refolve to be yet poorer, and out of my poverty to en- 
deavor and further fatisfaction. (The earth is the Lord's 
and the fullnefs of it.) To the Everlafting Arms of his 
mercy I daily recommend you and yours, and reft 

Your Worfhip's moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

My refpective falutes to Mr. Deputy, Mr. Bellingham, &c. 

Sir, I have heretofore been bold to requeft your help in 
recovering an old debt from Mr. George Ludlow : and 
you were pleafed after dealing with him, to fignify that 
he had promifed to deliver afhore for me eight hundred 
pounds weight of tobacco : I fhall now humbly requeft 
that if Mr. Stratton defire it, or if he be again bound for 
Virginia, that you would pleafe to teftify fo much as you 
remember in a line or two, which may be of great ufe for 
my recovering of the debt, and I fhall defire to be thankful. 

For his ?nuch honored and beloved Mr. Governor of the Maf- 

fachufetts, thefe. 

Providence, 2d, 3d. [May 3, 1639. ]* 

Sir, — In my laft I gave intimation of another anfwer, 
which from the Sachems is this. 

Firft, that although they remember not any agreements 
that have patted about the natives yielding up their hunting 
places, advantages, &c, within prefcribed limits, &c, yet, 
becauie fatisfactory agreements may have been unknown 

J 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 257. 

132 Letters of Roger Williams. 

to them, between yourfelves and the natives about you, 
they have fent for this man, Wuttattaaguegin, (who keeps 
moft at Malfachufetts with Cutfhamoquene, 1 and hath not 
been this three years with them.) 

This man Wuttattaaguegin hath promifed to fatisfy in 
wampam, beaver and venifon what it comes to. 

But he believes not the damage can be fo great, for thus 
he relates : having laid his traps, intending daily to tend 
them, Cutmamoquene fent for him to be a guide for him in 
a hunting match about the Bay, where other natives were 
ignorant. He went, yet fent a youth to view his traps, 
who faith that he faw the Englishmen loofe three horfes 
out of the traps, and rode away upon two of them, the 
third only was lamed. 

Upon this he defired liberty to return to the Bay, to in- 
quire more perfectly the damage : and being not come 
back as yet, they have this prefent fent again for him. 

Yet becaufe they fee not that Wuttattaaguegin broke any 
known covenant in laying his traps in that place, nor wil- 
lingly wrought evil againft the Englifh, they conceive it 
would be very fair and honorable in all natives eyes, that 
it would pleafe the Englifh to make known as well their 
moderation as their juftice in the cafe. 

And for themfelves they refolve if this man fhould not 
be faithful or able to fatisfy your demand, they promife 
(upon perfuafions and fome offers of mine to them) to 
contribute themfelves out of their own, and to draw in 
help, that may in wampum, beaver, and venifon make up 
the whole fum before the next hunting be over. 

2 Cutfhamoquene, Sagamore of Maflachufetts. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 133 

So craving humbly your loving acceptation of my poor 
fervice herein, or whatever elfe you fhall pleafe to ufe me 
in, I reft 

Your worfhip's moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

My due refpecl: to my honored friends Mr. Deputy and 
the reft of the Council. 

For his much honored and beloved Mr. John Winthrop, Gov- 
ernor of MaJJ'achufetts, thefe. 

Providence, this 9th of the 3rd. [May 9th, 1639.]' 

Sir, — I am requefted by Canonicus and Miantunnomu 
to prefent you with their love and refpecl: (which they alfo 
defire may be remembered to all the Englifh Sachems) as 
alfo with this expreffion of the continuance of their love 
unto you, viz. : thirty fathom of beads, (ten from Canoni- 
cus, and twenty from Miantunnomu) 2 and the bafket a 
prefent from Miantunnomu's wife to your dear companion 
Mrs. Winthrop : three things they requeft me to deiire of 

Firft, the continuance of your ancient and conftant friend- 
fhip toward them, and good opinion of their lincere affec- 
tion to the Englifh. 

I objected againft this, that I lately heard that two boats 
of Englifh were cut off by Pequots, and that Miantunno- 
mu knew of the acl, &c. 

1 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 259. annual tribute from the Indians of Block 

2 Winthrop in his Journal of May 2, Ifland. — Hijl. of New Eng. vol. i. p. 355. 
notices the reception of wampum, the 

134 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To this they anfwered, that they have not fo much as 
heard of any mifcarriage of the Englifh this way of late, 
and that two days fince a Narraganfett man came from 
Long Iiland and brought no fuch tidings. 

That they have always (and fhall ftill) fuccor the Eng- 
lish in any fuch diftreifes : and that if but a iingle Eng- 
lifhman, woman, or child be found in the woods by any of 
theirs, they mould punifh feverely that man that mould not 
fafely conduct them and fuccor them, &c. 

Secondly, That you would pleafe to ratify that promife 
made to them after the wars, viz. : the free ufe of the Pe- 
quot country for their hunting, &c. 

Thirdly, That fince there are many Pequot Sachems and 
Captains furviving, many of whom have been actual mur- 
derers of the Englifh, and (three of them) which have 
flain fome of their Sachems. 

And that fince the Agreement the laftyear at Connecti- 
cut with Mr. Haynes and the Magistrates, you have not 
yet pleafed come to action. 1 

And that the Pequots being many hundreds of them 
may with thefe their Sachems do more mifchief to us and 

They therefore requeft that you would pleafe to write 
by them at prefent to Mr. Haynes that fo upon your joint 
Agreement they may themfelves freely purfue thofe Pe- 
quot Princes and Captains, whom Mr. Haynes (who had 
the lift of them from me the laft year) (hail name unto 

I objected the report of great numbers of Pequots 
among themielves, &c. 

5 The " Covenant and Agreement " en- 1 63 8. See note to Letter of the 10th 
tered into at Hartford, September 21, September, 1638. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 135 

They anfwer as formerly, that to clear themfelves from 
that, and to make it appear how both the Mohegans and 
the Nayantick men have received the Pequots and their 
prefents (when they refilled them) and fo have made pre- 
fents to the Englifh with the Pequot beads, which them- 
felves never did nor could: they will now fall upon this 
fervice, and if the Mohegans and Nayantick men will not 
join with them in it, they will themfelves purfue the per- 
fons that mall be named to them wherefoever they find 
them, although at Mohegan or Nayantick, without touch- 
ing a Mohegan or Nayantick man further than you (hall 
pleafe to advife them. 

More they fay, but I mould be tedious, and therefore 
with all due refpecl: to your loving felf, Mrs. Winthrop, 
Mr. Deputy, &c, I reft 

Yours worship's faithful and unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Canonicus begs of you a little fugar. 

For his much honored Mr. Governor, John Winthrop. 

[Auguft, 1639.]' 

Much honored Sir, — You were pleafed fome while 
fince to refer me to Mr. Haynes for a lift of fuch Pequots 
as were authors and chief adors in the late murders upon 
the Englifh. 

Accordingly I have fent up once and again to Mr. 

1 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 261. 

136 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Haynes, and we are come to a period : the child is come 
to the birth : a little ftrength from your loving hand (the 
Lord fo pleafing, and bleffing) will bring it forth. 

This lift here enclofed (which I requeft may be returned) 
was drawn by my beft enquiry and Tho. Stanton in the 
prefence of the Magi ftrates at Connecticut the laft year. 

This lift he was pleafed to fend me with the addition of 
feven more under his own hand. 

Some queries I made upon fome of the feven : as alfo 
[torn] Safacous his brother Puppompogs (now upon Long 
Ifland) whom Mr. Haynes deiired might be fpared, and I 
applauded the defire in many refpects, only I deiired for 
many other refpecls that he might be fent to fome other 
part of the world. 

Alfo lince that the Nayantick Sachems who harbor many 
of thefe, and Uncas, Canonicus and Miantunnomu re- 
quefted that a pinnace might lie fome few days at Pequot, 
to promote and countenance the work while Miantunnomu 
purfued them. 

Unto all which Mr Haynes in this laft is pleafed to 
anfwer, fo that we are come to a period. This week I 
went up to the Narraganfett about other bufinefs : there I 
found a bar, which I thought good to requeft your wor- 
ship to remove by a word or two. 

Your captive (which was Maumanadtuck's wife) now at 
Pequot, prefuming upon your experimented kindnefs to- 
ward her, informs all Pequots and Nayanticks that Mr. 
Governor's mind is, that no Pequot man fhould die, that 
her two fons fhall ere long be Sachems there, &c. Your 
wifdom (now by a freffi line or two) declaring that none 
but thefe (who by the beft of intelligence appear to be 
deeply guilty,) shall die, may facilitate the execution, to 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 37 

the honor of your mercy and juftice, and the clearing of 
the land from blood, either that of our countrymen already 
fpilt, or that may be hazarded by thefe wretches. I might 
but will not trouble your worfhip with fome prelum p- 
tions that way : the Lord be pleafed to further and 
blefs : and help your precious foul and mine to remember 
that vengeance, and to long and exped: for it upon the 
enemies of Jefus, when blood fhall flow out of the wine 
prefs to the horfe bridles by the fpace of fixteen hundred 

Your worship's unfeigned hitherto 

Roger Williams. 

Mine humble and true refpects to Mrs Winthrop, Mr. 
Dudley, 1 Mr. Bellingham, &c. 

The melfenger is ignorant of the matter, and is fatif- 
fied. 2 

To his much honored Governor fohn Winthrop. 

Providence, 21. 5. [July 21, 1640. ]* 

Much honored Sir, — Your runaways (as I before fur- 
mifed) are at Mohegan, and the Squa Sachem's daughter 
is married to the Sachem Uncas. I know the match hath 
been long defired (although the Sachem have five or fix 
wives already) which makes me fear that all Indian means 
will not reach your juft defires. May you pleafe to reft a 

' Mr. Dudley ; fee note to the follow- killed, (6), 1639." ('• e> Auguft, the 
ing letter. 6th mo.) 

2 Endorfed by Governor Winthrop, 1 \ Mafs. HiJI. Coll. vol. vi. p. 263. 

" Mr. Williams about the Pequods to be 

i 3 8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

little, for Miantunnomu (as he pretends out of love and 
refpecl: to your perfon) is very diligent about a peaceable 
return of them, that he may bring them with him, and 
as many more of the runaways as he can get. Uncas was 
gone to Connecticut, fo that a little patience is requilite. 

Sir, this you may pleafe to lignify to your much honored 
brother, Mr. Governor, 1 that this bulinefs only hinders 
Miantunnomu's coming. He is (not fatisfied but) per- 
suaded to truft to interpreters whom he fears to trull, and 
to come without myfelf. 

As alfo may you pleafe to underftand that the Nayantick 
Sachems ftill refuiing to yield up any of thofe Pequots to 
death to whom they had promifed life ; our friends of 
Connecticut (as I have heard by two letters from Tho. 
Stanton) intend prefent revenge upon them. Canonicus 
and Miantunnomu ftill perfuade (to mine own knowledge) 
the Sachems at laft to be wife, and yield up their Pequots, 
but in vain, for the Nayantick Sachems refolve that for fo 
many lives as are taken away by the Englilh, or the Mo- 
hegans and Pequots with them, they will take revenge up- 
on Mr. Throckmorton at Prudence, or Mr. Coddington, 2 
&c, or Providence, or eliewhere. 

I have dealt with Canonicus and Miantunuomu to defert 
the Nayanticks in this bulinefs. They anfwer they would 
if they had lhed the blood of the Englilh, but as they are 
their brethren, fo they never hurt the Englifh, but joined 
with them againfl the Pequots, &c, only they have been 
greedy upon the prey againft the Englilh mind : and laftly 

1 Dudley, who was brother to Win- antonomo, who is mentioned in this let- 

throp by the marriage of their children, ter. — Eds. Wintbrop Papers. 

was Governor in 1640; and did not hold 2 William Coddington, of Newport, 
the office again till after the death of Mi- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 39 

they fay the Englifli partiality to all the Pequots at Mohe- 
gan is lb great, and the confequences fo grievous upon the 
abufe of the Englim love, that all their arguments return 
back (which they ufe to the Nayantick Sachems) as arrows 
from a i\one wall. 

Tho. Stanton informs me of another caufe of war upon 
the Nayanticks, viz.: Wequafh 1 affirms that one of the 
petty Sachems of Navantick was aboard Mr. Oldham's 
pinnace, and that fome goods and gold are at Nayantick. 
Gold I never heard of^ but the pinnace, fkiff and other 
luggage and fmall particulars I had word of at firft, which 
were (by reafon of diftance) let alone : and in cafe that any 
one of the Sachems or more knew of Mr. Oldham's death, 
and that due evidence be found, I yet doubt (now fince the 
coming of the Lord Jefus and the period of the National 
Church,) whether any other ufe of war and arms be law- 
ful to the proferfors of the Lord Jefus, but in execution 
of juftice upon malefactors at home : or preferving of life 
and lives in defenfive war, as was upon the Pequots, &c. 
Ifai. 2. Mic. 4. 

If the fword rage in Old or New England : I know who 
gives out the commiffion, and can arm frogs, flies, lice, &c. 
He be pleafed to give us peace which earth neither gives 
nor takes. In him I ever defire to be more unfeigned and 
faithfull Your Worship's 

Roger Williams. 

a This is the laft time the name of We- lay very fick : I defired to fee him, and 

quafo appears in Williams's letters. He himfelfe was pleafed to be my guide two 

died in the fummer of 1642. " Two mile where Wequajh lay." — Key, Intro- 

days before his death " fays Williams, duclion. 

"as I palled up Connecticut River, it Wequafocuck or Wequajh Cook, was 

pleafed my worthy friend Mr. Fenwick, another Indian, who lived many years 

to tell me that my old friend Wequajh after the death of Wequafh. 

140 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To bis much honored Governor John Winthrop. 

Providence, 7. 6. (fo called) 40. [Auguft 7, 1640.] 1 

Sir, — About (from PortfmoutrO I received yours. As 
I lately advertifed to Mr. Governor, [Dudley] 2 the hurries 
of the natives thoughts and confultations fo continue, about 
the three Nayanticks, prifoners with our friends at Connec- 
ticut ; that your runaways are longer fecure in their efcape 
then otherwife they mould be. 

The Mohegan Sachem, Uncas, refufeth to part with his 
prey: And whereas Miantunnomu was going up to Mo- 
hegan himlelf with a fufficient company for the runaways, 
Uncas lent word that it was your worship's plot to bring 
him into the fnare at Mohegan, that there the Connecti- 
cut Englifh might fall upon him. 

Miantunnomu ftill promifeth me to come over to you, 
and his purpofe (to his utmoft) to bring them with him. 
My occasions lead me within thefe four or five days to 
Connecticut, when (the Lord fo permitting) I purpofe to 
go up to Mohegan and try the utmoft myfelf. The ifTue 
of all is in that Everlafting Hand, in which is our breath 
and our ways, in whom I defire to be ftill 

Your wormip's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

'4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 265. as Deputy Governor with his fon-in-law 

1 Dudley, Governor of Maflachufetts. Simon Bradltreet, and held that office 

He was a principal member of the Mas- twelve years, and the office of Governor 

fachufetts Company which fettled Bofton in the years 1634, 1640, 1645 and 1650. 

and its vicinity. He came over in 1630 He died in 1652. 

he tiers of Roger IV i I Hams. 


I thank your worship for the Scotch intelligence: 1 The 
ifTue (I fear) will be general and grievous perfecution of all 

Mine and my poor wife's beft falutes to Mrs. Winthrop 
and all yours. 

To Mr. Winthrop concerning Samuel Gorton. 

Providence, 8th. ift. 1646. [8th March. ] z 

Matter Gorton3 having foully abufed high and low at 
Aquidnick, is now bewitching and bemadding poor Provi- 
dence, both with his unclean and foul cenfures of all the 
minifters of this country, (for which myfelf have in Chrift's 
name withftood him), and alfo denying all viiible and ex- 
ternal Ordinances in depth of Familifm, againft which I 
have a little difputed and written, and mail (the moft High 

1 "Scotch intelligence." This doubt- 
lefs alludes to the rebellion in Scotland, 
and the defeat of the royal army by the 
Scots which took place in the fummer of 

2 Winslow, Hypocrafie Unmajked. Lon- 
don, 1646. pp. 55-56. 

5 In this letter is the firft mention by 
Williams of Samuel Gorton. It opens 
a controverfy between the firfl fettlers of 
Warwick, including Gordon, Williams 
and many others, both of the colonies of 
Rhode Ifland and MafTachufetts. It got 
into the Courts, and agitated both the 
colonial governments. The hiftoi ians 
of the time wrote much about it, but to 
enter fully into a hillory of the quarrel 

would require more fpace than is given 
to all thefe letters. Winslow, in his 
Dedicatory epiftle to the Earl of War- 
wick, prefixed to his book entitled Hy- 
pocrifte Unmajked: by a true Relation of 
the Proeee dings of the Governor and Com- 
pany of the MaJJachufetts againjl Samuel 
Gorton, and bis Accomplices ; thus writes : 

"And yet Right Honorable, it will 
and doth appear in the following Trea- 
tife, that Samuel Gorton was profecuted 
againil, Firll at Plymouth as a grofs dif- 
turber of the Civill peace and quiet of 
that government, in an open, factious and 
feditious manner. Secondly, he was no 
lefle troublefome, but much more at 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

aflenting,) to death. As Paul faid of Alia, I, of Provi- 
dence, (almoft) all fuck in his poifon, as at rirft they did at 
Aquidnick. Some few and myfelf withftand his inhabita- 
tion, and town privileges, without confeffion and reformation 
of his uncivil and inhuman practices at Portfmouth : Yet 
the tide is too ftrong againft us, and I fear (if the framer 
of Hearts help not) it will force me to little Patience, a 
little Ifle next to your Prudence. Jehovah himfelf be 
pleafed to be a fanctuary to all whofe hearts are perfect 
with him ; in him I defire unfeignedly to be 

Your worfhip's true and affectionate 

Roger Williams. 

Rhode Ifland, having gotten a ftrong party 
to adhere unto him, affronting that gov- 
ernment (as Plymouth) in their publique 
adminiftration of Juftice fo foully and 
groftely. as mine eares never heard the 
like of any. Gorton being there whipt 
in his perfon, and thence banifhed with 
fome of his principal adherents ; they 
went next to Providence, where Mr. 
Williams and fome others have built a 
fmall towne. This people receiving 
them with all humanity in a cold leafon, 
when the former places could no longer 
beare his infolencies ; he foone under- 
mined their government, gained a ftrong 
party amongft them to his owne, to the 
great diffraction of Mr. Williams, and 
the better party there, contending againft 
their Laws and the execution of Juftice, 
to the effufion of bloud, which made Mr. 

Williams and the reft fadly complaine to 
the Government of the Maffachufetts, 
and divers of them to take protection of 
that Government, to defend their per- 
fons and eftates. But when they faw Mr. 
Williams reiblve rather to lofe the bene- 
fit of his labours, than to live with fuch 
ill-affected people, and the neighbour 
governments become affected with Gor- 
ton's mifrule there alfo, he (and his com- 
panions in evill) began to think of buy- 
ing a place of a Sachem, or Indian 
Prince," &c. 

See alfo Gorton's Simplicite's Defence 
againft Seven-beaded Policy. London 
1646 ; alfo in R. I. Hi/I. Coll. vol. ii. 
Hutchinson's Hift. Majfacbufetts Bay 
Arnold, Hift. of Rhode I/land, vol. 1 
ch. vi.; R. I. Colonial Records, vol. i. 
Winthrop, Hift. of New England. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrof? at Pequot, 


Nar. 22. 4. 45, (fo called.) [Narracansett, 22 June, 1645.]* 

Sir: — Beft falutations, &c. William Cheefbrough,3 now 
come in, fhall be readily affifted, for yours and his owne 
fake. Major Bourne is come in. I have (by Providence,) 
feen divers papers, (returning now yours thankfully,) which 
are matched from me againe. I have, therefore, been bold 
to fend you the Medulla and the Magnalia Dei. Pardon 
me, if I requeft you, in my name, to transfer the paper to 

1 With the exception of the letter of 
June 25, 1645, which follows this, no 
others appear in this volume from Gov. 
Winthrop, Senior, of MafTachufetts, to 
whom all the previous letters are ad- 

John Winthrop, Jr., ion of Gov. Win- 
throp, of Maflachu lefts, followed his 
father to America in 163 1 ; and in 1633 
returned to England. In 1635 he re- 
turned to Bollon, with authority to make 
a fettlement in Connecticut, and foon 
after lent a party to build a fort at Say- 
brook. In 1646, he founded the city of 
New London ; was chol'en Governor in 
1657; again in 1659, and annually from 
that period until his death which took 
place at Bofton, in 1676. In 1 661, he 
went to England and procured a charter, 
incorporating New Haven and Connec- 
ticut into one colony. He was an accom- 
plifhed icholar, was particularly (killed in 
chemiftry and phyfics, and was one o{ the 
founders ot the Royal Society, of London. 
He was the author of a number of pa- 

pers in the " Pbilofopkical Tranfdflions." 
It appears from one of the letters that 
Mr. Williams became acquainted with 
Winthrop in England, and the corres- 
pondence will fhow that the friendfhip 
between them was ltrong and mutual. 
The letters here printed, which are from 
the " Winthrop Papers" in the Collec- 
:ion of the MafTachufetts Hiilorical So- 
ciety, relate to politics, literature, agri- 
culture and other topics, through which, 
like thofe to the elder Winthrop, runs a 
religious vein. 

2 Knowles, Mem. R. Williams, p. 207. 
3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 268. 

8 William Chefbrough occupied cer- 
tain lands in Southertown, eafl of Paw- 
catuck River, over which Connecticut 
claimed jurisdiction, as a portion of the 
Pequot country, and about which ferious 
troubles arofe in 1661. Probably he 
may have been in trouble at the time this 
letter was written, and that Winthrop 
had afked the good offices of Williams 
in Chefbrough's behalf. 

144 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Captain Mafon, who faith he loves me. God is love; in 
Him only I deiire to be yours ever, 

Roger Williams. 

Loving falutes to your deareft and kind fifter. 

I have been very iick of cold and fever, but God hath 
been gracious to me. I am not yet refolved of a courfe 
for my daughter. If youre powder, with directions, might 
be fent without trouble, I mould firrt wait upon God in 
that way: however 'tis bell to wait upon Him. If the 
ingredients be coftly, I (hall thankfully account. I have 
books that prefcribe powders, &c, but yours is probatum 
in this country. 

For his much honored Mr. Governor, John Winthrop. 

Providence, 25th of 4th, 1645, (ib called.) [June 25.]' 

Much honored Sir, — Though I mould fear that all the 
fparks of former love are now extinct, &c, yet I am con- 
fident that your large talents of wifdom and experience of 
the affairs of men will not lightly condemn my endeavor 
to give information and fatisfaclion, as now I have done in 
this poor apology, with all due refpects prefented to your 
honor, and the hands of my worthy friends with you. 

1 4 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol vi. p. 266. Williams from England, in September, 

This is the laft letter of Williams, in 1644, whither he had gone in the f'um- 

the "Winthrop Papers," addreffed to mer of 1643. The fruits of his vifit 

Gov. Winthrop of Maffachufetts, pub- were the Charter of Rhode Ifland, bear - 

lifhed by the Maffachufetts Hiftorical ing date of the 14th March, 1643-4. 

Society, and the only one preferved Eds. Winthrop Papers.. 
wV.irh was written after the return of 

Letters of Roger Williams. 145 

Sir, for tidings concerning the public, three days fince I 
received a letter from the Dutch Governor reporting fome 
new hopes of peace. For ourfelves, the flame of war 
rageth next door unto us. The Narraganfetts and Mohe- 
gans, with their refpective confederates, have deeply im- 
plunged themfelves in barbarous Daughters. For myfelf I 
have (to my utmoft) difuaded our neighbors, high and low, 
from arms, &c, but there is a fpirit of defperation fallen 
upon them, refolved to revenge the death of their prince, 
and recover their ranfom for his life, &c, or to perifh with 
him. Sir, I was requefted by both parties, yourfelves and 
the Narraganfetts, to keep the fubfcribed league between 
yourfelves and them, and yours and their pofterity. Sir, 
that, and the common bonds of humanity move me to 
pray yourfelves and our friends of Connecticut to improve 
all interefts and opportunities to quench thefe flames. 
My humble requeiis are to the God of Peace that no Eng- 
lish blood be further fpilt in America: it is one way to pre- 
vent it by loving mediation or prudent neutrality. Sir, 
(excepting the matters of my foul and confcience to God, 
the Father of Spirits) you have not a truer friend and fer- 
vant to your worthy perfon and yours, nor to the peace and 
welfare of the whole country, then the moft defpifed and 
moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

For bis Worflnpful, and his much honored, kind friend, Mr. 
fohn Winthrop, at Nameaug? thefe. 

Cawcawmsqussick, 2 28. 3. 47. (fo called) [28 May, 1647. ]' 

Worthy Sir, — Loving refpedts and falutations to your 
kind felt and your kindeft companion. Some while fince, 
you defired a word of direction about the hay feed. I de- 
fired my brother to collect his own and other neighbors' 
obfervations about it, which (with his refpects prefented) 
amounts to this. 

Firft. Ufually three bufhels of feed to one acre of land. 

Second. It hath been known to fpread, to mat, 6cc, the 
Indian hills being only fcraped or levelled. 

Third. This may be done at any time of the year, but 
the fooner the better. 

Fourth. It is beft to sow it upon a rain preceding. 

Fifth. Some fay let the ripe grafs fland until it feed, 
and the wind difperle it (fufque deque) up and down, for 
it is of that thriving and homogeneal nature with the 
earth, that the very dung of cattle that feeds on it will 
produce the grain. 

1 Nameat/g. New London. The traft 
was originally called Pequot, and com- 
prised what is now known as New Lon- 
don and Groton. In 1658 the Alfembly 
of Connecticut enacted that "This court, 
considering that there hath yet no place 
in any of the colonies, been named in 
memory of" the city of London, there 
being a new plantation, in the Pequot 
country, with an excellent harbour, and 
the only place which the Englifh in thei'e 
parts have poflefled by conqueft .... 
that therefore they might leave to pofteri- 
ty the memory of that renowned city of 
London, from whence we had our tranf- 

portation, have thought fit, to call the 
laid plantation New London. The name 
of the river was alfo changed, and called 
the Thames." — Trumbull, ////?. of Con- 

2 Cawcawmfqufficky Locumfcujfuc. The 
country around and well and northweil 
of Wickford. Williams about this time 
purchafed an eflate and built a trading 
houfe here, which he afterwards fold 
to Richard Smith in order to obtain 
money for his fecond vifit to England. — 

' Knowles' Mem. R. Williams, p. 209. 
3 Mafi. Hifi. Coll. vol. ix. p. 268. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 147 

Sixth. The offs, which can hardly be fevered from the 
feed, hath the fame productive faculty. 

Seventh. Sow it not in an orchard, near fruit trees, for 
it will fteal and rob the trees, &c. 

Sir: Concerning Indian affairs, reports are various; lies 
are frequent. Private interefts, both with Indians and Eng- 
lifh, are many ; yet thefe things you may and muff, do. 
Firft, kifs truth where you evidently, upon your foul, fee 
it. 2. Advance juftice, though upon a child's eyes. 3. 
Seek and make peace, if poffible, with all men. 4. Se- 
cure your own life from a revengeful, malicious arrow or 
hatchet. I have been in danger of them, and delivered 
yet from them ; bleifed be His holy name, in whom I 
defire to be 

Your worfhip's, in all unfeigned refpects and love, 

Roger Williams. 

To John Winthrop, Jr. For the Governor I have fent thefe 


Cawcawmsqussick, 20. 6. 47. (fo call'd) [Auguil 20, 1647.]' 

S IR) — Due refpects prefented, &c. I am importuned 
bv Ninigret, in exprefs words, to prefent his refpe&s and 
love to your honored father, and to the honored Preli- 
dent of the commiffioners, 2 giving great thanks for the 

•Knowles' Memoir of R. Williams, to the Commiffioners by the Narragan- 

p. 210. 3 Mafi. Hiji. Coll. vol. ix. fetts, in accordance with the treaty. 
p # 2 6q_ z The Commiffioners of the United 

This letter, probably, has reference to Colonies, 
the collection of the wampum to be paid 

148 Letters of Roger Williams. 

great favor and kindnefs fhowed him. Withal, he prays 
you earneftly to prefent his humble fuit, that fince he, by 
reafon of his travel and illnefs, can, as yet, get no further 
towards his own home, and rinds he muft have much work 
with the natives of thefe parts, before he repair home, and 
time to fpend exceeding faft, it may be accounted no 
breach of faithfulneis of his promife, if he finifh the con- 
tribution he is now about, within a few days after the punc- 
tual time. The other Sachems, upon agitations, have 
promifed their utmoft concurrence, to finifh all within a 
month from the day of his promife, which time he ear- 
neftlv requefts may be alfented to, hoping to make pay- 
ment before, but not queftioning by the expiration of that 
time. By this bearer, he humbly prays a word of anfwer, 
that, with the more cheerful concurrence of the other 
Sachems, (who join with him in this requeft,) he may be 
the more cheerful in the work. Sir, I difcern nothing but 
reality and reafon in his requeft ; otherwife, I mould not 
dare to moleft you, or thofe honored perfons whom it con- 
cerns; to whom, with my humble refpects, and to your- 
felf prefented, befeeching the Mo ft High to be your por- 
tion, I reft, 

Your worfhip's unworthy 

Roger Willliams. 

Pefickofh defired me to prefent his great thanks for his 

Sir: Your man is with me at prefent writing, well, this 
laft of the week, and will be going inftantly. Humble 
thanks for the fight of papers from England. The fea 
will be the fea till it be no more. Revel. 21. 

Refpe&s to your deareft. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 149 

¥0 the Town of Providence. 

Auguft 31, 1648. 1 

Worthy Friends, that ourielves and all men are apt 
and prone to differ, it is no new thing. In all former ages, 
in all parts of the world, in thefe parts, and in our dear 
native country and mournful ftate of England, that either 
part or party is moft right in his own eyes, his caufe right, 
his carriage right, his arguments right, his anfwers right, 
is as woefully and conftantly true as the former. And ex- 
perience tells us, that when the God of peace have taken 
peace from the earth, one fpark of action, word or carriage 
is too powerful to kindle fuch a fire as burns up towns, 
cities, armies, navies, nations and kingdoms. And fince, 
dear friends, it is an honor for men to ceafe from flxife ; 
fince the life of love is fweet, and union is as ftrong 
as fweet and fince you have been lately pleafed to call 
me to fome public fervice and my foul hath been long 
mufing how I might bring water to quench, and not oil 
or fluid to the flame, I am now humbly bold to befeech 
you, by all thofe comforts of earth and heaven which a 
placable and peaceable fpirit will bring to you, and by all 
thofe dreadful alarms and warnings, either amongft our- 
felves, in deaths and ficknefles, or abroad in the raging ca- 
lamities of the fword, death and peftilence ; I fay, I hum- 
bly and earneftly befeech you to be willing to be pacifiable, 
willing to be reconcilable, willing to be fociable, and 
to liften to the (I hope not unreafonable) motion fol- 
lowing : To try out matters by difputes and writngs, 
is fometimes endlefs ; to try out arguments by arms 

1 Knowles, Memoir of Roger Williams, in New England. Boflon, 1777. vol i. 
p. 214. Backus, Hijl. of the Baptifs p. 204. 

150 Letters of Roger Williams. 

and fwords, is cruel and mercilefs; to trouble the ftate and 
Lords of England, is moft unreafonable, moll: chargeable ; 
to trouble our neighbors of other colonies, feems neither 
fafe nor honorable. Methinks, dear friends, the colony 
now looks with the torn face of two parties, and that the 
greater number of Portfmouth, with other loving friends 
adhering to them, appear as one grieved party ; the other 
three towns, or greater part of them, appear to be another: 
Let each party choofe and nominate three ; Portsmouth 
and friends adhering three, the other party three, one out 
of each town ; let authority be given to them to examine 
every public difference, grievance and obftruction of juf- 
tice, peace and common fafety : let them, by one final 
fentence of all or the greater part of them, end all, and fet 
the whole into an unanimous poilure and order, and let 
them fet a cenfure upon any that mall oppofe their fen- 
tence. One log, without your gentle help, I cannot ftir ; 
it is this: How mall the minds of the towns be known? 
How mail the perfons chofen be called ? Time and place 
appointed in any expedition ? For myfelf I can thank- 
fully embrace the help of Mr. Coddington or Mr. Clarke, 1 
joined or apart, but how many are there who will attend, 
(as our diftempers are) to neither ? It is, gentlemen, in 
the power of the body to require the help of any of her 
members, and both King and Parliament plead, that in 
extraordinary cafes they have been forced to extraordinary 
ways for common fafety. Let me be friendly conftrued, 
if (for expedition) I am bold to be too forward in this fer- 
vice, and to fay, that if within twenty days of the date 
hereof, you pleafe to fend to my houfe, at Providence, the 

1 John Clarke of Rhode Ifland. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

l 5 

name of him whom you pleafe to nominate, at your defire 
I will acquaint all the perfons chofen with place and time, 
unto which in your name I fhall defire their meeting with- 
in ten days, or thereabouts, after the receipt of your let- 
ter. 1 I am your mournful and unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

1 Owing to quarrels of the people of 
Warwick and Providenee chiefly on ac- 
count of Samuel Gorton, William Cod- 
dington and Alexander Partridge pro- 
pofed to the Commiflioners of the United 
Colonies that " the Iflanders of Rhode 
Ifland may be received into a combina- 
tion with all the United Colonies of New 
England, into a firm and perpetual league 
of friendfhip and amity, for offence and 
defence," etc. 

Thus under a pretence of promoting 
peace, thefe men would have feparated 
the ifland from the reft of the colony. 
The Commiflioners, unwilling to receive 
them as a diftindt colony, propofed to 
have the ifland annexed to Plymouth, if 
the majority of its inhabitants would ac- 
knowledge its jurifdiftion. In this di- 
lemma, Williams came forward to endea- 
vor to heal up the animofities with the 
propofitions contained in this letter to the 
town of Providence. His kind offices 
had the defired effect ; harmony was re- 

ftored and Williams was authorized to 
act as Prefident until the election fliould 
take place in May, 1649. 

At the General Aflembly held at New- 
port, in May, 1650, a frefli order was 
fent to the towns, to colled and pay 
what they owed to Mr. Williams for 
the charter within twenty days. " Wil- 
liam Arnold and William Carpenter, 
inflead of fubmitting to the government 
of their own colony, went again and 
entered complaints againft fome of their 
neighbors Jo the Maffachufetts rulers, 
and they fent a citation to them to come 
and anfwer the fame in their courts, 
dated from Bofton, June 20th, 1650, 
figned by Edward Rawfon, Secretary. 
Such obflacles of good government were 
they who have made a great noile in the 
world about the diforders of Rhode If- 
land Colony!" — Backus, Hiji. of the 
Baptijh in N. E. Bofton, 1777: vol. i. 
p. 207. 

152 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his much honored, kind friend, Mr. 'John Winthrop, at 
his houfe, i?i Nameag, thefe. 

Cawcawmsqussick, II. 7. 48, (fo called.) [11 Sept. 1648. J 1 

Dear and worthy Sir, — Beft falutations to you both 
and loving fifter premifed, wiihing you eternal peace in the 
only Prince of it. I have longed to hear from you and to 
fend to you fince this ftorm arofe. The report was (as 
mod commonly all Indian reports are) abfolutely falfe, of 
my removing my goods, or the leaft rag, &c. A fortnight 
fince, I heard of the Mohawks coming to Pawcatuck, 
their rendezvous ; that they were provoked by Uncas 
wronging and robbing fome Pawcatuck Indians the lafr 
year, and that he had dared the Mohawks, threatening, if 
they came to fet his grounds with gobbets of their flefh ; 
that our neighbors had given them play, (as they do every 
year ; yet withal I heard they were divided ; fome refolved 
to proceed, others pleaded their hunting feafon. We have 
here one Waupinhommin, a proud, defperate abufer of us, 
and a firebrand to ilir up the natives againfi: us, who makes 
it all his trade to run between the Mohawks and thefe, and 
(being a captain alio himfelf ) renders the Mohawks more 
terrible and powerful than the Englifh. Between him and 
the chief Sachems hath been great confultations, and to 
my knowledge, he hath perfuaded them to defert their 
country and become one rebellious body or rout with the 
Mohawk, and fo to defy the Englifh, &c. 2 I havefent alfo 

1 3 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. i. p. 178. raganfetts to fight with Uncas." A depu- 

2 We find an explanation of this in tation was fent from Plymouth to confer 
Backus, who fays " The Indians were with the Narraganfetts. Williams fent 
far from being eafy ; and in Auguit, for the Sachems, who, upon meeting him, 
1648, about 1000 of them from various denied their hiring the Mohawks to war 
parts were collected in Connecticut, with againll Uncas. — Hiji. of the Baptijls,\o\. 
300 guns among them; and it was re- i. p. 194. 

ported that they were hired by the Nar- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 5 3 

what I can inform to the commiffioners. At prefent, 
(through mercy) we are in peace. 

Sir, I defire to be ever 

Yours in Chrift Jefus, 

Roger Williams. 

The letter I have fent by Warwick, twenty miles nearer 
than by Seekonk. 

For my much honored, kind friend, Mr. "John Winthrop, at 
his houfe, at Nameug, thefe. 

Cawcawmsqussick, 23. 7. 48, (fo called.) [Sept. 23, 1648. ] x 

Kind Sir, — Beft falutations to your dear felves and lov- 
ing lifter. I am bold and yet glad to trouble you, that by 
this occafion I may hear of your welfare. Capt. Mafon 
lately requefted me to forbid the Narraganfetts to hunt at 
Pequot, and to arTure them of his vifiting of them if they 
fo did. I have written now an anfwer, which I am bold 
to requeft you to fend at your next opportunity. Two 
days iince I was at Providence, and then Mr. Brown was 
not returned, only he had wrote home fome angry palfage 
againft the Narraganfetts, who are now in expectation of 
fome aifault from the Engliih. Sir, whether it pleafe God 
to vifit us with peace or war, in life and death I deiire to be 

Yours ever in Chrift Jefus, 

Roger Williams. 

■Knowles, Mem. of Roger Williams, p. 215. 3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. ix. p. 270. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

Sir, our neighbors, Mr. Coddington and Capt. Partridge, 
ten days iince, returned from Plymouth, with propofitions 
for Rhode Iiland to fubjecl: to Plymouth; 1 to which him- 
felf and Portlmouth incline; our other three towns de- 
cline, and Mr. Holden and Mr. Warner, of Warwick, 2 came 
from thence alfo, and they fay, gave fatisfaction why they 
dare not (the other three towns) depart from the charter. 
Sir, in this divifion of our neighbors, I have kept myfelf 
unengaged, and prefented motions of pacification, amongft 
which I was bold to propofe a reference to your worthy 
felt and fome other friend to be chofen ; our town yields 
to it, and Mr. Bolton (though oppolite) and poffibly you 
may have the trouble and honor of a peace-maker. 

Sir, pray feal the enclofed. 

1 See note to previous letter for the 
propofition to fubjecl: the ifland of Rhode 
Ifland to Plymouth. Three years be- 
fore the propoial was made by Codding- 
t >n and Partridge, Maflachufetts fet up a 
title to Rhode Ifland, and claimed allegi- 
ance from its inhabitants. Winthrop, 

under date of May 1645, fays "The 

government of Plymouth lent one of their 
magiftrates, Mr. Brown,* to Aquetneck 
ifland, to forbid Mr. Williams and others 
to exercife any of their pretended au- 
thority upon the ifland, claiming it to be 
within their jurifdidlion. Our Court 
alfo fent to forbid them to exercife any 
authority within that part of our jurif- 
diction at Pawtuxet and Shawomet, and 
although they had boafted to do great 
matters there, by virtue of their charter, 
yet they dared not to attempt anything." 
Savage's Winthrop, vol. ii. p. 270. 

In Auguft, '645, Williams received 

an official notice from Increafe Nowell, 
Secretary, aflerting that Maflachufetts 
held " a charter whereby the Narragan- 
fett Bay, and a certaine tracl of land 
wherein Providence and the Ifland of 
Aquidnay are included," and giving him 
notice to "forbeare any jurifdiction there- 
in." — See Ma/s. Col. Records, vol. iii. p. 
49 ; alfo R. I. Col. Records, vol. i. p. 133. 

z Randall Holden and John Warner 
two of the leading men of Warwick. 

*"John Brown," here referred to, 
fays Savage, " is honorably mentioned 
in Morton's Memorial, as having been 
acquainted with the defert of the pil- 
grims before they left Leyden. He be- 
came Aflillant in 1636, and was after- 
wards a Commiflioner of the United 
Colonies from 1644 to 1655, and died 
in 1662. A fon, James, who lived at 
Swanzea, was an aflillant in 1665." — 
Note to Winthrop, p. 270. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 155 

For his ?nuch honored and beloved Mr. John Wintbrop, at 


Cawcawmsqussick, 10. 8. 48, (fo called.) [10th Oft. 1648.]" 

Sir, — Beft falutations to your dear felves and loving 
lifter. In my laft I intimated a promife of prefenting you 
with what here pafTeth. Captain Atherton, 2 Captain Prich- 
ard, Richard Wood and Strong Tuchell, have been with 
me (as alfo Wm. Arnold, inftead of his fon Benedict, who 
withdrew himfelf, though fent unto,) thefe fix or feven 
days. They were at Niantick two nights. Captain Ather- 
ton purpofed to vilit you, but they appointing their meet- 
ing with all the Sachems at my houfe, they came back ; 
and this morning, (the fourth day of the week,) they are 
departed with good content toward the Bay. From the 
commiffioners they brought feveral articles, but the main 
were three ; concerning the Mohawks, &c. ; 2d, the pay- 
ment ; 3d, Uncas' future fafety. To the firft, they fent 
anfwer (and that they confirmed with many affervations, 
and one of them voluntarily took the Englifhmen's God 
to witneis) that they gave not a penny to hire the Mo- 
hawks againft the Mohegans, but that it was wholly 
wrought by Wuilbonkquaffin, (which they difcovered as a 
fecret) who being bound by Uncas, and Wuttouwuttau- 
oum, Uncas his coufin, having attempted to (hoot a Mo- 
hawk Sachem at that time, refolved with the Mohawks (to 

1 3 Mafs. Hifi. Coll. vol. ix. p. 271. was killed by a fall from his horfe in 
Knowles' Mem. Roger Williams p. 218. 1 66 1 . Atherton and Pritchard were 

2 Humphrey Atherton, Major-Gene- the agents fent from Plymouth to Narra- 
ral and a diftinguifhed Maffachufetts fol- ganfett to enquire into the reported league 
dier. He was Speaker of the General with the Mohawks, mentioned in letter 
Court in 1653, and was much employed of September 11th. 

in negotiations with the Indians. He 

156 Letters of Roger Williams. 

whom he alfo gave peag) to take revenge upon Uncas ; 
WufToonkquaffin Tent them word and defired peag of them 
in the fpring, but they profefs they confented not, nor fent 
not a penny, afterwards they fent Waupinhommin up to 
inquire to Pawcatuck and however they have given fome 
of the Mohegans peag this year, (as they have always done) 
yet they fay they are clear from giving a penny in hire, 
&c. They confefs their enmity againft Uncas, and they 
(to the 2d) will not reft until they have finifhed their pay- 
ments, that they may prefent their complaints againft Un- 
cas, who (they fay) and other Indians, within thefe three 
years, have committed thirteen murders with impunity, 
being out of their reach in the Englifh protection. This 
laft year they pleaded they were near ftarved, and, therefore, 
fent but a fmall quantity. Now they promife, upon return 
of their men from hunting this winter, to make a contri- 
bution, the next fpring another, and fo according as they 
can draw the people to it, will not ceafe to furnifh, and if 
they die, their children (hall fulfil, and that it is their fore 
grief, &c, with much to this purpofe. For Uncas they 
profefs neither directly nor indirectly, to have to do with 
him, yet hope the Englifh will not deal partially with him. 
They defired the Englifh receipt of their peag ; I pro- 
duced the note you fent me, which, becaufe it was not 
figned with your father's hand or the Treafurer's, &c, the 
meifengers promifed to fend them one from the Bay, Nini- 
gret, made great lamentation that you had entertained hard 
thoughts of him in this bufinefs, and all the Sachems here 
profeifed their forrow and that you had hearkened to We- 
quafhcook, who they fay never contributed nor joined in 
the Pequot wars, and now flatters to draw his neck out of 
the payments to the Englifh. They hope you will not 

Letters of Roger Williams. i $y 

countenance him to rob Ninigret of thofe hunting places 
which the commirlioners gave him leave to make ufe of, 
and he with the Englifh had fought for with the expenfe 
of much treafure and hazard of his life. They defire that 
he may and Caufafenamon and the reft of the Pequots, be 
as your little dogs, but not as your confederates, which 
they fay is unworthy yourfelf, &c. Sir, I perceive the 
Englifh about the Bay enquire after new places. Captain 
Atherton prays me fhortly to convey a letter to you. I 
forgot one pafTage that the Sachems difcovered, that Wuf- 
foonkquaffin gave peag to the Mohawks to retreat. It 
feems they are (Switzer like) mercenary, and were hired on 
and off; thefe Sachems I believe defire cordially to hold 
friendfhip with both the Englifh and the Mohawks to- 
gether ; I am confident (whether they lie or not, about 
WulToonkquaffin) that they never intended hurt againft the 
Englifh nor yourfelf and yours efpeciallv, to whom they 
profefs great refpect, and jointly they defire that Wequafh- 
cook may come back to Connecticut from whence he went, 
for if he join with Uncas they fufpect he will fecretly be 
a means of fome of their deaths. Laftly, whereas they 
heard that the women with you were fomething fearful, 
Ninigret prays Mrs. Winthrop to be allured, that there 
never was, nor never fhall be, to his knowledge, the leaft 
offence given to her or her neighbors, by any of his (though 
he hath learnt it partly by your juft abhoring of Uncas his 
outrageous carriage among you, and of which I have not 
foftly told thefe meffengers and the admired partiality in 
the cafe.) For a token of his fidelity to Mrs. Winthrop, 
Ninigret, he prays me to write, tnat all the women of his 
town fhall prefent Mrs. Winthrop with a prefent of corn 
at Pawcatuck, if fhe pleafe to fend in any conveyance to 
Pawcatuck for it. 

158 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Sir, to gratify them, I am thus bold with you, and de- 
firing your eternal peace, I reft 

Your worship's unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I formerly wrote to you and now ftill crave your 
help with Wequafhcook, who keeps bafely from me for 
five or fix coats, and can neither get peag 1 or cloth. 

For his much honored and beloved Mr. 'John Wtnthrop, at 


Cawcawmsqussick, 7. 9. 48, (fo called ) [Nov. 7th, 1648.] 2 

Kind Sir, — Beft falutations, &c. lam requefted by let- 
ter ol Capt. Atherton, to certify what I can adviie about Block 
Ifland, whether it might be had of the natives, for divers 
of the Englifh (it feems to my conjecture) upon fome agi- 
tations at the laft Court, have thoughts this way. Sir, be- 
caufe God hath pitched your tent thefe ways, and you know 
much among the natives of thefe parts, I judged it not 
unfit to pray you help me with a word of your informa- 
tion, before I write what otherwife I can, from the bar- 
barians. The counfels of the Moft High are deep con- 

1 Peng. Shells or firings of (hells ufed Englifh went among them excrpt peak, 

by the Indians from New England to the made out of the cong fhell. — Beverly's 

Carolinas, as well as among the early Hi ft. of Virginia, 1705. 

fettlers as money ; alfo called wampum. z Knowles, Mem. R. Williams, p. 221. 

" The Indians of Virginia had nothing 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 274. 
which they reckoned riches before the 

Letters of Roger Williams. 159 

cerning us poor grafshoppers, hopping and flopping from 
branch to twig in this vale of tears. Wm. Peacock hath 
had a very heavy tafk in carrying Jofeph with cattle from 
you ; fix or feven days and nights the poor fellow was 
feeking them (being loft and fcattered from Niantick.) 
Then he brought fix to my houle, four being finally loft ; I 
took what pains I could to get them fought again, and 
three I hear are found, after which Wm. Peacock is now 
out, and I look for him this night with thofe three : Nini- 
gret did his part honeftly, but the youths and boys therea- 
bouts (by fome occafion hallooing) the cattle thence took 
the woods. Jofeph Wild hath written to me, and I ac- 
quaint him with the caufe, that one man alone cannot well 
drive cattle amongft barbarians, efpecially without an In- 
dian guide. It were exceeding well that three or four 
poles were enclofed at Niantick, to keep cattle there at 
night, for if God vouchfafe peace and plantations (profperi- 
ty) there is needs of it, 

Sir, I delire to be your worfhip's unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

For Mr. John Winthrop, at Naumeug. 

Nar : « 

Sir, — Loving refpe&s to yourfelf and deareft, and Mrs. 
Lake, premifed. Two days fince, Ninigret came to me 
and requefted me to write two letters ; the one, in anfwer 

1 R. I. Hift. Coll. vol. iii. p. 151; but it was evidently written to Mr. 

Knowles' Mem. of Roger Williams, p. Winthrop, not long after the pre- 

222; 3 Ma/s. Hijl. Coll. vol.ix. p. 275. ceding letter. 

This letter has no date, nor direction; 

160 Letters of Roger Williams. 

to Captain Atherton's motion for fome Englim planting 
on Block Ifland, and on a neck at Niantick : the other, 
to yourfelf, in which protefting his innocence as to the 
death of his fon-in-law, with which Uncas and the Pe- 
quots charge him. He prays you (as of yourfelf) to lignify 
(as much as you can) items to the Pequots, that they be 
quiet and attempt nothing (at leaft, treacheroufly,) againft 
him, which he fufpedts, from words from Uncas, that it will 
be pleafing to the Englim. He prays you alfo to be mind- 
ful of endeavoring to remove Wequaihcook, fo conftant a 
provocation before him; and, at prefent, he prays you to 
fend for fome fkins, which lately, as lord of the place, he 
hath received. I hope the Englim Sachems, as I tell him, 
in the fpring will hear and gratify him in his juft deiires, 
the want of which, I guefs, is the caufe that he is not free, 
as yet, for Block Ifland, &c. ; but exprefleth much, if the 
Englim do him juftice againft his enemies. Oh, fir, how 
far from nature if the fpirit of Chrift Jefus, that loves and 
pities, prays for and doth good to enemies ? Sir, it is like 
he will requeft a line of anfwer, which, if you pleafe to 
give, I pray, fir, write when either of thofe mips you 
write of are for England, and by which you write your- 
felf; alfo where Mr. Throckmorton is, and whether he 
defires I mould trouble you with the peag of which I 
wrote, which I propofe, if God pleafe, (unlefs counter- 
manded by either of you) to fend immediately upon hear- 
ing from you. 

Sir, yours, 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, fince I wrote this, it pleafed God to fend a Dutch- 
man for an old debt, and the fame night Mr. Goodyear 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 6 1 

alfo, to whom and his wife (for her former hufband) I am 
indebted, and fo was neceffitated to make fatisfadtion to Mr. 
Goodyear alfo. Thefe providences of God fo falling will 
necellarily caufe me to be preparing fome few days more 
that peag for Mr. Throckmorton. But moft certainly it, 
(God pleafe I live,) notwithstanding ways and weather, 
mall be fent ; this I write, that although Mr. Throckmor- 
ton mould depart, or come home, yet he may prefume on 
your faithfulnefs and love to difpofe of it, as he requefteth. 

Sir, your unworthy, 

R. W. 

Captain Underhill, 1 now here in a Dutch veflel, prefents 
loving refpecls. 

For the Worjhipful Mr. John Wintbrop, at Nameug, thefe. 

[Probably December, 1648. ] 2 

Sir, — Refpeclive falutations to you both, and lifter Lake. 
At this inftant (the firft of the week, toward noon,) I re- 
ceived yours, and fhall be glad, (if God will,) you may 
gain a feafonable paflage by us, before the hardeft: of win- 
ter, although I cannot advife you (but to pray againft win- 
ter flights and journeys,) yet if the neceffity of God's provi- 
dence fo caft it, I (hall be glad that we might have you 
prifoner in thefe parts, yet once in a few days (though in 
deep fnow) here is a beaten path, &c. Sir, Ninigret again 

1 Capt. Underhill, one of the promi- 223 ; 3 Mafs. Hi/I. Coll. vol. xi. p. 276. 
nent officers in the attack of the Pequot This letter has no date, but is endorfed 

fort. by Mr. Winthrop, * rec'd December.' 

1 Knowles' Memoir of R. Williams, p. 


1 62 Letters of Roger Williams. 

importunes me to write to your father and yourfelf, about 
his hunting at Pequot, and that you would alfo be pleafed 
to write to your father. I have endeavored to fatisfy him 
what I can, and (hall, yet I am willing at prefent to write 
to you, not fo much concerning that you can further grati- 
fy him at this time, but that I may by this opportunity, 
falute you with the tidings from the Bay the laft night. 
Skipper Ifaack and Moline, are come into the Bay with a 
Dutch fhip, and (as it is faid) have brought letters from 
the States to call home this prefent Dutch Governor, 1 to 
anfwer many complaints, both from Dutch and Englim, 
againft him. In this fhip are come Englim paifengers, and 
they bring word of the great trials it pleafeth the Moft 
High and Only Wife, to exercife both our native England 
and thefe parts alfo. 

The Prince is faid to be ftrong at fea, and among other 
mifchiefs hath taken Mr. Trevice his fhip which went from 
hence, and fent it for France, it feems their rendezvous. 

It is faid that after Cromwell had difcomfited the Welch, 
with fix thoufand, he was forced to encounter nineteen 
thoufand Scots, of whom he took nine hundred prifoners, 
&c. Great ftore of Scots and Welfh are fent and fold as 
flaves into other parts. Cromwell wrote to the Parliament 
that he hoped to be at Edinburgh in a few days. A com- 
miffion was fent from the Parliament, to try the King in 
the Iile of Wight, lately prevented from efcape. 2 

The Prince of Orange and the States are falling, if not 

1 The fhip in wh/ch Governor Peter were drowned. — Hubbard. He was 

Kieft, of New Amfterdam, returned to fucceeded by Peter Stuyvefant. 
Holland, was wrecked on the coaft of I After a feries of difafters Charles I. 

Wales ; and Kieft with about fixty others threw himfelf into the hands of the Scot- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


already fallen, into wars, which makes fome of the States 
to tender Manhattoes, 1 as place of retreat. 

Sir, to Him in whofe favor is life, I leave you, defiring 
in Him to be 

Your worfhip's unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

John prays you to be in earneft with Mr. Hollett about 
his houfe, hoping to be back in a fortnight. 

[To Mr. John Winthrop, at NaumeugA 

Nar : [Narragansett, probably February, 1 648-9. ] 2 

Sir, — Beft falutations to your worthy felf and yours, pre- 
mifed. I am glad for your fake, that it hath pleafed God to 
prevent your winter travel ; though I gladly, alio, this laft 
week, expected your paifage, and being at Providence, haft- 
ened purpofely to attend you here. Our candle burns out 
day and night, we need not haften its end (by fwaling) in 
unnecelfary miferies, unlefs God call us for him to fuffer, 
whofe our breath is, and hath promifed to fuch as hate life 

tifh army, which furrendered him to the 
Parliament's commiffioners appointed to 
receive him. Attempting to make his 
efcape to the continent, he was arretted 
by the Governor of the Ifle of Wight, 
into whofe hands he had placed himi'elf, 
and by whom he was lodged in Carif- 
brook Cattle. In the following month 
of January, 1648, he had his trial. 

'Manhattan. Manhadoes. New Am- 
fterdam, now New York. 

2 Knowles, Memoir of Roger Williams, 
p. 224; 3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. ix. p. 280. 

This letter has no date. Mr. Knowles 
thinks it was written towards the clofe 
of December, 1648; the editor of the 
Winthrop Papers Aiggefts February, or 
early in March of 1648-49. 

164 Letters of Roger Williams. 

for him, an eternal. Sir, this laft week, I read an ordinance 
of both houfes, (dated third month, May laft,) decreeing 
death to fome conciences, but imprifonment to far more, 
ever (upon the point) to all but Prefbyterians. 1 We have 
a found, that Fairfax and Cromwell are proclaimed traitors, 
but I rather credit that report, that Cromwell only was fent 
for by the Parliament, which, it feems, inclines with the 
King, and the city all againft the army. The Earl of 
Warwick was gone for Holland with twenty-two fhips 
purfuing the Prince. Mr. Foot and others went to Hol- 
land, (whither Mr. Trevice his fhip was carried) and were 
offered the fhip for two thoufand pounds, but I cannot hear 
of their agreement. About forty from the Parliament 
went to the King, to the Iile of Wight, (who was lately 
and ftrangely prevented of efcape,) to treat, but could not 
agree upon the firft, viz. : that the King mould acknowl- 
edge the beginning of the war to be his. Sir, this is the 
chief of matters told me few days fince, by Mr. Throck- 
morton, who came ten days fince from the Bay, and came 
well in a full laden veffel to anchor by Saconet rocks, but 
it pleafed God his new cable was cut by the rocks, and he 
drove upon Rhode Ifland fhore, where it is feared the vef- 
fel is fpoiled, but (through God's mercy) he faved his goods. 
Sir, Mr. Brewfter, (by letter) requefts me to convey three 
letters and bags of metal to you. I wifh they may have 

1 The Prefbyterians of England and pointed a court, compofed of perfons 

the Scots, who were always haunted by from the army, the Houfe of Commons 

the idea that there was fomething facred and the city of London, to try the King, 

and inviolable in monarchy thought to ref- The court was opened at Weftminfter 

cue the King from the hands of the In- Hall, on the 20th of January, 1649; on 

dependents, but were defeated, and all the 27th, Charles was condemned to 

the Prefbyterians were forcibly expelled death, and on the 30th of the fame 

from the Englifh Houfe of Commons, month was beheaded in front of the pal- 

which now confifting only of about fixty ace at Whitehall. — Hume, Hiji. ofEng'd. 
members — the Rump Parliament — ap- 

Letters of Roger WMia?tis. 1 65 

worth in them, efpecially to draw us up to dig into the 
heavens for true treafure. Sir, (though Mr Brewfter 
wrote me not word of it) yet in private, I am bold to tell 
you, that I hear it hath pleafed God greatly to afflict him 
in the thorns of this life. He was intended for Virginia ; 
his creditors in the Bay came to Portfmouth and unhung 
his rudder, carried him to the Bay, where he was forced 
to make over all, houfe, land, cattle, and part with all to 
his cheft. Oh how fweet is a dry morfel and a handful, 
with quietness from earth and heaven. Sane nefcio de quo 
J cr ibis fur ti fuf petto. John Jones is thought here to be 
falfe or faulty. He faid he was your fervant, that you gave 
him \os. in peag to bear his charges, which being ftolen 
out of his pocket, he borrowed fo much of me here 
in your name, promifing to pay me at his return, being to 
receive money for you in the Bay; he had, alfo, \os. more, 
to buy, for me, two or three necelfaries. He took 2js. £>d. 
of Valentine, Mr. Smith's man, my neighbor at the trad- 
ing houfe, for a drum, which he faid he left at my house 
at Providence, which drum con: him 48^. and he promifed 
to fend it by an Indian, but refufed, and offered to fell it 
again at Providence ; it is now attached. 

Mr. Brewfter requefted me to pay the Bay carriers, 
which I have thus ordered, that fix awl blades I pay to a 
native to carry to Ninigret, and pray you to pay fix more 
to him that brings them to you. I am forry you had no 
more corn from Ninigret, yet glad you had fo much, for I 
am forced to pay 4^. the buihel for all I fpend. Sir, I 
have not known the like of Indian madnefs. The Father 
of Lights caufe us to blefs him for and with our reason, 
remembering Nebuchadnezzar. 

Sir, I defire to be yours ever in Chrift Jefus, 

Roger Williams. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his much honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at his 
houfe at Nameug, thefe. 

Cawcawmsqussick, [probably January, 1648-49. J 1 

Sir, — Beit falutations prefented to you both, with hum- 
ble delires, that, fince it pleafeth God to hinder your pret- 
ence this way, he may pleafe, for His infinite mercy's lake, 
in his Son's blood, to further our eternal meeting in the 
prefence of Him that fits upon the throne, and the Lamb 
forever ; and that the hope thereof may be living, and 
bring forth the fruits of love where it is pofiible, and of 
lamenting for inftruclions. Sir, the affairs of our country 
(Vaderland, as the Dutch fpeak) would have afforded us 
much conference. The merciful Lord help us to make 
up in prayer to his holy majefty, &c. Sir, for this land, 
our poor colony is in civil dilfeniion. 2 Their laft meetings, 
at which I have not been, have fallen into factions; Mr. 
Coddington and Captain Partridge, &c, are the heads of 
the one, and Captain Clarke, Mr. Eafton, &c, the heads 
of the other facfion. I receive letters from both, inviting 
me, &c, but I refolve (if the Lord pleafe) not to engage, 

'Knowles' Memoir of R. Williams, 
p. 227; 3 Mafi. HiJl.Coll. vol. ix. p. 278. 

This letter is without date ; but from 
its contents, was probably written fliort- 
ly before that which follows. 

1 " One of the principal difficulties, 
which, at this time, difturbed the peace 
of the colony, arofe from the extraordi- 
nary proceedings of Mr. Coddington, 
the leading inhabitant of the Ifland of 
Rhode Ifland. From the very organiza- 
tion of the government under the char- 
ter, he arrayed himlelf in the oppofition 
and feems to have left no effort untried 

to overturn and deflroy it. Uniting 
with himfelf a faflion compofed proba- 
bly of perfons accullomed to take theii 
opions from him, he fir ft petitioned the 
colony of Plymouth to take the ifland 
under its jurifdidlion : and when this ap- 
plication failed, notwithstanding he had 
been elected Prefident, in the meantime 
he went to England, to endeavor to fet 
afide the charter which Mr. Williams 
had procured, and deftroy the union of 
the towns which had been organized by 
its provifions." — Gammell, Life of Ro- 
ger Williams, p. 133. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 167 

unlefs with great hopes of peace-making. The peace 
makers are fons of God. Our neighbors, the Narragan- 
fetts, are now confulting, and making peag, to carry, with- 
in a few weeks, another payment. Sir, about a month 
fince, one William Badger, a feaman, and now a planter at 
William Field's farm, 1 near Providence, paffed by me, trav- 
eling to the Seabrook. I have received letters fince from 
Captain Mafon, to whom I wrote by him, and hear nothing 
of him. I fear he mifcarried, for he was alone, without a 
guide. And, fince I mention Captain Mafon, worthy Sir, 
I humbly beg of the Father of Lights to guide you, in 
your converfe and neighborhood with him. In his letters 
to me, he tells me of fome extraordinary lifts againft Un- 
cas, and that he will favor him, but no more than religion 
and reafon bid him. He promifeth to vilit me, in his paf- 
fage, this fummer, eaftward, (I guefs he means towards 
Plymouth.) I mall then argue, if God will, many things, 
and how it ftands with religion and reafon, that fuch a 
monftrous hurry and affrightment mould be offered to an 
Englifh town, either by Indians or Englifh, unpunifhed. 
Sir, you have feen many parts of this world's fnowball, and 
never found aught but vanity and vexation At Nameug 
mail you find no more, except in the fountain of living 
waters. Sir, heap coals of fire on Captain Mafon's head ; 
conquer evil and good, but be not cowardly, and overcome 
with any evil. 

If you have by you the Trial of Wits, 2 at convenience, 

'The farm adjoining Field's Point, rafter with the fludies of Williams, 

three miles from Providence. With his practice of abbreviating words, 

z "Tria/l of wits." We have fought in Mr. Williams may have meant ' Trial of 

vain, for a book bearing this title, and WitneJfesJ fimilar to a popular book of 

think a work of humor or wit could not Bifhop Shirley's entitled 'Trial of Wit- 

have been meant, fuch not being in cha- nejfes, of the Reffurrettion.'' 

1 68 Letters of Roger Williams. 

fpare it me a few days. However, ftudy, as the Lord com- 
mands, your quietnefs, for which I mall ever pray and en- 

Your worship's unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

For his honored, kind friend y Mr. fohn Winthrop, at Nameug. 

Cawcawmsqussick, 29. 11. 48. (fo called) [29th January, 1648-49. ]' 

Sir, — Belt falutations and willies to the Father of mer- 
cies for your worthy felf, yoke-fellow, filler, &c. It muft 
be fo in this world's fea. Sicut fluElus fluflum, Jic lu£lus 
luftum fequitur. And every day hath his fufficiency or 
fullnefs of evil to all the children of the firft finful man ; 
no perfons, no places, exempted from the reach of the firft 
curfe. My humble defire is to the moft righteous and only 
wife Judge, that the wood of ChrifiYs gallows (as in Mo- 
fes' ac"t) may be caft into all your and our bitter waters, 
that they be fweet and wholefome inftrudtors of the fruits 
of fin, the forrows of others abroad, (in our England's 
Aceldama,) our own defervings to feel upon ourfelves, bod- 
ies and fouls, (wives and children alfo) not by barbarians, 
but devils, and that enternally, forrows inexprefiible, in- 
conceivable, and yet, if ChrirVs religion be true, unavoida- 
ble, but by the blood of a Saviour, &c. Sir, pardon me, 
this is not the matter. Sir, your letters I fpeedily def- 
patched by a melTenger on purpofe. For a place, I know 
indeed of one in Plymouth claim, and would fpecify, but 

1 Knowles' Mem. R. Williams,^. 228. 3 Mafs. Hi/}. Coll. vol. ix. p. 279. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


that your fpirit being troubled, countermanded it again, 
in your poftfcript concerning Elderkin, whom I will, if 
God will, effectually labor with, and write the iffue with 
fpeed. All our neighbors, the barbarians, run up and down, 
andconfult; partly fufpecling like dealings ; partly ready 
to fall upon the Mohegans, at your word, and a world of 
fooliih agitations, I could trouble you with, but I told the 
chiefefl yefterday, that it is not our manner to be rail), and 
that you will be filent till your father and other ancient 
Sachems fpeak firft, &c. Sir, concerning the bags of ore, 
it is of Rhode Ifland, where it is certainly affirmed to be 
both gold and iilver 1 ore, upon trial. Mr. Coddington went 
to the Bay, with his daughter, for England, 2 and left Cap- 
tain Partridge in truft with all, the laft week, at Newport. 
George Wright alias Captain Wright, ffabbed with a pike, 
Walter Lettice at Newport, and is in prifon ; the other, if 
not dead, is not like to live. 

