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To Samuei* W. Stockton, June 27th 693 

The besotted English opposition — Political captains — 
Deane's object in revenge — Spain's declarations. 

To Benjamin Franki^in, June 27th . . , 695 

The contract with D'Acosta & Co. — Wretched quality 
of the fusils and bayonets — Articles needed in Virginia. 

To Arthur Lee, June 29th 697 

LeMaire*s contract in Strasburg — Chaumont and Bean- 
marchais — Temple — Spanish declaration — Charges in 
America against the Lees — Almost exhausted by draughts 
from Virginia — Will he be justified in returning bills? 

To Arthur Lee, July 7th 699 

Predicted invasion of Virginia — Spain's attitude — Sup- 
plies for America — Alarm in England — Carmichael. 

To Samuei* W. Stockton, July 8th 700 

Fatal eflfects of dissension — Influence of Deane's pub- 
lication — ^The combined fleet — America should invade 

To M. Barthei^EMY, July I2th 703 

Spain's decision — Relative strength of the Powers — 
Britain's claim to the universal monarchy of the sea— A 
possible stroke. 

To Ralph Izard, July 12th 706 

Jones' expedition no secret — Other matters that have 
leaked out — Ford's passage — Intelligence from America 
— English affairs — Carmichael. 




To Arthur Lee, July 14th 709 

Fears of England — Plan of campaign — Politics in and 
out of Parliament — ^The fleet — Spanish and Portuguese 
occurrences — Privateers. 

To Rai^ph Izard, July 17th 712 

Temple and his mission — Deane*s party in Congress — 
Naval matters — Holland intends to maintain her neu- 

Recai,!, op Lee*s commission 715 

From James IvOVEi^L, July 17th 721 

Informing him of his recall — Need not repair to 

To Lebi^anc, July 20th 721 

Supposed English commissioners — The enemy must be 
attacked in every quarter — The West India fleet — There 
will be no peace till British are diubbed. 

To Arthur Lee, August 17th 724 

A certain set of wretches and their wicked operations 
— ^A newspaper paragraph — Transactions of Congress — 

To Rai^ph Izard, August 31st 727 

Intentions of Congress unmistakable — Peace proposals 
— Movements of the European Powers. 

To Baron D'Arendt, August 23d 729 

Prussian commerce with America — Expedition to Vir- 
ginia — English politics. 

To Arthur Lek, September ist 731 

Difficult to fix his residence — A commercial engage- 
ment — Hall — Alderman beheaded in the Bastille — Prices 
of cannon — Intelligence. 

To Francis Lightfoot Lee, September 2d 733 

Franklin's peace proposition — Naval movements — Ne- 
gotiations for peace on foot — Deane's affairs. 



To Arthur LEK, September 4th. 735 

Peace manoeuvres — Reports of a captain— Jones's fleet 
— ^The agency of Virginia. 

To Arthur Lee, September 12th 737 

The arms for Virginia — The brothers in Congress — 
End of the naval manoeuvres — ^The Virginia agency. 

To THE Committee of Foreign Affairs, September 

28th 739 

Want of information embarrassing — ^What might have 
been gained at Teschen — Delay caused by the attitude of 
Spain — His negotiations with Prussia — The mediation of 
the King desirable — Strong desire in Prussia to enter 
into the American commerce — ^The disposition at Vienna 
— In Holland — British ministry favorable to a peace, but 
King obstinate — Mercenary troops from Germany. 

To Thomas Jefferson, September 28th 745 

His appointment as agent — What was done in the com- 
mission — Money needed to complete the contracts — His 
recall by Congress — Directions for remittances — The 
route to Prussia the most open —His efforts to secure a 
loan — Defect in the authority — Wishes for harmony at 

To Arthur Lee, September 28th 751 

Brussels as a residence — Votes on the recall — Conduct 
of Dickinson, Smith and Griffin — Return of T. Lee — 
Naval intelligence. 

To Peter Hassenci,ever, October 2d 755 

Advantages to be gained from American commerce — 
The port of Embden. 

To T. DiGGES, October 7th 757 

Intelligence — Prospects of peace — Folly of the 

To Richard Henry Lee, October 14th 758 

Has received official|notice of his recall — Is surprised to 



be condemned unheard — Recommends a stricter miion 
with New England — English fleets safe, and her credit 

To Richard Henry Lee, October 30th 761 

Thorn's departure and his training — Want of intelli- 
gence from America — ^The sea campaign — The Alliance 
and her orders— Jones's conflict with the Serapis — Min- 
isters necessary in every country of Europe — Poor pros- 
pects of peace — His own situation. 

To S. Thorpe, December ist 767 

Tenders his resignation as Alderman. 

From London Supporters, December 3d 767 

Inclosing resolutions of the Ward mote. 

To Arthur Lee, December 24th 769 

Conjectures as to D'Estaing — Regiments sent to 
America — None from Germany— Shipments by Monthieu. 

To Deputy Partridge, December 24th ... 771 

His resignation — Unprincipled and perfidious arts of 
the Ministry — Warring upon liberty. 


To Arthur Lee, January 29th 774 

The snufi"-box. 

To Richard Henry Lee, February 15th 776 

Letters intercepted— Payment of interest stopped by 
Congress — Remittances from Virginia — Penet's agency. 

To John Adams, March 17th 779 

Sentiments on a truce — What must be considered in 
the negotiations — Dutch policy. 

From John Adams, March 21 st 782 

Political conjectures — His arguments on a truce — 
Americans in Europe not representative — Will the Dutch 
submit to be kicked ? — A rumored alliance. 




To Samubi, W. Stockton, March 2ist 784 

A message to Dickinson — European politics— Jay's 
mission to Spain — Occurrences in Holland. 

To John Adams, March 30th 787 

The Duke of Brunswick — Holland — His instructions — 
Best time to make peace is when your enemy wishes for 

To Arthur Leb, April 9th 790 

The Spanish mission — A gazette publication — ^The 
Empress of Russia determined to maintain neutrality — 
English associations and Ireland — CarmichaePs memoir. 

To John Adams, April 9th 794 

Importance of his mission — More great men than 
great occasions — Mass of people in England putrid and 

To Richard Henry Lee, April 13th 796 

The declaration of Russia— Management of his estate 
—Johnson's success — Disturbed condition of England 
and Ireland. 

To John Adams, April 25th 799 

The campaign in the South — Raving madness of the 
ministry — ^Threatening the Dutch. 

To Arthur IvEE, April 24th 800 

The Alliance — Dumas's letter — European politics. 

To John Adams, June 14th 804 

News from America — ^The naval campaign — Rioting in 
England — ^The Dutch — English credit. 

To Arthur Lee, June 23d 808 

Caballing for place. 

To John Adams, July 8th 809 

Clinton's letter — Dumas* connection with the gazettes. 

To Samuei. W. Stockton, July 9th 812 

The Passy junto— No hope of reform while Franklin 
has full power. 

vm CONTENTS OF voi.. in. 


To Arthur Lee, October i8th 813 

Capture of Laurens — Results on the ministerial plans 
— Portugal — Beware of the Marylanders coming from 

To Arthur Lee, October 17th 815 

Approval of Clinton's plans — Laurens and Adams — In- 

To Arthur Lee, November 6th ... 818 

Capture of Laurens has disclosed the Dutch treaty — 
Searle and his mission — The armed neutrality — meeting 
of Parliament — Reinforcements for America — The pro- 
posed campaign — News in Europe — Changes in the 
French ministry — ^America must rely on her own efforts. 

To Richard Henry Lee, December 3d 822 

Interrupted correspondence — Orders for the invasion 
of Virginia — European affairs — The Spanish negotiation 
— Bad condition at Paris — An unaccountable appoint- 

To Arthur Lee, December 6th 826 

Laurens' capture and the consequences — Conduct of 
the Dutch — A favorable opportunity — What is being done 
by the agents — Intelligence — Separation of moneyed and 
political transactions — Arnold's treason — The campaign 
in the South — Pctrie — Trunibull's imprisonment — Trait- 
ors at home — ^The English fleets. 

To Arthur Lee, December loth 833 

Financial embarrassments of America — Suggests a rem- 
edy — Introduction of specie into America — Dcaue in favor 
at Passy. 

To Baron Schui,knberg, December 28th 837 

The military situation in America — Arnold's defection 
without serious consequences — ^The movements of the 
northern Powers — A complaint on the gazette publica- 



To THE President OF Congress, February loth.*. . . . 840 
No more troops for America— Insidious proposals of 

To THE Marquis de Castries, February nth 841 

An apology for writing — Opportunity offered for a 
happy stroke — Intercepting the British fleet 

To Richard Henry Lee, February 2olh S43 

Payment of the salary due him — An estimate of the 
balance — No attention paid to his letters — Effort to con- 
quer the South — No more troops to be sent over — Fleet 
movements — British declaration of war against the Dutch 
— Emperor to remain neuter. 

To Richard Henry Lee, April 13th 849 

His accounts for Congress — Intelligence must have 
come to hand — Bills plentiful in America — Mismanage- 
ment from Passy — The ship Marquis de La/ayetle^-B\3b' 
ble of credit in England. 


To Frncis Lightfoot Lee, February 12th 852 

No letter in four years — Money matters — Directions for 
Green Spring. 

To Richard Henry Lee, March nth 855 

Conway's motion — Nation anxious for peace — Does not 
expect peace within a year. 

To THE Secretary of Foreign Affairs, March 31st . . 856 
Change in the English ministry — Lord Shelbnme un- 
friendly to America — Departure of Carleton— Emperor 
said to be ready to negotiate — Products of the country — 
Hints as to a minister — A breach of the Yorktown capitu- 

To Samuei* Thorpe, June i8th 859 

A general peace — Trade with America — Private busi- 
ness — Corporation and court. 



To Richard Henry Lee, June 226. 863 

Remittances from Virginia — Education in Virginia — 
Taxes and revenues in bad hands. 

To Arthur Lee, July 19th 864 

Payment of his salarj- — Nothing to be expected from 
Franklin — The affairs of DeBerdt & Co — Money loaned 
to Clonard. 

To Richard Henry Lee, July 29th 867 

No prospect for peace with in the year — Arnold in favor 
— The new administration— The want of men aud money 
will alone prevent a continuance of war — Plan of cam- 
paign — Sir James Jay — Rumors of negotiations. 

To Samuel Thorpe, August 27th 872 

The stamp duty — Has made him executor of his will 
— As to debts due him — Business matters. 

To Arthur Lee, August 30th 875 

Franklin's letter — Difficulty in getting his pay— De- 
mands immediate payment. 

To Richard Henry Lee, October ist 877 

Demands against the estate of P. L. Lee — His claims. 

To Richard Henry Lee, October ist 879 

Tobacco sales from his estate — Education of his sons in 
Virginia — Matters in Europe. 

To Benjamin Franklin, October 7th 881 

Encloses an order directing the payment of his salary 
— Has drawn notes. 

Prom Benjamin Frankun, October 21st 882 

Accepts the notes, but trusts they will not be placed 
where they will go to protest. 

To Arthur Lee, October 25th ... 883 

The loan to Clonard — Money matters. 

To Arthur Lee, October 26th 885 

Formal acknowledgment of American independence by 



the British king — ^The affairs of Dr. Berdt — Pajmient of 
his salary — Adams wishes to be minister to England — 
Appointment of Temple Franklin. 

To Benjamin Franklin, November 12th 888 

Sarcastic letter on the payment of his salary. 

To Arthur Lkk, November 20th. . # 889 

Franklin's assumed ignorance of his whereabouts — 
Morris's Trick — What America should do— Shelbume's 
position — Losses of Paradise. 

To Richard Henry Lee, November 22d 892 

Monroe — Difficulties of corresponding— Black work in 
the Paris negotiations — Laurens — Prospect of peace. 

To W11.LIAM Dolman, November 20th 895 

His aunt's property — What is recommended. 

To Arthur Lee, December 17th 899 

British ministry on peace negotiations — England 
totally exhausted — Stock jobbing by Americans — Euro- 
pean matters — Franklin's sovereigjn will. 

To Henry Laurens, December 24th 903 

Anonymous charges — Wishes the name of his informant. 

To Henry Laurens, December 25th 904 

Importance of discovering the writer of the letter. 


To WiLUAM Bridgbn, January 3d 905 

The anonymous letter — Indignant that he should be 
thought the author — Demands a full explanation. 

To Henry Laurens, January 3d 907 

His letter to Bridgen — Is surprised to find himself im- 
plicated — Adams's supposition. 

To Thomas Barclay, January 9th 908 

Advertisement as agent of Virginia — ^Warnings against 
a former agent — ^Wishes the name. 



To Henry Laurens, January 14th 910 

The anonymous letter — Vigorous language on the sub- 
ject — Envy — Bridgen's answer. 

To Edward Bridgen, January 17th 913 

Frank acknowledgment of his error — ^Wishes him to 
write to Mr. Laurens— Why his reasons should not have 
been accepted. 

To Samuei* Thorpe, January 17th 915 

Franklin's certificate in favor of Deane — A suggested 
reply — The doctor will probably be protected — A general 

To Samuel Thorpe, January 24th 917 

Congratulations on the peace — Knavishness of Lord 

To Thomas Barclay, February 2d 918 

Cessation of hostilities — His advertisement — An al- 
leged agent. 

To Samuel Thorpe, February nth 920 

Senatorial madness — Trade bills — The Quebec mer- 

To Samuel W. Stockton, February loth 921 

His illness — Felicitations on the near approach of peace 
— What remains for America to do — A navy — Deane and 
his patrons — America indebted to no other power for peace. 

To Arthur Lee, February loth 923 

Peace — Not indebted to Louis XVI. — Connections of 
Deane unbroken— Intriguing for the appointment to Lon- 
don—Political system of Europe — Diplomatic matters. 

To Richard Henry Lee, February i ith 927 

What policy America must pursue. 

To Arthur Lee, February 24th 928 

Expects to embark in May — ^Tobacco and goose feath- 
ers — Address to the king on the preliminaries of peace — 



Debate in I^arliatnent— Jenings — Russia and Sweden — 
The emperor and America. 

To John Adams, March 9th 931 

Should not rush into commercial treaties — Opposite 
|>olicy of Congress and its possible origin — Dana and his 
negotiations — Sweden. 

To WiLWAM Pitt, March 14th 933 

Criticism of his trade bills — ^All former privileges should 
be restored to Americans — Citizens rather than subjects — 
His suggestions are unofficial. 

To John Adams, March 27th • . 939 

Checking the intrigues of Franklin — The doctor's su- 
perlative modesty — Nothing due to France on the score 
of gratitude — Plot of the king of Spain — Intrigues in 
England on commercial bills. 

To Arthur Lek, April 2d 939 

Vote of Parliament on peace negotiations — Resignation 
of Shelbume — Every thing at a stand — Suggested Ameri- 
can diplomatic appointments — Political. 

To Samuei, Thorps, April nth 941 

Halcyon days for the north — Will not visit England. 

To John Adams, April 24th 943 

Apprehensive that America has lost the opportunity for 
a commercial connection with England — The new ministry 
— Samuel Adams — Franklin — About to sail for America. 

To Arthur Lee, June 22d 945 

Hopes to sail in ten days — Business matters — ^Affairs of 

On Robert Morris 947 

Wixx OF Wii.i,iam Lee 949 

From Lord Chatham, September 24th 963 



Frankfort, 27 June, 1779. 
I wrote to you the 24th with some letters for 
America, all under cover to M'". D. N.,* and last 
post, the 25th, bro't me your favor of the 21st., 
which informs me of j'our design of going in y? Vir- 
ginia pilot boat being changed. You would surely 
have found a welcome reception in America, had 
you been the bearer of the news of the declaration 
of Spain, which as I told you before, would not 
rouse our enemies from their lethargy and from 
their thirst of gorging themselves with American 
blood. The opposition in England seems as much 
besotted as the King and his ministers. Indeed 
the wickedness, y^ villainy, and profligacy of these 
People seem to surpass those of Sodom and Gomor- 
rah ; however, it will certainly be of use to carry as 
quickly as possible to America y^ Parliamentary 
debates, and the Revolutions of Sweden, by Sheri- 
dan, should now be read with attention by every 
man who has anything to do with public affairs in 
our countr)'. I am not at all surprised that the 
captains in the service of a certain house in Phila- 
delphia, t should be impregnated with y*. heat that 
has been created in America by Mr. Deane and his 

* Dc Neufville. f Robert Morris. 



partisans* tor ic i^ct y^ bcsness iUES totai^T 
firoin its cfrigizisl appearance. The issce is cot now, 
whether Mr. Deaxse shall ^Int his peisaoal renge- 
ance a^;aicst whom be looked oc as v'. principal 
causes of his not returning with charte-hlanche as 
minister Plenipotentiary to Holland^ and General 
Commercial agent and Director over all Enrope; 
hut whether those who have fingered more than 
half y^ amazing number of millions i^Mr. Deanc 
savs about one hundred » that America now stands 
indebted, shall escape scot free, and without ren- 
dering any account — ^Mr. Deane« for many millions 
received in France, and his chief patron in Phila- 
delphia for ten times as many millions received by 
him in America. Of course this enormous sum of 
money must have procured y^ Principals many 
advocates and defendants: however, I can^t help 
having many apprehensions, that these unhappy 
circumstances will be attended with most &tal con- 
sequences this year to our Country, for you do not 
say one word about measures taken to provide 
against this campaign, and against the horrid In- 
dian war. The Spanish declaration having come 
so late, all y^ force that our enemies have, will for 
this campaign at least, be employed against us 
alone. I have seen in y^ Virginia Gazette, in 
March, a very full reply to Mr. Deane^s charges 
against my brother and me, under the signature of 
Detector, the writer I know not, and am told that 


there have been many satisfactory replies in y^ 
Pennsylvania Papers which I have not seen. * * * 


Frankfort, 27 June, 1779. 

By the letter 3'ou did me the honor to write to me 
y* 17th inst, I perceive you are still under a mis- 
take relative to the contract made with D' Acosta & 
Co. There never was to mj' knowledge any con- 
tract made with that house for the same things 
that I requested you to apply for to the French 
Ministry on account of the State of Virginia. 
D'Acosta & Co contracted to send some thousand 
fusils and other trifling articles for the State of 
Virginia, which they expressly stipulated to ship 
from France before the end of last September; 
otherwise the contract was to be entirely void. 
This house failed to comply with their contract, 
and even without making any apology or giving 
any reason for so doing, which I have since tho't 
a most fortunate circumstance, not only for the 
State of Virginia, but indeed for America, having 
authentic information that within the course of 12 
months past many thousand fusils have been sent 
out from Leige to a clerk of that house, many of 
them of so base a quality as to cost only seven 
livres, the fusil and bayonet. In my judgment it 


is an unpardonable cruelty to put such implements 
into the hands of brave men, who are not only 
fighting for their own lives, but in the defence of 
the liberties of their country. The most important 
part of the supplies that the French ministry are 
requested to furnish for the State of Virginia are 
the cannon, howitzers, powder, mortars, ball and 
shells, none of which have ever been contracted for 
with any one, and if they should be sent to Boston 
or Charlestown for Congress, they cannot be of any 
more use to Virginia while the War continues and 
the enemy have the superiority in the American 
seas, than if they were in France, and as the prin- 
cipal military operations this year will most likely 
be in the southern States, there is much reason to 
apprehend that the want of good fusils will be 
severely felt in that quarter. I therefore hope you 
will endeavor to get the supplies requested sent to 
Virginia as soon as possible, since they may even 
now be got there before the campaign is ended. 
In doing this you will certainly render an essential 
service to the common cause, and highly oblige 
him who has the honor to be with very great re- 
spect. Sir, &c.* 

* When the application of Virginia was first made, WiUiam 
Lee being absent, Franklin found three merchants of standing, 
each of whom was willing to fill the entire order. But two 
withdrew their offers when they learned that Arthur Lee was 
concerned, and the third was not given the contract Lemaire 



F T, 29 June, 1779. 

You have enclosed Gov. Henry's letters of i & 22 
Dec*: '77, & 3 Mar. 1778, all by Capt. Le Maire. 
W. L. to Dr. F. of 30 Mar., and 27 June '79. Dr. 
F. to W. L. 30 Mar. & 2 April, '79. There can be 
no doubt of a stab being intended, and that both 
are y1 objects. The same thrust is to kill us both, 
and I have had so little share in the business, that 
I do not know what defence to prepare; therefore, 
shall wait till I see farther what is done. 'Tis 
probable Le M. will be the conveyer as well as the 
administrator of the poison. I have mentioned to 
you often what I tho't extremely reprehensible in 
his conduct about the contract at Strasburg, which 
is all I know about him. I have no papers or let- 
ters of any kind relative to C — t, nor ever had, ex- 
cept copys of the two notes for ;^20,ooo and £2Pr 
000. A gentleman here told me that Ch[aumon]t 

abused Beau s to him in the grossest terms; if 

these two fall out, 'tis better to let them alone in ex- 
posing each other. No notice having been hitherto 
taken of a joint letter to Izard and A. Lee^ I shall 

was sent over Germany to look for credit and goods, quarreUed 
with Lee, who finally agreed with Penet and D'Acosta for the 
articles, and fell again into disputes with these merchants. 
Franklin to Governor Henry ^ 26 February, 1779, and to Wil- 
Ham Lee^ 2 April, 1779. In the Virginia State Papers will be 
found much relating to I^maire's mission. 


mention it this day to Izard. Mr. Juo. Temple is 
expected every day in an armed Brig from Boston. 
He had been at Congress, therefore 'tis probable he 
brings despatches. The Spanish declaration so far 
as words go is rather against than for the United 
States of America, since they are still called the K. 
of G. B — n's colonies. We send yon our love. 

P. S. This moment received yours of 23. Your 
inclosures answer the most material parts. The 
charges in America seem now to be more against 
W. Lee than A. Lee^ of whom Adams does not 
seem to have said anything. However I am glad 
you have found in time that my judgment about 
his conduct and designs was not wrong. What 172 
has said appears to me suflBcient ; for my own part 
I shall never be ashamed or afraid of the real truth 
being publickly known ; but there is no occasion 
to gratify the vile Junto, by telling them the fact 
I am almost exhausted by drafts from Virginia for 
payment of old scores, while sterling debts due to 
me are pay'd off in paper, the exchange being now 
10 for one. If I go on I shall not have one shilling 
left here. Necessity will therefore compel me to 
stop my hand; however, I could wish you would in 
conversation mention this to Izard^ and ask him if 
he does not think I shall be fully excuseable, both 
in justice as well as law, to send the Virginia bills 
back as they come. Most of the debts due to me 
were by contract to be repay'd in sterling money in 


London, clear of all charges or deductions whatso- 
ever. . . . 


7 July, [1779-] 
My dear Brother: 

I wait with impatience to receive the bills I 
wrote for in mine of the 25th ulto., as the money 
is now wanted. I pray you therefore not to delay 
sending it to me. 

You may remember I told you in Paris in March, 
that the Invasion of Virginia was intended, which 
a friend of ours would not believe, because I was 
not at liberty to tell from whence I had the infor- 
mation; but what is surprising, a letter I put into 
the Po: office there, giving advice of this to go to 
Virginia by the way of Nantes, was never for- 
warded. The declaration of Spain is strangely 
worded at this stage of the business; tho' the 
present shyness may be accounted for, as America 
is bound by the separate articles, while Spain is to- 
tally at liberty. There may be also other motives 
which time must clear up, but I think you should 
try every means to get an authentic copy of the ul- 
timatum that was rejected by Great Britain^ which 
will prove the true design of Spain. 

Mathew's expedition was surely intended to favor 
the operations of Prevost. The mischief to indi- 
viduals is considerable, but I am inclined to think 


it will ultimately be of service to the general 

Mr. Temple must surely have given you a full 
account of the state of ever>' thing in America, and 
I shall be happy to hear that they have not forgot to 
take proper measures for this year's operations. 
It is very possible that all the supplies will fall into 
the enemies hands, for the Capt. is among the un- 
lucky ones; but had they been in the country, they 
might have shared the fate of those at Portsmouth, 
where it does not appear they had anybody to 
take care of them. 

Sir G. Collier may be a good seaman, but his 
letter does not show him to be much of an oflScer, 
or to be overburthend with sense or judgment. 

The alarm in England is great, and thro' all 
their blustering you may see a great deal of fear, if 
the combin'd fleets do not trifle their time away, 
but quickly advance and destroy Portsmouth and 
Plymouth docks with ease. Carmichael is I sup- 
pose coming to fill his snug post of S[ecretar]y, 
while Du[ma]s and ii, are both eyeing a residency 
in Holland, Our best compliments attend Mr. 
Iz[ar]d and his good family, and our love is with 

you. Adieu 

(No signature.)* 

♦Addressed to "HonWe Arthur Lee, Esqr &c., &c., Hotel 
d'Espagne, Rue Guinejs^aud, & Paris." 



Frankfort, 8 Jui,y, 1779. 
Dear Sir: 

I have now before me your favor of the 30th ulto. 
My last of July ist. will show you that I do not 
take amiss an open and candid letter. The Eng- 
lish proverb is a good one, **that nobody can tell 
better where the shoe pinches but he that wears 
it." The trials I have had for two years past are 
rather too much for a temper naturally quick, and 
for one that feels for liberty and his country as I 
do. The intrigues and practices that I found at 
Paris, and which instead of decreasing have since 
spread wider, 'till at last they seem to threaten the 
existence of our countrj' as a free and independant 
nation, have left me few peaceable or calm and 
temperate moments. But enough of self. "Speak 
of me as I am; nothing extenuate, nor set down 
aught in malice. I have done the state some ser- 
vice; and they know it" Mr. Temple must surely 
have brought some later intelligence from C[on- 
gressj than you mention about Mr. D[eane]; for 
that you know I mentioned to you above a month 
ago. The fatal eflFects of the dissensions now begin 
to appear. As you know I mentioned to you in the 
beginning, I do not hear of any preparations for 
this campaign, while the Enemy, tho' considerably 
weaker than they have been for 3 years past, are 
almost unopposed, making ravages over the conti- 


nent. Nothing yet from Berlin, It cannot be 
expected that the powers in Europe will be in a 
hurry to form connections with u^, while they see 
the consequences of Mr. D's publication and some 
subsequent affairs, in the g^eat advancement of the 
enemies forces. You no doubt have seen the Lon- 
don Gazette with the accounts of the invasion of 
Virginia. What the enemy have done is of little 
consequence, only that it is a good station as long 
as they can keep it for obstructing the whole trade 
of Virginia and Maryland. The French and Span- 
ish fleets are joined, but what will be their opera- 
tions we do not know. A little fleet of 7 sail un- 
der American colors, commanded by Commodore 
Jones, about 200 guns and near 1500 men in the 
whole, were seen the 20th. ulto, in the Bay of Bis- 
cay, opposite the mouth of the Garonne, which 
leads to Bordeaux. We shall soon, I suppose, hear 
something of its operations, which I wish may be 
in the flames of Glasgow. America should act like 
Rome who, leaving Annibal and his victorious 
army in Italy, sent Scipio to fight their enemies at 
the gates of Carthage. I am clearly for an invasion 
of G. B., and leaving Clinton and his savage allies 
to do what they can in the meantime in America, 
The thing is certainly practicable if men would but 
accustom themselves to look at it calmly; therefore, 
I hope you will make it a subject of general con- 
versation when you get over. If you learn any- 


thing comfortable from the gentlemen lately ar- 
rived from America relative to the general capacity 
and preparations for defence and offence this cam- 
paign, I beg you to let me know it. Clinton can- 
not now have at N. Y. more than 5000 effective 
men; what an opportunity then is there for general 
Washington to make an attempt on that nest of 
Pirates. Mr. Carmichael is, it seems, expected in 
France every day, as he was to sail some time in 
May. What post he comes to fill we do not hear. 


Frankfort, 12 July, 1779. 

I have had the pleasure, my dear sir, of receiv- 
ing the letter you did me the honor of writing to 
me the ist. of this month, and congratulate his 
Excellency that he did not suffer very materially by 
the explosion of the powder magazine near him, 
which I see by the Gazettes did a great deal of mis- 
chief. How much better would it have been, had 
the contents of this magazine been safely lodged in 
the possession of our friends in America. 

I rejoice heartily with you at the decision of 
Spain, which gives us a right to expect a success- 
ful end of our dispute with Great Britain ; but as I 
never like to flatter myself too much with the 
prospect of advantages for fear of being disap- 


pointed^ my opinion is^ that the most decided and 
united efibrts of France^ Spain and America should 
be exerted to reason. Bv the American war their 
funds have been pretty well exhausted, but they 
ha\*e this advantage^ that their troops and navy are 
in full practice^ while France and Spain come into 
the field at\er a long idle peace^ which always 
makes both soldiers and sailors a little rusty: 
therefore if our joint enemy should unexpectedly 
gain some advantages in the beginning, it will not 
discourage me in the least; notwithstanding the 
phrenzy for privateering among our enemies which 
trains a number of seamen for their navy, yet I 
know the resources both for men and money in 
France and Spain are infinitely greater than in 
Great Britain. 

Reflecting on that period of history when Louis 
the 14th invaded Holland by the intrigues of the 
Stadtholder. almost all Europe was combined in a 
league against France* as if her king was attempt- 
ing at uni\'ersal Monarchy ; I am astonished to see 
that now when G« Britain insolently and loudly 
claims the uni\XTsal monarchy of the sea* all the 
maritime States of Eun>pe sit still and leave 
France and Spain to contend for a freedom of 
navigating the open seas* in which all those 
powers are as much interested as France or Spain. 
Can \x>u tell me to what causes such extraordinary 
apathy and unconcern in the maritime states of 



Europe are to be ascribed? 'Tis but the other day 
an Austrian merchant vessel bound to Ostend, was 
boarded by the crew of an English privateer, who 
robbed the Austrian vessel of sundry articles and 
beat the Flemings because they had not more good 
things on board their vessel. This is a fact that 
can be easily proved at Ostend. 

You are pleased to say that you have nothing to 
tell me from the country where you are;* I did 
suppose that after the declaration of Spain, the dis- 
position of the good people where you are would 
have become more favorable to America. How- 
ever, we must wait with patience, for I cannot 
suppose they will continue much longer blind to 
their own interest. By this moment some great 
blow may be struck, if 'tis against the fleet of Sir 
Charles Hardy. I cannot help flattering myself 
that it will prove a coup de grace to the naval 
power of our enemies— in the pleasing contempla- 
tion of so fortunate a circumstance, I have the 
pleasure to assure you of my most perfect esteem 
and friendship. 

* Barthelemy was at Vienna. 



Frankfort, 12 July, 1779. 
Dear Sir: 

I have had the pleasure of receiving your oblig- 
ing letter of the 2d., and thank you for the copy of 
Mr. Wharton's letter, tho' until that gentleman 
mentioned the subject to me I never knew that 
fertile geniuses among their other inventions had 
dubbed me with the title of stock jobber. How- 
ever great a secret the fitting out and destination 
of Commodore Jones' squadron may have been to 
you, I see by a letter from Edinburg, the 15th of 
June, that the whole was no secret there. One 64 
gun ship with the squadron, would certainly en- 
able it, if so designed, to settle the business easily 
in Georgia, Carolina, and Virginia. What Gen- 
eral Lincoln is about I can't tell, but this seems 
clear to me, that if he does not attack Prevost, 
Prevost will attack him, and he that begins the 
attack, almost always gains the advantage. The 
refusal of a passage to Mr. F[or]d* is of a piece 
with sending an express from 16 to 12 in the be- 
ginning of March just before W. Lee got to Paris 
with advice of 61 being recalled &c without letting 
Izard or A. Lee know anything of it. This 
arrived at 12 in a short time. These and similar 

* Rev. Hezeltiah Ford, who had served as Arthur Lee's secre- 
tary. Serious charges were made against his loyalty from 


facts should be well noted, as they may be of use 
at one time or another. I told you before that the 
conduct of Spain was inexplicable to me ; it may 
be found out in the recesses of Passy. I wish most 
heartily that America was out of the scrape. Mr. 
Stockton will escape Sir George Collier, as he goes 
in an armed brig to Boston. I wish Mr. Ford 
stood as good a chance, tho' in a small vessel he 
may escape if he gets into the capes at night. 
Pray tell me if my first defence went by him on 
the Chevalier de Luzerne. I wish the same game 
may not be continued in 28 Congress. I wrote to 
M. de M[ar]b[oi]s inclosing some letters of intro- 
duction, to which he never gave any answer. 

By this time, I suppose, you must have had from 
Mr. Temple a full account of the situation of affairs 
in America, tho' my letters from Holland do not 
mention whether he is bound to Paris or London; 
he is said to have been much on the reserve, and 
to speak very little on public affairs, which of 
course you know will make warm spirits conjecture 
a great deal, tho' I rather conclude that there was 
not a great deal material to say. The New York 
papers mention a great deal of mischief done by 
the Indians, whom they call their good allies, and 
that Clinton has taken the field, which I do not 
believe, as he can't have more than 5000 effective 
men, and leaving N. Y. &c. nearly defenceless. 
We are all impatience to hear of the movements of 


the combined fleets, tho' few people will believe 
that an invasion is really intended, notwithstand- 
ing all the noise and talk about it You will see by 
the papers what general terror there is in England, 
where nobody seems to have acted a consistent part 
but the city of London. You must allow that the 
Duke of Richmond has improved in brass^ if noth- 
ing else, from the lectures of his tutor, Gov. John- 
stone. He says that after their money is all gone, 
they may learn from America what can be done 
with paper. Can his head be so thick as not to 
know that they have been supported by paper these 
50 years past, and that at this moment their specie 
does not bear so high a proportion to their circula- 
tion as one to a hundred? How much farther they 
will be able to stretch this string before 'tis snap'd, 
will be proved in a year or two more. 

When you have any important news, we hope 
to hear from you, as 'tis hardly possible that this 
summer can pass away without some important 
events taking place, and of this, I think, we may 
be most certain, that unless the British possessions 
are attacked with vigor this summer, in the winter 
and spring they will attempt some bold desperate 
stroke against the possessions of France or Spain; 
for as LM Chatham by a trope conquered Canada 
in Germany, so his grace of Richmond must trope 
also and conquer America in France and Spain. 

I fancy Carmichael is coming to enjoy his snug 


post of secretary at Passy^ but I shall be much 
mistaken if he stirs from where he is until Deane^s 
affairs are determined, which I wish was done, let 
the issue be what it will. For the time alreadj" 
wasted on such a worthless subject will cost Amer- 
ica many, many millions of money, and many, 
many innocent lives. Your next will tell me, I 
expect, of the proper advances having been made 
by Spain; if there are not, don't you think that -4. 
Lee should write there? but if he does, I am of 
opinion he ought first to consult Vergennes and act 
by his advice. Such a step with 164 will please 
him better if done verbally than by letter. . . . 


Frankfort, 14 July, 1779. 
The packet boats from Dover to Calais were 
stopped last month, and two French mails then 
due if sent over to Dover, are to be return' d back 
to Calais (that is, I suppose after the letters have 
been examined); by the way of Ostend your letters 
and newspapers from London will be a day later 
than before. The English ministry and people 
seem to be terribly frightened, and know not well 
what to do. Wedderburne says peace must be 
won by conquests abroad, and hints that America 
must still be the prime object, where the plan of 
Clinton seems to be to amuse Washington by prep- 


arations and attempts 'till he gets his reinforce- 
ments, thati to attempt at securing the whole 
North river from N. Y. to Albany. Prevost and 
Mathews are to be employed in making diversions 
as well as they are able, to prevent any aid being 
given to Washington from the southern states. 
Two British regiments are sent from New York as 
a reinforcement to Mathews. If the North river 
can be secured, the latter end of this campaign and 
the next, the great force is to be turned against 
the four eastern states. This is the plan against 
America. Orders are already sent to attack the 
Manilas. The opposition in Parliament have out- 
run the Ministry in delivering up everything un- 
conditionally to the Crown, and a bill of Lord 
North's for doubling the Militia, thrown out as to 
that point by the Lords ; among whom were the 
opposition and most of the Bedford party. So that 
Lord North seems to totter and the opposition 
seems to be in hopes of catching a crumb or two. 
Rutland, Derby and Ancaster have offered to raise 
regiments. They were insulted at the first offer, 
but they seem to be in a way to accomplish their 
point. The Common Council of London seem to 
be the only consistent body in the Kingdom. 
They agreed to address the King, which was little 
more, when drawn up, than telling him in plain 
terms what a wretch he was, and how wicked his 
ministers were, and that they ought to be imme- 

diately dismissed. Afterwards they agreed not to 
address, and not to open a subscription in the 
chamber to give bounties to seamen and soldiers. 

Sir Charles Hardy's fleet is to be augmented 
vith ten ships of the line, which from appearance 
will join him before there is any movement from 
Comnna; his fleet has already taken some prizes 
off Brest and Belle Isle, among them a Virginia 
boat of 60 tons, Capt. I^uner commander, with 
goods from Nantes, bound to Virginia, I hope 
this is not Mr. Ford's vessel. The fleet from the 
Streights and Portugal of 30 vessels are all arrived 
safe, and the 10 Bast-Indiamen, expected now 
every day, I suppose will do the same. A very 
large fleet from the West Indies are expected from 
the ist to the 20 August. The N. Y. Gazette has 
made hearsay of Lincoln's being totally defeated 
and driven from Parisbui^; but this with other 
absurdities seems to me to be coin'd in England to 
keep up their spirits. I expected by this time to 
have heard from you what Mr. Temple brought 
from America, for surely he must have wrote to 
you or Dr F — n. A passenger in the same vessel 
says that people's eyes in America began to be 
opened with respect to the conduct of Mr. Deane. 

If yon have not yet, I presume you soon will 
hear something from Spain. If the great line is 
not pursued and Jamaica not attacked, surely from 
the Havannah an expedition to St Augustine and 


Georgia should take place. The paper will tell 
you that Sir J. Yorke has made a demand of the 
States General for the succors stipulated by treaty. 
I have no doubt of their being refused. British 
cruizers are prohibited from staying more than six 
days with the prizes they take in the Portuguese 
ports; they should not be permitted to enter at all. 
I wish the French ministry would be made sensible 
of the mischiefs that arise from their privateers 
ransoming almost all the prizes they take, by which 
our enemies have almost double the number of 
sailors prisoners that France has, and if the priva- 
teer is taken, the ransomers being on board, the 
whole profit of the cruize is lost. Some French 
privateers have been taken with loor 12 ransomers 
on board. The American privateers are also ex- 
tremely wrong in discharging their prisoners gratis, 
while their countrymen are dying in the English 
jails for want of being exchanged. 


