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T. E. PAGE, M.A., AND W. H. D. ROUSE, LiTT.D. 










1 1/2 

V, ? 


THIS second volume of Cicero s Letters to Atticus 
embraces one of the most important epochs in 
Roman history, the fall of the Republic in the 
struggle between Pompey and Caesar. The storm 
which had long been brewing broke just as Cicero 
returned from Cilicia over the question of Caesar s 
resignation of office. By the agreement made in 56 
B.C. Caesar s governorship of Gaul was renewed for 
five years and he was then to be re-elected to the 
consulship in 48 B.C. As the renewal dated from 
March 1, 54 B.C., his term of office would naturally 
expire on March 1, 49 B.C. : but according to the rule 
in vogue at the time of the reappointment he would 
not be superseded until Jan. 1, 48 B.C., the date on 
which he would enter on the consulship. He would 
therefore hold office continually, and his enemies, 
the Senatorial party, would have no chance of bring 
ing a prosecution against him, which might be fatal 
to his career. But in 52 B.C. they had induced 
Pompey to bring forward a new law by which ex- 
magistrates did not proceed to a province as soon as 
their office ended but after an interval of five years. 
Consequently for the next five years special appoint 
ments had to be made by the Senate for example 
Cicero s appointment to Cilicia and, as they could 
be made at any time, it would be perfectly easy to 
supersede Caesar on March 1, 49, and secure his 
prosecution, condemnation and downfall before he 
could enter on the consulship. 

Another new law of Pompey s insisted on the 



personal attendance of candidates for office, fror 
which Caesar had previously obtained special exemp 
tion. On the remonstrance of Caesar s friend 
Pompey had inserted a clause allowing such special ex 
emptions to stand : but this clause was never proper! 
passed. This again was designed to ensure Caesar 
presence in Rome, with a view to his prosecution. 

During the next two years the question of hi 
resignation was continually coming up in the House 
but no definite conclusion was reached, owing largel. 
to Curio s spirited attacks on all the Senatorial party 
proposals. That party however was ready to catcl 
at any trifle to pick a quarrel with Caesar : and the. 
found an opportunity when in Sept. 50 B.C. Caesa 
decided to send the 13th legion into Cisalpine Gau 
to replace the 1 5th, which he had had to surrendei 
nominally for the war in Syria, though actually th> 
legion was kept in Italy. A report was circulatec 
that he was sending four legions to Placentia wit! 
hostile intentions. The report was disproved b; 
Curio: but, though the majority of the Senate sup 
ported the opposition, and refused to declare Caesa 
a public enemy, Marcellus, the consul, took upoi 
himself to appoint Pompey to the command over tw 
legions with authority to raise more against Caesai 
On his return to Cisalpine Gaul in November, Caesa 
ignored this illegal commission and privately offeree 
to give up Transalpine Gaul on March 1, if allowec 
to keep Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum with two legion 
or even Illyricum with one. It was at this junctun 
that Cicero returned to Italy, and he seems to hav 
spoken in favour of accepting this proposal, thougl 
shocked at Caesar s "impudence" in making it. Bu 1 
neither Pompey nor the Senatorial party took i 


seriously, and Caesar was forced to send an ultimatum 
stating that he would resign only if Pompey did the 
same. The Senate replied that, if he did not resign, 
he would be declared a public enemy : and, when 
;heir motion to that effect was vetoed by Antony 
ind Cassius, the latter met with the same treatment 
md had to flee to Caesar in company with Curio. 

On hearing their report Caesar took the first step 
; n the war by crossing the Rubicon. His march 
outhward was so quickly executed that Pompey and 
.he consuls evacuated Rome. Negotiations for peace 
ailed. Domitius with eighteen cohorts at Corfinium 
vas taken prisoner, and Pompey retreated to Brundi- 
sium on his way to Greece. Hurrying after him 
Oaesar blockaded the town: but Pompey succeeded 
a effecting his escape. Meantime Cicero was exhi- 
>iting the weakest side of his character. At the 
irst outbreak he offered to go with Pompey : but he 
VSLS given the command of Capua and the Campanian 
oast. This command he resigned in a few days : 
ater he set out to join Pompey at Brundisium, but 
etreated for fear of capture : and thereafter for 
nonths he remained at Formiae shilly-shallying and 
vriting querulous letters to Atticus for advice. How 
ever, when he met Caesar on his return from Brun- 
lisium to Rome, he had sufficient courage to refuse 
o take a seat in the House and support his demands. 

Caesar s stay in Rome was short and marked only 
>y his seizure of the public treasury and the appoint- 
nent of his friends Lepidus and Antony as prefect 
f the city and military commander respectively. 
Then he hastened to Spain, where, after nearly 
neeting with a disaster, he defeated the five legions 
inder Afranius and Petreius at Ilerda, and gained 


the whole peninsula. While the issue was still un 
certain in Spain, and indeed things looked un 
favourable to Caesar, Cicero screwed up his courage 
and joined Pompey in Epirus. Meantime Sardinia 
was occupied by Caesar s adjutant P. Valerius and 
Sicily gave way to Curio. The latter passed on to 
Africa, where after some success he met with defeat 
and death at the hands of Juba. It was not till 
January 48 B.C. that Caesar effected a landing in 
Epirus, where he proceeded to surround Pompey s 
camp near Dyrrachium : but his lines were broken 
through and he sustained a slight defeat. He re 
tired towards Thessaly and there in August won a 
decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey 
fled to Cyprus and thence to Egypt, there to meet 
his death. The rest of the party split up, some 
going to Africa to carry on the war, others to Greece 
and Asia to make terms for themselves with Caesar. 
Cicero after a violent quarrel with his brother at 
Patrae returned to Brundisium, and there spent 
many miserable months wondering what his fate 
would be when Caesar returned. His misfortunes 
were increased by a rupture with his wife Terentia, 
and the unfaithfulness and general misconduct of 
his son-in-law Dolabella, which forced him to pro 
cure a divorce for Tullia. And there this volume 
leaves him, moaning. 

The following abbreviations are used in the appa 
ratus criticus: 

M= the Codex Mediceus 49, 1 8, written in the year 

1389 A.D., and now preserved in the Laurentian 

Library at Florence. M l denotes the reading of 

the first hand, and M 2 that of a reviser. 

A = the reading of M when supported by that of the 


Codex Urbinas 322, a MS. of the loth century, 

preserved in the Vatican Library. 
A"=the Codex ex abbntia Florentine! , n. 14 in the Lau- 

rentian Library, written in the 1 4th or 1 5th 

Codex 1.5.34 in the University Library at Turin, 

written in the 15th century. 
P=No. 8536 of the Latin MSS. in the Bibliotheque 

Nationale at Paris, a MS. of the 1 5th century. 
Ant. = Codex Antonianus, used by Malaspina. 
C=the marginal readings in Cratander s edition of 

1528, drawn from a MS. which is lost. 
F = Codex Faerni, used by Malaspina. 
Z = the readings of the lost Codex Tornaesianus, Z 

denoting the reading as preserved by Bosius, and 

Z 1 that testified to by Lambinus. 
7 = the editio Jensoniana princeps (Venice, 1470). 
L = readings in the text of Lambinus edition, or 

conjectures of Lambinus. 
Viet. =the editio Petri Victori (Venice, 1534-37). 


Letters to Atticus Book VII Page 2 

Letters to Atticus Book VIII 98 

Letters to Atticus Book IX 176 

Letters to Atticus Book X 272 

Betters to Atticus Book XI 352 











Scr. Athcnis Dederam equidem L. Saufeio litteras et dcderam 
X.VII K. ad te ummi, quod, cum non esset temporis mihi ad 
IS ov. a. t U-f. scriberidum satis, tamen hoininem tibi tarn familiarem 
sine ineis litteris ad te venire nolebam ; sed, ut philo- 
sophi ambulant^ has tibi redditum iri putabam prius. 
Sin iam illas accepisti, scis me Athenas venisse pr. 
Idus OctobreS; e navi egressum in Piraeum tuas ab 
Acasto nostro litteras accepisse, conturbatum, quod 
cum febre Romam venisses, bono tameii animo esse 
coepisse, quod Acastus ea, quae vellem, de allevato 
corpore tuo nuntiaret, cohorruisse autem me eo 1 
quod tuae litterae de legionibus Caesaris adferrent^ 
et egisse tecum, ut videres, ne quid ^lAcm/xia eius, 
quern nosti, nobis noceret, et, de quo iam pridem ad 
te scripseram, Turranius autem secus tibi Brundisi 
dixerat (quod ex iis litteris cognovi, quas a Xerione, 
optimo virOj accepi), cur fratrem provinciae non prae- 
fecissem, exposui breviter. Haec fere sunt in ilia 
epistula. Nunc audi reliqua. 

Per fortunas ! oniiiem tuum amorem, quo me es 
amplexus, omnemque tuam prudentiam,, quam meher- 

1 me eo Tyrrell ; me MSS. ; eo Koch, Miiller. 





I did give L. Saufeius a letter, one for you alone, Athens, Oct. 
because, though I had no time to write, I was reluct- 16, B.C. 50 
ant that so intimate an acquaintance of yours should 
come to you without a note from me. But, considering 
the pace of philosophers, I imagine the present letter 
will reach you first. If, however, you have got that 
earlier letter now, you will know that I arrived at 
Athens on Oct. 1 4- ; that on disembarking at the port 
I received your letter from our friend Acastus ; that, 
perturbed though I was at your arrival in Rome with 
a fever, nevertheless I began to take heart at Acas 
tus welcome announcement of your convalescence ; 
but shivered myself at your news of Caesar s legions, 
and pleaded with you to beware lest friend Philotimus 
time-serving injure us. 1 As for the point I touched 
on long ago (misrepresented to you by Turranius at 
Bruiidisium, as I gathered from a letter received 
from that good fellow Xeno), I set forth briefly the 
reason why I had not put my brother in charge of 
the province. Those practically were the topics of 
that letter. Now hear what remains. 

In heaven s name, I want all the affection which 
you have lavished on me, and all your worldly 

1 Cf. vi, 4, 6, 9. 
B2 3 


cule in onini genere iudico singularem, confer ad cam 
curam, ut de omni statu meo cogites. Videre enim 
mihi videor tantani dimicationem, nisi idem deus, qui 
nos melius, quam optare auderemus, Parthico bcllo 
liberavitj respexerit rem publicam, sed tantam, 
quanta numquam fuit. Age, hoc nialum mihi com 
mune est cum omnibus. Nihil tibi mando ut de co 
cogites, illud meum proprium -p6(3XtT/j.a, quaeso, sus- 
cipe. Videsne, ut te auctore sim utrumque corn- 
plexus? Ac vellem a principio te audisse amicissime 


Sed aliquando tamen persuasisti, ut alterum comple- 
cterer, quia de me erat optume meritus, alterum, 
quia tantum valebat. Feci igitur itaque effeci omni 
obscquio, ut neutri illorum quisquam esset me carior. 
Haec enim cogitabamus, nee mihi coniuncto cum 
Pompeio fore necesse peccare in re publica aliquando 
nee cum Caesare sentient! pugnandum esse cum 
Pompeio. Tanta erat illorum coniunctio. Nunc im- 
pendet, ut et tu ostendis, et ego video, summa inter 
eos contentio. Me autem uterque numerat suum, nisi 
forte simulat alter. Nam Pompeius 11011 dubitat ; vere 
enim iudicat ea^ quae de re publica nuiic sentiat, 
mihi valde probari. Utriusque autem accepi eius 
modi litteras eodem tempore quo tuas, ut neuter 
cmemquam omnium pluris facere quam me videretur. 
Verum quid again? Non quaero ilia ultima (si enim 


wisdom, which I swear to my mind is unrivalled in 
every subject, to be devoted to a careful estimate of 
my whole position. For myself, I seem to foresee a 
terrific struggle, unless indeed the same god, who 
wrought above my boldest hopes in freeing us from 
a Parthian war, take pity on the state anyhow, such 
a terrific struggle as there never has been before. 
True, the calamity would fall not only on me, but on 
every one. I don t ask you to consider the wider 
problem: solve my own little case, I entreat. Don t 
you see that it is you who are responsible for my 
friendship with both Pompey and Caesar? Ah, would 
that I had listened to your friendly admonitions from 
the outset. 

"Thou couldst not sway the spirit in my breast." 

But at last, however, you persuaded me to be friendly 
with the one, because he had done so much for me ; 
with the other, because he was so powerful. Well,! did 
so, and I have studiously contrived to be particularly 
dear to both of them. For my idea was this. Allied 
with Pompey, I should never have to be guilty of 
political impropriety; and, siding with Caesar, I 
should not have to fight with Pompey. So close was 
the alliance of those two. But now, on your show 
ing and in my view, there threatens a dire struggle 
between them. Each of them counts me his friend 
unless, perhaps, Caesar is dissembling ; for Pompey 
has no doubt, rightly supposing that his present 
political views have my strongest approval. But both 
have sent me letters (which came with yours) in 
terms that would appear to make more of me than 
of anyone at all. But what am I to do? I don t mean 
in the long run. If the matter is to be fought in the 



eastris res geretur, video cum altero vinci satius esse 
quam cum altero vincere), sed ilia, quae turn agentur, 
cum venero, ne ratio absentis habeatur, ut exercitum 
dimittat. Die, M. TVLLI." Quid die-am? Exspecta, 
amabo te, dum Atticum conveniam"? Non est locus 
ad tergiversandum. Contra Caesarem? Ubi illae 
sunt densae dexterae?" Nam, ut illi hoc liceret, 
adiuvi rogatus ab ipso Raveniiae de Caelio tribuno pi. 
Ab ipso autem? Etiam a Gnaeo nostro in illo divino 
tertio consulatu. 

Aliter sensero ? AiSeo/xat non Pompeium modo, sed 
Tpwas KCU Tpwaoas. 

ITd ArSa/ias //ot TrpwTos e\eY\eii)V Ka~aO i](rei . 

Quis? Tu ipse scilicet, laudator et factorum et scri- 
ptorum meorum. Hanc ergo plagam effugi per duos 
superiores Marcellorum consulatus, cum est actum de 
provincia Caesaris, nunc incido in discrimen ipsum ? 
Itaque ut stultus 1 primus suam sententiam dicat, 
mi hi valde placet de triumpho nos moliri aliquid, ex 
tra urbem esse cum iustissuma causa. Tamen dabunt 
operam, ut eliciant sententiam meam. Ridebis hoc 
loco fortasse. Quam veil em etiam mine in provincia 
morari ! Plane opus fuit, si hoc impendebat. Etsi 
nil miserius. Nam, oSov Trupepyoi , volo te hoc scire. 

1 The reading here is debatable. Sulpicius, Hillus, and 
alias have been suggested in place of stultus. 



field, I see it would be better to be beaten with 
Pompey than to win with Caesar. But what about 
the points in debate on my arrival refusing the 
claims of a candidate who is away from Rome and 
ordering the disbanding of his army. " Your opinion, 
Marcus Tullius," will be the question. What am 
I to say? "Please wait till I meet Atticus?" 
There is no chance of evasion. I speak against 
Caesar? Where then the pledge of plighted 
hands?" 1 For I assisted in getting Caesar privilege 
on these two points, when I was asked by him per 
sonally at Ravenna to approach Caelius the tribune 
to propose a bill. Asked by him personally, do I say ? 
Yes, and by our friend Pompey in that immortal 
third consulship. 

; Shall I choose the other course? I fear" not 
only Pompey, but the men and long-robed dames 
of Troy": Polydamas will be the first to rail." 
Who s he? W r hy, you, who praise my work and writ 
ings. Have I then avoided this trap during the last 
two consulships of the Marcelli, when the matter of 
Caesar s province was under debate, only to fall now 
into the thick of the trouble? That some fool may 
have the first vote on the motion, I feel strongly 
inclined to devote my energies to my triumph, a 
most reasonable excuse for staying outside the city. 
Nevei theless they will try to extract my opinion. 
Perhaps this will excite your mirth : I wish to good 
ness I were still staying in my province. I certainly 
ought to have stayed, if this was coming : though it 
would have been most wretched. For by the way 

1 Probably a quotation from some early poet. 
^ Iliad vi, 442, and xxii, loo. 



Omnia ilia prima, quae etiam tu tuis litteris in cae- 
lum ferebas, eTrrr^KTa fuerunt. Quam non est facilis 
virtus ! Quam vero difficilis eius diuturna simulatio ! 
Cum enim hoc rectum et gloriosum putarem, ex an- 
nuo sumptu, qui mihi decretus esset, me C. Gaelic 
quaestori relinquere annuum, referre in aerarium ad 
HS CIO, ingemuit nostra cohors omne illud putans 
distribui sibi oportere, ut ego amicior invenirer Phry- 
gum et Cilicum aerariis quam nostro. Sed me non 
moverunt ; nam et mea laus apud me plurimum 
valuit, nee tamen quicquam honorifice in quemquam 
fieri potuit, quod praetermiserim. Sed haec fuerit, ut 
ait Thucydides, tK/3o\i] Xoyov non inutilis. 

Tu autem de nostro statu cogitabis, primum quo 
artificio tueamur benevolentiam Caesaris, delude de 
ipso triumpho ; quern video, nisi rei publicae tempora 
impedient, euiropurrov. ludico autem cum ex litten 
amicorum turn ex supplicatione. Quam qui non de- 
crevit, plus decrevit, quam si omnes decresset trium- 
phos. Ei porro adsensus est unus familiaris meus, 
Favonius, alter iratus, Hirrus. Cato autem et scri- 
bendo adfuit et ad me de sententia sua iucundissi- 
mas litteras misit. Sed tamen gratulans mihi Caesar 
de supplicatione triumphat de sententia Catonis nee 
seribit, quid ille sententiae dixerit, sed tantum, sup- 
plicationem eum mihi non decrevisse. 


there is one thing I want to tell you. All that 
show of virtue at first, which even you praised sky 
high in your letters, was only superficial. Truly 
righteousness is hard : hard even to pretend to it 
for long. For, when I thought it a fine show of 
rectitude to leave my quaestor C. Caelius a year s 
cash out of what was decreed me for my budget 
and to pay back into the treasury 8,800, l my 
staff, thinking all the money should have been 
distributed among them, lamented that I should 
turn out to be more friendly to the treasuries ot 
Phrygia and Cilicia than to our own. I was un 
moved : for I set my good name before everything. 
Yet there is no possible honour that I have omitted 
to bestow on any of these knaves. This, in Thucy- 
dides phrase, is a digression but not pointless. Thuc. i. 97 

Hut as to my position. You will consider first by 
what trick I can retain Caesar s good will : and then 
the matter of my triumph, which, barring political 
obstacles, seems to jne easy to get : I infer as much 
from letters from friends and from that business of 
the public thanksgiving in my honour. For the man 
who voted against it, 2 voted for more than if he had 
voted for all the triumphs in the world ; moreover 
his adherents were one a friend of mine, Favonius, 
and another an enemy, Hirrus. Cato both took part in 
drafting the decree, and sent me a most agreeable 
letter about his vote. But Caesar, in writing to 
congratulate me over the thanksgiving, exults over 
Calo s vote, says nothing about the latter s speech 
on the occasion, and merely remarks that he opposed 
the proclamation of a thanksgiving. 

1 1,000,000 sesterces. - Cato. 



Redeo ad Hirrum. Coeperas eum mihi placare; 
perfice. Habes Scrofam, habes Silium. Ad eos ego 
et iam antea scrips! ad ipsum Hirrum. Locutus enim 
erat cum iis commode se potuisse impedire, sed no- 
luisse; adsensum tamen esse Catoni, amicissimo meo, 
cum is honorificentissimam in me sententiam dixisset; 
nee me ad se ullas litteras misisse, cum ad omnes 
mitterem. Verum dicebat. Ad eum enim solum et 
ad Crassipedem non scripseram. Atque haec de rebus 
foi ensibus ; redeamus domum. 

Diiungere me ab illo volo. Merus est 4>vpar-i ^, 
germanus Lartidius. 

AA.A.O. TO. per TrporeTvxOai id<rofj.v a\vv(ievoi Trep. 
Reliqua expediamus, hoc primum, quod accessit cura 
dolori meo. Sed tamen hoc, quicquid est, Precianum 
cum iis rationibus, quas ille meas tractat, admisceri 
nolo. Scripsi ad Terentiam, scripsi etiam ad ipsum, 
me, quicquid possem nummorum, ad apparatum 
sperati triumphi ad te redacturum. Ita puto a/xe/xTrra 
fore ; verum ut lubebit. Hanc quoque suscipe 
curam, quern ad modum experiamur. Id tu et osten- 
disti quibusdam litteris ex Epiro an Athenis datis, et 
in eo ego te adiuvabo. 


I come back to Hirrus. You have begun to recon 
cile him to me ; accomplish it. Scrofa and Silius are 
on your side. I have already written to them and to 
Hirrus himself. For Hirrus had told them in a 
friendly way that he could easily have prevented the 
decree, but was reluctant; that, however, he had 
sided with Cato, my very good friend, when the latter 
recorded a vote complimenting me in the highest 
terms. Hirrus added that I had omitted to write to 
him, though I had sent letters to every one else. He 
was right. It was only to him and to Crassipes that I 
did not write. So much for public life. Let us come 

I wish to dissociate myself from that fellow Philo- 
timus. He is a veritable muddler, a regular Lartidius. 1 

A truce to what is past for all our pain." 2 

Let us settle what remains ; and first this point, 
which adds anxiety to my sorrow. This sum, I mean, 
whatever it is, which comes from Precius, I do not 
want mixed up with the accounts of mine of which 
that fellow has the handling. I have written to Teren- 
tia and to Philotimus himself that I shall deposit with 
you any monej S I may collect, for the equipment of 
the triumph I anticipate. So I fancy there will be no 
amour propre wounded : but as they like. Here is 
another matter for your consideration the steps I 
am to take to arrange this business. You outlined 
them in a letter dated from Epirus or Athens, and 
I will support your plan. 

1 Taken by the older commentators to be a Latin form of 
A.a.(pTid5-r)$ (i.e. Ulysses) ; but the sense does not seem to 
warrant the comparison, which could only mean "as wily 
as Ulysses." 

-Iliad xviii, 112; xix, 65, " Let bygones be bygones." 





Brundisium venimus vn Kalend. Decembr. usi tua 
felicitate navigandi; ita belle nobis 

Flavit ab Epiro lenissimus Onchesmites." 

Hunc o-Troi ^fta^oi Ta, si cui voles TWV murepwr, pro 
tuo vendito. Valetudo tua me valde conturbat ; signi 
ficant enim tuae litterae te prorsus laborare. Ego 
autem, cum sciam, quam sis fortis, vehementius esse 
quiddam suspicor, quod te cogat cedere et prope mo- 
dum infringat. Etsi alteram quartanam Pamphilus 
tuus mihi dixit decessisse et alteram leviorem acce- 
dere. Terentia vero, quae quidem eodem tempore ad 
portam Brundisinam venit quo ego in portum mihi- 
que obvia in foro fuit, L. Pontium sibi in Trebulano 
dixisse narrabat etiam earn decessisse. Quod si ita 
est, est, quod maxume mehercule opto, idque spero 
tua prudentia et temperantia te consecutum. 

Venio ad epistulas tuas; quas ego sescentas uno 
tempore accepi, aliam alia iucundiorem, quae quidem 
erant tua manu. Nam Alexidis manum amabam, quod 
tarn prope accedebat ad similitudinem tuae litterae; 
non amabam, quod indicabat te non valere. Cuius 
quoniam mentio facta est, Tironem Patris aegrum re- 
liqui, adulescentem, ut nosti, et adde, si quid vis, 




I arrived at Brundisium 011 the 24th of November Brundisium, 
after enjoying your proverbial luck at sea: so fair for Xov. ~6, B.C. 
me " blew from Epirus the softest of breezes,, Onche- 50 
smites." There, that verse with its spondaic ending 
you can pass off for your own on any of our new 
school of poets 1 you like. Your health causes me 
great anxiety ; for I see from your letter that you 
really suffer. But, knowing your spirit, I strongly 
suspect there is something serious which compels 
you to give in and nearly causes a breakdown, 
although your Pamphilus tells me that one fit of 
quartan has passed, and that a second and lighter 
attack is coming on. But Terentia (who reached 
Brundisium s gates as I reached the harbour, and 
met me in the forum) told me that L. Pontius had 
informed her at Trebula that the second attack also 
had abated. If that is so, my utmost hopes are 
realized, and I expect that consummation has been 
attained by your caution and moderate habits. 

I come to your letters, which have reached me in 
shoals, each more delightful than the last I mean 
those in your own handwriting. I like Alexis hand ; 
it so closely resembles your own script; but there 
is one thing I do not like about it it shows 
that you are ill. Talking of Alexis, I left Tiro sick 
at Patrae; he is, as you know, a young man, and 
you may add, if you like, an honest fellow. Nothing 

Catullus, Cinna, and the other imitators of Alexandrine 



probum. Nihil vidi melius. Itaque careo aegre et, 
quamquam videbatur se non graviter habere, tameii 
sum sollicitus, maximamque spem habeo in M . Curi 
diligentia, de qua ad me scripsit Tiro et multi nun- 
tiarunt. Curius autem ipse sensit, quam tu velles se 
a me diligi, et eo sum admodum delectatus. Et me- 
hercule est, quam facile diligas, avroxQw in homine 
urbanitas. Eius testamentum deporto trium 1 Cice- 
ronum signis obsignatum cohortisque praetoriae. 
Fecit palam te ex libella, me ex terruncio. In Actio 
Corcyrae Alexio me opipare muneratus est. Q. Cice 
roni obsisti non potuit, quo minus Thyamim videret. 
Filiola tua te delectari laetor et probari tibi <f>wiKr)v 
esse n)v ?rpos TU. TCKVCI. Etenini, si haec non est, nulla 
potest homini esse ad hominem naturae adiunctio ; 
qua sublata vitae societas tollitur. "Bene eveniat!" 
inquit Carneades spurce, sed tameii prudentius quam 
Lucius noster et Patron^ qui, cum omnia ad se refe- 
rant, numquam quicquam alterius causa fieri putent 
et, cum ea re bonum virum oportere esse dicant, ne 
nialum habeat, non quo id natura rectum sit, non 
intellegant se de callido homine loqui, non de bono 
viro. Sed haec, opinor, sunt in iis libris, quos tu 
laudando animos mihi addidisti. 

Redeo ad rem. Quo modo exspectabam epistulam, 
1 detortorio M : detortorium CZ ; corr, by Junius. 


could be better than Tiro. So I miss him terribly, 
and, though he did not seem very bad, still I am 
anxious, and build great hopes on the care of M . 
Curius, about which Tiro has written and many 
people have told me. Curius himself was aware of your 
desire that he should win my esteem : and I am 
greatly charmed with him. Indeed he is one of 
nature s gentlemen, whom it is easy to like. 1 carry 
home his will sealed with the seals of three of my 
family and of the praetor s staff. In the presence 
of witnesses he made you heir to a tenth of his 
estate and me to a fortieth. 1 At Actium in Corcyra 
Alexio made me a splendid present. Q. Cicero 
could not be stopped from seeing the river Thyamis. 
I am glad you take delight in your baby daughter, 
and have satisfied yourself that a desire for chil 
dren is natural." For, if it is not, there can be 
no natural tie between man and man; remove that 
tie, and social life is destroyed. Heaven bless the 
consequence," says Carneades naughtily, but with 
more wisdom than our philosophers Lucius and 
Patron, who in sticking to selfish hedonism and 
denying altruism, and saying that man must be vir 
tuous for fear of the consequences of vice and not 
because virtue is an end in itself, fail to see that 
they are describing a type not of goodness but of 
craftiness. But these points, I think, are handled 
in the volumes 3 you have encouraged me by praising. 
I return to business. How I looked for the letter 

1 Monetary fractions are generally expressed by parts of 
the as; but here the denarius is used as the standard. The 
libella was one-tenth and the teruncius one-fortieth of a 

- With <f>v<riK7iv the substantive bpfj.-f]v must be understood. 

3 De Rcpublica. 



quam Philoxeno dedisses ! Scripseras enim in ea esse 
de sermone Pompei Neapolitano. Earn mihi Patron 
Brundisi reddidit. Corcyrae, ut opinor, acceperat. 
Nihil potuit esse iucundius. Erat enim de re publica. 
de opimone, quam is vir haberet integritatis meae. 
de benevolentia, quam ostendit eo sermone, quem 
habuit de triumpho. Sed tamen hoc iucundissimum. 
quod iiitellexi te ad eum venisse, ut eius animum 
erga me perspiceres. Hoc mihi, inquam, accidit 
iucundissimum. De triumpho autem nulla me cupi- 
ditas umquam tenuit ante Bibuli impudentissimas 
litteras, quas amplissume supplicatio consecuta est. 
A quo si ea gesta essent, quae scripsit, gauderem et 
honori faverem ; nunc ilium, qui pedem porta, quoad 
hostis cis Euphratem fuit, non extulerit, honore 
augeri, me, in cuius exercitu .spem illius exercitus 
habuit, idem non adsequi, dedecus est nostrum, no 
strum inquam te coniungens. Itaque omnia experiar 
et ut spero, adsequar. Quodsi tu valeres, iam mihi 
quaedam explorata essent. Sed, ut spero, valebis. 

De raudusculo Numeriano multum te amo. Hor- 
tensius quid egerit, aveo scire, Cato quid agat ; qu: 
quidem in me turpiter fuit malevolus. Dedit integri 
tatis, iustitiae, clementiae, fidei mihi testimonium 
quod non quaerebam; quod postulabam, negavit id 
Itaque Caesar eis litteris, quibus mihi gratulatur ei 
omnia pollicetur, quo modo exsultat Catonis in m 
ingratissmi iniuria! At hie idem Bibulo dierum xx 


fou said was entrusted to Philoxenus ! For it was to 
contain news of Pompey s talk at Naples. Patron 
landed it to me at Brundisium. It was at Corcyra, 
[ fancy, he had taken charge of it. Nothing could be 
nore delightful. It touched on politics, the great man s 
opinion of my honour, the kindliness he displayed 
n his remarks about my triumph. But the most de- 
ightful item of all was the intelligence that you had 
;alled on him to find out his feeling towards me. This, 
[ repeat, was what I found most delightful. As for 
i triumph, I had no desire for one up to the time 
Bibulus sent his shameless despatches and got a 
thanksgiving voted in the most complimentary way. 
Xow, if he had done what he professed to have done, 
I should have been glad and supported the honour; 
jut, as it is, it is a disgrace to us to both of us : for 
[ include you in the business that I, on whose army 
lis army relied, should not get the same rewards as 
i man who never set foot outside the city gates so 
ong as there was an enemy this side of Euphrates. 
Therefore I shall make every effort, and, as I hope, 
shall succeed. If you were well, some points would 
: iave been settled already ; but I hope you will soon 
oe well. 

For that twopenny debt to Numerius I am much 
^ounden to you. I long to know what Hortensius 
las done about my triumph and what Cato is doing. 
Cato s behaviour to me was shamefully spiteful. He 
?ave me a character for rectitude, equity, clemency, 
and good faith, for which I did not ask ; what I did 
want, that he denied me. Accordingly in his letter of 
congratulation and lavish assurances, how Caesar 
exults over the wrong Cato did me by his deep in 
gratitude ! Yet Cato voted Bibulus a twenty days 
c VOL. ii 17 


Ignosce mihi ; non possum haec ferre nee 

Cupio ad omnes tuas epistulas, sed nihil necesse 
est; iam enim te videbo. Illud tamen de Chrysippo 
nam de altero illo minus sum admiratus, operario 
homine ; sed tamen ne illo quidem quicquam impro- 
bius. Chrysippum vero, quern ego propter litterula- 
rum nescio quid libenter vidi, in honore habui, disce- 
dere a puero insciente me ! Mitto alia, quae audio 
multa, mitto furta; fugam non fero, qua mihi nihil 
visum est sceleratius. Itaque usurpavi vetus illud 
Drusi., ut ferunt, praetoris, in eo, qui eadem liber non 
iuraret, me istos liberos non addixisse, praesertim 
cum adesset nemo, a quo recte vindicarentur. Id tu, 
ut videbitur, ita accipies; ego tibi adsentiar. 

Uni tuae disertissimae epistulae non rescripsi, in 
qua est de periculis rei publicae. Quid rescriberem? 
valde eram perturbatus. Sed ut nihil magno opere 
metuam, Parthi faciunt, qui repente Bibulum semi- 
vivum reliquerunt. 



Scr. in Tre- A. d. vm Idus Decembr. Aeculanum veni et ibi 

bulano V tuag } itteras } egi ^ quas phiiotimus mihi reddidit. E 

Id. Dec. a. 

~QI quibus hanc primo aspectu voluptatem cepi, quod 



festival. Forgive me, I cannot and I will not bear 

I long to answer all your letters ; but there is no 
need, for soon I shall see you. Still I must tell you 
about Chrysippus -the conduct of that other fellow, 
a mere mechanic, excites my surprise less, though it 
could not have been more scandalous. But Chrysip 
pus, whom I was always glad to see and held in 
honour, because he had a smattering of culture, fancy 
him deserting my son without my knowledge ! I can 
put up with other things, though I hear of plenty, I 
can even put up with embezzlement; but I cannot 
put up with his flight. It is the most scandalous 
thing I ever heard of. So I have taken a leaf from 
Drusus book, when, in his praetorship, as the story 
goes, a man, who had been manumitted, refused to 
take the oaths he had promised : and I have denied 
that those fellows ever were freed by me, especially 
as there were no legal witnesses to the transaction. 
Take it any way you will: I will abide by your 

The only one of your letters, which I have 
not answered, is the most eloquent of them all, deal 
ing with the country s peril. I have no answer to 
make : I am very much upset. But the Parthians, 
whose sudden retreat left Bibulus half dead with 
fright, have taught me not to be much alarmed at 



On the 6th of December I came to Aeculanum, Trebula, 
and there I read your letter, which Philotimus handed Dec. 9, 
to me. I was pleased at the first glance to see it was B.C. 50 
c2 19 


erant a te ipso scriptae, deinde earum accuratissuma 
diligentia sum mirum in modum delectatus. Ac 
primum illud, in quo te Dicaearcho adscntiri negas, 
etsi cupidissume expetitum a me est et te approbante, 
ne diutius anno in provincia essem, tamen non est 
nostra contentione perfectum. Sic enim scito, ver- 
bum in senatu factum esse numquam de ullo nostrum, 
qui provincias obtinuimus, quo in iis diutius quam ex 
senatus consulto maneremus, ut iam ne istius quidem 
rei culpam sustineam, quod minus din fuerim in pro 
vincia, quam fortasse fuerit utile. Sed "quid si lioc 
melius?" opportune dici videtur ut in hoc ipso. 
Sive enim ad coucordiam res adduci potest sive ad 
bonorum victoriam, utriusvis rei me aut adiutorem 
velim esse aut certe non expertem; sin vincuntur 
boni, ubicumque essem, una cum iis victus essem. 
Quare celeritas nostri reditus a/itra/zeXrjTos debet 
esse. Quodsi ista nobis cogitatio de triumpho iniecta 
non esset, quam tu quoque adprobas, ne tu baud 
multum requireres ilium virum, qui in sexto libro 
informatus est. Quid enim tibi faciam, qui illos 
libros devorasti ? Quin mine ipsum non dubitabo 
rem tantam abicere, si id erit rectius. Utrumque 
vero simul agi non potest, et de triumpho ambitiosc 
et de re publica libere. Sed ne dubitaris, quin, 
quod honestius, id mihi fiiturum sit antiquius- 
Nam, quod putas utilius esse, vel mihi quod tutius 
sit, vel etiam ut rei publicae prodesse possim, me 
esse cum imperio, id coram considerabimus quale sit. 
Habet enim res deliberationem ; etsi ex parte magna 



in your handwriting; and I was highly delighted at 
the care and attention it showed. First you say that 
you disagree with Dicaearchus. 1 Now, though I was 
exceedingly anxious, and that with your approval, 
not to stay in my province more than a year, it was 
not my own efforts that gained the point. For you 
should know that no word was ever said in the House 
about any of us provincial governors outstaying the 
term of our appointment ; so that now I am not to be 
blamed even for making a shorter stay in my province 
than was perhaps to my advantage. But "all for 
the best " is an apt saying, as it is in this case. For, if 
peace can be patched up, or the loyalists can be made 
to win the victory, I should be sorry not to assist or at 
any rate have a hand in the matter. But, if the loyalists 
are conquered, I should share their defeat wherever I 
were. So my speedy return ought not to cost me any 
regret. If this idea of a triumph that you approve had 
not come into my head, you would find me not far short 
of the ideal statesman I sketched in the sixth volume." 
What would you have me do, you devourer of those 
books of mine? Even now I will not hesitate to 
throw away my great ambition, if that course is 
better. One cannot of course play both parts at once, 
the selfish candidate for triumph and the independent 
politician. But doubt not that I shall take honesty to be 
my best policy. As for your point that it were better 
for me, whether for my private safety, or for the 
public welfare, that I should retain my command, we 
will talk it over together. It is a matter for de- 

1 Cf. II, 16, where Dicaearchus is mentioned as an advo 
cate of an active life. He was a pupil of Aristotle, and wrote 
philosophical and geographical works. 

2 Of the De Republics 



tibi adsentior. De animo autem meo erga rem pub- 
licam bene facis quod non dubitas, et illud probe 
iudicas, nequaquam satis pro meis officiis, pro ipsius 
in alios effusione ilium in me liberalem fuisse, eiusque 
rei causam vere explicas, et eis, quae de Fabio 
Caninioque acta seribis, valde consentiunt. Quae si 
secus essent, totumque se ille in me profudisset, 
tamen ilia, quam seribis, custos urbis me praeclarae 
inscriptionis memorem esse cogeret, nee mihi con- 
cederet, ut imitarer Volcacium aut Servium, quibus 
tu es contentus, sed aliquid nos vellet nobis dignum 
et sentire et defendere. Quod quidem agerem, si 
liceret, alio modo, ac nunc agendum est. 

De sua potentia dimicant homines hoc tempore 
periculo civitatis. Nam, si res publica defenditur, 
cur ea consule isto ipso defensa non est? cur ego, in 
cuius causa rei publicae salus consistebat, defensus 
postero anno non sum ? cur imperium illi aut cur illo 
modo prorogatum est ? cur tanto opere pugnatum est, 
ut de eius abseritis ratione habenda decem tribuni pi. 
ferrent ? His ille rebus ita convaluit, ut nunc in uno 
civi spes ad resistendum sit; qui mallem tantas ei 
vires non dedisset quam nunc tarn valenti resisteret 


liberation, though I agree with you in the main. 
You do well not to doubt my attitude towards politics: 
and you judge rightly that Caesar has not been 
liberal to me considering my services, and considering 
his lavishness towards others. You explain his 
reasons rightly : I am in the same boat with Fabius 
and Caninius, as your letter shows. But if things 
were otherwise and he had been profuse in his gene 
rosity towards me, nevertheless the goddess you men 
tion, the guardian of the city, would have compelled 
me to remember her fine inscription, and would not 
allow me to imitate Volcacius or Servius," with whom 
you are content, but would wish me to express and 
maintain a policy worthy of my name. And I should 
have done it, if I could, in a different way from the 
way I must adopt now. 

It is for their own power men are fighting now to 
the danger of the country. For if the constitution 
is being defended, why was it not defended when 
Caesar himself was consul ? Why was I, on whose 
case the safety of the constitution depended, not 
defended in the following year? Why was Caesar s 
command prolonged, or why was it prolonged in such 
a fashion ? Why was there such a struggle to get the 
ten tribunes to bring in a bill allowing him to stand 
in his absence? All this has made him so strong 
that now hope of resistance depends on one citizen. 
I wish that citizen had not given him so much power 
rather than that he now resisted him in the hour of 

1 Legati of Caesar : but nothing 1 is known of any slight on 

2 Before his exile Cicero dedicated a statue of Minerva in 
the Capitol with the inscription Cusios Urbis. Possibly, how 
ever, there was a longer inscription. Volcacius and Servius 
maintained neutrality in the civil war. 



Sed, quoniam res eo deducta est, non quaeram, ut 
scribis : 

TLov <r/<a</>os TO rtin 

mihi o-Ka<os unum erit, quod a Pompeio gubernabitur. 
Illud ipsum quod ais : " Quid fiet, cum erit dictum : 
TIOR." Ipsum tamen Pompeium separatim ad concor- 
diam hortabor. Sic enim sentio, maxumo in periculo 
rem esse. Vos scilicet plura, qui in urbe estis. 
Verum tamen haec video, cum homine audacissimo 
paratissimoque negotium esse, omnes damnatos 
omnes ignominia adfectos, omnes damnatione igno- 
miniaque dignos iliac facere, omnem fere iuventutem, 
omnem illam urbanam ac perditam plebem, tribunes 
valentes addito C. Cassio, omnes, qui acre alieno pre- 
mantur, quos pluris esse intellego, quam putaram 
(causam solum ilia causa non habet, ceteris rebus 
abundat), hie omnia facere omnes, ne armis decer- 
natur; quorum exitus semper incerti, nunc veio 
etiam in alteram partem magis timendi. 

Bibulus de provincia decessit, Veientonem praefe- 
cit ; in decedendo erit, ut audio, tardior. Quern cum 
ornavit Cato, declaravit iis se solis non invidere, qui- 
bus nihil aut non multum ad dignitatem posset ac- 

Nunc venio ad privata; fere enim respondi tuis 

litteris de re publica, et iis, quas in suburbano, et iis, 

quas postea scripsisti. Ad privata venio. Unum 

etiam de Caelio. Tantum abest, ut meam ille sen- 



his strength. But since things have come to such a 
pass, I shall not ask, to borrow your quotation, 

"Where is the bark of Atreus sons ? " 
My only bark will be that which has Pompey for a 
pilot. For your query " What will happen when the 
question is put Your vote, Marcus Tullius 
briefly "I vote with Pompey." Still I shall exhort 
Pompey privately to pacific measures. I feel that 
there is the greatest danger. You, who are in town, 
will know more. Yet I see that we have to do with 
a man of the greatest daring and readiness, who has 
on his side all the criminal and social outcasts, and all 
who deserve to be counted criminals and outcasts ; 
nearly all the younger generation; all the lowest 
city rabble ; the powerful tribunes including C. 
Cassius; all the insolvent, who are more in number 
than I imagined. All his cause wants is a good 
cause : it has everything else in plenty. On our side 
we all do everything to avoid battle. You can never 
be sure of the issue of war, and it is to be feared it 
would go against us now. 

Bibulus has quitted the province and left Veiento 
in charge : he will be pretty slow, I hear, on his 
journey. This is the man in whose praise Cato 
spoke, when he declared that the only people he 
did not envy were those who could not be raised 
higher or not much higher. 

To come to private matters : for I have fairly 
answered your letter on the political situation, both 
the one you wrote in your town villa and the one you 
wrote later. Now for private matters. But one 
word about Caelius. So far is he from affecting my 

1 Euripides Troades 455 wov r\d</>05 TO rod 


tentiani moveat, ut valde ego ipsi, quod de sua 
sententia decesserit, paenitendum puteni. Sed quid 
est, quod ei vici Luccei sint addicti? Hoc te prae- 
termisisse miror. De Philotimo faciam equidem, ut 
mones. Sed ego niilii ab illo non rationes exspecta- 
bam, quas tibi edidit, verum id reliquum, quod ipse 
in Tusculano me referre in commentarium mea manu 
voluit, quodque idem in Asia mihi sua manu scriptum 
dedit. Id si praestaret, quantum mihi aeris alieni 
esse tibi edidit, tantum et plus etiam mihi ipse debe- 
ret. Sed in hoc genere, si modo per rem publicam 
licebit, non accusabimur posthac, neque hercule antea 
neglegentes fuimus, sed amicoruni multitudine occu- 
pati. Ergo utemur, ut polliceris, et opera et consilio 
tuo nee tibi erimus, ut spero, in eo molesti. De ser- 
perastris cohortis meae nihil est quod doleas. Ipsi 
enim se collegerunt admiratione integritatis meae. 
Sed me moverat nemo magis quam is, quern tu nemi- 
nem putas. Idem et initio fuerat et nunc est egre- 
gius. Sed in ipsa decessione significavit sperasse se 
aliquid et id, quod animum induxerat paulisper, non 
tenuit, sed cito ad se rediit, meisque honorificen- 
tissimis erga se officiis victus pluris ea duxit quam 
omnem pecuniam. 

Ego a Curio tabulas accepi, quas mecum porto. 
Hortensi legata cognovi. Nunc aveo scire, quid 
hominis sit et quarum rerum auctionem instituat, 


view, that I think he must be sorry he changed his 
own. But what is this story of Lucceius property 
being knocked down to him ? I wonder you passed 
that over. As for Philotimus I shall take your advice. 
But I was not expecting from him the accounts, 
which he gave you : I was expecting the balance, 
which he wished me to enter in my note-book with 
my own hand at Tusculum, and for which he gave 
me in Asia a certificate in his own hand. If he should 
pay up all the money he told you was owing to me, 
he would still owe me as much again and even more. 
But, if only politics will allow, I shall not incur blame 
hereafter in matters of this kind. Indeed I have not 
been careless hitherto; but my time has been taken 
up by a crowd of friends. I shall therefore have 
your industry and advice, as you promise, and I hope 
I shall not be troublesome in the matter. You have 
no reason to lament the treatment that I meted to 
my crooked staff. i They pulled themselves together 
in amaze at my honesty. But nobody surprised me 
more than the man whom you think a nobody. 
From first to last he was and is splendid*. But just 
at my departure he showed me that he had hoped 
for some reward ; and yet he did not long cling to 
the idea which had entered his mind, but quickly 
came to himself again, and overwhelmed by the 
honours I had done him, regarded them as of more 
worth than any money. 

I have received his will from Curius and bring it 
with me. I know the legacies Hortensius has to 
pay. Now I want to know the metal of the man, 
and what properties he is putting up for sale. When 

Lit. "about the knee-splints (I gave) my staff." He 
refers to restraining their rapacity. 



Nescio enim, cur, cum portam Flumentanam Caelius 
occuparit, ego Puteolos non meos faciam. 

Venio ad Piraeea," in quo magis reprehendendus 
sum, quod homo Roman us Piraeea" scripserim, non 
Piraeum" (sic enim omnes nostri locuti sunt), quain 
quod addiderim in." Non enim lioc ut oppido prae- 
posui, sed ut loco. Et tamen Dionysius noster et, 
qui est nobiscum, Nicias Cous non rebatur oppidum 
esse Piraeea. Sed de re ego 1 videro. Nostrum 
quidem si est peccatum, in eo est, quod non ut de 
oppido locutus sum, sed ut de loco, secutusque sum 
non dico Caecilium : 

Mane ut ex portu in Piraeum " 

(malus enim auctor Latinitatis est), sed Terentium, 
cuiusfabellaepropter elegantiam sermonis putabantur 
a C. Laelio scribi : 

"Heri aliquot adulescentuli coiimus in Piraeum," 
et idem : 

Mercator hoc addebat, captam e Si mio." 

Quodsi Svy/iovs oppida volumus esse, tarn est oppi 
dum Sunium quam Piraeus. Sed, quoniam gram ma - 
ticus es, si hoc mihi ^T^/j.a persolveris, magna me 
molestia liberaris. 

Ille mihi litteras blandas mittit; facit idem pro eo 
Balbus. Mihi certum est ab honestissuma sententia 
digitum nusquam. Sed scis, illi reliquum quantum 
sit. Putasne igitur verendum esse, ne aut obiciat id 
nobis aliquis, si languidius, aut repetat, si fortius? 
Quid ad haec reperis? Solvamus," inquis. Age, a 

1 re ego Reid ; re L (marg.), M (above the line): reo 
NOPM : eo^/ 2 . 



Caelius has taken the Porta Flumentana, 1 I don t see 
why I should not make Puteoli mine. 

Coming to the form Piraeea, I am more to be 
blamed for writing it thus and not Piraeum in 
Latin, as all our people do, than I am for adding the 
preposition in." I used in" as before a word 
signifying a place and not a town. After all Diony- 
sius and Nicias of Cos, who is with me, do not con 
sider that the Piraeus is a town. I will look into 
the question. If I have made a mistake, it is in 
speaking of it not as a town but as a place, and I 
have authority. I do not depend on a quotation 
from Caecilius : Mane ut ex portu in Piraeum"- as 
he is a poor authority in Latinity; but I will quote 
Terence, whose fine style caused his plaj S to be 
ascribed to C. Laelius Heri aliquot adulescentuli 
coiimus in Piraeum," and again : Mercator hoc addebai, 
captain e SutUO. If we want to call parishes towns, 
Sunium is as much a town as the Piraeus. But, 
since you are a purist, you will save me a lot of 
trouble, if you can solve the problem for me. 

Caesar sends me a friendly letter. Balbus does 
the same on his account. Certainly I shall not 
swerve a finger s breadth from the strictest honour ; 
but you know how much I still owe him. Don t you 
think there is fear that this may be cast in my 
teeth, if I am slack; and repayment demanded from 
me, if I am energetic? What solution is there? 

1 Caelius had bought Lucceius property near the Porta 
Flumentana at the entrance of the Campus Martius. 

2 In the morning as I disembarked in the Piraeus. 

3 Terence, Eun. 539 (yesterday while some of us youths 
met in the Piraeus), and 115 (The merchant added one 
thing more, a female slave from Sunium). In the first the 
MSS. of Terence read Piraco. 



Caelio mutuabimur. Hoc tu tamen consideres velini ; 
puto enim, in senatu si quando praeclare pro re pu- 
blica dixero, Tartessium istum tuuni niihi exeunti : 
lube sodes nummos curare." 

Quid superest? Etiam. Gener est suavis mihi, 
Tulliae, Terentiae. Quantumvis vel ingenii vel 
humanitatis : satis est 1 ; reliqua, quae nosti, ferenda. 
Scis eninij quos aperuerimus. Qui onines praeter eum, 
de quo per te egimus, reum me 2 facerent. 3 Ipsis 
enim expensum nemo feret. Sed haec coram ; nam 
multi sermonis sunt. Tironis reficiendi spes est in 
M . Curio; cui ego scripsi tibi eum gratissimum 

Data v Idus Decembr. a Pontio ex Trebulano. 



Dionysium flagrantem desiderio tui misi ad te nee 
mehercule aequo aninio, sed fuit concedendum. 
Quern quidem cognovi cum doctum, quod mihi iam 
ante erat notum, turn sane plenum officii, studiosum 
etiam meae laudis, frugi hominem, ac, ne libertinuni 
laudare videar, plane virum bonum. Pompeium vidi 
im Idus Decembres. Fuimus una lioras duas fortasse. 
Magna laetitia mihi visus est adfici meo adventu, de 

1 satis est Mommsen : satis MSS.: comitatis satis or satis 
dignitatis Lthmann. 

2 rem Boslus ; rem a me Purser. 
3 facere rentur A Bosius ; facerentur O". 



"Pay up," say you. Well, I will borrow from the 
bank. 1 But there is a point you might consider. If 
I ever make a notable speech in the House on behalf 
of the constitution, your friend from Tarshish ~ will be 
pretty sure to say to me as I go out : Kindly send 
me a draft." 

Anything else ? Yes. My son-in-law is agreeable 
to me, to Tullia, and to Terentia. He has any amount 
of native charm or shall I say culture : and that is 
enough. We must put up with the faults you know 
of. For you know what we have found the others to 
be on inspection. All of them except the one with 
whom you negotiated for us would get me into the 
law courts. No one will lend them money on their 
own security. But this when we meet: it is a long 
story. My hope of Tiro s recovery lies in M . Curius. 
I have written to him that he will be doing you the 
greatest favour. 

Dec. 9;, at Pontius villa at Trebula. 



Dionysius burned to be with you, so I sent him, Pompeii, 
with some misgivings I must admit; but it had to be. Dec. 10 or 
I knew him before to be a scholar: I find him very 11, B.C. 50 
obliging, careful of my good name, an honest fellow, 
and, not to give him a mere freedman s character, 
evidently a man of honour. Pompey I interviewed 
.011 the 10th of December. We were together a mat 
ter of two hours : he seemed greatly delighted with 

1 Caelius the banker is agfain referred to in XII, 5. 
L. Cornelius Balbus of Tartessus. 



triumpho hortari, suscipere partes suas, monere, ne 
ante in senatum accederenr, quam rem confecissem, 
ne dicendis sententiis aliquem tribunum alienareni. 
Quid quaeris? in hoc officio sermonis nihil potuit esse 
prolixius. De re publica autem ita mecum locutus est, 
quasi non dubiuni belluni haberenius. Nihil ad spem 
concordiae. Plane ilium a se alienatum cum ante in- 
tellegeret, tuni vero proxume iudicasse. Venisse Hir- 
titim a Caesare, qui esset illi familiarissimus, ad se non 
accessisse, et, cum ille a. d. vm Idus Decembr. ves- 
peri venisset, Balbus de tota re constituisset a. d. vn 
ad Scipionem ante lucem venire, multa de nocte eum 
profectum esse ad Caesarem. Hoc illi TK/-i7jptw8es 
videbatur esse alienationis. Quid multa? nihil me 
aliud consolatur, nisi quod ilium, cui etiam inimici 
alterum consulatum, fortuna summam potentiam de- 
derit, non arbitror fore tarn amentem, ut haec in dis- 
crimen adducat. Quodsi ruere coeperit, ne ego multa 
timeo; quae non audeo scribere. Sed, ut nunc est, 
a. d. in Nonas Ian. ad urbem cogito. 



Scr. in For- Multas uno tempore accepi epistulas tuas; quae 

miano XI mihi, quamquam recentiora audiebam ex iis, qui ad^ 

K. Jan., id me veniebant, tamen erant iucundae ; studium eiiim 

vidftur, a. et benevolentiam declarabant. \ T aletudine tuamoveor 

/% ,~\ i 

et Piliam in idem genus morbi delapsam curam tibi 


my arrival, encouraged me about my triumph, promised 
to do his part, warned me not to enter the House till 
my business was finished, for fear I should make an 
enemy of some tribune by the opinions I expressed. 
In short, promises could go no further. As to the 
oolitical situation, he hinted certain war, without 
nope of agreement. It appeared that, though he had 
long understood there was a split between himself and 
Caesar, he had had very recent proof of it. Hirtius, 
a very intimate friend of Caesar s, had come and 
hu.d not called on Pompey. Besides Hirtius had 
arrived on the evening of the 6th of December and 
Balbus had arranged a meeting with Pompey s father- 
in-law before daybreak on the 7th to discuss affairs, 
when, lo,late on the night before, Hirtius set out to go 
to Caesar. This seemed to Pompey proof positive of 
a split. In a word I have no consolation except the 
thought, that, when even his enemies have renewed 
his term of office and fortune has bestowed on him 
supreme power, Caesar will not be so mad as to jeo 
pardize these advantages. If he begins to run amuck, 
my fears are more than I can commit to paper. As 
things are, I meditate a visit to town on the 3rd of 



A number of your letters have reached me at the Formiue. 
same time : and, although visitors bring me later news, Dec. 16, 
they are delightful, as they show your affection and B.C. 50 
good will. I am concerned about your illness, and I 
suppose Pilia s attack of the same complaint will in- 

D VOL. II 33 


adferre maiorem sentio. Date igitur operam, ut va- 
leatis. De Tirone video tibi curae esse. Quern qui- 
dem ego, etsi mirabilis utilitates milii praebet, cum 
valet, in omni genere vel negotiorum vel studiorum 
meorum, tamen propter humanitatem et modestiam 
malo salvum quam propter usum meum. Philogenes 
mecurn nihil umquam de Luscenio locutus est ; de 
ceteris rebus habes Dionysium. Sororem tuam non 
venisse in Arcanum miror. De Chiysippo meum con- 
silium probari tibi non moleste fero. Ego in Tuscu- 
lanum nihil sane hoc tempore; devium est TOIS O.TTU.V- 
Tiacrtv et habet alia SwrxP r l crTa " Sed de Formiano 
Tarracinam pridie Kal. Ian. Inde Pomptinam sum- 
mam, inde in Albanum Pompei. Ita ad urbem in 
Nonas natali meo. 

De re publica cotidie magis timeo. Non enim 
boni, ut putant, consentiunt. Quos ego equites Ro- 
manos, quos senatores vidi, qui acerrime cum cetera 
turn hoc iter Pompei vituperarent ! Pace opus est. 
Ex victoria cum multa mala turn certe tyranrius ex- 
sistet. Sed haec prope diem coram. Iain plane mihi 
deest, quod ad te scribam ; nee enim de re publica. 
quod uterque nostrum scit eadem, et domestica nota 
sunt ambobus. 

Reliquum est iocari, si hie sinat. Nam ego is sum, 
qui illi concedi putem utilius esse, quod postulat, 
quam signa conferri. Sero enim resistimus ei, quern 
per annos decem aluimus contra nos. "Quid sentis 
igitur?" inquis. Nihil scilicet nisi de sententia tua 
nee prius quidem, quam nostrum negotium aut con- 


crease your trouble. Both of you do your best to get 
well. . As for Tiro I see you are attending to him. 
Though, when in health, he is marvellously useful to 
me in every department of business and literature, it 
is not a selfish motive, but his own charming charac 
ter and modest bearing that prompts my hope for his 
recovery. Philogenes has never said anything to me 
about Luscenius. As for other matters Dionysius is 
with you. I am astonished your sister has not come 
to Arcanum. I am glad you approve my plan about 
Chrysippus. I shall not go to Tusculum at such a 
time as this, not I. It is out of the way for chance 
rencontres and has other drawbacks. But from Formiae 
I go to Tarracina on the last of December. Thence 
to the upper end of the Pomptine marsh : thence to 
Pompey s Alban villa: and so to Rome on the 3rd, 
my birthday. 

The political crisis is causing me greater fear every 
day. The loyalists are not, as is imagined, in agree 
ment. I have met numbers of Roman knights, and 
numbers of Members, ready to inveigh bitterly against 
everything and especially this journey of Pompey s. 
Peace is our want. Victory will bring many evils, and 
without doubt a tyrant. But this we shall soon dis 
cuss together. I have no news at all now : each of us 
knows as much as the other about political affairs, 
and domestic details are for us common know 

All one can do is to jest if he will allow it. 
For I am one who thinks it better to agree to his 
demands than to enter upon war. It is late to resist 
him, when for ten years we have nurtured this viper in 
our bosom. Then you ask my view. It is the same as 
yours ; and I shall express none till my own affairs 
D2 35 


fecerimus aut deposuerimus. Cura igitur, ut valeas. 
AliquandoaTToVpn/ at quartanam istam diligentia, quae 
in te summa est. 

K. Ian., ut 
videtur, a. 




Scr. in For- Plane deest, quod ad te scribam; nota omnia tibi 
mono XII Slm t ; nee ipse habeo, a te quod exspectem. Tantum 
igitur nostrum illud sollemne servemus, ut ne quern 
istuc euntem sine litteris dimittamus. De re publica 
valde timeo, nee adhuc fere inveni, qui non conceden- 
dum putaret Caesari, quod postularet, potius quam 
depugnandum. Est ilia quidem impudens postulatio, 
opinione valentior. Cur autem nunc primum ei re- 
si stamus? 

Ov yap Si) roSe /xei^ov e t KO.KOV, 

quam cum quinquennium prorogabamus, aut cum, ut 
absentis ratio haberetur, ferebamus, nisi forte haec 
illi turn arma dedimus, ut nunc cum bene parato 
pugnaremus. Dices: Quid tu igitur sensurus es?" 
Non idem quod dicturus; sentiam enim omnia facienda, 
ne armis decertetur,dicamidem quod Pompeius neque 
id faciam humili animo. Sed rursus^hoc permagnum 
rei publicae malum est, et quodam modo mihi praeter 
ceteros non rectum me in tantis rebus a Pompeio 


are concluded or abandoned. So be sure to get well. 
Apply some of your wonderful capacity for taking 
pains to shaking off the fever. 



I have positively no news : all mine is known to you ; Formiae, 
and there is none that I can look for from you. Only Dec. 17. 
let me preserve my old ceremony of letting no B.C. 50 
visitor go to you without a letter. My fears as to the 
political situation are great. And so far I have 
found hardly a man who would not yield to Caesar s 
demand sooner than fight. That demand, it is true, 
is shameless, but stronger than we thought. But 
why should we choose this occasion to begin resisting? 

No greater evil threatens now" Odyssey xii, 200 

than when we prolonged his office for another five 
years ; or when we agreed to let him stand as a candi 
date in his absence. But perhaps we were then giving 
him these weapons to turn against us now. You will 
say; "What then will your view be ?" My view will 
not be what I shall say; for my view will be that 
every step should be taken to avoid a conflict; but I 
shall say the same as Pompey, nor shall I be actuated 
by subserviency. But again it is a very great calamity 
to the state, and in a way improper to me beyond 
others to differ from Pompey in matters of such 





Dionysius, vir optumus, ut mihi quoque est per- 
spectus, et doctissumus tuique amantissumus, Romam 
venit xv Kalend. Ian. et litteras a te mihi reddidit." 
Tot enim verba sunt de Dionysio in epistula tua, illud 
putato non adscribisy et tibi gratias egit." Atqui 
certe ille agere debuit, et, si esset facttim, quae tua 
est humanitaSj adscripsisses. Mihi autem nulla de eo 
TroAivySia datur propter superioris epistulae testi- 
monium. Sit igitur sane bonus vir. Hoc enim ip- 
sum bene fecit, quod mihi sui cognoscendi penitus 
etiam istam facultatem dedit. Pliilogenes recte ad te 
scripsit ; curavit enim, quod debuit. Eum ego uti ea 
pecunia volui, quoad liceret ; itaque usus est menses 
XIIH. Pomptinum cupio valere, et, quod scribis in 
urbem introisse, vereor, quid sit ; nam id nisi gravi 
de causa non fecisset. Ego, quoniam un Non. Ian. 
compitalicius dies est, nolo eo die in Albanum venire, 
ne molestus familiae veniam. in Non. Ian. igitur; 
inde ad urbem pridie Nonas. Tua Xrj^is quern in 
diem incurrat, nescio, sed prorsus te commoveri 
incommodo valetudinis tuae nolo. 

De honore nostro nisi quid occulte Caesar per suos 
tribunes molitus erit, cetera videntur esse tranquilla ; 
tranquillissimus autem animus metis, qui totum istuc 
aequi boni facit, et eo magis, quod iam a multis audio 
constitutum esse Pompeio et eius concilio in Siciliam 



"Dionysius, an excellent fellow as I too have Formiae, 
found him a good scholar and your very stanch Dec. 18-21, 
friend, arrived in Rome on the l6th of December, and B.C. 50 
gave me a letter from you." That s all you say about 
Dionysius in your letter. You do not add and he 
expressed his gratitude to you." Yet certainly he 
ought to have done so, and, if he had, you would have 
added it with your usual good nature. I cannot 
make a volte face about him, owing to the character 
I gave him in the former letter. Let us call him 
then an honest fellow. He has done me one kind 
ness at any rate in giving me this further chance 
to know him thoroughly. Philogenes is correct in 
what he wrote : he duly settled his debt. I wanted 
him to use the money as long as he could ; so he has 
used it for 14 months. I hope Pomptinus is getting 
well. You mention his entrance into town. I am 
somewhat anxious as to what it means : he would not 
have entered the city except for some good reason. 
As the 2nd of January is a holiday, I don t wish to 
reach Pompey s Alban villa on that date for fear I 
should be a nuisance to his household. I shall go there 
on the 3rd, and then visit the city on the 4th. I 
forget on what day the fever will attack you again ; 
but I would not have you stir to the damage of your 

As for my triumph, unless Caesar has been secretly 
intriguing through his tribune partisans, all else seems 
smooth and easy. My mind is absolutely at ease, and I 
regard the whole business with indifference, especially 
as many people tell me that Pompey and his advisers 



me mittere, quod imperium habeam. Id est A/38-ripi- 
TIKOV. Nee enim senatus decrevit, nee populus iussit 
me imperium in Sicilia habere. Sin hoc res publica 
ad Pompeium refert, qui me magis quam privatum 
aliquem mittat ? Itaque, si hoc imperium mihi moles- 
turn erit, utar ea porta, quam primam videro. Nam, 
quod scribis mirificam exspectationem esse mei neque 
tamen quemquam bonorum aut satis bonorum dubi- 
tare, quid facturus sim, ego, quos tu bonos esse dicas, 
non intellego. Ipse nullos novi, sed ita, si ordines 
bonorum quaerimus; nam singulares sunt boni viri. 
Verum in dissensionibus ordines bonorum et genera 
quaerenda sunt. Senatum bonum putas, per quern 
sine imperio provinciae sunt (numquam enim Curio 
sustinuisset, si cum eo agi coeptum esset; quam sen- 
tentiam senatus sequi noluit; ex quo factum est, ut 
Caesari non succederetur), an publicanos, qui num 
quam firmi, sed nunc Caesari sunt amicissimi, an fae- 
neratores an agricolas, quibus optatissimum est 
otium? nisi eos timere putas, ne sub regno sint, qui 
id numquam, dum modo otiosi essent, recusarunt. 
Quid ergo? exercitum retinentis, cum legis dies transi 
ent, rationem haberi placet? Mihi vero ne absentis 
quidem ; sed, cum id datum est, illud una datum est. 
Annorum enim decem imperium et ita latum placet ? 

Placet igitur etiam me expulsum et agrum Campanum 


have determined to send me to Sicily, because I still 
have military powers. That is a muddle-headed plan. 
For neither has the House decreed, nor the people 
authorized me to have military power in Sicily. If 
the state delegates the appointment to Pompey, why 
should he send me rather than any unofficial person ? 
So, if this military power is going to be a nuisance, I 
shall get rid of it by entering the first city gate I see. 
As for your news that there is a wonderful interest in 
my arrival and that none of the right or right enough 
party" doubt as to my future action, I don t under 
stand your phrase the right party." I don t know 
of such a party, that is if we look for a class ; of course 
there are individuals. But in political splits it is 
classes and parties we want. Do you think the 
Senate is right," when it has left our provinces 
without military rule? For Curio could never have 
held out, if there had been negotiations with him 
a proposal rejected by the House, which left 
Caesar without a successor. Is it the tax-collectors, 
who have never been loyal and are now very friendly 
with Caesar ? Or is it the financiers or the farmers, 
whose chief desire is peace ? Do you suppose they 
will fear a king, when they never declined one so 
long as they were left in peace? Well then, do I 
approve of the candidature of a man who keeps his 
army beyond the legal term ? No, not even of his candi 
dature in absence. But when the one privilege was 
granted, the other went with it. Do I then approve 
of the extension of his military power for ten years, 
and that carried as it was carried? Then I should 
have to approve of my own banishment, the throwing 
away of the Campanian land on the people, the adop- 
1 Abdera was the classical Gotham. 



perisse et adoptatum patricium a plebeio, Gaditanum 
a Mytilenaeo, et Labieni divitiae et Mamurrae placent 
et Balbi horti et Tusculanum. Sed horum omnium 
fons unus est. Imbecillo resistendum fuit, et id erat 
facile ; mine legiones XT, equitatus tantus, quantum 
volet, Transpadani, plebes urbana, tot tribuni pi., tarn 
perdita iuventus, tanta auctoritate dux, tanta audacia. 
Cum hoc aut depugnandum est aut habenda e lege 
ratio. Depugna," inquis, potius quam servias." 
Ut quid? si victus eris, proscribare, si viceris, tamen 
servias? Quid ergo," inquis, facturus es ? " Idem 
quod pecudes, quae dispulsae sui generis sequuntur 
greges. Ut bos armenta sic ego bonos viros aut eos, 
quicumque dicentur boni, sequar, etiamsi ruent. Quid 
sit optimum male contractis rebus, plane video. 
Nemini est enim exploratum, cum ad arma ventum 
sit, quid futurum sit, at illud omnibus, si boni victi 
sint, nee in caede principum clementiorem hunc fore 
quam Cinna fuerit, nee moderatiorem quam Sulla in 
pecuniis locupletum. St ^TroAiTet o/W croi iam dudum 
et facerem diutius, nisi me lucerna desereret. Ad 
summam Die, M. TVLLI." Adsentior Cn. Pompeio, 
id est T. Pomponio. 

Alexim, humanissimum puerum, nisi forte dum ego 
absum, adulescens factus est (id enim agere vide- 
batur), salvere iubeas velim. 


tion of a patrician by a plebeian, of that gentleman 
of Gades by the man of Mytilene. 1 And I should 
have to approve of the wealth of Labienus and Ma- 
murra and the gardens and Tusculan estate of Balbus. 
But the source of all these evils is one. We ought 
to have resisted him when he was weak: that would 
have been easy. Now there are eleven legions, cavalry 
as much as he wants, the northern tribes across the 
Po, the city riff-raff, all the tribunes of the people, 
the young profligates, a leader of such influence and 
daring. We must either fight him or allow his 
candidature according to the law. "Fight," say you, 
"rather than be slaves." The result will be pro 
scription if beaten and slavery even if one wins. 
"What shall I do then?" What the cattle do, who 
when scattered follow flocks of their own kind. 
As an ox follows the herd, so shall I follow the 
right party," or whoever are said to be the right 
party," even if they rush to destruction. The best 
course in our straits is clear to me. No one can 
tell the issue of war : but every one can tell that, if 
the right party are beaten, Caesar will not be more 
merciful than Cinna in slaying the nobility, nor more 
moderate than Sulla in robbing the rich. I have 
discussed In haute poUtique long enough, and I would 
do so longer, had not my lamp gone out. The end is 
"Your vote, Marcus Tullius." I vote with Pompey, 
that is with Titus Pomponius. 

Please remember me to Alexis, a very clever boy, 
unless perhaps in my absence he has become a man, 
as he threatened to do. 

1 Balbus ot Gades was adopted by Theophanes of Myti 
lene, who had himself received the citizenship from Pompey. 




Scr. in For- Quid opus est de Dionysio tam valde adfirmare? 

miano VI An mihi nutus tuus non faceret fidem? Suspicionem 

out V K. autem eo mihi maiorem tua taciturnitas attulerat, 

"* quod et tu soles conglutinare amicitias testimoniis 

tuis, et ilium aliter cum aliis de nobis locutum audie- 

bam. Sed prorsus ita esse, ut scribis, mihi persuades. 

Itaque ego is in ilium sum, quern tu me esse vis. 

Diem tuum ego quoque ex epistula quadam tua, 
quam incipiente febricula scripseras, mihi notaveram 
et animadverteram posse pro re nata te non incom 
mode ad me in Albanum venire in Nonas lanuar. 
Sed, amabo te, nihil incommodo valetudinis feceris. 
Quid enim est tantum in uno aut altero die ? 

Dolabellam video Liviae testamento cum duobus 
coheredibus esse in triente, sed iuberi mutare nomen. 
Est iroXiTiKov (TKefjifia, rectumne sit nobili adulescenti 
mutare nomen mulieris testamento. Sed id <iAocro- 
4>wrepov 8t.VKpiv>}(rofj.ev, cum sciemus, quantum quasi 
sit in trientis triente. 

Quod putasti fore ut, antequam istuc venirem, 
Pompeium viderem, factum est ita; iiam vi Kal. ad 
Lavernium me consecutus est. Una Formias venimus 
et ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti 
sumus. Quod quaeris, ecquae spes pacificationis sit, 
quantum ex Pompei multo et accurate sermone per- 
spexi, ne voluntas quidem est. Sic enim existimat, 
si ille vel dimisso exercitu consul factus sit, 




There was no need for you to give such strong Formiae, 
assurances about Dionysius. A hint from you would Dec. 25 or 
have satisfied me. But your silence gave me all the 26, B.C. 50 
more reason for suspicion, because you are used to 
cement friendships with good-natured assurances, 
and because I heard that he used different language 
about us to others. However, your letter convinces 
me. So I behave to him exactly as you wish. 

Your bad day too I had noted from a letter you 
wrote at the beginning of your feverishness, and I 
had calculated that under the circumstances you 
could conveniently meet me at the Alban villa on the 
3rd of January. But please do nothing to affect your 
health. A day or two will make no difference. 

Dolabella, I see, by Li via s will shares a third of 
her estate with two others, but is asked to change 
his name. It is a social problem whether it is proper 
for a young noble to change his name under a lady s 
will. But we can determine that on more scientific 
grounds, when we know to how much a third of a 
third amounts. 

Your guess that I should meet Pompey before 
coming to Rome has come true. On the 25th he 
overtook me near the Lavernium. We reached For 
miae together, and were closeted together from two 
o clock till evening. For your query as to the chance 
of a peaceful settlement, so far as I could tell from 
Pompey s full and detailed discourse, he does not even 
want peace. Pompey thinks that the constitution will 
be subverted even if Caesar is elected consul without 



TV}S TroAira as fore, atque etiam putat eum, cum 
audierit contra se diligenter parari, consulatum hoc 
anno neglecturum ac potius exercitum provinciamque 
retenturum. Sin autem ille fureret, vehementer 
hominem contemnebat et suis et rei publicae copiis 
confidebat. Quid quaeris? etsi mihi crebro wos 
EvuuAtos occurrebat, tamen levabar cura virum for 
te m et peritum et plurimum auctoritate valentem 
audiens woXiriKfas de pacis simulatae periculis disse- 
rentem. Habebamus autem in manibus Antoni con- 
tionem habitam x Kal. lanuar., in qua erat accusatio 
Pompei usque a toga pura, querela de damnatis, terror 
armorum. In quibus ille Quid censes," aiebat, fac- 
turum esse ipsum, si in possessionem rei publicae 
venerit, cum haec quaestor eius infirmus et inops 
audeat dicere?" Quid multa? non niodo non expe- 
tere pacem istam, sed etiam timere visus est. Ex ilia 
autem sententia ISea 1 relinquendae urbis movet homi- 
nem, ut puto. Mihi autem illud molestissimum est, 
quod solvendi sunt iiummi Caesari et instrumentum 
triumphi eo conferendum. Est enim a^op^ov ui Tt- 
TToAirei Ofievov xpewc^etAer^i esse. Sed haec et multa 
alia coram. 



Scr. in Cotidiene," inquis, a te accipiendae litterae 

Formiano I sunt?" Si habebo, cui dem, cotidie. At iam ipse 
aui Lv A. ades." Turn igitur, cum venero, desinam. Unas video 

1 ISta Schmidt : i M ; ha, viv, nif, infra other MSS. 


an army ; and he fancies that when Caesar hears of the 
energetic preparations against him, he will give up 
the idea of the consulship this year, and prefer to 
keep his army and his province. Still, if Caesar 
should play the fool, Pompey has an utter contempt 
for him, and firm confidence in his own and the 
state s resources. Well, although the "uncertainty of Ii; ad xviii, 3<w 
war" came constantly into my mind, I was relieved of 
anxiety as I listened to a soldier, a strategist, and a 
man of the greatest influence discoursing in a states 
manlike way on the risks of a hollow peace. We had 
before us a speech of Antony made on the 21st of 
December, which attacked Pompey from boyhood, 
complained about the condemnation of certain people 
and threatened war. Pompey s comment was "What 
do you suppose Caesar will do, if he becomes master 
of the state, when a wretched, insignificant subordi 
nate dares to talk in this strain?" In a word, he 
appeared not only not to seek peace, but even to 
fear it. But I fancy the idea of leaving the city 
shakes his resolution. What annoys me most is that 
I have to pay up to Caesar, and devote to the pur 
pose what I should have used for my triumph. It is 
bad form to owe money to a political opponent. 
But this and many other topics can wait till we 



You ask if you are going to get a letter from me Formiae, 
every day. Every day, if I can find a messenger. Dec. 26 or 
True I am at hand myself. Well, I will stop writing 27, B.C. 50 



mihi a te non esse redditas, quas L. Quinctius, 
familiaris meus, cum ferret, ad bustum Basil! vulne- 
ratus et despoliatus est. Videbis igitur, num quid 
fuerit in iis, quod me scire opus sit, et simul hoc 
Stet Kpu ?;o-t Trp6/3\r)iJia sane TTO\LTIKOV. Cum sit 
necesse aut haberi Caesaris rationem illo exercitum 
vel per senatum vel per tribunes pi. obtinente; aut 
persuaded Caesari, ut tradat provinciam atque exer 
citum et ita consul fiat ; aut, si id ei non persuadeatur, 
haberi comitia sine illius ratione illo patiente atque 
obtinente provinciam ; aut, si per tribunos pi. non 
patiatur et tamen quiescat, rem adduci ad interre 
gnum ; aut, si ob earn causam, quod ratio eius non 
habeatur, exercitum adducat, armis cum eo conten- 
dere, ilium autem initium facere armorum aut statim 
nobis minus paratis, aut turn, cum comitiis amicis 
eius postulantibus, ut e lege ratio habeatur, impetra- 
tum non sit, ire autem ad arma aut hanc unam ob 
causam, quod ratio non habeatur, aut addita causa, 
si forte tribunus pi. senatum impediens aut populum 
incitans notatus aut senatus consulto circumscriptus 
aut sublatus aut expulsus sit dicensve se expulsum 
ad ilium confugerit, suscepto autem bello aut tenenda 
sit urbs aut ea relicta ille commeatu et reliquis copiis 
intercludendus quod horum malorum, quorum ali- 
quod certe subeundum est, minimum putes. Dices 
profecto persuaderi illi, ut tradat exercitum et ita 
consul fiat. Est omnino id eius modi, ut, si ille eo 
descendat, contra dici nihil possit, idque eum, si non 
obtinet, ut ratio habeatur retinentis exercitum, non 


when I arrive. 1 see I have missed one of your 
letters : my friend L. Quinctius was wounded and 
robbed near the tomb of Basilus, while he was bring 
ing it. So you must see if there was any news in it 
I ought to have, and you shall solve me this inevitable 
problem of politics to boot. It may be necessary for 
us to admit Caesar as a candidate while he keeps his 
armj T , be it by the favour of the House or the tri 
bunes. Or we may have to persuade him to take 
office on condition of giving up his province and his 
troops. Or, if he will not yield to persuasion on that 
point, we may refuse to admit him as a candidate at 
the election, and he may endure the treatment and 
keep his province. Or, if he employs the tribunes 
to interfere, yet keeps the peace, a political deadlock 
may be brought about. Or, if he uses force, because 
we reject him as a candidate, we may have to fight 
and he may begin at once before we are ready, 
or when his friends fail to get his candidature 
allowed at the elections in accordance with his 
legal privilege. He may resort to arms solely on 
account of his rejection as a candidate, or for a 
further reason, if a tribune through using obstruc 
tionist tactics or an appeal to popular feeling incur 
a censure or a limitation of power or suspension or 
expulsion from office, or if some tribune fly to him 
with a tale of expulsion. War begun, we must either 
hold the city or abandon it and cut him off from 
food and supplies. Of these evils some one must be 
borne : consider which in your opinion is the lightest. 
Of course you will say, Induce him to give up his 
army and so take the consulship." True there can be no 
objection to that, if he will condescend, and I wonder 
he does not, if he cannot get his candidature sup- 

E VOL. II 49 


facere miror. Nobis autem, ut quidam putant, nihil 
est timenduni m agis quam ille consul. At sic malo," 
inquies, quam cum exercitu." Certe ; sed istud 
ipsum sic" magnum malum putat aliquis, neque ei 
remedium est ullum. Cedendum est, si id volet." 
Vide consulem ilium iterum, quern vidisti consulatu 
priore. At turn imbecillus plus/ inquis, valuit 
quam tota res publica." Quid iiunc putas? et eo 
consule Pompeio certum est esse in Hispania. O rem 
miseram! si quidem id ipsum deterrimum est, quod 
recusari non potest, et quod ille si faciat, iam iam a 
bonis omnibus summam ineat gratiam. Tollamus 
igitur hoc. quo ilium posse adduci negaifrt ; de reliquis 
quid est deterrimum ? Concedere illi, quod, ut idem 
dicit, impudentissime postulat. Nam quid impuden- 
tius? Tenuisti provinciam per annos decem, non 
tibi a senatu, sed a te ipso per vim et per factionem 
datos ; praeteriit tempus non legis, sed libidinis tuae, 
fac tamen legis ; ut succedatur, decernitur ; impedis 
et ais : Habe meam rationem." Habe tu nostram. 
Exercitum tu habeas diutius, quam populus iussit, 
invito senatu? Depugnes oportet, nisi concedis." 
Cum bona quidem spe, ut ait idem, vel vincendi vel 
in libertate moriendi. Iam, si pugnandum est, quo 
tempore, in casu, qup consilio, in temporibus situm 
est. Itaque te in ea quaestione non exerceo ; ad ea, 
quae dixi, adfer, si quid habes. Equidem dies noc- 
tesque torqueor. 



ported while he keeps his army. But for us some 
think that nothing could be worse than Caesar in 
office. You may say, Better so, than with an army." 
Certainly: but Pompey thinks that very so" fatal, 
and there is no remedy for it. We must submit to 
Caesar s will." But imagine him in office again after 
your experience of his former tenure. You will reflect 
that, weak as he was, he was too strong for the con 
stitution. What about him now? And now, if Caesar 
is consul, Pompey will remain in Spain. What a plight ! 
since the worst of all is the very alternative which 
we cannot refuse him, and the one which, if he takes 
it, will of itself win him the favour of the right party. 
This course it is said he will not accept; let us put 
it out of court. Which is the worst of the remaining 
alternatives? To concede his impertinent demand, 
as Pompey terms it? Impertinent it is indeed. You 
have had a province for ten years, not allotted by the 
Senate, but by yourself through force and insubor 
dination. This term, not a legal term, but a term 
of your own will and pleasure or say, this legal 
term comes to an end. The House passes a decree 
for the appointment of a successor. You object and 
cry, Consider my candidature." Consider our case. 
Are you to dare the House and keep your army 
longer than the nation sanctions? You must fight 
or yield." Then as Pompey says, let us hope for 
victory, or death with freedom. If we must fight, 
the time depends on chance, the plan of campaign on 
circumstances. So I do not trouble you on that 
point. But make any suggestion you can on my 
remarks. Day and night I am tormented. 