Sir, yours ever, in all unfeigned refpect, &c. 

Roger Williams. 

I want wax to feal, otherwife I would have expreffed fome- 
thing, which I referve till another feafon, if the Lord will. 

1 " The colony was thrown into great 
excitement, by the difcovery of a gold 
mine on the Ifland. Mr. Williams fent 
fome bags of the ore to Mr. Winthrop, 
and writes ' it is certainly affirmed to be 
both gold and filver ore. upon trial.' 
The Aflembly pafled an act, taking pof- 
feflion of the mine in the name of the 
State of England, and iflued a procla- 
mation forbidding all perfons to inter- 
meddle with any of the ore. This was 
publifhed by William Dyre, appointed 


for that purpofe, for want of a Herald-at- 
arms, and the arms of England, and of 
the Lord High Admiral, were let up at 
the mine. Fortunately a more accurate 
examination diffipated the golden dreams 
of the colonifts by proving the report 
unfounded." — Staples, Annals of Provi- 
dence, p. 72. 

1 The purpose for which Coddington 
went to England is flated in a note to the 
preceding letter. 

170 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For the worjhipful, and kind friend, Mr. fohn JVintbrop y at 


Cawcawmsqussick, i. 48. (fo called.) [March, 1648-9. ]' 

Sir, — Beff. refpects and love prefented,and thanks hearty 
for your letters, former and latter, all now received. I am 
again importuned by our neighbor Sachems, having heard 
of Wequafhcook's carrying off peag to Captain Mafon, to 
pray you to inform them whether that peag be part of the 
payment ; becaule Wequafhcook and his company refufe 
to pay. They defire me alfo to write to the Bay about it, 
which I defer to do until their payments go, which are 
fomething delayed becaufe of the death of Ninigret's wife's 
mother, which is the fame you write of, Wequam cook's 
mother, and it is now qunnantacaun, that is, lamentation. 
Sir, fince I wrote to you, our tour towns met by deputies, 
fix out of a town. This Court laft week wrote to me infor- 
mation of their choice of myfelf as Deputy Prefident, 2 in 
the abfence of the Prefident, who, whether they have fixed 
on yourfelf, or Mr. Coddington's faction prevail to keep 
his name in, now gone for England, I cannot yet learn, but 
I have excufed myfelf for fome reafons, and I hope they 
have chofen better. I wrote to them about an act of ob- 
livion, which, bleifed be the God of peace, they have paft, 
and have appointed a Court of election in the third month, 
at Warwick. Sir, I am exceeding glad of your beginnings at 
Pawcatuck. I pray fail not to enquire whether from there, 
or from Mohegan or Connecticut, you can help me to one 

'3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. ix. p. 282 ; Prefident of the colony was the refult 

Knowles, Mem. of Roger Williams, p. of his letter to the town of Providence. 

230. See note to Letter of Auguft 31, pre- 

1 This appointment of Williams as ceding. 

Letters of Roger Williams. iji 

hundred bufhels of Indian corn. To your dear yokefel- 
low and lifter refpective falutation. The fun of righteouf- 
nefs gracioufly mine on you. I defire, unfeignedly, to be 
your worfhip's unfeigned in love. 

Roger Williams. 

The Sachems pray you to tell them whether their 
peag 1 will be fold at under rates, as Punhommin, coming 
two days lince from the Bay, informs them, viz. : that they 
muft pay great black at thirteen to the penny, and fmall 
black at fifteen, and white eight to the penny. I tell them 
the laft year it was meafured, and fo word was fent to me 
they mould pay it by meafure. 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at Pequot. 

[Probably March or April, 1649. J* 

Sir, — I am the more eafily perfuaded by this barbarian 
prince, Ninigret, to trouble you fo often, that I may the 
oftener hear of your welfare, and at prefent how it pleafed 
God to bring you home to yours again. Upon your word, 

1 Peag patted among the early fettlers ganfetts, Niantics and Mohegans, has 

as monev. There was a law of the colo- reference to the debt or tribute, which, 

ny regulating its value. " No one fhall by an agreement entered into at Bofton, 

take any black peage of the Indians, bat they were required to deliver. 

at four a penny ; and if any fhall take z 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 283 ; 

black peage under four a penny, he fhall Knowles' Mem. of Roger Williams, p. 

forfeit (aid peage, one-half to the inform- 231. 

er, the other half to the State." — Laws This letter is without date. It was 

of Rhode ljland, 1648. probably written in March, or early in 

The frequent mention in thefe letters April, 1649. 
of peag carried to Boflon by the Narra- 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

Ninigret prays you to fend him word, whether within ten 
days, of this 5th of the week prefent, you will pleafe to 
meet him at Wequatucket, ib it be when Mr. Stanton is 
prefent. He would confer about Mr. Eliot's 1 letter and 
coat, about Wequafhcook's ufurping at Pawcatuck, about 
his prefent hunting, about the prefent difpofal of the Pe- 
quot fields, about his letters to the Bay, which, in your 
name, I have almoft perfuaded to fufpend until the meet- 
ing of the commirTioners 2 at Bofton. Here is now a great 
hurry made by Anquontis, one of thofe petty Sachems, of 
whom Mr. Eliot wrote to you and me. He hath offered 
great abufe to one of the chiefs, and Ninigret is now going 
to Conanicut about him. I perfuade not to engage them- 
felves, but to fend him to the Bay with my letter- Sir, 
loving refpe&s to Mrs. Winthrop, Mrs. Lake, whom God 
graciouily, with your loving felf and yours, bind up in the 
bundle of that life, which is eternal in Chrift Jefus, in 
whom I defire to be, 

Yours ever, 

Roger Williams. 

x John Eliot, commonly called the Apof- 
tle of the Indians ; the tranflator of the 
Old and New Teftament in the Indian 
language and of various works relating to 
the Indians. 

2 Mention has before been made of 
the "Commimoners of the United Colo- 
nies," fome notice of which feems necef- 
fary. The colonies fo united confifted 
of Plymouth, MafTachufetts Bay, Con- 
necticut and New Haven, and was the 
earliefl confederacy among the New Eng- 
land colonies. " It was " fays Profeflbr 
Gammell, " a union of great importance 

to the interefts of thofe embraced in it, 
and may be regarded as in fome fort, the 
germ of the fubfequent confederations 
which have marked the hiftory of the 
American people. The objefts which 
were propoled in its formation were neu- 
tral protection againft the depredations 
of the Indian tribes, who were now be- 
coming more formidable by the acquisi- 
tion of fire-arms, and againft the en- 
croachments oi the Dutch and French, 
together with the prefervation of the 
liberty and peace of the gofpel, and the 
advancement of the Kingdom of Chrift. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 173 

For n;y honored kind friend Mr. fohn Winthrop, at Pequot. 

Nar. 15. z. 49. (fo called.) [Narragansett, Api il 15, 1649.] 1 

Sir, — Beft refpecls and love to you both. By this bear- 
er (Nath. Waller) I received your book, 2 and had by the 
fame returned it, but that I defire to read it over once more, 
rinding it pleafant and profitable, and crave the fight of any 
other of that fubjecl: at your leifure, kindly thanking you 
for this enclofed. As yet no tidings further from Eng- 
land. Here the Dutch Governor threatens fome trouble 
about the Dutch prized which Captain Clarke, Bened and 
others bought, which he defires to be reftored, as being no 
prize, as taken contrary to the peace with Spain. If not 
reftored he threatens to take all veflels from hence, to 
which end it may be it is, that Jacob Curlow (whom 
the Indians call Yaupuck) have lately bought of fome of 
the Narraganfett Sachems the little Ifland 4 in the mouth of 
this Bay (called Aquedenefick and Dutch Ifland), intend- 
ing to build and trade there, contrary to an order of this 
Colony againft foreigners, as alfo againft. the agreement 
between the Commifiioners and the Sachems, not to fell 
any land without their confent. We are borne to trouble 

. . . The colony at Providence, formed 3 The Dutch were, by law, forbidden 

as it had been, principally of the outcail to trade with the Indians within the ju 

and banifhed from the fettlements of rifdidtion of the colony upon pain of 

New England, was not invited to join forfeiture of fhip and goods. Probably 

the confederacy ; and her lubfequent ap- one of their veffels engaged in trade had 

plication for admiflion, like that of the been captured. 

fettlers on Rhode Ifland was fternly re- 4The fmall ifland weft of the iflard of 

fufed. — Life of Roger Williams, p. 114. Conanicut at the entrance to Narraganfett 

x \Mafs. Hif. Coll. vol. vi. p. 267. Bay, now under the jurifdiftion of the 

1 Probably the book called " Triall of government of the United States, and 

Wits" fent for in a preceding letter, upon which a fortification has recently 

page 167, fee note. been eredled. 

174 Letters of Roger Williams. 

as the fparks fly upward. Above the fun is our reft, in the 
Alpha and Omega of all bleffednefs, unto whofe arms of 
everlafting mercy I commend you, defirous to be yours 
even in him. 

Roger Williams. 

My loving refpect to your loving fitter. I hope it will 
pleafe God to fend you a mill. 

For the Worfiipful his very loving friefid Mr. John Win- 
throp, at Bqjloriy or elfewhere. 

[No date; probably April or May, 1649.] 1 

S IR> — Bert falutes, &c. I long to hear of your refrem- 
ing after fo much fighing, &c. Our neighbor Sachems 
(having fent two natives this morning to my houfe inftead 
of Caufafenamont, to attend your coming,) are importu- 
nate with me to write to you, and to pray you (if this 
meffenger Safepunnuit meet you on the way) to write a 
word to the Bay, concerning the late buiinefs of Uncas' 
pretended death at Mohegan. For preface, this Mr. 
Smith's pinnace (that rode here at your being with us) 
went forth the fame morning to Newport, bound for Block 
Ifland, and Long Ifland, and Nayantick for corn : with 
them went a Narraganfett man, Cuttaquene, an ufual tra- 
der for Mr. Smith : the wind being (after three or four 

'4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 268. nor of Maflachufetts in place of Gover- 

Probably written in the Spring of nor Winthrop, who died on the 26th of 

1649, before May 10, at which time March of this year. — Note by Savage to 

Governor Endicot was elefted Gover- Winthrop Papers. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 175 

days May at Newport,) northeaft and ftrong, they put into 
your river and fo to Mohegan. Uncas came aboard, on a 
fudden groaned and cried out that the Narraganfett had killed 
him : the Narraganfett man denied it, and Uncas flowed a 
wound on his breajl which bled afrefi, &C. 1 Many circum- 
ftances paifed. In fine Uncas caufed the man's two fore- 
fingers to be cut off and fent to Capt. Mafon, who being 
come, caufed the man to be unbound, and took him along 
with himfelf to Hartford. Our neighbor Sachems now 
pray you and the Magiftrates of the Bay, and of the whole 
country, that the matter may be thoroughly fearched out 
with all diligence, for two caufes : Firft, for the clearing 
of themfelves, who all profefs moll folemnly to be alto- 
gether innocent, &c, and they fay it had been childifh, now 
they are fo near finishing their payment, to have prevented 
the Engliih juflice againft Uncas, which they are in great 
hopes of when matters fhall be heard, &c. They hear 
that Cuttaquene, the man in hold, being threatened death 
by a hatchet over his head, to confefs his complotters, au- 
thors, &c, he named (as they fay) themfelves to fave his 
own life. The fecond caufe, that Uncas might be dif- 
covered, for they fuppofe he (knowing how near he is to a 
trial (after the payment finimed) according to the Engliih 
Sachems promife,) projected this vilainy, &c, to render 
the Narraganfetts ftill odious to the Englifih, and prevent 
his trial. I was bold to write your deareft for a word of 
Englifh information ; which I think will come by the 
Englifh (who went to fee your parts.) By natives I hear 
that your fames went to Uncas and charged him with projeB- 

> "The complaint of Uncas againft the United Colonies, at their feflion, at Bof- 
Narraganfett man, here related, was con- ton, in July, 1649." — See Hazard, ii. 
fidered by the Commiffioners of the p. 130. Note to Wintbrop Papers. 

i y6 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ing himfelf and aBing himfelf a fmall Jiab on his breajl in a 
fafe place ', &c. Many circumftances look earnejlly toward a 
plot of Uncas, both at this time, and in the manner J- of the 
fact of which you will hear more. He that is the Father 
of Lights, and Judge of the whole world will fhortly 
bring all fecret things to light. At prefent two things 
make me (if all things elfe were clear) to fufpend belief to 
Uncas' words : Firft, that the going forth of Cuttaquene 
in Mr. Smith's veiTel was on an inftant, and accidental, and 
never intended (that I can hear yet of) for Mohegan ; how- 
ever if the Englifh had thoughts of it (which will be 
known upon their landing) yet they never mentioned it to 
the native, who, it is like, would never have confented, for 
this fecond confideration. This man Cuttaquene (without 
a miracle) could not attempt this thing, for I know him, 
and all men know him, to be of a gentle and peaceable 
fpirit, and was never forth with them in their wars ; and 
no way like to ftop fuch a man at noonday, in the midft 
of his own, &c. Sir, I am forry I have no horfe, nor boat 
lit to ferve you at this time. My canoe with a wind fair 
would quickly fet you here with eafe : I have writ to my 
wife that it may attend you : and I humble beg of the God 
of Heaven that his holy Angels may attend you in all his 
ways, in whom I defire to be your worship's refpective and 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, if this meet you at Providence, I pray impart it to 
my brother and friends to whom I cannot now write. 

1 This paragraph is fomewhat obfcured, by an attempted erafure, by an another 
hand. See note to Winthrop Papers. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 177 

To Mrs. John lVi?ithrop y Jr. 

Narragansett, [no date, probably April, 1649.] 1 

Mrs. Winthrop, — Loving refpedts to your kind felf and 
dear lifter. I am importuned by our neighbor Sachems to 
write to your dear hufband in the Bay, that whereas they 
hear that Uncas is hurt by a Narraganfett man, that went 
in Richard Smith's 2 pinnace, they pray him to be allured 
that whatever is done, more or lefs, they are ignorant of 
it, and will ufe no other means againft him than the Eng- 
lilh juftice in a legal way. They pray me alfo to write to 
you, that by yourfelf or fome of our loving friends with 
you, this melTenger may bring word of the truth of mat- 
ters among them : I believe nothing of any of the barba- 
rians on either fide, but what I have eye fight for, or Eng- 
lish teftimony. I am the more willing to write, becaufe I 
might hereby hear of your health, and of your children and 
neigbors, to whom I wifh eternal peace in the Son of God, 
in whom I defire to be 

Your loving friend, 

Roger Williams. 

I pray caufe a line to be fent back by this bearer, what 
the matter is. 

'4 Mafs. Hift. Co//.vo]. vi. p. 270. was one of the party with Gov. Win- 

2 " Richard Smith, len'r," fays Wil- throp, of Connecticut, and others to 

liams in his letter of 21ft July, 1679, whom the Narraganfett Sachem Cogina- 

" for his confcience to God left fair pof- quon, granted the " Northern TradT: " in 

feffions in Glocefterlhire, and adventured the Narraganfett country. The title to 

with his relations ana eftate to New this land was afterwards confirmed to 

England, and was a moll acceptable in- Smith and his aflbciates by an order 

habitant, and a prime leading man in from King Charles 2d. — R. I. Col. Rec. 

Taunton and Plymouth colony." He vol. i. pp. 464-466. Richard Smith, in 


178 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To the Worjhipful Mr. John Winthrop, at Pequot. 

Narragansett, 9. 3. 49, (fo called.) [May 9, 1649. ]* 

Sir, — Beft falutations and wifhes prefented to your dear- 
eft with yourfelf, &c. Thefe enclofed came to my hand 
in two feveral letters from the Bay enclofed, your brother 
in a letter from him, requefting my help, &c. I have 
therefore, fpeeded them by the Sachems, who will, there- 
fore, expect fome word of tiding from the Bay, which you 
may pleafe to fignify, in one line to me. Whatever you 
hear, or can well collect, will be any word of tidings, &c, 
by which occalion (if you have occafion) you may well 
refcribe. Benedict was delired by the magiftrates in the 
Bay to take fpecial care to charge Wequafhcook, concern- 
ing 2 . He hath requefted this talk from me, which 
this morning I purpofe to do (with God's help) carefully. 
Sir, two days fince, my boat not being fitted, coming from 
Providence, I was (in articulo temporis) fnatched by a mer- 
ciful, and, fome fay, a miraculous hand, from the jaws of 
death. The canoe being overfet, fome goods, to fome val- 
ue, were funk, fome whereof I hope, if God pleafe, to re- 
cover. However, blefted be God, and blelfed are fuch 
whom he correcteth and teacheth in him. Yours he gra- 
cioully make me, though unworthy. 

Roger Williams. 

the autumn of 1651, purchafed of Roger the barbarians the firfl Englifh houfe 

Williams his eftate at Cawcumquffick, among them." This would carry the 

(now Wickford), from which place lb fettlement back to 1639. 

many of thefe letters were written. In l Knowles' Mem. Roger Williams p. 

his teftimony in favor of Smith's title to 232 ; 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 284. 

the Wickford lands, dated July 21, 1679, 2 "Concerning." Though the origi- 

Williams fays, that forty years from this nal of this letter is much torn, the blank 

date, Smith " put up in the thicker! of following the above word is the only one 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


To my much refpedled friend Mr. John Winthrop, at Pequot. 

13. 3. 49, (fo called.) [May 9th, 1649.]' 

Sir, — Salutations, &c. Your laft letter, which you men- 
tion, I fent by way of the Englim, fince I came hither 
from Providence. I know of no letter of yours, that came 
back, as you write. One of mine to yourfelf, when you 
were in the Bay, was met by the peag mefTengers from the 
Bay, and brought by them again to my hand, becaufe, as 
they conceived, the whole about Uncas, his wounding, was 
not yet, as then, known, which, at your coming hither, by 
the Englifh relation was perfected. Tidings from Uncas 
are, that the Englifh come from the Bay to Hartford about 
Uncas, and are appointed to take this way, and to take 
Ninigret with them. Aquawoce (Wepiteammock) is at the 
point of death. Expeclat nos mors ubique ; cur non nos mor- 
tem? In life and death the Son of God mine on us. In 

Yours I defire to be, ever unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

which I was not able fatisfacTtorily to 
make out or fupply. The fragments of 
a few letters look more like parts of the 
word "Nenekunat" (Ninigret) than any 
other. Between that Sachem and We- 
quafhcook, as appears from another let- 
ter of Roger Williams, there was a mif- 
underflanding. — Note by Prof. Knotoles. 

] Knowles, Mem. R. Williams, p. 233 ; 
3 Mafs Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 285. 

" This letter is worthy of notice, as 
affording a flight intimation of that 

deficiency of paper and other articles, 
which the exclufion from intercoufe with 
Bofton occafioned. This letter was writ- 
ten on the envelope, or blank fide of 
one addrefled to the writer, as is evident 
from the direction, which flood originally 
thus : "To my much refpefled friend, 
Mr. Roger Williams." Mr. Williams 
ftruck out his own name, and put in the 
place of it, "John Winthrop, at Pequot," 
in a blacker ink. — Note by Prof. Knowles. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Wintbrop, at Nameug, 


Nar. 26. 3. 49. (fo called) [May 26th, 1649. ]' 

Sir, — Loving refpetts to your dear felf, and deareft, &c. 
This laft of the week, in the morning, your man and all 
his charge are come juft now to me in fafety. I, myfelf, 
alfo came hither late laft night, and wet, from Warwick, 
where this colony met and upon difcharge of my service, 
we chofe Mr. Joieph Smith, 2 of Warwick, (the merchant 
or (hop-keeper that lived at Bofton) for this year, Preiident. 
Some were bold (though Captain Clarke was gone to the 
Bay and abfent) to ufe your name, and generally applauded 
and earneftly defired, in cafe of any poffible ftretching our 
bounds to you, or your drawing near to us, though but to 
Pawcatuck. One law paffed, that the natives mould no 
longer abufe us, but that their blacks mould go with us, 
as with themfelves, at four per penny. All wines and 
ftrong waters forbidden the natives throughout the colony, 
only a privilege betrufted in my hand, to fpare a little for 
neceffities, &c* 

Sir, tidings are high from England ; many mips from 

1 Knowles' Mem. R. Williams, p. 234 ; 
3 Mafs. Hi/l. Coll. vol. ix. p. 286. 

1 In May, 1649, the General Aflembly 
met at Warwick, when Mr. Williams 
having declined a reele&ion, Mr. Jofeph 
Smith was chofen President. Among 
the afliflants chofen was Samuel Gorton. 
Mr. Williams was chofen " to take a 
view of the records delivered unto the 
Court by William Dyre," referring, 
probably, to his complaints againft Cod- 
dington. Thefe complaints were again 
prefented to the General Aflembly, but 

were deferred, probably, in confequence 
of the abfence of Mr. Coddington. 

J Black, i. e. black peage. 

4 The law regarding the fale of intoxi- 
cating liquors was as rigid at this period 
as it is now among the prohibitionifts. 
At the May feffion of the General Af- 
fembly, 1650. a refolution was paffed in 
which it was " granted unto Mr. Roger 
Williams to have leave to fell a little 
wine or llrong water to the natives in 
their ficknefs." — R. I. Col. Records, vol. 
i. p. 219. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 1 8 1 

many parts fay, and a Briftol {hip, come to the Ifle of 
Shoals within a few days, confirms, that the King and 
many great Lords and Parliament men are beheaded. Lon- 
don was fhut up on the day of execution, not a door to be 
opened, &c. The States of Holland and the Prince of 
Orange (forced by them) confented to proceedings. It is 
faid Mr. Peters 1 preached (after the fafhion of England) 
the funeral fermon to the King, after fentence, out of the 
terrible denunciation to the King of Babylon. Ela. 14: 
18, &c. 

Your letter to your brother I delivered to Mr. Gold, 
(going to Bofton;) this weather, I prefume hinders. Mr. 
Andrews, 2 a gentleman of Warwick, told me, that he came 
from the Bay, where he heard that the Bay had proclaimed 
war with the Narraganfetts. I hope it is but miftaken ; 
and yet all under, and while we are under the fun, nothing 
but vanity and vexation. 

The moft glorious Sun of Righteoufnefs mine gracioufly 
on us. In him I defire to be, Sir, ever yours, 

Roger Williams. 

To his honored friend, Mr. John Winthrop. 

Cawcawmsqussick, 13. 4. 49, (fo called ) [June 13th, 1649. ] 3 

Sir, — Belt falutations, &c. The laft night one of We- 
quamcook's Pequots brought me, very privately, letters 
from Capt. Mafon, (and as he faid, from Uncas and We- 

1 Hugh Peters; fee note to letter of wick. — R. J. Col. Records, vol.i. p. 302. 

July 21, 1637. *3 Mafs. Hifl. Coll. vol. xi. p. 287; 

a Edward Andrews, a freeman of War- Knowles' Memoir of R. Williams, p. 235. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

quamcook.) The letters are kind to myfelf, acknowledg- 
ing loving letters (and tokens, which upon burning of his 
houfe,) he had received from me, &c. ; but terrible to all 
thefe natives, efpecially to the Sachems, and mod of all, to 
Ninigret. The purport of the letters and concurrence of 
circumftances, feem to me to imply fome prefent conclu- 
fions (from Connecticut) of hostility, 1 and I queftion whe- 
ther or no prefent and fpeedy, before the meeting of com- 
miffioners, which I faw lately from the court, under Mr. 
Nowell's hand, was not to be till the feventh month. The 
murdering of Uncas is alleged by {tabbing, and lince at- 
tempted by witches, &c. The conclufion is therefore ruin. 
The words of the letter are : " If nothing but blood will fa- 
tisfy them, I doubt not but they may have their fill ; and again 
I perceive fuch an obftinate willfullnels, joined with def- 
perate malicious practices, that I think and believe they are 
fealed to definition." Sir, there are many devices in a man's 
heart, but the counfel of Jehovah (hall ftand. If he have 

ltl Thehoflile attitude of the Indians, 
occafioned by the determination of the 
United Colonies to proteft Uncas at every 
hazard, from the punifhment due to his 
crime at the hands of the Narraganfetts, 
cauied more ferious alarm than ever be- 
fore. The diilentions prevailing among 
them thofe of Shawomet and Pawtuxet 
owing allegiance to MafTachufetts, and 
viewing as enemies all Englifhmen whom 
fhe denounced, while the Niantics and 
Nipmucks remained true to their proper 
princes, made the fituation of Rhode If- 
land, furrounded as fhe was by thefe dif- 
trafled and exafperated tribes extremely 
perilous. The inhabitants of Warwick 
fufFered from this caufe. They com- 
plained that the Indians had killed their 

cattle, abufed their fervants, entered their 
houfes by force, maltreating the occu- 
pants, and dealing their goods, and de- 
fired advice on thefubjed." * * * The 
Commiflioners wrote a letter to the 
Sachems, advifing them to abftain from 
fuch conduit in future, and telling them 
that, if they received any injury from 
the Englifh, fatisfaction fhould be given 
them, as the like would be expected 
from them. Scarcely had this mifiive 
been fent, when letters were received 
from Roger Williams and others, warn- 
ing the United Colonies of preparations 
making by the Narraganfetts to renew 
the war on Uncas." — Arnold, Hij}. of 
Rhode IJland, vol. i. p. 222-23. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

i8 3 

a holy and righteous purpofe to make us drink of our 
mother's cup, the holinefs nor power, nor policy of New 
England, can itop his hand : He be pleafed to prevent it, 
if not to fweeten it. 

Sir, I pray, if you have aught, fignify in a line, and you 
mall not fail of my poor papers and prayers. 

Your unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

Your letters and friends were here fome days with me. 
This laft choice at Warwick (according to my foul's wifh 
and endeavor) hath given me reft. Others are chofen, 
Mr. John Clarke, 1 at Newport, to whom, and all my 
friends on the illand, I wrote effectually. Thither they 
went. I have heard nothing lince. If power had been 
with me, fuch a work of mercy, (although to Grangers) I 
hope, by the Lord's affiftance, mail not efcape me; and I 

^ohn Clarke, the founder and pallor 
of the firil Baptiil Church in Newport, 
was one of the moll prominent men in 
the colony. In 1651, he was fen t to 
England with Roger Williams, to pro- 
mote the interefls of the colony. He 
remained there, until he procured the 
charter of 1663. After his return, he 
was elefted three years, fucceffively, 
Deputy Governor. He died April 26, 
1676, in the 67th year ol his age. 
Having no children, he gave moll of 
his property to charitable purpofes. — 
While in London, he publifhed a book, 
entitled, "/// News from New England, 
or a narrative of New England's Perfe- 
ction ; wherein it is declared, that while 

Old England is becoming New, New Eng- 
land is becoming Old; &c, &c. London, 
1652. To no man, except Roger Wil- 
liams, is Rhode Ifland more indebted 
than to him. He was the original pro- 
jector of the fettlement on the Ifland, 
and one of its ablell legiflators. Dr. El- 
ton, in fpeaking of Clarke, lays "He 
was a faithful and ufeful miniiler, cour- 
teous and amiable in all relations of life, 
and an ornament to his profefTion and to 
the feveral offices which he fullained. 
His memory is deferving of Jailing hon- 
or for his efforts towards ellablilhing the 
firil goverment in the world which gave 
to all equal, civil and religious liberty." 
Note to Callender's Hijl. Difl.p. 212. 

184 Letters of Roger Williams. 

have promifed my afTiftance to Mr. Clarke and others, at 
Newport, if any blame or damage befall them from the 
colony or elfewhere. 

Sir, I forgot to thank you for the pamphlets, although 
(not having been lately at Providence) I have them not; 
but I have lent for them. I have here now with me, my 
eldeft daughter, of feventeen. Her younger lifter of fif- 
teen, hath had nature's courfe before her, which me want- 
ing, a flux of rheum hath much affected her head and right 
eye ; (he hath taken much phytic, and been let blood, but 
yet no change. She is advifed by fome to the Bay. I 
pray advife me to whom you judge fitted: to addrefs unto 
of the Bay phyficians. 

Sir, I hear a fmith of your town hath left you, and faith 
I fent for him. It is moft untrue, though we want one 
at Providence, yet I mould condemn in myfelf, or any, to 
invite any convenience or commodity from our friends. I 
know him not, nor ever fpake (to my knowledge) about 
him. Mr. Throckmorton hath lately brought in fome 
corn from Hemftead and thofe parts, but extraordinary 
dear. I pay him 6s. for Indian, and 8x. for wheat. Thefe 
rains if God pleafe to give peace, promife hopes of plenty. 

Two days fince, letters from my brother. He faith a 
a fhip was come to the Bay from England. She was not 
come vet in the river. A lighter went aboard, and brought 
the confirmation of the King's death, but no other par- 
ticulars. The everlafting King of kings fhine on us, &c. 

Letters of Roger IVilliams. 185 

To the Worjlnpful his kind friend Mr. John Winthrop, Ef/., 

at Pequot. 

Nar. 26, 6, 49. (fo called.) [Narragansett, Auguft 26th, 1649.] 1 

Sir, — Beft refpects to you both, with hearty defires of 
your peace and ours, if the God of Peace fo mercifully 
pleafe. Upon this late hubbub, (of an alfault upon the 
Pequots by the Mohegans, and one of thofe Mohegans 
purfued and flain by the Pequots,) the Sachems have lent 
to me for my thoughts, their men being impatient of mak- 
ing an alfault alfo upon the Mohegans. I tell them the 
Englifh will not regard their complaints until the debt is 
paid. But that (at this time) will not ftop them : I tell 
them the Mohegans have now killed but an old woman 
(if dead) : they have killed a Captain, that makes them 
confider. Further, whereas they delire I would write to the 
Bay, I anfwer, it is better firft that I write to you to pray you 
to fend to Hartford, to know whether the Magiftrates and 
Englim have fet on Uncas, and what their refolution is, 
then upon receipt of their mind mail yourfelf and I know 
better what to write to the Bay for them. With this I have 
fatisfied them, and conceive it very requifite that (if you 
have not already) you would pleafe to requeft a word from 
honored friends of Hartford. If God pleafe, this fire may 
yet be quenched, which humbly defires 

Your worship's unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I pray feal and fend this to Efq. Mafon. 

1 4 Mafs. Hi/?. Coll. vol. vi. p. 271. 

1 86 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. fohn Winthrop, at Pequot. 

Nar : 25, 8, 49, (fo called,) [Oftober 25, 1649.] 1 

Loving Sir, — To yourfelf and your dear companion 
beft falutation and defires of your hearts defire, and more 
then your hearts can defire in the knowledge and love of 
the Son of the living God : This pafTing hand calls for 
this line only of neighborly falutation and information. 
Our neighbors mefTengers are gone to (not returned from) 
MalTachufetts, with about 20// or upwards of peag. I 
had promifed to write for them, but the peag being 
brought me, and fo little, and they quarrelling amongft 
themfelves, and fooliihly charging inferior Sachems of non- 
payment, I was not free. I advifed them (according to 
your advice) to compell Wequafhcook to contribute, as 
alfo the Block Iflanders and fome petty Sachems about the 
great pond (who follow Wequafhcook to fave their money) 
but they fay it is a new thing fo to do, &c, and they deiire 
rather the Englifh would do it, which difcovery of their 
weaknefs, Sir, in my poor thoughts, holds out a great 
Providence of God for the onenefs and fecurity of the Eng- 
lifh (while the barbarians are in their fractions) and fome 
door of hope to me of fome preparations to draw them 
nearer to civility, and that according to your own dear 
father's opinion and defire. Our natives fay the Mauqua- 
wogs have deiired the Englifh to ftay from going to war 
againft. the Dutch Indians, but a Dutchman tells me he 
heard (at Munnadoes) of five hundred Englifh coming 
againft them. If the Father of Mercies mercifully pre- 
vent not, it may prove a devouring fire. Bluefield is come 
to Newport and is carrying the fhip (his prize) to Munna- 

1 AfMafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. vi. p. 272. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 187 

does, having promifed the Governor to anfwer it to the 
Spaniard if demanded, becaufe (he is taken againft the 
Treves. 1 Only the feamen (being of feveral nations) are 
divided and quarrel, and will hardly be pacified but by the 
weak power of the Ifland, where a General Court is fud" 
denly called this next (2d) day at Portfmouth. If you 
have any printed relations from England, I (hall thank you 
for the fight. I have received a large and pious letter 
from the Lady Vane, (which I will fhortly prefent you 
with). Sir Henry's opinion is, perfecution approaching. 
Tis the portion of Chrift Jefus and his to pals through fuf- 
fering to Glory : In Him defirous to be ever yours, 

Roger Williams. 

For Mr. John JVinthrop, thefe. 

Nar. 9, 10, 49, (fo called,) [Narragansett, Dec. 10, 1649. ] 2 

Sir, — Praifed be God for your healths and peace, which 
I humbly defire he may pleafe to continue and fancflify to 
Himielf. Thefe letters Mr. Arnold importuned me to 
fend, although by an hired mefTenger. This bearer (al- 
though a thief and muft be looked to) is careful, and I 
have promifed, upon a note received from you, a pair of 

1 Treve, a " truce," or "armiftice." ry of New Netherland, i. 296, as corn- 
It may be conje&ured that the writer re- mander of a privateer upon our coafl a 
fers to the Treaty of Munfter, con- few years before. See alio Documents 
eluded between Spain and the States- relative to the Colonial Hiftory of the 
General in 1648. This Bluefield is State of New York, i. 397-399. — Ed. 
probably the Capt. " Blauvelt," a Dutch- Wintbrop Papers. 
man, mentioned in O'Callaghan's Hiilo- 2 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 273. 

1 88 Letters of Roger Williams. 

breeches. We have here notice of conclufions for the war 
from Bofton, and preparations of a fet number in each 
town. Truely, Sir, I have heard little concerning thofe 
murders by Englim or natives, but fear that the Lord is 
kindling fires amongft us. I humbly conceive the cafe of 
a man murdered need not hazard the Englim in winter 
hoftilities, nor the plantations, by the certain and experi- 
enced revenges of thofe Dutch Indians, and am confident 
that within a year's compafs, &c, by iilent and watchful 
courfes, the murderer or murderers may be taken in Eng- 
lifh towns. However, David would rather wink at mur- 
derous Joab all his days, then hazard the lofs of more 
blood for the revenging of fome. At Seekonk a great 
many have lately concurred with Mr. John Clarke and 
our Providence men about the point of a new Baptifm, and 
the manner by dipping : and Mr. John Clarke hath been 
there lately (and Mr. Lucar) and hath dipped them. I 
believe their practice comes nearer the firfl practice of our 
great Founder Chrift Jefus, then other practices of religion 
do, and yet I have not fatisfaction neither in the authority 
by which it is done, nor in the manner ; nor in the pro- 
phecies concerning the rifing of ChrifVs Kingdom after the 
defolations by Rome, &c. It is here faid that the Bay 
hath lately decreed to profecute fuch, and hath writ to 
Plymouth to profecute at Seekonk, with overtures that if 
Plymouth do not, &c. Here hath been great bickerings 
about Bluefield's (hip at Newport, there arretted by fome 
of his company, and ordered to be fold and payments made, 
although he ftand deeply bound to repay all to the Span- 
iard upon demand, becaufe taken againft the Treves. This 
(hip and other velfels, and great and fmall ordinance going 
off, caufed high reports (almoft to my belief as I wrote to 

Letters of Roger Williams. 189 

you) of fome Irifh pirates, whom we have caufe to fear, 
and (feeking to God) prepare alfo for. I have heard of a 
book from England importing another high cafe on foot 
touching a more equal diviiion of lands among brethren, 
and proviiion for the younger brethren. I thankfully ac- 
knowledge your love concerning my daughter. 1 My wife 
(here with me) informs me of a courfe of phylic me has 
entered into with Mr. Clarke 2 of Bofton, where me hath 
been lately, and is better. We are encompalfed with mo- 
tions about her; but neither I nor me can entertain 
thoughts of fo early a marriage. She, as my wife tells me, 
delires to fpend fome time in fervice, and liked much Mrs. 
Brenton, (who wanted); but I trouble you with fuch paf- 
fages, &c. My wife prays a little of your powder for Mrs. 
Weekes' daughter, of Warwick, who is every winter great- 
ly afflicted by occafion of fuch obstructions, and breaks 
forth to lamentable effects. The condition (although the 
parents offer payment with thanks,) I queftion not but 
will prevail with your loving breait, wherein God gra- 
cioully dwell, as in a palace of his delights. In him I 
deiire to be Ever yours unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Your fervant, Poft, lay with me two nights, earneftly 
importuning me to fend his thankful remembrance and 

I am troubled about Nenekunat's hunting, to whom 

1 Probably his (laughter Mary, who is bury and Bofton, who died in January, 
faid to have been born at Plymouth, in 1664-5. A good portrait of him is in 
Auguft, in 1633, now fixteen years of the cabinet of the Maftachuietts Hiftori- 
age. — Eds. Wintbrop Papers. cal Society. — Eds. Wintbrop Papers. 

2 Dr. John Clarke, phyfician of New- 

190 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Wequafhcook fends threatening of Captain Mafon's vifit. 
They have importuned me to write to Captain Mafon, 
which I have done. 

On the laft firft day was a great fray between Warwick 
men and thofe Indians, and blood fpilt, and many cuts and 
hurts on both fides : who both on the third day fent for 
me, who went, and (by God's mercy) compofed not only 
the prefent, but have begun a treaty of full agreement 
with the natives about their land, if the Bay pleafe. 

Sir, my love to Mr. Brewfter, 1 to whom I thought now 
to write; but by the next if God pleafe. 

For the Worjhipful his kind friend Mr. "John Winthrop, Efq. 

at Pequot. 

Nar. 16, 12, 49, (fo called.) [Narragansett, 16th February, 1649-50. ] 2 

Sir, — I rejoiced exceedingly from your own loving hand 
(by Robin Caufafenamont) to receive tidings of your 
healths after this (harp time. Bleifed be God, who hath 
provided warm lodging, food, and clothing, and fo feafona- 
ble and admirable an element of fire for his poor creatures 
againft fuch times ; the fame blelTed Lord make us learn 
of his little ants, (Prov. 6.) to provide timely againft eter- 
nal bitternefs. Hoc momentum vnde pendet czternitas. For 
expedition I advifed Robin to get over to Rhode Ifland 
himfelf, which I think he did, but I have not lince heard 

'Jonathan Brewfter, was the eldeft the Mayflower, in 1620. 
fon of Elder William Brewfter, the dif- 2 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 276. 
tinguifhed Puritan, who came over in 

Letters of Roger JVWia??is. 191 

of him. I am forry for this affliction to Mr. Smith in his 
daughter's hufband, and we fear Richard Smith his fon, 
alfo, but hope it will pleafe God to give us tidings of de- 
liverance : however, it is not fafe for duft and afhes to 
tempt the Moft High in fighting with his winter ftorms 
without neceffity. I grieve that my dear countrymen of 
Connecticut are fo troubled with that filthy devil of whor- 
ifh practices, and more that yet they are perfuaded of 
fuch courfes to call: him out. Adultery is a fire which 
will root out, but the gentiles, the nations of the world, 
will never be proved capable of fuch laws and punimments 
as that holy nation, bred up and fed with miraculous dif- 
penfations, were fit for. Sir, I humbly blefs God that hath 
vouchfafed you light and power to witnels againft many 
evils of your countrymen, to His Honor and yours. As 
yet we have not tidings from our mother. God merci- 
fully fit us for his holy pleafure in hearing, doing, fuffering, 
living, dying : He graciouily guide you and your deareft 
by his counfel to his glory : So prays 

Your unfeigned, 

Roger Williams. 

Mr. Throckmorton is preparing and waiting daily for a 
reafon to vifit you. 

192 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Roger Williams to fohn Winthrop, jfr. 

Nar. 24, 12, 49, (fo called.) [Narragansett, 24th February, 1649-50. j 1 

Kind Sir, — Beft falutations, &c. In my laft, by Con- 
lider, I forgot a parTage about that letter to the Commif- 
fioners which you were pleaied to take from me. Mr. 
Browne lately told me that he cannot call to mind that 
ever it was produced ; he conceives, if you forgot not, 
that the Prefident did, or that it was fuppreifed. I crave 
one line about it. Mr. Browne hath often profeifed liberty 
of confcience, but now the way of new baptifm ipreads 
at Seekonk as well as at Providence and the Ifland. I 
have been fo bold as to tell him that he perfecutes his fon 
and the people, and on the other fide Mr. Newman 2 alfo. 
Sir, if you have Carpenter's Geography,^ or other difcourfe 
about the Earth's diurnal motion, fpare it a little to 

Yours moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I pray if the Long Illand man be not gone, afk for 
a book I lent him. 

*4 Mafs. Hi/}. Coll. vol. vi. p. 277. had before appeared. It was printed in 
1 Samuel Newman, born in England London in 1643. — Blake, Biog. Ditt. 
in 1600, and educated at Oxford. Emi- His defendants are ftill found in Re- 
grated to Maflachufetts in 1638, and af- hoboth and Seekonk. 
ter ipending feveral years at Dorchefter ' " Carpenter's Geography." Na- 
and Weymouth, fettled at Rehoboth, thaniel Carpenter born 1 588 died 1635, 
where he refided till his death in 1663, was an Englim clergyman. He wrote 
greatly efteemed for his talents and pie- feveral volumes confirting of fermons, 
ty. He compiled a Concordance of the philofophical works and a Geography De- 
Bible, which was fuperior to any that lineated, Oxford, 1625. 4to. 2d edition, 

1635. — Watts, Bio. Britannica. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 193 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at Pequot. 1 

Sir, — Yours received and fent. I pray in your next a 
word about Earle's paper ; a word of the war againft the 
natives. I cannot yet get particulars touching Cromwell 
in Ireland, 2 yet hope (till that God will honor him, whom 
I hope he truly deiires to honor. I grieve to understand 
from. your former that Moles is not underftood in New 
England, touching what he did to that one nonel'uch typical 
and miraculous people of Ifrael ; yet furely, licentioufnefs 
of all forts needs a fharpe [torn] though too fharp, and 
more then God requires or ever did in all nations equal to 
Ifrael, is destructive, &c. Sir, in hafte 

Yours ever unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, if you have occafion to deal with Thomas Stanton, 
or any up to Connecticut for corn of any fort, I pray re- 
member me if it were 500^//: I purpofe to write to my 
old friend Pynchon,^ and pray you if you have occafion, 
intimate a word to him. 

'4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 279. doings at Drogheda and Wexford, in 

2 This letter has no date; but the wri- September and Oftober of" 1649. — Eds. 

ter, although he had not yet got the Wintbrop Papers. 

" particulars touching Cromwell in Ire- 3 William Pynchon. See note to let- 
land," poffibly had heard rumors of his ter of Oftober 17, 1650. 


194 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For the worjhipful, bis kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at 


Nar. 20, i, 49. (fo called.) [20th March, 1649.]' 

Sir, — Loving refpeclis and beft wifhes to you both, &c. 
By Nenekunat I received your laft, relating a found of 
more bloody mowers about Old, and faid trials at our 
doors in New. 'Tis mercy that we have not our perfonal 
mares in them, 'tis mercy we are not confumed. The 
Father of Lights vouchfafe us fympathifing hearts and pre- 
pared to follow the Lamb through all tribulations into 
Glory. Nenekunat now with me importunes me to write 
this to you, to pray you to take notice of a meflage that 
Kaufa Senamon (your Robin lately brought to him from 
Connecticut, viz. : that he mould difcharge and fend to 
Long Ifland that young Sachem Taufaquonawhut, who 
hath lately married his eldeft. daughter, becaufe as Captain 
Mafon and the Magiftrates fay, he is a Pequot. He pre- 
fents this anfwer to yourfelf, and prays you to prefent it to 
the Englifh Sachems as you find occafion. He faith that 
this Taufaquonawhut was fought to by Uncas to marry his 
daughter, but he not affe&ing her (becaufe of her fore 
eyes) came to his daughter, who falling in love, he, and 
the mother, and daughter, and himfelf (Nenekunat) delire 
they might live near together, which they do a fmall dif- 
tance off. He fays fome bring him word that the Englim 
will divorce them: others that his daughter may follow 
him to Long Ifland if (he will. 

He fays that the young man was a child when the Pe- 
quot wars were, and had no hand in oppofition, &c. That 
he was not the fon of any of thofe Sachems who fought 

1 4 Mafs. Hi ft. Coll. vol. vi. p. 277. 

Letters' of Roger Williams. 195 

againft the Englifh, but of Tattaopame, whom the Dutch 
ilew. That his mother alfo is Wequafhcook's wife. That 
there is no other color of his being hurtful to the Englifh, 
but by mowing them kindnefs as they travel by his houfe : 
which to my knowledge he is free to. 

He prays you not to loie your right, but fend for a fkin 
of a moofe which was killed upon one of your hummocks 
by Fiiher's Ifland, lately, and carried to Wequafbcook, as 
the lord. 

Sir, I gladly expect your book, and one of the Parlia- 
ment's Declarations which I lent the Long Illand English- 
man who part hereby in winter. 

Sir, I delire to be ever yours unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

For the worjhipful kind friend Mr. JVintbrop, at Pequot. 1 

[No date; probably May, 1650.] 

Sir, — Loving refpects, &c. Thefe inclofed Mr. Throck- 
morton yefterday delivered to Mr. He: and Thomas 
Doxey, two days fince put forth from Newport, but Mi. 
Throckmorton being a league the foremoft, met upon 
Point Judith with a guft. from the fouthweft, which brought 

! 4 Mafs. Hi/}. Coll. vol. vi. p. 279. with you, this is to entreat you to fend 

The following note from John El- me this letter to Pequot, as fpeedily as 

derkin is written upon the fame page, you can, and if you be at charges about 

and preceding this letter of Williams, in the fending of it, I willingly will pay 

the original. — Eds. Wintbrop Papers. you. Your fervant to my power. 

Mr. Williams,— After my love re- J 0HN Elderkin. 

membered to you, being thankful to you Prov. 12th May, 1650. 

for your kindnefs to me, when I was 

196 Letters of Roger Williams. 

him on backftays, laid his veffel on one iide, in much dan- 
ger, his canoe fell over from him, and was loft, his oars, 
&c, but God brought him mercifully fafe in hither, and 
Thomas Doxey back to Newport, whither he hath now 
fent for his wife and Mrs. Arnold : Benedict 1 having now 
bought houfe and land at Newport, propofing thither to 
remove. Sir, Thomas Doxey told me of your thoughts for 
England : this bearer, Mr. Thatcher, tells me he fpake 
with fome of the Briftol mips, which fay that twenty to 
one are for the Prince throughout the land, and wait for a 
change of wind, which (if God pleafe to alter) is doubt- 
lefs like to be very dreadful, yet would I not difcourage 
you from liftening to any evident call of that God who 
is able to carry whom he fends, through men and devils. 
Our Colonies General Court is now at Newport, where 
(upon a frefh report of wars with France) our Englifh is 
in demur of fuffering the Frenchmen (who came in Blue- 
field's prize, flumed with blood, and have bought a Frigate 
of Capt. Clarke,) to go out upon their voyage to the Weft 
Indies, leaft they practice their trade upon their own coaft. 
Yet one of them having lain with Mr. Amies' daughter, 
(of Portfmouth,) is like now to marry her. The parents 
of the Englilh are troubled greatly. God mercifully 
bring good out of thele evils. 

Sir, it hath pleafed God to quicken (by a Dutchman 

• Benedict Arnold, one of the found- At the General Election in 1657, he was 

ers of Providence. His name appears chofen Prefident, and in 1663 Governor 

in the town records under date of Au- of the Colony, to which office he was 

guil, 1636. The following year he was annually elecled to 1666; again from 

aflbciated with William Coddington in 1669 to 1672, and from 1677 to 1678. 

the purchafe of the Ifland of Conanicut, He died on the 2.0th of June of the lat- 

and figned the firit. compact: in 1640. He ter year. He filled many offices of trull 

removed to Newport in 1653, and the at various periods, and w as one of the 

following year was chofen an "Affiitant." molt prominent men in the colony. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 197 

fkipper, Lorence, now following fifhing here about us,) 
Tome Englifh that way, and Bened : l defires to buy my 
fhallop and further that work, which I heartily defire [if 
God fo pleafe to favor us) may profper with you and us. 
The Natives have taken abundance of fturgeon, and cod, 
and bafs this year. Nawfet Englifh (where Mr. Prince is) 
putting forth feven or eight boats to fi(h this Spring, by 
the overfetting of one boat, and lofs of two men in the 
going out of the harbor's mouth, were for the prefent dif- 
couraged. The Lord ufeth to temper great defires and 
hopes with fuch fharps, I hope they will on again. Sir, I 
want paper, reft yours, 

Roger Williams. 

There is a found of the Narraganfetts warring upon 
Rhode Illand (which thereupon keep watch,) but it is 
founded on a lie, as I (hall inform vou. 

To Mr. Job?i JVinthrop, at Pequot. 

[No date. June, 1650. ] 2 

Sir, — Dear refpects to your dear felves and loving lifter, 
rejoicing in your peace, which may well with us (after the 
Hebrew idiom) comprife the reft, &c. The meffenger 
tells me you have that tidings about Prince Rupert,^ whofe 

'Probably, Benedict Arnold. for three years he acquitted himfelfwith 

^ \Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 281. honor. In 165 1, the great parliamenta- 

3 Prince Rupert, nephew of Charles rian Admiral Blake, attacked the Prince's 

I. having been unfuccefsful as an officer fquadron and funk or deilroyed it. It is 

in the Royal Army, was appointed to the doubtlefs to this reverfe in the fortunes 

command of the fleet, in which capacity of Prince Rupert that Williams refers. 

198 Letters of Roger Williams. 

name in thefe parts found as a north-eaft ftorm of mow. 
The Father of Mercies graciouily avert, or (if he fees 
good for us to bring it) fhelter us under the wings of his 
mercies, and gather us under them by true humiliation. 
Our peace here this laft night founds very uncertain. In- 
dian news have doubtlefs fomething in it, of a hundred 
Englim from the Bay coming to Warwick and the Narra- 
ganfett : to Warwick about controverfies between Warwick 
men and Mr. Arnold : to Narraganfett for peag. They 
tell of their inftant approach. Mr. Throckmorton laft 
ni^ht from Providence writes that Plvmouth men were 
lately in great and hot debates about yielding their claim 
of thefe parts to the Bay, which, after much heat in vot- 
ing, was by a committee caft to the Bay, whence I con- 
jecture they now acf. 1 God graciouily turn it to his praife 
however, whatever becomes of our peace. Sir, we have 
great caufe to figh at the filthinefs in this land, and alfo at 
the unchriftian ways of punifhments. You may pleafe to 
remember that I have been large (in the Bloodie Ten- 
ent), 2 in the difference between that land of Ifrael and all 
others. It is in diicufling of the model. Mr. Cotton re- 
fers the anfwer to the reft of the elders, whofe anfwer or 
reply I yet hear not of, and pray you if you do, to inti- 
mate. 'Tis a controverfy wherein I am deeply engaged, 
of which you will (if God pleafe; fee more. For your- 

'At the General Court held at Bolton, z Williams's well-known book entitled 

June 10th, 1650, the commiffioners on " The Bloody Tenent of Perfecution,for 

the controverfy concerning the title to the caufe of Confcience,diJcujfed,in a con' 

and jurisdiction of lands on Shawomet, ference betweene Truth and Peace, etc., 

(Warwick) and Pawtuxet made their re- London, 1644 : " and Cotton's " Reply 

port. The refult was, that Plymouth to Williams's Examination," etc. — Pub. 

relinquished to Maffachufetts all claims Narraganfett Club, vols. ii. and iii. 
to the junfdidr.ion of thefe lands. — Ply- 
mouth Records, vol. ii. p. 158-159. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


felf, dear fir, you do I prefume (as in confcience to God 
and man, you can no lefs) propofe your queries to your 
friends, of note for authority and ability : whofe anfvvers I 
mould thank you to fee. Newton's cafe is imminent : poor 
man. God gracioufly arm him againft the laft great trial 
approaching, where millions of men and devils number- 
lefs would joy eternally to fwone without returning. God 
gracioufly fit him and us for that battle by thefe flight viii- 
tations, &c. For Saybroke, fir, you know I rejoice and 
mourn : rejoice that the Lord Jefus his name is more 
founded, and mourn that not after the firft pattern, in 
which I find no Churches extant framed, but all (by a 
dreadful fate) oppofling, difiblving, &c, and Perez Uzzah, 
the breaches and divilions wonderful. The Portraiture, 1 
I guefs is Bifhop Hall's, the ftyle is pious and acute, very 
like his, and J. H. fubfcribes the Epitaph : probably he 
prefented thefe pallages to the King in the times of his 
reftraint, for he was truly the Bifhop's King and breathed 
from firft to laft abfolute Monarchy and Epifcopacy. 
Doubtlefs (viis and modis) he was guilty of much blood. 
All that feems weighty in my eye are the popular tumults 

1 Eikon Baftlike. The Portraiture of 
his facred Majefy, King Charles I. in 
his Solitudes and Sufferings. London, 
1648. This remarkable book caufed a 
great fenfation at the time it was pub- 
lifhed, no lefs than fifty editions, accord- 
ing to Lowndes, having appeared in 
1648-9 ; and it has been aflerted that if 
it had appeared a week fooner, it might 
have faved the life of the King. Bifhop 
Hall was not the author, as Williams 
furmifes ; this honor has been awarded 
alike to Charles I. and to Bifhop Gau- 
den. Mr. Wordfworth wrote an elabo- 

rate work to prove that the King wrote 
it; while Sir James Mackintofh makes 
equal efforts to fhow that Dr. Gauden 
was its author. Mr. Hallam, in fpeak- 
ing of the Eikon Bafilike fays, "It" we 
could trull its panegyritls, few books in 
our language have done it more credit 
by dignity of fentiment and beauty of 
ftyle. It can hardly be neceflary for me 
to exprefs my unhefitating convidlion 
that it was folely written by Bifhop Gau- 
den, who, after the Reftoration claimed 
it as his own." — Literature of Europe. 
London: vol. iii. p. 152. 

200 Letters of Roger Williams 

alledged as the artifice of the Parliament : 'Tis true it is 
a dangerous remedy, yet that which God ufed againft 
Baal's priefts. The people as well as King, were ftirred up 
for their death. The people for Jonathan againft King 
Saul. The people held the Pharifees in awe, thirfting after 
(Thrift's and the Apoftle's blood. Sir, pardon my paper in 
all its defects, and let me truly mourn that I am not more 
Yours unfeigned in Chrift Jefus, 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I am bold to add my mite, &c, thefe enclofed. 

Sir, hearing want of pins, I crave Mrs. Winthrop's ac- 
ceptance of two fmall papers, that if the want not herfelt, 
yet fhe may pleafure a neighbor. 

Roger Williams to John Winthrop, Jr. 

Nar. 9. 8. 50, (fo called.) [Narragansett, 9th O&ober, 1650. J 1 

Sir, — Beft refpects and love prefented to yourfelf and 
deareft. My houfe is now filled with foldiers and therefore 
in hafte I write in an Indian houfe : It hath pleafed God 
to give me, and the Engliih, and the Natives that were met 
together and the whole land I believe a gracious deliver- 
ance from the plague of war : On the laft day laft came to 
my houfe Capt. Atherton with above twenty foldiers and 
three horfes : The Captain requefted me presently to travel 
to the Sachems (met together in mourning for Wepiteam- 
mock's dead fon within three or four miles of my houfe) 

1 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 289. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 201 

and to demand the reft of the pay three hundred and eight 
fathom : l and two hundred more for thefe charges, &c. I 
went alone and drew them out of the mourning houfe, 
who anfwered they were ever refolved to pay, but they were 
diffracted by that peace broke by the Mohegans in that 
Hoftility begun upon them at Pequot which they anfwered 
not becaufe of the Englim ; but expected fatisfaction, but 
receive none, &c. Yet they refufed not to pay : I returned 
and the Captain with me went to them and two or three 
foldiers as was agreed, and after a little difcourfe we agreed 
in the fame place to meet on the fecond day : We did and 
all day till night, the Captain demanded the peag or two 
Sachems, the natives promifed peag within a little time : 
the Captain would have one or two prefent, and in the eve- 
ning drew up his men (unknown to me fent for) round 
about the Sachems in a hole, and the Indians (twenty for 
one of us) armed and ready with guns and bows about us, 
the Captain defired me to tell the Sachems he would take 
by force Nenekunat and Peficcofh ; then I protefted to the 
Captain before Indians and Englifh, I was betrayed for 
firft I would not have hazarded life or blood for a little 
money ; fecond, if my caufe and call were right, I would 
not be defperate with fo few men to aifault Kings in the 
midft of fuch guards about us, and I had not fo much as 
knife or ftick about me : After long Agitations upon the 
tickliih point of a great (laughter (as all the foldiers now 
confefs,) the God of mercy appeared. I perfuaded the 
Captain to ftay at my houfe four days, and the natives 
within four days to bring in the peag and I would lav 
down ten fathom: (as formerly I had done twenty (God 
knows beyond my ability.) 

'Fathoms of peage. 


202 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Sir, to-morrow the peag is to come, I hope fuch a quan- 
tity as will ftop proceedings : I told the Captain he had 
defperately betrayed me and himfelf : he tells me he will 
give me good fatisfaction before he depart : I prelume he 
fears God in the main, but fear he can never fatisfy me 
nor his own confcience, which I hope the Lord will mow 
him, and mow the Country what dangerous Councils the 
Commiffioners produce : which makes me fear God is pre- 
paring a War in the Country. Juft now a letter from 
Rhode Illand comes for my voyage for England : but as 
yet I reiblve not. God gracioully be pleafed to fet our af- 
fections on another Country and himfelf above in his dear 

Sir, yours in him I delire to be unfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

John Wintbrop, Jr., to Roger Williams, in reply to the foregoing. 

Pequot, November 10, 1650. 

Sir, — I received your letter this morning, and mufl write back in hafle, the mef- 
fengers being haftily to return, thanking you for the intelligence of this matter, 
which neither from the CommiiTioners or from any of the Government or any 
other way I have had the leaft intimatiom either by meflage, or letter. I thank you 
chiefly for your endeavors of bringing the Indians to a peaceable conclufion of mat- 
ters. The whole country are much obliged to you for your care herein, as former- 
ly for your labors and travails in this kind which they cannot be fo fenfible of, 
who do not fully underfland the nature and manner of the Indians who are brought 
to a right \_cet. defunt.~\ 

[This fragment feems to be the anfwer of Governor Winthrop to the preceding 
letter. Upon the back in Governor's W.'s hand, — "Copy of my letter to Mr. 
Williams in anfwer to his of 8. 9. 49."] 

Gov. Winthrop makes a miftake in the year, which fliould be 1650. — Ed. Win- 
tbrop Papers. 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 203 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at Peqnot. 

Nar. 17. 8. 50. (fo called.) [Narragansett, Oftober 17, 1650.] 1 

Kind Sir, — Loving refpects, &c. The Captain's de- 
mand was three hundred and eight fathom for the debt, and 
two hundred for this expedition. Thev paid one hundred 
and forty, and faid it was the whole, and that the difference 
was made by the meafure. They alfo brought two hun- 
dred and forty for this Expedition : and upon the Captain's 
motion I prevailed with them to fend two natives, with a 
petition writ by myfelf to have all cancelled. The Cap- 
tain promifed to fecond the petition, which they faid your 
loving felf and Captain Gibbons and Mr. Stanton had for- 
merly prefented in their behalf. 

I was (if not too) warm, infixing on the partiality againft 
the Narraganfetts and towards Uncas, and affirmed that Un- 
cas might better fteal many horfes then Wenekunat look 
over the hedge. I urged Uncas his villainous dealing 
againft your poor town, yourfelf, &c. There is a myftery 
in it, of which formerly, Sir, yourfelf and I had fome 
hints, and may, if it pleafe the Lord to bring us together 
before winter. The Captain told me the bufinefs was de- 
iigned by the Commiffioners, and that (as he perceived) 
they were refolved to hazard a war upon it, &c. But 
praifed be the moll: holy, gracious, and only wife, who not 
only watched over you and us ; but if I miftake not over the 
whole country, while the watchmen flept; for to me it is 
certain, a war between the Englifh and the Mauquawogs, 
or between the Englifh and the Narraganfetts, will, if not 
difpoifefs many a planter and difplant plantations ; yet haz- 

1 4 Mafs. Hi/I. Coll. vol. vi. p. 283. 

204 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ard much blood, and Ilaughter, and ruin to both Englifh 
and Indian ; and when foever this fore plague of God 
comes, though upon never fo juft a caufe in the laft way 
of remedy and extremity, yet it is one of his three molt 
dreadful earthly and temporal judgments upon the children 
of men. 

Sir, Thomas Doxie came in almoft three weeks fince, he 
had no mind for Providence, but ftood away for Martin's 
Vineyard, and left a letter for his wife here to meet him, who 
came here this day, fome few hours iince from Providence, 
but we hear not of Thomas ; fo that the poor woman is 
much difconfolate, for to get from Providence me was 
forced to promife to come back, if Thomas would not 
come up ; yet Benedict writes to me and to her here ex- 
ceeding lovingly. I fear he has gone to Munnadoes to 
finifh this voyage with the two Dutchmen with him. 
Katherine prefents fervice and prays advice. The Father 
of mercies gracioufly blefs thefe trials to her, that it 
may be for her good in the latter end, which I mail (through 
his grace) endeavor to further. 

Sir, I am your unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 205 

For his honored kind friend Mr. JVinthrop, at Pequot, thefe. 

[No date ; Oftober, 1650.] 1 

Sir, — Beft falutation, &c. Yours by Elderkin (who predi- 
cates your juft praife in many refpe&s, &c.,) common, phi- 
lofophical modern virtue, laudata crefcit, — how much more 
mould true, heavenly, and eternal ? I wrote you largely 
the irTue of things, and hope you have received, &c. In 
fum, that the Captain had one hundred and forty fathom 
for the debt, (which was all, fay the Indians, but three 
hundred and eight fay the Englim) alfo two hundred and 
forty for this charge. A petition I wrote to the Court for 
the Natives touching the difference, and this bearer, Mr. 
Caukin, tells me it was accepted in the Court of Deputies 
(of which he was one). He tells me of a book lately 
come over in Mr. Pynchon's name, 2 wherein isfome dero- 
gation to the blood of Chrift. The book was therefore 
burnt in the Market place at Bofton, and Mr. Pynchon to 
be cited to the Court. If it come to your hand, I may 
hope to fee it; however the Moft High and only Wife 
will by this cafe difcover what liberty confcience hath in 
this land. Sir, as I wrote, Katherine came in hither the 
day I wrote to feek Thomas Doxey, and he came in the 
next day after, and the next day to Providence together. 
She tells me (to give Benedict content) fhe let Bened: 

x \Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 284. books. The one here alluded to is proba- 

This letter is without date; but from bly "The Meritorious Price of Man's Re- 

Mr. Winthrop's endorfement of "Ofto. demption, etc. London: 1650. It was 

23," it may be inferred that it was writ- received in Bofton during the feflion of 

ten a few days before. the General Court in October following, 

1 William Pynchon fettled at Rox- which body ordered the book to be burnt 

bury, Mafs., in 1630; at Springfield, the next day "after the Letture." A 

about 1637, and returned to England in fecond edition was printed in 1655. 
1652. He was the author of feveral ?Benedift Arnold. 

206 Letters of Roger Williams. 

write to her uncle : but (lie herfelf writ privately that if 
anything were fent, it might be in houfehold fluff. I hope 
(yet fear) thofe trials may take off Thomas from company, 
Spending, &c, unto which your help will not be wanting. 
I think he will bring her to Pequot or Long Ifland. Your 
tidings of God's renewed mercy again to Cromwell is con- 
firmed : Sir, in his mercy reft you and yours, and in him 
I defire to be ever yours 

Roger Williams. 

Endorfed by John Winthrop, jr., "Mr. Williams, Odo : 

For my well-beloved and much ref peeled, the inhabitants of the 
Town of Providence. 

To Mr. Robert Williams and Mr. Thomas Harris, or either of them. 
Nar. 22, II, 50. (fo called.) [Narragansett, 22d February, 1651.] 1 

Well beloved friends, — Loving refpects to each of 
you prefented, with hearty defires of your prefent and eter- 
nal peace. I am forry that I am occasioned to trouble you 
in the midft. of many your other troubles, yet upon the 
experience of your wanted loving-kindnefs and gentlenefs 
toward all men and myfelf alfo, I pray you hear me pa- 
tiently. I had propofed to have perfonally attended this 
Court, and to have prefented, myfelf, thefe few requefts 
following, but being much lamed and broken with fuch 

] Knowles, Mem. R. Williams, o. 402. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 207 

travels, I am forced to prefent you in writing thefe five re- 
queues. The firft four concern others living and dead 
amongft us ; the fifth, concerns myfelf. 

Firft, then, I pray be pleafed to review the propofitions 
between us and our dead friend, John Smith ; and lince it 
hath pleafed the God of all mercies, to vouchfafe this town 
and others fuch a mercy, by his means, I beieech you uftdy 
how to put an end to that controverfy depending between 
us and him, (as I may fo fpeak) and his ; 'tis true, you 
have referred that bufinefs to fome of our loving neighbors 
amongft you ; but fince there are fome obftru£tions, I be- 
feech you put forth your wifdoms, who know more ways 
to the wood than one. Eafe the firft, and appoint others, 
or fome other courfe, than the dead clamor not from his 
grave againft us, but that the country about us may fay, 
that Providence is not only a wife, but a grateful people to 
the God of mercies, and all his inftruments of mercy to- 
wards us. 

My fecond requeft concerns the dead ftill. I underftand, 
that one of the orphans of our dead friend, Daniel Ab- 
bott, 1 is likely (as fhe herfelf told me) to be difpofed of in 
marriage. 'Tis true (he is now come to fome years, but 
who knows not what need the poor maid hath of your 
fatherly care, counfel and direction. I would not dispar- 
age the young man (for I hear he hath been laborious) yet 
with your leave, I might fay, I doubt not you will not give 
your daughters in marriage to fuch, whofe lives have been 
in fuch a courfe, without fome good afiurance and certifi- 
cate of his not being engaged to other women, or other- 

' Daniel Abbott, one of the early fet- the firft divifion of lands purchafed by 
lers of Providence, whofe name is found Williams from Canonicus and Mianto- 
among thofe who received a town lot in nomi. 