Frankfort, 17 July, 1779. 
I wrote to you the 12th; since then I find that 
two other vessels from Boston have arrived at Am- 
sterdam. They sailed the latter end of May, for 
they bring papers of the 27th of that month, in 
which there is nothing materially new, except ac- 
counts of some horrid ravages by the Indians on 


the frontiers of Pennsylvania and New York. Mr. 
T[em]ple is gone to Spa. The passengers that 
came with him think he has not any regular com- 
mission, but that he expects to meet at Spa with 
some person of consequence from England to con- 
fer on American affairs. If this conjecture is well 
founded, it will in my opinion be highly injurious 
to America; for our enemies are so thoroughly 
faithless and perfectly wicked, that they never 
should be treated with but in open conference. 
These private and underhand conferences only give 
them opportunities of learning how they may more 
effectually pursue their infernal plan of seduction 
and propagating fatal divisions. 

This is the state these gentlemen give of Mr. 

D ne's party in Congress. The Delegates of the 

4 Eastern States (who know him best) in general 
against him; Pennsylvania divided; Maryland for 
D. ; Virginia divided; N. Carolina for D; S? Caro- 
lina divided; Georgia, for D. My first short reply 
to Mr. D. sent from hence via H*? in February, is 
arrived in B[osto]n. 

The packet from Dover to Calais being stopped, 
you perhaps have not yet got into the method of 
having the English papers by the way of Ostend. 
An express sloop is arrived at Portsmouth that left 
Byron at St. Lucia May 14th. Government has 
had published everything, but it seems fair to con- 
jecture that D'Estaing has had some advantage, for 


the captain of the sloop says that after the two fleets 
liad cannonaded each other for some time without 
any material damage on either side, the two fleets 
returned to their respective ports, Byron to St 
Lucia, and D'Estaing to Port Royal. 

A 14-gun sloop, the St Helene, politely set out 
of Brest the latter end of last month, found her 
way into Sir Charles Hardy's fleet and carried with 
her some of tlie French signals and advice of the 
Spanish force that had joined Count D'Orvilliers 
at Ferrol; on which Sir Charles returned to Tor- 
bay for reinforcements, where it is supposed by this 
time ten other ships of the line have joined him; 
so that his force may be now 40 ships of the line. 
If he remains there, it is a fine place for such a 
genius as De Ruyter or Heemskirk, commanding 
the united fleets, to give a finishing blow to the 
naval power of Great Britain, Letters from Hol- 
land say that the States are determined to maintain 
strict neutrality, notwithstanding the demands of 
our enemies for succor, and the urgent endeavors 
of the Prihce of Orange and his party to engage 
them in war. Amsterdam continues as firm as a 
rock with us.* . . . 

* " I bear that our haugbtf Mid imperions enemies, the Brit- 
ish nfttion, have demanded assistance from your States, to 
enable them to continue the War that they have began against 
Prance, Spain and America. This demand I have no donld 
will be refused, as it is quite clear to «J1 the world that tbej 



Congress had appointed a committee composed of a 
member from each state, to take into consideration the 
foreign affairs of the United States, and the conduct of 
the late commissioners. The members were Whipple, 
Gerry, EUery, Ellsworth, Duane, Fell, Searle, McKean, 
Paca. M. Smith, Burke and Laurens. Their report, as 
presented on the 15th of April, gave the following con- 
clusions : — 

1. That the commissions of Franklin, Arthur and 
William Lee and Izard were in force. 

2. that ministers plenipotentiary should be sent only 
to Versailles and Madrid. 

3. that complaints had been made against the com- 
missioners, and of Deane's political and commercial 

4. that suspicions and animosities had arisen among 
the commissioners, which may be highly prejudical to 
the honor and interests of these United States. 

5. that the appointments existing be vacated, and 
new appointments made. 

6. that only one plenipotentiary minister or commis- 
sioner be at a foreign court. 

have wantonly made the attack on Prance and Spain, therefore 
they can't have any right from the treaties to ask for aid; and 
besides, if they had a right, they have very lately told you 
about your ships, that they would not regard any treaties they 
made with you but such as they found were for their interest 
or convenience. The English ministry should now have the 
same answer returned to them." William Lee to J, de Neuf- 
vilU & Son, 18 July, 1779. 


7th. that no such representative exercise any other 
public oflSce while serving. 

8. that the appointed officer shall be a citizen of the 
United States, and have a fixed and permanent interest 

9. that proper persons be appointed to settle accounts 
in Europe of American officials, and 

10. that a certain salary be appointed for each repre- 

The first and second paragraphs were adopted with 
little question. When the fourth was reached, Meri- 
wether Smith, seconded by Carmichael, wished to strike 
out the words *' which may be.'* Five days later a 
vote was taken on this motion, and the words were 
struck out, only two members (Ellery and Spencer) 
voting against it, and no state. The paragraph was 
then taken up in part, and, on the motion of Duane, 
seconded by Gerry, the words **late and present*' 
were substituted for the word **said," making it read 
**that suspicions and animosities have arisen among 
the late and present commissioners." Gerry, sup- 
ported by Muhlenberg, wished to make a further 
alteration, so as to read ^^ some of the late and present 
commissioners,'* but the States were equally divided in 
the vote. To secure delay, R. H. Lee moved to post- 
pone the 4th article until the 5th had been passed upon; 
but the States again were equally divided. Duane, 
with Morris, then wished the names of the commission- 
ers to be inserted, the sense of the house being upon 
each name, and this suggestion met with favor. 
Franklin's name was inserted without question, but in 


every other instance the yea and nay votes were re- 
corded, on demand of Meriwether Smith. The votes 
were almost unanimous for inserting the names of 
Deane. Arthur and William I^ee, and Ralph Izard, 
only two or three negatives being given — and EUery 
and Searle voting no steadily. A proposition to insert 
the name of John Adams was rejected, New Hamp- 
shire, Maryland and Virginia giving their votes in its 
favor, while Massachusetts and Rhode Island being 
lost by division. The first clause reading **that sus- 
picions and animosities have arisen among the late and 
present commissioners, namely. Dr. Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Mr. Silas Deane, Mr. Arthur Lee, Mr. Ralph Izard 
and Mr. William Lee '* was adopted — only the votes of 
Whipple and Armstrong (Pa), being thrown against 
it. The second clause — ** highly prejudicial to the 
honor and interest of these United States*' — did not fare 
so well, for New Hampshire and Pennsylvania were 
against it, and the influence of South Carolina was lost 
by division. In no case do the votes give any indica- 
tion of the division of party in Congress. 

On the fifth clause the question of recalling each 
minister was put, and here the feeling aroused was 
strong and of some definiteness. Franklin's name was 
first on the list. Virginia and North Carolina voted 
to recall ; Connecticut and New Jersey lost their votes. 
Gerry (Mass.) G. Morris (N. Y.) Paca (Md.), Smith, 
Griffin, and Nelson (Va.) and Penn and Burke (No. 
Ca.) voted for his recall. This was a trial vote, but it 
was plain that the unanimity was only apparent, for 
Congress was torn by faction, and the foreign affairs 


were a center of activity, as was the Arnold. The vote 
on Franklin was taken April 22d. On the 30th Paca 
laid before the house a paper, signed by himself and 
by W. H. Drayton, containing intelligence respecting 
Arthur Lee. This was done after the question of re- 
calling Lee had been stated, and contained a very 
sharp arraignment of Lee on the ground that he was 
not trusted by the Court of France, and it would there- 
fore be highly improper to continue him as one of the 
commissioners to negotiate a general peace. On the 
following Monday (May 3d) Carmichael rose, and pre- 
sented to the house in writing his statement of the 
situation in Europe, after which the question of recall- 
ing Lee was put, and the States equally divided. New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New 
Jersey, voted against a recall ; New York, Maryland, 
Virginia and North Carolina in its favor ; and Rhode 
Island, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and South Carolina 
were lost by divisions. As the vote for recall may be 
regarded as a fair indication of what members were 
hostile to Lee, their names may be given : Gerry 
(Mass); Collins (R. I), Jay, Duane, G. Morris and 
Floyd (N. Y); Fell, (N. J); Atlee, Muhlenberg and 
Wynkoop (Pa); Dickinson (Del); Paca, Carmichael 
and Henry (Md); M. Smith, Griffin and Fleming (Va); 
Penn, Burke and Sharpe (No. Ca.); and Drayton, (S. 
Ca). Fifteen members voted against a recall, and 
twenty one in favor — a majority being against Lee. 

Izard's name was not taken up until the 20th May 
and a vote was not reached until June 8th, when his 
recall was determined. New Hampshire, Massachu- 


setts, Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted no, and 
the other States (New Jersey excepted), voted ay. 
Thirteen delegates voted against a recall, and twenty 
three in its favor. The one affirmative vote of the 
Rhode Island delegate counted as much in determining 
the question as the four negatives in the Pennsylvania 
— ^The individual votes were not very difiFerent from 
those cast in the Arthur Lee ballot. Ellery (R. I), 
Sherman and Spencer (Conn), Lewis (N. Y.), Plater 
and Jenifer (Md), joined the hostiles, while Drayton 
(So Ca) and Henry (Md), voted against a recall. 
Duane, seconded by Armstrong, moved that "Mr. 
Izard be informed that it is the sense of Congress that 
he need not repair to America until it suits his con- 
venience.'* Sherman, seconded by Lovell, wished to 
strike out the words ** until it suits his convenience,*' 
which was agreed to, thus leaving Izard removed from 
office but not recalled. 

William Lee, on the same day, and by nearly the 
same vote, was removed from office, and was not re- 
quired to return to America. The vote on recall was 
as follows: 

New Hampshire, Mr. Whipple, no \ no 

> no 


Mr. S. Adams 

no ^ 




no 1 



no J 

Rhode Island 

Mr. Ellery 

ay ] 


ay ] 




New York 

New Jersey 

Mr. Sherman 

Mr. Jay 

Mr. Scudder 

Mr. Armstrong 

Mr. Dickinson 

Mr. Plater 


Mr. Smith 
Mr. Penn 

Mr. Laurens 
For recall, 25; against, 12. 



N. Carolina 

S, Carolina 







>- no 

J' ay 







Phii«ade]:«phia, July 17th, 1779. 

The Committee of Congress for Foreign Affairs are 
oflScially instructed to inform you that on the 8th of 
June last past it was resolved to recall you from the 
Courts of Vienna and Berlin, to which you had been 
appointed. But you are also to be informed that it is 
the sense of Congress that you need not repair to 

You may see the proceedings, at length, respecting 
this business in their Journals, printed authoritatively 
by David C. Claypole, and being in the hands of Dr. 
Franklin or Mr. Arthur Lee, at Paris. 

We are, sir, with sincere regard, &c., 

James Lovell, 
For the Committee of Foreign Affairs, 


20 July, 1779. 

About 4 weeks ago 4 Englishmen passed through 
this town, having come from London in 5 days. 
They only dined here and went on their journey. 
They appeared as common passengers and talked 
at the hotel as if they were going to Vienna. I 
have just heard that they were only 7 days in going 
from hence to Venice, where a vessel was hired 
ready for them, in which they immediately em- 

* See letter to Richard Henry Lee, 14 October, 1779. 


barked and set sail for Alexandria. They are said 
to have carried orders to the E. Indies to attack 
the settlement of our Allies at the Manillas. I am 
informed that our enemies have planned, as soon 
as the campaign is over in N. America, where they 
expect great success, to send a large body of the 
troops they now have there to attack some of the 
French or Spanish settlements in the W. Indias. 
This plan might be easily disconcerted by orders 
being immediately sent for some of the Spanish 
ships now at the Havannah to go and destroy our 
Enemies' naval force in Georgia and Chesapeak 
Bay in Virginia. Now 'tis in our power, we must 
attack our enemies in all quarters and not wait for 
them to attack us. I hope an attack on Jamaica 
and Barbadoes is already planned. October, No- 
vember and December are the months for eflfectual 
operations in the West Indias. The French priva- 
teers, as well as the Americans, too often make a 
practice of ransoming the prizes they take. Is not 
this tho't an impolitic conduct, for by this means 
our enemies have always their sailors ready for 
their ships of war and their privateers, while all 
the French sailors that are taken are confined in 
jails to dye with diseases. Sir Charles Hardy, on 
taking the King's sloop, the St. Helene that went 
out of Brest, learnt from her that the Spanish ships 
at Ferrol had join'd Count D'Orvilliers; on which 
he returned to Torbay for reinforcements ; and be- 


fore this his fleet is augmented to 41 ships of the 
line. If the West India fleet that is expected in 
10 or 14 days arrives safe, they will get sailors 
enough to man Sir Charles Hardy's fleet fully, and 
two or three ships more. This W. I. fleet might 
be easily intercepted, which would be a very heavy 
blow to our enemies. It is talked in England that 
the packet boats from Dover to Ostend will soon be 
stopped, and they expect at Ostend that the fishing 
boats will be stopped there from going to England, 
as the English take by force all the men and put 
them on board their ships of war. I mention this, 
that in time a plan may be adopted for getting in- 
telligence from thence. I will only add one word 
of opinion. I know our enemies so well, as to be 
sure they never will consent to any peace that we 
can accept, until they are heartily beaten and loose 
some of their important possessions; therefore 
every proposition that comes from them should be 
considered as it is intended and meant by them, 
only as a finesse to impede and delay our opera- 
tions. * 

* "The papers say 97 (A. Lee) is minister to 148 (Spain); 90 
(Izard) and 96 (W. Lee) being layed by on the shelf, they must 
look for some retired comer to breath in. If 'tis in his power 
97 (A. Lee) should take care of himself, that he may not want 
when the stroke comes upon him." William Lee to Arthur 
Lee, 24 July, 1779. 



17 August, 1779. 
Dear Brother: 

I got home the night before last and found your 
two favors of the 23d. ulto. and 7 inst You will 
surely have justice enough to take to yourself all 
the consequences of 170 transactions being known, 
which now seems to me inevitable, from the bill 
not being sent as desired, on which the loss would 
have been less than will be on the money. What 
N[eufville] & Son know is of no importance of 
itself, but may tend to clear up other points for 
which I believe a person was sent to 0[stend]. I 
am of opinion with you, that no notice should at 
present be taken of a certain set of wretches, but it 
may hereafter be of much use to the Public that 
their wicked operations should be generally known; 
therefore if you can contrive to get certain infor- 
mation of the author of what is in the Whitehall 
Evening Post, from 26 to 28 July, I beg you will 
do it I will write to T. D[igges] about it, but do 
not know by what name to direct to him, having 
written twice long ago, and never received any 
answer. Mr. Jackson, manager of the I^edger, 
writes to me thus : 

"Your brother should have had that, and a great 
deal more information from me, had I not been in- 
formed that when he invited me to dine with him at 
Paris, he desired Carmichael to be present to push 


about the bottle, and to pump from me what I knew. 
Carmichael had all I knew, and I trust he made use 
of it for the service of America." 

This informant is pretty evident, tho' not men- 
tioned by name ; however, I have written and re- 
quested he would name him ; and if he does, you 
shall have a certificate of the whole. That the 
party intended Carmichael for Spain^ I think there 
is little doubt, but the completion of this scheme 
will much depend on the tenor of the despatches 
that were sent from Passy to 6i, the beginning of 
March. You have no doubt seen the Courier de 
V Europe of i6 July. Whether the proceedings of 
C[ongress] on the i6 of April were omitted by 
design or not, I can't say. However the report of 
the Committee is pretty explicit. Article 3d and 
4th involves indiscriminately Messrs. A[dams], 
I[zard], you and myself in the charges; art 5 is 
judgment and condemnation of M^ I[zard] and both 
of us ; art 7. is intended to incapacitate me, and 
art 8., to incapacitate you from being re-elected. 
It remains to know whether these reports are con- 
firmed. The determination, however, with respect 
to me seems so clear that I think myself warrant- 
able in declining any farther operations in the 
public line, and shall accordingly write to Con- 
gress as soon as I can ; for which purpose I beg you 
to let me know whenever there is a good oppor- 
tunity. I shall without waiting for farther advice 


look out for some quiet place to fix my family in 
before the winter sets in, on which subject I am 
not a little perplexed, for there are clouds gather- 
ing in this quarter that may burst out in a dreadful 
storm, in which case Flanders will again become 
the seat of war. 

I saw at Bruges the captain of the Congress fri- 
gate, now at r Orient or Brest* He told me that 
he left Paris the ist. of this month, and that Dt 
B[ancroft] told him Charles Town was taken by 
Prevost, and that Lincoln was wounded in an en- 
gagement near it. He said also that a French 
gentleman in Paris told him that he had just come 
from Spain and had travelled part of the way from 
Madrid to Cadiz with a Spanish Marquis, who was 
going as Minister to Congress. I also met on my 
route with a gentleman from Holland who assured 
me he had the day before seen an American on his 
route from Paris to Holland, who assured him that 
he came from Congress with despatches to Dr. 
Franklin, amongst which were advices of Prevost 

* ** I wish you could discover what was the real business for 
which Capt Bamett, commander of the Congress frigate, was 
sent to Bruges and Ostend. He said his Business was to get 
American sailors at Ostend for his frigate. This is too im- 
probable to be believed, for he might as well have gone to 
Vienna for that purpose. He is a Bostonian and impressed 
with the highest idea of 54 (Franklin), 40 (Deane), & the 

whole at P[assy], N[antes] and B[ordeau]x." William 

Lee to Arthur Lee, 22 August, 1779. 


and his army being totally defeated. These reports 
it may be of use to you to know. . . . 


Frankfort, 31 August, 1779. 
* * * By this time I suppose you are con- 
vinced with me that Prevost has met with a Bur- 
goynade at Charles Town, and if Clinton or his 
successor, Comwallis should pursue the plan laid 
down for them, to penetrate into New England after 
getting possession of the North river to Albany, 
they will probably meet the same fate. I think 
after considering the proceedings of 28 (Congress) 
in the paper you gave me, the determination is too 
plain to be mistaken; therefore in my opinion 
neither 90 (Izard), 96 (W. Lee) nor 97 (A. Lee), can 
with propriety act any longer in their former 
capacity as 38? (ministers). Give me if you please 
your opinion on this. The Expos^ des Motifs of 
Prance and the Cedula published in Spain, should 
be well considered, that a strong remonstrance may 
be immediately drawn up and immediately trans- 
mitted to 3 (America) against any longer trusting 
the whole interests of 3 (America) in the hands of 
54 (Franklin). After the offer to guarantee to 
Great Britain, Rhode Island, New York, Long 
Island, Staten Island, Portsmouth in Virginia, 
Beaufort in South Carolina, and every inch of 


Georgia, I should not be surprised if the next offer 
was to give up the whole to G. B. 

There are great movements in this quarter. 
Russia is working hard, for it seems agreed on all 
hands that she has offered her mediation to G. B. 
and P. Panin is gone to Sweden from whence he 
goes to Denmark, as is believed, to form a combi- 
nation with R. to take an open part in the war, if 
her mediation is not submitted to. The same in- 
trigues have been tryed at Vienna and Berlin, at 
both which places, things are now in a great deal 
of fermentation. Prussia recruits with as much 
activity as in the last year, and measures are as- 
suredly taken to be ready at a moment to enter into 
the field. I cannot get any sure information of the 
real design of the cabinet at Berlin, but at this 
moment all our proceedings are at a stand there. 
He is wise however, and I hope is our friend. 'Tis 
said with confidence that propositions between 
France and Great Britain have been already ex- 
changed thro' Russia. Powerful mediators are al- 
ways dangerous especially when they are not so 
impartial as they ought to be; for 'tis very certain 
that in the present instance the secret design of 
R. is to make matters up between G. B., F. and S., 
and leave America entirely out of the question. 
Thanks to the contrariety of interests however, be- 
tween the 3 great powers in this quarter, which, if 
properly managed, may save us from the threatened 


mischief. 'Tis astonishing to see how we have 
sunk in the estimation of the Powers in this quar- 
ter since they have known the late proceedings on 
the other side, and they now give up the idea of 
America maintaining independency. The last ad- 
dress to the people demanding 60 millions of dollars 
to be raised this year, has completely satisfied all 
politicians of the north that our case is too desperate 
to be supportable. 'Tis strange that nobody but 
Dr. F. had letters by the last express from C[on- 
gress] arrived at Brest from Boston. . . , 


Frankfort, 23 August, 1779. 

I had the honor of writing to you the nth inst., 
in answer to your favor of the 22 of July, which 
was the only letter I received from you since you 
left this place; and this moment is come to hand 
yours of the 12th inst., which appears to have been 
II daies on the road, which I cannot account for. 
The security in Europe which is required will I 
apprehend be as diflScult to obtain as the money; 
indeed, it is in fact the very thing we want to find 
in your country, as at present our affairs in everj^ 
quarter wear a favorable appearance. I should 
hope the merchants in Prussia will readily see that 
there is very little risk indeed in giving credit to 


the state of Virginia. 'Tis now certain that Gen- 
eral Prevost and the British amiy have been de- 
feated in South Carolina, the remnant driven on 
board their ships and escaped to Georgia. The 
expedition to Virginia has ended in a pillage, 
burning all the houses they dared to venture to, 
and massacring in cold blood, a la savage^ all the 
unarmed men, helpless women and children they 
could lay their hands on. They made an attempt 
on the little town of Hampton in Virginia, but were 
repulsed with considerable loss. I conclude that 
General Clinton does not find himself in a con- 
dition- to do so much at New York, since about a 
fortnight ago two of his best generals, viz. Sir Wm. 
Erskine and Genl. Jones, have returned to Eng- 
land. The public gazettes will tell you the state of 
our allies in the British channel. We trust much 
to the friendship and good intentions of his majesty 
toward us, and I hope to hear soon something sat- 
isfactory and pleasing from your quarter. You re- 
member my having mentioned the circumstance of 
a proposition being made at the last Congress at 
Teschen, for all the contracting parties to acknowl- 
edge the Independence of America. Can you con- 
trive to get an accurate account of that proceeding 
and let me know all the particulars ? . . . 



F ^T, I September, 1779. 

Dear Brother: 

I think you fix the 20^* of October for the period 
when a draft on M — t will be paid for the bal. — 
On that I shall form my plan, as perhaps it will be 
more advisable to have the money somewhere else 
than at Paris. You will, however, have notice of 
what is to be done, but if you should think of 
changing your residence to Spain^ you should give 
me as early advice as you can that everything may 
be settled before you go. The fixing my residence 
is a very serious and perplexing business at present, 
especially with the prospect of an increasing family, 
and no part in France will do for me as things are 
at this time. At B[russels] a house must be taken 
for 3 years, and then to be furnish' d, which looks 
like fixing for life almost. 'Tis very certain that 
when things are settled, there will be a great deal 
of business done at both Cadiz and Lisbon, there- 
fore I should like much a correspondence with Mr. 
Dohrman, but at this moment it would be better 
for Mr. D. to write to me, stating his plan and de- 
siring a connection, provided he chooses it. Tis 
probable that with a proper credit on Paris or Am- 
sterdam I may be able to get the vessels he wants 
on much better terms than he can, and many arti- 
cles that are absolutely necessary for his purposes 
must come from this quarter, which may be sent 


in the vessels to Lisbon, to have salt, &c., added 
to her cargoe. The fair is commenced here, and 
if orders were received here in 15 or 18 days from 
this time, good purchases might be made of linens 
and woollens. If you have no employment for 
T. Lee, perhaps Mr. D. might take him to Lisbon 
and send him Super Cargo, with his first adven- 
ture ; after which, if he managed well, Mr. D. 
might establish him there as his agent. Will you 
please see, if the Mr. Hall that is come from V. is 
not the same, that was carried into Liverpool in 
1776 by the crew who run away with a ship loaded 
in Virginia with tobacco on account of C[ongress]. 
What he says about D — 's acquittal is I suppose 
the construction that the world puts on the report 
of the Committee that we see published in the 
Cur. de I'Europe. That report, if confirm*d, is 
indeed a full acquittal of D., and a full condemna- 
tion of those he accuses. 

No answer yet from I — n, and I fear he will not 
give any, if he does you will know it. The para- 
graph in the Whitehall Evening Post from 26 to 
28 July is ** A private letter from Paris informs us, 
that a certain Alderman of this city was beheaded 
privately in the Bastile for various frauds and forg- 
eries, notwithstanding Dr. Franklin's endeavors to 
save him." Is there not a mistake in the brass 
cannon and mortars being charged at 180 livres the 
quintal, which is 36 sols the pound, though they 


were old, when Helenius's prices for new brass 
cannon was 124 livres, and Monthieu's, 136 Hvres 
the quintal? The difference in value between old 
and new brass cannon generally is very great, as 
commonly the first is only at the price of old stuff 
to be refounded. By the English papers it appears 
that some time last month a privateer in the Bay 
of Biscay took an American packet boat with dis- 
patches from Congress, which were saved and sent 
to the British Ministry. Every day we expect to 
hear of a battle between C^ D'Orvilliers and Hardy. 
If gained by the former, the British Empire on the 
sea must be at an end. You say nothing about 
peace, but I think you may be assured that propo- 
sitions on that head have lately been made and I 
fancy exchanged. If you see L'd Mountstewart at 
Paris you may reckon on the principal points being 
agreed. This letter is only for your own perusal. 
We expect all the important news from your 

My tribe, with myself, send you our love ; little 
P[orti]a would win your heart were you here. She 
is so good, and begins to lisp her words so sweetly. 


2 September, 1779. 

The perusal of the inclosed papers and consider- 
ing what G. B. possessed at the time the propo- 


sitions were made (viz. early in May, 1779) will 
show what sort of a peace the Dictator [Franklin] 
which Congress has appointed for America in 
Europe was willing to make for you. Your own 
sense and judgment will render any comment on 
the whole business unnecessary, as you will readily 
see that it is the Good Genius of America alone 
that has saved her in this instance, as in many 
others, from utter perdition. You must now be 
convinced of what has been often said to you, that 
America had never greater need of the services of 
her wisest and most honest sons than at this present 
period; but we shall leave politics to the most able 
and incorruptible Messrs. W. H. D[ra]yt[o]n, 
C[arte]r B[raxto]n, and C[ar]m[ichae]l, &c. 

The French and Spanish fleets have at last got 
into the B. Channel. We have not yet heard of 
any engagement, but 'tis probable there will be 
one, which may be as undecisive as the one last 
year. However, 'tis thought the season is too far 
advanced to admit of any farther material opera- 
tions even if the B. fleet should be entirely defeated. 

Negotiations for peace are again renewed; the 
terms are not fully known, but as 'tis public, and 
has been for some time, that the B. army has been 
totally defeated before Charles Town, and that 
Clinton cannot do anything at New York, 'tis to be 
hoped that the terms for America will be somewhat 
better than those proposed before. I do not hear 


that any despatches from C[ongress] dated within 
the present year have been received. We have 
seen some proceedings in April last, first published 
in France, and from thence copied into most of the 
French gazettes in Europe, relative to D — e's 
affairs. By a private person I hear that both you 
and R. H. have refused to go again to C, which 
for the sake of America and the noble cause of Lib- 
erty, gives me great concern, but I hope you will 
both still continue to watch over the affairs of your 
particular country. * * * 


Frankfort, 4 September, 1779. 

'Tis certain that negotiations for peace have been 
for some time and are still on the carpet. The 
terms proposed on either side I do not know, but 
the issue will probably depend on what has hap- 
pened within these 14 days past, or may happen 
within this month in the Channel. Before this a sea 
battle must have taken place, but an invasion will 
not you may be assured ; perhaps we may have a 
second edition of the Jersey business. Captain 
B[amet] assured me he came from Boston in the 
Congress frigate of 22 guns, but that she would 
carry 28, which he intended to put on her; that he 
arrived at L' Orient some time in June, and had 
made some prizes; that he knew W. Lee the 


moment he saw him, from his likeness to A, Lee 
whom he knew at Paris ^ and had in a strange 
place, where not a creature knew A. Lee^ addressed 
him by name, &c. This Captain, I have reason to 
believe, was returned to Paris on or before the i6th 
of August. A gentleman also told me he had seen 
his commission from Congress. The Captain told 
me that W[illiams] was agent for the sale of prizes 
at N[antes], and Moylan and Nesbitt, his partners, 
were agents at L' Orient. These things you may 
inquire into, as well as to have it fully ascertained 
that Jones's squadron is on private account, for the 
loss on that business must be immense. Therefore 
it is to be apprehended that by some legerdemain 
America will be brought in to pay it. W. Lee tells 
me he does not think there is the most distant 
probabilty of obtaining the agency in Virginia, It 
is certainly a desirable thing, but the success must 
be certain, and the advantage very considerable, to 
induce W. Lee to go to Paris^ which at present he 
thinks of never doing again, unless he has substan- 
tial reason to alter his opinion of the Passy Court. 
If A. Lee can obtain it for W, Lee he will of course 
have a full share of the advantages, tho' there is no 
objection to its being to the two jointly if it can be 
accomplished; but it seems most likely to succeed 
if A, Lee is proposed, as he has been in that way. 
It should be remembered that on such occasions 
Comis are often of more weight than principals; and 


in this case Saint Marc the treasurer is of as much 
consequence as Pauly. Say what you think can be 
done, but try cautiously that the old Spider 
[Franklin] may not know anything of it . . . * 


12 September, 1779. 

* * * Captain Robins f being taken is very 
unfortunate, but I hope he had not much value on 
account of the state on board; I always understood 
that the whole belonging to the state was shipped 
in the Gov. Livingston. Unless convoys are given 
to the trade with America, none but madmen can 
think of venturing, nor will any venture; therefore 
I am sure that America will be more distressed for 
goods, this winter and next summer, than she has 
ever been yet 

This moment I received yours of the 6th and 
thank you much for the Intelligence, which is im- 
portant and may produce a peace; for which I am 

* "I see in the papers a good deal about a Capt Hutchins and 
two others being taken up for treasonable correspondence, 
which seems to be a most ridiculous business; for if one may 
judge from what has appeared, this Triumvirate will turn out 
to be of the HonWe Order of Swindlers. Are they so hard run, 
as to be obliged to such shifls to amuse the public attention ?" 
William Lee to Richard Weld^ 15 September, 1779. 

t Of the Hunter^ on board of which were some of the supplies 
ordered by Virginia. 


quite sure negotiations have been already com- 
menced. The Gentlemen at P. have forgot that 
Hall says the brothers of W. Lee refused to serve 
any longer in Congress^ which you know to be true 
as they both long ago determined to resign, and I 
fancy their resignation has startled the Junto and 
made them afraid to push their plans till they see 
the eflFect of their resignation, which may account 
for not hearing of their determination. I think 
from considering all circumstances, it is probable 
that the appointments of Izard and IV, Lee are 
annulled, and no new one made; that A Lee con- 
tinues as yet in his place. 

So Hardy is safe in Plymouth and D'Orvilliers 
in Brest, and the embarkment forgot. Sic transit 
gloria mundi! You can't forget the song we used 
to sing when boys, of somebody with 40,000 men, 
going up a Hill, and then coming down again.* 

* On August 31st a wind drove the combined fleet from the 
Channel, and Hardy with great skiU brought in his ships, an- 
choring at Spithead the following morning. The King sent 
positive directions to lyord Sandwich to acquaint the admiral 
that he expected the "enemy is not to be permitted to quit the 
channel without feeling that chastizement which so base a con- 
duct deserves." The King to Lord Norths 4 September, 1779. 
The combined fleet, however, suffered from another source too 
heavily to permit it to await an attack. For a terrible disease 
broke out among the men, and the signal for retiring to Brest 
was given. For months the pestilence raged, and nearly 6,000 
men perished. 


by the Spanish Ambassador to Lord Weymouth, in 
London, said not one word in our favor, but rather 
seemed to look on the Thirteen United States of 
America as being still colonies, or provinces, be- 
longing to Great Britain, it became absolutely 
necessary for me to wait until this enigma could be 
cleared up, and till I could get sure information of 
the real designs of Spain, and the measures she in^ 
tended to pursue. 

As soon as I had got this information, I made a 
formal requisition to the Prussian Minister, hoping 
that, as the late war in Germany had prevented his 
Majesty's former declarations in our favor from 
being carried into effect, and as that obstruction 
was now removed, his Majesty would not delay to 
acknowledge the independence of the Thirteen 
United States of America, which might be the 
means of putting a stop to the further wanton effus- 
ion of human blood. To this requisition I received 
the following answer from the Minister: 

* * With respect to the declaration, which you again 
desire of the King in favor of the independence of the 
Americans, I have frequently explained, that his 
Majesty having, by the position of his dominions and 
those of his neighbors, very different interests from 
those Powers that are properly called maritime ones, 
be had no right to expect a direct influence in maritime 
afBairs, and that he could not in wise policy take any 
measures in those affairs, because they would always 


be unfruitful, as they could not be supported by a war- 
like marine. The support of the maritime Powers will 
make the balance incline in your favor more effectually 
than all the declarations in the world, and Spain, by 
joining with France to make war on England, renders 
you the most essential services, without having 
acknowledged your independence. The King, in 
making the declaration now which you desire, would 
only embroil himself with England, without rendering 
the smallest service to your country. These are the 
reasons which induce the King to confine himself at 
present to the facilities which his Majesty has offered 
at different times with respect to commerce, in assuring 
you, which I do again, that merchant vessels of Amer- 
ica, that choose to enter into the ports of the King, to 
sell their goods and to buy ours, shall be received in a 
friendly manner, and treated on an equality with the 
merchants of any other country." 

It has long been one object of my policy to en- 
gage the King of Prussia to act in our favor as a 
mediator for peace, whereby, if his mediation was 
agreed to, he might render us much more effectual 
service than by sending an army of fifty thousand 
men into Hanover, which step he could not take 
without arming the Emperor and the whole Ger- 
man empire against him. I have good reason to 
believe that the King is much disposed to act in 
the quality of a mediator, but he is too wise to offer 
his services without being previously assured that 
they would be accepted by both sides; however, 


we may expect very essential benefits from his in- 
fluence with the Court of St. Petersburgh, who, it 
is said with confidence, has offered its mediation, 
and that it is accepted by the parties, I am in- 
formed that the first proposition to be made to 
England by the mediating Powers, as the com- 
mencement of the negociation is, that America 
shall be treated as independent. There is a strong 
inclination in Prussia to enter into the American 
commerce, and there is now a scheme in agitation 
under the direction of the Minister to make the 
trial, which, if the commencement is successful, 
will be carried on upon a very large scale, and will 
more effectually engage the King in our interests 
than any thing else. For this purpose, I think it 
would be of most essential service if two or three 
American vessels were to enter into the port of 
Emden, which is a good harbor, lying between 
Hamburg and Amsterdam, and as easily got into 
as any of the ports of Holland. 

I have continued my correspondence at Vienna, 
but having no powers to treat with the Empress 
Queen, who is still sole sovereign over all the 
dominions of the House of Austria, and the Em- 
peror being much disgusted with some proceedings 
during the late war, and more so with its conclu- 
sion, is become, of course, much more disposed in 
favor of our enemies than he was, and consequently 
less inclined to ser\'e us ; therefore, little advantage 


can be expected from that quarter at present. Our 
friends in Holland increase every day, and I am 
still in regular correspondence with those who 
regulated with me the form of the treaty of com- 
merce, copies of which have been sent you by 
various conveyances; and even now if the Stadt- 
holder were to refuse to receive an American 
deputy, I have no doubt of his meeting a cordial 
reception from the city of Amsterdam, whose 
weight and decisive influence in their association 
you must be fully informed of. 

Letters of good authority from England say that 
the British Ministry would willingly agree to give 
up the independence of America to obtain peace ; 
but it is feared that the obstinacy and folly of their 
master will prevent them from executing their 
plan ; however, I am still firmly of opinion, that 
the best security and success of America will de- 
pend on her own efforts — her wise, steady, and 
uniform conduct As the obtaining a fresh supply 
of troops from this country has been a favorite 
point with our enemies, I have paid continual 
attention to that object, and have the pleasure to 
inform you that, at present, there is not any pros- 
pect of their obtaining fresh troops from this part 
of the world, as they have hitherto been defeated 
in all their various negociations for that purpose ; 
but as this campaign has passed away without any 
blow being struck in Europe, all the English fleets 


from the different parts of the world arrived safe, 
without the least molestation ; and the King's 
hands are so much strengthened by the exertions 
of all parties in England to repel the invasion 
which they have been threatened with all the year, 
that I think it is most probable the war will con- 
tinue another year at least, for which, I suppose, 
proper provision will be made in America. 

I have the honor to be, &c.. 


Frankfort, 28 September, 1779. 

His Excellency Gov*". Henry was pleased in 1777, 
with the advice of the Council, to appoint me agent 
in France for the State of Virginia, and in 1788, 
by the same authority he sent me a power under 
the State seal, to obtain arms, artillery, ammuni- 
tion, &c., of his most Xtian Majesties ministers, or 
any other persons, to the amount of 2,000,000 liv- 
res, or to borrow money to that amount to purchase 
those articles with; invoices for which were sent, 
for the artillery, arms and ammunition by the 
Governor; for linens, woolens and other merchan- 
dize, by Mr. Smith, the State agent in Virginia; 
and for paper and printing materials by Mr. Webb, 
the Treasurer. These documents came to me last 
year when I was at Vienna, in the public service. 


where I was fortunate enough to prevail with the 
French Ambassador at that Court to solicit the 
Court of Versailles to grant us the artillery, arms, 
and ammunition, and I also sent a power to my 
brother, Mr. Arthur Lee, who was then at Paris, to 
solicit this business for me at the Court of Ver- 
sailles, and to try what could be done in France 
towards procuring the other articles. In conse- 
quence of these measures, there was obtained from 
the French ministry cannon, mortars, ball, bombs, 
&c to the value of ;^2i9,489.7.4. and my brother 
advanced the money for the purchase of swords, 
pickaxes, hatchets, &c., which with Capt. Le 
Maire's and other expences amounted to about the 
sum of ;^45,ooo. 

My brother chartered vessels to carry these arti- 
cles to Virginia, and I believe they were all shipped 
in the Governor Livingston, Capt. Galer, and the 
Hunter, Capt. Robins: He also made a contract 
with Messrs Penet, D'Acosta FrSres & Co, of 
Nantes, for several thousand stand of arms, and 
some other articles which they contracted to ship 
from France by the last of September, 1778, on the 
same terms which Mr. John King had agreed to in 
October 1777, with these gentlemen under the firm 
of Jas. Gruel & Co, for sundrie articles for the State. 
No part of the contract made with Mr. King was 
ever complyed with, nor was any part of the con- 
tract made with my brother complyed with, which 


I now think a fortunate circumstance, having lately 
had authentic information, that several thousand 
muskets were in the course of last year sent from 
Liege to Nantes, addressed to a clerk of that house, 
which were of such a base quality as to cost no 
more than ;^5 a piece. I hope none of these guns 
will ever reach Virginia. Truth obliges me to say, 
that I have always found this house extremely 
leady to engage, but never so to execute. 