E2 51 


Scr. ad 
urbem XIV 
sub noctem 
out XIII 
ante lucem 
K. Febr. a. 

Scr. in Cam 
pania inter 
XIV et IX 
K. Febr. a. 




Subito consilium cepi, ut, antequam luceret, exi- 
rem, ne qui conspectus fieret aut sermo, lictoribus 
praesertim laureatis. De reliquo neque hercule quid 
again neque quid acturus sim, scio ; ita sum perturba- 
tus temeritate nostri amentissimi consilii. Tibi vero 
quid suadeam, cuius ipse consilium exspecto ? Gnaeus 
noster quid consilii ceperit capiatve, nescio, adhuc in 
oppidis coartatus et stupens. Omnes, si in Italia 
consistat, erimus una; sin cedet, consilii res est. 
Adhuc certe, nisi ego insanio, stulte omnia et incaute. 
Tu, quaeso, crebro ad me scribe, vel quod in buccam 



Quaeso. quid est hoc? aut quid agitur? Mihi enim 
tenebrae sunt. Cingulum/ inquit, nos tenemus, 
Anconem amisimus ; Labienus discessit a Caesare." 
Utrum de imperatore populi Romani an de Hannibale 
loquimur? O hominem amentem et miserum, qui 
ne umbram qtiidem umquam TOV KaXov viderit ! 
Atque haec ait omnia facere ,se dignitatis causa. 
Ubi est autem dignitas nisi ubi honestas? Honestum 
igitur habere exercitum nullo publico consilio, occu- 
pare urbes eivium, quo facilior sit aditus ad patriam, 
XP<3v uTroKOTras, <i>y5coi xaOoSovs, sescenta alia scelera 



^A* -& /$ 




I have suddenly determined to leave town before Near Rome, 
daybreak, so that I may escape sightseers and gossips, Jan. 17 o> 
especially with my bay-decked lictors. For the rest, 18, B.C. 49 
what to do now or later, upon my word, I do not 
know : I am so upset by our rash and lunatic policy. 
What advice can I offer you, when it is to you I look 
for advice ? I know not what plan Pompey has made 
or is making : so far he is cooped up in the towns, 
paralysed. If he makes his stand in Italy, we shall all 
be together : if he retires, it will be a matter for de 
bate. So far certainly, unless I have lost my wits, 
his policy has been rash and foolish. Please write to 
me often, just what comes into your head. 



What in the name of wonder is this? What is In Campa- 
happening ? I am in the dark. People say, Cingulum nia, Jan. 
is ours, Ancona is lost, Labienus has deserted from 17-22, B.C. 
Caesar." Are we talking of a Roman officer or of ^-9 
Hannibal? Wretched madman never to have seen 
the shadow even of right! Yet all this, he says, is 
done to support his honour. Can there be honour 
without honesty : and is it honest to retain an army 
without sanction, to seize the cities of your country 
that you may strike the better at her heart, to con 
trive abolition of debts, the restoration of exiles, and 
scores of other crimes, 



Tvpdvvioa ? 

Sibi habeat suam fortunam ! Unam mehercule tecum 
apricationem iji illo lucrative tuo sole malim quam 
oninia istius modi regna vel p otius mori miliens quam 
semel istius modi quicquam cogitare. Quid, si tu 
velis?" inquis. Age, quis est, cui velle non liceat? 
Sed ego hoc ipsum velle" miserius esse duco quam 
in crucem tolli. Una res est ea miserior, adipisci, 
quod ita volueris. Sed haec hactenus. Libenter 
enim in his molestiis 

Redeamus ad nostrum. Per fortunas ! quale tibi 
consilium Pompei videtur? hoc quaere, quod urbem 
reliquerit. Ego enim aTropw. Turn nihil absurdius. 
Urbem tu relinquas? ergo idem, si Galli venirent? 
Non est," inquit, in parietibus res publica." At in 
aris et focis. Fecit Themistocles." Fluctum enim 
totius barbariae ferre urbs una non poterat. At idem 
Pericles non fecit annum fere post quinquagesimum, 
cum praeter moema nihil teneret; nostri olim urbe 

\ , t.^JN.ji^3 T ^vS V ^M^ s\" 

reliqua capta arcem tamen retinueruist. 

^s^s^V^V)^ / V^iX ^^ 

OVTW TTOV TWV TrpucrOev e~ev9o[j.0a K\.eo. cTKDpwv. 

Rursus autem ex dolore municipal! sermbnibusque 
eorum, quos convenio, videtur hoc consilium exitum 
habiturum. Mira hominum querela est (nescio an 2 

1 COCON yJ/SS.. r6aov Tyrrell, Purser; croi Viet. 

2 an added by Ernesti, 



"To win God s greatest gift, a crown?" JfioMssae 16 

Well, let him keep his fortune. For my part, let me 
bask one hour in your clime s free gift of sunlight, 
rather than win any kingdom of that sort. Better a 
thousand times to die than once to meditate such 
villainy. Suppose you conceive a desire for it," 
you say. Desire is free to anyone ; but I would rather 
be crucified than have such a desire. There is only 
one worse fate, to obtain your desire. But enough 
of this. It eases me to philosophize a trifle in our 
present straits. 

To come back to Pompey. What, in heaven s 
name, do you think of his plan ? I mean his deser 
tion of Rome. I don t know what to make of it. 
Besides nothing could be more ridiculous. Leave 
the city? Would you then have done the same if 
the Gauls were coming? He may object that the 
state does not consist of lath and plaster. But it 
does consist of hearths and altars. Themistocles 
abandoned Athens." Yes, because one city could not 
stand the flood of all the barbarians of the East. But 
Pericles did not desert her about fifty years later, 
though he held nothing but the walls. Once too our 
ancestors lost the rest of Rome, but they kept the 

" Such were the deeds they did, men say, Iliad ix, S29 

The heroes of an elder day." 

On the other hand to judge from the indignation in 
the towns and the talk of my acquaintances, it looks 
to me as if Pompey s flight would be a success. 
Here there is an extraordinary outcry (whether in 
1 Or " precious." The meaning is very doubtful. 



istic, sed facies, ut sciam) sine magistratibus urbem 
esse, sine senatu. Fugiens denique Pompeius mira- 
biliter homines movet. Quid quaeris? alia causa 
acta est. Nihil iam eoncedendum putant Caesari. 
Haec tu mihi explica qualia sint. 

Ego negotio pi-aesum non turbulento. Vult enim 
me Pompeius esse, quern tola haec Campania et ma- 
ritima ora habeat eTrio-KOTrov, ad quern dilectus et 
summa negotii referatur. Itaque vagus esse cogita- 
bam. Te puto iam videre, quae sit 6/rW? Caesaris, 
qui populus, qui totius negotii status. Ea velim scri- 
bas ad me, et quidem, quoniam mutabilia sunt, quam 
saepissime. Acquiesco enim et scribens ad te et le- 
gens tua. 



Scr. Formiis Unam adhuc a te epistulam acceperam datam xn 
X K. Febr. Kal., in qua significabatur aliam te ante dedisse, quam 
a. Wo non acceperam. Sed quaeso, ut scribas quam saepis 

sime, non modo si quid scies aut audieris, sed etiam 
si quid suspicabere, maximeque quid nobis faciendum 
aut non faciendum putes. Nam, quod rogas, curem, 
ut scias, quid Pompeius agat, ne ipsum quidem scire 
puto; nostrum quidem nemo. Vidi Lentulum con- 
sulem Formiis x Kal., vidi Libonem ; plena timoris et 
erroris omnia. Ille iter Larinum ; ibi enim cohortes 
et Luceriae et Teani reliquaque in Apulia. Inde 


Rome also, I do not know : please tell me) at the 
city being left without magistrates and without the 
House. In fact Pompey s flight has made a marvel 
lous stir. Men s attitude is really quite different: 
they object to any concession to Caesar. Explain to 
me what it all means. 

My task is peaceftrl. Pompey wishes me to act as 
surveyor over the whole of the Campaiiian coast, to 
superintend the levy and all important business. So 
I expect to be a wanderer. I imagine you realize 
Caesar s policy, the temper of the people and the 
condition of affairs. Pray keep me informed, and, 
since things are in a changeable condition, as often 
as possible. It soothes me to write to you and read 
your letters. 



So far I have received one letter from you dated Fonniae, 
the 1 9th. In it you state that you sent me another ; Jan. 21, 
but it has not reached me. I entreat you, write to me B.C. 49 
as often as possible, not only what you shall know 
or hear, but even anything you may suspect ; 
and especially give me your opinion as to what 
I ought or ought not to do. As to your request for 
information on Pompey s policy, I don t think he 
knows himself; certainly none of us know. 1 saw 
Lentulus the consul at Formiae on the 21st. I saw 
Libo. Everywhere there is panic and confusion. 
Pompey is on the road to Larinum ; for there are 
cohorts there and also at Luceria and Teanum and 
in the rest of Apulia. No one knows whether he 



utrum consistere uspiam velit an mare transire, 
nescitur. Si manet, vereor, ne exercitum firmum 
habere non possit ; sin discedit, quo aut qua, aut quid 
nobis agendum sit, nescio. Nam istum quidem, 
cuius (^aXapLcr/jior times, omnia taeterrime facturum 
puto. Nee eum rerum prolatit) nee senatus magi- 
stratuumque discessus nee aerarium clausum tardabit. 
Sed haec, ut scribis, cito sciemus. 

Interim velim mihi ignoscas quod ad te scribo tarn 
multa totiens. Acquiesco enim, et tuas volo elicere 
litteras, maximeque consilium, quid agam aut quo me 
pacto geram. Demittamne me penitus in causam? 
Non deterreor periculo, sed dirumpor dolore. Tamne 
nullo consilio aut tarn contra meum consilium gesta 
esse omnia ! An cuncter et tergiverser, et eis me 
dem, qui tenent, qui potiuntur? Ai8eo/zru Tpwas 
nee solum civis, sed etiam amici officio revocor; etsi 
frangor saepe misericordia puerorum. Ut igitur ita 
perturbato, etsi te eadem sollicitant, scribe aliquid, 
et maxime, si Pompeius Italia cedit, quid nobis 
agendum putes. M . quidem Lepidus (nam fuimus 
una) eum finem statuit, L. Torquatus eundem. Me 
cum multa turn etiam lictores impediunt. Nihil vidi 
umquarn, quod minus explicari posset. Itaque a te 
nihildum certi exquiro, sed quid videatur. Denique 
ipsam a7ropiav tuam cupio cognoscere. Labienum ab 
illo discessisse prope modum constat. Si ita factum 
esset, ut ille Romam veniens magistratus et senatum 


will make a stand anywhere or cross the sea. If he 
remains in Italy, I fear it is impossible for him to 
have a reliable army. If he leaves Italy, where he 
will go or stay, and what we are to do I don t know. 
For I imagine that Caesar, whom you fear may be a 
Phalaris, will stick at no abominations. He will not 
be deterred by adjournment of public business, the 
departure of members and magistrates and the clo 
sure of the treasury. But, as you say, we shall know 

Meanwhile forgive me for writing so much and so 
often; it soothes me, and I wish to extract letters 
from you, and especially advice as to where to go 
and what to do. Shall I give myself up heart and 
soul to the good cause? I am not terrified by the 
danger, but tortured by the anguish. To think that 
everything has been done with such a lack of plan, 
or so contrary to my plan ! Or shall I hesitate and 
play the turncoat, and join the party that holds the 
field? "I fear the Trojans," and I am held back not 
only by my duty as a citizen, but by my duty as a 
friend; though I am often shaken by pity for the 
boys. So write a line to me in my distress, although 
you have the same worries; and especially as to 
what you think I should do, if Pompey leaves Italy. 
I have met M . Lepidus and he draws the line there ; 
so does L. Torquatus. There are many obstacles 
before me, including my lictors. I have never seen 
such an intricate tangle. So I do not look to you 
for positive advice : but only for your opinion. In 
fact I want to know how the dilemma presents itself 
to you. It is practically certain that Labienus has 
left Caesar. If it could have been arranged that he 
could meet magistrates and Senate on his arrival at 



Romae offenderet, magno usui causae nostrae fuisset. 
Damnasse enim sceleris hominem amicum rei publi- 
cae causa videretur, quod nunc quoque videtur, sed 
minus prodest. Non enim habet, cui prosit, eumque 
arbitror paenitere, nisi forte id ipsum est falsum, 
discessisse ilium. Nos quidem pro certo habebamus. 
Et velim, quamquam, ut scribis, domesticis te fi- 
nibus tenes, formam mihi urbis exponas, ecquod 
Pompei desiderium, ecquae Caesaris invidia appareat, 
etiam quid censeas de Terentia et Tullia, Romae eas 
esse an mecum an aliquo tuto loco. Haec et si quid 
aliud ad me scribas velim vel potius scriptites. 



Scr. Mentur- De Vennonianis rebus tibi assentior. Labienum 

ms 1 A A. ^ jjpfcxj iudico. Facinus iam diu nullum civile prae- 
Febr. a. 70o 

clarius, qui, ut aliud nihil, hoc tamen profecit, dedit 

illi dolorem. Sed etiam ad summam profectum ali- 
quid puto. Amo etiam Pisonem. Cuius iudicium 
de genero suspicor visum iri grave. Quamquam, 
genus belli quod sit, vides. Ita civile est, ut non ex 
civium dissensione, sed ex unius perditi civis audacia 
natum sit. Is autem valet exercitu, tenet multos spe 
et promissis, omnia omnium concupivit. Huic tradita 
urbs est nuda praesidio, referta copiis. Quid est, 


Rome, he would have been of great service to our 
cause. Loyalty it would have appeared had made 
him regard his friend a traitor : it appears so as it is, 
but it is of less use. For there is no cause to serve, 
and I imagine that he is sorry at leaving Caesar, 
unless perhaps the report is false. Myself I think 
it true. 

And please give me a sketch of city affairs, though 
according to your account you keep to your house. 
Is Pompey missed ? Does Caesar seem disliked ? 
What do you think about Terentia and Tullia? 
Should they remain in Rome, or join me, or seek 
some refuge? On these and any other topics pray 
write to me, I mean write often. 



In the matter of Vennonius I agree with you. Menturnae, 
Labienus I consider a hero. There has been no Jan. 22, 
public action of such distinction for a long time. If B.C. 49 
he has done nothing else, he has at least hurt Caesar s 
feelings. But I think he has served our main 
interests as well. I am delighted too with Piso. His 
judgement on his son-in-law 1 should carry weight. 
However, you see the nature of our struggle. It is 
civil war, though it has not sprung from division 
among our citizens, but from daring of one aban 
doned citizen. He is strong in military forces, he 
attracts adherents by hopes and promises, he covets 
the whole universe. Rome is delivered to him 
stripped of defenders, stocked with supplies : one may 

1 Caesar. 



quod ab eo non metuas, qui ilia templa et tecta non 
patriam, sed praedarn putet ? Quid autem sit acturus 
aut quo modo, nescio, sine senatu, sine magistratibus. 
Ne simulare quidein poterit quicquam TroAtriKws. 
Nos autem ubi exsurgere poterimus aut quando? 
Quorum dux quam a0-Tpa.T?/y?7Tos, tu quoque ariim- 
advertis, cui ne Picena quidem nota fuerint ; quam 
autem sine consilio, res testis. Ut enim alia omittam 
decem annorum peccata, quae condicio non huic fugae 
praestitit ? Nee vero, nunc quid cogitet, scio ac non 
desino per litteras sciscitari. Nihil esse timidius 
constat, nihil perturbatius. Itaque nee praesidium, 
cuius parandi causa ad urbem retentus est, nee locum 
ac sedem praesidii ullam video. Spes omnis in duabus 
insidiose retentis paene alienis legionibus. Nam 
dilectus adhuc quidem invitorum est et a pugnando 
abhorrentium. Condicionum autem amissum tempus 
est. Quid futurum sit, non video ; commissum quidem 
a nobis certe est sive a nostro duce, ut e portu sine 
gubernaculis egressi tempestati nos traderemus. 

Itaque de Ciceronibus nostris dubito quid agam ; 
nam mihi interdum amandandi videntur in Graeciam ; 
de Tullia autem et Terentia, cum mihi barbarorum 
adventus ad urbem proponitur, omnia timeo; cum 
autem Dolabellae venit in mentem, paulum respiro. 
Sed velim consideres, quid faciendum putes primum 
Trpbs TO acr(aA.6s (aliter enim mihi de illis ac de me 
ipso consulendum est), deinde ad opiniones, ne repre- 
hendamur, quod eas Romae velimus esse in communi 
bonorum fuga. Quin etiam tibi et Peducaeo (scripsit 
enim ad me), quid faciatis, videndum est. Is enim 


fear anything from a man who regards her temples 
and her homes not as his native land, but as his 
loot. What he will do. and how he will do it, in the 
absence of House and magistrates, I do not know. 
He will be unable even to pretend constitutional 
methods. But where can our party raise its head 
or when? You, too, remark how poor a soldier our 
leader is; why, he did not even know how things 
were in Picenum ; and the crisis shows his lack of 
policy. Pass over other faults of the last ten years. 
What compromise were not better than this flight? 
I do not know what he is thinking of doing 
now, though I inquire by constant letters. It is 
agreed that his alarm and confusion has reached 
the limit. He was kept in Italy to garrison Rome, 
but no garrison or place to post a garrison can I 
see. We depend entirely on two legions that were 
kept here by a trick, and are practically disloyal. 
For so far the levy has found unwilling recruits, afraid 
of war. But the time of compromise is passed. The 
future is obscure. We, or our leader, have brought 
things to such a pass, that having put to sea without 
a rudder, we must trust to the mercy of the storm. 

So 1 hesitate what to do with the boys. Sometimes 
I think of sending them to Greece. As for Tullia 
and Terentia, when I picture the approach of the 
barbarians on Rome, I am terrified. But the thought 
of Dolabella is some small relief to my mind. Please 
consider my best course, in the first place with an 
eye to safety, for their safety stands on a different 
footing to mine, and then with regard to possible 
criticism, if I leave them in Rome, when the loyal 
are all in flight. Even you and Peducaeus must be 
careful what you do, as he writes to me. For your 



splendor est vestrum, ut eadeni postulentur a vobis 
quae ab amplissimis civibus. Sed de hoc tu videbis, 
quippe cum de me ipso ac de meis te considerate 

Reliquum est, ut, et quid agatur, quoad poteris, 
explores scribasque ad me, et quid ipse coniectura 
assequare, quod etiam a te magis exspecto. Nam 
acta omnibus nuntiantibus, a te exspecto futura. 
Mavrt? 8 aptcrros . Loquacitati ignosces, quae et 
me levat ad te quidem scribentem et elicit tuas lit- 
teras. Aenigma Oppiorum ex Velia plane non in- 
tellexi; est enim numero Platonis obscurius. 1 



So: Mentur- lam intellexi tuum ; Oppios enim de Velia saccones 

nis I 111 A. (Jicis. j n eo aestuavi diu. Quo aperto reliqua pate- 

Febr. a. 

~Q;- bant et cum lerentiae summa congruebant. JL. 

Caesarem vidi Menturnis a. d. vin Kal. Febr. mane 
cum absurdissimis maiidatis, non hominem, sed scopas 
solutas, ut id ipsum mihi ille videatur irridendi causa 
fecisse, qui tantis de rebus huic mandata dederit; 

obscurius, transferred by O. E. Schmidt from 
the beginning of XI I la. 



eminence is such that people will expect the same 
from you as from the most distinguished citizens. 
But you are capable of looking after yourself. Why, 
it is to you that I look for advice about myself and 
my family. 

For the rest, you must discover, as far as you can, 
what is happening, and write to me. Add your con 
jectures, too, for I look forward still more eagerly to 
them. Anybody can inform me of what has hap 
pened. From you I hope to hear what will happen. 
"The prince of seers . . ." 1 Pardon my chatter. It is 
a relief to write to you, and it gets me a letter from 
you. I am at a loss to explain your riddle about the 
Oppii of Velia; it is darker than Plato s number. 2 



I understand it now, you call those pursy Oppii the Menturnac, 
bagmen of Velia. 3 I was in doubt for a long time. But Jan. 23, 
the riddle solved, the rest became clear, and tallied B.C. 49 
with Terentia s reckoning. I met L. Caesar at 
Menturnae on the morning of the 23rd of January 
with the most ridiculous commission. He is not a 
man, but a broom untied. I imagine that Caesar 
is mocking us by sending such a commissioner on so 
important business; but perhaps the fellow has no 

^he line in full /j.dvTis 5 dpwros OCTTIS ftKafei /caXcDs is taken 
from a lost tragedy of Euripides. 

2 The " nuptial number of the Republic, 5450 foil. 
;! The Oppii were bankers. If saccones is read, it must be 
taken as a jocular reference to money-bags. Some, how 
ever, read succories "blood-suckers," suggesting an obscure 
play upon the words 6ir6s (fig juice) and suczts. 

F VOL. II 6.5 


nisi forte non dedit, et hie sermone aliquo arrepto 
pro mandatis abusus est. 

Labienus, vir mea sententia magrius, Teanum venit 
a. d. vim Kal. Ibi Pompeium consulesque convenit. 
Qui sernio fuerit, et quid actum sit, scribam ad te, 
cum certum sciam. Pompeius a Teano Larinum ver 
sus profectus est a. d. vin Kal. Eo die mansit Vena- 
fri. lam aliquantum animi videtur nobis attulisse 
Labienus. Sed ego nondum habeo, quod ad te ex 
his locis scribam ; ista magis exspecto, quid illim 
adferatur, quo pacto de Labieno ferat, quid agat 
Domitius in Marsis, Iguvi Thermus, P. Attius Cinguli, 
quae sit populi urbani voluntas, quae tua coniectura 
de rebus futuris. Haec velim crebro, et quid tibi de 
mulieribus nostris placeat, et quid acturus ipse sis, 
scribas. Si scriberem ipse, longior epistula fuisset, 
sed dictavi propter lippitudinem. 



Scr. Calibuti A. d. vi Kal. Febr. Capuam Calibus proficiscens. 

a. d. VI K. cum leviter lippirem, has litteras dedi. L. Caesar 

Febr. a. mandata Caesaris detulit ad Pompeium a. d. vm Kal., 

70~> cum is esset cum consulibus Teani. Probata condicio 

est, sed ita, ut ille de eis oppidis, quae extra suam 

provinciam occupavisset, praesidia deduceret. Id si 

lecisset, responsum est ad urbem nos redituros esse 

et rem per senatum confecturos. Spero nosse in 

praesentia pacem nos habere : nam et ilium furoris 

et hunc nostrum eopiarum suppaenitet. Me Pom- 



authority, and is palming off some chance conversa 
tion as a commission. 

Labienus, my hero, arrived at Teanum on the 
22nd, where he met Pompey and the consuls. As 
soon as I have positive news, I will inform you of 
what they have said and done. Pompey set out from 
Teanum for Larinum on the 23rd. He spent that day 
at Venafrum. At last Labienus has given us some en 
couragement, but I have no news from this quarter. 
Rather I expect news from you of Caesar s doings, 
how he takes Labienus desertion, what Domitius is 
doing among the Marsi, Thermus at Iguvium, and P. 
Attius at Cingulum, what is the city s feeling, and 
what are your views as to the future. Please write 
me often on these topics, and give me your opinion 
about my women-folk and your own intentions. 
Were I writing myself this letter would have been 
longer, but I dictate it owing to inflammation of the 



On the 25th of January, setting out from Gales to Cales, Jan. 
Capua, I write this letter, though still suffering from 25, B.C. J$ 
slight inflammation of the eyes. L. Caesar brought 
Caesar s ultimatum to Pompey on the 23rd, while Pom 
pey was at Teanum with the consuls. His conditions 
were accepted with the reservation that he should 
withdraw his garrison from the towns he has occupied 
outside his own province. That done, they said, we 
would return to Rome and settle business in the 
House. I hope for the present we may have peace : 
Caesar is rather sorry for his madness, and Pompey 
F2 67 


peius Capuam venire voluit et adiuvare dilectum ; 
in quo parum prolixe respondent Campani coloni. 
Gladiatores Caesaris, qui Capuae sunt, de quibus ante 
ad te falsuin ex A. Torquati litteris scripseram, sane 
commode Pompeius distribuit binos singulis patribus 
familiarum. Scutorum in ludo IDD fuerunt. Erupti- 
onem faoturi fuisse dicebantur. Sane multum in 
eo rei publieae provisum est. 

De mulieribus nostris, in quibus est tua soror, quaeso 
videas, ut satis honestum nobis sit eas Romae esse, 
cum ceterae ilia dignitate discesserint. Hoc scripsi 
ad eas et ad te ipsum antea. Velim eas cohortere. 
ut exeant, praesertim cum ea praedia in ora maritima 
habeamuSj cui ego praesum, ut in iis pro re nata nori 
incommode possint esse. Nam, si quid offendimus 
in genero nostro quod quideni ego praestare non 
debeo sed id fit maius, quod mulieres nostrae praeter 
ceteras Romae remanserunt. Tu ipse cum Sexto scire 
velim quid cogites de exeundo de totaque re quid 
existimes. Equidem pacem hortari non desino; quae 
vel iniusta utilior est quam iustissimum bellum cum 
civibus. Sed haec, ut fors tulerit. 



Scr. Capuae Ut ab urbe discessi, nullum adhuc interims! diem, 
V K. Febr. quin aliquid ad te litterarum darem, non quo habe- 
a. 705 68 


is uneasy as to our forces. I am wanted at Capua to 
assist the levy. The settlers in Campania are hang 
ing back. As for Caesar s professional fighting men 
at Capua, about whom I misinformed you on the 
authority of A. Torquatus, Pompey has very cleverly 
distributed them two a-piece to heads of families. 
There were 5,000 heavy armed gladiators in the 
school. They were said to meditate a sortie. Pom- 
pey s was a wise provision for the safety of the state. 
As for my women-folk,, among whom is your sister, 
I entreat you to consider the propriety of their stay 
at Rome, when the other ladies of their rank have 
departed. I wrote to them and to you on this point 
previously. Please urge them to leave the city, 
especially as I have those estates on the sea-coast, 
which is under my care, so that they can live there 
without much inconvenience, considering the state 
of affairs. For, if I give offence by the conduct 
of my son-in-law (though I am not his keeper), 
the fact that my women-folk stay in Rome after 
I others have left makes matters worse. I should like 
o know what you and Sextus think about leaving 
own, and to have your opinion of matters in general. 
As for me, I cease not to advocate peace. It may be 
)ii unjust terms, but even so it is more expedient 
han the justest of civil wars. However, I can but 
eave it to fate. 



Since I left Rome I have not yet let a day pass Capua, Jan. 
vithout dropping you a line; not that I had any 26, B.C. 4 



rem magno opere, quod scriberem, sed ut loquerer 
tecum absens : quo mihi, cum corani id non licet, 
nihil est iucundius. 

Capuam cum venissem a. d. vi Kal. pridie, quam has 
litteras dedi, consules conveni multosque iiostri ordinis. 
Omnes cupiebant Caesarem abductis praesidiis stare 
condicionibus iis, quas tulisset; uni Favonio leges ab 
illo iiobis imponi non placebat. Sed is baud auditus l in 
consilio. Cato enim ipse iam servire quam pugnare 
mavult : sed tamen ait in senatu se adesse velle, cum de 
condicionibus agatur, si Caesar adductus sit, ut praesi- 
dia deducat. Ita, quod maxime opus est, in Sicilian! ire 
non curat ; quod metuo ne obsit, in senatu esse vult. 
Postumius autem, de quo nominatim senatus decrevit, 
ut statim in Sicilian! iret Furfanioque succederet, 
negat se sine Catone iturum et suam in senatu operam 
auctoritatemque quam magni aestimat. Ita res ad Fan- 
nium pervenit. Is cum imperio in Sicilian! praemittitur. 
In disputationibus nostris summavarietasest. Plerique 
negant Caesaren! in condicione mansurumpostulataque 
haec ab eo interposita esse, quo minus, quod opus esset 
ad bellum, a nobis pararetur. Ego autem eun! puto fa- 
cturum, ut praesidia deducat. Vicerit enim, si consul 
factus erit, et minore scelere vicerit, quam quo ingres- 
sus est. Sedaccipiendaplagaest. Sumus enim flagitiose 
imparati cum a militibus turn a pecunia ; quam quidem 
omnem non modo privatam, quae in urbe est, sed etiam 
publicam, quae in aerario est, illi reliquimus. Pom- 
peius ad legiones Appianas 2 est profectus; Labienum 
secum habet. Ego tuas opiiiiones de his rebus ex- 
specto. Forn!ias me continuo recipere cogitabam. 

1 hand auditus Bosius: auditus auditus M: a nullo auditus 
Miiller. 2 Appianas Lipsius: acianas M ] : actianas 

A/ 2 : Attianas most editors. 



particular news, but I wanted to talk with you in my 
absence. When we cannot talk face to face, there is 
nothing I like better. 

I reached Capua yesterday, the 25th, where I met 
the consuls and many fellow-members. All hope 
that Caesar will abide by his conditions, accepting 
the withdrawal of his garrisons : only Favonius 
objects to his dictating to us. But no one listened to 
him. For even Cato now prefers slavery to war : but he 
wants to be in the House when the terms are debated, 
if Caesar can be induced to withdraw his garrisons. 
So he does not care to do what would be most use 
ful, and go to Sicily : and he wants to be in the 
House, where I fear he will cause trouble. The 
Senate definitely decreed that Postumius should set 
out for Sicily at once and succeed Furfanius. Postu 
mius replied he would not go without Cato ; he has a 
great idea of his own value and influence in the House. 
So choice fell on Fannius ; he is dispatched to Sicily 
with military power. In our debates there is great 
difference of opinion. Most declare that Caesar will 
not stick to his compact, and that his demands were 
only introduced to hinder our preparations for w r ar. I 
fancy, however, that he will withdraw his garrisons. 
For he will win his point, if he is elected consul, and 
win it with less scandal than by his first course. But 
the blow must be borne. We are sinfully unready in 
men and money : for we have left him not only our 
private purses in the city, but the state funds in the 
treasury. Pompey along with Labierius has set out 
for Appius legions. I want your views on this. I 
think of returning to Formiae at once. 




Scr. Calihux Omnes arbitror mihi tuas litteras redditas esse, 
"* K- Febr. se( j p r i ma s praepostere, reliquas ordine, quo sunt mis- 
sae per Terentiam. De mandatis Caesaris adventuque 
Labieni et respoiisis consulum ac Pompei scrips! ad 
te litteris iis, quas a. d. v Kal. Capua dedi, pluraque 
praeterea in eandem epistulam conieci. Nunc has ex- 
spectationes habemus duas, imam, quid Caesar acturus 
sit, cum acceperit ea, quae referenda ad ilium data 
sunt L. Caesari, alteram, quid Pompeius agat. Qui 
quidem ad me scribit paucis diebus se firmum exer- 
citum habiturum, spemque adfert, si in Picenum 
agrum ipse venerit, nos Romam redituros esse. La- 
bienum secum habet non dubitantem de imbecilli- 
tate Caesaris copiarum ; cuius adventu Gnaeus noster 
multo animi plus habet. Nos a consulibus Capuam 
venire iussi sumus ad Nonas Febr. 

Capua profectus sum Formias a. d. in Kal. Eo die 
cum Calibus tuas litteras hora fere nona accepissem, 
has statim dedi. De Terentia et Tullia tibi adsentior. 
Ad quas scripseram, ad te ut referrent. Si nondum 
profectae sunt, nihil est, quod se moveant, quoad 
perspiciamus, quo loci sit res. 



miano IV Tuae litterae mihi gratae iucundaeque sunt. De 

Non. Febr. pueris in Graeciam transportandis turn cogitabam, 
a. 705 72 




I think all your letters reached me, but the first Cales, Jan. 
out of proper order, the others as they were dis- 28, B.C. 49 
patched by Terentia. About Caesar s ultimatum, 
the arrival of Labienus, and the reply of Pompey and 
the consuls, I informed you in my letter of the 26th 
of January from Capua, and I threw in a deal of 
other information besides. Now we have two things 
to wait for, first what Caesar will do on receipt of the 
terms given to L. Caesar to convey to him, and 
secondly what Pompey is doing now. Pompey indeed 
writes to me that in a few days he will have a strong 
force, and he encourages me to hope, that, if he 
enters Picenum, we shall return to Rome. Labienus 
accompanies him, confident in the weakness of 
Caesar s forces. His arrival has much encouraged 
Pompey. The consuls have ordered me to go to 
Capua by the 5th of February. 

I set out from Capua for Formiae on the 28th of 
January. On receipt of your letter at Cales on that 
day about three o clock I write this by return. As 
for Terentia and Tullia I agree with you, and I have 
written to them to consult you. If they have not yet 
started, there is no reason for them to bestir them 
selves, till we see how things are. 



Your welcome letter I received with delight. I Formiae, 
thought of sending the boys to Greece when Pompey s Feb. 2, 

73 B.C. 49 


cum fuga ex Italia quaeri videbatur. Nos enim Hi- 
spaniam peteremus ; illis hoc aeque commodum non 
erat. Tu ipse cum Sexto etiam mine mihi videris 
Romae recte esse posse ; etenim minime amici Pom- 
peio nostro esse debetis. Nemo enim umquam tan- 
tum de urbanis praediis detraxit. Videsne me etiam 
iocari ? 

Scire iam te oportet, L. Caesar quae responsa refe- 
rat a Pompeio, quas ab eodem ad Caesarem ferat 
litteras. Scriptae enim et datae ita sunt, ut propo- 
nerentur in publico. In quo accusavi mecum ipse 
Pompeium, qui, cum scriptor luculentus esset, tantas 
res atque eas, quae in omnium manus venturae essent, 
Sestio nostro scribendas dederit. Itaque nihil um 
quam legi scriptum o-^o-TiojSeo-Tepov. Perspici tamen 
ex litteris Pompei potest nihil Caesari negari omnia- 
que ei cumulate, quae postulet, dari. Quae ille 
amentissimus fuerit nisi acceperit, praesertim cum 
impudentissime postulaverit. Quis enim tu es, qui 
dicas: Si in Hispaniam profectus erit, si praesidia 
dimiserit"? Tamen conceditur minus honeste nunc 
quidem violata iam ab illo re publica illatoque bello, 
quam si olim de ratione habenda impetrasset. Et 
tamen vereor, ut his ipsis contentus sit. Nam, cum 
ista mandata dedisset L. Caesari, debuit esse paulo 
quietior, dum responsa referrentur; dicitur autem 
mine esse acerrimus. 

Trebatius quidem scribit se ab illo vim Kal. Febr. 


flight from Italy seemed likely. For I myself should 
have gone to Spain, but it would not have been so 
suitable for them. I fancy you and Sextus may well 
stay in Rome even now ; for you are not in the least 
bound to be Pompey s friends: no one has ever 
depreciated city property so much as Pompey. I 
must have my joke still, you see. 

You should know already the reply that Pompey 
is sending by Lucius Caesar, and the nature of his 
letter to Caesar ; for it was written and sent on 
purpose to be published. Mentally I blamed Pompey 
who, though a clear writer himself, gave Sestius the 
task of drawing up documents of such importance, 
which were to come into every one s hands. Accord 
ingly I have never seen anything more Sestian in its 
style. 1 Still it is plain from the letter that nothing 
can be denied to Caesar, and that the whole bulk of 
his demands are to be granted. He will be utterly 
mad to reject the terms, particularly when his de 
mands are most impudent. Pray, who are you, Caesar, 
to insist Provided Pompey go to Spain, provided he 
dismiss his garrisons"? Still the demand is being 
granted, but it has cost us more loss of dignity now 
that he has outraged the sanctity of the state and 
waged war against it, than if he had obtained his 
previous request to be admitted a candidate. And 
yet I fear he may want more. For when he en 
trusted his ultimatum to L. Caesar, he should have 
kept a little quiet until he received a reply. But 
he is said now to be more energetic than ever. 

Trebatius indeed writes to me that Caesar re- 

1 Cf. Catullus xliv for comments on Sestius style. Sestius 
was defended by Cicero in 56 B.C. with a speech which is 



rogatum esse, ut scriberet ad me, ut essem adurbem; 
nihil ei me gratius facere posse. Haec verbis pluri- 
mis. Intellexi ex dierum ratione. ut primum de dis- 
cessu nostro Caesar audisset, laborare eum coepisse, 
ne omnes abessemus. Itaque non dubito, quin ad 
Pisonem, quin ad Servium scripserit ; illud admiror, 
non ipsum ad me scripsisse, non per Dolabellam, non 
per Caelium egisse. Quamquam non aspernor Tre- 
bati litteras; a quo me unice diligi scio. Rescripsi 
ad Trebatium (nam ad ipsum Caesarem, qui mihi 
nihil scripsisset, nolui), quam illud hoc tempore esset 
difficile ; me tamen in praediis meis esse neque di- 
lectum ullum neque negotium suscepisse. In quo 
quidem manebo, dum spes pacis erit ; sin bellum 
geretur, non deero officio nee dignitati meae pueros 
I TreK^e/zeros in Graeciam. Totam enim Italian! fla- 
graturam bello intellego. Tantum mali est excitatum 
partim ex improbis, partim ex invidis civibus. Sed 
haec paucis diebus ex illius ad nostra responsa re- 
sponsis intellegentur quorsum evasura sint. Turn ad 
te scribam plura, si erit bellum ; sin otium aut etiam 
indutiae, te ipsum, ut spero, videbo. 

Ego mi Nonas Febr., quo die has litteras dedi, in 
Formiano, quo Capua redieram, mulieres exspectabam. 
Quibus quidem scripseram tuis litteris admonitus, ut 
Romae manerent. Sed audio maiorem quendam in 
urbe timorem esse. Capuae Nonis Febr. esse vole- 
bam, quia consules iusserant. Quicquid hue erit a 
Pompeio allatum, statim ad te scribam tuasque de 
istis rebus litteras exspectabo. 

1 otium aut Tyrrell and Purser : autem MSS. 



quested him on the 22nd of January to write and beg 
me to remain near the city ; that would win me his 
best thanks. All this at great length. I calculated 
from the date, that as soon as he heard of my depar 
ture Caesar began to be concerned lest we should all 
go from town. So I have no doubt he wrote to Piso 
and to Servius. One thing surprises me that he did 
not write to me himself, or approach me through 
Dolabella or Caelius. However, I am not offended 
at a letter from Trebatius, who is my particular well- 
wisher. I would not reply to Caesar himself, as he 
had not written to me ; but I wrote to Trebatius how 
difficult such a course would be at this juncture, but 
that I was staying on my country estates, and had not 
undertaken any part in the levy or any business. To 
this I will stand so long as there is any prospect of 
peace ; but, if it comes to war, I shall act as becomes 
my duty and rank, after stowing away my boys to 
Greece. For all Italy, I gather, will blaze with war. 
Such a catastrophe is caused partly by disloyalty, 
partly by jealousy amongst her citizens. The out 
come will be known in a few days from Caesar s 
answer to our letter. Then, if it be war, I will write 
again : if it be peace or a respite, I shall hope to 
see you. 

On the 2nd of February, the date of this letter, I 
await my women-folk in my place at Formiae, whence 
I have returned from Capua. I wrote to them on your 
advice to stay in Rome. But I hear that panic has 
rather increased there. I want to be at Capua on 
the 5th of February, as the consuls have ordered. 
Any news we get here from Pompey I will let you 
know at once, and I shall look to letters from you 
for news from the city. 





Scr. in For- nn Non. Febr. nmlieres nostrae Formias venerunt 

miano III tuaque erga se officia plena tui suavissimi studii ad 

Aon. febi. me pertulerunt. Eas ego, quoad sciremus, utrum 

turpi pace nobis an misero bello esset utendum, in 

Formiano esse volui et una Cicerones. Ipse cum 

fratre Capuam ad consules (Nonis enim adesse iussi 

sumus) in Nonas profectus sum, cum has litteras 


Responsa Ponipei gi ata populo et probata contioni 
esse dicuntur. Ita putaram. Quae quidem ille si 
repudiarit, iacebit ; si acceperit . Utrum igitur," 
inquies, mavis" ? Responderem, si, quern ad mo- 
dum parati essemus, scirem. Cassium erat hie audi- 
tum expulsum Ancona eamque urbem a nobis teneri. 
Si bellum futurum est, negotium utile. Caesarem 
quidem L. Caesare cum mandatis de pace misso ta- 
men aiunt acerrime dilectum habere, loca occupare, 
vincire praesidiis. O perditum latronem ! o vix ullo 
otio compensandam hanc rei publicae turpitudinem ! 
Sed stomachari desinamus, tempori pareamus, cum 
Pompeio in Hispaniam eamus. Haec opto 1 in malis, 
quoniam illius alterum consulatum a re publica ne 
data quidem occasione reppulimus. Sed haec hac- 

1 optima Lipsius and recent editors. 




On the 2nd of February my women-folk came to Formiae, 
Formiae and brought me an account of your very Feb. 3, 
kind and zealous attentions. I wished them to stay in B.C. Ifi 
my villa here along with the boys, till we know 
whether we are to have peace with dishonour, or war 
with its horrors. I and my brother start for Capua 
on the 3rd of February, the date of this letter, to 
meet the consuls on the 5th according to their in 

Pompey s reply to Caesar is said to please the 
people, and to have won the approval of a public 
meeting. I expected it. If Caesar rejects this con 
dition, he will fall in esteem: if he accept . You 

will ask my choice in the matter. I would answer, if 
I knew our state of preparation. It is reported here 
that Cassius has been driven from Ancona, and that 
our party hold the town. That will be a useful thing 
in the event of war. As for Caesar, though he has 
sent L. Caesar with negotiations for peace, neverthe 
less reports declare that he is collecting levies with 
the greatest energy, seizing posts, and securing the 
country with garrisons. What a villain robber ! What 
a disgrace to the country, too dear a price to pay for 
any peace ! But let us restrain our anger, yield to 
circumstance and accompany Pompey to Spain. That 
is my choice in our straits, since we did not take the 
chance when we had it of keeping him from his 
second consulship. 1 But enough of politics. 

1 Or " since we refused him his second consulship, when 
we had no choice in the matter." 



De Dionysio f ugit me ad te antea scribere ; sed 
ita constitui, exspectare responsa Caesaris, ut, si ad 
urbem rediremus, ibi nos exspectaret, sin tardius id 
fieret, turn eum arcesseremus. Omnino, quid ille 
f acere debuerit in nostra ilia fuga, quid docto homine 
et amico dignum fuerit, cum praesertim rogatus es- 
set, scio, sed haee non nimis exquiro a Graecis. Tu 
tamen videbis, si erit, quod nolim, arcessendus, ne 
molesti simus invito. 

Quintus frater laborat, ut tibi, quod debet, ab 
Egnatio solvat; nee Egnatio voluntas deest, nee pa- 
rum locuples est, sed, cum tale tempus sit, ut Q. 
Titinius (multum enim est nobiscum) viaticum se 
neget habere idemque debitoribus suis denuntiarit, 
ut eodem faenore uterentur, atque hoc idem etiam 
L. Ligus fecisse dicatur, nee hoc tempore aut domi 
nummos Quintus habeat aut exigere ab Egnatio aut 
versuram usquam facere possit, miratur te 11011 ha- 
buisse rationem huius publicae difficultatis. Ego 
autem, etsi illud ij/ev8r)cri.o8eLoi> (ita enim putatur) ob- 
servo /zTjSe BLKTJV, praesertim in te, a quo nihil um- 
quam vidi temere fieri, tamen illius querela movebar. 
Hoc quicquid est, te scire volui. 


It escaped my memory to write to you about 
Dionysius before : but my determination is this, to 
await Caesar s answer, so that, if I return to Rome, 
Dionysius may await me there ; but, if there is delay, 
then I would summon him. 1 am quite aware of 
what he ought to have done when I took to flight, 
what was proper for a scholar and a friend, especially 
when he had been asked to do it : but I do not expect 
much from a Greek. But please see, if I have to 
summon him, which I hope I shall not, that I may 
not be troubling a reluctant man. 

My brother Quintus is anxious to give you a draft 
on Egnatius for the money he owes, and Egnatius is 
willing and has plenty of cash ; but when the times 
are such that Q. Titinius, 1 whom I see often, declares 
he has no money to get along with, and yet has told his 
debtors that they may let their debts stand over at the 
same rate of interest as before, and when L. Ligus too 
is said to have taken the same steps, and Quintus at 
the present time has no money in hand, and is unable 
to borrow from Egnatius or to raise a new loan any 
where, he is surprised that you have not taken into 
account our national straits. Though I observe the 
saying wrongly ascribed to Hesiod Hear both 
sides," 2 particularly in the case of yourself, whom I 
have always found considerate, still I was affected 
by his grievance. You ought to know his grievance, 
such as it is. 

1 An eques and a money-lender. 

2 jttTjSe diKt)i> StKda-ri^ irplv d.v a^oiv /j.vdov aKOwrr/s, generally 
ascribed to Phocylides. 

O VOL. II 81 




Scr. in For- Nihil habeo, quod ad te scribam, qui etiani earn 
miano 111 epistulam, quam eram elucubratuSj ad te non de- 
e )r derim. Erat enim plena spei bonae, quod et con- 
tionis voluntatem audieram et ilium condicionibus 
usurum putabam, praesertim suis. Ecce tibi in 
Nonas Febr. mane accepi litteras tuas, Philotimi, 
Furni, Curioiiis ad Furnium, quibus irridet L. Cae- 
savis legationem. Plane oppress! videmur, nee, quid 
consilii capiam, scio. Nee mebercule de me laboro, 
de pueris quid agam, non habeo. Capuam tamen 
proficiscebar haec scribens, quo faeilius de Pompei 
rebus eognoseerem. 



Scr. Capuae Breviloquentem iam me tempus ipsum facit. Pa- 
w _ cem enim desperavi, bellum nostri nullum admini- 
strant. Cave enim putes quicquam esse minoris his 
consulibus : quorum ego spe audiendi aliquid et co- 
gnoscendi nostri apparatus maximo imbri Capuam veiii 
pridie Nonas, ut eram iussus. Illi autem nondum 
venerant, sed erant venturi inanes, imparati. Gnaeus 
autem Luceriae dicebatur esse et adire cohortes le- 
giorium Appianarum 1 non firmissimarum. At ilium 

1 Appianarum Lipsius cf, 15. 3 : itinarum AI 1 : itinerum 
M~ : Attianarum older editors. 





I have no news for you, and have not even sent Formiae, 
you my lucubration of last night : for that was a letter Feb. 3, 
full of good cheer, because I had heard of the tern- B.C. 4& 
per shown at the public meeting, and thought that 
Caesar would abide by terms which were in fact his 
own. But now on this, the morning of the 3rd of 
February, I have got a letter from you, one from 
Philotimus, one from Furnius, and one from Curio to 
Furnius ridiculing the mission of L. Caesar. We 
appear to be crushed utterly, nor do I know what 
plan to take. I am not indeed in trouble about my 
self, it is the boys that put me in a dilemma. Still 
I am setting out for Capua, as I write this, that I may 
more easily get to know Pompey s affairs. 



The occasion makes me brief. I have abandoned Formiae, 
hope of peace : but our party takes no steps for war. Feb. ~>, 
Pray don t suppose that there is anything of less B.C. 4 
concern to our present consuls than the war. I came 
to Capua on the 4th according to instructions, in 
heavy rain, with the hope of hearing something from 
them and getting to know of our equipment. They 
had not yet arrived, but were expected, empty- 
handed, unprepared. Pompey was reported to be at 
Luceria and close to some cohorts 1 of the shaky 

1 Or " and some cohorts are approaching-." 
o2 83 


mere nuntiant et iam iamque adesse, non ut manum 
conserat (quicum enim ?), sed ut fugani intercludat. 
Ego autem in Italia xal trvvairodavelv nee te id con- 
sulo ; sin extra, quid ago? Ad manendum hiems, 
lictoreSj improvidi et neglegentes duces, ad fugani 
hortatur aniicitia Gnaei, causa bonorum, turpitude 
coniungendi cum tyranno; qui quidem incertum est 
Phalarimne an Pisistratuni sit iniitaturus. Haec 
velim explices et me hives consilio ; etsi te ipsum 
istic iam calere puto, sed tanien, quantum poteris. 
Ego si quid liic liodie novi cognoro, scies ; iam enim 
aderunt consules ad suas Nonas. Tuas cotidie lit- 
teras exspectabo ; ad has autem, cum poteris, re- 
scribes. Mulieres et Cicerones in Formiano reliqui. 



Scr. Calibus ^ e nialis nostris tu prius audis quam ego. Istim 
VIId.Febr, enim emanant. Boni autem hinc quod exspectes, 
ante lucem nihil est y eni Capuam ad Nonas Febr., ita ut ius- 
a. 70o 

serant consules. Eo die Lentulus venit sero. Alter 

consul omnino non venerat vn Idus. Eo enim die ego 
Capua discessi et mansi Calibus. Inde has litteras 
postridie ante lucem dedi. Haec, Capuae dum fui, 
cognovi, nihil in consulibus, nullum usquam dilectum. 
Nee enim conquisitores <<HV07rpoo"awreiv audent, cum 


Appiaii troops. Caesar is said to be tearing along, 
and is nearl} on us, not to join battle there is no 
one to join it with but to cut us off from flight. 
Now, if it is to be in Italy, I am ready to die with 
her and on that I need not ask your advice : but if 
the struggle is beyond her borders, what am I to do? 
The winter, my lictors, the improvidence and neglect 
of the leaders prompt me to stay : my friendship 
with Pompey, the cause of the loyalists, the disgrace 
of association with a tyrant, prompt me to flee. One 
cannot say whether that tyrant will choose Phalaris 
or Pisistratus as his model. Please uni avel this and 
assist me with your advice. Though I suppose you 
are in a warm corner in Rome, still help me to the 
best of your ability. I will advise you if anything 
new crops up here to-day. The consuls will arrive 
on the 5th as arranged. I shall look for a letter 
every day : but answer this one as soon as you can. I 
have left the ladies and the boys at Formiae. 



Of our troubles you hear sooner than I. It is Cales, Feb. 
from your quarter they come. No good news can be 8, B.C. 49 
expected from here. I reached Capua on the 5th of 
February, as the consuls bade. Lentulus arrived late 
in the day. The other consul had not arrived at all 
on the 7th : for on that day I left Capua and stayed at 
Cales. On the 8th before daybreak I dispatch you 
this letter from there. The discovery I made at 
Capua was that no reliance is to be placed on the 
consuls, and that no levy is being made anywhere. 
For recruiting officers do not dare to show their faces 



ille adsit, contraque noster dux nusquam sit, nihil 
agat, nee nomina dant. Deficit enim non voluiitas, 
sed spes. Gnaeus autem noster (o rem mise*ram et 
incredibilem l) ut totus iacet ! Xon animus est, non 
consilium, 11011 copiae, non diligentia. Mittam ilia, 
fugam ab urbe turpissimam, timidissimas in oppidis 
contiones, ignorationeni non solum adversarii, sed 
etiam suarum copiarum; hoc cuius modi est? vn Idus 
Febr. Capuam C. Cassius tribunus pi. venit, attulit 
mandata ad consules, ut Romam venirent, pecuniam 
de sanctiore aerario auferrent, statim exirent. Urbe 
relicta redeant; quo praesidio? deinde exeant ; quis 
sinat? Consul ei rescripsit, ut prius ipse in Picemim. 
At illud totum erat amissum ; sciebat nemo praeter 
me ex litteris Dolabellae. Mihi dubium non erat, 
quin ille iam iamque foret in Apulia, Gnaeus noster 
in navi. 

Ego quid again O-KC/J./JUI. magnum neque meliercule 
mihi quidem ullum, nisi omnia essent acta turpissime, 
neque ego ullius coiisilii particeps sed tamen quod 
me deceat. Ipse me Caesar ad pacem hortatur; sed 
antiquiores litterae, quam ruere coepit. Dolabella, 
Caelius me illi valde satis facere. Mira me airopia 


when Caesar is at hand, and our leader is nowhere to 
be found and takes no action. No one enlists. It is 
not good will that is lacking, but hope. What an in 
conceivable plight is Pompey s, and how utterly 
he has broken down ! He has neither spirit nor 
plan, nor forces, nor energy. I say nothing of his 
most disgraceful flight from the city, his timorous 
speeches in the towns, his ignorance not only of the 
strength of his opponent but of his own forces : but 
what of this ? On the 7th of February C. Cassius the 
tribune came to Capua, and brought an order to the 
consuls to come to Rome, carry off the money from 
the reserve treasury 1 and leave at once. On quitting 
the city they are to return but they have no escort : 
then there is the getting out of the city who is 
going to give them leave? Lentulus replied that 
Poinpey must first come to Picenum. No one except 
myself knows it ; but Dolabella has written to me 
that that district is totally lost. I have no doubt 
but that Caesar is on the point of entering Apulia 
and that Pompey is on board ship. 

What I am to do is a big problem. It would be 
no problem for me at all, if everything had not been 
disgracefully managed ; and I had no part in the plan : 
still my proper course is a problem. Caesar himself 
invites to peace : but the letter is dated before he 
began to run amuck. Dolabella and Caelius declare 
that he is well satisfied with me. I am at my wits 

1 This reserve fund was said to have been founded origin 
ally to meet a possible invasion of the Gauls. It was made 
up from spoils in war and from the 5 per cent tax on 
manumitted slaves. It was drawn upon in the second Punic 
War (cf. Livy XXVII, n). Caesar (Bellum Civ. 14) says the 
consuls intended to open it before they left Rome ; but fled 
in haste at a report of his approach. 



torquet. luva me consilio, si poles, et tamen ista, 
quantum poles, provide. Nihil habeo lanla rerum 
perlurbalione, quod scribam. Tuas lilteras exspeclo. 



Scr. in For- Pedem in llalia video nullum esse, qui non in 
miano 1 1 Id. i s ti u s poteslale sit. De Pompeio scio nihil, eumque, 
e r. i expert n . g . - n nav j m se contulerit, exceplum iri puto. O 
out I Id. 
mane a 705 ce l er italem incredibilem ! huius autem noslri sed 

non possum sine dolore accusare eum, de quo angor 
el crucior. Tu caedem non sine causa times, non 
quo minus quicquam Caesari expediat ad diuturni- 
lalem vicloriae el dominalionis, sed video, quorum 
arbitrio sit acturus. Recle sil. Censeo cedendum. 
De Oppiis eis 1 egeo consilii. Quod optimum faclu 
videbilur, facies. Cum Philolimo loquere alque 
adeo Terenliam habebis Idibus. Ego quid agam ? 
qua aut terra aut mari persequar eum, qui ubi sit, 
nescio? Etsi terra quidem qui possum? mari quo? 
Tradam igilur isli me? Fac posse lulo (mulli enim 
horlanlur), num eliam honesle ? Nullo modo. Equi- 
dem a le pelam consilium, ut soleo. Explicari res 
non polesl ; sed lamen, si quid in menlem venil, 
velim scribas, el ipse quid sis aclurus. 

1 cedendum de oppidis iis. M. The correction Oppiis is 
due to Boot. 



end. Assist me with your advice, if you can, but 
guard against events as much as possible. I have 
nothing to say in such an anxious crisis : but I am 
looking for your letter. 



I see there is not a foot of ground in Italy Formiae,the 
which is not in Caesar s power. I have no news of evening of 
Pompey, and I imagine he will be captured unless he ^ e ^- $ or 
has taken to the sea. What marvellous dispatch ! morntn S J 
While our leader : but it grieves me to blame him, as B c 

I am in an agony of suspense on his account. There "* 
is reason for you to fear butchery, not that anything 
could be less advantageous to secure Caesar a lasting 
victory and power; but I see on whose advice he 
will act. I hope it will be all right ; and I think we 
shall have to yield. As regards the Oppii I have no 
suggestion to make. Do what you think best. You 
should speak with Philotimus, and besides you will 
have Terentia on the 1 3th. What can I do ? In 
what land or on what sea can I follow a man, when I 
don t know where he is ? After all how can I follow 
on land, and by sea whither? Shall I then surrender 
to Caesar ? Suppose I could surrender with safety, 
as many advise, could I surrender with honour ? By 
no means. I will ask your advice as usual. The pro 
blem is insoluble. Still, if anything comes into your 
head, please write ; and let me know what you will 
do yourself. 





Scr. in For- v Idus Febr. vesperi a Philotimo litteras accepi 
miano F Id. Domitium exercitum firmum habere, cohortes ex Pi- 
tebr. vesp. ceno Lentulo et Thermo ducentibus cum Domiti 

. exercitu coniunctas esse. Caesarem intercludi posse 
mane a. 705 . 

eumque id timere, bonorum ammos recreatos Romae, 

improbos quasi perculsos. Haec metuo equidem ne 
sint somnia, sed tamen M . Lepidum, L. Torquatum, 
C. Cassium tribunum pi. (hi enim sunt riobiscnm, id 
est in Formiano) Philotimi litterae ad vitam revo- 
caverunt. Ego autem ilia metuo ne veriora sint, nos 
omnes paene iam captos esse, Pompeium Italia cedere; 
quem quidem (o rem acerbam !) persequi Caesar dici- 
tur. Persequi Caesar Pompeium ? quid . ut interficiat ? 
O me miserum ! Et non omnes nostra corpora oppo- 
nimus? In quo tu quoque ingemiscis. Sed quid 
faciamus? Victi, oppressi, capti plane sumus. 

Ego tamen Philotimi litteris lectis mutavi consilium 
de mulieribus. Quas, ut scripseram ad te, Romam 
remittebam ; sed mihi venit in mentem multum fore 
sermonem me iudicium iam de causa publica fecisse ; 
qua desperata quasi hunc gradum mei reditus esse, 
quod mulieres revertissent. De me autem ipso tibi 
adsentior, ne me dem incertae et periculosae fugae, 
cum rei publicae nihil prosim, nihil Pompeio ; pro quo 
emori cum pie possum turn lubenter. Manebo igitur, 
etsi vivere . 




On the evening of the 9th of February, I got a Formiae, the 
letter from Philotimus, declaring that Domitius has a evening of 
reliable force, the cohorts from Picenum under the Feb. 9 or the 
command of Lentulus and Thermus have joined morning of 
his army, Caesar can be cut off and fears the con- Feb. 10, 
tingency, and the hopes of loyalists at Rome have B.C. 49 
been restored, and those of the other party dashed. 
I am afraid this may be a dream ; but still the news 
revived M . Lepidus, L. Torquatus and C. Cassius the 
tribune of the plebs for they are with me, that is at 
Formiae. I fear the truer version may be that we 
are now all practically prisoners, that Pompey is 
leaving Italy, pursued it is said by Caesar. What a 
bitter thought! Caesar pursue Pompey! What, 
to slay him ? Woe is me ! And we do not all 
throw our bodies in the way! You too are sorry 
about it. But what can we do? We are beaten, 
ruined and utterly captive. 

Still the perusal of Philotimus letter has caused 
me to change my plan about the women-folk. I 
wrote you I was sending them back to Rome : but it 
has come into my mind that there would be a deal of 
talk, that I had now come to a decision on the political 
situation ; and that in despair of success the return of 
the ladies of my house was as it were one step towards 
my own return. As for myself, I agree with you that 
I should not commit myself to the danger and un 
certainty of flight, seeing that it would avail nothing 
to State or Pompey, for whom I would dutifully and 
gladly die. So I shall stay, though life . 



Quod quaeris, hie quid agatur, tola Capua et omnis 
hie dilectus iacet ; desperata res est, in fuga omnes 
sunt, nisi qui deus iuverit, 1 ut Pompeius istas Domiti 
copias cum suis coniungat. Sed videbamur omnia 
biduo triduove scituri. Caesaris litterarum exemplum 
tibi inisi ; rogaras enim. Cui nos valde satis facere 
multi ad me scripserunt ; quod patior facile, dum ut 
adhuc nihil faciam turpiter. 



Scr. in For- Philotimi litterae me quidem non nimis, sed eos, 

miano IV qui in his locis erant, admodum delectarunt. Ecce 

Id. Febr. a. postridie Cassii litterae Capua a Lucretio, familiari 

705 eius, Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse. Eum di- 

cere Vibullium cum paucis militibus e Piceno currere 

ad Gnaeum, confestim insequi Caesarem, Domitium 

11011 habere militum in milia. Idem scripsit Capua 

coiisules discessisse. Non dubito quin Gnaeus in fuga 

sit ; modo effugiat. Ego a consilio fugiendi, ut tu 

censes, absum. 



Scr. in For- Cum dedissem ad te litteras tristes et metuo ne 
miano IV veras de Lucreti ad Cassium litteris Capua missis, 
out III Id. Cephalio venit a vobis. Attulit etiam a te litteras 
Febr. a. hilariores iiec tamen firmas, ut soles. Omnia facilius 
Oo credere possum, quam quod scribitis, Pompeium exer- 

citum habere. Nemo hue ita adfert omniaque, quae 

1 nisi qui deus iuverit Tyrrell: nisi quid eius fuerit M: 
nisi quid eius modi fuerit Ascensius. 



For your query as to the state of affairs in this 
quarter, Capua and the levy are in stagnation: our 
cause is despaired of: every one is in flight, unless 
some god help Pompey to join that army of Domitius 
with his own. It would seem that we shall know all 
in a day or so. As requested I send you a copy of 
Caesar s letter. Many of my correspondents say that 
he is quite satisfied with me. I can allow that, 
provided I continue to do nothing to stain my honour. 



Philotimus letter delighted me little, but those Formiae, 
who are here considerably. Well, on the very next day Feb. 10, 
a letter of Cassius from his friend Lucretius at Capua B.C. J$ 
announced that Nigidius, an emissary of Domitius, 
had reached Capua, bringing news that Vibullius with 
a few soldiers was hurrying in from Picenum to Pom 
pey s camp, that Caesar was pursuing rapidly and that 
Domitius had less than 3000 men. The letter stated 
that the consuls had left Capua. I am sure Pompey 
must be fleeing : I only hope he may escape. I accept 
your advice and have no intention of flight myself. 



After I had sent you a despondent and, 1 fear, Formiae, 
true report about the letter Lucretius dispatched to Feb. 10 or 
Cassius from Capua, Cephalio came to me from you 11, B.C. 4$ 
with a letter more cheerful, but not as decided as 
usual. Any news is more credible than your news 
of Pompey having an army. No one brings such a 



nolim. O rem miseram ! malas causas semper obtinuit, 
in optima concidit. Quid dicam nisi illud eum scisse 
(neque enim erat difficile), hoc nescisse ? Erat enim 
ars difficilis recte rem publicam regere. Sed iam 
iamque omnia sciemus et scribemus ad te statim. 



Scr. in For- Non venit idem usu mihi, quod tu tibi scribis, 

miano A A quotiens .exorior." Ego enim mine paulum exorior 

. ar . a. ^ maxime quidem iis litteris, quae Roma adferuntur 

de DomitiO; de Picentium cohortibus. Omnia erant 

facta hoc biduo laetiora. Itaque fuga, quae parabatur, 

repressa est ; Caesaris interdicta : 

" Si te secundo lumine hie ofFendero 

respuuntur ; bona de Dornitio, praeclara de Afranio 
fama est. 

Quod me amicissime admones, ut me integrum, 
quoad possim,, servem, gratum est; quod addis, ne 
propensior ad turpem causam videar., certe videri 
possum. Ego me dticem in civili bello, quoad de pace 
ageretur, negavi esse, non quin rectum esset, sed 
quia, quod multo rectius fuit, id mihi fraudem tulit. 
Plane eum, cui noster alterum consulatum deferret 
et triumphum (at quibus verbis! "pro tuis rebus 1 
gestis amplissimis "X inimicum habere nolueram. 
Ego scio, et quern metuam et quam ob rem. Sin erit 

pro tuis rebus Lambinus ; ut prorsus M. 


report here, but every kind of unwelcome news. It 
is a sorry thought that Pompey has always won in a 
bad cause, but fails in the best of causes. The only 
solution is that he knew the ropes in the former 
(which is not a difficult accomplishment), but did not 
in the latter. It is a difficult art to rule a republic 
in the right way. At any moment we may know 
all, and I will write you immediately. 



I have not had what you say is your experience : Formiae, 
"as often as my hopes revive." Only now are mine Feb. 15, B.C. 
reviving a little, and especially over letters from 4& 
Rome about Domitius and the squadrons of Picenum. 
Tilings have become more cheerful in the last two 
days. I have given up my preparation for flight. I 
spurn Caesar s threat: "if I shall meet thee here 
to-morrow morn." 1 The news about Domitius is 
good, that about Afranius is splendid. 

Thanks for your very friendly advice, not to com 
mit myself more than I can help. You add a caution 
against showing a leaning towards the wrong party : 
well, I confess I may seem to. I refused to take a 
leading part in civil war, so long as there were nego 
tiations for peace, not because the war was unjust, 
but because former action of mine in a still juster 
cause did me harm. I had no desire at all to excite 
the enmity of a man to whom our leader offered a 
second consulship, and a triumph too with the ful 
some flattery on account of your brilliant achieve 
ments." I know whom I have to fear and why. 

From a Latin translation of Euripides, Afedea, 352. 



helium, ut video fore, partes meae non desidera- 

De HS XX Terentia tibi rescripsit. Dionysio, dum 
existimabam vagos nos fore,, nolui molestus esse ; tibi 
autem crebro ad me seribenti de eius officio nihil 
rescripsi, quod diem ex die exspeetabam, ut statue- 
rem, quid esset faciendum. Nunc, ut video, pueri 
certe in Formiano videntur hiematuri. Et ego? 
Nescio. Si enim erit bellum, cum Pompeio esse con- 
stitui. Quod habebo certi, faciam, ut scias. Ego 
bellum foedissimum futurum puto, nisi qui, ut tu 
scribis, Parthicus casus exstiterit. 


But if the war I foresee comes, I shall not fail to 
play my part. 

About that \80, 1 Terentia sent you an answer. I 
did not want to trouble Dionysius,solongas I expected 
to be a wanderer. I gave no answer to your repeated 
letters about the man s duty, because daily I was 
expecting to settle what should be done. Now as far 
as I can see, my boys will certainly winter at Formiae. 
And I ? I don t know. For, if war comes, I am 
determined to be with Pompey. I will keep you 
informed of reliable news. I fancy there will be a 
most terrible war, unless, as you remark, some Parthian 
incident occur again. 

1 20,000 sesterces. 

2 I.e. a sudden retreat of Caesar, like that of the Par- 
thians. Cf. vi, 6. 

H VOL. II 97 






Scr. Formiis Cum ad te litteras dedissem, redditae mihi litterae 
HIV K. sunt a Pompeio. Cetera de rebus in Piceno gestis, 
Mart. a. quae ad se Vibullius scripsisset, de dilectu Domiti, 
quae sunt vobis nota nee tamen tarn laeta erant in 
iis litteris, quam ad me Philotimus scripserat. Ipsam 
tibi epistulam misissem, sed iam subito fratris puer 
proficiscebatur. Cras igitur mittam. Sed in ea Pom- 
pei epistula erat in extreme ipsius manu : Tu censeo 
Luceriam venias. Nusquam eris tutius." Id ego in 
earn partem accepi, haec oppida atque orani mariti- 
mam ilium pro derelicto habere, nee sum miratus 
eum, qui caput ipsum reliquisset, reliquis membris 
non parcere. Ei statim rescripsi hominemque cer- 
tum misi de comitibus meis, iion me quaerere, ubi 
tutissimo essem. Si me vellet sua aut rei publicae 
causa Luceriam venire, statim esse venturum ; horta- 
tusque sum, tit oram maritimam retineret, si rem 
frumentariam sibi ex provinciis suppeditari vellet. 
Hoc me frustra scribere videbam ; sed uti in urbe 
retinenda tune sic nunc in Italia iion relinquenda 
testificabar sententiam meam. Sic enim parari video, 
ut Luceriam omnes copiae coiitrahaiitur, et lie is 
quidem locus sit stabilis, sed ex eo ipso, si urgeamur, 
paretur fuga. 






After I sent you my letter, I got one from Pompey. Formiae, 
The rest of it was about what has happened in Feb. 1G, B.C. 
Picenum, as reported to him by Vibullius in a note, 49 
and about Domitius levy. That you know already : 
but in this letter things were not so grand as in 
Philotimus letter. I would have sent you Pompey s 
note itself, but my brother s man set out in a hurry, 
so I will send it to-morrow. Pompey added a P.S. 
in his own hand, I think you should come to Luceria. 
You won t be safer anywhere else." I understood 
him to mean that he counts as lost the towns here and 
the coast. I don t wonder that a man who has given up 
the head should throw away the limbs. I sent a reply 
by return, by the hands of a sure messenger, that I 
was not concerned about where I should be safest, 
and that I would come to Luceria immediately, if 
his or the public interest demanded it. I entreated 
him to hold the coast, if he wanted supplies of corn 
from the provinces. I saw I was writing in vain: 
but I wanted to put on record now my opinion about 
not abandoning Italy, as I had done before about 
holding Rome. Evidently all forces are to be col 
lected at Luceria, and not even there as a permanent 
base, but as a starting point for flight, if hard 

H2 99 


Quo minus mircre, si invitus in earn causam de- 
scendo, in qua neque pacis neque victoriae ratio quae- 
sita sit umquam, sed semper flagitiosae et calamitosae 
fugae : euiidum, ut, quemcumque fors tulerit easum, 
subeam potius cum iis, qui dicuntur esse boni, quam 
videar a bonis dissentire. Etsi prope diem video bono- 
rum, id est lautorum et locupletum, urbem refertam 
fore, municipiis vero his relictis refertissimam. Quo 
ego in numero essem, si hos lictores molestissimos 
non haberem, nee me M . Lepidi, L. Volcaci, Ser. 
Sulpici comitum paeniteret, quorum nemo nee stultior 
est quam L. Domitius nee inconstantior quam Ap. 
Claudius. Unus Pompeius me movet beneficio, non 
auctoritate. Quam enim ille habeat auctoritatem in 
hac causa? qui, cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus, 
ipse eum diligebat, postquam ipse metuere eoepit, 
putat omnes hostes illi oportere esse. Ibimus tamen 
Luceriam. Nee eum fortasse deleetabit noster ad- 
ventus ; dissimulare enim non potero mihi, quae adhuc 
acta sint, displicere. Ego, si somnum capere possem, 
tarn longis te epistulis non obtunderem. Tu, si tibi 
eadem causa est, me remunerere sane velim. 



Scr. Formiis Mihi vero omnia grata, et quod scripsisti ad me, 

XIII K. quae audieras, et quod non eredidisti, quae digna dili- 

Mart. a. gentia mea non erant, et quod monuisti, quod sentie- 

70J bas. Ego ad Caesarem unas Capua litteras dedi, qui- 

bus ad ea rescripsi, quae mecum ille de gladiatoribus 

suis egerat, breves, sed benevolentiam significantes, 

non modo sine contumelia, sed etiam cum maxima 



So you need not wonder, if I am reluctant to em 
bark on a cause, which has 110 policy for peace or 
victory, but always a policy of disastrous and disgrace 
ful flight. I must go to face whatever fortune bring, 
with so-called loyalists rather than seem to disagree 
with real loyalists. Yet I see Rome will soon be crammed 
with loyalists, I mean with men of wealth and for 
tune, crammed full, when the towns have been 
abandoned. I would be among them, were it not for 
these tiresome lictors. I should not be ashamed of 
the company of M . Lepidus, L. Volcacius, Ser. Sulpi- 
cius, not one of whom is a bigger fool than L. Domi- 
tius, nor a bigger trimmer than Ap. Claudius. Only 
Pompey weighs with me, for his past kindnesses, not 
for his public influence. For what influence has he 
in this case? When we were all afraid of Caesar, he 
cherished him. After he has begun to fear Caesar, 
he thinks all should be Caesar s enemies. Still I shall 
go to Luceria. Perhaps he will not be pleased to 
meet me, for I shall not be able to disguise my dis 
gust at what he has done so far. If I could sleep, I 
would not bother you with such long letters. If you 
suffer from the same complaint, I shall be glad if you 
will pay me back in the same coin. 



Many thanks for everything: for writing me your formiae, 
news, for not believing a report, which reflected on my Feb. 17, u.c 
energy, and for the expression of your opinion. I 4$ 
sent Caesar one letter from Capua in answer to 
his inquiries about his gladiators. 1 It was short 
but friendly, and, so far from abusing Pompey, 
1 Cf. p. 69. 



laude Pompei. Id enim ilia sententia postulabat, qua 
ilium ad concordiam hortabar. Eas si quo ille misit, 
in publico proponat velim. Alteras eodem die dedi 
quo has ad te. Non potui non dare, cum et ipse ad 
me scripsisset et Balbus. Earum exemplum ad te 
misi. Nihil arbitror fore, quod reprehendas. Si qua 
erunt, doce me, quo modo /MC/LU^U effugere possim. 
Nihil," inquies, omnino scripseris." Qui magis 
effugias eos, qui volent fingere? Verum tamen ita 
faciam, quoad fieri poterit. Nam, quod me hortaris 
ad memoriam factorum, dictorum, scriptorum etiam 
meorum, facis amice tu quidem mihique gratissimum, 
sed mihi videris aliud tu honestum meque digiium in 
hac causa iudicare, atque ego existimem. Mihi enim 
nihil ulla in gente umquam ab ullo auctore rei publi- 
cae ac duce turpius factum esse videtur, quam a 
nostro amico factum est. Cuius ego vicem doleo ; qui 
urbem reliquit, id est patriam, pro qua et in qua mori 
praeclarum fuit. Ignorare mihi videris, haec quanta 
sit clades. Es enim etiam nunc domi time, sed invitis 
perditissimis hominibus esse diutius non potes. Hoc 
miserius, hoc turpius quicquam ? Yagamur egentes 
cum coniugibus et liberis ; in unius hominis quotannis 
periculose aegrotantis anima positas omnes nostras 
spes habemus non expulsi, sed evocati ex patria ; 
, quam non servandam ad reditum nostrum, sed diri- 
piendam et inflammandam reliquimus. Ita multi 
nobiscum sunt, non in suburbanis, non in hortis, non 
in ipsa urbe, et, si nunc sunt, non erunt. Nos interea 
ne Capuae quidem, sed Luceriae, et oram quidem 
maritimam iam relinquemus, Afranium exspectabimus 
et Petreium. Nam in Labieno parum est dignitatis. 



praised him highly. I had to do that, as I was an 
advocate of peace between them. If Caesar has 
passed on my letter, good: I should like him to 
placard it in public. I have sent him another letter on 
the date on which I dispatch this to you. I could 
not help doing so when he and Balbus wrote to me. 
I send you a copy of the letter. I don t think you 
can find any fault. If you can find any, tell me how 
I can escape criticism. You will say I should have sent 
no letter at all. What better plan to escape malicious 
tongues? However I will do so as long as I can. 
Your exhortations to remember my deeds and words 
and even writings are friendly and very pleasant ; 
but you seem to have a different idea to mine as to 
honour and propriety in this business. To my mind, 
no statesman or general has ever been guilty of con 
duct so disgraceful as Pompey s. I am sorry for him. 
He left Rome, his country, for which and in which it 
were glorious to die. You don t seem to me to realize 
what a disaster that is. You yourself are still in your 
own house; but you cannot stay there any longer 
without the consent of villains and traitors. It is the 
depth of misery and shame. We wander in want 
with wives and children. Our sole hope lies in the 
life of one man, who falls dangerously sick every 
year. We are not driven, but summoned to leave our 
country. And our country which we have left will 
not be kept in safety against our return, but abandoned 
to fire and plunder. So many Pompeians are with us, 
not in their suburban villas, not in Rome, and, if some 
are still in Rome, they will soon go. Meantime I 
shall not stay at Capua, but at Luceria, and of course 
I shall abandon the coast at once. I shall wait for 
the move of Afranius and Petreius : for Labienus is a 



Hie tu in me illud desideras. Nihil de me . . . dico, alii 
viderint. Hie quidem quae est . . . ? 1 Domi vestrae estis 
et eritis omnes boni. Quis turn se mihi non ostendit ? 
quis nunc adest hoc bello ? Sic enim iam appellandum 

Vibulli res gestae sunt adhuc maximae. Id ex 
Pompei litteris cognosces ; in quibus animadvertito 
ilium locunr, ubi erit 8nrX.rj. Videbis,, de Gnaeonostro 
ipse Vibullius quid existimet. Quo igitur haec spectat 
oratio ? Ego pro Pompeio lubenter emori possum ; 
facio pluris omnium hominum neminem ; sed non ita, 
non in eo iudico spem de salute rei publicae. Signi- 
ficas enim aliquanto secus, quam solebas, ut etiam 
Italia, si ille cedat, putes cedendum. Quod ego nee 
rei publicae puto esse utile nee liberis meis, praeterea 
neque rectum neque honestum. Sed cur Poterisne 
igitur videre tyrannum?" Quasi intersit, audiam an 
videam, aut locupletior mihi sit quaerendus auctor 
quam Socrates ; qui, cum xxx tyranni essent, pedem 
porta nori extulit. Est mihi praeterea praecipua causa 
manendi. De qua utinam aliquando tecum loquar! 

Ego xin Kalend., cum eadem lucerna hanc epistu- 
lam scripsissem, qua inflammaram tuam, Formiis ad 
Pompeium, si de pace ageretur, profecturus, si de 
bello, quid ero? 

1 after me and est there is a space left in M, probably for 
some Greek words, e.g. d^tw/xa andd^iunns as Tyrrell and Orclli 



man of little standing. You may say that I am too. I 
say nothing of myself: I leave that to others. Who 
has standing here? All you loyalists stay at home, 
and will continue to stay there. Who failed me in the 
old days? Who supports me now in this war, as I 
must call it. 

So far Vibullius achievements have been fine. 
You will see that from Pompey s letter. Fide the 
passage marked. 1 You will see Vibullius own opinion 
of Pompey. My point is that I can gladly die for 
Pompey s sake there is no one I hold dearer ; but not 
in that way. In him I see no hope for the safety of the 
state. You express a view different from your usual 
view, that I must even leave Italy, if he does. That 
course seems to me of no advantage to the state or 
to my children, and, moreover, neither right nor 
honourable. But why do you say, " Will you be able 
to see a tyrant " ? As if it mattered whether I hear of 
him or see him, or as if I wanted a better example than 
Socrates, who never set foot out of gate during the 
reign of the Thirty tyrants. Besides I have a special 
reason for staying. I wish I could talk it over with 

After writing this letter on the 17th, by the same 
lamp as that in which I burned yours, I set out from 
Formiae to go to Pompey, and I may be of use, if the 
talk is of peace : but, if of war, of what use shall 
1 be? 

1 The SnrXrj was a marginal mark of this shape > used in 
MSS. to mark a special passage or in dialogue to indicate 
the appearance of a new speaker. 





Maximis et miserrimis rebus perturbatus, cum 
coram tecum mihi potestas deliberandi non esset, uti 
tamen tuo consilio volui. Deliberatio autem omnis 
haec est, si Pompeius Italia excedat, quod eum factu- 
rum esse suspicor, quid mihi agendum putes. Et 
quo facilius consilium dare possis, quid in utramque 
partem mihi in mentem veniat, explicabo brevi. 

Cum merita Pompei summa erga salutem meam, 
familiaritasque, quae mihi cum eo est, turn ipsa rei 
publicae causa me adducit, ut mihi vel consilium 
meum cum illius consilio vel fortuna mca~.cum,illius 
fortuna coniungenda esse videatur. Accedit illud. 
Si maneo et ilium comitatum optimorum et claris- 
simorum civium desero, cadendum est in unius 
potestatem. Qui etsi multis rebus significat se nobis 
esse amicum (et, ut esset, a me est, tute scis, propter 
suspicionem huius impendentis tempestatis multo 
ante provisum), tamen utramque considerandum est, 
et quanta fides ei sit habenda, et, si maxime ex- 
ploratum sit eum nobis amicum fore, sitne viri fortis 
et boni civis esse in ea urbe, in qua cum summis 
honoribus imperiisque usus sit, res maximas gesserit, 
sacerdotio sit amplissimo praeditus, non futurus sit, 
qui fuerit, subeundumque periculum sit cum aliquo 
forte dedecore, si quando Pompeius rem publicam 
recuperarit. In hac parte haec sunt. 

Vide nunc, quae sint in altera. Nihil actum est 

a Pompeio nostro sapienter, nihil fortiter, addo etiam 

nihil nisi contra consilium auctoritatemque meam. 

Omitto ilia vetera, quod istum in rem publicam ille 




Upset by this grave and most calamitous crisis, Cales, 
though I have no opportunity of consulting you person- Feb. 18, 
ally, still I wish to enjoy your advice. The whole B.C. 49 
question under debate is this. What do you think I 
should do, if Pompey leaves Italy, as I expect he will? 
To help you to a decision, I will briefly recount what 
occurs to me on both sides of the question. 

Not only Pompey s great services in bringing 
about my restoration_and hi^ intimacy with me, but 
the public welf^rp, leads me _to_tliiiik that my policy 
and his or, if you will, my fortunes and his_should_be 
one. And another thing, if I remain in Italy and desert 
the company of loyal and distinguished citizens, I 
must fall into the power of one man, and, though he 
gives me many tokens of regard (and you know well I 
took good care that it should be so with this crisis in 
view), yet he still leaves me a twofold problem ; how- 
much trust can be put in his promises, and, if I am posi 
tive of his good will, is it proper for a man of courage 
and loyalty to remain in Rome and lose his position 
for the future where he has enjoyed the highest dis 
tinctions and commands, performed deeds of import 
ance, been invested with the highest seat in the 
sacred college, and to suffer risks and perhaps some 
shame, if .ever Pompey restore the constitution? So 
much for the arguments on one side. 