2o8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ways criminous, as alfo of his refolution to forfake his former 
courfe, left (this enquiry being neglected) the maid and 
ourfelves repent when mifery hath befallen her, and a juft 
reproof and charges befall ourfelves, of which we have no 

For, thirdly, I crave your confederation of that lamenta- 
ble object (what mall I fay, of all our cenfure or pity, I am 
lure) of all our wonder and aftonilhment, Mrs. Wefton. 1 
My experience of the diftempers of perfons elfewhere, 
makes me confident, that although not in all things, yet in 
a great meafure, (lie is a diftracted woman. My requeft is, 
that you would be pleafed to take what is left of hers into 
your own hands, and appoint fome to order it for her fup- 
ply, and if it may be, let fome public act of mercy to her 
necemties, ftand upon record amongft the merciful acts of 
a merciful town, that hath received many mercies from 
heaven, and remember that we know not how foon our 
wives may be widows, and our children orphans, yea, and 
ourfelves be deprived of all or moft of our reafon, before 
we go from hence, except mercy from the God of mercies 
prevent it. 

Fourthly. Let me crave your patience, while once more 
I lead your consideration to the grave, amongft the dead, 
the widows and the fatherlefs. From fome neighbors and 
the widow Mann 2 herfelf, I underftand, that notwithstand- 
ing her motherly affection, which will make all burthens 
lighter for her children's good, yet (he is not without fears, 
that if the town be not favorable to her in after times, fome 

1 Mrs. Wefton, probably the widow * Widow Man, whofe hufband Wil- 

of Francis or Mathew Wefton, both of liam Man received one of the original 

whom received original town lots as town lots, 

Letter's of Roger Williams. 209 

hard meafure and prelTures may befall her. My requeft is, 
therefore, that it would pleafe you to appoint lb me of your- 
felves to review the will, and to conlider whether the pains 
of the father, deceafed, or want of time, hath not occa- 
lioned him to leave fome of his purpofes and defires im- 
perfect, as alfo to propofe to the town wherein, according 
to the rules of jultice and mercy, what the deceafed in- 
tended, may be perfecled, for the greater comfort both of 
his widow and orphans. 

Fifth. My laft requeft concerns myfelf. I cannot be fo 
unthankful to you, and to infenfible of mine own and fami- 
ly's comfort, as not to take notice of your continued and 
conflant love and care in your many public and folemn or- 
ders for the payment of that money due unto me about the 
charter : 'tis true I have never demanded it ; yea, I have 
been truly defirous that it might have been laid out for 
fome further public benefit in each town, but obferving 
your loving resolution to the contrary, I have at laft re- 
folved to write unto you (as I have alfo lately done to 
Portfmouth and Newport) about the better ordering it to 
my advantage. I have here (through God's providence) 
convenience of improving fome goats; my reque/t is, 
therefore, that if it may be without much trouble, you 
would pleafe to order the payment of it in cattle of that 
kind. I have been folicited and have promifed my help, 
about iron works, when the matter is ripe, earneitly de- 
firous every way to further the good of the town of Provi- 
dence, to which I am fo much engaged, and to yourfelves 
the loving inhabitants thereof, to whom I defire to be 

Your truly loving and ever faithful, 

Roger Williams. 



Letters of Roger Williams. 

To Mr. yobn Wintbrop, Jr. 

[Auguft, 1651.]' 

Sir, — Loving refpe&s to you both, with Mrs. Lake and 
yours By this opportunity I am bold to inform you, that 
from the Bay I hear of the fentence on Mr. Clarke, 2 to be 
whipt or pay twenty pounds, Obadiah Holmes whipt or 

1 3 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. ix. p. 291 ; 
Knowles' Mem. R. Williams, p. 241. 

z The tranfadtion here referred to, 
mowing the vigor with which the fa- 
mous law of 1644, levelled ollenfibly 
againft Ana-baptilts, was executed, is lb 
remarkable, that it deferves more than a 
palling notice. 

It appears that the Rev. John Clarke, 
one of Rhode Ifland's molt diilinguifhed 
men, with Obadiah Holmes and John 
Crandall were deputed by the Biptift 
Church in Newport, to vilit William 
Witter, an aged member of that church, 
living at Lynn, at his requeil The next 
day being Sunday, it was thought proper 
to fpend it in religious worlhip at Mr. 
Witter's houfe, about two miles from the 
town. In the midft of Mr. Clarke's 
i'ermon, " two conllables entered, who, 
by their clamorous tongues " writes Mr. 
Clarke, " made an interruption in my 
difcourfe, and more uncivilly dilturbed 
us than the purfuivants of the old Eng- 
lilh bilhops were wont to do, telling us 
they were come with authority from the 
magiitrate to apprehend us. I dedred to 
fee the authority by which they pro- 
ceeded, whereupon they plucked forth 
their warrant and read it to us : the fub- 
ftance whereof was as followeth :" 

"By virtue hereof you are required 
to go to the houfe of William Witter, 
and fo fearch from houfe to houfe, for 

certain erroneous perlons, being llrang- 
ers, and them to apprehend, and in fafe cul- 
tody to keep, and to-morrow morning 
bring them before me." Robert Bridges. 

The conftables carried Mr. Clarke 
and his companions to the Congrega- 
ional meeting. At the clofe of the fer- 
vice Mr Clarke rofe and addreffed the 
affembly, but was fpeedily filenced, and 
the next day the three " heretics " were 
committed to prifon in Bolton. A few 
days after they were tried before a Court 
of Affiftants, and Mr. Clarke was fen- 
tenced to pay a fine of £20, Mr. Holmes 
£30, and Mr. Crandall £5 ; or, in de- 
fault of payment, each was to be whipped. 
They refufed to pay the fine, as it would 
be an acknowledgment of guilt, and were 
accordingly committed to prifon. 

On the trial Mr. Clarke defended him- 
felf and his companions fo ably, that the 
Court were fomewhat embarraffed. "At 
length," fays Mr. Clarke " the Governor 
[John Endicott] Hepped up and told us 
we had denied infant baptifm, and being 
fomewhat tranfported, told me I had de- 
ferved death, and laid he would not have 
fuch tralh brought into their jurifdiction." 

From the prifon Mr. Clarke fent to 
the Court a propofition to meet with any 
of the minifters, and hold a public dif- 
culfion. This propofal was at firlt ac- 
cepted and a day fixed ; but the clergy 
probably thought that a public debate 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 

21 I 

thirty pounds, on John Crandall, whipt or five pounds. 
This bearer hears of no payment nor execution, but 
rather a demur, and Tome kind of conference. The Fa- 
ther of Lights gracioufly guide them and us in fuch 
paths ; for other fuccor than that (in his mouth) Chrift 
Jefus walks not among the churches, (Rev. i.) Sir, upon 
thofe provocations that lately (as in my laft I hinted) 
Auguontis gave the Sachems, Ninigret, Pitammock and 
Peliccom, went in perfon to their town, (Chaubutick) 
and upon Pummakommins telling the Sachems that he 
was as great a Sachem as they, they all fell together 

about infant baptifm with fo able an an- 
tagonift would be inexpedient. Mr. 
Clarke's fine was paid without his knowl- 
edge or confent, and he was releafed 
from prilon. Mr. Crandall was alfo 
releafed on condition of appearing at 
the next Court. Before leaving, Mr. 
Clarke left a declaration with the magif- 
trates, that he would be ready at any time, 
to vifit Bofton and maintain his fenti- 

Mr. Holmes was kept in prifon till the 
Court met in September, and then, after 
their public lefture in Bofton, the fen- 
tence of the Court was executed on him 
with fuch feverity that for a confiderable 
time, he could take no reft, except by 
fupporting himfelf on his knees and el- 

Backus, prints a letter from Holmes 
giving a full account of his cafe, and the 
particulars of the manner in which the 
whipping was inflidled upon him. He 
alfo gives the proportions which Clarke 
fubmitted to the Court for difcuftion, 
with the reply of the Governor and 

Council. — Hijlory of the Baptifts, vol. i. 
pp. 229-238. 

John Spur and John Hazel, the latter 
an aged man, a friend and neighbor of 
Holmes, from Rehoboth, who had tra- 
velled fifty miles to fee him, were arreft- 
ed, imprifoned and fined for exprefling 
fympathy for C;arke and his aflbciates. 

" The recital of thefe tranfadlions " 
writes Knovvles " is painful, but wemuft 
compel ourfelves to contemplate fuch 
fcenes, if we would fuitably feel the con- 
traft between the policy of MalTachufetts 
at that day, and the tolerant principles 
of Roger Williams. To that policy it 
muft be afcribed, that wife and good men 
could thus treat their fellow Chriftians." 
Memoir of Roger Williams, p. 244. 

Much more might be faid of thefe 
ftrange tranfaclions, did fpace admit. 
They are fully treated of by Backus 
in his Hiflory of the Baptijls, and by 
Knowles in his Memoir of Williams ,• 
alfo by John Clarke himfelf in his "/// 
Nezves from New England ; or, a Narra- 
tive of New England's Perfecution." Lon- 
don : 1652. 

212 Letters of Roger Williams. 

by the ears ; yet no blood fpilt. The Chaubatick In- 
dians fend to the Bay ; they fay Auguontis is fent for and 
Ninigret, but I know no certain other than meiTengers 
paffing to and again from Chaubatick to the Bay. Here 
was laft week Mr. Sellick, of Bofton, and Mr. Gardiner, 
a young merchant, to fetch my corn, and more, from Mr. 
Paine, of Seekonk ; they are bound to the French, unlefs 
diverted. They tell me of a fliip of three hundred, come 
from Barbadoes. Mr. Wall, the mailer, flood upon his 
guard while he (laid there ; he brought fome parlengers, 
former inhabitants from London, whofe cafe was fad there, 
becaufe of the pofture of the illand (where as I have by 
letter from a godly friend there) they force all to fwear 
to religion and laws. This Mr. Wall hath a new and 
great delign, viz. : from hence to the Eaft Indies. The 
frigates defigned for Barbadoes were ordered for Scilly, 
which they allaulted, and took forts and ordnance and fri- 
gates, and drove the Governor into his laft fort. It hath 
pleafed God to bring your ancient acquaintance and mine, 
Mr. Coddington, in Mr. Carwithy his fhip of five hun- 
dred; he is made Governor of this colony for his life. 
General Cromwell was not wounded nor defeated, (as is 
faid) but fick of flux and fever, and mending, and had a 
victory over the Scots. Sir, this world pafieth away and 
the [ayjuia^ fafhion, fhape and form of it, only the word of 
Jehovah remains That word literal is fweet, as it is the 
field where the myftical word or treafure, Chrift Jefus, lies 
hid. HIn im I hope to be yours, 

Roger Williams. 
Sir, to Mr. Blindman loving falutations. 

Letters of Roger Williams. i 1 3 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. "John Winthrop, at Pequot. 

[No date; probably Auguft 165 I.] 1 

Sir, — Loving refpects, &c. Yours received and the ioj-. 
from your neighbor Elderkin, and letters, which mall care- 
fully be fent. I came from Providence laft night, and was 
able, by God's merciful providence, fo to order it, that I was 
their pilot to my houfe here, from whence I have provided 
a native, who, with Jofeph FolTeker, I hope will bring 
them fafe to you. The merciful Lord help you and me 
to fay, as Solomon, all that comes is vanity : all cattle, all 
goods, all friends, all children, &c. I met Mr. John Clarke, 
at Providence, recens e carcere. There was great hammer- 
ing about the difputation, but they could not hit, and al- 
though (my much lamented friend) the Governor told him, 
that he was worthy to be hanged, &c, yet he was as good 
as thruft out without pay or whipping, &c. ; but Obadiah 
Holmes remains. Mr. Carwithy is gone with his ihip to 
the eaftward for marts, and returns, three weeks hence, to 
fet fail for England, Sir, I have a great fuit to you, that at 
your leifure you would fit and fend fomething that you find 
fuitable to thefe Indian bodies, in way of purge or vomit ; 
as alfo, fome drawing plafter, and if the charge rife to one 
or two crowns, I (hall thankfully fend it; and commend- 
ing vou and yours to the only great and good Phylician, 3 de- 
fire, Sir, to be ever 

Yours in Him, 

Roger Williams. 

'Knowles' Mem. Roger Williams, p. in medicine. The benevolent zeal of" 
243 ; 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. xi. 293. Mr. Williams for the welfare of the In- 
z Mr. Winthrop had confiderable fkill dians, (hows itfelfonall occafions. 

214 Letters of Roger Williams. 

The copy of a letter of Roger Williams, of Providence ', i?i New 
England, to Major Endicot, Governor of the MaJJachufetts, 
upon occajion of the late perfecution againjl Mr. Clarke and 
Obadiah Holmes, and others, at Bojlon, the chief town of the 
Maffachufetts in New Efigland. 

Auguft, 1 65 1. * 

Sir, — Having done with our tranfitory earthly affairs 
(as touching the English and the Indians) which in com- 
panion of heavenly and eternal, you will fay are but as 
dung and drofs, &c. Let me now be humbly bold to re- 
member that humanity and piety, which I and others have 
formerly obferved in you, and in that hopeful remem- 
brance to crave your gentle audience with patience and 
mildnefs, with ingenuity, equanimity and candor, to him 
that ever truly and deeply loved you and vours, and as in 
the awful prefence of His holy eye, whofe dreadful hand 
hath formed us to the praife of His mercy or juftice to all 

Sir, I have often feared and faid within my foul, have I 
fo deeply loved and refpecled ? Was I alfo fo well be- 
loved ? Or was all counterfeit, and but gilded o'er with 
earthly refpecls, wordly ends, &c. Why am I filent? my 
letters are not banifhed ! may be welcome, may be feen 
and heard, and if neither, yet will back again (together 
with my prayers and cries) into my bofom- 

Thus while I have fometimes mufed and refolved ! ob- 
jections, obftruclions, and a thoufand hindrances (I fear 
from Satan as Paul faid) hath preffed in, held my hand, &c. 

Sir, it hath pleased the Father of Spirits at this prefent 

1 Roger Williams. Tbe Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody. London, 1652, p. 303. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 215 

to fmite my heart in the very breaking up of your letter : 
This Death's Head 1 tells that loving hand that fealed it, 
and mine that opens your letter, that our eyes, our hands, 
our tongues, our brains are flying hence to the hole or pit of 
rottennefs : Why mould not therefore fuch our letters, 
fuch our fpeeches, fuch our actings be, as may become our 
lafl: minutes, our death-beds, &c. 

If fo, how meek and humble, how plain and ferious, 
how faithful and zealous, and yet how tender and loving 
mould the fpirits and fpeeches be of dying and departing 
men ? 

Sir, while fomething of this nature I mufe over your 
Death's head, I meet (in the entrance of your letter) with 
this paffage, " Were I as free in my fpirit as formerly I have 
been to write unto you, you fiould have received another manner 
of Salutation then now with a good Confcience I can Exprefs ; 
However God knoweth who are his, and what he is pleafed to 
hide from fnful man in this life, Jhall in that great Day be 
manifejled to All" 

Sir, at the reading of this line, (I cannot but hope I 
have your leave to tell you.) The fpeech of that wife 
woman of Tekoah unto David came frem unto my 
thoughts : Speaks not the King this thing as one that 
is guilty ? For will my honored and beloved friend not 
know me for fear of being difowned by his confcience? 
Shall the goodnefs and integrity of his confcience to God 
cauie him to forget me ? Doth he quiet his mind with this ; 
[God knoweth who are his? God hides from finful man, 
God will reveal before All ?] Oh how comes it then that 

1 Endicott's feal was a death's head and is given in 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vi. Appen- 
crofT-bones, with the name of John Gar- dix ii. 
vad in a circle around it. A fac-fimile 

2i6 Letters of Roger Williams. 

I have heard fo often, and heard lb lately, and heard 
fo much, that he that fpeaks fo tenderly for his own, hath 
yet fo little refpedt, mercy or pity to the like confcientious 
perfualions of other men? Are all the thoufands of mil- 
lions of millions of confciences, at home and ahroad, fuel 
only for a prifon, for a whip, for a ftake, for a gallows ? 
Are no confciences to breathe the air, but fuch as fuit and 
famplehis? May not the mod: High be pleafed to hide 
from his as well as from the eyes of his fellow-fervants, 
fellow-mankind, fellow-Englifh ? And if God hide from 
his, from any, who can difcover ? Who can fhut when he 
will open ? and who can open when he that hath the key 
of David will fhut ? All this and more (honored Sir) your 
words will warrant me to fay, without any juft offence or 

ObjeB. But what makes this to Heretics, Blafphemers, 
Seducers, to make them that fin againft their confcience (as 
Mr. Cotton fayth) after conviction ? What makes this to 
ftabbers of Kings and Princes, to blowers up of Parlia- 
ments out of confcience? 

Firft, I anfwer, He was a tyrant that put an innocent 
man into a bear's fkin, and io caufed him as a wild beaft 
to be baited to death. 

Secondly, I fay this is the common cry of Hunters or 
perfecutors [heretics, heretics, blafphemers, &c.,] and why, 
but for croiTing the perfecutors confciences, (it may be but 
their fuperftitions, &c.,) whether Turkifh, Popifh, Pro- 
teftant, &c. 

This is the outcry of the Pope and Prelates, and of the 
Scotch Prefbyterians, who would fire all the world, to be 
avenged on the feclarian Heretics, the blafphemous Here- 
tics, the feducing Heretics, &c, had it not pleafed the 

Letters of Roger Williams. 217 

God of Heaven who bounds the infolent rage of the furi- 
ous ocean, to raife up a fecond Cromwell (like a mighty 
and merciful wall or bulwark) to (lay the fury of the op- 
prerTbr, whether Englifh, Scottifh, Popifh, Prefbyterian, 
Independent, &c. 

Laftly, I have faid much and lately, and given particu- 
lar anfwers to all fuch pleas, in my Second Reply or Anf- 
wer to Mr. Cotton's warning of the Bloody Tenent in the 
Lamb's blood, which it may be is not yet come to your 
light and hand. 

'Tis true, I have to fay elfewhere about the caules of my 
banimment : as to the calling of natural men to the exer- 
cife of thofe holy Ordinances of prayers, oaths, &c. As 
to the frequenting of Parifh Churches, under the pretence 
of hearing fome Minifters : As to the matter of the Pa- 
tent, and King James his Chriftianity and Title to thefe 
parts, and beftowing it on his iubjecls by virtue of his be- 
ing a Chriftian King, &c. 

At prefent, let it not be orTenfive in your eyes, that I 
lingle out another, a fourth point, a caufe of my banim- 
ment alio, wherein I greatly fear one or two fad evils, 
which hath befallen your Soul and Confcience. 1 

The point is that of the civil Magiftrates dealing in mat- 
ters of Confcience and Religion, as alfo of perfecuting and 
hunting any for any matter merely Spiritual and Religious. 

1 Mr. Cotton's Letter examined and ment," the fecond and fourth named 

anfwered, pp. 4, 5. Pub. Narr. C/ub, i : above, " were no caufes at all, as he ex- 

40, 41. Cotton gives his verfion of the preffeth them. There are many knowne 

caufes of Williams' banifhment in his to hold both thefe opinions, and yet they 

Anfwer 27-31. Pub. Narr. C/ub, ii. 44- are tolerated not only to live in the Com- 

52. He fays, " It is evident the two lat- monwealth, but alfo in the fellowfbip of 

ter caufes which he giveth of his Banifh- the Churches." 


21 8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

The two evils intimated are thefe : Firft, I fear you can 
not after io much Light, and fo much profeffion to the con- 
trary (not only to myfelf, and fo often in private, hut) be- 
fore fo many witneifes ; I fay, I fear you cannot fay and 
acl: fo much, againft fo many feveral Confciences, former 
and later, but with great checks, great threatenings, great 
blows and throws of inward confcience. 

Secondly, If you fhall thank God, that it is not fo with you, 
but that you do what Confcience bids you in God's prei- 
ence, upon God's warrant, I muft then be humbly faithful 
to tell you, that I fear your underprizing of holy Light, 
hath put out the candle, and the eye of confcience in thefe 
particulars, and that delulions, ftrong delulions, and that 
from God (by Satan's fubtleties) hath feized upon your very 
Soul's belief, becaufe you prized not, loved not the endan- 
gered perfecuted Son of God in his defpifed truths and 

Sir, with man (as the Lord Jefus faid of the rich man) 
I know it is impoffible for the (otherwife piercing eye) of 
your underftanding to fee into thefe things, for it is dif- 
colored, as in fome difeafes and glaifes. It is impoffible 
for your Will to be willing to fee, for that's in a thouf- 
and chains refolved (as once you fpake heroically and 
heavenly in a better way) to ipend your deareft heart's 
blood in your way, &c. Yet with God all things are 
poffible, and they that laughed the Lord Jefus to fcorn 
when he faid, the Damfel is not dead but lleepeth, were 
afterwards confounded, when they faw her raifed by his 
heavenly voice. 

His holy pleafure I know not, nor do I know which 
way the Glory of his great Name will more appear, either 
in finally fuffering fo great a fall and ruin of fo ftrong a 

Letters of Roger Williams. 219 

pillar, that flefli may not Glory, but that his Strength and 
glory only may be feen in weaknefs. Or elfe in your holy 
riling and reviving from the bed of fo much fpiritual fil- 
thinefs, and from fo bloody a mind, and lip, and hand, 
againft all withftanders or difturbers in it. That fo the 
fhort remainder of your candle may hold out to the 
world, the riches of His mercy, at whofe word the holi- 
er! of his fervants ought to tremble, and to work out their 
falvation with fear and trembling : I fay, I defire to fay it, 
tremblingly and mournfully (I know not which way He 
will pleafe to raife His glory) only I know my duty, my 
confcience, my love, all which enforce me to knock to call, 
to cry at the Gate of Heaven, and at yours, and to prefent 
you with this loving, though loud and faithful noife and 
found of a few grounds of deeper examination of both 
our Souls and Confciences uprightly and impartially at the 
holy and dreadful tribunal of Him that is appointed the 
Judge of all the Living and the Dead. 

Be pleafed then (honored Sir) to remember that, that 
thing which we call Confcience is of fuch a nature, (efpeci- 
ally in Englishmen) as once a Pope of Rome at the fuffer- 
ing of an Englifhman in Rome, himfelf obferved) that 
although it be groundlefs, falfe, and deluded, yet it is not 
by any arguments or torments eaiily removed. 

I fpeak not of the ftream of the multitude of all na- 
tions, which have their ebbings and flowings in religion, 
(as the longeft fword, and ftrongeft arm of Bern carries it.) 
But I fpeak of Confcience, a perfuafion fixed in the mind 
and heart of a man, which enforceth him to judge (as Paul 
faid of himfelf a perfecutor) and to do fo and fo, with ro- 
fped: to God, his worfhip, &c. 

This Confcience is found in all mankind, more or lefs 

220 Letters of Roger Williams. 

in Jews, Turks, Papifts, Proteftants, Pagans, &c. And to 
this purpofe let me freely without offence remember you 
(as I did Mr. Clarke newly come up from his fufferings 
amongft you) I fav, remember you of the fame ftory I did 
him, 'twas that of William Hartley, 1 in Queen Elizabeth 
her days, who receiving the fentence of hanging, drawing, 
&c, fpake confidently (as afterward he fuffered) what tell 
you me of hanging, &c. If I had ten thoufand millions 
of lives, I would fpend them all for the Faith of Rome, &c. 

Sir, I am far from glancing the leaft countenance on the 
Confciences of Papifts, yea or on fome Scotch and Eng- 
lifli Proteftants too, who turn up all roots, and lay all level 
and in blood, for exaltation of their own way and Con- 
fcience. All that I obferve is, that boldnefs and confidence, 
zeal and refolution, as it is commendable in a kind when 
it ferioufly refpecls a Deity, fo alfo, the greateft confidence 
hath fometimes need of the greateft fearch and exami- 

I confefs, that for confidence no Romifh Prieft, hath 
ever exceeded the martyrs or witneffes of Jefus : Witnefs 
(amongft fo many) that holy Englifh woman, who cried 
out, that if every hair of her head were a life or man, they 
fhould burn for the name of the Lord Jefus : But Sir, 
your principles and confcience, not to refpecl: Romifb or 
Englifh, faints or finners : William Hartley, and that Wo- 
man, with all their lives, you are bound by your Con- 

• William Hartley was of St. John's books. He was imprifoned, and being 

College, Oxford, and a Roman Catholic releafed in 1584, left the Kingdom. — 

Prieft. When Champian, the Jefuit Wood, Athena Oxonienfis, i. p. 474. 

emiffkry, came to England in 1 580, Hart- Note by Dr. Caldwell, Pub. Narr. 

ley engaged in diftributing one of his C/ub, iv. p. 509. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 221 

fcience to puniih (and it may be) to hang or burn, if they 
tranfgrefs againft your Confcience, and that becaufe (accord- 
ing to Mr. Cotton's monftrous distinction (as fome of his 
chief brethren to my knowledge hath called it) not be- 
caufe they fin in matters of Confcience, (which he denies 
the Magistrate to deal in,) but becaufe they fin againft 
their Confcience. 

Secondly, It is fo notorioufly known, that the Confciences 
of the moft holy men, zealous for God and his Chrift to 
death and admiration, yea, even in our own country, and 
in Queen Mary's days efpecially, have been fo groffly mif- 
lead by miftaken Confciences in matters concerning the 
worfhip of God, the coming out of the Antichriftian Ba- 
bel, and the rebuilding of the fpiritual Jerufalem that I 
need but hint who were they that penned the Com- 
mon Prayer (in its time, as glorious an idol, and as much 
adored by Godly perfons, as any invention now extant.) I 
fay who they were that lived and died (five in the llames) 
zealous for their Bifhopricks, yea, and fome too too zeal- 
ous for their Popifh ceremonies, againft the doubting Con- 
fciences of their Brethren : At which and more, we that 
now have rifen in our Father's ftead, wonder and admire 
how fuch piercing eyes could be deceived, fuch Watchmen 
blinded and deluded. But 

Thirdly, We fhall not fo much wonder when we lift up 
our trembling eyes to Heaven, and iemember ourfelves 
(poor duft) that our thoughts are not as the thoughts of 
our Maker, that, that which in the eyes of man (as the 
Lord Jefus tells us, Luc. 16.) is of high and fweet efteem, 
it ftinks and is abomination with God : Hence fuch Wor- 
ships, fuch Churches, fuch glorious profefiions and prac- 
tices may be, as may ravifh themfelves and the beholders, 

222 Letters of Roger Williams 

when with the piercing eyes of the mod: High, they may 
look counterfeit and ugly, and be found but (fpiritually) 
Whores and Abominations. 

Fourthly, Wife men ufed to enquire, what Motives, what 
Occafions, what Snares, what Temptations were there, 
which moved, which drew, which allured, &c. This is 
the Apology which the five Apologifts (Mr. Goodwin, Mr. 
Nye, &c.,) made to the Parliament, to wit, That they were 
not tempted with the moulding of New Commonwealths, 
after which they might be moved to frame their religion, 

&C. 1 

Surely, Sir, the baits, the temptations, the fnares laid to 
catch you, were not few, nor common, nor laid to every 
foot. Saul pretended zeal to the name of God, and. love 
to Tfrael in perfecuting the poor Gibeonites to death, but 
honor me before the people, was the main engine that 
turned the wheels of all his actions and devotions. What 
fet Jeroboam's brains to confult and plot the invention of 
a new Religion, Worfhip, Prieffs, &c, but honor, and the 
fear of the lofs of his gained honor ? What moved Jehu 
to be falfe and halting with God after fo much glorious 
zeal in the Reformation ? Yea, I had almoft faid, what 
moved David to flab Uriah (the fire of God) with his pen, 
but the fear of dilhonor in the difcovery of his fin, though 
doubtlefs there was fome mixtures of the fear of his God's 
difpleafure and difhonor, alfo ? 

Sir, it is no fmall offer, the choice and applaufe and rule 

1 The five apologifts, Thomas Good- publifhed his Queries of Higheft Conjid- 
win, Philip Nye, Sidrach Simpfon, Je- eration, propofed to thefe perfons and to 
remiah Burroughs and William Bridge, the Scotch Commiffiioners in the Weft- 
prepared An Apologetical Narration to minfter AfTemhly. — Note by Dr. Cald- 
Parliament in 1643. In 1644, Williams well, Pub. Narr. Club, iv. p. 511. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 223 

over fo many towns, fo many holy, of many wife, in fuch 
a holy way as you believe you are in : To lay nothing of 
ftrong drinks and wines, the fat and fweet of this and other 
lands : Thefe and others are fnares which without abund- 
ant ftrength from God will catch and hold the ftrongeft 
feet : Sir, I have known you itrong, in repelling ftrong 
temptations, but I cannot but fear and lament, that fome 
of thefe and others have been too ftrong and potent for you. 

Fifthly, We not only ufed to fay proverbially, but the 
Spirit of God expreffly tells us, that there is a mind-be- 
witching, a bewitching of the very confciences and fpirits 
of men. That as in witchcraft, a ilronger and fupernatu- 
ral power lays hold upon the powers of Nature, with a fup- 
preifing or elevating of those powers beneath or above 
themfelves : So is it with the very Spirits and Confciences 
of the moll intelligent and confcientious, when the Father 
of Spirits is pleafed in his righteous difpleafure and jeal- 
ouily, fo to fuffer it to be with ours. 

Sir, I from my Soul honor and love the perfons of fuch, 
whom I, you, and themfelves may fee have been inftru- 
mental in your bewitching. Why mould it be thought 
inconfiftent with the holy wifdom of God, to permit wife 
and holy and learned perfons to wander themfelves and 
miilead others; when the holy Scripture and experience- 
tells us of the dangerous counfels and ways of as wife and 
learned and holy as now breathe in either Old or New 
Englim air? 

Sir, I had thought to have named one or two, who may 
juftly be fufpecled (though otherwife worthily beloved) but 
I have chofe rather to prefent an hint, for that is enough 
for fo intelligent a breaft, if but willing to make an impar- 
tial review and examination of parTages between the moll 
High and your inmoft Soul in fecret. 

224 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Therefore, fixthly, for a fixed ground of fufpecling 
your Soul and Spirit and Confcience in this particular of 
perfecution, which I now inftance in, may you pleafe, Sir, 
without offence to remember, that as it is in fuch as have 
exceeded in Wine, their fpeech will betray them : So is it 
in Spiritual cups and intoxications. 

The Maker and Searcher of our hearts knows with what 
bitternefs I write, as with bitternefs of Soul I have heard 
fuch language as to proceed from yourfelf and others, who 
formerly have fled from (with crying out againft perfecu- 
tors ! [you will fay, this is your confcience: You will fay, 
you are perfecuted, and you are perfecuted for your Con- 
fcience : No you are Conventiclers, Heretics, Blafphe- 
mers, Seducers : You deferve to be hanged, rather than 
one mall be wanting to hang him I will hang him myfelf : 
I am refolved not to leave an heretic in the country ; I had 
rather fo many whores and whoremongers and thieves came 
amongftus:] Oh Sir, you cannot forget what language 
and dialect this is, whether not the fame unfavored, and 
ungodly, blafphemous and bloody, which the Gardiner's 
and Bonner's both former and latter ufed to all that bowed 
not to the State golden Image of what Confcience foever 
they were. And indeed, Sir, if the moft High be pleafed 
to awaken you to render unto his holy Majefty his due 
praifes, in your truly broken-hearted Confeftions and Sup- 
plications, you will then proclaim to all the world, that 
what profeffion foever you made of the Lamb, yet thefe 
expreffions could not proceed from the Dragon's mouth. 

Oh remember, and the moft holy Lord, bring it to your 
remembrance, that you have now a great price in your 
hand, to bring great Glory to his holy Name, great rejoic- 
ing to fo gracious a Redeemer (in whom you profefs is all 

Letters of Roger Williams. 225 

your healing and Salvation) great rejoicing to the holy 
Spirit of all true confolation, whom yet fo long you who have 
grieved and fadded, great rejoicing to thofe blelfed Spirits 
(attending upon the Lamb, and all his, and terrible to his 
perfecutors) great rejoicing and inftrudtion to all that love 
the true Lord Jefus (notwithstanding their wanderings 
among fo many falfe Chrifts) mourning and lamenting 
after him in all parts of the world where his name is 
founded: Your Talents are great, your Fall hath been fo : 
Your Eminence is great, the Glory of the moil High in 
mercy or juftice toward you will be great alio. 

Oh remember it is a dangerous combat for the potflieards 
of the earth to fight with their dreadful Potter : It is a 
difmal battle for poor naked feet to kick againft the Pricks ; 
It is a dreadful voice from the King of Kings, and Lord of 
Lords: Endicot, Endicot, why hunteft thou me ? why im- 
prifoneft thou me? why fineft, why fo bloodily whipped:, 
why wouldeft thou (did not I hold thy bloody hands) 
hang and burn me ? Yea, Sir, I befeech you remember 
that it a dangerous thing to put this to the may be, to the 
venture or hazard, to the poffibility. If it poffible (may 
you well fay) that fince I hunt, I hunt not the life of my 
Saviour, and the blood of the Lamb of God. I have 
fought againft many feveral forts of Confciences, is it be- 
yond all poffibility and hazard, that I have not fought 
againft God, that I have not perfecuted Jefus in fome of 
them ? 

Sir, I muft be humbly bold to fay, that 'tis impoffible 
for any man or men to maintain their Chrift by their 
fword, and to wormip a true Chrift ! to fight againft all 
Confciences oppofite to theirs, and not to fight againft God 
in fome of them, and to hunt after the precious life of the 

226 Letters of Roger Williams. 

true Lord Jefus Chrift. Oh remember whether your 
Principles and Confciences mull in time and opportunity 
force you. 'Tis but worldly policy and compliance with 
men and times (God's mercy overruling) that holds your 
hands from murdering of thoulands and ten thoufands 
were your power and command as great as once the bloody 
Roman Emperors was. 

The truth is (and yourfelf and others have faid it) by 
your principles fuch whom you count Heretics, Blafphe- 
mers, Seducers, to be put to death ; you cannot be faithful 
to vour principles and Confciences, if you fatisfy them 
with but imprisonment, fining, whipping and baniming the 
Heretics, and by faying that baniming is a kind of death, 
as fome chief with you (in my cafe formerly) have faid it. 

Sir, 'Tis like you knew or have heard of the man that 
faid he would never conform publicly, although he did fub- 
fcribe in private for his liberty fake of Preaching : That, 
although he did conform in fome things, yet in all he never 
would: That, although he did himfelf yield, yet he would 
not moleft and enforce others: That although he yielded, 
that others did moleft them, yet himfelf would never per- 
fecute, and yet did all. 

But oh poor duft and allies, like ftones once rolling down 
the Alps, like the Indian canoes or Englim boats loofe and 
adrift, where flop we until infinite mercy flop us, efpecially 
when a falfe fire of zeal and Confidence drives us, though 
againft the moft Holy and eternal himfelf?) 

Oh remember the black Catalogues it hath pleafed the 
moft jealous and righteous God to make of his fiery Judg- 
ments and moft dreadful ftrokes on eminent and remarka- 
ble perfecutors even in this life. It hath been his way and 
courfe in all countries, in Germany, France and England, 

Letters of Roger Williams. 227 

(efpecially) whatever their pretences have been againft 
Heretics, Rebels, Schifmatics, Blafphemers, Seducers, &c. 
How hath he left them to be their own Accufers, Judges, 
Executioners, fome by hanging, Tome by {tabbing, fome by 
drowning and poifoning themfelves, fome by running mad, 
and fome by drinking in the very fame cup which they had 
tilled to others ? 

Some may fay, fuch perfecutors hunted God and Chrift, 
but I, but we, &c. I anfwer, the Lord Jefus Chrift fore- 
told how wonderfully the wifeft of the world, mould be 
miftaken in the things of Chrift, and a true vifible Chrift 
Jefus ! When did we fee thee naked, hungry, thirfty, rick, 
in prifon, &c. How eafy, how common, how dreadful 
thefe miftakes? 

Oh remember once again (as I began) and I humbly de- 
lire to remember with you, that every gray hair now on 
both our heads, is a Boanerges, a ion of Thunder, and a 
warning piece to prepare us, for the weighing of our laft 
anchors, and to be gone from hence, as if we had never 

'Twas mercy infinite, that ftopped provoked Juftice from 
blowing out our Candles in our youths, but now the feed- 
ing Subftance of the Candles gone, and 'tis impoffible 
without repentance,) to recall our actions ! nay with re- 
pentance, to recall our minutes paft us. 

Sir, I know I have much prefumed upon your many 
weighty affairs and thoughts, I end with an humble cry to 
the Father of mercies, that you may take David's counfel, 
and filently commune with your own heart upon your bed, 
reflect upon your own fpirit, and believe Him that faid it 
to his over zealous difciples, You know not what fpirit you 
are of: That, no ileep may feize upon your eyes, nor 
llumber upon your eyelids, until your ferious thoughts have 

228 Letters of Roger Williams. 

feriouily, calmly, and unchangeably (through help from 
Chrift Jeius) fixed. 

Firft, On a moderation towards the Spirits and Con- 
fidences of all mankind, merely differing from or oppofing 
yours with only Religious and Spiritual opposition. 

Secondly, A deep and cordial refolution (in thefe won- 
derful fearching, difputing and diifenting times)to fearch, to 
liften, to pray, to fail, and more fearfully, more trembling- 
ly to enquire what the holy pleafure, and the holy myfte- 
ries of the moft Holy are; in whom I humbly deiire to be 
Your poor fellow-servant, unfeignedly, 

refpeclive and faithful, 

Roger Williams. 

For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at Peqnot. 

Narracansett, 6. 8. 51. (fo called.) [6th Odtober, 1651.] 1 

Si R) — Once more my loving and dear refpe&s prefented 
to you both, and Mrs. Lake. Being now bound, refolvedly, 
(if the Lord pleafe) for our native country, I am not certain 
whether by the way of the Englifh, (you know the reafon)* 
or by way of the Dutch. My neighbors of Provdence and 
Warwick, (whom I alfo lately denied) with importunities, 
have overcome me to endeavor the renewing of their lib- 
erties, upon the occafion of Mr. Coddington's late grant. 3 

'Knowles, Mem. R. Williams, n. z>. J ; J Mr. Coddington's late grant was the 

3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. ix. p. 293. charter which he had fucceeded in ob- 

1 This reafon was t. is banifhment from taining of Rhode Ifland and Canonicut 

Maffachufetts. There was much delicacy Ifland to himfelf. Information of thefe 

in thus (lightly referring to a meafure, defigns were at once lent by William Ar- 

in which Mr Winthrop's father was, nold to the Governor of Maffachufetts, 

from his official relations, concerned. as appears by the following letter : 

Letters of Roger Williams. 229 

Upon this occafion, I have been advifed to fell, and have 
fold this houfe to Mr. Smith, my neighbor, who alfo may 
poffibly be yours, for I hear he like to have Mrs. Chefter. 

"From Pawtuxet, this ill day of the 7th month, 165 1. 

Much honored, — I thought it my duty to give intelligence unto the much hon- 
ored Court, of that which I underftand is now working here in thefe parts ; fo that 
if it be the will of God, an evil may be prevented, before it comes to too great a 
head, viz. : 

Whereas, Mr. Coddington has gotten a charter of Rhode Ifland and Canonicut 
Ifland to himfelf, he has thereby broken the force of their charter, that went under 
the name of Providence, becaufe he has gotten away the greater part of that 

Now thefe company of the Gortonifts, that live at Shawomet, and that compa- 
ny of Providence, a<-e gathering of £200, to fend Mr. Roger Williams unto the 
Parliament, to get them a charter of thefe parts, they of Shawomet have given £100 
already, and there be lome men of Providence that hath given £10 and £20 a man, 
to help it forward with fpeed ; they fay here is a fair inlet, and I hear they have 
faid, that if the Parliament do take difpleafure againft Maflachufetts, or the reft of 
the colonies, as they have done againft Barbadoes and other places, then this will 
ferve for an inroad to let in forces to overrun the whole country. 

It is great pity, and very unfit, that fuch a company as thefe are, they all ftand 
profefled enemies againft all the united colonies, that they fhould get a charter for 
fo finall a quantity of land as lieth in and about Providence, Shawomet, Pawtuxet 
and Cowefet, all which, now Rhode Ifland is taken out from it, is but a ftrip of 
land lying in between the colonies of Maflachufetts, Plymouth and Connecticut, by 
which means, if they fhould get them a charter, of it there may come l'ome mif- 
chief and trouble upon the whole country, if their project be not prevented in time, 
for under the pretence of liberty of confcience about thefe parts, there comes to 
live all the fcum, the runaways of the country, which, in time, for want of better 
order, may bring a heavy burthen upon the land, &c This I humbly commend 
unto the ferious confideration of the much honored Court, and reft your humble 
fervant to command, WILLIAM ARNOLD. 

They are making hafte to fend Mr. Williams away. We that live here near 
them, and do know the place and hear their words, and do take notice of their pro- 
ceeding, do know more and can fpeak more of what may come to the country by 
their means, than the Court do yet confider of. We humbly defire God their 
purpofe may be fruftrated, for the country's peace. 

I humbly defire my name may be concealed, left they, hearing of what I have 
herein written, they will be enraged againft me, and fo will revenge themfelves upon 

Some of them of Shawomet that crieth out much againft them which putteth 

2 3 « 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

Sir, I humbly thank you for all your loving kindnerTes 
to me and mine unworthy. The Father of Mercies gra- 
cioufly reward you, guide you, preferve you, fave, fandtify 
and glorify you in the blood of his dear Son, in whom I 
mourn I am no more, and defire to be yours, unfeignedly 
and eternally, 

Roger Williams. 

This bearer, coming now from England, will acquaint 
you, &c. 

To all yours, and all my friends, my loving falutations. 
Mr. Sands, of Bofton, and John Hazel, 1 of Seekonk, are 
gone before us. 

people to death for witches; for, fay they, there be neither witches upon earth, nor 
devils, but your own pallors and minifters, and fuch as they are, &c. 

I underiland that there liveth a man amongll them that broke prifon, either at 
Connecticut or New Haven ; he was apprehended for adultery ; the woman, I 
hear, was put to death, but the man is kept here in fafety, in the midft of the 
united colonies. It is time there were fome better order taken for thefe parts, &c. 

I have hired this meffenger on purpofe. I humbly defire to hear if this letter 
come fafe to your hands." — Hutcbinfon Papers, Boilon, 1769, p. 237. 

[It was thefe proceedings of Codding- 
ton that aroufed the people of the colo- 
ny and induced them to fend agents to 
England, to reprefent their cafe to the 
government, for even all the inhabitants of 
the iflands of" which Coddington had been 
made Governor, did not approve his 
courfe. Many of the inhabitants of New- 
port and Portlmouth, therefore joined 
in requelling John Clarke to proceed to 
England as their agent. Mr. Williams 
and Mr. Clarke failed together from Bof- 
ton, in November. The objedts of their 
refpeftive commilfions were different. 

Clarke's objecl: was to procure a repeal 
of Coddington's commiflion : while Wil- 
liams was the fole agent of Providence 
and Warwick, to procure a new charter 
for thefe two towns. It feems to have 
been admitted that the commiflion of 
Coddington, vacated the previous char- 
ter. — Staples. Annals of Providence, p. 

'John Hazell, was the old man who 
was imprifoned in Boflon, for expreffing 
fympathy for John Clarke and his aflbci- 
ates, and who died before he had reached 
his home. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 231 

To the honored General Court of the Majfachufetts Colony now 

ajfembled at Bojion. 

Odlober, 1651. 1 

The Humble Petition of Roger Williams. 

Although it be true yet it pleafed this honored Govern- 
ment, now many years fince to pafs a fentence of banifh- 
ment upon me, which fentence and the confequences (bit- 
ter afflictions and miferies, lories, forrows and hardships) 
I have humbly defired (through the help of the moft 
High) to endure with a quiet and patient mind. 

Yet, may it pleafe you favorably to remember, that at 
my laft arrival from my native country, I prefented this 
honored Government with letters from many of your noble 
and honorable friends, then of the Parliament of England, 
lamenting differences and perfuading moderation, if not 
reconcilement and pacification. 

Pleafe you to remember that ever fince the time of my 
exile I have been (through God's help) a profeifed and 
known fervant to this colony and all the colonies of the 
Englifh in peace and war, fo that fcarce a week hath palled 
but fome way or other I have been ufed as instrumental 
to the peace and fpreading of the Englifh plantings in this 

In the Pequot troubles, receiving letters from this Gov- 
ernment, I hazarded my life into extreme dangers, by la- 
boring to prevent the league between the Pequots and the 
Narraganfetts, and to work a league between the Englifh 
and the Narraganfetts, which work as an agent from this 
colony and all the Englifh in the land, I (through help 

J 4 Mafs. Hi ft. Coll. vol. iv. 471. Williams embarked for England, which 

Probably written fhortly before Mr. was in November, 1 651. 

232 Letters of Roger Williams. 

from God) effected. The fruit thereof (as our much hon- 
ored Mr. Winthrop, deceafed, wrote to me) hath been 
peace to the Englim ever iince. 

At prefent let me not offend you in faying that I pafs not 
only as a private palfenger, but as a melfenger and agent to 
the high Court of the Parliament of England in the name 
of my neighbors, the Englim, occaiioned by the late grant 
obtained by Mr. Coddington for Rhode Ifland. 

In all which refpects I humbly pray, yet (notwithstanding 
the former fentence) I may find yet civility and courtefy 
from the Englilh of the Maffachufetts colony, yet I (inof- 
feniively behaving myfelf) may inoffenfively and without 
moleftation, pafs through your jurifdiction 1 as a ftranger 
for a night, to the mip, and fo (if God (o pleafe) may land 
again, from the land of our nativity. 

But fome may fay, you are an oppolite to the way or wor- 
ship, and belide you go as an adverfary, with complaints 
againft us for the town of Warwick. 

To the firft, I humbly pray it may be remembered, that 
not only I, but the many millions of millions of our Father 
Adam's children, (which are as the fand upon the fea- 
fhore) are not of your perfuafion, yea and many thoufands 
of the poor remnant of God's children abroad, are at la- 
mentable difference with you and themfelves as to the 

"It was not without confiderable harm the orthodoxy or difturb the peace 
moleitation and embarraffment from the of the colony, yet the authorities were op- 
authorities and people of Maflachuletts, pofed to the objects of his million, and it 
that Mr. Williams was allowed to pafs may be, dreaded the reprefentations, 
through their territory for the purpofe which the envoys from Rhode Ifland had 
of taking fhip for England. He alludes it in their power to make to the govern- 
to thefe in his fubfequent letters, though ment of the mother country of the con- 
he furnifhes us with no means of judging dition of New England." — Gammell, 
of their nature or operation. Though Life of Roger Williams, p. 143. 
no longer in any degree able either to 

Letters of Roger Williams. 233 

worfhip of God in Chrift Jefus. I add, who knows but 
upon humble and Chriftian debatements and agitations, 
not only I, but your honored felves, may yet fee caufe to 
put our mouths in the duft together, as touching the pref- 
ent controverfies about the Chriftian worfhip. 

To the fecond, I humbly and truly anfwer, yet if it 
pleafe this honored Court to depute two or three of your- 
felves to receive and debate mine anfwer to this objection, I 
hope (through God's afTiftance) to make it apparent, yet I 
go not as an enemy to the Maifachufetts, but as a profeifed 
inftrument of a peaceable and honorable end of the fad 
controverfy, and as an humble fervant, rather than an ene- 
my, to this honored Government of the Maifachufetts. 

I am unworthy, yet defire to be your humble fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

The Deputies think meet to grant this petition, viz. : 
liberty to Mr. Williams to pafs through our jurifdidtion to 
England, provided he carry himfelf inoffenfively according 
to his promife, with reference to the content of our hon- 
ored magistrates. 

William Torrey, Clerk. 

234 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For my honored kind friend Mr. John Winthrop, at his houfe 
at Pequot, in New England. 

From Sir Henry Vane's at Whitehall, 

20. 2. 52. (io called,) [20th April, 1652. J 1 

Kind Sir, — 'Tis near two in the morning, yet a line of 
my deareft remembrance to your loving felf and yours, 
from whom I have received fo many loving lines continu- 
ally. Our old friend Col. Humphries is gone, and lately 
alfo Col. Cooke: yet blelTed be God we live, and through 
the jaws of death are landed fafe, and behold the wonders, 
the Magnalia and Miracula Dei in England. I have fent 
a large narration, both concerning Old England affairs and 
New, to Providence. I hope and delire you may fee it. 
Mr. Peters is well at Whitehall. I have often been with 
him, he tells me he hath but that 200// per year which 
the Parliament gave him, whereof he allows four fcore 
per annum to his wife. Your brother Stephen is a great 
man for foul liberty. I have mentioned you to Sir Henry 
Vane, who wiihes you were in our colony ; touching which 
you will fee Veftigia Dei in my narration. At prefent I pray 
your acceptance of my poor papers, and tell you that I 
more and more delire to be ever 

Yours, in Chrift Jefus, 

Roger Williams. 

My kind love to Mr. Stanton and other loving friends. 

1 ^Ma/s. Hiji. Coll. vol. vi. p. 286. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 235 

At Mr. Davis's his houfe, at the Checkers, in St. Martin's, or at Sir Henry ) 
Vane's, at Whitehall. 8th, 7, 52. (fo called.) [September 8, 1652. ] l ) 

To my dear and faithful friend, Mr. Gregory Dexter, at Provi- 
dence, in New England, thefe. 

My dear and faithful friend, to whom, with the deareft, 
I humbly wifh more and more of the light and love of 
Him who is invilible, God bletfed for evermore in the face 
of Jefus Cbrift. It hath pleafed God fo to engage me in 
divers fkirmifhes againft the priefls, both of Old and New 
England, fo that I have occafioned ufing the help of printer 
men, unknown to me, to long for my old friend. So it 
hath pleafed God to hold open an open defire of preach- 
ing and printing wonderfully againft Romiih and Englifri 
will-worihip. At this prefent, the devil rageth and clam- 
ors in petitions and remonitrances from the ftationers and 
others to the Parliament, and all cry, " fhut up the prefs." 
The ftationers and others have put forth "The Beacon 
Fired," and "The Second Beacon Fired;" and fome friends 
of yours have put forth "The Beacon Quenched," not yet 

Sir, many friends have frequently, with much love, in- 
quired after you. Mr. Warner is not yet come with my 
letters : they put into Barnftable. She came by wagon by 
land, but he goes with the fhip to Briftol, and, indeed, in 
this dangerous war with the Dutch, the only fafe trading is 
to Briftol, or thoie parts, for up along the channel, in Lon- 
don way, is the greater!: danger, for although our fleets be 
abroad, and take many French and Dutch, yet they fome- 
times catch up fome of ours. 

By my public letters, you will fee how we wreftle, and 

1 Knowles' Mem. Roger Williams, p. 253. 


Letters of Roger Williams 

how we are like yet to wreftle in the hopes of an end. 
Praifed be the Lord, we are preferved, the nation is pre- 
ferved, the Parliament fits, God's people are fecure, too fe- 
cure. A great opinion is, that the kingdom of Chrift is 
rifen, and (Rev. 1 1 :) "the kingdoms of the earth are be- 
come the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Chrift." Others 
have fear of the (laughter of the witneifes yet approaching. 
Divers friends, of all forts, here, long to fee you, and won- 
der you come not over. For myfelf, I had hopes to have 
got away by this fhip, but I fee now the mind of the Lord 
to hold me here one year longer. It is God's mercy, his 
very great mercy, that we have obtained this interim en- 
couragement from the Council of State, that you may 
cheerfully go on in the name of a colony, until the contro- 
verfy is determined. The determination of it, Sir, I fear, 
will be a work of time, I fear longer than we have yet been 
here, for our adverfaries threaten to make a laft appeal to 
the Parliament, in cafe we get the day before the Council. 1 
Sir, in this regard, and when my public bufinefs is over, 
I am refolved to begin my old law-fuit, fo that I have no 
thought of return until fpring come twelve months My 
duty and affection hath compelled me to acquaint my poor 
companion with it. I confider our many children, the 
danger of the feas, and enemies, and therefore I write not 

1 The General Affembly which met 
in Providence, in October following, 
directed a letter to be lent to Mr. 
Williams, thanking him "for his care 
and diligence, to watch all opportuni- 
ties to promote their peace ;" and if it 
was the pleafure of the government to 
renew their charter that they would "ap- 
point and empower yourfelf to come 

over as Governor of this colony, for the 
fpace of one year." — R. I. Colonial Re- 
cords, vol. i. p. 248. 

On the 2d of October the Council of 
State gave an cder and wrote letters to 
vacate Mr. Coddington's commiffion, and 
to confirm their former charter, which 
was lent over by William Dyre. — Back- 
us, Hift. of the Baptifts, vol. i. p. 277. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 237 

positively for her, only I acquaint her with our affairs. 
I tell her, joyful I mould be of her being here with me, 
until our ftate affairs were ended, and I freely leave her to 
wait upon the Lord for direction, and according as fhe 
finds her fpirit free and cheerful, to come or ftay. If it 
pleafe the Lord to give her a free fpirit to caft herfelf upon 
the Lord, I doubt not of your love and faithful care, in any 
thing fhe hath occafion to ufe your help, concerning our 
children and affairs, during our abfence ; but I conclude, 
whom have I in heaven or earth but thee, and fo humbly 
and thankfully fay in the Lord's pleafure, as only and in- 
finitely beft and fweeteft. 

Abundance of love remembered from abundance of 
friends to your dear felf and your deareft. 

My love to your coufin Clemence, and all deiire love, 
efpecially our godly friends. 

Roger Williams. 

For my much honored kind friend, Mijlrefs Sadleir, at Stondon, 

Puckridge, thefe. 

From my lodgings near St. Martin's, at Mr. Davis his houfe, at the fign of the Swan. 

[No date; London, 1652. I 1 

My much honored Friend, Mrs. Sadleir, 2 — The 
never-dying honor and refpe£t which I owe to that dear 
and honorable root and his branches, and, amongft the reft, 
to your much honored felf, have emboldened me, once 

1 Elton, Life of Roger Williams, p. 96. which follow, to Mrs. Sadleir, the 

2 Amidil his engroffing and important daughter of Sir Edward, were obtained 

occupations, while in England, Mr Wil- by the late Rev. Dr. Elton while in Eng- 

liams did not forget the family of his land, and firft appeared in his Life of Ro- 

former benefa&or, Sir Edward Coke, ger Williams. — Providence, 1853, 1 2mo. 
The above letter and the two letters 

238 Letters of Roger Williams. 

more, to enquire after your dear hufband's and your life, and 
health, and welfare. This laft winter I landed, once more, 
in my native country, being lent over from fome parts of 
New England with fome addrelles to the Parliament. 

My very great buiinefs, and my very great ftraits of time, 
and my very great journey homeward to my dear yoke- 
fellow and many children, I greatly fear will not permit 
me to prefent my ever-obliged duty and fervice to you, at 
Stondon, elpecially if it pleafe God that I may defpatch my 
affairs to depart with the mips within this fortnight. I am, 
therefore, humbly bold to crave your favorable confidera- 
tion, and pardon, and acceptance, of thefe my humble ref- 
pects and remembrances. It hath pleafed the Moft High 
to carry me on eagles' wings, through mighty labors, 
mighty hazards, mighty fufferings, and to vouchfate to ufe, 
fo bafe an inftrument — as I humbly hope — to glorify him- 
felf, in many of my trials and fufferings, both amongft the 
Englifh and barbarians. 

I have been formerly, and fince I landed, occafioned to 
take up the two-edged fword of God's Spirit, the word of 
God, and to appear in public in fome contefts againft the 
minifters of Old and New England, as touching the true 
miniftry of Chrift and the foul freedoms of the people. 
Since I landed, I have published two or three things, and 
have a large difcourfe at the prefs, but 'tis controversial, 
with which I will not trouble your meditations ; only I 
crave the boldnefs to fend you a plain and peaceable dif- 
courfe, of my own perfonal experiments, which, in a let- 
ter to my dear wife — upon the occalion of her great flck- 
nefs near death — I fent her, being abfent myfelf amongft 
the Indians. And being greatly obliged to Sir Henry 
Vane, junior — once Governor of New England — and his 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 239 

lady, I was perfuaded to publiih it in her name, and hum- 
bly to prefent your honorable hands with one or two of 
them. I humbly pray you to caft a ferious eye on the holy 
Scriptures, on which the examinations are grounded. I 
could have dreffed forth the matter like fome fermons 
which, formerly, I ufed to pen. But the Father of lights 
hath long fince mown me the vanity and foul-deceit of 
fuch points and llourilhes. I defire to know nothing, to 
profefs nothing, but the Son of God, the King of fouls and 
confciences ; and I deiire to be more thankful for a reproof 
for ought I affirm than for applaufe and commendation. I 
have been oft glad in the wildernefs of America, to have 
been reproved for going in a wrong path, and to be dire&ed 
by a naked Indian boy in my travels. How much more 
mould we rejoice in the wounds of fuch as we hope love 
us in Chrift Jefus, than in the deceitful kiffes of foul-de- 
ceiving and foul-killing friends. 

My much honored friend, that man of honor, and wif- 
dom, and piety, your dear father, was often pleafed to call 
me his fon; and truly it was as bitter as death to me when 
Bifhop Laud purfued me out of this land, and my con- 
fcience was perfuaded againft the national church and cere- 
monies, and bimops, beyond the confcience of your dear 
Father. I fay it was as bitter as death to me, when I rode 
Windfor way, to take (hip at Briftow, and faw Stoke Houfe, 
where the blefTed man was ; and I then durft not acquaint 
him with my confcience, and my flight. But how many 
thoufand times fince have I had honorable and precious re- 
membrance of his perfon, and the life, the writings, the 
fpeeches, and the examples of that glorious light. And I may 
truly lay, that belide my natural inclination to ftudy and 
activity, his example, instruction, and encouragement, have 

240 Letters of Roger Williams. 

fpurred me on to a more than ordinary, induftrious, and pa- 
tient courfe in my whole courfe hitherto. 

What I have done and fuffered — and I hope for the 
truth of God according to my confcience — in Old and New 
England, I fbould be a fool in relating, for I defire to fay, not 
to King David — as once Mephibofheth — but to King Jefus, 
'What is thy fervant, that thou fhouldeft look upon fuch a 
dead dog?' And I would not tell yourfelf of this, but that 
you may acknowledge fome beams of his holy wifdom and 
goodnefs, who hath not fuffered all your own and your 
dear father's fmiles to have been loft upon fo poor and def- 
picable an object- I confefs I have many adverfaries, and 
alfo many friends, and divers eminent. It hath pleafed the 
general himfelf to fend for me, and to entertain many dif- 
courfes with me at feveral times; which, as it magnifies 
his chriftian noblenefs and courtefy, fo much more doth it 
magnify His infinite mercy and goodnefs, and wifdom, who 
hath helped me, poor worm, to fow that feed in doing and 
fuffering — I hope for God — that as your honorable father 
was wont to fay, he that fhall harrow what I have fown, 
muft rife early. And yet I am a worm and nothing, and 
delire only to find my all in the blood of an holy Savior, 
in whom I defire to be 

Your honored, 

Moft thankful, and faithful fervant, 

Roger Williams. 1 

My humble refpects prefented to Mr. Sadleir. 

1 " Mr. Williams," writes Prof. Gam- in that company of kindred minds, who 

mell, " fpent a number of weeks at Bel- ufed fo frequently to affemhle to difculs 

leau, the beautiful eftate of Sir Henry with their illultrious leader, the deep 

Vane where he doubtlefs often mingled questions of theology, or to devise plans 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


From Mrs. Sadleir to Roger Williams. 

Mr. Williams, — Since it hath pleafed God to make the 
prophet David's complaint ours (Ps. lxxix.): "O God, the 
heathen," &c, and that the Apoftle St. Peter has lb long 
ago foretold, in his fecond epiftle, the fecond chapter, by 
whom thefe things mould be occasioned, I have given over 
reading many books, and, therefore, with thanks, have re- 
turned yours. Thofe that I now read, betides the Bible, 
are, fir ft, the late King's book ; Hooker's Eccleiiaftical Poli- 
ty ; Reverend Bimop Andrew's Sermons, with his other 
divine meditations ; Dr Jer. Taylor's works ; and Dr. Tho. 
Jackfon upon the Creed. Some of thefe my dear father 
was a great admirer of, and would often call them the glo- 
rious lights of the church of England. Thefe lights mall 
be my guide ; I wifh they may be yours : for your new 
lights that are fo much cried up, I believe, in the conclu- 
fion, they will prove but dark lanterns : therefore I dare 
not meddle with them. 

Your friend in the old way, 


for the happinefs nd fecurity of the 
perilled and dirlracfed commonwealth. 
He was in habits of intimate affociation 
with Cromwell, who difcuffed with him 
the affairs of the State, and drew forth 
from him his views of the Indians, and 
his fingular adventures among them, in 
the wilds of New England ; with Har- 

rifon, the Major-General of the army ; 
with Laurence, the Lord Prefident of the 
Council of State ; and with many others 
in Parliament, and at the helm of public 
affairs. He alfo formed an intimate ac- 
quaintance with Milton, who was then 
Latin Secretary of the Council." — Life 
of Roger Williams, p. 149. 


242 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For his much honored, kind friend, Mrs. Anne Sadleir, at S ton- 
don, in Hartfordfiire, near Puckridge. 1 

[No date.] 

My much honored, kind Friend, Mrs. Sadleir, — 
My humble refpects premifed to your much honored felf, 
and Mr. Sadleir, humbly wifhing you the faving knowl- 
edge and affurance of that life which is eternal, when this 
poor minute's dream is over. In my poor fpan of time, 
I have been oft in the jaws of death, fickening at fea, fhip- 
wrecked on fhore, in danger of arrows, fwords and bullets : 
and yet, methinks, the moft high and mod: holy God hath 
referved me for fome fervice to his moft glorious and eter- 
nal majefty. 

I think, fometimes, in this common fhipwreck, of man- 
kind, wherein we all are either floating or finking, defpair- 
ing or ftruggling for life, why fhould I ever faint in ftriv- 
ing, as Paul faith, in hopes to fave myfelf, to fave others — 
to call, and cry, and afk, what hope of faving, what hope 
of life, and of the eternal more of mercy ? Your laft let- 
ter, my honored friend, I received as a bitter fweeting — as 
all, that is under the fun, is — fweet in that I hear from you, 
and that you continue ftriving for life eternal; bitter, in 
that we differ about the way, in the midfl of the dangers 
and diitreifes. 

O blelfed be the hour that ever we faw the light, and 
came into this vale of tears, if yet, at laft, in any way, we 
may truly fee our woeful lofs and fhipwreck, and gain the 
more of life and mercy. You were pleafed to direct me to 
divers books, for my fatisfaclion. I have carefully endeav- 
oured to get them, and fome I have gotten; and upon my 

'Elton, Life of Roger Williams, p. 99. 

Letters' of Roger Williams. 243 

reading, I purpofe, with God's help, to render you an ingen- 
uous and candid account of my thoughts, refult, &c. At 
prefent, I am humbly bold to pray your judicious and lov- 
ing eye to one of mine. 

'Tis true, I cannot but expect your diftafte of it; and 
yet my cordial defire of your foul's peace here, and eternal, 
and of contributing the leaft mite toward it, and my hum- 
ble refpects to that blefted root of which you fpring, force 
me to tender my acknowledgments, which if received or 
rejected, my cries mall never ceafe that one eternal life may 
give us meeting, fince this prefent minute hath fuch bitter 

For the fcope of this rejoinder, if it pleafe the Moft 
High to direct your eye to a glance on it, pleafe you to 
know, that at my laft being in England, I wrote a difcourfe 
entitled, " The Bloudy Tenent of Perfecution for Canfe of Con - 
fcience" I bent my charge againft Mr. Cotton efpecially, 
your ftandard bearer of New Englim minifters. That dif- 
courfe he fince anfwered, and calls his book, " The Bloody 
Tenent ?nade white in the Blood of the Lamb" 1 This rejoind- 
er of mine, as I humbly hope, unwameth his warnings, 
and proves that in foul matters no weapons but foul wea- 
pons are reaching and effectual. 

I am your moft unworthy fervant, yet unfeignedly ref- 

Roger Williams. 

'On a former occafion when in Eng- "Hireling Minifry none of ' Cbrijl' 's ,• or, a 

land, Mr. Williams found leifure to pre- Difcourfe touching the propagating the 

pare for the prefs his rejoinder to Mr. Go/pel of Jefus Chrijl" and his "Experi- 

Cotton's anfwer to his "Bloody Tenent of ?nents of Spiritual Life and Health, and 

Perfecution" which he entitled " The their Prefervatives." The former has 

Bioody Tenent yet more Bloody, by Mr. been reprinted by the Narraganfett Club, 

Cotton's Endeavour to wajb it white." vol. iii; the latter by S. S. Rider, Provi- 

About the fame time he also publifhed dence, 1863. 

244 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Mrs. Sadleir in reply to Roger Williams. 

Sir, — I thank God my blefled parents bred me up in the 
old and ben: religion, and it is my glory that I am a mem- 
ber of the Church of England, as it was when all the re- 
formed churches gave her the right hand. When I caft 
mine eye upon the frontifpiece of your book, and faw it 
entitled ''The Bloudy Tenent," I durft not adventure to 
look into it, for fear it mould bring into my memory the 
much blood that has of late been fried, and which I would 
fain forget ; therefore I do, with thanks, return it. I can- 
not call to mind any blood (lied for confcience : — fome 
few that went about to make a rent in our once well- 
governed church were punifhed, but none fuffered death. 
But this I know, that fince it has been left to every man's 
confcience to fancy what religion he lift, there has more 
chriftian blood been (lied than was in the ten perfecutions. 
And fome of that blood, will, I fear, cry till the day 
of judgment. But you know what the Scripture fays, 
that when there was no king in Ifrael, every man did that 
which was right in his own eyes, — but what became of 
that, the facred ftory will tell you. 

Thus entreating you to trouble me no more in this kind, 
and williing you a good journey to your charge in New 
Providence, I reft 

Your Friend in the Old and Best Way. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 245 

From Roger Williains to Mrs. Sadleir. 

[No date. The winter of 1652-3. ]' 

My honored, kind Friend, Mrs. Sadleir, — I greatly 
rejoice to hear from you, although now an oppofite to me, 
even in the higheft points of Heaven and eternity. 

Two things your lines exprefs : — Firft, your confidence 
in your own old way, &c. 