My brother has given Governor Henry advice 
from time to time of his proceedings, and now he 
writes me that he has no more money to advance, 
and the owners of the ships in which the goods 
were shipped are in extreme want of the money for 
the freight, which amounts to about 27000 livres. 
Having no money myself to pay this freight with, 
we shall be greatly distressed, unless you are good 
enough to hasten some remittances either in bills 
or American produce, which I must earnestly re- 
quest of your Excellency to have done. 'Tis nec- 
essary that I should inform you of what my brother 
has before advised Govr. Henry, viz., that the 
French ministry did last Spring demand payment 
for the cannon, &c, furnished by them, but on its 
being represented to them that we were utterly 
unable to make this payment, and that the State 
had not had time to make the necessary remittan- 
ces, they agreed to wait some time longer. 

I have not received any letters from Congress for 


a long time, but there are some private letters in 
Europe, as I am inform' d, which say that Congress 
has dispensed with my services. Therefore my 
stay in this country will not be long, and when 
you are pleased to write to me, be so good as to put 
your letter under cover directed to X Monsieur, 
Grand, Banquier k Paris, if the conveyance is to 
any part of Spain, Portugal or France; and if the 
conveyance is by Holland, put your letter under 
cover directed X Messieurs, Mess. Jean de Neuf- 
ville & fils, Negociants, Amsterdam. If you re- 
mit any produce, the Captain should be directed to 
make the first port in Europe that he can get to, 
and let him address his cargoe as follows, giving 
me notice of his arrival under cover to M^. Grand. 
At Cadiz to Messrs. Rey & Brandebourg; at Lis- 
bon, to M^ John Henry Dohrman; at Bilboa, to 
Mess. Gardoqui & fils; at Bordeaux to M*". John 
Bondfield; at Nantes, to Mess^ Schweighauser & 
Dobr^e; at Amsterdam, to Messrs. Jean de Neuf- 
ville & fils. 

As the enemies cruizers and privateers have the 
ports of Portugal to run into, they very greatly 
infest all the Bay of Biscay from Gibraltar to the 
English Channel, so that it is very difficult indeed 
to escape them. Therefore, I think the risk of 
being taken would be much less to come round the 
north of Scotland to Holland or Embden in the 
Prussian dominions, where they would be well 


received, and find a better market for tobacco than 
in France or Spain, and could get woollen and 
linnen goods better in quality and much cheaper. 
The want of money has prevented the articles 
ordered by Mr. [Thomas] Smith, State Agent, 
from being purchased, as well as the paper and 
printing materials ordered by MT Webb, the Treas- 
urer, which can only be got in London, for the 
types by orders cannot be purchased anywhere else 
in Europe. The first cost of M^ Webb's order will 
amount to about ;^i500 sterling. 

I was last year flattered with the hopes of obtain- 
ing a loan in France for the 2,000,000 Hvres, but 
the large sums borrowed by their own government, 
from which the lender draws about 9 per cent in- 
terest, disappointed my expectations, tho' if this 
had not been the case, it could not have been 
accomplished under ray power, which only ex- 
presses the Governor's authority, by advice of the 
Privy Council, without any act of that Council to 
show its consent ; and besides they conceived that 
the State could not be bound without some formal 
act or Resolution of the whole Legislature. I 
applyed also in Holland where money abounds, 
and the terms were all agreed upon ; but when the 
power was sent, the same objections were made to 
it that had been made in France and farther : ist, 
As it specified that the money was to purchase 
arms and ammunition, such a loan could not be 


negociated without eng^aging their government in 
a dispute with G. Britain ; therefore the power 
should only have expressed that it was to borrow 
so much money generally, without naming to 
whom application was to be made for the loan ; 
and after the borrowers had got the money they 
would be at liberty to lay it out as they tho't 
proper. 2^.^ They desired some clear and certain 
information by some public act, how far any par- 
ticular state was authorized by the terms and 
articles of the General Association or Union of the 
13 United States, to borrow money on its own 
single security. But they rather wished to have 
the guarantee of Congress added to that of the par- 
ticular State for which the money was borrowed, as 
one State might be conquered by, or make some 
accommodation with G. Britain, and the rest re- 
main independent They think themselves justi- 
fied in this reflection by the history of their own 
country, where their first association or union 
against Spain consisted of 17 Provinces; but 10 of 
them being conquered or seduced by bribes and 
solemn contracts and promises, which were never 
kept, submitted to the tyranny of their old masters, 
and are Slaves to this moment, while the other 7 
Provinces, that were steady and true to themselves, 
remain free, independent and happy. Added to 
this, they now look upon the State of Georgia as 
severed from the general American Confederacy, 


and our enemies spare no pains to persuade them, 
that it will be the same case with the Carolinas, 
Virginia and Maryland. I have thus given you 
fully the objections which have been made to the 
power sent me, that you may take the proper meas- 
ures to remove them if the State still continues 
disposed to attempt a loan in Europe. 

I am so far removed from the port from whence 
this is to take its departure, that I cannot send you 
any new publications, or the public papers; and as 
the gentleman who will be so good as to take 
charge of it, is so fully informed of the state of 
Politics in Europe, tis unnecessary for me to say 
a word on that subject: I will therefore only add, 
that next to an honorable, speedy and happy Peace, 
my most ardent wish is to hear that discord, in- 
trigue, and confusion are totally banished from 
America, and that Union, harmony, and good order 
prevail in full vigor. I have the honor &c. 


F T, 28 September, 1779. 

Dear Brother: 

Yours of the i8th was so long on the road, that 
it was too late to consider the Abba's advice about 
Anvers, as I was obliged before to give a positive 

answer about the house of B lies, which indeed 

was the only one I saw in the several towns in that 


country that pleased me in all respects. It is taken 
for two years certain, and in about 15 daies time I 
propose to leave this place, so that I may receive a 
letter from you here, if you write by the 7th or 8th 
of next month; tho' after I am gone any letters for 
me will be taken care of. I hope the Abb^ has no 
political reasons relative to the dispositions of the 
government that make him advise against Brux- 
elles; if he has, I beg to be informed, that every 
possible precaution may be taken in time: if he has 
not, you may assure him, that in every respect B. 
is far preferable for me to Anvers. 

I know not any English at B., nor am I likely 
to know much of any of them, as my design is to be 
perfectly retirM, and not to form acquaintances of 
any kind. My fam'ly and books will employ my 
whole time, until some business is undertaken, 
which cannot be done in a hurry, and even then, 
it will be better to be at some distance from the 
place of action, since during the war, too much 
cover or secrecy cannot be used to escape the" 
enemy. You will say what is necessary to the 
Abb^ to prevent his taking offence at his advice 
not being followed, and get his letter to the Banker 
at Anvers, for tis possible that in time much may 
be done there, especially if the government is 
favorable, but it is a very dear place to live in. 

I wonder that you have not said one word about 
the contents of the despatches by Capt Sampson, 
on the state of things when he sail'd. 


By the Gazettes I see that he arrived the lo*** in 
Paris and brings papers from Philadelphia to the 
19 July, and no doubt letters of a later date. From 
the paper you sent I understand that the question 
for recalling Arthur Lee was lost, the Votes being 
equal. This was no doubt known at Passy in July, 
when the other proceedings in April were pub^ 
lish'd, and was omitted or concealM with design, 
for this seems to have been at the same time. The 
same paper must also have been bro't by J. 
T[emple]. The conduct of D[ic]k[inso]n may 
be accounted for, as he was always violently 
against Independence. He acted, spoke and voted 
against it; therefore, he may have designs of 
oversetting Independence. But the conduct of M. 

S th* and C. G — f — n,t from Virginia, is to me 

utterly unaccountable, unless it is that the first 
owes me £1^00 sterling, which it is fear'd he has 
neither capacity or inclination to pay, and the lat- 
ter has received many favors from me. Therefore 
*by Shakespeare's principles they may have become 
enemies. However, I begin to think from a review 
of the names and circumstances, that they have 
hitherto fail'd in all their plans, and if so, they 
must grow more and more feeble and despicable 
every day. ^ Can you contrive T. L. to go by the 
opportunity by the way of the West Indies that 

* Meriwither Smith. f Cyms Griffin. 


you say will go in about a month? He has been 
very ill for a long time, but I hope both him and 
Ludwell will now speedily recover as the season is 

You seem to have forgot that by matrimony a 
man is not likely to get any ready money in Vir- 
ginia, which is an article essentially and absolutely 
necessary to carry on trade; besides, in that coun- 
try, the cares of a wife and family are amply suflSc- 
ient to employ a man's whole time. He must how- 
ever go, and if he could be the bearer of any public 
despatches, it may be of service to him. At least 
it may bear the expence of his voyage, which will 
be as well paid to him as to another. 

While Ct. D'Orvilliers kept the sea, the English 
papers and their partizans on the Continent were 
crying out for Peace. Now the combined fleets are 
in Port, 8 E. Indiamen safe, 2 F. E. Indiamen, a 
Manilla and an Havanah ship taken, and the ter- 
rors of an invasion blown over, nothing but war 
and destruction to the House of Bourbon is talk'd 
of, and if their W. India fleets arrive safe, this in- 
solence will increase and we may expect another 
year's war. I conceive Ad^. Ross and his squadron, 
are bound to Gibraltar, perhaps to the West Indias; 
but the first is much more probable, for they con- 
ceive in England that the fleet from Brest will not 
go to sea again this year, and if it does, it will be 
only to take an airing and practice some new 



I see no probability of ending the war speedily, 
unless measures are taken to prevent the Enemy 
from looking into Brest and other ports every day, 
to see what is doing there, which might be easily 
done; and plans are formed and executed to inter- 
cept their merchant fleets of convoys. 

Our love to you and Ludwell. Farewell. 

Portia has continued quite well since her inocu- 
lation : 'tis now the 20^** day, and not the least 
symptom of the small pox. 


Frankfort, 2 October, 1779. 

I have had the honor of receiving a letter from 
you of the 21st. ulto., and have forwarded to Paris 
the letter you inclosed for Commodore Gillon. As 
the merchants in your country have not been much 
accustomed to foreign commerce, 'tis possible that 
it will take some time to convince them of the ad. 
vantages that would arise from a trade with Amer- 
ica, but you who have been in that country may 
easily open their eyes, especially as I cannot sup- 
pose there is a man of common sense in all Europe 
that is so uninformed as not to know now, that it 
is impossible for G. Britain to succeed in her plan 
of subjugating America, which must now remain 
independent. We have been so much distressed 


with a cruel and ravaging war for near five years, 
that it cannot be supposed we can furnish great 
funds to carry on trade with, until we have peace; 
but in the meantime the Prussian Merchants may 
reap the whole immense benefits on this commerce 
both on the exports and imports, if they have but 
the spirit to make the trial, which might be done 
with very little risk, by sfending moderate cargoes 
in different vessels, for which purpose I can easily 
furnish you (if you desire it) with the address of 
proper houses in the different States, to whom your 
business may be recommended, and who will con- 
duct it faithfully and well. I know enough of 
your manufactures and those in your neighborhood 
which might be easily drawn to be exported from 
Embden, to convince me that there will be a great 
trade between the Prussian Dominions and Amer- 
ica, as soon as we have peace, and England is 
obliged to acknowledge our Independence; but 
those who make the first attempts with you, will 
certainly share the greatest profits; therefore, I ad- 
vise you for your own interest to lose no time in 
advising your friends to begin this commerce. I 
shall be much obliged to you for giving me a par- 
ticular description of the Port of Embden, the 
depth of water, if 'tis a safe port and easy for a 
stranger to find the way into, if there are many 
good and substantial mercantile houses there, that 
are acquainted with business, and if an American 





vessel, for instance, coming there could find a 
ready and good market for her goods, and a suffi- 
cient choice of your manufactures to load with in 
return, and any other informations that you may 
think useful and necessary. 


7 October, 1779. 
Dear Sir: 

* * * We have the Gazette that shows the 
issue of Sir G. Collier's expedition to Penobscot ; 
it seems to be of as little importance in itself as the 
burning Newark, &c., in Connecticut with respect 
to conquest; but 'tis possible the consequences 
may be important, as it may be the means of in- 
ducing a continuation of the ruinous and hopeless 
war. Most political people in this quarter think 
that G. B. will certainly seize the opportunity of 
the mediation proposed to make the best peace it 
can obtain this winter; for if this occasion is trifled 
with and peace not made this winter, 'tis most 
probable that a storm, from a quarter where it is 
least expected will arise, the /a/al consequences of 
which to G. (P. , all your power, and all the finesse 
of your ministry will be employed in vain to pre- 
vent The Independence of America all the great 
powers in Europe think, is a thing not only un- 
avoidable, but absolutely necessary; therefore it 


will not only be in vain, but the extreme of Folly 
for the British Ministry to contend, or even hesi- 
tate on that point The withdrawing the troops 
from America and relinquishing N. York, as well 
as Rhode Island, will be the wisest step your min- 
istry can take, especially as during the Winter I 
am convinced they will not run the smallest risk of 
being interrupted by their enemies in bringing 
them to Europe, or sending them to any island in 
the West Indies that they may choose. By this 
time Prevost and Sir James Wright together, must 
be in a deplorable case enough, for I shall be 
much mistaken if they had not had enough to do 
without thinking of an expedition to Charles 
Town. * * * 


Frankfort, 14 October, 1779. 
♦ ♦♦«♦♦♦♦ 

Mr. James Lovell, in the name of the committee 
has sent me a short letter just received, saying that 
Congress had recalled me, but that I need not re- 
pair to America. * 

This is all I know, formally. — Had fliis proceed- 
ing issued from the divan of Constantinople, or 
directly from the cabinet of Versailles, I should not 

♦ Printed on p. 721. 


have been surprised; but, that the representatives 
of a free people should permit themselves to be 
made the instruments of a little, contemptible 
commisy to hear an accusation against a confidential 
servant of the public, most of which their own 
records prove to be false; and without hearing that 
person's defence, or even letting him know that 
he was accused^ to proceed to judgment and crimi- 
nal condemnation, is a procedure that future his- 
torians will perhaps hardly believe, or at least will 
find much diflSculty to account for. — Is it possible 
that the affairs of America can be in such a state 
as to make it necessary in order to avoid being 
conquered by England to deliver yourselves up 
formally as the voluntary slaves of France? 

My heart bleeds at the idea, especially as I could 
open to you such deep plans of villiany and de- 
struction that are plotting against you, as would 
make your hair stand up with astonishment — 
Your salvation must in my opinion arise from an 
union more strict than ever with New England. 

All Europe has resounded the summer past, with 
the invincible strength of the combined fleets and 
the numerous army, that was at a mouth full to 
swallow up England, Scotland and Ireland; all 
which has ended in taking the Ardent of 64 guns, 
with the loss of above ten thousand men dead in 
the Fleets with diseases; above ;^4,ocx),ooo Sterling 
taken from the Spaniards in prizes, 3 French East 


Indiamen and other prizes to the value of about 
;^2,ooo,ooo Sterling more, while every English 
fleet has arrived safe except what has been taken 
by the Americans, some of them only convoyed by 
a single frigate. — Now the English fleet is fully 
able to face the combined fleets, and in the spring 
will be much stronger, so that the superiority in 
the West Indies will be easily recovered. — From 
these facts, on the truth of which you may rely, you 
can judge as well as I, what little probability there 
is of peace this winter, especially as from the prizes, 
and the riches of the East Indies, now all their 
own, England can raise above ;^20,ooo,ooo Sterl- 
ing, for the next year supplies, without borrowing 
one shilling from foreigners ; and the spirit of all 
parties, to repel the threatened invasion, has been 
such as to put into the King's hands between 30 
and 40 thousand new troops exclusive of the militia, 
which troops I much fear, at least in great part, 
will be employed next year in America. 

The Parliament meets in five weeks, and from 
the speech, we may judge something of their in- 
tentions. ♦ * * * 

* Parliament assembled 25 November, 1779. 1° ^^ speech 
from the Throne the King said: '' Trusting in the Divine Provi- 
dence and in the justice of his cause, he was firmly resolved to 
prosecute the war with vigor.'' 

76 1 


BruxbixKS, 30 October, 1779. 
My dear Brother: 

Inclosed you have a copy of my last, of the 149* 
inst, to which I beg your attention — Your son, 
Thom, goes in a vessel to Philadelphia, & I sin- 
cerely hope will arrive safe and afiFord you that sat- 
isfaction which you have a right to expect from 
the attention you have paid and the expense that 
has been laid out upon his education. 

If my abilities enabled me to pay the expense of 
his continuing longer on this side, (which unhap- 
pily for me is not the case) I do not see that there 
would be the least use in his stay. 

He has been long enough in as good a counting 
house as any in Europe, to get a suflScient knowl- 
edge of commerce, especially that of France, where 
all commerce, except a little to their own islands, 
is almost annihilated; and your son will tell you 
how little disposition there is to venture a single 
livre in the trade to America; therefore, without a 
capital to begin with, he could do nothing by stay- 
ing where he is. — In his own country he may find 
some opportunity of exercising the knowledge he 
has gained, and I suppose he will be found well 
qualified to make a good American consul in some 
of the European ports. MT Raleigh Colston seems 
to be a diligent, intelligent gentleman; perhaps 
they may form some plan together, tho' if MI Thos. 


Jett is in business, he will be a good person for 
him to be connected with. 

It will give me very sincere pleasure to find that 
you are satisfied with my proceedings; but I must 
assure you that had he been my own son, I should 
not have acted otherwise than I have done; for at 
present I have no possible method of employing 
him, since the agency for the State of Virginia 
neither yields profit, or afiFords occupation at pres- 
ent; and besides I doubt whether my appointment 
continues, since I have not received any letter from 
Gov. Henry these 18 months past, which may be 
imputed to the intrigues of Mr. Deane, who has 
been always in close correspondence with him, or 
to some falsehoods of the adventurer Pen^t, (of 
which he is very capable,) and who is, I hear, a 
very great man with yon. ♦ * * 

The campaign on sea, in Europe is finished, and 
nothing done, but an amazing sum of money spent 
and about io,ocx) lives lost by disease. Gibraltar 
is beseiged, but in England they seem to have little 
apprehension of its being taken. From the conduct 
of the British ministry, it would seem as if they 
wished it should be taken that they may not be 
embarrassed at the peace, with the demands of 
Spain relative to it. 

The Congress frigate, the Alliance, that brought 
over the Marquis de la Fayette, has been kept idle 
in France, ever since her arrival, waiting for some 


French privateers * the principal of which, 42 guns, 
was commanded by Paul Jones, who was formerly 
in the service of Congress. 

Jones was commodore of the fleet, [which] con- 
sisted of about 6 ships, including the Alliance of 36 


How far the dignity of Congress was supported 
by one of their ships of war sailing under the or- 
ders of a Cap*, of a privateer, you can Judge as 
well as I; however to leave a loop hola to creep 
out at, it is supposed these privateers, besides their 
French commissions, had Congress commissions 

* To his brother, WiUiam wrote that the AUiance was held for 
the service of Chaumont. 

t Febmary 25th Franklin informed Vergennes that he had 
ordered the Alliance to prepare for returning to America, as 
convoy to a fleet of merchant vessels. Being a swift sailing ves- 
sel, it was well fitted for carrying despatches, and the sailing was 
expected to take place at an early day. Some discontents had 
arisen between Captain Landais and his officers, and a part of his 
crew was suspected of being mutinous and disaffected ; thirty- 
eight of the crew had been brought in under confinement, and 
Landais objected to returning with them. Certain repairs en- 
tailed so long a delay that the merchant vessels sailed under the 
convoy of Lamotte Picquet*s fleet from Brest, and soon after, at 
the request of Sartine, the Alliance was ordered to join Jones* 
little squadron at L* Orient Adams, deprived of his expected 
passage, chafed under the disappointment, while Arthur Lee, 
under the plea of important dispatches from himself and Izard, 
insisted upon the Alliance's sailing as proposed, ignorant of the 
request of the French minister. A full statement is found in 
Franklin's Writings^ VIL, 21a 


given them by D^. Franklin, by whose order it 
seems the commander of the Alliance acted. This 
fleet sailed round the north of Scotland, and took 
several prizes, and in the North sea met a British 
fleet of seventy sail from the Baltic, laden with 
naval stores, convoyed by the Serapis of 40 guns 
and ship of 20 guns. 

Jones' ship of 42 guns and the Alliance attacked 
the Serapis; which after a very hard engagement 
was taken, Jones' ship being so much damaged, 
that she was quitted immediately, and sunk. The 
English 20 gun ship was also taken by the rest of 
the privateers; but all the merchantmen escaped. 
The Serapis and 20 gun ship were brought into the 
Texel in Holland, where it is said they are detained, 
being claimed by the British ambassador as prop- 
erty of his Master. 

The papers also tell us that two prizes made by 
the privateers, carried into Bergen, in Norway, 
have been given up at the requisition of the British 
resident at Copenhagen. * I must tell you that all 
these vessels, both in Holland and Norway, went 
into port under American colors. This is one in- 
stance that will shew, (if these reports about these 
vessels prove to be true,) what kind of wisdom 
directed Congress to determine that ministers were 
unnecessary anywhere but in France and Spain. 

♦ The Union was one. 


In my opinion, they are more necessary everywhere 
else. * * * * 

I propose to stay here as long as my finances 
will enable me to do so, or until I hear from Amer- 
ica, particularly from you; for there is little pros- 
pect of being able to do anything beneficial in the 
way of trade, while the war continues, and peace 
seems further off now than it was 20 months ago; 
for the late proceedings in America have kept up 
in full vigor, in the King of Great Britain, the 
thirst of conquering the country by arts or by force; 
therefore unless some unforseen and unexpectedly 
favorable occurrence takes place, I can never ex- 
pect to live to see peace; for as things are conducted 
it will take a long time before the particular ob- 
jects of France and Spain can be accomplished, — 
which being done, if America is not totally ruined 
and depopulated, she may shift for herself.* — My 

* ''In my opinion unless Dr. Franklin is speedily removed, 
and an honest, sensible man in his room ; and, on your part, 
you show more independence in spirit than is to be found in 
some of your late proceedings, America must be ruined, and 
become the prize of the successful combattant in Europe. This, 
you may be assured, is the secret butt of the politics on both 

" Ireland, in our day, is a lamentable example of a very great 
and powerful Republic being ruined and losing both its liberty 
and independence by suffering a powerful foreign state to inter- 
fere, by intrigue and cabal, under the mask of friendship, in the 
appointment, and changing the great officers of the Republic. 

" I send you 8 Parliamentary registers, by Mr. Izard, of the 


whole family join me in sincerest love to you, our 
sister and all the children. 

Adieu & always believe most aflFec*?^ yours. 

P. S. Remember that the political sentiments 
&c. contained herein, are only for your perusal and 
Loudon's, but not to be communicated to any one 
else, as coming from me. 

I just hear that the combined fleets are sailed 
from Brest, and Sir Charles Hardy, with the British 
fleet, ab^ 40 sail of the line is sailed from Portsmo: 
so that your son may possibly carry you the news 
of an import^ sea engagement, that may hasten a 

last session of Parliament, from which you will receive much 
entertainment, if you have not seen them before. I wish most 
heartily, that America, by a bold exertion may finish her war 
before the Spring, for if this is not done, be not surprized to see 
the better half of Europe in arms against us before 12 months 
pasd over. I this moment see by the English papers what a 
hopeful pair [Jay and Carmichael] Congress has sent to Spain 
to complete the business. Gov. Johnstone should be sent in the 
same capacity to Versailles and M^ Silas Deane as his secre- 
tary. How will poor America escape from such hands ? Let 
me hear from you soon. My love to you all." WUliatn Lee 
to R. H. or F, L, Lee, 30 November, 1779. 

''I^igges writes from London that the differences between 
the Lees and Franklin and Deane were turned against the first 
from their families being generally in opposition to Washing- 
ton.** William Lee to Arthur Lee, 8 December, 1779. Some 
remarkable letters on these appointments are given in the 
Works of John Adams, ix., 486, et seq. 



Antwerp, i December, 1779. 

I just hear that the packet for England is going, 
which gives me a moment's time to acknowledge 
the receipt of your favor of the 23d. ulto. It was 
never my desire or intention to keep from the good 
people of Aldgate Ward that charge which they 
intrusted me with, one moment after I knew their 
wishes on the subject. Therefore it will be per- 
fectly agreeable to me that you should put the 
gentlemen of the Common Council in possession of 
the resignation I sent you last year. If you have 
any objection to this, let me know it, and tell me 
what mode you desire should be adopted, for I 
shall be happier when entirely clear of every public 
charge than I can be in one, in the present situa- 
tion of things. 'Tis certainly commendable to love 
one's country, and I am sure you not only do that, 
but you love justice and humanity. * * * 


London, 3 December, 1779. 

We have greatly lamented your long absence from 
lis, and the consequent necessary omission of the vari- 
ous duties of this Ward, which you discharged entirely 
to our satisfaction, during your residence here. We 
enclose you very unwillingly the resolutions of the 
Wardmote last St. Thomas's Day, for we have till 


lately entertained the fond hope of a reconciliation be- 
tween the mother country and her colonies. From 
that flattering expectation, which we entertained in 
common with every good Englishman, we now are 
forced, with much reluctance, to depart : the necessity 
of that unhappy circumstance, at present superseding 
every other consideration, the connection between us 
must now be dissolved. It is with pain we reflect on 
this business, but we shall always retain a grateful 
memory of your services as our Alderman. We have 
only farther to desire that your answer to us may in- 
close a letter of resignation to the Lord Mayor, and 
Court of Aldermen, as Alderman of Aldgate Ward. 
We are, sir, &c. 
J. Bellet, J. Partridgb, Deputy, 

Thos. Hoi^dsworth, S. Thorpb, 
G. Heath, Cha. Lincoi^n.* 

* "A Court of Aldermen is to be held at Gmldhall on Tues- 
day next, when it is expected that the resignation of Alderman 
Lee will be accepted ; and a day appointed for holding a ward- 
mote for the election of another Alderman in his room. We 
cannot help taking notice of the illiberal reflection thrown on 
that gentleman in a morning paper of yesterday, when it is 
considered that Mr. Lee is a native of America. 

" To a man bom and educated in that country, it would be an 
unpardonable crime to continue to live under and support that 
government, who have been attempting to ruin and enslave the 
state that gave him birth ; he who possesses the liberal senti- 
ments of an Englishman, will applaud the patriotic virtue of a 
Lee ; but the man that is a stranger to those exalted ideas, we 
pity rather than condemn. " General Adz/ertiser and Morning" 
Inleiligencer (hondon), ii December, 1779. 

The meeting was held on Wednesday (not Tuesday) and the 



Pkankfort, 24 December, 1779. 

I got the Carolina letter safe. You had my 
answer to Mr. N . The Guernsey plan is dan- 
gerous, and after all might turn out an ignis 
fatuus, at any rate 'tis more than probable 142 
would know the whole from D. 

'Tis strange we are kept so much in the dark 
about their proceedings in America. What Ct. 
D'Estaing can do in the West Indies, we are at a 
loss to conjecture, but he will certainly be for- 
tunate if the foggy weather prevents his meeting 
with Byron who is much stronger. 

I beg to know if supplies of clothing, &c., have 
been sent for the use of the Continental army this 
winter, and next campaign ; without this we must 
suflFer greatly. I suppose you are properly in- 
formed of the determinations in England, of which 
advice should be given to America by various 
opportunities. The troops now in contemplation 
to send from England are y? i and 2 battalions of 
Royals, 3, 11, 13, 19, 25, 30, 32, 36 and 39 Regi- 

Lord Mayor "informed the Court, that he had received a me- 
morial from several of the inhabitants of the ward of Aldg^te, 
respecting the election of an Alderman of that ward, in the 
room of William Lee, Esq.; who is gone to reside in America. 
The court were unanimously of opinion that they had no right 
to interfere in the business. Mr. Lee must resign his gown, 
which resignation we hear is every day expected.'* Do,^ 16 


ments, from Ireland the i8, 66 and 67 Regiments, 
in all 14 regiments which may make about 5 or 
6000 men ; tho' the embarkation of these troops is 
not absolutely decided, as to time and place, yet 
'tis very certain that they intend to carry on an 
oflFensive war next year against America, from 
which nothing will prevent them but the Ameri- 
cans taking advantage of Clinton's present weak- 
ness, and driving him out of New York or Rhode 
Island, before he gets reinforced. No new troops 
will go from this country, and I believe not near 
the number requisite to recruit the German corps 
now in America. Some few hundred recruits may 
possibly be sent. 

If France attends to that point and will intercept 
the troops in their passage from Ireland (for they 
will most probably set out from Cork with provis- 
ions) to America, the next Campaign may finish 
the war. I have seen a letter here that mentions 
Mons. Monthieu, Beaumarchais, &c., are sending 
out 4 frigates, the Fier Roderigue, Drake and two 
others, with several other vessels loaded with mer- 
chandize &c., for America, and that Mr. J. Wil- 
liams goes Supercargo of the fleet. I do not find 
that any here will be concerned in this expedition, 
but I wish to know if any part is on account of 

Congress or the State of V a. The Courrier de 

1' Europe we never see here, so that we have no 
American accounts of what has passed there in 



September and October. There is not the least 
probability of Peace this winter in Germany, and 
the politics of the North, I am quite clear have em- 
braced England, which has encouraged the Minis- 
try to go on with the war. If France and Spain 
proceed on presumption of this, I will answer for it 
that she will not be deceived. Our love to you all. 





BRUXBUfBS, 24 December, 1779. 

On my return from a journey, I had the honor 
of receiving your favour of the 3d instant, inclos- 
ing the proceedings at the Wardmote, in Aldgate 
Ward, December 21, 1778, and desiring that my 
answer may inclose a letter of resignation, as Al- 
derman of Aldgate Ward, to the Lord Mayor and 
Court of Aldermen. The inclosed letter to his 
Lordship and the Court, will shew you, that above 
thirteen months ago I sent a letter of resignation 
to the Lord Mayor, &c., which unfortunately has 
not come to hand, otherwise the proceedings of the 
Wardmote would not have taken place, nor would 
you have had the trouble of again inclosing them 
to me. 

ments, from '. . iibm_ — ' **"*• you will also assure 
in all 14 regi. ^i^M the Ward of Aldgate, that 
6000 mcD; til'. ^ .a^aA the trust which you and 
not absolute^. . ^ummhm- to coofcr npoa me, at a 
'tis very cert... ^M^had I not been informed that 
offnisive w^.,.,;^ :■««. otttnzy to your and their 
which nothi;.^, ^aam canfirmed to me by your 
cans takin}; 

ness, and di. ^ .iwoHStttresistible necessity, aris- 
Island, befL ^ milidhlr vengeance with which 
will go fro: ...^iKiMtt of mj conntry is pursued, 
the number ;^<0l mt fiom a post in which your 
now in Am. iragiw ptand me, and in which I 
possibly bL ^{ppiMI»«f co-operating with men 

If Franc: ..jk atti la c ocT u ptible virtue, in de- 
the troops o :tbectr «■! tiie constitution, which 

will most . A'Aogfy llnaded. Bat the eagerness 
ions) to . ,■ .^Avage tli^"*, and unfeeling mer- 

the war. ^eu hlN^ and excited to the de- 

Mons. >: Lfiica, bj eireiy species of teachery 

out 4 fri M^ uaiAl it impossible for me to 

others, v lulerUJBKniDicnt, thus capable 

chandizi vilest&aHH, for the most flagi- 

liams g< 

that air ,1 la^bAtidknis arts, such i 

but I \ ha >B|knte determination to 

Congn- aflM^tft misery and ruin of 

TEuro; ng ^Bfe never before dis- 

Ameri' >f if^L It remained for a 


I beg to be assured, and that you will also assure 
the worthy Freemen of the Ward of Aldgate, that 
I should have resigned the trust which you and 
they had the goodness to confer upon me, at a 
much earlier period, had I not been informed that 
such a measure was contrary to your and their 
wishes, which is now confirmed to me by your 
joint letter. 

Nothing but the most irresistible necessity, aris- 
ing from the implacable vengeance with which 
the utter destruction of my country is pursued, 
could have forced me from a post in which your 
honorable suffrages placed me, and in which I 
have had the happiness of co-operating with men 
of the most pure and incorruptible virtue, in de- ^ 
fence of public liberty and the constitution, which 
have been so daringly invaded. But the eagerness 
with which the savage Indians, and unfeeling mer- 
cenaries, have been hired, and excited to the de- 
vastations in America, by every species of teachery 
and barbarity, has made it impossible for me to 
live any longer under a government, thus capable 
of employing the vilest means, for the most flagi- 
tious purposes. 

Such unprincipled and perfidious arts, such in- 
exorable cruelty, such a desperate determination to 
hazard everything to effect the misery and ruin of 
a distant, and offending people, never before dis- 
tinguished the worst of wars. It remained for a 


combination of them all, to characterize a Scotish 
war under a Scotish favourite^ waged against the 
principles of English liberty. In such a situation 
of things, I could not disgrace the name I bear, nor 
prove myself unworthy of the confidence you have 
been pleased to place in me, by refusing to lend my 
feeble aid in so just and necessary a resistance to 
those who are impiously invading the rights of 
human nature, and of my country. 

I have endeavoured, gentlemen, to execute the 
office, with which you honoured me, with the 
strictest fidelity, as long as it was consistent with 
my principles, and the circumstances already men- 
tioned, for me to remain among you, and I return 
it, with the highest gratitude for your past favours, 
and the sincerest wishes for your happiness. 

I must particularly request of you, Mr. Deputy, 
and Gentlemen of the Common Council, to accept 
my warmest thanks, for the very obliging terms in 
which you have expressed your entire approbation 
of my conduct as your Alderman, during my resi- 
dence among you, which is a most ample reward 
for my endeavours to serve you, and to defend the 
rights of the good Freemen of the Ward of Aldgate, 
in which, however, my efforts would have had very 
little effect, if they had not been uniformly sec- 
onded by so firm and able a Common Council as I 
had the pleasure of acting with. 

I have the honour to be with the highest respect 


and consideration, Gentlemen, your much obliged 
and grateful servant.* 


Bruxbi,i,BS, 29 January, 178a 
Dear Brother: 

I have received yours of the 22d. with the ac- 
count of the snuffbox presented on the part of his 
most Xtian Majesty. Your scruples about receiv- 
ing it were certainly just, but I do not know how 
you cou'd have refused it, without giving signal 
offence to his Majesty, which shou'd by all means 
be avoided, as I think it essentially necessar>' to 
cultivate a good understanding and harmony be- 
tween his Majesty and your constituents by every 
fair and honorable means in your power. Your 
judgment cannot easily be deceived, and therefore 

* Lee*s resignation was not laid before the Court tiU January 
I9tli, when it was at once accepted, and the foUowing Friday 
fixed for a Ward mote to be held at Ironmongers' Hall. John 
Bumell was chosen without opposition, and by a majority of 
twelve, the freemen of the ward gave a vote of thanks to Lee, 
''the late Alderman." 

" There is like to be as warm a contest for the Aldermanship 
of Aldgate Ward, in the room of William Lee, Esq ; (who has 
resigned) as ever was known. There are no less than seven 
Candidates which have already started, and were yesterday 
morning canvassing the ward, all of whom declare they are de- 
termined to stand the poll.'' London Chronicle ^ 15 January, 


you will know how to appreciate civilities; but I 
suppose some kind of letter will accompany the 
box, that will show clearly the intention of the 
giver. I have conversed with our friend here on 
the subject, and we are both of opinion that you 
should not write to Congress or anybody in Amer- 
ica about it, but carry the box with you and lay it 
on the table of Congress at your first audience, re- 
lating the facts plainly as they are, for without a 
particular and express resolution of Congress on the 
subject, I do not conceive that you can with pro- 
priety keep it 

Mr. Izard will tell you the state of aflFairs in 
Holland, where there is great room for political 
negotiation, as well as in the courts of the north. 
Since Mr. I. left us I have not heard anything 
from the enemy's country. We beg our compli- 
ments to all friends with you, and send you our 
love. Farewell. 

P. S. Do you know y? Baron Breteuil, or do 
you wish to have a letter of introduction to him ? 
He is worthy of every attention in my opinion.* 

^Addressed, A Monsieur Lee, Hotel Vendome, Rue des petits 
Augustins, Fauxb^ St Germain, Paris. 

When taking leave of the French ministry, Arthur Lee was 
presented by the King, a gold snuff box, bearing his Majesty's 
picture set with diamonds. "As you may imagine, I was em- 
barrassed about receiving or refusing it. He [Arthur Lee] told 
the minister that he believed it was contrary to the rules of 
those he had represented to receive any present The Count 



Bruxbi«i,BS, 15 February, 1780. 
My dear Brother: 

A few days ago only I received your favor dated 
i^ Aug^ from Chantilly, which is all that I have re- 
ceived from you since June 1778, and not one from 
London since 1777. 

This letter came to me from Bilboa, and I sup- 
pose was bro^. by MT John Adams, who arrived in 
the Sensible^ French frigate, at Corunna, two 
months ago from Boston. This gentleman was 
not got to Paris the 9^^ irist, tho' he arrived at 
Bordeaux some time last month.* 

The letters you refer me to written from Phila- 
delphia, have never come to my hands, dnd I can't 
help supposing that most, if not all my letters, for 
near two years past, both to Congress and yourself, 
have been some how or other intercepted or kept 
back, as well as your letters to me. 

Your letter covered Ellis's account current from 
March to June 1779, balance in my favor ;^4,i26.- 
II. You say ;^54o8.i6 has been paid to our 

answered that this was a mark of his Majesty's esteem, and was 
never refused. Upon that it was accepted, with a resolution of 
leaving it at the disposal of Congress after it had served as a 
proof to that body of the nntruth of what had been reported to 
them of your friend having given [offence] and being odious to 
this court'* Arthur Lee to William Lee^ 22 January, 178a 

*Adams with Dana and Thaxter reached Paris on the 9th. 


brother F. L. L. for me. This is the only account 
I have received relative to the estate, since that 
you sent me from Williamsburg in January 1778. 