Now look at those on the other. There is not an 
atom of prudence or courage in Pompey s policy 
and besides nothing that is not clean contrary to my 
counsel and advice. I pass over the old grievance, 
how Caesar was Pompey s man: Pompey raised him to 



aluit, auxit, armavit, ille legibus per vim et contra 
auspicia ferendis auctor, ille Galliae ulterioris adiun- 
ctor, ille gener, ille in adoptando P. Clodio augur, ille 
restituendi mei quam retinendi studiosior, ille provin- 
ciae propagator, ille absentis in omnibus adiutor, 
idem etiam tertio consulate postquam esse defensor 
rei publicae coepit, contendit, ut decem tribuni pi. 
ferrent, ut absentis ratio haberetur, quod idem ipse 
sanxit lege quadam sua, Marcoque Marcello consuli 
finienti provincias Gallias Kaleiidarum Martiarum die 
restitit sed, ut haec omittam, quid foedius, quid 
perturbatius lioc ab urbe discessu sive potius turpis- 
sima fuga? Quae condicio non accipienda fuit potius 
quam relinquenda patria? Malae condiciones erant, 
fateor, sed num quid hoc peius ? At recuperabit 
rem publicam. Quando? aut quid ad earn spem est 
parati ? Non ager Picenus amissus ? non patefactuin 
iter ad urbem? non pecunia omnis et publica et 
privata adversario tradita? Denique nulla causa, 
nullae vires, nulla sedes, quo concurrant, qui rem 
publicam defensam velint. Apulia delecta est, 
inanissima pars Italiae et ab impetu huius belli 
remotissima ; fuga et maritima opportunitas visa 
quaeri desperatione. Invite cepi Capuam, non quo 
munus illud defugerem, sed in ea causa, in qua iiullus 


place and military power, assisted him in passing laws 
by force and despite bad omens, granted him 
Further Gaul in addition to his province ; Pompey 
married his daughter, Pompey was augur at the adop 
tion of Clodius ; Pompey was more active in effecting 
my restoration than in preventing my banishment ; 
Pompey prolonged the tenure of Caesar s provincial 
government; Pompej T championed his cause in ab 
sence ; and again in his third consulship, when 
he began to be the defender of the constitution, 
struggled to get the ten tribunes to propose a 
bill admitting Caesar s candidature in absence; 
ratified that privilege by a law of his own; and 
opposed M. Marcellus the consul, when Mar- 
cellus would have concluded Caesar s government of 
the provinces of Gaul on the 1 st of March. Putting 
all this on one side, is not this departure or rather 
this disgraceful and iniquitous flight from Rome a 
most shameful sign of panic ? Any compromise ought 
to have been accepted in preference to abandoning 
our country. I admit the terms were bad, but could 
anything be worse than this ? If you say he 
will restore the constitution, I ask you when and 
what preparation, has been made to that end ? We 
have lost Picenum : the road lies open to Rome : the 
funds of the state and of individuals have been 
delivered to our enemy, Finally we have no policy, 
no forces, no rendezvous for patriots; Apulia has 
been chosen, the least populous district in Italy and 
the most removed from the brunt of this war, and 
clearly chosen in despair for the opportunity of flight 
which the sea affords. With reluctance T fruilv- 
charge of r.apjia.nQt_ t.]r?\ti Lwjnild^Mrlj |jig^ duty, 
but with the reluctance which one would have in a 



esset ordinum, nullus apertus privatorum dolor, 
bonorum autem esset aliquis, sed hebes, ut solet, et, 
ut ipse sensissem, multitudo et infimus quisque pro- 
pensus in alteram partem, multi mutationis rerum 
cupidi, dixi ipsi me nihil suscepturum sine praesidio 
et sine pecunia. Itaque habui nihil omnino negotii, 
quod ab initio vidi nihil quaeri praeter fugam. Earn 
si nunc sequor, quonam ? Cum illo non ; ad quern 
cum essem profectus, cognovi in iis locis esse Caesa- 
rem, ut tuto Luceriam venire non possem. Infero 
mari nobis incerto cursu hieme maxima navigandum 
est. Age iam, cum fratre an sine eo cum filio ? at 
quo modo? In utraque enim re summa difficultas 
erit, summus animi dolor; qui autem impetus illius 
erit in nos absentis fortunasque nostras ! Acrior quam 
in ceterorum, quod putabit fortasse in nobis violan- 
dis aliquid se habere populare. Age iam, has com- 
pedes, fascis, inquam, hos laureates ecferre ex Italia 
quam molestum est ! qui autem locus erit nobis tutus, 
ut iam placatis utamur fluctibus, antequam ad ilium 
venerimus ? Qua autem aut quo, nihil scimus. At, 
si restitero, et fuerit nobis in hac parte locus, idem 
fecero quod in Cinnae dominatione L. Philippus, quod 
L. Flaccus, quod Q. Mucius, quoquo modo ea res huic 


cause Ju_whioh neither ranks nor individuals had 
n.ny t ppling. though there was some feeling 
^uggish as usual. Besides, as 


I felt, the crowd and the dregs of the populace were 
inclined to the other side, and many were merely 
desirous of revolution. I told Pompey himself that 
I could undertake nothing without a garrison and 
without funds. So I have had nothing at all to do, 
since I saw from the first, that his only object 
was flight. If I would share his flight, whither am 
I to go ? With him I cannot go ; for, when I set out, 
I learned that Caesar was so posted that I could not 
reach Luceria with safety. . I should have to go by 
the Lower Sea 1 in the depth of winter and with no 
certain destination. Moreover am I to take my 
brother, or leave him and take my son? But how? 
Either course would cause me the greatest trouble 
and the greatest grief: and how he will wreak his 
rage on me and my property in my absence ! More 
vindictively perhaps than in the case of others, 
because he will think that vengeance on me will 
please the people. Consider too my fetters, I mean 
my laurelled fasces. How awkward it will be to 
take them out of Italy ! Suppose I enjoy a calm 
passage, what place will be safe for me till I join 
Pompey ? I have no idea of how or where to go. 
But, if I stand my ground and find a place on 
Caesar s side, I shall follow the example of L. 
Philippus under the tyranny of Cinna, of L. Flaccus 
and of Q. Mucius. 2 Though it ended unfortunately 

1 I.e. the sea on the west coast of Italy as opposed to 
mare superum, the Adriatic. 

2 All these persons stayed in Rome during the Cinnan 
revolution. Mucius was put to death by the younger Marius 
in 82 B.C. 



quidem cecidit; qui tamen ita dicere solebat, se id 
fore videre, quod factum est, sed malle quam arma- 
tum ad patriae moenia accedere. Aliter Thrasybulus 
et fortasse melius. Sed est certa quaedam ilia Muei 
ratio atque sententia, est ilia etiam Philippi, et, cum 
sit necesse, servire tempori et non amittere tempus, 
cum sit datum. Sed in hoc ipso habent tamen idem 
fasces molestiam. Sit enini nobis amicus, quod incer- 
tum est, sed sit ; deferet triumphum. Non accipere 
vide ne periculosum sit, accipere invidiosum ad bonos. 
O rem/ inquis, difficilem et inexplicabilem ! " 
Atqui explicanda est. Quid enim fieri potest? Ac, 
ne me existimaris ad manendum esse propensiorem, 
quod plura in earn partem verba fecerim, potest fieri, 
quod fit in multis quaestionibus, ut res verbosior haec 
fuerit, ilia verier. Quam -ob rem ut maxima de re 
aequo animo deliberanti ita mihi des consilium velim. 
Navis et in Caieta est parata nobis et Brundisi. 

Sed ecce nuntii scribente me haec ipsa noctu in 
Caleno, ecce litterae Caesarem ad Corfinium, Domi- 
tium Corfini cum firmo exercitu et pugnare cupiente. 
Non puto etiam hoc Gnaeum nostrum commissurum, 
ut Domitium relinquat; etsi Brundisium Scipionem 
cum cohortibus duabus praemiserat, legionem Fausto 
conscriptam in Sicilian! sibi placere a consule duci 
scripserat ad consules. Sed turpe Domitium deserere 
erit implorantem eius auxilium. Est quaedam spes 
mihi quidem non magna, sed in his locis firma, 
Afranium in Pyrenaeo cum Trebonio pugnasse, pul- 
sum Trebonium, etiam Fabium tuum transisse cuir 


in the case of Q. Mucius, yet he was wont to say he 
foresaw the issue, but preferred it to taking arms 
against his country. Thrasybulus took the other 
and perhaps happier course. But Mucius decision 
and views were quite definite, and so were those 6T 
Philippus; that one might do some time-serving, 
when it was necessary, but when one s time came, 
one should not miss it. But, in that event, still my 
fasces are a nuisance. I do not know if Caesar 
will be friendly; but suppose he is, he will offer 
me a triumph. To jefuse would damage my 
chances with Caesar, to accept would annoy the 

loyalists. It is a h?yyl "d insoluble question : and 

ygt solve it I must. x What else can I do ^ I have 
said most in favour of staying in Italy: but do not 
infer that I have any particular inclination towards 
so doing : it may be, as often happens, that there are 
more words on one side and more worth on the other. 
Then please give me your advice, counting me open- 
minded on the important question. There is a boat 
ready for me at Caieta and at Brundisium. 

But, here are messengers arriving as I write this 
letter at night in Cales ; and here is a letter saying that 
Caesar has reached Corfinium and that Domitius is 
there with a strong force anxious to fight. I do not 
think that Pompej r will go so far as to abandon 
Domitius, though he sent Scipio ahead to Brundisium 
with two squadrons, and has informed the consuls 
that he wants one of them to take the legion raised 
for Faustus into Sicily. But it were base to desert 
Domitius, when he entreats for help. There is some 
hope, small enough to my mind, but favoured in this 
district, that Afranius has fought with Trebonius in 
\e Pyrenees and driven him back, and that your 

I VOL. II 113 


cohortibuS; summa autem Afranium cum magnis 
copiis adventare. Id si est, in Italia fortasse mane- 
bitur. Ego autem, cum esset incertum iter Caesaris, 
quod vel ad Capuam vel ad Luceriam iturus puta- 
batur, Leptam misi ad Pompeium et litteras; ipse, 
ne quo inciderem, reverti Formias. 

Haec te scire volui scripsique sedatiore animo, 
quam proxime scripseram, nullum meum iudicium 
interponens, sed exquirens tuum. 



Scr. in Dionysius quidem tuus potius quam noster, cuius 

Fonniano ego cum satis cognossem mores, tuo tamen potius 

V III K. stabam iudicio quam meo, ne tui quidem testimonii, 

Mart, ante quod ei saepe apud me dederas, veritus, superbum se 

lucem a. praebuit in fortuna, quam putavit nostram fore ; cuius 

76*5 fortunae nos, quantum humano consilio effici poterit, 

motum ratione quadam gubernabimus. Cui qui 

noster honos, quod obsequium, quae etiam ad ceteros 

contempt! cuiusdam hominis commendatio defuit? ut 

meum iudicium reprehendi a Quiiito fratre volgoque 

ab omnibus mallem quam ilium nonefferrem laudibus, 

Ciceroiiesque uostros meo potius labore subdoceri 

quam me alium iis magistrum quaerere ; ad quern ego 

quas litteras, dei immortales, miseram, quantum 

honoris significantes, quantum amoris ! Dicaearchum 

mehercule aut Aristoxenum diceres arcessi, 11011 unum 

hominem omnium loquacissimum et minime aptum ad 

docendum. Sed est memoria bona. Me dicet esse 

meliore. Quibus litteris ita respondit ut ego nemini, 



friend Fabius too has gone over to Pompey with his 
squadrons : and high hope, that Afranius is marching 
hither with large forces. If that is true, we may 
stay in Italy. But since no one knows Caesar s 
route, as he was supposed to be going towards Capua 
or Luceria, I am sending Lepta to Pompey with a 
letter. Myself I return to Formiae for fear I should 
stumble on anyone. 

I wanted you to know the news, and I write with 
more composure than I stated above. I advance no 
views of my own, but ask for yours. 



I count Dionysius your man rather than mine : Formiae, 
for, though I was well acquainted witli his character, Feb. 22, 
I held to your opinion of him rather than to my own. B.C. 4 
The fellow has paid no respect even to your frequent 
certificates of character, but has become arrogant in 
what he takes for a fall in my fortune, though so far 
as human wit can avail, I will steer my course 
onward with some skill. I never failed Dionysius in 
respect or service, or in a good word for the despic 
able cad. Nay, I preferred to have my opinion 
criticized by Quintus and people in general rather 
than omit to praise the fellow ; and, sooner than seek 
another master for my -boys, I took pains to give 
them private lessons myself. Good God, what a 
letter I sent him: how full of respect and affection! 
You would think that I was sending for Dicaearchus 
or Aristoxenus and not for an arch-chatter-box useless 
as a teacher. He has a good memory : he shall have 
reason to say that mine is better. He answered the 
i2 115 


cuius causamnon reciperem. Semper enim : Si potero, 
si ante suscepta causa lion impediar." Numquam reo 
cuiquam tarn humili, tarn sordido, tarn nocenti, tarn ali- 
eno tain praecise negavi, quani hie mihi plane sine ulla 
exeeptione praecidit. Nihil cognovi ingratius ; in quo 
vitio niliil mali non inest. Sed de hoc nimis multa. 

Ego navem paravi. Tuas litteras tanien exspecto, 
ut sciam, quid respondeant consultation! meae. Sul- 
mone C. Atium Paelignum aperuisse Antonio portas, 
cum essent cohortes quinque, Q. Lucretium inde effu- 
gisse scis, Gnaeum ire Brundisium, desertum Domiti- 
um. 1 Confecta res est. 



Scr. in For- Cum ante lucem vui Kal. litteras ad te de Dio- 
miano I If, n y S i o dedissem, vesperi ad nos eodem die venit ipse 

T- vr " Dionvsius, auctoritate tua permotus, ut suspicor; quid 
A. Mart. a. . ,. j^ . , ,. . , c 

. ~ einrn putem ahud? Ltsi solet eum^ cum aliquid fu- 

/ (Jo 

riose fecit, paenitere. Numquam autem cerritior fuit 

quam in hoc negotio. Nam, quod ad te non scripse- 
ram, postea audivi a tertio miliario turn eum isse 

TroAAa />?i Ktpdeo-crtv es t jepa 

multa, inquam, mala cum dixisset : suo capiti, ut 
aiunt. Sed en meam mansuetudinem ! Conieceram 
in fa sciculum una cum tua vementem ad ilium epi- 
stulam. Hanc ad me referri volo nee ullam ob aliam 
1 Domitium is added by Lipsins. 



etter in a tone I have never used even when I wished 
to decline a case. I always say, "if possible/ "if 
10 previous engagement hinders me." I have never 
fiven so curt a refusal as his curt unqualified no " 
;o any client however humble, however mean, how 
ever guilty, however much a stranger. It is the 
aeight of ingratitude, and ingratitude includes all 
sins. But enough and more than enough of this. 

I have a boat ready. Still I wait for a letter from 
r ou, that I may know your answer to my problem. 
You know that at Sulmo C. Atius Paelignus opened 
;he gates to Antonius, though he had five squadrons, 
;hat Q. Lucretius has escaped from the place, and 
that Pompey has gone to Brundisium, deserting 
3omitius. We are done for. 


After I sent you a letter before daybreak on the Formiae, 
;22nd about Dionysius, on the evening of the same Feb. 23 (?), 
day came Dionysius himself. I cannot but think that B.C. 49 

t was by your influence, though he is wont to repent 
iof his fits of temper, and this is the maddest busi 
ness he has had a hand in. I did not tell you before, 
but I heard later, that, when he had got three miles 

rom Rome, he took fright, 

When he had vainly butted with his horns 
The vacant air." 1 

mean he cursed roundly. May his curses fall on 
lis own head, as the saying goes. But look at my good 
lature. I enclosed in your packet a strong letter 
or him. I should be glad to have it returned; and 

1 Author unknown. 



causam Pollicem servum a pedibus meis Romam misi. 
Eo autem ad te scripsi, ut, si tibi forte reddita esset, 
mihi curares referendam, ne in illius manus perve- 

Novi si quid esset, scripsissem. Pendeo animi ex- 
spectatione Corfiniensi, in qua de salute rei publicae 
decernetur. Tu fasciculum, qui est M . Curio inscri- 
ptus, velini cures ad eum perfereiidum Tironenique 
Curio commeiides et, ut det ei, si quid opus erit in 
sumptum, roges. 



Scr. in For- Obsignata iam ista epistula, quam de nocte datu- 
miano IX rus eram, sicut dedi (nam earn vesperi scripseram), 
A. Mart., C. Sosius praetor in Formianum venit ad M . Lepi- 
iit videtur, dum, vicinum nostrum, cuius quaestor fuit. Pompei 
a. 705 litterarum ad consoles exemplum attulit : 

Litterae mihi a L. Domitio a. d. xin Kalend. 
Mart, allatae sunt. Earum exemplum infra scripsi. 
Nunc, ut ego non scribam, tua sppnte te intellegere 
scio, quanti rei publicae intersit omnes copias in 
uiium locum primo quoque tempore convenire. Tu, 
si tibi videbitur, dabis operam, ut quam primum ad 
nos venias, praesidii Capuae quantum constitueris 
satis esse, relinquas." 

Deinde supposuit exemplum epistulae Domiti, 
quod ego ad te pridie miseram. Di immortales, qui 
me horror perfudit ! quam sum sollicitus, quidnam 
futurum sit ! Hoc tamen spero^ magnum nomen 
imperatoris fore, magnum in adventu terrorem. 
Spero etianij quoniam adhuc nihil nobis obfuit t nihil 


only for that reason have I sent my footman Pollux 
to Rome. So I write to you that, if it has come into 
your hands, you may return it and not let it fall into 
his possession. 

I would write any fresh news, if there were any. 
I am a-tiptoe with anxiety as to the business at 
Corfinium, which will decide the fate of the consti 
tution. Please send the packet addressed to M . 
Curius, and please recommend Tiro to Curius, and 
ask him to supply his wants. 



After I had sealed that letter to you, which I Formiae, 
wanted to dispatch last night (I wrote it in the Feb. 21 ( 
evening and did dispatch it), C. Sosius the praetor B.C. Ifi 
came to Formiae to visit my neighbour, M . Lepidus, 
whose quaestor he was. He brought a copy of 
Pompey s letter to the consuls : I have received a 
dispatch from L. Domitius, dated the 17th of 
February. I enclose a copy. Now without a word 
from me, I know you realize of your own accord how 
important it is for the State that all our forces should 
concentrate at one spot at the earliest possible date. 
If you agree, endeavour to reach me at once, leaving 
Capua such garrison as you may consider necessary." 

Then appended is a copy of Domitius letter which 
I sent you yesterday. My God, how terrified I was 
and how distracted I am as to the future ! I hope his 
nickname the Great will inspire great panic on his 
arrival. I hope too, since nothing has stood in our 
way at present [except his negligence, he is not 



mutasset neglegentia hoc quod cum fortiter et dili- 
genter turn etiam mehercule.t 

Modo enim audivi quartanam a te discessisse. 
Moriar, si magis gauderem, si id mihi accidisset. 
Piliae die noil esse aequum earn diutius habere nee id 
esse vestrae concordiae. Tironem nostrum ab altera 
relictum audio. Sed eum video in sumptum ab aliis 
mutuatum ; ego autem Curium nostrum, si quid opus 
esset, rogaram. Malo Tironis verecundiam in culpa 
esse quam inliberalitatem Curi. 



Scr. in For- Uiium etiam restat amico nostro ad omne dedecus, 
miano I II ut Domitio non subveniat. ( At nemo dubitat, quin 
A. Mart., ut subsidy venturus sit." Ego non puto. Deseretigi- 

videtur, a. . , . , T 

_ tur talem civem et eos, quos una scis esse, cum habeat 

praesertim is ipse cohortes trigmta ? " Nisi me 
omnia fallunt, deseret. Incredibiliter pertimuit, 
nihil spectat nisi fugam. Cui tu (video enim, quid 
sentias) me comitem putas debere esse. Ego vero, 
quern fugiam, habeo, quern sequar, non habeo. Quod 
enim tu meum laudas et memorandum dicis, malle 
quod dixerim me cum Pompeio vinci quam cum istis 
vincere, ego vero malo, sed cum illo Pompeio, qui 
turn erat, aut qui mihi esse videbatur, cum hoc vero, 
qui ante fugit, quam scit, aut quern fugiat aut quo, 
qui nostra tradidit, qui patriam reliquit, Italiam re- 


neglecting a point which ought to be carried out 
vigorously]. l 

I have just heard that you have lost your fever. 
Upon my life I could not be better pleased, if I had 
recovered myself. Tell Pilia that sucli a perfect 
helpmeet should not be sick longer than her husband. 
I hear that Tiro has recovered from his second at 
tack : but I see he has been raising money from 
strangers. I had commissioned Curius to supply him 
with funds. I hope it is Tiro s diffidence and not 
Curius meanness that is to blame. 



The one act needed to crown Pompey s disgrace is Formiae, 
the desertion of Domitius. I don t agree with the Feb. 23 (?), 
universal opinion that he is sure to help him. Will B.C. 49 
he desert so distinguished a citizen as Domitius and 
those with him, even though he has thirty cohorts at 
his command ? " Unless I am greatly mistaken he will 
desert him. He is incredibly alarmed, and has no 
thought but flight ; and you want me to go with 
him ; for I see what you think. Yes, I have a foe 
to flee from, but no friend to follow. As for your 
praise of that remark of mine, which you quote and 
call so memorable, that I would rather be conquered 
with Pompey than conquer with Caesar, well, I would: 
but it must be with Pompey my old hero or ideal. 
As to the Pompey of to-day, who flees before he 
knows from whom he is running or where to run ; 
who has betrayed us, abandoned his country and de- 

1 The words in brackets only attempt to give the probable 
sense of this hopelessly corrupt passage. 



linquit, si malui, contigit, victus sum. Quod superest, 
nee ista videre possum, qtiae numquam timui ne 
viderem, nee mehercule istum, propter quern mihi 
non modo meis, sed memet ipso carendum est. 

Ad Philotimum scrips! de viatico sive a Moneta 
(nemo enim solvit) sive ab Oppiis, tuis contubernali- 
bus. Cetera apposita tibi mandabo. 



Scr. in For- O rem turpem et ea re miseram ! Sic enim sentio, 

miano I 1 A. jj (J emum au t potius id solum esse miserum, quod 

Mart. a. 

jfl- turpe sit. Aluerat Caesarem ; eundem repente timere 

coeperat, condicionem pacis nullam probarat, nihil 
ad bellum pararat, urbem reliquerat, Picenum amiserat 
culpa., in Apuliam se compegerat, ibat in Graeciam, 
omnes nos d7rpo(r(coi 7/T(n>s, expertes sui tanti, tarn 
inusitati consilii relinquebat. Ecce subito litterae 
Domiti ad ilium, ipsius ad consules. Fulsisse mihi 
videbatur -o KaXov ad oculos eius et exclamasse ille 
vir, qui esse debuit : 

ITpos rai O o ri Xpi) xal TraXa/j.dcrGw 
Koi TTUIT e~ e/iot 
TO yap e? /xe 


serted Italy, well, if I wanted to be conquered with 
him, I have got my wish ; I am conquered. For 
the rest I cannot bear to look at Caesar s doings. I 
never expected to see them, nor the man himself 
who robs me not only of my friends, but of myself. 

I have written to Philotimus about money for the 
journey either from the mint, 1 for none of my 
debtors will pay up, or from your associates the 
bankers. I will give you all other requisite instruc 



What disgrace, and therefore what misery! For I Format, 
feel disgrace to be Ihe crown of misery, or indeed Feb. 24, 
the only real misery. Pompey treated Caesar as his B.C. Jfi 
protege, began suddenly to fear him, declined terms 
of peace, made 110 preparation for war, quitted Rome, 
lost Picenum by his own fault, got himself blocked 
in Apulia, went off to Greece without a word, leaving 
us in ignorance of a plan so important and unusual. 
Then all of a sudden Domitius letter to Pompey and 
Pompey s letter to the consuls. It seemed to me 
that the Right had flashed upon his gaze, and that 
he, the old heroic Pompey, cried : 

"What subtle craft they will let them devise, 
And work their wiliest in my despite. 
The right is on my side." 

1 The Roman Mint was at the Temple of Juno Moneta. 
Apparently money could be obtained there by exchange for 

-A fragment of Euripides parodied by Aristophanes, 
Acharnians, 659-661. 



At ille tibi TroXAa yn.ipt.iv T( f KaA.<f dicens pergit 
Brundisium. Domitium autem aiunt re audita et 
eos, qui una assent, se tradidisse. O rem lugubrem ! 
Itaque intercludor dolore, quo minus ad te plura 
scribam. Tuas litteras exspecto. 



Scr. in For- Epistulam meam quod pervulgatam scribis esse, 
miano J K. non f ero moleste, quin etiam ipse multis dedi descri- 
bendam. Ea enim et acciderunt iam et impendent, 
ut testatum esse velim, de pace quid senserim. Cum 
autem ad earn hortarer eum praesertim hominem, 
non videbar ullo modo facilius moturus, quam si id, 
quod eum hortarer, convenire eius sapientiae dicerem. 
Earn si admirabilem " dixi, cum eum ad salutem 
patriae hortabar, non sum veritus, ne viderer adsen- 
tari, cui tali in re lubenter me ad pedes abiecissem. 
Quod autem est aliquid inpcrtias temporis," non 
est, de pace, sed de me ipso et de meo officio ut ali 
quid cogitet. Nam, quod testificor me expcrtem 
belli fuisse, etsi id re perspectum est, tamen eo 
scripsi, quo in suadendo plus auctoritatis haberem ; 
eodemque pertinet, quod causam eius probo. 

Sed quid haec nunc ? Utinam aliquid profectum 
esset ! Ne ego istas litteras in contione recitari 
velim, si quidem ille ipse ad eundem scribens in 
publico proposuit epistulam illam, in qua est pro tuis 
rebus gestis amplissimis" (amplioribusne quam suis, 


However Pompey bids a long farewell to honour 
and away for Brundisium. They say that Domitius 
and those with him surrendered on receipt of the 
news. What a doleful business ! Grief prevents me 
writing more. I await a letter from you. 



I am not upset at the circulation of my letter, in- Formiae, 
deed I myself let many people take a copy. Con- Feb. 25, 
sidering what has happened and is likely to happen, B.C. 49- 
I want my views on peace published. And when I 
exhorted Caesar of all men to seek peace, I had no 
readier argument than to say, that peace became a 
man of his wisdom. If I spoke of his admirable" 
wisdom, seeing that I was urging him on to the sal 
vation of our country, I was not afraid of appearing 
to flatter him : in such a cause I would gladly have 
cast myself at his feet. When I use the phrase 
"spare time," that does not mean for the consideration 
of peace, but for the consideration of myself and my 
obligations. As to my statement that I have taken no 
part in the war, though the facts are evidence, I 
wrote it to give greater weight to my advice and 
it was for the same reason that I expressed ap 
probation of his case. 

But this is idle talk now : I only wish it had done 
some good. Why, I should not object to the recital 
of my letter at a public meeting, when Pompey him 
self, writing to Caesar, exhibited for public perusal a 
letter containing the words On account of your 
splendid achievements," (are they more splendid 



quam African! ? Ita tempus ferebat), si quidem etiam 
vos duo tales ad quintum miliarium quid nunc ipsum 
de se recipient!, quid agenti, quid acturo? Quanto 
autem ferocius ille causae suae confidet, cum vos, cum 
vestri similes non modo frequentes, sed laeto vultu 
gratulantes viderit ! " Num igitur peccamus ? " Mi- 
nime vos quidem; sed tamen signa conturbantur, 
quibus voluntas a simulatione distingui posset. Quae 
vero senatus consulta video ? Sed apertius, quam 

Ego Arpini volo esse pridie Kal., deinde circum 
villulas nostras errare, quas visurum me postea de- 
speravi. Evyei v} tua consilia et tamen pro temporibus 
non incauta mihi valde probantur. Lepido quidem 
(nam fere on t 6t?7/xep rosier, quod gratissimum illi est) 
numquam placuit ex Italia exire, Tullo multo minus. 
Crebro enim illius litterae ab aliis ad nos commeant. 
Sed me illorum sententiae minus movebant ; minus 
multa dederant illi rei publicae pignora. Tua me- 
hercule auctoritas vehementer movet ; adfert enim et 
reliqui temporis recuperandi rationem et praesentis 
tuendi. Sed, obsecro te, quid hoc miserius quam 
alterum plausus in foedissima causa quaerere, alterum 
offensiones in optima ? alterum existimari conserva- 
torem inimicorum, alterum desertorem ainicorum ? 
Et mehercule, quamvis amemus Gnaeum nostrum, 
ut et facimus et debemus, tamen hoc, quod talibus 
viris non subvenit, laudare non possum. Nam, sive 


than Pompey s own, or those of Africanus ? Circum 
stances made him say so.) and when two men like 
you and S. Peducaeus are going to meet him at the 
fifth milestone," and at this moment to what course 
does he pledge himself, what is he doing, what is he 
going to do? Surely his belief in his rights will 
grow more vehement, when he sees you and men 
like you not only in crowds, but with joy upon your 
faces. " What harm in that," you ask? Not a bit, as 
far as you are concerned : but still the outward signs 
of the distinction between genuine feeling and pre 
tence are all upset. I foresee some strange decrees 
of the Senate. But my letter has been more frank 
than I intended. 

I hope to be at Arpinum on the 28th, and then to 
visit my country estates, I fear for the last time. 
Your policy, gentlemanly, but not without a touch of 
caution suited to the times, has my sincere approval. 
Lepidus, who has the pleasure of my company 
almost every day, never liked the plan of quit 
ting Italy : Tullus detested it : for letters from 
him often reach me from other hands. However 
their views influence me little : they have given 
fewer pledges to the state than I : but I am 
strongly swayed by the weight of your opinion, 
which proposes a plan for betterment in the future 
and security in the present. Is there a more 
wretched spectacle than that of Caesar earning 
praise in the most disgusting cause, and of Pompey 
earning blame in the most excellent : of Caesar 
being regarded as.the saviour of his enemies, and Pom- 
pey as a traitor to his friends ? Assuredly though I 
love Pompey, from inclination and duty, still I cannot 
praise his failure to succour such men. If it was fear, 



timuit, quid ignavius ? sive, ut quidani putant, melio- 
rem suam causam illorum caede fore putavit, quid 
iniustius ? Sed liaec omittamus ; augemus enim 
dolorem retractando. 

vi Kal. vesperi Balbus minor ad me venit occulta 
via currens ad Lentulum consulem missu Caesaris 
cum litteris, cum mandatis, cum promissione provin- 
ciae, Romam ut redeat. Cui persuader! posse non ar- 
bitror, nisi erit conventus. Idem aiebat nihil malle 
Caesarem, quam ut Pompeium adsequeretur (id credo) 
et rediret in gratiam. Id non credo et metuo, ne 
omnis haec dementia ad Cinneam illam crudelitatem 
colligatur. Balbus quidem maior ad me scribit nihil 
malle Caesarem quam principe Pompeio sine metu 
vivere. Tu, puto, haec credis. Sed, cum haec 
scribebam v Kalend., Pompeius iam Brundisium ve- 
nisse poterat ; expeditus enim antecesserat legiones 
xi K. Luceria. Sed hoc repas horribili vigilantia, 
celeritate, diligentia est. Plane, quid futurum sit, 



Scr. in For- Dionj r sius cum ad me praeter opinionem meam 

mifino IV K. venisset, locutus sum cum eo liberalissime ; tempora 

Mart. a. exposui, rogavi, ut diceret, quid haberet in animo ; 

fOo me nihil ab ipso invito contendere. Respondit se, 

quod in nummis haberet, nescire quo loci esset ; alios 

non solvere, aliorum diem nondum esse. Dixit 

etiam alia quaedam de servulis suis, quare nobiscum 

Cinnenni Tyrrell and Purser: imam MSS. : Sullanam 



it was most cowardly ; if, as some think, he imagined 
that their massacre would assist his cause, it was most 
iniquitous. But let us pass over this, for remembrance 
adds to my sorrow. 

On the evening of the 2ith, Balbus the younger 
came to me, hunting on a secret errand to the con 
sul Lentulus from Caesar with a letter, a commission, 
and the promise of a province on condition of his re 
turning to Rome. I don t think that he can be talked 
over without a, personal interview. Balbus said 
that Caesar was most anxious to meet Pompey (I 
believe it), and to get on good terms with him. 
This I do not believe and I fear all his kindness is 
only a preparation for cruelty like Cinna s. Balbus 
the elder writes to me that Caesar wants nothing 
better than to live in safety under Pompey. I expect 
you will believe that. But while I write this letter 
on the 25th of February, Pompey may have reached 
Brundisium. He set out without baggage, and before 
his legions, on the 19th from Luceria. But that 
bogy-man has terrible wariness, speed and energy. 
The future is a riddle to me. 



I spoke to Dionysius in the frankest way, when Formiae, 
contrary to my expectations he arrived. I told him Feb. 26, 
how matters stood ; asked him his intentions, and B.C. J$ 
said that I would not press him against his will. He 
replied that he did not know where such money as he 
owned was : that some creditors did not pay, that 
other debts were not yet due. He said something 
about his wretched slaves that would prevent his 


esse non posset. Morem gessi ; dimisi a me ut 
magistrum Ciceronum non lubenter, ut hominem in- 
gratum non invitus. Volui te scire, et quid ego de 
eius facto iudicarem. 



Scr. in For- Quod me magno animi motu perturbatum putas, 
miano III sum equidem, sed non tarn magno, q*uam tibi fortasse 
A. Mart. a. yideor. Levatur enim omnis cura, cum aut constitit 
consilium, aut cogitando nihil explicatur. Lamentari 

autem licet illud quidem totos dies; sed vereor, ne, 
nihil cum proficiam, etiam dedecori sim studiis ac lit- 
teris nostris. Consumo igitur omne tempus conside- 
rans, quanta vis sit illius viri, quern nostris libris satis 
diligenter, ut tibi quidem videmur, expressimus. 
Tenesne igitur moderatorem ilium rei publicae quo 
referre velimus omnia? Nam sic quinto, ut opinor, 
in libro loquitur Scipio : Ut enim gubernatori cur- 
sus secundus, medico salus, imperatori victoria, sic 
huic moderatori rei publicae beata civium vita propo- 
sita est, ut opibus firma, copiis locuples, gloria ampla, 
virtute honesta sit. Huius enim operis maximi inter 
homines atque optimi ilium esse perfectorem volo." 
Hoc Gnaeus noster cum antea numquam turn in hac 
causa minime cogitavit. Dominatio quaesita ab utro- 
que est, non id actum, beata et honesta civitas ut 
esset. Nee vero ille urbem reliquit, quod earn tueri 
non posset, nee Italiam, quod ea pelleretur, sed hoc 
a primo cogitavit^ omnes terras, omnia maria movere, 
regies barbaros incitare, gentes feras armatas in Italiam 


staying with me. I acquiesced, sorry to lose a 
master for my boys ; but glad to be rid of an un 
grateful fellow. I wanted you to know what happened 
and my opinion of his conduct. 



As you suppose, I am in great anxiety of mind : Formiac, 
but it is not so great as you may imagine. I am rid Feb. 27, 
of care, as soon as resolve is fixed or thought proves B.C. J$ 
futile. Still I may lament my lot as I do all day long. 
But I fear, since lamentation is idle, I disgrace my 
philosophy and my works. So I spend my time con 
sidering the character of the ideal statesman, who 
is sketched clearly enough, you seem to think, in 
my books on the Republic. You remember then the 
standard by which our ideal governor was to weigh 
his acts. Here are Scipio s words, in the 5th book, I 
think it is : As a safe voyage is the aim of the pilot, 
health of the phj sician, victory of the general, so 
the ideal statesman will aim at happiness for the 
citizens of the state to give them material security, 
copious wealth, wide-reaching distinction and un 
tarnished honour. This, the greatest and finest of 
human achievements, I want him to perform." Pom- 
pey never had this notion and least of all in the 
present cause. Absolute power is what he and Caesar 
have sought; their aim has not been to secure the 
happiness and honour of the community. Pompey 
has not abandoned Rome, because it was impossible to 
defend, nor Italy on forced compulsion ; but it was his 
idea from the first to plunge the world into war, to 
stir up barbarous princes, to bring savage tribes into 
K2 131 


adducere, cxercitus conficere maxiinos. Genus illud 
Sullani regni iam pridem appetitur multis, qui una 
sunt, cupientibus. An censes nihil inter eos con- 
venire, nullain pactionem fieri potuisse ? Hodie 
potest. Sed neutri O-KO-OS est ille, ut nos beati 
simus; uterque regnare vult. 

Haec a te invitatus breviter exposui. Voluisti enim 
me, quid de his malis sentirem, osteiidere. llpodc- 
CTTTI^OJ igitur, noster Attice, non hariolans ut ilia, cui 
nemo credidit, sed coniectura prospiciens : 

lamque mari magno 

non multo, inquam, secus possum vaticinari. Taiita 
malorum impendet IAtd?. Atque hoc nostra gravior 
est causa, qui domi sumus, quam illorum, qui una 
transierunt, quod illi quidem alterum metuunt, nos 
utrumque. Cur igitur," inquis, remansimus?" Vel 
tibi paruimus vel non occurrimus, vel hoc fuit rectius. 
Conculcari, inquam, miseram Italiam videbis proxima 
aestate aut utriusque in mancipiis ex omni genere 
collectis, nee tarn proscriptio pertimescenda, quae 
Luceriae multis sermonibus denuntiata esse dicitur, 
quam universae rei p. interitus. Tantas in conHigendo 
utriusque vires video futuras. Habes coniecturam 
meam. Tu autem consolationis fortasse aliquid ex- 
spectasti. Nihil invenio, nihil fieri potest miserius, 
nihil perditius, nihil foedius. 

Quod quaeris, quid Caesar ad me scripserit, quod 
saepe, gratissimum sibi esse, quod quierim, oratque, 
in eo ut perseverem. Balbus minor haec eadem man- 
data. Iter autem eius erat ad Lentulum consulem 
cum litteris Cacsaris praemiorumque promissis, si 


Italy under arms,, and to gather a huge army. A sort 
of Sulla s reign has long been his object, and is the 
desire of manj- of his companions. Or do you think 
that no agreement, no compromise between him and 
Caesar was possible ? Why, it is possible to-day : 
but neither of them looks to our happiness. Both 
want to be kings. 

At your request I have given an outline of my views; 
for you wanted an expression of my opinion on these 
troubles. So I play the prophet, my dear Atticus, 
not at random like Cassandra whom no one believed, 
but with imaginative insight. Now on the great Ennius, 
sea" my prophecy runs like the old tag: such an Iliad AlexandeT - 
of woe hangs over us. The case of us, who stay at home, 
is worse than that of those who have gone with 
Pompey, for they have only one to fear, while we 
have both. You ask then, why I stay. Well, in 
compliance with your request, or because I could not 
meet Pompey on his departure, or because it was the 
more honourable course. I say you will see poor Italy 
trodden down next summer or in the hands of their 
slaves drawn from every quarter of the globe. It will 
not be a proscription (in spite of the talk and threats 
we hear of at Luceria) which we shall have to dread, 
but general destruction. So huge are the forces that 
will join in the struggle. That is my prophecy. 
Perhaps you looked for consolation. I see none : 
we have reached the limit of misery, ruin and 

You inquire what Caesar said in his letter. The usual 
thing, that my inaction pleases him, and he begs me 
to maintain it. Balbus the younger brought the same 
message by word of mouth. Balbus was travelling 
to Lentulus the consul with letters from Caesar, and 



Romam revertisset. Verum, cum habeo rationem 
dierum, ante puto tramissurum, quam potuerit con- 

Epistularum Pompei duarum^ quas ad me misit, 
neglegentiam meamque in rescribendo diligentiam 
volui tibi notam esse. Earum exempla ad te misi. 

Caesaris bic per Apuliam ad Brundisium cursus 
quid efficiat., exspecto. Utinam aliquid simile Parthi- 
cis rebus ! Simul aliquid audierOj scribam ad te. Tu 
ad me velim bonorum sermones. Romae frequentes 
esse dicuntur. Scio equidem te in publicum non prod- 
ire, sed tamen audire te multa necesse est. Memini 
librum tibi adferri a Demetrio Magnete ad te missum 
[scio] 1 Trepi o/xovot as. Eum mihi velim mittas. Vides, 
quam causam mediter. 



Scr.Luceriae Q. Fabius ad me venit a. d. Tin Idus Febr. Is 
- nuntiat L. Domitium cum suis cohortibus xn et cum 
cobortibus xim, quas Vibullius adduxit, ad me iter 
babere ; babuisse in animo proficisci Corfinio a. d. v 
Idus Febr. ; C. Hirrum cum v cobortibus subsequi. 
Censeo, ad nos Luceriam venias. Nam te bic tutis- 
sime puto fore. 

1 scio deleted by Wcscnbctg. 


promises of reward, if he would go back to Rome. 
Reckoning the days, however, I fancy Lepidus will 
cross the sea, before Balbus can meet him. 

I send copies of Pompey s two dispatches to me. 
Please note his careless style and my careful answer. 

I am waiting to see the result of this dash of Caesar s 
on Brundisium through Apulia. I should like a re 
petition of the Parthian incident. 1 As soon as I get 
any news, I will write. Please send me the talk of 
the loyalists who are said to be numerous at Rome. 
I know you do not go out, but talk must reach your 
ears. I remember a book being given to you by 
Demetrius of Magnesia. It was dedicated to you, 
and bore the title On Concord. I should be glad if 
you would let me have it. You see the part I am 



Q. Fabius came to me on the 10th of February. Luceria, 
He announces that L. Domitius with his twelve Feb. 10, 
cohorts and fourteen cohorts brought by Vibul- B - c - 4& 
lius is on the march towards me ; that he intended to 
leave Corfinium on the 9th of February and that C. 
Hirrus with five cohorts follows behind. I think 
you should come to me at Luceria, for here I imagine 
will be your safest refuge. 

1 I.e. a sudden retreat. Cf. VI, 6. 





Scr. Formiis A. d. xv Kalend. Martias Formiis accepi tuas lit- 

A.11 K. teras; ex quibus ea, quae in agro Piceno gesta erant, 

a. . a. C ognovi commodiora esse multo, quam ut erat nobis 

nuntiatum, Vibullique virtu tern industriamque liben- 

ter agnovi. 

Nos adhuc in ea ora, ubi praepositi sumus, ita 
fuimus, ut navem paratam haberemus. Ea enim au- 
diebamus et ea verebamur, ut, quodcumque tu con- 
silium cepisses, id nobis persequendum putaremus. 
Nunc, quoniam auctoritate et consilio tuo in spe fir- 
miore sumus, si teneri posse putas Tarraciriam et oram 
maritimam, in ea manebo, etsi praesidia in oppidis 
nulla sunt. Nemo enim nostri ordinis in his locis est 
praeter M. Eppium, quern ego Menturnis esse volui, 
\ r igilantem hominem et industrium. Nam L. Torqua- 
tum, virum fortem et cum auctoritate, Formiis non 
habemus, ad te profectum arbitramur. 

Ego omnino, ut proxime tibi placuerat, Capuam 
veni eo ipso die, quo tu Teano Sidicino es profectus. 
Volueras enim me cum M. Considio pro praetore ilia 
negotia tueri. Cum eo venissem, vidi T. Ampium 
dilectum habere diligentissime, ab eo accipere Libo- 
nem, summa item diligentia et in ilia colonia auctori 
tate. Fui Capuae, quoad coiisules. Iterum, ut erat 
edictum a consulibus, veni Capuam ad Nonas Februar. 
Cum fuissem triduum. recepi me Formias. 




On the 1 5th of February I got your letter at For- Fonniae, 
miae. I gather that matters in Picenum were much Feb. 16, 
more satisfactory than I had heard, and am glad to B.C. Jfi 
learn of the bravery and energy of Vibullius. 

So far I have stayed on this coast where I was 
given the command, but I have kept a boat ready. 
For the news and my fears were such that I felt I 
must follow any plan you should make. But now 
your influence and your policy have encouraged me, I 
will stay in the coast districts and Tarracina, if you 
think that the district can be held. The towns, 
however, are without garrison, for there is no member 
of the Senate in the district except M. Eppius, a 
man of foresight and energy, whom I desired to stay 
at Menturnae. The gallant and influential L. Torqua- 
tus is not at Formiae, but I fancy has set out to join 

In entire accord with your latest instructions, I 
went to Capua on the very day you left Teanum Sidi- 
cinum. For you had desired me to take part with M. 
Considius the propraetor in looking after things there. 
On arrival I found that T. Ampius was holding a levy 
with the greatest energy, and that the troops raised 
were being taken over by Libo, a local man of energy 
and influence. I stayed at Capua as long as the con 
suls. Once again in accordance with instructions 
from the consuls I went to Capua for the 5th of Feb 
ruary. After a stay of three days I returned to 



Nunc quod tuum consilium aut quae ratio belli 
sit, ignoro. Si tenendam hanc oram putas, quae et 
oportunitatem et dignitatem habet et egregios cives, 
et, ut arbitror, teneri potest, opus est esse, qui prae- 
sit; sin omnia in unum locum eontrahenda sunt, non 
dubito, quin ad te statim veniam, quo mihi nihil opta- 
tius est, idque tecum, quo die ab urbe discessimus, 
locutus sum. Ego, si cui adhuc videor segnior fuisse, 
dum ne tibi videar, non laboro, et tamen, si, ut video, 
bellum gerendum est, confido me omnibus facile satis 
facturum. M. Tullium, meum necessarium, ad te 
misi, cui tu, si tibi videretur, ad me litteras dares. 



S. V. B. Tuas litteras libenter legi. Recognovi 
enim tuam pristinam virtutem etiam in salute com- 
muni. Consules ad eum exercitum, quern in Apulia 
habui, venerunt. Magno opere te hortor pro tuo sin- 
gulari perpetuoque studio in rem publicam, ut te ad 
nos conferas, ut communi consilio rei publicae adfli- 
ctae opem atque auxilium feramus. Censeo, via Appia 
iter facias et celeriter Brundisium venias. 



Scr. Formiis Cum ad te litteras misissem, quae tibi Canusi red- 
III K. Mart, ditae sunt, suspicionem nullam habebam te rei publi- 
a. 705 138 


At the present moment I do not know what are 
your ideas and plan of campaign. If you think that 
this coast should be held and Capua has a good posi 
tion and is an important town, not to speak of its loyal 
inhabitants, and to my mind tenable a commander 
is wanted. If your plan is concentration, I will come 
to you at once without hesitation. Nothing would 
delight me more, and I told you so on the day of our 
departure from Rome. I do not trouble about criti 
cisms of inactivity from anyone but yourself. If, as I 
foresee, war is inevitable, I feel I can easily satisfy 
every criticism. I have sent my relative M. Tullius 
in case you may wish to send a reply. 



I hope you are well. I was glad to read your letter, Canusium, 
for once again I recognized your tried courage in the Febr. 20, 
interests of public safety. The consuls have joined B.C. 1$ 
my army in Apulia. I beg you earnestly in the 
name of your exceptional and continued zeal for the 
state to join me as well, so that we may plan together 
to benefit and assist the state in her sore straits. I 
hold that you should travel by the Appian road and 
come with speed to Brundisium. 



When I sent you the letter which was delivered Formiae, 
to you at Canusium, I had no idea that the state s Febr. 27, 

I 39 B.C. 49 


cae causa mare transiturum eramque in spe magna 
fore ut in Italia possemus aut concordiam constituere, 
qua mihi nihil utilius videbatur, aut rem publicam 
summa cum dignitate defendere. Interim nondum 
meis litteris ad te perlatis ex iis mandatis, quae D. 
Laelio ad consules dederas, certior tui consilii factus 
non exspectavi, dum mihi a te litterae redderentur, 
confestimque cum Quinto fratre et cum liberis no- 
stris iter ad te in Apuliam facere coepi. Cum Teanum 
Sidicinum venissem, C. Messius, familiaris tuus, mihi 
dixit aliique complures Caesarem iter habere Capuam 
et eo ipso die mansurum esse Aeserniae. Sane sum 
commotus. quod, si ita esset, non modo iter meum 
interclusum, sed me ipsum plane exceptum putabam. 
Itaque turn Cales processi, ut ibi potissimum con- 
sisterem, dum certum nobis ab Aesernia de eo, quod 
audieram, referretur. 

At mihi, cum Calibus essem, adfertur litterarum 
tuarum exemplum, quas tu ad Lentulum consulem 
misisses. Hae scriptae sic erant, litteras tibi a L. 
Domitio a. d. xm Kal. Martias allatas esse (earumque 
exemplum subscripseras) ; magnique interesse rei 
publicae scripseras omnes copias primo quoque tern- 
pore in unum locum convenire, et ut, praesidio quod 
satis esset, Capua e relinqueret. His ego litteris lectis 
in. eadem opinione fui qua reliqui omnes, te cum 
omnibus copiis ad Corfinium esse venturum ; quo 
mihi, cum Caesar ad oppidum castra haberet, tutum 
iter esse non abritrabar. 

Cum res in summa exspectatione esset, utrumque 

simul audivimus, et quae Corh ni acta essent, et te iter 

Brundisium facere coepisse ; cumque nee mihi nee 

fratri meo dubium esset. quin Brundisium contendere- 



welfare would drive you to flight across the seas, and 
I had great hopes that it might be in Italy we should 
either conclude peace (the wisest course to my mind) 
or fight for the state with honour untarnished. My 
letter cannot have reached you yet, but from the 
message which you entrusted to D. Laelius for the 
consuls I learnt of your plans. I did not wait for a 
reply to my letter, but forthwith set out along with 
my brother Quintus and the children to join you in 
Apulia. On arrival at Teanum Sidicinum I was told 
by your friend C. Messius, and many other people, 
that Caesar was on his way to Capua, and would 
bivouac that very day at Aesernia. I was really 
startled, as it occurred to me, that, if that was so, my 
road was closed, and I myself was quite captured. So I 
went to Cales, choosing that particular place to stay 
at, till I should get certain news from Aesernia as to 
the rumour I had heard. 

At Cales I received a copy of your letter to 
Lentulus the consul. Its purport was that you had 
got a letter (of which you subjoined a copy) from L. 
Domitius on the 1 7th of February, and you considered 
it of the greatest public importance to concen 
trate your forces on the earliest possible occasion, 
and that a sufficient garrison should be left at Capua. 
On the perusal of this dispatch I agreed with others 
in supposing that you would come in full force to 
Corniiium. As Caesar was encamped against the 
town, I considered the road thither was not safe 
for me. 

Anxiously awaiting news, I heard two reports at 
the same time : news of the affair of Corfinium, and 
that you were coming to Brundisium. Neither I nor 
my brother had any hesitation about starting for 



mus, a multis, qui e Samnio Apuliaque veniebant, 
admoniti sumus, ut caveremus, lie exciperemur a 
Caesare, quod is in eadem loca, quae nos petebamus, 
profectus celerius etiam, quam nos possemus, eo, quo 
intenderet, venturus esset. Quod cum ita esset, nee 
mihi nee fratri meo nee cuiquam amicorum placuit 
committere, ut temeritas nostra non solum nobis, sed 
etiam rei publicae iioceret, cum praesertim non 
dubitaremus, quin, si etiam tutum nobis iter fuisset, 
te tamen iam consequi non possemus. 

Interim accepimus tuas litteras Canusio a. d. x K. 
Martias datas, quibus nos hortaris, ut celerius Brun- 
disium veniamus. Quas cum accepissemus a.d. in K. 
Martias, non dubitabamus, quin tu iam Brundisium 
pervenisses, nobisque iter illud omnino interclusum 
videbamus neque minus nos esse captos, quam qui 
Corfini fuissent. Neque enim eos solos arbitrabamur 
capi, qui in armatorum manus incidissent, sed eos 
nihilo minus, qui regionibus exclusi intra praesidia 
atque intra arma aliena venissent. 

Quod cum ita sit, maxima vellem primum semper 
tecum fuissem ; quod quidem tibi ostenderam, cum a 
me Capuam reiciebam. Quod feci non vitandi oneris 
causa, sed quod videbam teneri illam urbem sine 
exercitu non posse, accidere autem mihi nolebam, 
quod doleo viris fortissimis accidisse. Quoniam 
autem, tecum ut essem, non contigit, utinam tui 
consilii certior factus essem ! Nam suspicione adsequi 
non potui, quod omnia prius arbitratus sum fore, quam 
ut haec rei publicae causa in Italia non posset duce 
te consistere. Neque vero nunc consilium tuum re- 
prehendo, sed fortuiiam rei publicae lugeo nee, si 


Brundisium, when many travellers from Samnium and 
Apulia warned us to beware of capture, because 
Caesar had set out for the same destination, and was 
likely to reach there quicker than ourselves. Under 
those circumstances, I, my brother and our friends 
were reluctant to allow any rashness of ours to dam 
age the state as well as ourselves. Moreover, we 
were sure that, even if our path were clear, we could 
not overtake you. 

Meanwhile I got a letter from you dated at 
Canusium, of the 20th of February, in which you 
urged me to hasten to Brundisium. Receiving this 
on the 27th, I felt confident you must have arrived 
at Brundisium, and I saw that our road was quite cut 
off and we were as completely captured as the people 
at Corfinium, for I do not only consider captured those 
who fall into the hands of armed bands, but equally 
those who, being shut off from a district, find them 
selves hedged between a garrison and an enemy in 
the field. 

This being so, my first and chiefest wish is that I 
had stayed with you all the time. I showed you as 
much when I gave up command at Capua. I did so, 
not to shirk my duty, but because I saw that the 
city could not be held without troops, and I was re 
luctant to suffer the fate which I am sorry to hear has 
befallen some very brave men. Since, however, I 
have not had the fortune to be with you, would that 
I were acquainted with your plans, for I cannot 
imagine them, having hitherto thought that the last 
thing to happen would be that the national cause 
would not hold its own in Italy under your leader 
ship. I do not criticize your plan, but I bewail the 
misfortunes of the state. If I cannot guess your 



ego, quid tu sis secutus, non perspicio, idcirco minus 
existimo te nihil nisi summa ratione fecisse. 

Mea quae semper fuerit sententia primum de pace 
vel iniqua condicione retinenda, deinde de urbe (nam 
de Italia quidem nihil mihi umquam ostenderas), me- 
minisse te arbitror. Sed mihi non sumo, ut meum 
consilium valere debuerit; secutus sum tuum neque 
id rei publicae causa, de qua desperavi, quae et nunc 
adflicta est nee excitari sine civili perniciosissimo 
bello potest, sed te quaerebam, tecum esse cupiebam 
neque eius rei facultatem, si quae erit, praetermittam. 

Ego me in hac omni causa facile intellegebam pu- 
gnandi cupidis hominibus non satis facere. Primum 
eiiini prae me tuli me nihil malle quam pacem, non 
quin eadem timerem quae illi, sed ea bello civili 
leviora ducebam. Deinde suscepto bello, cum pacis 
condiciones ad te adferri a teque ad eas honorifice et 
large responded viderem, duxi meani rationem ; quam 
tibi facile me probaturum pro tuo in me beiieficio 
arbitrabar. Memineram me esse unum, qui pro nieis 
maximis in rein publicam meritis supplicia niiserrima 
et crudelissima pertulissem, me esse unum, qui, si 
offeiidissem eius animum, cui turn, cum iam in armis 
essemus, consulatus tamen alter et triumphus amplis- 
simus deferebatur, subicerer eisdeni proeliis, ut mea 
persona semper ad improborum eivium impetus ali- 
quid videretur habere populare. Atque haec non 
ego prius sum suspicatus, quam mihi palam denuntiata 
sunt, neque ea tarn pertimui, si subeunda essent, 
quam declinanda putavi, si honeste vitare possem. 
Quam brevem illius temporis, dum in spe pax fuit, 


policy, I still suppose that you have done nothing 
without cogent reasons. 

I think you remember that my vote has always 
been for peace, even on poor terms, and secondly 
for holding the city. As to Italy you gave me no 
inkling. I do not claim that my policy should have 
prevailed. I followed yours, not indeed for the sake 
of the state, of which I despaired and which even now 
lies in ruin and cannot be restored without a most 
calamitous civil war, but I wanted you, I longed to 
be with you, nor will I omit any opportunity that may 
occur of attaining my wish. 

In the whole of this crisis I was well aware that 
my policy of peace did not please the advocates of 
war. In the first place I professed to prefer peace 
above all things, not because I had not the same fears 
as they had, but because I counted those fears of less 
moment than intestine war. Then indeed, after war 
had begun, when I saw terms of peace offered to you, 
and met by you in an honourable and generous way, 
I began to consider what my own interests were. 
That line of conduct I suppose your kindness will 
easily excuse. I remembered that I was the one man 
of all others who had suffered most cruel misery and 
punishment for the greatest services to the state ; 
that I was the one man who, if I had offended Caesar 
(Caesar to whom was offered even on the eve of 
battle a second consulship and a princely triumph), 
would be subjected to the same struggle as before ; 
for a personal attack on me seems to be always popu 
lar with the disloyal. This idea only came to me after 
open threats. It was not persecution I feared, if 
it were inevitable, but I thought I should seek any 
escape that honour could allow. There is an outline 
L VOL. n 145 


rationeni nostram vides, reliqui facultatem res adeniit. 
lis autem, quibus non satis facio, facile respondeo. 
Neque enim ego amicior C. Caesari umquani fui quam 
illi neque illi amiciores rei publicae quam ego. Hoc 
inter me et illos interest, quod, cum et illi cives 
optimi sint, et ego ab ista laude non absim, ego con- 
dicionibus, quod idem te intellexeram velle, illi armis 
disceptari maluerunt. Quae quoniam ratio vicit, 
perficiam profecto, ut neque res publica civis a me 
animuni neque tu amici desideres. 



Scr. Formiis Mihi molestior lippitudo erat etiam, quam ante 
prid. K. fuerat. Dictare tamen hanc epistiilam malui quam 
Mart. a. Gallo Fadio amantissimo utriusque nostrum nihil ad 

/y /} ** 

te litterarum dare. Nam pridie quidem, quoquo 
modo potueram, scripseram ipse eas litteras, quarum 
vaticinationem falsam esse cupio. Huius autem 
epistulae non solum ea causa est, ut ne quis a me dies 
intermittatur, quin dem ad te litteras, sed etiam haec 
iustior, ut a te impetrarem, ut sumeres aliquid tem- 
poris, quo quia tibi perexiguo opus est, explicari 
mihi tuum consilium plane volo, ut penitus intellegam. 
Omnia sunt Integra nobis ; nihil praetermissum est, 
quod non habeat sapientem excusationem, non modo 
probabilem. Nam certe neque turn peccavi, cum 


of my policy while there was hope of peace ; its 
fulfilment was cut short by circumstances. I have 
an easy reply to my critics. I have never been 
more friendly to Caesar than they, and they are not 
more friendly to the state than I. The difference 
between them and me is this : they are loyal citizens, 
and I too deserve the title, but I wanted settlement 
on terms which I understood you also desired, and 
they wanted settlement by arms. Since their policy 
has won, I will do my best that the state may not 
find me fail in the duties of a citizen, nor you in the 
duties of a friend. 



I am even more troubled by inflammation of the Formiae, 
eyes than I was before. Still I prefer to dictate this Febr. 28, 
letter, rather than let Gallus Fadius, who has a B.C. 49 
sincere regard for us both, have no letter to give you. 
Yesterday I wrote myself to the best of my ability a 
letter containing prognostications, which I hope may 
prove false. One excuse for the present missive is 
i my desire to let no day pass without communicating 
with you, but there is a still more reasonable excuse, 
I to beg you to devote a little time to my case, and, as it 
I will be a short business, I hope you will explain your 
Jview thoroughly and make it quite intelligible to 

I have not committed myself at all. There has 
Ibeen no omission on my part for which I cannot give 
jnot merely a plausible but a reasonable excuse. 
Lssuredly I was not guilty of any fault, when, to avoid 
L2 147 


imparatam Capuam non solum ignaviae dedecus, sed 
etiam perfidiae suspicionem fugiens accipere nolui, 
neque cum post condiciones pacis per L. Caesarem 
et L. Fabatum allatas cavi, ne animum eius offeri- 
dereni, cui Pompeius iani armatus arniato consulatum 
triumphumque deferret. Nee vero haec extrema 
quisquam potest iure reprehendere, quod mare non 
transierim. Id enim, etsi erat deliberationis, tamen 
obire non potui. Neque enim suspicari debui, prae- 
sertim cum ex ipsius Pompei litteris, idem quod video 
te existimasse, non dubitarim, quin is Domitio sub- 
venturus esset, et plane, quid rectum et quid facien 
dum mihi esset, diutius cogitare nialui. 

Primum igitur, haec qualia tibi esse videantur, etsi 
significata sunt a te, tamen accuratius mihi perscribas 
velim, deinde aliquid etiam in posterum prospicias 
fingasque., quern me esse deceat, et ubi me plurimum 
prodesse rei publicae sentias, ecquae pacifica persona 
desideretur an in bellatore sint omnia. 

Atque ego, qui omnia officio metior, recorder 
tamen tua consilia ; quibus si paruissem, tristitiam 
illorum temporum non subissem. Memiiii, quid mihi 
turn suaseris per Theophanem, per Culleonem, idque 
saepe ingemiscens sum recordatus. Quare mine 
saltern ad illos calculos revertamur, quos turn abie- 
cimus, ut non solum gloriosis consiliis utamur,, sed 
etiam paulo salubrioribus. Sed nihil praescribo;! 
accurate velim perscribas tuam ad me sententiam. J 
Volo etiam exquiras, cjuam diligentissime poteris 


blame for cowardice and the charge of treachery to 
boot, I refused to take over Capua in its unprepared 
state. Nor am I to blame, when, after L. Caesar and 
L. Fabatus had brought terms of peace, I took pre 
cautions not to incur the enmity of a man to whom 
Pompey was offering the consulship and a triumph, 
when both were under arms. Finally I cannot rightly 
be called to account for not crossing the sea : for, 
though that was a course which was worthy of con 
sideration, still I could not keep Pompey s appoint 
ment. Nor could I guess his policy, especially as 
from his own letter, as I see you inferred, I had no 
idea that he would fail to relieve Domitius. And 
certainly I wanted time to consider what was right 
and what I ought to do. 

Firstly, then, I wish you would write me a careful 
account of your views, though you have already out 
lined them, and secondly that you would glance at 
the future, and give me an idea of what course you 
think would become me, where you suppose I can 
serve the state best, and whether the part of a man 
of peace is required at all, or whether everything 
depends on a fighter. 

And I, who test everything by the standard of 
duty, yet remember your advice. Had I followed it, 
I should have been saved from the wretchedness of 
that crisis in my life. I call to mind the counsel you 
sent me then by Theophanes and Culleo, and the 
memory of it often makes me groan. So let me now at 
last go over the old reckoning which then I cast aside, 
to the end that I may follow a plan, which has in view 
not only glory, but also some measure of safety. 
However, I make no conditions : please give me your 
candid opinion. And please use your best energies to 



(habebis autem, per quos possis), quid Lentulus 
noster, quid Domitius agat, quid acturus sit, quern 
ad modum mine se gerant, mini quern accusent, mini 
cui suseenseant quid dico num cui? mini Pompeio. 
Omnino culpam omnem Pompeius in Domitium con- 
fert, quod ipsius litteris cognosci potest, quarum 
exemplum ad te misi. Haec igitur videbis, et, quod 
ad te ante scripsi, Demetri Magnetis librum, quem 
ad te misit de concordia, velim mihi mittas. 



Scr. Ego, quod existimabam disperses nos neque rei 

Lucenae publieae utiles neque nobis praesidio esse posse, id- 

XIH <"lt J T T-i T4.X. 

\ I f K circo ad L,. JJomitium Jitteras misi, primum uti ipse 

Mart. a. cum omni copia ad nos veniret ; si de se dubitaret, ut 
tO ;> cohortes xvmi, quae ex Piceno ad me iter habebaiit, 

ad nos mitteret. Quod veritus sum, factum est, ut 
Domitius implicaretur et neque ipse satis firmus esset 
ad castra facienda, quod meas xvim et suas xn co 
hortes tribus in oppidis distributas haberet (nam 
partini Albae, partim Sulmone collocavit), neque se, 
si vellet, expedire posset. 

Nunc scitote me esse in sumnia sollicitudine. Nam 
et tot et tales viros periculo obsidionis liberare cupio 
neque subsidio ire possum, quod his duabus legioni- 


inquire (for you have suitable agents) what our friend 
Lentulus and what Domitius is doing, what they 
intend to do, what is their present attitude, whether 
they blame or are annoyed with anyone why do I 
say anyone? I mean Pompey. Pompey does not 
hesitate to put the whole blame on Domitius, as can be 
inferred from his letter, of which I send you a copy. 
So please consider these points, and, as I wrote you 
before, kindly send me that volume On Concord, 
by Demetrius of Magnesia, which he sent to you. 



As I considered that with divided forces we could Luceria, 
be of no service to the state and no protection to Feb. 17 or 
one another, I sent a dispatch to L. Domitius to 18, B.C. 49 
come to me at once with all his forces, and that, if 
he was dubious about himself, he should send me the 
nineteen cohorts, which as a matter of fact were 
on the march to me from Picenum. My fears have 
been realized. Domitius has been trapped and is 
not strong enough himself to pitch a camp, because 
he has my nineteen and his own twelve cohorts 
scattered in three towns (for some he has stationed 
at Alba and some at Sulmo), and he is unable to free 
himself even if he wished. 

I must inform you that this has caused me the 
greatest anxiety. I am anxious to free men so 
numerous and of such importance from the danger 
of a siege, and I cannot go to their assistance, 
because I do not think that I can trust these two 



bus non puto esse committendum, ut illuc ducantur, 
ex quibus tamen non amplius xmi cohortes con- 
trahere potui, quod duas Brundisium misi neque 
Canusium sine praesidio, dum abessem, putavi esse 

D. Laelio mandaram, quod maiores copias sperabam 
nos habituros, ut, si vobis videretur, alter uter ve- 
struni ad me veniret, alter in Sicilian! cum ca copia, 
quam Capuae et circum Capuam comparastis, et cum 
iis militibus, quos Faustus legit, proficisceretur, 
Domitius cum xn suis cohortibus eodem adiungeretur, 
reliquae copiae onmes Brundisium cogerentur et inde 
navibus Dyrrachium transportarentur. Xunc, cum 
hoc tempore nihilo magis ego quam vos subsidio 
Domitio ire possim, . . . se per monies explicare, 
non est nobis committendum, ut ad has xmi cohortes, 
quas dubio animo habeo, hostis accedere aut in 
itinere me consequi possit. 

Quam ob rem placitum est mihi (talia video 1 
censeri M. Marcello et ceteris nostri ordinis, qui 
hie sunt), ut Brundisium ducerem hanc copiam, quam 
mecum habeo. Vos hortor, ut, quodcumque milituii! 
contrahere poteritis, contrahatis et eodem Brundisium 
veniatis quam primum. Anna quae ad me missuri 
eratis, iis censeo armetis milites, quos vobiscum habe- 
tis. Quae arma superabunt, ea si Brundisium iumen- 
tis deportaritis, vehementer rei publicae profueritis. 
De hac re velim nostros certiores faciatis. Ego ad 
P. Lupum et C. Coponium praetores misi, ut se vobis 
coniungerent, et militum quod haberent ad vos de- 

1 talia video Tyrrell ; altia video MSS. 


legions to march to that place : moreover I have 
not been able to bring together more than fourteen 
cohorts of them, because two were sent to Brun- 
disium, and Canusium to my mind could not be left 
without a garrison in my absence. 

Hoping to collect larger forces I instructed D. Lae- 
lius, that with your approval one of you should come 
to me, and the other set out for Sicily with the force 
you have collected at Capua and in the neighbourhood, 
and with Faustus recruits ; that Domitius with his 
twelve cohorts should join up, and all the other 
troops should concentrate at Brundisium, and from 
thence be taken by sea to Dyrrachium. Now, since 
at the present time I am no more able than your 
selves to go to Domitius assistance [and it remains 
for him] 1 to extricate himself by the mountain route, 
I must take steps that the enemy may not meet my 
fourteen doubtful cohorts or overtake me on the 

Accordingly and I see M. Marcellus and other 
members of the House who are here approve I am 
resolved to lead my present forces to Brundisium. 
You I urge to concentrate all the forces you can 
and to come with them to Brundisium at the first 
opportunity. I consider that the arms which you 
meant to send to me should be used to arm j r our 
troops. If you will have the remaining arms carted 
to Brundisium, you will have done the state 
great service. Please give these instructions to my 
supporters. I am sending word to the praetors, 
P. Lupus and C. Coponius, to join you with whatever 
soldiery they have. 

1 Some words appear to be missing- here. 





Valde miror te ad me nihil scribere et potius ab 
aliis quam a te de re publica me certiorem fieri. Nos 
disiecta manu pares adversario esse non possumus ; 
contractis nostris copiis spero nos et rei publicae et 
communi saluti prodesse posse. Quam ob rem, cum 
constituisses, ut Vibullius mihi scripserat, a. d. v Id. 
Febr. Corfinio proficisci cum exercitu et a d me 
venire, miror, quid causae fuerit, quare consilium 
rnutaris. Nam ilia causa, quam mihi Vibullius scribit, 
levis est, te propterea moratum esse, quod audieris 
Caesarem Firmo progressum in Castrum Truentinum 
venisse. Quanto enim magis appropinquare adver- 
sarius coepit, eo tibi celerius agendum erat, ut te 
mecum coniungeres, priusquam Caesar aut tuum iter 
impedire aut me abs te excludere posset. 

Quam ob rem etiam atque etiam te rogo et hortor, 
id quod non destiti superioribus litteris a te petere, 
ut primo quoque die Luceriam ad me venires, ante- 
quam copiae, quas instituit Caesar contrahere, in 
unum locum coactae vos a nobis distrahant. Sed, si 
erunt, qui te impediant, ut villas suas servant. 
aequum est me a te impetrare, ut cohortes, quae 
ex Piceno et Camerino venerunt, quae fortunas suas 
reliquerunt, ad me missum facias. 





I am greatly astonished that you send me no Luceria, 
letters, and that I am kept informed of the political Feb. 11 or 
situation by others rather than yourself. With 12, B.C. 49 
divided forces we cannot hope to cope with the 
enemy : united, I trust we may do something for the 
safety of our country. Wherefore, as you had 
arranged, according to Vibullius letter, to start 
with your army from Corfinium on the 9th of 
February and to come to me, I wonder what reason 
there has been for your change of plan. The reason 
mentioned by Vibullius is trivial, namely that you 
were delayed on hearing that Caesar had left 
Firmum and arrived at Castrum Truentinum. For 
the nearer our enemy begins to approach, the 
quicker j ou ought to have joined forces with me, 
before Caesar could obstruct your march or cut me 
off from you. 

Wherefore again and again I entreat and exhort 
you as I did in my previous letter to come to 
Luceria on the first possible day, before the forces 
which Caesar has begun to collect can concentrate 
and divide us. But, if people try to keep you 
back to protect their country seats, I must ask you 
to dispatch to me the cohorts, which have come 
from Picenum and Camerinum abandoning their own 





SVv. Litteras abs te M. Calenius ad me attulit a d. xim 

Lucertae j^ a ] Martias ; in quibus litteris scribis tibi in animo 

esse observare Caesarem, et, si secundum mare ad me 

fl- ire coepisset. eonfestim in Samnium ad me veiiturum, 

sin autem ille circum istaec loca commoraretur, te ei, 

si propius accessisset, resistere velle. 

Te animo magno et forti istam rem agere cxi- 
stimo, sed diligentius nobis est videndum, ne distracti 
pares esse adversario non possimus, cum ille magnas 
copias habeat et maiores brevi habiturus sit. Non 
enim pro tua prudentia debes illud solum animadver- 
tere, quot in pi-aesentia cohortes contra te habeat 
Caesar, sed quantas brevi tempore equitum et pedi- 
tum copias contracturus sit. Cui rei testimonio sunt 
litterae, quas Bussenius ad me misit ; in quibus scri- 
bit, id quod ab aliis quoque mihi scribitur, praesidia 
Curionem, quae in Umbria et Tuscis eraiit, contrahere 
et ad Caesarem iter facere. Quae si copiae in unum 
locum fuerint coactae, ut pars exercitus ad Albam 
mittatur, pars ad te accedat, ut non pugnet. sed locis 
suis repugnet, liaerebis, neque solus cum ista copia 
tantam multitudinem sustinere poteris, ut frumenta- 
tum eas. 

Quam ob rem te magno opere hortor, ut quam 
primum cum omnibus copiis hoc venias. Consules 
constituerunt idem facere. Ego M. Tuscilio ad te 




M. Calenius has brought me a letter from you Luceria, 
dated the l6th of February, in which you express Feb. 16, 
the intention of watching Caesar and hurrying to B.C. 1$ 
join me in Samnium, if lie shall begin to march 
against me along the coast : but, if he linger in your 
neighbourhood., you say you wish to oppose his nearer 

To my mind your policy is ambitious and brave, 
but we must take great care that, if divided, we 
may not be outmatched by the enemy, since Caesar 
has numerous troops and in a short time will have 
more. A man of your judgement ought to bear in 
mind not only the size of Caesar s present array 
against you but the number of infantry and cavalry 
that he will soon collect. Evidence of that contin 
gency is in the letter which Bussenius dispatched to 
me, and it agrees with the missives from others in 
stating that Curio is concentrating the garrisons 
which were in Umbria and Etruria and marching 
to join Caesar. With these forces combined, though 
one division may be sent to Alba, and another advance 
on you, and though Caesar may refrain from the 
offensive and be content to defend his position, still 
you will be in a fix, nor will you be able with your 
following to make sufficient head against such num 
bers to allow of your sending out foraging parties. 

Therefore I beg you earnestly to come here on the 
first opportunity with all your forces. The consuls 
have decided to do the same. I have instructed 



mandata dedi providendum esse, ne duae legiones sine 
Picentinis cohortibus in conspectum Caesaris commit- 
terentur. Quani ob rem nolito commoveri, si audieris 
me regredi, si forte Caesar ad me veniet ; cavendum 
enini puto esse, ne implicatus haeream. Nam neque 
castra propter anni tempus et militum animos facere 
possum, neque ex omnibus oppidis contrahere copias 
expedit, ne receptum amittam. Itaque 11011 amplius 
xini cohortes Luceriam coegi. Consules praesidia 
omnia deducturi sunt aut in Sicilian! ituri. Nam aut 
exercitum firmum liabere oportet, quo confidamus per- 
rumpere nos posse, aut regiones eius modi obtinere, 
e quibus repugnemus ; id quod neutrum nobis hoc 
tempore contigit, quod et magnam partem Italiae 
Caesar occupavit, et nos non habemus exercitum tarn 
amplum neque tarn magnum quam ille. Itaque nobis 
providendum est, ut summam rei publicae rationem 
habeamus. Etiam atque etiam te hortor, ut cum 
omni copia quam primum ad me venias. Possumus 
etiam mine rem publicam erigere, si communi con- 
silio negotium admintstrabimus ; si distrahemur, 
infirmi erimus. Mihi hoc constitutum est. 

His litteris scriptis Sicca abs te mihi litteras et 
mandata attulit. Quod me hortare, ut istuc veniam, 
id me facere non arbitror posse, quod non magno 
opere his legionibus confido. 



Scr.Luceriae Litterae mihi a te redditae sunt a. d. xin Kal. 

^ "* " Martias, in quibus scribis Caesarem apud Corfinium 
Mart. 705 158 


M. Tuscilius to tell you that we must beware 
lest the two legions without the cohorts from 
Picenum come within sight of Caesar. Accordingly 
do not be disturbed if you hear of my retreat in 
the face of Caesar s possible advance, for I con 
sider that I must take every step to avoid being 
trapped; The season of the year and the spirit of 
my troops prevents me from making a camp ; nor 
is it wise to collect the garrisons from all the towns, 
lest room for retreat be lost. So I have not mustered 
more than fourteen cohorts at Luceria. The 
consuls will bring in all their garrisons to me or 
start for Sicily. We must either have an army strong 
enough to allow of our breaking through the enemy s 
lines, or get and hold localities we can defend. At 
the present moment we have neither of those advan 
tages : a large part of Italy is held by Caesar, and 
our army is neither so well equipped nor so large as 
his. We must therefore take care to look to the 
main issue. Again and again I beg you to come to 
me as soon as possible with all your forces. Even 
now the constitution may be restored, if we take 
common counsel in our action. Division means 
weakness : of that I am positive. 

After I had written my letter Sicca brought me 
,i dispatch and message from you. I fear I cannot 
comply with your request for assistance, because I 
do not put much trust in these legions. 



A dispatch from you reached me on the 1 7th of Luceria 
February saying that Caesar had pitched his camp in Feb. 1 7, 

159 B.C. 49 


castra posuisse. Quod putavi et praemonui, fit, ut 
nee in praesentia committere tecum proelium velit et 
omnibus copiis conductis te implicet, rie ad me iter 
tibi expeditum sit atque istas copias coniungere opti- 
morum civiuni possis cum his legionibus, de quarum 
voluntate dubitamus. Quo etiam magis tuis litteris 
sum commotus. Neque enim eorum militum, quos 
mecum habeo, voluntate satis confido, ut de omnibus 
fortunis rei publicae dimicem, neque etiam, qui ex 
dilectibus conscript! sunt consulibus, conveiierunt. 

Quare da operam, si ulla ratione etiam nunc effi- 
cere potes, ut te explices, hoc quam primum venias, 
antequam omnes copiae ad adversarium conveniant. 
Neque enim celeriter ex dilectibus hoc homines coii- 
venire possunt, et, si coiivenirent, quantum iis com- 
mittendum sit, qui inter se ne noti quidem sunt, con 
tra veteranas legiones, non te praeterit. 



Scr. Formiis Lippitudinis meae signum tibi sit librarii maims 

A . Mart. et eadem causa brevitatis ; etsi mine quidem, quod 

a. 705 scriberem, nihil erat. Omnis exspectatio nostra erat 

in nuiitiis Brundisinis. Si nanctus hie esset Gnaeum 

nostrum, spes dubia pacis, sin ille ante tramisisset, 

exitiosi belli metus. Sed videsne, in quern hominem 

incident res publica, quam acutum, quam vigilantem, 

quam paratum? Si mehercule neminem Occident nee 

cuiquam quicquam ademerit, ab iis, qui eum maximc 

timuerant, maxime diligetur. Multum mecurn mu- 

nicipales homines loquuntur, multum rusticani ; nihil 



the neighbourhood of Corfinium. What I expected 
and foretold has happened : he refuses to meet you 
in the field at present, and he is hemming you in with 
all his forces concentrated, so that the road may not be 
clear for you to join rpe and unite your loyal contin 
gent with my legions whose allegiance is questionable. 
Consequently I am all the more upset by your dis 
patch : for I cannot place sufficient confidence in the 
loyalty .of my men to risk a decisive engagement, 
norjiaye the levies recruited for the consul^cpme here. 
So do your best, if any tactics can extricate you 
even now, to join me as soon as possible before our 
enemy can concentrate all his forces. The levies can 
not reach here at an early date, and, even if they \vere 
concentrated, you must see how little trust can be put 
in troops, which do not even know one another by 
sight, when facing a veteran army. 



Let my secretary s handwriting be proof that I am Formiae, 
suffering from inflammation of the eyes, and that is Match 1, 
my reason for brevity, though now to be sure I have B.C. 1$ 
no news. I depend entirely on news from Brundisium. 
If Caesar has come up with our friend Pompey, there 
is some slight hope of peace: but, if Pompey has crossed 
the sea, we must look for war and massacre. Do you 
see the kind of man into whose hands the state has 
fallen ? What foresight, what energy, what readiness ! 
Upon my word, if he refrain from murder and rapine, 
he will be the darling of those who dreaded him most. 
The people of the country towns and the farmers 
talk to me a great deal. They care for nothing at all 
M VOL. ii lb 1 


prorsus aliud curant nisi agros, nisi villulas, nisi num- 
mulos suos. Et vide, quam conversa res sit; ilium, 
quo antea confidebant, metuunt, hunc amaiit, quern 
timebant. Id quantis nostris peccatis vitiisque eve- 
nerit, non possum sine molestia cogitare. Qnae 
autem impendere putarem, scripseram ad te et iam 
tuas litteras exspectabam. 



Scr. Formiis Non dubito, quin tibi odiosae sint epistulae coti- 
VI Non. dianae, cum praesertim neque nova de re aliqua cer- 
Mati. a. 70-j tiorem te f aciam neque novam denique iam reperiam 
scribendi ullam sententiam. Sed, si dedita opera, 
cum causa nulla esset, tabellarios ad te cum inanibus 
epistulis mitterem, facerem inepte ; euntibus vero, 
domesticis praesertim, ut nihil ad te dem litterarum, 
facere non possum et simul, crede mihi, requiesco 
paulum in his miseriis, cum quasi tecum loquor, cum 
vero tuas epistulas lego, multo etiam magis. Omnino 
intellego nullum fuisse tempus post has fugas et for- 
midiiies nostras, quod magis debuerit mutum esse a 
litteris, propterea quod neque Ilomae quicquam audi- 
tur novi nee in his locis, quae a Brundisio absunt 
propius quam tu bidui aut tridui. 1 Brundisi autem 
omne certamen vertitur huius primi temporis. Qua 
quidem exspectatione torqueor. Sed omnia ante 
Nonas sciemus. Eodem enim die video Caesarem a 
Corfinio post meridiem profectum esse, id est Fera- 
libus, quo Canusio mane Pompeium. Eo modo autem 
ambulat Caesar et iis congiariis militum celeritatem 
incitat, ut timeam, ne citius ad Brundisium, quam 
1 bidui aut tridui Reid : biduum aut triduum MSS. 


but their lands, their little homesteads and their 
tiny hoards. And see how public opinion has changed. 
They fear the man they once trusted, and adore the 
man they once dreaded. It pains me to think of the 
mistakes and wrongs of ours that are responsible for 
this reaction. I wrote you what I thought would be 
our fate, and I now await a letter from you. 