Second. Civility and gentlenefs in that — not being 
pleafed to accept mv refpecls and labors prefented — yet 
you gently, with thanks and your reafon, return them. I 
(hall not be fo forry you differ from me, if yet the Father of 
fpirits pleafe to vouchfafe you a fpirit of christian fearching 
and examination. In hope of which I mall humbly con- 
fider of the particulars of your letter. 

1. That you think an heap of timber or pile of ftones to 
be God's fanctuary now. (Ps. Ixxix. i.) In Chrift's efteem, 
and in gofpel language, that you think thofe to be falfe 
teachers and prophets (2 Pet. ii. 1.) who are not — after 
the old way — diftinguimed by the canonical colors of 
white, red, black, &c. 

That you admire the king's book, and Bp. Andrews his 
fermons, and Hooker's Polity, &c, and profefs them to be 
your lights and guides, and defire them mine, and believe 
the new lights will prove dark lanterns, &c. I am far 
from wondering at it, for all this have I done myfelf, until 
the Father of Spirits mercifully perfuaded mine to fwallow 
down no longer without chewing : to chew no longer 
without tatting ; to tarte no longer without begging the 
Holy Spirit of God to enlighten and enliven mine againft 

1 Elton, Life of Roger Williams, p. 102. 

246 Letters of Roger Williams. 

the fear of men, tradition of fathers, or the favor or cuftom 
of any men or times. 

2. I now find that the church and fan&uary of Chrift 
Jefus confifts not of dead but of living ftones. (1 Pet. ii. 3, 
4.) Is not a parifh or a national church forced — to the 
pretended bed of Chrift's worfhip — by laws and fwords ? 
(Cant. i. 16.) 

His true lovers are volunteers, born of his Spirit, the 
now only nation and royal priefthood (1 Pet. ii., Ps. ex.) 
I find that, in respecl of minifterial function and office, 
fuch minifters, not only popifh but proteftant, not only 
epifcopal but prefbyterian, not only prefbyterian but inde- 
pendent alfo, are all of them, one as well as another, falfe 
prophets and teachers, fo far as they are hirelings, and make 
a trade and living of preaching (John x.), as I have lately 
opened in my "Difcourfe of the Hireling Miniftry none of 

3. I have read thole books you mention, and the king's 
book, which commends two of them, Bifhop Andrews's 
and Hooker's — yea, and a third alfo, Bifhop Laud's : and 
as for the king, I knew his perfon, vicious, a fwearer from 
his youth, and an opprelfor and perfecutor of good men (to 
fay nothing of his own father), and the blood of fo many 
hundred thoufands Englim, Irifh, Scotch, French, lately 
charged upon him. Againft his and his blafphemous 
father's cruelties, your own dear father, and many precious 
men, (hall rife up fhortly and cry for vengeance. 

4. But for the book itfelf — if it be his — and theirs you 
pleafe to mention, and thoufands more, not only proteftants 
of feveral feels, but of fome papifts and jefuits alfo — famous 
for wordly repute, &c. — I have found them lharp and witty, 
plaufible and delightful, devout and pathetical. And I have 

Letters of Roger Williams. 247 

been amazed to fee the whole world of our forefathers, wife 
and gallant, wondering after the glory of the Romifh learn- 
ing and worfhip. (Rev. xiii.) But amongft them all whom 
I have io diligently read and heard, how few exprefs the 
fimplicity, the plainnefs, the meeknefs, and true humility of 
the learning of the Son of God. 

5. But, at la A, it pleafed the God and Father of mercies 
to perfuade mine heart of the merely formal, cuftomary, 
and traditional profeifions of Chrift Jefus, with which the 
world is filled. I fee that the Jews believe Chrift Jefus was 
a deceiver, becaufe he came not with external pomps and 

The Turks — fo many millions of them — prefer their 
Mahomet before Chrift Jefus, even upon fuch carnal and 
wordly refpects, and yet avouch themfelves to be the only 
Mufelmanni or true believers. The catholics account us 
heretics, diabloes, &c. ; and why ? but becaufe we worfliip 
not fuch a golden Chrift and his glorious vicar and lieuten- 
ant. The feveral feels of common proteftants content 
themfelves with a traditional worfliip, and boaft they are no 
Jews, no Turks, (Matt. vii. 21, 22.) nor catholics, and yet 
forget their own formal dead faith, (2 Tim. iii. 9.) dead 
hope, dead joys, and yet, ?iefcio vos, I know you not, depart 
from me, which mall be thundered out to many gallant 
profelfors and coniidents, who have held out a lamp and 
form of religion, yea, and poffibly of godlinefs too, and 
yet have denied the power and life of it. 

Therefore, my much-honored friend, while you believe 
the darknefs of the new lights, and profefs your confidence, 
and defire of my walking with you in the old way : I mo ft 
humbly pray fo much Berean civility at your ladyfhip's 
hands as to fearch and remember — 

248 Letters of Roger Williams. 

1. Firft, the Lord Chrift's famous refolution of that 
queftion put to him, as touching the number that mail be 
faved (Luke xiii. 24), "Strive to enter in at the ftrait gate; 
for many mall feek to enter, and mall not be able." 

2ndly. There is an abfolute neceffity (not (o of a true 
order of miniftry, baptifm, &c, but) of a true regeneration 
and new birth, without which it is impoffible to enter into 
or to fee the kingdom of God. (John iii. &c.) 

3rdly. As to the religion and the worfhip of God, the 
common religion of the whole world, and the nations of it, 
it is but cuffomary and traditional, from father to fon, from 
which (old ways, &c), traditions, Chrift Jefus, delivers his, 
not with gold and filver, but with his precious blood. (1 
Pet. i. 18, 19) 

4thly. Without fpiritual and diligent examination of our 
hearts, it is impoffible that we can attain true folid joy and 
comfort, either in point of regeneration or worfhip, or 
whatever we do. (2 Cor. xiii. 5 ; Rom. xiv. 23.) 

5thly. In the examination of both thefe — perfonal re- 
generation and worfhip — the hearts of all the children of 
men are moil apt to cheat, and cozen, and deceive them- 
felves ; yea, and the wifer a man is, the more apt and wil- 
ling he is to be deceived. (Jer. xvii. ; Gal. vi. ; 1 Cor. iii. 1 8.) 

6thly. It is impoffible there mould be a true fearch, 
without the Holy Spirit, who fearcheth all things, yea, the 
deep things of God. (Rom. viii. ; Ps. cxliii. 10.) 

Laftly. God's Spirit perfuadeth the hearts of his true fer- 
vants: Firft, to be willing to be fearched by him, which 
they exceedingly beg of him, with holy fear of felf-deceit 
and hypocrify. 

Second. To be led by him in the way everlafting : (Ps. 
cxxxix.), whether it feem old in refpecl: of inftitution, or 

Letters of Roger Williams. 249 

new in refpect of reftoration. This I humbly pray for your 
precious foul, of the God and Father of mercies, even your 
eternal joy and falvation. Earneftly delirous to be in the 
old way, which is the narrow way, which leads to life, 
which few find. 

Your moft humble, though moft. unworthy fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

" My honored Friend, fince you pleafe not to read mine, 
let me pray leave to requeft your reading of one book of 
your own authors. I mean the " Liberty of Prophefying," 
penned by (fo called) Dr. Jer. Taylor. In the which is ex- 
cellently afTerted the toleration of different religions, yea, in 
a refpecl, that of the papifts themfelves, which is a new way 
of foul freedom, and yet is the old way of Chrift Jefus, as 
all his holy Teftament declares. 

I alio humbly wifh that you may pleafe to read over im- 
partially Mr. Milton's 1 anfwer to the king's book. 

Mrs. Sadleir in reply to Roger Williams. 

Mr. Williams, — I thought my firft letter would have 
given you fo much fatisfadlion, that, in that kind, I mould 
never have heard of you any more ; but it feems you have 
a face of brafs, fo that you cannot blufh. But fince you 
prefs me to it, I muft let you know, as I did before (Ps. 
lxxix.\ that the Prophet David there complains that the 
heathen had defiled the holy temple, and made Jerufalem 

1 Eikonoklajles {the Image Breaker,} in Anjwer to Eikon Bafilike. London: 1649. 

250 Letters of Roger Williams. 

a heap of ftones. And our blelTed Saviour, when he whipped 
the buyers and fellers out of the temple, told them that 
they had made his Father's houfe a den of thieves. Thofe 
were but material temples, and commanded by God to be 
built, and his name there to be worshipped. The living 
temples are thofe that the fame prophet, in the pfalm before 
mentioned (verfe the 2nd and 3rd), "The dead bodies of 
thy fervants have they given to the fowls of the air, and 
the rlefh of thy faints to the beads of the land. Their 
blood have they fhed like water," &c. And thefe were 
the living temples whole lofs the prophet fo much laments ; 
and had he lived in thefe times, he would have doubled 
thefe lamentations, For the foul and falfe afperfions you 
have caft upon that king, of ever-bleifed memory, Charles, 
the martyr, I proteft I trembled when I read them, and 
none but fuch a villain as yourfelf would have wrote them. 

Wife Solomon has taught me another lelfon in his 24th 
of his Proverbs, at 2 1 ft verfe, to fear God and the King, and 
not to meddle with them that are given to change. Mark 
well that. The 8th of Eccl., verfe the 2nd, "I counfel 
thee to keep the king's commandment, and that in regard 
to the oath of God." Verfe the 20th of the 10th chap., 
"Curie not the king, no, not in thy thought;" and, if I be 
not miftaken, the fifth commandment is the crown com- 
mandment. Rom. xiii., the ill and 2nd verfes, "Let eve- 
ry foul be fubjec! unto the higher powers, for," &c. ; with 
many more places to the fame purpofe. Thus, you fee, 
I have the law, with the Old and New Teftament, on my 

But it has been the lot of the beft kings to lie under the 
lafli of ill tongues. Witnefs blefled David, who was a 
man after God's own heart, curfed by wicked Shimei, his 

Letters of Roger Williams. 251 

own fubjecl:, and called a man of blood ; and good Heze- 
kiah was railed on by a foul-mouthed Rabfhakeh ; but I 
do not remember that they were commended in any place 
of fcripture, for fo doing. For the blood you mention, 
which has been (lied in thefe times, which you would 
father upon the late king, there is a book called the Hifto- 
ry of Independency — a book worth your reading — that 
will tell you by whom all this chrifKan blood has been 
(Tied. If you cannot get that, there is a fermon in print 
of one Paul Knells, the text the firft of Amos, verfe the 
fecond, that will inform you. 

For Milton's book, that you defire I mould read, if I be 
not miftaken, that is he that has wrote a book of the law- 
fulnefs of divorce ; and, if report fays true, he had, at that 
time, two or three wives living. This, perhaps, were good 
doctrine in New England ; but it is mod abominable in 
Old England. For his book that he wrote againrt the late 
king that you would have me read, you mould have taken 
notice of God's judgment upon him, who ftroke him with 
blindnefs, and, as I have heard, he was fain to have the help 
of one Andrew Marvell, 1 or elfe he could not have rmifhed 
that moft accurfed libel. God has began his judgment 
upon him here — his punimment will be hereafter in hell. 
But have you feen the anfwer to it ? If you can get it, I 
affure you it is worth your reading. 

"It has before been ftated in a note that Poem." — Cooke's Life of Marvell, 1726. 

Milton was the Latin Secretary to Crom- Milton, it is true, repudiated his wife, 

well. Andrew Marvell, the poet, was (Mifs Powell) on the grounds of defer- 

affiftant to Milton. He thereby enjoyed tion, and in juftification of his courfe, 

his intimate friendfhip, and was one of publifhed four tracls, the firft was enti- 

the firft to recognize his genius. "When tied " The Dottrine and Difcipline of 

Paradife Loft was publifhed, it was valued Divorce." The others appertained to 

but by few, as no more than a lifelefs the fame fubjecl:. A reconciliation fub- 

piece, till Mr. Marvell and Dr. Barron fequently took place, 
publickly efpoufed it, each in a judicious 

252 Letters of Roger Williams. 

I have alfo read Taylor's book of the Liberty of Pro- 
phefying ; though it pleafe not me, yet I am fure it does 
you, or elfe I [know]* you [would]* not have wrote to me 
to have read it. I fay, it and you would make a good fire. 
But have you feen his Divine Inftitution of the Office Min- 
ifterial ? I allure that is both worth your reading and prac- 
tice. Bifhop Laud's book againft Fifher I have read long 
fince ; which, if you have not done, let me tell you that he 
has deeply wounded the pope ; and, I believe, howfoever 
he be (lighted, he will rite a faint, when many feeming 
ones, fuch as you are, will rife devils. 

I cannot conclude without putting you in mind how 
dear a lover and great an admirer my father was of the lit- 
urgy of the church of England, and would often fay, no 
reform church had the like. He was conftant to it, both 
in his life and at his death. I mean to walk in his fteps ; 
and, truly, when I confider who were the compofers of it, 
and how they fealed the truth of it with their blood, I 
cannot but wonder why it fhould now of late be thus con- 
temned. By what I have now writ, you know how I ftand 
affected. I will walk as directly to heaven as I can, in 
which place, if you will turn from being a rebel, and fear 
God and obey the king, there is hope I may meet you 
there ; howfoever, trouble me no more with your letters, 
for they are very troublefome to her that wifhes you in the 
place from whence you came. 1 


Near the direction, on the outfide, of Williams's firft letter, there is the follow- 
ing note by Mrs. Sadleir : — 

"This Roger Williams, when he was a youth, would, in 

* Thefe words are not in the MS. ger Williams and Mrs. Sadleir, is copied 

'This correspondence, between Ro- from the original manufcripts in the li- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

2 53 

a fhort hand, take fermons and fpeeches in the Star Cham- 
ber and prefent them to my dear father. He, feeing fo 
hopeful a youth, took fuch liking to him that he fent him 
in to Sutton's Hofpital, and he was the fecond that was 
placed there; full little did he think that he would have 
proved fuch a rebel to God, the king, and his country. I 
leave his letters, that, if ever he has the face to return into 
his native country, Tyburn may give him welcome." 1 

To the Towns of Providence and Warwick. 

From Sir Henry Vane's, at Balleau in | 

Lincolnfhire, April 1/53. (fo called.) 1 j 

My dear and loving Friends and Neighbors of 
Providence and Warwick, — Our noble friend, Sir Hen- 
ry Vane,3 having the navy of England moftly depending 

brary of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Like many of Williams's letters they are 
without date ; but the allufions to his 
works, and other circumftances, clearly 
fhow that they were written during his 
fecond vifit, in 1652-3. The writer 
has examined the originals of the letters ; 
and for the knowledge of their exiilence 
he is indebted to the courtefy of the Hon. 
George Bancroft, author of the Hiftory 
of the United States, and late minifter 
to Great Britain. — Note by Dr. Elton. 

'" Thefe letters," writes Dr. Elton, 
"prefent a lively picture of the influence 
of party fpirit upon focial intercourfe, 
at that remarkable period. The grati- 
tude and humility of Williams are finely 
contrailed with the cold repulfivenefs, 
and, at lafl, rude infolence of his corref- 

pondent, whofe final letter pours forth 
as much venom as could well flow from 
a lady's pen. The concentrated effence 
of it, in her poflfcript, reminds us of the 
mutation in human affairs. The rebel 
fhe denounces has acquired a nobler fame 
than even that of the acute lawyer, her 
father ; while, if her own name is ref- 
cued from oblivion, fhe owes it to her 
accidental connexion with the man fhe 
configns to Tyburn." — Life of Roger 
Williams, p. 109. 

2 Backus, Hift. of the Baptifs in New 
England, vol. i. p. 285 ; Knowles, Me- 
moirs of Roger Williams, p. 258. 

3 Sir Henry Vane, fon of Sir Henry 
Vane, Secretary of State under James I., 
and Charles I. Joining the Puritans, he 
followed them to Boflon, where he ar- 

2 54 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

on his care, and going down to the navy at Portfmouth, I 
was invited by them both to accompany his lady to Lin- 
colnfhire, where I (hall yet flay, as I fear, until the fhip is 
gone. I muft, therefore, pray your pardon, that by the 
port, I fend this to London. I hope it may have pleafed 
the Moll: High Lord of fea and land to bring Captain 
Chriften's fhip and dear Mr. Dyre unto you, and with him 
the council's letters, which anfwer the petition Sir Henry 
Vane and myfelf drew up, and the council, by Sir Henry's 
mediation granted us, for the confirmation of the charter, 
until the determination of the controverfy. This determi- 
nation you may please to underftand, is hindered by two 
main obftructions. The firft is, the mighty war with the 
Dutch, which makes England and Holland, and the na- 
tions tremble. This hath made the parliament fet Sir 
Henry Vane and two or three more as commiffioners to 
manage the war, which they have done, with much en- 
gaging the name of God with them, who hath appeared in 
helping fixty of ours againft almofl: three hundred of their 

rived in 1635 and the following year was 
chofen Governor. A bitter religious con- 
troverfy fprang up during his term of 
office. He had a horror of all forms of 
bigotry, and had no fympathy with the 
attacks of the clergy on Mrs. Hutchin- 
fon. A ftrong oppofition under the lead 
of Winthrop was organized againft him, 
and at the next election he was defeated. 
In 1637, he returned to England and 
was elected to parliament He was a 
zealous opponent of the royaliils. In 
1648 he led the minority in parliament 
which favored the iejeflion of the terms 
of fettlement offered by the king. In 
1649, he became a member of the coun- 
cil of State, under Cromwell, which 

was entrufted with the executive govern- 
ment of the nation. The diffolution of 
the long parliament in 1653, brought 
Vane and Cromwell into open conflicl:. 
After the reftoration he was arretted on 
the charge of high treafon and committed 
to the Tower. His condemnation foon 
followed and he was executed on the 1 4th 
of June, 1662. His services to New 
England were important, and it was in a 
great meafure due to him, that the char- 
ter for Rhode Ifland was procured. 
Roger Williams, declared that his name 
ought ever to be held in honored re- 
membrance by her people. — Life by Up- 
ham, in Sparks' American Biography, 
vol. iv. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 255 

men-of-war and, perchance, to the linking and taking, 
about one hundred of theirs, and but one of ours, which 
was funk by our own men. 

Our fecond obstruction is the oppofition of our adverfa- 
ries, Sir Arthur Hafelrig, and Colonel Fenwicke — who 
hath married his daughter — Mr. Winflow, and Mr. Hop- 
kins, both in great place ; and all the friends they can make 
in parliament and council, and all the priefts, both prefby- 
terian and independent; fo that we ftand as two armies, 
ready to engage, obferving the motions and poftures each 
of the other, and yet my each of other. Under God, the 
meet-anchor of our (hip is Sir Henry, who will do as the 
eye of God leads him ; and he faithfully promifed me that 
he would obferve the motion of our New England bufinefs, 
while I ftaid fome ten weeks with his lady in Lincolnshire. 
Befides, here are great thoughts and preparation for a new 
parliament — fome of our friends are apt to think another 
parliament will more favor us and our caufe than this has 
done. You may pleafe to put my condition into your foul's 
cafes ; remember I am a father and a hufband. I have 
longed earneftly to return with the laft mip, and with 
thefe ; yet I have not been willing to withdraw my mould- 
ers from the burthen, left it pinch others, and mav fall 
heavy upon all ; except you are pleafed to give me a dif- 
charge. If you conceive it necelfary for me ftill to attend 
this fervice, pray you to coniider if it be not convenient 
that my poor wife be encouraged to come over to me, and 
to wait together, on the good pleafure of God, for the end 
of this matter. You know my many weights hanging on 
me, how my own place ftands, and how many reafons I 
have to caufe me to make hafte, yet I would not lofe their 
eftates, peace, and liberty, by leaving haftily. I write to 

256 Letters of Roger Williams. 

my dear wife, my great defire of her coming while I fray, 
yet left it to the freedom of her fpirit, becaufe of the many 
dangers. Truly, at prefent the feas are dangerous, but not 
comparably fo much, nor likely to be, because of the late 
defeat of the Dutch, and their prefent fending to us offers 
of peace. 

My dear friends, although it pleafed God himfelf, by 
many favors, to encourage me, yet pleafe you to remember, 
that no man can fray here as I do, having a prefent employ- 
ment there, without much felf-denial, which I befeech 
God for more, and for you alfo, that no private refpe&s, or 
gains, or quarrels, may caufe you to neglect the public and 
common fafety, peace and liberties. I befeech the bleifed 
God to keep frefh in your thoughts what he hath done for 
Providence Plantations. 

My dear refpedts to yourfelves, wives, and children. I 
befeech the eternal God to be feen amongft you ; fo prays 
your moft faithful and affectionate friend and fervant, 

Roger Williams. 
P. S. My love to all my Indian friends. 

[Although the objetts of Mr. Williams's million to England, were not fully ac- 
complished, he felt that his prefence was needed at home, that he might, if poffible, 
bring the difcordant towns into harmonious co-operation. He accordingly left the 
remainder of his bufinefs in the hands of John Clarke, his friend and aflbciate, and 
early in the following fummer (1654), he returned. He landed at Bofton, being 
furnifhed with an order from the Lord Protector's Council, requiring the govern- 
ment of Maflachufetts to allow him in future to embark or land in their territories 
without moleftation. Williams brought with him a letter from Sir Henry Vane, 
addrefled to the inhabitants of the colony of Rhode Ifland, which, from the aftion 
of the town of Providence and the letters of Williams in relation to it is here in- 
fer ted.] 

Letters of Roger Williams. 257 

From Sir Henry Vane, to the Inhabitants of the Colony of 

Rhode IJland. 

Belleau, the 8th of February, 1653-4. 1 

Loving and Christian Friends, — I could not refufe 
this bearer, Mr. Roger Williams, my kind friend and an- 
cient acquaintance, to be accompanied with thefe few lines 
from myfelf to you, upon his return to Providence colony ; 
though, perhaps, my private and retired condition, which 
the Lord, of his mercy, hath brought me into, might have 
argued ftrongly enough for my filence; but, indeed, fome- 
thing I hold myfelf bound to fay to you, out of the Chriftian 
love I bear you, and for his fake whofe name is called upon 
by you and engaged in your behalf. How is it that there 
are fuch divifions amongft you? Such headinefs, tumults, 
diforders, injuftice? The noife echoes into the ears of all, 
as well friends as enemies, by every return of (hips from 
thofe parts. Is not the fear and awe of God amongft you 
to reftrain ? Is not the love of Chrift in you, to fill you 
with yearning bowels, one towards another, and conftrain 
you not to live to yourfelves, but to him that died for you, 
yea, and is rifen again ? Are there no wife men amongft 
you? No public felf-denying fpirits, that at leaft, upon 
the grounds of public fafety, equity and prudence, can find 
outfome way or means of union and reconciliation for 
you amongft yourfelves, before you become a prey to com- 
mon enemies, efpecially fince this ftate, by the laft letter 
from the Council of State, give you your freedom, as fup- 
pofing a better ufe would have been made of it than there 
hath been ? Surely, when kind and fimple remedies are 
applied and are ineffectual, it fpeaks loud and broadly the 

1 Rhode IJland Colonial Records, vol. i p. 285. 

258 Letters of Roger Williams. 

high and dangerous diftempers of fuch a body, as if the 
wounds were incurable. But I hope better things from 
you, though I thus fpeak, and mould be apt to think, that 
by commiffioners agreed on and appointed on all parts, and 
on behalf of all interefts, in a general meeting, fuch a 
union and common fatisfaclion might arife, as, through 
God's bleffing, might put a ftop to your growing breaches 
and diffractions, filence your enemies, encourage your 
friends, honor the name of God, (which of late hath been 
much blafphemed, by reafon of you,) and in particular, re- 
frefh and revive the fad heart of him who mourns over 
your prefent evils, as being your affectionate friend, to ferve 
you in the Lord. 

H. Vane. 

For my much honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at 


Providence, July 12, 54. (fo called,) 1 

Sir, — I was humbly bold to falute you from our native 
country, and now, by the gracious hand of the Lord, once 
more faluting this wildernefs, I crave your wonted patience 
to my wonted boldnefs, who ever honored and loved, and 
ever (hall, the root and branches of your dear name. How 
joyful, therefore, was I to hear of your abode as a ftake 
and pillar in thefe parts, and of your healths, your own, 
Mrs. Winthrop, and your branches, although fome fad 
mixtures we have had from the fad tidings (if true) of the 
late lofs and cutting off of one of them. 

1 Knowles' Life of Roger Williams, p. 261. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 259 

Sir, I was lately upon the wing to have waited on you at 
your houfe. I had difpofed all for my journey, and mv 
Itaff was in my hand, but it pleafed the Lord to interpofe 
ibme impediments, fo that I am compelled to a fufpenfion 
for a feafon, and choofe at prefent thus to viiit you. I had 
no letters for you, but yours were well. I was at the lodg- 
ings of Major Winthrop and Mr. Peters, but I miffed 
them. Your brother rlouriibeth in good efteem, and is 
eminent for maintaining the freedom of the confcience as 
to matters of belief, religion and wormip. Your father 
Peters 1 preacheth the fame doctrine, though not fo zeal- 
ouily as lome years fince, yet cries out againft New-Englim 
rigidities and perfecutions, their civil injuries and wrongs 
to himfelf, and their unchriftian dealing with him, in ex- 
communicating his diffracted wife. All this he told me in 
his lodgings, at Whitehall, thofe lodgings which I was told 
were Canterbury's ; but he himfelf told me, that that libra- 
ry wherein we were together, was Canterbury's, and given 
him by the Parliament. His wife lives from him not 
wholly, but much diffracted. He tells me he had but two 
hundred a year, and he allowed her fourfcore per annum 
of it. Surely, Sir, the moft holy Lord is molt wife in all 
the trials he exercifeth his people with. He told me that 
his affliction from his wife ftirred him up to action abroad, 
and when fuccefs tempted him to pride, the bitternefs in 
his bofom comforts was a cooler and a bridle to him. 

Surely* Sir, your father, and all the people of God in 
England, formerly called Puritanus, Anglicanus, of late 
Roundheads, now the Se&arians, (as more or lefs cut off 
from the parimes) are now in the faddle and at the helm, 
fo high that non datur defcenfus niji cadendo. Some cheer 

2 Mr. Winthrop had married a daughter of the Rev. Hugh Peters. 

260 Letters of Roger Williams. 

up their fpirits with the impoflibility of another fall or 
turn, fo doth Major Gen. Harrifon and Mr. Feake, and Mr. 
John Simfon, now in Windibr Caftle for preaching againft 
this laft change, and againft the Protector, as an ufurper, 
Richard III., &c. So did many think of the laft Parlia- 
ment, who were of the vote of fifty-fix againft priefts and 
tithes, oppofite to the vote of the fifty-four who were for 
them, at leaft for a while. Major Gen. Harrifon was the 
fecond in the nation of late, when the loving General and 
himfelf joined againft the former Long Parliament and 
diiTolved them, but now being the head of the fifty-fix par- 
ty, he was confined by the Protector and Council, within 
five miles of his father's houfe, in Staffordshire. That fen- 
tence he not obeying, he told me (the day before my leav- 
ing London) he was to be lent prifoner into Harfordfhire. 
Surely, Sir, he is a very gallant, moft deferving, heavenly 
man, but moft high flown for the kingdom of the faints, 
and the fifth monarchy now rifen, and their fun never to 
fet again, &c. Others, as to my knowledge, the Protector, 
Lord Prefident Lawrence, and others at helm, with Sir 
Henry Vane, (retired into Licolnfhire, yet daily milled and 
courted for his afliftance) are not fo full of that faith of 
miracles, but ftill imagine changes and perfecutions and the 
very ilaughter of the witnefies, before that glorious morning 
fo much defired of a worldlv kingdom, if ever fuch a king- 
dom (as literally it is by so many expounded) be to arife in 
this prefent world and difpenfation. 

Sir, I know not how far your judgment hath concurred 
with the defign againft the Dutch. I muft acknowledge 
my mourning for it, and when I heard of it, at Portsmouth, 
I confefs I wrote letters to the Protector and Prefident, 
from thence, as againft a moft uningenuous and unchriftian 

Letters of Roger Willia?ns. 261 

defign, at fuch a time, when the world ftood gazing at the 
fo famous treaty for peace, which was then between the 
two States, and near finished when we fet fail. Much I 
can tell you of the anfwer I had from Court, and I think 
of the anfwers I had from heaven, viz. : that the Lord 
would gracioufly retard us until the tidings of peace (from 
England) might quench the fire in the kindling of it. 

Sir, I mourn that any of our parts were fo madly injuri- 
ous to trouble yours. I pity poor Sabando. I yet have 
hopes in God that we ihall be more loving and peaceable 
neighbors. I had word from the Lord Prelident to Portf- 
mouth, that the Council had parTed three letters as to our 
bufinefs. Firft, to encourage us ; fecond, to our neighbor 
colonies not to moleft us ; third, in exposition of that word 
dominion, in the late frame of the government of England, 
viz. : that liberty of confcience mould be maintained in 
all American plantations, &c. 

Sir, a great man in America told me, that he thought 
New England would not bear it. I hope better, and that 
not only the neceffity, but the equity, piety and Chriftanity 
of that freedom will more and more mine forth, not to 
licentioufnefs, (as all mercies are apt to be abufed) but to 
the beauty of Chriftianity and the luftre of true faith in 
God and love to poor mankind, &c. 

Sir, I have deiires of keeping home. I have long had 
icruples of felling the natives aught but what may bring 
or tend to civilizing; I therefore neither brought, nor 
mall fell them, loole coats nor breeches. It pleafed the 
Lord to call me for fome time, and with fome perfons, to 
practice the Hebrew, the Greek, Latin, French and Dutch. 1 

1 It appears from this letter that Wil- and Dutch, and that he employed him- 
liams was ufed to pradlice the French felf in the honorable office of an in- 

262 Letters of Roger Williams. 

The Secretary of the Council, (Mr. Milton) for my Dutch 
I read him, read me many more languages. Grammar 
rules begin to be efteemed a tyranny. I taught two young 
gentlemen, a Parliament man's fons, as we teach our chil- 
dren Englifli, by words, phrafes and conftant talk, &c. I 
have begun with mine own three boys, who labor befides ; 
others are coming to me. 

Sir, I ih all rejoice to receive a word of your healths, of 
the Indian wars and to be ever yours, 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I pray feal and fend the enclofed. 

To the Town of Providence. 

[Providence, Augufl, 1654.] 1 

Well-beloved friends and neighbors, — I am like a 
man in a great fog. I know not well how to fteer. I 

itxu&or of youth. This occupation he again, I have found a greater affinity of 

doubtless reforted to for his own fup- their language with the Greek tongue." 

port. That he was prefled for money 'Backus, Hi/I. of the Baptifls of New 

is evident from his letter to the town of England, vol. i. p. 289. R. I. Col. Re- 

Providence, written in Auguft, 1654, in cords, vol. i. p. 351. 

which he fpeaks of the ftraits he was put Upon the return of Mr. Williams 

to for money to pay his expenfes. with the letter of Sir Henry Vane, he 

It is evident too, from the writings of found matters in the colony in a very 

Mr. Williams, that he was acquainted with unlettled Mate, and was received with 

the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, great coldnefs. He therefore wrote 

as quotations from them are frequent in the above letter to the Town of Provi- 

his letters. In the preface to his " Key," dence, in which he alludes in the mofl 

in fpeaking of the Indian languages, he affefting terms to the facrifices he had 

fays, " Firft others, (and myfelf ) have made in behalf of the colony, the peo- 

conceived fome of their words to hold pie of which, he thought, had not ap- 

affinity with the Hebrew." ..." Yet predated his efforts. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 263 

fear to run upon the rocks at home, having had trials 
abroad. I fear to run quite backward, as men in a mill 
do, and undo all that I have been a long time undoing 
myielf to do, viz. : to keep up the name of a people, a 
free people, not enflaved to the bondages and iron yokes 
of the great (both foul and body) oppreflions of the Eng- 
lifh and barbarians about us, nor to the divilions and dif- 
orders within ourfelves. Since I fet the firfl flep of any 
Englifh foot into thefe wild parts, and have maintained a 
chargeable and hazardous correfpondence with the barbari- 
ans, and fpent almofl five years' time with the (rate of Eng- 
land, to keep off the rage of the Englifh againfl us, what 
have I reaped of the root of being the flepping-flone of fo 
many families and towns about us, but grief, and forrow, 
and bitternefs ? I have been charged with folly for that 
freedom and liberty which I have always flood for; I fay 
liberty and equality, both in land and government. I have 
been blamed for parting with Moihaifuck, and afterward 
Pawtuxet, (which were mine own as truly as any man's 
coat upon his back,) without referving to myfelf a foot of 
land, or an inch of voice in any matter, more than to my 
fervants and ltrangers. It hath been told me that I labored 
for a licentious and contentious people; that I have foolifh- 
ly parted with town and colony advantages, by which I 
might have preferved both town and colony in as good 
order as any in the country about us. This, and ten times 
more, I have been cenfured for, and at this prefent am 
called a traitor by one party, againfl the ftate of Eng- 
land, for not maintaining the charter and the colony ; and 
it is faid I am as good as banifhed by yourfelves, and that 
both lides wifhed that I might never have landed, that the 
fire of contention might have had no flop in burning. In- 

264 Letters of Roger Williams. 

deed, the words have been fo (harp between myfelf and 
fome lately, that at laft I was forced to fay, they might well 
filence all complaints if I once began to complain, who 
was unfortunately fetched and drawn from my employ- 
ment, and fent to fo vaft diftance from my family, to do 
your work of a high and coftly nature, for fo many days 
and weeks and months together, and there left to ftarve, or 
fteal, or beg or borrow. But bleiled be God, who gave me 
favor to borrow one while, and to work another, and there- 
by to pay your debts there, and to come over with your 
credit and honor, as an agent from you, who had, in your 
name, grappled with the agents and friends of all your 
enemies round about you. I am told that your oppofites 
thought on me, and provided, as I may fay, a fponge to 
wipe off your fcores and debts in England, but that it was 
obftru&ed by yourfelves, who rather meditated on means 
and new agents to be fent over, to crofs what Mr. Clarke 
and I obtained. But, gentlemen, bleiled be God, who 
faileth not, and bleifed be his name for his wonderful Provi- 
dences, by which alone this town and colony, and that 
grand caufe of Truth and Freedom of Conscience, 
hath been upheld to this day. And bleffed be his name 
who hath again quenched fo much of our fires hitherto, 
and hath brought your names and his own name thus far 
out of the dirt and fcorn, reproach, &c. I find among 
yourfelves and your oppofites that of Solomon true, that 
the contentions of brethren (fome that lately were fo) are 
the bars of a caftle, and not eafily broken ; and I have 
heard fome of both fides zealoufly talking of undoing 
themfelves by a trial in England. Truly, friends, I can- 
not but fear you loft a fair wind lately, when this town was 
fent to for its deputies, and you were not pleafed to give an 

Letters of Roger Williams. 265 

overture unto the reft of the inhabitants about it ; yea, and 
when yourfelves thought that I invited you to fome con- 
ference tending to reconciliation, before the town fhould 
acl: in fo fundamental a buiinefs, you were pleafed to fore- 
ftall that, fo that being full of grief, fhame and aftonifti- 
ment, yea, and fear that all that is now done, efpecially in 
our town of Providence, is but provoking the fpirits of 
men to fury and defperation, I pray your leave to pray 
you to remember (that which I lately told your oppofites) 
only by pride comet h contention. If there be humility on the 
one iide, yet there is pride on the other, and certainly the 
eternal God will engage againft the proud. I therefore 
pray you to examine, as I have done them, your proceed- 
ings in this firft particular. Secondly, Love covereth a 
multitude of fins. Surely your charges and complaints 
each againft other, have not hid nor covered any thing, as 
we ufe to cover the nakednefs of thofe we love. If you 
will now profefs not to have disfranchifed humanity and 
love, but that, as David in another cafe, you will facrifice 
to the common peace, and common fafety, and common 
credit, that which may be faid to coft you fomething, I 
pray your loving leave to tell you, that if I were in your 
foul's cafe, I would fend unto your oppofites fuch a line 
as this : " Neighbors, at the conftant requeft, and upon the 
conftant mediation which our neighbor Roger Williams, 
fince his arrival, hath ufed to us, both for pacification and 
accommodation of our fad differences, and alfo upon the 
late endeavors in all the other towns for an union, we are 
perfuaded to remove our obftrucTion, viz. : that paper of 
contention between us, and to deliver it into the hands of 
our aforefaid neighbor and to obliterate that order, which 
that paper did occafion. This removed, you may be pleafed 

266 Letters of Roger Williams. 

to meet with, and debate freely, and vote in all matters 
with us, as if fuch grievances had not been amongft us. 
Secondly, if yet aught remain grievous, which we our- 
felves, by free debate and conference, cannot compofe we 
offer to be judged and cenfured by four men, which out of 
any part of the colony you (hall choofe two, and we the 
other. 1 

Gentlemen, I only add, that I crave your loving pardon 
to your bold but true friend. 

Roger Williams. 

The Town of Providence to Sir Henry Vane? 


Providence, Auguft 27th, 1654. 

Sir, — Although we are aggrieved at your late retirement 
from the helm of public affairs, yet we rejoice to reap the 
fweet fruits of your reft in your pious and loving lines, 
moft feafonably fent unto us. Thus the fun, when he re- 
tires his brightnefs from the world, yet from under the 
very clouds we perceive his prefence, and enjoy fome light 
and heat and fweet refrefhings. Sir, your letters were di- 
rected to all and every particular town of this Providence 
colony. Surely, Sir, among the many Providences of the 

iThis letter is without date, but it was Sir Henry Vane's letter. This letter, 

doubtlefs written juft before the town which follows, dated Auguft 27th, 1654, 

meeting which took place late in Auguft, is prelerved among the records of the 

1654. It had the defired effeft, and city of Providence. It is in Mr. Wil- 

when the meeting took place, Mr. Wil- liams's hand writing and has all the cha- 

liams had a full hearing of the cafe, when rafteriftics of his ftyle. 
he was requefted to write an anfwer to Z R. L Colonial Records, vol. i. p. 235. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 267 

Moft High, towards this town of Providence, and this 
Providence colony, we cannot but fee apparently his gra- 
cious hand, providing your honorable felf for fo noble and 
true a friend to an outcaft and defpifed people. From the 
firft beginning of this Providence colony, occalioned by 
the banifhment of fome in this place from the Maffachu- 
fetts, we fay ever fince to this very day, we have reaped the 
fweet fruits of your conftant loving kindnefs and favor to- 
wards us. Oh, Sir, whence, then, is it that you have bent 
your bow and fhot your (harp and bitter arrows now againft 
us ? Whence is it that you charge us with divifions, difor- 
ders, &c. ? Sir, we humbly pray your gentle acceptance 
of our two fold anfwer. 

Firft, we have been greatly difturbed and diftra&ed by 
the ambition and covetoufnefs of fome amongft us. Sir, 
we were in complete order, until Mr. Coddington, wanting 
that public, ielf-denying fpirit which you commend to us 
in your letter, procured, by moft untrue information, a 
monopoly of part of the colony, viz. : Rhode Ifland, to 
himfelf, and fo occasioned our general disturbance and dif- 
tra&ions. Secondly, Mr. Dyre, with no lefs want of a 
public fpirit, being ruined by party contentions with Mr. 
Coddington, and being betrufted to bring from England 
the letters from the Council of State for our reunitings, he 
hopes for a recruit to himfelf by other men's goods ; and, 
contrary to the State's intentions and expreffions, plungeth 
himfelf and fome others in moft unneceflary and unright- 
eous plundering, both of Dutch and French, and Engliih 
alfo, to our great grief, who protefted againft fuch abufe of 
our power from England; and the end of it is to the 
fhame and reproach of himfelf, and the very Englifh name, 
as all thefe parts do witnefs. 

Sir, our fecond anfwer is, (that we may not lay all the 

268 Letters of Roger Williams. 

load upon other men's backs,) that poffibly a fweet cup 
hath rendered many of us wanton and too active, for we 
have long drunk of the cup of as great liberties as any 
people that we can hear of under the whole heaven. We 
have not only been long free (together with all New Eng- 
land) from the iron yoke of wolfiih bifbops, and their popifh 
ceremonies, (againft whofe cruel oppreffions God raifed 
up your noble fpirit in Parliament,) but we have fitten quiet 
and dry from the ftreams of blood fpilt by that war in 
our native country. We have not felt the new chains of 
the Prefbyterian tyrants, nor in this colony have we been 
confumed with the over-zealous tire of the (fo called) 
godly chriftian magiftrates. Sir, we have not known what 
an excife means ; we have almoft forgotten what tithes are, 
yea, or taxes either, to church or commonwealth. We 
could name other fpecial privileges, ingredients of our 
fweet cup, which your great wifdorn knows to be very pow- 
erful (except more than ordinary watchfulnefs) to render 
the heft of men wanton and forgetful. But, bleffed be 
your love, and your loving heart and hand, awakening any 
of our fleepy fpirits by your fweet alarm ; and blefTed be 
your noble family, root and branch, and all your pious and 
prudent engagements and retirements. We hope you (hall 
no more complain of the faddening of your loving heart 
by the men of Providence town or of Providence colony, 
but that when we are gone and rotten, our pofterity and 
children after us mall read in our town records your pious 
and favorable letters and loving kindnefs to us, and this 
our anfwer, and real endeavor after peace and righteouf- 
nefs; and to be found, Sir, your moft obliged, and moft 
humble fervants, the town of Providence, in Providence 
colony, in New England. 

Gregory Dexter, Town Clerk. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 269 

To the General Court of Majjachufetts Bay. 

Providence, 5, 8, 54. (lb called.) [October 5, 1654.] 1 

Much honored Sirs, — I truly wifh you peace, and pray 
your gentle acceptance of a word, I hope not unreasona- 

We have in thefe parts a found of your meditations of 
war againft thefe natives, amongft whom we dwell. I 
confider that war is one of thofe three great, fore plagues, 
with which it pleafeth God to affect the fons of men. I 
confider, alfo, that I refufed, lately, many offers in my na- 
tive country, out of a fincere deiire to feek the good and 
peace of this. 

I remember, that upon the exprefs advice of your ever 
honored Mr. Winthrop, deceafed, I flrft adventured to 
begin a plantation among the thickeft of thefe barbarians. 

That in the Pequot wars, it pleafed your honored gov- 
ernment to employ me in the hazardous and weighty ftr- 
vice of negotiating a league between yourfelves and the 
Narraganfetts, when the Pequot meffengers, who fought the 
Narraganfetts' league againft the Englifh, had almoft ended 
that my work and life together. 

That at the fubfcribing of that folemn league, which, 
by the mercy of the Lord, I had procured with the Narra- 
ganfetts, your government was pleafed to fend unto me the 
copy of it, fubfcribed by all hands there, which yet I keep 
as a monument and a teftimony of peace and faithfulnefs 
between you both. 

That, fince that time, it hath pleafed the Lord fo to order 
it, that I have been more or lefs interefted and ufed in 

1 Plymouth Records, vol. x. p. 438 ; R. I. Colonial Records, vol. i. p. 291. 

270 Letters of Roger Williams. 

all your great tranfaclions of wai or peace, between the 
Englifh and the natives, and have not fpared purfe, nor 
pains, nor hazards, (very many times,) that the whole land, 
Englifh and natives, might fleep in peace fecurely. 

That in my laft negotiations in England, with the Par- 
liament, Council of State, and his Highnefs, 1 I have been 
forced to be known fo much, that if I mould be lilent, I 
mould not only betray mine own peace and yours, but alfo 
mould be falie to their honorable and princely names, 
whofe loves and affections, as well as their fupreme authori- 
ty are not a little concerned in the peace or war of this 

At my laft departure for England, I was importuned by 
the Narraganfett Sachems, and efpecially by Ninigret, to 
prelent their petition to the high Sachems of England, that 
they might not be forced from their religion, and, for not 
changing their religion, be invaded by war; for they faid 
they were daily vilited with threatenings by Indians that 
came from about the Maffachufetts, that if they would not 
pray, they fhould be deftroyed by war. With this their 
petition I acquainted, in private difcourfes, divers of the 
chief of our nation, and efpecially his Highnefs, who, in 
many difcourfes I had with him, never expreffed the leaft 
tittle of difpleafure, as hath been here reported, but in the 
midft of difputes, ever expreffed a high fpirit of love and 
gentlenefs, and was often pleafed to pleafe himfelf with 
very many queftions, and my anfwers, about the Indian 
affairs of this country; and, after all hearing of yourfelf 
and us, it hath pleafed his Highness and his Council to 
grant, amongft other favors to this colony, fome expreftly 

1 Oliver Cromwell. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 271 

concerning the very Indians, the native inhabitants of this 

I, therefore, humbly offer to your prudent and impartial 
view, firft thefe two confiderable terms, it pleafed the Lord 
to ufe to all that profefs his name (Rom. 12: 18,) if it be 
poffible, and all men. 

I never was againft the righteous ufe of the civil fword 
of men or nations, but yet fince all men of confcience or 
prudence ply to windward, to maintain their wars to be 
defenfive, (as did both King and Scotch, and Englifh and 
Iriih too, in the late wars,) I humbly pray your confidera- 
tion, whether it be not only poffible, but very eafy, to live 
and die in peace with all the natives of this country. 

For, fecondly, are not all the Englifh of this land, gen- 
erally, a perfecuted people from their native foil ? and hath 
not the God of peace and Father of mercies made thefe 
natives more friendly in this, than our native countrymen 
in our own land to us? Have they not entered leagues of 
love, and to this day continued peaceable commerce with 
us? Are not our families grown up in peace amongll: 
them ? Upon which I humbly afk, how it can fuit with 
Chriftian ingenuity to take hold of fome feeming occafions 
for their deftructions, which, though the heads be onlv 
aimed at, yet, all experience tells us, falls on the body and 
the innocent. 

Thirdly, I pray it may be remembered how greatly the 
name of God is concerned in this affair, for it cannot be 
hid, how all England and other nations ring with the glo- 
rious converfion of the Indians of New England. You 
know how many books are difperfed throughout the na- 
tion, of the fubjec"t, (in fome of them the Narraganfett 
chief Sachems are publicly branded, for refufing to pray 

272 Letters of Roger Williams. 

and be converted ;) have all the pulpits in England been 
commanded to found of this glorious work, (I fpeak not 
ironically, but only mention what all the printed books 
mention,) and that by the highest command and authority 
of Parliament, and churchwardens went from houfe to 
houfe, to gather fupplies for this work. 

Honored Sirs, Whether I have been and am a friend to 
the natives' turning to civility and Christianity, and whe- 
ther I have been instrumental, and defire fo to be, accord- 
ing to my light, I will not trouble you with ; only I 
befeech you conlider, how the name of the mod holy and 
jealous God may be preferved between the clafhings of 
thefe two, viz. : the glorious converfion of the Indians in 
New England, and the unneceffary wars and cruel deftruc- 
tions of the Indians in New England. 

Fourthly, I befeech you forget not, that although we 
are apt to play with this plague of war more than with 
the other two, famine and peftilence, yet I befeech you 
conlider how the prefent events of all wars that ever have 
been in the world, have been wonderful fickle, and the fu- 
ture calamities and revolutions, wonderful in the latter end. 

Heretofore, not having liberty of taking fhip in your 
jurifdiclion, I was forced to repair unto the Dutch, where 
mine eyes did fee that fir ft breaking forth of that Indian 
war, which the Dutch begun, upon the flaughter of fome 
Dutch by the Indians; and they queftioned not to finifh 
it in a few days, infomuch that the name of peace, which 
fome offered to mediate, was foolifh and odious to them. 
But before we weighed anchor, their bowries were in 
flames; Dutch and Englifti were (lain. Mine eyes faw 
their flames at their towns, and the flights and hurries of 
men, women and children, the prefent removal of all that 

Letters of Roger Williams. 273 

could for Holland ; and after vaft expenfes, and mutual 
(laughters of Dutch, Englifh and Indians, about four 
years, the Dutch were forced, to fave their plantation from 
ruin, to make up a mod unworthy and difhonorable peace 
with the Indians. 

How frequently is that faying in England, that both 
Scotch and Englifh had better have borne loans, fhip 
money, &c, than run upon fuch rocks, that even fuccefs 
and victory have proved, and are yet like to prove. Yea, 
this late war with Holland, however begun with zeal againft 
God's enemies, as fome in Parliament faid, yet what fruits 
brought it forth, but the breach of the Parliament, the en- 
raging of the nation by taxes, the ruin of thoufands who 
depended on manufactures and merchandize, the lofs of 
many thoufand feamen, and others, many of whom many 
worlds are not worthy ? 

But, laftly, if any be yet zealous of kindling this fire for 
God, &c, I befeech that gentleman, whoever he be, to lay 
himfelf in the oppofite fcale, with one of the fairerr. buds 
that ever the fun of righteoufnefs cherifhed, Joiiah, that 
mod zealous and melting-hearted reformer, who would to 
war, and againft warnings, and fell in mod untimely death 
and lamentations, and now ftands, a pillar of fait to all 
fucceeding generations. 

Now, with your patience, a word to thefe nations at war, 
(occalion of yours,) the Narraganfetts and Long Iflanders, 
I know them both experimentally, and therefore pray you 
to remember, 

Firfr, that the Narraganfetts and Mohawks are the two 
great bodies of Indians in this country, and they are con- 
federates, and long have been, and they both yet are 
friendly and peaceable to the Englifh. I do humbly con- 


274 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ceive, that if ever God calls us to a juft war with either of 
them he calls us to make fure of the one to a friend. It 
is true fome diftafte was lately hereamongft them, but they 
parted friends, and fome of the Narraganfetts went home 
with them, and I fear that both thefe and the Long Ifland- 
ers and Mohegans, and all the natives of the land, may, 
upon a found of the defeat of the Englifh, be induced 
eaiily to join each with other againft us. 

2. The Narraganfetts, as they were the firft, fo they 
have been long confederates with you ; they have been 
true, in all the Pequot wars, to you. They occafioned the 
Mohegans to come in, too, and fo occalioned the Pequots' 

3. I cannot yet learn, that ever it pleafed the Lord, to 
permit the Narraganfetts to ftain their hands with any 
Englifh blood, neither in open hoftilities nor fecret mur- 
ders, as both Pequots and Long Iilanders did, and Mohe- 
gans alfo, in the Pequot wars. It is true, they are barba- 
rians, but their greatefr. offences againft the Englilh have 
been matters of money, or petty revenging of themlelves 
on fome Indians, upon extreme provocations, but God kept 
them clear of our blood. 

4. For the people, many hundred Englifh have experi- 
mented them to be inclined to peace and love with the 
Englifh nation. 

Their late famous long-lived Canonicus fo lived and 
died, and in the fame moft honorable manner and folem- 
nity (in their way) as you laid to lleep your prudent peace- 
maker, Mr. Winthrop, did they honor this, their prudent 
and peaceable prince. His fon, Mexham, inherits his 
fpirit. Yea, through all their towns and countries, how 
frequently do many, and oft-times one Englishman, travel 
alone with fafety and loving kindnefs ! 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 275 

The caufe and root of all the prefent mifchief, is the 
pride of two barbarians, AfcalTaffotic, the Long Ifland 
Sachem, and Ninigret, of the Narraganfett. The former 
is proud and foolifh ; the latter is proud and fierce. I 
have not feen him thefe many years, yet from their fober 
men I hear he pleads, 

Firft, that AicalfalTotic, a very inferior Sachem, bearing 
himfelf upon the Englifh, hath llain three or four of his 
people, and fince that, fent him challenges and darings to 
right, and mend himfelf. 

2. He, Ninigret, confulted, by folemn melTengers, with 
the chief of the Englifh Governors, Major Endicott, then 
Governor of the MaiTachufetts, who fent him an implicit 
confent to right himfelf, upon which they all plead that 
the Englifh have juft occaiion of difpleafure. 

3. After he had taken revenge upon the Long Iilanders, 
and brought away about fourteen captives, divers of their 
chief women, yet he reftored them all again, upon the 
mediation and defire of the Englifh. 

4. After this peace made, the Long Iilanders pretending 
to vifit Ninigret, at Block Ifland, flaughtered of his Nar- 
raganfetts near thirty perfons, at midnight, two of them of 
great note, efpecially Wepiteammoc's fon, to whom Nini- 
gret was uncle. 

5. In the profecution of this war, although he had 
drawn down the Iflanders to his affiftance, yet, upon pro- 
teftation of the Englifh againft. his proceedings, he re- 
treated and diffolved his army. 

Honored Sirs, 
1. I know it is faid the Long Iflanders are fubjecls ; but 
I have heard this greatly queftioned, and, indeed, I quef- 
tion whether any Indians in this country, remaining bar- 

276 Letters of Roger Williams. 

barous and pagan, may with truth or honor be called the 
Englifh fubjecTis. 

2. But grant them iubjecls, what capacity hath their 
late ma(facre of the Narraganfetts, with whom they had 
made peace, without the Englifh content, though ftill un- 
der the Englifh name, put them into ? 

3. All Indians are extremely treacherous; and if to 
their own nation, for private ends, revolting to ftrangers, 
what will they do upon the found of one defeat of the 
Englifh, or the trade of killing Englifh cattle, and perfons, 
and plunder, which will, molt certainly be the trade, if 
any considerable party efcape alive, as mine eyes beheld in 
the Dutch war. 

But I befeech you, fay your thoughts and the thoughts 
of your wives and little ones, and the thoughts of all Eng- 
lifh, and of God's people in England, and the thoughts of 
his Highnefs and Council, (tender of thefe parts,) if, for 
the fake of a few inconfiderable pagans, and beafts, wal- 
lowing in idlenefs, Mealing, lying, whoring, treacherous 
witchcrafts, blafphemies, and idolatries, all that the gra- 
cious hand of the Lord hath fo wonderfully planted in the 
wildernefs, mould be deftroyed. 

How much nobler were it, and glorious to the name of 
God and your own, that no pagan mould dare to ufe the 
name of an Englifh fubjecT:, who comes not out in fome 
degree from barbarifm to civility, in forfaking their filthy 
nakednefs, in keeping fome kind of cattle, which yet your 
councils and commands may tend to, and, as pious and pru- 
dent deceafed Mr. Winthrop faid, that civility may be a 
leading ftep to Christianity, is the humble defire of your 
mo ft unfeigned in all fervices of love, 

Roger Williams, 
of Providence colony, Prefident. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 277 

For his much honored, kind friend, Mr. Winthrop, at Pequot, 


Providence, 9, 8, 54. (fo called.) [Oft. 9, 1654.]' 

Sir, — I was lately fadded to hear of fome barbarous 
dealings to your prejudice on your ifland. I am again fad- 
ded with the tidings of weaknefs in your family, and I 
hope you are fadded with me at this Fire which is now 
kindling, the fire of God's wrath and jealoully, which, if 
God gracioufly quench not, may burn to the foundations 
both of Indians and Englifh together. I have (upon the 
firft found of this fire) prefented confiderations to the 
General Court of MaiTachufetts ; Major Willard tells me, 
he faw them not, (the Court not yet fetting,) therefore I 
have prefented him with a copy of them, which upon op- 
portunity and deiire, I prefume you may command the 
fight of. I have therein had occafion to mention your pre- 
cious peacemaking farther. 

Sir, iome of the foldiers, faid here that 'tis true the 
Narraganfetts had yet killed no Englifh, but they had 
killed two hundred of Mr. Winthrop's goats, and that 
it was read in the Bofton meeting houfe, that Mr. Win- 
throp was robbed and undone, and was flying from the 
place unlefs fuccor was fent him. I hope to hear other- 
wife, and that notwithstanding any private lofs, yet that 
noble fpirit of your father Hill lives in you, and will 
ftill work (if poflible) to quench this devouring fire 
in the kindling. I am not yet without hope but it 
may pleafe the God of peace and Father of mercies to 
create peace for us, and by this time to inflame our 

1 3 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. x p. 4. 

278 Letters of Roger Williams. 

hearts more with love to him and felicities in him, which 
neither fword, nor famine, nor peftilence can take from 
us, which (however otherwife he may deal with us) will 
abundantly compenfate all their making below, though 
(feemingly) great and fundamental to us. 

Sir, with very cordial refpects to you both, I am yours 
in the fervice of love unfeigned. 

Roger Williams. 

[The letter of Mr. Williams to the Town of Providence, of Auguft preced- 
ing had a falutary effect, and harmony was once more reftored in the colony. At 
the General Election, which followed in September, 1654, Mr. Williams was cho- 
fen Prefident. "Thus far" fays Backus, " things appeared encouraging; but as 
tyranny and licentioufnefs are equally enemies, both to government and liberty, Mr. 
Williams often had both to contend with. Soon after this fettlement, a perfon fent a 
feditious paper to the town of Providence," and alfo circulated it among the citizens. 
" That it was blood-guiltlefs, and againft the rule of the gofpel to execute judgment 
upon tranigreffors againft the public or private weal." — Hi/I. of the Baptijh, vol. i. 
p. 296. While fuch fentiments were propagated, Williams could not remain filent, 
and accordingly addreffed the following letter to the town, in which he denies that 
he had ever given the flighteft fanftion to principles fo hoftile to civil peace and the 
dictates of reafon and fcripture.J 

To the Town of Providence. 

[Providence, January, 1654-5. ] ] 

That ever I mould fpeak or write a tittle, that tends to 
fuch an infinite liberty of confcience, is a miftake, and 
which I have ever difclaimed and abhorred. To prevent 
fuch miflakes, I mall at prefent only propofe this cafe: 
There goes many a mip to fea, with many hundred fouls 
in one mip, whofe weal and woe is common, and is a true 
picture of a commonwealth, or a human combination or 

1 Providence Records ; alfo, Backus, Hiji. of the Baptifs, vol. i. p. 297. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 279 

fociety. It hath fallen out fometimes, that both papifts 
and proteftants, Jews and Turks, may be embarked in one 
fhip ; upon which fuppofal I affirm, that all the liberty of 
confcience, that ever I pleaded for, turns upon thefe two 
hinges — that none of the papifts, proteftants, Jews, or 
Turks, be forced to come to the fhip's prayers or worfhip, 
nor compelled from their own particular prayers or wor- 
fhip, if they practice any. I further add, that I never de- 
nied, that notwithstanding this liberty, the commander of 
this fhip ought to command the fhip's courfe, yea, and alfo 
command that juftice, peace and fobriety, be kept and 
practiced, both among the feamen and all the paifengers. 
If any of the feamen refufe to perform their fervices, or 
paifengers to pay their freight ; if any refufe to help, in 
perfon or purfe, towards the common charges or defence ; 
if any refufe to obey the common laws and orders of the 
fhip, concerning their common peace or prefervation ; if 
any fhall mutiny and rife up againft their commanders and 
officers; if any fhould preach or write that there ought to 
be no commanders or officers, becaufe all are equal in 
Chrift, therefore no matters nor officers, no laws nor or- 
ders, nor corrections nor punifbments; — I fay, I never 
denied, but in fuch cafes, whatever is pretended, the com- 
mander or commanders may judge, refift, compel and pun- 
ifh fuch tranfgreffors, according to their deferts and merits. 
This if ferioully and honeftlv minded, may, if it fo pleafe 
the Father of lights, let in fome light to fuch as willingly 
fhut not their eyes. 

I remain ftudious of your common peace and liberty. 

Roger Williams. 

280 Letters of Roger Williams 

Roger Williams to John Winthrop, Jr. 

15, 12, 54. (fo called.) [15th February, 1654.] 1 

Sir, — It hath not been this (harp and bitter feafon 
which could have frozen my pen from faluting you both 
(having received yours fome weeks fince,) but I could not 
get a meeting with Ninigret, and meifengers effected 
nothing, which I fent to him. Your great trial, lofs and 
hindrance I am exceedingly grieved at, and cordially wifh 
it were in my hand to contribute to your abundant fatis- 
faction and reparation. I have taken willingly any pains 
about it, and (hall ; and beg of God himfelf to pleafe to 
make up thefe gaps and breaches, with the teachings and 
comfortings of his Eternal Spirit. 

I have had a folemn debate with Ninigret and the reft 
of the Narraganfett Sachems, in a late great meeting at 
Warwick, whither they came down with four fcore armed 
men, to demand fatisfaclion for the robbing of Peficcufh, 
his lifter's grave, and mangling of her flefh ; againft John 
Garriard, a Dutchman, whofe crew, and it is feared, him- 
felf, committed that ghaftly and ftinking villainy againft 
them. In this meeting the Sachems were unanimous 
and (as union ftrengthens) they were {o bold as to talk 
often of men's lives, and of righting with us, and de- 
manded an Englifh child for hoftage until fatisfaclion, be- 
caufe John Garriard had lived at Warwick, and had goods 
and debts there ftill remaining. At laft it pleafed the 
Lord to pacify all with our attaching of the Dutchman's 
goods and debts, until he have made iatisfa&ion (in the 
Dutch jurifdiction or the Englifh) to the Sachems charge 
againft him. There was in his crew, one Samuel, a hat- 

1 4 Ma/s. Hi/I. Coll. vol. vi. p. 286. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 28 1 

ter, and one Jones, a feaman, and an Irishman, perlnos 
infamous, fo that we fear John Garriard was drawn in by 
them, at leaft to confentto (hare with them in fuch a booty. 

Sir, this troublefome occaiion furnifhed me with full 
agitations about your wrong and demands alfo. And be- 
iides this I have had both former and later difcourfings 
and fearchings with divers Indians, and fome that were 
prefenl, and fome that were difaffected to Ninigret, and all 
anfwers and agitations, &c, amount to, firft, an abfolute 
denial that either the Sachems or people know of any cat- 
tle of yours ilain by themfelves or the Inlanders, excepting 
three or four goats, which the Pawcomtuck Indians killed 
in their breaking up in difpleafure, and departure from 
Ninigret, and in their march towards the Eartern end of 
your ifland homeward. 1 

2. They affirm that fuch flaughters could not porTibly be 
made by any of themfelves or the ftrangers, but they 
mould know of it, being intermingled with them in all 
their quarters : and whereas I faid they were long there, 
and had fpent provifions ; they fay they had three canoes 
continually going from your ifland to Pequot for provilion ; 
which though fometime the winds hindered fome hours, 
yet by day or by night they always came and brought a 

1 Troubles with Ninigret had been on a war againft him. An armed force 

renewed during the paft year. That was fent into the Narraganfett country, 

chief had carried on a war with the In- when Ninigret fled, and about one hun- 

dians of Long Ifland, who had put them- dred Pequots who had been left with the 

felves under the protection of the Eng- Narraganfetts fince the war, put them- 

lifh. The Commiflioners of the Uni- felves under the protection of the Eng- 

ted Colonies ordered Ninigret to appear lifli. The armed force retired with- 

at Hartford; and upon his refufal to out attacking the enemy. — Holmes, An- 

comply with their requefl, determined nals, p. 301. 


282 Letters of Roger Wi Hiatus. 

3. They fay that fome Engliih whom you trufted there, 
not only gave Ninigret one goat, but they have known 
divers given or fold to Englifh or Dutch pinnaces. I con- 
fefs, Sir, this laft came not within my thoughts to favor of 
truth, until conferring with fome Englifh further, I find 
it undeniable from many Englifh witneifes, that many 
goats have been fold (and fome at cheap prices,) by fome 
whom you have trufted, to many veifels. Some of the 
vefTels belong to our towns, and they name your kinfman 
Mr. Symons. The particulars are many : one I mail hint, 
that you may review whether you had account of it or no : 
Mr. Smith's veffel gave him an ell of holland for one goat, 
which in our parts would yield about 14-f : lb that I hear 
fome veifels brought (more then for prefent fpending) 
fome live goats along with them. 

Sir, this Engliih work I believe is true, although I dare 
not abfolve the barbarians from your charge, and therefore 
(hall ftill continue my utmoft care and fearch. 

Sir, the tidings ftirring amongft us is (as is said) from a 
(hip (about four months fince arrived from England,) re- 
porting daughters of Scotch and Englifh in divers battles 
fought in Scotland ; but (as is faid) the Lord was pleafed 
to turn thefcales to the Engliih. It is faid alfo that the 
Parliament (which was to begin the 3rd of September,) was 
broke up in difcontent. It is faid that a fleet was defigned 
againft Hifpaniola, and that Mr. Winflow goes in chief 
command, or to be Governor. 1 Sir, I yet believe not this 
firft found of things, and yet I believe them to be very like 
to be true, and greater and greater Revolutions approach- 

1 Edward Winflow, was appointed by and died on the paflage, between that if- 
Cromwell, Commiffioner to attend the land and Jamaica, May 8th, of that year, 
expedition againft Hifpaniola in 1655; Eds. Winthrop Papers. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 283 

ing. The invifible and eternal Jehovah will make his juf- 
tice and mercy more and more vifibly glorious, in eternal 
fucceffive difcoveries of himfelf to his, and to the works 
and creatures of his mighty hand. 

It hath pleafed God, Sir, to take away (fome few days 
fince) the wife of our Jofhua Windfor (once a fervant to 
your dear father). She had made a paffionate wim that 
God would part them, and take away him or her. It 
pleafed his Jealoufly to hear her, and to take away a child 
in her womb alio, of which (he could not be delivered. 

We have had fome gufts amongft us as to our whole 
Colony and civil order. At my coming over our neigh- 
bors were run into divifions. By the good hand of the 
Lord they were perfuaded to choofe twenty-four Commii- 
fioners (fix out of a town) to reconcile. They united and 
hailed me out (fore againft my fpirit) to public iervice : 
yet the fpirits of fome have not been fo reconcileable : 
Tho. Olney 1 and my brother in our town, (upon private 
grudges), Mr. Eafton and Mr. Dyer, at Newport, fearing 
Sabaudies pinnace muft be paid for, which cafe the Court 
at MarTachufetts lately would not determine, but left it to 
be tried in our own Colony, which was the late anfwer ot 
the Court at Ipfwich to Mr. Ames, who fued Mr. Dyer 
in the Bay. What plots and diggings have been ufed to 
overturn all Courts, fo that there might be an efcape, and 
therefore Newport is made to ftand off (except fome few) 
from the reft of the Colony. 

Sir, we have a found of a Gen : Governor, and that Ba- 

1 Thomas Olney was among the ear- lem church, from which he was expelled 

lieft fettlers of Providence, and one of for uniting in the errors of Williams, 

the committee in 164710 form a gov- His name appears among the Affiftants in 

ernment. He was a member of the Sa- the Charter of 1663. 