I fear from a resolution of Congress in July last 
published in the Gazettes, that the interest on the 
few dollars lent before March 1778, will no longer 
be paid in bills on Paris.* If it should be paid in 
bills, tho' the amount is small, it will be of great 
service at this time, when the possible means of 
giving bread to my family is not clear to me, for 
more than a short time, and it is almost impossible 
to transport them now to America, where I mean to 
transport myself as soon as I can find a practicable 
opportunity, unless some proper employment 
should occur in Europe, of which I see no prospect 
at present Whatever you determine about the es- 
tate, whether to sell or not, I hope will turn out for 
the best; I see no political objection with respect 
to me personally, because the inclosed Gazette will 
shew you, that I have made myself more free, than 
it was in the power of Congress to make me; there- 
fore the only consideration is, which will be the 
most advantageous, on which I cannot determine, 
being utterly unacquainted with the actual present 
situation, and future prospect of things with you. 

Copies of the inclosed paper, I dare say, will not 
easily find their way to America, through France, 

* Journals of Congress, 29 June, 1780. 


as the undertrappers of Deane's faction will wish to 
keep, as long as they can, the only popular subject 
of making me ungracious to my countrymen. 

You remember that Governor Henry, and the 
council of Virginia in 1777, appointed me agent for 
the state of Virginia. I have not received any 
letters from him or anybody else about this busi- 
ness since May 1778, tho' I have written frequently, 
and so has my brother from Paris. He has re- 
quested of you, and so have I, which I do again, to 
endeavor that remittances be made speedily, to an- 
swer the engagements we have made in France, on 
account of the state; a full state of which has been 
repeatedly sent to the Governor. This seems now 
more necessary than ever, for I have just received 
a letter from one of the first merchants in France, 
of which the following is an extract 

** Feby 10, 1780. Sundry people of Nantes wrote me 
that Mr Penet, formerly a West India ship's surgeon, 
had written that he was appointed agent for the state 
of Virginia, likewise superintendent of the whole 
commerce of that state in France. I have found that 
choice very surprising." 

Perhaps others are as much surprised as this 
gentleman; however, these days are big with won- 
ders. * * * * 



Bruxbi^i^ES, 17 March, 178a 
Dear Sir: 

I understand that our enemies have now in con- 
templation the offering of some terms to America, 
which go no farther than a truce; probably some- 
what similar to the propositions made last year by 
Spain to Great Britain. * 

Though I am not informed of the terms of peace 
with which you are charged, nor whether your 
powers are discretionary, I trust you will not think 
it an intrusion in me to offer my sentiments on 
a proposition as a truce for America, supposing it 
should be made. 

A truce with America must, of course, accom- 

* " I can never suppose this country so far lost to all ideas of 
self-importance as to be willing to grant America independence ; 
if that could even be universally adopted, I shall despair of this 
country being ever preserved from a state of inferiority, and 
consequently falling into a very low class among the European 
states. If we do not feel our own consequence, other nations 
will not treat us above what we esteem ourselves. I hope never 
to live to see that day, for, however I am treated, I must love 
this country." The King to Lord Norths 7 March, 1780. 

It is, however, not a little curious that in his " secret ** letter 
{**pour vous seul**) to Lord North, dated i December, 1780, 
Necker proposed a truce, during which the belligerents in 
America were each to remain in possession of the territories 
they then held. George III. rejected the proposal, holding that 
"independency of the colonies, whether under its apparent 
name or a tmce, is the same in reality." 


pany a peace in Europe ; in that case, our enemies, 
after recovering from their present exhausted state, 
having their hands clear of European troubles, 
would have their whole strength to employ against 
America ; for, I conceive, that with such a pros- 
pect before them, there would not be the most dis- 
tant probability of agreeing on a peace before the 
expiration of the truce. 

In America we must keep up a great military 
and naval establishment to prevent our being 
taken by surprise, at nearly as great an expense as 
we are now at in war, and besides risk the dreadful 
misfortunes which have almost universally at- 
tended standing armies and a heavy load of debt 
on the state. I cannot suppose it possible that 
France and Spain would consent to a truce with 
America while the war is to continue between 
Great Britain and them ; but if they should, would 
it be wise in America to accept of a truce on such 
terras, and to let our allies run the hazard of being 
destroyed, that we may become an easy prey 

These are some of the evident objections to a 
truce in any shape, nor can I see any possible 
argument in its favor, though I know there are 
some Americans, though well-intentioned, but 
visionary geniuses, whose heads run much on the 
idea of a truce; but I hope nothing will be attended 
to, unless they are fair, open, and honorable propo- 


sitions for a substantial and lasting peace, in which 
blessed work I most heartily wish you speedy and 
full success. 

The Dutch are in a very disturbed state ; as yet 
there does not seem to be a probability of their 
taking a decided and open part with us in the war. 
The influence and power of the Prince of Orange 
are unfortunately too great to permit them to adopt 
those measures which their honor and interest 
direct, and which, I believe, a great majority of 
the people wish.* The Prince is retained against 
us by the flattering prospect of marrying his 
daughter to the Prince of Wales ; but in Europe, 
where every thing is bought and sold, France and 
Spain may do great things ; for the confidant and 
director of the Prince is as mercenary a wretch as 
can be found in England, or even in Scotland. 

We shall probably see Mr. Laurens here on his 
way to Holland ; but if he does not pass through 
this town, I shall be much obliged to you for 
giving me any interesting public intelligence that 
he brings. 

Be pleased to present my respects to Mr. Dana ; 
and if I can be of any service here in promoting 

* In January 1780 a Dutch fleet, laden with naval stores for 
France, and convoyed by Count Bylandt, was met by a British 
squadron under Admiral Fielding. An attempt of the English 
to search the vessels was resisted, a contest followed, and some 
of the Dutch ships were taken. 


the great work you have in hand, or in rendering 
any services to our country, I shall be always 
happy in receiving your commands, being with 
great esteem &c. 


Paris, March 2i8t, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I have just received your favor from Brussels of the 
17th of this month, and I thank you for this instance 
of your attention to me. 

Considering the state of Ireland and the spirit that 
seems to be rising in England, which has already 
attained such a height as to baffle the Minister and the 
East India Company, and to carry many votes in the 
House of Commons almost to a balance with him, and 
even some against him, I ^ould not be at all sur- 
prised, if terms, such as you mention, should be offered 
to America; nor should I be surprised if another 
rumor, which has propagated at the Palais Royal this 
day, should prove true, that a great change is made or 
to be made in the Ministry, and that the Lords Shel- 
bume and Rockingham, Burke, &c., are in. Yet I 
have no proper accounts of either. 

Whatever may be my powers or instructions, or 
whether I have any or not, I am very much obliged to 
you for your sentiments on such a proposition as a 
truce for America, supposing it should be made. 
Your arguments are of great weight, and will un- 
doubtedly be attended to by every one, whoever he 


may be, who shall be called to give an opinion upon 
such a question. You will not expect me at present to 
give, if it is proper for me even to form, any decided 
opinion upon it. Yet this much I may venture to say, 
that having had so long an experience of the policy of 
our enemies, I am persuaded, from the whole of it, if 
they propose a truce, it will not be with an expectation 
or desire that America should accept it, but merely to 
try one experiment more to deceive, divide, and seduce, 
in order to govern. 

You observe that the heads of some well-intentioned, 
though visionary, Americans run much upon a truce. 
I have seen and heard enough to be long since con- 
vinced that the Americans in Europe are by no means 
an adequate representation of those on the other side of 
the water. They neither feel nor reason like them in 
general. I should, therefore, upon all occasions hear 
their arguments with attention, weigh them with care, 
but be sure never to follow them when I knew them to 
differ from the body of their countrymen at home. 

You say the Dutch are disturbed. Do you wonder 
at it? They have been kicked by the English as no 
reasonable man would kick a dog. They have been 
whipped by them as no sober postillion would whip a 
hackney coach horse. Can they submit to all this 
upon any principle which would not oblige them to 
submit if the English were to bombard Amsterdam or 
cut away their dykes? 

I wish I knew the name of the principle confidant 
and director of the Prince, whom you name.* 

*Dake of Brunswick, brother to Prince Ferdinand, Field 
MTHhftl and commander in chief of the Dutch land forces. 


I am very anxious to hear of the arrival of Mr. 
Laurens, but suspect you will hear it first. Mr. Dana 
returns his respects to you. 

I thank you, sir, for your offers of service ; nothing 
can oblige me more than to communicate to me any 
intelligence of the designs of our enemies, in politics or 
war, and their real and pretended forces by sea and 
land. Pray, what is the foundation of the story of a 
quintuple alliance between Holland, Sweden, Russia, 
Prussia, and Denmark ? 

I am sir, with great esteem, your humble servant, 

John Adams. 


Bruxbi«i«BS, 21 March, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I have just received from our mutual friend at 
Amsterdam your obliging letter of y? 14th No- 
vember, which gave me very great pleasure, tho' 
it is very long since y^ I heard of your safe arrival. 
You will no doubt give me some credit, since you 
have found things where you are so much like 
what you know, above 12 months ago, I judged 
they would be. 

Your friend, I hear from various quarters, has 
been true and steady to the good cause, tho' his 
name does not appear in my particular favor; but 
y* part Mr. J. Dickinson has taken, I confess, sur- 
prizes me. If you are acquainted with him, I beg 


you will give my particular respects to him, and 
tell him my esteem for him is not abated, from y? 
part he has taken with S. D., because I am con- 
vinced y? he must have been most strangely de- 
ceived, otherwise it is incredible that a man of his 
good sense, & as I believe goodness of heart, could 
have stept forth y? champion of one of y^ worst 
men I ever knew, who has neither Honor, Repu- 
tation, or Property to lose, but every thing to gain 
by public confusion, the ruin and misery of his 

[ t ] has been much offended at what has 
passed, and was near too fatally showing that he 

* " I was much concerned to see the Sieur Dickinson, who 
some years ago made such a conspicuous figure among the 
American patriots, represented in the Gazette of Cologne as be- 
ing now in Congress, and exerting all his talents and address, 
to bring America again under subordination of Great Britain. 
Mentioning this yesterday to an intelligent American that has 
spent some time in this city, and honors me with his acquaint- 
ance, he told me that Mr. Dickinson had exerted himself 
against the Declaration of Independence, and that his warmth 
on that occasion had rendered him suspected at that time to 
his county, and obliged him to quit Congress. But since that, 
finding a British party growing strong, headed by Mr. R. Mor- 
ris, and very imprudently patronized by the first French minis- 
ter, whom they had most grossly imposed upon, Mr. Dickinson 
had returned to Congress, and might very possibly be pursuing 
his old system, and endeavoring to get your independency de- 
feated." William Lee to Arthur Lee^ 15 May, 1780. 

fA blank in the original; perhaps the King of Prussia is 


was of importance enough to have some represen- 
tative to him. But fortunately for us, the prospect 
of some rupture about P[o]l[an]d has restrained 
him, which also keeps R[ussi]a quiet, that would 
otherwise infallibly by this time, have been openly 
against us; thus it seems, that we shall not have 
any more European enemies this year than we had 
before. Mr. J[a]y and his trusty Squire do not 
seem to have been received with such open arms as 
they expected ; however as they are charged with 
terms highly beneficial to one, and oppressive to 
the other, there is no doubt of their being received; 
and if there is any stuff io be fingered, I will answer 
for both of them sticking like leeches to y? charge. 
You know that another is to reap the harvest from 
the seed we sowed at Aix. In Holland they have 
been for some time in great political fermentation 
in consequence of y? English taking their fleet of 
men of war under convoy of a Dutch admiral and 
merchantmen, in y? channel, and carrying them 
all into Portsmouth, where y? cargoes of y? mer- 
chantmen have been all condemned (tho not con- 
traband), and the men of war permitted to return 
home. The States General have issued some 
spirited resolutions and 'bove 50 men of war 
(chiefly frigates) are to be fitted out in the spring; 
but it will end in smoak, for y^ monied men, it is 
supposed, have ventured above two millions ster- 
ling in y? last English loan of 12 millions, where y? 


gain was too great to be refused by a D[utchina]n. 
For y? standing interest is near 6 per cent, and y? 
subscribers already gain 7^ to 75^ per cent on sell- 
ing, tho' the loan has not been settled a month. 
And, alas! the P. of O. expects to marry bis 
daughter to the P. of Wales. ***♦♦♦♦ 


Brussels, 30 March, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I have had the honor of receiving yours of the 
2ist instant. The name of the person you wish to 
know, is the Duke of Brunswick, brother to Prince 
Ferdinand, Field Marshall and Commander in 
Chief of the Dutch land force. He is not liked by 
his family, as they conceive he is too much at- 
tached to the House of Austria. 

The quintuple alliance that you mention, I con- 
ceive, is only the conjecture of some politicians; for 
there is not in fact any solid appearance of the 
Dutch resenting like men or an independent nation 

*"G. Plater writes to I[zard?], the general purport of 
A[dam]s* mission, and says, *I refer you for particulars to my 
fnend C[ar]m[ichae]l.' This heavy man is uncle to F. L. L., 
but of an understanding of a right size for C[ar]m[ichae]l or 
D[ean]e, to play with, as a cat does with a dead mouse. He 
has, however, great property, likes the bottle, and any one that 
will laugh or grin." William Lee to Arthur Lee^ 24 March, 


the cruel injuries and insults (that would be intoler- 
able to any other people) which they have received 
from the English. The Prince of Orange, the 
better to deceive, and perhaps reflecting on the fate 
of DeWitt, pretended to resent highly the insult 
offered to his flag; but you will agree with me that 
it must be only a pretence, when you know that 
Admiral Byland is to be honorably acquitted; and 
in consequence it is expected that the best Captain 
in the Dutch navy will resign. 

I hope you did not construe my last into any de- 
sign of drawing from you any of the secrets of your 
mission, for, believe me, I have no such curiosity, 
being quite satisfied with that information respect- 
ing it, which the world is, and has been a long 
time, in possession of; and besides, I know too 
well how extremely necessary circumspection and 
secrecy are to procure success to a negotiation. * 

*Adams wished to throw the gage to the English ministry by 
annooncing his powers direct to them ; but Vergennes thought 
it more prudent not to communicate them to any person what^ 
ever, and especially to guard against a premature knowledge of 
them reaching the English government (24 February, 1780.) 
Chafing under inaction, Adams urged upon the minister in July, 
a publication of his powers, but Vergennes was still of opinion 
that such a measure would be inopportune, and informed him 
of what the French court had done in aid of America. Still far 
from being convinced, Adams imprudently undertook to criti- 
cise the policy and programme of the French court, and Ver- 
gennes abruptly closed his correspondence. 


Diffidence and distrust of an enemy are always 
warrantable, but particularly so when one has had 
repeated experience of their duplicity and treach- 
ery; the fatal experience of the Dutch in the nego- 
tiations at Gertruy den berg, as well as many other 
examples, teach us that distrust and resentment 
should not be carried to unreasonable length. 

A great and good man has wisely observed that 
the best time to make peace is, when your enemy 
wishes for it; and I hope that the aflfairsof Ireland, 
with vigorous and well-directed operations on our 
part this campaign, will reduce our enemies to wish 
for peace in earnest before this year ends; although 
they seem to be getting the better of the opposition 
at home, which, it appears, they are determined to 
do, either by fraud or violence, as the papers will 
tell you how narrowly the life of Lord Shelburne 
has escaped one of the Scotch assassins. * 

With infinite pleasure, I shall communicate to 
you what information I may receive in my retire- 
ment, of the nature you require; but I apprehend 
that a few hundred pounds sterling per annum, 
properly applied, might procure you such intelli- 
gence as would be worth millions to America; for, 
in our enemies* quarters, everything goes by pur- 
chase and sale; therefore, it was high time for us 
to have done with them. 

* Shelburne was wounded in a duel fought on the 22d March, 
with a Mr. Pnllarton. 


We have no intelligence of the arrival of Mr. 
Laurens, though there are letters which mention 
his being embarked. 

The Spaniards will do well to keep a watchful 
eye on the buccaneering expedition now preparing 
in England against their possessions in South 
America. I have the honor &c. 


Anvbrs, 9 April, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I hope this will reach you before your embark- 
ment on the great water, as it conveys to you the 
fervent wishes of myself and household, for your 
speedy and happy arrival in your own country, 
where if your rewards are equal to your merits, 
they will still not be greater than I wish you, or 
than I am sure you deserve. 

The Gentleman at Madrid cannot meet with 
many difficulties there, since the Independance of 
America was publicly proclaimed by beat of drum, 
at New Orleans the 19*^ of last August ; but I un- 
derstand that the secretary, MT Carmichael, has 
written to Paris, that he went to Madrid first, to 
prepare the way for MT Jay, which had occasion 'd 
him an infinite deal of fatigue, in so much that he 
had not slept for 4 nights ; however he had at last 
surmounted all the difficulties, and MT Jay was 


to make his entry into Madrid the 13V* of last 
month. * 

I send you No. 27 of the Courier de Bas Rhine. 
The letter said to be authentic, written from Phila- 
delphia, is said to have been furnished to the 
editor of this gazette by a MT Dumas, agent for 
DoctT Franklin at the Hague, and who it is re- 
ported, expects to be appointed charg^ des affaires, 
for the United States of America, in Holland, f 
An American gentleman here, supposes that the 
letter, if 'tis genuine, was written by M^ Silas 

The Empress of Russia has declared to the 
ambassadors of Prance, Spain and Great Britain, 
that she is determined to keep a strict neutrality 
in the present war; and to maintain that neutrality 
and the general freedom of commerce, by a great 
part of her naval force : that all neutral ships shall 
not only sail unmolested on the high seas, but on 
the coasts, and into, and out of, the ports of the 

* There is nothing of this anxiety in CarmichaeVs letters 
printed in the DiplomaHc Correspondence of the Revolution^ V., 
17. Jay's instructions to Carmichael are printed in the same 
series, IV., 148. Carmichael did report "a tedious and dis- 
agreeable journey." He wrote to Jay on the i8th of February : 
"Mr. Arthur Lee corresponded with the Count de Florida 
Blanca, but if I am well informed, the correspondence consisted 
of American news on the one part, and compliment on the 

fSee the letter to Arthur Lee, 24 April, 1780, post. 


parties at war; that free ships shall make free 
goods, unless in articles of contraband, conform- 
able to the stipulations of her Treaty with Great 

On these principles she had applied to Sweden, 
Danemark, Holland and Portugal, publicly to 
enter into a league with her, which no doubt they 
will do. 

The associations in England, recommended by 
the meeting of deputies, from the several county 
committees, seem to be generally approved; but 
still the Parliament seems to be at the beck of the 
ministers; tho' we shall be able to form a better 
judgment on this head, when we know what has 
been done the 6th of this month, which was fixed 
for taking the county petitions into consideration, f 

In Ireland the people are by no means satisfied 
with their free trade, notwithstanding the addresses 
of their two houses of Parliament; they demand a 
free constitution totally independent of the British 
Parliament, and this they will have if the war 

*This declaration was issued 8 March, 1780, (N. S.) In addi- 
tion to the principles mentioned by Lee, two others were as- 
serted : that contraband are arms and ammnnitions of war, and 
nothing else ; and that no port is blockaded nnless the enemy's 
ships, in adequate number, are near enough to make the entry 

tSee Donne., George the Thirtts Letters to Lord North, II, 


Not a word of what has become of Clinton, but 
it appears by the secret orders on board the trans- 
port driven into England, that the general rendez- 
vous was at Tybee. 

Walsingham was waiting at S*. Helena for a fair 
wind, the 2? ins* with the West India fleet; he 
will have 6 ships of the line and 6,(XX) troops; it is 
given out in England, that he goes first to Africa, 
and from thence to the West Indies, but some sus- 
pect that he goes directly to North America, for he 
certainly carries out the recruits for the several 
regiments now in America.* * * * 

* Signed Bn de Bach, and addressed to Arthur Lee at 
L'Orient. It was while at L* Orient that Arthur received a copy 
of Carmichaers statement to Congress. John Adams'* Works^ 
VII., 133 

Carmichael said Lee "sometimes sees things in a different 
light from any one else. I have not with me a copy of the 
paper which in consequence of the request of many gentlemen 
in the house, I laid before Congress, but I recollect the sub- 
stance of it, viz. that Mr. Lee has rendered himself disagreeable 
to the Court and individuals of the French nation, and even 
suspected by the former, and that I derived my knowledge of 
this from those who were connected with the Court, and named 
Messrs. Grand on this occasion. This, and much more, M. 
Gerard and M. Holker confirmed by papers delivered either to 
Congress, or members of that body, which as well as that 
written by me are in private journals, or files of Congress." 
Carmichael to Franklin^ 27 April, 1780. 

"Mr. ? has just bro*t me C[armichael]*s Memoir e^ as he 
would affectedly call it, which, on the whole, is more a pane- 
gyric on himself, than a censure on you. You see by his letter 



BrtjxsixBS, 9 April, 178a 
Dear Sir: 

I thank you for your favor of the 2d. instant 
The commission you have is certainly very highly 
important and honorable, and I doubt not of your 
executing it properly, taking care that the shafts of 
of envy and malice, which have already begun to 
show themselves, shall not divert your attention 

to Mr. G. Grand that he is at his old game, endeavoring to 
make Jay now appear a cypher, as he did Deane before, by his 
letters to London. Serionsly to reflect on the proceedings in 
this business, is really distressing : to admit the person as an 
evidence^ who stands charged with criminal offences, by the per- 
son now accused, is subverting every idea of l^al evidence that 
has yet been established in any orderly society. 'Tis not sur- 
prising that Bancroft should know of your going to Spain when 
he was the confidant of Deane and the regular correspondent of 

C ^1. You can't forget that before the date of Ridley's letter, 

this gentleman had been with Johnson some time in Paris, and 
had with WiUiams, lodged in the same hotel with Carmichael, 
when no doubt he planned the idea of this letter, which poor 
Ridley does not seem to have executed so weU as Jackson did 
on the same subject after the tutoring he got from C — m — 1 at 
Calais, in 1777, when the Public stands charged with about 4 
guineas by C. for his expences, under the pretext of going to 

get a copy of Ct Maurepas* letter to Lord Mansfield (see C ^I's 

curious account against Deane). 

" Why did he insult Petrie by omitting to honor him in the 
list of the discontented ? who fortunately for you, make a group 
of needy adventurers whose main object was to plunder the 
Public in concert with Deane and CarmichaeL The ill-wiU of 
the minister, I am satisfied, arose from Beanmarchais and the 


from the great object you have in view, which I 
have no reason to think at present will be speedily 
accomplished. The well-known chicane and du- 
plicity of our enemies will surely well warrant a 
fixed determination not to treat on the most trivial 
point, unless it is in writing. * * * You say 
very truly that, "when a society gets disturbed, 
men of great talents and great qualities are always 
found or made;" for it is certain that there is 

others openly concerned in the plunder of America, now he is 
contented with the bills. '* William Lee to Arthur Lee^ 24 
March, 1780. 

"I thank you for your intelligence of the state of affairs at 
home, and for the extracts of Mr. Lee*s philippics against me. 
Such they were intended. But when I consider him as the 
most malicious enemy I ever had (tho* without the smallest 
cause), that he shews so clearly his abundant Desire to accuse 
and defame me, and that all his Charges are so frivolous, so ill 
founded, and amount to so little, I esteem them rather as 
Panegyrics upon me and Satyrs against himself. . . • 

" Mr. Adams is at Paris, with Mr. Dana. We live upon good 
terms with each other, but he has never communicated any- 
thing of his business to me, and I have made no Enquiries of 
him. Nor have I any Letter from Congress explaining it, so 
that I am in utter ignorance. . . . 

" Messrs Lee and Izard are gone to L'Orient in order to em- 
bark in the Alliance together, but they did not travel together 
from hence. No Soul regrets their Departure : They separately 
came to take leave of me, very respectfully offering their ser- 
vices to carry any dispatches, &c. We parted civilly, for I 
have never acquainted them that I knew of their writing 
against me to Congress, but I did not give them the Trouble of 
my Dispatches." Franklin to Carmichael^ 31 March, 1780. 


always in the world, many more great men than 
great occasions; but the first architect that ever 
lived, could not erect a tolerable edifice with rotten 
straw only. The whole mass of the people in Eng- 
land is too corrupt and putrid to produce anything 
in the least sound and wholesome, from the trifling 
fermentation that appears at present Therefore, 
in my opinion, the Irish, tho' much debauched 
and profligate as to politics, are much more worthy 
of attention and assurances of support than the 
English. Would it not be good policy in France 
to have a good stock of muskets and other military 
stores lodged at Dunkirk, and other sea ports, 
ready to throw into England at a short warning ? 


BruxBLUBS, 13 April, 178a 

I have suffered much uneasiness on your account, 
since our brother A. L. wrote me from L'Orient, 
that in your letter to him about the middle of 
August last, you had mentioned your then being 
very unwell. I know it was a trying season to 
those who, like you, are subject to bilious com- 
plaints, but I trust that as you were then relieved 
from the infinite care and fatigues that have op- 
pressed you for many years past, you would get 
reinstated in health and vigor very soon. The en- 
closed declaration of Russia, which is particularly 


intended against Great Britain, must give you infi- 
nite pleasure, as it must, if anything can, bring our 
enemies to reason, and a serious desire of peace. 
For this decisive stroke in our favor from Russia, 
we are much indebted to the good oflSces of his 
Prussian majesty, without whom, that court would 
not have taken the steps it has done, notwithstand- 
ing the seizure of a Dutch fleet, under convoy of 
Dutch men of war, in the channel by the English 
in January last, has been the ostensible motive for 
it From the terms of the declaration, we must 
conclude that all neutral trade to America (except 
articles of contraband) will be protected, as well as 
into the ports of France, Spain and Great Britain; 
therefore one would not be surprised to see a Dutch 
fleet entering into Chesapeake Bay. 

I wait impatiently to hear what has been decided 
about the estate, for until I know that, it is impos- 
sible for me to determine on any plan of proceed- 
ings for myself. These Virginians have no great 
spirit of commerce; their former trade having been 
carried on by British merchants, we were obliged 
to make great advances to the country. Therefore 
I do not suppose much would be expected from 
consignments if a person was to fix with that view 
in any of the French ports; but the old ideas of our 
countrymen must change, or the profits on their 
trade must continue to enrich strange merchants. 
Maryland seems more enterprising, for there has 


been a much greater number of vessels at Nantes 
from Maryland than Virginia; so that Mr. Johnson, 
agent for Maryland and brother to the late gov- 
ernor, who is established there, seems to be doing 
very well, and I fancy is looking forward to be con- 
sul general for America in France. * * * 

There is no saying how far the madness of our 
enemies will carry them; but if they have one grain 
of common sense, they must now make peace, as 
soon as and on the best terms they can; for the 
whole world seems at present to be leagued against 
the King of England, 5 or 6 of his confidential 
ministry, and a few hoards of their honorable and 
faithful allies the Indians. The people of England 
have followed the example of America, in adopting 
Committees of Associations, which may produce 
another revolution ; and Ireland having obtained a 
free trade, which in time will render her the most 
formidable rival of Great Britain in commerce, 
wealth and power, the people now feeling their im- 
portance and sure of indemnity from the force of 
their independent companies, demand a free consti- 
tution almost unanimously, and an entire inde- 
pendence of G. B., which two points they will cer- 
tainly obtain, if the war continues. The two Irish 
Houses of Parliament have indeed, since gaining a 
free trade, addressed the King in a most servile 
manner, but the members of the Patriotic Party, 
who had been boH off, that moved and supported 


those addresses, have fallen into utter contempt and 
disgrace with their fellow citizens, which proves 
unquestionably, that the people who have now the 
sword in their hands, think differently from their 
Parliament, whose tone must probably change be- 
fore many months expire. On the whole, of late 
affairs in Europe have taken a decisive turn in our 
favor, and I hope they will be as decisively for us 
in America before this campaign ends, * * * 


Brx7XBI.i:«BS, 25 April, 1780. 
Dear Sir : 

I thank you for the intelligence contained in 
your favor of the 13th, and when there are any 
other arrivals from America, you will greatly oblige 
me by communicating any intelligence they may 
bring. I confess I am uneasy to hear from Charles- 
ton, for there is no doubt of Clinton having de- 
signed his principal force against that Town, as I 
cannot give any credit to the surmises of some peo- 
ple that the rendezvous was at Tybee, in order to be 
ready for an attack on some of the Spanish posses* 
sions. The infatuation of our enemies is evidently 
the work of Providence; therefore, I have no expec- 
tation of a speedy peace, because the measure of 
their punishment is not yet full. Their frenzy is 
turned into raving madness, as you will see by the 


proclamation against the Dutch, which is tanta- 
mount to a declaration of war, and the insulting lan- 
guage used against the Russians in the ministerial 
papers; therefore, as you say, we need not be, sur- 
prised if they were to declare war against the whole 
world. This would be a favorable minute for Mr. 
Laurens, if he was in Holland, where no doubt his 
prudence will direct him to examine well his 
ground before he moves; for he may meet with char- 
acters, both inimical and selfish, who under the garb 
of patriotic, friendly zeal may endeavor to lead him 
into error. The Dutch, who are so jealous of any 
other nation but themselves catching a herring in 
the open sea, think it not unreasonable or im- 
modest to expect exclusive privileges in some part 
of American trade, and an equal freedom with 
others to the fishery on the banks of Newfound- 
land. * * * 


Anvbrs, 24 April, 1780. 

If you wait for the Alliance, I am sure this will 
reach you before you sail ; for if what we hear be 
true, it is probable that her operations this year will 
be of as little utility to her proprietors, as those of 
last year were. * It is said that Mr. I[zard] sailed 

♦On the 17 June, Franklin wrote to Jones that he had infor- 
mation that Arthur Lee had advised and promoted the mutiny 


the 15th of this month in a frigate, but we hear 
nothing of you. I sent you some time ago a Bas 
Rhine Gazette, containing an extract of a letter, 
said to be furnished by Dr. F — n's agent at the 
Hague, Mr. D[umas]. On that subject I wrote 
thus to Mr. D. : 

"There has appeared in the Courier de Bas Rhine, 
No. 27, April ist, 1780, a piece said to be an extract 
of an authentic letter written from Philadelphia, which 
begins thus : Mons, vous voulez queje vous rende campte 
de vraie Hat de nos affaires, I have been informed that 
this piece was furnished by you to the Editor of the 
Bas Rhine Gazette, but as I know these are times in 
which misinformation is too current, especially in what 
concerns America, I cannot give implicit faith to such 
information without it is confirmed by yourself. I 
therefore presume you will not think it improper in me 
to request you, that you will candidly tell me whether 
you did or not furnish the editor of the B. R. with the 
above mentioned piece.** 

on the Alliance^ and if that were the case, and the Commodore 
conceived the peace and good government of the ship during 
the voyage wonld be endangered by his presence, he might 
decline taking him. 

"M. I^ee has been long at Orient waiting for a passage on 
board the Alliance. I have yesterday received several letters 
acquainting me with a mutiny on board that ship which he is 
supposed to have instigated. I have obtained and sent down 
orders to apprehend and imprison some of the chiefs, which I 
hope will produce quiet. That restless genius, wherever he is, 
must either find or make a quarrel. *' Franklin to Carmichael^ 
17 June, 178a 


To this Mr. D. replies thus: — 

**How a gazettier came at the piece you quote, I 
know not. These gentlemen have in this country, as 
well as at Paris, at London, and elsewhere, their secret 
correspondents, whom they pay for gathering them all 
what they can." 

You can judge better than me whether this an- 
swer is not evasive, and if so, whether it is not an 
indirect confession. I think your good sense will 
direct you to know well your ground, and consider 
with calm and serious attention the situation of 
aflFairs before you take any public step after your 
arrival; for I am well convinced that men and 
things will be found very diflFerent from what we 
on this side the water might expect. 

You have been before advised of the declaration 
of Russia to Prance, Spain and Great Britain. 
This day we receive a proclamation of the present 
King of G. B. declaring that all treaties between 
the states of the U. Provinces and G. B. are 
vacated, and that the Dutch are from henceforth 
to be treated as a neutral nation, with whom no 
treaties exist, and with all the formality of a decla- 
ration of war, particular periods (all short) are 
fixed for this proclamation taking place in different 
parts of the world. The stocks fell upon this ij4 
per cent. The Dutch must now defend themselves, 
or give up entirely all trade. The alternative will 
not set easy on them. However they feel bold on 


the declaration of Russia, and Sweden's supplying 
them with 4000 sailors, and will probably decide 
on vigorous measures as far as their nature will ad- 
mit. They are to have twenty ships of the line 
from Russia, which will be at the Texel in all June; 
of their own they will have about 15 of the line, 
and 30 frigates ready at the same time. Therefore 
they will have strength, if they have but spirit 
enough, to bring our enemies to reason. Is not 
this stroke of the foolish mad king and his minis- 
ters the last act of desperation ? Nothing is now 
left to compleat his career, and fix him in Hanover, 
but an insurrection in England and Ireland, which 
seems to be ripening fast God send it quickly to 
give us peace, that we may be forever quit of such 
desperado pirates; for I think the people have be- 
come as infamous and abandoned as their king has 
ever been. * * * * 

* "It is said that Mr. R. Morris is now in Congress, at which 
every body is surprised, as by the confederation no person can 
serve in Congress more than 3 years out of 6— Mr. Morris 
having already served more than 3 years. And more par- 
ticularly does it occasion surprise, as it cannot be supposed 
that in America they are uninformed of what is publicly spoken 
in Europe, which is, that Mr. R. Morris is universally con- 
sidered as the British agent employed by Gov. Johnstone to 
embarrass, distract and confound the measures of America in 
her defence, and that he is furnished with the solid means of 
accomplishing those purposes. A young man of his household, 
only a few months ago, passed from Philadelphia to England 
by the way of HoUand. The object of this voyage may be 




Bruxbixbs, 14 June, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I am indebted to you for your favor of the 6th. 
The American vessels lately arrived in Holland do 
not, that I hear of, bring any material public news, 
except the last which came from Boston the begin- 
ning of May, and informs us of the Marquis de la 
Fayette's arrival there, and that they expected there 
also Mons. de Rochambeau's army, which may be 

easily conceived, especially as it was immediately afler this 
young man, with some others, had been the defenders of Mr. 
M. in a house in Philadelphia against the rage of his fellow 
citizens last year. ['Fort Wilson riot.*] I have myself many 
reasons for inducing me to believe that Mr. Morris is really the 
character that most people in Europe that have ever heard of 
him, suppose him, and I have no doubt that effectual proofs 
would soon appear against him, if Congress was to adopt the 
practice, which he used for many years against almost every 
person in America, viz : of opening all letters to him and from 
him. Among his brother's papers were found above 150 letters 
addressed to different persons in Europe and America, that had 
been opened and detained. Of this fact I have a certificate 
signed by the King's officer at Nantes. How many more letters 
had been opened by Mr. Morris (who it must be remembered 
had learnt his profession under his brother R. M., in Philadel- 
phia), and advantage taken of their contents, every person is 
left to judge.** William Lee to Richard Henry Lee^ 26 April, 

The charge that Morris was a British agent was apparently 
based upon an extract from a letter "from a gentleman in high 
office in America " dated January, 1780, and printed in the Eng- 
lish papers. 



a means of giving the enemy at N. York suflBcient 
warning to put that place in the best posture of de- 
fence their force will admit, and to recall Clinton 
from Carolina, of whose motions these vessels do 
not bring any certain intelligence. Nor do I learn 
that Mr. Laurens has embarked, altho' bills have 
already appeared drawn upon him in Holland by 
Congress. This I do not comprehend, nor some 
other public matters; therefore shall suspend my 
judgment, sincerely hoping that the party, which 
have already created so much distraction in Con- 
gress and America, will be ultimately disappointed 
in their dangerous and abominable designs. As 
to Mr. Deane, I always tho't, and am now con- 
vinced, that he was only made use of as a stalking 
horse, to cover designs and views that his patrons 
dared not openly to avow. 

I cannot say what will probably be the issue of 
this campaign in the West Indies, where the enemy 
will be strong. Graves, with 6 ships of the line 
and 3000 troops, will probably go to Jamaica, 
where Sir P. Parker has 6 of the line, 2 fifty's, and 
4-44 gun ships, besides frigates and about 12 or 
1500 soldiers in the island. Walsingham carries 
to Rodney 3000 troops, and 5 or 6 ships of the line; 
and 4 others were sent separately, so that Rodney 
will be very powerful, after providing a convoy for 
the homeward bound fleet. But we may suppose 
that Walsingham and the other ships will not get 
to Rodney before the middle or end of July. 


Our last English papers are only to the 6th, but 
some persons who left London the 8th, on account 
of the .tumults, give a flaming account of the pro- 
ceedings there on the 7th. and 8th. The people 
have pulled down and burnt several houses of most 
of the Roman Catholic places of worship.* The 
military and citizens have had some rencounters 
and several lives lost on both sides. 'Tis likely, 
however, that the ministry and the military will 
prevail over the people, who do not seem to have 
provided themselves with the proper instruments 
of defense, and have the corrupted hands of what 
is called the opposition, as much against them as 
the King. This nation appears to me quite lost, 
and that in fifty years they will be no more consid- 
ered in the political scale of Europe than the Al- 
gerines; but they will die hard, and we must en- 
deavor to let the exertions of their dying agonies 
be exercised on themselves. The Dutch seem to be 
feeling some of them, and losing all their ships, 
while they are differing with each other, whether 
they should patiently endure or not every thing 
the English please to do. The language of the 
English with respect to America is as incompre- 
hensible to me as it is to you, unless they are led 

*The Gordon riots, which really increased the influence of 
the ministers by producing a reaction in favor of authority. By 
a rumor of the day, these outbreaks were attributed to French 
corruption. See FrankUn*s fVorks, vii., 87, 


by the ministry to give implicit confidence to their 
partizans that are at large in America, and perhaps 
permitted to be in Congress and posts of import- 

Yon ask, will the 22 millions for next year; with 
the men lost in America and the W. I. by diseases 
and the chance of war; will seamen be easily found? 
The 22, or even more, millions will be easily found,, 
as long as the Bank of England can coin with 
more facility than paper money in America, and? 
while even the French as well as the Dutch, 
tempted by high interest, will lend them money. 
Soldiers will be found with more difficulty; but as- 
long as the European powers will permit their sail- 
ors to be seized on the high seas, and forced on 
board the British navy, there can be no fear of 
their wanting seamen. 'Tis computed by judic- 
ious men, that this time full one-half of the British 
navy is manned by foreigners, impressed in Eng- 
land, or seized on the high seas, and forced on 
board their ships of war. I sometime since men- 
tioned Portugal to you, and every day proves to 
me more and more the necessity of treating her as 
a coadjutor with G. Britain, unless she will shut 
her ports against the English men of war and pri- 
vateers. Refusing to admit prizes, is only a pitiful 
evasion of what she ought to do: which is to refuse 
admittance to all ships of war, privateers and armed 
vessels. * * * 




Anvbrs, 23 June, 1780. 