I have no doubt my daily letter must bore you, Formiae, 
especially as I have no fresh news, nor can I find any March 2 
new excuse for a letter. If I should employ special B.C. Jfi 
messengers to convey my chatter to you without rea 
son, I should be a fool : but I cannot refrain from 
entrusting letters to folk who are bound for Rome, 
especially when they are members of my household. 
Believe me, too, when I seem to talk with you, I 
have some little relief from sorrow, and, when I read 
I a letter from you, far greater relief. I am quite 
j aware that there has been no time, since fear drove 
me to flight, when silence and no letters would have 
Ibeen more appropriate, for the good reason that there 
jis no fresh news at Rome, nor here two or three 
lays journey nearer Brundisium. The issue of this 
[first campaign will turn entirely on the action at 
ItBrundisium : and I am on thorns to hear the result. 
However, all will be known by the 7th. On the 
noon of the day (that is the 21st of February), on 
jhe morning of which Pompey left Canusium, I see 
mat Caesar set out from Corfinium. But Caesar marches 
In such a way, and so spurs his men with largess, 
jhat I fear he may reach Brundisium sooner than we 
M2 163 


opus sit, accesserit. Dices : Quid igitur proficis, qui 
aiiticipes eius rei molestiam, quam triduo sciturus 
sis?" Nihil equidem; sed, ut supra dixi, tectim per- 
libenter loquor, et simul scito labare meum consilium 
illud, quod satis iam fixum videbatur. Non milii satis 
idonei sunt auctores ii, qui a te probantur. Quod 
enim uniquam eorum in re publica forte factuni ex- 
stitit? ant quis ab iis ullam rem laude dignam desi- 
derat? Nee mehercule laudandos existimo, qui trans 
mare belli parandi causa profecti sunt. Quamquam 
haec ferenda non erant. Video enim, quantum id 
bellum et quam pestiferum futurum sit. Sed me 
movet unus vir; cuius fugientis comes, rem publicam 
recuperantis socius videor esse debere. Totiensne 
igitur sententiam mutas?" Ego tecum tamquam 
mecum loquor. Quis autem est, tanta quidem de re 
quin varie secum ipse disputet? simul et elicere cupio 
sententiam tuam, si manet, ut firmior sim, si mutata 
est, ut tibi adsentiar. Omnino ad id, de quo dubito, 
pertinet me scire, quid Domitius acturus sit, quid 
noster Lentulus. 

De Domitio varia audimus, niodo esse in Tiburti 
haut lepide, modo cum Lepidis 1 accessisse ad urbem, 
quod item falsum video esse. Ait enim Lepidus eum 
nescio quo penetrasse itineribus occultis occultan- 
di sui causa an maris apiscendi, ne is quidem scit. 
Ignorat etiam de filio. Addit illud sane molestum, 
pecuniam Domitio satis grandem, quam is Corfini 
habuerit, non esse redditam. De Lentulo autem 
nihil audimus. Haec velim exquiras ad meque per- 

1 ant lepidi quo cum lepidus M : ihc reading of the text is 
that of Tyrrell, ii ho suspects a pun on the name Lepidus. 



want. You may wonder why I forestall disagreeable 
tidings which will be known in three days time. I 
have no reason, except, as I said before, that I love to 
talk to you ; and at the same time I want you to know 
that what I had counted my fixed resolve is shaken. 
The precedents you quote with approval don t quite 
fit my case. They are those of men who have never 
distinguished themselves by great political action, and 
are not looked up to for any act of merit. Nor, let 
me tell you, have I any praise for those who have 
crossed the sea to make preparations for war un 
bearable as things here were. For I foresee how 
great and calamitous that war will be. I am influ 
enced only by one man, whom I think I ought to ac 
company in flight, and help in the restoration of the 
constitution. I may seem variable ; but I talk with you 
as I talk with myself, and there is no one who, in 
such a crisis, does not view matters in many lights. 
Moreover, I want to get your opinion, to encourage 
me, if you have not changed it, or otherwise to win my 
assent. It is particularly necessary for me to know 
in my dilemma what course Domitius and my friend 
Lentulus will take. 

As for Domitius I hear many reports : at one time 
that he is at Tibur out of sorts, at another that he 
has consorted with the Lepidi in their march to Rome. 
That I see is untrue. For Lepidus says that he is 
following a hidden path, but whether to hide or reach 
the sea even he does not know. Lepidus has no news 
about his son either. He adds a provoking detail, 
that Domitius lias failed to get back a large sum of 
money which he had at Corfmium. Of Lentulus I 
have no news. Please make inquiries on these points 
and inform me. 




Scr. Formiis A. d. v Nonas Martias epistulas niihi tuas Aegypta 
/ Ao. reddidit, unani veterem, mi Kal. quam te scribis de- 

Mart.a.iOo di sse Pinario, quoin non vidimus; in qua exspectas, 
quidnam praemissus agat \ ibullius, qui oninino non 
ost visus a Caosare (id altera epistula video to scire 
ita esse), ot quoin ad modum redeuntem excipiam 
Caesarem, quoin omnino vitaro cogito, ot avdrjfiepov 
fugam intendis" commutationemque vitae tuae, quod 
tibi puto esse faciendum, et ignoras, Domitius cum 
fascibusne sit. Quod cum scies, fades, ut sciamus. 
Habes ad primam epistulam. 

Secutae sunt duae pr. Kal. ambao datae, quae me 
convellerunt do pristine statu iam tamen, ut ante ad 
te scrips!, labantem. Noc mo inovet, quod scribis 
lovi ipsi iniquum." Nam periculum in utriusque 
iracundia positum est, victoria autom ita incerta, ut 
deterior causa paratior mihi esso videatur. Nee me 
consules inovent, qui ipsi pluma aut folio facilius 
moventur. Officii me deliberatio cruciat cruciavitque 
adbuc. Cautior certe est mansio, honestior existima- 
tur traiectio. Malo intordum, multi me non caute 
quam pauci non honeste fecisse existimont. Do Le- 
pido et Tullo quod quaoris, illi vero non dubitant, 

1 / have ventured to read avBrifj-epov for the corrupt autlie- 
monis oj M, as being an easy alteration palceograplitcally. 
Many suggestions have been made (e.g. Automedontis by 

- intendis F. Schiitz : tendis MSS. 





On the 3rd of March Aegypta 1 brought me your Formiac, 
letters, one an old one dated February 26, which you March <> 
say you handed to Pinarius, whom I have not seen. B.C. 4 ^ 
In that letter you were waiting to hear the result of 
Vibullius" advance mission. He did not meet Caesar 
at all, as I see from your second letter you are aware. 
You also wanted to know how I shall receive Caesar 
on his return. I intend to shun him altogether. And 
you contemplate flight on the day he comes, and a 
change in your life, which I agree is politic. You 
wrote too that you do not know if Domitius keeps 
his fasces. When you do know, please tell me. That 
settles the first letter. 

There follow two more dated the 28th of February, 
which hurled me from my old position, when I was 
already tottering, as I had informed you. I am not 
upset by your phrase "angry with almighty God." 2 
There is danger not only in Pompey s anger, but in 
Caesar s, and the issue is doubtful, though tome the 
worst cause seems better equipped. Nor am I in 
fluenced by the consuls, who themselves are more 
easily moved than leaf or feather. It is consideration 
of my duty that tortures me and has been torturing 
me all along. To remain in Italy is certainly safer : 
to cross the sea the path of honour. Sometimes I 
prefer that many should accuse me of rashness, rather 
than the select few of dishonourable action. For 
your query about Lepidus and Tullus, they have 

A slave of Cicero s. -This probably means that Pompey 
had said he would be angry with every one who did not leave 
Rome, even with Jupiter. 



quin Caesari praesto futuri in senatumque venturi 

Recentissima tua est epistula Kal. data, in qua 
optas oongressum pacemque lion desperas. Sed ego, 
cum haec scribebam, nee illus congressuros nee, si 
congressi essent, Pompeium ad ullam condieioneni 
accessurum putabam. Quod videris 11011 dubitare, si 
consules transeant, quid nos faeere oporteat, certe 
transeunt vel, quo modo mine est, transierimt. Sed 
memento praeter Appitim neminem esse fere, qui 
non ius habeat transeundi. Nam aut cum imperio 
sunt ut Pompeius, ut Scipio, Sufenas, Fannius, Vo- 
conius, Sestius, ipsi consules, quibus more maiorum 
concessum est vel onines adire provincias, aut legati 
sunt eorum. Sed nihil decerno ; quid placeat tibi, 
et quid prope modum rectum sit. intellego. 

Plura scriberem, si ipse possem. Sed, ut mihi 
videor, potero biduo. Balbi Corneli litterarum exem- 
plum, quas eodem die accepi quo tuas, misi ad te, 
ut meam vicem doleres, cum me derideri videres. 



Scr. Romae Obsecro te, Cicero, suscipe curam et cogitationem 

ex. m. Febr dignissimam tuae virtutis, ut Caesarem et Pompeium 

a. Wo perfidia hominum distractos rursus in pristinam con- 

cordiam reducas. Crede mihi Caesarem non solum 

fore in tua potestate, sed etiam maximum beneficium 

te sibi dedisse iudicaturum, si lioc te reicis. Velim 



decided to meet Caesar and to take their seats in the 

In your last letter, dated the 1st of March, you 
long for a meeting between the two leaders, and 
have hopes of peace. But at the time of writing I 
fancy they will not meet, and that, if they do, Pompey 
will not agree to any terms. You seem to have no 
doubt as to what I ought to do, if the consuls go 
over-seas ; well they will go, or rather have now gone. 
But bear in mind that of their number it is practically 
only Appius who has not a right to cross. The rest 
are either invested with military power, like Pompey, 
Scipio, Sufenas, Fannius, Voconius, Sestius and the 
consuls themselves, who by old custom may visit all 
the provinces ; or else they are legates. However" 
I have no positive views. I know what you approve 
and pretty well what it is right to do. 

My letter would be longer, if I could write my 
self. I fancy I shall be able in two days time. 
I have had Cornelius Balbus letter, which I received 
on the same day as yours, copied, and I forward it 
to you, that you may sympathize with me on seeing 
me mocked. 



I beg you, Cicero, to consider a plan eminently Home, Feb., 
suited to your character, namely to recall Caesar B.C. 4& 
and Pompey to their former state of friendship, which 
has been broken by the treachery of others. Believe 
me that Caesar will not only meet your wishes, but 
will esteem any endeavours of yours in this matter as a 
very great service. I wish Pompey would take the same 



idem Pompeius faciat. Qui ut adduci tali tempore ad 
ullam condicionem possit, magis opto quam spero. 
Sed, cum constiterit et timere desierit, turn incipiain 
non desperare tuam auctoritatem plurimura apud eum 

Quod Lentulum consulem meum voluistihic rema- 
nere, Caesari gratum. mihi vero gratissimum medius 
fidius fecisti. Nam ilium tanti facio, ut non Caesa- 
rem magis diligam. Qui si passus esset nos secum, 
ut consueveramus, loqui et non se toturn etiam ab 
sermone nostro avertisset, minus miser, quam sum, 
.essem. Nam cave putes lioc tempore plus me quem- 
quam cruciari, quod eum, quern ante me diligo, video 
in consulatu quidvis potius esse quam consulem. 
Quodsi voluerit tibi obtemperare et iiobis de Caesare 
credere et consulatum reliquum Ilomae peragere, in- 
cipiam sperare etiam consilio senatus auctore te, illo 
relatore Pompeium et Caesarem coniungi posse. 
Quod si factum erit, me satis vixisse putabo. 

Factum Caesaris de Corfinio totum te probaturum 
scio : et. quo modo in eius modi re, commodius ca- 
dere non potuit, quam ut res sine sanguine confieret. 
Balbi mei tuique adventu delectatum te valde gau- 
deo. Is quaecumque tibi de Caesare dixit, quaeque 
Caesar scripsit, sc-io, re tibi probabit, quaecumque 
fortuna eius fuerit. verissime scripsisse. 



view; but it is rather a dream of mine than a hope, 
that he can be persuaded to come to terms at this 
time. When he becomes settled and recovers from 
fright, I shall have better hopes that your influence 
may avail with him. 

In desiring my friend the consul Lentulus to remain 
in Rome, you have gratified Caesar, and myself too, I 
may assure you, in the highest degree. I value Len 
tulus as much as Caesar. If he had allowed me to 
renew my old intercourse, and had not again and again 
avoided conversation with me, I should be less un- 
happy than I am. For do not think that this crisis 
causes anyone more torment than it causes me, when 
I see him, to whom I am more devoted than to myself, 
acting in office in a way quite unfitted for a consul. 
If he only takes your advice and believes our pro 
fessions about Caesar, and serves the remainder of 
his office in Rome, then I shall begin to hope that by 
the advice of the Senate, on your suggestion and at 
his formal motion, there may be effected a recon 
ciliation between Pompey and Caesar. In that event 
I shall think my life s mission accomplished. 

I know that you will approve entirely of Caesar s 
action about Corfhiium. Under the circumstances 
there could have been nothing better than a settle 
ment without bloodshed. I am delighted that you are 
pleased with the arrival of my and your Balbus. 
Whatever Balbus has told you about Caesar, and what 
ever Caesar has said to you in his letters, I am confident 
Caesar will convince you by his acts, be his fortune 
what it will, that his professions were quite sincere. 




Scr. Formiis Omnia mihi provisa sunt praeter occultum et tu- 

tum iter ad mare superum. Hoc enim mari uti lion 
Mart. a. 
"fO ; - possumus hoc tempore anni. Illuc autem, quo spe- 

ctat animus, et quo res vocat, qua veniam ? Cedendum 
enim est celeriter, ne forte qua re impediar atque 
alliger. Xec vero ille me ducit. qui videtur ; quern 
ego hominem uTroAtTtKorraToi omnium iam ante co- 
gnoram, mine vero etiam uo-rpcm/yrj-roTaTor. Non me 
igitur is ducit, sed sermo hominum, qui ad me a 
Philotimo scribitur. Is enim me ab optimatibus ait 
conscindi. Quibus optimatibus, di boni! qui mine quo 
modo occurrunt, quo modo autem se venditant Cae- 
sari ! Municipia vero deum ; nee simulant, ut cum de 
illo aegroto vota faciebant. Sed plane, quicquid mali 
hie Pisistratus 11011 fecerit, tarn gratum erit, quam si 
alium facere prohibuerit. Propitium hunc sperant, 
ilium iratum putant. Quas fieri censes u7ravT;/cms ex 
oppidis, quos honores! Metuunt," inquies. Credo, 
sed mehercule ilium magis. Huius insidiosa demen 
tia delectaiitur, illius iracundiam formidant. Indices 
de CCCLX, qui praecipue Gnaeo nostro del ecta bantu r, 
ex quibus cotidie aliquem video, nescio quas eius Lu- 
cerias horrent. Itaque quaero, qui sint isti optimates, 




I have made provision for everything except a Formiac, 
secret and safe passage to the Adriatic. The other March 4, 
route I cannot face at this time of the year. How B.C. J$ 
can I get to that place on which my mind is set, and 
whither fate calls? My departure must be in haste, 
for fear some obstacle and hindrance should arise. 
It is not. as one might think, Pompey who induces me 
to go. I have long known him to be the poorest of 
statesmen, and I now see lie is the poorest of generals. 
I am not induced by him, but by the common talk of 
which Philotimus informs me. He says that the 
loyalists are tearing me to tatters. Loyalists, good 
God! And see how they are running to meet Caesar, 
and selling themselves to him. The country towns 
are treating him as a god, and there is no pretence 
about it, as there was in the prayers for Pompey s 
recovery from illness. Any mischief this Pisistratus 
may leave undone will give as much satisfaction as if 
he had prevented another from doing it. People hope 
to placate Caesar; they think that Pompey is 
angered. What ovations from the towns and what 
honour is paid him ! In fright I dare say, but they are 
more afraid of Pompey. They are delighted with the 
cunning kindness of Caesar, and afraid of the anger 
of his rival. Those who are on the jury list of 360 
judges, the especial partisans of Pompey, some of 
whom I see daily, shudder at vague Lucerias 1 which 
they conjure up. So I ask what sort of loyalists are 

1 Cf. vin, ii, where Pompey at Luceria is said to have 
talked of a proscription. 

173 - 


qui me exturbent, cum ipsi donii maneant. Sed 
taincn, quicumque sunt, aiSeo/xai Tpwas. Ktsi, qua 
spe proficiscar, video, coniungoque me cum homine 
magis ad vastandam Italiam quani ad vincendum pa- 
rato dominumque exspecto. Et quidem, cum haec 
scribebam, mi Nonas, iam exspectabam aliquid a 
Brundisio. Quid autem aliquid" ? quam inde tur- 
piter fugisset, et victor hie qua se referret et quo. 
Quod ubi audissem, si ille Appia veniret, ego Arpinum 



these, to banish me, while they remain at home? 
Still whoever they are I fear the Trojans." Yet I Iliad vi, 443 
see clearly with what a prospect I set out, and I join 
myself with a man ready to devastate our country 
rather than to conquer its oppressor, and I look to 
serve a tyrant. And indeed on March 4, the date of this 
letter, I am expecting every moment some news from 
Brundisium. Why do I say "some news," when it is 
news of his disgraceful flight, and the route by which 
the victor is returning and the direction in which he 
is moving. On hearing that, I think of going to 
Arpintim, if Caesar comes by the Appian way. 







Scr. in Etsi, cum tu has litteras legeres, putabam fore 

Formiano ut scirem iam, quid Brundisi actum esset (nam Ca- 

pnd. i\o. ^ niisio vim Kal. profectus erat Gnaeus; haec autem 

" scribebam pridie Nonas xim die post, quam ille Ca- 

nusio moverat), tamen angebar singularum horarum 

exspectatione mirabarque nihil allatum esse ne rumo- 

ris quidem ; nam erat mi rum silentium. Sed haec 

fortasse Ktvoa-irovSa sunt, quae tamen iam sciantur 

necesse est ; illud molestum, me adhuc investigare 

non posse, ubi P. Lentulus noster sit, ubi Domitius. 

Quaero autem, quo facilius scire possim, quid acturi 

sint, iturinc ad Pompeium et, si sunt, qua quandove 

ituri sint. 

Urbem quidem iam refertam esse optimatium audio, 
Sosium et Lupum, quos Gnaeus noster ante putabat 
Brundisium ventures esse quam se, ius dicere. Hinc 
vero vulgo vadunt ; etiam M . Lepidus, quocum diem 
conterere solebam, eras cogitabat. Nos autem in 
Formiano morabamur, quo citius audiremus; deinde 
Arpinum volebamus; hide, iter qua maxime di mrdv- 
TTjToi . esset, ad mare superum remotis sive omnino 
missis lictoribus. Audio enim bonis viris, qui et nunc 






Although, when you read this letter, I think I Formiae, 
shall know what has been done at Brundisium, since March 6, 
Pompey left Canusium on the 21st of February and B.C. Jfi 
I am writing this on the 6th of March, fourteen days 
after his departure from Canusium, still I am in 
agonies of suspense as to what each hour may bring, 
and I am astonished that I do not even get a rumour. 
There is a strange hush. But perhaps this is much 
ado about nothing, when we must know all about it 
soon enough. But it does worry me that so far I 
have been unable to discover the whereabouts of my 
friend Lentulus and of Domitius. I want to know, 
that I may be able to find out what they are going 
to do, whether they are going to Pompey, and, if so, 
by what route and on what date. 

Town, I am told, is now crammed full with our 
party. Sosius and Lupus, who, Pompey thought, 
would reach Brundisium before himself, are, it ap 
pears, sitting as magistrates. From here there is a 
general move: even M . Lepidus, with whom I used 
to spend the day, thinks of starting to-morrow. I am 
lingering in my villa at Formiae to get news the 
sooner. Then I intend to go to Arpinum : from 
Arpinum I proceed to the Adriatic, choosing the 
least frequented route and leaving behind or even 
dismissing my lictors. For I am told that certain 

N VOL. II 177 


et sacpe antea magno praesidio rei publicae fucrunt, 
hanc cunctationem nostram non probari multaque in 
me et severe in conviviis tempestivis quideni disputari. 
Cedamus igitur et, ut boni cives simus, bellum Ita- 
liae terra marique inferamus et odia improborum rur- 
sus in nos, quae iam exstincta erant, incendamus et 
Luccei consilia ac Theophani persequamur. Nam 
Scipio vel in Syriam proficiscitur sorte vel cum genero 
honeste vel Caesarem fugit iratum. Marcelli quidem, 
nisi gladium Caesaris timuissent, manerent. Appius 
est eodem in timore et inimieitiarum recentium etiam. 
Praeter hunc et C. Cassium reliqui legati, Faustus 
pro quaestore ; ego unus, cui utrumvis licet. Frater 
accedit, quern socium huius fortunae esse non erat 
aequum. Cui magis etiam Caesar irascetur, sed 
impetrare non possum, ut maneat. Dabimus hoc 
Pompeio, quod debemus. Nam me quidem alius 
nemo movet, non sermo bonorum, qui nulli sunt, non 
causa, quae acta timide est, agetur improbe. Uni, 
uni hoc damus ne id quidem roganti nee suam causam, 
ut ait, agenti, sed publicam. Tu quid cogites de 
transeundo in F.pirum, scire sane velim. 

Acr. in 


Xon. Mart. Ktsi Nonis Martiis die tuo, ut opinor, exspectabam 

a. 70-5 epistulam a te longiorem, tamen ad earn ipsam bre- 



loyalists, who now and formerly have been a bulwark 
of the Republic, do not like my staying in Italy, and 
that they sit half the day over their festive boards 
making caustic remarks about me. 

So I must depart, and, to be a good citizen, wage 
war on Italy, kindle against myself again the hatred of 
the disloyal which had died down, and follow the plans 
of Lucceius and Theophanes. For Scipio can be said 
to set out for Syria, his allotted province, or to ac 
company his son-in-law, which is an honourable 
excuse, or to flee from Caesar s anger. The Marcelli 
would of course have stayed, had they not feared the 
sword of Caesar. Appius has the same reason for 
alarm, and additional reason through a fresh quarrel. 
Except Appius and C. Cassius all the others hold 
military commands, Faustus being proquaestor. I am 
the only one who could go or stay as I like. Besides 
there is my brother, whom it is not fair to involve in 
my trouble. With him Caesar will be even more 
angry, but I cannot induce him to stay behind. This 
sacrifice I will make to Pompey, as loyalty bids. For 
no one else influences me, neither talk of loyalists 
for there are none nor our cause, which has been 
conducted in panic and will be conducted in disgrace. 
To one man, one only, I make this sacrifice, though 
\e does not even ask it and though the battle lie is 
ighting is, as he says, not his own but the State s. 
. should much like to know what you think about 
Tossing into Epirus. 



Though the 7th of March, the day I think for Formiae, 
r our attack of fever, 1 should bring me a longer letter March 7, 

1 Or " your birthday." Cf. ix, 5. B.C. Ifi 

N2 179 


vein, quam mi Nonas iVo ri/r X^iv dedisti, rescri- 
bendum putavi. Gaudere ais te mansisse me et scri- 
bis in sententia te manere. Mihi autem superioribus 
litteris videbare noil dubitare, quin cederem ita, si et 
Gnaeus bene coniitatus conscendisset, et consults 
transissent. Utriim hoc tu parum commeministi, an 
ego non satis intellexi, an mutasti sententiara? Sed 
ant ex epistula, quam exspecto, perspiciam, quid 
sentias, aut alias abs te litteras elieiam. Brnndisio 
nihildum erat allatum. 

I la 


Scr. in O rein diftieilem planeque perditam! quam niliil 

Foitniano praetermittis in consilio dando ; quam niliil tamen, 

( \ _ quod tibi ipsi placeat, explicas! Non esse me una 
Mart. a. / Oo 

cum I ompeio gaudes ac propoms, quam sit turpe me 

adesse, cum quid de illo detrahatur; nefas esse 
approbare. Certe ; contra i^itur ? l)i," inquis, 
averruncent ! " Quid ergo fiet, si in altero scelus 
est, in altero supplicium? Impetrabis," inquis, a 
Caesare, ut tibi abesse liceat et esse otioso." Suppli- 
candum ig itur? Miserum. Quid, si non impetraro ? 
Et de triumpho erit," inquis, integrum." Quid, 
si hoe ipso premar? aecipiam? Quid foedius? Ne- 
gem? Repudiari se totum, magis etiam quam olim 

in xx viratu, putabit. Ac solet, cum se purgat, in me 


from you, still I suppose I ought to answer the shorter 
note, which you sent on the 4th 011 the eve of your at 
tack. You say you are glad that I have stayed in Italy, 
and you write that you abide by your former view. But 
an earlier letter led me to think you had no doubt I 
ought to go, if Pompey embarked with a good following 
and the consuls crossed too. Have you forgotten this, 
or have I failed to understand you, or have you changed 
your mind ? But I shall either learn your opinion from 
the letter I now await : or I shall extract another letter 
from you. From Brimdisium so far there is no news. 



What a difficult and calamitous business ! Nothing Fonniae, 
passed over in the advice you give, nothing revealed March S, 
as to your real opinion ! You are glad that I am not B.C. 49 
with Pompey, and yet you lay down how wrong it 
would be for me to be present when he is criticized : it 
were shameful to approve his conduct. Agreed. Should 
I then speak against him? Heaven forbid," you 
say. So, what can happen, if one way lies crime, 
and the other punishment? You advise me to get 
from Caesar leave of absence and permission to re 
tire. Must I then beg and pray? That would be 
humiliating : and suppose I fail ? You say the matter 
of my triumph will not be prejudiced. But what if 
1 am hampered by that very thing? Accept it? 
What dishonour ! Refuse it ? Caesar will think that I 
am repudiating him entirely, more even than when 
I declined a place among his twenty land commis 
sioners. And it is his way, when he excuses himself 

1 The vigintiviri for the distribution of Campanian land 
in 59 B.C. Cf. II, 19. 



conferre oninem illorum temporum culpam. Ita me 
sibi fuisse inimicum, ut lie honorem quidem a se 
accipere vellem. Quanto nunc hoe idem aeeipiet 
asperius ! Tanto scilicet, quanto et honor hie illo est 
amplior et ipse robustior. Nam. quod negas te du- 
bitare, quin magna in offensa sim apud Pompeium 
hoc tempore, non video causam, cur ita sit hoc quidem 
tempore. Qui enim amisso Covfinio denique certi- 
orem me sui consilii fecit, is queretur Brundisium me 
non venisse, cum inter me et Brundisium Caesar 
esset? Deinde etiam scit aTrapp^o-iao-rov esse in ea 
causa querelam suam. Me putat de municipiorum 
imbecillitate, de dilectibus, de pace, de urbe, de 
pecunia, de Piceno occupando plus vidisse quam se. 
Sin, cum potuero, non venero, turn erit inimicus, quod 
ego non eo vereor, ne mihi noceat (quid enim faciet? 

Tis o eari 8o?Aos TOV u<porr<.s &v\) } 
sed quia ingrati animi erimen horreo. Confido igitur 
adventum nostrum illi, quoquo tempore fuerit, ut 
scribis, acr/xcvwrrbv fore. Nam, quod ais, si hie 
ternperatius egerit, consideratius consilium te datu- 
rum, qui hie potest se gerere non perdite? A etaiit 
vita, mores, ante facta, ratio suscepti negotii, socii, 
vires bonorum aut etiam constantia. 

Vixduin epistulam tuam legeram. cum ad me eur- 
rens ad ilium Postumus Curtius venit nihil nisi 
classes loquens et exercitus. Eripiebat Hispanias, 

1 Vetant vita Pmscr : vita A1SS. : vetant Boot. 


to throw on me all the blame for that period, and to say 
I was so bitter an enemy that I would not even take 
an office from him. How much more will this annoy 
him ! Why, as much more as this honour is greater 
than that, and he himself is stronger. As for your 
remark that you have no doubt I am in bad odour 
with Pompey at this present time, I see no reason 
why it should be so, especially at this time. Pompey 
did not tell me his plans till after the loss of Corfinium, 
and he cannot complain of my not going to Brundi- 
sium, when Caesar was between me and Brundisium. 
Besides he knows that complaint on his part is 
stopped. He is of opinion that I saw clearer than 
he did about the weakness of the municipal towns, 
the levies, peace, the city, the public funds, occupying 
Pisenum. If however I do not go to him, when I 
can, he will certainly be angry. From that I shrink 
not for fear of harm he may do me (for what can 
he do? And who 

Would be a slave but he who fears to die?" 1 ) 
but because I shrink from being charged with ingra 
titude. So I trust my arrival will be, as you say, 
welcome to him, whenever I go. As for your remark 
"if Caesar s conduct be more temperate, you will 
weigh your advice more carefully," how can Caesar 
keep himself from a destructive policy ? It is forbidden 
by his character, his previous career, the nature of 
his present enterprise, his associates, the material 
strength or even the moral firmness of the loyalist 

I had scarcely read your letter, when up comes 
Curtius Postumus hurrying off to Caesar, talking of 
nothing but fleets and armies ; Caesar is wresting 
1 From an unknown play of Euripides. 



tenebat Asiam, Sicilian!, Africam, Sardinian!, confe- 
stini in Graeciam persequebatur. Eundum igitur est, 
nee tarn ut belli quam ut fugae socii simus. Nee 
enim ferre potero sennones istorum, quicumque sunt ; 
non sunt enim certe, ut appellantur, boni. Sed 
tanien id ipsum scire cupio, quid loquantur, idque ut 
exquiras meque certiorem facias, te vehementer rogo. 
Nos adhuc, quid Brundisi actum esset, plane nescie- 
bamus. Cum sciemus, turn ex re et ex ternpore 
consilium capiemus, sed utemur tuo. 



Scr. Formiis Domiti filius transiit Formias vin Idus currens ad 
VII Id. matrem Neapolim mihique nuntiari iussit patrem ad 
Mart. a. tuo ur k em esse, cum de eo curiose quaesisset servus noster 
Dionysius. Nos autem audieramus eum profectum 
sive ad Pompeium sive in Hispaniam. Id cuius modi 
sit, scire sane velim. Nam ad id, quod delibero, 
pertinet, si ille certe nusquain discessit, intellegere 
Gnaeum non esse faciles nobis ex Italia exitus, cum 
ea tota armis praesidiisque teneatur, hieme praeser- 
tim. Nam, si commodius anni tempus esset, vel 
infero mari liceret uti. Nunc nihil potest nisi su- 
pero tramitti, quo iter interclusum est. Quaeres 
igitur et de Domitio et de Lentulo. 

A Brundisio nulla adhuc fama venerat, et erat hie 


the Spaiiis from Pompey, occupying Asia, Sicily, 
Africa, Sardinia, and forthwith pursuing Pompey into 
Greece." So I must set out to take part not so much 
in a war as in a flight. For I can never put up with 
the talk of your friends, whoever they are, for 
certainly they are not what they are called, loyalists. 
Still that is just what I want to know, what they 
do say, and I beg you earnestly to inquire and 
inform me. So far I know nothing of what has 
happened at Brundisium. When I know, I shall 
form my plans according to circumstances and the 
moment ; but I shall use your advice. 



The son of Domitius went through Formiae on the Fonniac, 
8th of March hastening to his mother at Naples, March J, 
and, when my slave Dionysius inquired particularly B.C. 4$ 
from him about his father, he sent me a message 
that he was outside the city. But I had heard that 
he had gone either to Pompey or to Spain. What 
the fact is, I should much like to know, for it has a 
bearing on the point I am now considering: if it is 
certain that Domitius has found no means of depar 
ture, Pompey may understand that my own departure 
from Italy is difficult, seeing that it is now beset 
with troops and garrisons, and especially in the 
winter season. For, were it a more convenient time 
of year, one could even cross the southern sea. 
Now there is no choice but the Adriatic, to which 
passage is barred. So please inquire both about 
Domitius and about Lentulus. 

From Brundisium no news has come yet, and to-day 



dies vn Idus, quo die suspicabamur ant pridie Brun- 
disium venisse Caesarem. Nam Kal. Arpis man- 
serat. Sed, si Postumum audire velles, persecuturus 
erat Gnaeum ; traiisisse enim iain putabat coniectura 
tenipestatum ac dierum. Ego nautas eum non puta- 
bani habiturum, ille confidebat, et eo magis, quod 
audita naviculariis hominis liberalitas esset. Sed, 
tota res Brundisina quo modo habeat se, diutius 
nescire non possum. 



Scr. Fonniis Ego etsi tarn diu requiesco, quam diu aut ad te 

scribo aut tuas litteras lego, tamen et ipse egeo ar- 
Mart. a- (Oo 

gumento epistularurn et tibi idem accidere certo scio. 

(^uae enim soluto animo familiariter scribi solent, ea 
temporibus liis excluduntur, quae autem sunt liorum 
temporum, ea iam contrivimus. Sed tamen, lie me 
totum aegritudini dedam, sumpsi mihi quasdam tani- 
quam Vareis, quae et oXiriKal sunt et temporum 
liorum, ut et abducam aninnmi ab querelis et in eo 
ipso, de quo agitur, exercear. Eae sunt liuius modi : 
E( //ei CTtor er TIJ arpiSi Tvpavvovfj^vif)<s (tVTf}<i, Et 

arrl Tpow rvpai i idos K-ardArcru pay /tare iTfor, Kar 


is the 9th of March. I expect Caesar reached Brun- 
disium to-day or yesterday. He stayed at Arpi on 
the 1st. If you choose to listen to Postumus, Caesar 
meant to pursue Pompey; for, by calculating the 
state of the weather and the days, he concluded 
that Pompey had crossed the sea. I thought that 
Caesar would be unable to get crews, but Postumus 
was quite sure about that, and the more so because 
ship-owners had heard of Caesar s liberality. But it 
cannot be long now before I hear the full story of 
what has happened at Brundisium. 



Though now I rest only so long as I am writing to Formiae, 
you or reading your letters, still I am in want of March!;?, 
subject matter, and feel sure that you are in the same B>c - 4** 
position, for the present crisis debars us from the 
free and easy topics of friendly correspondence, and 
the topics connected with the present crisis we have 
already exhausted. However, not to succumb entirely 
to low spirits, I have taken for myself certain theses, 
so to speak, which deal with la haute politique and 
are applicable to the present crisis, so that I may 
keep myself from querulous thoughts and may prac 
tise the subject. Here are some: 

Whether one should remain in one s country, even 
under a tyranny. Whether any means are lawful to 



8ia TOVTO Trepi TMV 6 Awv >} TroAis Kiv8vvfWfiV. 
Ei ei Aa/3rjTeov TOV KaraAt ovTU. // tti rbs aiprjTai. Ei 
TTfipareor aprjyetv ry rrarpio t Ti pavi ov/zerf/ /ccupcjj Kai 
Xoyy jua/XAoi -;} oAe/zy. Et TroAtriKor TO i/f ri X"C n 
avaxwpvyrrarTa Trot TV)? TrarptSos Tvpawoi /ievjjs >; Sia 
Trai Toi Ireor KtvBvvcrv TV]S eXerOepLas irept, Et TroAe/xor 
7raKTeor TV; X^Pt 1 Kat ToAiopKTjTeov avn/i Ti pai i Oi /jterrjr. 
Ei Kai JUT) SoKtjua^oi Ta rr)v 810, TroAe/jioi KaTaAi o~tr TV}S 
TVpavviSos crwaTroypaTTTCOV o /nws TOIS dpurrois. Ei rois 
evcpyerais *cot <j>i\ois (rvyKivovvevreov er rots TroAiTiKois. 
/car /x ^/ SOKOKTIV ei 1 fStfJovXevcrdai TMV oAcov. Ei 
o iLf.ya.Xa. T?yi Trarpi^a rpyeT;;o~as. 81 uvro 8e TOUTO 
Tradtov KO.I (faOoriydels, Ktr8rvi o eiev ai e^e- 
T}S 7raTpi6o5, ?; e</>eTov ai Tco eai TOL 1 TTOTC 
/cat rwr oiKCtOTOTtov 7roif.L<r8a.i poroiar a<^/zevto ras 

Trpos Tors icrx^ ovras StaTroAiretas. 

In his ego me consultationibus exercens et disse- 
reiis in utramque partem turn Graece, turn Latine et 
abduco parumper animum a molestiis et TWV vpovpyov 
TI delibero. Sed vereor, ne tibi d/caipo? sim. Si 
enini recte ambulaverit is, qui hanc epistulam tulit, 
in ipsum tuum diem iiicidet. 



abolish a tyranny, even if they endanger the existence 
of the State. Whether one ought to take care that 
one who tries to abolish it may not rise too high 
himself. Whether one ought to assist one s country, 
when under a tyranny, by seizing opportunities and 
by argument rather than by Avar. Whether one is 
doing one s duty to the State, if one retires to some 
other place and there remains inactive, when there 
is a tyranny; or whether one ought to run every 
risk for liberty. Whether one ought to invade the 
country and besiege one s native town, when it is 
under a tyranny. Whether one ought to enrol one 
self in the ranks of the loyalists, even if one does 
not approve of war as a means of abolishing tyranny. 
Whether one ought in political matters to share the 
dangers of one s benefactors and friends, even if one 
does not believe their general policy to be wise. 
Whether one who has done good service for his 
country, and by it has won ill-treatment and envy, 
should voluntarily put himself into danger for that 
country, or may at length take thought for himself 
and his dear ones and avoid struggles against the 
powers that be. 

By employing myself with such questions and dis 
cussing the pros and cons in Greek and Latin, I 
divert my thoughts a little from my troubles and at 
the same time consider a subject which is very perti 
nent. But I fear you may find me a nuisance. For, 
if the bearer makes proper headway, it will reach 
you on the very day you have your attack of ague. 





Set: Fornriis Natal i die tuo scripsisti epistulam ad me plenam 

/ / Id. consilii summaeque cum benevolentiae turn etiam 

fll prudentiae. Earn mihi Philotimus postridie, quam 

a te acceperat, reddidit. Sunt ista quidem, quae 

disputas, difficillima, iter ad superum, navigatio in- 

fero, discessus Arpinum, lie huiic fugisse, inansio 

Formiis, ne obtulisse nos gratulationi videamur, sed 

miserius nihil quam ea videre, quae tamen iam, iam, 

inquam, videnda erunt. 

Fuit apud me Postunms, scripsi ad te, quam gravis. 
Venit ad me etiam Q. Fufius quo vultu, quo spiritu 
properans Brundisium, scelus accusans Pompei, levi- 
tatem et stultitiam senatus. Haec qui in mea villa 
non feram, Curtium in curia potero ferre? Age, 
finge me quam vis eiVro/taxw* haec ferentem, quid? 
ilia Die, M. TVLLI " quern habebunt exitum? Et 
omitto eausam rei publicae, quam ego amissam puto 
cum vulneribus suis turn medicamentis eis, quae 
parantur, de Pompeio quid agam? cui plane (quid 
enim hoc negem?) suscensui. Semper enini causae 
eventorum magis movent quam ipsa eventa. Haee 
igitur mala (quibus maiora esse quae possunt?) con- 
siderans, vel potius iudicans eius opera accidisse, et 
c ul pa, inimicior eram huic quam ipsi Caesari. Ut 



On your birthday you wrote me a letter full of Fonniae, 
advice, full of great kindness and of great wisdom. March 10, 
Philotimus delivered it to me the da}- after he got it B-C. 4-> 
from you. The points you discuss are very difficult 
- the route to the upper sea, a voyage by the lower 
sea, departure to Arpinum, lest I should seem to 
have avoided Caesar, remaining at Formiae, lest I 
should appear to have put myself forward to con 
gratulate him; but the most miserable thing of all 
will be to see what I tell you must very shortly be 

Curtius Postumus was with me. I wrote you how 
tiresome he was. Quintus Fufius also came to see 
me what an air ! what assurance ! hastening to 
Brimdisium denouncing Pompey s wrong-doings and 
the careless folly of the House. When I cannot 
stand this under my own roof, how shall I be able to 
endure Curtius in the Senate? But suppose I put 
up with all this in good humour, what of the ques 
tion Your vote, M. Tullius?" What will come of 
it? I pass over the cause of the Republic, which I 
consider lost, both from the wounds dealt it and the 
cures prepared for them ; but what am I to do about 
Pompey ? It is no use denying that I am downright 
angry with him. For I am always more affected by 
the causes of events than by the events themselves. 
Therefore considering our incomparable woes, or 
rather concluding that they have happened by his 
doing and his mistakes, I am more angry with Pompey 
than with Caesar himself. Just as our ancestors 



niaiores nostri funestiorem diem esse voluerunt 
Aliensis pugnae quam urbis captae, quod hoc nialum 
ex illo (itaque alter religiosus etiam mine dies, alter 
in vulgus ignotus), sic ego decem annorum peccata 
recordans, in quibus inerat ille etiam annus, qui nos 
hoc non defendente, ne dicam gravius, adflixerat, 
praesentisque temporis cognoseens temeritatem, ig- 
naviam, neglegentiam suscensebam. Sed ea iam 
mihi exciderunt; beneficia eiusdem cogito, eogito 
etiam dignitatem; intellego serins equidem, quam 
vellem, propter epistulas sermonesque Balbi, sed 
video plane nihil aliud agi, nihil actum ab initio, nisi 
nt hune occideret. Ego igitur, sicut ille apud 
Homerum, cui et mater et dea dixisset : 

Avrtjca yap TOI eeira fj.e0 E/cropa TTOT/WS fTOi/ws, 
matri ipse respondit : 

AiTi/ca reBvairjv, tTret OTK ap e/teXXov traipcp 
KTc/i o/xerw eirafj-vvat. 

Quid, si non eratpw solum, sed etiam erepyerij, adde 
tali viro talem causam agenti ? Ego vero haec officia 
mercanda vita puto. Optimatibus vero tuis nihil 
eonfido, nihil iam ne inservio quidem. Mdeo^ ut se 
luiic dent, ut daturi sint. Quicquam tu ilia putas 
fuisse de valetudine decreta municipiorum prae his 
de victoria gratulationibus? Timent," inquies. At 
ipsi turn se timuisse dicunt. Sed videamus, quid 
actum sit Brundisi. Ex eo fortasse alia consilia 
nascentur aliaeque litterae. 


thought that the day of the battle of Alia was blacker 
than the day of the capture of Rome,, because the 
capture was but the consequence of the battle (and 
so the former day is still a black letter day and the 
latter is commonly unknown), so I too was angry in 
recalling his errors of the last ten years, which in 
cluded the year of my affliction, when he gave me no 
help, to put it mildly, and recognizing his foolhardi- 
ness, sloth and carelessness at the present time. 
But all this I have forgotten. It is his kindness I 
think of, and I think of my own honour too. I 
understand, later indeed than J could have wished, 
from the letters and conversation of Balbus, but I 
see plainly, that the sole object is, and has been 
from the beginning, the death of Pompey. So I say 
the same as Achilles to his mother, when she said 
"For after Hector s death thy doom is fixed," and 
he replied, Then let me die, since I have failed to Iliad xviii. 96-9 
save my friend." 

And in my case it is not only a friend but a bene 
factor, a man so great and championing so great a 
cause. Indeed I hold that life should be paid for 
the kindnesses that he has done me. But in your 
loyal party I have no confidence : nor I do even 
acknowledge any allegiance to them now. I see 
how they surrender and will surrender themselves to 
Caesar. Do you think that those decrees of the 
towns about Pompey s health were any thing compared 
with their congratulatory addresses to Caesar ? You 
will say, They are terrorized." Yes, but they 
themselves declare that they were terrorized on the 
former occasion. But let us see what has happened 
at Brundisium. Perhaps from that may spring 
different plans and a different letter. 

o VOL. a 193 




Scr. Formiis Nos adhuc Brundisio nihil. Roma scripsit Balbus 
r la. Mart, putare iam Lciitulum consulem tramisisse, nee eum a 

/V /Q "" 

minore Balbo conventum, quod is hoe iam Canusi 
audisset ; inde ad se eum scripsisse ; cohortesque 
sex, quae Albae fuissent, ad Curium via Minucia 
transisse ; id Caesarem ad se scripsisse, et brevi 
tempore eum ad urbem futurum. Ergo utar tuo 
consilio neque me Arpinum hoc tempore abdam, etsi, 
Ciceroni meo togam puram cum dare Arpini vellem, 
hanc eram ipsam excusationemrelicturus ad Caesarem. 
Sed fortasse in eo ipso offendetur, cur non Romae 
potius. Ac tamen, si est conveniendus, hie potissi- 
mum. Turn reliqua videbimus, id est et quo et qua 
et quando. 

Domitius, ut audio, in Cosano est, et quidem, ut 
aiunt, paratus ad navigandum, si in Hispaniam, non 
probo, si ad Gnaeum, laudo; quovis potius certe, 
quam ut Curtium videat, quern ego patronus aspicere 
non possum. Quid alios? Sed, opinor, quiescamus, 
ne nostram culpam coarguamus, qui, dum urbem, id 
est patriam, amamus dumque rem conventuram pu- 
tamus, ita nos gessimus. ut plane interclusi captique 

Scripta iam epistula Capua litterae sunt allatae hoc 
exemplo: Pompeius mare transiit eum omnibus 
militibus, quos secum habuit. Hie numerus est 
19 i 




No news yet from Brundisium. From Rome Balbus Formiae, 
has written that he thinks the consul Lentulus has March 1 
now gone over, and that the younger Balbus has not B.C. 49 
met him, because the latter has just heard the news 
at Canusium and from that town has written to him. 
He adds that the six cohorts which were at Alba 
have gone to Curius by the Minucian road, that 
Caesar has written to tell him so and will shortly be in 
Rome. So I shall follow your advice. I shall not 
go and bury myself in Arpinum at the present time, 
though, since I had wished to celebrate my son s 
coming of age there, I thought of leaving that as an 
excuse to Caesar. But perhaps that itself will give 
offence and he might ask why I should not do it at 
Rome. Still, if I must meet him, I would much 
rather meet him here. Then I shall see the other 
things, where I am to go, by what route and when. 

Domitius, I hear, is at Cosa, and ready it is said to 
sail. If it is to Spain, I do not approve, but, if to 
Pompey, he has my praise. Better to go anywhere 
than to have to see Curtius, of whom, though I have 
defended him, I cannot bear the sight, not to speak 
of others. But I suppose I had better keep quiet, 
for fear of convicting myself of folly in managing to 
be cut off wholly and made captive through my love 
of my country and an idea that the matter could be 
patched up. 

Just as I had finished writing, there came a letter 
from Capua, of which this is a copy: " Pompey has 
crossed the sea with all the soldiery lie has. There 
o2 195 


hominum milia triginta et consules duo et tribuni pi. 
et senatores, qui fuerunt cum eo, omnes cum uxoribus 
et liberis. Conscendisse dicitur a. d. mi Nonas 
Martias. Ex ea die fuere septemtriones venti. Naves, 
quibus ustis non est, omnes aut praecidisse aut 
incendisse dicunt." 

De hac re litterae L. Metello tribuno pi. Capuam 
allatae sunt a Clodia socru, quae ipsa transiit. Ante 
sollicitus erani et angebar, sicut res scilicet ipsa coge- 
bat, cum consilio explicare nihil possem; nunc autem, 
postquam Pompeius et consules ex Italia exierunt, 
non angor, sed ardeo dolore, 

Ol 8e /J.OL f]TOp 

ffjareSov, aXX aXaXi Krrj^JLat. 

Non sum, inquam, mihi crede, mentis compos ; tantum 
mihi dedecoris admisisse videor. Meiie non primum 
cum Pompeio qualicumque consilio uso, deinde cum 
bonis esse quamvis causa temere instituta ? praesertim 
cum ii ipsi, quorum ego causa timidius me fortunae 
committebam, uxor, filia, Cicerones pueri, me illud 
sequi mallent, hoc turpe et me indignum putarent. 
Nam Quintus quidem frater, quicquid mihi placeret, 
id rectum se putare aiebat, id animo aequissimo se- 

Tuas nunc epistulas a primo lego. Hae me pau- 
lum recreant. Primae monent et rogant, ne me pro- 
iciam, proximae gaudere te ostendunt me remansisse. 
Eas cum lego, minus mihi turpis videor, sed tarn diu, 
dum lego. Deinde emergit rursum dolor et aiVxpor 
</>ai Tuo-i u. Quam ob rem obsecro te, mi Tite, eripe 


are 30,000 men, two consuls, tribunes and the 
senators who were with him, all accompanied by 
wives and children. He is said to have embarked 
on the 4th of Mai-ch. From that day there have 
been northerly winds. They say he disabled or 
burned all the ships he did not use." 

On this matter a letter has been received at Capua 
by Lucius Metellus, the tribune of the plebs, from 
Clodia, his mother-in-law, who herself crossed the 
sea. I was anxious and distracted before, naturally 
enough under the circumstances, when I could find 
no solution of affairs. But, now that Pompey and 
the consuls have left Italy, I am not only dis 
tracted, but I blaze with indignation. Steady my 
heart no more, but wild with grief." Believe me, ii; n d x, 91 
I say I am no longer responsible, so great the shame 
1 seem to have incurred. To think that in the first 
place I should not be with Pompey, whatever his 
plan, nor again with the loyalists, however rashly they 
have mismanaged their cause ! Particularly when 
those very people, whose interests kept me cautious, 
my wife, my daughter and the boys, preferred that 
1 should follow Pompey s fortunes, and thought 
Caesar s cause disgraceful and unworthy of me. As 
for my brother Quintus, whatever I thought right, 
he agreed to, and he followed my course with 
perfect contentment. 

Your letters I am reading now from the beginning 
of the business. They afford me some little relief. 
The first warn and entreat me not to commit myself. 
The later ones show you are glad I stayed. While I 
read them, my conduct seems to me less discreditable; 
but only so long as I read : afterwards up rises sorrow 
again and a vision of shame. So I beseech you, Titus, 



mihi hunc dolorem, aut minue saltern aut consola- 
tione aut consilio, aut quacumque re potes. Quid 
tu autem possis ? aut quid homo quisquam ? Vix iam 

Equidem illud molior, quod tu mones sperasque 
fieri posse, ut mihi Caesar concedat, ut absim, cum 
aliquid in senatu contra Gnaeum agatur. Sed timeo, 
ne non impetrem. Venit ab eo Furnius. Ut quidem 
scias, quos sequamur, Q. Titini filium cum Caesare 
esse nuntiat, sed ilium maiores mihi gratias agere, 
quam vellcm. Quid autem me roget paucis ille qui 
dem verbis, sed er Srrd^et.. cognosce ex ipsius epistula. 
Me miserum, quod tu non valuisti ! una fuissemus ; 
consilium certe non defuisset ; <riV re &v epx- 

/itl to . 

Sed acta ne agamus, reliqua paremus. Me adhuc 
haec duo fefellerunt, initio spes compositionis, qua 
facta volebam uti populari vita, sollicitudine senectu- 
tem nostram liberari ; deinde bellum crudcle et 
exitiosum suscipi a Pompeio intellegebam. Melioris 
medius fidius civis et viri putabam quovis supplicio 
adfici, quam illi crudelitati non solum praeesse, verum 
etiam interesse. Videtur vel mori satius fuisse quam 
esse cum his. Ad haec igitur cogita, mi Attice, vel 
potius excogita. Quemvis eventum fortius feram 

quam hunc dolorem. 


take this grief away from me, or at any rate lessen 
it by your sympathy or advice or by any other possible 
means. Yet what can you or any man do? God 
Himself could hardly help now. 

But my own aim now is to achieve what you 
advise and hope, that Caesar excuse my absence, 
when any measure is brought forward against Pompey 
in the house. But I fear I may fail. Furnius has 
come from Caesar. To show you the sort of men I 
am following, he tells me that the son of Q. Titinius 
is with Caesar, but Caesar expresses greater thanks 
to me than I could wish. His request put in a few 
words, but ex cathedra, you may see from his letter. 
How grieved I am at your ill-health ! We should 
have been together ; assuredly advice would not have 
been wanting: Two heads are better than one." n; a j x 

But let us not fight battles over again, let us attend 
to the future. Till now two things have led me 
astray, at first the hope of a settlement, and, if that 
were secured, I was ready for private life and an old 
age quit of public cares ; and then I discovered that 
Pompey was beginning a bloody and destructive war. 
On my honour I thought that it was the part of a 
better man and a better citizen to suffer any punish 
ment rather than, I will not say to take a leading 
part, but even to take any part in such atrocities. 
It seems as though it would have been preferable to 
die than to be one of such men. So, my dear Atticus, 
think on these problems, or rather think them out. 
I shall bear any result more bravely than this afflic 





OCT. in tttnere Cum Furnium nostrum tantum vidissem neque lo- 

qui neque audire meo commodo potuissem, propera- 
.... ...,.., 

rem atque essem in itinere praemissis lam legiombus, 

praeterire tamen non potui, quin et scriberem ad te 
et ilium mitterem gratiasque agerem, etsi hoc et feci 
saepe et saepius mihi facturus videor. Ita de me 
mereris. In primis a te peto, quoiiiam confido me 
celeriter ad urbem venturum, ut te ibi videam, ut 
tuo consilio, gratia, dignitate, ope omnium rerum uti 
possim. Ad propositum revertar; festinationi meae 
brevitatique litterarum ignosces. Reliqua ex Furnio 



Scr. in Scripseram ad te epistulam, quam darem nn Idus. 

Formiis III Sed eo die is, cui dare volueram, non est profectus. 

Id. Mart. Veiiit autem eo ipso die ille celeripes," quern Salvius 

a. f(Jo dixerat. Attulit uberrimas tuas litteras; quae mihi 

quiddam quasi animulae instillarunt ; recreatum enim 
me non queo dicere. Sed plane TO wv nyov effecisti. 
Ego enim non iam id ago, mihi crede, ut prosperos 
exitus consequar. Sic enim video, nee duobus his 
vivis nee hoc uno nos umquam rem publicam habi- 




Though I have only had a glimpse of our friend On the 
FurniuS; and have not yet been able conveniently to march, 
speak to him or hear what he has to say, being in a March, 
hurry and on the march, yet I could not neglect the B.C. Jfi 
opportunity of writing to you and sending him to 
convey my thanks. Be sure I have often thanked 
you and I expect to have occasion to do so still more 
often in the future : so great are your services to me. 
First I beg you, since I trust that I shall quickly 
reach Rome, to let me see you there, and employ 
your advice, favour, position and help of all kinds. 
I will return to what I began with : pardon my haste 
and the shortness of my letter. All the other 
information you may get from Furnius. 



I wrote you a letter dated the 12th of March, but Formiae, 
on that day the man to whom I meant to give it did March 13, 
not set out. However, on that very day there B.C. 49 
arrived that sprinter," as Salvius called him, bring 
ing your very full epistle which has put just a drop 
of life into me, for recovered I cannot profess to be. 
Clearly you have done the one thing needful. Believe 
me I am not acting now with a view to a lucky 
issue; for I see that we can never enjoy a Republic 
while these two men live, or this one alone. So I 



turos. Ita neque de otio iiostro spero iani nee ullam 
acerbitatem recuso. Unum illud extimescebam, ne 
quid turpiter facerem, vel dicam iam ne fecissem. 

Sic ergo habeto, salutares te mihi litteras misisse 
neque solum has longiores, quibus nihil potest esse 
explicatius, nihil perfectius, sed etiam illas breviores, 
in quibus hoc mihi iucundissimum fuit, consilium 
factumque nostrum a Sexto probari, pergratumque 
mihi tu . . . feeisti ; a quo et diligi me et, quid 
rectum sit, intellegi scio. Longior vero tua epistula 
non me solum, sed meos omnes aegritudine levavit. 
Itaque utar tuo consilio et ero in Formiano, ne atit 
ad urbem a-drr-yri^ mea animadvertatur, aut, si nee 
hie nee illic eum videro, devitatum se a me putet. 
Quod autem suades, ut ab eo petam, ut mihi conce- 
dat, ut idem tribuam Pompeio, quod ipsi tribuerim, 
id me iam pridem agere intelleges ex litteris Balbi 
et Oppi, quarimi exempla tibi misi. Misi etiam 
Caesaris ad eos sana mente scriptas quo modo in 
tanta insania. Sin mihi Caesar hoc 11011 concedat, 
video tibi placere illud, me -oXi-ev^a de pace susci- 
pere ; in quo non extimesco periculum (cum enim 
tot impendeant, cur non honestissimo depecisci 
velim?), sed vereor, ne Pompeio quid oiieris im- 

fii l [wi yopyeuyr K<aAr?v Seu oto eAojpov 
intorqueat. Mirandum enim in modum Gnaeus no- 
ster Sullani regni similitudinem coiicupivit. Ei 8ws 
trot. Aeyw. Nihil ille umquam minus obscure tulit. 

1 After tu there is piobably a lacuna which should be filled 
by some such words as those suggested by Lehmann : feeisti, 
quod me de iudicio eius certiorem. 


have no hope of ease for myself and I do not refuse 
to contemplate as possible any bitterness. The one 
thing I dread is doing, or, perhaps I should say, 
having done, anj thing disgraceful. 

So please consider that j our letter was good for 
me, and not only the longer, most explicit and per 
fect epistle, but also the shorter, in which the most 
delightful thing was to find that my policy and action 
is approved by Sextus. You have done me a great 
kindness. . . - 1 Of his affection and sense of honour 
I am sure. But that longer letter of yours has 
relieved not only me but all my friends from our 
sorry state : so I will follow your advice and remain 
in the villa at Formiae, that my meeting with Caesar 
outside the city may not excite comment, or, if I do 
not meet him either here or there, I may not lead 
him to think I have shunned him. As for your 
advice to ask him to allow me to pay Pompey the 
same homage as I did to him, you will understand I 
have been doing that long since, when you see the 
copies I forward of letters of Balbus and Oppius. I send 
also a letter addressed by Caesar to them, which is 
sane enough considering these mad times. But, if 
Caesar should refuse my request, I see that you think 
I should undertake to be a peace-maker. In that role 
I do not fear danger for, with so many dangers 
overhanging, why should I not compound by taking 
the most respectable but I fear lest I may embarrass 
Pompey, and he fix on me the Gorgon gaze of his 
dread eye." It is wonderful to see how Pompey Odyssey xi, 663 
desires to imitate Sulla s reign. I know what I am 
saying. He has made no secret of it. Then why 

Adopting Lehmann s suggestion "in telling me of his 



Cum hocne igitur, inquies, "esse vis?" Benefi- 
cium sequor, mihi crede, non causam, [ut in Milone, 
ut in ... Sed hactenus]. 1 " Causa igitur non bona 
est?" Immo optima, sed agetur, memento, foedis- 
sime. Primum consilium est suffocare urbem et 
Italiam fame, deinde agvos vastave, urere, pecuniis 
locupletum non abstinere. Sed, cum eadem metuam 
ab hac parte, si illim beneficium non sit, rectius 
putem quidvis domi perpeti. Sed ita meruisse ilium 
de me puto, ut dxpio"rta$ crimen subire non audeam, 
quamquam a te eius quoque rei iusta defensio est 

De triumpho tibi adsentior, quern quidem totum 
facile et lubenter abiecero. Egregie probo fore ut, 
dum agamus, o 77X005 wptuos obrepat. Si modo," 
inquis, satis ille erit firmus." Est firmior etiam, 
quam putabamus. De isto licet bene speres. Pro- 
mitto tibi, si valebit, tegulam ilium in Italia nullam 
I elicturum. Tene igitur socio?" Contra meher- 
cule me inn indicium et contra omnium antiquorum 
auctoritatem, nee tarn ut ilia adiuvem, quam ut haec 
ne videam. cupio discedere. Noli enim putare tole- 
rabiles horum insanias iiec unius modi fore. Etsi 
quid te horum fugit, legibus, iudicibus, iudiciis 
senatu sublato libidines, audacias, sumptus, egestates 
tot egentissimorum hominum nee privatas posse res 
nee rem publicam sustinere ? Abeamus igitur inde 
qualibet navigation e ; etsi id quidem, ut tibi videbi- 

The words in brackets arc probably a gloss which has crept 
into the text. 


do 1 wish to be associated with such a man ? Believe 
me I follow gratitude, not a cause [and I did in the 
case of Milo and in ... But enough of this.] "Then 
the cause is not good? " Yes, the best in the world; 
but remember it will be handled in the most dis 
graceful way. The first plan is to throttle Rome and 
Italy and starve them, then to lay waste and burn 
the countrj r , and not to keep hands off the riches of 
the wealthy. But, since I have the same fears on 
Caesar s side too, if it were not for favours on the 
other side, I should think it better to stay in Rome 
and suffer what comes. But so bounden do I con 
sider myself to Pompey that I cannot endure to risk 
the charge of ingratitude. But you have said all 
that can be said for that course too. 

About my triumph I agree with you. I can throw 
it away willingly and with ease. I am delighted 
with your remark that it may be, while I am consi 
dering, the chance to sail" may arise. Yes," you 
say, if only Pompey is firm enough." He is more 
firm than I imagined. In him you may be confident. 
I promise you, if he succeeds, he will not leave a tile 
in Italy. Will you help him, then?" By heaven, 
against my own judgement and against all the les 
sons of the past I desire to depart, not so much that 
I may help Pompey, as that I may not see what is 
being done here. For please do not think that the 
madness of these parties will be endurable or of one 
kind. However, it is obvious to you that when laws, 
juries, courts and Senate are abolished, neither pri 
vate nor public resources will be able to bear up 
against the lusts, daring, extravagance and necessity 
of- so many needy men. So let me depart on any kind 
of voyage : be it whatever you will, only let me de- 



tur, sed certe abeamus. Sciemus enim, id quod ex- 
spectas, quid Brundisi actum sit. 

Bonis viris quod ais probari, quae adhuc fecerimus, 
scirique ab iis nos non profectos, valde gaudeo, si est 
mine nil us gaudendi locus. De Lentulo investigabo 
diligentius. Id mandavi Philotimo, homini forti ac 
nimium optimati. 

Extremum est, ut tibi argumentum ad scribendum 
fortasse iam desit. Nee enim alia de re nunc ulla 
scribi potest, et de hac quid iam amplius inveniri 
potest? Sed, quoniam et ingenium suppeditat (dico 
mehercule, ut sentio) et amor, quo et meum ingenium 
incitatur, perge, ut faeis, et scribe, quantum potes. 

In Epiruin quod me non invitas, comitem 11011 
molestum, subirascor. Sed vale. Nam, ut tibi ambu- 
landum, ungendum, sic mihi dormiendum. Etenim 
litterae time mihi sonmuni attulerunt. 



Scr. llomae Nedum hominum humilium, ut nos sumus, sed 

/ / ant I etiam amplissimorum virorum consilia ex eventu, non 

la.JxLan. a. ex voluntate a plerisque probai i solent. Tamen freti 

tua humanitate, quod verissimum nobis videbitur, de 

eo, quod ad nos scripsisti, tibi consilium dabimus. 

Quod si non fuerit prudens, at certe ab optima fide 

et optimo animo proficiscetur. 

Nos, si id, quod nostro iudicio Caesarem facere 


part. For I shall know the news you are waiting 
for, what has happened at Brundisium. 

If, as you say, my conduct hitherto has been 
approved by the loyal party and they are aware 
I have not gone away, I am very glad indeed, if now 
there is any place for gladness. As for Lentulus I 
will make more careful inquiries. I have entrusted 
the matter to Philotimus, a man of courage and 
excessive loyalty. 

The last thing I have to say is, that perhaps you 
lack a theme for your letters for one can write on 
no other topic, and what more can be said on this? 
But since there is plenty of ability in you (and upon 
my soul I speak as I feel) and affection which also 
spurs my own wit, go on as you are doing and write 
as much as you can. 

I am rather annoyed that you do not invite me as 
your guest to Epirus when you know I should give 
you no trouble. But good-bye. You want your 
walk and perfumery and I want my sleep : for your 
letter has induced sleep. 



Advice even the advice of distinguished persons, Formiac, 
let alone nobodies like ourselves is generally judged March 10 or 
by results and not by intentions. However, relying 11, B.C. Jj. ) 
on your kindness of heart, we will give you the 
soundest advice we can on the point about which 
you wrote, and, even if its wisdom may be doubted, 
there will be no doubt that it springs from good faith 
and good feeling. 

If we had heard from Caesar s own lips that he 



oportere existimamus, ut, siniul Romam venerit, agat 
de reconciliatione gratiae suae et Pompei, id eum fa- 
cturum ex ipso cognovissemus, deberemus 1 te hortari, 
ut velles iis rebus interesse, quo facilius et maiore 
cum dignitate per te, qui utrique es coniunctus, res 
tota confieret, aut, si ex contrario putaremus Caesarem 
id non facturum, et etiam velle cum Pompeio bellum 
gerere sciremus, numquam tibi suaderemus, contra 
hominem optime de te meritum arma ferres, sicuti 
te semper oravimus, lie contra Caesarem pugnares. 
Sed, cum etiam nune, quid facturus Caesar sit, magis 
opinari quam scire possimus, 2 non possumus nisi hoc, 
11011 videri earn tuam esse dignitatem neque fidem 
omnibus cognitam, ut contra alterutrum, cum utrique 
sis maxime necessarius, arma feras, et hoc non dubi- 
tamus quin Caesar pro sua humanitate maxime sit 
probaturus. Nos tamen, si tibi videbitur, ad Caesarem 
scribemus. ut nos certiores faciat, quid hac re acturus 
sit. A quo si erit nobis rescriptum, statim, quae 
sentiemus, ad te scribemus, et tibi fidem faciemus 
nos ea suadere, quae nobis videntur tuae dignitati, 
non Caesaris actioni esse utilissima, et hoc Caesarem 
pro sua indulgentia in suos probaturum putamus. 



Scr. Romac S. V. B. Posteaquam litteras communes cum Op- 
V ant IV Id. pio ad te dedi, ab Caesare epistulam accepi, cuius ex- 
Mart. a. / Go , deberemus added By Lchmann. 

- possimus added by Ascensins. 


was going to do, what in our opinion he ought to do, 
as soon as he reaches Rome, that is to say try to 
effect a reconciliation with Pompey, we should feel 
it our duty to exhort you to take part in the nego 
tiations, as the whole thing could most easily and 
with the greatest dignity be carried through by you, 
who have ties with both parties. If on the contrary 
we thought Caesar was not going to follow that 
course, and knew that he even wished to wage war 
with Pompey, we should never advise you to bear 
arms against a man who has done you such good 
service, just as we have always begged you not to 
fight against Caesar. But, since Caesar s intentions 
are still mere guesswork, we can only say that it 
does not seem consonant with your dignity or your 
well-known sense of honour to bear arms against 
either of them, as you are intimate with both : and 
we have no doubt that Caesar will be generous 
enough to approve of this course. If you wish it, 
however, we will write to Caesar to ascertain his 
intentions in this matter. If he sends us an answer, 
we will let you know our opinion at once, and con 
vince you that we are giving the advice which seems 
to us to be best for your dignity, not for Caesar s 
policy, and, such is Caesar s consideration for his 
friends, that we feel sure he will approve of such a 



I hope you are well. 1 After sending you a letter Rome, 
in conjunction with Oppius I had a note from Caesar, March 11 or 
of which I am forwarding a copy. From it you can 13, B.C. 4$ 

1 The letters S. V.B. stand for si vales benc (eat}. 

p VOL. ii aoy 


emplum tibi misi. Ex quibus perspicere poteris, 
quam cupiat concorcliani suani et Pompei reconciliare, 
et quam remotus sit ab omni crudelitate; quod eum 
sentire, ut debeo, valde gaudeo. De te et tua fide et 
pietate idem mehercule, mi Cicero, sentio quod tu, 
non posse tuam famam et officium sustinere, ut con 
tra eum arma feras, a quo tantum beneficium te acce- 
pisse praedices. Caesarem hoc idem probaturum ex- 
ploratum pro singulari eius humanitate habeo, eique 
cumulatissime satis facturum te certo scio, cum nul- 
lam partem belli contra eum suscipias neque socius 
eius adversariis fueris. Atque hoc non solurn in te, 
tali et tanto viro, satis habebit, sed etiam mihi ipse 
sua concessit voluntate, ne in iis castris essem, quae 
contra Lentulum aut Pompeium futura essent, quorum 
beneficia maxima haberem, sibique satis esse dixit, si 
togatus urbana officia sibi praestitissem, quae etiam 
illis, si vellem, praestare possem. Itaque nunc Romae 
omnia negotia Lentuli procure, sustineo, meumque 
officium, fidem, pietatem iis praesto. Sed mehercule 
rursus iam abiectam compositionis spem non despera- 
tissimam esse puto, quoniam Caesar est ea mente, 
quam optare debemus. 

Hac re mihi placet, si tibi videtur, te ad eum scri- 
bere et ab eo praesidium petere, ut petiisti a Pompeio 
me quidem adprobante temporibus Milonianis. Prae- 
stabo, si Caesarem bene novi, eum prius tuae digni- 
tatis quam suae utilitatis ration em habiturum. 

Haec quam prudenter tibi scribam, nescio, sed illud 


see how eager he is for a reconciliation between him 
self and Poinpey, and how far removed all cruelty is 
from his thoughts: and I am, as in duty bound, very 
glad that he takes that view. As for yourself and 
your honour and loyalty to your friends, I give you 
my word, my dear Cicero, that I think as you do, that 
your reputation and your duty will not admit of your 
bearing arms against a man, from whom you acknow 
ledge that you have received such favours. I have 
not the slightest doubt that Caesar with his extraor 
dinary kindness will agree, and that you will satisfy 
him abundantly, by taking no part against him 
in the war and not siding with his opponents. And 
this he will count sufficient not only in the case of so 
important a personage as yourself, but even to me of 
his own free will he has granted the same permission 
not to enter a camp which would be opposed to Len- 
tulus and Pompey, to whom I am under great obliga 
tions: and he has said he is quite satisfied, if I should 
perform peaceful civic functions for him, which 1 am 
at liberty to perform for them too, if I wish. So I 
am acting now as Lentulus deputy at Rome and car 
rying out his business, fulfilling my duty and main 
taining my honour and loyalty to them. But really, 
though I had given up hope of peace, I am no longer 
in despair of it, since Caesar is in the mood in 
which we would wish him to be. 

Under the circumstances I see no objection, if J T OU 
think fit, to your writing and asking for his protection, 
as you did for Pompey s, with my approval, at Milo s 
trial. If I know anything of Caesar, I will guarantee 
that he will consider your dignity more than his own 

How far the advice I am sending may be right, I 
i>2 211 


certe scio, me ab singular! amore ac benevolentia, 
quaecumque scribo, tibi scribere, quod te (ita inco- 
lumi Caesare moriar!) tanti facio, ut paucos aeque ac 
te caros habeam. De hac re cum aliquid constitueris, 
velim mihi scribas. Nam non mediocriter laboro, 
utrique, ut vis, tuam benevolentiam praestare possis, 
quam mehercule te praestaturum confido. Fac va- 



Scr. in iti- Gaudeo mehercule vos significare litteris, quam 

nere panto valde probetis ea, quae apud Corfinium sunt gesta. 
Consilio vestro utar lubenter, et hoc lubentius, quod 
mea sponte facere eonstitueram, ut quam lenissimum 
me praeberem et Pompeium darem operam ut recon- 
eiliarem. Temptemus, hoc modo si possimus omnium 
voluntates recuperare et diuturna victoria uti, quon- 
iam reliqui crudelitate odium effugere non potuerunt 
neque victoriam diutius tenere praeter unum L. Sul- 
lam, quern imitaturus non sum. Haec nova sit ratio 
vincendi, ut misericordia et liberalitate nos muniamus. 
Id quern ad modum fieri possit, non iiulla mi in men- 
tern veniunt, et multa reperiri possunt. De his rebus 
rogo vos ut cogitationem suscipiatis. 

N. Magium, Pompei praefectum, deprehendi. Sci 
licet meo instituto usus sum et eum statim missum 


do not know; but one thing I do know, that, in send 
ing what I am sending to you, I am actuated by 
more than ordinary affection and goodwill. Though I 
am ready to die for Caesar s sake, there are few that 
I esteem as highly as I esteem you. When you have 
made up your mind on the point, I should like you to 
let me know, for I am much concerned that you 
should be able to show your goodwill to both parties, 
as you desire: and I have not the faintest doubt that 
you will. Take care of your health. 

VI Ic 


I am very glad to hear from your letters how On the road, 
strongly you approve of what happened at Corfinium. shortly be- 
I shall follow your advice with pleasure with all the fore 7 B. 
more pleasure, because I had myself made up my mind 
to act with the greatest moderation, and to do my 
best to effect a reconciliation with Pompey. Let us 
see if by moderation we can win all hearts and secure 
a lasting victory, since by cruelty others have been 
unable to escape from hatred and to maintain their 
victory for any length of time except L. Sulla, whose 
example I do not intend to follow. This is a new 
way of conquering, to strengthen one s position by 
kindness and generosity. As to how this can be 
done, some ideas have occurred to me and many 
more can be found. I should like you to turn some 
attention to the matter. 

I have taken N. Magius, a praefect of Pompey. Of 
course I kept to my policy and set him free at once. 



feci. lam duo praefecti fabruin Pompci in meain po- 
testateni venerunt et a me missi sunt. Si volent grati 
esse, debebunt Pompeium hortari, ut malit mihi esse 
amicus quani iis, qui et illi et mihi semper fuerunt 
inimicissirni; quorum artificiis efFectum est. ut res 
publica in hunc statum perveniret. 



So: in Cenantibus n Idus nobis, ac noctu quidem. Statins 

Formiano a te epistulam brevem attulit. De L. Torquato quod 

if /-/-.- quaeris, non modo Lucius, sed etiam Aulus profectus 
Mart. a. < (>> ^ 

est, alter multos. De Reatinorum corona quod scri- 
bis, moleste fero in agro Sabino sementem fieri pro- 
scriptionis. Senatores multos esse Romae nos quoque 
audieramus. Ecquid potes dicere, cur exierint? In 
his locis opinio est coniectura magis quarn nuntio 
aut litteris Caesarem Formiis a. d. xi Kal. Apriles 
fore. Hie ego vellem habere Homeri illam Minervam 
simulatam Mentori, cui dicerem : 

Mei TOp, 7TOJS T ap Ui), 7TWS T Up TTpO(T~Tl gOfJLai aVTO\ \ 

Nullam rem umquam difficiliorem cogitavi, sed cogito 
tamen nee ero ut in malis imparatus. Sed cura, ut 
valeas. Puto enim diem tuum heri fuisse. 

1 For the unintelligible alter multos Reid suggests ante 
multo ; Purser alter duos aliquos dies abtst, alter multos. 


So now two of Pompey s praefects of engineers have 
fallen into my hands and I have set them free. If 
they have any gratitude, they ought to exhort Pom- 
pey to prefer my friendship to that of men who were 
always the bitterest enemies both to him and to me. 
It is their machinations that have brought the State 
into its present plight. 



As I was dining on the 14th, and indeed after Formiae, 
nightfall, Statius brought a short letter from you. For March 14, 
your query about L. Torquatus, not only Lucius but B.C. 4& 
also Aulus has gone [the former some two days], 1 the 
latter a long time ago. For your news about the sale 
of prisoners at Reate, I am sorry that the seeds of a 
proscription should be sown in the Sabine district. 
That manj 7 members of the House are at Rome, I 
also have heard. Can you give any reason why they 
ever left it? Here there is an idea based on guess 
work rather than message or dispatch that Caesar 
will be at Formiae on March the 22nd. I w r ish I 
could have here Homer s Minerva disguised as Men 
tor, that I might say to her, " Mentor, how shall I go, 
and how shall I welcome him, pray?" I have never Odyssey ill, 2: 
had a more difficult step to think of. But I think of 
it nevertheless : nor shall I be unprepared, so far as 
the evil days permit. Take care of yourself, for I 
fancy yesterday was the day for your fever. 

1 Adopting Purser s suggestion. 





Scr. in Tres cpistulas tuas accepi postridie Idus. Erant 

Formiano autem mi, m,ipridie Idus datae. Igitur antiquissimae 

AfjA. cuique primuin respondebo. Adsentio tibi, ut in 

Apr. a. 705 T> j.- j_- j 

rormiano potissimum commorer, etiam de supero 

mari, temptaboque, ut antea ad te scripsi, ecquonam 
modo possini voluntate eius nullam rei publicae 
part em attingere. Quod laudas, quia oblivisci me 
scrips! ante facta et delicta nostri amici, ego vero ita 
facio. Quin ea ipsa, quae a te commemorantur, 
secus ab eo in me ipsum facta esse non memini. 
Tanto plus apud me valere beneficii gratiam quam 
iniuriae dolorem volo. Faciamus igitur, ut censes, 
colligamusque nos. 2o<to-Tei co enim, simul ut rus 
decurro, atque in decursu Secret? meas commentari 
non desino. Sed sunt quaedam earum perdifficiles 
ad iudicandum. De optimatibus sit sane ita, ut vis ; 
sed nosti illud Atovi crtos tv Kopivdtf. 

Titiiii filius apud Caesarem est. Quod autem quasi 
vereri videris, ne mihi tua consilia displiceant, me 
vero nihil delectat aliud nisi consilium et litterae 
tuae. Quare fac, ut ostendis, ne destiteris ad me, 
quicquid tibi in mentem venerit, scribere. Mihi niliil 
potest esse gratius. 

Venio ad alteram mine epistulam. Recte non cre- 
dis de numero militum ; ipso dimidio plus scripsit 

1 temptaboque Nipperdcy : plaboque M : pcrlabor 7. 




I got three letters from you on the 1 6th. They Fonniae, 
were dated the 12th, 13th and 1 1th. So I will take March 17, 
the earliest first. I agree with you that it is best B.C. 49 
for me to stay at Formiae. I also agree about the 
Adriatic. But as I wrote j ou before, I will strive to 
discover how I may be able with Caesar s goodwill 
to keep quite clear of politics. You praise me for 
saying that I forget Pompey s former misdeeds and 
ill-doings, but it is a fact. Nay, those very actions 
you call to mind, in which he did harm to me myself, 
have no place in my memory. I am so determined 
to feel gratitude for his kindness rather than resent 
ment for injuries. Let me act then as you decree, 
and pull myself together. For I philosophize as I 
walk about my estate, and in my perambulations I 
do not cease to ponder my themes. But some of them 
are very difficult to decide. As for the loyalists, let 
it be as you wish. You know the old saying 
"Dionysius in Corinth." 1 

Titinius son is with Caesar. You seem to fear 
that your advice irks me ; but nothing indeed pleases 
me except your counsel and your letters. So do as 
you promise. Do not omit to write to me anything 
that comes into your mind ; for nothing can delight 
me more. 

I turn now to your next letter. You are right not 

1 Dionysius, when expelled from the throne of Syracuse, 
fled to Corinth and according- to some authorities set up a 
school there. But whether the saying here mentioned refers 
merely to his exile and means " There are ups and downs in 



Clodia. Falsum etiam de corruptis navibus. Quod 
consules laudas, ego quoque animum laudo, sed con- 
silium reprehendo; dispersu enim illorum actio de 
pace sublata est, quam quidem ego meditabar. Jtaque 
postea Demetri librum de concordia tibi remisi et 
Philotimo dedi. Nee vero dubito, quin exitiosum 
bellum impendeat ; cuius initium ducetur a fame. Et 
me tamen doleo non interesse huic bello ! In quo 
tanta vis sceleris futura est, lit, cum parentes non 
alere nefarium sit, nostri principes antiquissimam et 
sanctissimam parentem, patriam, fame necandam 
putent. Atque hoc non opinione timeo, sed interfui 
sermonibus. Omnis haec classis Alexandria,, Colchis, 
Tyro, Sidone, Arado, Cypro, Pamphylia, Lycia, Rhodo, 
Chio, Byzantio, Lesbo, Zmyrna, Mileto, Coo ad 
intercludendos commeatus Italiae et ad occupandas 
frumentarias provincias comparatur. At quam veniet 
iratus ! et iis quidem maxime, qui eum maxime salvum 
volebant, quasi relictus ab iis, quos reliquit. Itaque 
mihi dubitanti, quid me facere par sit, permagnum 
pondus adfert benevolentia erga ilium ; qua dempta 
perire melius esset in patria quam patriam servando 

evertere. De septemtrione plane ita est. Metuo, 


to believe the reports about the number of Pompey s 
soldiers. Clodia s letter made them just double. It 
was untrue also about the destruction of the vessels. 
You praise the consuls ; so do I praise their courage, 
but I blame their policy. Their departure has de 
stroyed the negotiations for peace, the very thing 
which I was contemplating. So after that I returned 
you Demetrius book on Concord and gave it to 
Philotimus. And I have no doubt a disastrous war 
is imminent, which will be ushered in by famine. 
And here I am lamenting that I have no hand in the 
war, a war which will be so criminal, that though it 
is wicked not to support one s parents, yet our chiefs 
will not hesitate to destroy by starvation their country, 
that most reverend and holiest of parents ! And my* 
fears are not based on mere surmise. I have heard 
their talk. All this fleet from Alexandria, Colchis, 
Tyre, Sidon, Aradus, Cyprus, Pamphylia, Lycia, 
Rhodes, Chius, Byzantium, Lesbos, Smyrna, Miletus, 
Cos, is being got ready to cut off the supplies of Italy 
and to blockade the grain-producing provinces. And 
how angry Pompey will be when he comes, particu 
larly with those who particularly desire his safety, as 
if he were abandoned by those whom he has aban 
doned ! So in my doubt what I ought to do, I am 
greatly swayed by my good feeling towards Pompey. 
Without that it were better to perish in my country, 
than to destroy my country by saving it. As to the 
north wind, it is clearly as you write. I fear Epirus 
life," or to his schoolmastering-, as Jeans suggests, referring 
to a passage in Tusc. Ill, 27, where Cicero says Dionysius 
took to schoolmastering because he wished to tyrannize 
over somebody, is uncertain. If the latter, it would mean 
that the optimates would ill-use Cicero again as soon as 
they got the power. 



ne vexctur Epirus ; sed quern tu locum Graeciae non 
direptum iri putas? Praedicat enim palam et mili- 
tibus ostendit se largitione ipsa superiorem quam 
hunc fore. II hid me praeclare admones, cum ilium 
videro, ne nimis indulgenter, et ut cum gravitate 
potius loquar. Plane sic faciendum. Arpinum, cum 
eum convenero, cogito, ne forte aut absim, cum 
veniet, aut cursem hue illuc via deterrima. Bibulum, 
ut scribis, audio venisse et redisse pridie Idas. 