284 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ron Rigby his fon is the man : but it is time to excufe this 
prolixity, and to end with humble delires to the moft Holy 
and Eternal King to protect, to direct, and comfort your 
fpirits in all prefent and future trials. So prays, Sir, 
Yours moft unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, thefe enclofed were fent to me from Mr. White, 
now wintering at Warwick. It is faid he hath fkill in moft 
works; many of ours have thoughts of trying his fkill 
about a new bridge at Providence, and he hath promifed 
to come over to us to confult, but the weather hath hin- 

Mr. Foote hath once and again moved for Iron Works 
at Providence. He told me that you had fpeech with him 
about his getting of iron men to Pequot, but he thought 
yourfelf would be willing to promote the work as well 
here as there, and therefore promifed me to write to you. 
If I had power in my hand I would venture to fuch a pub- 
lic good, and however would gladly contribute all affift- 
ance, efpecially if your loving fpirit and experience be 
pleafed to give encouragement. 

Sir, I have not at prefent by me a copy (fair or foul) of 
mv Confederations prefented to the Gen. Court at Bofton : 
fomething there is in them of paffages between the Lord 
Protector and myfelf; otherways they are but known 
things (efpecially to yourfelf): however, if poffible I can, 
I will prefent your defire with the fight of them. 

Post S. — This letter hath long lain by expecting con- 
veyance. Indeed Ninigret promifed to lend a mefTenger 
for them, but (whether the winter or other occasions hin- 
dered, ficknefs, death, &c.,) yet it hath ftuck by me as 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


an arrow in my fide, leaft I mould feem to neglect fuch a 
friend and fuch a cafe. 

For the fleet of which you pleafe a line (in this your 
welcome tidings of your healths) we hear of fixty or 
one hundred fail. I know the Protector had ftrong 
thoughts of Hifpaniola and Cuba. Mr. Cotton's inter- 
preting of Euphrates to be the Weft Indies: the lupply 
of gold, to take off taxes), and the provision of a warmer 
Diuerticuhim and Receptaculum then New England is, will 
make a footing into thofe parts very precious, and if it 
mall pleafe God to vouchfafe fuccefs to this fleet, I look to 
hear of an invitation at leaft to thefe parts for removal, 
from his Highnefs, who looks on New England only with 
an eye of pity, as poor, cold and ufelefs. 

And furely this nonefuch winter is like to fet any wheel 
a going for removals of very many. 

Capt. Gibbons at beginning of this winter (as I prefume 
you have long fince heard) made this winter his laft, and 
is departed. 

Mr. Dunfter 1 (as is faid) expected to be oufted about 
his judgment of children's baptifm, withdrew himfelf, and 
Mr. Chauncy, 2 who was fhipped for England, is now maf- 
ter of the College. 

1 Henry Dunfter, firft President of 
Harvard College, indu&ed into office 
Auguit 27, 1640. He was highly re- 
fpefted for his learning, piety and man- 
ner of government ; but having imbibed 
the principles of Antipedobaptifm, was 
induced to refign his office in 1654. He 
removed to Scituate, Mafs., where he 
paffed the remainder of his days in peace. 
He died in 1659. — Blake, Biog. Did. 

1 Rev. Charles Chauncy, fucceeded 

Mr. Dunfter as Prefident of Harvard 
College. He was vicar of Ware, in 
England. Being fined and imprifoned 
for non-conformity, he determined to 
feek the enjoyment of the rights of con- 
fcience in New England, where he came 
in 1638. After living as a fettled min- 
ifter, chiefly at Scituate, for twelve years, 
he was invited to return to England. He 
went to Bofton to embark, but the prefi- 
dency of the College being then vacant, 

286 Letters of Roger Williams. 

We alio hear that two of Mr. Dells 1 books were lately 
burnt at the MafTachufetts, (poffibly) containing fome (harp 
things againft the Prefbyterians and Academians, of which 
I brought over one called the Trial of Spirits. 

I pray you to read and return this Jew. I have alfo an 
anfwer to him by a good plain man, expounding all which 
the Jew takes literally, in a fpiritual way : and I have (in 
a difcourfe of a Knight (L'Eftrange) 2 proving Americans 
no Jews) another touch againft him : however, I rejoiced 
to fee fuch induftrious fpirits breathing in that people to- 
ward the Meffiah or Chrift of God. 

Mr. Foot is faid (at prefent) to refolve for the Dutch : 
upon occaflon of my declaring againft his man, Mr. Fow- 
ler's diforderly marriage in Mr. Foot's houfe, without any 
publication, and upon that occafion my refufing to pro- 
mote the Iron Works as yet; he is difpleafed, and fpeaks 
of departure. I truly love and pity the man, yet furely 
from him have the Indians been furnifhed with ftore of 
liquors, from his houfe have the incivilities of our town 
been much encouraged, and much evil report he hath in- 
curred about this marriage. He faith he knew not of it 
'till over night. But (although the pretended marriage 
was not,) it may be refolved on before over night, yet I 
am forry to hear fuch talk in the town of what he knew 
before. Sir, the truth is (as one faid to Queen Elizabeth) 

he was induced to accept office, and was " The Tryall of Spirits, both in Teachers 

inducted into it in 1654. He retained and Hearers " " The Stumbling Stone ," 

the place until his death in 1672, at the together with Sermons and other Theo- 

age of 81. He publifhed feveral vol- logical Treatifes. — "Select Works." Lon- 

umes of fermons and theological works, don, 1773. 

Blake, Biog. Dicl. 2 Hamon L'Eftrange was the author of 

1 William Dell, Reftor of Yelden, a book entitled "Americans no Jews, or 

and Mafter of Gonvil and Caius College ; Improbabilities that the Americans are of 

ejefted 1662. He publifhed in 1663 that race" — London, 1652. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 287 

ProfeBo omnes fumus licentia deteriores. We enjoy liberties 
of foul and body, but it is licenfe we defire, except the 
Moft Holy help us : in whom, Sir, I defire to be ever 

Yours, Roger Williams. 

Mine and my wife's true refpects to Mrs. Winthrop, &c. 

For my honored \ kind friend, Mr. Winthrop, at his houfe at 
Pequot. Leave this with Mr. White, of Warwick. 

Providence, 23, 1. [March 23,] 1655, (Co called.) 1 

Sir, — Cordial refpecls prefented. Mr. White coming 
to you, cannot come without falutation. I have this laft 
week many letters from England; but all dated the firft 
week of the Parliament's fitting. The houfe coniifted 
moft of Prefbyterian fautors. 2 All that are waived are 
ranked into Cavaliers and Levellers :3 upon the grand quef- 
tion of the Supreme Legiflature, the Lord Bradfhaw^ fpake 
openly that if a Parliament were not fupreme, then was he 
a murderer of King Charles. Sir Arthur Hazelrig fpake 
high : but the report is double : fome fay a vote paft that 
they would not difpute that point, fome fay they did dif- 
pute, and therefore a breach followed, and the imprifon- 

1 \Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 292. tribunal by which Charles I. was tried. 

z Fauter, a favourer, a fupporter. In the contefl between the king and the 

3 Cavaliers. The name given to the people, Bradfhaw efpoufed the caufe of 

party which adhered to King Charles I. the latter. Cromwell, to whofe ufurpa- 

in oppofition to the Roundheads or Lev- tion he was hoflile, deprived him of 

el/ers, who were the adherents of Par- office. He died in 1659 ; and at the 

liament. Reftoration, his remains were difinterred 

4 John Bradfhaw was Prefident of the and hanged at Tyburn. 


Letters of Roger Willia?ns. 

ment of Bradfhaw and Hazelrig, &c, and it is faid here 
(by Dutch news) two beheaded. The Protector in his 
fpeech told them he had fettled the three Nations, had 
made peace with Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, 
and entered far into a treaty with France, &c. The fea 
preparations of the Englifh rendered others jealous: fo 
that (and the troubles of the Dutch among themfelves, 
which caufe them to keep a guard of eight hundred at 
the Hague) that caufed new orders to the Admiralty, for 
careful ftriking to the Englim : Gen. Blake 1 with his 
fleet was bound for the Southward : Gen. Pen 2 and Mr. 
Winflow with him for the Weft. It is feared that his 
poor wife will mifs him. He writes to N. Plymouth that 
(except the Parliament prohibited) they were ready to fet 
fail : he hath new fitted himfelf and fent over his former 
apparel. The Portugal embaffadorS hath been beheaded 
for a murder in the Exchange, and Mrs. Mohun and her 
maid flood in the pillory before the Exchange, for attempt- 
ing his efcape by women's apparel. Mr. Marfhall, and 

1 Robert Blake a celebrated Englifh 
Admiral. In the ftruggle between King 
Charles I. and his people, he efpoufed 
the caufe of liberty. After diftinguifh- 
ing himfelf in the army, he was placed 
in command of the fleet, when he de- 
ftroyed the Royal fquadron under Prince 
Rupert, at Malaga. In 1653 he de- 
feated the Dutch fleet, under VanTromp, 
and the following year gained a vittory 
over the Spanifh fleet in the Medite- 
ranean. He died in 1657 and was bu- 
ried with great honors in Henry Vllths 
chapel At the reftoration his body was 
torn from its refting place and buried in 
a pit in St. Martin's Church yard. — Bio- 
grapbia Britannica. 

2 Admiral Wm. Penn, Commander of 
the Englifh fleet in the deftru&ion of Ja- 
maica. He was a member of Parlia- 
ment, and after the Reftoration obtained 
a high command under the Duke of 
York. He was knighted by Charles II. 
for his fervices. Edward Winflow, of 
Plymouth, probably accompanied Admi- 
ral Penn, as it is ftated in the previous 
letter that he had gone to the Weft In- 
dies. He was one of the three Com- 
miffioners appointed by Cromwell to fu- 
perintend the operations there. 

3 Dom Pantaleon, brother of the 
Portuguefe ambaflador, was executed Ju- 
ly 10, 1654, f° r th e murder of Mr. 
Greenway, at the Exchange. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


Viner, and Mr. Tho. Goodwin, 1 minifter to the Parliament. 
Mr. Goodwin prerTed the inftance of Pharaoh and the let- 
ting of God's people free to worfhip, leaf! the Lord fend 
new plagues and breaches. Sir, your melfenger calls : I 
end. Yours unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

I mall be thankful for the Jefuits Maxims, of which I 
have heard, but law them not. 

We hear from the Bay that Capt. Leverett 2 took a Dutch 
fhip lately upon the Act for Trade: whether it be for that 
or words, he is bound to appear at the General Court. 

For my honored kind friend Mr. fohn fVifithrop, at Peqnot, 

thefe. * 

[Providence, i, I, 55. (fo called.) [March 1, 1655.]? 

Sir, — Loving refpecls and beft wifhes, &c. I lately pre- 
fented you with a line by Mr. White : lince I received 
more letters from England, confirming the tidings of two 
great fleets ready to fet fail from Pingland the beginning of 

1 Thomas Goodwin, a Puritan divine, 
born in 1600. In 1630, to avoid perfe- 
ction he went to Arnheim, in Holland, 
where he fettled. During the civil wars 
he returned to London and was appointed 
by Cromwell, Prefident of Magdalen 
College, Oxford. He attended the Pro- 
testor in his lall illnefs, and was ejefted 
from Oxford after the Reftoration. He 
preached to an afTembly of Independents 


in London until his deceafe in 1679. — 
Blake, Biog. Dictionary, 

2 John Leverett, a Delegate to the 
General Court ; afterwards Speaker, and 
from 1673 to 1679 Governor of MafTa- 

? 4 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 294. 

This letter was evidently written after 
that which next precedes it, and it is 
probable that the date fhould be 1, 2, 55, 
i. e. April 1, 1655. 

290 Letters of Roger Williams. 

September. The one with Gen. Blake for the Southward; 
the other with Gen. Pen for the Weft Indies. To him 
was joined Mr. Winflow, as Counfellor, defigned Gover- 
nor of what part mould be conquered. The Parliament 
fat, and after three days debate about the laft change of 
government, the Lord Protector fent for the Parliament 
into the Painted Chamber, and told them that there was a 
reciprocation, and that the fame power which made him 
Protestor had called the Parliament, and therefore before 
they mould lit again, he muff require a tell or recogni- 
tion by fubfcription to his negative voice, as to the prefent 
government by a Protestor and a Parliament, as to the not 
fitting of the Parliament above rive months, as to the mi- 
litia, and as to perfecution for religion. To this purpofe a 
table was fet near the Parliament door, whereon the recog- 
nition was prefented in parchment, unto which Mr. Len- 
thall, the Speaker, and one hundred and forty fubfcribed 
prefently and entered : fome diifented, among whom were 
Bradfhaw and Hazelrig, 1 who, (it is laid) are in the Tow- 
er. The Portugal Embaffador's brother was beheaded for 
a murder, and one Coll : whofe name I yet know not. 
One Mrs. Mohun flood on the pillory, for attempting the 
Portugal's efcape in woman's apparel. 

The 3rd of September, the day of the Parliament's firft fit- 
ting, was feen in the heavens over Hull, two armies fight- 
ing : the one from the northweft which worfted the other 
from the eaff, both red : then a black army from the north- 

1 Sir Arthur Hazelrig. An Englifh of treafon. During the Civil War he 

puritan who took a prominent part in ferved in the army of Parliament as 

the oppofition to Charles I. He was a Colonel. He was created a peer by 

member of the Long Parliament, and Cromwell, but preferred to retain his 

one of the five members whom the king feat in Parliament. He died in 1660. — 

attempted to arreil in 1642 on a charge Thomas, Die. of Biography. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 291 

weft which worfted the red from the eaft, and remained 
victor. Some that faw it faid they law the like at the be- 
ginning of the late Long Parliament. 

Holland had great trouble with Zealand, and the Oren- 
gian faction, fo that the Hague and Amfterdam were 
ftrongly guarded. New orders were fent to their Admi- 
ralty for careful ftriking to the Englifh. 1 Sir, with prayers 
for your health and eternal peace, I reft yours in all fer- 
vices of love. 

Roger Williams. 

'To my honored kind friend Mr, Wiiithrop, at Peqnot, thefe 


Providence, the 26, 2, 55. [April 26th, 1655. ] 2 

Sir, — Loving refpecls to you both prefented, wifhing 
you a joyful fpring after all your fad and gloomy, fharp and 
bitter winter blafts and fnows. Sir, one of your friends 
among the Narraganfett Sachems, Mexham, fends this mef- 
fenger unto me and prays me to write to you for your help 
about a gun, which Kittatteafh, Uncas his fon, hath lately 
taken from this bearer, Ahauanfquatuck, out of his houfeat 
Pawchauquet. He will not own any offence he gave him, 
but that he is fubjecl: to Mexham, though pofiibly Kittat- 
teafh may allege other caufes, yea and true alfo. I doubt 
not of your loving eye on the matter, as God fliall pleafe 

1 In the treaty between Great Britain war in the Britifh leas, fhould flrike the 

and the States-General, concluded at Hag and lower the topfail. 
Weftminiler, April 5, 1654, it was 2 Knowles' Mem. of Roger Williams, 

agreed that the fhips of the United p. 281 ; 3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. x. p. 10. 
Provinces, meeting any Englifh fhip-of- 

292 Letters of Roger Williams. 

to give you opportunity. Sir, the laft firft day divers of 
Bofton merchants were with me, (about Sergeant Holfey 
run from Bofton hither, and a woman after him, who lays 
her great belly to him.) They tell me, that by a bark 
come from Virginia, they are informed of God's merciful 
hand in the fafe arrival of Major Sedgwick and that fleet 
in the weft of England, and that General Penn was not 
yet gone out, but riding (all things ready) in Torbay, wait- 
ing for the word ; and by letters from good and great 
friends in England, I underftand there are like to be great 
agitations in this country, if that fleet fucceed. 

Sir, a hue and cry came to my hand lately from the 
Governor at Bofton, after two youths, one run from Cap- 
tain Oliver, whom I lighted on and have returned ; another 
from James Bill of Bofton, who I hear paft through our 
town, and faid he was bound for Pequot. His name is 
James Pitnie ; he hath on a blackifh coat and hat, and a 
pair of greenifh breeches and green knit ftockings. I 
would now (with very many thanks) have returned you 
your Jefuit's Maxims, but I was loth to truft them in fo 
wild a hand, nor fome tidings which I have from England. 
Thefe merchants tell me, that Blake was gone againft the 
Duke of Leghorn, 1 and had fent for ten frigates more. 

Sir, the God of peace fill your foul with that ftrange kind 
of peace which pafTeth all understanding. 

So prays, Sir, your unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Admiral Blake was at this time in the Mediteranean making great havoc among 
the Spanifh veflels. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 293 

To the General Court of Magi/lrates and Deputies AJfembled 

at Bojlon. 

Providence, 15, 9 mo. 55. (fo called.) [15th Nov. 1655. J 1 

Much honored Sirs, — It is my humble and earneft 
petition unto God and you, that you may fo be pleafed to 
exercife command over your own fpirits, that you may 
not mind myfelf nor the Englifh of thefe parts (unworthy 
with myfelf of your eye) but only that face of equity 
(Englifh and Chriftian) which I humbly hope may appear 
in thefe reprefentations following. 

Firit, may it pleafe you to remember, that concerning 
the town of Warwick, (in this colony,) there lies a fuit of 
£2000 damages againft you before his Highnefs and the 
Lords of his Council ; I doubt not, if you fo pleafe, but 
that (as Mr. Winllow and myfelf had well nigh ordered 
it) fome gentlemen from yourfelves and fome from War- 
wick, deputed, may friendly and eafily determine that af- 
fair between you. 

Secondly, the Indians which pretend your name at War- 
wick and Pawtuxet, (and yet live as barbaroully, if not 
more than any in the country) pleafe you to know their 
infolencies upon ourfelves and cattle (unto £20 damages 
per annum) are infufferable by Englim fpirits; and pleafe 
you to give credence, that to all thefe they pretend your 
name, and affirm that they dare not (for offending you) 
agree with us, nor come to rules of righteous neighbor- 
hood, only they know you favor us not and therefore fent 
us for redrefs unto you. 

Thirdly, concerning four Englifh families at Pawtuxet, 
may it pleafe you to remember that two controverfies they 

'Hutchinfon Papers, Boflon, 1769, p. 275. 


Letters of Roger IV ii Hams. 

have long (under your name) maintained with us, to a 
conftant obftrudting of all order and authority amongft us. 
To our complaint about our lands, they lately have pro- 
feffed a willingnefs to arbitrate, but to obey his Highnefs' 
authority in this charter, they fay, they dare not for your 
fakes, though they live not by your laws nor bear your 
common charges, nor ours, but evade both under color of 
your authority. 1 

1 It appears by this letter that the 
quarrels and diforders were continued at 
Warwick and Pawtuxet, and that they 
were countenanced if not fomented by 

By a letter received by Mr. Williams 
from Cromwell, the Protector, it appears 
jhat he had been advifed by the colony's 
agent in England, (John Clarke,) " of 
fome particulars concerning the govern- 
ment " This letter being prefented to 
the Aflembly at its June feffion, at Portf- 
mouth, it was enafted that " Whereas, 
we have been rent and torn with di- 
vifions, and his Highnefs has fent unto 
us an exprefs command, to provide againft 
internal commotions, by which his High- 
nefs noteth, that not only ourfelves are 
difhonored and endangered, but alio dif- 
honor and detriment redounds to the 
commonwealth of England: It is order- 
ed, that if any perfon be found by the 
examination of the General Court of 
Commiffioners, to be a ringleader of 
factions or divifions among us, he fhall be 
fent over at his own charges, as a prifo- 
ner, to receive his trial or fentence at 
the pleafure of his Highnefs and the 
Lords of the Council." — R. I. Colonial 
Records, vol. i. p. 318. 

This aftion of the General Aflembly 

had its effect, and appears to have re- 
fulted in a reconciliation between fome 
of the prominent men of the Colony. 
In a volume of Records in the office of 
the Secretary of State, is the following 
memorandum in the handwriting of Mr. 
Williams : 

" I, William Coddington do freely 
fubmit to the authority of his Highnefs 
in the colony as it is now united, and that 
with all my heart. 

" Whereas there have been differences 
depending between William Coddington, 
Esq., and Mr. William Dyre, both of 
Newport, we declare joyfully for our- 
felves and heirs by this prefent record, 
that a full agreement and conclufion is 
made between us, by our worthy friends 
Mr. Baulflon, Mr. Gorton, Mr. John 
Smith, of Warwick, Mr. John Greene, 
jun., of Warwick, and Mr. John Eafton ; 
and in witnefs whereof, we iublcribe our 
hands, and defire this to be recorded, 
this prefent 14th of March, 1655-1656. 
William Coddington, 
William Dyre. 
In prefence of 

Roger Williams, Prefident, 

John Roome, 

Benedict Arnold, 

John Greene, jr. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 295 

Honored Sirs, I cordially profefs it before the Moft High, 
that I believe it, if not only they but ourfelves and all the 
whole country, by joint confent, were iubjecl: to your gov- 
ernment, it might be a rich mercy ; but as things yet are, 
and fince it pleafed firft the Parliament, and then the Lord 
Admiral and Committee for Foreign Plantations, and lince 
the Council of State, and laftly the Lord Protector and his 
Council, to continue us as a diftincT: colony, yea, and iince 
it hath pleafed yourfelves, by public letters and references 
to us from your public courts, to own the authority of his 
Highnefs amongft us; be pleafed to confider how unfuita- 
ble it is for yourfelves (if thefe families at Pawtuxet plead 
truth) to be the inftrucT:ors of all orderly proceedings 
amongft us ; for I humbly appeal to your own wifdom and 
experience, how unlikely it is for a people to be compelled 
to order and common charges, when others in their bofoms, 
are by fuch v feeming) partiality exempted from both. 

And, therefore, (laftly) be pleafed to know, that there 
are (upon the point) but two families which are fo ob- 
ftrucftive and deftrudtive to an equal proceeding of civil 
order amongft us ; for one of thefe four families, Stephen 
Arnold, defires to be uniform with us ; a fecond, Zacha- 
rie Rhodes, 1 being in the way of dipping is (potentially) 
banifhed by you. Only William Arnold and William 
Carpenter, (very far, alfo in religion, from you, if you knew 
all) they have fome color, yet in a late conference, they all 
plead that all the obftacle is their offending of yourfelves. 

1 Stephen Arnold and Zacharie Rhodes James T. Rhodes of Providence. Wil- 
were admitted freemen of Providence in liam Arnold and William Carpenter 
1658, but had, for fome years previous, were among the earlier fettlers at Provi- 
lived in Pawtuxet. The latter was the dence, and in 1638 received from Mr. 
anceflor of the late Chriltopher and Williams a transfer of land bought by- 
William Rhodes, and many others of him from Miantonomo and Canonicus. 
the name in Pawtuxet ; alfo of the late 

296 Letters of Roger Willia?ns. 

Fourthly, whereas, (I humbly conceive) with the peo- 
ple of this colony your commerce is as great as with any 
in the country, and our dangers (being a frontier people to 
the barbarians) are greater than thofe of other colonies, 
and the ill confequences to yourfelves would be not a few 
nor fmall, and to the whole land, were we firft maffacred 
or maftered by them. I pray your equal and favorable re- 
flection upon that your law, which prohibits us to buy of 
you all means of our necelfary defence of our lives and 
families, (yea in this moft bloody and malfacreing time.) 

We are informed that tickets have rarely been denied 
to any Englifh of the country ; yea, the barbarians (though 
notorious in lies) if they profefs fubjection, they are fur- 
nilhed ; only ourfelves, by former and later denial, feem to 
be devoted to the Indian fhambles and maffacres. 

The barbarians all the land over, are filled with artillery 
and ammunition from the Dutch, openly and horridly, and 
from all the Englifh over the country, (by ftealth.) I 
know they abound fo wonderfully, that their activity and 
infolence is grown fo high that they daily confult, and 
hope, and threaten to render us Haves, as they long fince 
(and now moft horribly) have made the Dutch. 

For myfelf (as through God's goodnefs) I have refufed 
the gain of thoufands by fuch a murderous trade, and 
think no law yet extant, among yourfelves or us, fecure 
enough againft fuch villainly ; fo am I loth to fee fo 
many hundreds (if not fome thoufands) in this colony, 
deftroyed like fools and hearts without relirtance. I 
grieve that fo much blood fhould cry againft yourfelves, 
yea, and I grieve that (at this inrtant by thefe fhips) this 
cry and the premifes fhould now trouble his Highnefs and 
his Council. For the feafonable preventing of which, 

Letters of Roger Williams. 297 

is this humble addrefs prefented to your wifdom, bv him 
who defires to be 

Your unfeigned and faithful fervant, 

Roger Williams, 
Of Providence Plantations, Prefident. 

Hon. Sirs, fince my letter, it comes into my heart to 
pray your leave to add a word as to myfelf, viz. : at my 
laft return from England I prefented your then honored 
Governor, Mr. Bellingham, with an order of the Lords of 
the Council for my free taking (hip or landing at your 
ports, unto which it pleafed Mr. Bellingham to fend me 
his aiTent in writing ; I humbly crave the recording of it 
by yourfelves, left forgetfulnefs hereafter, again put me 
upon fuch diftreffes as, God knows, I fuffered when I laft 
paft through your colony to our native country. 

For his much honored, kind friend, Mr. 'John Winthrop, at 
Pequot or elfewhere, thefe prejents. 

Providence, 21, 12, 55, 56. (fo called.) [February 21, 1656.]' 

Sir, — This opportunity makes me venture this falutation, 
though we hear queftion of your being at Pequot. Thefe 
friends can fay more of affairs than I can write. I have 
letters from England of proceedings there, which yet are 
not come; fome I have received, which tell me, that the 
Lord hath yet created peace, although the fword is yet 

' Knowles, Memoirs of Roger Williams, p. 287 ; 3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. x. p. 18. 

2 9 8 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

forced (by garrifons) to enforce it. I cannot hear of open 
wars with France, but only with Spain, and that the profe- 
cution of that Weft India expedition is ftill with all po- 
ffible vigor on both fides intended. This diverfion againft 
the Spaniards hath turned the face and thoughts of many 
Englifh, fo that the faying of thoufands now is, crown the 
Proteclor with gold, though the fullen yet cry, crown him 
with thorns. The former two or three years with plenty 
unthankfully received in England; the Lord fent abund- 
ance of waters this laft fummer, which fpoiled their corn 
over moft parts of the land. Sir Henry Vane being retired 
to his own private, in Lincolnshire, hath now publifhed his 
obfervations as to religion ; x he hath fent me one of his 
books, (though yet at Bofton.) His father is dead, and the 
inheritance falls to him, and ten or twelve thoufand more 
than fhould if his father had lived but a month longer; but 
though his father caft him off, yet he hath not loft in tem- 
porals, by being caft off for God. Our acquaintance Ma- 
jor Sedgwick, is faid to be fucceifor to unfuccefsful Vena- 
bles, caft into the tower. Your brother Stephen fucceeds 
Major General Harrifon. 2 The Pope endeavors the uni- 

1 Sir H. Vane was the author of " The 
Retired Man's Meditations," London, 
1655. Two Treatifes : I. On the Myf- 
tical Body of Chrifl on Earth. II. The 
Face of the Times. London: 1662; and 
others. " Sir Henry Vane was one of 
the moft profound minds that ever ex- 
ifted, — not inferior perhaps to Bacon. 
Milton has a fine fonnet addrefled to 
him, — 

•' Vane, young in years, in sage experience old." 
His works difplay aftonifhing powers. 
They are remarkable as containing the 
firft direft aflertion of the liberty of 

confcience. He was put to death in the 
moft perfidious manner." — Sir J. Mack- 
intosh : Converfations with A. H. Ever- 
ett. North American Review, xxxv. p. 
448, n. 

2 John Harrifon, a republican general 
ferved in the parliamentary army, and 
was one of the judges of the court which 
tried Charles I. He became a member 
of the council of State in 1653. Crom- 
well endeavored to gain his fupport by 
the offer of an exalted pofition, but he 
refufed to co-operate with the "ufurper" 
as he called him. In 1657 he was de- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 299 

ting of all his (laves for his guard, fearing the heretics. The 
Lord knows whether Archer 1 (upon the reign of Chrift) 
faid true, ' that yet the Pope before his downfall, mult re- 
cover England; and the proteftant countries revolted from 
him." Sir, we are fure all flefh is grais, and only the word 
of the Lord endures forever. Sir, you once kindly in- 
tended to quench a rire between Mr. Coddington and 
others, but now it is come to public trial. We hear the 
Dutch rire is not quenched. I fear this year will be 
ftormy ; only may the moft gracious Lord by all drive and 
draw us to himfelf, in whom, Sir, I defire to be ever 

Yours, Roger Williams. 

To the General Court of Majjachufetts. 

Providence, 12, 3, 56. (Co called.) [May 12th, 1656. I 1 

May it pleafe this much honored AlTembly to remem- 
ber, that, as an officer and in the name of Providence 
colony, I prefented you with our humble requefts before 
winter, unto which not receiving anfwer, I addrelTed my- 
felf this fpring, to your much honored Governor, who was 
pleafed to advife our fending of fome of Providence to 
your AlTembly. 

prived of his command and imprifoned. The letter of November 15th, to the 

Three years after he was executed for General Court of Maffachufetts, did not 

his fhare in the death of the king. — produce any favorable change in her 

Thomas, Did. of Biography. meafures. Mr. Williams afterwards 

1 John Archer, wrote a book on the wrote to Governor Endicott, who invited 
Perfonal Reign of Lbrijl. Lond : 1643. him to vifit Bollon. In the preient let- 

2 Hutchinson, Maffachufetts Papers, ter fome of the fame topics are again 
Bofton, 1769, p. 278; R. I. Colonial referred to. 

Records, vol. i. p. 341. 

300 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Honored Sirs, our firil requeft (in fhort) was and is, for 
your favorable coniideration of the long and lamentable 
condition of the town of Warwick, which hath been thus : 
they are ib dangeroully and fo vexatiouily intermingled 
with the barbarians, that I have long admired the wonder- 
ful power of God in retraining and preventing very great 
fires of mutual ilaughters, breaking forth between them. 

Your wifdoms know the inhuman infultations of thefe 
wild creatures, and you may be pleafed, alio, to imagine, 
that they have not been fparing of your name as the patron 
of all their wickednefs againft our Engliih men, women 
and children, and cattle to the yearly damage of fixty, 
eighty and one hundred pounds. 

The remedy is (under God) only your pleafure, that 
Pumham mall come to an agreement with the town or 
colony, and that fome covenient way and time be fet for 
their removal. 1 

And that your wifdom may fee juft grounds for fuch your 
willingnefs, be pleafed to be informed of a reality of a 
folemn covenant between this town of Warwick and Pum- 
ham, unto which, notwithstanding that he pleads his being 
drawn to it by the awe of his fuperior Sachems, yet I 
humbly offer that what was done, was according to the 
law and tenor of the natives, (I take it) in all New Eng- 
land and America, viz. : that the inferior Sachems and fub- 

1 Pumham, a diftinguifhed Narragan- Pumham under their government. The 

fett chief *• was a mighty man of valor." journal of Winthrop fhows, that before 

He was the Sachem of Shawomet, or they received him and his people under 

Warwick, which town he claimed. He their protection, the court made them 

was thus brought into confiderable diffi- promife to keep the fabbath, and to ob- 

culty with the Engliih as early as 16:5, ferve other religious rules. — Backus, 

which continued to this time. The peo- Hiji. of the Baptijls, vol. i. p. 306. 
pie of Warwick now endeavored to bring 

Letters of Roger Williams. 301 

jedts mall plant and remove at the pleafure of the higheft 
and fupreme Sachems, and I humbly conceive that it 
pleafeth the Moil High and Only Wife to make ufe of 
fuch a bond of authority over them, without which, they 
could not long fubfift in human fociety, in this wild con- 
dition wherein they are. 

Pleafe you not to be infenfible of the flippery and dan- 
gerous condition of this their intermingled cohabitation. 
I am humbly confident, that all the Englifb towns and 
plantations in all New England, put together, fuffer not 
fuch moleftation from the natives, as this one town and 
people. It is fo great and fo oppreffive, that I have daily 
feared the tidings of iome public fire and mifchief. 

3. Be pleafed to review this copy from the Lord Ad- 
miral, and that this EnglifTi town of Warwick mould pro- 
ceed, alfo that if any of yours were there planted, they 
mould, bv your authority, be removed. And we humbly 
conceive, that if the Englim (whofe removes are difficult 
and chargeable) how much more thefe wild ones, who re- 
move with little more trouble and damage than the wild 
beafts of the wildernefs. 

4. Pleafe you to be informed, that this fmall neck 
(wherein they keep and mingle fields with the Englifh) is 
a very den of wickednefs, where they not only practice the 
horrid barbarifms of all kinds of whoredoms, idolatries, 
conjurations, but living without all exercife of actual au- 
thority, and getting ftore of liquors (to our grief) there is 
a confluence and rendezvous of all the wildeft and moft 
licentious natives and practices of the whole country. 

5. Befide fatisfadtion to Pumham and the former inhabi- 
tants of this neck, there is a competitor who mull alfo be 
fatisfied ; another Sachem, one Nawwufhawfuck, who 

302 Letters of Roger Williams . 

(living with Oufamaquin) lays claim to this place, and are 
at daily feud with Pumham (to my knowledge) about the 
title and lordfhip of it. 1 Hoftility is daily threatened. 

Our fecond requefl: concerns two or three Englifh fami- 
lies at Pawtuxet, who before our charter fubjecled them- 
felves unto your jurifdiclion. 2 It is true there are many 
grievances between many of the town of Providence and 
them, and thefe I humbly conceive, may beft be ordered 
to be compofed by reference. 

But fecondly, we have formerly made our addrelTes and 
now do, for your prudent removal of this great and long 
obftruclion to all due order and regular proceedings among 
us, viz.: the refufal of thefe families (pretending your 
name) to conform with us unto his Highnefs' authority 
amongfl us. 

3. Your wifdom experimentally knows how apt men are 
to ftumble at fuch an exemption from all duties and fer- 
vices, from all rates and charges, either with yourfelves or us. 

4. This obftruction is fo great and conftant, that (with- 
out your prudent removal of it, it is impoffible that either 
his Highnefs or yourfelves can expecl: fuch fatisfadtion and 
obfervance from us as we delire to render. 

Laitly, as before, we promifed fatisfaclion to the natives 
at Warwick, (and fhall all poffible ways endeavor their 
content) {o we humbly offer, as to thefe our countrymen, 
Firff, as to grievances depending, that references may fet- 
tle them. Secondly, for the future, the way will be open 
for their enjoyment of votes and privileges of chooling or 
being cholen, to any office in town or colony. 

x "The Plymouth people had their him, named NawzvaJJ.wzufuck." — Drake, 
fhare in the Warwick controverfy, hav- Bo >k of the Indians, p. 258. 
ing caute&Oufamequin to lay claim to the 2 William Arnold and William Car- 
fame place, or a Sachem, who lived with penter, mentioned in previous letters. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 303 

Our third requeft is, for your favorable leave to us to 
buy of your merchants, four or more barrels of powder 
yearly, with fome convenient proportion of artillery, con- 
sidering our hazardous frontier iituation to thefe barbarians, 
who, from their abundant fupply of arms from the Dutch, 
(and perfidious Englifb, all the land over) are full of our 
artillery, which hath rendered them exceedingly infolent, 
provoking and threatening, efpecially the inlanders, which 
have their fupply from the Fort of Aurania. 1 We have 
been efteemed by fome of you, as your thorny hedge on 
this fide of you ; If fo, yet a hedge to be maintained ; if 
as out fentinels, yet not to be difcouraged. And it there 
be a jealoufly of the ill ufe of fuch a favor, pleafe you to 
be allured that a credible perfon in each town mail have 
the difpofal and managing of fuch fupplies, according to 
the true intent and purpofe. 

For the obtaining of thefe, our juft and neceifary peti- 
tions, we have no inducement or hope from ourfelves, only 
we pray you to remember, that the matters prayed, are no 
way dimonorable to yourfelves, and we humbly conceive, 
do greatly promote the honor and pleafure of his Highnefs, 
yea, of the Moft High, alio; and laftly, fuch kindnelfes 
will be obligations on us to ftudy to declare ourfelves, upon 
all occafions. 

Your moft humble and faithful fervants, 

Roger Williams, Prefulent. 

In the name, and by the appointment, of Providence 

1 Newport, on a former occafion, ap- and ammunition at Bofton, which requefl 
plied to the General Court of Mafia- had been refused. Gov. Winthrop, in 
chufetts for leave to purchafe powder ipeaking of it fays " it was an error, in 

304 Letters of Roger Williatns. 

Honored Gentlemen, — I pray your patience to one 
word relating to myfelf, only. Whereas, upon an order from 
the Lords or his Highnefs' Council, for my future fecurity 
in taking (hips and landing in your ports, it pleafed your 
honored then Governor, Mr. Bellingham, to obey that or- 
der under his own hand, I now pray the confirmation of 
it, from one word of this honored Court alfembled. 1 

To the General Court of the Maf a chufetts Bay. 

Boston, 17, 3, 56, (fo called.) [17th May, 1656. ]* 

May it please this much honored Assembly, — I do 
humbly hope, that your own breafts and the public, mall 
reap the fruit of your great gentlenefs and patience in 
thefe barbarous transactions, and I do cordially promife, 
for myfelf, (and all I can perfuade with) to ftudy gratitude 
and faithfulnefs to your fervice. I have debated with Pum- 
ham (and fome of the natives helping with me) who 
(hewed him the vexatious life he lives in, your great ref- 
pect and care toward him, by which he may abundantly 
mend himfelf and be united in fome convenience unto 
their neighborhood and your fervice. But I humbly con- 
flate policy at leaft, not to fupport them, while palling through Bollon, when about 
for though they were deeply erroneous, to embark for London, notwithstanding 
and in iuch deilradtions among them- the order from Cromwell's Council for 
felves as portended their ruin, yet if the his protection; hence he now very pro- 
Indians fhould prevail againll them, it perly, requires the General Court to 
would danger the whole country." — confirm this order, before venturing 
Hi ft. of ' Nezv England, vol. ii. p. 211. again within the jurifdiclion of MafTa- 

1 It appears by a poftcript to letter of chufetts. 
November 15th, page 297, that Mr. J Hutchinson, Majpi chufetts Papers, 

Williams met with "fome diflrefles " p. 282. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 305 

ceive, in his cafe, that dies et quies fanant hominem, and he 
muft have fome longer breathing, for he tells me that the 
appearance of this competitor Nawwufhawfuck, hath 
{tabbed him. May you, therefore, pleafe to grant him 
and me fome longer time of conference, either until your 
next general affembling, or longer, at you pleafure. 1 

My other requefts, I (hall not be importune to prefs on 
your great affairs, but (hall make my addrefs unto your 
Secretary, to receive, by him, your pleafure. 
Honored gentlemen, 

Your humble and thankful fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

Tejlimony of Roger Williams relative to the deed of Rhode 
Ijland, dated Providence, 25, 6. [25M Augujl y \ 1658. 2 

I have acknowledged (and have and (hall endeavor to 
maintain) the rights and property of every inhabitant of 
Rhode Ifland in peace; yet, iince there is fo much found 
and noife of purchafe and purchafers, I judge it not unfea- 
fonable to declare the rife and bottom of the planting of 
Rhode Ifland in the fountain of it : It was not price nor 
money that could have purchafed Rhode Ifland. Rhode 
Ifland was purchafed by love ; by the love and favor which 
that honorable gentleman Sir Henry Vane and myfelf had 

1 As this letter was written but five 2 Providence Records in the hand- 
days after the previous one, doubtlefs writing of Mr. Williams. — Backus, Hijl. 
the requeit made by Mr. Williams for a of the Baptijis, vol. p. 91. 
guarrantee of protection was given him. 


306 Letters of Roger Williams. 

with that great Sachem, Miantonomo, about the league 
which I procured between the MafTachufetts Englifh, &c, 
and the Narraganfetts in the Pequod war. It is true I ad- 
vifed a gratuity to be prefented to the Sachem and the na- 
tives, and becaufe Mr. Coddington and the reft of my 
loving countrymen were to inhabit the place, and to be at 
the charge of the gratuities, I drew up a writing in Mr. 
Coddington's name, and in the names of fuch of my loving 
countrymen as came up with him, and put it into as fure a 
form as I could at that time (amongft the Indians) for the 
benefit and aiTurance of the preient and future inhabitants 
of the ifland. This I mention, that as that truly noble 
Sir Henry Vane hath been fo great an inftrument in the 
hand of God for procuring of this ifland from the barba- 
rians, as alfo for procuring and confirming of the charter, 
fo it may by all due thankful acknowledgment be remem- 
bered and recorded of us and ours which reap and enjoy 
the fweet fruits of fo great bufinefs, and fuch unheard of 
liberties amongft us. 

To my honored, kind friend, Mr. fohn Winthrop, Governor, 
at Hartford, on Connecticut. 

Providence, 6, 12, 59-60. [6th February, 1660. ] L 

Sir, — Loving refpedts to yourfelf and Mrs. Winthrop, 
Sec. Your loving lines in this cold, dead feafon, were as a 
cup of your Connecticut cider, which we are glad to hear 
abounds with you, or of that weftern metheglin, which 

' 3 Mafs. Hift. Co/., vo/1. x. p. 26 ; Knowles, p. 309. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 307 

you and I have drunk at Briftol together, &c. Indeed, it 
is the wonderful power and goodnefs of God, that we are 
preferved in our diiperfions among thefe wild, barbarous 
wretches. I hear not of their excurlions this winter, and 
fhould rejoice if, as you hint, Uncas and his brother were 
removed to Long Ifland, or any where, or elfe, as I have 
fometimes motioned, a truce for fome good term of years 
might be obtained amongft them. But how fhould we 
expect that the ftreams of blood fhould flop among the 
dregs of mankind when the bloody iflues flow fo frefh and 
fearfully among the fineft and mod refined fons of men and 
fons of God. We have not only heard of the four north- 
ern nations, Dania, Swedia, Anglia, and Belgium, all Pro- 
tectants, (heretics and dogs, with the Pope, &c.,) laft year 
tearing and devouring one another, in the narrow ftraits 
and eminent high palfages and turns of the fea and world; 
but we alfo have a found of the Prefbyterians' rage new 
burft out into flames of war from Scotland, and the in- 
dependent and feclarian army provoked again to new ap- 
peals to God, and engagements againft them. Thus, 
while this laft Pope hath plied with fails and oars, and 
brought all his popifh fons to peace, except Portugal, and 
brought in his grand engineers, the Jefuits, again to Ven- 
ice, after their long juft banifhment, we Proteftants are 
woefully difpofed to row backward, and bring our fails 
aback-ftays, and provoke the holy, jealous Lord, who is a 
confuming fire, to kindle again thofe fires from Rome and 
hell, which formerly confumed (in Proteftant countries) 
fo many precious fervants of God. The late renowned 
Oliver, con fe fled to me, in clofe difcourfe about the Pro- 
teftants' affairs, &c, that he yet feared great perfecutions 
to the Proteftants from the Romanifts, before the downfall 

308 Letters of Roger Williams. 

of the Papacy. The hiftories of our fathers before us, tell 
us what huge bowls of the blood of the faints that great 
whore hath been drunk with, in (now) Proteftant domin- 
ions. Sure her judgment will ring through the world, and 
it is hoped it is not far from the door. Sir, you were, not 
long fince, the fon of two noble fathers, Mr. John Win- 
throp and Mr. H. Peters. It is laid they are both extin- 
guifhed. Surely, I did ever, from my foul, honor and love 
them even when their judgments led them to afflict me. 
Yet the Father of Spirits fpares us breath, and I rejoice, Sir, 
that your name (amongft the New England magiftrates 
printed, to the Parliament and army, by H. Nort. Rous, 
&c.,) is not blurred, but rather honored, foi your prudent 
and moderate hand in the late Quakers' trials amongft us. 
And it is faid, that in the late Parliament, yourfelf were 
one of the three in nomination for General Governor over 
New England, which however that delign ripened not, yet 
your name keeps up a high efteem, &c. I have feen your 
hand to a letter to this colony, as to your late purchafe of 
fome land at Narraganfett. The fight of your hand hath 
quieted fome jealoufies amongft us, that the Bay, by this 
purchafe, defigned fome prejudice to the liberty of con- 
fcience amongft us. We are in confultations how to an- 
fwer that letter, and my endeavor fhall be, with God's help, 
to welcome, with both our hands and arms, your intereft 
in thefe parts, though we have no hope to enjoy your per- 
fonal refidence amongft us. I rejoice to hear that you 
gain, by new plantations, upon this wildernefs. I fear that 
many precious fouls will be glad to hide their heads, fhort- 
ly, in thefe parts. Your candle and mine draws towards 
its end. The Lord gracioully help us to mine in light and 
love univerfally, to all that fear his name, without that mo- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 309 

nopoly of the affection to fuch of our own perfuafion only ; 
for the common enemy, the Romim wolf, is very high in 
refolution, and hope, and advantage to make a prey on all, 
of all forts that defire to fear God. Divers of our neigh- 
bors thankfully re-falute you We have buried, this winter, 
Mr. Olney's ion, whom, formerly, you heard to be afflicted 
with a lethargy. He lay two or three days wholly fenfe- 
lefs, until his laft groans. My youngeft fon, Jofeph, was 
troubled with a fpice of an epilepfy. We ufed fome reme- 
dies, but it hath pleafed God, by his taking of tobacco, 
perfectly, as we hope, to cure him. Good Mr. Parker, of 
Bolton, palling from Prudence Iiland, at his coming on 
more, on Seekonk land, trod awry upon a ftone or "flick, 
and fell down, and broke the fmall bone of his leg. He 
hath lain by of it all this winter, and the laff. week was 
carried to Bolton in a horfe litter. Some fears there was 
of a gangrene. But, Sir, I ufe too much boldneis and pro- 
lixity. I mall now only fubfcribe myfelf 

Your unworthy friend, 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, my loving refpe&s to Mr. Stone, Mr. Lord, Mr. Al- 
len, Mr. Webfter, and other loving friends. 

310 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To my honored, kind friend, Mr. Winthrop, Governor of Con- 
necticut , tbefe prefents. 

Providence, 8, 7, 1660. [September 8th, 1660. ] l 

Sir, — A fudden warning gives me but time of this ab- 
rupt falutation to your kind felf and Mrs. Winthrop, wish- 
ing you peace. I promifed to a neighbor, a former 
fervant of your father's, (Jofhua Windfor,) to write a line, 
on his behalf, and at his defire, unto you. His prayer to 
you is, that when you travel toward Bofton, you would 
pleafe to come by Providence, and fpare one hour to heal 
an old fore, — a controverfy between him and moft of his 
neighbors, in which, I am apt to think, he hath fuffered 
fome wrong. He hath promifed to fubmit to your fen- 
tence. His oppofite, one James Amton, being defired by 
me to nominate alfo, he refolves alfo to fubmit to your fen- 
tence, which will concern more will and ftomach than 
damage; for the matter only concerns a few poles of 
ground, wherein Jofhua have cried out of wrong thefe 
many years I hope, Sir, the bleffed Lord will make you 
a bleffed inftrument of chiding the winds and feas ; and I 
(hall rejoice in your prefence amongft us. There are 
greater ulcers in my thoughts at prefent, which, I fear, are 
incurable, and that it hath pleafed the Moft Wife and Moft 
High to pafs an irrevocable fentence of amputations and 
cauterizations upon the poor Proteftant party. The clouds 
gather mighty fa ft and thick upon our heads from all the 
Popifh quarters. It hath pleafed the Lord to glad the Ro- 
milh conclave with the departure of thofe two mighty 

1 Knowles, Memoirs of Roger Williams, p. 312 ; 3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll. vol. x. p. 39. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 3 1 1 

bulwarks of the Proteftants, Oliver and Guftavus ; ! to unite, 
(I think by this time) all the Catholic kings and princes, 
for Portugal was like, very like, of late, to return to the 
yoke of Spain, whofe treafure from the Indies it hath 
pleafed God to fend home, fo wonderfully great and rich 
this year, that I cannot but fear the Lord hath fome 
mighty work to effect with it. We know the Catholic 
King was in debt, but he now overflows with millions, 
which God is moft like to expend againft the Proteftants 
or the Turks, the two great enemies, (the fword-fiiri and 
the thramer) againft the Popifh leviathan. The Prefby- 
terian party in England and Scotland is yet very likely to 
make fome ftruggle againft the Popifh invafions ; and yet 
in the end I fear (as long I have feared, and long fince told 
Oliver, to which he much inclined,) the bloody whore is 
not yet drunk enough with the blood of the faints and 
witneffes of Jefus. One cordial is, (amongft fo many the 
merciful Lord hath provided) that that whore will fhortly 
appear fo extremely loathfome, in her drunkennefs, beftiali- 
ties, &c, that her bewitched paramours will tear her flefh, 
and burn her with fire unquenchable. Here is a found 
that Fairfax, 2 and about two hundred of the Houfe with 
him, differ with the King. The merciful Lord fit us to 
hear and feel more. It is a verv thick and dreadful mift 

'Oliver Cromwell, who died in 1658; the latter. He fometimes differed from 
and Guftavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, Cromwell and Parliament, yet adhered 
the great champion of proteftanifm, who to their party and thus continued in em- 
died many years before. ployment, though more than fufpefted of 

2 Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was a dif- difaffeftion, till being ordered to march 

tinguifhed commander and leading cha- againft the revolted Scotch Prefbyterians, 

rafter in the civil wars of England, he pofitively declined the command and 

When the difputes between Charles I. retired awhile from public life. — Biogra- 

and the Parliament terminated in open pbia Britannica. 
rupture, Fairfax efpoufed the caufe of 

3 1 2 Letters of Roger Williams. 

and fwamp, with which the Lord hath a great while fuf- 
fered us to labor in, as hoping to wade out, break through, 
and efcape fhipwreck. In Richard Protector's Parliament, 
they fell into three factions prefently : royalifts, proteclo- 
rians, (which were raoft Prefbyterian, and earned it,) and 
commonwealth's men. The Prefbyterians, when General 
Monk 1 brought in the fecluded members, carried it again, 
of late, clearly, and fo vigoroufly againft the Papifts, that 
ftricter laws than ever. There muft furely, then, be great 
flames, before the King can accomplish his engagements 
to the Popifh party. 

You know well, Sir, at fea, the firft entertainment of a 
florin is with, down with top-fails. The Lord mercifully 
help us to lower, and make us truly more and more low, 
humble, contented, thankful for the leaft crumbs of mercy. 
But the ftorm increafeth, and trying with our mainfails and 
mizzens will not do. We muft, therefore, humbly beg 
patience from the Father of Lights and God of all mer- 
cies, to lay at Hull, in hope. It was a motto in one of the 
late Parliaments : cornets under a mower of blood 'Tranf- 

Sir, my neighbor, Mrs. Scott, 2 is come from England ; 
and, what the whip at Bofton could not do, converfe with 
friends in England, and their arguments, have, in a great 

1 Gen. George Monk, Duke of Alhe- wife of Richard Scott, one of the ear- 
mark, was diftinguifhed for the part he lieft fettlers of the colony who received 
took in the reftoration of Charles II. a lot in Providence in 1636. Richard 
During the Commonweath he had been Scott, who afterwards turned to the 
an adherent of Cromwell, whofe au- Quakers, fays, " I walked with [Wil- 
thority he maintained in Scotland, where liams] in the Baptilts way about three 
he was intimately connected with the or four months, in which time he broke 
Prefbyterians. — Gorton, Biographical up the Society, and declared at large the 
Diclionary. reafons for it." — Backus, Hijl. of the 

1 Mrs. Scott. This was doubtlefs the Baptijis, vol. i. p. 108. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

3 T 3 

meafure drawn her from the Quakers, and wholly from 
their meetings. Try the fpirits. There are many abroad, 
and muft be, but the Lord will be glorious, in plucking up 
whatever his holy hand hath not planted. My brother runs 
ftrongly to Origen's notion of univerfal mercy at laft, 
againft. an eternal fentence. 1 Our times will call upon us 
for thorough difcuflions. The fire is like to try us. It is 
a wonderful mercy the barbarians are yet fo quiet. A por- 
tion of our neighbors are juft now come home, re infeBa. 
The Mohegans would not fally, and the Narraganfetts 
would not fpoil the corn, for fear of offending the Eng- 
lish. The Lord mercifully guide the councils of the com- 
miffioners. Mr. Arnold, Mr. Brenton, and others, ftrug- 
gle againft your intereft at Narraganfett ; 2 but I hope your 
prefence might do much good amongft us in a few days. 
Sir, I am, unworthy, yours, 

Roger Williams. 

1 Origen, of Alexandria, one of the 
moft eminent of the Chriftian Fathers 
who lived in the fecond and third cen- 
turies. He was deprived of his prieftly 
office, and excommunicated, the princi- 
pal charge againft him being his denial of 
eternal punifhment. Origen is called 
the father of Biblical criticifm, and was 
a voluminous writer. 

2 Major Humphrey Atherton with 
others of Maflachufetts, and John Win- 
throp, of Conne&icut, had purchafed 
lands in Narraganfett. At the May fef- 
fion of the General Aflembly, 1660, it 
was voted " that William Brenton, Bene- 
dict Arnold, and others, are chofen a com- 
mittee to ripen the matter concerning 
the purchafe made by the gentlemen of 
the Bay in Narraganfett, and draw up 
their refult thereon." 

In October following, it was ordered 

"that a committee be chofen to treat 
with thofe gentlemen that have made 
purchafes of lands in Narraganfett, with 
power to treat and fully agree with them 
in the prefent difference about their 
coming into our colony. . . . And that 
the commiffioners take care to write unto 
the gentlemen, viz. : Major Atherton 
and his affbciates to defire them to ap- 
point Commiffioners to treat with the 
aforelaid Commiffioners upon all the dif- 
ferences depending about their coming 
into, or poffeffing lands from the Indians 
within this colony's bounds." — R. I. Col. 
Records, vol. i., pages 429 and 435. 

The lands purchafed as above, known 
as the "Neck purchafe" and " Bofton 
Neck," in the Narraganfett country, are 
fully defcribed in Potter's Narragan- 
fett, p. 269. 

314 Letters of Roger Williams. 

For bis much honored kind friend Mr. "John Wititbrop, at his 
boufe, in Nameag, thefe. 

27, 8, 60. (fo called.) [27th O&ober, 1660. ]» 

Loving Friends and Neighbors, — Divers of your- 
felves have fo cried out, of the contentions of your late 
meetings, that ^ftudying my quietnefs) I thought fit to 
prefent you with thefe few lines. Two words I pray you 
to confider. Firit, as to this plantation of Providence : 
then as to fome new plantation, if it fhall pleafe the fame 
God of mercies who provided this, to provide another in 
mercy for us. 1. As to this town, although I have been 
called out, of late, to declare my understanding as to the 
bounds of Providence and Pawtuxet ; and, although di- 
vers have lands and meadows in porTeffion beyond thefe 
bounds, yet I hope that none of you think me fo fenfelefs 
as to put on any barbarian to moleft an Englishman, or to 
demand a farthing of any of you. 

2. If any do (as formerly fome have done, and divers 
have given gratuities, as Mr. Field, about Notaquoncanot 
and others,) I promife, that as I have been afhftant to fatisfy 
and pacify the natives round about us, fo I hope I thall 
ftill while I live be helpful to any of you that may have 
occafion to ufe me. 

Now, as to fome new plantation, I defire to propofe that 
which may quench contention, may accommodate fuch who 
want, and may alfo return moneys unto fuch as have of 
late difburfed. 

To this purpofe, I deiire that we be patient, and torment 
not ourfelves and the natives, (Sachems and people,) put- 

*R. I. Colonial Records, vol. i. p. 39 ; K;:owles, Memoirs Roger Williams, p. 404. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 315 

ting them upon mifchievous remedies, with the great noife 
of twenty miles new or old purchafe. 

Let us confider, if Nifwofakit and Wayunckeke, and the 
land thereabout, may not afford a new and comfortable 
plantation, which we may go through with an effectual 
endeavor for true public good. To this end, I pray you 
confider, that the inhabitants of thefe parts, with moll of 
the Cowefet and Nipmucks, have long fince forfaken the 
Narraganfett Sachems and fubjecled themfelves to the 
MalTachufetts. And yet they are free to fell their lands to 
any whom the MalTachufetts mall not proteft againft. To 
this end (obferving their often flights, and to ftop their 
running to the MalTachufetts) I have parlied with them, 
and find that about thirty pounds will caufe them to leave 
thofe parts, and yield peaceable poffeffion. I fuppofe, then, 
that the town may do well to give leave to about twenty of 
your inhabitants (of which I offer to be one, and know 
others willing) to lay down thirty millings a man toward 
the purchafe. Let every one of this number have liberty 
to remove himfelf, or to place a child or friend there. Let 
every perfon who mall afterward be received into the pur- 
chafe lay down thirty (hillings, as hath been done in Provi- 
dence, which may be paid (by fome order agreed on) to 
fuch as lately have difburfed moneys unto the effecting of 
this. I offer, gratis, my time and pains, in hope that fuch 
as want may have a comfortable fupply amongfl us, and 
others made room for, who may be glad of fhelter alfo. 

Yours to ferve you, 

Roger Williams. 

3 1 6 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Tejlimony of Roger Williams relative to the pur chafe of lands 
at Seekonk and Providence. 

Providence, 13, 10, 1661. [13th December.]' 

1. I teftify and declare, in the holy prefence of God, 
that when at my firfr. coming into theie parts, I obtained 
the lands of Seekonk of Oufamaquin, the then chief Sach- 
em on that fide, the Governor of Plymouth (Mr. Winflow) 
wrote to me, in the name of their government, their claim 
of Seekonk to be in their juriididtion, as alio their advice 
to remove but over the river unto this fide, (where now, by 
God's merciful providence, we are,) and then I fhould be 
out of their claim, and be as free themfelves, and loving 
neighbors together. 2 

2. After I had obtained this place, now called Provi- 
dence, of Canonicus and Miantinomo, the chief Narra- 
ganfett Sachems deceafed, Oufamaquin, the Sachem afore- 
faid, alfo deceased, laid his claim to this place alfo. This 
forced me to repair to the Narraganfett Sachems aforefaid, 
who declared that Oufamaquin was their fubjecl:, and had 
folemnly himfelf, in perfon, with ten men, fubjec~ted him- 
felf and his lands unto them at the Narraganfett: only 
now he feemed to revolt from his loyalties under the fhel- 
ter of the Englim at Plymouth.3 

1 Backus, Hiji. of the Baptifls, vol. i. people, the fpring after their firfl com- 

p. 73. Backus fays " copied from the ing, and of the Narraganfett's threaten- 

original in his own handwriting." ings on that account. — Prince's Cbro- 

1 This fhows a great difference between nology, pp. 102-116. 
the temper of Plymouth and Maffachu- This flatement, it will be perceived, 

fetts rulers, and of which we fhall Tee was made twenty-five years after Wil« 

more. — Backus, vol. i. p. 73. liams croffed the Seekonk river, and ef- 

3This perfectly agrees with the ac- tablifhed himfelf and his affociates at 

count we have of Maffafoit or Oufama- Providence, 
quin's league made with the Plymouth 

Letters of Roger Williams. 317 

3. This I declared from the Narraganfett Sachems to 
Oufamaquin, who, without any ftick, acknowledged it to 
be true that he had fo fubje&ed as the Narraganfett Sach- 
ems affirmed ; but withal, he affirmed that he was not fub- 
dued by war, which himfelf and his father had maintained 
againft the Narraganfetts, but God, he laid, fubdued me by 
a plague, which fwept away my people, and forced me to 

4. This conviction and confeiTion of his, together with 
gratuities to himfelf and brethren and followers, made him 
often profefs, that he was pleafed that I mould here be his 
neighbor, and that rather becaufe he and I had been great 
friends at Plymouth, and alfo becaufe that his and my 
friends at Plymouth advifed him to be at peace and friend- 
ship with me, and he hoped that our children after us 
would be good friends together. 

5. And whereas, there hath been often fpeech of Provi- 
dence falling within Plymouth jurildiction, by virtue of 
Oufamaquin's claims, I add unto the testimony abovefaid, 
that the Governor, Mr. Bradford, and other of their mag- 
istrates, defcribed unto me, both by conference and writing, 
that they and their government were fatisfied, and refolved 
never to moleft Providence, nor to claim beyond Seekonk, 
but to continue loving friends and neighbors (amongft the 
barbarians) together. 

This is the true fum and fubftance of many paiTages be- 
tween our countrymen of Plymouth and Oufamaquin 
and me. 

Roger Williams. 

3 1 8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

To the Town of Providence. 

[No date.]' 

Loving Friends and Neighbors, — I have again con- 
fidered on thefe papers, and find many confiderable things 
in both of them. My defire is, that after a friendly de- 
bate of particulars, every man may lit down and reft in 
quiet with the final fentence and determination of the 
town, for all experience tells us that public peace and love 
is better than abundance of corn and cattle, &c. I have 
one only motion and petition, which I earnestly pray the 
town to lay to heart, as ever they look for a bleffing from 
God on the town, on your families, your corn and cattle, 
and your children after you ; it is this, that after you have 
got over the black brook of fome foul bondage yourfelves, 
you tear not down the bridge after you, by leaving no 
'fmall pittance for diftrerTed fouls that may come after you. 
What though your divifion or allotment be never fo fmall, 
yet ourfelves know that fome men's diftreifes are fuch, that 
a piece of a dry cruft and a dilh of cold water, is fweet, 
which, if this town will give fincerely unto God, (fetting 
afide fome little portions for other diftrefled fouls to get 
bread on) you know who hath engaged His heavenly word 
for your reward and recompenfe. 

Yours, Roger Williams. 

1 Knowles' Mem. of Roger Williams, themfelves certain common lands, out of 

p_ 402. which Roger Williams wanted fome to 

This letter was copied for Mr. Back- remain Hill common, for the town after- 

us, by the late Judge Howell, of Provi- wards to give occafionally to fuch as fled 

dence, and was accompanied by the fol- to them, or were banifhed for confcience 

lowing note in his handwriting: " This fake, as he at firft gave it all to them." — 

remonftrance was fent in to the town, Knowles, p. 402. 
upon their concluding to divide among 

Letters of Roger Williams. 319 

"To my honored kind friend Mr. Winthrop, Governor, at 

Hartford, prefent. 

Providence, 28, 3, 64. (Co called.) [May 28, 1664.J 1 

Sir, — Meeting (this inftant before fun-rife, as I went to 
my field, &c.,) an Indian running back for a glafs, bound 
for your parts, I thought (lince nihil fne Providentia) that 
an Higher Spirit then his own, might purpofely (like 
Jonathan's bov) fend him back for this hafty falutation to 
your kind felf and your dear companion. 

Sir, I waited for a gale to return you many cordial thanks 
for your many cordial expreffions of ancient kindnefs to 
my felf, and the public peace and wellfare : I have lince 
been occasioned and drawn (being nominated in the Char- 
ter to appear again upon the deck,) from my beloved pri- 
vacy ; my humble defires are to contribute my poor mite 
(as I have ever, and I hope ever fhall) to preferve planta- 
tion and public intereft of the whole New England and 
not intereft of this or that town, colony, opinion, &c. 

Sir, when we that have been the eldeft, and are rotting, 
(to-morrow or next day) a generation will ac~t, I fear, far 
unlike the firft Winthrops and their Models of Love : 2 I 
fear that the common Trinity of the world, (Profit, Pre- 
ferment, Pleafure) will here be the Tria omnia, as in all the 
world befide : that Prelacy and Papacy too will in this 
wildernefs predominate that God Land will be (as now it 
is) as great a God with us Englifh as God Gold was with 
the Spaniards, &c. While we are here, noble Sir, let us 
Viriliter hoc agere, rem agere humanam, divinam, Chrijlianam, 
which I believe is all of a mod public genius. 

*4 Ma/s. Hijl. Coll. vol. vi. p. 295. a fermon written on board the "Arbel- 

*This may be a reference to Gov. la." See 3 Mafs. Hijl. Coll., vol. vii., 
Winthrop's Model of Chrillian Charity, p. 33. Eds. Winthrop Papers. 

320 Letters of Roger Willia??is. 

Sir, thofe words in our Charter concerning the Narra- 
ganfett (notwithstanding a late grant to the colony of Con- 
necticut,) &c, are fo taking with my neighbors, that Refo- 
lutions were up (this laft Court) of fetching uld Mr. 
Smith prefently, becaufe of his new engagement to Con- 
necticut : it pleafed God to help me to ftop that council, and 
to prevail that only a boat was fent, with a loving letter to 
invite him, and he came not, but faid well, viz. : that when 
the Colonies were agreed, he would fubmit. Sir, three 
days hence Major Denifon and Mr. Damport meet from 
the Bay with Mr. Greene of Warwick, and Mr Torrey of 
Newport, 1 at Seekonk, to compofe the ftrife between us ; 
I hope your honored felf and Major Mafon, and fome of 
the grave Elders, &c. will help on fuch work between 
yourfelves and us, alfo unto which I hope the Father of 
mercies will help me to be your and the country's fervant 
in all reipect, and faithfulnefs. 

Roger Williams. 


On the outfide in Williams' handwriting. 

Juft now I rind this bearer to be Miantonomo's fon. 

Indorfed by Gov. Winthrop, of Connecticut, "Mr. Rog : Williams rec : Satur- 
day Jun : 25, 1664." 

'Maflachuietts having appointed two bound over in the fum of four hundred 
agents to treat with Rhode Ifland in re- pounds each ; and John Hicks and John 
gard to Block Ifland and the Pequot Wood, of Newport, for two hundred 
country, John Greene and Jofeph Tor- pounds each, to appear when called for, 
rev were commiffioned to meet them at upon the charge of feeking to bring in a 
Rehoboth, on the lail day of the month, foreign jurifdi&ion within the limits of 
Roger Williams was one of the commit- the colony. Thefe bonds were after- 
tee to prepare the inrtruftions for the wards releafed. A warrant for the fame 
commiffioners. Richard Smith, jr., and offence was iflued againfl John Greene, 
Thomas Gould, of Narraganfett, were fen'r., who appeared and confeffed his 

Letters of Roger Williams. 321 

To the Right Honorable Sir Robert Carr, one of His Majejlys 
Honorable Commifioners for New Engla?id, prefent. 