The above extracts (viz: from General Advertiser 
and J. A. to W. L.) prove a certain connection, and 
that if Mr. I. does not eflFectively succeed, an ex- 
cuse is ready, and the blame to be laid on another. 
But if he gains anything, the whole will be attri- 
buted to his superior [ ] and abilities. It seems 
however that the present object of this connection 
and its adherits on this side the water, is to get 
Franklin removed, as Adams has his eye on the 
place; while the leaders and partisans of the same 
connection on the other side the water, seem to be 
playing a bolder game, and levelling their attacks 
directly against the Independence of America, as 
may be seen in the following extract from a 
Philadelphia paper. Dear Sir, the foregoing pieces 
will show the great necessity for caution and cir- 
cumspection in A. Lee in all his motions. Pray 
tell him so, and also that Jenings is as much, nay 
more, devoted to Carmichael than ever. He is at- 
tached to AdamSj who flatters him,"*" and from 
resentment against Franklin^^; who it is said, has 

*"A gentleman from Boston tells me he heard there that 
they were written by one Mr. Jenings. I wish his countrymen 
knew more than they do about that same Mr. Jenings." John 
Adams to Edmund Jenings ^ 23 September, 1780. 

t '* 170 seems to have voluntarily undertaken the honorable 
post of agent for Adams, to get all his long-winded and crude 


been authorized by Congress to appoint to a certain 
place (which I suspect is consul general\ and 
mentioned Jenings and the examiner of accounts, 
as persons either of whom might be proper. But 
Franklin has not tho't so, and very possibly 142 
\Rossf\ stays to exercise that oflBce. You will 
easily see the management of R. Morris in this 
business, and as 'tis likely 94 will not go to Hol- 
land^ plots will be on foot to get Deane — iiier 
\Courtierf'\ there. * * * 


BruxBI^LBS, 8 July, 1780. 

I have been prevented by indisposition, other- 
wise should have had the honor of writing to you 
sooner, on a subject which appears to affect the 
honor of America, of Congress, and of its agents in 
Europe. The copy of Gen'l Clinton's letter that 
was intercepted, which you sent here by Mr. 
Jenings, having afterwards appeared in most of the 

productions inserted in the London papers. Among this is a 
history of a voyage from Corun: to P., in which Adams speaks 
of the person at 102 [Madrid f] in the highest strains of praise 
and commendation. I saw the original in the hand-writing of 
Adams,** William Lee to Arthur Lee^ 16 June, 1780. Adams 
suggested to Genet some material to be worked into the com- 
munication from London. Works, vii, 155. And to Digges he 
wrote a letter probably intended for publication in the English 
papers. Works^ vii, 167. So that 170 is presumably Digges. 



public papers, there was a formal contradiction of 
its authenticity, first in the Hague Gazette, and in- 
serted in such a manner as to make the world be- 
lieve that this contradiction came from Sir Jo: 
Yorke, the English minister. The Leyden Ga- 
zette * confirmed in some measure this contradic- 
tion, in which it was followed by the Courier du 
Bas Rhin, tho' it had before given the letter at 
length, as having been originally published by 
order of Congress. But after the intelligence of 
the surrender of Charleston, this same gazetteer, 
in No. 51 of June 24, 1780, positively states that 
letter to have been a forger}^ and concludes in 
these injurious terms: — "done it vaut mieux se 
bien defendre et se bien battre, que de supposes des 
lettres, qui ne peuvent abuser le public qu'un 
moment, "t You must be sensible of the injury it 

♦ The editor of this sheet was John Luzac. 

t Adams contributed the following to the history of this letter. 
It "arrived first at L*Orient, in a Philadelphia newspaper which 
had been sent to Mr. Jay. Mr. Wharton, I think, copied it, 
and sent it to Dr. Franklin, who communicated it soon after it 
appeared in Boston (?) and other newspapers, without a hint of 
its want of authenticity. Within a few days past, I have seen 
a gentleman from America, who says it was a mere jeti d* esprit 
written by an officer in the army, upon the North River. I 
have been all along afraid that our couutr3rmen would at length 
imitate their enemies in this kind of imposition ; and I always 
thought that, whenever they did, they would be ingenious at it. 
It must be agreed this is ingeniously done, and conveys a great 
deal of solid truth and important instruction under this fiction. 


will bring to America, and the cause of Liberty, if 
the world is permitted to be impressed with the 
Idea that Congress, and its agents, are base enough 
to be guilty of such a mean and pitiful conduct, as 
to forge and publish the grossest falsehoods as solid 
truths. Mr. Dumas, who is styled by Dr. Frank- 
lin and Mr. Deane the American agent at the 
Hague, and who is actually paid with the money of 
America, has a particular connection with the 
Editor of the Leyden Gazette, and I have reason to 
believe has a correspondence with the Bas Rhin. 
Therefore one would naturally imagine, as it was 
his duty, he would have taken some measures to 
prevent such a censure on America, &c., from 
spreading farther than in the small circle in which 
the Hague Gazette circulates. The Bas Rhin 
Gazette, as well as that of Berlin, is generally 
looked on as a Prussian Court Gazette, being 
printed in the Capital of the Prussian Dominions 
on the Rhine, and I have no doubt, on the Prus- 
sian Minister at Paris being spoke to on the subject, 
a repetition of such conduct would at least be pre- 
vented in the Editor of that Gazette. * * * 

Yet, I cannot think the ingenuity of it a justification or excuse. 
We have no need of such aids as political lies. . . . All that we 
can do, is to write Congress and beseech them to suppress such 
practices. The signature of Charles Thomson, hitherto sacred, 
will no longer be credited, if something is not done to discoun- 
tenance such abuses.'' Adams to William Lee, 20 July, 1780. 
Franklin's connection may be seen in his letter to Dumas, 5 
Jnne, 1780. Works, vii, 72. 




Bruxbi:.i:.BS, 9 July, 1780. 

We have no advice yet of old Mr. Laurens, and 
the young gentleman being a prisoner is no small 
consolation to the society at Passy, where the con- 
duct of the affairs of America has grown worse and 
worse, until it has actually become a scandal for 
any man of the least character to be in any manner 
concerned with them. The supplies for the Amer- 
ican army that should have been in America last 
fall, are not yet shipped. The league of Sam. 
Wharton, Jno. Ross, Dr. Bancroft, young and old 
Jon* Williams, seem to have no other contest, but 
who shall take to himself the best share of the pub- 
lic money that is intrusted to Dr. Franklin, in 
which sport they are most eminently assisted by 
Mr. Chaumont, who has young Moylan of Phila. 
as his agent at L'Orient, and young Williams at 
Nantes. The proceedings of these people with Dr. 
F. and Cap. P. Jones, respecting the Congress 
Frigate, the Alliance, for near two years past, are 
really too enormous for me to detail; but I must say 
that in my opinion, it will be impossible for the 
American affairs to be properly conducted in 
France, while Dr. F. continues sole minister, com- 
mercial agent, agent for prizes, treasurer, and in 
short absolute head and proprietor of all American 
pBToperty, dignity, honor and even liberty in 
France. * 

* *' July 30. spent the afternoon, and drank tea with Mr. W. 



Anvsrs, 8 October, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I am very sorry to inform you that your intended 
Minister to Holland, Mr. Henry Laurens, was 
taken by the English frigates on the Banks of New 
Foundland and is brought Prisoner to England 
where by the last accounts he is very ill, at a little 
place in Devonshire, so as to be unable to be 
brought to London. 

The English papers give out that all his papers, 
instructions and commission were taken also, but 
this is not believed by those that know the arts of 
duplicity of your enemies; however this seems 
authentic, that General Clinton's dispatches dated 
the latter end of August demand a re-enforcement 
of 10,000 men, which if not sent he insisted on 
being recalled. On this the King and his Council 
determined that Clinton should be immediately 
informed that his conduct was in all respects highly 
approved, that he should have the assistance re- 
quired as soon as possible. General Pawcitt is to 
go immediately to Germany to make fresh con- 
tracts, if he can, for new bodies of troops, and to 
hasten the levying recruits for the German corps 
already in America. If no assistance can be got 

Lee, Mr. Jenings and his nephew, Mrs. Izard, her two daughters 
and son, Mrs. I/ee and her children, and an agreeable circle of 
Americans.*' John Adams'" Diary, 



from Germany, G. B., and Ireland are to be gleaned 
of all the regular troops to send to Clinton. This 
is the present determination as all fear of an inva- 
sion is over, since the French seem to relinquish 
any such design; but what may take place if 
Jamaica should be taken I cannot tell, nor can I 
say whether the Dutch will defend their posses- 
sions in the W. Indies or their trade, both of which 
have been and continue daily to be attacked by the 

Portugal has at last driven the English ships of 
war and Privateers from her Ports and forbid them 
or their prizes to enter thpre again. The division 
which was to have followed Monsieur Ternay has 
not yet sailed from Brest; it is said that it is to sail 
the 15th inst. but your enemies are preparing a 
a large squadron of ships to follow it, either to 
America or the West Indies. You will hear from 
me at large by the first sure conveyance. Your 
friends in this quarter are as well as the times will 
admit. With high respect I remain, 

Le Baron de Bach. 

N. S. Take care of some Marylanders who have 
been lately sent from England, as it is confidently 
said, with permission to take the oaths to the pres- 
ent Government, in order the more effectually to 
create divisions in that State, by means of their 
connections there, which are said to be among the 


principal families in that country. Your enemies 
still dream of unconditional submission only. 


Anvbrs, 17 October, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I have before given you notice that your enemies 
had determined to make a strong push this fall and 
next spring against North Carolina and Virginia; 
and that on receiving a late demand from Genl. 
Clinton, for a reinforcement of 10,000 men, other- 
wise he insisted on leave to come home, the King 
and his Council decided to inform Genl. Clinton, 
that his conduct was in all points highly approved, 
and that he should have every assistance in their 
power to send him, and as soon as possible. The 
vessel with this reply to Clinton, sailed from Eng- 
land the loV* insi, for New York. So far you may 
rely on to be true. A gentleman from Passy says, 
that the Alliance was arrived at Boston, as DT F. 
told him, and that Capt. Landais had been put un- 
der an arrest.* We have been highly disappointed 

**'In the evening [19 August, 1780], M. Gau, commandant 
of artillery, who arrived from Boston, informed me that the 
Alliance^ an American frigate, had just arrived. It had left 
L'Orient on the 9th of July. The captain, named Landais, bom 
a Frenchman, had left L'Orient without waiting for the King's 
despatches. He wished to cruise, although laden with powder 
which he was ordered to bring straight to Boston ; his crew, 


in finding that the combined fleets in the West In- 
dies have not attempted anything this campaign, 
but perhaps they will not be idle in the fall and 

MT Ivaurens, the minister from Congress to the 
States of Holland, was taken on the Banks of New- 
foundland, carried to England, and is committed to 
the Tower of London, on suspicion of high treason. 
His material papers were destroyed, but some let- 
ters of private correspondence, on mercantile affairs, 
were taken with Mr Laurens. " 

Your minister, MT J. Adams, has been for some 
time at Amsterdam, and the other day a member 
of Congress, a MT S., passed thro' here, in his way 
from Paris to Amsterdam, where it is said he is 
under the guidance of Doct. F. to negotiate the 
money business that M'. Laurens was to have man- 
tired of hia follies and liia vexations, bad shut him up in hli 
cabin and had given the command of the frigate to his mate, 
Ott board were two French officers, aides-de-camp of M. de la 
Fayette, and Mr. Lee, who had been a long time in France, a 
deputy of the CoDgress. They told us that on the gtli of July 
the body of troops which they were to send to us, and which 
they called the second division, hail not yet started. Besidea 
this, they gave ua no very certain news respecting the affaire of 
Europe," Journal of Claude Blanchard, 56. 

"Among the documents takea were copies of letters frcm 
NeufviUe, Commodore Gillon, Mr. Stockton, Col. Derrick, v 


aged, and some say he is to be minister in Holland 
or Portugal, I know not whether he is in any 
public appointment, but he travels in the style of a 
public minister. * 

MT Deane lives at Passy with DT B[ancroft]. 
These two, it seems, are in the privy council there. 

Capt? Paul Jones is still at L' Orient, endeavor- 
ing to fit out the Ariel, in which he has hitherto 
found insurmountable difficulties. 

The Northern League of Neutrality is acceded to 
by Holland and Portugal, from which kingdom the 
British ships of war, privateers and prizes are now 

Ten ships of the line are now about sailing from 
Brest with about 5000 troops, some say to reinforce 
MonsT Ternay, and others that they are for the 
West Indies. 

In Europe the belligerent powers are, on all 
sides, busily preparing for another campaign; and 
in England orders are already issued for raising 9 
new regiments of foot, & one regiment of horse, 
to reinforce the British Army in America; since 
they have little hope of getting a fresh supply of 
men from Germany. Your spirited countrymen, 
will, no doubt, be prepared to repel these invaders, 

* It was James Searle, a member of Congress from Pennsyl- 
vania, who reached Paris, 10 September, 1780, with despatches 
from Congress, and as an agent to negotiate a loan for the State 
of Pennsylvania. 


as triumphantly as they have hitherto done those 

that preceded them. 

Lb Baron de Bach. 


Bruxbixes, 6 November, 178a 
Dear Brother : 

I received yours from Boston of Sep? 9*.^, and am 
well pleased at the determination to withhold your 
complaints for the present, rather than increase the 
public embarrassments by expressing them. * * * 

The capture of MT Laurens (who is committed 
to the tower of London for high treason, and closely 
kept without the use of pen or ink, or permission 
to see his friends) was doubly unfortunate, as his 
papers were taken also; which has occasion'd a 
memorial from the British Court to the Prince of 
Orange, relative to what has passed with the 
regency of Amsterdam, which he laid before the 
States of Holland. The regency of Amsterdam 
have avowed their proceedings, and demanded the 
concurrence of the States of Holland; what turn 
this business will take time must discover, but 
nothing effectual can at any rate soon take place in 
our favor, as there is not any body fully authorized 
to act for America. 

MT Adams is now and has been for some months 
at Amsterdam, where he seems decided to stay the 


M^ Searle is gone there; I saw him on his way 
thro' this town and was surprised at his not bring- 
ing me a letter from any one. From some unlucky 
circumstances I had not an opportunity of getting 
any material information from him relative to the 
actual situation of affairs in America. By his style 
of travelling and proposed manner of living in 
Amsterdam during the winter, it seems clear that 
he is on public, and not private business. He, it is 
said, professes a devoted attachment to Franklin. 

Russia, Sweden and Danemark have finally rati- 
fied their treaty of the armed neutrality, on the 
original plan of Russia. Portugal has acceded to 
it The Emperors of Turkey and Morocco have 
nearly adopted the same idea. The States of Hol- 
land and Friesland have already, and it is expected 
that the other 5 states of the Netherlands will very 
soon accede to the Russian system, so Great Britain 
has not a single ally in this part of the world, but 
some of the insignificant petty princes in Germany. 

The affairs in Ireland still wear a serious aspect, 
but in England people grow every day more in- 
sensible, and are now as contented slaves as any in 
the world. The new Parliament is not a whit 
better than the old; and the minister, or rather the 
King, will be as absolute as ever. Norton goes 
with a pension to the house of peers. * Cornwall 

*By too great freedom of speech on financial reform, Sir 
Fletcher Norton had given offense to the King; and Lord 


is Speaker by a majority of 34 votes. Burke, Saw- 
bridge, t Hartley, Temple, Luttrell, Cruger, Lord 
George Gordon, are left out, but the two first will 
be brought in by and bye. 

The Parliament met the 31 ult? The King in 
his speech boasts of victories in Carolina; The war 
must certainly be continued another year, and 
demands supplies.! 

The reinforcements for America, that are to sail 
as soon as possible, perhaps about Xmas, are to 
consist of 9 regiments of foot, and 3 of dragoons 
dismounted, to be remounted in America. The 
regiments of foot, by drafts from others are to be 
complete 9,000 men, and the 3 dragoons are to be 
1,000 men, which in the whole is to make 10,000 
complete. The great push is to be made first in 
Virginia and N. Carolina; if success attends them 
there, they are to advance northwards. 

North, without previous notice, set him aside, '*lanienting 
the precarious state of Sir Fletcher's health," although Sir 
Fletcher protested that he had never been in better health. 
Charles Wolfram Cornwall was elected Speaker, 203 to 134. 

t Sawbridge had been much condemned for his conduct dur- 
ing the Gordon riots, and lost votes for voting in favor of toler- 
ating popery. Burke was defeated at Bristol, but subsequently 
came in from the borough of Malton. The Parliament con- 
tained 113 new members. 

t The opportune news of the defeat of Gates by Comwallis, 
enabled the King to put a better face to the situation than he 
had hoped. The majority for the government was very lai^ 
and carried every measure the ministry proposed. 


The whole exertions are to be against North 
America, keeping on the defensive against France 
and Spain; who are to be amused in the meantime 
with negotiations, and advantageous offers (which 
are never intended to be complied with,) to induce 
them to desert America. This, you may be as- 
sured, is the enemies plan of operations for the 
ensuing year. 

On our side the Spaniards hear the proposals 
made to them without giving any reply; which 
induces the idiot King and his roguish ministers 
to think they shall succeed in dividing the allies, 
as they have with their opponents at home. 

The division that was to have followed M. 
Ternay is still at Brest; but reported that it is to 
sail in 3 or 4 weeks. 

The supplies for the American Army, that 
should have been sent away above 12 months ago, 
are still in the ports of France; in short the man- 
agement of your affairs there has gone from bad 
to worse, and unless the director is speedily 
changed, the consequences will be severely felt 

The change in the minister of marine in France, 
it is expected will invigorate their operations. 
Chaumont has been lately at a stand (it is said) in 
his payments, but we hear M^ Neckar will coun- 
tenance him, but this is only rumor. He says his 
engagements for America have hurt him, when I 
know his unpaid accepted bills have been travel- 
ling thro' Germany for some years past. 


America must, as I always said, rely entirely on 
her own efforts, and then she may be sure of carry- 
ing her point. Think not of the conquest of 
Canada, until the enemy are quite driven from the 
13 States. I can't enter into the reasons for this 
advice, but believe me, they are so important that 
if the conquest of Canada is attempted, while you 
have a single enemy within your boundaries, the 
consequences will be fatal. MonsT Rochambeau 
and his troops should be instantly ordered to Vir- 
ginia. * * * 


Bruxbi.1.^, 3 DecY 1780. 
My dear Brother : 

Since mine by your sons, I have not received any 
letter from you, but have written to you several; 
indeed since that I have heard but of very few ar- 
rivals in any part of Europe, from Virginia, except 
the fleet that came under convoy of the Fier 
Roderigue. * * * 

No letter has come to me from MT Ellis since 
1778, written a few months after he entered on the 
estate, and being quite uninformed of the state of 
affairs in Virginia, and of the money in circulation, 
or of the actual laws regulating the currency, I 
cannot advise any particular plan of conducting 
the business, but must refer to your discretion. 


However, if at any time in the next year it becomes 
practicable to send me some tobacco, either to 
France or to Holland, I beg it may be done, only 
have the freight specified in the bills, and let the 
tobacco be consigned to me, or order. This I much 
fear will be impracticable, as the London Gazette 
now tells us in Octr Clinton had sent from New 
York a body of forces to invade Virginia. Orders 
for this purpose were sent from England last 
summer, and since the middle of July repeated ad- 
vice of this plan was sent the present Governor of 
Virginia, that preparations might be made to give 
the invaders a proper reception. These savage 
robbers, that are not to be equalled in iniquity but 
by their Licenser, who is a more horrid wretch, 
than any one among them, will I apprehend do a 
great deal of mischief to individuals; everything 
moveable they will steal, and according to custom, 
will burn and lay waste what they cannot carry 
oflF. Providence however seems to be completing 
her great work by ridding America of every Tory 
rascal and traitor that is in her. 

Tho' I believe there are very few of this discrip- 
tion among you, yet I shall be happy to hear that 
the few there are, openly declare themselves; as it 
is certain, that one concealed traitor is more danger- 
ous to the community than ten open foes. 

The councillor has now a valuable and interest- 
ing paper on the British navy.* The Dutch are 


arming by sea with spirit, and placing their land 
forces in their maritime towns, having at last come 
into the armed neutrality with Russia, Sweden and 

These powers will have at sea next spring a fleet 
of 50 sail of the line, and as many frigates to sup- 
port the plan of free commerce, as published by 
Russia last spring, which you must have seen, 
against the insolent pretensions of Great Britain 
and the piratical robberies of her Royal and private 
armed vessels. 

We are on the eve of a war, all the maritime 
powers of Europe against Great Britain, who is 
without a single ally, unless the latter recedes from 
her ill-founded claims and demands a peace. 

Prance and Spain go on in their system, and 
maintain a superiority in the European seas, — ^per- 
haps before this, if the winds and weather have not 
prevented, D'Estaing with 42 sail of the line, has 
gi\*en Harby, off Cape Finisterre with 26 sail of the 
line, a blow that the British navy cannot recover 
this war. 

Your a^nts in Spain have done nothing but got 
a little mv>ney; some of their old connections from 
the A«ArW IwiYt^ been at Madrid for several months, 
which the ssuj^'KHis Spaniard does not like, and 
cv>u«^uetttlY fights shy. 

The tttau^^ment of >'Our affairs in France seems 
to grow w^MT^e and worse, for the old junto, Silas 


Deane in the midst of them, have by some means 
or other got the whole management uncontrolled 
into their hands. A reform must take place there, 
and by the capture of M^. Laurens, your aflFairs in 
Holland are not in so good a state as they might 
be, MT Laurens with all his letters and papers fell 
into the enemies hands. 

When any person is sent to Europe in a public 
character, he should at least have good common 
sense. Surely the several states will now pay more 
attention than they have done lately, to the re- 
spectability of the persons that they send to repre- 
sent them in Congress; and a little more steadiness 
in rigidly adhering to fundamental resolutions, 
will give weight and consequence to their deter- 
minations. How an actual member of Congress 
can do his duty in America, and execute commis- 
sions at 3000 miles distance in person, is a problem 
that we thickheaded people here can't solve. 
What infatuation induces our country again to em- 
ploy Gen^ Stevens ? Was not the loss of the battle 
of German town sufficient? but the whole stake must 
be again lost at Camden. A defeat of Cornwallis 
there would have ended the war. God bless you 
all, and believe that we love you and yours sin- 
cerely. Adieu. 



Anvkrs, 6^.1» DccY , 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

We have heard from you from Boston, and 
L/ebanon, and your two correspondents from this 
neighborhood have also heard from you. We are 
happy to hear of your safe arrival, and also of the 
6,000 acres of laud. 

I have written to you frequently since you left 
us, but as the capture of y\ minister, M^ Laurens, 
and the whole of his papers and letters, shows that 
the conveyance is not always safe; to show you 
how many letters miscarry they shall be numbered 
regularly, beginning with this, no. i. 

Amongst MT Laurens' papers was found the plan 
of a treaty between the States of America and the 
7 Provinces of the Netherlands, which had been 
settled between your friend, and an agent of the 
Pensionary Regency of Amsterdam. This, with 
a copy of some of the letters, were laid before 
the Prince of Orange by the British ambas- 
sador. Sir J. Yorke, and by the Prince before the 
States of Holland; expecting, no doubt, that the 
Regency of Amsterdam would disavow, or apologize 
to Great Britain for the business. 

The Regency on the contrary openly maintain 
that they had done what was right, and demanded of 
the States of Holland an approbation of what had 
been done. This so irritated the British court, that 


Sir J. Yorke was ordered, and did present to the 
States General the most extraordinary memorial 
that has been seen in Europe in this century. You 
will see it in the public prints. * No answer has yet 
been given, for as it sounds like a declaration of 
war, the Dutch probably wait till the British can- 
non roar; to which they are prepared to make a 
proper return. They have formally agreed to 
enter into the armed neutrality with Russia, 
Sweden and Denmark, which three have already 
ratified their treaties, on the plan originally pro- 
posed by Russia. These 4 powers will have at 
sea in the spring a fleet of 50 sail of the line, and 
as many frigates; and if Great Britain attacks Hol- 
land, she attacks the other three, or if she at- 
tempts to prevent either of them from supplying 
France and Spain with naval stores. 

Some people think Great Britain will be mad 
enough to make th« attempt, which must prove 
her ruin, as the enclosed paper must convince 
every impartial man; but it seems more probable 
that this armed neutrality will produce a general 
peace in 1781, especially if Great Britain should 
receive any check in her plans against America. 

This is a critical moment for your country, as it 
appears very probable that the northern powers, 
with Holland, might now be easily induced to 

♦It is printed in Diplomatic Correspondence of the Revolu 
tion, IIL, 269. See Adams letter in his Works ^ vii., 329. 


acknowledge your independence, if you had proper 
agents or ministers in Europe to negotiate such an 
important business; for it is said that the King^ of 
Prussia is your friend, and that Austria has no 
very warm feelings for Great Britain. 

But you have no minister in this part of the 
world; there is a MT Searle at Amsterdam, who is 
said to be the Consul-General of America in Hol- 
land, and at the same time a member of Congress, 
and a colonel in your militia, which people in 
general can't believe, because they see the im- 
possibility of one man's performing the duties of 
those diflferent offices at the same period. 

Your minister in Spain [Jay] and his coadjutor 
{Carmichael] have done nothing but get a little 
money; indeed your enemies for several months 
have had two and three agents at Madrid publicly, 
who have contrived to come at your friends, or to 
, so that your aflfairs hei'e are no farther ad- 
vanced than they were twelve months ago. 

You have some able and respectable Roman 
Catholics among you; would not one of them be 
most proper to send as your representative to 
Spain ? 

In France the ministry steadily pursue their old 
system; tho' MonsT Sartiue is turned out and the 
Marquis of Castries is in his place; therefore your 
political aflFairs, of course, go on as they did, but 
the management of your other aflFairs, we are told. 


grows worse and worse. S. Deane lives at Passy, 
and seems to direct and manage in yT business as 

The supplies for your army, that should have 
been shipped last winter, are most of them still ly- 
ing in the ports of France, and the famous Paul 
Jones is now at Brest or L' Orient. The reinforce- 
ment that was to have followed MonsT Ternay im- 
mediately, is not yet gone; some say your minister 
is the cause, having hinted that it was not neces- 
sary; but this one can hardly believe. 

What the cabinet of Versailles has determined 
(or what seems most probable, that they have not 
determined anything yet) relative to the operations 
in America next campaign, the world is not in- 

You will, surely, make a reform at least in 
France; and confine your minister to politics, and 
intrust solely to a Consul-General, or mercantile 
agent, who should be formally introduced to the 
French ministry, all your monied and mercantile 
transactions, purchasing and sending out the sup- 
plies for your army, and supplying, &c., your 
ships of war that may enter the ports of France. 

You know what the enemy are doing with you. 
The designs against Virginia the Governor of that 
state has been frequently advised of, since the mid- 
dle of July; therefore it is supposed he will not be 
taken unprepared. 


The discovery of Arnold's plot, it is imagined, 
will lead to the discovery and punishment of his 
principal associators, so as to deter similar attempts 
hereafter; for tho' some of the leaders may have by 
their address got into appointments on this side 
the water, it is not impracticable to catch and 
punish them. Curious and attentive observers 
think you have escaped the greatest danger that 
has ever threatened you; as the British ministry, 
on the gaining one Arnold alone^ are evidently 
more dejected than if they had lost a whole army. 
Clinton had before demanded to be recalled, or to 
send him a reinforcement of 10,000 men to main- 
tain a defensive campaign only. The number has 
been promised, tho' they know the number is not 
to be got, perhaps not the half; but this is a plan 
of Lord North's that Clinton should be obliged to 
come home, and Cornwallis have the chief com- 
mand, in order to please the King, with whom 
Cornwallis has become a mighty favorite, since 
the insolent cruelties he has exercised in* Carolina. 
The great push is to be made against Virginia and 
the Carolinas; but if Gen\ L/Cslie's expedition, 
which is chiefly designed as a diversion to Gen'. 
Gates, thereby to save Cornwallis and Charleston, 
proves fruitless, you may look on the war with re- 
spect to you as ended. The British cabinet are 
heartily sick of the war, and the only bar to peace, 
and an acknowledgment of your Independence, is 
the King; whose will is law in England. 


Be steady and true to yourselves, and your ene- 
mies can't hurt you ; they will expend at least 25 
million sterl? next year, for which if they get it 
they must pay as good as 10 pT ct interest. 

The English papers tell us that S. Petrie, who 
was so confidential at Passy, at the late general 
election went over to England, and became a can- 
didate for the borough of Hindon, and is now a 
petitioner against that election before the House of 
Commons: is it to be credited that he would have 
ventured to do all this, unless his proceedings in 
Paris and at Passy had been under the directions 
and by the permission of the British ministry ? 

It is said that the English East India stock has 
fallen lopTc* in consequence of the proceedings 
against Holland. 

The imprisonment of MT Trumbull, son to the 
Governor of Connecticut, and his examination at 
Bow street, you will see an account of in the Brit- 
ish papers. 'Tis strange that men of common 
sense will accuse themselves, and involve others by 
their voluntary confessions, in a country where the 
torture is not known to the laws. 'Tis said that a 
strict search is making after all those mentioned by 

MT T 11, but we do not hear that any of them 

has been yet apprehended. 

The conduct of your enemies seems in every way 
to be felo de se. 'Tis evident to every one that 
they have received infinitely more advantages from 

spies and traitors, that have been permitted to be 
at large in America, and to mix in your councils, 
than you have from the unimportant information 
you get from England ; and by this last measure 
they set you the example how to act with such 
characters in America ; especially with those who 
were dispatched from England to Maryland to work 
in secret while the British arms were openly in 
action, as soon as the British cabinet decided on 
making their great push against Virginia and the 
Carolinas, that Maryland may be prevented from 
giving any aid until it is too late. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The 7 ult? D'Estaing with Guichen, his fleet and 
convoy, left Cadiz to come to Brest, with 45 sail of 
the line. 

The English fleet, of 26 sail of the line, under 
Darby, was cruising oflF Cape Finisterre the 16 
ult? . Should they join in battle, the English navy 
must receive an irreparable wound, but the winds 
have been violent most of the month and chiefly to 
the East and North, so that I hardly expect they 
will meet. About 20 of the last Jamaica fleet have 
been foundered at sea, and the Lyon, a 64 gun 
ship, is supposed to be foundered also. With the 
highest esteem, &c. 

Le Baron de Bach. 



AifVBRS, lo December, 1780. 

It appears here that your operations have been 
much embarrassed by the depreciation of your 
paper currency, which surprises us much, since 
the effectual remedy seems plain and simple, and 
within the power of Congress. 

Perhaps it is for this very reason that the remedy 
has been overlooked, or so long neglected. A fund 
must be established in Europe, to be applied solely 
and most sacredly to the payment of the interest 
on your paper currency. 

This fund here should be placed under the di- 
rection of three persons at least, who should be all 
men of worth, honor and trustworthy; and not a 
shilling should be touched without the draft is 
signed by all the three. These commissioners 
should every three months balance the accounts, 
and give several copies to the public ministers re- 
siding in the country where the fund is established, 
to transmit to Congress; and if upon examination 
of these accounts, he should find that one shilling 
has been applied to any other purpose than to the 
payment of drafts drawn from America, for dis- 
charging the interest aforesaid; or, if the accounts 
are not delivered *to the minister, within three or 
six months at farthest, after the expiration of every 
three months, in either case the minister, with the 
approbation of any two or more of your public 


ministers in Europe, should be authorized to sus- 
pend one, or all of these commissioners, and ap- 
point others in their place, until the pleasure of 
Congress is known. 

As these commissioners should be men of charac- 
ter, they should have genteel salaries, and if it was 
;^iooo ster? each pT an"?, the great importance of 
the business would well warrant it ; at the same 
time they might be employed in other services for 

The interest of your paper should be annually 
paid at the Continental or public treasuries in each 
State, by drafts on the fund in Europe; and the in- 
terest on bills emitted in any State, according to 
the last plan published by Congress, should be pay- 
able either at the Continental treasury, or any other 
public treasury of either of the States. 

Such a plan regularly executed for a year, would 
give a credit and currency to your paper equal to 
the bank notes of England, or Holland; and then 
you could never be at a loss for the means of sup- 
plying your army. 

The introduction of specie into America, even of 
a hundred million, would not answer the purpose 
of a circulating medium of commerce; because 
during the war it would be inevitably hoarded up, 
as what you have now certainly is, for there can be 
no doubt of there being at this time much more 
specie in America than at any former period. 


This fund, in Europe, must be established and 
kept up by borrowing until you can support it by 
remitting your commodities. * * * 

Our friend W. Lee expects to hear from you soon 
and fully about what relates to him in Congress and 

Your former minister, Mr Silas Deane, we are 
told, since his return to France has been continu- 
ally employed in invectives against his country; 
according to him, America is ruined, and must be 
subjugated by England; therefore all the aid France 
gives, is so much thrown away. We are surprised 
at this, as he lives atPassy with your minister, and 
seems to be his favorite and prime councillor. 
M*". Deane adds also, that your grand Congress is 
composed of fools and knaves; we hope he has not 
experienced them to be so. * 

♦** Soon after my arrival here, which was on the evening of the 
23d., I had a visit from Francisco [Deane], a long one, daring 
which we went over much political ground, which convinced 
me every thing we had heard of the very extraordinary con- 
versation of this man, was strictly true. Our country, accord- 
ing to him, was already conquered ; the power of Great Britain 
rising above all control ; that of her enemies almost spent ; 
Holland absolutely to be crushed in the course of three months ; 
the armed neutrality in consequence annihilated ; the British 
manifesto extolled for its cogent reasons above all the similar 
acts of the belligerent powers ; all Europe blind to their own 
interests, which, in fact, were in direct repugnance with those 
of America, particularly those of Holland and all the northern 
powers ; Congress a mere cipher, having lost all its influence 


I wish you every success, but you ought never to 
forget that your security must depend on your own 
abilities and exertions, and not on any foreign aid. 

everywhere in America ; and to crown the whole, an apology 
for the infamous apostate Arnold." Francis Dana to John 
Adams, January, 1781. A letter printed in Donne (II., 363) 
would show that Deane either was in the pay of the British 
court, or was to be approached with an offer, conditioned upon 
his undertaking to detach individual States from the Confeder- 
ation. The former relation is the more likely in the light of 
subsequent events ; and that the ministry did not place full 
confidence in him is shown by the intercepting of his letters 
for America. **I have only been able to read two of them," 
wrote the King to North, 19 July, 1781, "on which I form 
the same opinion of too much appearance of being concerted 
with this country, and therefore not likely to have the effect as 
if they bore another aspect." And again (August 7th), "I 
own I think them too strong in our favor to bear the appear- 
ance of his spontaneous opinions, but that, if supposed to be 
authentic, they will see they have by concert fallen into our 
hands. The means Mr. Deane should have taken as most con- 
ducive of the object he seems now to favor, would have been 
first to have shown that the hands of France are too full to be 
able to give any solid assistance to America, and to have 
pointed out the ruin that must attend a further continuance of 
the war; and after having given time for these opinions to be 
digested, then have proposed the giving up all ideas of inde- 
pendency, and have shown that the country is not in a state to 
subsist without the assistance of some foreign power, and that 
consequently so mild a government as the British one is the 
most favorable that America can depend upon." 

By October Deane had retired to Ghent, a move that con- 
vinced the King of his sincerity ; and it was from that place 
that he wrote the letter to Governor Trumbull, also intercepted 
by the British, and printed in a garbled and altered version by 



BruxblI/BS, 38 December, 1780. 

I have not sooner than this replyed to the letter 
your Exc7 did me the honor of writing tome ye 12 
of last June, because the events of the War in 
America, as well as in Europe last season, were so 
unimportant, that it was not worth while to take 
up your Excy> time. Our friends, France and 
Spain, have lost a campaign; but their Navy is 
unimpaired, for it is now more powerful than it 
has been at any former period, while the English 
have expended in the last Caixipaign, upwards of 
25 Million Sterling, lost above 15,000 Men, and 
their Navy decaying. In America their situation 
is critical. Gen^. Clinton confin'd closely to N. Y., 
which we cannot attack without a Naval Superior- 
ity: in South Carolina, notwithstanding the vic- 
tory at Camden in August, which the English have 
boasted so much about, it appears by 1,^ Cornwal- 
lis's dispatches dated ye 20 September, that he had 
not been able to venture into North Carolina, and 
he says that in South Carolina he was surrounded 
with Enemies and difficulties. Since that, on the 
7th of October, he sustained a heavy loss in the de- 
feat of Col, Ferguson and his Corps; so that 'tis 
supposed by most people in England that Genl Les- 
lie will not be able to extricate L^ Cornwallis from 
his difficulties in South Carolina. 

The treacherous defection of Genl Arnold has 


been attended with no other consequence but en- 
raging the American Army rather more than they 
were before against the wickedness of their Ene- 
mies. Arnold has been tried by a Court Martial 
and found guilty of peculation of the public money, 
and many other bad Practices while be commanded 
in Philadelphia, for which he was publicly repri- 
manded at the head of the American Army, where 
he was become contemptible ; but in remembran- 
ces of his past services, he was continued in the 
command of a Post, as he had been rendered in- 
capable of active service by his wounds. On the 
whole it may be said that we have got clear of one 
wretch, and the English have added another to 
their Standard. 

In this situation the extravagance of y5 British 
Councils seem to have no bounds, for we now learn 
that they have already commenced open hostilities 
against the Dutch, because the States General de- 
termined to join the Northern Powers in the 
League for an Armed Neutrality, in opposition to 
y? orders and threats of the British Ambassador at 
y^ Hague. By commencing Hostilities at this 
season of y* year, while all the Northern Ports are 
frozen up, the English conceived they will strike 
so heavy a blow on the Dutch Commerce before 
the Spring that the Northern Powers will not 
then venture to come to the aid of Holland. In 
this speculation they will probably be deceived, 


especially as I suppose the Northern Powers will 
immediately stop all the British vessels that are in 
the Baltic and not let them pass the Sound into 
the North Sea* Some of my countrymen have a 
desire to make some essays in the Commercial way 
to the Port of Embden, but they wish to know first 
what manufactures can be readily got there on 
reasonable terms to load a vessel without much de- 
lay; What American productions, such as Rice, 
Indigo, Tobacco, furs and Potash would meet 
with a good market there; — what duties or Im- 
posts they are liable to. A commencement once 
made, I am satisfied would soon produce a large 
and beneficial communication between his Majes- 
ties Dominions and America; therefore I trust 
your Excellencies goodness will excuse me for de- 
siring to be informed to whom I can properly ap- 
ply for the information wanted. 