Philotimum, ut ais in epistula tertia, exspectabas. 
At ille Idibus a me profectus est. Eo serius ad tuam 
illam epistulam, cui ego statim rescripseram, reddi- 
tae sunt meae litterae. De Domitio, ut scribis, ita 
opinor esse, ut et in Cosano sit, et consilium eius 
ignoretur. Iste omnium turpissimus et sordidissimus, 
qui consularia comitia a praetore ait haberi posse, est 
idem, qui semper in re publica fuit. Itaque nimirum 
hoc illud est, quod Caesar scribit in ea epistula, cuius 
exemplum ad te misi, se velle uti consilio " meo (age, 
esto; hoc commune est), "gratia" (ineptum id qui- 
dem, sed, puto, hoc simulat ad quasdam senatortim 
sententias), "dignitate" (fortasse sententiae consula- 
ris). Illud extremum est: ope omnium rerum." Id 
ego suspicari coepi turn ex tuis litteris aut hoc ipsum 
esse aut non multo secus. Nam permagni eius interest 
rem ad interregnum non venire. Id adsequitur, si 
per praetorem consules creantur. Nos autem in libris 


may be harassed, but do you suppose there is any 
part of Greece that will not be robbed ? Poinpey 
openly declares and shows his men that he will be 
more liberal even than Caesar in largesse. You 
do well to advise me, when I see Caesar, not to be 
too complacent, and to speak rather with dignity. 
Clearly I must do so. I am thinking of going to 
Arpinum after I have met him ; for I do not want to 
be absent on his arrival, or to have to travel to and 
fro in the wretched condition of the roads. I hear, 
as you write, that Bibulus came and went back on 
the 14th. 

You say in your third letter that you were await 
ing Philotimus. He set out from me on the 15th. 
That was why my reply to your letter, which I wrote 
immediately, was late in reaching you. I think you 
are right about Domitius, that he is in his place at 
Cosa ; but what his plan is, is not known. That dis 
graceful mean blackguard M. Lepidus, who says that 
the consular elections may be held by a praetor, is 
playing his old part in politics. So that was the 
meaning of the passage in Caesar s letter of which I 
sent you a copy, that he wanted to enjoy my 
"advice" (well, that is a general expression), my 
influence" (that is flattery, but I suppose he affects 
to want it with a view to the votes of certain 
senators), my "position" (perhaps he means my 
vote as an ex-consul). His last phrase is help in 
every way." I have begun to suspect from your 
letter that that is the point, or something very like 
it. For it is highly important to him that there 
should not be an interregnum. That point is attained, 
if consuls are create* by a praetor. But in our state 
books it is set down that it is illegal not only for 


habemus non modo consules a praetore, sed ne prae- 
tores quidem creari ius esse, idque factum esse 
numquam ; consules eo non esse ius, quod mains im- 
perium a ininore rogari lion sit ius, praetores autem, 
quod ita rogenttir, ut collegae consulibus sint, quorum 
est maius imperium. Aberit non longe, quin hoc a 
me decerni velit neque sit contentus Galba, Scaevola, 
Cassio, Antonio : 

Tore fj.oi x> evpeia \6<av\ 

Sed, quanta tempestas impendeat, vides. Qui 
transierint senatores, scribam ad te, cum certum 
habebo. De re frumentaria recte intellegis, quae 
nullo modo administrari sine vectigalibus potest; nee 
sine causa et eos, qui circum ilium sunt, omnia postu- 
lantes et bellum nefarium times. Trebatium nostrum, 
etsi, ut scribis, nihil bene sperat, tamen videre sane 
velim. Quern fac horteris, ut properet; opportune 
enim ad me ante adventum Caesaris venerit. De 
Lanuvino, statim ut audivi Phameam mortuum, optavi, 
si modo esset futura res publica, ut id aliquis emeret 
meorum, neque tamen de te, qui maxime metis es, 
cogitavi. Sciebam enim te quoto anno" et quan 
tum in solo" solere quaerere neque solum Romae, sed 
etiam Deli tuum 8idy papua videram. 1 Verum tamen 
ego illud, quamquam est bellum, minoris aestimo, 
quam aestimabatur Marcellino consul e, cum ego istos 
hortulos propter domum Anti, quam turn habebam, 
iucundiores mihi fore putabam et minore impensa, 
quam si Tusculanum refecissem. Volui HS. Q. Egi 
per praedem, ille daret tanti, turn haberet venale- 

1 didypaiJ./jt.a Hfnlespina ; digamma MSS. 


consuls to be created by the praetors, but for the very 
praetors themselves, and that it has never been done ; 
that it is illegal for consuls, because it is illegal for per 
sons with greater powers to be proposed for election by 
those with less; for praetors, because they are proposed 
as colleagues of the consuls who have the greater 
powers. The next thing will be, he will want me to 
vote for it, and he will not be content with Galba, 
Scaevola, Cassius and Antonius, "then let the wide 
earth swallow me." But you see what a storm is coming. Iliad iv, 
Which senators have crossed over to Pompey I will 
tell you as soon as I know. You are right about the 
corn supply : it cannot be done without taxation : and 
you have cause to fear the exorbitant demands of 
Pompey s associates and a wicked war. I should much 
like to see my friend Trebatius, although you tell me 
he is in despair. Do bid him hurry, for it will be con 
venient, if he comes before Caesar s arrival. As for 
that estate at Lanuvium, as soon as I heard of the 
death of Phamea, I longed, if the constitution was 
going to last, that one of my friends should buy it, 
and yet I did not think of you, my best friend of all. 
For I know that it is your custom to inquire in how 
many years you may recoup yourself of a purchase, 
and the value of fixtures, and I had seen your inven 
tory not only at Rome but at Delos. But, though 
it is a pretty property, I rate it at a lower value than it 
was rated in Marcellinus consulship, when I thought 
;hat, owing to the house I then had at Antium, those 
ittle gardens would please me better and cost less 
than the repair of my villa at Tusculum. I wanted 
the property for i,50Q. 1 I made an offer to that 
amount through a third party, when he was putting 
1 Q- quingfentis millibus, i.e. 500,000 sesterces. 



Noluit. Sed mine omnia ista iacere puto propter 
nummorum earitatem. Mihi quidem erit aptissimum 
vel nobis potius. si tu emeris; sed eius dementias cave 
contemnas. Valde est vemistum. Quamquam mihi 
ista omnia iam addicta vastitati videntur. 

Respondi epistulis tribus, sed exspecto alias ; nam 
me adhue tuae Htterae sustentarunt. D. Liberalibus. 



Scr. in Nihil habebam, quod seriberem. Neque enim 

frormiano nov j q u i c q uam audieram et ad tuas omnes rescripse- 

Xf~ K. Apr. -j- c j -j. j 

ram pridie. feed, cum me aegntudo non solum 

a. i Uo 

somno privaret, verum ne vigilare quidem sine sum- 
mo dolore pateretur, tecum ut quasi loquerer. in quo 
uno acquiesce, hoc nescio quid nullo argumento pro- 
posito scribere institui. 

Amens mihi fuisse videor a principle, et me una 
haec res torquet, quod non omnibus in rebus laben- 
tem vel potius ruentem Pompeium tamquam unus 
manipularis secutus sim. Vidi hominem xnii K. 
Febr. plenum formidinis. Illo ipso die sensi, quid 
ageret. Numquam mihi postea placuit, nee umquam 
aliud in alio peccare destitit. Nihil interim ad me 
scribere, nihil nisi fugam cogitare. Quid quaeris? 
sicut fv rots epwT6Kots alienant immundae, insulsae, 
indecorae, sic me illius fugae neglegentiaeque defor- 


it up for sale : but lie refused. Nowadays I suppose all 
such property is depreciated on account of the scarcity 
of money. It will suit me admirably, or rather us, if 
you bin* it. Don t despise the late owner s folly: it 
is a most charming place. However, all these seats 
seem now to be doomed to destruction. 

I have answered three of your letters ; but I await 
others. So far your letters have been my support. 

March 17. 



I have nothing to write. There is no news that I Fonniae, 
have heard, and all your letters I answered yesterdaj^. March 18, 
But as a sick heart not only robs me of sleep, but B.C. J$ 
will not allow me even to keep awake without 
the greatest pain, I have begun to write to you 
something or other without any definite subject, that 
I may have a sort of talk with you, the only thing 
that gives me relief. 

I seem to myself to have been mad from the very 
beginning, and the one thing that tortures me is 
that I did not follow Pompey like a private soldier, 
when he was slipping or rather rushing to ruin. I 
saw he was terrified on the 1 7th of January : on that 
day I felt what he would do. Since then I have 
never approved his course, and he has never ceased 
to commit one blunder after another. Meantime 
not a letter to me, nothing but thoughts of flight. 
Well ! Just as in love affairs men are repelled by un 
tidiness, stupidity and indelicacy, so the ugliness of 
Q VOL. n 225 


mitas avertit ab amore. Nihil enim dignum faciebat. 
quare eius fugae comitem me adiungerem. Nunc 
emergit amor, nunc desiderium ferre non possum, 
nunc mihi nihil libri, nihil litterae, nihil doctrina 
prodest. Ita dies et noctes tamquam avis ilia mare 
prospecto, evolare cupio. Do, do poenas temeritatis 
meae. Etsi quae fuit ilia temeritas? quid feci non 
consideratissime ? Si enim nihil praeter fugam 
quaereretur, fugissem libentissime, sed genus belli 
crudelissimi et maximi, quod nondum vident homines 
quale futurum sit, perhorrui. Quae minae municipiis, 
quae nominatim viris bonis, quae denique omnibus, 
qui remansissent ! quam erebro illud " Sulla potuit, 
ego non potero?" ! Mihi autem haeserunt ilia. Male 
Tarquinius, qui Porsenam, qui Octavium Mamilium 
contra patriam, impie Coriolanus, qui auxiliuni petiit a 
Volscis, recte Themistocles, qui mori maluit, nefarius 
Hippias, Pisistrati films, qui in Marathonia pugna 
cecidit arina contra patriam ferens. At Sulla, at 
Marius, at China recte, immo iure fortasse ; sed quid 
eorum victoria crudelius, quid funestius ? Huius 
belli genus fugi, et eo magis, quod crudeliora etiam 
cogitari et parari videbam. Me, quern non nulli con- 
servatorem istius urbis, quern parentem esse dixerunt, 
Getarum et Armeniorum et Colchorum copias ad earn 
adducere ? me meis civibus famem, vastitatem inferre 
Italiae? Hunc primum mortal em esse, deinde etiam 


his flight and his carelessness have estranged my 
love. For he has done nothing of a kind to induce 
me to share his flight. But now my old love breaks 
forth : now I miss him intolerably : now books, 
letters, philosophy, do not help me one whit. Day 
and night, like that bird, 1 I gaze at the sea, 
and long to take flight. Sorely am I punished for 
my rashness. Yet what rashness was there ? I 
acted with all deliberation. For, if flight were his 
only object, I would have fled gladly enough. But I 
was aghast at warfare so cruel and desperate, the 
upshot of which is still unknown. What threats 
against the country towns, against the loyalists by 
name, in fact against all who should stay behind ! 
How frequently has he remarked " Sulla could do it, 
and shall not I ? " I could not get rid of thoughts 
like these. It was base in Tarquiii to egg on Por- 
sena and Octavius Mamilius against his country; it 
was wicked in Coriolanus, to seek help from the 
Volscians. Themistocles was right who preferred to 
die. What a dastard was Hippias, the son of Pisi- 
stratus, who fell at the battle of Marathon, bearing 
arms against his country ! Yes, but Sulla and Marius and 
Cinna acted rightly, perhaps one should say within their 
rights ; but then victory brought cruelty and death. 
I shrank from a war of that kind, and also because I saw 
cruelty even greater was being planned and prepared. 
Was it for me, whom some called the saviour and 
father of Rome, to bring against her hordes of Getae, 
Armenians and Colchians ? Was it for me to bring 
famine on my fellow-townsmen and devastation on 
Italy ? In the first place I reflected that Caesar was 

1 Cf. Plato. Ep. vii, 348A, K0.6a.wep tipvis iroOCiv iroQlv ava.- 
" Like a bird longing to fly somewhither." 



multis modis posse exstingui cogitabam, urbem autem 
et populum nostrum servandum ad immortalitatem, 
quantum in nobis esset, putabam, et tamen spes 
quaedam me oblectabat fore ut aliquid conveniret, 
potius quam aut hie tantum sceleris aut ille tantum 
flagitii admitteret. 

Alia res nunc tota est, alia niens mea. Sol, ut est 
in tua quadam epistula, excidisse milii e mundo vide- 
tur. Ut aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur, 
sic ego, quoad Pompeius in Italia fuit, sperare non 
destiti. Haec, baec me fefellerunt, et, ut verum 
loquar, aetas iam a diuturnis laboribus devexa ad 
otiuin domesticarum me rerum deleetatione mollivit. 
Nunc, si vel perieulose experiundum erit, experiar 
certe, ut bine avolem. Ante oportuit fortasse; sed 
ea, quae scripsisti,me tardarunt, et auctoritas maxime 
tua. Nam, cum ad bunc locum vemssem, evolvi vo- 
lumen epistularum tuarum, quod ego sub signo babeo 
servoque diligentissime. Erat igitur in ea, quam x K. 
Febr. dederas, hoc modo : Sed videamus, et Gnaeus 
quid agat, et illius rationes quorsum fluant. Quodsi 
iste Italiam relinquet, faciet omnino male, et. ut ego 
existimo, cxAoyio-rcos, sed turn demum consilia nostra 
commutanda erunt." Hoc scribis post diem quartum, 
quam ab urbe discessimus. Deinde vin K. Febr. : 
" Tantum modo Gnaeus noster ne, ut urbem a Aoyicrrws 
reliquit, sic Italiam relinquat." Eodem die das alte- 
ras litteras, quibus mihi consulenti planissime respon- 
des. Est enim sic : Sed venio ad consultationem 
tuam. Si Gnaeus Italia cedit, in urbem redeundum 
puto; quae enim finis peregrinationis ? " Hoc mihi 


mortal, and besides might be got rid of in many 
ways. But I thought that our city and our people 
should be preserved so far as in us lay for immortal 
ity; and anyhow I cherished a hope that some 
arrangement might be made before Caesar perpetra 
ted such a crime or Pompey such iniquity. 

Now the case is altered and my mind is altered 
too. The sun, as you say in one of your letters, 
seems to me to have fallen out of the universe. As a 
sick man is said to have hope, so long as he has 
breath, so I did not cease to hope so long as Pompey 
was in Italy. This, this was what deceived me, 
and to speak the truth after my long labours my 
life s evening falling peacefully has made me lazy 
with the thought of domestic pleasures. But now, 
even if risk must be run in fleeing hence, assuredly 1 
will run it. Perhaps I ought to have done it before : 
but the points you wrote about delayed me, and 
especially your influence. For, when I got so far, I 
opened the packet of your letters, which I keep 
under seal and preserve with the greatest care. In a 
letter dated the 21st of January,, you make the 
following remark : Let us see Pompey s policy and 
the drift of his plans. Now if he leave Italy, it will 
be wrong and to my mind irrational : but then and 
not till then will be the time to change our plans." 
This you wrote on the fourth day after I left Rome. 
Then on the 23rd of January : I only pray that our 
friend Pompey will not leave Italy, as he has irration 
ally left Rome." On the same day you wrote another 
letter, a frank reply to my request for advice. It 
runs : But to answer the question on which you ask 
advice, if Pompey leaves Jtaly, I think you ought to 
return to Rome : for what can be the end to his 



plane haesit, et nunc ita video, infinitum bellum 
iunctum miserriina fuga, quam tu peregrinationem 
r-n-oKopL^ij. Sequitur xPW/^os vi K. Februarias: 

Ego, si Pompeius manet in Italia, iiec res ad paeti- 
oneni venit, longius bellum puto fore; sin Italiam 
relinquit,ad posterum bellum cwnrovSov strui existimo." 
Huius igitur belli ego particeps et socius et adiutor 
esse cogor, quod et amroi 8ov est et cum civibus ? 
Deinde VH Idus Febr., cum iam plura audires de 
Pompei consilio, concludis epistulam quandam hoc 
modo: "Ego quidem tibi non sim auetor, si Pom 
peius Italiam relinquit, te quoque profugere. Sum- 
mo enim periculo facies nee rei publicae proderis ; 
cui quidem posterius poteris prodesse, si manseris." 
Quern (f)i\o-arpn ac TroXiriKor hominis prudentis et 
amici tali admonitu non moveret auctoritas ? Dein- 
ceps in Idus Febr. iterum mihi respondes consulenti 
sic : Quod quaeris a me, fugamne ] defendam an 
moram utiliorem putem, ego vero in praesentia subi- 
tum discessum et praecipitem profectionem cum tibi 
turn ipsi Gnaeo intitilem et periculosam puto, et satius 
esse existimo vos dispertitos et in speculis esse ; sed 
medius fidius turpe nobis puto esse de fuga cogitare." 
Hoc turpe Gnaeus noster biennio ante cogitavit. Ita 
sullaturit animus eius et proscripturit iam din. Inde, 
ut opinor, cum tu ad me quaedam yeviKwrepov scri- 
psisses, et ego mihi a te significari putassem, ut Italia 
cederem, detestaris hoc diligenter xi K. Mart.: Ego 
vero nulla epistula significavi, si Gnaeus Italia cederet, 
ut tu una cederes, aut, si significavi. non dico fui in- 

1 fuga nine putem, as Otto M filler: M reads fugamne fidam 
(corr. from i eciam) an moram defendam utiliorem pulem. 
Other suggested emendations are fugamne stiadeam an moram 
defendam utilioremque putem (Klotz], and fugfamne foedam 
an moram desidem utiliorem putem (Afanutitts). 


wanderings ? " This gave me pause, and I see now 
endless war is attached to that wretched flight, which 
you playfully called "wandering." There follows 
your prophecy of the 25th of January: If Pompey 
stays in Italy and no arrangement is reached, I fancy 
there will be a very long war. If he leaves Italy, I 
think that for the future there will be war a I outrance." 
In this war then a I outrance, this civil war, am I forced 
to take part and lot and share ? Next on the 7th of 
February, when you had heard more of Pompey s 
plans, you end a letter as follows : I would not ad 
vise you to flee, if Pompey leaves Italy. You will 
run a very great risk, and will not help the country, 
which you may be able to help hereafter, if you 
remain." What patriot and politician would not be 
influenced by such advice from a wise man and a 
friend ? Next on the llth of February you answer 
my request for counsel again as follows : You ask 
me whether I hold that flight or delay is more useful. 
Well, I think that at the present juncture a sudden 
departure and hasty journey would be useless and 
dangerous both to yourself and to Pompey, and that 
it were better for you to be apart, and each on his 
own watch tower. But upon my honour I hold it 
disgraceful of us to think of flight." This disgrace 
our Pompey meditated two years ago : so long has he 
been eager to play at Sulla and proscriptions. Then, 
as I fancy, when you had written to me in more 
general terms and I had thought that some of your 
remarks hinted at my departure from Italy, you pro 
test emphatically against it on the 19th of February: 
"in no letter have I hinted that you should 
accompany Pompey, if he leaves Italy, or, if I did 
hint it, I was worse than inconsistent, I was mad." 


constans, sed demens." In eadem epistula alio loco: 
" Nihil relinquitur nisi fuga ; cui te socium neutiquam 
puto esse oportere nee umquam putavi." Totani 
autem hanc deliberationem evolvis accuratius in lit- 
teris vni Kal. Mart, datis : Si M . Lepidus et L. 
Voloacius remanent, manendum puto, ita ut, si salvus 
sit Pompeius et oonstiterit alicubi, hanc veKmav re- 
linquas et te in certamine vinei cum illo facilius 
patiaris quam cum hoc in ea, quae perspicitur f utura, 
colluvie regnare." Multa disputas huic sententiae 
convenientia. Inde ad extremum : Quid, si," in- 
quis, " Lepidus et Volcacius discedunt ? Plane airopw. 
Quod evenerit igitur, et quod egeris, id o-repKreov pu- 
tabo." Si turn dubitaras, mine certe non dubitas 
istis manentibus. Deinde in ipsa fuga v Kal. Martias: 
" Interea non dubito quin in Formiano mansurus sis. 
Commodissime enim TO /xeAAoi ibi KapaSo/o;o-ets." Ad 
K. Mart., cum ille quintum iam diem Brundisi esset : 
Turn poterimus deliberare non scilicet Integra re, 
sed certe minus infracta, quam si una proieceris te." 
Deinde mi Non. Martias, VTTO TIJV X-ij^/iv cum breviter 
scriberes, tamen ponis hoc : " Cras scribam plura et 
ad omnia ; hoe tamen dicam, non paenitere me con- 
silii de tua mansione, et. quamquam magna sollicitu- 
dine, tamen, quia minus mali puto esse quam in ilia 
profectione, maneo in sententia et gaudeo te man- 
sisse." Cum vero iam angerer et timerem, ne quid a 
me dedecoris esset admissum, in Nonas Mart.: 
" Tamen te non esse una cum Pompeio non fero 
moleste. Postea, si opus fuerit, non erit difficile, et 


In the same letter there is another passage : " Nothing 
is left for Pompey but flight, in which I do not think 
and never have thought that you should share." 
This counsel you unroll in detail in your letter 
dated the 22nd of February: If M . Lepidus and 
L. Volcacius stay, I think you should stay, provided, 
if Pompey wins safety and makes a stand anywhere, 
you should leave these ames damnees, and rather 
share defeat with him than share Caesar s sovereignty 
in the mire that will be." You argue at length in 
support of this view, then at the end you say : " What 
if Lepidus and Volcacius depart ? I am quite at a 
loss. So I shall think you must face the event and 
abide by what you have done." If you had any doubt 
then, you certainly have no doubt left now, as those 
two persons remain in Italy. Next, when the flight 
was actually made on Feb. 25 : Meantime I have no 
doubt you should stay at Formiae. It will be most 
convenient there to await the event." On the 1st 
of March, when Pompey had been four days at 
Brundisium : Then we shall be able to debate, not 
indeed with a free hand but assuredly less hampered, 
than if you had shared his plunge." Next on the 
1th of March, though you scribbled a line on the eve 
of your fever bout, nevertheless you say this : I will 
write more to-morrow, and answer all your questions. 
But I maintain this, that I am not sorry for advising 
you to stay, and, though very anxious, still, because I 
fancy it is better than flight, I stick to my opinion 
and am glad that you have stayed in Italy." When 
I was already tortured with fear that my conduct 
was disgraceful on the 5th of March you write : 
" However I am not sorry that you are not with 
Pompey. Hereafter, if need arise, it will be easy, 



illi, quoquo tempore net, erit cur/m to-Toi . Sed hoc 

ita dico, si hie, qua ratione initium fecit, eadem 
cetera aget, sincere, temperate, prudeiiter, valde 
videro et consideratius utilitati nostrae consuluero." 
vn Idus Martias scribis Peducaeo quoque iiostro pro- 
bari,quod quierim; cuius auctoritas multum apud me 
valet. His ego tuis scriptis me consolor, ut nihil a 
me adhuc delictum putem. Tu modo auctoritatem 
tuam defendito ; adversus me nihil opus est, sed 
consciis egeo aliis. Ego, si nihil peccavi, reliqua 
tuebor. Ad ea tute hortare et me omnino tua cogi- 
tatione adiuva. Hie nihildum de reditu Caesaris 
audiebatur, Ego his litteris hoc tamen profeci, 
perlegi omnes tuas et in eo acquievi. 



Scr. in Lentulum nostrum scis Puteolis esse? Quod cum 

formiano e yjatore quodam esset auditum. qui se diceret eum 
V / / / A" 

_ in Appia, cum is paulum lecticam aperuisset, cognosse, 
Apr. a. tOo ....... , 

etsi vix veri simile, misi tamen ruteolos pueros, qui 

pervestigarent, et ad eum litteras. Inventus est vix 
in hortis suis se occultans litterasque mihi remisit 
mirifice gratias agens Caesari; de suo autem consilio 
C. Caesio mandata ad me dedisse. Eum ego hodie 
exspectabam, id est xm K. Apriles. 

Veiiit etiam ad me Matins Quinquatribus, homo 


and to him, whenever it happens, acceptable. When 
I say this, it is with the reservation, that, if Caesar 
continues, as he has begun, acting with good faith, 
moderation and prudence, I must thoroughly review 
the matter and consider more closely what our 
interests advise." On the 9th of March you write 
that my friend Peducaeus too approves my inaction : 
and his authority has much weight with me. From 
these lines of yours I console myself with the re 
flection that so far I have done nothing wrong : but 
pray support your position. So far as I am concerned 
there is no need : but I want others to be my ac 
complices. If I have not done wrong so far, I will 
take care of the future. Do you maintain j^our exhor 
tations and assist me with your reflections. Here 
nothing as yet has been heard about Caesar s return. 
For myself I have won thus much good by my letter, 
I have read all yours and found rest in the act. 



Do you know that our friend Lentulus is at Puteoli? Formiac, 
I heard this from a passer-by, who declared he recog- March 20, 
nized him on the Appian road as he drew aside the B.C. 49 
curtains of his litter, and, though it seemed hardly 
probable, I sent servants to Puteoli to track him and 
hand him a letter. He was found with difficulty con 
cealing himself 011 his estate, and returned me a letter 
in which he expressed amazing gratitude to Caesar. 
But about his own plans he said he had sent me a 
message by C. Caesius. I expect him to-day, the 
20th of March. 

Matius also came to me on the 1 9th of March. 



mehereule, ut niihi visus est, temperatus et prudens; 
existimatus quidem est semper auctor otii. Quam ille 
hoc non probare mihi quidem visus est, quam illam 
veKwav, ut tu appellas, timere ! Huic ego in multo 
sermone epistulam ad me Caesaris ostendi, earn cuius 
exemplum ad te antea misi, rogavique, ut interpreta- 
retur, quid esset, quod ille scriberet, eoiisilio meo 
se uti velle, gratia, dignitate, ope re rum omnium." 
Respoiidit se non dubitare, quin et opem et gratiam 
meam ille ad pacificationem quaereret. Utinam ali- 
quod in hac miseria rei publicae -oX.iri.Koi opus etficere 
et navare mihi liceat ! Matius quidem et ilium in ea 
sententia esse confidebat et se auctorem fore pollice- 

Pridie autem apud me Crassipes fuerat, qui se 
pridie Non. Martias Brundisio profectum atque ibi 
Pompeium reliquisse dicebat, quod etiam, qui vin 
Idus illinc profecti erant, nuntiabant; ilia vero omnes, 
in quibus etiam Crassipes, qui pro sua prudentia po- 
tuit attendere, sermones minaces, inimieos optima- 
tium, municipiorum hostes, meras proscriptiones, 
meros Sullas; quae Lucceium loqui, quae totam 
Graeciam, quae vero Theophanem ! Et tamen omnis 
spes salutis in illis est, et ego excubo animo nee partem 
ullain capio quietis et, ut has pestes effugiam, cum 
dissimillimis nostri esse cupio ! Quid eriim tu illic 
Scipionem, quid Faustum, quid Libonem praetermis- 
surum sceleris putas, quorum creditores convenire 
dicuntur? quid eos autem, cum vicerint, in cives effectu- 
ros? quam vero iui<po\lsv\ia.v Gnaei nostri esse? Xun- 
tiant Aegyptum et Arabiam evSaifiova et 


He seemed to me, I do declare, moderate and 
sensible : certainly he has always been thought to be 
in favour of peace. How he disliked this present 
pass ! How he seemed to fear these (imes damnees, as 
you call them ! In the course of a long talk I showed 
him Caesar s letter to me, of which I sent you a copy 
before, and I asked him to explain what Caesar meant 
by writing that he wished " to take advantage of my 
advice, my influence, my position and my help of all 
sorts." Matius replied that undoubtedly Caesar 
wanted my help and influence to make peace. Would 
that I could succeed in carrying through some poli 
tical compromise in this miserable state of affairs ! 
Matius himself declared that Caesar had that feeling, 
and promised that he would help such a course. 

However the day before Crassipes had been with 
me, and he said that he had quitted Brundisium on the 
()th of March and left Pompey there; the same tale 
was brought by those who quitted the place on the 
<Sth. All of them, and among the rest Crassipes, who 
was quite capable of observing what was going on, had 
the same story, threatening words, breach with the 
loyalists, hostility to the municipalities, nothing but 
proscriptions, nothing but Sullas. How Lucceius 
talked, all the Greeks and Theophanes too ! Never 
theless the only hope of safety lies in them, and I am 
on the watch and take no rest and long to be with 
the most uncongenial associates to escape the plague 
here. For what crime do you think that Scipio will 
stick at, or Faustus and Libo, when their creditors 
are said to be selling them up, and what do you sup 
pose they will do to the citizens when they win? 
How pusillanimous Pompey is ! They say that he is 
thinking of Egypt and Arabia Felix and Mesopotamia 



cogitare, iam Hispaniam abiecisse. Monstra narrant; 
quae falsa esse possunt, sed certe et haec perdita sunt 
et ilia noil salutaria. Tuas litteras iam desidero. Post 
fugam nostram numquam tarn longum earum interval- 
lum fuit. Misi ad te exemplum litterarum mearum 
ad Caesarem, quibus me aliquid profecturum puto. 



Scr. in Ut legi tuas litteras, quas a Furnio nostro acce- 

Formiano peram., quibus mecum agebas, ut ad urbem essem, te 
All K.Apr. ve ll e u ti ccmsilio et dignitate mea" minus sum ad- 
miratus; de gratia" et de ope " quid significares 
mecum ipse quaerebam, spe tamen deducebar ad earn 
eogitationem, ut _te pro tua admirabili ac singular! sa- 
pientia de otio, de pace, de concordia civium agi velle 
arbitrarer, et ad earn rationem existimabam satis ap- 
tam esse et naturam et personam meam. Quod si ita 
est, et si qua de Pompeio nostro tuendo et tibi ac rei- 
publicae reconciliaiidocura te attingit, magis idon eum, 
quam ego sum, ad earn causam profecto reperies ne- 
minem, qui et illi semper et seiiatui, cum primum 
potui, pacis auctor fui, nee sumptis armis belli ullam 
partem attigi, iudicavique eo bello te violari, contra 
cuius honorem populi Romani beneficio coiicessum 
inimici atque invidi niterentur. Sed, ut eo tempore 
noil modo ipse fautor dignitatis tuae fui, verum etiam 
ceteris auctor ad te adiuvandum, sic me nunc Pompei 


and has given up Spain. The report is monstrous, 
but may be false. Certainly all is lost here, and there 
is not much hope there. I long for a letter from you. 
Since my flight there has never been so long a break 
in our correspondence. I send you a copy of my let 
ter to Caesar. I think it will do some good. 



On reading your letter, which I got from our friend Formiae, 
Furnius, in which you told me to come near Rome, March 19, 
I was not much surprised at your wishijng to employ B.C. ^-9 
"my advice and my position"; but I asked myself 
what you meant by my influence" and help." 
However, my hopes led me to think that a man of 
your admirable statesmanship would wish to act for 
the comfort, peace, and agreement of the citizens, 
and for that purpose I considered my own character 
and inclination very suitable. If that is the case, 
and if you are touched by the desire to protect 
our friend Pompey and reconcile him to yourself and 
the State, I am sure you will find no one more 
suited for the purpose than I am. I have always ad 
vocated peace both with Pompey and the Senate ever 
since I have been able to do so, nor since the outbreak 
of hostilities have I taken any part in the war^I have 
considered that the war was attacking your rights in 
that envious and hostile persons were opposing a dis 
tinction conferred on you by the grace of the Roman 
people. But, as at that time I not only upheld your 
rights but urged others to assist you, so now I am 
greatly concerned with the rights of Pompey. It is 



dignitas vehementer movet. Aliquot enim sunt anni, 
cum vos duo delegi, quos praecipue colerem et quibus 
esseni, sicut sum, amicissimus. Sj Quain ob reni a te 
peto vel potius omnibus te j)recibus oro et obtestor, 
ut in tuis maximis euris aliquid impertias temporis 
huic quoque cogitation!, ut tuo benencio bonus vir, 
gratus, pius denique esse in maxim! beneficii memoria 
possim. Quae si tantuni ad me ipsum pertinerent, 
sperarem me a te tamen impetraturum. sed, ut arbi- 
troi , et ad tuam fidem et ad rem publicam pertinet, 
me et pacis et utriusque vestrum amicum, et ad ve- 
stram et ad civium concordiam per te quam accommo- 
datissimum conservari. Ego, cum antea tibi de Len- 
tulo gratias egissem, cum ei saluti, qui mihi fuerat, 
fuisses, tamen lectis eius litteris, quas ad me gratissimo 
animo de tua liberalitate beneficioque misit, eandem 
mi videor " salutem a te accepisse quam ille. In quern 
si me intellegis esse gratum, cura, obsecro, ut etiam 
in Pompeium esse possim. 



Legeram tuas litteras xin K., cum mihi epistula 
adf ertur a Lepta circumvallatum esse Pompeium, rati- 
bus etiam exitus portus teneri. Non medius fidius 
prae lacrimis possum reliqua nee cogitare nee scribere. 
Misi ad te exemplum. Miseros nos ! cur noil omnes 
fatum illius una exsecuti sumus? Ecce autem a Matio 
et Trebatio eadem, quibus Menturnis obvii Caesaris 
tabellarii. I orqueor infelix, ut iam ilium Mucianum 

1 amioum, et ad vcstram added by Lehmann. 
- mi videor Klotz, Sell mid t ; me 31 SS. 



many years since I chose you two men for my special 
respect, and to be my closest friends, as you are. So I 
ask you, or rather beseech and entreat you with all 
urgency, that in spite of all your anxieties you may 
devote some time to considering how I may be en 
abled by your kindness to be what decency and gra 
titude, nay good-feeling, require, in remembering my 
great debt to Pompey. If this only mattered to my 
self, I should yet hope to obtain my request; but to 
my mind it touches your honour and the public weal 
that I, a friend of peace and of both of you, should 
be so supported by you that I may be able to work 
for peace between you and peace amongst our fellow- 
citizens. I thanked you formerly in the matter of 
Lentulus, for having saved him, as he had saved me. 
Yet on reading the letter he has sent me full of thank 
fulness for your generous kindness, I feel that his 
safety is my debt as much as his. If you understand 
my gratitude to him, pray give me the opportunity 
of showing my gratitude to Pompey too. 



I had just read your letter on the 20th, when an Fonniae, 
epistle was brought to me from Lepta announcing March ~0, 
that Pompey was blockaded and that even escape B.C. 4$ 
from the harbour was cut off by a fleet. Upon my 
honour tears prevent me from thinking or writing 
anything else. I send you a copy of the letter. 
Wretches that we are, why did we not all follow his 
fortunes together? See now, here are Matins and 
Trebatius with the same tidings. Caesar s letter- 
carriers met them at Menturnae. I am tortured with 

R VOL. II 241 


exitum exoptem. At quam honesta, at quam expedita 
tua consilia, quam evigilata tuis cogitationibus qua 
itineris, qua navigationis, qua congressus sermonisque 
cum Caesare ! Omnia cum honesta turn cauta. In 
Epirum vero invitatio quam suavis, quam liberalis, 
quam fraterna ! 

De Dionysio sum admiratus, qui apud me honora- 
tior fuit quam apud Scipionem Panaetius ; a quo im- 
purissime haec nostra fortuna despecta est. Odi ho- 
minem et odero ; utinam ulcisci possem ! Sed ilium 
ulciscentur mores sui. 

Tu, quaeso, nunc vel maxime, quid agendum nobis 
sit, cogita. Populi Romani exercitus Cn. Pompeium 
circumsedet, fossa et vallo saeptum tenet, fuga prohi- 
bet ; nos vivimus, et stat urbs ista, praetores ius dicunt, 
aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt, ego 
ipse sedeo! Coner illuc ire ut insanus, implorare 
fidem municipiorum? Boni non sequentur, leves ir- 
ridebunt, rerum novarum cupidi, victores praesertim 
et armati, vim et manus adferent. Quid censes igitur? 
ecquidnam est tui consilii ad finem huius miserrimae 
vitae ? Nunc doleo, nunc torqueor, cum cuidam aut 
sapiens videor, quod una non ierini, aut felix fuisse. 
Mihi contra. Numquam enim illius victoriae socius 
esse volui, calamitatis niallem fuisse. Quid ego nunc 
tuas litteras, quid tuam prudentiam aut benevolentiam 
implorem? Actum est; iiulla re iam possum iuvari, 


sorrow, so that now I would choose the end of 
Mucius. 1 But how honoimible, how simple, how 
clearly thought out was your advice as to my land- 
route and my sea-route and my meeting and talk with 
Caesar! It was equally honourable and prudent. 
Your invitation, too, to Epirus, how kind and generous 
and brotherly it is! 

As for Dionysius, I am surprised. I held him in 
greater honour thin Scipio held Panaetius, yet he has 
most foully mocked at my bad fortunes. I hate the 
fellow and I always shall. I wish I could pay him 
out. But his own character will do that. 

I beseech you now give the greatest consideration 
to my proper course. An army of the Roman people 
invests Gnaeus Pompey. It holds him hedged by trench 
and mound and keeps him from flight. Yet we live and 
Rome is standing, the praetors preside in court, the 
aediles make preparations for the games, the conser 
vatives are booking their profits, and I sit still ! Am 
I to try to cross the sea like a madman, to beg the 
country towns to be loyal? The loyalists will not 
follow me, the irresponsible will deride me, the revo 
lutionaries, especially now they are armed and victor 
ious, will lay hands of violence upon me. What do 
you think then? Have you any plan to end this life 
of misery ? Now I feel grief, now I am in agony, when 
somebody thinks me wise because I did not go with 
Pompey, or lucky perhaps. I think the opposite. For 
never did I wish to share a victory of his; I should 
have wished rather to share his defeat. Why should 
I entreat a letter from you now, your kindness, your 
good sense ? It is all over. Nothing can help me 

1 Q. Mucius Scaevola was murdered in 82 B.C. by the order 
of the younger Marius. Cf. viii, 3. 

R2 243 


qui, ne quod optem quidem, iam habeo, nisi ut aliqua 
inimici misericordia liberemur. 



OVK eW eVi /zos Aoyos, ut opinor, ille de ratibus. 
Quid enim esset, quod Dolabella iis litteris, quas in 
Idus Martias a Brundisio dedit, hanc quasi ei ^eptar 
Caesaris scriberet, Ponipeium in fuga esse eumque 
prinio vento navigaturum ? Quod valde discrepat ab 
iis epistulis, quaruni exenipla antea ad te misi. Hie 
quidem mera scelera loquuntur ; sed non erat nee 
recentior auctor nee huius quidem rei melior Dola 

Tuas xi K. accepi litteras, quibus omnia consilia 
differs in id tempus, cum scierimus, quid actum sit. 
Et certe ita est, nee interim potest quicquam non 
modo statui, sed ne cogitari quidem. Quamquam 
hae me litterae Dolabellae iubent ad pristinas cogi- 
tationes reverti. Fuit enim pridie Quinquatrus 
egregia tempestas ; qua ego ilium usum puto. 

Zwaywyrj consiliorum tuorum non est a me col- 
lecta ad querelam^ sed magis ad consolationem meam. 
Nee enim me tarn haec mala angebant quam suspieio 
culpae ac temeritatis meae. Earn nullam puto esse, 
quoniam cum consiliis tuis mea facta et consilia con- 
sentiunt. Quod mea praedicatione factum esse scri- 
bis magis quam illius merito, ut tantum ei debere 
viderer, est ita. Ego ilia extuli semper, et eo quidem 


more, for I have no desire except that somehow my 
enemies may take pity on me and free me from my 



Tis no true tale" 1 to my mind that about the fleet. Formiae, 
For why should Dolabella in a letter dated from March 24, 
Brundisium on the 13th of March call it a kind of B.C. Ifi 
windfall for Caesar that Pompey is thinking of flight 
and preparing to sail by the first wind ? That is very 
different from that letter of which I sent you a copy 
before. Here indeed every one speaks of sheer 
disaster; but there is no later nor more reliable 
authority on the event than Dolabella. 

I have your letter of the 22nd of March, in which 
you postpone all advice till we know what has hap 
pened. Certainly that is wise ; and in the meantime 
we cannot think of anything, much less arrange 
anything. However, Dolabella s letter compels me 
to turn to my former thoughts. For on the 1 8th of 
March the weather was excellent and I fancy Pompey 
will not have failed to take advantage of it. 

That precis of your advice was not made by me to 
quarrel with you, but to console myself, for I suffered 
less pain from these evil days than from the idea I 
had acted wrongly and rashly. But I fancy I have 
not done so, since my deeds and policy agree with 
your advice. You say that I seem to owe Pompey 
so much more because I say so than because he 
deserves it. You are right. I have always exaggerated 

1 The first line of the palinode of Stesichorus in which he 
retracted his former views on Helen. 


magis, ne quid ille superiorum ineminisse me putaret. 
Quae si maxime meminissem, tamen illius temporis 
similitudinem iam sequi debt-rein. Xiliil me adiuvit, 
cum posset: sed postea fuit amicus, etiam valde, nee, 
quam ob causam, plane scio. Ergo ego quoque illi. 
Quin etiam illud par in utroque nostrum, quod ab 
eisdem illecti sumus. Sed utinam tantum ego ei 
prodesse potuissem, quantum mihi ille potuit! Mihi 
tamen, quod fecit, gratissimum. Xec ego mine, eum 
iuvare qua re possim, scio nee, si possem, cum tarn 
pestiferum bellum pararet, adiuvandum putarem. 
Tantum offendere animum eius hie manens nolo, nee 
mehercule ista videre, quae tu potes iam animo pro- 
videre, nee interesse istis malis possem. Sed eo 
tardior ad discedendum fui, quod difficile est de 
discessu voluntario sine ulla spe reditus cogitare. 
Nam ego hune ita paratum video peditatu, equitatu, 
classibus, auxiliis Gallorum. quos Matins eXd-rifer, ut 
puto, sed certe dicebat . . .peditum, equitum se 
polliceri sumptu suo annos decem. Sed sit hoc 
AaTTtcr/za ; magnas habet certe copias et habebit non 
Italiae vectigal, sed eivium bona. Adde confidentiam 
hominis, adde imbecillitatem bonorum virorum, qui 
quidem, quod ilium sibi merito iratum putant, ode- 
runt, uttuscribiSjludum. Acyellemscripsisses,quisnam 
hoc significasset. Sed et iste, qui 2 plus ostenderat, 
quam fecit, et vulgo ilium, qui amartint, non amant ; 

1 CGIOD peditum, equitum sex Basins. 

- The reading is very uncertain. The HISS, have cc for 
ac, scribis/or scripsisses, hie for hoc and qui for quia. 


his services for fear he might think I remembered 
the past. However much I remembered it, I should 
feel bound to take the course he took as an example 
for my behaviour now. He failed to help me when 
he might ; but afterwards he was my friend, my very 
good friend. I don t quite know why ; so I too will 
be his friend. There is this further likeness between 
the two cases; both of us were inveigled by the same 
persons. But would that I were able to help him as 
much as he was able to help me ! However, I am 
truly grateful for what he did. I do not know in 
what way I may be able to help him now ; nor, were 
I able, should I think it proper to help him in his 
preparations for such a disastrous war. Only I do 
not wish to hurt his feelings by staying here. I de 
clare I could not behold the days that you can fore 
see, nor take part in such iniquity. But my departure 
was delayed, because it is hard to think of voluntary 
departure when there is no hope of return. For 
Caesar I see is so equipped with infantry, cavalry, 
fleet, auxiliaries from Gaul Matius may have exag 
gerated, but certainly he said that . . . infantry and 
cavalry have promised their services for ten years at 
their own expense. However, granted that this was 
gasconiiade, great forces Caesar assuredly has, and he 
will have not the inland revenue of Italy, but the 
property of her citizens. Add to this the self- 
confidence of the man, the weakness of the loyalists, 
who, thinking Pompey deservedly angry with them, 
as you say, detest the game. I wish you had cited 
your authority. Domitius, who promised more than 
he performed, 1 and Pompey s old lovers in general do 

Or as Boot, reading- sedef, "Domitius, who etc., is 
doing nothing." 



municipia vero et rustic! Roman! ilium metuunt, hunc 
adhuc diligunt. Quare ita paratus est, ut, etiamsi 
vincere non possit, quo modo tamen vinci ipse possit, 
non videam. Ego autem non tarn yoTjreiav huius 
timeo quam TTfiOai djKrji . At yap TMV rvpdvvwv 
So;creis," inquit H Aaron , ouru OTL /ze/zty/iei ui ar- 

Ilia aAt/xei tt video tibi non probari. Quae ne mihi 
quidem placebant ; sed habebam in illis et occultatio- 
nem et iV^peo-iav fidelem. Quae si mihi Brundisi 
suppeterent, mallem ; sed ibi occultatio nulla est. 
Verum, ut soribis, cum sciemus. 

Viris bonis me non nimis excuso. Quas enim eos 
cenas et facere et obire scripsit ad me Sextus, quam 
lautas, quam tempestivas ! Sed sint quamvis boni, 
non sunt meliores quam nos. Moverent me, si essent 

De Lanuvino Phameae erravi ; Troianum somnia- 
veram. Id ego volui Q, sed pluris est. Istuc tamen 
mihi cuperem emeres, si ullam spem fruendi viderem. 

Nos quae monstra cotidie legamus, intelleges ex 
illo libello, qui in epistulam coniectus est. Lentulus 
noster Puteolis est d&jjuovwv is, ut Caesius narrat, 
quid agat. AtarpoTrryv Corfiniensem reformidat. Pom- 
peio mine putat satis factum, beneficio Caesaris mo- 
vetur, sed tamen movetur magis prospecta re. 

Tene haec posse ferre? Omnia misei a^ sed lioc 


not love him. The towns and rural population are 
afraid of Pompey and so far worship Caesar. Caesar 
is so equipped that, even if he fail to beat, I do not 
see in what way he can be beaten. I do not fear 
his finesse so much as his force majeure, for as Plato 
says, a tyrant s requests partake of the nature of 
mandates." 1 

Places without harbours, I see, do not meet with 
3 our approval. Nor do I like them, but the place 
has afforded me hiding and a trusty set of attendants. 
If I could have had the same at Brundisium, I should 
have preferred it. But there is no hiding place there. 
But, as you say, when we know! 

I am not going to excuse myself much to the 
loyalists. What dinners according to Sextus they 
are giving and receiving, how lavish and how early ! 
They may be loyal, but they are not more loyal than 
I. They would influence me more if they had shown 
more courage. 

I was wrong about Phamea s estate at Lanuvium. 
I was dreaming about the Trojan estate. 2 I wanted 
it for c4,500, 3 but the price is higher. However, 
I should have liked you to buy that estate for me, 
if I saw any hope of enjoying it. 

What portentous news I read daily you may under 
stand from the pamphlet enclosed in this packet. 
Lentulus is at Puteoli, and, Caesius says, in a 
quandary what to do. He dreads a fiasco like that 
at Corfinium. He thinks he has done his duty by 
Pompey. He is influenced by Caesar s kindness ; 
but he is influenced more by future prospects. 

To think that you can bear this ! Everything is 

1 Plato, Ep. 7. 2 Apparently near Antium, cf. ix, 9. 
3 500,000 sesterces. 



nihil miserius. Ponipeius N. Magium de pace misit 
et tamen oppugnatur. Quod ego 11011 credebam, sed 
habeo a Balbo litteras, quarum ad te exemplum misi. 
Lege, quaeso, et illud infimum caput ipsius Balbi opti- 
mi, cui Gnaeus noster locum, ubi hortos aedificaret, 
dedit, quern cui nostrum non saepe praetulit? Itaque 
miser torquetur. Sed, ne bis eadem legas, ad ipsam 
te epistulam reicio. Spem autem pacis habeo nullam. 
Dolabella suis litteris m Idus Mart, datis merum 
bellum loquitur. Maneamus ergo in ilia eadem sen- 
tentia misera et desperata, quando hoc miserius esse 
nihil potest. 



Scr. Romae Caesar nobis litteras perbreves misit; quarum 
circ. X K. exemplum subscripsi. Brevitate epistulae scire pote- 
Apr. 705. ri s e um valde esse distentum, qui tanta de re tarn 

breviter scripserit. Si quid praeterea novi fuerit, 

statim tibi scribam. 


A. d. vii Idus Martias Brundisium veni, ad murum 
castra posui. Pompeius est Brundisi. Misit ad me 
N. Magium de pace. Quae visa sunt, respondi. Hoc 
vos statim scire volui. Cum in spem venero de 
compositione aliquid me conficere, statim vos certiores 

Quo modo me nunc putas, mi Cicero, torqueri, 
postquam rursus in spem pacis veni, ne qua res eorum 
compositionem impediat ? Namque, quod absens 


wretched, but nothing more wretched than this. 
Pompey sent N. Magius to speak of peace, and yet 
he is under siege. I did not believe it ; but I have a 
letter from Balbus of which I send you a copy. Read 
it, please, and that clause at the end which contains 
the remarks of the good Balbus himself, to whom 
Pompey gave a site for his estate and whom he had 
often preferred to all of us. So he is in an agony of 
grief. But, that you may not have to read the same 
twice over, I refer you to the letter. Of peace I 
have no hope. Dolabella in his letter of the 1 3th of 
March speaks of war pure and simple. So let us 
stick to the same opinion, that there is no hope, for 
nothing can be worse than all this. 



Caesar has sent me a very short letter of which I Rome, about 
subjoin a copy. From the shortness of the letter March 23, 
you can infer that he is greatly occupied, to write so B.C. 49 
briefly about a matter of such importance. If there 
is any further news, 1 will write you immediately. 


On the 9th of March I came to Brundisium, and 
under its walls pitched my camp. Pompey is at 
Brundisium. He sent N. Magius to me to talk of peace. 
I replied as I thought fit. I wanted you to know 
this at once. When I have hopes of settled terms, 
I will inform you immediately." 

My dear Cicero, you can imagine my torture,, after 
I again had hopes of peace, for fear anything should 
prevent an arrangement. I long for peace. It is all 
I can do in my absence from the scene of action. 



facere possum, opto. Quodsi una essem, aliquid for- 
tasse proficere possem videri. Nuno exspectatione 



Scr.. in Miseram ad te vim K. exemplum epistulae Balbi 

,^ fl l ad me et Caesaris ad eum. Ecce tibi eodem die 

/ /// A. 

Apr a 7<>~> Capua litteras accepi ab Q. Pedio Caesarem ad se 

pvidie Idus Martias misisse hoc exemplo: 

Pompeius se oppido tenet. Xos ad portas castra 
habemus. Conamur opus magnum et multorum 
dierum propter altitudinem maris. Sed tamen niliil 
est, quod potius faciamus. Ab utroque portus cornu 
moles iacimus, ut aut ilium quam primum traicere, 
quod habet Brundisi copiarum, cogamus, aut exitu 

Ubi est ilia pax, de qua Balbus scripserat torqueri 
se? Ecquid acerbius, ecquid crudelius? Atque eum 
loqui quidam avOei TiK^ narrabat Cn. Carbonis, M. 
Bruti se poenas persequi, omniumque eorum, in quos 
Sulla crudelis hoc socio fuisset ; nihil Curionem se 
duee facere, quod non hie Sulla duce fecisset; se 
ambire reditionem, 1 quibus exsilii poena superioribus 
legibus non fuisset, ab illo patriae proditores de 

1 se ambire reditionem Tyrrell and Purser : ad ambitionem 



If I were there, perhaps I might succeed in seeming 
to be of use. Now I am tormented with waiting. 



I sent you on the 26th of March a copy of Balbus Formiae, 
letter to me and of Caesar s letter to him. Then on March ~5, 
that very day from Capua I got a letter from Q. B.C. 49 
Pedius saying that Caesar had written to him on the 
1 4th in the following terms : 

Pompey confines himself to the town. My camp 
is at the gates. I am attempting a big job which 
will take many days on account of the depth of the 
sea: yet I have no better course. From both wings 
of the harbour I am building a mole, so that I may 
either compel him to transship the forces he has here 
as soon as possible, or prevent him from getting out 
at all." 

Where is the peace about which Balbus wrote 
that he was tormenting himself? Could anything 
be more bitter, more cruel ? Moreover some one told 
me with authority that Caesar said in conversation 
he was the avenger of Cn. Carbo, M. Brutus, 1 and 
all those on whom Sulla with Pompey to help him 
wreaked his cruelty : Curio under his leadership was 
doing nothing but what Pompey had done under 
Sulla s leadership : what he wanted was the restora 
tion of those not punished with exile under the earlier 
laws, while Pompey had restored those who had 

J Carbo was put to death by Pompey in 82 or 81 B.C. ; he 
was consul for the third time with C. Marius the younger. 
Brutus, the father of Caesar s murderer, was killed by 
Pompey in 77 or 76 B.C., and another M. Brutus committed 
suicide sooner than fall into his hands. 



exsilio reductos esse ; queri de Milone per vim 
expulso; neminem tamen se violaturum, nisi qui 
arma contra. Haec Baebius quidam a Curione in Id. 
profectus, homo non infans, sed qui de suo ilia 1 non 
dicat. Plane iiescio, quid again. Illim equidem 
Gnaeum profectum puto. Quicquid est, biduo scie- 
mus. A te nihil lie Anteros quidem litterarum; nee 
minim. Quid eiiim est, quod scribamus? Ego tamen 
nullum diem praetermitto. 

Scripta epistula litterae mihi ante lucem a Lepta 
Capua redditae sunt Idib. Mart. Pompeium a Brun- 
disio conscendisse. at Caesarem a. d. VH Kal. Apriles 
Capuae fore. 



Scr. in Cum dedissem ad te litteras, ut scires Caesarem 

Formiano Capuae vn Kal. fore, allatae mihi Capua sunt et hie 

/ 111 A. ^ copiam mihi et 2 in Albano apud Curionem v K. fore. 

" V a Eum cum videro, Arpinum pergam. Si mihi veniam, 

quam peto, dederit, titar illius condicione ; si minus, 

impetrabo aliquid a me ipso. Ille, ut ad me scripsit. 

legioiics singulas posuit Brundisi, Tarenti, Siponti. 

Claudere mihi videtur maritimos exitus et tamen 

ipse Graeciam spec-tare potius quam Hispanias. Sed 

haec longius absunt. Me mine et congressus huius 

stimulat (is vero adest), et primas eius actiones 

1 qui de suo ilia Tyricll : quis ulli MSS. 
et hie copiam mihi et Madvig ; et hoc mihi et MSS. 


been traitors : he resents Pompey s violent banishment 
of Milo, but would only harm those who bear arms 
against him. This tale was told me by one Baebius, 
who came from Curio on the 1 3th, a man who is no 
fool, but not smart enough to invent such a tale. 
I am quite at a loss what to do. From Brundisium 
I fancy Pompey must have set out. Whatever has 
happened, we shall know in a few days. I haven t a 
letter from you not even by Anteros, and no wonder. 
What is there to write about? Still I do not omit 
one day. 

When this was written a letter came to me before 
daylight from Lepta dated Capua the 15th of March. 
Pompey has embarked from Brundisium. Caesar is 
due at Capua on the 26th. 



After I had sent you a letter informing you that Formiac, 
Caesar would be at Capua on the 26th, a letter March Jo, 
reached me from Capua saying that Caesar would B.C. 4-) 
see me either here or in Curio s place at Alba on 
the 28th. When I have seen him, I shall go to 
Arpinum. If he should grant me the privilege I 
ask, I shall put up with his terms. If not, then I 
shall consult myself as to what to do. As Caesar 
wrote to me, he has stationed one legion each at 
Brundisium, Tarentum and Sipontum. He seems to 
me to be cutting off retreat by sea and yet himself 
to have Greece in view rather than Spain. But 
these are remote considerations. Now I am stirred 
by the thought of meeting him ; for the meeting is 
close at hand, and I am alarmed at the first steps he 



horreo. Volet enim, credo, S. C. facere, volet augurum 
decretum (rapiemur ant absentes vexabimur), vel ut 
consules roget praetor vel ut dicta torem dicat ; 
quorum neutruin ins est. Etsi, si Sulla potuit 
efficere, ab interrege ut dictator diceretur 1 cur hie 
non possit? Niliil expedio, nisi ut aut ab hoc tam- 
quam Q. Mucius aut ab illo tamquam L. Scipio. 

Cum tu haec leges, ego ilium fortasse conve- 
nero. TfrXaOt. Kvrrepor ne illud quidem nostrum 
proprium. Erat enim spes propinqui reditus, erat 
hominum querela, Nunc exire cupimus, qua spe 
reditus, mihi quidem numquam in inentem venit. 
Non modo autem nulla querela est municipalium 
hominum ac rusticorum, sed contra metuunt ut 
crudelem, iratum. Nee tamen mihi quicquain est 
miserius quam remansisse nee optatius quam evolare 
non tarn ad belli quam ad fugae societatem. Sed 
tu, omnia qui consilia difFerebas in id tempus, cum 
sciremus, quae Brundisi acta essent. Scimus nempe ; 
haeremus nihilo minus. Yix enim spero mihi huiic 
veniam daturum, etsi multa adfero iusta ad impe- 
trandum. Sed tibi omnem illius meumque sermonem 
omnibus verbis expressum statim mittam. Tu mine 
omni amove enitere, ut nos cura tua et prudentia 
iuves. Ita subito aecurrit, ut ne T. Rebilum quidem, 

2 After diceretur most MSS. add el magister equitum. 


will. take, for he will want, I am sure, a decree of 
the Senate and a decree of the augurs (we shall be 
hurried off to Rome or harassed, if we are absent), 
so that the praetor may hold an election of consuls 
or name a dictator, both acts unconstitutional. 
Though, if Sulla could arrange to be named dic 
tator by an interrex, why should not Caesar? I can 
see no solution of the problem except by meeting 
the fate of Mucius at the hand of Caesar, or that of 
Scipio 1 at the hands of Pompey. 

When you read this, perhaps I shall have 
met the man. Endure." My own exile was no 
unkinder cut" ; for I had prospects of speedy re 
turn and was consoled by the popular outciy. Now 
I long to go away and it never strikes me that there 
is any chance of return. Not only is there no out 
cry of any in town or country, but on the contrary 
all are afraid of Pompey as cruel in his anger. 
Nothing causes me more wretchedness than my 
having remained, and there is nothing that I want 
more than to flee to him to share not his fighting 
but his flight. But now what becomes of your 
counsel to put off decision till we knew how things 
went at Brundisium ? We do know, but are as 
badly stuck as ever. I can scarcely hope that Caesar 
will give me privilege, though many are the good 
reasons I can bring for granting it. But I will send 
you immediately a report of our conversation word 
for word. Use all your affection to help me with 
your careful advise. He is coming so fast that I 
cannot see even T. Rebilus, as I had arranged. I 

1 L. Scipio was proscribed by Sulla. For Mucius cf. viii, 3. 

- Odyssey xx, 18, r^rXaflt Sy, Kpadirj, nai nvvrfpov &\\o TTOT" 

, "endure, my heart, worse hast thou borne before." 

s VOL. ii 257 


ut constitueram, possim videre ; omnia nobis im- 
paratis agenda. Sed tamen aXAa //,ev at<-ros, ut ait 
ille, aAAa Se KCU Sat/uov i 7roB i](rerai. Quicquid 
egero, continue scies. Mandate Caesaris ad consules 
et ad Pompeiurn, quae rogas, nulla habeo descripta : 
quae attulit, ilia e via 1 misi ad te ante; e quibus 
mandata puto intellegi posse. Philippus Neapoli est, 
Lentulus Puteolis. De Domitio, ut facis, sciscitare, 
ubi sit, quid cogitet. 

Quod scribis asperius me, quam mei patiantur 
mores, de Dionysio scripsisse, vide, quam sim anti- 
quorum hominum. Te medius fidius hanc rem gra- 
vius putavi laturum esse quam me. Nam, praeter- 
quam quod te moveri arbitror oportere iniuria, quae 
mihi a quoquam facta sit, praeterea te ipsum quodam 
modo hie violavit, cum in me tarn improbus fuit. 
Sed, tu id quanti aestimes, tuum indicium est; nee 
tamen in hoc tibi quicquam oneris impono. Ego 
autem ilium male sanum semper putavi, mine etiam 
impurum et sceleratum puto nee tamen mihi inimi- 
ciorem quam sibi. Philargyro bene curasti. Causam 
certe habuisti et veram et bonam, relictum esse me 
potius quam reliquisse. 

Cum dedissem iam litteras a. d. vin Kal., pueri, 
quos cum Matio et Trebatio miseram, epistulam mihi 
attulerunt hoc exemplo : 


Cum Capua exissemus, in itinere audivirnus Pom- 
peium Brundisio a. d. xvi K. Apriles cum omnibus 

habeo descripta; quae attulit ilia e via Wcsenberg : 
habeo et descripta attulit ilia e via MSS. 



have to do everything impromptu. But nevertheless 

as the poet has it, Some things I ll venture and odyssey " 27 

some things God will prompt." Whatever I do you shall 

know forthwith. The demands Caesar sent to Pom- 

pey and the consuls, for which you ask, are not with 

me. The copies that were brought I -sent on to you 

at once. 1 From them I think you can gather what 

those demands were. Philippus is at Naples. Len- 

tulus at Puteoli. As to Domitius, go on inquiring 

where he is and what he intends to do. 

You write that my remarks about Dionysius are 
more bitter than suits my character. See how old- 
fashioned I am. Upon my honour I thought that 
you would be more angered than I : for, apart from 
the fact that I think you should be stirred by any 
injury done by anyone to me, this man in a way 
outraged you in treating me so badly. But it is for 
you to decide what weight you should give to the 
matter. I will not put anything upon you. I always 
thought the fellow was not quite sane : now I think 
lie is an abandoned blackguard. But he is as much 
his own enemy as mine. You did well with Philar- 
gyrus. You certainly had a good and true case in 
contending that I had not abandoned but rather had 
been abandoned. 

When I had dispatched my letter on the 25th, 
the servants I had sent to Matius and Trebatius 
brought me a letter in the following terms : 


After leaving Capua we heard on the way that 
jPompey with all the forces he had set out from 

1 This doubtful passage probably refers to the document 
icntioned in vii, 17. 

s2 259 


copiis, quas habuit, profectum esse ; Caesarem postero 
die in oppidum introisse, contionatum esse, inde 
Romam contendisse, velle ante K. esse ad urbem et 
pauetilos dies ibi commorari, deinde in Hispanias 
proficisci. Nobis lion alienum visinn est, quoniam 
de adventu Caesaris pro certo habebamus, pueros 
tuos ad te remittere, ut id tu quam primum scires. 
Mandata tua nobis curae sunt, eaque, ut tempus 
postularit. agemus. Trebatius sedulo facit, ut ante- 

Epistula conscripta nuntiatum est nobis Caesarem 
a. d. vin K. April. Beneventi mansurum, a. d. vn 
Capuae, a. d. vi Sinuessae. Hoc pro certo putamus." 



Scr. in Cum, quod scriberem ad te, nihil haberem, tamen, 

fornuano ne quern diem intermitterem, has dedi litteras. A. d. 

w _ vi K. Caesarem Sinuessae mansurum nuntiabaiit. Ab 

eo mihi litterae redditae sunt a. d. vn K., quibus iam 

opes" meas, 11011 ut superioribus litteris "opein" ex- 

spectat. Cum eius clementiam Cornniensem illam per 

litteras collaudavissem, rescripsit hoc exemplo : 


Recte auguraris de me (bene enim tibi cognitus 
sum) nihil a me abesse longius crudelitate. Atque 
ego cum ex ipsa re magnam capio voluptatem turn 
ineum factum probari abs te triumpho gaudio. Neque 
illud me movet, quod ii, qui a me dimissi sunt, 


Brundisium on the 17th of March: that Caesar on 
the next day entered the town, made a speecli and 
went off at full speed to Rome, meaning to be at the 
city before the 1 st of April, to remain there a few 
daj-s and then to set out for Spain. It seemed 
proper since we had sure news of Caesar s approach 
to send your servants back to you to give informa 
tion as early as possible. Your charges have our 
attention, and we will act as circumstances demand. 
Trebatius is trying hard to reach you before Caesar. 
When this letter had been written, news came to 
us that Caesar would stop on the 2.5th at Bene- 
ventum, at Capua on the 26th, on the 27th at 
Sinuessa. This we consider certain." 



Though I have nothing to write to you, still, not Formiae, 
to miss a day, I send this letter. On the 27th of March 26, 
March Caesar will stop at Sinuessa, they say. He sent B.C. 4 
me a letter dated the 26th, in which he looks forward 
to my resources," not as in the former letter to 
my help." I had written praising to the skies his 
kindness, his clemency at Corfinium. He replied as 


You are right to infer of me (for I am well known 
to you) that there is nothing further from my nature 
than cruelty. Whilst I take great pleasure from that 
fact, I am proud indeed that my action wins your 
approval. I am not moved because it is said that those, 



discessisse dicuntur, ut niihi rursus helium inferrent. 
Nihil enim malo quam et me mei similem esse et illos 
sui. Tu velim milii ad urbem praesto sis, ut tuis 
consiliis atque opibus, ut consuevi, in omnibus rebus 
utar. Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse iucundius. 
Hane adeo habebo gratiam illi ; neque enim aliter 
facere potevit. Tanta eius humanitas, is sensus, ea in 
me est benevolentia." 



Set: in Trebatium vi Kal., quo die has litteras dedi, ex- 

Formiano spectabam. Ex eius nuntio Matique litteris medita- 

J I h. bor, quo modo cum illo loquar. C) tempus miserum ! 

Apt . ft. i )o j^ ec (Jufojto, quin a me contendat, ad urbem veniam. 

Senatum enim Kaleiidis velle se frequentem adesse 

etiam Formiis prosoribi iussit. Ergo ei negandum 

est ? Sed quid praeripio.? Statim ad te perscribam 

omnia. Ex illius sermone statuam, Arpinumne mihi 

eundum sit an quo alio. Volo Ciceroni meo togam 

puram dare, istic puto. Tu, quaeso, cogita, quid 

deinde. Nam me hebetem molestiae reddiderunt. A 

Curio velim scire ecquid ad te scriptum sit de Tirone. 

Ad me enim ipse Tiro ita scripsit, ut verear, quid agat. 

Qui autem veniunt inde, Ktv8vv<aSr) nuntiant. Sane 

in magnis curis etiam haec me sollicitant. In hac 

enim fortuna perutilis eius et opera et fidelitas esset. 



whom I let go, have departed to wage war on me 
again, for there is nothing I like better than that I 
should be true to myself and they to themselves. I 
could wish you to meet me at Rome that I may avail 
myself of your advice and resources, as usual, in every 
thing. You must know that nothing pleases me 
more than the presence of your relative Dolabella. 
This favour also I shall owe to him; for he will not 
be able to do otherwise than arrange it, such is his 
kindness, his feeling and goodwill towards me." 



I am awaiting Trebatius on March the 27th, the Formiae, 
date of this letter. From his tidings and Matius March 27, 
letter I shall consider how to talk to Caesar. What B.C. Jfi 
a wretched age this is ! I have no doubt Caesar will 
urge me to come to Rome. For he gave orders that 
notices should be posted even at Formiae that he 
wanted a full house on the 1st. Must I refuse? But 
why do I anticipate ? I will write you all about it at 
once. From Caesar s conversation I shall decide 
whether I ought to go to Arpinum or elsewhere. I 
wish to celebrate my son s coming of age. Arpinum, 
I think, will be the place. Please consider what I 
should do next, for my troubles have made me stupid. 
From Curius I want to hear whether you have had 
news about Tiro. For to me Tiro has written in such 
a way that I am anxious to know how he is. Those 
two who come from his part say that his condition is 
critical. In the midst of many great troubles this 
also distresses me ; for in our present straits his energy 
and loyalty would be very serviceable. 





Scr. Utrumque ex tuo consilio ; nam et oratio fuit ea 

Arpmt I nostra, ut bene potius ille de nobis existimaret quam 

*. P ra " gratias ageret, et in eo mansimus, ne ad urbem. Ilia 
/ Oo 

fefellerunt, facilem quod putaramus. Nihil vidi minus. 

Damnari se nostro iudicio, tardiores fore reliquos, 
si nos non veniremus, dicere. Ego dissimilem illorum 
esse causam. Cum multa, Veni igitur et age de pace." 
Meone," inquam, arbitratu ?" An tibi," inquit,"ego 
praescribam ?" Sic,"inquam, agam, senatui non pla- 
cere in Hispanias iri nee exercitus in Graeciam trans- 
portari, multaque/ inquam, de Gnaeo deplorabo." 
Turn ille: Ego vero ista dici nolo." Ita putabam," 
inquam; sed ego eo nolo adesse, quod aut sic mihi 
dicendum est, multaque., quae nullo modo possem si- 
lere, si adessem, aut non veniendum." Summa fuit, 
ut ille quasi exitum quaerens, ut deliberarem. Non 
fuit negandum. Ita discessimus. Credo igitur hunc 
me non amare. At ego me amavi, quod mihi iam 
pridem usu non venit. 

Reliqua, o di ! qui comitatus, quae, ut tu soles di 
cere, veKi ta ! iii qua erat ?ypws Celer. O rem perdi- 
tam ! o copias desperatas ! Quid, quod Servi filius, 
quod Titini in iis castris fuerunt, quibus Pompeius 
circumsederetur ! Sex legiones ; multum vigilat, 




In both respects I followed your advice. I spoke Arpinum, 
so as to gain Caesar s respect rather than his gratitude ; March 28, 
and I persisted in my resolve not to go to Rome. We B.C. Jfi 
were mistaken in thinking he would be easy to 
manage. I have never seen anyone less easy. He 
kept on saying that my decision was a slur on him, 
and that others would be less likely to come, if I did 
not come. I pointed out that my case was very unlike 
theirs. After much talk he said, " Well, come and 
discuss peace." On my own terms?" I asked. 
Need I dictate to you?" said he. Well," said 1, 
I shall contend that the Senate cannot sanction 
your invasion of Spain or your going with an army 
into Greece., and," I added, " I shall lament Pompey s 
fate." He replied. That is not what I want." " So 
I fancied," said I: but I do not want to be in Rome, 
because either I must say that and much else, on 
which I cannot keep silent, if I am present, or else I 
cannot come." The upshot was that I was to think 
over the matter, as Caesar suggested, with a view to 
closing our interview. I could not refuse. So we 
parted. I am confident then he has no liking for me. 
But I like myself, as I have not for a long time. 

For the rest, ye gods what a following! What 
dmes damnees in your phrase ! Celer is an hero to the 
rest. What an abandoned cause, and what desperate 
gangs ! What can one think of a son of Servius and 
a son of Titinius being in an army which beset Pom- 
pey ? Six legions ! He is very wide-awake and 



audet. Nullum video finem mali. Nunc certe pro- 
menda tibi sunt consilia. Hoc- fuerat extremum. 

Ilia tamen Kara/vAtis illius est odiosa, quam paene 
praeterii, si sibi coiisiliis nostris uti non liceret, usu- 
rum, quorum posset, ad omniaque esse descensurum. 

Vidisti igitur virum, ut seripseras ? ingemuisti"? " 
Certe. Cedo reliqua." Quid? Continue ipse in 
Pedanum, ego Arpinum. Inde exspecto equidem 
XaXayevcrar 1 illam tuam. Tu malim," inquies, 

actum ne agas." Etiam ilium ipsum, quern sequi- 
mur, multa fefellerunt. 

Sed ego tuas litteras exspeeto. Nihil est enim iam 
ut antea Yideamus, hoc quorsuni evadat." Extre 
mum fuit de congressu nostro ; quo quidem non du- 
bito quin istum offenderim. Eo maturius agendum 
est. Amabo te, epistulam et TroAtriK/yv ! Valde tuas 
litteras nunc exspecto. 



Scr. Arpini Ego meo Ciceroni, quoniam Roma caremus, Ar- 

prid. A . pini potissimum togam puram dedi, idque municipi- 

P r a bus nostris fuit gratum. Etsi omnes et illos, et qua 

iter feci, maestos adflictosque vidi. Tarn tristis et 

1 \a\ayevcrav Bosius : AAATEAFAX M. 


bold. I see no end to our evil days. Now assuredly 
you must produce your advice. This was the limit 
we contemplated. 

Caesar s finale, which I had almost forgotten, was 
hateful : If I may not use your advice, I shall use 
the advice I can and go to any length." You will 
say : You have seen him to be as you have described 
him : and did you heave a sigh ?" Indeed I did. 
You ask for the rest of our talk. What more is there 
to tell ? He went straight to Pedum, I to Arpinum. 
From thence I await the twittering swallow " you 
talk of. You will say you prefer me not to dwell 
on past mistakes. Even Pompey, our leader, has 
made many. 

But I await a letter from you. There is no room 
now, as before, for your await the event." The 
limit we fixed was that interview; and I have no 
doubt I annoyed Caesar ; so I must act the more 
quickly. Please send me a letter and deal with la 
haute politiqiie. I await a letter from you now very 



Since Rome was out of bounds, I celebrated my Arpinum, 
son s coming of age at Arpinum in preference to any March 31, 
other place, and so doing delighted my fellow-towns- B.C. 40 
men. Though they were pleased, yet I must tell 
you they and all others I have met are sad and sorry. 

1 A reference to Anthology x, i, 6 TrXoos ojpcuos Ka.1 yap \a\a- 

Fair is the season for sailing-: already ihe twittering 1 
swallow Flitteth around, and soft bloweth the wind from the 
west." Cf. Att. ix, 7. 



tarn atrox est dra8ewpri<ri<s huius ingentis mail. Di- 
lectus habentur, in hiberna deducuntur. Ea, quae, 
etiam cum a bonis viris, cum iusto in bello, cum mo- 
deste fiunt, tamen ipsa per se molesta sunt, quam 
censes acerba mine esse, cum a perditis in civili ne- 
fario bello petulantissime fiant! Cave autem putes 
quemquam hominem in Italia turpem esse, qui hinc 
absit. Vidi ipse Formiis universes neque mehereule 
umquam homines putavi, et noram omnes, sed num- 
quam uno loco videram. 

Pergamus igitur, quo placet, et nostra omnia re- 
linquamus, proficiscamur ad eum, cui gratior noster 
adventus erit, quam si una fuissemus. Turn enim 
eramus in maxima spe, nunc ego quidem in nulla ; 
nee praeter me quisquam Italia cessit, nisi qui hunc 
inimicum sibi putaret. Nee mehereule hoc facio rei 
publicae causa, quam funditus deletam puto, sed ne 
quis me putet ingratum in eum, qui me levavit iis 
incommodis, quibus idem adfecerat, et simul quod ea, 
quae fiunt, aut quae certe futura sunt, videre non pos 
sum. Etiam equidem senatus consulta facta quae- 
dam iam puto, utinam in Volcaci seiitentJam ! Sed 
quid refert ? est enim una sententia omnium. Sed 
erit immitissimus Servius, qui filium misit ad effligen- 
dum Cn. Pompeium aut certe capiendum cum Pontio 
Titiniano. Etsi hie quidem timoris causa, ille vero ? 


So dark and direful is the coup d oeil of this vast 
calamity. Levies are being made ; troops are being 
drafted into winter quarters. These measures are 
hardships in themselves even when taken by loyalists, 
when the war is just, when there is some considera 
tion. You can imagine how bitter they are when 
taken quite tyrannically by desperadoes in wicked 
civil war. But you must remember that every 
scoundrel in Italy is of the party. I saw them all 
together at Formiae. I could hardly believe them 
to be human. I knew every one of them., but I had 
never seen the whole collection together. 

Let us go then whither we please, and leave our 
all behind. Let us set out to Pompey, who will be 
more gratified at our arrival than if we had been 
with him all along. For then we had great hopes ; 
but now I at least have none : nor has anyone except 
myself departed from Itaty, unless he imagines Caesar 
to be his enemy. Heaven be my witness I do not 
take this step for the sake of the Republic, which to 
my mind is utterly destroyed, but for fear I may be 
charged with ingratitude to one who relieved me 
from the inconveniences which he himself had in 
flicted : and, at the same time, because I cannot 
endure the sight of the horrors that are happening 
and are bound to happen. Moreover I fancy that 
now decrees of the Senate have been passed, and my 
only hope is that they will agree with Volcacius 
proposal. But what does it matter? There is only 
one proposal for everybody. But the most implacable 
enemy will be Servius, who has sent his son with 
Pontius Titinianus to destroy or at least to capture 
Gnaeus Pompey. Though Titinianus has the excuse 
of fear, what excuse has Servius? But let us cease 



Sed stomachari desinamus et aliquando sentiamus 
nihil nobis nisi, id quod iniiiime vellem, spiritum 
reliquum esse. 

Nos, quoniain superum mare obsidetur, infero na- 
vigabimus, et, si Puteolis erit difficile, Crotonem pe- 
temus aut Thurios et boiii cives amantes patriae 
mare infestum habebimus. Aliain rationem liuius 
belli gerendi nullam video. In Aegyptum iios ab- 
demus. Exercitu pares esse non possumus ; pacis 
fides nulla est. Sed haec satis deplorata sunt. 

Tu velim litteras Cephalioni des de omnibus rebus 
actis, denique etiam de sermonibus hominum, nisi 
plane obmutuerunt. Ego tuis consiliis usus sum 
rnaximeque, quod et gravitatem in congressu nostro 
tenui, quam debui, et, ad urbem ut non accederem, 
perseveravi. Quod superest, scribe, quaeso, quam 
accuratissime (iam eiiim extrema sunt), quid placeat, 
quid censeas ; etsi iam nulla dubitatio est. Tamen, 
si quid vel potius quicquid veniet in meiitem, scribas 



from anger and let us reflect that there is nothing 
left us now except what to me is least desirable 

As for me, since the Adriatic is beset, I shall sail 
by the lower sea, and, if it be difficult to start from 
Puteoli, I shall seek Crotoii or Thurii, and like a 
loyal and patriotic citizen play the pirate. Other 
means of conducting this war I see none. We will 
go and bury ourselves in Egypt. We cannot match 
Caesar on land, and we cannot rely on peace. But 
enough of this outcry. 

Please entrust a letter to Cephalio about all that 
has been done, and even about people s talk, unless 
men have become quite dumb. I followed your 
advice, especially when I maintained in our conversa 
tion a proper dignity and persisted in my refusal to 
go to Rome. For the rest please write to me in as 
much detail as possible (for the worst has come to 
the worst) what you approve and what you think, 
though now there can be no doubt. But yet, if 
anything comes into j r our mind, or rather whatever 
comes into your mind, please write to me. 







$ cr - IM in Nonas cum in Laterium fratris venissem, accepi 

iMtcrio Htteras tuas et paulum respiravi, quod post has rui- 

Qutnti jra- ., . 

, JTT y nas mini 11011 acciderat. rer emm magm aestimo 

Apr. a. 70ij ^ibi firmitudinem animi nostri et factum nostrum 
proburi. Sexto enim nostro quod scribis probari, ita 
laetor, ut me quasi patris eius, cui semper uni pluri- 
mum tribui, iudicio comprobari putem. Qui niihi, 
quod saepe soleo recordari, dixit olim Nonis illis 
Decembribus, cum ego Sexte, quidnam ergo?" M^ 
ftdi , inquit ille, d<rirov8i ye Kal aK-Aetw? dTroXoi/Ji fjv, 
uAAa /xeya pefas TL Kal ecrcro/xet otcrt TrvOfirdai." 
Kius igitur mihi vivit auctoritaSj et simillimus eius 
filius eodem est apud me pondere, quo fuit ille. 
Quern salvere velim iubeas pluriinum. 

Tu tuum consilium etsi non in longinquum tern- 
pus differs (iam enim ilium emptum pacificatorem 
perorasse puto^ iam actum aliquid esse in consessu 
senatorum ; senatum enim non piito)^ tameii suspen- 
sum meum detines, sed eo minus, quod non dubito, 
quid nobis agendum putes. Qui enim Flavio legionem 
et Sicilian! dari scribas, et id iam fieri, quae tu scelera 





On the third of April coming to my brother s Laierium, 
house at Laterium, I got your letter with some little April 3, 
relief, a thing which had not happened to me since B.C. 49 
this disaster began. For I attach very great weight 
to your approval of my firmness of mind and my 
action. As for your writing that it meets with 
the approval of my friend Sextus, I am as glad as if 
I fancied myself to have won the approval of his 
father, on whose judgement I always set the very 
highest value. I often call to mind how it was he 
who said to me on that famous December the 5th, 
when I asked him what we were to do next: Let 
me not die a coward and shameful death, but 
greatly daring live in fame for aye." So his influence Iliad xxii, 304 
lives for me, and his son, who is very like him, has 
the same weight as he. Please give him my best 

Your plan, it is true, you postpone for a very short 
time, for I fancy by now that that venal peace 
maker must have wound up his speech, and some 
thing must have been done in the session of Senators, 
for I don t consider it a Senate, still you keep 
mine in suspense, but the less so because I have no 
doubt as to what you think we should do. For when 
you write that Flavius is offered a legion and Sicily, 
and that the matter is now in hand, just think what 

T VOL. II 273 


partim parari iam et cogitari, partim ex tempore 
futura censes ? Ego vero Solonis, popularis tui, ut 
puto, etiam mei, legem neglegam, qui capita sanxit, 
si qui in seditione non alterius utrius partis fuisset, 
et, nisi si tu aliter censes, et liinc abero et illim. 
Sed alterum mihi est certius, nee praeripiam tamen. 
Exspectabo tuum consilium et eas litteras, nisi alias 
iam dedisti, quas scripsi ut Cephalioni dares. 