Providence, i March, 1665. ' 

Sir, — My humble and hearty refpedts prefented, with 
humble and hearty defires of your prefent and eternal 

Having heaad of a late confederacy among great num- 
bers of thefe barbarians to affift Pumham, &c, I thought 
it my duty to wait upon your Honor with thefe humble 
falutations, and appreciations of the fafety of your perfon, 
not to be ealily hazarded amongft fuch a barbarous fcum 
and offscouring of mankind. Befides, Sir, this is an old 
ulcerous bufinefs, wherein I have been many years engaged, 
and have (in the behalf of my loving friends at Warwick) 
pleaded this caufe with the whole General Court of the 
Maffachufetts magiftrates and deputies, and prevailed with 
them to yield, that if I and Pumham would agree, they 
would ratify an agreement. But Pumham would not part 
with that Neck 2 on any terms. I crave leave to add (for 
the excufe of this boldnefs,) that the natives in this Bay 
do (by promife to them at my fir ft breaking of the ice in 
amongft them) expecl my endeavors of preferving the pub- 
lic peace, which it hath pleafed God, mercifully to help 

fault. Upon petition he was pardoned, occafion and the action of the General 

and received again under protection as a Affembly of Rhode Ifland on the fub- 

freeman of the colony. Richard Smith, jefl, fee the R. I. Co/. Records, vol. ii., 

fen'r., was written to, to appear before pp. 44-49. 

the court on a fimilar charge. He made l J. Carter Brown's Manufcripts,vo\. 

no reply to the letter, but enclofed it to 1, No. 72. 

Capt. Hutchinfon.defiring him to inform z Warwick Neck. Gorton and others 

Connecticut of the affair, which he did. of the early fettlers called it " The 

Arnold, HiJI. of Rhode IJland, vol. i., Neck." 

p. 307. For the letters written on the 

4 1 

3 22 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

me to do many times (with my great hazard and charge), 
when all the colonies and the MalTachufetts, in efpecial, 
have meditated, prepared and been (fometimes many hun- 
dreds) among the march for war againft the natives in this 
colony. Of this my promife and duty, and conftant prac- 
tice, mine own heart and confcience before God; as alfo 
fome natives put me in mind at prefent. 

i. Firft then (although I know another claim laid to 
this land yet,) Pumham being the ancient poiTefTor of this 
Lordihip, I humbly query whether it will be jufh to difpof- 
fefs him (not only without confent, which fear may extort, 
but without fome fatisfying consideration.) I had a com- 
miffion from my friends at Warwick, to promise a good 
round value, and I know fome of them have defired the 
natives, I thought it coft them fome hundred pounds. 1 

2. Your Honor will never effecT: by force a fate and laft- 
ing conclulion until you have firft reduced the Malfachu- 
fetts to the obedience of his Majefty, and then thefe ap- 
pendants (towed at their ftern) will eafily (and not before) 
wind about alfo. 

'The Commiffioners of the United 
Colonies vifited Pettaquamfcut and War- 
wick for the purpofe of fettling the long 
exiiting controverfies between the inhabi- 
tants and the Indians. Pumham, the 
fubjett of Maflachufetts, who Mill re- 
fufed to leave Warwick Neck, although 
the land had been fairly purchafed of 
his fuperior Sachem many years before, 
was ordered by the Commiffioners to 
remove within a year to fome place to 
be provided for him either in Maflachu- 
fetts or by Pefficus. Warwick was to 
pay him £'20. but when he had received 
it, he refufed to fulfil his contradl or to 

obev of the order of the Commiffioners, 
relying ftill upon the protection of Maf- 

John Eliot, the Apoflle of the Indians, 
wrote to Sir Robert Carr in behalf of 
Pumham, who, he fays, had " fuffered 
much hard and ill dealings from fome 
Englilli," and begs him to " deal honor- 
ably by them." The correipondence, 
with other papers on this fubjeft, are 
contained in the Rhode Ifland manu- 
fcripts, copied from the originals in the 
Britifh State Paper Office, in the collec- 
tion of John Carter Brown, Efq., vol. i., 
Nos. 64 to 73. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 323 

3. The bufinefs as circumftantiated will not be effected 
without bloodfhed ; barbarians are barbarians. There be 
old grudges betwixt our countrymen of Warwick and 
them. They are a melancholy people, and judge them- 
felves (by the former Sachem and thefe Englifh) opprefled 
and wronged ; you may knock out their brains, and yet 
not make them peaceably to furrender, even as fome 
oxen will die before they will rile ; yet with patience, 
and gentle means will rife and draw, and do good fer- 

4. Thefe barbarians know that it is but one party in 
Warwick, which claim this Neck ; the greateft part of the 
town cry out againft the other to my knowledge, and that 
of the natives alfo. 

5. The natives know that this party in Warwick are not 
only deftitute of help, from their own townfmen, but of 
the other towns of this colony alfo. 

6. They know that it would pleafe the Maffachufetts, 
and moft of the other colonies, that Mr. Gorton and his 
friends had been long ere this destroyed. 

7. They know that Ninigret and Pefficus are barbarians, 
and if it come to blood, and that at the fir ft, the worft be 
to the Englifh (in any appearances,) they will join to 
further the prey. However, if King Philip keep his 
promife, they will be too great a party againft the two 

8. Laftly, Sir, we profefs Chriftianity, which commends 
a little with peace ; a dinner of green herbs with quietnefs ; 
and if it be poffible, commands peace with all men. I 
therefore humbly offer, if it be not advifable (in this 
juncture of time) to lay all the blame on me, and on my 
interceffion and mediation, for a little further breathing to 

324 Letters of Roger Williams. 

the barbarians until harveft, in which time a peaceable 
and loving agreement may be wrought, to mutual confent 
and fatisfaction." 

Sir, I humbly crave your Honor's gracious pardon to 
this great boldnefs. 

Your moft obedient and bounden fervants, 

Roger Williams. 

To my much refpecled the Inhabitants of the Town of 


Providence, 10th February, 1667-8.]' 

Loving Friends and Neighbors, — Unto this day, it 
pleafed the town to adjourn for the anfwering of the bill 
for the bridge and others. I have conferred with Shad- 
rach Manton and Nathaniel Waterman, about their pro- 
pofal, and their result is, that they cannot obtain fuch a 
number as will join with them, to undertake the bridge 
upon the hopes of meadow. I am, therefore, bold, after 
fo many anchors come home, and fo much trouble and 
long debates and deliberations, to offer, that if you pleafe, 
I will, with God's help, take this bridge unto my care, by 
that moderate toll of ftrangers of all forts, which hath 
been mentioned ; will maintain it fo long that it pleafeth 
God that I live in this town. 2 

'Knowles, Memoirs of Roger Wil- houfe, which order was not accomplifhed. 

Hams, p. 330. To this contemplated bridge, the letter 

2 The Town of Providence, in June, doubtlefs refers. The late John How- 

1662, had ordered a bridge to be built on land was of opinion that this bridge was 

MofhafTuck river, by Thomas Olney's intended to be built fomewhere between 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

3 2 5 

2. The town (hall be free from all toll, only I defire 
one day's work of one man in a year from every family, 
but from thofe that have teams, and have much ufe of the 
bridge, one day's work or a man and team, and of thofe 
that have lefs ufe, half a day. 

3. I lhall join with any of the town, more or few, who 
will venture their labor with me for the gaining of meadow. 

4 I promife, if it pleafe God, that I gain meadow in 
equal value to the town's yearly help, I fhall then releafe 

5. I defire if it pleafe God to be with me, to go through 
fuch a charge and trouble as will be to bring this to a fet- 
tled way, and then fuddenly to take me from hence, I de- 
lire that before another, my wife and children, if they 
defire it, may engage in my ftead to thefe conditions. 

6. If the town pleafe to confent, I defire that one of 
yourfelves be nominated, to join with the clerk to draw up 

the writing. 

Roger Williams. 

the prefent Great Bridge and Smith's 
Bridge, for the purpole of getting accefs 
to the natural meadows at the head of the 
Cove. Mr. Howland, in a note to Mr. 
Knowles, fays, " I have frequently been 
told by Nathan Waterman, that teams 
and men on horfeback ufed to crofs the 
river (before his day) acrofs the clam- 

bed, opnofite Angell's land, at low tide, 
and land on the weftern fhore." The 
Thomas Olney lot was where the old 
Providence Hotel in North Main Street 
lately ilood, and extended down to the 
Cove. In front of this was a fhoal place, 
called the clam-bed. — Knowles, Mem. 
of Roger Williams, note p. 331. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

To the General Court of the MaJJhchufetts Bay. 

Providence, 7th of May, 1668. 1 

I humbly offer to confederation my long and conftant 
experience, lince it pleaied God to bring me unto thefe 
parts, as to the Narraganfett and Nipmuck people. 

Firft, that all the Nipmucks were, unqueftionably, fub- 
ject to the Narraganfett Sachems, and, in a fpecial man- 
ner to Mexham, the ion of Canonicus, and late hufband 
to this old fquavv Sachem, now only furviving. I have 
abundant and daily proof of it, as plain and clear as that 
the inhabitants of Newbury or Ipfwich, &c, are fubjecl: 
to the government of the Maifachufetts colony. 2 

2. I was called by his Majefty's Commiffioners to teftify 
in a like cafe between Philip and the Plymouth Indians, 
on the one party, and the Narraganfetts on the other, and 
it pleafed the committee to declare, that the King had not 
given them any commiffion to alter the Indians' laws and 
cuftoms, which they obferved amongft themfelves : mod: 
of which, although they are, like themfelves barbarous, 
yet in the cafe of their mournings, they are more humane, 
and it feems to be more inhumane in thofe that profelfed 

1 Potter's Hiji. of Narraganfett, p. 
I 59 ; Knowles, Memoirs of Roger Wil- 
liams, p; 331. 

This letter is without any addrefs, but 
in the opinion of Mr. Knowles, was 
doubtlefs written to the government of 

2 " Maflachufetts, although her claims 
had been fuperfeded by thofe of Con- 
necticut, and her right to interfere, even 
with the Indians had been denied by the 
royal commiffioners, embraced an op- 
portunity prel'ented by the Nipmucks, 

who acknowledged her fupremacy, to im- 
pofe terms on the Narraganfetts. The 
Nipmucks petitioned for redrefs for 
fpoliations committed by the Narragan- 
fetts. The General Court took up the 
matter, as of right, and fettled the dif- 
ficulty. It was a meafure of peace and 
therefore commendable, but it does not 
admit of rigid fcrutiny into the claim of 
jurifdiftion over the Nipmuck country 
upon which the interview was bafed." — 
Arnold, Hiji. of Rhode lfand, vol i., 
P- 333- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 327 

fubjeclion to this the very la ft year, underfome kind of 
feigned protection of the Englifh, to be finging and danc- 
ing, drinking, &c, while the reft were lamenting their 
Sachems' deaths. 1 

I abhor moft of their cuftoms ; I know they are bar- 
barous. I refpect not one party more than the other, but 
I delire to witnefs truth ; and as I defire to witnefs againft 
oppreffion, fo, alfo, againft the flighting of civil, yea, of 
barbarous order and government, as refpecling every fha- 
dow of God's gracious appointments. 

This I humbly offer as in the holy prefence of God. 

Roger Williams. 

For John Whipple, jun. s tbefe. 

Providence, 8th July, 1669. (fo called.) 1 

Neighbor Whipple, — I kindly thank you, that you fo 
far have regarded my lines as to return me your thoughts, 
whether fweet or four I defire not to mind. I humbly 
hope, that as you mall never find me felf-conceited nor 
felf-feeking, fo, as to others, not pragmatical and a bufy- 
body as you infinuate. My ftudy is to be fwift to hear, 
and flow to fpeak, and I could tell you of five or fix 
grounds (it may be more) why I give this my tefti- 
mony againft this unrighteous and monftrous proceed- 
ing of Chriftian brethren helping to haul one another 
before the world, whofe fong was lately and loudly fung 
in my ears, v'z. : the world would be quiet enough, were 

1 Rhode IJland Literary Repojitcry, vol. i., pp. 638-640 ; Knowles, Memoirs of 
Roger Williams, p. 332. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

it not for thofe holy brethren, their divifions and content- 
ions. The laft night, Shadrach Manton told me that I 
had fpoken bad words of Gregory Dexter, 1 (though Shad- 
rach deals more ingenuoufly than yourfelf faying the fame 
thing, for he tells me wherein,) viz. : that I faid he makes 
a fool of his confcience. I told him I faid fo, and I think 
to our neighbor Dexter himfelf; for I believe he might 
as well be moderator or general deputy or general afliftant, 
as go io far as he goes, in many particulars ; but what if I 
or my confcience be a fool, yet it is commendable and ad- 
mirable in him, that being a man of education, and of a 
noble calling, and verfed in militaries, that his confcience 
forced him to be fuch a child in his own houfe, when W. 
Har. (trained for the rate (which I approve of) with fuch 
imperious infulting over his confcience, which all con- 
fcientious men will abhor to hear of. However, I com- 
mend that man, whether Jew, or Turk, or Papift, or who- 
' ever, that fleers no otherwife than his confcience dares, till 
his confcience tells him that God gives him a greater lati- 
tude. For, neighbor, you mall find it rare to meet with 
men of confcience, men that for fear and love of God dare 

1 Gregory Dexter was one of the ear- 
lieft fettlers of Providence. He received 
one of the home lots in 1637, and figned 
the firit compact in 1 640. Was fubfe- 
quently one of the committee from 
Providence to form a government. For 
many years he was a commiflioner for that 
town, and a deputy in the Affembly. 
The reference, to Mr. Dexter's refuial 
to pay his taxes, from confcientious fcru- 
ples fhows that Mr. Williams accurately 
difcriminated between the rights of con- 
fcience, and aperverlion of thofe rights. 
It is worthv of notice, too, that Mr. 

Williams condemned the conduct of Mr. 
Dexter, though an intimate friend ; and 
approved, in part, at leait, that of Mr. 
Harris, though a bitter holtility exifted 
between them. 

Mr. Dexter had been a printer and 
flationer in London, and was the pub- 
lisher of (Vidians' 1 Key into the \_Indian~\ 
Language of America. London: 1643. 
As he was in Providence feveral years 
before, his printing bufinefs may have 
been carried on after he left. Savage, 
fays he died in 1700, at the age of nine- 
ty. — Genealogical Dttl. vol. ii. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 329 

not lie, nor be drunk, nor be contentious, nor fteal, nor be 
covetous, nor voluptuous, nor ambitious, nor lazy-bodies, 
nor bufy-bodies, nor dare difpleafe God by omitting either 
fervice or fuffering, though of reproach, imprifonment, 
banimment and death, becauie of the fear and love of God. 

If W. Wickenden 1 received a beaft of W. Field, for 
ground of the fame hold, I knew it not, and fo fpake the 
truth, as I underftood it. 2. Though I have not fpoke 
with him, yet I hear it was not of that hold or tenure, for 
we have had four forts of bounds at leaft. 

Firft, the grant of as large accommodations as any Eng- 
lish in New England had. This the Sachems always 
promifed me, and they had caufe, for I was as a right hand 
unto them, to my great coft and travail. Hence I was 
fure of the Tocekeunquinit meadows, and what could with 
any mow of reafon have been deiired ; but fome, (that never 
did this town or colony good, and, it is feared, never will,) 
cried out, when Roger Williams had laid himfelf down as 
a ftone in the duft, for after comers to ftep on in town and 
colony, "What is Roger Williams ? We know the Indians 
and the Sachems as well as he. We will truft Roger Wil- 
liams no longer. We will have our bounds confirmed us 
under the Sachems' hands before us." 

2. Hence arofe, to my foul cutting and grief, the fecond 
fort of bounds, viz.: the bounds fet under the hands of 
thofe great Sachems Canonicus and Miantonomo, and were 
fet io ihort (as to Mafhapaug and Pawtucket, and at that 

1 William Wickenden, removed to the Baptift Church. — He died February, 

Providence from Salem, previous to Au- 23, 1670. — Staples' note to Gortod's 

guft 20, 1637, and was a colleague with Si?nplicity , s Defence, p. 109. 
Chad Brown in the paltoral charge of 



Letters of Roger Williams. 

time,) becaufe they would not intrench upon the Indians 
inhabiting round about us, for the prevention of ftrife 
between us. 

The third fort of bounds were of favor and grace, in- 
vented, as I think, and profecuted by that noble fpirit, 
now with God, Chad Brown. 1 Prefuming upon the Sach- 
ems' grant to me, they exceeded the letter of the Sachem's 
deed, fo far as reafonably they judged, and with this pro- 
mile of fatisfaclion to any native who mould reafonably 
defire it. In this third fort of bounds, lay this piece of 
meadow hard by Capt. Fenner's grounds, which, with two 
hogs, William Wickenden gave to W. Field for a fmall 
beaft, &c. 

Befides thefe three forts of bounds, there arofe a fourth, 
(like the fourth beaft in Daniel) exceeding dreadful and 
terrible, unto which the Spirit of God gave no name nor 
bounds, nor can we in the firft rife of ours, only boundlefs 
bounds, or a monftrous beaft, above all other beafts or 
monfters. Now, as from this fourth wild beaft in Daniel, 
in the greater world, have arifen all the ftorms and tem- 
pefts, fa&ions and divilions, in our little world amongft us, 
and what the tearing confequences it will be, is only known 
to the Moft Holy and Only Wife. 

'Chad Brown was an aflbciate of Ro- 
ger Williams, and one of the founders of 
Providence, having come from Maffa- 
chufetts in 1636. His name is among 
thofe who received a "home lot," and 
one of the four chofen in 1640 to pre- 
pare a form of government. — Cot. Re- 
ords, vol. i. pp 14 and 27. 

He was pallor of the Baptiil Church 
in 1642. He had children, John, who 
married a Holmes, daughter of the Rev. 

Obadiah Holmes; Daniel, who married 
a Herenden ; James, Jeremiah, and Ju- 
dah. The lall two removed to Rhode 
Ifland. — Staples' note to Gorton's Sim- 
plicity's Defence, p. 108. 

The defendants of Chad Brown have 
ever been among the moll enterprifing 
and public lpirited men of the State. 
They are equally dillinguifhed for their 
liberal benefactions to the literary and 
charitable inilitutions in Providence. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 3 3 1 

You conclude with your innocence and patience under 
my clamorous tongue, but I pray you not to forget that 
there are two bafins. David had one, Pilate another. 
David warned his hands in innocence, and fo did Pilate, 
and fo do all parties, all the world over. As to Innocence, 
my former paper faith fomething. As to patience, how 
can you fay you are patient under my clamorous tongue, 
when that very fpeech is moil impatient and unchriftian? 
My clamor and crying fhall be to God and men (I hope 
without revenge or wrath) but for a little eafe, and that 
yourfelves, and they that fcorn and hate me moft, may, 
(if the Eternal pleafe,) find cooling in that hot, eter- 
nal day that is near approaching. This mail be the con- 
tinual clamor or cry of 

Your unworthy friend and neighbor, 

Roger Williams. 

To my honored friend, Mr. John Winthrop, Governor of Con- 
necticut, &c, thefe, at Bojlon or elfewbere. Leave this at 
Major Leverett's. 

Providence, Auguft 19th, 1669. (fo called.) 1 

Sir, — Loving refpecls to yourfelf and your deareft and 
other friends, &c. I have no tidings (upon my enquiry) 
of that poor dog, about which you fent to me. I fear he 
is run wild into the woods, though it is poffible that Eng- 
lifh or Indians have him. Oh, Sir, what is that word 
that fparrows and hairs are provided for and numbered by 

« 5 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. i. p. 414. 

332 Letters of Roger Williams. 

God ? then certainly your dog and all dogs and beafts. 
How much more mankind. (He iaveth man and bean 1 .) 
How much more his fons and daughters, and heirs of his 
crown and kingdom. 

Sir, I have encouraged Mr. Dexter to fend you a lime- 
ftone, and to falute you with this enclofed. He is an in- 
telligent man, a matter printer of London, and confciona- 
ble (though a Baptift), therefore maligned and traduced by 
William Harris (a doleful generalift.) Sir, if there be any 
occafion of yourfelf (or others) to ufe any of this ftone, 
Mr. Dexter hath a lufty team and lufty fons, and very wil- 
ling heart, (being a fanguine, cheerful man) to do your- 
felf or any (at your word efpecially,) fervice upon my 
honeit and cheap confederations ; and if there be any oc- 
cafion, Sir, you may be confident of all ready fervice from 
your old unworthy fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

While you were at Mr. Smith's that bloody liquor trade 
(which Richard Smith 1 hath of old driven) fired the coun- 
try about your lodging. The Indians would have more 
liquor, and it came to blows. The Indians complained to 
Richard Smith. He told them he was bufy about your 
departure. Next day the Englilh complained of fome 
hurt and went with twenty-eight horfe (and more men) to 

'Richard Smith's name iirfl appears deeded the "Northern tradV' in the Nar- 

among the " inhabitants of Newport, ad- raganfett country in 1659. They had a 

mitted fince May 20, 1638," and pre- large trading houfe in Wickford. Both 

vious to 1639. — R' !• C°I' Records, vol. father and fon were among the promi- 

i. p. 92. He and his fon Richard inent men of that part of the colony. It 

Smith, jr., " traders, of Cocumcofuck," would appear from Mr. Williams's let- 

and Gov. Winthrop of Connecticut were ter, that they dealt largely in fpirituous 

among thole to whom Coganiquant, liquors. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 333 

fetch in the Sachem. The Indians with a fhout routed 
thefe horfes, and caufed their return, and are more infolent 
by this repulfe ; yet they are willing to be peaceable, were 
it not for that devil of liquor. I might have gained 
thoufands (as much as any) by that trade, but God hath 
gracioufly given me rather to choofe a dry morfel, &c. 

Sir, iince I faw you I have read Morton's Memorial^ 
and rejoice at the encomiums upon your father and other 
precious worthies, though I be a reprobate, contempt a vitior 
alga. R. W. 

Providence, June 22, 1670, {ut vu/go.) 1 

Major Mason, — My honored, dear and ancient friend, 
my due refpects and earneft defires to God, for your eter- 
nal peace, &c. 

I crave your leave and patience to prefent you with fome 
few considerations, occasioned by the late tranfactions be- 
tween your colony and ours. The lair, year you were 
pleafed, in one of your lines to me, to tell me that you 
longed to fee my face once more before you died. I em- 
braced your love, though I feared my old lame bones, and 
yours, had arretted traveling in this world, and therefore I 
was and am ready to lay hold on all occafions of writing, 
as I do at prefent. 

The occafion, I confefs, is forrowful, becaufe I fee your- 

l Nezv England's Memorial; or a Brief 2 Mafs. Hift. Coll., vol. i. p. 275; 
Relation of the moft Memorable and Re- Knowles, Memoirs of Roger Williams, 
markahle pafages in the Providence of God p. 393. 
manifeded in the Planters of New Eng- 
land in America, etc., Cambridge, 1669. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

felves, with others, embarked in a refolution to invade and 
defpoil your poor countrymen, in a wildernefs, and your 
ancient friends, of our temporal and foul liberties. 1 

It is forrowful, alfo, becaufe mine eye beholds a black 
and doleful train of grievous, and, I fear, bloody confe- 
quences, at the heel of this bufinefs, both to you and us. 
The Lord is righteous in all our afflictions, that is a max- 
im ; the Lord is gracious to all oppreifed, that is another ; 
he is moft gracious to the foul that cries and waits on him ; 
that is tilver, tried in the fire feven times. 

Sir, I am not out of hopes, but that while your aged 
eyes and mine are yet in their orbs, and not yet funk 
down into their holes of rottennefs, we fhall leave our 
friends and countrymen, our children and relations, and 
this land, in peace, behind us. To this end, Sir, pleafe 
you with a calm and fteady and a Chriftian hand, to hold 
the balance and to weigh thefe few confiderations, in much 
love and due refpect prefented : 

1 The queflion of jurifdicYion in the 
fouthweftern part of the colony led to 
the appointment of a committee by 
Connecticut, in May of this year, to 
confer with the authorities of Rhode If- 
land, and if the latter refufed to treat, 
they were authorized to reduce the peo- 
ple of Weilerly and Narraganfett to 
fubmiffion. A fpecial feffion of the Af- 
fembly of Rhode Ifland was called, and 
a committee appointed to confider the 
iubject. The two committees met at 
New London, but failed to agree upon 
terms of lettlement. The Connecticut 
men, the following day, formally pro- 
claimed the authority of their govern- 
ment over Weilerly, and fent officers 
warning the inhabitants ealt of Pawca- 
tuck river to appear at Stonington. The 

officers were arretted and fent to New- 
port jail. To add to the troubles, Har- 
vard College fet up a claim to land in 
Weilerly. Arrelts were made on both 
fides, and another fpecial feffion of the 
Alfembly took place in June, when agents 
were appointed to proceed to England, 
there to defend the charter againll the 
invafions of Connecticut. It was at this 
juncture that Mr. Williams wrote this 
letter to Major Mafon, who enclofed it 
to the Connecticut Commiffioners. Mr. 
Arnold in his Hijiory of Rhode I/land, 
gives a lucid account of the controverfy 
in queftion ; vol. i. pp. 341-348 ; while 
the documentary hiilory of it may be 
found at length in the R. I. Colonial Re- 
cords, vol. ii. pp. 309-328. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 335 

Firft. When I was unkindly and unchriftianly, as I be- 
lieve, driven from my houfe and land and wife and chil- 
dren, (in the midft of a New England winter, now about 
thirty-five years pair,) at Salem, that ever honored Gover- 
nor, Mr. Winthrop, privately wrote to me to fleer my 
courfe to Narraganfett Bay and Indians, for many high and 
heavenly and public ends, encouraging me, from the free- 
nefs of the place from any Englifh claims or patents. I 
took his prudent motion as a hint and voice from God, and 
waving all other thoughts and motions, I fteered my courfe 
from Salem (though in winter fnow, which I feel yet) unto 
thefe parts, wherein I may fay Peniel, that is, I have feen 
the face of God. 

Second, I firft pitched, and began to build and plant at 
Seekonk, now Rehoboth, but I received a letter from my 
ancient friend, Mr. Winilow, then Governor of Plymouth, 
profefling his own and others love and refpect to me, yet 
lovingly advifing me, fince I was fallen into the edge of 
their bounds, and they were loath to difpleafe the Bay, to 
remove but to the other fide of the water, and then, he 
faid, I had the country free before me, and might be as 
free as themfelves, and we mould be loving neighbors toge- 
ther. Thefe were the joint underftandings of thefe two 
eminently wife and Chriftian Governors and others, in their 
day, together with their counfel and advice as to the free- 
dom and vacancy of this place, which in this refpect, and 
many other Providences of the Moft Holy and Only Wife, 
I called Providence. 1 

1 Finding himfelf upon lands claimed John Smith, miller ; Jofhua Verin, Tho- 

by Maflachufetts and Plymouth, Wil- mas Angell and Francis Wickes. (Mo/es 

liams embarked from Seekonk in a canoe, Brown in R. 1. Regifter for 1828.) 

with five others, viz.: William Harris; They are believed to have crofted See- 

33 6 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

Third. Sometime after, the Plymouth great Sachem, 
(Oufamaquin,) upon occafion, affirming that Providence 
was his land, and therefore Plymouth's land, and fome re- 
fenting it, the then prudent and godly Governor, Mr. 
Bradford, 1 and others of his godly council, anfwered, that 
if, after due examination, it mould be found true what the 
barbarian faid, yet having to my lofs of a harveft that year, 
been now (though by their gentle advice) as good as ban- 
ifhed from Plymouth as from the Maifachufetts, and I had 
quietly and patiently departed from them, at their motion 
to the place where now I was, I mould not be molefted 
and tolfed up and down again, while they had breath in 
their bodies; and furely, between thofe, my friends of the 
Bay and Plymouth, I was forely tolled, for one fourteen 
weeks, in a bitter winter feafon, 2 not knowing what bread 
or bed did mean, befide the yearly lofs of no fmall matter 
in my trading with Englim and natives, being debarred 
from Bofton, the chief mart and port of New England. 

Iconic river near where Central Bridge 
now croffes. As they approached the 
oppofite fhore, they were accoiled by 
the Indians, with the friendly interroga- 
tion of " Whatcheer " a common Eng- 
lifh phrafe, which they had learned from 
the colonifls, equivalent to " How do 
you do." (, p. 102.) Others 
lay this word meant " iVelcome" They 
probably landed on the rock which here 
juts out into the river, and remained for 
a fhort time. They then paffed round 
India Point and Fox Point, and pro- 
ceeded up the river to a fpot near the 
entrance of the Mofhafluck river, where 
the party landed. Tradition, fays, the 
landing place was near the fpring in the 
rear of the refidence of the late Gov. 
Philip Allen. 

1 William Bradford was the fecond 
Governor of Plymouth, John Carver, 
being the firil. He was one of the "May- 
flower" Pilgrims. Was defied Gover- 
nor in 1621, and annually re-elefted un- 
til his death in 1657, excepting five 
years, when he declined the offer. He 
wrote a hiftory of Plymouth Colony 
from 1620 to 1647, which, after remain- 
ing in manufcript for more than two hun- 
dred years, was printed by the Maffa- 
chufetts Hillorical Society, with notes 
by Charles Deane, in 1856. 

2 "Mr. Roger Williams," fays Gov. 
Bradford, "(a man godly and zealous, 
having many precious parts, but very un- 
fettled in judgment) came over firft to 
the Maffachul'etts, but upon fome difcon- 
tent left that place, and came hither, 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


God knows that many thoufand pounds cannot repay the 
very temporary lories I have fuftained. It lies upon the 
Marlachufetts and me, yea, and other colonies joining with 
them, to examine, with fear and trembling, before the eyes 
of flaming fire, the true caufe of all my forrows and fuf- 
ferings. It pleafed the Father of fpirits to touch many 
hearts, dear to him, with fome relentings; amongft which, 

(where he was friendly entertained, ac- 
cording to their poor ability,) and exer- 
cifed his gifts amongft them, and after 
some time was admitted a member of the 
church; and his teachings well approved, 
for the benefit whereof I ftill bl els God 
. . . He this year began to fall into ftrange 
opinions, and from opinions to pradtife, 
which caufed fome controverfy between 
the church and him, and in the end to 
fome dii'content on his part, by occafion 
whereof he left them fomething abrupt- 
ly. Yet afterwards fued for his dilfnif- 
fion to the church in Salem, which was 
granted. . . . But he foon fell into more 
things there, both to their and the gov- 
ernments trouble and difturbance. I 
(hall not need to name particulars, they 
are too well known to all. . . . But he is 
to be pitied, and prayed for, and fo I 
fhall leave the matter, and defire the 
Lord to fhew him his errors, and reduce 
him in the wav of truth, and give him a 
fettled judgment and conftancy in the 
fame ; for I hope he belongs to the Lord 
and that he will fhow him mercy." — 
Hijl. of Plymouth Plantation, p. 310. 

In connexion with this lubjeft, and 
the remarks of Gov. Bradford, we quote 
an extradl from a letter of Sir William 
Martin to Gov. Winthrop, of Maifachu- 
fetts, enquiring about the ftate of the 
colony : 


..." I am forry to hear of Mr. Wil- 
liams's feparation from you. His for- 
mer good affeftions to you and the Plan- 
tations, were well known unto me and 
make me wonder now at his proceed- 
ings. I have wrote to him effectually to 
fubmit to better judgments, efpecially to 
thofe whom he formerly revered and ad- 
mired ; at leaft to keep the bond of peace 
inviolable. This hath always been my 
advice ; and nothing conduceth more to 
the good of plantations. I pray fhow 
him what lawful favor you can, which 
may ftand with the common good. He 
is paffionate and precipitate, which mav 
traniport him into error, but I hope his 
integrity and good intentions will bring 
him at laft into the way of truth, and 
confirm him therein. In the meantime, 
I pray God to give him a right ufe of 
this affliction." — Hutcbinfon Papers, vol. 
i. p. 106. 

There has been a queftion as to time 
when Williams left Salem ; but it is now 
generally acknowledged that it was in 
January, 1636. He was fourteen weeks 
journeying through the wildernefs, until 
he pitched his tent and began to plant at 
Seekonk. This was probably in May. 
The firft entry in the Providence records 
is dated the 1 6th of the 4th month, i. e. 
June [1636.3 

338 Letters of Roger Williams. 

that great and pious foul, Mr. Winllow, melted, and kindly 
vifited me, at Providence, and put a piece of gold into the 
hands of mv wife, for our fupply. 

Fourth. When the next year after my banifhment, the 
Lord drew the bow of the Pequod war againft the coun- 
try, in which, Sir, the Lord made yourfelf, with others, a 
blerled inftrument of peace to all New England, I had my 
mare of fervice to the whole land in that Pequod bufinefs, 
inferior to very few that acted, for, 1 

1. Upon letters received from the Governor and Coun- 
cil at Bofton, requeuing me to ufe my utmoft and fpeedieft 
endeavors to break and hinder the league labored for by 
the Pequods againft the Mohegans, and Pequods againft 
the Englith, (excufing the not fending of company and 
fupplies, by the hafte uf the bufinefs,) the Lord helped me 
immediately to put my life into my hand, and, fcarce ac- 
quainting my wife, to (hip myfelf, all alone, in a poor ca- 
noe, and to cut through a ftormy wind, with great feas, 
every minute in hazard of life, to the Sachem's houfe. 

2. Three days and nights my bufinefs forced me to lodge 
and mix with the bloody Pequod ambaifadors, whofe hands 
and arms, methought, wreaked with the blood of my 
countrymen, murdered and malfacred by them on Connec- 
ticut river, and from whom I could not but nightly look 
for their bloody knives at my own throat alfo. 

3. When God wondroully preferved me, and helped me 
to break to pieces the Pequods' negotiation and defign, and 
to make, and promote and finim, by many travels and 
charges, the Englim league with the Narraganfetts and Mo- 

1 Gov. Bradford acknowledges the in pacifying the Pequots at this time. — 
great fervice rendered by Mr. Williams Hijlory of Plymouth, p. 364. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 339 

hegans againft the Pequods, and that the Englifh forces 
marched up to the Narraganfett country againft the Pe- 
quods, I gladly entertained, at my houfe in Providence, the 
General Stoughton 1 and his officers and ufed my utmoft 
care that all his officers and ibldiers fhould be well ac- 
commodated with us. 

4. I marched up with them to the Narraganfett Sach- 
ems, and brought my countrymen and the barbarians, 
Sachems and captains, to a mutual confidence and com- 
placence, each in other. 

5. Though I was ready to have marched further, yet, 
upon agreement that I mould keep at Providence, as an 
agent between the Bay and the army, I returned, and was 
interpreter and intelligencer, constantly receiving and fend- 
ing letters to the Governor and Council at Bofton, &c, 
in which work I judge it no impertinent digreffion to re- 
cite (out of the many fcores of letters, at times, from Mr. 
Winthrop,) this one pious and heavenly prophecy, touch- 
ing all New England, of that gallant man, viz.: " If the 
Lord turn away his face from our fins, and blefs our en- 
deavors and yours, at this time againft our bloody enemy, 
we and our children (hall long enjoy peace, in this, our 
wildernefs condition." And himfelf and fome other of the 
Council motioned and it was debated, whether or no I had 
not merited, not only to be recalled from banifhment, but 
alio to be honored with fome remark of favor. It is known 
who hindered, who never promoted the liberty of other 
men's confciences. Thefe things, and ten times more, I 
could relate, to mow that I am not a ftranger to the Pe- 

■ Ifrad Stoughton, of Dorchefter, Mafs., the government of New Hampfhire. 

commanded the Maflachufetts troops fent He was the father of Wm. Stoughton, 

againft the Pequots. Was Captain of the the celebrated ftatefman, who was Lieu 

Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- tenant-Governor and Chief Juftice of 

pany, and a commiffioner to adminifter Mafs. — Drake, Biog. Diftionary. 

340 Letters of Roger Williams. 

quod wars and lands, and pofTibly not far from the merit 
of a foot of land in either country, which I have not. 

5. Considering (upon frequent exceptions againft Provi- 
dence men) that we had no authority for civil government, 
I went purpofely to England, and upon my report and pe- 
tition, the Parliament granted us a charter of government 
for thele parts, fo judged vacant on all hands. And upon 
this, the country about us was more friendly, and wrote to 
us, and treated us as an authorized colony ; only the differ- 
ence of our confciences much obftrudted. The bounds 
of this, our firft charter, I (having ocular knowledge of 
perfons, places and tranfa&ions) did honeftly and confcien- 
tiouily, as in the holy prefence of God, draw up from 
Pawcatuck river, which I then believed, and ftill do, is 
free from all Englim claims and conquefts ; for although 
there were fome Pequods on this fide the river, who, by 
reafon of fome Sachems' marriages with fome on this fide, 
lived in a kind of neutrality with both iides, yet, upon the 
breaking out of the war, they relinquimed their land to 
the polfeffion of their enemies, the Narraganfetts and Ni- 
antics, and their land never came into the condition of the 
lands on the other iide, which the Englim, by conqueft, 
challenged ; fo that I muft ftill affirm, as in God's holy 
prefence, I tenderly waved to touch a foot of land in 
which I knew the Pequod wars were maintained and were 
properly Pequod, being a gallant country ; and from Paw- 
catuck river hitherward, being but a patch of ground, full 
of troublefome inhabitants, I did, as I judged, inorfenfive- 
ly, draw our poor and inconfiderable line. 

It is true, when at Portfmouth, on Rhode Ifland, fome 
of ours, in a General Atiemblv, motioned their planting on 
this fide Pawcatuck. I, hearing that fome of the Maifa- 

Letters of Rog?*- Williams. 341 

chufetts reckoned this land theirs, by conqueft, ditTuaded 
from the motion, until the matter mould be amicably de- 
bated and compofed ; for though I queftioned not our 
right, &c, yet I feared it would be inexpedient and offen- 
five, and procreative of thefe heats and fires, to the dif- 
honoring of the King's Majefty, and the dishonoring and 
blafpheming of God and of religion in the eyes of the 
Englim and barbarians about us. 

6. Some time after the Pequod war and our charter 
from the Parliament, the goverment of MaiTachufetts 
wrote to myfelf (then chief officer in this colony) of their 
receiving of a patent from the Parliament for thefe vacant 
lands, as an addition to the MafTachufetts, &c, and there- 
upon requeuing me to exercife no more authority, &c, 
for they wrote, their charter was granted fome few weeks 
before ours. I returned, what I believed righteous and 
weighty, to the hands of my true friend, Mr. Winthrop, 
the firft mover of my coming into thefe parts, and to that 
anfvver of mine I never received the leaft reply; only it 
is certain, that, at Mr. Gorton's complaint againft the 
MaiTachufetts, the Lord High Admiral, Prefident, faid, 
openly, in a full meeting of the commiffioners, that he 
knew no other charter for thefe parts than what Mr. Wil- 
liams had obtained, and he was fure that charter, which 
the MaiTachufetts Englishmen pretended, had never paiTed 
the table. 

7. Upon our humble addrefs, by our agent, Mr. Clarke, 
to his Majeffy, and his gracious promife of renewing our 
former charter, Mr. Winthrop, upon fome miftake, had 
entrenched upon our line, and not only fo, but, as it is faid, 
upon the lines of other charters alfo. Upon Mr. Clarke's 
complaint, your grant was called in again, and it had never 

342 Letters of Roger Williams. 

been returned, but upon a report that the agents, Mr. Win- 
throp and Mr. Clarke, were agreed, by mediation of 
friends, (and it is true, they came to a folemn agreement, 
under hands and feals,) which agreement was never vio- 
lated on our part. 

8. But the King's Majefty fending his commitlioners 
among other of his royal purpofes) to reconcile the dif- 
ferences of, and to fettle the bounds between the colonies, 
yourfelves know how the King himfelf therefore hath 
given a decilion to this controverfy. Accordingly, the 
King's Majefty's aforefaid commirlioners at Rhode liland, 
(where, as a commiffioner for this colony, I trantadted 
with them, as did alfo commirlioners from Plymouth,) 
they compofed a controverfy between Plymouth and us, 
and fettled the bounds between us, in which we reft. 

9. However you fatisfy yourfelves with the Pequod 
conqueft, with the fealing of your charter fome weeks be- 
fore ours; with the complaints of particular men to your 
colony ; yet upon a due and ferious examination of the 
matter, in the fight of God, you will find the bulinefs at 
bottom to be, 

Firft, a depraved appetite after the great vanities, dreams 
and madows of this vanifhing life, great portions of land, 
land in this wildernefs, as if men were in as great necemty 
and danger for want of great portions of land, as poor, 
hungry, thirfty feamen have, after a rick and ftormy, a 
long and ftarving paffage. This is one of the gods of New 
England, which the living and molt high Eternal will 
deftroy and famifh. 

2. An unneighborly and unchriftian intrufion upon us, 
as being the weaker, contrary to your laws, as well as ours, 
concerning purchasing of lands without the confent of the 

"Letters of Roger Williams. 343 

General Court. This I told Major Atherton, at his firft 
going up to the Narraganfett about this bufinefs. I refufed 
all their proffers of land, and refufed to interpret for them 
to the Sachems. 

3. From thefe violations and intrufions arife the com- 
plaint of many privateers, not dealing as they would be 
dealt with, according to law of nature, the law of the 
prophets and Chrift Jefus, complaining againfl: others, in a 
delign, which they themfelves are delinquents and wrong 
doers. I could aggravate this many ways with Scripture 
rhetoric and iimilitude, but I fee need of anodynes, (as 
phyficians fpeak,) and not of irritations. Only this I miift 
crave leave to fay, that it looks like a prodigy or monfter, 
that countrymen among lavages in a wildernefs ; that pro- 
feflbrs of God and one Mediator, of an eternal life, and 
that this is like a dream, Ihould not be content with 
thofe vafl and large tracts which all the other colonies have, 
(like platters and tables full of dainties,) but pull and 
fnatch away their poor neighbors' bit or cruft. ; and a cruft 
it is, and a dry, hard one, too, becaufe of the natives' con- 
tinual troubles, trials and vexations. 

10. Alas! Sir, in calm midnight thoughts, what are 
thefe leaves and flowers, and fmoke and fhadows, and 
dreams of earthly nothings, about which we poor fools 
and children, as David faith, difquiet ourfelves in vain ? 
Alas? what is all the fcuffling of this world for, but, come, 
will you fmoke it? What are all the contentions and wars 
of this world about, generally, but for greater dimes and 
bowls of porridge, of which, if we believe God's Spirit 
in Scripture, Efau and Jacob were types ? Efau will part 
with the heavenly birthright for his flapping, after his 
hunting, for god belly; and Jacob will part with por- 

344 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ridge for an eternal inheritance. O Lord, give me to make 
Jacob's and Mary's choice, which (hall never be taken 
from me. 

11. How much fweeter is the counfel of the Son of 
God, to mind firft the matters of his kingdom ; to take 
no care for to-morrow ; to pluck out, cut off and iling away 
right eyes, hands and feet, rather than to be call: whole 
into hell-fire ; to confider the ravens and the lilies, whom 
a heavenly Father fo clothes and feeds; and the counfel of 
his fervant Paul, to roll our cares, for this life alfo, upon 
the moll: high Lord, fteward of his people, the eternal 
God; to be content with food and raiment; to mind not 
our own, but every man the things of another; yea, and 
to fuffer wrong, and part with what we judge is right, yea, 
our lives, and (as poor women martyrs have faid) as many 
as there be hairs upon our heads, for the name ot God 
and the fon of God his fake. This is humanity, yea, this 
is Chriftianity. The reft is but formality and picture, 
courteous idolatry and Jewifh and Popifh blafphemy 
againft the Chriftian religion, the Father of fpirits and 
his Son, the Lord Jefus. Beiides, Sir, the matter with us 
is not about thefe children's toys of land, meadows, cattle, 
government, &c. But here, all over this colony, a great num- 
ber of weak and diftrelfed fouls, fcattered, are Hying hither 
from Old and New England, the Moil: High and Only Wife 
hath, in his infinite wiidom, provided this country and 
this corner as a (helter for the poor and perfecuted, accord- 
ing to their feveral perfuaiions. And thus that heavenly 
man, Mr. Llaynes, Governor of Connecticut, though he 
pronounced the fentence of my long banifhment againft 
me, at Cambridge, then Newtown, yet faid unto me, in 
his own houfe at Hartford, being then in fome difference 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


with the Bay: "I think, Mr. Williams, I muft now con- 
fefs to you, that the moft wife God hath provided and cut 
out this part of his world for a refuge and receptacle for 
all forts of confciences. I am now under a cloud, and 
my brother Hooker, with the Bay, as you have been, we 
have removed from them thus far, and yet they are not 
fatisfied." 1 

Thus, Sir, the King's Majefty, though his father's and 
his own confcience favored Lord BiiTiops, which their 
father and grandfather King James, whom I have fpoke 
with, fore againft his will, alfo did, yet all the world may 
fee, by his Majefty 's declarations and engagements before 
his return, and his declarations and Parliament fpeeches 
fince, and many fuitable actings, how the Father of fpirits 
hath mightily imprelTed and touched his royal fpirit, 
though the Bifhop's much difturbed him, with deep incli- 
nation of favor and gentlenefs to different confciences and 
apprehenfions as to the invilible King and way of his wor- 
fhip. Hence he hath vouchfafed his royal promife under 
his hand and broad feal, that no perfon in this colony (hall 
be molefted or queftioned for the matters of his confcience 
to God, fo he be loyal and keep the civil peace. 2 Sir, we 
muft part with lands and lives before we part with fuch a 
jewel. I judge you may yield fome land and the govern- 

1 The Rev. Thomas Hooker, of Hart- 
ford, refpe&ing whom fee note on p. 84. 

2 The paifage alluded to in the char- 
ter reads as follows : " That no perfon 
within the faid colony, fhall be anywife 
molefted, punifhed or difquieted, or 
called in queftion, for any differences in 
opinion in matters of religion, who do 
not a&ually difturb the civil peace of our 


faid colony ; but that all and every per- 
fon and perfons may, from time to time, 
and at all times hereafter, freely and 
fully have and enjoy his own and their 
judgments and confciences, in matters of 
religious concernments, they behaving 
themielves peaceably and quietly," etc., 

346 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ment of it to us, and we for peace fake, the like to you, as 
being but fubjects to one king, &c, and I think the King's 
Majefty would thank us, for many reafons. But to part 
with this jewel, we may as foon do it as the Jews with the 
favor of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes. Yourfelves pre- 
tend liberty of confcience, but alas ! it is but felf, the 
great god felf, only to yourfelves. The King's Majefty 
winks at Barbadoes, where Jews and all forts of Chriftian 
and Antichriftian perfuafions are free, but our grant, fome 
few weeks after yours fealed, though granted as foon, if 
not before yours, is crowned with the King's extraordi- 
nary favor to this colony, as being abanimed one, in which 
his Majefty declared himfelf that he would experiment, 
whether civil government could confift with fuch liberty 
of confcience. This his Majefty 's grant was ftartled at by 
his Majefty's high officers of State, who were to view it 
in courfe before the fealing, but tearing the lion's roaring, 
they couched, againft their wills, in obedience to his Ma- 
jefty's pleafure. 

Some of yours, as I heard lately, told tales to the Arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury, viz. : that we are a profane people, 
and do not keep the Sabbath, but fome do plough, &c. 
But, firft, you told him not how we fuffer freely all other 
perfuafions, yea, the common prayer, which yourfelves will 
not fuffer. If you fay you will, you confefs you muft fuf- 
fer more, as we do. 

2. You know this is but a color to your defign, for, firft, 
you know that all England itfelf (after the formality and 
fuperftition of morning and evening prayer) play away 
their Sabbath. 2d. You know yourfelves do not keep the 
Sabbath, that is the feventh day, &c. 

3. You know that famous Calvin and thoufands more 

Letters of Roger Williams. 347 

held it but ceremonial and figurative from Coloffians 2, 1 
&c, and vanished ; and that the day of worfhip was alter- 
able at the churches' pleafure. Thus alfo all the Roman- 
ics confefs, faying, viz. : that there is no exprefs fcripture, 
firft, for infants' baptifm ; nor, fecond, for abolishing the 
feventh day, and inftituting of the eighth day worfhip, but 
that it is at the churches' pleafure. 

4. You know, that generally, all this whole colony ob- 
ferve the fir ft day, only here and there one out of con- 
fcience, another out of covetoufnefs, make no confcience 
of it. 

5. You know the greatest part of the world make no 
confcience of a feventh day. The next part of the world, 
Turks, Jews and Chriftians, keep three different days, Fri- 
day, Saturday, Sunday for their Sabbath and day of wor- 
fhip, and every one maintains his own by the longeft fword. 

6. I have offered, and do, by thefe prefents, to difcufs 
by difputation, writing or printing, among other points of 
differences, thefe three pofitions; firft, that forced worfhip 
ftinks in God's noftrils. 2d. That it denies Chrift Jefus 
yet to be come, and makes the church yet national, figu- 
rative and ceremonial. 3d. That in thefe flames about 
religion, as his Majefty, his father and grandfather have 
yielded, there is no other prudent, Chriftian way of pre- 
ferving peace in the world, but by permiffion of differ- 
ing confciences. Accordingly, I do now offer to difpute 
thefe points and other points of difference, if you pleafe, at 
Hartford, Bofton and Plymouth. For the manner of the 
difpute and the difcuflion, if you think fit, one whole day 
each month in fummer, at each place, by courfe, I am 

1 " Let no man judge you in meat, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath 
in drink, or in refpect of an holyday, or days" — Coloffians, ii. 16. 

348 Letters of Roger Williams. 

ready, if the Lord permit, and, as I humbly hope, affift me. 

It is faid, that you intend not to invade our fpiritual or 
civil liberties, but only (under the advantage of firft feal- 
ing your charter) to right the privateers that petition to 
you. It is faid, alfo, that if you had but Mifhquomacuck 
and Narraganfett lands quietly yielded, you would flop at 
Cowefet, &C 1 Oh, Sir, what do thefe thoughts preach, 
but that private cabins rule all, whatever become of the 
(hip of common fafety and religion, which is fo much pre- 
tended in New England ? Sir, I have heard further, and 
by fome that fay they know, that fomething deeper than 
all which hath been mentioned lies in the three colonies' 
breafts and confultations. I judge it not lit to commit 
fuch matter to the truff. of paper, &c, but only befeech the 
Father of fpirits to guide our poor bewildered fpirits, for 
his name and mercy fake. 

15. Whereas our cafe feems to be the cafe of Paul ap- 
pealing to Casfar againft the plots of his religious, zeal- 
ous adverfaries, I hear you pafs not of our petitions and 
appeals to his Majefty, for partly you think the King will 
not own a profane people that do not keep the Sab- 
bath ; partly you think that the King is an incompetent 
judge, but you will force him to law alfo, to confirm 
your firft. born Efau, though Jacob had him by the 
heels, and in God's holy time muft carry the birth- 
right and inheritance. I judge your furmife is a dangerous 
miftake, for patents, grants and charters, and fuch like 
royal favors, are not laws of England, and adts of Parlia- 
ment, nor matters of propriety and meum and tuum between 

1 With Connecticut's claim to Cowe- Ifland, to maintain a feparate exillence. 

fet, i. e. to Eail Greenwich Bay, and Maflachufetts alfo claimed a ftrip ot 

Maflachufetts and Plymouth clamoring territory eaft of Pavvcatuck river, five or 

for territory on the north, it was no eafy fix miles wide as her fhare in the divifion 

matter for the little colony of Rhode of the Pequot territory. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 349 

the King and his fubjeds, which, as the times have been, 
have been fometimes triable in inferior Courts ; but fuch 
kind of grants have been like high offices in England, of 
high honor, and ten, yea twenty thoufand pounds gain per 
annum, yet revocable or curtable upon pleafure, according 
to the King's better information, or upon his Majefty's 
fight, or mifbehavior, ingratefulnefs, or defigns fraudu- 
lently plotted, private and diftincT: from him 

16. Sir, I lament that fuch defigns fhould be carried on 
at fuch a time, while we are ftripped and whipped, and are 
ftill under (the whole country) the dreadful rods of God, 
in our wheat, hay, corn, cattle, (hipping, trading, bodies 
and lives; when on the other fide of the water, all forts 
of confciences (yours and ours) are frying in the Biftiops' 
pan and furnace ; when the French and Romifh Jefuits, 
the firebrands of the world for their god belly fake, are 
kindling at our back, in this country, efpecially with the 
Mohawks and Mohegans, againft us, of which I know and 
have daily information. 1 

17. If any pleafe to fay, is there no medicine for this 
malady ? Mull: the nakednefs of New England, like fome 
notorious ftrumpet, be proftituted to the blafpheming eyes 
of all nations ? Muft we be put to plead before his Ma- 
jefty, and confequently the Lord Bifliops, our common 
enemies, &c. I anfwer, the Father of mercies and God of all 
confolations hath gracioufly difcovered to me, as I believe, 
a remedy, which, if taken, will quiet all minds, yours and 
ours, will keep yours and ours in quiet pofleflion and en- 
joyment of their lands, which you all have fo dearly 

1 This allufion is doubtlefs to the la- dian tribes in the northern parts of New 
bors of the Jefuit miffionaries in Canada England, and in what is now the State of 
and among the Mohawks and other In- New York. 

3 50 Letters of Roger Williams. 

bought and purchafed in this barbarous country, and fo 
long poffefied amongft thefe wild favages; will preferve 
you both in the liberties and honors of your charters and 
governments, without the leaft impeachment of yielding 
one to another ; with a ftrong curb alfo to thofe wild bar- 
barians and all the barbarians of this country, without 
troubling of compromifers and arbitrators between you ; 
without any delay, or long and chargeable and grievous 
addrefs to our King's Majefty, whofe gentle and ferene 
foul muft needs be afflicted to be troubled again with us. 
If you pleafe to afk me what my prefcription is, I will not 
put you off to Chriftian moderation or Chriftian humility, 
or Chriftian prudence, or Chriftian love, or Chriftian felf- 
denial, or Chriftian contention or patience. For I deiign 
a civil, a humane and political medicine, which, if the 
God of Heaven pleafe to blefs, you will find it effectual to 
all the ends I have propofed. Only I muft crave your 
pardon, both parties of you, if I judge it not fit to difcover 
it at prefent. I know you are both of you hot ; I fear 
myfelf, alfo. If both defire, in a loving and calm fpirit, to 
enjoy your rights, I promife you, with God's help, to help 
you to them, in a fair, and fweet and eafy way. My re- 
ceipt will not pleafe you all. If it fhould fo pleafe God 
to frown upon us that you fhould not like it, I can but 
humbly mourn, and fay with the prophet, that which muft 
perifh muft perifh. And as to myfelf, in endeavoring after 
your temporal and fpiritual peace, I humbly delire to fay, 
if I perifh, I perifh. It is but a fliadow vanifbed, a bub- 
ble broke, a dream finished. Eternity will pay for all. 

Sir, I am your old and true friend and fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 351 

To my honored and ancient friend, Mr. Thomas 
Prince, 1 Governor of Plymouth Colony, thefe prefent. 
And by his honored hand this copy, fent to Connecticut, 
whom it moft concerneth, I humbly prefent to the Gen- 
eral Court of Plymouth, when next arTembled. 

Roger Williams to 'John Cotton, of Fly month. 

Providence, 25 March, 1671. (fo called.)? 

Sir, — Loving refpects premifed. About three weeks 
iince, I received yours, dated in December, and wonder 
not that prejudice, intereft, and pafTion have lift up your 
feet thus to trample on me as on fome Mahometan, Jew, or 
Papifl: ; fome common thief or fwearer, drunkard or 
adulterer; imputing to me the odious crimes of blafphe- 
mies, reproaches, ilanders, idolatries; to be in the Devil's 
kingdom ; a gracelefs man, Sec. ; and all this without any 
Scripture, reafon, or argument, which might enlighten my 
conscience as to any error or offence to God or your dear 
father. I have now much above fifty years humbly and 
earneftly begged of God to make me as vile as a dead dog 
in my own eye, fo that I might not fear what men mould 
falfely fay or cruelly do againft me; and I have had long 

1 Thomas Prince came to America in Rev. John Cotton with whom Roger 
1 62 1 ; was eletted Governor of Ply- Williams had had a controverfy. He 
mouth in 1644; was again eledled in was minifter at Plymouth, and was con- 
different years until 1657, and was then netted with the printing of Eliot's In- 
chofen without intermiffion until 1672. dian Bible, at Cambridge, in 1685, 
He died in 1673, aged 73 y ears - — Blake, which he revifed and corrected. 

Biog. Dicl. 3 Mafs. Hijh Soc. Proceedings, 1858, 

2 This John Cotton was the fon of the p. 313. 

352 Letters of Roger Williams. 

experience of his merciful anfwer to me in men's falie 
charges and cruelties againft me to this hour. 

My great offence (you fo often repeat) is my wrong to 
your dear father, — your glorified father, &c. But the 
truth is, the love and honor which I have always mowed 
(in fpeech and writing) to that excellently learned and ho- 
ly man, your father, have been fo great, that I have been 
cenfured by divers for it. God knows, that, for God's 
fake, I tenderly loved and honored his perfon (as I did the 
perfons of the magistrates, ministers, and members whom 
I knew in Old England, and knew their holy affections, 
and upright aims, and great felf-denial, to enjoy more of 
God in this wildernefs) ; and I have therefore defired to 
waive all perfonal failings, and rather mention their beau- 
ties, to prevent the infultings of the Papifts or profane 
Proteftants, who ufed to feoff at the weakneffes — yea, and 
at the divifions — of thofe they ufe to brand for Puritans. 
The holy eye of God hath feen this the caufe why I have 
not faid nor writ what abundantly I could have done, but 
have rather chofe to bear all cenfures, loffes, and hard- 
fhips, &c. 

This made that honored father of the Bay, Mr. Win- 
throp, to give me the teftimony, not only of exemplary 
diligence in the miniftry (when I was fatisfied in it), but 
of patience alfo, in thefe words in a letter to me: ** Sir, 
we have often tried your patience, but could never conquer 
it." My humble defire is flill to bear, not only what you 
fay, but, when power is added to your will, an hanging or 
burning from you, as you plainly intimate you would long 
fince have ferved my book, had it been your own, as not 
being tit to be in the porTeffion of any Chriftian, as you 

Letters of Roger Williams. 353 

Alas! Sir, what hath this book merited, above all the 
many thoufands full of old Romifti idols' names, &c, and 
new Popifh idolatries, which are in Chriftians' libraries, 
and ufe to be alleged in teftimony, argument, and con- 
futation ? 

What is there in this book but prelTeth holinefs of 
heart, holinefs of life, holinefs of worfhip, and pity to 
poor iinners, and patience toward them while they break 
not the civil peace ? ' Tis true, my firft book, the " Bloody 
Tenent," was burnt by the Prefbyterian party (then pre- 
vailing) ; but this book whereof we now fpeak (being my 
Reply to your father's Anfwer) 1 was received with ap- 
plaufe and thanks by the army, by the Parliament, profefs- 
ing that, of neceffity, — yea, of Chriftian equity, — there 
could be no reconciliation, pacification, or living together, 
but by permitting of diifentingconfciences to live amongft 
them ; infomuch that that excellent fervant of God, Mr. 
John Owen 2 (called Dr. Owen), told me before the Gene- 
ral ^who fent for me about that very buiinefs), that before 
I landed, himfelf and many others had anfwered Mr. Cot- 
ton's book already. The firft book, and the point of per- 
mitting Diffenters, his Majefty's royal father aifented to; 
and how often hath the fon, our fovereign, declared him- 
felf indulgent toward Diifenters, notwithstanding the cla- 
mors and plottings of his felf-feeking bilhops ! And, Sir, 

1 " The Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody ,■" 8vo. " His devotional and practical, and 
by Mr. Cotton's endeavour towajbtt white expository works are an invaluable trea- 
in the Blood of the Lambe : London, fure of divinity. . . . They are eminent- 
1652. Reprinted by Narraganfett Club, ly fpiritual, devotional, edifying. He is 
vol. iv. full of Biblical learning, found expofi- 

2 Dr. Owen was the author of more tion of do&rine, acutenefs and informa- 
than eighty publications, all theological, tion." Bickerstith, Chr. Student, 1844, 
A collected edition of thefe was pub- p. 268. 

lifhed in 1850-55 in twenty-four vols. 



Letters of Roger Williams. 

(as before and formerly), I add, if yourfelf, or any in pub- 
lic or private, (how me any failing againft God or your 
father in that book, you mall find me diligent and faithful 
in weighing and in confeffing or replying in love and 

Oh ! you fay, wrong to a father made a dumb child 
fpeak, &c. Sir, I pray forget not that your father was not 
God, but man, — iinful, and failing in many things, as we 
all do, faith the Holy Scripture. I prefume you know the 
fcheme of Mr. Cotton's Contradictions (about Church-dif- 
cipline), prefented to the world by Mr. Daniel Caw- 
drey, 1 a man of name and note. Alfo, Sir, take heed you 
prefer not the earthen pot (though your excellent father) 
before his moft high eternal Maker and Potter. Bleifed 
that you were born and proceeded from him, if you honor 
him more for his humility and holinefs than for outward 
refpecl, which fome (and none mall juftly more than my- 
felf) put upon him. 

Sir, you call my three propofals, &c, abominable, falfe, 
and wicked; but, as before, thoufands (high and holy, too, 
fome of them) will wonder at you. Captain Gookins, 2 
from Cambridge, writes me word that he will not be my 
antagonift in them, being candidly underftood. Your 
honored Governor tells me there is no foundation for any 
difpute with Plymouth about thofe propofals ; for you 

1 Daniel Cawdry, a non-Conformift 
divine, ejected from his living in North- 
amptonshire. He was the author of feve- 
ral theological treatifes. — Allibone, Dic- 

2 Daniel Gookins came to MaiTachu- 
fetts in 1 62 1, of which colony he be- 
came Major-General. He was Super- 

intendent of the MafTachufetts Indians, 
and flood forth as their friend and pro- 
tector in all the wars and difficulties be- 
tween them and the whites. He was 
the author of the Hijlorical Colletlions of 
the Indians of New England. He died 
in 1687, aged 75. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 355 

force no men's confcience. But, Sir, you have your liberty 
to prove them abominable, falfe, and wicked, and to dif- 
prove that which I have prefented in the book concerning 
the New England churches to be but parochial and na- 
tional, though lifted with a liner lieve, and painted with 
liner colors. 

You are pleafed to count me excommunicate ; and 
therein you deal more cruelly with me than with all the 
profane, and Protectants and Papifts too, with whom you 
hold communion in the parilhes, to which (as you know) 
all are forced by the bifhops. And yet you count me a 
Have to the Devil, becaufe, in confcience to God, and love 
to God and you, I have told you of it. But, Sir, the truth 
is (I will not fay I excommunicate you, but), I firft with- 
drew communion from yourfelves for halting between 
Chrift and Antichrift, — the parifli churches and Chriftian 
congregations. Long after, when you had confultations 
of killing me, but fome rather advifed a dry pit of banifh- 
ment, Mr. Peters advifed an excommunication to be fent 
me (after the manner of Popith bulls, &c); but this fame 
man, in London, embraced me, and told me he was for 
liberty of confcience, and preached it; and complained to 
me of Salem for excommunicating his diffracted wife, and 
for wronging him in his goods which he left behind him. 

Sir, you tell me my time is loft, &c, becaufe (as I con- 
ceive you) not in the function of miniftry. I confefs the 
offices of Chrift Jefus are the beft callings; but generally 
they are the worft trades in the world, as they are practifed 
only for a maintenance, a place, a living, a benefice, &c. 
God hath many employments for hisfervants. Moles for- 
ty years, and the Lord Jefus thirty years, were not idle, 
though little known what they did as to any miniftry ; and 

35 6 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

the two prophets prophefy in fackcloth, and are Chrift 
Jefus his minifters, though not owned by the public ordi- 
nations. God knows, I have much and long and confcien- 
tiouily and mournfully weighed and digged into the dif- 
ferences of the Proteftants themfelves about the miniftry. 
He knows what gains and preferments I have refufed in 
universities, city, country, and court, in Old England, and 
fomething in New England, &c, to keep my foul unde- 
nted in this point, and not to act with a doubting con- 
fcience, &c. God was pleafed to (how me much of this in 
Old England ; and in New, being unanimouily chofen 
teacher at Bofton (before your dear father came, divers 
years), I confcientioufly refufed, and withdrew to Ply- 
mouth, becaufe I durft not officiate to an unfeparated peo- 
ple, as, upon examination and conference, I found them to 
be. At Plymouth, I fpake on the Lord's days and week 
days, and wrought hard at the hoe for my bread (and fo 
afterward at Salem), until I found them both profeffing to 
be a feparated people in New England (not admitting the 
mo ft godly to communion without a covenant), and yet 
communicating with the parimes in Old by their members 
repairing on frequent occalions thither. 1 

Sir, I heartily thank you for your conclulion, — wifhing 
my converfion and falvation ; without which, furely vain 
are our privileges of being Abraham's fons, enjoying the 

•Dr. Palfrey in fpeaking of this let- 
ter fays, " It is hard to fuppofe that, 
when Williams made this ftatement, (for- 
ty years after this tranfadlion, and when 
he was fixty-five years old,) his memory 
was milled by his imagination. But on 
the oppofie fuppofuion, it is very extra- 
ordinary that the fadt is not mentioned 

in any record of the time. The records 
.of the Bollon church cannot be appealed 
to in the cafe. The only entry they 
contain previous to October, 1632, is 
that of the covenant of church-mem- 
bers." — Hijl. of New England, vol. i. p. 
406, note. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


covenant, holy education, holy worfhip, holy church or 
temple; of being adorned with deep understanding, mi- 
raculous faith, angelical parts and utterance; the titles of 
pallors or apoftles; yea, of being facrifices in the fire to 

Sir, I am unworthy (though defirous to be), 

Your friend and fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

Providence, y e 15th of the 5, [15 July,] 1672. 1 

To George Fox or any other of my Countrymen at Newport, 
who fay they are the Apojlles and MeJJengers of Chrijl 
J ejus:— 

In humble confidence of the help of the Moil High, I 
offer to maintain in public, againft all comers, thefe four- 
teen Propofitions following, to wit : the firfl feven at New- 
port, and the other feven at Providence. For the time 
when, I refer it to G. Fox and his friends at Newport. 

Only I defire 

1. To have three days notice, before the day you fix on. 

1 Hift. Mag. New York, 1858, p. 56 ; 
George Fox digged out of his Burrowes, 
1676, p. 2. 

The date of this letter is not given, 
where it appears in Williams's book, 
but is found in the original manufcript 
preferved among the archives of Con- 
necticut, from which it was printed in 
the Hijhrical Magazine. 