I do not speak from any authority of my Country, 
but as an individual, I can't help mentioning the 
indecent and unjust strictures on the conduct of 
Congress and America that have appeared on 
several occasions in the Courier de Bas Rhine, 
printed at Cleves. A different style and conduct 
in the Editor of that Gazette would certainly tend 
more to create an individual harmony and good 
understanding between his Majesties Subjects and 
my Countrymen. 



Brussbls, February loth, 1781. 

Be pleased to inform Congress that I have re- 
ceived information, which I think is to be depended 
on, that the British Cabinet has lately determined 
not to send any more troops for this campaign to 
North America* I therefore submit to the wisdom 
of Congress the propriety of making every possible 
vigorous effort this year to expel the British troops 
from the continent; for there may be reason to ap- 
prehend, if this is not done, and Great Britain can, 
by any means, extricate herself from the irresist- 
ible northern storm she has raised against her by 
the mad and foolish attack she has made on the 
Dutch, that her whole force will be employed next 
year against America, especially if she does not 
meet with some signal losses there this campaign. 

The secret proposals for peace which Great 
Britain is now making at Versailles and Madrid, 
are altogether insidious, and only intended to im- 
pede the active operations of France and Spain this 
year, whereby they hope, by getting the start, that 
they may obtain some decisive advantages in the 
East and West Indies, for which countries their 
expeditions are all now on the wing. The King of 
Prussia has been our steady friend, though wisely 
so, and has been of much service to us; therefore, 
from motives of gratitude, as well as of justice and 

sound policy, he ought not to be much longer 
neglected; for it is most certain that his wisdom 
directs greatly the present system of Europe. 
I have the honor to be, &c. 


Brxtxbllbs, II February, 1781. 

When your ExcT is acquainted with the anxious 
zeal I have always had for the success of the joint 
cause of France and America against y? common 
Enemy Great Britain, you will think that I do not 
stand in need of an Apology for taking up your 
time with this Letter; for tho' heretofore the ad- 
vice of those Americans who were only actuated 
by honest and generous feelings for their Country, 
and who in the present War, might reasonably 
have been supposed to know when, where and how, 
a fatal blow might be given to the common Enemy, 
has been too much disregarded, I am not discour- 
aged,* but shall proceed. 

I am informed, and believe the information true, 
that the British Cabinet have determined not to 
send any more Soldiers to America for this Cam- 
paign; therefore I would propose, in order to finish 
the war on our own terms, that 15 or 20 Ships of 

*This sentence erased, "because I trust that there is not now 
any of his majesties ministers or their dependants engaged in 
dirty jobs or plundering schemes of commerce/' 


the Line with some Frigates should be immedi- 
ately sent directly to New York, and when they 
are once within Sandy Hook, they may prevent 
the whole Navy of Great Britain from coming in to 
the relief of New York, and may wait there in 
safety, until the Americans are collected in suffici- 
ent Force to take it. Adml Arbuthnot has with 
him for the protection of New York about 12 Ships 
of the Line, which will be chiefly employed in 
blocking up the French Squadron at Rhode Island, 
so that their force from Europe may get within 
Sandy Hook before he has any notice of its com- 
ing; but if by chance they should meet at Sfca, 
your Superior force must destroy him. Such a 
measure will also free the French Squadron now 
at Rhode Island, and MonsT Rochambeau also, and 
give him a Liberty of acting where the occasion 
may be most pressing in order to destroy the com- 
mon Enemy. Should this plan meet your Excel- 
lencies' approbation, and it is accordingly adopted, 
the squadron should go as straight as possible to 
New York. It will be advisable that the real des- 
tination of the Squadron should not be commui- 
cated to any but the commanding officer, and to 
deceive the Enemy, it may be proper to have it 
generally given out that this squadron is destined 
for the West Indies. 

If any measures have been taken to intercept 
Adni*. Darby and his 20 Sail of the Line, now 


about sailing from Portsmouth with most valu- 
able convoys for the East and West Indias and 
North America, this expedition to New York will 
be unnecessary, because the taking or destroying 
Adm^ Darby's fleet and Convoys will effectually 
answer the purpose of bringing the Enemy to our 
own terms; at the same time I must beg leave to 
observe that, knowing them so well as I do, I am 
perfectly convinced they only mean to gain time 
and advantages in the present campaign by secret 
propositions of Peace either at Versailles or Madrid. 
Tho' contrary to my own opinion of the Emper- 
or's disposition, I could not help being uneasy at 
various accounts lately of his determination to take 
part with Great Britain, but I am happy now in 
being assured that he is not disposed to act in any 
manner against us. 


BruxKIXBS, 20 February, 1781. 
My dear Brother: 

The last letter I received from you was dated in 
October 1779. * * * * 

I have not heard from Congress, nor received 
letters from any one relative to discharging the 
sum due to me for my appointments, while in the 
public service; but I understand, there are letters 
on this side which mention, that when MT Izard's 


appointment was settled, and payment of the bal- 
ance ordered in Europe, the consideration and 
settling of mine was postponed; for what reason I 
cannot conceive. 

I hope no one will think it unreasonable, or in 
any manner derogating from M^ Izard's merit, if I 
desire only to be put on the same ground with 
him; for tho' mine was an active, laborious and 
expensive employment, I make no particular claim 
for having done my duty to my country and prin- 
cipals, in the best manner I was capable of. 

Mr Izard, besides the satisfaction of an unanimous 
vote of Congress approving his conduct, was al- 
lowed for expenses i,6oo Louis d'ors pT annum; and 
near 500 Louis d'ors pr an. for salary. — On the same 
footing my demand will stand thus: To expenses 
from the i** OctT 1777, when my service began as 
commissioner, to the 13 Jan. 1780, being 3 months 
after receiving the notification of my recall at 1,600 

Louis d'ors pT an., is in livres ;^ 

To salary for the above period. @ 11.- 

428 livres p^ an. 26.189 

Deduct 3.000 Louis d'ors I rec'd from 

Com!" at Paris. 72.000 

leaves a bal^* due to me from Congress of ;^42. 189 
I do not know the name of a single delegate now 


in Congress from Virginia, and so many changes 
have taken place in that body that I do not know 
a single person there, who would be proper and 
willing to get the business settled for me; there 
fore I must rely entirely on your kindness to get it 
negotiated for me, and if possible to get a draft on 
some part of Europe remitted to me for the bal- 
ance. I have written often to Congress on the 
subject, but they have either not received or not 
answered my letters, that I know of. 

I have no doubt you will answer me on this 
subject as soon as you can, and by repeated oppor- 
tunities, which you may do in such a manner as to 
be unintelligible to the enemy should your letters 
fall into their hands — Our brother Arthur Lee has 
a cypher that you can use if necessary. * 

***The decision of Congress respecting your letter of April 
I3th, which came to hand only the 4th of this month, is herewith 
transmitted. The period of pajrment will perhaps be more 
distant than you wish ; but I am at liberty to assure you from 
the Superintendent of our finances, that it is his intention to 
take the earliest possible opportunity to close this business." 
James Lovell to William Lee^ 20 September, 1781. 

** September 12th, 1781. The committee to whom was re- 
ferred a letter of the 12th of April last from Mr. William Lee, 

"That upon principles admitted by Congress in the settle- 
ment of an account similar to that transmitted by Mr. Lee, 
t^ere appears to be due to him a balance of 42, 189 lirres Totir- 
■ois ; whereupon, 

" Ordered, That the account be referred to the Superinten- 


Yourself and Governor Jefferson were frequently 
advised during the last summer, and I hope not 
without effect, of the determination of the British 
cabinet to bend their greatest force against the 
two Carolinas and Virginia. After the taking of 
Charleston, and particularly after the battle of 
Camden, in their usual style of wisdom, they fully 
expected by Xmas last to be in complete possession 
of the two Carolinas and part of Virginia as far as 
the confines of James river at least, and that this 
campaign would be crowned with the conquest of 
the remaining part of Virginia, Maryland and 

At present, however, they have determined not 
to send any fresh troops to America for this cam- 
paign; indeed, we know they have not any to send; 
therefore it is reasonable to imagine, that weakened 
as they are, last campaign, the force they have now 
in America cannot advance much in the way of 
conquest; but America will be culpable if she does 
not make a proper use of the favorable moment 
and by a vigorous exertion drive the enemy entirely 
off the continent. 

A very fine French fleet of 25 sail of the line will 
sail from Brest in a few days; its true destination 
is not publickly known ; some say to North 

dent of Finance, to take order for payment of the balance, with 
interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum from this day, as 
soon as the state of the public finances will admit.'' 


America and others say to the West Indies; but 
wherever it goes it ought to fall heavy, and by a 
deep blow at once finish the war, for the English 
have no equal force to oppose it 

The grand fleet and whole army of Spain are 
still amusing themselves with the seige of Gib- 
raltar; where there is only a paltry, sickly garison 
of about 2CXX) men. 

Your minister at Madrid is no more than a 
private gentleman; and England has there pub- 
licly known agents, Mr. Cumberland, secretary to 
the Board of Trade, and Mr. Hussey, an Irish 
priest; who confer with the Spanish ministers and 
act in the honorable capacity of spies, tho' they 
are not publicly received as ministers. 

The British Declaration of War against the 
Dutch was the 20*.^ December, since which above 
100 Dutch merchantmen have been taken; an ex- 
pedition is now publicly sailing from Portsmouth 
against their East India settlements, and orders 
have been long since sent to attack the West India 
islands; to all which the Dutch have only replied 
by a proclamation that they will grant letters of 
marque and reprisals against the English, but as 
yet there is no manifesto, nor a single Dutch man- 
of-war or privateer at sea, tho' the winter has been 
remarkably open, and the coast of England from 
the Thames quite to the Orkneys, has been totally 


Be not surprised at this, there are rascals and 
parricides in other places besides America; — ^but if 
I mistake not, before the summer ends the English 
will sorely repent their attacking the Dutch. 

'Tis not known yet whether Russia, Sweden and 
Denmark will immediately enter into the war 
against England; but they are well known to ex- 
press high indignation at her conduct against HoU 

The Emperor is at present determined to remain 
quite neuter, if the English will let him do so, but 
they are every day seizing and plundering the 
ves9sels of his subjects in the same piratical man- 
ner, as they have done those of other nations. 
The King of Prussia will, I think, as heretofore 
continue our friend in the cabinet; 'tis therefore to 
be regretted, that Congress has let him remain so 
long neglected, especially at this critical moment, 
when the great advantage is so evident that 
America might obtain from having ministers at 
almost every court in Europe, whether they were 
publicy received as such, or not On the whole I 
am clearly of opinion, that a general peace is 
within this year, unless some unexpected and un- 
foreseen occurrrences in America should happen, 
that may induce the King of Great Britain to 
risque every thing elsewhere, in hopes of obtaining 
his fevorite object, the Subjugation of America. — 
You have the game therefore in your own hands. 




BRUXKlitBS, 13 April, 1781. 
My dear Brother: 

Inclosed you have copies of the two accounts I 
transmit by this same conveyance to Congress; the 
reason of my altering the original account No. i, 
and new stating it as in No. 2 is mentioned be- 
tween the two accounts; and I must further observe 
that the feelings and prevailing sentiments in 
America, which dictates the resolves of Congress, 
Sep: 20, 1776, when the appointment to be a com- 
missioner was refused, were very different from 
those which produced the resolutions of the 6*> 
Aug? 1779; when even the President, and other 
members of Congress were intriguing for such ap- 
pointments. This however should in justice be 
considered in rewarding those who undertook the 
appointments at the different periods. 

As I do not know that I have one friend, or ac- 
quaintance in Congress to push forward this busi- 
ness for me, I must rely on your kindness to write 
to some member of your body to bring it to a con- 
clusion; and to take care, that whatever sum Con- 
gress may think proper to allow, may be transmit- 
ted to me in bills on Europe. 

Col. Searle and M^ Dana* passed thro' here 

*Dana had been appointed to represent Congress at St. 
Petersburg, and was on his way to that court His election 
occurred 19 December, 1780. 


yesterday, on their way from Paris to Holland; 
they both assured me that Bills of Exchange on 
Europe were plentiful in Virginia, Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, the exchange 70 for one in the old, 
and 52 for one in the new paper. — In this state of 
things I should have hoped to receive some remit- 
tances from the estate, but now I can hardly ex- 
pect any thing this year, as Virginia will be the 
seat of war. 

By repeated conveyances last year I gave the 
Governors of Virginia and Maryland advice of the 
determination of the British cabinet to push their 
chief force last winter & this summer against the 
Carolinas & Virginia. — Some of those letters must 
have got to hand, as the vessels they went by ar- 
rived safe; but y^ warning seems to have had no 
effect, from the very defenceless and unprepared 
state that Leslie and the Traitor afterwards found 
Virginia in. 

I am so very feeble, and reduced by a continued 
and severe illness, ever since Ocf last, that I am 
not able to enter into the large field of European 
politics, which indeed is somewhat inexplicable. 

Heyder AH, in the East Indies, having made an 
irruption into the Carnatic, with 8o,cxx) horse, 
totally defeated and cut to pieces a large British 
army; has taken the whole country of Arcot; and 
it is said, had laid seige to Madras, after retaking 
Pondicherry. This is by far a more sensible blow 


on our enemies than any they have received from 
every power in Europe, since the commencement 
of hostilities to this time; or than they are likely 
to receive this year from them all together, as 
things appear at present, so very contemptibly are 
aflFairs conducted on this quarter of the globe. 

The conduct of your affairs in France seems to 
have grown worse and worse; at last some cloath- 
ing is gone, the 29*^ ult? , in the Marquis de la 
Fayette, under convoy of the Alliance. The 
freight paid to this old ship, which will hardly 
swim to America, they say at Nantes, would have 
built there, from the stocks, and sent completely 
fitted to sea, a frigate of 36 guns, and in less time 
than she has taken to be fitted for this voyage; but 
M"" Chaumont is said to be a part-owner, which ac- 
counts for all. He, and MF Williams have had the 
sole management of the ship and her cargo. 

Extractof a letter just received from Bourdeaux, 
dated the 7*^ April 1781. 

"The marquis de la Fayette belonged to a company 
who purchased her of the old E. I. Co., in which 
trade she had made some voyages. They sent her to 
the W. Indies, in which voyage she sunk money to the 
owners, and being found unprofitable they ordered her 
to be laid up here. 

** Le Ray de Chaumont became proprietor and chart- 
ered her to M! Franklin. Bills to a considerable 
amount are drawn, by order of the state of Virginia, on 


D'Acosta Fr^res, who have admitted them to be pro- 
tested. The credit of particular states is in disrepute. ' ' 

In Great Britain they have this year created a 
perpetual debt of 21 millions, to borrow 12 mil- 
lion; and they will create besides an unfunded debt 
of 8 million more over and above their annual in- 
come. Thus, the bubble of credit and paper has 
been carried to a height incredible, and almost in- 
conceivable by the mind of man. But if Heyder 
Ali pursues his conquests in the East, this bubble 
will soon burst, and then farewell to British inso- 
lence and barbarity forever. 

My whole family unite with me in aflfec^* love to 
you and all your's; & beg to remember as to all our 
brothers, sisters & friends. MT Adams has bor- 
rowed for Congress, in Holland, one million florins, 
upwards of ;^ steri^, which is supposed to be 
a prelude to a farther and more considerable loan. 


Bruxblles, 12 February, 1782. 

That you may know y5 fate of such Letters as 
you may have written, 'tis proper for me to inform 
you that it is near four years since I have rec? a 
Letter from you of any kind, and above seven 
years since I have received one about private busi- 
ness; I flatter myself, however, that you have taken 
care to pay ofi" with paper money all the debts of 


every kind that I owed in Virginia, or, at least, 
that you have made legal tenders for y\ purpose, 
with the said money, in which I hear the Debts 
due tome have been discharged; and to pre^fent 
any omission or mistake in this business, I again 
enclose you a List of all the Debts I owed in Vir- 
ginia in May, 1777; — since which none can have 
been contracted by me. 

You will find also enclosed a Copy of my account 
against our Father's Estate, the Balance due to me 
the 5th of Nov*: 1781, being jCz^ggS . 9 . y}4 Ster^^ 
which account I wish you to get certified and 
sign'd by the Acting Executors of our late Father's 
Estate. When this Account is so certified and 
sign'd, I wish to have it recorded in Westmoreland 
County Court; and I request of you to let me know 
by repeated Letters what is done in this business. 
— In September last Congress ordered that the 
Superintendant of Finances should pay me 42,189 
livres, as soon as the slate of y^ Public Finances 
would admit. The time and manner of payment 
being thus left entirely at the discretion of the 
Superintendant, you will render me a most par- 
ticular and essential service if you can prevail on 
the Superintendant to remit me, or pay this money, 
directly in good Bills on Paris or Amsterdam. I 
have mentioned this subject to both our brothers 
A. L. and R. H. L. , and of y^ latter I have desired 
to be informed particularly, of all y^ damage that 


has been done on the Estate at Green Spring dur- 
ing the last Campaign; to have all y? fruit Trees 
immediately replaced that may have been de- 
stroyed; to have promising young Fellows, put 
apprentices to the diflFerent trades necessary for the 
use of such an Estate; and to have the whole of 
Powhatan Swamp Converted into a Timothy 
meadow as fast as possible. This should be the 
grand object at present, even to y^ partial neglect 
of crops of Tobacco. This Letter being entirely 
on Private business, I shall conclude with telling 
you that my family (except myself) are in tolerable 
good Health; it consists of Mrs. Lee, one Son, 
William Ludwell, 7 years old; two Daughters, 
Portia 5 years, and Cornelia 2 years old. The last 
was, born in this Town. 

You will readily agree that in times like the 
present, with a broken Constitution and reduced 
Fortune, these are enough to provide for, as they 
ought to be. However, I cannot despair of seeing 
brighter days, and of once more embracing you in 
Peace and happiness, when we can, with pleasure, 
look back on all the dangers we have passed. 
Heaven bless you and our dear Sister. 



Bruxbi«lbs, II March, 1782. 
My dear Brother: 

I have writteu to you several long letters lately, 
one of which will go by the Marquis la Fayette. 
Since my last a new spirit has arisen in the British 
House of Commons: General Conway made a 
motion that the prosecution of an offensive war in 
America, should be put a stop to. This, after a 
very long and warm debate, was carried against 
the ministry by I9 majority. The motion was 
then modelled into an address to the King, who 
gave an evasive, and I think rather insolent answer; 
on this the House of Commons without a division 
passed another resolve, that he that should advise 
or attempt to carry on an offensive war in America 
contrary to the sense of that House, should be 
deemed an enemy to Great Britain, and punished 
as such. 

Thus for the present, the plundering and burn- 
ing plans, that have been concerted to be carried 
into execution this year under Arnold, are put a 
stop to. The nation at large is really anxious for 
peace, and it is clear that the ministry will there- 
fore be obliged to make some attempts that way 
this year; while all the force of Great Britain will 
be principally employed against the navy of 
France: but as the King thirsts as much as ever for 
the blood and devastation of America, unless they 


suffer some farther losses, so as to render them 
utterly incapable of going on one moment longer, 
I fear that peace will hardly take place this year; 
tho' if America by one vigorous exertion would 
get possession of New York and Charleston, the 
business of war would end immediately. * * * 


BRUSSBI3, 31 March, 1782. 

Although I have not the honor of a personal ac- 
quaintance with you, yet I trust that this letfer, 
being on subjects which concern the interests of 
our country in general, I shall not stand in need of 
any apology for writing it. 

You will be informed, probably, both by the 
newspapers and private letters, before this gets to 
your hands, of the late revolution in the British 
Ministry; the old set having given place to a new 
Ministry, composed of the Rockingham, Shel- 
burne, and Grafton parties. This change has been 
forced on the King, very much against his inclina- 
tion and that of his secret advisers. Lords Bute and 
Mansfield, by the general exertion of almost the 
whole body of the people of England, both in and 
out of the House of Commons, who ardently wish 
for a peace, especially with America; and it ap- 
pears that independence will not be any great im- 


pediment, though they will endeavor to barter, as 
a consideration for acknowledging it for a bene- 
ficial treaty of commerce, the Newfoundland fish- 
ery, and some other points. 

It seems evidently to be the general wish of the 
nation, that a peace with America should be im- 
mediately made almost on any terms, and on that 
principle it is that they have forced the present 
Ministry into place; but as I am not quite clear 
that the principles of Lord Shelburne, or those of 
his friend, Mr. Dunning, are in any manner 
friendly to America, and the King's inveteracy 
continuing as great as ever, it is not possible to 
say how far the negociations for peace may be 
traversed and impeded by secret manoeuvres and 
intrigues; therefore, in my opinion it will be wise 
in America to be well on her guard, and take her 
present measures as if the war was yet to continue 
some years. I have not yet heard of his departure, 
but the 22d instant was fixed for General Carleton 
to leave Portsmouth in the Ceres, of thirty-two 
guns, for New York, to take upon him the com- 
mand in chief in America. The late British 
Ministry died as they lived, for one of their last 
oflScial acts was to give the traitor Arnold, by 
patent, one thousand pounds sterling pension per 
annum for his and his wife's lives. 

It has been mentioned to me by a gentleman in 
the Government here, that the Emperor is disposed 


to enter into a commercial treaty with America, 
and afterwards that a minister or resident from 
Congress should reside at the Court here, this being 
the principal commercial country belonging to his 
Majesty. Though this communication was not 
official, yet it appears as if it had been made to me 
from their knowing that I was formerly a Com- 
missioner of Congress at the Court of Vienna; 
therefore I think it my duty to inform Congress of 
the circumstance through you, that they may take 
such measures in it as they think proper. 

I will not presume to advise on the propriety or 
impropriety of appointing a Minister to treat with 
his Imperial Majesty, because Congress must be 
sufficiently informed that the capital manufactures 
of this country in woolen, linen, and cotton, and 
coarse hats, and the iron and steel manufactures at 
Leige, will be of great utility at all times in 
America; and the consumption of tobacco, indigo, 
rice, furs, skins, and salt fish is not only very con- 
siderable in this country but in the adjacent inland 
ones that always draw their supplies through the 
ports here. I will only venture to say, in my 
opinion, fifteen thousand livres Tournois per 
annum would be a sufficient appointment for an 
American Minister to reside at this Court, for his 
salary and expenses together. Should such a 
Minister be appointed his commission should run 
thus: **To negociate, agree upon, conclude, and 


sign a treaty of, &c., &c., &c., between his Im- 
perial and Apostolic Majesty Joseph the Second, 
Emperor of Germany, King of the Romans, of 
Hungary, Bohemia, &c., &c., &c., and the Con- 
gress of the United States of America, and after- 
wards to reside as Minister from the said Congress 
at the Court of Brussels, in the Austrian Nether- 
lands, to transact such affairs as may be given to 
him in charge." I mention this because there 
was a capital mistake in the original commission 
sent me to treat with the Court of Vienna, which 
I took the liberty of pointing out at the time. 

You will find enclosed with this a copy of the 
London Gazette and sentence of the court-martial 
on Captain Dundass of the Boneta, which prove 
pretty explicity a breach of the articles of capitula- 
tion at Yorktown by Lord Cornwallis and Captain 
Symonds. I do not know that the situation of 
affairs will render it necessary to take notice of 
this breach on the part of the enemy, but it ap- 
pears to me proper that Congress should be in- 
formed of the fact. 

With the highest consideration and respect, I 
have the honor to be, &c. 


Bruxei,i,ES, June i8, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

It was not in my power to write to you last Post, 


tho' I much wished to give you as early intelli- 
gence as possible of what we are confidently assured 
here; viz, that the Preliminaries of Peace were 
sign'd last week at Paris; and instead of o. Peace 
with America only a Truce of 12 years is agreed 
upon; but if this Truce is not ripened into a Peace 
before y? settlement of y^ general business, I am 
sure it will be attended with very disagreeable 
consequences, especially to G. B. France always 
wished to bring the affair to such a conclusion, in 
order y^ more effectually to accomplish her deep 
lay'd design, of keeping America a perpetual 
Thorn in y* side of G. B., and she must be now 
delighted at seeing her adversarys run so easily 
into the snare. It is much more y? probable that 
a War will break out in Europe before y? expira- 
tion of 12 years, in which France and England 
must be Antagonists; in that case, suppose there is 
now only a Truce with America, she will infallibly 
take a part with France: but if there is a full peace 
now, America will then either remain Neuter, or 
probably take part with G. B. Besides, a Truce 
will be y? most effectual plan that can be devised 
to preclude for ever that intercourse and commerce 
which well disposed [persons] wish should take 
place immediately between G. B., and America; 
for you may depend upon it that during the Truce, 
no British Subjects nor a farthing's worth of Brit- 
ish or Irish goods or manufactures, will on any 


Account or in any shape, be admitted to enter 
within any of y* 13 United States of America. 
Events have so fully confirmed my presages for 14 
years past that I have become confident in my 
Political Predictions in what concerns G. B. and 
America; and therefore if you think it will be ot 
any utility, you are at Liberty to communicate 
what I have here said, where you judge it will be 
of use. I hope you now understand clearly what 
I meant by saying some time ago that G. B. for 
her own sake should take care that y^ Indepen- 
dence of America should be Independent 

Now if you please to a little private business. 
A Flemish Merchant seems to have had very ill 
usage, from a British Privateer, as the inclosed 
case will show you, which, at his desire, I am to 
request that you will get the present Attorney 
General's opinion as soon as possible; or that of 
any other councillor learned in the Law, who may 
be thought to have more learning and skill in such 
matters than y* Attorney General. You will 
much oblige me by returning y^ case and opinion 
on it, as soon as you possibly can, marking the 
expence you are at in the business, which you may 
charge to my Account. 

I am well pleased to see y^ Corporation and y^ 
Court on such good terms as they seem to be at 
present; but I shall be mortified if the people 
loose the present favorable moment, and do not 



eflFectually secure their Liberty against y^ attempts 
of such another Administration as y* last was, by 
purifying the House of Commons by means of 
enlarging the represented body and throwing the 
decay'd burro's into the neighboring tithings and 
hundreds, as was done at Cricklade. You have 
got something in y^ Contractors and Revenue 
OflScers bill, but you may still be ruined if you 
stop there. 

P. S. Remember that I do not speak of the 
Preliminaries being sign'd, as a matter of certainty 
(for I neither am nor desire to be in y^ secret of 
any Cabinet), but as a Report in which I think 
there is some probability; but whether they are 
sign'd or not, as yet, it will not make any diflFer- 
ence in the Argument relative to a Truce or a 
Peace with America. I cannot pretend to have 
any Influence; but I have taken no little Pains to 
dispose the several parties on this side of the 
channel to a fair and equitable peace, and flatter 
myself with y^ hopes that such a one may be ac- 
complished, if your present ministers do not follow 
y* example of their predecessors, and suffer them- 
selves to be hurried away by their late good 
Fortune to make extravagant and silly demands. 



Brxjxki<i«BS, 22 June, 1782. 
I have to thank you for your letter of the 23^ of 
last April, tho' am much vexed at the fate of 
y^ Articles sent from Bourdeaux. I have never 
heard from our B^ A. what he did with the Dollars 
you sent by him last year to Pliil^ to remit to me, 
nor a word of the ;^22o.8. Specie you sent to him 
for the same purpose last March; tho' there are 
several vessels arrived in France and Holland that 
left Phil* and Baltimore late in April. I perceive 
we have suffered terribly, and are likely to suffer 
more, from y^ invasion of the Enemy last year: but 
it is in vain to repine at what we could not, nor 
can not help: therefore rest satisfied with the re- 
flection, that everything was done which could be 
done to save my property from the ravaging hands, 
of a cruel and savage Enemy. 'Tis too late in life 
for me with a debilitated state of health to fix on a 
plan for y^ future happiness of my family without 
more infonnation on some points than I have at 
present. I wish therefore to know as soon as pos- 
sible, what kind of Education can be got for my 
Son in Virginia; whether any of our houses in 
Williamsburg or that at Green Spring are in a 
proper habitable condition for us, and which of the 
house Servants are still alive and capable of service. 
On these points I request you will give me the ear- 
liest and repeated information by various convey- 


aDces, and your advice ou the propriety of going 
over with my family; which will be a Serious and 
important measure to me, in point of inconvenience, 
fatigue, and expence. I should be glad also to know 
what progress has been made in converting Pow- 
hatan Swamp into a Timothy Meadow. I am sure 
that you will not omit any opportunity of remitting 
what you possibly can to me, which will be equally 
necessary, whether I remain some time longer in 
Europe or go soon to Virginia. You say y"; Taxes 
are heavy this year, and I much fear they will be 
more so hereafter, as I see that the revenues of Vir- 
ginia, as well as those of the Continent, are still 
continued in the same hands, that have already 
burthened America with a debt that will require 
half a century to pay off. 

TO ARTHUR LEE., 19 July, 1781. 
Dear Brother : 

In consequence of the information you gave me 
in your letter of (y1 last date of which the 25'." of 
March), I wrote to Dr. Franklin above 10 daies ago 
desiring to be informed, if he had received orders 
from y' Superintendent General of Finance to pay 
me the money due to me from Congress. To this 
letter I have not received any answer, tho' y^ 
usual time allow'd for receiving an answer from 



Paris to a letter written from hence is 4 or 5 daies; 
therefore, I do not expect any answer from Dr. 
Franklin, nor do I believe he either has, or ever 
will receive such order as you Mention, and I can 
only wonder that you could ever believe such orders 
were ever given to him. You will much oblige me 
by procuring and sending to me either a bill of 
Exchange or an order payable a Month after sight 
for y^ principal debt, and interest thereon till paid, 
agreeable to y^ resolution of Congress in September 
last, either on Dr. Franklin or MT John Adams, 
who has within a few months opened another loan 
at Amsterdam which, report says, has succeeded 
better than y^ first. You will not forget y*; neces- 
sity of sending several duplicates of either a bill of 
Exchange or an order for this Money. Our B^ ., 
R. H. Lee, sent by you last year in April 68,100 
Dollars in Loan office certificates to remit to me, 
from Phil* ; what did you do with them, and what 
are they now worth in livres? He also sent to you 
in March last ;^22o.8. Virginia currency in Specie, 
to remit to me; of that money you do not mention 
a word, tho' I hear good Bills on Europe were 
plenty, and y^ Exchange a great deal under par. 
I have no proofs here of the debt due from De 
Berdt & Co.; they must, I suppose, have been 
lodged in y* proper office in PhiK before y^ At- 
tachment was taken out. Anthony Stewart had a 
full power of attorney and regular proofs of the 


debt, with the Account Settled and Signed by 
Burkitt & Sayre, the surviving Partners. I be- 
lieve A. S. appointed Mr. Hill of Phil^ , partner 
in y^ Madeira House of Hill, Lamar & Bissett, to 
act for him in the business. Mr. Hill is now in 
Phih and I believe A. Stewart is in N. York; from 
one or y^ other of them you may probably know 
where y^ papers are, and as soon as I can get a 
power of Attorney made out, I will send one to you* 
Should you know where Mr. Lotsom now is, pray 
inform him that I wrote to him in May last saying 
that the principal money he placed in my hands, 
was let on Interest to Comte Clonard in Paris, as I 
could not fix on any eligible plan of employing it 
in trade, having not been able, even at this time, 
to get y^ former aflFairs finished in which his money 
was adventured. There are some accounts still to 
settle, and until they are finally closed 'tis impos- 
sible for me to say whether there will be any profit 
or not. There has been a great deal of ill Fortune, 
as well as bad management in what has been under- 
taken ; therefore he may think himself in some 
measure fortunate that y^ principal is not lost ; at 
least I think so now, which has determined me not 
to be concerned in any adventure, where I cannot 
act openly as y* principal Agent, which hitherto 
has not been practicable in this Country. But 
things seem now to be changing in their Political 
aspect I wish Mr. Lotsom would let me know if 


it is agreeable to him that his money should re- 
main in Count Clonard's hands; in y^. mean time 
he may draw on me for Twenty thousand Livres 
payable three months after sight in Paris. He 
must always give me advice by tetter of what 
Bills he draws. Tho' his bills are to be made pay- 
able in Paris, they must be directed to me here. 

I will send him an exact state of the amount of 
his money in my hands, as soon as I can get y? 
fonner aflFairs finally settled. Should any oppor- 
tunity occur of serving me on this side the At- 
lantic, I suppose you will not neglect it, as you 
know I am perfectly idle, and I can assure you 
that my dangerous illness last year arose princip- 
ally from inactivity and want of employment after 
upwards of 20 years spent in bustle and continual 


Cl^EVES, 29 July, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

I am sorry to be obliged to confirm now what I 
have said to you in several letters within 3 months 
past, viz, that there is no prospect of peace for this 
year. Since the death of Lord Rockingham, Lord 
Shelburne is made treasurer, and ostensible prem- 
ier, with an administration of his own composing, 
on the express convention with the King, to con- 


tinue the war, and refusing to acknowledge the 
Independence of America. 

An interior cabinet is already formed, as in the 
reign of Lord North, where all schemes are first 
formed before they are carried to the cabinet coun- 
cil to be confirmed. 

General Arnold is again openly at court, high 
in the King's favor, and frequently closeted with 
Lord Shelburne. 

These are facts, the truth of which you may rely 
on and make known where you think they are 
most necessary to be known; as from them you 
will see as clearly as I that the war in America 
will be renewed again, unless you take advantage 
of the enemy's present weakness, and strike an- 
other blow. 

The time when and the manner how this war 
will be renewed perhaps is not yet determined; but 
from Arnold being again in high favor, I suppose 
the King has revived the plan he had adopted last 
winter of sending Gen^. Frazer,* (who is since 
dead,) as Commander in Chief, and Arnold as 
second, to bum and lay waste every part of 
America that they could come at 

M^ William Pitt, only 22 years old, is Chan- 
cellor of Exchequer; Lord Grantham, secretary in 
the place of Lord Shelburne; Tommy Townsend, 

* Simon Fraser, sometime Master of I/>vat. He died in 


secretary in the room of M*". Fox, and Lord Keppel 
quits the administration as soon as they can get 
any body to fill his post; it is to be offered to Lord 
Howe, as soon as he returns from his present 
cruize in the channel. 

Colonel Barr6 is paymaster of the forces, and the 
treasurership of the navy has been offered to the 
Lord Advocate of Scotland (commonly called Lord 
Starvation) who is just arrived in London, to 
advise with the old Scotch Junto, before he accepts 

On the whole it is thought that England never 
had so feeble, uninformed in business, and un- 
connected an ladmiuistration, as this Lord Shel- 
burne's will be. 

A breath from the King's nostril will dissolve 
the whole in a moment, and it seems as if the 
nation would behold their dissolution with great 

Nothing but absolute incapacity to procure men 
and money, will prevent the enemy from carrying 
into execution next year the scheme the King and 
Lord Shelburne have plotted, to carry desolation 
thro' America; therefore I hope, advantage will 
be taken of their feebleness this year. 

I really do not see how it will be possible for 
Lord Shelburne to procure money; and as to men, 
5,000 from the Irish establishment, 5 or 6,000 
British and Irish recruits, and drafts from the 


British regulars and guards, and about 2 or 3,000 
German recruits, will be all the force they will be 
able to get, to replace their losses this year and to 
carry on their operations next year in the West 
Indies and America. 

It seems agreed on all sides that Gibraltar must 
fall this year. The Dutch fleet are out cruising on 
their own coast, but without appearing to design 
any more mischief to the enemy's trade, than they 
did last year, tho' the English have not a single 
ship-of-the-line in the North sea; for every one 
they have, as soon as they can be got ready, are 
sent to join Lord Howe, who is cruising with 22 sail 
on the coast of Ireland to meet and protect a large 
fleet from Jamaica, that is expected every day. 

The combined fleet of 27 Spanish and 13 French 
sail-of-the-line, and about 25 frigates under Don 
Cordova, have been taking their summer's amuse- 
ment in cruising, for about 3 weeks, between, Scilly 
and Lizard without taking a single vessel there, 
tho' Lord Howe passed by them, having remained 
in their sight for two days, and single ships were 
going frequently to join Lord Howe on the coast of 
Ireland. — Don Cordova it is said has now gone 
back to Cadiz. 

A very large and valuable French fleet from 
S*. Domingo is arrived safe. 

It is reported that Spain has, at length, deter- 
mined to acknowledge the Independence of Amer- 

■-.. \ 


Last spring Russia, whose object is to have the 
war continue as long as possible, to keep the part- 
ies nearly equal, threatened the Dutch, if they did 
not make a separate peace with Great Britain. 
The Dutch however refused, and since the disaster 
of the 12*:?* of April in the West Indies was known,. 
Russia has been quiet; for the English have re- 
vived their old ideas, and talk of nothing less than: 
totally annihilating the navies of France and Spain.. 

The English papers tell us that Sir James Jay, 
since his arrival in London, has had long and 
frequent conferences with Lord Shelburne, and 
that he is authorized by Congress to settle the 
terms of reconciliation between Great Britain and 

The English affairs in the East Indies are again 
on the decline ; which has made the East India 
stock fall 15 p^ c^ , and is still falling. At the be- 
ginning of the war it was 282 p"*. 100 stock, and it 
is now only 127. 

I wish you may get this letter, which goes from 
Flanders to Chesapeak, as it contains a full tho* 
concise state of public affairs in Europe. 

M*". Grenville, who was sometime in Paris, under 
the pretext of negotiating a general peace, ha§ 
been returned to London about a fortnight, and 
goes a secretary to his elder brother. Lord Temple, 
who is to be created Duke of Buckingham, and 
have Lord Rockingham's blue ribbon, and succeed 
to the Duke of * 

♦The letter ends here. 



Bruxellbs, 27 August, 1782. 

Last Post bro't me your favor of the 20^.^ instant 
covering your two notes for £^0() S? due the 10 
September next, being the amount of the two bills 
I remitted to you y^ 9*.^ inst and Col. Faning's 
note for ;^89., which you had received for me. 
For the recovery of this debt from Col. F. I am en- 
tirely indebted to your prudent and decisive con- 
duct, and I beg you to accept my sincere acknow- 
ledgements for the same. There having been 
made last sessions an Act of Parliament for laying 
a stamp Duty on inland bills, I am sure you will 
excuse me for asking whether notes such as yours 
come within the Act; for this being a novel device 
in Finance, the circumstance may easily have es- 
caped your recollection. I have ever tho't it was 
the best method to be explicit and open, as being 
the surest way of avoiding misunderstandings be- 
tween friends ; therefore I shall be so now with 
you. As a proof of the confidence I had in your 
judgement Integrity and friendship for me, on 
making my last Will a good while ago, I took the 
Liberty of naming you as one of my Executors, 
trusting that your friendship for the Father would 
be extended to his Infant Children, which charge 
I must hope you will have the goodness to take 
upon yourself whenever the Period for its execu- 
tion may arrive. On recollection lately, I think 


there are cases and opinions in your law Books 
that say, all Debts due from an Executor to a de- 
ceased Testator are ipso facto annuPd and void on 
the Testator's death unless there is something to 
show, that the Testator and the Executor under- 
stood and intended it shouM be otherwise. 