Quod scribis, non quo aliunde audieris, sed te 
ipsum putare me attractum iri, si de pace agatur, 
mihi omnino non venit in mentem, quae possit actio 
esse de pace, cum illi certissimum sit, si possit, 
exspoliare exercitu et provincia Pompeium ; nisi forte 
iste nummarius ei potest persuadere, ut, dum oratores 
eant, redeant, quiescat. Nihil video, quod sperem 
aut quod iam putem fieri posse. Sed tamen hominis 
hoc ipsum probi est et magnum rt 1 TWV -oXiTLKWTfirwv 
o-Ke/zfiaTwj , veiiiendumne sit in consilium tyranni, si 
is aliqua de re bona deliberaturus sit. Quare, si quid 
eius modi evenerit, ut arcessamur (quod equidem 
non credo. 2 Quid enim essem de pace dicturus, dixi; 
ipse valde repudiavit), sed tamen, si quid accident, 
quid censeas mihi faciendum, utique scribito. Nihil 
enim mihi adhuc accidit, quod maioris consilii esset. 

Trebati, boni viri et civis, verbis te gaudeo dele- 
ctatum, tuaque ista crebra IK^WV^O-IS v e/oeu me 
sola adhuc delectavit. Litteras tuas vehementer 

1 et mavfnum TI Wesenberg; magnum sit MSS. 

2 credo Boot: euro MSS. 



iniquities are being prepared and meditated, some 
now and some in the future? I shall certainly neg 
lect the law of Solon, your countryman, and I imagine 
mine too soon, who provided the death penalty for 
anyone who should not take one side in a revolution, 
and, unless you advise otherwise, I shall keep apart 
both from Caesar and Pompey. The former course 
is quite certain : but I shall not forestall events. I 
shall await your advice and the letter which I asked 
you to give to Cephalic unless you have now sent 

You write, not on the authority of anyone, but as 
your own idea, that I shall be drawn into any ne 
gotiations there may be for peace. I cannot imagine 
that there can be such negotiations, since it is 
Caesar s positive determination to rob Pompey, if 
possible, of army and province, unless perhaps that 
hireling can induce him to keep quiet, pending the 
passage to and fro of intermediaries. I see nothing 
that I can hope for or even imagine is likely to 
happen. However this is the very question for an 
honest man to decide and one of the great questions 
of la haute politique, whether one may enter the 
council of a tyrant, if the subject of debate is good. 
Therefore, if anything should happen to cause me to 
be summoned I don t in the least expect anything 
will, for I have said all I can say about peace, and 
Caesar was determined to repudiate it still, if any 
thing should happen, write and tell me what you 
think I should do in any case. For so far nothing 
has happened that demands greater deliberation. 

I am glad you are pleased with the words of that 
loyal citizen Trebatius, and your frequent bravos 
have so far been my sole pleasure. Your letter I 
x2 275 


exspecto; quas quidcm credo iam datas esse. Tu 
cum Sexto servasti gravitatem eandem, quam mihi 
praecipis. Celer tuns disertus inagis est quam 
sapiens. De iuvenibus quae ex Tullia audisti, vera 
sunt. Mucianum 1 istud, quod scribis, noil mihi 
\ r idetiir tarn re esse triste quam verbo. Haec est 
a\rj, in qua mine sumus, mortis instar. Aut enim 
mihi libere inter malos TroXtrevreov fuit aut vel peri- 
culose cum bonis. Aut oportet temeritatem bonorum 
sequamur aut audaciam improborum insectemur. 
Utrumque periculosum est, at hoc, quod agimus, 
turpe nee tamen tutum. 

Istum, qui filium Brundisium de pace misit (de 
pace idem sentio quod tu, simulationem esse apertam, 
parari autem acerrime bellum), me legatum iri non 
arbitror, cuius adliuc, ut optavi, mentio facta nulla 
sit. Eo minus habeo necesse scribere aut etiam 
cogitare, quid sim facturus, si accident, ut legarer. 



,S r/-. / // Ego cum accepissem tuas litteras Xonis Aprilibus. 

Arcane quas Cephalic attulerat, essemque Menturnis postri- 

(Jumti Jr. c ]j e mansurus, ut inde protinus. sustinui me in 

po i. ^ on. _^ rcano fratris, ut. duni aliquid certius adferretur, 
Apr, a. lOo ,. . . , ., ., 

occultiore in Joco essemus, agerenturque nilnlo 

minus, quae sine nobis agi possunt. 

Mucianum Reid : Maconi MSS. 



await eagerly. I expect it has been dispatched now. 
With Sextus you have preserved the same dignity 
that you prescribe for me. Your friend Celer has 
more wit than wisdom. What you heard from Tullia 
about the boys is true. Mucius ending, 1 which you 
mention, does not seem to me so sad as it sounds. 
It is this distraction in which we now find ourselves 
that is like death. For I have the alternative, either 
to take part in politics with a free hand among the 
disloyal, or to side with the loyal at all costs. I 
ought either to follow the loyalists in their rashness 
or attack the other party in its daring. Either 
course spells danger: but my present action brings 
shame without safety. 

The man who sent his son to Brundisium to 
negotiate peace (my views on peace are yours, that 
it is patent pretence, but that war is being prose 
cuted with the utmost activity) that man I think 
and not I will be chosen as commissioner. So far to 
my relief I have heard nothing. So I fancy it less 
necessary to write or consider my possible course of 
action, if I should happen to be chosen. 



I received your letter brought by Cephalic on the Arcanum, 
5th of April. The next day I intended to stop at April 6, 
Menturnae, and to return thence at once. I halted B.C. J/.9 
at my brother s place at Arcanum in order that I 
might be in a more retired place till I get certain 
news and that such preparations for the journey, as 
did not need my presence, might be made. 

1 Cf. ix. 12. 



ActAayevcra iam adest, et animus ardet, neque est 
quicquam, quo et qua. Sed haec nostra erit cura et 
peritorum. Tu tamen, quod poteris, ut adhuc fecisti, 
nos consiliis iuvabis. Res sunt inexplicabiles. For- 
tunae sunt committenda omnia. Sine spe conamur 
ulla. Melius si quid accident, mirabimur. Dionysium 
noil em ad me profectum; de quo ad me Tullia mea 
scripsit. Sed et tempus alienum est, et homini non 
amico nostra incommoda. tanta praesertim, spectaculo 
esse nollem; cui te meo nomine inimicum esse nolo. 



Scr. in Cum, quod scriberem, plane nihil haberem, haec 

\ I ( " autem reliqua essent, quae scire cuperem, profectusne 

la. Apr. 

a. 7 Of) esset, quo in statu urbem reliquisset, in ipsa Italia 

quern cuique regioni aut negotio praefecisset, ecqui 
essent ad Pompeium et ad consules ex senatus con- 
sulto de pace legati, cum igitur haec scire cuperem, 
dedita opera has ad te litteras misi. Feceris igitur 
commode mihique gratum, si me de his rebus, et si 
quid erit aliud, quod scire opus sit, feceris certiorem. 

Ego in Arcano opperior, dum ista cognosco. 


The "bird that twitters of flight" 1 is here and I am 
afire with eagerness, though I have no idea of 
destination or route. But these will be considered 
by me and by those who know. You however must 
assist me with your advice, so far as possible, as you 
have before. The tangle cannot be unravelled. 
Everything must be entrusted to fortune. We are 
simply struggling without hope. If anything better 
happens, I shall be surprised. I would rather 
Dionysius did not come to me : Tullia has written 
to me about him. The time is unsuitable, and 1 
should prefer that discomforts as great as mine 
should not be seen by a man who is not my friend. 
But I do not want you to be his enemy on my account. 



Though I have nothing at all to Avrite about, yet Arcanum, 
these points remain, which I want to know. Has April 7, 
Caesar started? In what condition has he left B - c - 4& 
Rome? In Italy itself whom has he placed in charge 
of each region or department? Who were sent to 
Pompey and the consuls as peace commissioners 
according to the decree of the Senate ? To make 
these inquiries I have taken the trouble to send 
this letter. So you will do well and please me, if 
you inform me on these points and of anything else 
which I ought to know. I stay in Arcanum till I 
get information. 

1 Cf. ix, 1 8. 





Scr. in Ar- A. d. vn Idus alteram tibi eoclem die hanc epistu- 

cano I II Id. ] am dictavi et pridie dedei am mea manu longiorem. 

Apr. a. i Oo Vj sum t e a iunt in regia, nee reprehendo, quippe cum 

ipse istam reprehensionem non fugerim. Sed ex- 

specto tuas litteras neque iam sane video, quid 

exspectem, sed tamen, etiamsi nihil erit, id ipsum ad 

me velim scribas. 

Caesar mihi ignoscit per litteras, quod non vene- 
rim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit. 
Facile patior, quod scribit, secum Titinium et Servium 
questos esse, quia non idem sibi quod mihi remisisset. 
Homines ridicules ! qui, cum filios misissent ad Cn. 
Pompeium circumsedendum, ipsi in senatum venire 
dubitarint. Sed tamen exemplum misi ad te Caesa- 
ris litterarum. 



Scr. in Cu- Multas a te accepi epistulas eodem die omnes dili- 

mano XP II genter scriptas, earn vero, quae voluminis instar erat, 

A. Mai. a. saepe legendam, sicuti facio. In qua non frustra 

laborem suscepisti, mihi quidem pergratum fecisti. 

Quare, ut id, quoad licebit, id est quoad scies, ubi 

simus, quam saepissime facias, te vehementer rogo. 

Ac deplorandi quidem, quod cotidie facimus, sit iam 

nobis aut finis omnino, si potest, aut moderatio quae- 





On the 7th of April I dictate this letter, the Arcanum, 
second on the same day, and yesterday I dispatched April 7, 
a longer one in my own handwriting. It is said you B.C. 4-> 
have been seen in the Regia, 1 and I don t blame you, 
since I laid myself open to the same blame. But I 
await a letter from you. I don t see what news I 
can expect ; but still, even if there is none, I wish 
you would just tell me that. 

Caesar has written to excuse me for not coming to 
Rome, and says that he takes it in good part. I am 
not concerned at his saying that Titinius and Servius 
have complained to him for not allowing them the 
same privilege as he did to me. What fools they 
are ! They send their sons to besiege Pompey, and 
themselves hesitate to enter the House. However, 
I send you a copy of Caesar s letter. 



I have received a lot of letters from you on the Ciimae, 
same day, all of them written with care and one, April 14, 
which is as big as a book, worth reading several B.C. 4& 
times, as I am doing. Your labour has not been in 
vain : you have gratified me very much. And so I 
beseech you continue to write as often as you can, 
so long as it is possible, that is, so long as you know 
where I am. And as for our daily lamentations let 
us make an end of them once for all, if we can, or at 

1 The official residence of Caesar as Pont if ex maximus. 



dam, quod profecto potest. Non enim iam, quam 
dignitatem, quos honores, quern vitae statum amise- 
rim, cogito, sed quid consecutus sim, quid praestite- 
rim, qua in laude vixerim, his denique in malis quid 
intersit inter me et istos, quos propter omnia amisi- 
mus. Hi sunt, qui, nisi me civitate expulissent, 
obtinere se non putaverunt posse licentiam cupidita- 
tum suarum. Quorum societatis et sceleratae con- 
sensionis fides quo eruperit, vides. 

Alter ardet furore et scelere, nee remittit aliquid, 
sed in dies ingravescit ; modo Italia expulit, nunc alia 
ex parte persequi, ex alia provincia exspoliare conatur, 
nee iam recusat, sed quodam modo postulat, ut, quern 
ad modum est, sic etiam appelletur tj r rannus. Alter, 
is qui nos sibi quondam ad pedes stratos ne subleva- 
bat quidem, qui se nihil contra huius voluntatem 
facere posse, elapsus e soceri manibus ac ferro bellum 
terra et mari comparat, non iniustum ille quidem, 
sed cum pium turn etiam necessarium, suis tamen 
civibus exitiabile, nisi vicerit, calamitosum, etiamsi 
vicerit. Horum ego summorum imperatorum non 
modo res gestas non antepono meis. sed ne fortunam 
quidem ipsam ; qua illi florentissima, nos duriore 
conflictati videmur. Quis enim potest aut deserta 
per se patria aut oppressa beatus esse ? Et, si, ut 
nos a te admonemur, recte in illis libris diximus nihil 
esse bonum, nisi quod honestum, nihil malum, nisi 


any rate moderate them, which we certainly can. 
For I have given up thinking of the dignity, the 
honours and the position I have lost : I think of 
what I have attained, what I have done, the glory 
of my career, in short what a difference there is even 
in our present straits between me and those through 
whom I have lost all. They are the people who 
thought they could not attain their extravagant 
desires without expelling me from the State : and 
you see now what has come of their coalition in a 
criminal conspiracy. 

The one burns with a madman s lust for crime, 
which does not cool one whit, but rather increases 
day by day. He has just driven Pompey from Italy, 
now on one side of the world he is pursuing him, on 
the other he is trying to rob him of his province : 
and he no longer refuses, nay, he practically demands, 
to be called a tyrant, as he is. The other, who once 
would not even give me a helping hand, when I 
threw myself at his feet, declaring he could do 
nothing against Caesar s will, now, having slipped 
from the grasp of his father-in-law s mailed hand, is 
preparing war by land and sea. The war is not 
unjust on his part, nay, it is even righteous and 
necessary ; but, unless he conquers, it will be fatal to 
his fellow-countrymen; and, even if he does conquer, 
it will be disastrous. These are our great men ; but 
I do not hold their achievements one whit superior 
to mine, nor even their fortune, though they may 
seem to have basked in fortune s smiles while I have 
met her frowns. For who can be happy, when he 
has caused his country to be deserted or enslaved? 
And if, as you admonish me, I was right in saying 
in those books of mine that nothing is good, save 



quod turpe sit, certe uterque istorum est miserrimus, 
quorum utrique semper patriae salus et dignitas po 
sterior sua dominatione et domesticis commodis fuit. 
Praeclara igitur conscientia sustentor, cum cogito me 
de re publica aut meruisse optime, cum potuerim, aut 
certe numquam nisi pie cogitasse, eaque ipsa tempesta- 
te eversam esse rem publicam, quam ego xnii annis 
ante prospexerim. Hac igitur conscientia comite 
pronciscar magno equidem cum dolore nee tarn id 
propter me aut propter fratrem meum, quorum est 
iam acta aetas, quam propter pueros, quibus interdum 
videmur praestare etiam rem publicam debuisse. 
Quorum quidem alter non tarn quia filius quam, 1 quia 
maiore pietate est, me mirabiliter excruciat, alter (o 
rem miseram ! nihil enim mihi accidit in omni vita 
acerbius) indulgentia videlicet nostra depravatus eo 
progressus est, quo non audeo dicere. Et exspecto 
tuas litteras ; scripsisti enim te scripturum esse plura, 
cum ipsum vidisses. Omne meum obsequium in 
ilium fuit cum multa severitate, neque unum eius nee 
parvum, sed multa magna delicta compressi. Patris 
autem lenitas amanda potius ab illo quam tarn crude- 
liter neglegenda. Nam litteras eius ad Caesarem 
missas ita graviter tulimus, ut te quidem celaremus, 
sed ipsius videremur vitam insuavem reddidisse. Hoc 
vero eius iter simulatioque pietatis qualis fuerit, non 
audeo dicere ; tantum scio, post Hirtium conventum 

1 quia filius quam added by Malaspina. 


what is honourable, and nothing bad, save what is 
dishonourable, then certainly both of them are most 
miserable, since both of them have thought less of 
their country s safety and dignity than of their own 
high place and private interests. My conscience 
then is clear and helps to support me, when I think 
that I have always rendered my country good service, 
when I could, and assuredly have never harboured 
any but loyal thoughts, and that the State has been 
wrecked by the very storm which I foresaw fourteen 
years ago. With a clear conscience then I shall 
depart, though the parting will cost me a bitter 
pang : nor shall I go so much for my own sake or for 
my brother s our day is done as for our children, 
to whom I think at times we ought to have secured 
at least a free country. For one of them I feel the 
most poignant grief- not so much because he is my 
son, as because he is exceedingly dutiful while the 
other unfortunately has turned out the bitterest dis 
appointment of my life. He has been spoiled, I 
suppose, by our indulgence, and has gone to lengths 
that I dare not name. I am waiting for your letter 
too ; for you promised to write more fully when you 
had seen him himself. All my humouring of him 
has been accompanied by considerable strictness : 
and I have had to put my foot down not over one 
fault of his or a small one, but over manj- grave 
faults. But his father s kindness should surely have 
been repaid by affection rather than by such cruel 
disregard. For we were more annoyed at his sending 
letters to Caesar than we let you see, but I think we 
made his life a burden to him. I dare not describe 
this recent journey of his and his hypocritical pretence 
of filial duty: I only know that, after he met Hirtius, 



arcessitum a Caesare, cum eo de meo animo a suis 
rationibus alienissimo et consilio reliriquendi Italiam ; 
et haec ipsa timide. Sed nulla nostra culpa est, 
iiatura metuenda est. Haec Curionem, haec Hor- 
tensi filium, lion patrum culpa corrupit. 

lacet in maerore meus frater neque tarn de sua 
vita quam de mea metuit. Huic tu huic tu malo 
adfer coiisolationes, si ullas potes ; maxima quidein 
illam velirn, ea, quae ad nos delata sint, aut falsa esse 
aut minora. Quae si vera sint, quid futurum sit in 
hac vita et fuga, nescio. Nam, si haberemus rem 
publicam, consilium mihi non deesset nee ad severi- 
tatem nee ad indulgentiam. Nunc haec sive iracundia 
sive dolore sive metu permotus gravius scripsi, quam 
aut tuus in ilium amor aut meus postulabat, si vera 
sunt, ignosces, si falsa, me libente eripies mihi hunc 
errorem. Quoquo modo vero se res habebit, nihil 
adsignabis nee patruo nee patri. 

Cum haec scripsissem, a Curione mihi nuntiatum 
est eum ad me venire. Venerat enim is in Cumanum 
vesperi pridie, id est Idibus. Si quid igitur eius 
modi sermo eius attulerit, quod ad te scribendum sit, 
id his litteris adiungam. 

Praeteriit villam meam Curio iussitque mihi nun- 
tiari mox se venturum cucurritque Puteolos, ut ibi 
contionaretur. Contionatus est, rediit, fuit ad me 
sane diu. O rem foedam ! Nosti hominem ; nihil 
occultavit, in primis nihil esse certius, quam ut 


he was summoned to Caesar s presence, and discussed 
the difference between my views and his own and 
my plan of leaving Italy. Even that I write with 
hesitation. But it is no fault of mine : it is his dis 
position which must cause us anxiety. That is what 
currupted Curio and Hortensius son,, not their 
fathers fault. 

My brother is prostrate with grief, though he does 
not fear for his own life so much as for mine. It is 
to him, to him more than me, I want you to offer 
consolation, if you can. The best consolation would 
be that what we have heard was false or exaggerated. 
If it was true, I fail to see what will come of this 
runaway existence. For if the constitution were still 
intact, I should know what to do both in the way of 
severity and in the way of kindness. Now, under 
the sway of some passion, be it wrath or sorrow or 
fear, I have written more bitterly than either your 
affection for him or mine warrants. If what I have 
said is true, you will pardon me : if it is false, I shall 
be only too glad to have the error removed. How 
ever it may be, you must not blame his uncle or his 

When I had got so far, I received a message from 
Curio that he was coming to see me. He came to his 
place here yesterday evening, that is on the 13th. 
If any point worth mentioning to you occurs in our 
conversation, I will add it to this letter. 

Curio passed by my house, and sent a message 
saying he was coming very soon. Then he hurried 
off to make a speech at Puteoli. He made his speech, 
returned and stayed a very long time. How dis 
gusting ! You know the sort of man he is : he hid 
nothing. In the first place he is quite sure that all 



omnes, qui lege Pompeia condernnati essent, resti- 
tuerentur. Itaque se in Sicilia eorum opera us urum. 
De Hispaniis non dubitabat, quin Caesaris essent. 
Iride ipsum cum exercitu, ubicumque Pompeius esset. 
Eius interitum finem belli fore. Propius factum esse 
nihil, nisi" plane iracundia elatum voluisse Caesarein 
occidi Metellum tribunum pi. Quod si esset factum, 
caedem magnam futuram fuisse. Permultos horta- 
tores esse caedis, ipsum autem non voluntate aut 
natura non esse crudelem, sed quod popularem putaret 
esse clementiam. Quodsi populi studium amisisset, 
crudelem fore. Eumque perturbatum, quod intelle- 
geret se apud ipsam plebem offendisse de aerario. 
Itaque, ei cum certissimum fuisset, antequam pro- 
ficisceretur, contionem habere, ausum non esse vehe- 
menterque animo perturbato profectum. Cum autem 
ex eo quaererem, quid videret, quern eventum. quarn 
rem publicam, plane fatebatur iiullam spem reliquam. 
Pompei classem timebat. Quae si exisset, se de 
Sieilia abiturum. Quid isti," inquam, sex tui 
fasces ? si a senatu, cur laureati ? si ab ipso, cur sex ? " 
Cupivi," inquit, ex senatus consulto surrupto ; 
nam aliter non poterat. At ille impendio mine magis 
odit senatuni. A me," inquit, omnia proficiscen- 

1 belli Manutius ; illi J/55. 
nisi Schmidt ; ei MSS. 


those condemned by Pompey s law are going to be 
recalled : and so he is going to make use of their 
services in Sicily. He had no doubt about Caesar 
getting the two Spains and said he would start from 
them with an army to wherever Pompey might 
be. Pompey s death would be the end of the war. 
Caesar had been carried away by anger into wish 
ing to have the tribune Metellus killed and he had 
had a narrow shave. If it had happened, there 
would have been an enormous massacre. Many had 
spoken in favour of a massacre : and Caesar himself 
was not by nature and inclination averse to cruelty, 
but he thought mild measures would win popularity. 
But, if he lost popular favour, he would be cruel. 
He had been put out when he found that he had 
offended the populace itself by seizing the treasury : 
and so, though he had fully made up his mind to 
harangue the people before leaving, he had not 
ventured to do so, and had gone off in a very dis 
turbed state of mind. But when I asked Curio what 
he looked forward to, what end, and what constitution, 
he confessed openly that there was no hope left. 
He was afraid of Pompey s fleet, and, if it put to sea, 
he should desert Sicily. I asked, what was the mean 
ing of his six lictors, why their staves were laurelled, 
if the Senate gave them to him, and why there were 
six, if Caesar gave them. 1 He said, "l wanted to 
snatch a vote from the House for them (for it could 
not be done openly) : but Caesar hates the Senate 
like poison, and declares that all such authority will 
Six lictors were the regular number f.r the propraetor 
of Sicily; but their slaves would not be laurelled as Curio 
had not won a victory ov< r a public enemy. If appointed 
a legatus to Caesar he might have had proconsular powers 
and twelve lictors. 

u VOL. ii 289 


tur." Cur autem sex?" Quia xn nolui ; nam 
licebat." Turn ego Quam vellem," inquam, petisse 
ab eo, quod audio Philippum impetrasse ! Sed veri- 
tus sum, quia ille a me nihil impetrabat." Libenter/ 
inquit, tibi concessisset. Veruin puta te impetrasse ; 
ego enim ad eum scribam, ut tu ipse voles, de ea re 
nos inter nos locutos. Quid autem illius interest, 
quoniam in senatum non venis, ubi sis ? Quin mine 
ipsum minime ofFendisses eius causam, si in Italia non 
fuisses." Ad quae ego me recessum et solitudinem 
quaerere, maxime quod lictores haberem. Laudavit 
consilium. Quid ergo ? " inquam ; nam mihi 
cursus in Graeciam per tuam provineiam est. quoniam 
ad mare superum milites sunt." Quid mihi," in- 
quit, optatius ? " Hoc loco multa perliberaliter. 
Ergo lioc quidem est profectum, ut non modo tuto, 
verum etiam palam navigaremus. 

Reliqua in posterum diem distulit ; ex quibus 
scribam ad te si quid erit epistula dignum. Sunt 
autem, quae praeterii, interregnumne esset exspecta- 
turus, an, quo modo dixerit ille quidem ad se deferri 
consulatum, sed se nolle in proximum annum. Et 
alia sunt, quae exquiram. lurabat ad sumrnam, quod 
nullo negotio facere solet, amicissimum mihi Caesarem 
esse. Dubito equidem," inquam. Scripsit ad me 
Dolabella." Die, quid ? " Adfirmabat eum scri- 
psisse, quod me cuperet ad urbem venire, ilium qui 
dem gratias agere maximas et non modo probare, sed 
etiam gaudere. Quid quaei is ? acquievi. Levata 


proceed from him." But why six?" Because I 
didn t want twelve, though I could have had them." 
I said: "l wish I had asked for what I hear Philippus 
has got from him : but I was afraid to ask, as he got 
nothing from me." He replied : He would willingly 
have given you permission. But take it that you 
did get it. I will write to him just as you wish, and 
say we have spoken about the matter. What does 
it matter to him where you are, as you do not attend 
the House? If you were not in Italy at this very 
moment, it would not damage his cause in the least." 
I responded that I was looking for a retired and 
solitary retreat, especially because I still had my 
lictors in attendance. He agreed with me. "How 
about this then," said I. My way through to 
Greece lies through your province, as the Adriatic is 
guarded." "There is nothing I should like better," 
he said, and added many very handsome remarks. 
So something has come of it : I could sail not only in 
safety, but openly. 

The rest he put off for the next day : I will write and 
tell you if there is anything worth mentioning. But 
there are some things I omitted to ask : whether 
Caesar was going to wait for an interregnum, or 
what he meant by saying that he had been offered 
the consulship but had refused it for the next year. 
And there are other points I must ask about. Finally 
lie swore though to be sure he makes no bones 
about swearing that Caesar was very friendly to 
me. I expressed my doubt. He said he had heard 
from Dolabella. I asked what he said, and he 
declared he said Caesar had thanked him warmly for 
wanting me to go to Rome, and not only approved 
but showed pleasure. Of course I felt relieved. 
r2 291 


est enim suspicio ilia domestic] mail et sermonis 
Hirtiani. Quam cupio ilium dignum esse nobis, et 
quam ipse me invito, quae pro illo sint, ad suspican- 
dum ! Sed opus fuit Hirtio convento ? Est profecto 
nescio quid, sed velim quam minimo. Et tamen eum 
nondum redisse miramuv. Sed haec videbimus. 

Tu Oppios Terentiae delcgabis. 1 lam enim urbis 
unum periculum est. Me tamen consilio iuva. pedi- 
busne Regium an hinc statim in navem, et cetera, 
quoniam commoror. Ego ad te statim habebo, quod 
scribam. simul ut videro Curionem. De Tirone cura, 
quaeso, quod facis, ut sciam, quid is agat. 



r/ . j. n De tota mea cogitatione scripsi ad te antea satis, 

Ltnttano A/ u j. m i}}j yisus sum. diliarenter. De die nihil sane 

Ai r 
. M(ti. 

(i. 705 potest scribi certi praeter lioc, non ante lunam no- 

vam. Curionis sermo postridie eandem habuit fere 
summam, nisi quod apertius significavit se harum 
re rum exitum non videre. 

Quod milii mandas de Quinto regendo, ApKo.8iav 

1 delegabis H cscnbcrg: dabis 


The suspicion of domestic treachery and of the talk 
with Hirtius has been removed. How I hope young 
Quintus is worthy of his family, and how I keep 
urging myself to note the points in his favour ! But 
need he have visited Hirtius? There is something 
in the tale, but I hope it may not prove of much 
consequence. Still I wonder he is not back yet. 
But we shall see about this. 

Please introduce Terentia to the Oppii : for there 
is only one danger in Rome now. As for me, give 
me the benefit of your advice as to whether I am to 
go to Regium on foot or to embark straight from 
here, and on all the other points too, as I am staying 
here. I shall have something to write as soon as I 
have seen Curio. Please keep me posted up in news 
about Tiro s condition, as you have done. 



About the whole of my plans I have written to Cumae, 
you before, as I think, exactly. Of the day I can April 16, 
say no more for certain than this, that it will not B.C. ^.9 
be before the new moon. Curio s conversation on 
the next day had practically the same gist, except 
that he showed still more frankly that he could not 
see an end to this state of things. 

As for your commission about the control of 
Quintus, you are asking for the moon." However I 

1 The Oppii were moneylenders, and, if the reading- unum 
is right, Cicero must mean that lack of obtaining 1 ready 
money was the only danger in Rome. 

2 Cf. the answer of the Dflphic oracle to a Spartan envoy 
in Herodotus I, 66, \pica.$iav /j. aiTf is, fi^ya yti aJrets, oftroi SUKTW, 
1 Thou askest for Arcadia. Tis much thou askest for. I 
will not give it." 


Tarn en nihil praetermittam. Atque utinam tu , 
sed molest ior non ero. Epistulam ad Vestorium 
statim detail, ac valde requirere solebat. Commo- 
dius tecum Vettienus est locutus, quam ad me scri- 
pserat. Sed mirari satis hominis neglegeiitiam non 
queo. Cum enim mihi Philotimus dixisset se HS I. 
emere de Canuleio deversorium illud posse, ininoris 
etiam empturum. si Vettienum rogassem, rogavi, xit, 
si quid posset, ex ea summa detraheret. Promisit. 
Ad me nuper se HS xxx einisse ; ut scriberem, cui 
vellem addici ; diem pecuniae Idus Novembr. esse. 
Rescripsi ei stomachosius, cum ioeo tamen familiari. 
Nune, quoniam agit liberaliter, nihil accuse hominem, 
scripsique ad eum me a te certiorem esse factum. 
Tu, de tuo itinere quid et quando cogites, velim me 
certiorem facias. A. d. xv K. Maias. 



Scr. in Me adhuc nihil praeter tempestatem moratur. 

Cvmano Astute nihil sum acturus. Fiat in Hispania quid- 

libet; et tamen ire certum est. 1 Meas cogitationes 
Apr. a. i<)o . ....... . ., ,.., . ~ 

omms exphcavi tibi superioribus littens. Quocirca 

hae sunt breves, etiam 2 quia festinabam eramque 

De Quinto filio fit a me quidem sedulo; sed nosti 

1 ire certum est Wesenberg : recitet et MZ^>: reticeret Z^. 
-etiam Malaspina : et tarn en JISS. 



shall be guilty of no omission and would that you . 
But I will not be too troublesome. The letter I 
forwarded at once to Vestorius ; he kept asking 
why it was not sent. Vettienus has spoken with 
you in a tone more accommodating than his letter to 
me: but I am greatly astonished at the man s care 
lessness. Philotimus informed me that he could buy 
that lodge of Canuleius for 400 guineas, and could 50,000 sesterces 
get it even for less, if I asked Vettienus to act as 
purchaser. So I did ask Vettienus to get a deduc 
tion from that sum, if he could. He promised. 
Lately he has informed me that he bought it for 
about 250, and asked me to inform him to whom 30,000 sesterces 
I wished to convey it, adding that the day for pay 
ment was the 13th of November. My reply was 
somewhat cross, but yet in a familiar joking vein. 
Now, as he is acting handsomely, I have no charge 
against him, and I have written to him that you have 
informed me. Please let me know about your 
journey, what you intend to do and when. 
April ] 6. 



So far nothing stops me beyond the weather. I Cumae, 
am not going to play a sharp game. Let what will April, 
happen in Spain, I have made up my mind to go. My B.C. 49 
plans have all been unfolded to you in previous 
letters ; so this is a short one ; also because I am in a 
hurry and rather busy. 

As for young Quintus surely I do my best," a you 

1 Possibly a reference to Terence Adelphi 44, " Fit sedulo, 
nihil praetermitto, consuefacio." 



reliqua. Quod dein me mones, et amice et pruden- 
ter me mones, sed erunt omnia facilia, si ab uno illo 
cavero. Magnum opus est, mirabilia multa, nihil 
simplex, nihil sincerum. Vellem suscepisses iuveiiem 
regendum ; pater enim nimis indulgens, quicquid ego 
adstrinxi, relaxat. Si sine illo possem, regerem ; 
quod tu potes. Sed ignosco; magnum, inquam, 
opus est. 

Pompeium pro certo liabemus per Illyricum profi- 
cisci in Galliam. Ego nunc, qua et quo, videbo. 



Scr. in Ego vero Apuliam et Sipontum et tergiversatio- 

Lumano arc. nem istam probo, nee tuam rationem eaiidem esse 

IX K. Mai. -, , T . 

_,..;_ dueo quam meam. non qum in re publiea rectum 

.i. tOo 

idem sit utrique nostrum, sed ea non agitur. Re- 

gnandi contentio est, in qua pulsus est modestior rex 
et probior et integrior et is, qui nisi vincit, nomen 
populi Romani deleatur necesse est, sin autem vincit, 
Sullano more exemploque vincet. Ergo hac in con- 
tentione neutrum tibi palam sentiendum et tempori 
serviendum est. Mea causa autem alia est, quod 
beneficio vinctus ingratus esse non possum, nee tamen 
in acie me, sed Melitae aut alio in loco simili fu- 
turum puto. Nihil," inquies, iuvas eum, in quern 


know the rest. You go on to advise me, and you 
advise me like a prudent friend ; but all will be 
simple, if I beware of the youngster. It is a big 
business ; he is full of oddities and has no simplicity 
or sincerity. I wish you had undertaken his train 
ing; for his father is too kind. If I tighten the 
rein, he loosens it. If I could act without his father, 
I could manage the youngster, as you can do. But 
I excuse you. It is, as I say, a big business. 

Pompey, I am certain, is marching through Illyri- 
cum into Gaul. By what route and whither I am 
now to travel, I shall see. 



Yes, I think you are right to hedge, and stay in Cumae, 
Apulia arid Sipontum: nor do I consider that your April 22 (?\ 
case is the same as mine. Of course in the matter B.C. ^.9 
of the constitution the right course is the same for 
both of us : but the constitution is not now in ques 
tion. It is a struggle between two kings, in which 
defeat has overtaken the more moderate king, the 
one who is more upright and honest, the one whose 
failure means that the very name of the Roman 
people must be wiped out, though, if he wins the 
victory, he will use it after the manner and example 
of -Sulla. Therefore in a contest like this you must 
not openly express your sentiments for either side, 
but must await the event. My case however is 
different. I am under the bond of an obligation, 
and cannot show ingratitude. But yet I do not 
fancy that I shall be found in the line of battle, but 
at Malta or some other similar place. You may say I 



ingratus esse non vis ? " Immo minus fortasse voluis- 
set. Sed de hoc videbimus: cxeamtis modo. Quod 
ut meliore tempore i)ossimus, facit Adriano mari 
Dolabella, Fretensi Curio. 

Iniecta autem mihi spes quaedam est velle niecum 
Ser. Sulpicium conloqui. Ad eum misi Philotimum 
libertum cum litteris. Si vir esse volet, praeclara 
(rvvoSia, sin autem , erimus nos, qui solemus. 
Curio mecum vixit, iacere Caesarem putans offen- 
sione popular? Siciliaeque diffidens, si Pompeius navi- 
gare coepisset. 

Quintum puerum accepi vehementer. Avaritiam 
video fuisse et spem magni congiarii. Magnum hoc 
malum est, sed scelus illud, quod timueramus, spero 
nullum fuisse. Hoc autem vitium puto te existimare 
non a nostra indulgentia, sed a natura profectum. 
Quern tamen nos disciplina regemus. 

De Oppiis Veliensibus quid placeat, cum Philo- 
timo videbis. Epirum nostram putabimus, sed alios 
cursus videbamur habituri. 



,SV;\ in Et res ipsa monebat, et tu ostenderas. et ego 

Cumano II videbam de iis rebus, quas intercipi periculosum 

Aon. Mai. esset, finem inter nos scribendi fieri tempus esse. 

a. iU-j Sed, cum ad me saepe mea Tullia scribat orans, ut, 

quid in Hispania geratur. exspectem, et semper 



do not help the man to whom I am loth to show in 
gratitude. No. Perhaps he would have been glad 
if I had helped him less. But that we shall see. 
Let me only get away. A fair opportunity is offered 
now that Dolabella is in the Adriatic and Curio in 
the straits of Sicily. 

I have conceived some hope that Servius Sulpicius 
wishes to see me. I have dispatched Philotimus, 
my freedman, to him with a letter. If he wishes to 
play the man, we shall have a fine time together. But 
if not, well, I shall be my own old self. Curio stayed 
with me. He thinks that Caesar is falling in popular 
esteem and he is mistrustful about going to Sicily, if 
Pompey should begin a naval action. 

The boy Quint us got it hot when he came. I see 
it was greed and the hope of a large bounty. This 
is a great evil ; but disloyalty, which I feared, there 
was I hope none. But this flaw, I fancy you will 
gather, did not proceed from my spoiling him, but 
from his own temperament. Still, I must teach him 

As to the Oppii of Velia, you will arrange with 
Pliilotimus as you think fit. Your place in Epirus I 
shall regard as my own ; but it seems I shall go on 
another tack. 



Circumstances advise, you have pointed out, and I Cumae, 
see for myself, that it is time there was an end to May 2, 
our correspondence on topics which it is dangerous B.C. 4$ 
to have intercepted: but since my daughter often 
writes beseeching me to await the issue in Spain and 



adscribat idem videri tibi, idque ipse etiam ex tuis 
litteris intellexerim, non puto esse alienum me ad 
te, quid de ea re sentiam, scribere. 

Consilium istud tune esset prudens, ut mihi vide- 
tur, si nostras rationes ad Hispanieiisem casum ac- 
commodaturi essemus ; quod fieri non debet. 1 Necesse 
est enim aut, id quod maxime velim, pelli istum ab 
Hispania, aut trahi id bellum, aut istum, ut confidere 
videtur, apprehendere Hispanias. Si pelletur, quam 
gratus aut quam honestus turn erit ad Pompeium 
noster adventus, cum ipsum Curionem ad eum trans- 
iturum putem? Si trahitur bellum, quid exspectem 
aut quam din? Relinquitur, ut, si vincimur in Hi- 
spania, quiescamus. Id ego contra puto. Istum 
enim victorem magis relinquendum puto quam 
victum, et dubitantem magis quam fidentem suis 
rebus. Nam caedem video, si vicerit, et impetum 
in privatorum pecunias et exsulum rediturn et tabulas 
novas et turpissimorum honores et regnum non modo 
Romano homini, sed ne Persae quidem cuiquam 
tolerabile. Tacita esse poterit indignitas nostra? 
pati poterimt oculi me cum Gabinio sententiam 
dicere, et quidem ilium rogari prius? praesto esse 
clientem tuum Clodium, C. Atei Plaguleium, ceteros? 
Sed cur inimicos conligo, qui meos necessaries a me 
defenses nee videre in curia sine dolore nee versari 
inter eos sine dedecore potero ? Quid, si ne id 
quidem est exploratum fore ut mihi liceat? Scribunt 
enim ad me amici eius me illi nullo modo satis 

1 non debet is omitted by the best A/SS. and is probably 
only supplied by conjecture in P. 



always adds that you think the same, and this is 
what I have gathered myself from your letters, I 
think it is well for me to write to you what I think 
about it. 

The advice would be wise, it seems to me, only if 
I meant to shape my course according to what hap 
pens in Spain. That is impossible. For either, as 
I should much prefer, Caesar must be driven from 
Spain, or the war will drag on, or Caesar will seize 
Spain, as he seems to be confident. If Caesar is 
driven from Spain, you can imagine how pleasing 
and honourable my arrival will seem to Pompey, 
when I suppose even Curio will go over to him. If 
the war drags on, for what am I to wait or how 
long ? The remaining alternative is that I should 
keep neutral, if we are beaten in Spain. I take the 
opposite view : for I think I am more bound to desert 
Caesar as victor than as vanquished, and while he 
is still doubtful rather than confident about his for 
tunes : for I foresee a massacre, if he conquers, attack 
on the wealth of private persons, the recall of exiles, 
repudiation of debts, high office for the vilest men, 
and a tyranny intolerable to a Persian much more to 
a Roman. Will my indignation be able to keep 
silence ? Can my eyes endure to see myself giving 
my vote along with Gabinius^ or indeed Gabinius 
being asked his opinion before me ? Your client 
Clodius in waiting ? Plaguleius, the client of C. 
Ateius, and all the others ? But why do I make a list of 
opponents, when I shall be unable to see in the House 
without pain friends whom I have defended or to 
mix with them without shame ? And what if even 
that may not be allowed to me, for all I know? For 
Caesar s friends write me that he is not at all 



fecisse, quod in senatum non venerim. Tamenne 
dubitemus, an ei nos etiam cum periculo vcnditemus, 
quioum coniuncti ne cum praemio quidem voluimus 
esse? Deinde hoc vide, non esse indicium de tota 
contcntione in Hispaniis, nisi forte iis amissis arma 
Pompeium abiecturum putas, cuius omne consilium 
Themistocleum est. Existimat enim, qui mare 
teneat, eum necesse esse rerum potiri. Itaque num- 
quam id egit, ut Hispaniae per se tenerentur, navalis 
apparatus ei semper antiquissima cura fuit. Navi- 
gabit igitur, cum erit tempus, maximis classibus et 
ad Italiam accedet. In qua nos sedentes quid eri- 
mus? nam medios esse iam non licebit. Classibus 
adversabimur igitur? Quod maius scelus aut tantum 
denique ? quid turpius ? anuival dehic in absentis 1 
solus tuli scelus, eiusdem cum Pompeio et cum reli- 
quis principibus non feram? Quodsi iam misso 
officio periculi ratio habenda est, ab illis est peri- 
culum, si peccaro, ab hoc, si recte fecero, nee tillum 
in his malis consilium periculo vacuum inveniri po- 
test, ut non sit dubium, quin turpiter facere cum 
periculo fugiamus, quod fugeremus etiam cum salute. 
Non si 2 simul cum Pompeio mare transierimus? 
Omnino non potuimus. Exstat ratio dierum. Sed 
tamen fateamur enim, quod est : ne condimus qui 
dem ut possimus, fefellit ea me res, quae fortasse 
non debuit, sed fefellit. Pacem putavi fore. Quae 
si esset, iratum mihi Caesarem esse, cum idem amicus 

1 The text here is hopelessly corrupt and no satisfactory 
emendation has been made. The translation gives the 
probable sense. 

2 si added by Tyrrell, 


satisfied because I did not come to the Senate. Am 
I still to hesitate whether to sell myself to him at 
grave risk, when I refused to join him even with a 
certainty of reward. Besides consider this that the 
verdict on the whole contest does not depend on 
Spain ; unless perhaps you think that, if Spain is 
lost, Pompey will throw down his arms, when his 
policy has always been that of Themistocles. He 
considers that the master of the sea must be master 
of the empire : so he has never planned to hold 
Spain for its own sake. The equipment of the fleet 
has always been his first care. So he will take to 
the sea in due season with a huge fleet and will 
come to Italy. What then will be the fate of us, if 
we stay here idle ? Neutrality will be impossible. 
Shall we then resist the fleet ? Could there be a 
crime deeper, greater or baser ? Isolated I ran 
risks : shall I hesitate with the help of Pompey and 
the rest of the nobles. If now I am to take no 
account of duty but only of danger, it is from 
Pompey s party I run risk, if I do wrong, from 
Caesar, if I do right : and such is our evil plight that 
no plan is so free from danger as to leave a doubt 
that I should avoid doing with disgrace as well as 
danger what I should have avoided, if it had been 
safe. You will saj I might safely have crossed the 
sea with Pompey. It was altogether impossible. It 
is easy to reckon the days : but nevertheless (for let 
me confess the truth : I do not even sugar my con 
fession) supposing I could, I was mistaken over a 
point which perhaps ought not to have misled me ; 
but it did. I thought that peace might be made : 
and, if it should be, I did not wish Caesar to be 
angry with me, when at the same time he was 



esset Pompeio, nolui. Senseram enim, quam idem 
essent. Hoc verens in hanc tarditatem incidi. Sed 
assequor omnia, si propero, si cunctor, amitto. Et 
tamen, mi Attice, auguria quoque me incitant qua- 
darn spe non dubia, nee liaec collegii iiostri ab Atto, 
sed ilia Platonis de tyrannis. Nullo enim modo 
posse video stare istum diutius, quin ipse per se 
etiam languentibus nobis concidat, quippe qui floren- 
tissimus ac novus vi, vn diebus ipsi illi egenti ac 
perditae multitudini in odium acerbissimum venerit, 
qui duarum rerum simulationem tarn cito amiserit, 
mansuetudinis in Metello, divitiarum in aerario. 
lam quibus utatur vel sociis vel ministris? ii provin- 
cias, ii rem publicam regent, quorum nemo duo 
menses potuit patrimonium suum gubernare? 

Non sunt omnia colligenda, quae tu aeutissime per- 
spicis, sed tamen ea pone ante oculos ; iam intelleges 
id regnum vix semenstre esse posse. Quod si me 
fefellerit, feram, sicut multi clarissimi homines in re 
publica excellentes tulerunt., nisi forti me Sardanapalli 
vicem [in suo lectulo] 1 niori malle censueris quam 
exsilio Themistocleo. Qui cum fuisset, ut ait Thucy- 
dides, Twr /JLcr irapovrwv 8i eAaxiVr^s /SovXijs Kpd- 
TtcrTo; yrw/j.(jjr, TMV Se /leXXovrwv e^ /rAetcrTor rov 
aptcrros e/KacrT /;?^ tamen incidit in eos 

1 The words in brackets are deleted by Nippcrdey as a 



friendly with Pompey. For I had realized how 
exactly they were alike. That fear of mine led me 
to delay. But I gain all now by haste, and, if I 
delay, I lose all. Nevertheless, my friend, there 
are auguries which urge me on, with hope not un 
certain : I do not mean those of my own college 
which came down from Attus Navius : but Plato s 
words about the tyrant. 1 For I see that Caesar can 
in no way maintain his position much longer, without 
causing his own fall, even if we are backward. For 
in his first and flourishing days it did not take him 
a week to incur the bitter hatred of the needy aban 
doned rabble, by letting slip through his fingers so 
quickly his fictitious claim to two things, clemency 
in the case of Metellus and ample wealth in the 
case of the public monej r . Now what kind of associates 
and servants can he employ ? Are men to rule pro 
vinces and direct affairs not one of whom could steer 
his own fortunes for two months? 

I need not put all the points together; you see 
them clearly enough : but put them before your eyes 
and you will understand that his reign can hardly 
last for half a year. If I am mistaken, I will bear 
the consequences, as many illustrious men, eminent 
in public life, have borne them, unless perhaps you 
consider that I should prefer to die like Sardanapalus 
[in his bed] rather than like Themistocles in exile. 
For Thucydides tells us that though Themistocles 
was the best judge of current affairs on the shortest 
reflection, and the shrewdest to guess at what would 
happen in the future," yet he fell into misfortunes, 
which he would have escaped, had there been no 

1 Probably Republic vin, 562. 
X VOL. II 305 


casus, quos vitasset, si euni nihil fefellisset. Etsi is 
erat, ut ait idem, qui TO a/j-eivov Kal TO \eipov * 1 
rtf a</>ai i eVt eojpa /j.dX.Lfrra, tamen non vidit, iiec 
quo modo Lacedaemoniorum nee quo modo suorum 
civium invidiam effugeret nee quid Artaxerxi polli- 
ceretur. Non fuisset ilia nox tarn acerba Africano, 
sapientissimo viro, non tarn dims ille dies Sullanus 
callidissimo viro, C. Mario, si nihil utrumque eorum 
fefellisset. Nos tamen hoc confirmamus illo augurio, 
quo diximus, nee nos fallit, nee aliter accidet. Cor- 
ruat iste necesse est aut per adversaries aut ipse per 
se, qui quideni sibi est adversarius unus acerrimus. Id 
spero vivis nobis fore ; quamqtiam tempus est nos de 
ilia perpetua iam, non de hac exigua vita cogitare. 
Sin quid accident maturius, haud sane mea multum 
interfuerit, utrum factum videam an futurum esse 
multo ante viderim. Quae cum ita sint, non est 
comniittendum, ut iis pareanv, quos contra me senatus, 
ne quid res publica detriment! acciperet, armavit. 

Tibi sunt omnia commendata, quae commendatio- 
nis meae pro tuo in nos amore non indigent. Nee 
hercule ego quidem reperio, quid scribam ; sedeo enim 
TrAoi SoK-wr. Etsi nihil umquam tarn fuit scribendum 
quam nihil mihi umquam ex plurimis tuis iucundita- 


error in his calculations. Though he was, . as the 
same writer says, a clear-sighted judge of the 
better and the worse course in a doubtful crisis," 1 
yet he failed to see how to avoid the hate of the 
Spartans and his own fellow-citizens, nor what pro 
mise he ought to make to Artaxerxes. Africanus 
would have been spared that cruel night, 2 and that 
master of craft C. Marius the fateful day of Sulla s 
triumph, if nothing had ever escaped their calcula 
tions. So I strengthen myself by that prophetic 
remark of Plato : I am not deceived nor will it 
happen otherwise. Caesar is bound to fall either 
through the agency of his enemies or of himself, and 
he is his own worst enemy. I hope it will be in our 
lifetime, though it is an occasion for us to consider 
the lasting future and not our own narrow life. If 
anything happens to me before that day, it will not 
have mattered to me much whether I see it come 
about or foresee that it will happen long before. 
Since this is so, I must not obey men against whom 
the Senate armed me with power to see that the 
Republic took no harm. 3 

To you all my interests have been entrusted, 
though they need no entrusting considering your 
great affection for me. I have nothing to write, for 
I sit waiting to sail. Yet I never wanted so much 
to write anything, as I want to tell you that of your 

1 Thucydides I, 138. 

- P. Scipio Africanus the younger was found dead in his 
bed, and was supposed to have been murdered at Carbo s 

3 Cf. Ad Fam. xvi, n, where he states that the Senate 
gave a general commission to all magistrates and ex- 
consuls " ne quid respublica detrimenti caperet," 

x2 307 


tilms gratius aceidisse, quam quod meam Tulliam 
suavissime diligentissimeque coluisti. Valde eo ipsa 
delectata est, ego autem non minus. Cuius quidem 
virtus mirifica. Quo modo ilia fert publicam cladem, 
quo modo domesticas tricas ! quaiitus autem animus 
in discessu nostro! Est o-ropyv/, est summa oiWi^is. 
Tanien nos recte faeere et bene an dire vult. Sed hac 
super re lie nimis, ne meam ipse (ru/ra#eiav iam 

Tu, si quid de Hispaniis certius et si quid aliud, 
dum adsumus, scribes, et ego fortasse discedens dabo 
ad te aliquid, eo etiam magis, quod Tullia te non pu- 
tabat hoc tempore ex Italia. Cum Antonio item est 
agendum ut cum Curione Melitae me velle esse, 
huic civili bello nolle interesse. Eo velim tarn facili 
uti possim et tarn bono in me quam Curione. Is ad 
Misenum vi Nonas venturus dicebatur, id est hodie. 
Sed praemisit mi hi odiosas litteras hoc exemplo: 



Nisi te valde amarem, et multo quidem plus, quam 
tu putas, non extimuissem rumorem, qui de te prolatus 
est, cum praesertim falsum esse existimarem. Sed, 
quia te nimio plus diligo, non possum dissimulate 
mihi famam quoque, quamvis sit falsa, magni esse. 
Te iturum esse trans mare credere non possum, cum 
tanti facias Dolabellam et Tulliam tuam, feminam 

Te iturum esse added by Baiter. 


many kindnesses none has given me greater pleasure 
than your very gracious and constant care of Tullia. 
She herself has been charmed and I not less. She 
has shown admirable qualities, has borne the national 
calamity and private worries with great fortitude 
and displayed it over my departure. She loves me 
and sympathizes with me and yet wishes me to act 
rightly and keep my good repute. But enough of 
this, lest I begin to pity myself. 

If you get more certain tidings about Spain or any 
other matter, pray write and tell me while I am 
here, and perhaps at the time of going I may send 
you news, the more so because Tullia fancies that 
you are not leaving Italy at the present moment. I 
must explain to Antony as I did to Curio that I 
want to stay in Malta and refuse to take part in this 
civil war. I only hope that I may find him as easy 
and good to me as I found Curio. He will come it 
is said to Miseiium on the second, that is to-day ; 
but he has sent in advance a nasty letter of which I 
subjoin a copy: 



" Had I not a great affection for you, and much more 
than you think, I should not have been alarmed at a 
report which has been spread about you, especially as 
I thought it to be false. But, just because I like you 
so very much, I cannot hide from myself that the 
report, although it may be false, causes me great con 
cern. That you are about to go over seas I cannot 
believe, when you have such dear regard for Dolabella 


lectissimam, tantique ab omnibus nobis fias; quibus 
mehercule dignitas amplitudoque tua paene carior est 

quam tibi ipsi. Sed tarn en non sum arbitratus esse 

amici non commoveri etiam improborum sermone. 

atque co feci studiosius, qucd iudicabam duriores 
partcs milii impositas esse ob offensione nostra, quae 
magis a faXorviriq. mea quam ab iniuria tua nata est. 
Sic enim volo te tibi persuadere, mihi neminem esse 
cariorem te excepto Caesare meo meque illud una 
iudicare, Caesarem maxime in suis M. Ciceronem 
reponere. Quare, mi Cicero, te rogo, ut tibi omnia 
integra serves, eius fidem improbes, qui tibi, ut 
beneficium daret, prius iniuriam fecit, contra ne 
profugias, qui te, etsi non amabit, quod accidere non 
potest, tamen salvum amplissimumque esse cupiet. 

Dedita opera ad te Calpurnium, familiarissimum 
meum, misi, ut mihi magnae curae tuam vitam ac 
dignitatem esse scires." 

Eodem die a Caesare Philotimus litteras attulit 
hoc exemplo : 



Etsi te nihil temere, nihil imprudenter facturum 
iudicaram, tamen permotus hominum fama scribendum 
ad te existimavi, et pro nostra benevolentia petendum. 

ne quo progredereris procltnata iam re, quo integra 


and your daughter Tullia, that queen among women, 
and you are rated so highly by all of us, who, I dare 
swear, care almost more than you do for your dignity 
and position. However, I considered that it was no part 
of a friend to be unmoved even when scoundrels talked, 
and I have been more particular, because I thought 
that a harder task was laid upon me by our disagree 
ment, which sprang more from jealousy on my part 
than from wrong on yours ; for I want you to convince 
yourself that no one is dearer to me than you, except 
Caesar, and at the same time I am positive that 
Caesar reckons M. Cicero highly among his friends. 
So my dear Cicero I beg you not to commit yourself 
and not to rely on the honour of a man, who for the 
sake of conferring a kindness first did you a harm, 
and on the other hand not to flee from a man, who 
although he will not love you, which is out of the 
question, will alwaj T s wish you to be safe and in high 

I have taken the trouble to send you Calpurnius, 
an intimate friend of mine, that you may know I am 
greatly concerned for your life and position." 

On the same day Philotimus brought me a letter 
from Caesar of which this is a copy: 



Although I had concluded that you would do 
nothing rashly or imprudently, nevertheless I have 
been so stirred by what people say that I thought it 
best to write to you and ask you in the name of our 
goodwill to each other not to go anywhere, now that 
fortune inclines my way, where you did not think it 



etiam progrediendum tibi non existimasses. Namque 
et amicitiae graviorem iniuriam feceris et tibi minus 
commode consulueris^ si non fortunae obsecutus 
videbere (omnia eiiirn secundissima nobis, adversissima 
illis accidisse videntur), nee causam seeutus (eadem 
enim turn fuit, cum iudicasti), 
sed meum aliquod factum condemnavisse ; quo mihi 
gravius abs te nil accidere potest. Quod ne facias, 
pro iure nostrae amicitiae a te peto. Postremo quid 
viro bono et quieto et bono civi magis convenit quam 
abesse a civilibus controversiis? Quod non nulli cum 
probarent, periculi causa sequi non potuerunt ; tu 
explorato et vitae meae testimonio et amicitiae iudicio 
neque tutius neque honestius reperies quicquam quam 
ab omni contentione abesse. 
xv Kal. Maias ex itinere." 



Scr. in Cn- Adventus Philotimi (at cuius hominis, quam insulsi 

mano I J\ OIL e ^ q liam sa epe pro Pompeio mentientis l) exanimavit 
Mai. a. 705 

omnes, qui mecum erant ; nam ipse obdurui. Dubitabat 

nostrum nemo, quin Caesar itinera repressisset volare 
dicitur; Petreius cum Afranio coniunxisset se nihil 
adfert eius modi. Quid quaeris? etiam illud erat 

persuasum, Pompeium cum inagnis copiis iter in 


necessary to go before anything was certain. For 
you will have done a serious injury to our friendship 
and consulted your own interest very little, if you 
show that you are not following fortune (for every 
thing that lias happened seems most favourable to 
me and most unfavourable to Pompey), nor yet follow 
ing the right cause (for the cause was the same then, 
when you thought fit to hold aloof from it), but that 
you have condemned some act of mine, the greatest 
harm you could do me. Do not take such a step, I 
pray you by the right of our friendship. Finally 
what better befits a good and peaceful man and a 
loyal citizen than to keep out of civil disturbance. 
There are some who approved such a course, but could 
not follow it because of the danger. But you may 
examine the evidence of my life and the opinion given 
by my friendship 1 ; you will find no safer or more 
honourable course than to keep quite clear of the 

April 16 on the march." 



The arrival of Philotimus (what a fellow he is ! how Cumac, 
stupid! how often he lies on Pompey s behalf!) has May 3, 
frightened the rest of us to death. For myself I am B.C. J/9 
hardened. None of us doubted that Caesar had 
checked Pompey s progress: Philotimus says he is 
simply flying. Nobody doubted that Petreius had 
joined Afranius: he brings no such news. In fact 
we have all been sure that Pompey had actually made 

1 i.e. my decision to let you be neutral. It may, however, 
mean "Your conviction of my friendship." 



Germaniam per 111 yrioum fecisse ; id enim a 
nuntiabatur. Melitam igitur, opinor, capessamus, 
dum, quid in Hispania. Quod quidem prope modum 
videor ex Caesaris litteris ipsius voluntate facere posse, 
qui negat iicque honestius neque tutius mihi quicquam 
esse quani ab omni contentione abesse. Dices : Ubi 
ille ergo tuus animus, quern proximis litteris ? " Adest 
et idem est ; sed utiiiam meo soluni capite decernerem ! 
Lacrimae meorum me interdum molliunt precaiitium 
ut de Hispaniis exspectemus. M. Caeli quidem 
epistulam scriptam miserabiliter, cum hoc idem 
obsecraret, ut exspectarem, lie fortunas meas, ne 
unicum mium, lie meos omnes tarn temere proderem 
11011 sine magno fietu legerunt pueri nostri. Etsi 
meus quidem est fortior, eoque ipso vehementius 
commovet, nee quicquam nisi de dignatione laborat. 
Melitam igitur, deinde, quo videbitur. Tu tamen 
etiam iiuiic mihi aliquid litterarum, et maxime, si quid 
ab Afranio. Ego, si cum Antonio locutus ero, scribam 
ad te, quid actum sit. Ero tamen in credendo, ut 
mones, cautus ; nam occultandi ratio cum difficilis turn 
etiam periculosa est. Servium exspecto ad Nonas, et 
adigit ita Postumia et Servius filius. Quartanam 
leviorem esse gaudeo. Misi ad te Caeli etiam 
litterarum exemplum. 

IXa-adfam. VIII 16. 


Scr. Inttmih Exanimatus tuis litteris, quibus te iiihil nisi triste 

-17- T7" TJ- 

Af . _ cogitare ostendisti, neque, id quid esset, perscripsisti, 
Mai. a. 70 J o 


his .way with large forces into Germany through 
Illyricum, for that was the news sans doute. So I 
think I must make for Malta, until there is news from 
Spain. This from Caesar s letter I almost think I 
may do without annoying him, for he says there is 
no more honourable or safe course open to me than 
to keep quite clear of the fight. You will say 
" Where then is your courage which you showed in 
recent letters ?" It is there and the same ; but would 
that I had only to decide for myself. The tears of 
my family at times weaken me, when they beg me. to 
wait for news about Spain. The miserable tone of 
M. Caelius letter making this same request that I 
should wait, not to risk so rashly my fortunes, my 
only son and all my family, moved our boys to weep 
ing; although my own son is made of stronger stuff, 
and for that very reason he affects me more deeply, 
thinking only of my reputation. 

So 1 shall go to Malta, thence where it seems good. 
Still even now send me a line, especially if there is 
any news from Afranius. If I have an interview 
with Antony, I will inform you of the result. How 
ever, as you advise, I will take care how I trust him, 
for the policy of concealment is hard and dangerous 
too. Servius Sulpicius I await till the 7th. Both 
his wife Postumia and his son urge me to this. I re 
joice that your ague is better. I send you also a 
copy of Caelius letter. 



In my dismay at your letter, in which you show Intimile, 
that your thoughts are set on some unhappy act Apr. 16, 

315 B.C. 49 


neque non tamen, quale esset, quod cogitares, ape- 
ruisti, has ad te ilico litteras scrips!. Per fortunas 
tuas, Cicero, per liberos te oro et obsecro, ne quid 
gra\ r ius de salute et incolumitate tua consulas. Nam 
deos hominesque amicitiamque nostram testificor me 
tibi praedixisse neque temere monuisse, sed, postquam 
Caesarem convenerim sententiamque eius, qualis fu- 
tura esset parta victoria, cognorim, te certiorem 
fecisse. Si existimas eandem rationem fore Caesaris 
in dimittendis adversariis et condicionibus ferendis, 
erras ; nihil nisi atrox et saevum cogitat atque etiam 
loquitur; iratus senatui exiit, his intercessionibus 
plane incitatus est; non mehercules erit deprecationi 
locus. Quare, si tibi tu, si films unicus, si domus, si 
spes tuae reliquae tibi carae sunt, si aliquid apud te , 
nos, si vir optimus, gener tuns, valemus, quorum 
fortunam non debes velle conturbare, noli committere, 
ut earn causam, in cuius victoria salus nostra est, 
odisse aut relinquere cogamur, aut impiam cupidi- 
tatem contra salutem tuain habeamus. Denique 
illud cogita, quod ofFensae fuerit in ista cunctatione, 
te subisse. Nunc te contra victorem Caesarem facere, 
quern dubiis rebus laedere noluisti, et ad eos fugatos 
accedere, quos resistentes sequi nolueris, summac 
stultitiae est. Vide, ne, dum pudet te parum opti- 
matem esse, parum diligenter, quid optimum sit,, 
eligas. Quod si totum tibi persuadere non possum, 
saltern, dum, quid de Hispaniis agamus, scitur, 

1 noli committere added by LeJimann. 



without saying exactly what it is, though you disclose 
sufficiently what kind of an act it is, I write this on 
the spot. In the name of your fortunes and your 
children, I beg and beseech you, Cicero, not to take 
any step that may endanger your life and safety. 
For I call gods and men and our friendship to wit 
ness that I told you before, and that it was no casual 
warning that I gave you, but certain information, 
after I had met Caesar and found out what his view 
would be, if he won the victory. If you imagine 
that he will maintain his present policy of letting his 
adversaries go and making peace, you are mistaken ; 
he is meditating and even proclaiming nothing but 
cruelty and severity. He left Rome in anger with 
the Senate : these recent vetoes have clearly provoked 
him: you may take my word for it there will be no 
chance of begging off. Then, if you have any care 
for yourself, your only son, your house and what 
hopes you have left, if I and your excellent son-in- 
law have any influence with you and you ought not 
to wish to spoil our fortunes then do not compel us 
to hate or relinquish a cause, in whose victory our 
safety lies, or to harbour unnatural wishes for your 
destruction. Finally consider this : any offence there 
may have been in your hesitation, you have already 
given. Now it is the height of folly to side against 
Caesar in his hour of victory, when you refused to 
attack him while his fortunes were doubtful ; and to 
join in the flight of those, whom you would not 
follow when they stood their ground. Beware lest 
for fear of showing too little zeal for the better 
party," you use too little care in choosing the better 
course. But, if I cannot persuade you entirely, at 
least wait till it is known how we get on in Spain, 


exspecta; quas tibi nuntio adventu Caesaris fore 
nostras. Quam isti spem habeant amissis Hispaniis, 
nescio ; quod porro tuum consiliuni sit ad desperates 
accedere, non medius fidius reperio. 

Hoc,, quod tu non dicendo mihi significasti, Caesar 
audierat, ac, simul atque have" mihi dixit, statin i, 
quid de te audisset, exposuit. Negavi me scire, sed 
tamen ab eo petivi, ut ad te litteras mitteret, quibus 
maxime ad remanendum commoveri posses. Me 
secum in Hispaniam ducit. Nam, nisi ita faceret, 
ego, priusquam ad urbem accederem, ubicumque 
esses, ad te percucurrissem, et hoc a te praesens 
contendissem atque omni vi te retinuissem. Etiam 
atque etiam, Cicero, cogita, ne te tuosque omnis 
funditus evertas, ne te sciens prudensque eo demittas, 
unde exitum vides nullum esse. Quodsi te aut voces 
optimatium commovent, aut non nullorum hominum 
insolentiam et iactationem ferre non potes, eligas 
censeo aliquod oppidum vacuum a bello, dum liaec 
decernuntur; quae iam erunt confecta. Id si feceris, 
et ego te sapienter fecisse iudicabo, et Caesarem non 



Scr.inCuma- Me caecum, qui liaec ante non viderim! Misi ad 

no I A on. te epistulam Antoni. Ei cum ego saepissime scripsis- 

Mat. a. i J-i gem n ihjj me con tra Caesaris rationes cogitare, memi- 

nisse me generi mei, meminisse amicitiae, potuisse, 



which I assure you will be ours as soon as Caesar 
arrives. What your friends hopes are, when they 
have lost Spain, is more than I know ; and what 
your idea is in joining them, when they have no 
hopes, is more than I can imagine. 

What you hinted at without speaking plainly, 
Caesar had heard, and as soon as ever he had said 
good daj r ," he told me what he had heard about 
you. I said I knew nothing about it : but I asked 
him to send you a letter as the best means of in 
ducing you to stay. He is taking me with him to 
Spain. If he were not, I should have hurried to you, 
before going to Rome, wherever you might have 
been, and should have pressed this view on you 
personally and done all in my power to restrain you. 
Once more and yet once more, Cicero, think before 
\ ou utterly destroy yourself and all your family : do 
not wittingly and with your eyes open put yourself 
in a position from which you see there is no escape. 
But, if you are moved by the call of the conservative 
jarty, or if you cannot endure the insolence and 
irrogant behaviour of certain persons, I think you 
should choose some town remote from the war, until 
the matter is settled : and settled it will be at once. 
[f you do that, I shall consider you have acted 
wisely, and Caesar will not be offended. 



How blind I am not to have foreseen it ! I send Ciimae, 
you Antony s letter. I have often written to him May 3, 
that I planned nothing against Caesar s policy, that B.C. 49 
I was mindful of my son-in-law, of our friendship, 



si aliter sentirem., esse cum Pompeio ; me autem, quia 
cum.lictoribus iiivitus ctirsarenr, abesse velle, nee id 
ipsum certum etiam mine habere, vide, quam ad haec 
7rapaii Tt/co)5 : 

Tuum consilium quam verum est. Nam, qui se 
medium esse vult, in patria manet^ qui proficiscitur., 
aliquid de altera utra parte iudicare videtur. Sed 
ego is non sum, qui statuere debeam, iure quis pro- 
ficiscatur necne ; partes mihi Caesar has imposuit. ne 
quern omnino discedere ex Italia paterer. Quare 
parvi refert me probate cogitationem tuam, si nihil 
tamen tibi remittere possum. Ad Caesarem mittas 
censeo et ab eo hoc petas. Non dubito, quin impe- 
traturus sis, cum praesertim te amicitiae nostrae 
rationem habiturum esse pollicearis." 

Habes crKvraA^v Atucwvi/oji/. Omnino excipiam ho- 
minem. Erat autem v Nonas venturus vesperi, id est 
hodie. Cras igitur ad me fortasse veniet. Temptabo, 
audiam : nihil pvoperare ; missurum ad Caesarem. 
Clam agam, cum paucissimis alicubi occultabor^ certe 
hinc istis invitissimis evolabo, atque utinam ad Cu- 
ripnem! Si i es, 6 rot Aeyw. Magnus dolor accessit. 
Efficietur aliquid dignum nobis. 

Avtrovpta tua mihi valde molesta. Medere, amabo, 


that, if I had thought otherwise, I could have been 
with Pompey, that I wished to leave Italy because I 
was loth to wander about with my lictors, though I 
had not made up my mind definitely even to that. 
See in what an ex cathedra tone he answers me : 
Your policy is quite right. For a man who wishes 
to be neutral remains in his country; the man who 
leaves his country seems to express his conviction on 
one side or the other; but it is not for me to deter 
mine, whether anyone has the right to leave or not. 
The part Caesar has given me is not to let anyone 
at all leave Italy ; so it is of little use for me to 
approve your plan, if all the same I cannot make an 
exception for you. I think you should send to Caesar 
and ask him this favour. I have no doubt that you 
will succeed, especially as you promise not to forget 
our friendship." 

That is a laconic epistle. 1 I will certainly take 
my cue from the man. He is to come on the evening 
of the 3rd, that is to-day. To-morrow therefore he 
will perhaps come to me. I will sound him : I will 
hear him : say I am in no hurry : that I will send to 
Caesar. I will act secretly, with a very few at 
tendants I will lie hidden somewhere ; but assuredly, 
however unwilling these people are, I will fly off; 
and would that it may be to Curio! Mark what 1 
say." 2 Another great grief has come upon me. I 
will do something worthy of my reputation. 

Your maLdy gives me grave anxiety. I pray you 

Lit. "Laconian staff." Spartan dispatches were wound 
round a staff in such a way that they could not be read 
when taken off it. Here, however, Cicero only refers to 
their brevity. 

2 Probably a quotation from Pindar, Frag. 105. 

Y VOL. II 321 


dum est apx*?- De Massiliensibus gratae tuae mihi 
litterae. Quaeso, ut sciam, quicquid audieris. Ocellam 
cuperem, si possem palam, quod a Curione effeceram. 
Hie ego Servium exspecto ; rogor enirn ab eius uxore 
et filio, et puto opus esse. Hie tamen Cytherida 
secum lectica aperta portat, alteram uxorem. Septem 
praeterea coniunctae lecticae amicarum sunt an ami- 
corum. Vide, quam turpi leto pereamus, et dubita, 
si potes, quin ille, seu victus seu victor redierit, cae- 
dem facturus sit. Ego vero vel hmtriculo, si navis 
non erit, eripiam me ex istorum parricidio. Sed plura 
seribam, cum ilium convenero. 

luvenem nostrum non possum non amare, sed ab 
eo nos non amari plane intellego. Nihil ego vidi tarn 
dvyOoTTOLfiTov, tam aversum a suis, tarn nescio quid 
cogitans. O vim incredibilem molestiarum ! Sed 
erit curae, et est, ut regatur, Mirum est enim inge- 
nium, r/$ovs e 



Scr. in Obsignata iam epistula superiore, non placuit ei 

Cumano IV darj^ C ui constitueram, quod erat alienus. Itaque eo 

-v/,- die data non est. Interim venit Philotimus et mihi 

//. / Uo 



get medical advice in its initial stage. Your letter 
about the Massilians 1 pleased me. Let me know 
whatever you hear. I should have liked to have 
Ocella, if it could be done openly, and I had got 
Curio to allow it. Here I am awaiting Servius 
Sulpicius, for it is at the request of his wife and son, 
and I think it is necessary. Antony carries about 
Cytheris with him in an open litter as his second 
wife, and besides he had seven other litters of friends 
male or female. See what a disgraceful death we 
die, and doubt, if you can, that, whether Caesar 
returns victor or vanquished, he will perpetrate a 
massacre. Even in an open boat, if I cannot get 
a vessel, I will tear myself away from these parricides 
and their doings. But I will write more when I have 
met him. 

My nephew I cannot but love, though I see clearly 
that he has no affection for me. I never saw anyone 
so unprincipled, so averse to his own relations, with 
such mysterious plans. What a weight of anxiety ! 
But it will be my business, as it is now, to discipline 
him : he has wonderful ability, but his character 
requires training. 



After sealing my former letter, I did not feel in- Cumae, 
dined to hand it to the person that I had intended, May 4> 
as he was a stranger; so it was not despatched on B.C. 49 
that day. Meantime Philotimus came and gave me 

1 They had shut their gates to Caesar and were being 

2 An actress. 

y2 323 


a te litteras reddidit. Quibus quae de fratre meo 
scribis, sunt ea quidem parum firma, sed habent iiihil 
vTrovXoi , nihil fallax, nihil iion flexibile ad bonitatem, 
nihil, quod non, quo velis, uno sermone possis perdu- 
cere ; lie multa, omnes suos, etiam quibus irascitur 
crebrius, tainen caros habet, me quidem se ipso cario- 
rem. Quod de puero aliter ad te scripsit et ad ma- 
trein de filio, 11011 reprehendo. De itinere l et de 
sorore quae scribis, molesta sunt, eoque magis, quod 
ea tempora nostra sunt. ut ego iis mederi noil pos- 
sim. Nam certe mederer ; sed, quibus in malis et 
qua in desperatione rerum simus, vides. 

Ilia de ratione iiummaria non sunt eius modi (saepe 
enim audio ex ipso), ut non cupiat tibi praestare et 
in eo laboret. Sed, si mihi Q. Axius in hac mea fuga 
HS xTTl non reddit, quae dedi eius filio mutua, et 
utitur excusatione temporis, si Lepta, si ceteri, soleo 
mirari, de nescio quis HS XX cum audio ex illo se 
urgeri. Vides enim profecto angustias. Curari tamen 
ea tibi utique iubet. An existimas ilium in isto ge- 
nere lentulum aut restrictum? Nemo est minus. De 
fratre satis. 

De eius iuvene filio, indulsit illi quidem suus pater 
semper, sed non facit iiidulgentia mendacem aut ava- 
rum aut non amantem suorum, ferocem fortasse atque 
arrogantem et iiifestum facit. Itaque habet haec quo- 
que, quae nascuntur ex iiidulgentia, sed ea sunt tole- 
rabilia (quid enim dicam ?) hac iuventute ; ea vero, 

itinere most editors : itine MZ: Quinto Tyrrell. 


a letter from you. The conduct of my brother about 
which you write shows little firmness, but no chi 
canery, no treachery, nothing inflexibly opposed to 
goodness, nothing that cannot be turned where you 
will by a single conversation. In short all his rela 
tions, even those with whom he is so often angry, 
are nevertheless dear to him, and I to be sure am 
dearer than life. I do not blame him for writing 
in one strain about his boy to you and in another to 
the boy s mother. I am distressed by what you say 
about the journey and your sister, and the more so 
because the times are such that I cannot remedy the 
matter. For certainly I would have done so : but 
you see in what trouble I am, what desperation. 

As for his financial affairs. I often hear from him, 
and they are not in such a state as to prevent him 
from being anxious to pay you and from making 
efforts to that end : but if Q. Axius does not pay me 
in this my flight the 100 I lent his son, and pleads 13,000 sesterces 
in excuse the state of the times, and if Lepta and 
others do the same, I confess I am always surprised 
to hear from Quintus that he is pressed for some 
175. For of course you see his straits. However 20 ooo sesterces 
he has ordered the sum to be paid to your account. 
Perhaps you suppose that he is slow or close-fisted in 
money matters. No one is less so : but enough about 
my brother. 

As for his son, the father has certainly always in 
dulged him ; but indulgence does not make him a 
liar or a miser or disloyal to his friends, though it 
does perhaps make him surly, haughty and aggressive. 
Accordingly he has these defects which are due to 
spoiling ; but they are not intolerable, shall I say, as 
young men go nowadays. But the defects which, to 



quae mihi quidem, qui ilium amo, sunt his ipsis ma- 
lis, in quis sumus, miseriora, non sunt ab obsequio 
nostro. Nam suas radices habent ; quas tamen evel- 
lerem profecto, si liceret. Sed ea tempora sunt, ut 
omnia mihi sint patienda. Ego meum facile teneo ; 
nihil est enim eo tractabilius. Cuius quidem miseri- 
cordia languidiora adhuc consilia cepi, et, quo ille me 
certiorem vult esse, eo magis timeo, lie in eum ex- 
sistam crudelior. 

Sed Antonius venit heri vesperi. lam fortasse ad 
me veniet, aut ne id quidem, quoniam scripsit, quid 
fieri vellet. Sed scies continue, quid actum sit. Nos 
iam nihil nisi occulte. 

De pueris quid agam ? parvone navigio commit - 
tam ? - Quid mihi animi in navigando censes fore ? 
Recorder enim, aestate cum illis illo Rhodiorum 
d<j>pa.KT<]) navigans quam fuerim sollicitus; quid duro 
tempore anni actuariola fore censes? O rem undi- 
que miseram ! 

Trebatius erat mecum, vir plane et civis bonus. 
Quae ille monstra, di immortales ! Etiamne Balbus 
in senatum venire cogitet? Sed ei ipsi eras ad te lit- 
teras dabo. Vettienum mihi amicum, ut scribis, ita 
puto esse. Cum eo, quod airoro/Mws ad me scripserat 
de riummis curandis, OvpiK<are.pov eram iocatus. Id 
tu, si ille aliter acceperit ac debuit, lenies. MONE- 
TALI" autem adscripsi, quod ille ad me PRO cos." 
Sed, quoniam est homo et nos diligit, ipse quoque 
a nobis diligatur. Vale. 


me at any rate who love him, are more distressing 
than even the evils on which we have fallen, do not 
proceed from any indulgence of mine ; for they are 
deep rooted : but I would have rooted them up, had I 
been allowed. But the times are such that I must bear 
everything. My own son I control easily. He is 
quite tractable. My own policy has lacked vigour 
owing to my pity for him ; and the more he wants 
me to be unflinching, the more I fear I may prove 
cruel to him. 

Well Antony came yesterday evening ; soon per 
haps he will visit me, perhaps not even that, as he 
has written what he wanted done ; but you shall 
know forthwith what has happened. All I do now 
is done secretly. 

What shall I do about the boys? Shall I entrust 
them to a small boat ? What courage do you suppose 
I shall have on the voyage ? For I remember sailing 
in the summer in an open Rhodian boat with them 
and how anxious I was ; and how do you suppose it 
will be in the bad season in a tiny pinnace ? Misery 
everywhere ! 

Trebatius is with me, a real man and a loyal 
citizen. Ye gods, what awful news he brings ! So 
even Balbus is thinking of attending the Senate ! 
But I will give Trebatius himself a letter for you to 
morrow. I agree with your letter that Vettienus is 
friendly to me. But I made a rather bitter jest at 
his expense, because he wrote curtly to me about 
paying my debt. Appease him, if he took it in bad 
part. I addressed him by his title commissioner of 
the mint" because he addressed me as "proconsul." 
But since he is a good man and has affection for me, 
let me keep my affection for him. Farewell. 





Scr. in Quidnam milii futurum est, aut quis me non solum 

Cumano III infelicior, sed iam etiam turpior? Nomination de me 
Aon. Mat. gjjjj imperatum dicit Antonius, nee me tamen ipse 
adhuc viderat, sed hoc Trebatio narravit. Quid agam 
nuiic, cui nihil procedit, caduntque ea, quae diligen- 
tissime sunt cogitata, taeterrime ? Ego enim Curio- 
neni nactus omiiia me consecutum putavi. Is de me 
ad Hortensium scripserat. Reginus erat totus noster. 
Huic nihil suspicabamur cum hoc mari negotii fore. 
Quo me nunc vertam ? Undique custodior. Sed satis 
lacrimis. HapaKXtTrreov igitur et occulte in aliquam 
onerariam corrependum, non committendum, ut etiam 
compacto prohibit! videamur. Sicilia petenda. Quam 
si erimus nacti, maiora quaedam consequemur. Sit 
modo recte in Hispaniis ! Quamquam de ipsa Sicilia 
utinam sit verum ! Sed adhuc nihil secundi. Con- 
cursus Siculorum ad Catonem dicitur factus, orasse, 
ut resisteret, omnia pollicitos; commotum ilium dile- 
ctum habere coepisse. Non credo, ut est luculentus 
auctor. Potuisse certe teneri illam provinciam scio. 
Ab Hispaniis autem iam audietur. 

Hie nos C. Marcellum habemus, eadem vere cogi- 
tantem aut bene simulantem ; quamquam ipsum non 
videram, sed ex familiarissimo eius audiebam. Tu, 
quaeso, si quid habebis novi ; ego, si quid moliti eri 
mus, ad te statim scribam. Quintum filium severius 




What is to happen to me ? Who is there more Cwnae, May 
ill-starred, or even more humiliated ? Antony says 5, B.C. 1$ 
he has received orders about me definitely. Yet I 
have not seen him myself so far; but he told Trebatius. 
What can I do now ? Nothing succeeds and all my 
best laid plans fail abominably. For, when I had 
won over Curio, I imagined I had attained my end. 
He had written about me to Hortensius. Reginus 
was wholly my friend. I never suspected that Antony 
had anything to do with this part of the sea. Whither 
can I turn now ? Everywhere I am watched. But 
enough of lamentation. I must steal away and creep 
privily into some cargo boat ; I must not allow it to 
appear that I connive at being hindered. I must go 
to Sicily. If I once get there, I shall have greater 
ends in view. If only all goes well in Spain ! How 
ever, I do hope the news about Sicily may prove 
true ! Hitherto I have had no luck. It is said the 
Sicilians have gathered round Cato, prayed him to 
resist and promised every support : and that he has 
been induced to begin making a levy. I don t believe 
| it, good as the authority is. I know for a fact that 
! that province could have been held. But we shall 
soon hear from Spain. 

Here I have C. Marcellus, who holds the same 
views as myself or makes a good pretence of doing 
so. I have not indeed met him myself; but 1 hear 
it from one of his most intimate friends. Write to me, 
: if you have any news. If I attempt anything, I shall 
inform you at once. Young Quintus I shall handle 



adhibebo. Utinam proficere possim ! Tu tamen eas 
epistulas, quibus asperius de eo scripsi, aliquando con- 
cerpito, ne quando quid emanet ; ego item tuas. Ser- 
vium exspecto, nee ab eo quicquam vytes. Scies, quic- 
quid erit. 