As the fubjeft matter of this letter and 
the difcuffion that grew out of it forms 
the principal fubjecl: of the celebrated 
book of Williams' called ''George Fox 
Digg'd out of bis Burrowes, 1 '' which was 
reprinted by the Narraganl'ett Club, 
(vol. v.) accompanied by an Introduc- 
tion and Notes by Profeffor Diman, it 
feems hardly neceffary to enlarge upon 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

2. That without interruption (or many fpeaking at once) 
the Conference may continue from nine in the morning 
till about four in the afternoon ; and 

3. That if either of the feven Propositions be not fin- 
ished in one day, the Conference may continue and go on 
fome few hours the next day. 

it here. We can add nothing to that 
which the Profeflor has fo well faid in 
his introduction. 

It appears that the letter, which was 
enclofed to Deputy Governor Cranilon, 
was not delivered to him until the 26th 
of July, feveral hours after George Fox 
had left. Williams charges Fox with 
having purpofely avoided him, which 
Fox denies in the moft emphatic lan- 
guage. Prof. Diman thinks there is no 
ground for the charge made by Williams 
that Fox " flily departed." " No cha- 
ratteriilic of Fox " he adds " was more 
marked than felf-confidence. At no time 
did he ever fhrink from meeting an ad- 
verfary ; he was now in the prime of 
life, and in the full flufh of his career as 
prophet of a new feft. No reafon can 
be conceived why he fhould be unwilling 
to meafure his llrength with Roger Wil- 
liams, a man palled three fcore and ten, 
and wielding at this time but little influ- 
ence." — Introduction, p. xvi. 

The departure of Fox did not inter- 
fere with the propofed difcuflion. Stubbs, 
Burnyeat and other Quakers went to 
Providence, where they faw Williams 
and made an agreement to meet him at 
Newport, on the 9th of Auguft, " and 
God," he fays, " gracioufly afhited me in 
rowing all day with my old bones, fo 
that I got to Newport toward the mid- 
night before the morning appointed." 
When Williams made his appear- 

ance at the hour appointed, he found his 
three opponents fitting together on an 
high bench. The diftinclive charadter- 
iftics of thefe whom he terms " able 
and noted preachers" are fketched in a few 
words. He had heard that John Stubbs 
" was learned in Hebrew and Greek," 
and he found him fo. Burnyeat he found 
" to be a moderate f'pirit, and very able 
fpeaker." But Edmundlbn feems to have 
aroufed his fpecial diflike. While Stubbs 
and Burnyeat were "■civil and ingenious," 
Edmundfon " was nothing but a bundle 
of Ignorance and Boifieroufnefs," etc. — 
Prof. Diman, Introduction, p. xxx. 

The debate which confumed three 
days on the fir il feven propofitions drew 
together a great number of hearers, who 
eagerly watched the fortunes of the ftrife. 
The parties then adjourned to Providence, 
where the remaining propofitions were 
difcufled ; ending in much the fame way 
as thofe at Newport, each fide apparently 
well fatisfied with the refult. Many ac- 
counts of the remarkable debate have 
been printed by contemporary writers; 
but thofe interefied in it who will not 
undertake to wade through the live hun- 
dred pages of Williams's book "George 
Fox Digged out of bis Burrozves" will find 
a clear and condenfed account of it in 
Prof. Diman's Introduction to that work 
in the fifth volume of the publications of 
the Narraganl'ett Club. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 359 

4. That either of us difputing, fliall have free uninter- 
rupted liberty to fpeak (in Anfwers and Replies) as much 
and as long as we pleafe, and thus give the oppolite the 
fame liberty. 

That the whole may be managed with that ingenuity 
and humanity, as fuch an exercife, by fuch perfons in fuch 
conditions, at fuch a time, ought to be managed and per- 
formed, the Propositions are thefe that follow : 

Firft. That the people called Quakers, are not true Qua- 
kers according to the Holy Scriptures. 

2. That the Chrift they profefs is not the true Lord 
Jefus Chrift. 

3. That the Spirit by which they are acted, is not the 
Spirit of God. 

4. That they do not own the Holy Scriptures. 

5. Their principles and profeffions, are full of contra- 
dictions and hypocrifies 

6. That their religion is not only an herefy in the mat- 
ters of worfhip, but alfo in the doctrines of Repentance, 
Faith, &c. 

7. Their Religion is but a confufed mixture of Popery, 
Armineanifme, Socineanifme, Judaifme, &c. 

8. The people called Quakers (in effect) hold no God, 
no Chrift, no Spirit, no Angel, no Devil, no Refurrection, 
no Judgment, no Heaven, no Hell, but what is in man. 

9. All that their Religion requires (external and inter- 
nal) to make converts and profelites, amounts to no more 
than what a reprobate may eafily attain unto, and perform. 

10. That the Popes of Rome do not fwell with, and 
exercife a greater pride, then the Quakers Spirit have 
exprelfed, and doth afpire unto, although many truly hum- 
ble fouls may be captivated amongft them, as may be in 
other Religions. 

360 Letters of Roger Williams. 

11. The Quakers' Religion is more obftru&ive and de- 
ftructive to the converfion and falvation of the fouls of 
people, then moft of the Religions this day extant in the 

12. The fufferings of the Quakers are no true evidence 
of the Truth of their Religion. 

13. That their many books and writings are extremely 
poor, lame, naked, and fwelled up only with high titles and 
words of boafling and vapor. 

14. That the fpirit of their Religion tends mainly, 

1. To reduce perfons from civility to barbarilm. 

2. To an arbitrary goverment, and the dictates and de- 
crees of that fudden Spirit that acts them. 

3. To a fudden cutting off of people, yea of Kings and 
Princes oppoling them. 

4. To as fiery perfecutions for matters of Religion and 
Confcience, as hath been or can be pra6tifed by any Hun- 
ters or Perfecutors in the world. 

Under thefe forementioned heads (if the Spirit of the 
Quakers dare civilly to argue) will be opened many of the 
Popifh, Proteftant, Jewiih and Quakers Politions, which 
cannot here be mentioned, in the Difpute (if God pleafe) 
they muff be alledged, and the examination left to every 
perfon's confcience, as they will anfwer to God, (at their 
own perils) in the great day approaching. 

Roger Williams. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 361 

Roger Williams to Samuel Hubbard. 1 

My Dear Friend, Samuel Hubbard, — To yourfelf 
and aged companion, my loving refpects in the Lord Jefus, 
who ought to be our hope of glory, begun in this life, and 
enjoyed to all eternity. I have herein returned your little, 
yet great remembrance of the hand of the Lord to your- 
felf and your fon, late departed. I praife the Lord for 
your humble kirling of his holy rod, and acknowledging 
his juft and righteous, together with his gracious and mer- 
ciful difpenfation to you. I rejoice, alfo, to read your hea- 
venly defires and endeavors, that your trials may be gain to 
your own fouls and the fouls of the youth of the place, 
and all of us. You are not unwilling, I judge, that I deal 
plainly and friendly with you. After all that I have feen 
and read and compared about the feventh day, (and I have 
earneftly and carefully read and weighed all I could 
come at in God's holy prefence) I cannot be removed 
from Calvin's mind, and indeed Paul's mind, Col. ii. that 
all thofe fabbaths of feven days were figures, types and 
fhadows, and forerunners of the Son of God, and that the 
change is made from the remembrance of the firft crea- 
tion, and that (figurative) reft on the feventh day, to the 
remembrance of the fecond creation on the firft, on which 

'Backus, Hi/}, of the Baptifts, vol. i. to the Baptifl communion at Newport, 

p. 51°- in 1648, where he lived to a great age. 

Samuel Hubbard came to Salem in His only fon, Samuel, died late in 1671. 

1633 ; removed to Springfield, and was Savage, Gen. Dicl. vol. ii. p. 485. As 

one of the five founders of the Baptift it is to the death of this fon that Mr. 

Church there. His name appears in Williams refers, we may place the date 

the roll of freemen of Newport, in of this letter fometime in 1672, after the 

1655. In 1664 he was chofen " Solici- difpute with the Quakers at Newport, 

tor." Backus lays he was received in- in Auguft of that year. 


Letters of Roger Williams. 

our Lord arofe conqueror from the dead. Accordingly, 
I have read many, but fee no fatisfying anfwer to thofe 
three Scriptures, chiefly Acts 20, 1 Cor. 16, Rev. i,in con- 
fidence to which I make fome poor confcience to God as 
to the reft day. As for thoughts for England, I humbly 
hope the Lord hath mowed me to write a large narrative 
of all thofe four days' agitation between the Quakers 1 
and myfelf; if it pleafe God I cannot get it printed in 
New England, I have great thoughts and purpofes for Old. 
My age, lamenefs, and many other weaknelfes, and the 
dreadful hand of God at fea, calls for deep confideration. 
What God may pleafe to bring forth in the ipring, his 
holy wifdom knows. If he pleafe to bring to an abfolute 
purpofe, I will fend you word, and my dear friend, Oba- 
diah Holmes, who lent me a meflage to the fame purpofe. 
At prefent, I pray falute refpeclively, Mr. John Clarke and 
his brothers, Mr. Torrey, 2 Mr. Edes, Edward Smith,* Wil- 
liam Hifcox,* Stephen Mumford, and other friends, whofe 
prefervation, of the iiland, and this country, I humbly beg 
of the Father of Mercies, in whom I am yours unworthy, 

Roger Williams. 

1 The difcuffion with the Quakers at 
Newport : fee the two previous letters. 

z Jofeph Torrey, admitted a freeman 
of Newport, in 1653, was for many 
years a prominent man in the colony. 
He filled the offices of Deputy and Ai- 
fiftant in the General Ailembly, General 
Recorder, Solicitor General, etc. 

^Edward Smith, admitted a freeman of 
Newport, in 1653, from which town he 
was leveral times chofen an Affiilant and 

^William Hifcox, admitted a freeman 
of New/port, in 1 67 1 : one of the Coun- 
cil of Advice in the Indian war, 1676. — 
R. I. CoL Records, vol. ii. p. 557. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 363 

To my honored kind friend, Mr. fohn Winthrop, Governor of 
his Majejly s Colony of Connecticut, prefent. 

From Mr. Richard Smiths, June 13, 1675. 1 

Sir, — Mr. Smith 2 being at Newport, I am occasioned to 
prefent my old and conftant love and refpecls, as alfo Mrs. 
Smith's great thanks and fervice to you. Sir, Mr. Smith 
delivered me two letters, the one from Mr. Fitch, the 
other from Mr. John Mafon, praying me (according to 
the contents of the letters) to enquire of Mawfup, (now 
called Canonicus), 3 whether Uncas had ftirred him up 
againft the Wunnafhowatuckowogs, to kill them, &c. Sir, 
a fortnight fince I went to Canonicus his houfe, but he 
was gone twelve miles off: I fought him again yefterday, 
and found him rive miles from his houfe : I ihewed him 
the letters : I ufed alfo your honored name, and the names 
of your honored Affirmants, both concerning the killing of 
the Englith cattle in thefe parts ; as alfo concerning their 
carriage towards the Wunnafhowattuckoogs who are re- 
fpecled by yourfelves. 

Sir, Canonicus and other Sachems and his Council pro- 
fefs they will be careful of the Englifh and their cattle 
among them : alfo that they will (how refpecl to thofe 
Showatuks for your fake, and in particular (which an- 
fwers Mr. Fitch and Mr. Mafon's letters) Canonicus utter- 
ly denies that Uncas ever folieited him to kill or molefl 
thofe Showatuks. Withall he added two reafons. Firft, 
that it is not credible that fince Uncas killed his brother 
Miantunnomu, he (Canonicus) mould be folieited by Un- 

1 4 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. vi. p. 297. where he eftablifhed himfelf in 1639 : 

1 Smith's residence was at Wickford, fee note to letter on page 177. 

^Better known by the name of Pcjffacus. 

364 Letters of Roger Williams. 

cas in fuch a buiinefs, or that he mould gratify Uncas de- 
fires, &c. 2. Both himfelf, and Nananawtunu 1 (Miantun- 
nomu's youngeft, very hopeful fpark) defired earneftly that 
Tatuphofuwut, Uncas his fon, who hath killed a Wiyow 
(or Sachem) one of their coufins, may fuffer impartially, 
as now the Englifh have dealt with the three Indians which 
killed John SoiTiman. Alfo they prayed me to add, that 
yourfelf are not ignorant of Uncas his many foul prac- 
tices, and how he treacheroufly fent an head (or heads) of 
the Connecticut Indians to the Mawquawogs, and would 
fend your heads alfo as prefents if he would come at them. 
Sir, Nananawtinu added this argument for impartiality to- 
ward Tatuphofuit : I am (laid he) my father Miantunno- 
mu's fon, as Tatuphofuit is to Uncas : if there fhould par- 
tiality be mowed to him, and that money fhould buy out 
men's lives, or that one of his men fhould die for him, 
then all we young Sachems fhall have a temptation laid 
before us to kill and murder, &c, in the hope of the like 

Sir, it is true that Philip fearing (apprehenfion) flood 
upon his guard with his armed barbarians. 2 Taunton, 
Swanfey, Rehoboth, and Providence flood upon ours, but 
praifed be God, the ftorm is over, Philip is ftrongly fuf- 
pe&ed, but the honored Court at Plymouth (as we hear) 
not having evidence fufficient, let matters fleep, and the 
country be in quiet, 6cc. 

'Alias Canonchet, at this time the ac- He refufed to go there unlefs Mr. Wil- 

knowledged Sachem of the Narragan- Hams was a mediator. Williams's agen- 

fetts. cy in the matter was fuccefsful ; the Gov- 

* Rumors of intended war on the part ernor and the Sachem met; the latter 

of Philip, or Metacom, fon of Mafia- denied any hofiile defign and promifed 

ibit, had been prevalent for feveral years, future fidelity. The war was thus de- 

and the Governor of Plymouth, had in- layed four years. — Knowles, p. 341. 
vited Philip to meet him at Taunton. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 365 

Sir, I conftantly think of you, and fend up one remem- 
brance to heaven for you, and a groan from myfelf for 
myfelf, when I pafs Elizabeth's Spring. 1 Here is the 
fpring fay I (with a figh) but where is Elizabeth ? 2 My 
charity anfwers, fhe is gone to the Eternal Spring and 
Fountain of Living Waters : Oh, Sir, I befeech the Fa- 
ther of Mercies and Spirits to preferve your precious foul 
in life (long and long [a portion of the letter and Jignature 

Sir, about a fortnight fince your old acquaintance, Mr. 
Blackftone,3 departed this life in the fourfcore year of his 
age; four days before his death he had a great pain in his 
breaft, and back, and bowels : afterward he faid he was 
well, had no pains, and mould live, but he grew fainter, 
and yielded up his breath without a groan. The Lord 
make us wait (with Job) for that great change. 

1 The fpring fo called from Gover- lowing year he fold this eilate and re- 
nor Winthrop's lady, named Elizabeth, movtd to the banks of a beautiful river 
drinking at it as fhe paffed to Bofton. — which now bears his name. The place 
Note probably by John Winthrop, F. R. S. is known as Study Hill, in Cumberland, 

2 Mrs. Elizabeth Winthrop, the wife about fix miles from Providence. It has 
of John Winthrop, Jr., died November been faid that Blackftone was driven from 
24, 1672. Bofton, " a 1 opinion " fays Savage (note 

1 William Blackftone, an Epifcopal to Winthrop's Journal, i. 53,) " not to 

minifter, and the firft inhabitant of Bof- be entertained for a moment." His name 

ton, fettled there in 1625 or 1626, where is fometimes fpelled Blaxton. Williams 

he refided when Gov. Winthrop arrived fpells it BlackJIone, which is undoubtedly 

in 1630. At a Court held in April, correct. He died at his houfe on the 

1633, fifty acres of land, near his houfe 26th of May, 1675. 
in Bofton, were granted him. The fol- 

3 66 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

To my much honored kind friend Mr. jfohn PVinthrop, Gover- 
nor of Connecticut, prefent. 

From Mr. Smith's at N^ahigonsik, June 25, 1675. 1 

Sir, — This incloied of a former date comes to my hand 
again at Mr. Smith's. Mr. Smith is now abfent at Long 
Iiland. Mrs. Smith, though too much favoring the Fox- 
ians (called Quakers) yet (lie is a notable fpirit for courtefy 
toward Grangers, and prays me to prefent her great thanks 
foi your conftant remembrance of her, and of late by 
Capt. Atherton. 

Sir, this morning are departed from this houfe Capt. 
Hutchinfon 2 and two more of Bofton Com miffioners from 
the Governor and Council of Bofton to the Narraganfett 
and Coweiit Indians. They came (three days fince) to my 
houfe at Providence, with a letter to myfelf from the Gov- 
ernor and Council at Bofton, praying my advice to their 
Commiffioners and my aftiftance, &c, in their negotia- 
tions with the Narraganfett Indians. I, within an half 
hour's warning) departed with them toward the Narragan- 

1 4 Mafs. Hill. Coll vol. vi. p. 299. 

2 " The Mafiachufetts government fent 
Capt. Hutchinfon as their commiffioner 
to treat with the Narraganfetts. It was 
thought convenient to do it fword in 
hand, therefore all the forces marched 
into the Narraganfett country. Con- 
necticut afterwards fent two gentlemen 
[Maj. Wait Winthrop and Richard 
Smith] and on the 15th of July they 
came to an agreement with the Narra- 
ganfett Indians, who favcred Philip in 
their hearts, and waited only a conveni- 
ent opportunity to declare openly for 
him, but whilR the army was in their 
country were obliged to fubmit to the 

terms impofed upon them." — Hutchin- 
son, Hift. of Majjacbufetts Bay, vol. i. 
p. 288. 

This agreement which is given at 
length by Hutchinfon, (pp. 289-291,) 
bears the fignatures of fix Sachems of 
the Narraganfetts. By it they were bound 
to feize and deliver to the Englifh "any 
of Philip's fubjecls, living or dead ; ufe 
all afts of hoftility againfl Philip and 
his fubjedts ; to fearch out and deliver 
all goods ltolen or taken from the Eng- 
lifh, at any time ; to ceafe from all 
manner of thefts and to be ufed as a 
guard about the Narraganfett country 
for the fecurity of the Englifh." 

Letters of Roger Williams. 367 

fett. We had one meeting that night with Quaunoncku, 
Miantunnomu's youngeft fon, and upon the opening of 
the Governor's letters, he readily and gladly arTented to all 
the Governor's defires, and fent poft to Maufup, (now 
called Canonicus), to the Old Queen, 1 Ninicraft and Quaw- 
nipund, to give us a meeting at Mr. Smith's. They being 
uncivil and barbarous, and the Old Queen (efpecially timo- 
rous, we condefcended to meet them all near the great 
pond, at lean 1 ten miles from Mr. Smith's houfe. We laid 
open the Governor's letter : and accordingly they profeifed 
to hold no agreement with Philip, in this his rifing againft 
the Englifh. They profeffed ^though Uncas had fent 
twenty to Philip, yet) they had not fent one nor would : 
that they had prohibited all their people from going on 
that fide, that thofe of their people who had made mar- 
riages with them, mould return or perifh there : that if 
Philip or his men fled to them, yet they would not receive 
them, but deliver them up unto the Englifh. 

They queftioned us why Plymouth purfued Philip. 
We anfwered : he broke all laws, and was in arms of re- 
bellion againft that Colony, his ancient friends and pro- 
tectors, though it is believed that he was the author of 
murdering John Softiman, 2 for revealing his plots to the 
Governor of Plymouth, and for which three a&ors were 

1 i^uiapen, afterwards called the Sunke given notice to the Englifb of a plot 

Squaw, or Old Queen of the Narragan- which he had difcovered amongft Philip's 

fetts. She was Ninigret's filter and had Indians againft the Englifh, was foon after 

been the wife of Meika the Ion of Ca- murdered." "Three Indians, one a coun- 

nonicus. She was taken prifoner by the fellor of Philip's, were convicted of the 

Connecticut troops in July, 1676, and murder, at the Plymouth Court and exe- 

put to death. — Potter's H'tji. of Narra- cuted." — Holmes' Annals, vol. i. p. 369 ; 

ganfett, p. 172. Hubbard, Indian Wars, p. 14. 

Z k« 

Sanfaman, a friendly Indian, having 

368 Letters of Roger Williams. 

two weeks fince executed at Plymouth, (though one broke 
the rope, and is kept in prifon until their Court in Octo- 

2. They demanded of us why the Maflachufetts and Rhode 
Ifland rofe, and joined with Plymouth againft Philip, and 
left not Philip and Plymouth to fight it out. We 
anfwered that all the Colonies were fubjecl: to one King 
Charles, and it was his pleafure, and our duty and engage- 
ment, for one Englifh man to ftand to the death by each 
other, in all parts of the world. 

Sir, two particulars the Molt Holy and Only Wife made 
ufe of to engage (I hope and fo do the Commiffioners) 
in earneft to enter into thofe aforefaid engagements. 

Firft, the fenfe of their own danger if they feparate not 
from Plymouth Indians, and Philip their defperate head. 
This argument we fet home upon them, and the Bay's 
refolution to purfue Philip (if need be) and his partakers 
with thoufands of horfe and foot, befide the other Colo- 
nies, &c. 

3. Their great and vehement defire of juftice upon Ta- 
tuphofuit, for the late killing of a Narraganfett young man 
\fc\ of account with them, which point while we were 
difcourling of, and their inftance with me to write to the 
Governor and Council of MafTachufetts about it (which I 
have this morning done by their Commiffioners) in comes 
(as from Heaven) your dear fon Major Winthrop 1 to our 
affiftance, who affirmed that hefaw Tatuphofuit fent bound 
to Hartford jail, and his father Uncas, taking boat with 
him. The Sachems faid they knew it, and had written about 
it (by my letter inclofed) to yourfelf : but they were in- 

1 Major Wait Winthrop, a commiffioner from Connefticut. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 369 

formed that he was fet free, and was keeping his Nicommo, 
or dance in triumph, &c. Your fon replied thai either it 
was not {o f or if it were, it was according to your law of leav- 
ing Indians to Indian juftice, which if neglected you would 
then act, &c. In line, their earnert requeft was that either 
Tatuphofuit might have impartial juftice, (for many rea- 
fons, or elfe they might be permitted to right themfelves, 
which the CommilTioners thought might be great prudence 
(in this juncture of affairs) that thefe two nations, the 
Narraganfetts and Mohegans might be taken off from 
aififting Philip (which paffionately he endeavors), and the 
Englifh may more fecurely and effectually profecute the 
quenching of this Philippian fire in the beginning of it. 1 
The laft night they have (as is this morning faid) flain five 
Englifh of Swanfey, and brought their heads to Philip, 
and mortally wounded two more, with the death of one 
Indian. By letters from the Governor of Plymouth to 
Mr. Coddington, Governor of Rhode Ifland, we hear that 
the Plymouth forces (about two hundred) with Swanfey 
and Rehoboth men, were this day to give battle to Philip. 
Sir, my old bones and eyes are weary with travel and wri- 
ting to the Governors of Maffachufetts and Rhode Iiland, 
and now to yourfelves. I end with humble cries to the 
Father of Mercies to extend his ancient and wonted mer- 
cies to New England, and am, Sir, 

Your moll unworthy Servant, 

Roger Williams. 

1 Thefe were the firfl open hoftilities ly attacked the people of Swanzey, of 

in the war. " The Indians having fent which they flew nine. This took place 

their wives and children to the Narra- on the 24th June. The alarm was now 

ganfetts for fecurity, began to alarm the given and troops haflened forward from 

Englifh at Swanzey, by killing their cat- Bollon and Plymouth, joining forces at 

tie and rifling their houfes." An Eng- Swanzey on the 28th. — Hubbard, Indian 

liftiman fired at them when they inllant- Wars ; Holmes' Annals, vol. i. p. 368. 


3 70 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Mrs. Smith earneftly defires your loving advice to hei 
hufband, to lay by his voyage to England : partly by rea- 
fon of his inward grief, and alfo that his bufinefs may be 
tranfacted by delegation. She prays you alfo to confider 
your own age and weaknefs, and not to lay your precious 
bones in England. 

Sir, my humble refpecls to your honored Council. 

Roger Williams. 

Roger IVillia?ns to John Winthrop, jr. 

From Mr. Smith's, 27 June, 75, (fo called.) 1 

Sir, — Since my laft (enclofed) the next day after the 
departure of Capt. Hutchinfon and the meffengers from 
Bofton, a party of one hundred Narraganfett Indians, armed, 
marched to Warwick, which, as it frightened Warwick, fo 
did it alfo the inhabitants here ; though iince we heai that 
the party departed from Warwick without blood fhedding : 
however, it occasioned the Engliih here (and myfelf) to 
fufpecl: that all the fine words from the Indian Sachems to 
us were but words of policy, falfehood and treachery : es- 
pecially fince now the Englifh teftify, that for divers 
weeks (if not months) canoes palled to and again (day and 
night between Philip and the Narraganfetts) 2 and the Nar- 
raganfett Indians have committed many robberies on the 

1 4 Mafs. Hift. Coll. vol. vi. p. 302. Indians within the bounds of Rhode If- 

2 Hubbard fays "the Narraganfetts land. Hutchinfon fays "at the begin- 
promifed to rife with 4000 men in the ning of Philip's War, it was generally 
fpring of the year 1676." — Hift. of the agreed that the Narraganfett tribe con- 
Indian Wars, p. 1 26. This large num- filled of 2000 fighting men. — Hift. of 
ber is fuppofed to have included all the Majfachujetts, vol. i. p. 458. 

"Letters of Roger Williams. 371 

Englilh houfes. Alfo, it is thought that Philip durft not 
have proceeded fo far, had he not been allured to have 
been feconded and affifted by the Mohegans and Narra- 

Two days lince, the Governor and Council of Rhode 
Iiland fent letters and melTengers to Maufup (Canonicus) 
inviting him to come to them to Newport, and alluring 
him of fafe conduct to come and depart in fafety. His 
anfwer was, that he could not depart from his child which lay 
lick: but (as he had allured the Bolton mellengers)fo he pro- 
felfed to thefe from Newport, that his heart affected and for- 
rowed for the Englilh, that he could not rule the youth 
and common people, nor perfuade others, chief amongft 
them, except his brother Miantunnomu's fon, Nananautunu. 
He advifed the Englilh at Narraganfett to ftand upon their 
guard, to keep ftricl: watch, and, if they could, to fortify 
one or more houfes ftrongly, which if they could not do, 
then to fly. Yefterday, Mrs. Smith (after more, yea, molt 
of the women and children gone) departed in a great 
fhower, by land, for Newport, to take boat in a velTel four 
miles from her houfe. Sir, juft now comes in Sam. Dier 
in a catch from Newport, to fetch over Jireh Bull's wife 
and children, and others of Puttaquomfcutt l He brings 
word that lalt night Caleb Carr's boat (fent on purpofe to 
Swanfey for tidings) brought word that Philip had killed 
twelve Englilh at Swanfey, (the fame Canonicus told us,) 
and that Philip fent three heads to them, but he advifed a 

1 Jireh Bull had a " gar ri fon houfe " Wars, Bolton, 1677: p. 50. Jireh Bull 

at Pettequomfcut, which in December was " Confervator of the Peace for 

following was attacked by the Indians King's Province." — R. I. Col. Records, 

and burned. Ten Englilh men and five vol. ii. The garrifon-houfe or fort was 

women were killed. — Hubbard, Indian on Tower Hill, South Kingftown. 

37 2 Letters of Roger Williams, 

refufal of them, which Tome lay was done, only the old 
Queen rewarded the bringers for their travel. Caleb Carr 
faith alfo, that one Englifh fentinel was mot in the face and 
flain by an Indian that crept near unto him: that they 
have burnt about twelve houfes, one new great one (An- 
thony Loes) : that Philip had left his place, being a neck, 
and three hundred of Plymouth Englifh, Swanfey and others 
know not where he is, and therefore Capt. Oliver (being at 
Mr. Brown's) rode poll: to Bofton for fome hundreds of 
horfe : that fome hurt they did about Providence, and fome 
fay John Scot, at Pawtucket ferry, is flain. Indeed, Canoni- 
cus advifed the Englifh to take heed of remaining in lone 
out places, and of travelling in the common roads. 

Sir, many wifh that Plymouth had left the Indians alone, 
at leaft not to put to death the three Indians upon one In- 
dian's teftmony, a thing which Philip fears ; and thatyour- 
felves (at this juncture) could leave the Mohegans and 
Narraganfetts to themfelves as to Tatuphufoit, if there 
could be any juft way by your General Court found out 
for the preventing of their conjunction with Philip, which 
fo much concerneth the peace of New England. Upon 
requefh of the Government of Plymouth, Rhode Ifland 
hath fet out fome floops to attend Philip's motions by wa- 
ter and his canoes : it is thought he bends for an efcape to 
the Iilands. Sir, I fear the enclofed and this will be grie- 
vous to thofe vifible fpirits, which look out at your win- 
dows : mine, I am fure to complain, &c, yet I prefs them 
for your and the public fake, for why is our candle, yet 
burning, but to glorify our dreadful former, and in making 
our own calling and election fure, and ferving God in ferv- 
ing the public in our generation. 

Your unworthy fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 373 

To Governor Lever ett, at Bojlon. 

Providence, ii, 8, 75, fo accounted. [October 11, 1675.]' 

Sir, — Yours of the 7th I gladly and thankfully received, 
and humbly defire to praife that Moft High and Holy 
Hand, invilible and only wife, who carts you down, by fo 
many public and perfonal trials, and lifts you up again with 
any (lucida iniervalla) mitigations and refrefhments. Ab 
inferno nulla redemptio : from the grave and hell no return. 
Here, like Noah's dove, we have our checker work, blacks 
and whites come out and go into the ark, out and in again 
till the laft, whom we never fee back again. 

The buiinefs of the day in New England is not only to 
keep ourfelves from murdering, our houfes, barns, &c, 
from firing, to deftroy and cut off the barbarians, or fub- 
due and reduce them, but our main and principal opus diei 
is, to liften to what the Eternal fpeaketh to the whole 
fhip, (the country, colonies, towns, &c ) and each private 
cabin, family, perfon, &c. He will fpeak peace to his peo- 
ple ; therefore, faith David, "I will liften to what Jeho- 
vah fpeaketh." Oliver, in ftraits and defeats, efpecially at 
Hifpaniola, deiired all to fpeak and declare freely what they 
thought the mind of God was. H. Vane (then lain by) 
wrote his difcourfe, entitled "A Healing Queftion," but for 
touching upon (that noli me tangere) State iins, H. Vane 
went prifoner to Carifbrook Caftle, in the Ille of Wight. 
Oh, Sir, I humbly fubfcribe {ex ammo) to your mort and 
long prayer, in your letter. The Lord keep us from our 
own deceivings. I know there have been, and are, many 
precious and excellent fpirits amongft you, if you take 
flight before me, I will then fay you are one of them, with- 

l Plymoutb Records, vol. x. p. 453 ; Knowles, Life of Williams, p. 342. 

374 Letters of Roger Williams. 

out daubing,) but rebus Jic ft antibus, as the wind blows, the 
united colonies dare not permit, Candida et bonaftde y two 
dangerous (fuppofed) enemies: i. diifenting and non-con- 
forming worfhippers, and 2. liberty of free (really free) dil 
putes, debates, writing, printing, &c. ; the Mod High hatl. 
begun and given fome tafte of thefe two dainties in fome 
parts, and will more and more advance them when (as Lu- 
ther and Erafmus to the Emperor, Charles V., and the 
Duke of Saxony,) thofe two gods are famifhed, the Pope's 
crown and the Monks' bellies. The fame Luther was 
wont to fay, that every man had a pope in his belly, and 
Calvin expreffly wrote to Melandthon, that Luther made 
himfelf another Pope ; yet, which of us will not fay, Jere- 
miah, thou lieft, when he tells us (and from God) we muft 
not go down to Egypt ? 

Sir, I ufe a bolder pen to your noble fpirit than to many, 
becaufe the Father of Lights hath mown your foul more 
of the myfteries of iniquity than other excellent heads and 
hearts dream of, and becaufe, whatever you or I be in other 
refpecls, yet in this vou will acl: a pope, and grant me your 
love, pardon and indulgence. 

Sir, iince the doleful news from Springfield, here it is faid 
that Philip with a ftrong body of many hundred cut- 
throats, fleers for Providence and Seekonk, fome fay for 
Norwich and Stonington, and fome fay your forces have 
had a lofs by their cutting off fome of your men, in their 
paffing over a river. Fiat voluntas Dei, there I humbly 
reft, and let all go but himfelf. Yet, Sir, I am requefted 
by our Capt. Fenner 1 to give you notice, that at his farm, 

1 Arthur Fenner firft appears on the the inhabitants, and for many vears re- 
roll of freemen of Providence, in 1655. prefented the town as a Commiflioner, 
He was one of the moli prominent of Deputy or Affiilant in the AiTembly. He 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


in the woods, he had it from a native, that Philip's great de- 
fign is among all other poffible advantages and treacheries) 
to draw Capt. Mofely 1 and others, your forces, by train- 
ing and drilling, and Teeming flights, into fuch places as 
are full of long grafs, flags, fedge, &c, and then environ 
them round with fire, fmoke and bullets. Some fay no 
wife foldier will fo be caught ; but as I told the young 
prince, on his return lately from you, all their wariscom- 
mootin ; they have commootined our houfes, our cattle, 
our heads, &c, and that not by their artillery, but our wea- 
pons ; that yet they were fo cowardly, that they have not 
taken one poor fort from us in all the country, nor won, 
nor fcarce fought, one battle fince the beginning. I told 
him and his men, being then in my canoe, with his men 
with him, that Philip was his cawkakinnamuck, that is, 
looking glafs. He was deaf to all advice, and now was 

was a Captain in Philip's war, and was 
by the General Aflembly appointed 
"Commander of the King's garrifon at 
Providence, and of all other private gar- 
rifon or garrifons there, not eclipfing 
Captain Williams's power in the exer- 
cife of the Traine Band there." His 
commiflion is printed at length in Colo- 
nial Records, vol. ii. p. 547. 

Mr. Williams alfo held a commiflion 
as Captain, as appears by the Records, 
(vol. ii. p. 548,1 notwithstanding his age. 
It certainly difplayed great fpirit and 
patriotifm for a man of feventy-feven 
years to engage in a military campaign 
againft the Indians. The following ap- 
pears on the records of Providence : "I 
pray the town, in the fenf'e of the bloody 
practices of the natives, to give leave to 
fo many as can agree with William Field, 
to beilow fomc charge upon fortifying 

his houfe, for fecurity to women and 
children. Alfo to give me leave, and fo 
many as fhall agree, to put up fome de- 
fence on the hill, between the mill and 
the highway, for the like fafety of the 
women and children in that part of the 
town." Various fums were fubfcribed 
to defray the coll of this fortification, 
the largest of which was £2.6., except 
that of Mr. Williams which was £10. 
The propofed fort was probably to be 
placed at the head of what is now Con- 
ilitution Hill. 

1 Samuel Mofely, of Dorchefter, a cap- 
tain in the war with Philip, fhowed gal- 
lant lpirit and had great luccefs in de- 
ftroying the Indians. He was, by fome, 
thought to take too great delight in that 
exercife. — Savage, Genealogical Dictiona- 
ry vol. iii. p. 179. 

376 Letters of Roger Williams. 

overfet, Cooflikowwawy, and catched at every part of the 
country to Cave himfelf, but he mail never get aihore, &c. 
He anfwered me in a confenting, considering kind of 
way, Philip Coomkowwawy. I went with my great ca- 
noe to help him over from Seekonk (for to Providence no 
Indian comes) to Pawtuxet iide. I told him I would not 
afk him news, for I knew matters were private; only I told 
him that if he were falfe to his engagements, we would pur- 
fue them with a winter's war, when they fhould not, as 
mufketoes and rattlefnakes in warm weather, bite us, &c. 

Sir, I carried him and Mr. Smith a glafs of wine, but 
Mr. Smith not coming, I gave wine and glafs to himfelf, 
and a bufhel of apples to his men, and being therewith 
(as hearts are) caught, they gave me leave to fay anything, 
acknowledged loudly your great kindnefs in Bofton, and 
mine, and yet Capt. Fenner told me yefterday, that he 
thinks they will prove our worfr. enemies at laft. I am 
between fear and hope, and humbly wait, making fure, as 
Hafelrig's motto was, fure of my anchor in heaven, Tantum 
in Coelis, only in heaven. Sir, there I long to meet you. 

Your molt unworthy, 

Roger Williams. 

To Mrs. Leverett, and other honored and beloved 
friends, humble refpecls, &c. 

Sir, I hope your men fire all the woods before them, &c. 

Sir, I pray not a line to me, except on necelfary bufineis; 
only give me leave (as you do) to ufe my foolifh boldnefs 
to vifit yourfelf, as I have occaiion. I would not add to 
your troubles. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 377 

For my honored kind friend Mr. "John Winthrop, Governor 
of Connecticut Colony \ at Bojlon or elfewhere, prefent. 
Leave this at my loving friends Dan : Smith, at Re ho both. 

Providence, 18, io, 75, (et vulgo.) [December 1 8th, 1675. ]* 

Sir, — If you are ftill in Bofton (which owes you more 
and your precious name, then it is like to pay you) pleafe 
you to pafs by, that I have not troubled you with a late 
falutation. The prefent revolutions of the wonderful and 
all fighted wheels (Ezek. I.) roufe up my fleepy fpirits to 
mufe and write, and to prefent yourfelf and others with 
what I believe to be the mind and voice of the Mod 
High amongft us. Others think otherwife (and fome clean 
contrary) ; unto whom I fay at prefent, let them take the 
pains which God mercifully hath helped me to take, to 
find out where's the difference : let them fuffer what (and 
fo long) God hath helped me to bear for their belief and 
confcience : let them debate freely, calmly, &c, as I hope 
God hath helped me and will help me to do, (without the 
Pope's fword, which Chrift commanded Peter to put up 
in his matters.) 

Sir, I have heard that you have been in late confultations, 
fetnper idem, fetnper pacificus, and I hope therein beatus. You 
have always been noted for tendernefs toward men's fouls, 
efpecially for confcience fake to God. You have been 
noted for tendernefs toward the bodies and infirmities of 
poor mortals. You have been tender too, toward the ef- 
tates of men in your civil fteerage of government, and to- 
ward the peace of the land, yea, of thefe wild favages. I 
prefume you are fatisfied in the neceflity of thefe prefent 
hoftilities, and that it is not pofiible at prefent to keep 

1 4 Mafs. Hijl. Col. vol. vi. p. 305. 

378 Letters of Roger Williams. 

peace with thefe barbarous men of blood, who are as juftly 
to be repelled and fubdued as wolves that affault the fheep. 
It was ... in . . . eft . . . rium : l God hath helped 
yourfelf and other \tor?i\ with wonderful felf-denial and 
patience to keep off this neceffity. But God (againft 
whom only is no fighting) is pleafed to put this iron yoke 
upon our necks, and (as he did with the Canaanites) to 
harden them againft Jofhua to their deftruction. I fear 
the event of the jufteft war: but if it pleafe God to de- 
liver them into our hands, I know you will antiqum obti- 
nere, and ftill endeavor that our fword may make a differ- 
ence, and par cere Jubjeclis, though we debellare fuperbos. 
God killeth, deftroyeth, plagueth, damneth none but thofe 
that will perifh, and fay (as thefe barbarians now fay) Nip- 
pittoi ; though I die for it, &c. 

Sir, I hope the not approach of your dear fon with his, 
(your forces of Connecticut,) &c, is only through the in- 
tercepting of the ports : for we have now no pafiing by 
Elizabeth's Spring without a ftrong foot. God will have 
it fo. Dear Sir, if we cannot fave our patients, nor rela- 
tions, nor Indians, nor Englifh, oh let us make fure to fave 
the bird in our bofom, and to enter in that ftraight door 
and narrow way, which the Lord Jefus himfelf tells us, 
few there be that find it. Sir, your unworthy 

Roger Williams. 

1 This fentence has been carefully erafed. 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 379 

To the much honored Governor Leverett at Bojion, prefent. 

Providence, 14 Jan. 1675, (f° called.) 1 

Sir, — This night I was requeued by Capt. Fenner and 
other officers of our town to take the examination and 
confeffion of an Engliih man who hath been with the In- 
dians before and fince the fight : his name is Jolhua Tift 2 
and he was taken by Capt. Fenner this day at an Indian 
houfe half a mile from where Capt. Fenner's houfe (now 
burned) did ftand. Capt. Fenner and others of us propofed 
feveral queftions to him, which he anfwered, and I was 
requefted to write, which I did, and thought fit having 
this bearer (Mr. Scott) brought by God's gracious hand of 
Providence to mine, to prefent you with an extract of the 
pith and fubftance of all he anfwered to us. 

He was afked by Capt. Fenner, how long he had been 
with the Narraganfetts. He anfwered about twenty-feven 
days, more or lefs. 

He was demanded how he came amongft them. He 
faid that he was at his farm a mile and a half from Put- 
tuckquomfcut, where he hired an Indian to keep his cat- 
tle, himfelf propofing to go to Rhode Ifland, but that 
day which he purpofed and prepared to depart, there came 
to his houfe, Nananawtenu (the young Sachem) his elder 
brother Paupauquivwut, with their Captain Quaquackis 
and a party of men, and told them he muft die. He faid 
that he begged for his life, and promifed that he would be 
fervant to the Sachem while he lived. He faid the Sachem 

'4 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. vi. p. 307. ral parents, fighting againlt them. He 

2 "Jofhua Tifft, a renegade Englifhman was wounded in the knee, and taken 

of Providence, that upon fome diicon- prifoner. After examination he was 

tent had turned Indian, married a fquaw, condemned to die the death of a trai- 

renounced his religion, nation and natu- tor." — Hubbard, Narrative, p. 162. 

3 8o 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

then carried him along with him, having given him his 
life as his flave. He faid that he brought him to their fort, 
where was about eight hundred fighting men and about 
two hundred houfes. He faid the Indians brought five of 
his cattle and killed them before his face : fo he was 
forced to be filent, but prayed the Sachem to fpare the 
reft : who anfwered him what will cattle now do you good ; 
and the next day they fent for the reft and killed them all, 
whereof eight were his own. 

Being afked whether he was in the Fort in the fight, 1 

1 " The great Narraganfett fight." 
"On the 2d of November, 1675, tne 
Commiffioners of the United Colonies 
declared the Narraganfetts to be "deeply 
acceflbry in the preient bloody outrages" 
of the Indians that were at open war, 
and determined that 1000 more foldiers 
be raifed for the Narraganfett expedition. 
Thefe troops were accordingly railed. 
Thofe of Maffachufetts coniilling of fix 
companies of foot and a troop of horfe. 
Connecticut fent 300 foldiers and 150 
Mohegan and Pequod Indians. Gov. 
Winilow of Plymouth, was commander- 
in-chief. Rhode Ifland took no part in 
the fight. 

" On the 8th December, the Maffa- 
chufetts forces marched from Bolton, 
and were foon joined by thoi'e of Ply- 
mouth. The troops from Connecticut 
joined them on the 1 8th at Pettaquam- 
fcot. At break of day the next morn- 
ing, they commenced their march through 
a deep fnow, toward the enemy, who 
were about fifteen miles diftant in a 
fwamp, at the edge of which they ar- 
rived at one in the afternoon. The In- 
dians, apprized of an armanent againft 
them, had fortified themfelves ltrongly 

within the fwamp. The Englifh at once 
marched forward in queft of the enemy's 
camp. Some Indians appearing, were 
no fooner fired on by the Englifh, than 
they returned the fire and fled. The 
whole army now entered the fwamp and 
followed the Indians to their fortrefs. It 
flood on a rifing ground in the midfl of 
the fwamp, and was compofed of palli- 
fades, encompafled by a hedge. It had 
but one practicable entrance which was 
over a log, four or five feet from the 
ground ; and that aperture was guarded 
by a block-houfe. The Englifh captains 
entered it at the head of their compa- 
nies. The two firft, with many of their 
men were fhot dead at the entrance, and 
four other captains were alio killed. 
When the troops had effected an en- 
trance, they attacked the Indians, who 
fought defperately, and beat the Englifh 
out of the fort. After a hard fought 
battle of three hours, the Englifh be« 
came matters of the place, and fet fire to 
the wigwams. The number of them 
was 500 or 600, and in the conflagration 
many Indian women and children per- 
ifhed. The furvivors fled into a cedar 
fwamp, at a fhort diftance, and the Eng- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 381 

he faid yes, and waited on his matter the Sachem there, 
until he was wounded, (of which wound he lay nine days 
and died.) He faid that all the Sachems were in the Fort 
and ftaid two vollies of (hot, and then they fled with his 
mailer, and palfed through a plain, and refted by the fide 
of a fpruce fwamp, but he faid himfelf had no arms at all. 
He faid that if the Mohegans and Pequods had been true, 
they might have deftroyed molt of the Narraganfetts : but 
the Narraganfetts parlied with them in the beginning of 
the fight, fo that they promifed to (hoot high, which they 
did, and killed not one Narraganfett man, except againft 
their wills. 

He faid that when it was dufkilh, word was brought to 
the Sachems that the Englifh were retreated. Upon this 
they fent to the Fort to fee what their lofs was, where they 
found ninety-feven flain and forty-eight wounded, befide 
what flaughter was made in the houfes and by the burning 
of the houfes, all of which he faid were burnt except five 
or fix or thereabouts. He faid the Indians never came to 
the Fort more, that he knows of. He faid they found 
five or fix Englilh bodies, and from one of them a bag of 
about one pound and a half of powder was brought to the 
Sachems; and he faid that abundance of corn, and pro- 
visions, and goods were burnt alio. He faid fome powder 
belonging to the young Sachem, which was in a box, was 
blown up, but how much he cannot tell. 

He faid the Narraganfett's powder is (generally) gone 
and fpent, but Philip hath fent them word that he will 

lifh retired to their quarters. Of the Eng- thoufand are fuppofed to have perifhed." 
lifh there were killed and wounded about Holmes, Annals, vol. i. p. 575-376. 
two hundred and thirty; of which eighty- The fwamp where this battle took 

five were killed. Of the Indians, one place is three or four miles weft of the 

village of Kingfton. 

382 Letters of Roger Williams. 

furnifh them enough from the French. He faid they 
have carried New England money to the French for am- 
munition, but the money he will not take, but beaver or 
wampum. He faid that the French have fent Philip a 
prefent, viz.: a brafs gun and bandoliers fuitable. He faid 
alfo that the Narraganfetts have fent two bafkets of wam- 
pum to the Mohawks (Mauquawogs) where the French 
are, for their favor and affiftance. 

He fays that the Sachems and people were about ten 
miles northweft from Mr. Smith's, whether the Cowefets 
and Pumham and his men brought to the Sachems all the 
powder they could, but Canonicus faid it was nothing, for 
they had four hundred guns (beiide bows) and there was 
but enough for every gun a charge. The young Sachem 
faid that had he known that they were no better furnimed, 
he would have been elfewhere this winter. 

He faid that while they were in confultation, an Indian 
fquaw came in with a letter from the General. Some ad- 
vifed to fend to Philip for one of his counfellors to read 
it, but at laft they agreed to fend a councellor to the Gene- 
ral, who brought word that the General faid that there had 
been a fmall fight between them, and afked him how many 
Indians were llain, and how the Sachems liked it. That 
he deiired the Sachems would mow themfelves men, and 
come and parley with him : that if they feared they might 
bring what guard they pleafed, who might keep at a dif- 
tance from ours who mould not offer them anv affront, 
while the Sachems were at the houfe with the General, 
from whom they mould depart in peace, if they came to 
no agreement 

Their councillors faid that the Englifh did this only in 
policy to entrap the Sachems, as they had done Philip 

Letters of Roger Williams. 383 

many times, who, when he was in their hands, made him 
yield to what they pleafed. 

Nananawtenu (the young Sachem) faid he would not 
go, but thought it bed: to ufe policy, and to fend word to 
the General, that they would come to him three days 
after; but Canonicus laid that he was old, and would not 
lie to the Englifh now, and faid if you will fight, fight; 
for tis a folly for me to fight any longer. The young prince 
faid he might go to Mr. Smith's then, but there mould 
never an Indian go with him. Their chief Captain alfo 
faid that he would not yield to the Englifh fo long as an 
Indian would ftand with him. He faid he had fought 
with Englifh, and French, and Dutch, and Mohawks, and 
feared none of them, and faid that if they yielded to the 
Englifh they fhould be dead men or flaves, and fo work 
for the Englifh. He faid that this Quaquackis bears chief 
fway, and is a middling thickfet man, of a very ftout, fierce 

Being afked whether he was prefent at this confultation, 
he faid no ; but that Quaquackis acquainted the people 
what the fum of the confultation was. 

He faid that Philip is about Quawpaug, amongft a great 
manv rocks, by a fwampiide : that the Narraganfetts have 
been thefe three days on their march and flight to Philip : 
that he knows not what number Philip hath with him, 
and that this day the laft and the rear of the company 
departed : that they heard the General was purfuing after 
them, and therefore feveral parties, to the number of four 
hundred, were ordered to lie in ambufcadoes : that feveral 
parties were left behind, to get and drive cattle after them : 
that the young prince and chief captain were in a houfe 
four miles from Providence, where Captain Fenner (with 

384 Letters of Roger Williams. 

fifteen or fixteen of Providence, feeking after cattle) took 
this Jofhua Tift, who faith that the reft of the party 
(about forty-one) were not far off, and toward Pawtuxet. 

Being afked what was the Englifh child which was 
brought into the General : he faid that Pumham's men 
had taken it at Warwick. Alio he faid that there is an 
Englifh youth amongft them (his name he forgot:) one 
that fpeaks good Indian, and was wounded and taken in 
the fight, whom they fpake of killing with torture, but 
he was yet with Quawnepund. 

Sir, you may fuppofe it now to be paft midnight, and 
I am to write forth the copy of this, to go to-morrow to 
the General, and therefore I dare not add myfoolim com- 
ment, but humbly beg to the Father of Mercies for his 
mercy fake to guide you by his counfel (Pfal. 73.) and 
afterward receive you unto Glory. 

Your moft unworthy, 

Roger Williams. 

My humble refpe&s prefented to fuch honored friends 
to whom your wifdom may think fit to communicate, &c. 

Sir, Jofhua Tift added that this company intend to ftay 
with Philip till the fnow melt, and then to divide into 

Alfo that many of Ninicraft's men fought the Englifh 
in the Fort, and four of the Mohegans are now marched 
away with the Narraganfetts. 

Sir, fince I am oft occafioned to write upon the public 
bufinefs, I fhall be thankful for a little paper upon the pub- 
lic account, being now near deftitute. 

Sir, I pray prefent my humble refpe&s to the Governor 
Winthrop, and my thanks for his loving letters, to which 
I cannot now make any return. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 385 

To the niuch honored the Governor Lever ett, at Bojlon, or the 
Governor Winjlow, at Bofton, prefent. 

Providence, i6, 8, 76, (/// vulgo.) [Oft. 16.] 1 

Sir, — With my humble and loving refpe&s to yourfelf 
and other honored friends, &c. I thought fit to tell you 
what the Providence of the Moft High hath brought to 
my hand the evening before yefterday. Two Indian 
children were brought to me by one Thomas Clements, 
who had his houfe burnt on the other fide of the river. 
He was in his orchard, and two Indian children came 
boldly to him, the boy being about feven or eight, and the 
girl ^his filter; three or four years old. The boy tells me, 
that a youth, one Mittonan, brought them to the fight of 
Thomas Clements, and bid them go to that man, and he 
would give them bread. He faith his father and mother 
were taken by the Pequods and Mohegans about ten weeks 
ago, as they were clamming (with many more Indians) at 
Cowefet ; that their dwelling was and is at a place called 
Mittaubfcut ; that it is upon a branch of Pawtuxet river 
to Cowefet (their neareft fait water) about feven or eight 
miles; that there are above twenty houfes. I cannot learn 
of him that there are above twenty men, befide women and 
children ; that they live on ground nuts, &c, and deer ; 
that Aawayfewaukit is their Sachem ; and twelve days ago, 
he fent his fon, Wunnawmeneefkat to Uncas, with a pref- 
ent of a bafket or two of wampum. I know this Sachem 
is much related to Plymouth, to whom he is faid to be 
fubjecl:, but he faid (as all of them do) he depoiited his 
land. I know what bargains he made with the Brown's 

3 Mafs. Hijl. Co/, vol. i. p. 70. 

3 86 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

and Willet's and Rhode Ifland and Providence men, and the 
controverlies between the Narraganfetts and them, about 
those lands. I know the talk abroad of the right of the 
three united colonies (by conqueft) 1 to this land, and 
the plea of Rhode-Illand by the charter and commif- 
fioners. I humbly deiire that party may be brought in ; 
the country improved (if God in mercy fo pleafe;) the 
Englifh not differ about it and complaints run to the King 
(to unknown trouble, charge and hazard, &c.,) and there- 
fore I humbly beg of God that a committee from the four 
colonies may (by way of prudent and godly wifdom) pre- 
vent many inconveniences and mifchiefs. I write the 
fum of this to the Governors of Connecticut and Rhode 
Ifland, and humbly beg of the Father of Mercies to guide 
you in Mercy, for his mercy fake. 

Sir, your unworthy, 

Roger Williams. 

Excufe my want of paper. 

This boy faith, there is another town to the north-eafl 
of them, with more houfes than twenty, who, 'tis like, 
correfpond to the eaftward. 

1 Rhode Ifland took no part in the ex- 
termination of the Narraganfetts. In a 
letter to the King, Rhode Ifland fays : 
" The war between King Philip and the 
colony of New Plymouth was profecuted 
by the United Colonies as they term them- 
felves. . . . But this your majefly's colo- 
ny, not being concerned in the war only 
as neceflity required for the defence of 
their lives and what they could of their 
estates, and as countrymen, did, with our 
boats and provifions, aflift and relieve 

our neighbors, we being in no other 
ways concerned." 

After the extermination of this once 
powerful tribe, the United Colonies 
claimed the King's Province as a con- 
quered territory, to which, Rhode Ifland 
for this reafon, among others, had no ti- 
tle. Connecticut magnanimoufly offered 
peace upon a divifion of territory, lay- 
ing that, " although our juit rights, both 
by patent and conqueft extend much fur- 
ther, yet our readinefs to amicable and 

Letters of Roger Williams. 387 

To the Court of Co?nmiJ]ioners of the United Colonies. 

Providence, iS, 8, [Oft. 18,] 1677. ' 

Honored Gentlemen, — My humble refpecls prefented» 
with congratulations and prayers to the Moft High, for 
your merciful prefervations in and through thefe late bloody 
and burning times, the peaceable travelling and aifemb- 
ling amongft the ruins and rubbifh of thefe late defolations, 
which the Moft High hath juftly brought upon us. I 
crave your gentle leave to tell you, that I humbly conceive 
I am called of God to prefent your wifdoms with what 
light I can, to make your difficulties and travails the eafier. 
I am fore grieved that a felf-feeking contentious foul, who 
has long afflicted this town and colony, mould now, with 
his unfeafonable and unjuft clamor, afflict our Royal Sove- 
reign, his honorable Council, New and Old England, and 
now your honored felves, with thefe his contentious courfes. 
For myfelf, it hath pleafed God to vouchfafe me knowledge 
and experience, of his providence in thefe parts, fo that I 
mould be ungratefully and treacherouily filent at iuch a 
time. When his Majefty's Cummiffioners, Col. Nichols, 
&c, were here, I was chofen by this colony, one of the 
commiffioners to treat with them and with the commiffion- 

neighborly compliance is fuch, (that for The original manufcript of this letter 

peace fake,) we content ourfelves to take was in the hands of the late John How- 

with Cowefit (that is from Apponaug land, and was firft printed by Mr. 

to Connecticut line,) to be the boundary Knowles in his Memoirs of Williams, 

between your colony and ours, if his In a letter to Mr. Knowles, Mr. How- 

Majefty pleafe to indulge us therein, and land Hates, that all here given was on one 

yourfelves fhall fpeedily exprefs to us meet, and that there muft have been a 

your defire and agreement to have it fo." fecond fheet that is loft. Some portions 

R.I. Colonial Records, vol. ii. p. 584-585. of what remain have become illegible 

j Knowles, Memoir of Roger Williams, where the paper is folded. It is wholly 

p. 407 ; Potter's Narraganfett, p. 164. in the handwriting of Mr. Williams. 

3 88 

Letters of Roger Williams. 

ers from Plymouth, who then were their honored Governor 
deceafed, and honored prefent Governor, about our bounds. 
It then pleafed the Father of mercies, in whole moll high 
and holy hands the hearts of all men are, to give me fuch 
favor in their eyes, that afterward, at a great alfembly at 
Warwick, where (that firebrand) Philip, his whole country, 
was challenged by the Narraganlett Sachems, I was fent 
for, and declared fuch tranlaclions between Old Canonicus 
and Oufamaquin, that the commiffioners were fatisfied, 
and confirmed unto the ungrateful monfter his country. 
The Narraganfett Sachems (prompted by fome Englim) 
told the commiffioners that Mr. Williams was but one 
witnefs, but the commiffioners anfwered that they had 
fuch experience of my knowledge in thefe parts, and fideli- 
ty, that they valued my teftimony as much as twenty wit- 

Among fo many palfages fince W. Harris, (fo long ago) 
kindled the fires of contention, give me leave to trouble you 
with one, when if W. Harris had any defire by equal and 
peaceable converfe with men, this fire had been quenched; 
our General Court, Milhauntatuk men, and W. Harris, 
agreed that arbitration fhould heal this old fore. 1 Arbi- 
trators were chofen, and Mr. Thomas Willet 2 was chofen 

'"In Ottober, 1677, the Commif- 
fioners from the feveral colonies met at 
Providence, to fettle the long conteiled 
difputes between Mr. Harris and others 
about lands. Mr. Harris laid before the 
Court a long ftatement, in which he pre- 
ferred heavy charges againll Mr. Wil- 
liams, and the latter made counter ftate- 
ments in a fimilar ityle. The refult of 
the examination was favorable to the 
claims of Mr. Harris and his friends, 
who obtained five verdifts from a jury. 

But the difputes were not fettled, till 
more than thirty years afterwards." — 
Knowles' Memoir, p. 348. 

2 Thomas Willet, came to Plymouth 
in 1632. Was an Afiiilant from 165 1 
to 1654, and when the Englifh conquered 
New York, he accompanied them and 
was made Mayor. He returned not 
long after and took up his refidenec in 
Rehoboth and Swanzey, dying at the latter 
place Auguft 4, 1674 — Savage, Gene- 
alogical Dictionary, vol. iv. p. 557. 

Letter? of Roger Williams. 


umpire. He, when they met, told them that the arbitra- 
tors mould confider every plea with equity, and allot to 
every one what the arbitrators' confciences told them was 
right and equal. Mimauntatuk men yielded, W. Carpen- 
ter then one with W. Harris, yielded. W. Harris cried 
out, no ; he was refolved all or none ; fo the honored foul, 
Mr. Willet (as he himfelf told me) could not proceed, but 
was forced to draw up a proteft to acquit himfelf and the 
arbitrators from this truft, that the obftruclion might 
only be laid on W. Harris his moulders, concerning whom 
a volume might be written, of his furious, covetous, and 
contentious domineering over his poor neighbors. I have 
prefented a character of him to his Majefty, (in defence of 
myfelf againft him) in my narrative again ft George Fox, 
printed at Bofton. I think it not feafonable here to trou- 
ble your patience with particulars as to the matter. 1 I 
humbly refer myfelf to my large teftimony, given in writ- 
ing, at a Court of Trials on the Illand, before the honored 
gentleman, deceafed, Mr. W. Brenton, then Governor. At 
the fame time Mr. William Arnold, father to our honored 
prefent Governor, and Stukely Weftcott, 2 father to our 

1 Mr. Williams's book here referred 
to " George Fox Digged out of bis Bur- 
rozves" io abounds with abufe of Wm. 
Harris, as well as of all o thers oppof ed to 
him in this controverfy that we cannot 
point out any particular paffage which 
refers to his character. " Mr. Harris 
foon after went to England, on this bufi- 
nefs, but the velTel was captured by an 
Algerine or Tunifian corfair, and he was 
fold for a flave. His family in Rhode 
Ifland redeemed him at the coil of about 
Si 200, by the fale of a part of his prop- 
erty. After travelling through Spain and 

France, he arrived in London in 1680, 
where he died the third day after. He 
was an able, and we may hope, a good 
man, notwithlbanding ibme infirmities. 
His quarrels with Roger Williams were 
very difcreditable to them both. On 
which fide the moll blame lay, we can- 
not now decide." — Knowles, Memoir of 
Williams, p. 349, note ; Staples' Gor- 
ton, p. 113, note. 

2 Stukely Westcott, removed to 
Providence, in April, 1638, and was the 
firfl. named in Williams's firit deed. He 
figned the compact at Providence in 1640. 

390 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Governor's wife, gave in their teftimony with mine, and 
W. Harris was caft. In that teftimony, I declare not only 
how unrighteous, but alio how iimple is W. Harris his 
ground of pleading, viz.: after Miantinomo had fet us our 
bounds here in his own perfon, becaufe of the envious 
clamors of fome againft myfelf, one amongftus (not I) re- 
corded a teftimony or memorandum of a courtefy added 
(upon requeft) by the Sachem, in thefe words, up Jlream 
without limits. The courtefy was requefted and granted, 
that being fhortened in bounds by the Sachem becaufe of 
the Indians about us, it might be no offence if our few 
cows fed up the rivers where nobody dwelt, and home again 
at night. This hafty, unadvifed memorandum W. H. in- 
terprets of bounds fet to our town by the Sachems; but 
he would fet no bounds to our cattle, but up the ftreams fo 
far as they branched or run, fo far all the meadows, and at 
la ft all the uplands, muft be drawn into this accidental 
courtefy, and yet, upon no confederation given, nor the 
Sachem's knowledge or hand, or witneffes, nor date, nor 
for what term of time this kindnefs mould continue. 

Second. In my teftimony, I have declared that Mianto- 
nomo having fet fuch fhort bounds (becaufe of the Indians) 
upon my motion, payments were given by us to Alexan- 
der and Philip, and the Narraganfett Sachems, near two 
hundred and fifty pounds, in their pay for inland enlarge- 
ments, according to leave granted us by the General Court 
upon our petition. This after purchafe and fatisfaclion to 
all claimers, W. Harris puts a rotten title upon it, and calls 

He afterwards removed to Warwick, and Churches of Maflachufetts to be true 
for many years was Commiifioner from churches ; for which the Church at Sa- 
that town. Staples fays, " He held to lem pafled " the great cenfure " on him 
entire and rigid reparation from the as early as July I, 1639." — Note to Sim- 
Church of England, and defired the plicitfs Defence,^. 117. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 391 

it confirmation, a confirmation of the title and grant of up 
Jlr earns without I writs ; but all the Sachems and Indians, 
when they heard of fuch an interpretation, they cried com- 
moobin, lying and ftealing, as fuch a cheat as flunk in their 
pagan noftrils. 

Honored Sirs, let me now add to my teftimony, a lift of 
feveral perfons which the right and diipofing of all or con- 
fiderable part of thefe Narraganfetts, and Cowefet and Nip- 
muck lands, &c. 

Firft. The colony of Connecticut, by the King's grant 
and charter, by the late wars, wherein they were honora- 
bly aififtant. 

Second. The colony of Plymouth, by virtue of Tacom- 
maicon's furrender of his perfon and lands to their pro- 
tection, and I have feen a letter from the prefent Governor 
Winllow, to Mr. Richard Smith, about the matter. 

Third. The colony of Rhode Ifiand and Providence 
Plantations, by grant from his Majefty and confirmation 
from his Majefty's commiffioners, who called thefe lands 
the King's Province, and committed the ordering of it 
to this colony, until his Majefty further order. 

Fourth. Many eminent gentlemen of the Maftachu- 
fetts and other colonies, claim by a mortgage and forfeiture 
of all lands belonging to Narraganfett. 

Fifth. Our honored Governor, Mr. Arnold, and divers 
with him, are out of a round fum of money and coft, 
about a purchafe from Tacummanan. 

Sixth. The like claim was and is made by Mr. John 
Brown, and Mr. Thomas Willet, honored gentlemen and 
their fucceffors, * * * from purchafe with Tacum- 
manan, and I have feen their deeds, and Col. Nichols his 
confirmation of them, under hand and feal, in the name of 
the King's Majefty. 

392 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Seventh. William Harris pleads up Jlreams without limits, 
and confirmation from the other Sachems of the up 
Jlreams, &c. 

Eighth. Mifliuntatuk men claim hy purchafe from In- 
dians by pofTelTion, buildings, &c. * * * * \worn 
out and obliterated.} * * * 

Ninth. Capt. Hubbard and fome others, of Hingham 
* * * by purchafe from the Indians. 

Tenth. John Tours, of Hingham, by three purchases 
from Indians. 

Eleventh. William Vaughan, 1 of Newport, and others, 
by Indian purchafe 

[The next following No. is 13 ; there is no 12.] 

Thirteenth. Randall, of Scituate, 2 and White, of Taun- 
ton, and others, by purchafe from Indians. 

Fourteenth. Edward Inman, of Providence, by purchafe 
from the natives. 

Fifteenth. The town of Warwick, who challenge twen- 
ty miles, about part of which, William Harris contending 
with them, it is faid, was the firft occafion of W. Harris 
falling in love with this his monftrous Diana up Jlreams 
without limits, fo that he might antedate and prevent (as he 
fpeaks) the blades of Warwick. 