In this situation of things, as life is precarious, I 
submit to your consideration whether it may not 
be proper for you to send me a certificate con- 
ceived somewhat in the following terms: 

Whereas W. L. Esq, late Merchant and Alderman 
of London, but now resident in the City of Bruxelles 
in Brabant, has tho* proper to nominate and appoint 
me, S. T., of Aldgate, in the said City of London, 
Haberdasher, an Executor of his last Will and Testa- 
ment, and whereas I now stand indebted to the said 
W. L. in certain sums of money had and received from 
him or for his use, and I may so continue to be in- 
debted at the time of the decease of the said W. L. 

now I do hereby declare and make known to all whom 
it may concern, that whatever sum or sums of money 
debt or debts may be due and owing from me to y^ 
said W. L., by Bond Bill note or open Account or 
otherwise, at the time of his decease, whenever and 
wherever he may happen to depart this Life, shall be 
equally due, payable and inure to the use and benefit 
of the Heirs, Assigns, or estate, of the said W. L. as 
fully and amply to all intents and purposes both in 
Law and Equity, as if I, the said S. T. bad not been 
so nominated and appointed by the said W. L. an Ex- 


ecutor of his last Will and Testament. In witness 
whereof I have (with the approbation and by the 

desire of the said W. L. ) hereunto set my name in 

London aforesaid this day of . 

In 5 or 6 weeks I hope to be able to furnish you 
with ;^500 — but should that fail I expect to re- 
ceive £()00 in England, when you may be supplied 
with what part you want. I suppose by two 
months' notice you mean either by Letter or by a 
draft payable 2 Months after sight. You have 
managed the affair of Faning with so much judg- 
ment and success, that I could not stand excusable 
to myself if I did not request you to undertake the 
following business. The Money for which you 
have a certain Alderman's draft, was not lent to 
him, but to Mr. Sam*. Brailsford, who was then a 
Merchant and resident in Bristol, and who, to me, 
has acted much more reproachfully than the 
Alderman, however atrocious his conduct has been 
on other occasions. You have inclosed a letter to 
Mr. B. which please to read, seal, and forward per 
Post, and when you get his answer read that also 
before you forward it, that you may know what 
passes between us. I have understood that Mr. B. 
left Bristol some years ago to reside in the Coun- 
tr}', where I do not know; but possibly you may 
get his address from ir. Downe in Bartholemew's 
Lane in the banking house that was Lascelles, 
Marlar, Pell & Downe, or by writing to M^. Tho? 


MulHtt in Bristol, for whom M^ Alderman Bull 
will at any time give you a frank, as they are 
intimate friends. 

You have M*: Brailsford guarantee for the pay- 
ment of W ^ge's draft, and if he does not answer 

my letter properly and put the debt in a way of 
payment in the course of next month, it will be 
necessary to commence an action against him to 
prevent the act of Limitation from taking place 
until better times, when I can take the trouble off 
your hands. 

Your plan of indorsing the Lottery ticket when 
you buy one for me is good, for Life you know is 
precarious; but send me the N° that I may sing and 
be merry when I see it announced a ;^20,ooo in 
the papers. You may see by this that nothing 
less will satisfy me. Don't forget Banks and the 
Civilian when you are at leisure. 


BKUXKhhnSf 30 August, 1782. 
Dear Brother : 

Some days ago I sent from hence two packets for 
you to be forwarded from Paris, containing dupli- 
cate Proved account and power of Attorney to pros- 
ecute the Attachments against the effects of De 
Berdt & C?, and a protested bill for ;^300 Sterling 
to be recovered in Maryland. Yesterday I received 


a Letter from Dl Franklin, a Copy of which you 
have on the other side, which cost me some trouble 
and expence to obtain : you will perceive he does 
not deny having received my former letter on this 
subject of the SV* of July, which he never answered, 
but now when pushed he tells me plainly that I 
am not to expect the money from him; thus you 
see what advantage has been taken of the loose 
wording of y*; resolves of Congress to buffet me 
from Phil*^ to Passy, and from Passy to Phil* , and 
I suppose y*: next kick attempted, will be to Mad- 
rid or Petersburg. This, you know from my former 
Letters, was what I expected would be practiced; 
therefore, 'tis unnecessary to observe on the 
Doctor's letter, tho' I can't help remarking the 
Malignant and studied insult of the paragraph be- 
ginning — **I hope" &c. You will therefore 
oblige me much by getting immediate payment of 
this debt from M^ Morris, either in his own bills of 
Exchange on Paris or Amsterdam, or in money 
equal to the value according to the Exchange, for 
it will be doubly cruel after being curtailed in my 
Demand and spending my own Money in Europe 
on the public Account which I was obliged to draw 
from England at a considerable loss, to compel me 
to receive the debt in America in a manner that I 
may loose 15 or 20 p ct more in the Exchange. 
Should any objection be started that you are not 
legally authorised to receive "the money, I am to 


inform you that my Bl F. I^. Lee, has an old but 
ample power of attorney to act in all cases for me; 
therefore he can easily authorise you to receive the 
money, if you should find that such an authoriza- 
tion is requisite. 


Bruxki«LBS, I October, 1782. 

You ask me in your favor of the 18*? of last July 
whether I have any written or verbal assumption 
from our late Br , Col. P. L. Lee, to pay all our 
Father's Money Legacies. In reply I must answer 
that I have not, and for my own part, I never 
asked, nor would I ever have accepted of any such 
assumption from him, so as to have made my de- 
mand a debt due from him alone. Equal Justice 
however calls some one to declare, what I shall be 
always ready to testify on Oath when call'd upon, 
viz, that I have never applyed to any body for the 
payment of what was due to me and my Sister 
agreeable to her regular assignment under the Will 
of our Father, but to Our Br , P. L. Lee, for these 
reasons — first, he was the Sole acting Executor or 
Administrator, therefore he was the only regularly 
legal Person for me to apply to, and from him only 
did I ever receive any partial payments, a full pay- 
ment not being made at this day. Secondly — 
Having had full access for years to, and made re- 



peated examinations of, all the Books, Bonds, Notes 
and Accounts and papers that my father left at his 
Death, I always found that there was much more 
money due to my Father's Estate in G. B. and 
America than was amply sufficient to pay all the 
Debts due from the Estate and all the Pecuniary 
Legacies or Devices in my Father's Will ; and of 
my own personal knowledge, I can declare that 
our B^. , P. ly. Lee, as Executor to our Father, re- 
ceived almost the whole that was due to him at the 
time of his Death by Bond, Note, Account, &c, ex- 
cept some very trifling and insignificant sums in- 
deed, and a demand against M^ Fitzgerald, a mer- 
chant in London, who has long since become a 
Bankrupt, tho' many years after my Father's 
death; but this demand I never took into Account 
as a good debt. Thirdly, the produce of the whole 
of my Father's Estate for the years 1750, 175I1 
1752, and I believe, of 1753 also, was received by 
our B*! , P. L. Lee, and as to myself I can declare 
that the whole expended on me for Education and 
Cloathing from Nov. 1750, when my Father dyed, 
to Sept. 1758, when I came of Age, did not 
Amount to 50;^ Sterling ; besides that, for the 
three last years I acted for my Brother, as his Clerk- 
Steward and principal manager of his whole Es- 
tate, for which in Justice he ought to have allowed 
me a Salary of 30 or 40;^ St'g p. annum, exclusive 
of my maintenance. 



For these two last reasons therefore, I always 
tho't it just that our B"*. , P. L. Lee, shou'd pay the 
whole of our Father's Pecuniary Legacies or De- 
vises out of that part of his Estate, which he solely 
received and injoy'd. I have only to add, that I 
earnestly request of you to have the Account I 
lately transmitted to our B^ , F. L. Lee, against 
my Father's Estate settled and put in a way of pay- 
ment immediately; otherwise the Duty I owe my 
Family will compel to institute a Suit directly in 
order to bring the affair to a conclusion. On this 
head let me beg for your answer as soon as pos- 
sible, and by various conveyances. 


Bruxbi«i«ES, I October, 1782. 

I have received and thank you for your letter of 
y^ iS^.'^of last July. If M^ Beale does not pay the 
money you demand for my Tobacco, he will have 
much outwitted Ml Valentine, and gain'd a con- 
siderable advantage of me, for I know he cannot 
return me better Tobacco, since I know from long 
experience that there is none so good or so val- 
ueable made in Virginia, except by y*: Burwells, 
near Williamsburg, and y*. famous E. D., near 
York. However, for the future I now request that 
no more of my Tobacco made on y^. Estate, may be 
disposed of in any manner, without particular 


orders from me. I do not know what your present 
currency is. How much is a Guinea, or a Dollar 
in Specie, legally worth j * * * 

The plan you seem to think best to be adopted 
for my Son, I know is utterly impracticable to any 
good purpose, therefore you can easily judge of my 
embarrassment to determine what is best to be 
done, in my situation. A good Seminary for 
y? Education of youth being so very essential to 
y* well being, happiness and prosperity of a Com- 
munity; I am greatly astonished that your Govern- 
ment permits y^. College of William & Mary to be 
neglected. If some wise and vigorous measures 
are not taken to remedy this evil, 'tis evident that 
your State must ever be dependent and inferior to 
y*: Northern and Eastern States. A word or two 
on Politics. But first, I must Say that your re- 
serve on that head is less warranted now than ever, 
because you have some body to write a letter for 
you and no name being signed or place mentioned, 
no one could tell from whom it came, therefore it 
could be of no consequence should it miscarry, or 
fall into y^. hands of a Public or Private Enemy. 
No military operation of y*: least importance has 
happened in Europe last Summer. The Dutch 
have acted worse if possible this year than they did 
the last: They are a wretched, undone and ruined 
People forever, beyond redemption ; therefore I am 
sorry that M*: A[dams] has but y*; other day Signed 


a Treaty of Commerce between them and America; 
by which they have, in my opinion, many ad- 
vantages and America not one. Gibraltar is not 
taken, nor likely to be so, at least as far as we 
know; though y*. Duke de Crillon has been be- 
sieging it upwards of 3 months, with 36,000 men 
French and Spaniards. The combined fleet of 50 
sail of the Line is moored in y^ Bay before it, and 
L^ Howe is gone with 35 Sail of the Line to throw 
in succors, so that every day we expect to hear of 
bloody work. The Negotiations for Peace will be 
bro*. to a conclusion, or at least a certainty of a 
conclusion, within six weeks from this time — 
whether for Peace or War, I will not take upon me 
to decide, tho' I may conjecture it will be for 
y? former. The only obstacles to a General Peace 
for some months past, have certainly been these: 
Spain insists on Gibraltar, without giving any 
thing in Exchange; France insists on having the 
Newfoundland Fishery, agreeable to her Treaty 
with America, and some particular advantages in 
y* E. Indies. These Demands England has not 
yet consented to, and probably will not consent to 
them all. * * * * 


Bruxbi«];es, 7 October, 1782. 

I have the honor to send you herewith a copy of 



the hands of my banker in Paris^ Mill I receive 
youi farther orders, as I have not any immediate 
prospect of employing it to a certain advantage in 
commerce, for it will not be pmdent to engage in 
any enterprize jnst at the eve of a peace. My 
Banker allows only 3 per cenL per annum interest, 
unless the money is lodged in his hands for a year 
certain, and then he will give 4 per cent interest ; 
but this I cannot agree to, as I don't know when 
you will want the money. I have received in part 
of Cte de C note ^^i 2,000, and ^^i 2,000 are I hope 
secured, that is, I have for them a bill on the 
French Treasury- of Marine for ^^12,000, accepted 
and due the beginning of March nexL This bill 
being paid, you may reckon in my hands twenty- 
eight thousand livres. But there is an old account 
of about ;^I5 sterling due from you to Mr. B. 
B[rown] which I must pay. You will recollect 
also that there still remains two accounts of J. A. 
D[urbrick] & Co unsettled, in one of which y^ 
Company claims about ^^300 sterling, and in the 
other about £jooo le\4es are claimed from the 
Company. The Company's claim of ^^300 sterling 
is clearly a just one, but being complicated and the 
part>'s dispersed, I begin to fear the money will not 
be recovered. The demand of £7000 against the 
Company is evidently unjust, and therefore will 
not be paid unless the law compels it to be sa 
When the convevance is more certain than at 


present you shall have an account current; tho' 
from this letter you may easily understand the 
state of your property in my hands. 

P. S. If you have occasion to draw for any part 
of this money, you may draw on me at Messrs. 
Freres Overman, Bruxelles, but your bills should 
be payable in I^ouis at Paris, and at two or three 
months' sight* 


BRUSSSI3, 26 October, 1782. 
Dear Brother: 

By M^ Wright and Genl Du Portail (who I sup- 
pose carried Dispatches to Congress from the 
American Commissioners at Paris, with advice of 
the formal acknowledgment of American In- 
dependence by the King and Ministers of G. B., 
and y^ negotiations for a General Peace being 
seriously commenced at Paris,) sent duplicates of 
my proved Accounts against De Berdt & C^ , with 
a power of attorney to prosecute the Suit, and a 

protest for a Bill drawn by Hall & O? , in 

Maryland, for ;^300 stg: on West and Hobson in 
London, indorsed by Stephen West I wrote to 
you by two conveyances that M'. Andrew Allen, 

* Addressed to "Mr. Lotsom;'* and on the outer sheet is writ- 
ten " Mr. A. Lee is requested to inclose and forward this letter 
to Mr. Lotfiom." 


who was my original Attorney and Councillor 
in the attachment against y? effects of De Berdt & 
C? had informed me that an account could not 
tiow be necessary, as y? Debt had been ascertained 
by the Verdict of a Jury in y5 Court of Com. 
Pleas, where a interlocutory Judgment had been 
enter'd; but before final Judgment was entered, 
M^. R[eed] removed the cause by certiorari to the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. But should it be 
necessary to have the original Account, &c, if they 
can't be found in the Prothonotary's office of 
Pennsylv^ , they must be amongst his papers in 
New York, for which purpose he has given me the 
inclosed Letter to M*: And^ Elliot, [who] will 
deliver y^. order. 

I have received your favor of y^ 7V* of August last, 
covering a resolve of Congress that I should apply 
to DT Franklin for payment of the Debt due to me, 
and a bill on Mess^! Overman for ;^i65.i9. Stg. 
The bill is accepted, but you must be greatly mis- 
taken about the Exchange, which is as high and 
even higher than before the War. If you are 
right, Specie Money must be in abundance with 
you. The order of Congress I had a few daies be- 
fore received from M': Secretary Livingston ; and 
to take away all possibility of excuse from ,D^. F., 
I drew on him for the amount of the debt due to 
me payable in April next; after a fortnight's con- 
sideration he accepted my bills, but being satisfied 


he will make use of every pitiful chicane to keep 
the money from me, I shall not think myself se- 
cure until he has paid my bills, the value of which 
I am determined now to have of him, if there is 
Law or Justice this side the grave. I have already 
sent you Duplicates of D*! F.'s letter wherein he 
positively refused last Summer to pay this Money. 
M^ J[enin]gs is y^ only person here that can prove 
that D^. Franklin knew I have been fixed here for 
three years past, and he, in his usual manner,, 
evades signing any certificate for that purpose. 
The motives you can't be at a loss to conceive, as. 
you know the Man. — The 127 living of -^. Morris^ 
will be downfall & ruin in y^ end. "Give a 
Rogue rope enough & he will soon hang himself." 
Be quiet and watchful, as Franklin is; and the 
business will bye and bye fall into your mouth. 
Adams finding that 59 is absolute in Congress is 
mild as a Lamb, and thinks 59 perfectly right in 
the prosecution of A. Lee, His present object is, 
to ingratiate himself that he may be permitted to 
be Minister in England. This opinion of Adams 
is perfectly just. M*: Adams is just gone to Paris ; 
he says you highly approve M^ Jay's conduct. 
This I doubt, because you must be greatly misin- 
formed in many respects if you do. M^ Jay and 
ly. Franklin, without even consulting M^. Adams 
or any Body else, have agreed to appoint young 
M'. Temple Franklin, Secretary to the American 



Commissioners for making peace. Gov^ Franklin, 
with Genl Arnold, are the favorites. 


Bruxbi«i«BS, 12 November, 1782. 

I have had the honor of receiving your letter of 
the 20^^ of last month, informing me that you had 
accepted my several bills, amounting to forty-six 
thousand one hundred and ninety-six livres, nine- 
teen sols, payable the la*** of April next, and you 
add ** I confide, that you will not hazard the credit 
of Congress by indorsing .any of them to others, 
till you have heard from me that I am likely to be 
in cash." 

This does not surprise me, as coming from DT 
Franklin, especially when I have in my hands the 
following extract from his letter of the 30^ of 
March last, to the Superintendent of Finance, who 
had ordered him twelve months ago to pay this 
money, viz: *' No demand has been made on me by 
M^W™ Lee. I do not know where he is." — At 
that moment, Doc^ Franklin knew where I was, 
as well as any man existing, who had not his eyes 
on me. 

I know. Sir, that the money has been already 
lodged in your hands, for the specific purpose of 
paying the debt due to me, which you have 


hitherto unjustly withheld; consequently the credit 
of Congress^ is at present out of the question with 
respect to me, in this business. 

Therefore I am compelled to inform you, that I 
am not, in any manner, disposed to be trifled with 
any longer, and that you must take care to pay the 
bills punctually, which you have accepted. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 


Bruxbu^BS, 20 November, 1782. 
Dear Brother: 

I have received your letter of the 22?** and 24*.^ 
September with a note of the 6\^ of Oct**^- The 
greatest part of its contents have been in fact an- 
swer'd by several letters written to you, in the 
course of 3 months past, and sent by various op- 

To guard as much as I can against farther tricks 
or evasion of DT Franklin, about paying the bills 
he has accepted for the debt due me from Congress, 
I enclose you the correspondence that has passed 
between us, since I received MT Secretary Living- 
ston's letter of July last. MT Geo. Fox, a native of 
Phil* , and has a brother there, spent a part of last 
winter in Bruxelles, was frequently with me, and 
in March went from hence to Paris. He was inti- 
mate at Passy, and being now on his way home. 


when he arrives you may possibly from him, get 
viva voce proof that DT F. knew where I was the 
30^** of March last This is, however, certain, that 
he almost every day sees M^ Grand or some of his 
family, and he always knew that MT Grand was my 
banker; therefore he could not be at any loss to 
find out where I was, had he been disposed to pay 

The trick you will see evidently originates with 
R. Morris. T. Lee can tell you what passed be- 
tween him and M*: L<ovell in Dec*! last, about this 
business, who said to my nephew that he had 
written to me on the subject, and sent 4 copies of 
his letter, but I neither received original nor any 
copy, of such letter, — therefore — but enough. 

Whenever there is peace, which those out of the 
circle of the cabinets do not see any kind of cer- 
tainty of, for this winter, at least, America will do 
well to rest upon her arms, and not to be in a 
hurry to form farther European connections. 

Her whole attention should be applied to cor- 
recting the abuses and disorders, that have arisen 
from the war. By providing good seminaries of 
education in each of the states; a steady, wise, and 
regular system of government and administration, 
procure the happiness of the present age, as well 
as of posterity; and by economy in expenditures 
and judicious imposition of taxes, to pay oflF its 
public debt, without injury to Agriculture and 


population. These are objects well worthy of the 
whole attention of your wise and virtuous patriots. 

Pray present my compliments to D^ Williamson, 
and when he has a leisure moment to spare, I 
shall be glad to hear from him. 

Col. Gorham, just come from England, asserts 
that orders have been sent six weeks ago, not to 
evacuate Cha*. Town. The truth of this, you can 
judge of, from the fact. If it is not evacuated, it 
will be a decisive proof, that the secret design of 
renewing the American war is not relinquished in 
the British cabinet, and of course, you should 
exert every nerve, to take advantage of the 
enemy's present weakness, and drive them by 
force out of the territories of the 13 states next 
year. L*? Shelburne and his motley band, seem to 
be in a very unsteady state. The general opinion 
in England, is that he cannot keep his ground; 
but that cannot be ascertained till after the meet- 
ing of Parliam*. the 26V* ins*. . My opinion of him 
is not altered, and you know that is, that he is a 
very great fully equal to D^ F. 

We were told last year, that M^. Paradise had 
lost all his negroes by the invasion of the enemy, 
and that the lands were confiscated; but he has 
lately as we are told, received a remittance of be- 
tween 3 & 400 £ s\J. in bills, from his steward, 
which is double of what I have received.* Pray 

♦February, 1782, Gary Wilkinsou, agent for John Paradise, 


explain this to me. — Comp*. , if you please to MT 
I[zar]d and all friends. Adieu. 


Bruxbi^i^BS, 22 November, 1782. 
My dear Brother: 

I received your letter of the 18*.^ of July last, and 
answered it, via Amsterdam and Boston the, i^* of 
October. A copy was sent by a M^. Bell, from Os- 
tend to Baltimore or Philadelphia, and another 
copy was sent to M^. Dobr^e at Nantes, to forward 
from thence. Since that I have received your let- 
ter of the 8^ October and 15^** November, 1781, 
which my nephew Thom:, your son, was to have 
forwarded from Phil^ in Dec^. last ; but it did not 
leave that city till August. I feel myself much 
oblig'd by the public news you gave me, which 
would have been very interesting, had your letter 
come to hand in the reasonable time you had a 
right to expect. I have not heard of either Colo: 
Monroe or Parker being arrived in Europe, but you 
may be always assured that every service and 
civility in my power, will be rendered to any one 
that you think worthy of your recommendation. 

filed a claim against the French intendant for wood cut from 
the Ludwell estate. Affidavits were submitted to prove that 
Paradise was neither a refugee nor a British subject, as had 
been charged. — Calendar of Virginia State Papers^ III., 67. 


I would cheerfully send you such new publica- 
tions as I can get here, that are worth your atten- 
tion, if I could find any method of conveying them 
to you, but this I cannot do at present Indeed, I 
find infinite difficulty in getting a letter to you; 
for after they reach Philadelphia, as the former 
practice of a certain great man there,* seems now 
to have become universal in that city — the letters 
are either opened and destroyed, or kept there 
several months. 

The public occurrences in Europe last campaign, 
are hardly worth mentioning. 

The Dutch have thrown away two 64 gun ships 
— ^lost in the North sea. All attempts against 
Gibraltar have been fruitless, tho' attended with 
great loss and infinite expense to Spain. 

I have much reason to believe there has been 
much black work with respect to America, in the 
negotiations at Paris last summer, which 'tis prob- 
able will never be brought fully to light; at least I 
fear so, from knowing well all those you have had 
there, to watch over the interest of America. 

'Tis unfortunate that MT Laurens refused at first 
to act as a commissioner for negotiating a peace; 
nor do I know yet that he will act, after receiving 
another call from Congress to take upon him that 
office; for we hear that he is most deeply affected 
at the death of his son. 

* Robert Morris. 


Whether we shall have peace or not, this winter, 
is really more than I can determine at present; 
but we shall be able to judge better in a few days, 
for the British parliament meets the 26^^ of this 
month. In what state the negotiations are that 
still go on at Paris, the public are not certainly 
informed; but this the most intelligent assert to be 
truth, that the terms insisted on by France and 
Spain, particularly the latter, are such as Great 
Britain cannot agree to. 

American independence is, and has been from 
the beginning, out of the question with Great 
Britain. I am however inclined to think we must 
have peace soon, for both Great Britain and Spain 
are entirely exhausted both of men and money. 
The revenues of France are somewhat embar- 
rassed, and there is a cloud hanging over in the 
north, that will probably break out into a dreadful 
storm if she continues this war another year. 
Notwithstanding this the preparations of France 
and Great Britain are such that it looks as if they 
intended a warm campaign in the West Indies 
next year. 

Count D'Estaing is gone to Cadiz, to take com- 
mand of a strong fleet, that is to go as soon as they 
can be got ready with 10 or 12,000 land forces to 
the West Indies. 

We have had such dreadful weather last summer 
and fall, that there is a general scarcity of all 


kinds of grain in Great Britain and Ireland, which, 
has already been productive of great murmurs, 
and open riots. 

Here the frost is now as severe as it was any 
time last winter, and every appearance looks as if 
we should have a most severe winter. * * 


BruxbllBS, 2o November, 1782. 

The difficulty of getting a letter to you for some 
years past, has prevented me from writing to you 
so often as I should otherwise have done, relative 
to your Estate in England, which I formerly had 
the management of. Since I left L<ondon, your 
Aunt, Mr* Dolman, has dyed, and I hear the little 
freehold Estate she was in possession of, that you 
are properly heir at Law to, is now got into the 
possession of a very artful cunning man, who is 
determined not to give it up without a Lawsuit. 
The tenants on the Freehold Estate which I form- 
erly got possession of for you, since my leaving 
England refuse to pay any rent, and keep posses- 
sion of the houses as their own property. This 
they have been able to do Pm a very great omission 
or Fault in the power of Attorney you sent to me. 
For you did not give me any authority to empower 
or authorize any person to act under me; therefore 
when I left England, there was no body legally 


.impowered to receive y* rents and keep possession 
of the Estate for you, which y^ Tenants have 
taken y^ advantage of, and intend now to keep 
their several tenements as belonging to themselves* 
The leases of your Lease-hold Estates in Houses, 
in Several parts of the suburbs of London, which 
bro't you the greatest part of your annual rent, 
have been long since expired, therefore what 
Estate you have now remaining, that is, to which 
you have a legal right, consists of between two and 
three acres of Land, part Freehold and Copyhold, 
on which there are several little houses and some 
little gardens as big as the floor of a 40-foot To- 
bacco house. 

In this situation of your affairs I did not imagine 
that you would ever hereafter receive one shilling 
benefit from this Estate, and that you would be 
like several others that I know in Virginia who 
have a legal right to large Estates in England, but 
have never been able to get possession of them or 
one shilling f'm them; however, lately application 
has been made to me to purchase y? whole of your 
Estate both Freehold and Copyhold and your right 
to the little Estate that your Aunt dyed possessed 
of. This person offers to pay Eight hundred 
pounds Sterling for the whole as soon as ever he is 
put into possession — ^but I think if you choose to 
sell it, that he will give one thousand pounds 
Sterling for y^ whole ; and if you incline to give me 


full and proper powers, I think I can contrive to 
get him put into possession, when he must pay 
down the money. If you were to ask my advice 
what to do, I should cetainly advise you to accept 
this offer without a moment's hesitation, for as 
things are circumstanced, when I leave Europe, 
which I probably do next year, you will hardly 
find an opportunity of selling this Estate, and I 
am satisfied you cannot now get any thing from 
the rents, as the present tenants will not pay any- 
thing and are determined to keep possession as 
long as they can. I remember upwards of twenty 
years ago, a poor old planter in your Country, who 
had a right to an Estate in England that was a 
very valuable one indeed. Some person wrote to 
him from England and offer' d him ;^io,ooo Stg. 
for y? Estate, which his silly Friends in Virg^ ad- 
vised him to refuse; the Consequence was, that the 
poor old planter in the upper parts of Westmoreland 
who is since dead, never got one Shilling for the 
Estate, and the Tenants, who were then in pos- 
session, have kept it as their own ever since. 
Should you be disposed to sell your Estate, you 
should without loss of time get a full and proper 
power of attorney drawn up, authorizing and em- 
powering me to get possession of for you as heir- 
at-Law to Thomas Dolman, late of Virg^ , de- 
ceased, who was BT and Heir-at-Law to W^ Dol- 
man, late of old Street Road in y^ County of 


Middlesex in Great Britain, deceased, all y^ Estate 
or Estates whether leasehold Copyhold or Freehold 
in y? Kingdom of G. B., particularly in y* County 
of Middlesex in the Kingdom aforesaid, which 
were in possession of, or were y^ property of the 
said W^ Dolman, and for that purpose to com- 
mence prosecute and bring to final conclusion, one 
or more Action or Actions, Suit or Suits at Law 
or in Equity, ejectment or ejectments and to take 
all legal measures that may be requisite for the 
purposes aforesaid. To ask, demand, and receive 
or recover, by distress or otherwise, or to make 
compositions for the same, all rents or dues what- 
soever that are or may become due and owing 
from or on account of any or all of the aforesaid 
Estates. To rent by lease or otherways any part 
or y? whole of y^ said Estate, or Estates at such 
yearly rent or conditions as to me may appear most 
benefitial for your interests; To sell dispose of in 
perpetuity and for ever, for you and in your name, 
any part or y* whole of the said Estate or Estates 
to one or more person or persons for such sum or 
sums of money as may appear to me a reasonable 
value for the same. To substitute or appoint one 
or more attorney or attorneys to act under me, 
with the same powers and authority that you give 
me. In short you must get some able and skillful 
Lawyer to draw up this power of attorney for you, 
and when you have regularly Signed it, you must 


get two or three aflSdavits that your Father and 
Mother were legally married, and that you were 
born in proper time after they were so legally 
married. The power of attorney and y^ affidavits 
should be recorded in y* Geul Court, and you 
should send me by two diflFerent opportunities 
Copies of y? Records with y^ State Seal affixed to 
them. I will recommend you to Richard Lee, 
esq^ , of Lee Hall, to assist you in getting these 
papers properly drawn up and to contrive them to 


BRUXBI.LSS, 17 December, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

* * * Before this reaches you, no doubt, Con- 
gress will receive the provisional articles of peace 
between Great Britain and America, signed by the 
commissioners on each side the 30*.** ult? at Paris; 
but as they are not to take eflFect 'till a peace is 
concluded between France and Great Britain, I 
know not how to congratulate you at present on 
the occasion; for 'tis certain that Lord Shelburne, 
the premier in England, and the King's confidant, 
and the Duke of Richmond have declared as their 
sense of these articles, that they are to be invalid 
to all intents and purposes, if the present negotia- 
tions with Prance should not end in a peace; and 


. it looks very much as if they were determined to 
have them so construed, as they have hitherto de- 
clined to lay them before Parliament, tho' re- 
peatedly called upon so to do by MT Fox and 
others, that they may be irrevocably ratified. 

It is also true, that M^ Pitt, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, Gen^. Conway, and T. Townsend, Sec- 
retary of State, have declared in the House of 
Commons, that they conceive the articles to be 
irrevocable; however, this contrariety of opinion 
in the British ministers, is one striking proof of 
the duplicity and faithlessness of Lord Shelbume, 
and will no doubt prevent Congress from taking 
any measures in consequence of their being signed 
until they are ratified by Parliament, or the event 
of peace with France takes place, which is to bring 
them into eSect, unless it be to get well supplied 
with all kind of stores, and be well provided if 
Great Britain should hereafter either be capable, 
or desirous of renewing the war in America; tho* 
indeed I do not conceive this can happen, for I am 
inclined to think the terms of peace between Great 
Britain and France are at this moment settled, 
and agreed upon, or will be so, before the new 
year begins. 

England is totally exhausted, both of men and 
money, and France wishes much for peace, as she 
is likely to have very soon work enough on her 
hands. This I can't venture to explain to you 


here, but you may be assured that a great and 
terrible conflagration in Europe is nearly on the 
point of breaking out; in which France is deeply 

The old work of stock -jobbing has been carried 
on between Paris and London. I have seen a late 
letter from a gentleman in London to his friend 
here, in which are these words, — 

**It is said that several of our countrymen, now at 
Paris, and in the confidence of the American negotia- 
tors, have made considerable sums, in consequence of 
their early intelligence.'* 

However, this moment of universal joy for 
peace is not perhaps the proper period for exposing 
or bringing to justice either the great or little 
rogues, but that salutary work should not be 
neglected when the proper season arrives. 

In Holland things seem to be coming fast to a 
crisis; the Prince's party have begun with raising 
riots at the Hague and Amsterdam. All the cities 
in Holland, Zealand, Friesland, and Oberyssell have 
determined to appoint their own magistrates and 
officers, that were before appointed by the Prince of 
Orange. This he is determined to oppose vi et 

In England, Lord Shelburne seems to have made 
up his band of the dependents on the Treasury, 
and those insignificant individuals, that did not be- 
fore belong to any party, such as Lord Abingdon, 


Gen? Conway, Geo. Dempster, &c. His Lordship 
is determined to seize all the patronage and riches 
of the East Indies, which with the Treasury, he 
thinks, will bring him dependents and support 
enough, especially as the Bedfords are kept down 
by the immense plunder of Rigby. 

Lord North, who never had any party or influ- 
ence but from the Treasury, is silent, and the Rock- 
inghams, somewhat weakened by the desertion of 
the Duke of Richmond, whose pride and paltry 
vanity was galled at his not being chosen for the 
head and leader instead of the Duke of Portland. 

These things I know, are totally immaterial to 
America, but they may be amusing to you and our 
friend MT Izard, to whom I pray you to present my 
best respects. 

The English papers tell us that DT Franklin has 
already declared that Congress shall appoint con- 
suls in Dublin, and the other principal ports in Ire- 
land, as soon as there is peace. 

'Tis probable that in his sovereign will, he has 
also, already, fixed on the persons who are to be 
consuls, not only in Ireland but in England and 
Holland too. 

Our best wishes and love attend you and all 
friends. Adieu. 



Bruxeixbs, 24 December, 1782. 

I have just received your favor of the 21^ inst, 
and at the same time that I acknowledge my obli- 
gations to you for it, I must confess that I read its 
contents and that of the anonymous letter accom- 
panying it, with more astonishment than anything 
I ever read in my life. In answer to the Nefarious 
accusation bro't against me of being the Writer or 
Author of the Anonymous Letter, I can only de- 
clare to you upon my Honor, which with me has 
ever been and always shall be as Sacred as the 
most solemn Oath, that I am not the Author or 
writer of that Letter, that I do not know who the 
Author or Writer is, nor anything of its Contents. 
As I take it for granted that MT Adams, whom this 
anonymous Letter writer seems particularly anx- 
ious to traduce, has been acquainted with the 
AfiFair, I must desire that you will do me the 
Justice to communicate to him what I have here 
written. Now Sir, I have a request to make which 
I am sure you cannot in Justice or Candor refuse to 
comply with. 

It is this, that you will explicitly and by return 
of Post give me the Name of that person who told 
you in London that Will Lee of Bruxelles was the 
Author of that anonymous Letter of which you 
sent me a copy, and also the name of that third 
Person whose hand writing was produced in proof 


the charge. I have Charity enough to suppose 
that there may be a mistake somewhere in this 
business, for I am unwilling to believe that there 
is one among your friends in England, or else- 
where, so much my Enemy, and so infamously 
wicked, as designedly and Wittingly to charge me 
so untruly, with such a mean, base and horrible 
deed. I shall expect your answer with much im- 
patience and the mean time with great regard and 
Respect I remain, &c. 


BRUXELI.9S, 25 December, 1782. 

I had received and answered yesterday your favor 
of the 21 inst. directing to you at the Hotel De 
York, Rue Jacob. Since which I have received a 
copy of your Letter, which came here under cover 
to Mess!* Fr^res Overmann, and as you add in a 
Postscript that ^^ the subject treated of is now be- 
come very important^^^ I subjoin hereto a copy of 
my Letter of yesterday's date, and shall put this 
under cover to MT Grand, desiring him to send it to 
you immediately, as you have not pointed out any 
mode for me to direct to you. 

I am utterly at a loss to conceive how this aflFair 
can have become very important to any one but my- 
self ; but as you say so, I am sure you must agree 
with me in opinion, that I am now warranted in 


Insisting on the Name of the Person who charges 
me with the fact and the name of the third person 
whose hand writing was produced in support of the 
charge, being immediately communicated to me. 
I shall not say one word more on the subject at 
present, least passion (for I am naturally warm on 
such occasions,) shou'd hurry me beyond the 
bounds of temper. MT* Lee unites with me in best 
Compliments to yourself and your worthy Sou, and 
with great Esteem and Respect, I am. Dear Sir. &c. 


Bruxeixes, 3 January, 1783. 

I received lately a letter from Henry Laurens 
Esq., dated in Paris the 21st of last month, wherein 
he says, **0n the i"* June last at Antwerp I rec? 
from a friend in London Copy of an Anonymous 
Letter which he said, he had received in a disguised 
handfrom^ as he guessed^ a most worthy American 
Gentleman who was honor and truth itself, '^'^ A 
copy of that Copy of the anonymous Letter sent to 
me by MT Laurens you will find annex' d hereto. 
MT Laurens adds thus, 

**When I returned to London, I made a point of 
interrogating my friend respecting the supposed 
author of that wicked performance; he told me M^ 
Lee, or in his own words, Will Lee of Bruxelles is 
the man." It wou'd not be easy for me to express 


the indignation I felt on finding myself thus un- 
justly accused of a most infamous and wicked 
action; however I wrote instantly to Mr Laurens in 
the most positive terms, denying that I was either 
the Author or writer of that base Letter, adding 
that I did not know who the Author or writer was, 
nor anything about its contents, and at the same 
time desired that MT Laurens wou'd communicate 
to me directly the Name of his friend in London, 
who had asserted to him that Will Lee of Brux- 
elles was the Author of the Anonymous Letter in 
question. In reply Mr Laurens, with that Candor 
and Honor which marks all his Conduct, immedi- 
ately writes to me thus the 28?^ ult? — **It was late 
last Evening when your favor of the 24?* appeared. 
There happened to be a friend in the house who 
was just on the point of departure for London. I 
embraced the favorable opportunity and write to 
MT Bridgen, from whom I had received the infor- 
mation which you so anxiously and so very natur- 
ally wish to develope." MT Laurens also auth- 
orises me to send you a copy of his whole letter, 
which does not at present seem to me necessary to 
be done. Thus, Sir, the Charge is bro't home to 
you in the first instance of accusing me of a most 
base wicked and infamous action, but I will not 
suppose at this time that the accusation originated 
with you, therefore must now insist that you will 
immediately, and in the most explicit terms, let 


me know, on what authority, you have made this 
accusation against me. I shall expect Chapter and 
verse, that is, precision in dates, words, names, 
&c., if you have any written authority to ground 
your accusation upon. This, Sir, your Justice and 
your own Honor call upon you to comply with in- 
stantly and a due regard to my wounded reputation 
compels me to demand of you. I shall expect your 
answer by the first mail, which you will please to 
put under a Cover addressed thus A. M. Fr^res 
Overman, Neg**, Bruxelles. 
I have the Honor to be Sir &c. 