Set: in Sine dubio errasse nos confitendum est. At se- 

Cumano mel, at una in re." Immo omnia quo diligentius 
nna. ^on. cogitata eo facta sunt imprudentius. 
Mai. a. 70-5 , v v v > a > > 

AAAa TO. /Aev TrpoTtTi Xc/at fa.a-ofj.fv axvv/ifvot, TTfp, 

in reliquis modo ne ruamus. lubes de profectione 
me providere. Quid provideam ? Ita patent omnia, 
quae accidere possunt, ut, ea si vitem, sedendum sit 
cum dedecore et dolore, si neglegam, periculum sit, 
ne in manus incidam perditorum. Sed vide, quantis 
in miseriis simus. Optandum interdum videtur, ut 
aliquam accipiamus ab istis quamvis acerbam iniu- 
riam, ut tyranno in odio fuisse videamur. Quodsi 
nobis is cursus, quem speraram, pateret, effecissem 
aliquid profecto. ut tu optas et hortaris, dignum 
nostra mora. Sed mirificae sunt custodiae. et qui- 
dem ille ipse Curio suspectus. Quare vi aut clam 
agendum est et, si vi, fortiter cum tempestate. 1 
Clam autem istis? In quo si quod o-c^dA/ia, vides, 
quam turpe sit. Trahimur, nee fugiendum, si quid 

1 et si vi forte ne cum pestate M : et si vi forte et cum 
tempestate Ant., F. I have adopted Orelli s reading ; but 
it is -very uncertain. 



with severity. I hope my efforts may succeed. But 
please some time tear up the letters in which I 
criticize him severely, for fear anything ever come 
to light. I will tear up yours. Servius Sulpicius I 
am still awaiting, nor do I hear anything satisfactory 
from him. You shall know whatever happens. 



Undoubtedly I must admit I have been mistaken. Cumae, May 
But is it once only or on one topic ? No, in every- S, B.C. 49 
thing. The more carefully I have thought, the less 
wisely have I done. Let bygones be bygones." ] 
In the future only let us not invite disaster. You 
bid me provide for my journey. What can I provide? 
All the possible accidents are so obvious, that, if I 
would shun them, I must sit still in shame and grief: 
and, if I disregard them, it is odds that I fall into the 
hands of villains. But see how miserable I am. 
Sometimes it seems preferable that I should receive 
some damage however bitter from Caesar s party, 
that people may see I am hated by the tyrant. But, 
if the voyage for which I hoped were open to me, 
certainly, as you wish and advise, I should have done 
something to justify delay. But I am watched with 
extraordinary care and even Curio is suspect. So I 
must make a bold move or use craft. If a bold move, 
I need good weather : but, if craft, should there be 
any faux pas, you see how disgraced I should be. 
I am carried away by circumstances and must not be 
afraid of a bold course. 

1 Iliad xvii, 112, " But what is past though grieved we will 
let be." 


De Caelio saepe mecum agito nee, si quid habuero 
tale, dimittam. Hispanias spero firmas esse. Massi- 
liensium factum cum ipsum per se luculentum est, 
turn mihi argurnento est recte esse in Hispaniis. 
Minus enim auderent, si aliter esset, et scirent ; nam 
et vicini et diligentes sunt. Odium autem recte 
animadvertis significatum in theatre. Legiones etiam 
has, quas in Italia assumpsit, alienissimas esse video. 
Sed tamen nihil inimicius quam sibi ipse. lllud recte 
times, ne ruat. Si desperarit, certe ruet. Quo magis 
efficiendum aliquid est, fortuna velim meliore, animo 
Caeliano. Sed primum quidque. Quod qualecumque 
erit, contintio scies. Nos iuveni, ut rogas, suppedi- 
tabimus et Peloponnesum ipsam sustinebimus. Est 
enim indoles, modo aliquod hoc sit T?$OS AKIMOAON. 1 
Quod si adhuc nullum est, esse tamen potest, aut 
aperr? non est SiSaxTov, quod mihi persuaderi non 



Set: in Cu- Epistula tua gratissima fuit meae Tulliae et me her- 
mano Xon. cule mihi. Semper speculam aliquam adferunt tuae 
Mai. ft. i 05 Htterae. Scribes igitur, ac, si quid ad spem poteris. 
ne dimiseris. Tu Antoni leones pertimescas cave. Ni 
hil est illo homine iucundius. Attende Trpaiv -rroXi- 

1 The text here is corrupt and no convincing emendation 
has been suggested. 


I often reflect about Caelius : and if I have such 
an opportunity, I will not let it go. I hope Spain 
is safe. The action of the Massiliaris is praise 
worthy in itself, and is a proof to me that things are 
going well in Spain. They would have been less 
bold, if it were otherwise, and they should know, for 
they live near and are watchful. You are right to 
remark the expression of popular feeling in the 
theatre. Even the legions which Caesar got in Italy 
seem to me to be very disloyal to him. However he 
is his own worst enemj . You are right to fear that 
he may run amuck. Assuredly he will, if he loses 
hope. That is all the more inducement for me to do 
something in the spirit of Caelius, and I hope with 
better luck. But everything in due course ; and, 
whatever it be, I will inform you forthwith. I will do 
all for young Quintus that is necessary, and will 
undertake the task not only of Arcadia but of the 
whole Peloponnese. 1 He is able, if only he had 
character. However, if he has none so far, he may 
get it, or virtue is not teachable, and that I can 
never believe. 



Your letter was very pleasing to my daughter and Cumae, 
of course to me, for your correspondence always brings May 7, B.C. 
a gleam of hope. So please write, and, if you can be 4& 
hopeful, don t fail to be so. Don t be too much afraid 
of Antony s lions. 2 He is a jovial fellow. Just hear 

1 Cf. x, 5. 

2 Plutarch and Pliny state that after Pharsaha Antony had 
a chariot drawn by lions: but from this passage it appears 
that the story was current earlier. 



TIKOV. Evocavit litteris e municipiis decem primes 
et mi viros. Venerunt ad villam eius mane. Primum 
dormiit ad h. in, deinde, cum esset nuntiatum venisse 
Neapolitanos et Cumanos (his enim est Caesar iratus), 
postridie redire iussit; lavari se velle et -rrepl KoiXio- 
Avcrtav yivea-Oat. Hoc here effecit. Hodie autem in 
Aenariam transire constituit. Exsulibus reditum pol- 

Sed haec omittamus, de nobis aliquid agamus. 
A Q. Axio accepi litteras. De Tirone gratum. 
Vettienum diligo. Vestorio reddidi. Servius pr. No 
nas Maias Menturnis mansisse dicitur^ hodie in Liter- 
nino mansurus apud C. Marcellum. Cras igitur nos 
mature videbit mihique dabit argumeiitum ad te epi- 
stulae. lam enim non reperio, quod tibi scribam. 
Jllud admiror, quod Antonius ad me ne nuntium qui- 
dem, cum praesertim me valde observarit. Videlicet 
aliquid atrocius de me imperatum est. Coram iiegare 
mihi non vult, quod ego nee rogaturus eram nee, si 
impetrassem, crediturus. Nos tamen aliquid excogita- 
bimus. Tu, quaeso, si quid in Hispaniis. lam enim 
poterit audiri, et omnes ita exspectant, ut, si recte 
fuerit, nihil negotii futurum putent. Ego autem nee 
retentis iis confectam rem puto, neque amissis despe- 
ratam. Siliurn et Ocellam et ceteros credo retardatos. 
Te quoque a Curtio impediri video. Etsi, ut opinor, 
habes CKTrAow. 1 

1 tKirXovv Baiter: txiraovov MSS, 


how he plays the statesman. He summoned by letter 
ten leading men and the board of four from the muni 
cipal towns. They came to his country house in the 
morning. First he slept till nine. Then, when he 
heard the men had come from Naples and Cumae (for 
Caesar is angry with them), he bade them return on 
the next day, saying that he wished to take a bath 
and a laxative. This he did yesterday. But to 
day he has arranged to cross to Aenaria. He is 
promising the exiles 1 that they shall return. 

But let us pass over this and talk about ourselves. 
I got a letter from Q. Axius. As for Tiro, thanks. 
1 like Vettienus. I have repaid Vestorius. Servius 
is said to have stopped at Menturnae on the 6th of 
May. To-day he will stop with C. Marcellus in his 
villa at Liternum. To-morrow early he will see me, 
and will give me a subject for a letter to you. Just 
now I can find nothing to write. I am much aston 
ished that Antony has not even sent a messenger to 
me, especially when he has paid me much attention. 
I suppose he has some more truculent order about 
me. He does not wish to refuse me to my face, but 
I was not going to ask the favour, nor, if I had got it, 
should I have believed him. However I will think 
ut some plan. Let me know if anything has happened 
n Spain; for now there is time for news to have come, 
and everybody awaits it with the idea, that, if all go 
well there, there will be no more trouble. But I do 
not think the business is over, if Spain be kept, nor 
r et hopeless, if it be lost. Silius and Ocella and the 
est I suppose are detained. I see that you too are 
hindered by Curtius, though I think you have a 

1 Banished under Pompey s law de ambitu in 52 B.C. 





Scr. in Cu- O vitam miseram, maiusque malum tarn diu timere, 

mono nil quam est illud ipsum, quod timetur ! Servius, ut antea 

^ ai - a - scrips!, cum venisset Nonis Maiis, postridie ad me 

TO *~) 

mane venit. Ne diutius te teneam, nullius consilii 
exitum invenimus. Numquam vidi hominem pertur- 
batiorem metu;neque hercule quicquam timebat, quod 
non esset timendum; ilium sibi iratum, hunc non ami- 
cum; horribilem utriusque victoriam, cum propter al- 
terius crudelitatem, alterius audaciam turn propter 
utriusque difficultatem pecuriiariam;quae erui nusquam 
nisi ex privatorum bonis posset. Atque haec ita mul- 
tis cum lacrimis loquebatur, ut ego mirarer eas tarn 
diuturna miseria non exaruisse. Mihi quidem etiam 
lippitudo haec, propter quam non ipse ad te scribo, 
sine ulla lacrima est, sed saepius odiosa est propter 
vigilias. Quam ob rein, quicquid habes ad consolan- 
dum, collige et ilia scribe, non ex doctrina neque ex 
libris (nam id quidem domi est, sed nescio quo modo 
imbecillior est medicina quam morbus), haec potius 
conquire de Hispaniis, de Massilia; quae quidem satis 
bella Servius adfert; qui etiam de duabus legionibus 
luculentos auctores esse dicebat. Haec igitur, si habe- 
bis, et talia. Et quidem paucis diebus aliquid audiri 
necesse est. 

Sed redeo ad Servium. Distulimus omnino sermo- 
riem in posterum, sed tardus ad exeundum multo se 




What a wretched life this is ! and to be so long Cumae, 
afraid is more wretched than the very thing one fears ! May 8, B.C. 
Servius, as I told you before, came on the 7th of May 9 
and on the next morning visited me. Not to detain 
you longer we could not see our way to a plan. Never 
have I seen a man more upset with fear; and upon 
my soul he feared nothing that did not deserve to be 
feared. He pointed out that Pompey was angry with 
him, that Caesar was not friendly, that the victory of 
either would be terrible, both because Pompey was 
cruel and Caesar daring, and because of their money 
difficulties, which could only be got rid of by an attack 
on private property. He bewailed all this with such 
a flood of tears, that I was surprised they had not 
dried up in all that long time of misery. My own 
eyes do not shed one single tear, though this inflam 
mation prevents me from writing to you ; but it is 
often tiresome by keeping me awake So please col 
lect all the consolation you can and send it to me not 
from philosophy or books I have plenty of that, but I 
find somehow that the cure is too weak for the disease. 
Search rather for any news about Spain or Massilia. 
What Servius says about them is quite satisfactory, 
and he also tells me there is excellent authority for 
the story of the two legions. News of this kind then 
send me, if you get it, and such like topics. Anyhow 
in a few days something must be heard. 

But to return to Servius. We deferred all our 
conversation to the next day: but he is reluctant to 
leave Italy, declaring he would much rather die in 
z VOL. ii 337 


in suo lectulo malle, quicquid foret." Odiosus scru- 
pulus de filii militia Brundisina. Unum illud firmis- 
sime adseverabatj si damnati restituerentur, in exsilium 
se iturum. Nos autem ad haec et id ipsum certo 
fore, et, quae iam fierent, 11011 esse leviora," multaque 
colligebamus. Verum ea non animum eius augebant, 
sed timorem, ut iam celandus magis de nostro coii- 
silio quaui adhibendus videretur. Quare in hoc non 
multum est. Nos a te admoniti de Caelio cogitabi- 



Scr. in Servius cum esset apud me, Cephalic cum tuis lit- 

Cumano II teris vi Idus venit; quae nobis magnam spem attule- 

Id. Mai. a. runt meliorum rerum de octocohortibus. Etenim eae 

"" quoque, quae in his locis sunt, labare dicuntur. Eo- 

dem die Funisulanus a te attulit litteras, in quibus 

erat connrmatius idem illud. Ei de suo negotio i-e- 

spondi cumulate cum omni tua gratia. Adhuc non 

satis faciebat ; debet autem mihi multos nummos nee 

habetur locuples. Nunc ait se daturum ; cui expeiisum 

tulerit, morari ; tabellariis, si apud te esset qua satis 

fecisset, dares. Quantum sit, Eros Philotimi tibi 

dicet. Sed ad maiora redeamus. 

Quod optas, Caelianum illud maturescit. Itaque 

torqueor, utrum ventum exspectem. \"exillo opus 

est; convolabunt. Quod suades, ut palam, prorsus 

adsentior, itaque me profecturum puto. Tuas tamen 



his bed whatever happens. He has unpleasant scru 
ples about his son s military service at Brundisium. 
On one point he is quite firm, that, if the condemned 
are restored, he will go into exile. I for my part replied 
" that will certainly happen, and what is happening is 
equally disagreeable," and I quoted many examples. 
My examples however did not increase his courage but 
his fear : so that it appears I must rather conceal from 
him my design than invite him to share it. He is not 
to be depended on. By your advice I will consider 
about Caelius. 



While Servius was with me, Cephalio came with Cumae t May 
your letter of the 10th, which gave me great hope of 12, B.C. 49 

jetter news about the eight cohorts. For even the 
cohorts which are here are said to be wavering. On 

;he same day Funisulanus brought me a letter from 
you, corroborating the same news. I gave him a full 
reply about his business, explaining all your kindness. 

rlitherto he has not been satisfactory ; and he owes 
me a large sum and is not considered safe. Now he 
says that he will settle ; but that a debtor of his was 
slow in paying, and that you are to pay the money 
by your letter-carriers, if that debtor has deposited it 
with you. The amount Philotimus man Eros will 
tell you. But to return to more important matters. 
That Caelian plan you favour is coming to a head : 
so I am worried whether to await a favourable wind. 

tt is a standard we want, and men will flock to it. 
With your advice, that I should set sail openly, I en 
tirely agree : and so I think I will set out. However 
z2 339 


interim litteras exspecto. Servi consilio nihil ex- 
peditur. Omnes captiones in omni sententia occurrunt. 
Ununi C. Marcellum cognovi timidiorem ; quem con- 
sulem fuisse paenitet. "12 7roAA?)s dyevvetas ! qui etiam 
Antonium confirmasse dicitur, ut me impediret, quo 
ipse, credo, honestius. Antonius autem vi Idus 
Capuam profectus est. Ad me misit se pudore 
deterritum ad me non venisse, quod me sibi suscensere 
putaret. Ibitur igitur et ita quidem, ut censes, nisi 
cuius gravioris personae suscipiendae spes erit ante 
oblata. Sed vix erit tarn cito. Allienus autem 
praetor putabat aliquem, si ego non, ex collegis suis. 
Quivis licet, dum modo aliquis. 

De sorore laudo. De Quinto puero datur opera ; 
spero esse meliora. De Quinto fratre scito eum non 
mediocriter laborare de versura, sed adhuc nihil a 
L. Egnatio expressit. Axius de duodecim milibus 
pudens! Saepe enim ad me scripsit, ut Gallio, quan 
tum is vellet, darem. Quodsi non scripsisset, possemne 
aliter? Et quidem saepe sum pollicitus, sed tantum 
voluit cito. Me vero adiuvarent his in angustiis. Sed 
di istos ! Verum alias. Te a quartana liberatum gau- 
deo itemque Piliam. Ego, dum panis et cetera in 
navem parantur, excurro in Pompeianum. Vettieno 
velim gratias, quod studiosus sit ; si quemquam nan- 
ctus eris, qui perferat, litteras des, antequam disce- 



I await a letter from you meanwhile. Servius advice 
has not been helpful. All sorts of bars meet us in 
every opinion he expresses. Only one man, C. Mar- 
cellus, have I known to be more timid, and he is 
sorry he was ever a consul. What a lowborn spirit ! 
He is said even to have strengthened Antony s reso 
lution to prevent my departure : so that his own 
conduct I suppose may appear more honourable. 
Antony started for Capua on the 10th, sending word 
that shame prevented his visiting me, because he 
thought I was annoyed with him. So I shall go, and 
openly as you advise, unless hope of playing a more 
important part shall offer. But that can scarcely 
occur so soon. Allienus the praetor thought one of 
his colleagues would be chosen, 1 if I were not. Let 
it be anyone they like so long as it is some one. 

As to your sister, I approve. As for young Quintus, 
I am doing my best, and I hope things are better. 
As for my brother Quintus, you must know that he is 
taking extraordinary pains to borrow money to settle 
his debt; but so far has squeezed nothing out of L. 
Egnatius. Axius is modest about the 100 2 : for he 
often requested in his letters that I should pay 
Gallius as much as he wanted. Even if he had not 
written, could I have helped it? I have often pro 
mised indeed; but he wanted so much at once. 
They should have helped me rather in my difficulties, 
confound them. But I will write of this another 
time. I am glad you are rid of your ague, and 
Pilia too. While bread and provisions are being put 
on board, I am going off to my estate at Pompeii. 
Please thank Vettienus for his trouble. If you can 
find a messenger, give me a letter before I leave. 
1 As peace delegate. - 12,000 sesterces. 




tier, in Cu- Commodum ad te dederam litteras de pluribus 
mano prid. rebus, cum ad me bene mane Dionysius fuit. Cui 
Id. Mai. a. quidem ego non modo placabilem me praebuissem, 
* Q sed totum remisissem, si venisset, qua mente tu ad 

me scripseras. Erat enim sic in tuis litteris, quas 
Arpini acceperam, eum venturum facturumque, quod 
ego vellem. Ego volebam autem vel cupiebam 
potius esse eum nobiscum. Quod quia plane, cum in 
Formianum venisset, praeciderat, asperius ad te de eo 
scribere solebam. At ille perpauca locutus hanc sum- 
mam habuit orationis, ut sibi ignoscerem ; se rebus 
suis impeditum nobiscum ire non posse. Pauca re- 
spondi, magnum accepi dolorem, intellexi fortunam ab 
eo nostram despectam esse. Quid quaeris ? (fortasse 
miraberis) in maximis horum temporum doloribus 
hunc mihi scito esse. Velim, ut tibi amicus sit. Hoc 
cum tibi opto, opto, ut beatus sis ; erit enim tarn diu. 
Consilium nostrum spero vacuum periculo fore. 
Nam et dissimulavimus, et, ut opinor, non acerrime 
adservabimur. Navigatio modo sit, qualem opto, ce 
tera, quae quidem consilio provideri poterunt, cave- .; 
buntur. Tu, dum adsumus, non modo quae scies ati- 
dierisve, sed etiam quae futura providebis, scribas 

Cato, qui Sicilian! tenere nullo negotio potuit (et, 
si tenuisset, omnes boni ad eum se contulissent), Sy- 
racusis profectus est ante diem vm K. Mai., ut ad me 




I had just sent a letter to you about a number of Cumae, May 
matters, when very early in the morning Dionysius /_, B.C. 4$ 
came to my house. I should not only have been 
civil to him, I should have pardoned him altogether, 
if he had come in the spirit you described. For the 
letter I got at Arpinum said that he was coming and 
would do whatever I wanted ; and I wanted or rather 
longed that he should be with me. It was because 
he had flatly refused to do so, when he came to my 
villa at Formiae, I used to write to you about him 
rather bitterly. However, after the first greeting, 
he said, to put it shortly, that I must excuse him and 
that business prevented his going with me. I said 
little in reply, but I was greatly hurt, for I understood 
that he looked down on my fortunes. You may be 
astonished, but you must know that this is one of the 
greatest sorrows I have suffered in this crisis. I hope 
that he may be a friend to you. When I wish that, 
I wish you prosperity, for just so long he will be your 

My plan, I hope, will be free from risk, for I have 
kept the matter a secret, and, as I think, I shall not 
be watched very keenly. Only let the voyage be as 
good as I want, and all precautions that foresight can 
suggest will be taken. While I am here, please 
write not only anything you know or hear, but even 
what you foresee. 

Cato, who could have held Sicily without any 
trouble and, if he had held it, all loyalists would 
have flocked to him sailed from Syracuse on the 



Curio scripsit. Utinam, quod aiunt, Cotta Sardinian! 
teneat! est enim rumor. O, si id fuerit, turpem Ca- 
tonem ! 

Ego, ut minuerem suspicionem profectionis aut co- 
gitationis meae, profectus sum in Pompeianum a. d. 
mi Idus, ut ibi essem, dum, quae ad navigandum opus 
essent, pararentur. Cum ad villam venissem, relatum 1 
est ad me centuriones trium cohortium. quae Pom- 
peiis sunt, me velle postridie convenire. Haec mecum 
Ninnius noster, velle eos mihi se et oppidum tradere. 
At ego abii postridie a villa ante lucem, ut me omnino 
illi ne viderent. Quid enim erat in tribus cohortibus ? 
quid, si plures? quo apparatu? Cogitavi eadem ilia 
Caeliana, quae legi in epistula tua, quam accepi, si- 
mul et in Cumanum veiii eodem die, et simul fieri 
poterat, ut temptaremur. Omnem igitur suspicionem 
sustuli. Sed, dum redeo, Hortensius venerat et ad 
Terentiam salutatum deverterat. Sermone erat usus 
honorifico erga me. lam eum, ut puto, videbo ; misit 
enim puerum se ad me venire. Hoc quidem melius 
quam collega noster Antonius, cuius inter lictores le- 
ctica mima portatur. 

Tu, quoniam quartana cares et novum morbum 
removisti, sed etiam gravedinem, teque vegetum no- 
bis in Graecia siste et litterarum aliquid interea. 

1 relatum Miillcr: ventum MSS. 


23rd of April, as Curio has informed me by letter. I 
only hope Cotta may hold Sardinia, as they say, for 
there is a rumour to that effect. If that happens, 
what a reflection on Cato ! 

To lessen suspicion of my journey and intentions 
I started for my place at Pompeii on the 12th of 
May to stay there while the necessary provisions 
were made for my voyage. When I arrived, I was 
told the centurions of the three cohorts here wished 
to visit me the next day. That was what my friend 
Ninnius said that they wished to hand over them 
selves and the town to me. But I left the next 
morning before daybreak, so that they should not see 
me at all : for what was the use of three cohorts, or 
more indeed? And what was our equipment? I 
pondered too over the matter of Caelius when I read 
it in your letter, which I received on the same day 
as I arrived at Cumae. It was possible too that it 
was a mere ruse, so I did away with all grounds of 
suspicion. But, while I was on my way back, Hor- 
tensius came, and turned out of his way to greet 
Terentia,and he had spoken of me with much courtesy. 
I think I shall see him soon, for he has sent a servant 
to announce his coming. This is better behaviour 
than that of my fellow augur Antony, who carries an 
actress in a sedan among his lictors. 

As you have lost your quartan fever and have not 
only thrown off your new malady but also your cold, 
you must present yourself before me sound and fit 
in Greece. Meanwhile drop me a line. 





.SVr. in Pr. Idus Hortensius ad me venit scripta epistula. 

( umano Vellem cetera eius ! quam in me incredibilem eKre- 

. reiur! Qua quidem cogito uti. Deinde Serapion 

lun. a. 705 . , f ^ . . ,. . 

cum epistula tua. yuam priusquam aperuissem, dixi 

ei te ad me de eo scripsisse antea, ut feceras. Deinde 
epistula lecta cumulatissime cetera. Et hercule 
horninem probo ; nam et doctum et probum existimo ; 
quin etiam navi eius me et ipso convectore usurum 

Crebro refricat lippitudo non ilia quidem perodiosa. 
sed tamen quae impediat scriptionem meam. Valetu- 
dinem tuam iam confirmatam esse et a vetere morbo 
et a novis temptationibus gaudeo. 

Ocellam vellem haberemus; videntur enim esse 
haec paulo faciliora futura. Nunc quidem aequi- 
noctium nos moratur, quod valde perturbatum erat. 
Id si transient, 2 utinam idem maneat Hortensius! si 
quidem, ut adhuc erat, liberalius esse nihil potest. 

De diplomate admiraris quasi nescio cuius te fla- 
gitii insimularim. Negas enim te reperire, qui mihi 
id in mentem venerit. Ego autem, quia scripseras 
te proficisci cogitare (etenim audieram nemini aliter 
licere), eo te habere censebam, et quia pueris diploma 
sumpseras. Habes causam opinionis m eae. Et tamen 

1 lecta Manufius: scripta MSS. 

2 transierit Ziehen: eras erit MSS.: cU-paes erit Bosius. 





On the 14th of May Hortensius came to me, just Cumae, May 
as I had written my letter. I wish his conduct were 16, B.C. 4$ 
always as it is now. 1 You would never believe how 
gushing he was, and I intend to take advantage of it. 
Then Serapion came with a letter from you. Before 
I opened it, I told him that you had written to me 
about him before, as you had done. Then when I 
had read the letter, I told him the rest in full detail, 
and upon my word I like the man; for I think him 
to be learned and upright. Moreover I think I 
will use his ship and make him my fellow-passenger. 

Inflammation of the eyes often breaks out again, 
not indeed very troublesome, but enough to prevent 
my writing. That your health has recovered from 
your old complaint and your new attacks I am glad. 

I wish I had Ocella here: for it looks as if things 
are going to be rather easier. Just now the equinox 
is delaying me. It has been very boisterous. When 
that is over, I only hope Hortensius may keep to the 
same mind. So far he could not be more generous. 

You wonder about the passport I mentioned, as if 
I hinted you were guilty of some crime. You say you 
can t discover how it came into my mind. For my 
part since you wrote that you meditated leaving, and 
I had heard that a passport was indispensable, I de 
cided you must have one: and also because you had 
taken out a passport for the boys. That was the 
reason for my opinion, but please write and tell me 

1 Or " I wish he would always confine himself to writing. 1 
But the passage may be corrupt. 



velim scire. quid cogites, in primisque, si quid etiam 
nunc novi est. 
xvn K. lun. 



Scr. in Tullia mea peperit xim K. lun. puerum e-ra/z??- 


I touov. Quod evroKrjcrei , gaudeo ; quod quideni est 


ft natum, perimbecillum est. Me mirificae tranquilli- 

lun. a. 705 tates adhuc tenuerunt atque maiori impedimento 
fuerunt quam custodiae, quibus adservor. Nam ilia 
Hortensiana omnia fuere infantia. Ita fiet. Homo 
nequissimus a Salvio liberto depravatus est. Itaque 
posthac 11011 scribam ad te, quid facturus sim, sed 
quid fecerim ; omnes enim KwpvKcuot videntur subau- 
scultare, quae loquor. 

Tu tamen, si quid de Hispaniis sive quid aliud, 
perge, quaeso, scribere nee meas litteras exspectaris, 
nisi cum, quo opto, pervenerimus, aut si quid ex 
cursu. Sed hoc quoque timide scribo. Ita omnia 
tarda adhuc et spissa. Ut male posuimus initia, sic 
cetera sequuntur. 

Formias nunc sequimur ; eodem nos fortasse Furiae 
persequentur. Ex Balbi autem sermone, quern tecum 
habuit, non probamus de Melita. Dubitas igitur, 
quin nos in hostium numero habeat? Scripsi equidem 

Balbo te ad me et de benevolentia scripsisse et de 



what you intend, and especially if there is any 
May 1 6. 



My daughter was confined on the 1 9th of May : a "Cumae, May 
boy, a seven months child. I am glad she had a safe 19 or 20, 
delivery. As for the thing that has been born, it is a B.C. 4.9 
very poor specimen. So far I have been detained by an 
astonishing calm, which has been a greater hindrance 
than the watch kept on me. For all that gush of 
Hortensius proved child s talk. So it will be found. 
The villain has been corrupted by Salvius his freeman. 
Accordingly hereafter I shall write to you, not what 
I intend to do but what I have done. For every eaves 
dropper 1 seems to be listening to what I say. 

However if you have any news about Spain or any 
other topic, please write, but do not count on a letter 
from me, till I have reached the desired haven; 
or possibly I may write something on the voyage. 
But even this much I write in fear. How sluggishly 
and draggingly everything has gone ! The foundation 
was badly laid and the rest is of a piece. 

Just now I am going to Formiae ; perhaps there too 
the Furies will follow me. However according to 
Balbus conversation with you my idea of going to 
Malta does not win approval. Can you doubt then 
that Caesar regards me as an enemy? To be sure I 
have written to Balbus telling him that you had in 
formed me of his kindness and his suspicion. I 

The people of Corycus in Pamphylia spied on merchant 
vessels and betrayed them to pirates. Hence their name 
became a proverbial term for spies and eavesdroppers. 



suspicione. Egi gratias ; de altero ei me purga. 
Ecquem tu hominem infeliciorem ? Non loquor 
plura, ne te quoque excruciem. Ipse conficior venisse 
tempus, cum iam nee fortiter nee prudenter quiequam 
facere possim. 



thanked him for his kindness: as regards the sus 
picion, clear me. Is there a more unlucky man living ? 
I won t say more for fear of hurting you too. I am 
tortured by the thought that the time has come when 
I can no longer act either with boldness or discretion. 







Scr. in Epiro Accepi a te signatum libellum, quern Anteros at- 

in et + on. e t u ] era j- . ex q uo n jhji sc ire potui de iiostris domesticis 

Id. Jan., ut 

videtnr a rebus. De quibus acerbissime adflictor, quod, qui eas 

TOG dispensavitj neque adest istic, neque, ubi terrarum 

sit, scio. Omnem autem spem habeo existimationis 
privatarumque rerum in tua erga me mihi perspectis- 
sima benevolentia. Quam si his temporibus miseris 
et extremis praestiteris, haec pericula, quae mihi 
communia sunt cum ceteris, fortius ferani ; idque ut 
facias, te obtestor atque obsecro. Ego in cistophoro 
in Asia habeo ad sestertium bis et vicicns. Huius 
pecuniae permutatione fidem nostram facile tuebere ; 
quam quidem ego nisi expeditam relinquere me putas- 
sem credens ei, cui tu scis iam pridem minime credere 
me debere. commoratus essem paulisper nee domesti- 
cas res impeditas reliquissem. Ob eamque causam 
serius ad te scribo, quod sero intellexi, quid timendum 
esset. Te etiam atque etiam oro, ut me totum tuen- 
dum suscipias, ut, si ei salvi erunt, quibuscum sum, 
una cum iis possim incolumis esse salutemque meam 

benevolentiae tuae acceptam referre. 






I got your sealed document, which Anteros brought. Epirus, 
It gave me no information about my private affairs. I January, 
am exceedingly distressed about them, because Philo- B.C. Ifi 
timus, who managed them, is not at Rome, nor do I 
know where in the world he is. And my whole hope 
of preserving my credit and private property lies in 
your tried and proved kindness towards me. If in 
this last desperate crisis you still show that, I shall 
face the dangers which I share with others more 
courageously : and I adjure and beseech you to do so. 
I have in local currency 1 in Asia nearly <18,000. 2 
By a bill of exchange for that amount it will be easy 
for you to maintain my credit. Unless I had thought 
I were leaving it all square (trusting one, whom you 
have long since known I ought not to have trusted), 
I should have delayed a little longer and not left my 
private concerns embarrassed. The reason why I have 
been rather long in writing to you about it, is that I 
was a long time in gathering what was to be feared. 
Again and again I beseech you that you undertake to 
protect me in every way, so that, supposing my 
present associates are spared, I may along with them 
remain unembarrassed and put down my safety to 
your kindness. 

1 An Asiatic coin bearing- as a device the cista of Dionysius 
half opened with a snake creeping out of it. 
a 2, 200,000 sesterces. 

A A VOL. II 3.53 




Scr. in Epiro Litteras tuas accepi pr. Non. Febr. eoque ipso die 

ex testamento crevi hereditatem. Ex multis meis 
Mart,, id vi- 
detur a 706 misemmis curis est una levata, si, ut scribis, ista 

hereditas fidem et farnam meam tueri potest ; quam 
quidem intellego te etiam sine hereditate tuis opibus 
defensurum fuisse. De dote quod scribis, per omnes 
deos te obtestor, ut totam rem suscipias et illam mi- 
seram mea culpa et neglcgentia tueare meis opibus, 
si quae sunt, tuis, quibus tibi molestura non erit, fa- 
cultatibus. Cui quidem deesse omnia, quod scribis, 
obsecro te, noli pati. In quos enim sumptus abeunt 
fructus praediorum ? lam ilia HS LX, quae scribis, 
nemo mihi umquam dixit ex dote esse detracta ; 
numquam enim essem passus. Sed haec minima est 
ex eis iniuriis, quas accepi ; de quibus ad te dolore et 
lacrimis scribere prohibeor. Ex ea pecunia, quae 
fuit in Asia, partem dimidiam fere exegi. Tutius 
videbatur fore ibi, ubi est, quam apud publicanos. 

Quod me hortaris, ut firmo sim animo, vellem pos 
ses aliquid adferre, quam ob rem id facere possem. 
Sed, si ad ceteras miserias accessit etiam id, quod 

mihi Chrysippus dixit parari (tu nihil significasti) de 




I received your letter on the 4th of February, and Epirus, 
on the same day I accepted the inheritance formally March, 
according to the will. Of my many and miserable B.C. J^S 
anxieties one is taken away, if, as you say, this in 
heritance is sufficient to maintain my credit and 
reputation, though I know you would have de 
fended it even without the inheritance with all your 
resources. As for what you write about the dowry 1 
I adjure you for heaven s sake to manage the whole 
business and protect the poor girl, a victim of my 
culpable carelessness, with my funds, if there are any, 
and out of your own, so far as you can without in 
convenience. Pray do not let her remain in the 
utter want you depict. On what are the rents of my 
farms being wasted ? That 500 guineas 2 of which 
you write, no one ever told me that it had been kept 
back out of the dowry, for I would never have allowed 
it. But that is the least of the blows I have suffered. 
I cannot write to you about them for sorrow and tears. 
Of the money I had in Asia I have called in nearly 
half. It would appear to be safer where it is than 
with the tax-collectors. 

As for your exhortations to be of good courage, I 
wish you could find some reason why I should be so. 
If, on the top of my other sorrows, there comes that 
which Chrysippus said is under consideration (you 
gave me no hint), I mean the confiscation of my town 

The second instalment of Tullia s dowry due to Dolabella 
before July; cf. xi, 3. Dowries were paid in three instalments. 
2 60,000 sesterces. 

AA2 355 


domo. quis me miserior uno iam fuit ? Oro, obsecro, 
ignosce. Non possum plura scribere. Quanto mae- 
rore urgear, profecto vides. Quod si mihi commune 
cum ceteris esset, qui videntur in eadem causa esse. 
minor mea culpa videretur et eo tolerabilior esset. 
Nunc nihil est, quod consoletur, nisi quid tu efficis, 
si modo etiam mine effici potest, ut ne qua singulari 
adficiar calamitate et iniuria. 

Tardius ad te remisi tabellarium, quod potestas 
mittendi non fuit. A tuis et nummorum accepi HS 
LXX et, vestimentorum quod opus fuit. Quibus tibi 
videbitur, velim des litteras meo nomine. Nosti meos 
familiares. Si signum requirent aut manum, dices 
me propter custodias ea vitasse. 



Sci: in castris Quid hie agatur, scire poteris ex eo, qui litteras 

Pompet Id. a ttulit. Quern diutius tenui, quia cotidie aliquid 
Inn. a. 706 . ... ,. 

novi exspectabamus ; neque mine mittendi tamen 

ulla causa fuit praeter earn, de qua tibi rescribi volu- 
isti, quod ad Kal. Quinct. pertinet, quid vellem. 
Utrumque grave est, et tarn gravi tempore periculum 
tantae pecuniae, et dubio rerum exitu ista, quam 

scribis, abruptio. Quare ut alia sic hoc vel maxime 


house, I am the most wretched man alive. 1 pray 
and beseech you pardon me. I can write no more. 
You see, I am sure, with what a weight of misery I 
am oppressed. If I shared it with others, who seem 
to be in the same predicament, I should feel less 
blameworthy and bear it better. Now I have no 
consolation unless you can arrange, if it is now pos 
sible, that I may not be visited with any special 
disaster and harm. 

I have been rather slow in sending back your 
letter-carrier, because there was no opportunity of 
sending him. From your agents I have received 
some 600 l and the necessary clothing. Please send 
letters to any people you think right in my name. 
You know my intimate friends. If they notice the 
absence of my seal or handwriting, please say I have 
avoided using them owing to the sentries. 



What is happening here you may gather from the Camp of 
bearer of your letter. I have kept him longer than Pompey, 
I should, because every day I am expecting something June 13, 
fresh to happen, and there was no reason for sending B.C. 4$ 
him even now, except the subject on which you ask 
for an answer, namely what I wish as to the first of 
July. Both courses are dangerous, both the risk of 
such a sum of money at such a dangerous time, and 
the breaking with Dolabella, which you mention, 
while the political issue is still uncertain. Accord 
ingly I will leave this matter in particular like others 

1 70,000 sesterces. 



tuae curae benevolentiaeque permitto et illius consilio 
et voluntati ; cui miserae consuluissem melius, si 
tecum olirn coram potius quani per litteras de salute 
nostra fortunisque deliberavissem. 

Quod negas praecipuum niihi ullum in communibus 
incommodis impendere, etsi ista res non nihil habet 
consolationis, tamen etiam praecipua multa sunt, quae 
tu profecto vides et gravissima esse et me facillime 
vitare potuisse. Ea tamen erunt minora, si, ut adhuc 
factuni est, administratione et diligentia tua leva- 

Pecunia apud Egnatium est. Sit a me, ut est. 
Neque enim hoc, quod agitur, videtur diuturnum esse 
posse, ut scire iam possim, quid maxime opus sit. 
Etsi egeo rebus omnibus, quod is quoque in angustiis 
est, quicum sumus ; cui magnam dedimus pecuniam 
mutuam, opinantes nobis constitutis rebus earn rem 
etiam honori fore. Tu, ut antea fecisti, velim, si qui 
erunt, ad quos aliquid scribendum a me existimes. 
ipse conficias. Tuis salutem die. Cura, ut valeas. In 
primis id, quod scribis, omnibus rebus cura et provide, 
ne quid ei desit, de qua scis me miserrimum esse. 
Idibus luniis ex castris. 



Scr. in castris Accepi ab Isidore litteras et postea datas binas. 
Pompei Id. Ex proximis cognovi praedia non venisse. Videbis 
Quint, a. 700 358 


to your kind care, and to the consideration and 
desire of poor Tullia, whose interests would have 
been better consulted, if originally I had discussed 
our safety and fortunes with you in person rather 
than by letter. 

You say there is no trouble threatening me especi 
ally in this public misfortune. There is a little con 
solation in that, but there are many circumstances 
special to me, which you must see are very serious 
and might easily have been avoided. However they 
will be less serious, if, as hitherto, they are lightened 
by your care and management. 

The money is with Egnatius. Let it remain there, so 
far as I am concerned : for things cannot last long as they 
are, so that I shall soon know what is most necessary. 
However, I am in want of everything, because the 
man I am with l too is in great straits and 1 have lent 
him a large sum of money, thinking that, when things 
settle down, that will bring me honour as well as 
profit. Please, as before, if there are any persons to 
whom you think I ought to write, do it for me. Pay 
my greetings to your family. Take care of your 
health. Above all, as you say, make every careful 
provision that nothing may be wanting to my daughter, 
on whose account you know I am very unhappy. 

June 13, at the camp. 



I have received your letter by Isidorus and two In Pompeys 
written later. From the last I understand that the camp, July 
i Fompey. 15 > B c 48 



ergo, ut sustentetur per te. De Frusinati, si modo 
fruituri sumus, erit mihi res opportuna. Meas litteras 
quod requiris, impedior inopia rerum, quas nullas ha- 
beo litteris dignas, quippe cui, nee quae accidunt, nee 
quae agimtur, ullo modo probentur. Utinain coram 
tecum olim potius quam per epistulas ! Hie tua, ut 
possum, tueor apud hos. Cetera Celer. Ipse fugi ad- 
hue ornne munus eo magis, quod ita nihil poterat 
agi, ut mihi et meis rebus aptum esset. 



Scr. Dyrrha- Quid sit gestum novi, quaeris. Kx Isidore seire 

cnnnterAI 1 p O t er j s> Reliqua non videntur esse difficiliora. Tu id 

et XII K. 

Quint a 706 ve ^ m j quod scis me maxime velle, cures, ut scribis, 

ut facis. Me conficit sollicitudo, ex qua etiam summa 
infirmitas corporis. Qua levata ero una cum eo, qui 
negotium gerit estque in spe magna. Brutus amicus ; 
in causa versatur acriter. 

Hactenus fuit, quod caute a me scribi posset. 
Vale. De pensione altera, oro te, omni eura considera 
quid faciendum sit, ut scripsi iis litteris, quas Poliex 




property did not sell. So please see to her support 
yourself. As to the estate at Frusino, if only I am 
to enjoy the fruits, it will be convenient for me. 
You say I owe you a letter. Well, I am hindered 
by want of matter, having nothing worth writing ; for 
nothing that happens and nothing that is done has 
my approbation at all. If only I could talk with you 
instead of writing ! Here to the best of my power I 
conserve your interests with these people. The rest 
Celer will do. Hitherto I have avoided every office, 
especially as it was impossible for anything to be 
done in a way that suited me and my fortunes. 



You ask what new moves have been made. Isidorus Dy/rha- 
will tell you. I don t think the rest of the task will chium, June 
be any more difficult. Please pay attention to what 15 to 19, 
you know is my greatest wish, as you say you are B -<"- 48 
doing. I am overwhelmed by care, and that brings 
with it also great bodily infirmity. When that has 
passed, I shall go to the man who is conducting the 
business and who is in high hopes. 1 Brutus is 
friendly ; and takes a keen part in the cause. 

That is all that I can prudently commit to paper. 
Farewell. About the second instalment of Tullia s 
dowry, pray consider carefully what ought to be 
done, as I said in the letter, which Pollex took. 

1 I.e. Pompey, who had won a temporary success by 
piercing Caesar s lines. 





Scr. Quae me causae moverint, quam acerbae, quam 

Brundisi graves, quam novae, coegerintque impetu magis quo- 

pr. Aow. dam animi uti quam cogitatione, non possum ad te 

1 ov. a. iuo gme max j mo dolore scribei-e. Fuerunt quidem tan- 

tae, ut id, quod vides, effecerint. Itaque, nee quid 

ad te scribam de meis rebus nee quid a te petam, 

reperio; rem et summam negotii vides. 

Equidem ex tuis litteris intellexi, et eis, quas coin- 
muniter cum aliis scripsisti, et eis, quas tuo nomine, 
quod etiam mea sponte videbam, te subita re quasi 
debilitatum novas rationes tuendi mei quaerere. 
Quod scribis placere, ut propius aecedam iterque per 
oppida noctu faciam, non sane video, quem ad mo- 
dum id fieri possit. Neque enim ita apta habeo 
devorsoria, ut tota tempora diurna in iis possim con- 
sumere, neque ad id, quod quaeris, multum interest, 
utrum me homines iu oppido videant an in via. Sed 
tamen hoc ipsum sicut alia considerabo, quem ad 
modum commodissime fieri posse videatur. 

Ego propter incredibilem et animi et corporis mo- 
lestiam conficere plures litteras non potui; eis tantum 
rescripsi, a quibus acceperam. Tu velim et Basilo, 
et quibus praeterea videbitur, etiam Servilio conscri- 
bas, ut tibi videbitur, meo nomine. Quod tanto in- 
tervallo nihil omnino ad vos scripsi, his litteris pro- 



What were the reasons, how bitter, how grave and Brundisium, 
unforeseen, which swayed me and compelled me to Nov. 4, 
act by a kind of impulse rather than by reflection, I B.C. J+8 
cannot bring myself to write without great agony of 
mind. So weighty were they that they have brought 
about what you see. Accordingly I do not know 
what to tell you about my affairs nor what to ask of 
you. You can see for yourself the sum and substance 
of the matter. 

For my part I have gathered from your letters 
both that which you wrote in conjunction with others 
and the one you wrote in your own name- what I 
saw myself too, that you are somewhat disconcerted 
by my sudden move, and are looking for some new 
means of protecting me. I don t quite see how I 
can do as you suggest and come nearer to Rome, 
travelling through towns at night. For I have not 
suitable stopping-places to spend all the days in ; 
nor, for the point you are aiming at, does it much 
matter whether I am seen in towns or on the road. 
However I will consider how this plan, as well as 
others, can most conveniently be carried out. 

I am so fearfully upset both in mind and body that 
1 have not been able to write many letters; I have 
only answered those who have written to me. 1 
should like you to write in my name to Basilus and 
to anyone else you like, even to Servilius, and say 
whatever you think fit. From this letter you will 
quite understand that the reason why I have not 
written to you at all for such a long time, is that I 



fecto intellegis rem mihi desse, de qua scribam, non 

Quod de Vatinio quaeris, neque illius neque cuius- 
quam mihi praeterea officium desset, si reperire pos- 
sent, qua in re me iuvarent. Quintus aversissimo a 
me animo Patris fuit. Eodem Corcyra filius venit. 
Inde profectos eos una cum ceteris arbitror. 



\ cr> Sollicitum esse te, cum de tuis communibusque 

Brimdisi fortunis, turn maxime de me ac de dolore meo sentio. 
II K. Dec. Qui quidem meus dolor non modo non minuitur, cum 
a. 1 06 socium sibi adiungit dolorem tuum, sed etiam auge- 

tur. Omnino pro tua prudentia sentis, qua consola- 
tione levari maxime possim. Probas enim meum 
consilium negasque milii quicquam tali tempore potius 
faciendum fuisse. Addis etiam (quod etsi mihi levius 
est quam tuum iudicium, tamen non est leve) ceteris 
quoque, id est qui pondus habeant, factum nostrum 
probari. Id si ita putarem, levius dolerem. Crede," 
inquis, "mihi." Credo equidem, sed scio, quam 
cupias minui dolorem meum. Me discessisse ab 
armis numquam paenituit. Tanta erat in illis crude- 
litas, tanta cum barbaris gentibus coniunctio, ut non 
nominatim, sed generatim proscriptio esset informata, 
ut iam omnium iudicio constitutum esset omnium 
vestrum bona praedam esse illius victoriae. Ve- 
strum" plane dico; numquam enim de te ipso nisi 


had nothing to write about, not that I did not wish 
to write. 

For your query about Vatinius, neither he nor 
anyone else would fail in service to me, if they could 
find any means of helping me. Quintus showed the 
bitterest ill-feeling to me at Patrae. His son came 
thither from Corcyra : and I suppose they have set 
out from there with the others. 



I see you are anxious about your own fate and the Brundisium, 
fate of us all, and especially about me and my Novem- 
sorrows ; but my sorrows are not lessened one whit her 27, 
by the addition of yours in sympathy, they are even B.C. Jf8 
increased. Of course your own intelligence makes 
you feel what consolation can comfort me most : for 
you approve of my plan and say that under the cir 
cumstances I could not have done anything better. 
You add something, which does not weigh with me 
so much as your judgement, though it has some 
weight, that every one else I mean every one else 
who matters approves of what I did. If I could 
persuade myself of that, I should feel less sorrow. 
Believe me," you say. I do believe you; but I 
know how anxious you are to relieve my sorrow. 
I have never regretted leaving the camp. Cruelty 
|| was so rampant there, and there was so close an 
I alliance with barbarian nations, that a plan was 
I sketched out for a proscription not of persons but of 
whole classes ; and everybody had made up their 
minds that the property of you all was to be the 
iprize of his victory. I say you" advisedly, for none 

365 > 


crudelissime cogitatum est. Quare voluntatis me 
meae numquam paenitebit, consilii paenitet. In 
oppido aliquo mallem resedisse, quoad accerserer ; 
minus sermonis subissem, minus accepissem doloris. 
ipsum hoc me non angeret. Brundisi iacere in omnes 
partes est molestum. Propius accedere, ut suades, 
quo modo sine lictoribus, quos populus dedit, pos 
sum? qui mihi incolumi adimi non possunt. Quos ego 
nunc paulisper cum bacillis in turbam conieci ad oppi- 
dum accedens. ne quis impetus militum fieret. Re- 
liquo tempore me domi tenui. Ad Oppium et 
Balbum scripsi," quonam iis placeret modo propius 
accedere, ut hac de re considerarent. Credo fore 
auctores. Sic enim recipiunt, Caesari non modo de 
conservanda, sed etiam de augenda mea dignitate 
curae fore, meque hortantur, ut magiio animo sim. 
ut omnia summa sperem. Ea spondent, confirmant. 
Quae quidem mihi exploratiora essent, si remansis- 
sem. Sed ingero praeterita ; vide, quaeso, igitur ea, 
quae restant, et explora cum istis, et, si putabis opus 
esse, et si istis placebit, quo magis factum nostrum 
Caesar probet quasi de suorum sententia factum, ad- 
hibeantur Trebonius, Pansa, si qui alii, scribantque 
ad Caesarem me, quicquid fecerim, de sua sententia 

Tulliae meae morbus et imbecillitas corporis me 
exanimat. Quam tibi intellego magnae curae esse, 
quod est mihi gratissimum. De Pompei exitu mihi 

1 Reliquo tempore me domi tenui Hofmann : recipio tem 
pore me domo te nunc JlfSS. 

2 Balbum scripsi added by Lambinus and Lehman*!. 



but the cruellest thoughts were entertained about 
you personally. So I shall never regret my resolve ; 
but I do regret my plan of action. I wish I had 
settled down in some town, till I was called for. 
There would have been less talk about me, less pain 
for me ; this particular regret at any rate would not 
be worrying me. To remain inactive at Brundisium 
is annoying from every point of view. And how can 
I go nearer to Rome, as you advise, without the 
lictors given me by the people? They cannot be 
taken from me without depriving me of my rights. 
Only lately, as I was approaching Brundisium, I made 
them mix with the crowd with nothing but sticks in 
their hands for fear the soldiery might attack them : 
ever since I have kept at home. I have written to 
Oppius and to Balbus, asking them to consider how 
I can move nearer to Rome. I think they will 
advise me to do so. For they promise that Caesar 
will be anxious not only to preserve my dignity, but 
even to increase it; and they bid me be of good 
cheer and entertain the highest of hopes. This they 
warrant and guarantee. Personally I should have 
felt surer about it, if I had stayed where I was. But 
that is harping on the past; so pray look to the 
future and investigate the matter with them, and, 
jif you think it necessary and they approve, call in 
[Trebonius, Pansa and anyone else you like, that I 
may win Caesar s approval by appearing to follow 
is frienofjS* advice, and let them write to Caesar, 
slling him that, what I have done, I did at their 

My dear Tullia s illness and weakness frightens me 
o death. I understand you are taking great care of 
icr, and I am very grateful. About Pompey s end 



dubium numquam fuit. Tanta enim desperatio re- 
rum eius omnium regum et populorum animos occu- 
parat, ut, quocumque venisset, hoc putarem futurum. 
Non possum eius casum non dolere; hominem enim 
integrum et castum et gravem cognovi. De Fannio 
consoler te ? Perniciosa loquebatur de mansione tua. 
L. vero Lentulus Hortensi domum sibi et Caesaris 
hortos et Baias desponderat. Omnino haec eodem 
modo ex hac parte fitmt, nisi quod illud erat infini- 
tum. Omnes enim, qui in Italia manserant, hostium 
numero habebantur. Sed velim haec aliquando solu- 
tiore animo. 

Quintum fratrem audio profectum in Asiam, ut 
deprecaretur. De filio nihil audivi ; sed quaere ex 
Diochare, Caesaris liberto, quern ego non vidi, qui 
istas Alexandrea litteras attulit. Is dicitur vidisse 
Quintum euntem an iam in Asia. Tuas litteras, 
prout res postulat, exspecto. Quas velim cures 
quam primum ad me perferendas. mi K. Decembr. 



Scr. Brundisi Gratae tuae mihi litterae sunt, quibus accurate 

XIV Kal. perscripsisti omnia, quae ad me pertinere arbitratus 

fan. a. 706 e s. Et factum igitur tu scribis istis placere et placere l 

isdem istis lictoribus me uti, quod concessum Sestio 

1 es. Et factum igitur tu scribis istis placere et placere 
Steinkopf : est ea factum ig-itur ut scribis istis placere MSS. 


I never had any doubt. For despair of his success 
had so completely taken possession of the minds of 
all the kings and peoples, that I thought this would 
happen to him, wherever he might go. I cannot 
help feeling sorry for his fate, for I knew him to be 
a man of honour and high moral principle. Am I to 
condole with you about Fannius ? He used to speak 
virulently of you for staying in Rome. L. Lentulus, 
you know, had promised himself Hortensius house, 
Caesar s gardens, and a place at Baiae. Precisely 
the same is taking place on this side too, except that 
on the other there was no limit. For they counted 
every one who stayed in Italy as an enemy. But I 
would rather speak of this sometime when I am less 

I hear my brother Quintus has set out for Asia to 
make his peace. About his son I have heard nothing ; 
but ask Diochares, Caesar s freedman, who brought 
those letters from Alexandria. I have not seen him. 
He is said to have seen Quintus either on the way, 
or was it already in Asia? I am looking forward to 
a letter from you, as the occasion demands. Please 
try to get it conveyed to me as soon as possible. 

November 27. 



I am much obliged to you for your letter, in which Brundisium, 
you have recorded carefully everything you think Dec. 17, 
concerns me. So you say that they approve both of B.C. lf.8 
my actions, and of my keeping my lictors, as Sestius 
is allowed to keep his : though in his case I think it 
is not so much a question of being allowed to keep 

BB VOL. II 369 


sit; cui non puto suos esse concessos, sed ad ipso 
datos. Audio enirn eum ea senatus consulta impro- 
bare, quae post discessum tribunorum facta sunt. 
Quare poterit, si volet sibi con stare, nostros lictores 

Quamquam quid ego de lictoribus, qui paene ex 
Italia decedere sim iussus? Nam ad me misit Anto- 
nius exernplum Caesaris ad se litterarum, in quibus 
erat se audisse Catonem et L. Metellum in Italiam 
venisse, Romae ut essent palam Id sibi non placere, 
ne qui motus ex eo fierent; prohiberique omnes Ita 
lia, nisi quorum ipse causam cognovisset; deque eo 
vehementius erat scriptum. Itaque Antonius petebat 
a me per litteras, ut sibi ignoscerem ; facere se non 
posse, quin iis litteris pareret. Turn ad eum misi 
L. Lamiam, qui demonstraret ilium Dolabellae dixisse, 
ut ad me scriberet, ut in Italiam quam primum ve- 
nirem; eius me litteris venisse. Turn ille edixit ita, 
ut me exciperet et Laelium nominatim. Quod sane 
nollem ; poterat enim sine nomine res ipsa excipi. 

O multas et graves offensiones ! quas quidem tu 
das operam ut lenias, nee tamen nihil proficis, quin 
hoc ipso minuis dolorem meum, quod, ut minuas, tarn 
valde laboras ; idque velim ne gravere quam saepis- 
sime facere. Maxime autem adsequere, quod vis, si 
me adduxeris, ut existimem me bonorum indicium 
non funditus perdidisse. Quamquam quid tu in eo 
potes ? Nihil scilicet. Sed, si quid res dabit tibi faculta- 
tis, id me maxime consolari poterit ; quod nunc qui- 


them as of their being assigned to him by Caesar 
himself. For I am told he repudiates all the decrees 
of the Senate which were passed after the departure 
of the tribunes. So, if he wants to be consistent, 
he will be able to approve my lictors. 

However, what is the use of talking about lictors, 
when I have almost been ordered to leave Italy. 
For Antony has sent me a copy of a letter from 
Caesar, in which he said he had heard that Cato and 
L. Metellus had come to Italy and intended to live 
openly at Rome : that he did not like, for fear it 
might cause some disturbance : and that none may 
enter Italy, until he has himself investigated their 
case. He put the point very strongly. So Antony 
wrote asking my pardon, and saying he could not 
help obeying the letter. Then I sent L. Lamia to 
him to point out that Caesar had told Dolabella to 
write and tell me to come to Italy as soon as possible : 
and that it was on the strength of that letter that I 
had come. Then Antony issued an edict excepting 
myself and Laelius by name. I wish he had not 
done that : he might have made an exception without 
mentioning names. 

What a heap of troubles and how serious too ! And 
you are doing your best to make them lighter, and 
with some success indeed that you try so hard to 
relieve me is some relief in itself. I hope you won t 
find it a burden to do so as often as possible. But 
you will succeed in your object best, if you can con 
vince me that I have not entirely lost the good 
opinion of the loyal party. Yet what can you 
do in that matter? Nothing of course. But, if 
anything gives a chance, that is what will best 
console me. I see that at present it is impossible : 

BB2 371 


dem video non esse, sed, si quid ex eventis, ut hoc 
mine accidit. Dicebardebuisse cum Pompeio proficisci. 
Exitus illius minuit eius officii praetermissi reprehensi- 
onem. Sed ex omnibus nihil magis tamen desideratur. 
quam quod in African! non ierim. ludicio hoc sum 
usus, non esse barbaris auxiliis fallacissimae gentis 
rem publicam def endendam, praesertim contra exerci- 
tum saepe victorem. Non probant fortasse ; multos 
enim viros bonos in Africam venisse audio et scio 
fuisse antea. Valde hoc loco urgeor. Hie quoque 
opus est casu, ut aliqui sint ex eis, aut, si potest, 
omnes, qui salutem anteponant. Nam, si perseverant 
et obtinent, quid nobis futurum sit, vides. Dices: 
Quid illis, si victi erunt?" Honestior est plaga. 
Haec me excruciant. Sulpici autem consilium non 
scripsisti cur meo non anteponeres. Quod etsi non 
tarn gloriosum est quam Catonis, tamen et periculo 
vacuum est et dolore. Extremum est eorum. qui in 
Achaia sunt. Ei tamen ipsi se hoc melius habent 
quam nos, quod et multi sunt uno in loco, et, cum in 
Italian! venerint, domum statim veiierint. Haec tu 
perge, ut facis, mitigare et probare quam plurimis. 

Quod te excusas. ego vero et tuas causas nosco 
et mea interesse puto te istic esse, vel ut cum eis, 
quibus oportebit, agas, quae erunt agenda de nobis, 


but if anything does turns up, as in this present case. 
It used to be said that I ought to have gone with 
Pompey : but now his death tends to absolve me 
from blame for neglecting my duty in that case. But 
where I am thought to have been most lacking is in 
not going to Africa. My view was that barbarian 
auxiliaries drawn from a most deceitful race were not 
the proper persons to defend the State, especially 
against an army which had won so many victories. 
That view may not meet with approval ; for I hear 
that many patriots have arrived in Africa, and I 
know there were some there before. This is a point 
that really bothers me : and here again I must trust 
to luck, that there may be some of them, or, if such 
a thing is possible, all of them, who put safety first. 
For, if they hold fast and succeed, you can see what 
a position I shall be in. You will say " How about 
it, if they are defeated?" That is a more honourable 
blow. This is what tortures me. However, you 
have not told me why you do not prefer Sulpicius 
policy to mine. It may not be so glorious as Cato s : 
but it is at any rate free from danger and regret. 
The last case is that of those who stayed in 
Achaia. Even they are in a better position than I 
am, because there are many of them together, and, 
when they do come to Italy, they will go straight 
home. Please continue your efforts to ameliorate 
my position and to win over as many people as pos 
sible to approval. 

You explain why you do not come. Yes, I know 
your reasons and think it is to my interest that you 
should stay where you are, for one thing that you 
may be able to carry out any necessary negotiations 
about me with the proper persons, as you have done. 



ut ea, quae egisti. In primisque hoc velim animad- 
vertas. Multos esse arbitror, qui ad Caesarem detule- 
rint delaturive sint me aut paenitere consilii mei aut 
non probare, quae fiant. Quorum etsi utrumque 
verum est, tamen ab illis dicitur animo a me alienato, 
noii quo ita esse perspexerint. Sed totum in eo est, 
ut hoc Balbus sustineat et Oppius, et eorum crebris 
litteris illius voluntas erga me confirmetur. Et hoc 
plane ut fiat, diligentiam adhibebis. Alterum est, cur 
te nolim discedere, quod scribis Tulliam te flagitare. 
O rein miseram ! quid scribam aut quid velim ? Breve 
faciam, lacrimae enim se subito profuderunt. Tibi 
permitto, tu consule; tantum vide, ne hoc tempore 
isti obesse aliquid possit. Ignosce, obsecro te. Non 
possum prae Hetu et dolore diutius in hoc loco com- 
morari. Tantum dicam, nihil mihi gratius esse, quam 
quod earn diligis. 

Quod litteras, quibus putas opus esse, curas dandas, 
facis commode. Quintum filium vidi qui Sami vidis- 
set, patrem Sicyone. Quorum deprecatio est facilis. 
Utinam illi, qui prius ilium viderint, me apud eum 
velint adiutum tantum, quantum ego illos vellem. si 
quid possem! 

Quod rogas, ut in bonam partem accipiam, si qua 
sint in tuis litteris, quae me mordeant, ego vero in 
optimam, teque rogo, ut aperte, quern ad modum 
facis, scribas ad me omnia idque facias quam saepis- 
sime. Vale xim K. Ian. 


And in the first place I should like to call your 
attention to this point. I think there are many who 
have reported or will report to Caesar either that I 
am repenting of my policy or that I do not approve 
of recent events. Though both are true, they say it 
out of spite against me, not because they have seen 
it to be so. Everything rests on the support of 
Balbus and Oppius, and on their confirming Caesar s 
good will to me by sending him frequent letters. 
Please do your best to bring this about. The other 
reason why I prefer you not to leave is that you say 
Tullia begs for your assistance. What a misfortune ? 
What can I say? What can I even wish? I will 
cut the matter short, for tears spring to my eyes at 
once. I give you a free hand : do you look to it. 
Only take care that nothing is done under the present 
circumstances to offend the great man. I crave your 
pardon. Tears and sorrow prevent me from dwelling 
any longer on this topic. I will only add that 
nothing makes me feel more grateful to you than 
your love for her. 

You are quite right to send letters for me to any 
one to whom you think it necessary. I have met a 
man who saw young Quintus at Samos and his father 
at Sicyon. They will easily obtain their pardon. 
I only hope, that, as they will see Caesar first, they 
will think fit to further my case with him, as much 
as I should have furthered theirs, if I had been able. 

You ask me to take it in good part, if there is 
anything in your letters that wounds my feelings. 
I promise you to take it in the best possible part, 
and I beg you to write everything quite openly, as 
you do, and to do so as often as possible. Farewell. 

Dec. 17. 





Scr.Brundisi Quantis curis conficiar, etsi profecto vides, tameii 
X.III A. cognosces ex Lepta et Trebatio. Maximas poenas 
pendo temeritatis meae, quam tu prudentiam mihi 
videri vis ; neque te deterreo, quo minus id disputes 
scribasque ad me quam saepissime. Non nihil enim 
me levant tuae litterae hoc tempore. Per eos, qui 
nostra causa volunt valentque apud ilium, diligentis- 
sime contendas opus est, per Balbum et Oppium ma- 
xime, ut de me scribant quam diligentissime. Oppu- 
gnamur enim, ut audio, et a praesentibus quibusdam 
et per litteras. Eis ita est occurrendum, ut rei magni- 
tudo postulat. Fufius est illic, mihi inimicissimus. 
Quintus misit filium non solum sui deprecatorem, sed 
etiam accusatorem mei. Dictitat se a me apud Cae- 
sarem oppugnari, quod refellit Caesar ipse omnesque 
eius amici. Neque vero desistit, ubicumque est, omnia 
in me maledicta conferre. Xihil mihi umquam tarn 
incredibile accidit, nihil in his malis tarn acerbum. 
Qui ex ipso audissent, cum Sicyone palam multis au- 
dientibus loqueretur nefaria quaedam, ad me pertule- 
runt. Nosti genus, etiam expertus es fortasse. In 
me id est omne conversum. Sed augeo commemo- 
rando dolorem et facio etiam tibi. Quare ad illud 
redeo. Cura, ut huius rei causa dedita opera mittat 




Though of course j r ou see for j r ourself in what Brundisium 
distress I am, you will learn more about it from Dec. 18, 
Lepta and Trebatius. I am paying very heavily for B.C. 48 
my rashness, which you want to persuade me was 
prudence : and I don t want to stop you arguing that 
it was and writing to me to that effect as often as 
possible. For your letters afford me a good deal of 
relief under the present circumstances. You must 
use your utmost endeavour with those who are my 
supporters and have influence with him Balbus and 
Oppius especially to make them write about me as 
strongly as possible. For I hear that I am being 
attacked by some who are with him, and also by 
letter. Their attack must be met, as the importance 
of the matter demands. Fufius, a very bitter enemy 
of mine, is there. Quintus sent his son not only to 
make peace for himself, but to accuse me. He keeps 
saying that I am trying to set Caesar against him, 
though Caesar and all his friends deny it. And he 
does not cease, wherever he is, from heaping all sorts 
of abuse on me. It is the most surprising thing that 
i ever happened to me and the bitterest of all my 
present sorrows. Those who reported the matter to 
me professed to have heard it from his own lips, 
when he was slandering me at Sicyon in the hearing 
of many. You know his way ; indeed you may have 
had some personal experience of it. Now it is all 
turned on me. But I increase my own sorrow, and 
fours too, by speaking of it. So I return to my first 
joint. Take care that Balbus sends some one ex- 



aliquem Balbus. Ad quos videbitur, velim cures lit- 
teras meo nomine. Vale, xin Kal. Ian. 



Scr. Ego vero et incaute, ut scribis, et celerius, quam 

Brundisi III oportuit, feci, nee in ulla sum spe, quippe qui exce- 
.\on. Ian. ptionibus edictorum retinear. Quae si non essent se- 
dulitate effectae et benevolentia tua, liceret mihi 
abire in solitudines aliquas. Nunc ne id quidem 
licet. Quid autein me iuvat, quod ante initum tri- 
bunatum veni, si ipsum, quod veni, nihil iuvat ? 
lam quid spereni ab eo, qui mihi amicus numquam 
fuit, cum iam lege etiam sim confectus et oppressus ? 
Cotidie iam Balbi ad me litterae languidiores, mul- 
taeque multorum ad ilium fortasse contra me. Meo 
vitio pereo ; nihil mihi mali casus attulit, omnia 
culpa contracta sunt. Ego enim, cum genus l)elli 
viderem,, imparata et infirma omnia contra paratissi- 
mos, statueram, quid facerem, ceperamque consilium 
non tarn forte quam mihi praeter ceteros conceden- 
dum. Cessi meis vel potius parui. Ex quibus unus 
qua mente ifuerit, is quern tu mihi commendas, co 
gnosces ex ipsius litteris, quas ad te et ad alios misit. 
Quas ego numquam aperuissem, nisi res acta sic 
esset. Delatus est ad me fasciculus. Solvi, si quid 
ad me esset litterarum. Nihil erat, epistula Vatinio 
et Ligurio altera. lussi ad eos deferri. Illi ad me 


pressly for this purpose. Please send letters in my 
name to anyone you think should have them. FareAvell. 
Dec. 18. 



I have certainly acted incautiously, as you say, and Brundisium, 

more hastily than I should ; and I have no hope Jan. 3, 

seeing that I am tied here by the special clause in B.C. ^7 

the edict. If that had not been inserted by your 

own kind efforts, I might have gone to some lonely 

retreat. Now not even that is open to me. How 

does it help me that I came before the tribunes 

entered on office, when my coming at all does not 

help? And what have I now to hope from a man 

who never was friendly with me, when my ruin and 

humiliation is secured even by law ? Balbus letters 

to me are becoming daily cooler, and it may be he 

receives dozens against me. My own fault is my 

uin. Fortune has brought no ills upon me : I have 

>rought them all on my own head. For when I saw 

ivhat kind of war it was going to be, one side unpre- 

>ared and weak and the other thoroughly well pre- 

)ared, I had made my plan not a very courageous 

)lan perhaps, but one for. which there were special 

xcuses in my case. I gave way to my relations, or 

rather I obeyed them. What the real feelings of 

one of them were the one for whom you speak 

you will know from the letters he has sent to you 

and to others. I should never have opened them, 

lad it not been for the following circumstance. A 

packet was brought to me. I undid it to see if there 

was any letter for me. There was none ; but one 

or Vatinius and another for Ligurius. Those I had 



statim ardentes dolore venerunt scelus hominis cla- 
niantes ; epistulas ,mihi legerunt plenas omnium in 
me probrorum. Hie Ligurius furere. Se enim 
scire summo ilium in odio fuisse Caesari. Ilium 
tameii non modo favisse, sed etiam tantam illi pecu- 
niam dedisse honoris mei causa." Hoc ego dolore 
accepto volui scire, quid scripsisset ad ceteros ; ipsi 
enim illi putavi perniciosum fore, si eius hoc tantum 
scelus percrebruisset. Cognovi eiusdem generis. Ad 
te misi. Quas si putabis illi ipsi utile esse reddi, 
reddes. Nil me laedet. Nam, quod resignatae sunt, 
habet, opinor, eius signum Pomponia. Hac ille acer- 
bitate initio navigatioms cum usus esset, tarito me 
dolore adfecit, ut postea iacuerim, neque nunc tarn 
pro se quam contra me laborare dicitur. 

Ita omnibus rebus urgeor ; quas sustinere vix pos 
sum vel plane nullo modo possum. Quibus in 
miseriis una est pro omnibus, quod istam miseram 
patrimonio, fortuna omni spoliatam relinquam. Quare 
te, ut polliceris, videre plane velim. Alium enim, 
cui illam commendem, habeo neminem, quoniam 
matri quoque eadem intellexi esse parata quae mihi. 
Sed, si me non offendes, satis tamen habeto com- 
mendatam, patruumque in ea, quantum poteris, 

Haec ad te die iiatali meo scripsi. Quo utinarn 
susceptus non essem, aut ne quid ex eadem matre 
postea natum esset ! Plura scribere fletu prohibeor. 



sent to them. They came to me at once boiling 
with indignation and crying shame on him, and they 
read me letters full of all kinds of abuse of myself. 
Then Ligurius burst out with fury, to his certain 
knowledge Caesar detested Quintus and had favoured 
him and given him all that money out of compliment 
to me." After this blow I wanted to know what he 
had said to the others : for I thought it would be 
disastrous to his own reputation if such a scandal got 
abroad. I found they were all of a piece, and have 
sent them to you. If you think it will do him any 
good to have them delivered, have them delivered. 
It won t do me any harm. Though the seals are 
broken, I think Pomponia has his signet. When, at 
the beginning of our voyage, he adopted this bitter 
tone, I was so upset that I was prostrated after 
wards ; and now he is said to be working against me 
rather than for himself. 

So I am weighed down by such a heavy burden of 
griefs that I can hardly bear up under it ; indeed, I 
cannot possibly bear up under it. And among all my 
I miseries there is one that outweighs all the rest- 
that I shall leave that poor girl : deprived of her 
I patrimony and penniless. So I hope you will fulfil your 
; promise and look after her. I have no one else to en- 

I trust her to, for I hear that her mother is threatened 
jwith the same fate as myself. If you do not find me 
Jhere, take this as sufficient injunction as regards her, 

id soften her uncle towards her as far as you can. 
This I am writing on my birthday. Would that 

I 1 had been left to die on the day of my birth, or that 

mother had never had another child. Tears 
jrevent me from writing more. 





Scr. Brun- Ad meas incredibiles aegritudines aliquid novi ac- 
disi XII K. cedit ex iis, quae de Q. Q. ad me adferuntur. P. 
rear. a. iOi Xerentius, meus necessarius, operas in portu et scri- 
ptura Asiae pro magistro dedit. Is Quintum filium 
Ephesi vidit vi Idus Decembr. eumque studiose 
propter amicitiam nostram invitavit ; eumque ex eo 
de me percontaretur, eum sibi ita dixisse narrabat, 
se mihi esse inimicissimum, volumenque sibi osten- 
disse orationis, quam apud Caesarem contra me esset 
habiturus. Multa a se dicta contra eius amentiam. 
Multa postea Patris simili scelere secum Quintum 
patrem locutum ; euius furorem ex iis epistulis, quas 
ad te misi, perspicere potuisti. Haec tibi dolori esse 
certo scio ; me quidem excruciant, et eo magis, quod 
mihi cum illis ne querendi quidem locum futurum 

De Africanis rebus longe alia nobis, ac tu scripse- 
ras, nuntiantur. Nihil eiiim firmius esse dicunt, 
nihil paratius. Accedit Hispania et alienata Italia, 
legionum nee vis eadem nee vohmtas, urbanae res 
perditae. Quid est, ubi acquiescam, nisi quam diu 
tuas litteras lego ? Quae essent profecto crebriores, 
si quid haberes, quo putares meam molestiam minui 
posse. Sed tamen te rogo, ut ne intermittas scribere 
ad me, quicquid erit, eosque, qui mihi tarn crude- 
liter inimici sunt, si odisse non potes. accuses tamen 



To my sorrows, which are incalculable, there has Brundisium, 
come an addition in the news that is brought me Jan. 19, 
about the two Quinti. My friend P. Terentius was B.C. Ifl 
acting as deputy to the collector of port-dues and 
pasture tax in Asia, and he saw young Quintus at 
Ephesus on the 8th of December and gave him a 
cordial invitation on account of our friendship. And 
when he asked him something about me, Quintus 
told him that I was his deadliest enemy and showed 
him the manuscript of a speech which he said he was 
going to deliver before Caesar against me. Terentius 
said all he could to dissuade him from such folly. 
Afterwards at Patrae the elder Quintus talked freely 
to him in the same scandalous strain. What a rage 
he is in you will have inferred from the letters I sent 
you. I am sure this will grieve you. To me it is 
positive torture, especially as I don t expect I shall 
ji even have a chance of expostulating with them. 

The news I get about the state of affairs in Africa 

; is quite different to what you sent me. They say that 

iall is as strong and as ready as possible. Then there 

are Spain and Italy alienated from Caesar ; his legions 

are not what they were either in strength or in 

loyalty ; and in the city things are in a poor plight. 

ji cannot get a moment s peace except when I am 

reading your letters. They would certainly be 

jmore frequent, if you had any news which you 

ithought would lighten my sorrows. Still I beg you 

not to neglect writing to me, whatever the news may 

ae ; and, if you cannot bring yourself to hate those 

A ho have shown such unfeeling hostility to me, at 



non ut aliquid proficias, sed ut tibi me carum esse 
sentiant. Plura ad te scribam, si mihi ad eas litteras, 
quas proxime ad te dedi, rescripseris. Vale, 
xn K. Febr. 



Scr. Brun- Confectus iam cruciatu maximorum dolorum. ne 
disi Fill Id. s i s jt quidem, quod ad te debeam scribere, facile id 
Mait. a. i )l exse q u j possim, hoc minus, quod res nulla est, quae 
scribenda sit, cum pi-aesertim ne spes quidem ulla 
ostendatur fore melius. Ita iam ne tuas quidem 
litteras exspecto, quamquam semper aliquid adferunt, 
quod velim. Quare tu quidem scribito, cum erit, cui 
des. Ego tuis proximis, quas tamen iam pridem ac- 
cepi, nihil habeo quod rescribam ; longo enim inter- 
vallo video immutata esse omnia ; ilia esse firma, 
quae debeant, nos stultitiae nostrae gravissimas poenas 

P. Sallustio curanda sunt HS XXX, quae accepi 
a C n. Sallustio. Velim videas, ut sine mora curen- 
tur. De ea re scripsi ad Terentiam. Atque hoc 
ipsum iam prope consumptum est. Quare id quoque 
velim cum ilia videas, ut sit, qui utamur. Hie for- 
tasse potero sumere, si sciam istic paratum fore ; sed, 
priusquam id scirem, nihil sum ausus sumere. Qui 
sit omnium rerum status noster, vides. Nihil est 
mali, quod non et sustineam et exspectem. Quarum 


any rate reprove them,, not in the hope of doing any 
good, but to make them feel that I am dear to you. 
I will write more, if you answer the last letter I 
sent. Farewell. 
Jan. 19. 



Worn out as I am by the agony of my grievous Brundisium, 
sorrows I should not find it an easy task to write to March 8, 
you, even if there were anything I ought to write; B.C. 4? 
and it is far less easy, when I have nothing worth 
writing, especially as there is not even a gleam of 
hope for better days. So hopeless am 1 that now I 
do not look forward even to your letters, though 
they always bring me something I like to hear. So 
pray write, whenever you have a messenger. I have 
no answer to give to your last letter, though it is a 
long time -since I received it, for I see no change in 
the long interval : the right cause is strong, and I 
am paying very heavily for my folly. 

The 250 l which I had from Cn. Sallustius are to 
be paid to P. Sallustius. Please see that it is done 
without delay. 1 have written to Terentia about it. 
And now it is nearly all spent: so I wish you would 
arrange with her for some money for me to go on 
with. I shall possibly be able to get some here, if 
I know I have a balance at Rome ; but, before I know 
that, I dare not try. You see the position of all my 
affairs. There is no sort of misfortune which I am 
not enduring and expecting. For this state of affairs 

1 30,000 sesterces. 

cc VOL. ii 



rerum eo gravior est dolor, quo culpa maior. Ille 
in Achaia non cessat de nobis detrahere. Nihil 
videlicet tuae litterae profecerunt. Vale, 
vin Idus Mart. 



Scr. Brun- Cephalio mihi a te litteras reddidit a. d. vin Id. 
disi VIII Id. Mart, vespere. Eo autem die mane tabellarios mise- 
Mart. a. 707 ram quibus ad te dederam litteras. Tuis tamen 
lectis litteris putavi iam aliquid rescribendum esse 
ea re maxime, quod ostendis te pendere animi, 
quamnam rationem sim Caesari allaturus profectionis 
meae turn, cum ex Italia discesserim. Nihil opus 
est mihi nova ratione. Saepe enim ad eum scripsi 
multisque mandavi, me non potuisse, cum cupissem, 
sermones hominum sustinere, multaque in earn sen- 
tentiam. Nihil enim ei at, quod minus eum vellem 
existimare, quam me tanta de re non meo consilio 
usum esse. Posteaque, cum mihi litterae a Balbo 
Cornelio minore missae essent ilium existimare 
Quintum fratrem lituum" meae profectionis fuisse 
(ita enim scripsit), qui nondum cognossem, quae de 
me Quintus scripsisset ad multos, etsi multa praesens 
in praesentem acerbe dixerat et fecerat, tamen nilo 
minus his verbis ad Caesarem scripsi : 

De Quinto fratre meo non minus laboro quam de 
me ipso, sed eum tibi commendare hoc meo tempore 
non audeo. Illud dumtaxat tamen audebo petere 


I feel the greater sorrow, because my fault is greater. 
My brother in Achaia does not cease slandering me. 
Your letter has of course had no effect. Farewell. 
March 8. 



Cephalic delivered a letter from you on the 8th of Brundisium, 
March in the evening. Now on the morning of the March 8, 
same day I had sent messengers and had given them B.C. ^7 
a letter for you. But, when I read yours, I thought 
I ought to send some answer, particularly because 
you show you are in doubt as to what explanation I 
am going to offer Caesar of my departure when I did 
depart from Italy. I have no necessity for a new 
explanation, for I have often told him myself and 
instructed others to tell him that I could not put up 
with people s talk, although I wished it, and much 
else to the same effect. For there is nothing that 
I should be more unwilling for him to imagine than 
that I did not make up my own mind on so impor 
tant a question. Afterwards I received a letter from 
Cornelius Balbus the younger saying that Caesar 
thought my brother Quintus had sounded the bugle 
for my departure (that was his expression). I was 
not then aware of what Quintus had written about 
me to many people ; but, though he had spoken and 
acted with great bitterness when face to face with 
me, none the less I wrote to Caesar as follows: 

I am as much troubled about my brother Quintus 
about myself; but under the present circum- 

inces I do not venture to recommend him to you. 
iOne thing, however, I will venture to ask you I 
cc2 387 


abs te, quod te oro, ne quid existimes ab illo factum 
esse, quo minus mea in te officia constarent, minusve 
te diligerem, potiusque semper ilium auctorem no- 
strae coniunctionis fuisse, meique itineris comitem, 
non ducem. Quare ceteris in rebus tantum ei tri- 
bues, quantum humanitas tua amicitiaque vestra 
postulat. Ego ei ne quid apud te obsim, id te vehe- 
nienter etiam atque etiam rogo. " 

Quare, si quis congressus fuerit mihi cum Caesare. 
etsi non dubito, quin is lenis in ilium futurus sit id- 
que iam declaraverit, ego tamen is ero, qui semper 
fui. Sed, ut video, multo magis est nobis laborandum 
de Africa ; quam quidem tu scribis confirmari eotidie 
magis ad condicionis spem quam victoriae. Quod 
utinam ita esset ! Sed longe aliter esse intellego 
teque ipsum ita existimare arbitror, aliter autem 
scribere non fallendi, sed confirmandi mei causa, 
praesertim cum adiungatur ad Africam etiam Hispa- 

Quod me admones, ut scribam ad Antonium et ad 
ceteros, si quid videbitur tibi opus esse, velim facias 
id, quod saepe fecisti. Nihil enim mihi venit in 
mentem, quod scribendum putem. Quod me audis 
erectiorem esse animo, quid putas, cum videas acces- 
sisse ad superiores aegritudines praeclaras generi 


beseech you to acquit him of doing anything to dis 
turb my sense of your claims on me or to lessen my 
affection for you, and rather to regard him as the 
main factor of our union and the companion, not the 
leader, in my departure. And therefore in all other 
matters you will give him all the credit that your 
own kindness and your mutual friendship demands. 
What I earnestly beg you again and again is, that 
you will not let me stand in his light with you." 