Sixteenth. The Town of Providence, by virtue of Ca- 
nonicus' and Miantonomo's grant renewed to me again and 
again, viz.: of as large a plantation and accommodation as 

1 William Vaughan's name appears on river in Wclterly, in 1660. — R. I. Colo- 
the roll of the freemen of Newport, in nial Records, vol. i. p. 450. 
1655. He was one of the purchafers 2 The Scituate here mentioned, muft 

from the Sachem Socho, of Mifquama- be in Maflachufetts, as there was no 
cock, the neck of land eait of Pawcatuck town of that name in Rhode Ifland until 


Letters of Roger Willia?ns. 393 

any town in the country of New England. It is known 
what favor God pleafed to give me with old Canonicus, 
(though at a dear-bought rate) fo that I had what I would 
(fo that I obferved my times of moderation ;) but two or 
three envious and ungrateful fouls among us cried out, 
What is R. Williams ? We will have the Sachem come 
and fet our bounds for us ; which he did, and (becaufe of 
his Indians round about us) fo fudden and fo fhort, that we 
were forced to petition to our General Court for enlarge- 

Honored Sirs, there be other claims, and therefore I 
prefume your wifdoms will fend forth your proclamations 
to all the colonies, that all the claims may come in before 
your next meeting ; and Oh ! that it would pleafe the Moll; 
High to move the colonies hearts to empower you, and 
move your hearts to be willing, (being honorably rewarded) 
and the hearts of the claimers to acquiefceand reft in your 
determination. And Oh, let not the colonies of Connec- 
ticut and Rhode Ifland to be offended, if I humbly be- 
feech them, for God's fake, for the King's fake, for the 
country of New England's fake, and for their own fouls' 
and felves' and pofterity's fakes to prevent any more com- 
plaints and clamors to the King's Majefty, and agree to 
fubmit their differences to the wifdoms of fuch folemn 
commiffioners chofen out of the whole country. I know 
there are objections, but alfo know that love to God, love 
to the country and pofterity, will conquer greater matters, 
and I believe the King's Majefty, himfelf, will give us 
thanks for fparing him and his honorable Council from 
being troubled with us. 

Honored gentlemen, if his Majefty and honorable Coun- 
cil knew how againft all law of England, Wm. Harris 


394 Letters of Roger Williams. 

thus affects New and Old England, viz. : that a vaft coun- 
try Should be purchafed, and yet be but a poor courtefy 
from one Sachem, who understood no fuch thing, nor they 
that begged it of him, who had not, nor afked any con- 
sideration for it, who was not defired to fet his hand to it, 
nor did; nor are there the hands of witneSfes, but the par- 
ties themfelves, nor no date, nor term of time, for the ufe 
of feeding cows, up Streams without limits, and yet thefe 
words, {up Jlr earns without limits) by a fudden and unwary 
hand fo written, muft be the ground of W. Harris this 
raifing a tire about thefe thirty years unquenchable. If his 
MajeSty and Council knew how many of his good fub- 
jecl:s are claimers and competitors to thefe lands and mea- 
dows up the Streams of Pawtuxet and Pawtucket, through 
only one comes thus clamoring to him, to cheat all the 
reSt. If his MajeStv and Council knew this confirmation 
W. Harris talks of, what a grand cheat it is, Stinking in the 
noStrils of all Indians, who fubfcribed to and only con- 
firmed only Such bounds as were formerly given us, and 
W. Harris clamors that they confirmed Miantonomo's 
grant of up Streams without limits, a thing which they 
abhor to hear of, and (amongft others) was one great occa- 
lion of their late great burning and Slaughtering of us." 

Letters of Roger Williams. 395 

lC To the much honored Mr. Thomas Hinckley 2 and the reft of 
the much honored Commiffioners from the refpecfive colonies, 
affembled at Providence \ OBober ^.tli, 1678. (ut vulgo.) 

Much Honored Sirs : — Your vvifdoms know that this 
town is liable to many payments: that moneys will be 
drawn like blood from many amongft us: for Tome of us 
have appeared legally in town meetings to anfwer the 
charge and fummons and declaration of the plaintiff againfi: 
the town of Providence. Others have not appeared at our 
town meetings ; or, appearing have diifented from the 
major vote, which hath always (in all thefe tranfaclions) 
carried on matters in jufl order and quietnefs. The non- 
appearers and diffenters will not pay, as being none of the 
town in this cafe. 

We had much heat in our laft town-meeting, I motioned 
a lufpenfion of proceedings until the fitting of this high 
court. Both parties yielded and propofed to fubmit to your 
decilion, in active or paffive obedience. We were hot ; 
fo no addrefs was orderly prepared, &c. : and therefore I 
hold it my humble duty, in the town's name, to pray your 
favorable and mod feafonable help unto us. I prefume 
not to add a word as to our matters ; no, not to urge to 
your remembrance the maxim of Queen Experience {fe- 
cunda cogitationes meliores.) Only I pray you to remember 
that all lands and all nations are but a drop of a bucket in 

■•4 Mafs. Hiji. Coll. vol. v. p. 21. Governor from 1681, (except during the 

z Thomas Hinckley was the laft Gov- interruption of Andros,) till the union 

ernor of Plymouth. He came to Scitu- with Maifachufetts colony in 1682. He 

ate, Mafs., in 1635. He foon became was alfo a Commiffioner of the two colo- 

prominent in the affairs of the colony nies from 1673 to 1692. 
and held various public offices and was 

396 Letters of Roger Williams. 

the eyes of that King of kings, and Lord of lords, whom 
I humbly befeech to adorn your heads with that heavenly 
crown at your parting from us. Beati pacifici 

So prays your moft unworthy fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

To the mojl honored Thomas Hinckley, CommiJJioner for the 


Providence, July 4, 1679. (ut vu/go.) 1 

Sir, — Your heavenly meditations on that heavenly Mr. 
Walley, I kindly and thankfully received, and pray your 
leave to fay four words : Firft, you hold forth in your own 
foul a bright character of a true fon of God, who attri- 
bute to your deep diftrefTes, &c, to His all-wife and His 
moft gracious hand eternal. Una eademque, martus, &c. 

2. Though a natural fpirit will pretend high to fpirituals, 
yet I rejoice to fee you (with rejoicing) predicating fuch 
graces in the deceafed, as hoping that a fpiritual light hath 
given yourfelf that fpiritual eye as clearly to fee and re- 
joice in that image of God in another. 

3. I praife God for that heavenly ftirring-up of your- 
felf and others to an humble enquiry after thofe coals of 
jealoufly which have kindled fuch a fire of jealoufly in the 
noftrils of the Moft High againft you ; and I pray your 
patience to fuffer me to fay, that, above thefe forty years 
in a barbarous wildernefs, driven out on pain of death, I 

J 4 Mats. hi/?. Coll. vol. v. p. 29. 

Letters of Roger IV i I Hams. 397 

have, (as I believe) been the Eternal his poor witnefs in 
fackcloth againft your churches, and miniftries, as being 
but State politics and a mixture of golden images, unto 
which (were your carnal fword fo long) you would musi- 
cally perfuade, or by fiery torments compel, to bow down 
as many as (that great type of inventors and perfecutors) 
Nebuchadnezzar did. I have ftudioufly avoided clamor- 
oufnefs ; and yet (being called) I have divers times, and 
efpecially in the Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody, humbly 
offered my reafons, and to Mr. Nathaniel Morton 1 before 
this laft winter (upon his charges on me): and I humbly 
and heartily defire, in the fear of the Moft High, to pon- 
der (in the double weights of the King Eternal) the 
fharpeft rebukes or cenfures, and to prefent my thoughts 
in love, patience and meeknefs. 

4. Can you fay, with a true broken heart and contrite 
fpirit (deeply diftreffed Mr. Thomas Hinckley,) and not 
confider how, not many weeks or months before, myfelf 
and fo many other innocent fouls, as to W. Harris, you 
deeply diftreffed by your adding gall to our (mine own 
above) forty years vinegar in countenancing that prodigy 
of pride and fcorning W. Harris, who, being an impudent 
morris-dancer in Kent, under the cloak of (fcuirilous) 
jefts againft the biuhop, got into a rlight to New England, 
and, under a cloak of feparation, got in with myfelf, till 
his felf-ends and reftlefs ftrife, and at laft his atheiftical 

1 Nathaniel Morton emigrated to by his New England Memorial, firft pub- 
America in 1623. Was derk of the lifhed in 1669, in 4to. Other editions 
Judicial Court in Plymouth from 1645 were printed in 1721 ; 1772; 1825; in 
to his death in 1685. He wrote a brief 1826 with valuable notes by John Davis, 
Ecclefiailical Hiftory of Plymouth, which and one by the Congregational Board in 
has been preferved in Young's Chronicles 1855. 
of the Pilgrims ; but he was better known 

398 Letters of Roger Williams. 

denying of heaven and hell, made honefr. fouls to fly from 
him? Now he courts the Baptifts ; then he kicks them 
off and flatters the Foxians ; then the drunkards (which 
he calls all that are not of the former two amongfr. us); 
then knowing the prejudices of the other Colonies againil 
us, he dares to abufe his Majefty and Council, to bring 
New England upon us ; and when your noble felf dif- 
cerned and difowned his old and only monftrous fong, Hoc 
ejl Corpus meum (up ftreams without limits,) how hath he 
lun about the world again to force my confcience to give 
him more up Wanafquatucket than the bounds fo punc- 
tually fet us by the Sachems in our grand deed. It is not 
questionable, is that, if he be not fatisfied with his poor 
bone he hath fo long fancied, he will (lamp on yourfelf, 
and his Majefty and Council too, and make Rome, if he 
can (bloody Rome), his fancluary ; for he faith he can go 
to Mafs : yea (flecJereJi nequeam, &c), he will go down to 
devils and witches ; for he faith he can go to the witch of 
Endor for a piece of bread. I am not fenfible of his long 
thirfting after my blood. I humbly pray the bleiTed Lord 
to return him or rebuke him, and to deliver my foul and 
yours from all our diftrelTes. So daily prays, Sir, 
Your moft unworthy fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

My humble refpecls to your honored Governor, Major 
Cudworth, &c. 

Letter? of Roger Williams. 399 

Tejlimony of Roger Williams relative to the firji fettlement of 
the Narraganfett Country by Richard Smith. 

Narragansett, 21 July, 1679.' 

Roger Williams, of Providence, in the Narraganfett 
Bay, in New England, being (by God's mercy) the firft 
beginner of the mother town of Providence, and of the 
colony of Rhode Illand and Providence Plantations, being 
now near to fourfcore years of age, yet (by God's mercy) 
of found underftanding and memory; do humbly and 
faithfully declare, that Mr. Richard Smith, fenior, who for 
his confcience to God left fair poiTeffions in Glocefterihire, 
and adventured, with his relations and eftate, to New- 
England, and was a moft acceptable inhabitant, and a prime 
leading man in Taunton and Plymouth colony ; for his 
confcience fake, many differences arifing, he left Taunton 
and came to the Narraganfett country, where, (by God's 
mercy and the favor of the Narraganfett Sachems) he 
broke the ice at his great charge and hazard, and put up 
in the thickets of the barbarians, the rirft Englifh houfe 
amongfr, them. 2. I humbly terrify, that about forty years 
from this date, he kept porTeffion, coming and going him- 
felf, children and fervants, and he had quiet porTeffion of his 
houling, lands and meadow; and there, in his own houfe, 
with much ferenity of foul and comfort, he yielded up his 
fpirit to God, (the Father of fpirits) in peace. 3. I do 
humbly and faithfully teftify as abovefaid, that fince his 
departure, his honored fon, Capt. Richard Smith, hath 
kept porTeffion, (with much acceptance with Englifh and 
pagans) of his father's houiing, lands and meadows, with 
great improvement alfo by his great coft and induftry. 

'Backus, Hijl. of the Baptijls in New England, vol. i. p. 421. 

4<dc Letters of Roger Williams. 

And in the late bloody Pagan war, I knowingly teftify and 
declare, that it pleaie the Moft High to make ufe of him- 
felf in perfon, his houfing, goods, corn, provifions and cat- 
tle, for a garrifon and fupply for the whole army of New 
England, under the command of the ever to be honored 
General Winilow, 1 for the fervice of his Majefty's honor 
and country of New England. 4. I do alfo humbly de- 
clare, that the faid Captain Richard Smith, junior, ought, 
by all the rules of equity, juftice and gratitude, (to his 
honored father and himfelf ) to be fairly treated with, con- 
fidered, recruited, honored, and, by his Majefty's authority, 
confirmed and eftablimed in a peaceful poileftion of his 
father's and his own poifeffions in this pagan wildernefs, 
and Narraganfett country. The premifes I humbly teftify, 
as now leaving this country and this world. 

Roger Williams. 

To Mr. Daniel Abbott, Town Clerk of Providence? 

Providence, 15th January, 1680-81. (fo called.) 

My good Friend, — Loving remembrance to you. It 
has pleafed the Moft High and Only Wife, to ftir up your 
fpirit to be one of the chiefteft ftakes in our poor hedge. 
I, therefore, not being able to come to you, prefent you 
with a few thoughts about the great ftumbling-block to 
them that are willing to ftumble and trouble themfelves, 

•Jofiah, fon of Edward Winflow, felf to be a brave foldier. — Blake, Bio- 
Governor of Plymouth Colony, was graphical Dictionary. 

alfo Governor from 1673 to 1680. 2 Knowles, Memoir of Roger Williams, 

During Philip's war, being commander p. 350. 
of the Plymouth forces, he mowed him- 

Letters of Roger Williams. 401 

our rates. James Matilbn had one copy of me, and Tho- 
mas Arnold another. This I fend to yourfelf and the 
town, (for it may be I mail not be able to be at meeting.) 
I am grieved that you do fo much fervice for fo bad re- 
compenfe ; but I am perfuaded you mall find caufe to fay, 
the Moft High God of recompenfe, who was Abraham's 
great reward, hath paid me. 

Conjiderations prefented touching rates. 
1. Government and order in families, towns, &c, is the 
ordinance of the Moft High, Rom. 13, for the peace and 
and good of mankind. 2. Six things are written in the 
hearts of all mankind, yea, even in pagans: 1st. That 
there is a Deity ; 2d. That fome actions are nought ; 3d. 
That the Deity will punifh ; 4th. That there is another 
life; 5th. That marriage is honorable; 6th. That man- 
kind cannot keep together without fome government. 3. 
There is no Englifhrnan in his Majefty dominions or elfe- 
where, who is not forced to fubmit to government. 4. 
There is not a man in the world, except robbers, pirates 
and rebels, but doth fubmit to government. 5. Even 
robbers, pirates and rebels themfelves cannot hold together, 
but by fome law among themfelves and government. 6. 
One of thefe two great laws in the world muft prevail, 
either that of judges and juftices of peace in courts of 
peace, or the law of arms, the fword and blood. 7. If it 
comes from the courts of trials of peace, to the trial of 
the fword and blood, the conquered is forced to feek law 
and government. 8. Till matters come to a fettled gov- 
ernment, no man is ordinarily lure of his houfe, goods, 
lands, cattle, wife, children or life. 9. Hence is that an- 
cient maxim, It is better to live under a tyrant in peace, than 

402 Letters of Roger Williams. 

under the fword y or where every man is a tyrant. 10. His 
Majefty fends governors to Barbadoes, Virginia, &c, but to 
us he mews greater favor in our charter, to choofe whom 
we pleale. 11. No charters are obtained without great 
fuit, favor or charges. Our firft coft a hundred pounds 
(though I never received it all ;) our fecond about a thou- 
fand; Connecticut about fix thoufand, &c. 12. No gov- 
ernment is maintained without tribute, cuftom, rates, 
taxes, &c. 13. Our charter excels all in New England, 
or, in the world, as to the fouls of men. 14. It pleafed God, 
Rom. 13, to command tribute, cuftom, and confequently 
rates, not only for fear, but for confcience fake. 15. Our 
rates are the leaft, by far, of any colony in New England. 
16. There is no man that hath a vote in town or colony, 
but he hath a hand in making the rates by himfelf or his depu- 
ties. 17. In our colony the General Aifembly, Governor, 
magistrates, deputies, towns, town clerks, raters, conftables, 
&c, have done their duties, the failing lies upon particu- 
lar perfons. 1 18. It is but folly to reiift, (one or more, 
and if one, why not more?) God hath ftirred up the 
fpirit of the Governor, magiftrates and officers, driven 
to it by neceffity, to be unanimoully refolved to fee the 
matter finifhed ; and it is the duty of every man to 
maintain, encourage, and ftrengthen the hand of authority. 
19. Black clouds (fome years) have hung over Old and 
New England heads. God hath been wonderfully patient 
and long fuffering to us; but who fees not changes and 
calamities hanging over us ? 20. All men fear, that this 

•In 1679, the General Aflembly or- Providence, four ; Kingftown, fix ; War- 
dered a rate to be levied of fixty pounds, wick, four ; Wefterly, four ; New Shore- 
which was apportioned as follows : New- ham, four ; Eaft Greenwich, fix; James- 
port, eighteen ; Portfmouth, eleven ; town, fix. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


blazing herald from heaven 1 denounceth from the Moft 
High, wars, peftilence, famines; it is not then our wif- 
dom to make and keep peace, with God and man ? 

Your old unworthy fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

To my much honored, kind friend \ the Governor Bradjlreet, 2 at 

Bojlon, prefent. 

Providence, 6 May, 1682, (#/ vulgo.y 

Sir, — Your perfon and place are born to trouble as the 
fparks fly upward ; yet I am grieved to difturb your 
thoughts or hands with any thing from me, and yet am 

'Referring to the remarkable comet of 
1680, which created a great fenfation 
throughout the world, Increafe Mather 
wrote an effay on the fubjeft, mowing the 
remarkable events which followed the 
appearance of comets ; and Bayle wrote 
two fmall volumes on the comet of 1680, 
wherein his views are quite at variance 
with thofe of the Puritan divine. 

1 Gov. Bradftreet was one of the Com- 
miffioners of the United Colonies. In 
1662, he and Mr. Norton were fent to 
congratulate King Charles on his reftora- 
tion. In 1679 he was elected Governor, 
which office he held till 1686, when the 
charter was annulled and Dudley com- 
menced his adminiftration as Prefident of 
New England. He was replaced in of- 
fice in 1689 and held it until 1692. He 
died in 1697 at the age of 94. 

J 2 Mafs. Hitf. Col. vol. iii. p. 196. 

Mr. Williams when near the clofe of 
his life, occupied his leifure in preparing 
the difcourfes he had delivered during 
his miffionary efforts as will appear from 
this letter. "It affords" too " additional 
proof, writes Dr. Elton, of the writer's 
difinterefted benevolence and felf-deny- 
ing fpirit. With ample opportunities of 
enriching himfelf — to ufe the words of 
his fon — he gave away his lands and other 
ellate to them that he thought were moft 
in want, until he gave away all. His 
property, his time, and his talents, were 
devoted to the promotion of the tem- 
poral and fpiritual welfare of mankind, 
and in conducting to a glorious iffue the 
ftruggle to unloofe the bonds of the cap- 
tive daughter of Zion." — Life of Wil- 
liams, p. 148. 

404 Letters of Roger Williams. 

refreshed with the thought, that fometimes you fubfcribe 
[your willing fervant :] and that your love and willingnefs 
will turn to your account alfo. 

Sir, by John Whipple 1 of Providence, I wrote lately 
(though the letter lay long by him) touching the widow 
Meffinger's daughter, Sarah Weld, of Bofton, whom I be- 
lieve Jofeph Homan, of Bofton, hath miferably deluded, 
flandered, oppreffed (her and his child) by barborous in- 
humanity, fo that I humbly hope your mercy and juftice 
will glorioufly in public kifs each other. 

Sir, this enclofed tells you that being old and weak and 
bruifed ''with rupture and colic) and lamenefs on both my 
feet, I am dire&ed by the Father of our fpirits, to deiire 
to attend his infinite Majefty with a poor mite, (which 
makes but two farthings.) By my fire-fide I have recol- 
lected the difcourfes which (by many tedious journeys) I 
have had with the fcattered Englifh at Narraganfett, be- 
fore the war and fince. I have reduced them unto thofe 
twenty -two heads, (enclofed) which is near thirty fheets of 
my writing : I would fend them to the Narraganfetts and 
others; there is no controverfy in them, only an endeavor 
of a particular match of each poor finner to his Maker. 
For printing, I am forced to write to my friends at Maf- 
fachusetts, Connecticut, Plymouth, and our colony, that he 
that hath a milling and a heart to countenance and pro- 
mote fuch a foul work, may truft the great Paymafter 
(who is beforehand with us already) for an hundreth for 
one in this life. Sir, I have many friends at Bofton, but 
pray you to call in my kind friends Capt. Brattle and Mr. 

1 John Whipple was a Deputy from many times re-ele&ed. He was an in- 
Providence to the General AfTembly as habitant of Dorcheller, Mafs., in 1632 ; 
early as 1666, to which office he was at removed to Providence in 1659. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 


Seth Perry, who may, by your wife difcretions, eafe yourfelf 
of anv burthen. I write to my honored acquaintance at 
Roxbury, Mr. Dudley 1 and Mr. Eliot, and Mr. Stough- 
ton, 2 at Dorchefter, and to Capt. Gookins, at Cambridge, 
and pray yourfelf and him to confult about a little help 
from Charleftown, where death has (tripped me of all my 
acquaintance. Sir, if you can return that chapter my re- 
ply to G ton, concerning New England, I am advifed 

to let it fleep, and forbear public contefts with Protectants, 
fince it is the defign of hell and Rome to cut the throats 
of all the proteftors in the world. Yet I am occafioned, 
in this book, to fay much for the honor and peace of New 

•Jofeph Dudley, Governor of Maffa- 
chufetts, held many important offices in 
that colony. He was at the battle with 
the Narraganfetts in December, 1675, 
and was one of the Commiffioners who 
dictated the terms of a treaty with them. 
By a commiffion from King James he was 
exalted to the office of Prefident of New 
England, in which capacity he had much 
to do with Rhode Ifland. He fell into 
trouble in the revolution of 1680, being 
imprifoned in Bofton as one of the 
friends o Andros. Being fent to Eng- 
land with Andros, Queen Anne received 
him with favor, and made him Chief 
Juflice of New York. When in Eng- 
land in 1693, he was made Lieut. Gov- 
ernor of the Ifle of Wight and in 1 701 
elefted to Parliament. The following 
year he returned to Maffachufettsas Gov- 
ernor, including the colonies of New 
Hampfhire and Maine, which office he 
held till 17 1 5 when he retired to his 
home in Roxbury, where he died in 
1720 aged 72 years. — NewEng. Hijl. and 
Gen. Regijler, vol. x. p. 337. 

z Ifrael Stoughton. See note 10 Let- 
ter of Tune 22, 1670. 

'"The foregoing letter," fays Knowles, 
" furnifhes proof that Mr. Williams, 
even after Philip's War, and confequent- 
ly after he had palled his 77th year, went 
to Narraganfett and delivered difcourfes. 
His zeal for the falvation of men was 
not extinguifhed by his age, nor was he 
prevented from efforts to fave them, by 
his theory refpedling the miniilry. That 
zeal is displayed in his defire to print 
thefe difcourfes, after difeafe confined 
him to his home. The letter, too, leads 
us to infer his poverty. He would not, 
probably, have folicited aid to print fo 
fmall a work, if he had poflefled the 
means. A letter from his fon to the 
Town of Providence, dated Aug. 24, 
1 7 10, printed in Knowles's Memoir, (p. 
1 10) intimates that his father had been 
dependent on his children to fome ex- 
tent, during the latter years of his life." 
Memoir of Roger Williams, p. 148. 

406 Letters of Roger Williams. 

Sir, I (hall humbly wait for your advice where it may be 
beft printed, at Bofton or Cambridge, and for how much, 
the printer finding paper. We have tidings here of Shafts- 
bury 's and Howard's beheading, and contrarily, their re- 
leafe, London manifeftations of joy, and the King's call- 
ing a Parliament. But all thefe are but fubluniaries, tem- 
poraries and trivials. Eternity (O eternity !) is our bufinefs, 
to which end I am moft unworthy to be 

Your willing and faithful fervant, 

Roger Williams. 

My humble refpects to Mrs. Bradftreet, and other hon- 
ored friends. 

Tejlimony of Roger Williams relative to his firjl coming into 
the Narraganfett country, dated 

Narragansett, June 18, 1682. ' 

I teftify, as in the prefence of the all-making and all- 
feeing God, that about fifty years fince, I coming into this 
Narraganfett country, I found a great conteft between 
three Sachems, two, (to wit, Canonicus and Miantonomo) 
were againft Oufamaquin, on Plymouth fide, I was forced 
to travel between them three, to pacify, to fatisfy all their 
and their dependents' fpirits of my honeft intentions to 
live peaceably by them. I teftify, that it was the general 
and conftant declaration, that Canonicus his father had 
three fons, whereof Canonicus was the heir, and his 

2 Knowles, Memoir of Roger Williams, p. 411. 

Letters of Roger Williams. 407 

youngeft brother's Ton, Miantonomo, (becaufe of youth,) 
was his marfhal and executioner, and did nothing without 
his uncle Canonicus' confent ; and therefore I declare to 
pofterity, that were it not for the favor God gave me with 
Canonicus, none of thefe parts, no, not Rhode Ifland, had 
been purchafed or obtained, for I never got any thing out 
of Canonicus but by gift. I alfo profefs, that very inquifi- 
tive of what the title or denomination Narraganfett mould 
come, I heard that Narraganfett was fo named from a lit- 
tle ifland between Puttiquomfcut and Mufquomacuk on 
the fea and frefh water iide. I went on purpofe to fee it ; 
and about the place called Sugar Loaf Hill, I faw it, and 
was within a pole of it, but could not learn why it was 
called Narraganfett. I had learned, that the Maifachu- 
fetts was called fo, from the Blue Hills, a little ifland 
thereabout ; and Canonicus' father and anceftors, living in 
thefe fouthern parts, transferred and brought their authority 
and name into thole northern parts, all along by the fea- 
iide, as appears by the great deftruction of wood all along 
near the lea-fide and I defire posterity to fee the gracious 
hand of the Moft High, (in whofe hands are all hearts) 
that when the hearts of my countrymen and friends and 
brethren failed me, his infinite wifdom and merits ftirred 
up the barbarous heart of Canonicus to love me as his (on. 
to his laft gafp, by which means I had not only Mianto- 
nomo and all the loweft Sachems my friends, but Oufa- 
maquin alfo, who becaufe of my great friendship with him 
at Plymouth, and the authority of Canonicus, confented 
freely, being alfo well gratified by me, to the Governor 
Winthrop and my enjoyment of Prudence, yea of Provi- 
dence itfelf, and all the other lands I procured of Canoni- 
cus which were upon the point, and in effect whatfoever I 

40 8 Letters of Roger Williams. 

defired of him ; and I never denied him or Miantonomo 
whatever they defired of me as to goods or gifts or ufe of 
my boats or pinnace, and the travels of my own perfon, 
day and night, which, though men know not, nor care to 
know, yet the all-feeing Eye hath feen it, and his all-pow- 
erful hand hath helped me. Blelfed be his holy name to 

Roger Williams. 

September 28th, 1704. I then, being at the houfe of 
Mr. Nathaniel Coddington, there being prefented with this 
written paper, which I atteft, upon oath, to be my father's 
own hand writing. Joseph Williams, Affiftant. 

February 1 ith, 1705. True copy of the original, placed 
to record, and examined per me. 

Weston Clarke, Recorder. 


Abbott, Daniel and note on, - 207 

Agowaun, - - - - -115 

Ahuanfquatuck, - - - 291 

Allen, Mr. of Hartford, - 85, 309 
Ames, Mr. .... 283 

Amie, Mr. - - - - 196 

Anabaptifts, perfecution of, at Lynn, 

(/;.) 210 
Andrews, Edward, of Warwick, 181 
Angell, Thomas, - - (/?.) 335 

Anquontis, .... 172 

Antinomians, - - - - 91 

Apponaug, .... 387 

Aquawoce, - - - 179 

Aquidneck, Aquetneck, Aquidnay, 70, 

I04, 113, 121, I54 

Aquedenefeck, Dutch Ifland, - 173 

Archer, John, (and note,) - - 299 
Arnold; Hift. ofR. I., references 

to, 70,321, 326, 324 
Arnold, Benedict, 155, 196, 197, 294, 
{"-) 3 ! 3» (note on,) 196 
Arnold, William, caufes trouble in 

Providence, 124 
" " Winthrop's notice 

of, 1 24 
" " makes overtures to 

MafTachufetts, (n. ) 151 
" " letter to the Gov- 

ernor of MafTachu- 
fetts, relative to 
Williams's vifit to 
England, - - 229 


Arnold, William, references to, 155, 295, 


Arnold, Mr. 
Arnold, Stephen, 
Arnold, Samuel G. 

Hift. of R. I., 
quoted, (#.) 




Arnold, Thomas. 
AfcafTafTotic, ... 
Afhton, James, - 
Afpinwall, William, (n.) 

Aflbtemuit, 40 

Atherton, Humphrey, note on, 155, ,160 
200, 348, 318, (».) 366 

Attayakitch, - - - - 122 

Auguontis, - - - 211 

Auhaudin, - - - 123 
Audfah, murderer of Oldham, 66, 26 

Aurania, (Newport,) fort at - 303 

Awayfewaukit, - - - - 385 

Awetipimo, - 102 

Ayanemo, or Ninegret, note on, - 45 

Backus' Hift. of the Baptifts, quoted, 149, 

151, 152, 211, 253, 278, 262, 

278, 3°° 5 3°5> 312, 316, 399 

Badger, William, ... 167 

Baker, William, 66, (n.) 85, 86, 95, 98 

Barnes, John, - - - - 171 

Batter, Edmund, - - - 53 

'« " came out with J. 

Greene, (».) 53 
Baulfton, William, ... 294 
Bellingham, Mr. 16, 34, 55,48, 297 



Beffe's Sufferings of the Quakers, 

quoted, (/7.) 105 
Beverley's Hift. of Virginia, quoted, 158 
Bill, James, - 292 

Blackftone, Blaxton, William, 79 

and note, 80 
Blackftone, William, death of, and 

note on, 365 
Blake, Admiral, 197 (n.) 298 and 

note, 292 
Blake's Biographical Dictionary, ref- 
erences to, 53, 192, 285, 289, 
Blindman, Mr. - 212 

Block Ifland, Indian fettlement on, 

deftroyed, (#.) 4 
" " prifoners taken at, - 37 

" Governor Endecott's 

expedition to, - (#.) 53 
" '* references to, 123, 158, 


" " Maffachufetts appoints 

Commiffioners, relative 

to, - - - - 320 

Bloody Tenent, reference to, - 91 

Bluefield, or Blauvelt, 186, 187 (».) 188, 

Bofton Neck, - (#.) 313 

Bourne, Major, - - - - 143 

Bradford, W., Hift. of Plymouth, 

quoted, 42, 80, 337, 338 
Governor, 90 (//.), 817, 336 
(».), 338 (*.) 
" his opinion of Roger Wil- 

liams, 336 (».) 
Bradfhaw, John, note on, - - 286 

Bradftreet, Simon, 140 («.), 403 (n.) 
" " letter of Roger 

Williams to, - 403 
Brenton, William, - - 313, 389 
Brenton, Mrs. - - - 189 

Brewfter, Jonathan, - - 190 (#.) 

Brewfter, William, - - 190 («.) 
Brewfter, Mr. - 164, 165 

Bridge, William, - - 222 (w.) 

Bridges, Robert, - 210 (#.) 

Brown, Chad, paftor of Baptift Ch. 

329> 33° (*•) 
Brown, Mofes, - 335 (n.) 

Brown, Mr. - 153, 192 

Brown, John, - - 154 (#.), 391 

Brown, John Carter, Extracts from 

his manufcripts, - 321, 322 
Bulkley, Rev. Peter, - - 50, 51 

Bull, Jireh, - 371 

Burnyeat, John, - 359 

Burroughs, Jeremiah, - - 222 (;?.) 

Caldwell, Rev. S. L., notes by, 220, 222 

Callender, J., quoted, - 104, 105, 183 

Calvin, John, - 347 

Canonicus, 16, 22, 38 (#.), 39, 40, 42, 

55,58,86,96, 101, 107,133, 

138, 407. 

« (ketch of, - - - 68 

" gives Prudence Ifland to 

Mr. Oldham, - - 70 

Carr, Sir Robert, letters to, 321, 371 
Carpenter, Nathaniel, - - 192 (#.) 

Carpenter's Geography, - - 192 
Carpenter, Win,, makes overtures to 

Maffachufetts, 151 (n.) 
" " other references to, 

295, 302 (».) 
Carwithy, Mr., - - 212, 213 

Cavaliers and Levellers, - - 287 
Cavour, John, - 336 (#.) 

Caucafenamont, - 174, 190 

Cawcawmfquffick, - - 146 (#.) 

Cawdrey, Daniel, - 354 

Cawkin, Mr., - 205 

Charles I., arreft and trial of, 161 (#) 
" " condemnation and execu- 
tion, - - 162 (#.) 
" " references to, 287, 298 (z?.) 
Chawbutick, - - - 211, 212 
Chaubutick Indians, - - - 212 
Chauncey, Charles, Preft. Harvard 

College, note on, 285 
Chefter, Mrs. - 229 



Chefbrough, William, and note, - 143 
Chibachuwefe Ifland fold to Mr. 

Winthrop, - - - 70 

Church, Richard, - - 66 (n.) 

Clarke, Captain, - - 173, 180 

Clarke, John, of Newport, bio- 
graphical flcetch of, 183 (#.) 
Clarke, John, his " 111 News from 

New England," 183 (//.) 
" " ordered to be whipped 

or fined at Lynn, - 210 
" " difcuffion with Gov. 

Endecott, - 210 (#.) 
" " letter to Gov. Ende- 

cott, relative to his 
perfecution of Mr. 
Clark, O. Holmes and 
others, - - - 214 

" " fen t to England to pro- 

cure a repeal of Cod- 
dington's commiffion, 

230 (».), 256 (;/.) 

" " other references to, 150, 

183, 188, 189, 213, 220, 

z 94 (»•)* 34^ 362. 
Clarke, Dr. John, of Newbery, 189 (n.) 
Clements. Thomas, ... 385 
Coddington, Nathaniel, - - 408 

Coddington Wm. 40 (,?.), 55 (#.), 70, 
91, 138, 150,151,166, 
170, 212,228 (#.), 267, 
299, 306. 
" " notice of, - 104 (#.) 

" " his Demonllration 

of True Love, - 105 
" " adviied by Vane to 

leave Boilon, - 123 
" " proceedings at New- 

port, - - 166 

" " fails for England, 166 

" " propofes to the 

Com'rs of the Uni- 
ted Colonies to re- 
ceive Rhode Is- 
land, - 151 (».), 354 

Coddington, Wm., charter obtained 

by, - 228 («.), 229 
" « and John Clarke 

fent to England in 
reference to char- 
ter, - - 230 (».) 
« " fettles differences 
with Wm. Dyre, 

294 (».) 
Cole, Mr. 79 

Collicutt, Richard, 59 and note, 60, 65 
Comet of 1680, - - - 403 

Commiffioners of the United Colo- 
nies, note on, - - - 172 
Conanicut, - - - 13° 
Cooke's Life of Marvel referred to, 251 
Coofhkowwany, - 37^ 
Cope, Mr. - - - - 121 
Cotton, John, - -90,91,198,285 
" '« his reply to Williams, 

198 (*.) 
Cotton, John, fon of the above, let- 
ter to Williams, - 351 
" " note on, - - 35 1 

Cowawefuck, a pine tree, - 21 (».) 
Cowefet, Eaft Greenwich, 21, 22, 126, 

Cowefet Indians, - 366 

Coxall, (Coggefhall) Mr . 1 5, 49 (>.), 89 
Cradock, Mathew, - 100 and note. 

Crandall, John, to be whipped or 

fined at Lynn, - 211 

Cranfton, Governor, - 358 

Cromwell, Oliver, references to, 162, 

164, 193, 206, 270, 

287, 293, 294, 307, 

3i', 373- 

Cromwell, Richard, - - - 312 

Cudworth, Major, ... 398 

Cuppunaugunnit, - - - 42 

Cur low, Jacob, - - - 1 73 

Cutfhamaquin, 37, 57, 102, 103, 115, 

Cuttaquene, - - - 1 74, « 76 



Davenport, Richard - - 33 («.) 
Davenport, M. - 320 

Dead hands, 60 

Deane, Charles, note by - - 77 

" " his ed. of Bradford's 

Hift. of Plymouth, 

336 (».) 
Dell, Wm. his books burnt, - 286 

" " note on - - - 286 
Denifon, Major - - - 320 

Dexter, Gregory, town clerk, - 268 
Dexter, Gregory 328, 328 (#.) 322 
Dike, Anthony - - - 24 

" " note on 24 

Diman, Prof, his ed. of "Geo. Fox 
digg'd out of his burrowes," 

357 (*•)' 358 (»•) 

Don Pantaleon beheaded, - - 288 

Doxey, Thomas 195, 196, 204, 205 
Drake's Biog. Dictionary, reference 

to - 50, 61, 68, 70, 91, 339 

" Book of the Indians, quoted, 302 

Dudley, Gov of Maflachufetts, - 138, 

140 (;z.),4C>5 (z?.) 

Duniler, Henry, Preft. Harvard 

College, note on - - 285 
Dutch Governor, ... 14.5 
Dutch Ifland, - - - 173 

Dutch Prizes, - - - 173 

Dyer, (Dyre) William - 90, 130 
Dyer, Wm. fettles differences with 

Coddington, 294 (».) 

Dyre, Mr. - - 254, 267, 283 

Dyre, (Dier,) Samuel - 371 

Earthquake in New England, - 99 
Winthrop's notice of 99 (#.) 

Ealton, Mr 
" John 
Eaton, Governor 
Edes, Mr. 

Edgar the Peaceable, - 
Edmundfon, Wm., controverfy with 

Williams - - 358 

Eikon Bafilike, note on the author of 199 

166, 283 

294 (;/.) 

128 (//.) 

- 3 62 

Eikonoklaftes, in anfwer to Eikon 

Bafilike, - 249 

Elderkin, John, note from - 195,213 
Elizabeth's Spring, - 365 

Eliot, John - 172 (;/.), 322 (».), 405 
Ellis, Geo. E., Life of Mafon re- 
ferred to, - - 1 10 
Elton's Life of Williams, quoted, 240., 
242, 245, 403 
" his note on the Sadlier let- 
ters, ... 252 (/?.) 
Elton, Rev. Dr., note on John 

Clarke, - - - 

Endecott, Gov. John 36, 


I74> 2 75> 

299 (»•) 

- 53 


" note on - 
Captain - 

his controverfy with John 
Clarke at Lynn, - 210 (».) 
letter of R. Williams to, 
relative to his perfecution 
of Clarke and others, 214, 228 
his feal, a death's head and 
crofs-bones, - 215 (/;.) 

Fairfax, - 

Fairfax, Thomas, Lord - 311 

Familifm, reference to 

Feake, Mr. .... 

Fenner, Arthur - - 374, 379, 

Fenwick, Colonel - 

Field, William, referred to - 

Field, William, his farm 

Field, Mr. .... 

Fifher's Ifland, - - - - 

Fitch, Mr. .... 

Foote, Mr. ... 284, 

Foffiker, Jofeph - 

Fowler, Mr. - 

Fox, George, letter of Williams to, 
inviting a dif'cuflion at New- 
port, - _ - 

Fox, 'George Fox digg'd out of his 
burrowes,' note on 357, 





l 9S 







Gallop, John - - - 32 

" " note on - - 32 

Gallop's Ifland, 33 

Gammell, Wm.,Life of Williams 

quoted - gi, 114, 166, 172, 232 
Gardner, - 16 (».) 

Gardiner, Lieft. Lyon, his "Relation 

to the Pequot wars" - 32 

Gardiner, Mr. - - - - 212 

Garriard, John - 280, 281 

Gauden, Dr., the author of*' Eikon 

Bafilike," - - - 199 (n) 
Gibbons, M. - - - 71, 203 

Gibbons, Capt. - 285 

Gold, Mr. - - - - 181 

Gold and Silver ore difcovered, - 169 
Goodwin, Thomas - - 222, 289 
Goodyear, Mr. - - - - 160 

Gookins, Capt. Daniel - 354, 405 

Gorton, Sam'l, his controverfy with 

Williams, 141 and note. 
" " Window's reference 

to 141 

" " his "Simplicities De- 

fence," - - 142 

" " propofal to United 

Colonies, - 151 (».) 

u " other references to, 180, 

294 (*.), 323, 341, 405 

Gortonifts at Shawomet, - - 229 

Gould, Thomas - 320 

Greene, Geo. W. his Life of Gen. 

Nath'l Greene, refer'd to 52 (w.) 
Greene, John - 52, 53, 54, 320 

" " to appear before Quar- 

ter Court of Mafs. 52 (#.) 
" •' fined and committed 52 (w.) 

•' " note on origin of 52 (#.) 

• • " letter to the General 

Court of Mafs. - 89 
Greene, John, Jr. - - 294 (n.) 

Guitavus Adolphus, of Sweden, - 311 

Hall, Bifhop, and the " Eikon Bafil- 
ike," .... 199 

Hallam, H. on the authorfhip of 

•• Eikon Bafilike," - 199 (».) 
Harding, Mr. 39 

Hafell, John ... 80 (//.) 

Harris, Thomas, letter of R. W. to 206 
Harris, William, 39 (/?.), 322,335, 388, 

389, 393- 394 
" " taken by an Alge- 

rine corfair, 389 (#.) 
" " other references to 

175, 185 
Harrifon, Maj. Gen. 260, 298 (».) 

Hartford, propofed meeting at - 115 
" covenant and agreement 
made at, between the Eng- 
lifh and Indians, 117 (#.), 134 
Harvard College claims lands in 

Wellerly, - - - 334 

Hartley, William ... 220 

Hathorne's cow, - - -126 

Hawkins, James, - - 15, 81, 85, 127 
" Thomas - - 15, 81, 85 
Haynes, Gov. John 36, 95, 106, 110, 
117,118, 121, 134, 

135, 136. 
" " " notes on 36, 96 

Hayfeed, method of faving - - 146 

Hazard's State papers referred to, 175 
Hazel, John, of Rehoboth, - 211, 230 
Hazelrig, Sir Arthur 255, 287, 288, 

290 (».) 
Herenden, ... - 330 

Hicks, John .... 320 
Higheft white, 49 (».) 

Hinckley, Thomas, Gov. of Ply- 
month, letters to - 395, 396 
Hii'cox, William - - - 362 

Holden, Randall, of Warwick, - 154 
Hollett, Mr. ... - 163 
Holmes, Sergeant 86 

Holmes, Obadiah, ordered to be 

whipped and fined, 210 

" " references to -330 

Holmes's Annals quoted, 281, 367, 369, 





Holfey, Sergeant ... 292 

Holy way, Thomas - - - 21 
Homan, Jofeph, of Bofton, - - 404 

Hooker, Rev. Thos. 36 (#.), 95, 98, 
84 (».), 86, 345 
" " " " Ecclefiaftical Poli- 

ty," references to 

241, 245, 246 
Hopkins, Edward - 117, 128 (/■/.) 

Hopkins, Mr. - 255 

Howe, Lieutenant 97 

Howell, Judge, note by - - 318 

Howland, John 324 (/;.), 235 (».), 387 
Hubbard, Benjamin - 80 and note. 

Hubbard, Sam'l, letter of Williams to 


" " note on - 361 

Hubbard's Indian Wars, quoted, - 367, 

369, 37°, 379 

Hubbard, Captain - 392 

Hume, Hill, of England, refer'd to, 164 

Hutchinfon, Mrs. notice of - 91 (/?.) 

" " references to 90,91, 

2 54 

*• Capt. - - 321, 366 

Hutchinfon Papers quoted, 230, 293, 299, 

3°4> 337 
Hutchinion's Maffachufetts, quoted, 366 

Indian murdered by four white men 

near Pawtucket, - 11 1 to 114 
" murdered, note from Win- 

throp, relative to - - 114 

" murderers tried at Plymouth 

and found guilty, - - 116 

" murderers, Williams attends 

trial of - - - - 1 20 

Inman, Edward - 392 

Iron Works at Providence, - 284, 286 

Jackfon, John, note on 
Jacquontu, - 
James, Mr. 
James, Thomas - 

- 33 

- - 78 

- 23, 112 
80 and note. 

33> 35 (*•) 

Jolly, Jollies, Mr. - - 69,100 

Jones, John - 16c 

Juanemo, alias Ninigret, 45, 46, 48, 78, 
110, in, 115 
Juanemo, note on - - - 44 

Kaufafenamon, - - - - 194 

Kieft, Gov. Peter, of New Amfler- 

dam - - - 162 (/?.) 

Kifhkontuckqua, - 103 

Kithanfh, - - - - - 122 

Kittateafh, Uncas' fon - - - 291 

Knowles' Mem. of R. Williams, 

Letters from 101, 1 10, 1 20, 1 53, 

155, 158, 159, 161, 163, 166, 

168, 170, 171, 178, 179, 180, 

181, 206, 210, 228, 235, 253, 

261, 287, 291, 297, 309, 310, 

314, 318, 324, 326, 333, 336, 

387, 405, 406 

Kokfkehom, an owl, - - - 18 

Kutfhamoquin, - - 37 

Lake, Mrs. ... 159,172 

Laud, Archb'p writings, reference 

to - - - - 246, 252 

Lawrence, Lord Prefident - - 260 

Leghorn, Duke of 292 

Lenthall, Mr. - 290 

L'Eurange, Hamon, note on - - 286 

Lettice, Walter - - - - 169 

Leverett, Captain - 289 

Leverett, Gov. John, note on 289, 373, 

3 8 5> 379 
Loes, Anthony - 372 

Lord, Mr. ----- 309 

Lucar, Mr. - - - - 188 

Ludlow, George 49 (//.), 59, 60, 65, 

127, 131 
Ludlow, Roger, Dep. Gov. of Mafs. 

36 (».),49 (».), 117 
Ludlow, Mr. - 85, 126 

Lynn, perfecution of John Clarke 

and others at - 210 (/?,) 



Mackintosh, Sir J. on the Eikon 

Bafilike, - 199 (//.) 

Mackintofh, Sir J. his note on H. 

Vane, - 298 

Makunnete, - - - - 103 

Man, William ... 208 (n.) 
Mangunckacuck, - - - - 119 

Manton, Shadrach - - 324, 328 
Martin, Sir Wm., enquiry relative to 

Williams - 337 

Martha's Vineyard, - - 204 (n.) 

Marvell, Andrew, affiftant to Milton 25 1 
Mafhapaug, - - - - 329 

Maffachufetts lays claim to Rhode 

Ifland, - - - 154 (w.) 

Mafon, Capt, John, 16 (//.), 31, no, 

117, 153, 167, 175, 181, 190, 

J 94.. 3 6 3 
Mafon, Capt. John, his "Hiilory ut 

the Pequot War," - 32 

Mafon, Capt. John, fketch of - no 
Mafon, Major, Roger Williams's let- 
ter to - - - - 333 
Mafquanominit, - - - - 115 
Mattifon, James - - - - 401 

Maffafoit, 316 

Mather, Inereafe, quoted, - - no 

*' " on the Comet of 

1680, - 403 

Mather, Richard - 50 (».) 

Mauquovvkit, - - - 41 

Maumfaumpous, - - - - 122 
Maufup, - - - - - 371 
Mauanadtuck, - - - - 28 
Maunamoh, - - - 58 

Mayhew, Thomas 69, 100, and 100 (/?.) 
Meika, .__•-_ 367 

Meikfa, 67 

Meikfamp, 68 

Mexham, fon of Canonicus, 274, 291, 


Miantonomu, references to, 20, 22, 

23 (».), 26, 37, 39, 55, 42, 48, 

58, 62, 68, 70, 86, 96, 97, 101, 

no, 115, 116, 121, 133, 138, 

140, 306, 316, 329,363, 390 

Miantonomu, account of - 69 note. 

" figns covenant at Hart- 

ford, - - - 117 
Milton, John, Latin Secretary to 

Cromwell, 241 («.), 251 (».) 
Milton, John, his "Eikonoklafles" in 

anfwer to "Eikon Bafilike," 249 
Mifhaimtuck men, - - 388, 392 

Mifquamicoke, Wefterly, - 38 

Mittonan, - - - - -385 

Mittaubfcut, .... 385 

Mohawks, 13, 14, 35, 44, 47, 48, 152, 
155, 157, 186, 203,273,382 

'• flay the Englifh, - 14 

Mohegans, 86,98, 107, no, 117, 118, 
135, 145, 185,201,274,385 
Mohegan, - 137, 139 

Monahiganeucks, Mohegans, 22, 84, 67 
Mohun, Mrs. - - - 288, 290 

Monafhackotoogs, - - 34 

Monk, Geo. Duke of Albemarle - 352 
Montawk, - - - - 24 (#.) 
Morton, Nathaniel ... 397 
Morton's Memorial refer'd to, 154, 333 
MofhafTuck river bridge, 263, 324 (/?.) 
Mofely, Capt. Samuel - - - 375 
Mumford, Stephen ... 362 
Munhadoes, - - - 186, 204 

Munnataukit, - - - - 24 

Myftic, to be free hunting ground. 43 (».) 

Nameug, New London, - 146 (#.) 

Nananawtunu, - 364, 379 

Nanafquiouwut, - - - - 122 

Neponfet river, - - - - 113 

Narraganfett Indians, 24, 27, 30, 34, 37, 

117, 120,145, 269, 

271, 273, 276, 280 

Narraganfett, origin of - 40 (;?.) 

Narraganfett country, - - - 86 

" " quellion on the 

jurifdidtion of - - 334 (».) 

Narraganfett fight in 1675, account 

of - ' - - - 380 (»•) 

Naufipouck, - - - - 122 

Nawwufhawfuck, - - 301, 305 



Nayantakoogs, - - - -46 
Nayantacawnick, - - - 43 

Nayantequit men, - - 45, 135 
Nayantequit, Niantic, i. e. Wefterly 

and Charleilown, - - 119 
Necawnimeyat, - - - - 109 

Ninekunat, ... - 189, 194 
Newman, Rev. Samuel - 81, 192 (w.) 
New Haven, - - - 82 

Newport, - - 127, 303 (/z.) 

" difcuflion between Roger 

Williams and Quakers at 357 
Newton's cafe, - - - - '99 
Niantequit, Pine Mall Swamp 18 (n.) 
Niantiquits, Miantonomu's refidence, 18 
Niantics, - - - - 13,115 

" location of - - 18 (#.) 

Nichols, Col. ... 387, 39 1 
Ninicraft, - 367, 384 

Ninigret, iachem of the Niantics, 

45 (71.), 147, 156, 161, 165, 
172, 179, 270, 275, 280, 281, 

" coufin to Miantonomu, 45 (/z.) 

" at war with Indians of Long 

Ifland, - - - 281 (*.) 
Nipmucks, - 29,30,38,47,182,326 
Nifwofakit, - - - 315 

Northern tra£t, grant of - - 177 

Notaquonatnot, - - - - 314 

Nowell, 182 

Nye, Philip ... - 222 

O'Callaghan's New Netherlands, \%7(n.) 
Ohomowauke, - - - 19 

Oldham, Mr. - - 26, 66, 70, 139 

Oldway, - - - - - 109 

Oliver, Capt. ... 292, 372 
Olney, Mr. his ion ... 309 
Olney, Thomas - 324 

Olney, Thomas - 283 

Oneko, - - - - 61 (n.) 

Orange, Prince of - - - 162 

Origen, note on - - - - 3 13 

Oufamequin, - 116, 316, 336, 407 

Owen, Dr. Thomas, anfwers Cot- 
ton's book, - 353 and note. 
Owocafe, Uncas, - - - 84 

Paine, Mr. of Seekonk - - 212 

Palfrey, Rev. Dr. note relative to 

Williams - - - - 3 56 
Pametefick, - - 102, 103, 106 

Pananawokfhin, - - - - 22 

Parker, Mr. - 309 

Partridge, Alexander - - 151, 154 
Patrick, Capt. Daniel 16 (;?.), z^.{n.), 
29 0?.), 32 (/?.), 35, 46, 109, 

Paupattokfhick, - - - - 119 

Paupauquiwut, ... 379 

Pawcatuck. - - - 152, 170 

Pauchauquet, - - - - 291 

Pawtucket, Powtuckqut, an Indian 

murdered near - 11 1, 113 
" reference to - - 329 

Pawtuxet, - 293, 302 

Peach, Arthur - - - -ill 

Peacock, William - - 1 59 

Peag, note on - - - - 158 
" law fixing value of - 179 (#.) 
Penn, James ... 80 (w.) 

" Admiral Wm. note on - 288, 290 
Pequots, 6, 7, 13, 17,28,46,48,52,54, 
56, 66, 85, 98, 102, 117, 120, 
135, 238, 185, 201, 338, 385 
Pequot Fort, plan of, how fituated 19 
Pequot War, note on - - 30 

Pequots, note from Underhill relat- 
ing to - - - 41 (».) 
" purfued by Stoughton 43 (n.) 
" land of, divided - 4^ (».) 
" name extinguifhed, 1 17, 146 (#.) 
Pequot town, now New London, 44 (/?.) 
Peflicus, --.. 323, 363 
Pefficofh, - 201, 21 1 
Peters, Hugh, 50, note on 50, 181, 259, 

3o8, 355 
Pettaquomfett, 40 (//.), 322 (».), 380 



Philip, King 323, 326, 364, 366, 367, 

" rumors of war with 364 (/?.) 
'« war begins at Swanfey, 369(77.) 
" notices of war with 370, 374, 
375, 385, 382 
" War, Rhode Ifland took no 

part in - - - - 386 

Pine mall fwamp, Groton, - 18 (#.) 
Pifcataquack, - - - - 1 1 1 

Pitammock, - - - - 211 

Pitney, James ... - 292 
Plymouth, - - 80, 112, 167, 188 
Plymouth records, - 81, 198, 269 

Plymouth claims jurifdiclion of R. 

Ifland, - - 154 (w.) 

Plum Ifland, - - - 25 

Portfmouth unites with Newport in 
fending John Clarke to Eng- 
land, - 23O (?7.) 
Powcomtuck Indians, - - - 281 
Potter's, E. R., Hill:. Narraganfett, 

quoted, 38, 117, 120, 313, 326, 

Prichard, Capt. - - - - 155 

Prince, Thomas, of Plymouth - 351 
Prince's Chronology, quoted, - 316 

Providence, fir il compaft figned at 5 
" R. Williams' letter to 

town of - - - 149 
" letter to Sir H. Vane, 266 

" Records, quoted, 278, 305 

Prudence Ifland, (Chibachuwefe) 

given to Oldham, - 70 

" fold to Mr. Winthrop, 70 (n.) 

" date of deed of - 78 

" _ other references to 82, 104, 138 

Pumham, note on 300, 321 

'« troubles with - 300, 301, 382 

Pummakommins, - - - 211 

Punhommin, - - - 171 

Puppompogs, ... 122, 136 

Puttaqutpunck, - 57 

Puttaquappuonckquame, - 63, 122 

Pynchon, Wm. 51 («.), 193, 205 (».) 


Pynchon, Wm. his work on " Man's 

Redemption," - - 205 

Quapang, - 




- 383 





- 379 





- 367 





- 57 





367. 384 





- 367 

Quick, William - 



33 (»•) 




- 119 

Quflaumpowan, - 



- 103 

Rawfon, Edward - - - 151 

Rehoboth, - 80, 364 

Reprive, an Indian fervant of Gov. 

Winthrop, - 69, 78, 82 

Rhodes, Zacharie - 295 and note. 

" Chriftopher - - 295 (/?.) 
" William- - - 295 (».) 
" James T. 295 (».) 

Rhode Ifland Lit. Repofitory, let- 
ter from - - - - 327 
Rider, S. S. publifher, Williams' 
Experiments of Spiritual Life, 

2 43 (».) 

Roberts, Thomas - "39 

Robinfon, ----- 33 
Robinfon, Rev. John 50 (/?.) 

Roome, John - 294 

Rupert, Prince - - 197 (».), 288 

Sabin, J., publifhes Mafon's Pequot 

War, - no 

Saconet rocks, - 164 

Sadlier, Mrs. letters to Roger Wil- 
liams, 241, 245, 249 
" her opinion of " The Bloody 

Tenent," - - - - 244 
" Dr. Elton's note on the cor- 

refpondence with - 252 (».) 
Salem, Williams' letter from church 

at, to church at Bofton, - 7 1 
" Williams' letter, note by 

Charles Deane on the letter, 77 
Sands, Mr. of Bofton - 230 



Saufaman, - 57, 367 

Saflkcus, 29, 31, 33, 35, 41, 44, 47, 51, 

87, 136 

" flight of - 41 (».) 

Saffawau, - 38, 39 

Safepunnuit, - - - - 174 

Safquankit, - 54, 58 

Saugus, 127 

Saufawpona, - - - - 103 

Savage, Genealog. Die. referred to 

66, 89, 128, 154,328, 361, 375 

Scott, Mr. 121 

Scott, John - 372 

Scotch intelligence, - - 141 (#.) 
Scott, Mrs. Richard - - - 312 
Seabrooke Fort, 33 (77.) 
Sedgwick, Major - - 292, 298 
Seekonk, - - - 80, 153, 188 
Sellick, Mr. of Bolton, - - 212 
Sequin, - - - - - 51 
Sharpe, Samuel, letter from church 
at Salem, to church at Bof- 
ton, - - 71,78(77.) 
Showatuck, 7, 363 
Shawomet, (Warwick) - 198, 229 
Shirley, Bifhop, trial of witneffes 167 (/?.) 
Simpfon, Sidrach - - 222 (77.) 
Simfon, John - 260 

Smith, Dan. Rehoboth - - 377 
Smith, Edward, of Newport, - 362 
Smith, John, references to, 207, 294 (#.) 
Smith, John, notice of - go (».), 335 
Smith, Jofeph, of Warwick, 180 (77.) 
Smith, Richard, Sr., 177 (77.), 191, 320, 
Smith, Richard, Sr., buys R. Wil- 
liams' eflate at Cawcum- 
quffick, - - 178 (».), 229 
Smith, Richard, Jr. - - 320, 322 
Sofoa, or Socho, - - 38, 392 
Soffiman, John - 367 

Souwonckquawfir, - - 51 

Sowoquafle, - - -51 ( n \ 
Spur, John 211 

Stanton, Thomas, 61 and note, 84, 86, 
97, no, 136, 138, 139, 172, 

*93» 2 °3 

Staples' Annals of Providenee, quo- 
ted, ... 169, 230 
Staples' Gorton, quoted, - 329, 330 
Stone, Captain 60 (77.) 
Stoughton, Capt. Ifrael 28, 32 (».), 
33 (»•)» 35 (»•)> 39> 47 1 6 3, 67, 
339 (»)» 4°5 
Stoughton, Capt. purfues the Pe- 

quots, - - - 43 (»•) 

Stoughton, William - - 339 (77.) 

Stratton, Mr. - - - - 131 
Stubbs, John .... 358 

Stuyvefant, Gov. of New Amfter- 

dam, ... 162 (77.) 

Sunke Squaw, .... 367 
Sunfeeto, fon of Uncas, epitaph on, 61 
Sugar-loaf Hill, - - - - 407 
Swanzea, ... 154, 364, 369 
Symonds, Mr. .... 282 



- 39 1 



- 39i 



- 87, 195 

- 364, 372 
. 194 

Thomas' Di£l. of Biography, quo- 
ted, ... 290, 299 
Throckmorton, John ] 5, 27, 40, 45, 78, 
82, 113, 138, 160, 161, 164, 184, 
191, 195, 198 
Throckmorton, John - note on 27 
Tift, Jofhua ... 379, 384 
Torrey, Jofeph, of Newport, 320, 362 
Tours, John .... 392 
Trade, Captain - - 32, 33 (77.) 
Treves, or Truce, - - 187, 188 
Trevice, Mr. ... 162, 164 
Trial of witnesses, 197 (#.)» 173 (#•) 
Trumbull, J. H. his notes on Wil- 
liams' Key, quoted, - 38, 40 





Uncas, 31, 61 (77.), 64, 68, 82, 84, 87, 

95, 97, 102, 106, 119, 121, 

128, 138, 152, 157, 167, 175. 

179, 181, 307, 363, 385 

Uncas, epitaph on - - - 61 

Uncas figns covenant at Hartford, - 117 

Underhill, John 16 (77.), 31, 35, 161 

" his News from America, 3 1 

" note on the Pequots, 41 (77,) 

Uflier, Bifhop - - - - 12 

Valentine, Mr. - 165 

Van Tromp, Admiral - 288 

Vane, Governor - - - 70 

Vane, Sir Henry, 1 , 55, 92, 93, 1 23 (».), 
187, 256 (».), 262 (77.), 298 and 
note, 373 
" requefts Coddington to re- 
move from Bofton, - - 123 
*« fails for England, - 123 (77.) 

*« notice of, by Dr. Upham 253 («.) 
" letter to the people of R. I. 257 
" prifoner at Carifbrook Caf- 

tle, 373 

Vane, Lady - - - - 187 

Vaughan William - 392 

Verin, Jofhua 82, 95 (//.), 124 (77.), 

335 (»•) 

Verin, Jofhua, complaints againft 

Williams, - - - - 1 24 

Verin, Joihua, Winthrop's notice of 1 24 
Verin, Philip, of Salem, - - 95 

Vincent, P., relation of the Pequot 

war, - - 31, 41 (77.) 

Wagonckwhut, - - - 58 

Wall, Mr. 212 

Waller, Nath. ... - 173 
Wampum, notes on - - 108, 158 

Warwick, fuit againft, for damages, - 293 
'* references to 153,280,300,302 
Warwick Neck, - 321, 322 

Warner, Mr., of Warwick, - -154 
Wanafquatucket, - 398 

Waterman, Nathaniel - - - 324 

Waterman, Nathan 
Webiler, Mr. 
Weekes, Mrs. 
Wekapaug, or Weflerly, 
Weld, Sarah 

- 325 

- 315 
51, 52 (».) 

- 3°9 

- 23 
■ io 3 

- 189 

- 45 (»•) 
" 4°4 

Wequafh, a renegade Pequot, 18, 22, 26, 

39,47, 61, 86, 139 

Wequafh, name for Swan, - 19 (77.) 

Wequafhcuck, Wequafh Cook, 62 and 

note, 68, 103, 107, 139 (77.), 

158, 160, 170, 178, 181, 186 

Weft India Expedition, - - 298 

Weftcott, Stukely - 389 

Wefton, Mrs. - - - - 208 

" Francis or Mathew - 208 (77.) 

Wefterly, Mifquamicoke, - 38, 119 

Weymouth, - - - - 112 

Whipple, John, jr., R. Williams's 

letter to - - - - 327 
" reference to 404 

Whittier, John G., reference to wam- 
pum, ... 109 (77.) 
White, Mr. - - - 284, 289 
Wickenden, Wm. ... 329 
Wickes, Francis - 335 (77.) 
Wild, Jofeph - - - - 1 59 
Willard, Major - 277 
Willet, Thomas - - - 388, 391 
Willett's men, - - ' - - 386 
William's, Jofeph ... 408 
Willams, Mary, daug. of Roger, 189(77.) 
Williams, Roger, accompanies Mian- 

tonomu to Hartford, - - 120 

" complains of J. Verin and 

Wm. Arnold, - - - 124 
" his voyage to Connecticut 

and Plymouth, - - - 125 

rt his troubles with Gorton, 

141 and note. 
'« his letter to Gov. Winthrop 

relative to Gorton, - - 141 



Williams, Roger, letter to the town < 

of Providence, - - - 149 

" effort to raife money for 151 (/?.) 

" elected Deputy Prefident of 

the Colony, - - 170 

u authorized to fell a little wine 

to the natives, - - - 180 

" "Bloody Tenent," reference 

to - 198, 214, 217, 243 

" fails for England with J. 
Clarke to procure a new 
charter, ... 230 (n.) 

" note on his vifit, - - 256 

" petitions to the Gen'l Court 
of Mafs., to pafs through 
Boflon, without moleflation, 

223, 232 

" his knowledge of foreign lan- 
guages, - - - 261 (ff.) 

" reads Dutch with Milton, - 262 

" writes letter from town of 

Providence to Sir H. Vane, 266 

" chofen Prefident of Provi- 
dence Colonv, - - 278 (#.) 

" teilimony relative to the deed 

of R. I., of 1658, - - 305 

" note relative to his leaving 

Salem, - - - - 337 

" his reference to matters of 

confcience and note, - - 345 

" his eroding the Seelconk river, 

3'6 (».), 335 (*•), 336 

" his purchafe ot lands in See- 

konk, - - - - 316 
" his Key to the Indian lan- 
guage, printed by Gregory 
Dexter, - 328 (w.) 

'* Gov. Bradford's fketch of 336 (».) 
" Sir Wm. Martin's note on - 337 
" is commiffioned captain in 

Philip's war, - - 337 (n.\ 

" discourfes delivered by 403 (#.), 

405 (».) 
Williams, Robert, letter of R. Wil- 
liams to - - - - 206 

Winifimet, - - - - 79 

Winflow, Mr., 116, 255, 274, 277, 292, 

_. _ , 335 

Winflow, Edward, Commiffioner of 

expedition againfl Hifpaniola, 

282 (#.), 288, 290 
" " Hypocracie Unmafked," 

141 (».) 
Winflow, Jofiah - 400 

Winfor, Jofhua - 310 

Winfor, Jofhua's wife ... 283 
Winthrop, John, Gov. of Mafs., 

note on 143 

" letter to R. Williams - - 202 
«« Maj. Wait - 259, 366, 368 

" *' " marries a daugh- 
ter of Hugh Peters, - 259 (».) 
" Elizabeth, death of - - 365 

Winthrop's model ofChriflianChari- 

ity, - - - - 319 

" Hifl. of N. Eng'd, quoted, - 304 
Witter, Wm. of Lynn, - 210 (z?) 

Wocafe, Uncas, - - - - 85 

Wood, John - 320 

Wood's New England, - - - 109 
Wood, Richard - - - - 155 

Wordsworth, Mr. on the " Eikon 

Bafilike," - - 199 (».) 

Wright, George - - - - 169 

Wunhowatuckoogs, - - 19 

Wunnafhowatuckoogs, 6, 28, 34, 38, 44, 

61, 120, 363 
Wunnawmeneefkat, - - - 385 
Wufquowhananawkits, or Neepmet 

men, 7 

Wuffoonkquaflin, « - - - 1 55 

Wuttackquiackommen, - - 18 

Wuttattaquegin, - 129, 132 

Wuttouwuttauoum, - - - 155 

Yale, David, of Bollon 

- 128 

Yale, Elihu 

- 128 (;?.) 

Yaupuck, - 

- 173 

Yotoafh, ... 

20, 22, 55 



{First Series.) 

Volume VI 





; oi 



Entered according to an Act of Congrel's, in the year 1874, 
By George Taylor Paine, 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congrefs, at Washington, D. C. 

Providence Prefs Co., Printers. 

The members of the Narragansett Club defire it to 
be underftood, that they are not anfwerable for any opinions 
or obfervations that may appear in their publications ; the 
Editors of the feveral works being alone refponfible for the 



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OCT 69 

^■^■j*" N. MANCHESTER. 




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