So, if I ever do meet Caesar, though I have no 
doubt that he will be lenient to Quintus and that he 
has already made that plain, I shall behave as I 
always have behaved. But, as I see, what I ought 
to be most anxious about is Africa, which you say is 
daily growing stronger, though only to the extent 
of raising hopes of a compromise rather than a 
victory. If it could only be true ! But I read the 
signs quite differently, and I think you agree 
with me, and only say the contrary to hearten me, 
not to deceive me, especially as Spain too has now 
joined Africa. 1 

You advise me to write to Antony and others. If 
you think it necessary, please do it for me, as you 
have often done before ; for I cannot think of any 
thing worth writing. You hear I am less broken- 
spirited ; but can you believe it, when you see that 
to my former troubles are now added my son-in- 
law s fine doings?" However, pray do not cease 

1 After his victory in Spain in 49 B.C., Caesar left Q. 
Cassius Longinus in command there ; but Spain went over 
to Pompey and both Longinus and his successor, C. Tre- 
bonius, were driven out. 

2 Dolabella as tribune endeavoured to introduce a bill for 
the relief of debtors, which caused riots. 



actiones ? Tu tanien velim lie intermittas, quod eius 
facere poteris, scribei e ad me, etiamsi rem, de qua 
scribas, non habebis. Semper enim adferunt aliquid 
mihi tuae litterae. 

Galeonis hereditatem crevi. Puto enim cretionem 
simplicem fuisse, quoniam ad me nulla missa est. 

vni Idus Martias. 



Scr.Brundiai A Murenae liberto nihil adhuc acceperam littera- 

VII Id. rum. P. Siser reddiderat eas, quibus rescribo. De 

Mart, aid gervi patris litteris quod scribis, item Quintum in Sy- 

7/o~ riam venisse quod ais esse qui nuntient, ne id quidem 

verum est. Quod certiorem te vis fieri, quo quisque 

in me animo sit aut fuerit eorum, qui hue venerunt. 

neminem alieno intellexi. Sed, quantum id mea in- 

tersit, existimare te posse certo scio. Mihi cum om- 

nia sint intolerabilia ad dolorem, turn maxime quod 

in earn causam venisse me video, ut sola utilia mihi 

esse videantur, quae semper nolui. 

P. Lentulum patrem Illiodi esse aiunt, Alexandreae 
filium, Rhodoque Alexandream C. Cassium profectum 
esse constat. Quintus mihi per litteras satis facit 
multo asperioribus verbis, quam cum gravissime ac- 
cusabat. Ait enim se ex litteris tuis intellegere tibi 
non placere, quod ad multos de me asperius scri- 


doing what you can to hearten me, that is writing to 
me, even if you have nothing to say. For a letter 
from you always brings me something. 

I have accepted Galeo s legacy. I suppose it only 
required a simple form of acceptance, 1 since none 
was sent to me. 

March 8. 



I have not received any letter from Murena s Brudisium, 
freedman as yet. It was P. Siser who delivered the March 9 (?\ 
one I am answering. You speak of a letter from B.C. 47 
Servius father, and you tell me some say that Quin- 
tus has landed in Syria: neither is true. You want 
to be informed how those who have come here feel 
or felt towards me. I have not found any ill-disposed : 
but, how important that is to me, I am sure you can 
imagine. To me the whole state of affairs is insuffer 
ably painful ; and most of all that I have got myself 
into such a case, that the only things that can be of 
any use to me are precisely what I have always 
wished not to happen. 

They say the elder P. Lentulus is at Rhodes, the 
younger at Alexandria, and it is certain that C. Cas- 
sius has left Rhodes for Alexandria. Quintus has 
written to apologize to me in terms much more irri 
tating than when he was abusing me most violently. 
For he says that he understands from your letter 
that you were annoyed with him for writing 

1 cretio = the formal acceptance of a legacy, and cretio 
simplex apparently means that no restrictions on the form 
of acceptance were laid down in the will. 



pserit, itaque se paenitere, quod animum tuum offen- 
derit; sed se iure fecisse. Deinde perscribit spurcis- 
sime, quas ob causas fecerit. Sed neque hoc tempore 
nee antea patefecisset odium suum in me, nisi omni 
bus rebus me esse oppressum videret. Atque utinam 
vel nocturnis, quern ad modum tu scripseras, itineri- 
bus propius te accessissem ! Nunc, nee ubi nee 
quando te sim visurus, possum suspicari. 

De eoheredibus Fufidianis nihil fuit quod ad me 
scriberes ; nam et aequum postulant, et, quicquid 
egisses, recte esse actum putarem. De fundo Frusinati 
redimendo iam pridem intellexisti voluntatem meam. 
Etsi turn meliore loco res erant nostrae neque tarn 
mihi desperatum iri videbantur, tamen in eadem sum 
voluntate. Id quern ad modum fiat, tu videbis. Et 
velim, quod poteris, consideres, ut sit, unde nobis 
suppeditentur sumptus necessarii. Si quas habuimus 
facultates, eas Poinpeio turn, cum id videbamur sapi- 
enter facere, detulimus. Itaque turn et a tuo vilico 
sumpsimus et aliunde mutuati sumus ; mine Quintus 
queritur per litteras sibi nos nihil dedisse, qui neque 
ab illo rogati sumus neque ipsi earn pecuniam aspexi- 
mus. Sed velim videas, quid sit, quod confici possit, 
quidque mihi de omnibus des consilii; et causam 

Plura ne scribam, dolore impedior. Si quid erit, 
quod ad quos scribendum meo nomine putes, velim, 
ut soles, facias, quotiensque habebis, cui des ad me 
litteras, nolim praetermittas. Vale. 



harshly about me to many people, and so he is sorry 
that he hurt your feelings : but he was right in what 
he did. Then he explains with the greatest coarse 
ness why he did it. But he would never have shown 
his hatred for me either now or before, if he had not 
seen that everything was against me. How I wish I 
had got nearer to you, even by night-journeys as you 
suggested. Now I cannot conceive where or when I 
shall see you. 

As to my co-heirs in Fufidius property, there was 
no reason for you to write to me : for their demand 
is quite just, and anything you did I should think 
right. As to the repurchase of the estate at Frusino, 
you know already what I wish. Though my affairs 
were then in a better position, and I did not expect 
to be in such desperate straits, still my mind has 
not altered. How it is to be done, you will arrange. 
And please consider to the best of your ability some 
way of obtaining ready money for current expenses. 
All the money I had I handed over to Pompey at a 
time when it seemed advisable to /3o so. So then I 
took money from your steward and borrowed from 
others, and now Quintus complains by letter that I 
did not give him a penny, w r hen he never asked for 
it and I never set eyes on the money myself. But 
please see what can be managed and what advice you 
have to give me on all points : you know all about it. 

Grief prevents me from writing more. If there is 
anything you think should be written to anyone in 
my name, please do so as usual ; and as often as you 
have anyone to whom you can give a letter to me, 
don t forget it. Farewell. 



Scr.Brundisi Non me offendit veritas litterarum tuarum, quod 
C -\Jr rnv me cum commum bus turn praecipuis mails oppressum 
ne incipis quidem, ut solebas, consolari faterisque id 
fieri iam non posse. Nee enim ea sunt, quae erant 
antea, euro, ut nihil aliud, comites me et socios habere 
putabam. Omnes enim Achaici deprecatores itemque 
in Asia, quibus non erat ignotum, etiam quibus erat, 
in Africam dicuntur navigaturi. Ita praeter Laelium 
neminem habeo culpae socium; qui tamen hoc meli- 
ore in causa est, quod iam est receptus. De me autem 
non dubito quin ad Balbum et ad Oppium scripserit ; 
a quibuSj si quid esset laetius, certior factus essem, 
tecum etiam essent locuti. Quibuscum tu de hoc 
ipso conloquare velim et ad me, quid tibi responde- 
rint, scribas, non quod ab isto salus data quicquam 
habitura sit firmitudinis. sed tamen aliquid consuli et 
prospici poterit. Etsi omnium conspectum horreo, 
praesertim hoc genero, tamen, in tantis malis quid 
aliud velim, non reperio. Quintus pergit, ut ad me 
et Pansa scripsit et Hirtius, isque item Africam petere 
cum ceteris dicitur. Ad Minucium Tarentum scribam 
et tuas litteras mittam ; ad te scribam, num quid 
egerim. HS XXX potuisse mirarer, nisi multa de 




I am not offended with you for telling me the truth Brundisium, 
in your letter and not even attempting, as you were circa Apr. 
wont, to console me under my burden of public and 25, B.C. 4? 
personal woes, which you confess is impossible now. 
For affairs are no longer in the position they were, 
when, if nothing else, I thought I had companions and 
partners in my policy. For all those in Achaia and in 
Asia, who petitioned for pardon and did not obtain 
it, and even some of those who did, are said to be on 
the point of sailing for Africa. So I have no one to 
share my fault except Laelius, and even he is in a 
better position than I am in one respect, as he has 
been taken back now. 1 But about me I have no 
doubt that Caesar has written to Balbus and Oppius : 
if the news had been good, I should have heard from 
them and they would have spoken to you too. I 
should like you to speak to them about it and to let 
me know what they say, not that any safeguard 
given by him can have any certainty, but still some 
thing can be foreseen and provided for. Though I 
am ashamed to look anyone in the face, especially 
with such a son-in-law, still in this disastrous crisis I 
see nothing else to wish for. Quintus is still keep 
ing on, as both Pansa and Hirtius have written to tell 
me; and he is said too to be making for Africa with 
the rest. I will write to Minucius at Tarentum, and 
send your letter : I will let you know whether any 
thing comes of it. I should have been surprised that 

1 By the loyalist party. 



Fufidianis praediis. Sed avide tamen te exspecto : 
quern videre, si ullo modo potest (poscit enim res), 
pervelim. lam extremum concluditur; quod quale 
sit, ibi facile est, 2 hie gravius existimare. Vale. 



Set: Quoniam iustas causas adfers, cur te hoc tempore 

Brundisi videre non possim, quaere, quaeso, quid sit mihi 
\T 707 f ac i en dum. Ille enim ita videtur Alexandream te- 
nere, ut eum scribere etiam pudeat de illis rebus, hi 
autem ex Africa iam adfuturi videntur, Achaici. item 
ex Asia redituri ad eos aut libero aliquo loco com- 
moraturi. Quid mihi igitur putas agendum ? Video 
difficile esse consilium. Sum enim solus aut cum 
altero, cui neque ad illos reditus sit neque ab his 
ipsis quicquam ad spem ostendatur. Sed tamen 
scire velim, quid censeas ; idque erat cum aliis, cur 
te, si fieri posset, cuperem videre. 

Minucium xTl sola curasse scripsi ad te antea. 
Quod superest. velim videas, ut curetur. Quintus 
non modo non cum magna prece ad me, sed acerbis- 
sime scripsit, films vero mirifico odio. Nihil fingi 

Sed avide tamen te If esenberg: et advideo tamen MSS. 
-quod quale sit, ibi facile est Purser: ibi facile est, quod 
quale sit MSS. 



you were able to raise the 250, 1 if there had not 
been a good receipt from Fufidius estates. However 
I am looking forward eagerly to your coming : it is 
m}" great desire to see you, if it is anyhow possible 
for indeed circumstances demand it. The end is 
now drawing near ; and, what it will be, it is easy to 
estimate at Rome, but here it is more difficult. 



Since you give good reasons why I cannot see you Brundisium, 
at the present time, pray consider what I am to do. May 14, 
For although Caesar holds Alexandria, he seems to B.C. Ifl 
be ashamed even to send a dispatch about it, while 
the others are apparently on the eve of coming here 
from Africa, and those in Achaia too are either going 
to return from Asia to join them or they are going to 
stop in some neutral place. So what do you think I 
am to do? I see advice is difficult. For I am the 
one and only person except perhaps one other, 
who cannot return to the one party and who has no 
hope at all offered him from the other. Still I 
should like to know what you think : and that 
was one reason, among others, why I should have 
liked to see you, if it were possible. 

I told you before that Minucius has only paid 
,l()0. 2 Please see that the rest is provided. Quin- 
tus in his letter instead of an earnest appeal used 
the most bitter language, and his son showed extra 
ordinary animosity. There is no conceivable ill 

30,000 sesterces. 
2 12,000 sesterces. 



potest mail, quo non urgear. Omnia tamen sunt 
faciliora quam peccati dolor, qui et maximus est et 
aeternus. Cuius peccati si socios essem habiturus 
ego, quos putavi, tamen esset ea consolatio tenuis. 
Sed habet aliorum omnium ratio exitum, mea nul 
him. Alii capti, alii interclusi non veniunt in dubium 
de voluntate, eo minus scilicet, cum se expedierint 
et una esse coeperint. Ei autem ipsi, qui sua volun 
tate ad Fufium venerunt, nihil possunt nisi timidi 
existimari. Multi autem sunt, qui, quocumque modo 
ad illos se recipere volent, recipientur. Quo minus 
debes mirari non posse me tanto dolori resistere. 
Solius enim meum peccatum corrigi non potest et 
fortasse Laeli. Sed quid me id levat? Nam C. 
quidem Cassium aiunt consilium Alexandream eundi 

Haec ad te scribo, non ut queas tu demere 1 sollici- 
tudineni, sed ut cognoscam, ecquid tu ad ea adferas. 
quae me conficiunt ; ad quae gener accedit et cetera, 
quae fletu reprimor ne scribam. Quin etiam Aesopi 
filius me excruciat. Prorsus nihil abest, quin sim 
miserrimus. Sed ad primum revertor, quid putes 
faciendum, occultene aliquo propius veniendum an 

queas tu demere M (margin): quern tuam demere /!/. 


with which I am not oppressed. But all of them are 
lighter to bear than my sense of guilt : that is over 
whelming and enduring. If I were to have those, 
whom I thought I had, to share that guilt, that 
would still be some consolation, though a poor one. 
But every one else s case admits of some way out, 
mine of none. Some were captured, some cut off, so 
there is no doubt about their intentions, especially 
since they have extricated themselves and joined 
forces again. Nay even those, who of their own free 
will came to Fufius, 1 can only be thought cowards. 
But there are many who will be taken back, how 
ever they choose to take themselves back to the fold. 
So you ought not to be surprised that I cannot bear 
up against all my sorrow. For I am the one and 
only person whose slip cannot be mended, except 
perhaps Laelius and what good is that? for they 
say even C. Cassius has changed his mind about go 
ing to Alexandria. 

This I am writing to you not in the hope that you 
may remove my care, but to know whether you have 
any suggestion to make about the things that are 
wearing me out : to the rest you may add my son-in- 
law and other things which tears prevent me from 
writing. Why, even Aesopus 2 son grieves me sorely. 
There is absolutely nothing wanting to make me 
the most miserable of men. But I return to the first 
point. What do you think I ought to do, come secretly 

1 Q, Fufius Calenus was appointed governor of Greece 
fter Pharsalia by Caesar, and many Pompeians surrender- 
sd to him. 

2 Aesopus was a famous tragic actor and a friendofCicero. 
jHis son was dissolute and supposed to have a bad influence 
an Dolabella. 



mare transeundum. Nam hie maneri diutius non 

De Fufidianis quare nihil potuit confici ? Genus 
enim condicionis eius modi fuit, in quo non solet 
esse controversia, cum ea pars, quae videtur esse 
minor, licitatione expleri posset. Hoc ego non sine 
causa quaero. Suspicor enim coheredes dubiam 
nostram causam putare et eo rem in integro esse 
malle. Vale. 

Pr. Idus Maias. 



Scr. Brim- Non meo vitio fit hoc quidem tempore (ante enim 

nisi 111 es t peccatum), ut me ista epistula nihil consoletur. 

Aon. lun. ^ . . 

nrtfv Nam et exigue scripta est et suspiciones magnas 

a. iU I 

habet non esse ab illo; quas animadvertisse te exi- 

stimo. De obviam itione ita faciam, ut suades. 
Neque enim ulla de adventu eius opinio est, neque, 
si qui ex Asia veniunt, quicquam auditum esse dicunt 
de pace : cuius ego spe in hanc fraudem incidi. 
Nihil video, quod sperandum putem, nunc praeser- 
tim, cum ea plaga in Asia sit accepta, in Illyrico, in 
Cassiano negotio, in ipsa Alexandrea, in urbe, in 

Italia. Ego vero, etiamsi rediturus ille est, qui adhuc 


somewhere nearer Rome, or cross the sea ? For stay 
here any longer I cannot. 

Why could nothing be settled about Fufidius 
estate ? For the arrangement was one about which 
there is generally no dispute, since the share, which 
seems smaller, can be made up by the proceeds of 
the sale. I have a reason for asking. For I suspect 
my co-heirs think my case is doubtful, and so prefer 
to keep the matter open. Farewell. 

May 14. 



It is not my fault at the present time (for 1 did Brundisium, 
commit an error before) that the letter you send 2 June 3, 
does not give me any consolation. For it is grudg- B.C. Jf.7 
ingly written, and raises great suspicion that it is not 
by Caesar: I expect you noticed that too. About 
going to meet him I will do as you advise. For no 
one thinks he is coming, and those who come from 
Asia say there has been no word of peace : and it was 
hope of a peace that led me into this error. 

I see nothing to make me think of hope, especially 
now that that blow has fallen in Asia, in Illyricum, 
in the Cassian affair, in Alexandria itself, in Rome 
and in Italy. 3 For my part, even if he is on his re- 

If property could not be divided fairly among heirs, the 
indivisible part was put up for private auction among them 
and the proceeds divided. 

2 A letter purporting to come from Caesar, but later found 
to be a forgery. 

3 Cicero alludes to the defeat of Domitius Calvinus in Asia, 
the failure of Aulus Gabinius in Illyricum, the insurrection 

DD VOL. II 401 


helium gerere dicitur, tamen ante reditum eius ne- 
gotium confectum iri puto. 

Quod autem scribis quandam laetitiam bonorum 
esse commotam, ut sit auditum de litteris, tu quidem 
nihil praetermittis, in quo putes aliquid solacii esse, 
sed ego non adducor quemquam bonum ullam salu- 
tem putare mihi tanti fuisse, ut earn peterem ab illo, 
et eo minus, quod huius consilii iam ne socium qui 
dem habeo quemquam. Qui in Asia sunt, rerum 
exitum exspectant, Achaici etiam Fufio spem depre- 
cationis afFerunt. Horum et timor idem fuit primo 
qui meus et constitutum ; mora Alexandrina causam 
illorum correxit, meam evertit. Quam ob rem idem 
a te nunc peto quod superioribus litteris, ut, si quid 
in perditis rebus dispiceres, quod mihi putares fa 
ciendum, me moneres. Si recipior ab his. quod 
vides non fieri, tamen, quoad bellum erit, quid agam 
aut ubi sim, non reperio ; sin iactor, eo minus. 
Itaque tuas litteras exspecto, casque ut ad me sine 
dubitatione scribas, rogo. 

Quod suades, ut ad Quintum scribam de his lit 
teris, facerem, si me quicquam istae litterae dele- 
ctarent. Etsi quidam scripsit ad me his verbis : Ego 
ut in his malis Patris sum non invitus; essem liben- 
tius, si frater tuus ea de te loqueretur, quae ego 

audire vellem." Quod ais ilium ad te scribere me 



turn whereas he is said to be still fighting still I 
think the business will be settled before he does 

You say, however, that some feeling of pleasure 
was aroused among the loyalists when they heard of 
this letter. Of course you do not omit anything in 
which you think there is the least consolation, but I 
cannot bring myself to believe that any of the loyal 
ists supposed that I prize any salvation highly enough 
to beg for it of him : especially as I have not even a 
single partner in this policy now. Those who are in 
Asia are waiting to see how things turn out: those 
in Achaia too keep holding out to Fufius the hope 
that they will petition for pardon. They at first had 
the same fear and the same plan as myself; but the 
hitch at Alexandria improved their case and ruined 
mine. So I still make the same request of you as in 
former letters : if in these desperate straits you 
see anything you think I ought to do, tell me of 
it. If I am taken back by the loyalists, which you 
see is not the case, still, so long as the war lasts, I 
don t see what I am to do or where I am to stay; 
still less, if I am rejected by them. So I await a 
letter from you, and I beg you to write to me with 
out hesitation. 

You advise me to write to Quintus about this 
letter. I would, if the letter gave me any pleasure, 
though some one has written to me saying: Con 
sidering the evil days, I am pretty comfortable at 
Patrae, and I should be more so, if your brother 
would speak of you as I should like to hear him." 

of Baetica, which forced Cassius to leave the province, 
Caesar s difficulties at Alexandria, the riots in Rome, and 
the mutinous state of the army in Italy. 

DD2 4.03 


sibi nullas litteras remittere, semel ab ipso accepi. 
Ad eas Cephalioni dedi, qui multos menses tempe- 
statibus retentus est. Quintum filium ad me acer- 
bissime scripsisse iam ante ad te scripsi. 

Extremum est, quod te orem, si putas rectum esse 
et a te suscipi posse, cum Camillo communices, ut 
Terentiam moneatis de testamento. Tempora mo- 
nent, ut videat, ut satis faciat, quibus debeat. Audi- 
turn ex Philotimo est earn scelerate quaedam facere. 
Credibile vix est, sed certe, si quid est, quod fieri 
possit, providendum est. De omnibus rebus velim ad 
me scribas, et maxime quid sentias de ea, in qua tuo 
consilio egeo, etiam si nihil excogitas. Id enim 
mihi erit pro desperato. 

in Non. lun. 



Scr. Bnm- Properantibus tabellariis alienis hanc epistulam 

disi pna. Id (j e( ji. Eo brevior est, et quod eram missurus nostros. 

yftj Tullia mea venit ad me pr. Idus luiiias deque tua 

erga se observantia benevolentiaque mihi plurima ex- 

posuit litterasque reddidit trinas. Ego autem ex 

ipsius virtute, humanitate, pietate non modo earn 

voluptatem non cepi, quam capere ex singulari filia 

debui, sed etiam incredibili sum dolore adfectus tale 

ingenium in tam misei-a fortuna versari idque accidere 


As to his writing to you to say that I don t answer 
any of his letters, I ve only had one from him. To 
that I gave an answer to Cephalio, but he was de 
layed many months by storms. I have already 
mentioned that young Quintus has written to me 
most bitterly. 

The last thing I have to ask you is, that, if you 
think it right and care to undertake it, you and 
Camillus together should advise Terentia to make 
her will. Circumstances suggest that she ought to 
make provision for satisfying her creditors. I hear 
from Philotimus that she is doing some underhand 
things. 1 can hardly believe it ; but anyhow, if 
there is anything of the kind (and there possibly may 
be), it ought to be guarded against. Please write 
to me about everything, and especially what you 
think about her. I want your advice about her, 
even if you cannot think of any plan : for in that 
case I shall take it the case is desperate. 

June 3. 



I have given this letter to some one else s messeii- Brundisium , 
gers, who are in a hurry. That is why it is short; June 12 or 
also because I am just going to send my own. Tullia 13, B.C. -47 
came to me on the 1 2th of June and told me of all 
your attention and kindness to her and delivered 
three letters. I however have not derived the plea 
sure from her goodness, kindness and affection, 
which I ought to derive from a matchless daughter, 
nay, my grief exceeds all bounds when I think that 
such a fine character should be involved in such a 



nullo ipsius delicto summa culpa mea. Itaque a te 
neque consolationem iam, qua cupere te uti video, 
nee consilium, quod capi nullum potest, exspecto, 
teque omnia cum superioribus saepe litteris turn 
proximis temptasse intellego. 

Ep. XVIIa 


S cr. Ego cum Sallustio Ciceronemad Caesarem mittere 

Brundtsi cogitabam; Tulliam autem non videbam esse causam 

cur diutius mecum tanto in communi maerore retine- 
Qmnt. a. 707 

rem. Itaque matri earn, cum primum per ipsam lice- 
ret, eram remissurus. Pro ea, quam ad modum conso- 
lantis scripsisti, putato ea me scripsisse, quae tu ipse 
intellegis responderi potuisse. 

Quod Oppium tecum scribis locutum, non abhorret 
a mea suspicione eius oratio. Sed non dubito, quin 
istis persuaderi nullo modo possit ea, quae faciant, 
mihi probari posse, quoquo modo loquar. Ego tamen 
utar moderatione, qua potero ; quamquam, quid mea 
intersit, ut eorum odium subeam, non intellego. 

Te iusta causa impediri, quo minus ad nos venias, 
video, idque mihi valde molestum est. Ilium ab Ale- 
xandrea discessisse nemo nuntiat, constatque ne pro- 
fectum quidem illim quemquam post Idus Martias nee 
post Idus Decembr. ab illo datas ullas litteras. Ex 
quo intellegis illud de litteris a. d. v Idus Febr. datis, 


distressful fate, and that this should happen through 
no fault of hers, but through my own grave error. 
So I do not expect any consolation from you now, 
though I see you are ready to offer it, nor any coun 
sel, since none can be taken : and I realize that you 
have tried every way in your former letters and in 
these last. 



I am thinking of sending my son with Sallustius to Brundisium, 
Caesar. As for Tullia, I see no reason for keeping June 14, 
her with me any longer when both of us are in such B.C. ^7 
sorrow : so I am going to send her back to her mother, 
as soon as she herself will allow me. In return for 
the letter which you wrote in a consolatory style, 
please consider that I have made the only answer, 
which, as you yourself know, was possible. 

You tell me Oppius has had a talk with you : and 
what you say agrees well enough with my suspicions 
of him. But I feel sure that party l can never be con 
vinced that their actions can possibly win my approval, 
whatever I may say. However, I will be as moderate 
as I can : though, what difference it makes to me, if I 
do incur their enmity, I cannot conceive. 

I see you have a good reason for not being able to 
come to me : and I am very sorry that is so. There 
is no news that Caesar has left Alexandria ; and it is 
well known that no one at all has left that place since 
the 1 5th of March, and that he has despatched no 
letters since the 13th of December. So you see it 
was quite untrue about the letter dated Febr. 9, 

1 Caesar s followers. 


quod inane esset, etiamsi verum esset, non verum esse. 
L. Terentium discessisse ex Africa scimus Paestumque 
venisse. Quid is adferat aut quo modo exierit, aut 
quid in Africa fiat, scire velim. Dicitur enim per Na- 
sidium emissus esse. Id quale sit, velim, si inveneris, 
ad me scribas. De HS x, ut scribis, faciam. , Vale, 
xvn Kal. Quinctiles. 



Scr. De illius Alexandrea discessu nihil adhuc rumoris, 

Drundisi contraque opinio valde esse impeditum. Itaque nee 
Q t a 707 m i tto > ut constitueram, Ciceronem, et te rogo, ut me 
hinc expedias. Quodvis enim supplicium levius est 
hac permansione. Hac de re et ad Antonium scripsi 
et ad Balbum et ad Oppium. Sive enim bellum in 
Italia futurum est, sive classibus utetur, hie esse me 
minime convenit ; quorum fortasse utrumque erit, alte- 
rum certe. Intellexi omnino ex Oppi sermone, quern 
tu mihi scripsisti, quae istorum ira esset, sed, ut earn 
flectas, te rogo. Nihil omnino iam exspecto nisi mi- 
serum, sed hoc perditius, in quo nunc sum, fieri nihil 
potest. Quare et cum Antonio loquare velim et cum 
istis et rem, ut poteris, expedias et mihi quam primum 
de omnibus rebus rescribas. Vale. 

xn Kal. Quinctil. 


though it would not have been of any importance, if 
it had been true. I hear L. Terentius has left Africa 
and come to Paestum. What news he brings, or how 
he got out, or what is happening in Africa. I should 
like to know. For he is said to have been passed out 
through the agency of Nasidius. What it all means, 
I wish you would write and tell me, if you find out. 
I will do as you say about the 80 guineas. 1 Farewell. 
June 14. 



There is no rumour of his leaving Alexandria as Brundisium, 
yet: on the contrary, he is thought to be in great June 19, 
difficulties. So I am not sending my son, as I had B.C. ^7 
arranged, and I beseech you to get me away from 
here : for any punishment is lighter to bear than 
staying here. On this point I have written to 
Antony, to Balbus and to Oppius. For whether 
there is going to be a war in Italy, or whether he 
will employ his fleet and it may be either, but one 
it must be this is a most inappropriate place for me. 
I understood of course from what Oppius said accord 
ing to your letter, how angry they are with me : but 
I beg you to turn their anger. I don t expect any 
thing now that is not unpleasant : but my present 
condition is as desperate as anj thing can be. So 
please speak with Antony and the Caesarians, and 
see the matter through for me as best you can : and 
let me have an answer on all points as soon as possible. 

June 14. 

1 10,000 sesterces. 





Scr. Cum tuis dare possem litteras, non praetermisi, 

Brundisi etsi, quod scriberem, non habebam. Tu ad nos et 

XI K. next, rarius scribis, quam solebas, et brevius^. credo, quia 

nihil habes, quod me putes libenter legere aut audire 

posse. Verum tamen velim, si quid erit, qualecumque 

erit, scribas. Est autem unum, quod mihi sit optan- 

dum, si quid agi de pace possit ; quod nulla equidem 

habeo in spe ; sed, quia tu leviter interdum significas, 

cogis me sperare, quod optandum vix est. 

Philotimus dicitur Id. Sext. Nihil habeo de illo 
amplius. Tu velim ad ea mihi rescribas, quae ad te 
antea scripsi. Mihi tantum temporis satis est, dum 
ut in pessimis rebus aliquid caveam, qui nihil umquam 
cavi. Vale, 
xi Kal. Sextil. 



Scr. Brun- xvn K. Septembres venerat die xxvm Seleucea 

disi X VI K. Pieria C. Trebonius, qui se Antiocheae diceret apud 

Sept. a. 707 Caesarem vidisse Quintum filium cum Hirtio. Eos 

de Quinto, quae voluissent, impetrasse nullo quidem 

negotio. Quod ego magis gauderem^ si ista nobis 

impetrata quicquam ad spem explorati haberent. Sed 





As I had a chance of giving a letter to your men, Brundisium, 
I did not miss it, though I have nothing to say. You July 2%, 
are writing less often than you used to do and less B.C. Ifl 
fully, I suppose because you have nothing that j ou 
think 1 should be glad to read or hear. However 
please write, if there is anything of any kind what 
ever. There is one thing that I do long for, any 
possibility of a peace: myself I have no hope of such 
a tiling: but, as you sometimes give a slight hint, 
you compel me to have some hope of what I hardly 
dare long for. 

Philotirnus is said to be coming on the 13th of 
August. Of Caesar I have no further news. Please 
answer my former letter. I only want time enough 
to take some precaution now in my misfortunes, as I 
have never taken any before. Farewell. 

July 22. 



On the 1 -ith of August there arrived from Seleucea Brundisium, 
Pieria C. Trebonius after 28 days journey : and he said Aug. 15, 
he had seen young Quintus at Antioch in Caesar s train B.C. Jfl 
with Hirtius. They had got what they wanted about 
my brother without any difficulty at all. I should 
feel more joy at that, if what I have got myself gave 
me some sure ground for hope. 1 But there are things 

Or, as Tyrrell, "if the granting of such petitions 
afforded, in my opinion, any sure basis for hope. 

41 1 


et alia timenda suiit ab aliis Quintisque, et ab hoc 
ipso quae daiitur ut a domino, rursus in eiusdem sunt 
potestate. Etiam Sallustio ignovit. Omnino dicitur 
nemini negare ; quod ipsum est suspectum, notionem 
eius differri. M. Gallius Q. f. mancipia Sallustio red- 
didit. Is venit, ut legiones in Sicilian! traduceret. 
Eo protinus iturum Caesarem Patris. Quod si faciet, 
ego, quod ante mallem, aliquo propius accedam. Tuas 
littevas ad eas, quibus a te proxime consilium petivi, 
vehementer exspecto. Vale. 
xvi Kal. Septembres. 



Scr. Brun- Accepi vi Kal. Sept. litteras a te datas xn Kal. 

disi VI K. doloremque, quern ex Quinti scelere iam pridem acce- 

ep . a. ptum iam abieceram, lecta eius epistula gravissimum 

cepi. Tu etsi non potuisti ullo modo facere, ut mihi 

illam epistulam non mitteres, tamen mallem non esse 


Ad ea autem, quae scribis de testamento, videbis, 
quid et quo modo. De nummis et ilia sic scripsit 
ut ego ad te antea, et nos, si quid opus erit, utemur 

ex eo, de quo scribis. 


I have to fear from the Quinti and others : and 
Caesar s own regal concessions are again in his own 
power to revoke. He has even pardoned Sallustius. 
Indeed he is said not to deny anyone, and that 
in itself arouses a suspicion that he is only deferring 
investigation. M. Gallius, son of Quintus, has given 
back his slaves to Sallustius. He came to transport 
the legions to Sicily, and he says Caesar is going 
from Patrae to Sicily. If he does, I shall come 
nearer Rome, and I wish I had done so already. 
I am expecting eagerly your answer to my last re 
quest for advice. Farewell. 
August 1 5. 



On August 25 I received a letter from you dated Brundisium, 
Aug. 19, and, on reading it, the sorrow which Aug. 25, 
possessed me long ago at Quintus shameful con- B - c - * 
duct, but which I had now laid aside, was re 
awakened in all its force. Though you could not 
possibly have helped sending me that letter, I wish 
it had not been sent. 

For the points you mention about the will, please 
see what is to be done and how. About the money, 
Terentia has written to me just what I suggested to 
you before, and, if I need it, I will draw on the sum 
you mention. 



Ille ad Kal. Sept. Athenis non videtur fore. Multa 
eum in Asia dicuntur morari, maxime Pharnaces. 
Legio xn, ad quam primam Sulla venit, lapidibus 
egisse hominem dicitur. Nullam putant se commo- 
turam. Ilium arbitrabantur protinus Patris in Si- 
ciliam. Sed, si hoc ita est, hue venial necesse est. 
Ac mallem illim ; aliquo enim modo hinc evasissem 
Xunc metuo, ne sit exspectandum et cum reliquis 
etiam loci gravitas huic miserrimae perferenda. 

Quod me mones, ut ea, quae again, ad tempus 
accommodem, facerem, si res pateretur. et si ullo 
modo fieri posset. Sed in tantis nostris peceatis 
tantisque nostrorum iniuriis nihil est, quod aut facere 
dignum nobis aut simulate possim. Sullana confers; 
in quibus omnia genere ipso praeclarissima fuerunt, 
moderatione paulo minus temperata. Haec autem 
eius modi sunt, ut obliviscar mei, multoque malim, 
quod omnibus sit melius, quam 1 quorum utilitati 
meam adiunxi. Tu ad me tamen velim quam sae- 
pissime scribas eoque magis, quod praeterea nemo 
scribit, ac, si omnes, tuas tamen maxime exspectarem. 
Quod scribis ilium per me Quinto fore placatiorem, 
scripsi ad te antea eum statim Quinto filio omnia 
tribuisse, nostri nullam mentionem. Vale. 

1 quam added by Mad-vig, who also altered the MSS read 
ing utilitatem to utilitati. 



Caesar probably won t reach Athens by the 1st of 
September. There are said to be many things that 
keep him in Asia, especially Pharnaces. The 12th 
legion, which Sulla visited first, is said to have driven 
him off with stones, and it is thought none of them 
will stir. Caesar it is supposed will go straight from 
Patrae to Sicily. But, if so, he must come here. I 
should have preferred him to go straight there, for 
I should have got away from here somehow. Now 
I am afraid I must wait for him, and in addition to 
other afflictions my poor daughter must endure this 
unhealthy climate. 

You advise me to make my actions fit the times. 
I would, if circumstances permitted, and it were 
anyhow possible. But what with all my own mis 
takes and the wrongs inflicted on me by my family, 
there is nothing worthy of myself that I can do or 
even pretend to do. You compare Sulla s reign : 
that in principle was all that could be noble, but 
it was rather too lacking in moderation. The pre 
sent crisis however is such that I forget myself, and 
should much prefer the public cause to win rather 
than that with which my interests are bound up. 
Howevei , please write to me as often as possible, 
especially as no one else writes, and, if all the world 
were writing, I should still look forward to your 
letters more than any. You say Caesar will be kinder 
to Quintus for my sake : but I told you before he had 
made every concession to young Quintus, without 
mentioning me. Farewell. 





Scr. Brundixi Diligenter mihi fasciculum reddidit Balbi tabella- 
circa K. rius. -Accepi enim a te litteras, quibus videris vereri, 
bept. a. 7C 7 U epistulas illas acceperim. Quas quidem vellem 
mihi numquam redditas ; auxerunt enim mihi dolo- 
rem, nee, si in aliquem incidissent, quicquam novi 
attulissent. Quid enim tarn pervulgatum quam illius 
in me odium et genus hoc litterarum ? quod ne 
Caesar quidem ad istos videtur misisse, quasi qui 
illius improbitate offenderetur, sed, credo, uti notiora 
nostra mala essent. Nam, quod te vereri scribis, ne 
illi obsint, eique rei mederi, ne rogari quidem se 
passus est de illo. Quod quidem mihi molestum non 
est; illud molestius, istas impetrationes nostras nihil 

Sulla, ut opinor, eras erit hie cum Messalla. Cur- 
runt ad ilium pulsi a militibus, qui se negant usquam, 
nisi acceperint. Ergo ille hue veniet, quod non puta- 
bant, tarde quidem. Itinera enim ita facit. ut multos 
dies in oppido uno 1 ponat. Pharnaces autem, quoquo 
modo aget, adferet moram. Quid mihi igitur censes ? 
lam enim corpore vix sustineo gravitatem huius caeli, 
quae mihi laborem adfert in dolore. An his illuc 
euiitibus mandem, ut me excusent, ipse accedam pro- 
pius? Quaeso, attende et me, quod adhuc saepe ro- 

1 oppido uno Peerlkamp: oppidum MSS. 




Balbus letter-carrier delivered the packet quite Brundisium, 
promptly. For I have got a letter from you in circa Sept. 1 , 
which you seem to doubt whether I received those B.C. Jfl 
letters. I wish they had never been delivered : for 
they increased my sorrow, and, if they had fallen into 
anyone s hands, they would not have told them any 
thing new. For his hatred of me and the kind of 
letters he writes are common knowledge. Even 
Caesar, when he sent them to your friends, seems to 
have done it, not to show his annoyance at Quintus 
disgraceful conduct, but, I suppose, to make my 
misfortunes better known. You say you are afraid 
thej r may do Quintus some harm, and you are trying 
to remedy it. Why, Caesar did not even wait to be 
asked about him. That does not annoy me : what is 
more annoying is that the favours granted to me have 
no sterling value. 

Sulla, I believe, will be here to-morrow with Mes- 
salla. They are hurrying to him, hounded away by 
the soldiers, who refuse to go anywhere, until they 
get their pay. So, though people thought he would 
not, he will be coming here ; but not in a hurry. For 
he is travelling slowly, and he is stopping many days 
in each town. Then, however he manages things, 
Pharnaces must delay him. So what do you think 
about me? For already I am scarcely capable phy 
sically of bearing this bad climate, which adds ill- 
health to my troubles. Shall I commission these 
people, who are going to him, to make my excuses, 
and come nearer Rome? Please give the point your 

EE VOL. II 417 


gatus non fecisti, consilio iuva. Scio rem difficilem 
esse, sed ut in mails etiam illud mea magni interest, 
te ut videam. Profecto aliquid profecero, si id acci-ji 
derit. De testamento, ut scribis, animadvertes. 



Scr.Bnmdisi Quod ad te scripseram ut cum Camillo commui 

/ // Id. cares, de eo Camillus mihi scripsit te secum locutu, , 

Quint, a. 707 .. . ..,. , 

luas litteras exspectabam ; nisi illud quidem mut 

si aliter est et oportet, non video posse. Sed, c 
ab illo accepissem litteras, desideravi tuas (etsi pv 
bam te certiorem factum non esse), modo vale 
scripseras enim te quodam valetudinis genere t 

Agusius quidam Rhodo venerat vin Idus Qu 
Is nuiitiabat Quintum filium ad Caesarem profe 
mi Kal. lun., Philotimum Rhodum pridie eum 
venisse, habere ad me litteras. Ipsum Agushm ,,.^ , 
dies. Sed tardius iter faciebat. Eo feci, ut 
riter eunti darem. Quid sit in iis litteris, nescij 
mihi valde Quintus frater gratulatur. Equidj 
meo tanto peccato nihil ne cogitatione quiden 

qui possum, quod mihi tolerabile possit esse. 



attention and help me with your advice, which you 
have not done in spite of many requests. I know it 
is a knotty question: but, as there is a choice of 
evils, the mere sight of you is something to me. If 
I get that, I shall have made some advance. Please 
attend to the will, as you promise. 



Camillus has written to me saying that you have Brundisium, 
K)ken to him on the subject about which I sug- July > B - c - 
isted you should consult with him. Now I am * 
fpecting a letter from you : only I don t see how 
thing is to be changed, if it is not as it ought to 
. .. But, when I got a letter from him, I looked for 
le from you, though I suppose you did not know 
e k post was going. I only hope you are well: 
you said you had an attack of some kind of 

L man of the name of Agusius came from Rhodes 
;he 8th of July. He tells me young Quintus set 
to go to Caesar on May 29th, and Philotimus 
ed at Rhodes the day before with a letter for me. 
will hear Agusius himself: but he is travelling 
=r slowly. So I arranged to give this to some 
who was going more quickly. What there is in 
letter, I don t know, but my brother Quintus 
e hearty congratulations. For my part after 
feat mistake I cannot even imagine anything 

, . u i 

an possibly be endurable to me. I beg you to 
E2 419 


ut de hac misera cogites, et illud, de quo ad te pro- 
xime scripsi, ut aliquid conficiatur ad inopiam propul- 
sandam, et etiam de ipso testamento. Illiid quoque 
vellem antea, sed omnia timuimus. Melius quideni 
in pessimis nihil fuit discidio. Aliquid fecissemus ut 
viri vel tabularum novarum nomine vel nocturnarum 
expugnationum vel Metellae vel omnium malorum ; 
nee res perisset, et videremur aliquid doloi-is virilis 
habuisse. Memini omnino tuas litteras, sed et tem- 
pus illud; etsi quidvis praestitit. Nunc quidem ipse 
videtur denuntiare ; audimus enim de statua Clodi. 
Generumne nostrum potissimum vel hoc vel tabulas 
novas! Placet mihi igitur et item tibi nuntium re- 
mitti. Petet fortasse tertiam pensionem. Considera 
igitur, tumne, cum ab ipso nascetur, an prius. Ego, 
si ullo modo potuero, vel nocturnis itineribus experiar, 
ut te videam. Tu et haec, et si quid erit, quod inter- 
sit mea scire, scribas velim. Vale. 



think of my poor girl, both as regards the point 
about which I wrote lately making some arrange 
ment to avoid destitution and also as regards the 
will itself. The other thing too I wish I had 
attended to before ; but I was afraid of every 
thing. In this very bad business there was nothing 
better than a divorce. I should have done some 
thing like a man, either on the score of his can 
celling of debts or his night attacks on houses, or 
Metella or all his sins together: I should not have 
lost the money, and I should have shown some manly 
spirit. I remember of course your letter, but I 
remember the circumstances too : still anything 
would have been better than this. Now he seems 
to be giving notice of divorce himself; for I have 
heard about the statue of Clodius. To think that a 
son-in-law of mine above all people should do such 
a thing as that, or abolish debts ! So I agree with 
you we must serve a notice of divorce on him. Per 
haps he will ask for the third instalment of the 
dowry. So consider whether we should wait for a 
move of his or act first. l If I can possibly manage 
it, even by night journeys, I will try to see you. 
Please write to me about this and anything else it 
may interest me to know. Farewell. 

1 If Dolabella started the divorce proceedings, he could 
not claim the rest of the dowry, and would have to refund 
what had already been paid. IfTullia began them, part at 
least of the dowry would remain with him, unless she could 
prove misconduct. 





Scr. Quae dudum ad me et (quae etiam ad me vis) ad 

Brundisi Tulliam de me scripsisti, ea sentio esse vera. Eo 

Sext a 707 sum m ^ se " or ^ ets i nmi ^ videbatur addi posse, quod 

mihi non modo irasci gravissima iniuria accepta, sed 

ne dolere quidem impune licet. Quare istuc feramus. 

Quod cum tulerimus, tamen eadem erunt perpetienda, 

quae tu ne accidant ut caveamus mones. Ea enim 

est a nobis contracta culpa, ut omni statu omnique 

populo eundem exitum habitura videatur. 

Sed ad ineam manum redeo; erunt enim haec oc- 
cultius agenda. Vide, quaeso, etiam nunc de testa- 
mento, quod turn factum cum ilia haerere coeperat. 
Non, credo, te commovit; neque enim rogavit ne me 
quidem. Sed, quasi ita sit, quoniam in sermonem 
iam venisti, poteris earn monere, ut alicui committat, 
cuius extra periculum huius belli fortuna sit. Equidem 
tibi potissimum velim, si idem ilia vellet. Quam qui 
dem celo miseram me hoc timere. 

De illo altero scio equidem venire nunc nil posse, 
sed seponi et occultari possunt, ut extra ruinam sint 

earn, quae impendet. Nam, quod scribis nobis nostra 




What you wrote to me some time ago and to Brundisium, 
Tullia too about me, with the intention that it should Aug. 6, B.C. 
be passed on to me, I feel to be true. It adds to my Ifl 
misery, though I thought nothing could be added, 
that, when I have received the deepest injury, I 
cannot show anger or even annoyance with impunity. 
So I must put up with that. And when I have borne 
that blow, I shall still have to suffer what you warn 
me to guard against. For I have got myself into 
such trouble, that, whatever the state of affairs or the 
feelings of the people may be, the result for me ap 
parently will be the same. 

But here I take the pen myself; for I shall have 
to deal with confidential matters. Please see to the 
will even now, as it was made when she had begun 
to get into difficulties. She did not bother you, I 
think ; for she did not even ask me about it. But, 
supposing that is so, since you have broached the 
subject already, you will be able to advise her to de 
posit it with some one whose position is not affected 
by this war. Myself I would rather you were the 
person, if she agrees to that. The fact is I am 
keeping the poor woman in the dark as to that fear 
of mine. 1 

For that other matter, I know of course that 
nothing can be put up for sale now, but things 
could be put away and hidden, so that they escape 
the crash which is threatening. For, when you 

1 That her property would be confiscated. 



et tua Tulliae fore parata, tua credo, nostra quae 
poterunt esse? De Terentia autem (mitto cetera, 
quae sunt innumerabilia) quid ad hoc addi potest? 
Scripseras, ut HS Xll permutaret; tantum esse 
reliquum de argento. Misit ilia GGIDO mihi et ad- 
scripsit tantum esse reliquum. Cum hoc tarn 
parvum de parvo detraxerit, perspicis, quid in 
maxima re fecerit. 

Philotimus non modo nullus venit, sed ne per lit- 
teras quidem aut per nuntium certiorem facit me, 
quid egerit. Epheso qui veniunt, ibi se eum de suis 
controversiis in ius adeuntem vidisse nuiitiant ; quae 
quidem (ita enim veri simile est) in adventum Caesa- 
ris fortasse reiciuntur. Ita aut iiihil puto eum habere, 
quod putet ad me celcrius perferendum, aut adeo me 
in malis esse despeetum, ut, etiamsi quid habet, id 
nisi omnibus suis negotiis confectis ad me referre non 
curet. Ex quo magnum equidem capio dolorem, sed 
non tantum, quantum videor debere. Nihil enim mea 
minus interesse puto, quam quid illinc adferatur. Id 
quain ob rein, te intellegere certo scio. 

Quod me mones de vultu et oratione ad tempus 
accommodanda, etsi difficile est, tamen imperarem 
mihi, si mea quicquam interesse putarem. Quod 
scribis litteris putare te Africanum negotium confici 
posse, vellem scriberes, cur ita putares ; mihi quidem 
nihil in mentem venit, quare id putem fieri posse. 
Tu tamen velim, si quid erit, quod consolationis ali- 


write that my fortune and yours are at Tullia s ser 
vice, I believe you as to yours, but what can there 
be of mine ? Now as to Terentia, I omit lots of 
other things, for what can one add to this ? You 
wrote to her to remit me by bill of exchange .100, 
saying that was the balance. She sent me 80 guineas, 1 
adding that that was all the balance. If she purloins 
so trifling an amount from so small a total, you can see 
what she has been doing in the case of larger sums. 

Not a trace of Philotimus as yet : nay, he has not 
even informed me by letter or messenger what he 
has done. Those who come from Ephesus say they 
saw him there going into court about some lawsuits 
of his own, which possibly indeed in all probability 
are deferred till Caesar s arrival. So I suppose 
he either has nothing which he thinks he need hurry 
to bring to me, or I have sunk so low in my mis 
fortunes that, even if he has, he does not take the 
trouble to bring it until he has finished all his own 
business. And that causes me considerable annoj r - 
aiice, but not so much as I think it ought. For I 
don t think anything matters much less to me than 
what answer he brings back from that quarter. Why, 
I am quite sure you know. 

You advise me to mould my looks and words ac 
cording to circumstances. It is difficult, but I would 
put a rein on myself, if I thought it mattered to me 
at all. You say you think the African business can 
be arranged by an interchange of letters : I wish you 
would say, why you think so : for I can t imagine any 
reason for thinking it possible. However please 
write to me, if there is anything that would give me 

1 12,000 and 10,000 sesterces respectively. 



quid habeat, scribas ad me ; sin, ut perspicio, 
erit, scribas id ipsum. Ego ad te, si quid audiero 
citius, scribam. Vale, 
vin Idus Sextil. 



Scr. Facile adsentior tuis litteris, quibus exponis pluri- 

Brundtsi III nus verbis nullum consistere consilium, quo a te pos- 
on. (cluint. gmi j uvar { Consolatio certe nulla est, quae levare 
possit dolorem meum. Nihil est enim contractum 
casu (nam id esset ferendum), sed omnia fecimus eis 
erroribus et miseriis et animi et corporis, quibus 
proximi utinam mederi maluissent ! Quam ob rem, 
quoniam neque consilii tui neque consolationis cuius- 
quam spes ulla mihi ostenditur, non quaeram haec a 
te posthac ; tantum velim, ne intermittas, scribas ad 
me, quicquid veniet tibi in mentem, cum habebis, cui 
des, et dum erit, ad quern des ; quod longum non erit. 

Ilium discessisse Alexandria rumor est non firmus 
ortus ex Sulpici litteris ; quas cuncti postea nuntii 
confirmarunt. Quod verum an falsum sit, quoniam 
mea nihil interest, utrum malim, nescio. 

Quod ad te iam pridem de testamento scripsi, 
apud euTTtcrrov TLVO. velim ut possit adservari. 1 Ego 
huius miserrumae fatuitate confectus conflictor. Ni- 

The MSS. read apud epistolas velim ut possim adversas. 
/ have followed Soot s emendation, though with doubt. 
Shuckburgh suggests apud vestales velim depositum adser 



a crumb of comfort : but, if, as I see is the case, there 
is nothing, write and tell me that. If I hear any 
thing first I will write to you. Farewell. 
August 6. 



I can quite believe what you explain at some Brundisium, 
length in your letter, that no advice of yours can July J, B.C. 
assist me : and certainly there is no consolation 41 
which can relieve my sorrow. For none of my mis 
fortunes has come upon me by fate that would have 
been endurable but I have brought all on myself by 
my mistakes and my mental and bodily afflictions, 
which I only wish my nearest and dearest had 
thought fit to remedy. So, as there is no hope of 
any advice from you or any consolation, I will not 
ask for them henceforth : only please do not cease 
from writing to me anything that may occur to you, 
when you have anj one to send it by, and so long as 
there is anyone to send it to ; which will not be long. 

There is a rumour, though not a very certain one, 
that Caesar has left Alexandria. It came first from a 
letter of Sulpicius, and has been confirmed by all 
subsequent messengers. Whether to prefer it to be 
false or true, I don t know, as it does not matter to 

As I told you already about the will I should like 
it to be preserved in a safe place. 1 I am worn out 
and harassed by the infatuation of my unhappy 
daughter. I don t think there ever was such a child 

1 This seems to be the sense, though the reading is doubtful. 



hil umquam simile natum puto. Cui si qua re cori- 
sulere aliquid possum, cupio a te admoneri. Video 
eandem esse difficultatem quam in consiliodandoante. 
Tamen hoc me magis sollicitat quam omnia. In pen- 
sione secunda caeci fuimus. Aliud mallem ; sed prae- 
teriit. Te oro, ut in perditis rebus si quid cogi, con- 
fici potest, quod sit in tuto, ex argeiito atque satis 
raulta ex supellectile, des operam. lam enim mihi 
videtur adesse extremum nee ulla fore condicio pacis 
eaque, quae sunt, etiam sine adversario peritura. Haec 
etiam, si videbitur, cum Terentia loquere opportune. 
Non queo omnia scribere. Vale, 
in Non. Quinctil. 



of misfortune. If I can do anything for her in any 
way, I wish you would suggest it to me. I see there 
will be the same difficulty as there was before in 
giving me advice : but this causes me more anxiety 
than anything. It was blind of me to pay the second 
instalment. I wish I had not : but that is over and 
done with. I beg you to do your best, as it is in the 
last extremity, to collect and get together what you 
can from the sale of plate and furniture, of which 
there is a good deal, and put it in a safe place. For 
now I think the end is near, there will be no peace 
negotiations, and the present government will col 
lapse even without an adversary. As to this speak 
to Terentia too at your convenience, if you think fit. 
I cannot write everything. Farewell. 
July 5. 



VIII. 13 March 1, 49 

14 March 2, 49 

15 March 3, 49 

16 March 4, 49 
IX. 1 March 6, 49 

2 March 7, 49 
2a March 8, 49 
6a March, 49 

3 March 9, 49 

5 March 10, 49 

7a March 10 or 11, 49 

6 March 11, 49 

7b March 11 or 12, 49 

4 March 12, 49 

7 March 13, 49 

8 March 14, 49 

9 March 17, 49 

10 March 18, 49 
lla March 19, 49 

11 March 20, 49 

12 March 20, 49 
13a March 23 (?), 49 

13 March 24, 49 . 

14 March 25, 49 

15 March 25, 49 

16 March 26, 49 

17 March 27, 49 

18 March 28, 49 

19 March 31, 49 
X. 1 April 3, 49 

2 April 6, 49 

3 April 7, 49 
3a April 7, 49 

4 April 14, 49 

5 April 16, 49 
9a April 16, 49 
8b April, 49 

6 April, 49 
7April22(?), 49 

8a April, 49 

8 May 2, 49 

9 May 3, 49 

10 May 3, 49 

11 May 4, 49 

12 May 5, 49 
12a May 6, 49 

13 May 7, 49 

14 May 8, 49 

15 May 12, 49 

order are only approximate, and 
generally accepted the dates given 

VII. 1 October 16, 50 

2 November 26, 50 

3 December 9, 50 

4 December 10 or 11, 50 

5 December 16, 50 

6 December 17, 50 

7 December 18-21, 50 

8 December 25 or 26, 50 

9 December 26 or 27, 50 

10 January 17 or 18, 49 

11 January 17-22, 49 

12 January 21, 49 

13 January 22, 49 
13a January 23, 49 

14 January 25, 49 

15 January 26, 49 

16 January 28, 49 

17 February 2, 49 

18 February 3, 49 

19 February 3, 49 

20 February 5, 49 

21 Februarys, 49 

22 February 8 or 9, 49 

23 February 9 or 10, 49 
VIII. lla February 10, 49 

VII. 24 February 10, 49 

25 February 10 or 1 1 , 49 
VIII. 12b February 11 or 12, 49 

VII. 26 February 15, 49 
VIII. lib February 16, 49 

1 February 16, 49 
12c February 16, 49 
12d February 17, 49 

2 February 17, 49 

12a February 17 or 18, 49 

3 February 18- 49 
lie February20 , 49 

6 February 21 (?), 49 

4 February 22- 49 

5 February 23 ( ?), 49 

7 February 23 ( ?), 49 

8 February 24, 49 

9 February 25, 49 

10 February 26, 49 

11 February 27, 49 
lid February 27, 49 

12 February 28, 49 
15a February, 49 

IX. 7c February (?), 49 

1 In many cases the dates and the 
authorities differ about them. I have 
in the Teubner edition. 



16 May 14, 49 12 March 8, 47 

17 May 16, 49 13 March 9 ( ?), 47 

18 May 19 or 20, 49 14 April 25 ( ?), 47 
XI. 1 January, 48 15 May 14, 47 

2 March, 48 16 June 3, 47 

3 I une 13, 48 17 June 12 or 13, 47 
4a June 15-19, 48 17ajunel4, 47 

4 July 15, 48 18 June 19, 47 

5 November 4, 48 25 [uly 5, 47 

6 November 27, 48 23 July 9, 47 

7 December 17, 48 19 July 22, 47 

8 December 18, 48 24 August 6, 47 

9 January 3, 47 20 August 15, 47 

10 January 19, 47 21 August 25, 47 

11 March 8, 47 22 September 1 (?), 47 



[The references are to ike pages of Latin text.] 

oV, 40 
Acastus, 2 
Achaia, 372, 386 
Achaici, 394, 396, 402 
Actium, 14 
Adrianum mare, 298 
Aeculanum, 18 
Aegypta, 166 
Aegyptus, 236, 270 
Aelius Lamia, see Lamia (L. Aelius) 
Aemilius Lepidus (M 1 .), 58, 100, 118, 

126, 164, 166, 176, 232 
Aenaria, 334 
Aesernia, 140 
Aesopus, 398 
Afranius (L.), 94, 102, 112, 114, 312, 


Africa, 184, 372, 388, 394, 396, 406 
Africanae res, 382; -num negotium, 

Africanus, see Cornelius Scipio Afri- 


Agusius, 418 
Alba, 150, 156, 194 
Albanum (praedium), 34, 38, 44, 

Alexandrea, 218, 368, 390, 396, 398, 

400, 406, 408, 426 
Alexandrina mora, 402 
Alexio, 14 
Alexis, 12, 42 
Aliensis pugna, 192 
Allienus, 340 
Ampius Balbus (T.)?136 
Ancon(a), 52, 78 
Annius Milo Papinianus (T.), 204, 


Anteros, 254, 352 
Antiochea, 410 
Antium, 222 
Antonius (M.), triumvir, 46, 116, 

222, 308, 314, 318, 326, 328, 332, 

034, 340, 344, 370, 388, 408; 

letter from, 308 
Appia (via), 138, 174, 234 
Appianae legiones, 70, 82 
Appius, see Claudius Pulcher (Ap- 

Apulia, 56, 86, 108, 122, 134, 138, 

140, 142, 296 


Arabia, 236 

Aradus, 218 

Arcanum (praedium), 34, 276, 278 

Aristoxenus, 114 

Apicadia, 292 

Armenii, 226 

Arpi, 186 

Arpinum, 126, 174, 176, 190, 194, 

220, 254, 262, 266, 342 
Artaxerxes, 306 
Asia, 26, 184, 352, 354, 368, 382, 394 

396, 400, 402, 414 
Ateius Capito (C.), 300 
Athenae, 2, 10, 414 
Atius Paelignus (C.), 116 
ArpelSrjs, 24 
Attius Varus (P.), 66 
Attus Navius, 304 
AureliusCotta(M-), 344 
Axius (Q.), 324, 334, 340 

Baebius, 254 

Baiae, 368 

Balbus, see Ampius Balbus and 
Cornelius Balbus 

Basilus, see Minucius Basilus 

Beneventum, 260 

Bibulus, see Calpurnius Bibulus 

Brundisina militia, 338; porta, 12; 
res, 186; -ni nuntii, 160 

Brundisium, 2, 12, 16, 112, 116, 124, 
128, 134, 138, 140, 142, 152, 162, 
174, 176, 180, 182, 184, 186, 190, 
192, 194, 206, 232, 236, 244, 248, 
250, 252, 254, 256 ,258, 276, 366 

Brutus, see lunius Brutus 

Bussenius, 156 

Byzantium, 218 

Caecilius Metellus (L.), 196, 288, 
304, 370 

Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (for 
merly P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica), 
32, 112, 188, 178, 236 

Caecilius Statius (C.), 28 

Caelianus animus, 332; -num illud, 
338 : -na ilia, 344 



Caelius, 332, 338 

Caelius, banker, 30 


Caelius Rufus (M.), 6, 24, 28, 76, 86, 

3U; letter from, 314 
Caesar, see lulius Caesar 
Caesius (C.), 234, 248 
Caieta, 112 
Calenius (M.), 156 
Calenum, 112 
Cales, 66, 72, 84, 140 
Calpurnius Bibulus (M.), 16, 18, 24, 

Calpurnius Piso (L.), friend of An- 

tonius, 310 
Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (L.), 60, 


Camerinum, 154 
Camillus, see Furius Camillus 
Campania, 56 

Campani coloni, 68 ; -nus ager, 40 
Caninius Rebilus (C.), 22 
Caninius Rebilus (T.), 256 
Canuleius, 294 
Canusium, 138, 142, 152, 162, 176, 


Capito, see Ateius Capito 
Capua, 66, 68, 70, 72, 76, 78, 82, 84, 

86, 98, 100, 102, 108, 114, 118, 136, 

140, 142, 148, 152, 194, 196, 252, 

254, 258, 260, 340 
Carbo, see Papirius Carbo 
Carneades, 14 
Cassianum negotium, 400 
Cassius Longinus (C.), 86, 90, 92, 

178, 222, 390, 398 
Cassius Longinus (Q.). 24, 78 
Castrum Truentinum, 154 
Cato, see Porcius Cato 
Celer, see Pilius Celer 
Cephalic, 92, 270, 274, 276, 338, 386, 


Chios, 218 

Chrysippus, 18, 34, 354 
Cicero, see Tullius Cicero; -nes, see 

Tullii Cicerones 
Cilices, 8 
Cingulum, 52, 66 
Cinna, see Cornelius Cinna 
Cinnea (crudelitas), 128 
Claudius Marcellus (C.), 150, 328, 

334, 340 

Claudius Marcellus (M.), 108, 152 
Claudius Pulcher (Appius), 100, 168, 

Clodia, sister of P. Clodius, 218 


Clodia, mother-in-law of L. Metellus, 


Clodius, client of Atticus, 300 
Clodius Pulcher (P.), 108, 420 
Colchi, 218, 226 
Considius Nonianus (M.), 26 
Coponius (C.), 152 
Corcyra, 14, 364, 
Corfiniensis dementia, 260; 5ia- 

rpoirr], 248; exspectatio, 118 
Corfinium, 112, 134, 140, 142, 152 

158, 162, 164, 170, 182, 212 
Coriolanus, 226 
Cornelius Balbus (L.), 28, 32 42 

102, 128, 168, 192, 194, 202 212 

250, 252, 326, 348, 366, 374, 376 

378, 394, 408, 416; letters of, 168 

206, 208, 250 
Cornelius Balbus (L.), son of the last. 

128, 132, 170, 194, 386 
Cornelius Cinna (L.), 42, 110, 226 
Cornelius Dolabella (P.) 44, 62, 76 

86, 244, 250, 262, 290, 298, 308 

Cornelius Lentulus Cms (L.), 56, 

84, 128, 132, 140, 170, 194, 210, 

Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (Cn.l 

Cornelius Lentulus Spinther (P.), 

90, 150, 164, 176, 184, 206, 234, 

240, 248, 258, 368 
Cornelius Lentulus Spinther (P.), son 

Cornelius Scipio (L.), 256 
Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemili- 

anus (P.), 126, 130, 242, 306 
Cornelius Scipio Xasica (P.), see 

Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (Q.) 
Cornelius Sulla (L.), dictator, 42, 212, 

226, 236, 252, 256 
Cornelius Sulla (P.), 414, 416 
Cornelius Sulla Faustus (L.), 112, 

152, 178, 236 

Cosanum (praedium), 194, 220 
Cotta, see Aurelius Cotta 
Cous (Nicias), 28; (insula), 218 
Crassipes, see Furius Crassipes 
Croto, 270 

Culleo, see Terentius Culleo 
Cumani, 334; -num (praedium), 

286, 344 

Curio, see Scribonius Curio 
Curius (M 1 .), 14, 26, 30, 118, 120, 

194, 262 


Curtius Postumus (M.), 182, 186, 

190, 194, 334 
Cyprus, 218 
Cytheris, 322 

Delos, 222 

Demetrius Magnes, 134, 150, 218 

Dicaearchus, 20, 114 

Diochares, 368 

Aiovvaios fv Kopivditi, 216 

Dionysius, tutor of young Cicero, 28, 
30, 38, 44, 80, 96, 114, 116, 128, 
242, 258, 278, 342 

Dionysius, slave, 184 

Dolabella, see Cornelius Dolabella 

Domitius Ahenobarbus (Cn.), 184 

Domitius Ahenobarbus (L.), 66, 92, 
94, 98, 100, 112, 116, 118, 120, 
122, 124, 134, 140, 148, 150, 152, 
154, 156, 158, 164, 166, 176, 194, 
220, 258 

Drusus, see Livius Drusus 

Dyrrhachium, 152 

Egnatius (L.), 80, 340, 358 

"E/crw/>, 192 

Ei/wiXios, 46 

Ephesus, 382, 424 

Epirus, 10, 12, 178, 206, 220, 242, 


Eros, slavevf Philotimus, 338 
Euphrates, 16 

Fabatus, see Roscius Fabatus 
Fabius(C.),22, 112 
Fabius (Q.), 134 
Fadius Callus (M.), 146 
Fannius (C.), 70, 168,368 
Faustus, see Cornelius Sulla Faustus 
Favonius(M.),8, 70 
Feralia, 162 

Figulus, see Nigidius Figulus 
Firmum, 154 

Flaccus, see Valerius Flaccus 
Flavius (L.), 272 
Flumentana (porta), 28 
Formiae, 44, 56, 70, 72, 78, 104, 114, 
136, 184, 190, 218, 262, 268, 348 


Formianum (praedium), 34, 76, 78, 

84, 90, 96, 118, 176, 202, 216, 232, 


Pretense (mare), 298 
Frusinas (fundus), 360, 392 
Fufidiana, 400; praedia, 396; -ni 

coheredes, 392 
Fufius Calenus (Q.), 190, 376, 398, 


Funisulanus, 338 
Furfanius Postumus (T.), 70 
Furiae, 348 

Furius Camiilus (C.), 404, 418 
Furius Crassipes, 10, 236 
Furnius (C.), 82, 198, 200, 238 

Gabinius (A.), 300 
Gaditanus (i.e. Cornelius Balbus), 42 
Galba, see Sulpicius Galba 
Galeo, 390 
Galli, 54, 246 
Gallia, 108, 296 
Gallius (M.), 340, 412 
Gallus, see Fadius Gallus 
Germania, 314 
Getae, 226 

Gnaeus, see Pompeius Magnus (C.) 
Graeci, 80 ; -e, 188 

Graecia, 62, 72, 76, 122, 184, 220, 
236, 254, 264, 290, 344 

Hannibal, 52 

Hippias, 226 

Hirrus, see Lucilius Hirrus 

Hirtianus sermo, 292 

Hirtius, 32, 284, 292, 394, 410 

Hispania, 50, 74, 78, 184, 194, 238, 
254, 260, 264, 288, 294, 298, 300, 
302, 314, 318, 382, 388 ; Hispaniae, 
182, 300, 308, 314, 316, 318, 328, 
332, 334, 336, 348 

Hispaniensis casus, 300 

Homerus, 192, 214 

Hortensiana, 348 

Hortensius (O.), son o/ the orator, 16, 
126, 286, 328, 344, 346, 368 

Ignuvium, 66 

IXicis, 132 

Illyricum, 296, 314, 400 

Isidonis, 358 

Italia, 52, 58, 74, 76, 84, 88, 98, 106, 



108, 110, 114, 120, 126, 130, 132, 
140, 142, 144, 158, 174, 178, 184, 
196, 204, 218, 228, 230, 268, 278, 
282, 290, 302, 308, 320, 332, 368, 
370, 372, 382, 386, 388, 408 

lulius Caesar (C.), dictator, 2, 4, 6, 8, 
16, 32, 36, 38, 40, 46, 48, 52, 56, 
60, "66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78, 80, 86, 
88, 92, 94, 100, 110, 112, 114, 122, 
128, 132, 134, 140, 142, 146, 154, 
156, 158, 162, 166, 168, 170, 178, 
180, 182, 186, 190, 194, 198, 202, 
206, 208, 210, 212, 214, 216, 220, 
222, 234, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244, 
248, 250, 252, 254, 258, 260, 280, 
284, 286, 288, 290, 298, 302, 310, 
312, 314, 316, 318, 320, 334, 366, 
368, 370, 374, 376, 380, 382, 386, 
388, 406, 410, 412, 416, 418, 424; 
letters from, 200, 250, 260, 310 

lulius Caesar (L.), 64, 66, 68, 72, 74, 
78, 82, 148 

lunius Brutus (M.), father of the fol 
lowing, 252 

lunius Brutus (M.), murderer of 
Caesar, 360 

luppiter, 166 

s, 216 
loi, 348 

Labienus (T.), 42, 52, 58, 60, 66, 70, 

72, 102 
Lacedaernonii, 306 

AaKUVlKT] <TKVTCL\T), 320 

Laelius (D.), 140, 152, 370, 394, 398 

Laelius Sapiens (C.), 28 

Lamia (L. Aelius), 370 

Lanuvinum (praedium), 222, 248 

Larinum, 56, 66 

Lartidius, 10 

Laterium, 272 

Latine, 188; -Has, 28 

Lavernium, 44 

Lentulus, see Cornelius Lentulus 

Lepidi, 164 

Lepidus, s^Aemilius Lepidus (M.) 

Lepta (Q.), 114, 240, 254, 324, 376 

Lesbos, 218 

Liberalia, 224 

Llbo, see Scribonius Libo 

Lleinius Murena (L.), 390 


Ligur, or Ligus (L.), 80 

Ligurius (A.), 378, 380 

Literninum (praedium), 334 

Livia, 44 

Livius Drusus (M.), 18 

Lucceius (L.M.f.), 26 

Lucceius (L.Q.i.), 176, 236 

Luceria, 56, 82, 98, 100, 110, 114, 

128, 132, 134, 154, 158; -iae, 102, 


Lucilius Hirrus (C.), 8, 10, 134 
Lucius, see Manlius Torquatus (L.) 
Lucretius (Q.), 92, 116 
Lupus, see Rutilius Lupus 
Luscenius, 34 
Lycia, 218 

Magius (N.), 212, 250 

Mamurra, 42 

Manlius Torquatus (A.), 68, 214 

Manlius Torquatus (L.), 14, 58, 136, 


Marathonia pugna, 226 
Marcelli, 6, 178 
Marcellinus, see Cornelius Lentulus 


Marcellus, see Claudius Marcellus 
Marcius Philippus (L.), consul 

91 B.C., 110, 112 
Marcius Philippus (L.), 258, 290 
Marius (C.),226, 306 
Marsi, 66 
Massilia, 336 
Massilienses, 322, 332 
Matius (C.), 234, 236, 240, 246, 258, 

262;letter from, 258 
Melita, 296, 308, 314, 348 
Mentor, 214 

Menturnae, 64, 136, 240, 276, 334 
MetroTrora/iu a, 236 
Messalla (or Messala), see Valerius 

Messius (C.), 140 
Metella, 420 

Metellus, see Caecilius Metellus 
Miletus, 218 
Milo, see Annius Milo 
Miloniana tempora, 210 
Minerva, 214 
Minucia via, 194 
Minucius Basilus, 48 
Minucius Basilus (L.), 362 
Minucius Rufus, 394, 396 


Minucius Thermus (Q.), 66, 394, Pbamea, 222, 248 

396 Pharnaces, king, 414, 416 

Misenum, 308 Philargyrus, 258 

Moneta, 122 Philippus, see Marcius Philippus (L.) 

Mucianus exitus, 240; -num istud, Philogenes, 34, 38 

276 Philotimus, freedman of Terentia, 

Mucius Scaevola (Q.), pontifex 18, 26, 82, 88, 98, 122, 172, 190, 

maximus, 110, 112, 256 206, 218, 220, 294, 298, 310, 312, 

Mucius Scaevola (Q.), tribune of the 322, 338, 404, 410, 418, 424 

plebs 54 B.C., 222 Philoxenus, letter-carrier, 16 

Murena, see Licinius Murena Phryges, 8 

Mytilenaeus (i.e. Theophanes), 42 Picena, 62 

Picentes, 94 ; -tinae cohortes, 158 
Picenum, 86, 90, 92, 98, 122, 150, 

Nasica, see Caecilius Metellus Pius 154, 182 

Scipio Picenus ager, 72, 108, 136 

Nasidius (L.), 408 Pilia, 32, 120, 340 

Neapolis, 258 Pilius Celer (Q.), 264, 276, 360 

Neapolitanus sermo, 16 ; -ni, 334 Pinarius (T.j, 166 

Nicias Curtius, 28 Piraeus, 2, 28 

Nigidius Figulus (P.), 92 Pisistratus, 84, 172, 226 

Ninnius Quadratus (L.), 344 Piso, see Calpurnius Piso 

Nonius Sufenas (M.), 168 Plaguleius, 300 

Numerianum raudusculum, 1C Plato (H\a.TWi>), 64, 248, 304 

PoUex, 118, 360 

Ocella (Ser.), 322, 334, 346 Pc SS&t}?* 288 anUm (P raedium > 

Octavius Mamilius, 226 D vr c ir \ A ifi 91 

Onrhrcmitp.; 19 Pompeius Magnus (Cn.), 4, 6, 16, 24, 

Onnii $ VVl ia B4 88 12" 292 298 30 34 36 38 40 - 42 44 46 50 

uppii. oi veua, oft. eo. xzZj XV35. zm eo _, - eo A flfl O Q ^^ 70 

Oppius (C.), 202, 208, 212, 250, 366, f> f 4 - **. $ %> f |- > 

VH Kill 104. 4Ofi 408- letter of 74 " 78 *> 8ti> 8a> ^^ y a8 

J74, 37b, 394, 400, 408 , letter of, ^ w ^ IM ^ 1J2> 1U _ u ^ 

118, 120, 126, 128, 130, 134, 136, 
138, 148, 150, 160, 162, 168, 170, 

Paestum 408 172 . 176 . 178 . 18 . 182 > 184 - 186 

Pamphilus 12 190, 194, 196, 198, 202, 208, 210, 

Pamphylia, 218 212, 214, 224, 228, 230, 232, 236, 

Panaetius 24* 238 - 240, 242, 244, 248, 250, 252, 

Pansa sVibius Pansa 2 & 4 . 2 5 8 - 264, 268, 274, 278, 280, 

Papirius Carbo (Cn ) 252 288, 296, 298, 300, 302, 304, 312, 

Parthi, 18 32 . S 44 . 366 372 . 392 i letiers 1> 

Parthicus casus, 96 ; -cum beUwn, 4 ; 134 . 13 8, 150, 154, 156, 158 

-cae res, 134 Pomponia, 380 

Patrae, 12, 364, 382, 402, 412, 414 Pomponius Atticus (T.), 6, 42, 132, 

Patron, 14, 16 196, 198, 304 

Pedanum, 266 Pomptina (regio ?), 34 

Pedius(Q-), 252 Pomptinus (C.), 38 

Peducaeus (Sex.), 272 Pontius Aquila (L.), 12, 30 

Peducaeus (Sex.), son of the above Pontius Titinianus, 268 

62, 68, 74, 202, 234, 248. 272, 276, Porcius Cato (M.), 8, 10, 16, 24, 70, 

Peloponnesus, 332 328, 342, 344, 370 

Pericles, 54 Porsena, 226 

Perses, 300 Postumia, 314 

Petreius (M.), 102, 312 Postumius, 70 

Phalaris, 84 Postumus, see Curtius Postumu* 



Precianum, 10 

Pulcher, see Clodius Pulcher (P.) 
Puteoli, 28, 234, 248, 258, 270, 286 
Pyrenaeus, 112 

Quinctius (L.), 48 

Quinti, see Tullius Cicero (Q.) 

Quinquatria (or -trus), 234, 244 

Ravenna, 6 

Reatini, 214 

Rebilus, see Caninius Rebilus 

Reginus, 328 

Regium, 292 

Rhodii, 326 

Rhodos, 218, 390, 418 

Roma, 2, 38, 58, 60, 62, 68, 72, 74, 

76, 118, 134, 162, 170, 194, 208, 

210, 214, 222 
Romanus homo, 300; -nus populus, 

52, 238, 242, 260, 266, 296, 370; 

-ni, 34 ; -ni equites, 34 ; -ni rustic!, 


Roscius Fabatus (L.), 148 
Rutilius Lupus (P.), 152, 176 

Sabinus ager, 214 

Sallustius (Cn.), 384, 406, 412 

Sallustius (P.), 384 

Salvius, freedman of Hortensius, 348 

Salvius, librarian of Atticus,ZOO 

Samnium, 142, 156 

Samus, 374 

Sardanapalus, 304 

Sardinia, 184, 344 

Saufeius (L.), 2 

Scaevola, see Mucius Scaevola 

Scipio, see Caecilius Metellus Pius 

Scipio and Cornelius Scipio 
Scribonius Curio (C.), 40, 82, 156, 

252, 254, 286, 292, 298, 300, 308, 

320, 322, 328, 330, 344 
Scribonius Libo (L.), 56, 136, 236 
Scrofa, see Tremellius Scrofa 
Seleucea Pieria, 410 
Serapion, letter-carrier, 346 
Servilius Vatia Isauricus (P.), 862 
Servius, see Sulpicius Rufus 
Sestius (P.), 168, 368 
Sextus, see Peducaeus (Sex.) 
Sicca, 158 


Sicilia, 40, 70, 112, 152, 158, 18< 

272, 288, 298, 328, 342, 412, 414 
Siculi, 328 
Sicyon, 374, 376 
Sidon, 218 
Silius (A.), 334 
SiliusNerva(P.), 10 
Sinuessa, 260 
Sipontum, 254, 296 
Siser (P.), 390 
Socrates, 104 
Solon, 274 
Sosius (C.), 118, 176 
Statius, 214 

Sufenas, see Nonius Sufenas 
Sulla, see Cornelius Sulla 
Sullanus dies, 306; -mos, 296; -nui 

regnum, 132, 202 ; -na, 414 
Sulmo, 116, 150 
Sulpicius Galba (P.), 222 
Sulpicius Rufus (Ser.), 22, 76, 10i 

264, 268, 280, 298, 314, 322, 33( 

334, 336, 390, 426 
Sulpicius Rufus (Ser.), son of tl 

above, 314 
Sunium, 28 
Syracusae, 342 
Syria, 178, 390 

Tarentum, 254, 394 
Tarquinius Superbus, 226 
Tarracina, 34, 136 
Tartessius (i.e. Balbus), 30 
Teanum (in Apulia), 56, 66 
Teanum Sidicinum, 136, 140 
Terentia, 10, 12, 30, 60, 62, 64, 7 

88, 96, 292, 344, 384, 404, 42 


Terentius, the poet, 28 
Terentius Culleo (Q.), 148 
Terentius Hispo (P.), 382 
Themistocles, 54, 226 
Themistocleurn consilium, 302 : -e: 

silium, 304 

Theophanes, 148, 178, 236 
Thermus, see Minucius Thermus 
Thrasybulus, 112 
Thucydides, 8, 304 
Thurii, 270 
Thyamis, 14 
Tiburs villa, 164 
Tiro, see Tullius Tiro 
Titinius (Q.), 80, 198, 216, 264, 28C 
Torquatus, see Manlius Torquatus 


inspadanus, 42 Tuscilius (M.), 156 

-.batius Testa (C.), 74, 76, 222, Tusculanum (praedium), 26, 34, 42, 

J40, 258, 260, 274, 326, 328, 376 ; 222 

etter from, 258 Tyrus, 218 
:bonius (C.), 112, 366, 410 
i sbulanum (praedium), 12, 30 

:mellius Scrof a (Cn.), 10 Umbria, 156 

wes, 6, 58, 174 

sianum (praedium), 248 Valerius Flaccus (L.), 110 

Ilia (or Tulliola), 30, 60, 62, 72, Valerius Messalla (or Messala) (M. ), 

276, 278, 298, 308, 332, 348, 366, 416 

574, 404, 406, 422, 424 Vatinius (P.), 364, 378 

Hii Cicerones, 14, 62, 78, 84, 114, Veiento, 24 

130, 196 Velia, 64 

illius (M.), relative of Cicero, 138 Venafrum, 66 

.llius Cicero (M.), the orator, 6, 24, Vennonianae res, 60 

42, 168, 190, 210, 250, 310, 316, Vestorius (C.), 294, 334 

318 Vettienus, 294, 326, 334, 340 

illius Cicero (M.), son of the orator, Vibius Pansa (C.), 366, 394 

194,262,266,406,408 Vibullius Rufus (L.), 92, 98, 104, 

illius Cicero (Q.), brother of the 134, 136, 154, 166 

orator, 80, 114, 140, 196, 340, 364, Voconius, 168 

368, 376, 382, 386, 390, 392, 394, Volratius Tullus (L.), 22, 100, 126, 

396, 400, 412, 414, 418 166, 232, 268 

illius Cicero (Q.), son of the above, Volsci, 226 
14, 292, 296, 328, 340, 374, 382, 
404, 410, 412, 414, 418 

illius Tiro (M.), 12, 14, 30, 34, 118, x , ... 

120,262,292,334 Xeno,O/.Ww,Z 
. illus, see Volcatius Tullus 
irranius (D.),2 

isci, 156 Zmyrna, 218 



. wwil C / 

Cicero, Marcus Tullius 



I KXT01198S 


^Bi^Pt%k. -r *vVf * .