Bruxbixbs, 3 January, 1783. 

I duly received your two favors both dated the 
28^* Ult? and have written to M^ Bridgen (a copy 
of which you will have herewith), by this day's 
Mail, which, is the first for England since your 
Letters came to hand. Tho' I was astonished be- 
yond description at the contents of your first Let- 
ter on this subject, yet I must confess that your 
subsequent ones have really plunged me into a 
Labyrinth of amazement. Had not the fact really 
happened one wou'd have conceiv'd it to be incred- 
ible that a person so perfectly retired as I have 
been for above three years past, and two thirds of 
the time in such a miserable state of health, as to 


call for more meditation on another world, than 
concern with what passes in this wicked one in 
which we live, shouM be draggled in neck and 
shoulders, as the principal Agent in a dark and vil- 
lainous Plot. 

By whom this has been done, I must expect to 
learn in a short time from MT Bridgen; but I can't 
delay conveying to you my sincerest thanks for the 
Manly and candid manner you have acted in the 
whole affair, which has my warmest approbation, 
and I shall ever hold myself your debtor, for afford- 
ing me the opportunity of vindicating my at- 
tainted character, and bringing the Assassin forth 
to view. 

MT Adams is totally mistaken in one part at least 
of his mights^ for I solemnly declare that the 
Anonymous letter in question never was in my 
hands in any manner or form whatever, therefore 
No Person without a Lye direct, ^"^ might say he 
had it from w^." 

If there is no impropriety in answering me, I 
shall be obliged to you for telling me when you in- 
tend to leave Paris, and when you do, if you pro- 
pose to go to America. 


BruxBLI«KS, 9 January, 1783. 
Dear Sir: 

I have received your letter of y^ 20V* Ult? , cover- 


ing an advertisement informing y* Public that you 
are now the sole agent for the State of Virginia, 
which you desire me to have inserted in y? Brux- 
elles Gazette and any other that I may think proper. 
In consequence I have had it inserted in y? Brux- 
elles Gazette of this day, as you will see by the in- 
closed, and have taken measures to have it inserted 
in two others in this Country, and two in Germany, 
that are extensively circulating and commercial 
papers. The whole expence shall be conveyed to 
you as soon as I know it. You say, 

** That some time ago y? State of Virg* had appointed 
you agent to complete some engagements which were 
begun with y* court of France.'* And that ** You 
had received a letter from the Governor in Council, ex- 
pressing a great deal of uneasiness least y^ Person who 
was formerly agent for y* State might have made, or 
should make, an Improper use of the Power with which 
he was invested; and directing you to take such meas- 
ures to prevent the evil Consequences, as to you should 
seem most proper/* 

But you do not mention, who this former agent 
was; therefore for very particular and cogent 
Reasons, which you may know if you desire it, I 
must request you will be so good as to give me the 
Name of the former Agent, that y^GovT in council 
in Virginia has expressed much uneasiness least he 
should have, or may abuse his Trust. I am happy 
in returning you my congratulations on y? prospect 


of Peace which I believe and hope is not far distant. 
The Inclosed letter to my Brother, I beg you will 
be kind enough to inclose to your Correspondent in 
Phil* , and forward it by the first vessel that sails 
for America. 

P. S. I shall be obliged to you for y? American 
Papers, whenever you can meet with any private 
hand coming this way. 


Bruxbi^i^SS, 14 January, 1783. 
Dear Sir: 

I have received your two favors of y? 7 and 8V* 
instant, the first of which I should have acknow- 
edged sooner had I not been reattacked by my old 
Companion the Rheumatism, which I verily be- 
lieve has been brought on by the vexation I have 
suflFered about y? dirty business that has been y* 
subject of our late Correspondence. I felt not a 
little for you, who at such an unhappy period, 
should be compelled to take an active part in such 
an odious business. The Original Author is a 
base, mean and wicked creature, and the inter- 
mediate medling Characters, if not as wicked, or 
more so, as they hereafter appear, must at least be 
stamped as impertinently officious Blockheads, 
similar to those busy, medling Fools, that we have 
often seen depicted on y? Stage. I have known 


frequent instances where Men, who have been said 
by y? World, to have good hearts^ and to be mighty 
good sort of men^ do much more mischief by their 
ridiculous folly and oflSciousness, than the artful 
and designing, by their wicked Intrigues. It is 
some consolation to me that you did not from y* 
beginning give any credit to y^ base accusation 
that has been brought against me; and tho' I have 
reason to believe yet various insidious attempts 
have been made to prejudice me in y* opinion of 
MT Adams, I think he must know me too well, 
ever to have entertained y^ least supicion of my 
being the Author of y? Anonymous Letter. If 
that Gentleman conceives me to be his Enemy, 
he is mistaken; for if I was, I should not hesitate 
to declare my opinion openly. I am not of a 
temper, nor accustomed to fear or flatter either 
Princes or Kings, whose conduct appears to me re- 
prehensible; that occupation I leave to the servile 
and narrow Geniuses who are born to be despicable 
tools in the hands of intriguing, vicious characters. 
The Accuser whoever he is seems to have satisfied 
you yet he was not the Author of y? original letter; 
but I do not find yet be has in any manner Vindi- 
cated himself from having brought, or insinuated, 
a most unjustifiable accusation against me; I must 
however wait for MT Bridgen's answer, to obtain a 
full eclaircissement of this mysterious intrigue. 
Do not, my Dear Sir, say with Woolsey, that 



**in your Age, your Country has left you naked to 
your Enemies." For as to Enemies I do not 
know or believe yet you have any. Envyers^ you 
may have, for the Poet justly says, **Envy, will 
merit as its Shade pursue, and like the Shadow, 
prove the substance true," and I am convinced, 
that your Country has placed you where you are 
from a double motive: To obtain for itself y? 
Benefit of your able and disinterested Services on 
a most important occasion; and to do you Honor, 
in the face of y^ World. I am extremely concerned 
to hear that your health still continues so bad, but 
if I am not mistaken in my peep into the political 
World from my cave, y^ Active occupation has 
now, or will very shortly commence, when full 
employment may procure some relief to your mind 
and consequently be of service to your health. It 
would make me extremely happy if my health and 
other circumstances should permit me to cross y* 
Atlantic with you in y? Spring, but y? old Gentle- 
man at Passy, confines me till April, before I can 
possibly take any decided resolution about my 
future movements. 

P. S. The above was written and just going to 
y^Post, when I received your favor of the 9th, 
which made its course properly to the West, instead 
of the South, in order that it should reach you 
safely and it is lucky yet it was not sealed as I have 
this moment (JanT 14.) received a letter from MT 


Bridget! of the— (for it has no date), which is so 
candid that it must be satisfactory to me, tho' I 
can't help feeling a little, that any person who ever 
knew y? least of me should ever conjecture that on 
such an occasion, I could commit such an act 
When I have time perhaps, I may send you a copy 
of Mf.B's Letter. Give me leave now to express 
my concern that your health should make it neces- 
sary for you to go to Bath, as well as at y? public 
appearances that ye Dreadful Demon of War is still 
to be gluted, with carnage, murder and Devasta- 


Bruxeixes, 17 January, 1783. 

Last mail bro't me a letter from you without any 
date, the contents of which are so honest and can- 
did an acknowledgement of your error in charging 
me with being the Author of a certain anonymous 
Letter, that I shou'd put myself in the wrong, if I 
was not to express my entire satisfaction on that 
head. You have said what every Man of Honor 
would say in a similar situation, and you have said 
as much as any Gentleman could require. 

I think it will be more consistent for your own 
reputation, as well as mine, that you should your- 
self communicate to MT Laurens, what you have 
written to me, rather than that I should send him 
a copy of your letter; which I shall decline doing, 


in confidence that in this point you will coincide 
with my opinion and act conformably. I hope to 
obtain your belief, when I assure you that my only 
motive for observing on the reasons you give for 
supposing me to be the Author of the Letter, is to 
prevent you on future occasions from forming false 
conclusions from mistaken premises. You say as 
reasons for your first conjecture. ** First, I knew 
of no 3? person in Flanders who was informed of 
my intimacy with MT Laurens; 2^*^, I knew that 
its being sent without a Post Mark must be by 
the connivance of a Postmaster, and that you were 
acquainted with the Postmaster at Ostend; and 
lastly, that there were strokes in that letter which 
resembled your hand writing as well as your 
former Clerk, MT Brown.'* Now I mean to show 
you that every one of those positions which you 
took for granted, are every one of them mistakes. 
First, I know of a certainty that there were at that 
time more than three Persons in Flanders, or at 
least in the Low Countries, who knew of your in- 
timacy with MT Laurens. 2^^^, the omission of the 
Post Mark might happen without any connivance 
with a Postmaster^ since in certain cases it is a 
common routine of Ofiice: nor do I know the Post- 
master at Ostend, nor have I ever seen him, nor 
wrote to him in my Life, nor do I know his name, 
and tho' the Letter came to you by the Flanders 
Mail, it might as well have been sent from Paris, 


Ghent, Spa or Antwerp, as from Bruxelles. Lastly, 
how far the Characters may resemble my hand 
writing or that of MT Browne, I can not tell; but 
this is certain, that they cannot resemble both — for 
I hardly know two persons whose hand writing are 
more easily distinguished from each other than 
those of MT B and mine. You do not mention the 
name of your Friend with whom you originally 
corresponded on the subject of the letter; but who- 
ever he is, he seems to me to be little entitled to 
the sacred appelation of Friend from you, and still 
less so from me, for he certainly acted in a very 
unjustifiable manner to us both in keeping a pro- 
found silence, after he had artfully drawn from you 
the name of the person you suspected, by an ex- 
press and positive promise, that if you did mention 
the name ^^ he wou^d tell you whether you both had 
the same Idea of the Man ;^^ for by his silence he 
evidently confirmed you in your Error, and con- 
vey'd an insidious tho' indirect Slander against 
me. These are my sentiments, and it will require 
very convincing reasons and facts to make me alter 


Bruxbi«i«KS, 17 January, 1783. 

* * * I observe that DT F. has given a Cer« 
tificate in vindication of Silas Deane, relative to the 
charge against him about the Magazine of Old 


Firelocks. Was I in London, I would make the 
following reply in the Public papers: 

**A correspondent, who has read DT B. Franklin's 
Certificate, published in the London Papers, in vindica- 
tion of MT Silas Deane, from a charge bro't against 
him, the said S. D., for a gross imposition on the Con- 
gress of the United States of America, in the purchase 
of a Magazine of old Iron and old useless musquets, 
says, it puts him in mind of an Associate appearing at 
the old Bailey, in support of the character and honesty 
of his fellow Laborer in the same vocation, who stood 
arraigned for a high Way Robbery ; for he has seen a 
publication in America, wherein D! B. Franklin is 
publicly charged with being as Deep in the Mud as 
MT Silas Deane is in the Mire, about this same Maga- 
zine of old Rusty Iron ; and to this public Charge DT 
B. Franklin has never yet found it expedient to make 
any reply." 

W. Woodfall would probably be glad of such an 
Article. The Doctor is however protected, for 
Reasons obvious, by the Court of Versailles, and 
until there is full Peace, he can't be bro't to the 
punishment he has too deeply merited. But I have 
more than one written proof even under his own 
hand writing, that he carried his hand to a direct 

falsehood. * * * 

Your minister here, pro tempore^ from y* author- 
ity of M*: Fitzherbert, has openly assured several 
Gentlemen, that a General Peace is as good as 


signed. I hope he is not mistaken, as I would not 
willingly believe that Lfi S[helbur]ne would thus 
palpably deceive y^ world ; for the present there- 
fore, I have only to repeat my assurances y*. I am, 


Bruxei^i^KS, 24 January, 1783. 

Most joyfully and heartily do I congratulate you 
on y? long wish'd for Peace being at last concluded. 
'Tis indeed more than I once expected ever to see. 
God grant it may be perpetual between Great Brit- 
ain and America. I am too much pleased, or I 
should certainly growl at your not dropping me a 
line by your last Friday's Mail, which we received 
here on Monday; for we are told that the Prelimi- 
naries of Peace arrived at Versailles on Sunday 
night, already sign'd by George the 3?, and were 
sign'd by Ircwis the i6^^ at 7 o' Clock on Monday 
morning. I have not asked about the terms, be- 
cause I still adhere to my old position, which is as 
easily proved as that 3 and 2 make 5 — that Peace 
on any terms is for Great Britain infinitely prefer- 
able to a continuation of the War. But should the 
terms be in any respect not agreeable to the 
National Palate, the Nation can only blame itself 
for embarrassing the Minister, by so greedily and 
stupidly swallowing the insidious and absurd Lan- 
guage of Lord North, who, in his usual knavish 


manner and with uncommon effrontery, dared to 
assert in the House of Commons that you were now 
in a situation to demand and obtain the most ad- 
vantageous terms of peace. I will now have done 
with Ministers. America is Free; Ireland is as 
much so as she ought to be; and England is in a 
better constitutional State than she was lo years 
ago, and may be soon quite secure from Despotism, 
if there is Virtue enough in the Nation, to finish 
the great work of purifying the House of Com- 


Bruxellbs, 2 February, 1783. 

I have received your esteemed favor of y* 20 Ult? , 
and promise myself great entertainment from the 
American papers that you were so good as to send 
me by Mess. Steward and MT Meyers, when they 
arrive here, and I beg you to accept my thanks for 
your kindness. 

It is with infinite pleasure that I can with confi- 
dence congratulate you on the near approach of a 
general cessation of hostilities, which I hope and 
trust will be of long Duration; at least with re- 
spect to America. The Gazette here is entirely 
under the direction of Government — your original 
advertisement was given to the Censor of the 
Gazette, and he chose to have it inserted in the 
manner you saw it was; his reason for so doing I 


cou'd not obtain, and by this time you will know, 
that in such cases the only reason you can get is. 
Car tel est mon plaisir. I can't yet learn, whether 
it has been inserted in the other gazettes as I 
ordered, nor have I seen it in those you mention'd, 
tho' indeed the Courier de L' Europe is seldom seen 
here. The publication may be of service, for it has 
lately been reported here that some little time ago 
a Person was at Leipsic, Frankfort, and other parts, 
of Germany, endeavoring to obtain Money and* 
goods as an American Agent. He pass'd by the- 
name in some places of Montague, but the descrip- 
tion of his person and manners resembled those of 
M*: Penet. I have not heard that this person did' 
obtain either money or goods, but such attempts 
should always be prevented as far as it can be done 
with propriety, for they really injure the credit of 
America. Can you send me the act of Congress, 
prohibiting the importation of British Manufactures 
into America? Or can you tell me if this prohib- 
ition will continue in force any longer than the 
War continues? I took the liberty of inclosing in 
my last a letter to my Brother, which I hope was 
in time to go by the Washington Packet; and when 
you favor me with another Letter, you will much 
oblige me by mentioning what Vessels there may 
be at your Port bound in the course of this and 
next month, either to Philadelphia or Virginia. 



Bruxbi«i«BS, II February, 1783. 

* * * * Your Senatorial madness seems to 
be rising higher than ever, for on all sides of y? 
House, riot content with striving who shall be fore- 
most in unnecessarily throwing all the Power, Dig- 
nity, and Trade that G. B. has left into the lap of 
Ireland, they are running full Tilt at the Naviga- 
tion Act, which has been the Grand foundation of 
all your Naval Glory. My clear opinion is, that 
this Act should be now adher'd to more strictly 
than ever, in all cases, except with respect to 
America, whose Vessels and Citizens should be 
legally esteem'd in G. B. just as they were before 
the War. This Policy would Unite the two Coun- 
tries in one common Interest, and might be done 
by one single Act of Parliament I look on Mr 
Alderman T[ownsen]d not only as a Senator, but 
a friend of the Ministers; therefore if you think 
proper and find a suitable occasion, you may com<- 
municate to him this idea of mine as that of a pri- 
vate individual, and should he think it worth at- 
tention, and be desirous of my reasons at large for 
such opinions, I will readily communicate them to 
him.* * * 

P. S. Pray who are now these mighty and Clam- 
orous Quebec Merchants? When I left London 
they were chiefly a parcel of insignificant Scotch 


Adventurers, that knew no more of Geography or 
the proper Limits of Canada than the Pump at 
Aldgate. In short I have not seen in your papers 
a single Objection to y* Peace, that has the Shadow 
of Reason or plausibility in it. 


Bruxbli«8S, io February, 1783. 
My Dear Sir: 

You ask what has become of me ? I answer that 
for 18 months I was at Death's Door with a horrid 
Rheumatism, y? foundation of which was layed in 
that dreadful Journey we had together, when we 
built the foundation of y? present Union of the 
Twenty Provinces^ which our old Friend De Neuf- 
ville so anxiously wish'd for. You will believe 
easily, that it is with no small degree of pleasure I 
congratulate you on the happy restoration of Peace, 
on such terms too, as no true American will find 
fault with; I trust however that your Joy on y*. oc- 
casion will be tempered with a manly Prudence, 
and that free from intemperate distraction and dis- 
sipation, America will calmly set about y^ weighty 
work of reforming the abuses and disorders, that 
naturally flowed from a state of War, and the 
License that such an astonishing Revolution nec- 
essarily produced. Digesting a proper system for 
liquidating y^. Public Debt: providing for y*. Army 


that has so nobly Shed its blood for y^ general 
cause; putting y^ Finances of every state on a 
proper footing, will require infinite wisdom and 
patriotism; but it is absolutely necessary that they 
should be settled, that y^ future Peace and Pros- 
perity of America may be fixed on a Durable Basis, 
and I trust that they will be settled, before any more 
public Money is thrown away on the most Ro- 
mantic of all romantic Schemes, that of raising at 
this time an American Navy. 

Accept my congratulations on your Brother in 
Law's filling y^ most exalted Post in America. I 
have not y^ honor of his acquaintance, or I would 
request of you to make my Comp^ to him on 
y*l occasion; but when you see our old friend 
D^ Williamson, please to present my Comp^ to 
him, and when he has a leisure moment, I should 
be glad to hear from him. You say that M\ 
D[eane*]s Credit is very low. It is to be hoped 
that his great Patrons, who I perceive are still in 
y^ highest Posts of Trust, Honor, and Profit, have 
repented of y*: Injury they did their Country and 
of their injustice to Individuals, by Patronizing 
that Man in his wicked attempts: but if you see 
the English papers you will perceive that D^. F — n 
has very lately step'd forth as y^ Public Champion 
and Advocate for M^ D. . 's Integrity. (ParNobili 
Fratrum.) I wrote to you several times last year, 
none of which it seems had reached you, as appears 
by your last favor of Novl 30 per M^. Myers. 


The cessation of War has created great Confusion 
amongst the mercantile World in Europe, as their 
crys resound from N., W., E. and South; and tho' 
the Negotiations for Peace have been so long in 
hand y^ general Idea was, that it would not take 
place till y*. very moment of its conclusion, and 
after all, we are greatly indebted to the Emperor 
for it. A Historian that is well informed, may 
give the World some curious Anecdotes respecting 
y^ negotiation; but this you may be assured of, 
that America is not indebted to y^ kindness or Good 
zvtll of any other Power for the Peace. When we 
meet, which I hope will be before this year ends, I 
may explain myself more fully, but least any thing 
should prevent my putting my intended plan into 
Execution I hope you will continue to write to me 
either by England, France, or Holland, directing 
as before. 


Bruxellss, io February, 1783. 
My dear Brother : 

Tho' my congratulations on y^ happy restoration 
of Peace will reach you late, they are not y^ less 
sincere and heartfelt. The conditions you will of 
course have from your Minister, and may also see 
them in all y*: public papers. I gave you informa- 
tion that this event would take place, as soon as I 
could with any degree of certainty. I hope Amer- 


ica will be temperately discreet in her expressions 
of Joy on this occasion, especially as I can assure 
you with confidence, that she is not indebted to the 
Good will or kindness of any Power in Europe for 
what she has obtained. The Parisians have already 
broached the Idea that a Statute of L . . . XVI. is 
to be erected in Phil*, with an inscription in which 
he is to be called Liberator of y^ Americans — This 
word I wholly object to, or any other that conveys 
a false Idea, or that express ye least subserviency or 
dependence. I hope the Peace between America 
and Great Britain will be of long duration; indeed 
I see no reason why it should not be perpetual, 
which it may be if America is wise and keeps clear 
from the baneful influence of foreign Intrigue. 

This will go by M*? Izard; therefore I send you, 
as you desired it, pretty authentic Proof that DT F. 
did know where M^ W. L. was in March last; and 
y^ enclosed London paper will show that I was 
not mistaken in saying some time ago to you or 
M*: Izard that I had reason to think, the old con- 
nection between S. D. and his former associates 
and correspondents was not broken oflF; but the 
known apostacy of S. D. from the cause of his 
country, and the universal indignation with which 
he was looked upon in America, had made them a 
little more cautious and circumspect than formerly 
in their connection and correspondence with him. 
We are told that your ministers in France, Spain« 


and Holland, have each Started for y^ place of 
M[iuiste]r in England. . Therefore, DT F. has twice 
written of late for leave to resign his present ap- 
pointment and has plannM to get W. T. F., his 
grandson, in his present place. Since this, it is 
said that Mess"? Adams and Jay have compounded, 
and agreed as formerly to join interests, to get the 
former appointed minister to England, and the lat- 
ter to France. All this however I do not speak of 
with certainty, as y^ Parties have with sedulous 
attention conceal' d y* whole Intrigue from me, as 
much as they could. I will endeavor to be with 
you in y^ Course of next Summer, but you will not 
look upon it as certain until I write again. There- 
fore continue to write to me as before, and any 
bills you may draw on me will be duly taken care 
of, if you direct them to me at Mess*? Overman's, 
in Bruxelles. 

172 is gone to England — he has been a principal 
here in a very dirty business which is fully known 
to Izard who may possibly tell you of it when you 
meet. 192 has devoted himself soul and Body to 
Adams being flatter'd by him with the hopes that 
by his influence he will be taken notice of by Con- 
gress^ in some Shape or other. I do not yet hear 
of any one who is talked of as in 51. 

The Political System of Europe does not as yet 
seem to be much affected by y*. Peace, but there 
will be a great revolution in the Diplomatique 


. :.:i::c:i the 05D. Mouthere* goes 

^ . .:::.<cer 'till all the Treaties are rat- 

r > :o be succeeded by y^ Duke 

,. -.vijemar from this Court takes his 

. -..liCue. Fitzherbert goes to Russia, 

l'ij!s, and Mont Stewart to Spain. 

. Surrey is at present talked of to go to 

■>.:< however wmII depend on the State 

ji \ ' House of Commons, where L,^ 

xta hitherto playing a double game be- 

:Ibumites and Foxites, sometimes with 

..V. sometimes with the other: but unless the 

^ v^ .xcIls L"? Shelburne, he will keep his Post. 

-fe . us :!me I suppose that M*! Dana has been pub- 

^:^ •. txxiveii as American Minister at Petersburg, 

^^i '. 'Kive been assured, tho' not Ministerially, 

I.,. >> :he minister himself, that y^. Emperor would 

X' '.ciN s^Kid to see an American Minister author- 

iv^ :o cuter into a commercial Treaty between 

■>iai .iiivJ y* United States, on terms of perfect 

A|aa!i:y» and he added y. sooner the better, I 

>lK>uId like to see M^ Rutledge at Vienna and M^ 

l2a:vl ut Paris, and our best friend, you know who, 

.xhsHiM bo Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Paris. P. 

O* lUUletin, D^ F. going to America to form a code 

v>l' Laws, Congress owes the King of France 80 

Millions, to be paid at 6 or 7 Millions per Annum. 

* Moustier. 


Writer in pay of D^ F. either directly or indirectly. 
Treaty sign'd with Sweden. Adhemar to Eng- 
land, Vauguyon to Spain, Fitzherbert to the 
Hague, Torrington here. 


Bruxbi«i<KS» II February, 1783. 
My dear Brother: 

The happy and long wished for Period of Peace 
is at length arrived, on which Event I most cor- 
dially congratulate you and our Country whose 
Liberty you have had so great a share in securing. 
Most sincerely do I pray that the ?eace may be a 
lasting one, and I am sure it will be between G. B. 
and America if the latter continues to act with Pru- 
dence and manly sense, and care is taken to guard 
against foreign intrigue and Insolent interference 
in your Councils, whereby she may save herself 
from being involved in any future European Broils; 
for it is more than probable, that this Continent 
will be in flames before seven years expire. Attend 
to your Revenue and expenditure, and take care, 
in Virginia especially of being again y*: Dupes of 
every foreign adventurer who puts on a fine coat 
Reform your Constitution, attend to your Seminar- 
ies of Learning, and above all, let no Man What- 
ever, without y^ State, presume to meddle or advise 
about your Government in any Respect * * * 



Bruxbixbs, 24 February, 1783. 
My dear Brother: 

I wrote to you a few daies ago, to go by Mrs. 
I[zar]d, who intends to embark for Philadelphia 
from L' Orient the latter end of next month. 

I intend to embark myself for Virginia the last 
of April or early in May, leaving my family here; 
but this you will not look upon as certain, because 
many things may intervene to prevent me, tho' I 
wish you on receipt of this write to Mr. Valentine 
at G. S.* to expect and prepare for my coming in 
the month of June, and in the meantime let no op- 
portunity be missed of remitting any money to me, 
directing as usual, or of shipping my tobacco to 
London, Amsterdam or Ostend (@ two or three 
pounds sterling per hhd freight, and consigned 
p^. bill of loading to be delivered to me or my order 
at the port where the vessel that brings it may ar- 
rive. He should also pick up all the good goose 
feathers that are to be sold in the neighborhood to 
the amount of 4 or 500 lbs. If he can, at a reason- 
able price, get 3 or 4 carriage or two good saddle 
horses, he will do well. Write this to R. H. L. 
and to Loudoun. 

The 17th inst^ a motion was made in the House 
of Lords for an address to y^ King on the prelimi- 
nary articles of peace; an amendment was proposed 

*Grceu Spring. 


and debated 'till J^ after 4 o'clo. in the morning, 
when on a division 55 and 4 proxies were for the 
amendment, and 69 and 3 proxies were against it. 
Majority in favor of the address only 13. Lord 
Carlisle violent against America; Lord Germaine 
also; Lord Gower against the Peace, but voted for 
the address; Richmond and Keppel both spoke 
against the peace; so did Wedderburne, and pledged 
himself to the House to prove that the King had no 
power or authority to declare America independ- 
ent. The Lord Chancellor took up the challenge 
and pledged himself to prove the King's legal and 
constitutional right to do it. The same motion for 
an address was made in the House of Commons the 
same day by Tho: Pitt An amendment was pro- 
posed by Lord G. Cavendish, seconded by Mr. St. 
John, full of compliment to the King, but not one 
word of approbation of the peace. This amend- 
ment was debated 'till yi after 7 o'clo. in the morn- 
ing of the i8th, when on division 224 were for the 
amendment, and 208 against it, so that there was a 
majority of 16 for the amendment, and against the 
Minister and consequently against the peace. This 
majority was obtained by the extraordinary union 
of the Northites, Fox, Burke, all the Cavendishts 
and Rockinghamites, a large share of the Bedfords, 
and some of the dirty Scotch, and the intrigues of 
the C* of V.,* who hate Lord S. as much for mak- 

* Court of Versailles. 


ing the peace with America as it stands, as for any- 
thing else, and want to get Lord North and his 
myrmidons again in place. Lord S.* was greatly 
faulty in political wisdom in bringing the different 
Peacifications with F. S. and A.f together into de- 
liberation; for had the peace with America been 
first decided on, Pox, Burke, Richmond, Keppel 
and all the Rockinghams must have been with the 
Minister, and the Northites, Bedfords, &c. would 
have been with him on the peace with France and 
Spain. As it is, I can't tell how things will be 
settled, but I imagine the Corporation of London 
will address on the peace, and others may follow. 
If this is done Lord S. will keep his place. If it is 
not, possibly Lord North and all the old troop will 
come in again. I wish it may not appear that a 
great deal of noise against the American peace has 
arisen from the extreme folly of 172,+ to whom 
Adams has made many improper communications; 
for 172 hates Lord S. because Lord S. despises him, 
and looks uix)n him as a silly, busy, meddling 
blockhead. Whether we are to have a continental 
war in Europe this year, I believe is not yet en- 
tirely decided. The Emperor and Russia wish to 
be upon the Turks, which France cannot permit, 
nor ought England to enforce it, if she wishes to 
save herself; but really that unhappy nation seems 

* Shelbume. f France, Spun and Amcricm. 

% I think 172 is Edmnnd Jcntngi^ 


to be as mad as ever. We hear that a treaty is 
signed between America and Sweden, but of what 
nature, or by whom it was signed on the part of 
America, I do not hear. I can with authority as- 
sure you that the Emperor is very desirous of en- 
tering into a Commercial treaty with America, on 
terms of equality and mutual advantage, Ijut that 
Court never makes the first official advances of this 
kind to any other power. You will soon have a 
Dutch minister in America. 

You have every good wish that we can send you. 
Remember me to all friends, and believe me, afiec- 
tionately yours . Adieu. 

P. S. Any bills you may draw on me on account 
of Mr. Lotsom, and directed as before desired, will 
be duly honored whether I am here or not 


Bruxkixes, 9 March, 1783. 
Dear Sir : 

Having been lately on a Journey I could not 
sooner thank you for your obliging favor of y^ 23d 
Ult*? , which I found here on my return home. In 
consequence of what you tell me, I shall refer the 
Emperor's Agents to M^ Dana. At the same time 
I perfectly coincide with your opinion, that we 
ought not to be in a hurry, now we have Peace, to 
enter into commercial Treaties. I see no reason 


for changing y* opinion I long since entertained, 
that while the War continued, America should 
have had Ministers or Agents in all y? principal 
Courts in Europe to endeavor to obtain an acknow- 
ledgment of our Independence, which might have 
greatly operated in prevailing on G. B. to make 
Peace with us; but if that point could not be ob- 
tained, she might be prevented from getting any 
assistance either in men or Money to carry on 
y5 War. When we have Peace we ought to be on 
the reserve and let the Powers of Europe court us, 
for they will certainly receive more benefit from a 
Commerce with us, than we shall. Congress, how- 
ever, has hitherto pursued a line of conduct di- 
rectly opposite to my Ideas, possibly induced to do 
so from Versailles or Passy, where it was wished to 
confine everything that related to America; which 
in my opinion was one great leading cause of the 
War continuing so long as it has done; and I shall 
not be surprised if a reverse of conduct takes place 
now, when we see American Ministers and Treaties 
as plenty as Blackberries. A wise Administration 
will however first consider how y^ expence is to be 
furnished; and whether y^ Benefits likely to accrue 
to America from such Treaties will be equivalent 
to the expence of making them, and of keeping 
a Watch to see that they are maintained. At all 
Events, I hope and Trust that no engagements 
whatever will be entered into on y^ part of Amer- 


ica, that can in any manner involve us in the dis- 
putes that may arise in Europe. If MT Dana enters 
into Negotiations with y^ Emperor, I suppose he 
will be well informed of y*. nature of commerce in 
this country, for in many respects a Treaty with 
the Emperor to be beneficial to America, must 
differ from that of France. We are told here that 
Congress sent to DT Franklin a particular Commis- 
sion to make a Treaty with Sweden at y*. express 
desire of his Swedish Majesty. Is this true? I 
have y^ Honor to be, &c. 



Bruxei^i^BS, I4t> March, 1783. 

I observe in the London Newspapers, an Abstract 
of a bill you have bro't into Parliament for y? Es- 
tablishment, &c, of Trade and Commerce between 
the Subjects of G. B. and those of the U. S. of 
Am* ; wherein it is among other things recited, 
that whilst y^ aforesaid Provinces were annex' d to 
G. B. the inhabitants of the said Provinces enjoyed 
all rightSy franchises^ &Cy of British SubjectSy &c — 
And that it is highly expedient y^ intercourse be- 
tween G. B. and y^ said states should be established 
on y^ most enlarged principles of reciprocal benefit 
to both Countries, &c, &c. Then it proceeds to 
Enact that y^ Ships and vessels of y^ Subjects of 


America, with the merchandise on board the same, 
shall be admitted into all the Ports of G. B. in the 
same manner as vessels of the Subjects of other 
Independent States; but the Merchandise and goods 
on board such vessels^ being of the produce of the 
said States, shall be liable to the same duties only, 
as y^ said Merchandizes would be subject to, if 
they were the property of British Subjects, &c, &c, 
&C. * Now Sir, if it is the serious wish of the Brit- 
ish Governm^ to revive and consolidate the former 
intercourse and friendship that subsisted between 
the two Countries, it appears to me that this Bill is 
ver}' inadequate to the purpose; since it does not 
give America the same privileges in G. B. that she 
enjoys by Treaty in France, Why are the Ameri- 
can Ships put on a different footing from the Amer- 
ican productions? You can as easily consider 
American Ships on the same footing in y^ British 
Ports, as those of British Subjects, as you can ex- 
empt the American productions from the payment 
of Alien^s Duties. The continuation of the former 
bounties and Drawbacks are demonstrably for the 
benefit of G. B. alone, and therefore cannot ever be 
consider M as a Grace or Favor to America. In my 
poor apprehension, in order to make the inhabi- 
tants of both Countries feel themselves mutually 
interested in the prosperity of their different Gov- 

* Printed in full in Trade of Great Britain with the United 
States, 1 791. 

v.- to Enact in 

cited States of 

(.iijoy in G. B. 

privileges, Fran- 

uf the said States 

iiled to when they 

be British Subjects. 

.!u that America, now 

. the wounds that she 

ii G. Britain, cannot be 

Jilted feelings and AfFec- 

u abounded Liberality on 

> Stipulation expressed or 

1 equivalent return. Leave 

■ »f a generous People, the de- 

nnieu, in which you cannot be 

; since whatever regulations you 

•c hereafter reformed if you do not 

r your wishes; but surely it will be 

lever is done, with the appearance 

lie utmost Liberality on your part, 

-..s if the whole was extorted from you. that it will be much more acceptable 

1 to make use in the Bill of the Word, 

instead of Subjects^ of the United States 


have here a few hints from an Individual 
.oes not pretend to penetrate so far into polit- 
ubjects as very many of his Countrymen, but 


should they meet the concurrence of your superior, 
inlightenM Judgment he will feel himself singu- 
larly happy in having communicated them; and as 
this goes by the first Mail from hence, since the 
paper containing the abstract prepared came to 
hand, he hopes it may not be too late to enlarge the 
system that is the object of your Bill. I propose to 
embark in the course of next Month for America, 
And should be particularly pleased if I couM con- 
scientiously assure the good People there that the 
Government of G. B. was sincerely and generously 
disposed to do every thing that can be as reasonably 
expected or wish'd for, to bind the two Countries 
forever together in an indissoluble Bond of Mutual 
Interest. Your time I know is precious, and every 
moment of it occupied in most important afiairs, 
therefore I cannot expect an answer; but should 
you think proper to Honor me with a line it will 
readily come to hand by the common mail, if di- 
rected to me here, or sent to Mess. Welch & Rogers, 
Bankers in Cornhill, London, to forward. 


Bruxbi,i,es, 27 March, 1783. 

Your obliging favor of the 15*?* ins*, did not reach 
me 'till y*. 8^*^ day after its date, but it did not 
appear to have been open'd, tho' the directions was 
in a handwriting that I am not acquainted with. 


I can readily subscribe to the truth of every 
thing you have said in your Letter, and from my 
own experience and to prevent DT Franklin from 
repeating the same unwarrantable practice with the 
Emperor (which from some expressions drop't I 
have reason to think was in agitation) as with the 
King of Spain, I have plainly informed the Govern- 
ment here, that no person in Europe is authorized 
by Congress to treat with the Emperor but MT 
Dana, who is now at Petersburg; and was I in 
Paris, I would make a point of giving the same ex- 
plicit information to y^ Imperial Ambassador there. 
I know it has always been the creed at Passy that 
Congress ought not to presume to make any ap- 
pointments for Europe, which DT F. was not at the 
head of, or commanded to be done; upon this prin- 
ciple I suppose it is that he has had the effrontery, 
as I am told, to nominate MT W. T. Franklin to 
Congress to be appointed American Minister at the 
Court of Versailles, it having been settled between 
the Dl and Count De Vergennes, that the D^ him- 
self, as being the most trusty person, shou'd be 
sent as American Minister to London. D*". F. I 
see has the superlative Modesty^ by his Agent in 
London, to style himself in the English Papers — 
The Founder of the New American Empire; but I 
have long look'd upon him to have been born to be 
a scourge to America; therefore considering the 
penetrating and sagacious Judgment of your partic- 


ular Countrymen, it has surprised me to see him 
blazon'd out in the Boston Papers, in nearly as ful- 
some terms as in the Bulletins that are sent from 
the General Post Office in Paris to most of y^ 
Gazettes in Europe. The contending Parties there 
seem to place a great deal of their merit in the 
share they enjoy in his good graces — (See the 
writings about M^. Jn° Temple, &c). It would 
give me most sincere pleasure, if our Country 
would learn Wisdom from Experience; in that case 
I shall think it fortunate that we have received such 
Imperious and iniquitous treatment from a certain 
quarter, as they ought to convince every American 
that there is nothing due from us on the score of 
Gratitude, which may prevent us from hereafter 
being intrigued into schemes, that can only pro- 
duce Injury and disgrace to us. A plot seems 
already form'd to get General Washington to Paris, 
which I trust Am^ will have wisdom enough to 
prevent the execution of, for I can never forget 
from what Source the King of Spain drew the Idea, 
nor by whose assistance he carried into execution 
the Nefarious plan of depriving his Country of its 
Liberties which he had sworn to maintain, and im- 
mediately afterwards impiously attempted tocloath 
his Sacrilege with the cloak of Religion, by going 
to Church, taking a prayerbook out of his pocket, 
and singing psalms, thus making a mockery both 
of God and Man. What a Pity it is, that the 


Genius of Sweedeti did not at that moment produce 
a Brutus or a Cassitis. 

Please to give me a safe direction to MT Dana, 
that I may write to him, tho' I am much employed 
at present in preparing for my voyage to America, 
which may take place in the course of next month, 
and shall be happy to be the Bearer of your com- 
mands. Pray tell me if you think British Manu- 
factures will now be admitted, as I shall be almost 
obliged to take some of them for my own private 
use. Intelligence from London mention, that great 
Intrigue and exertion was used from a certain 
quarter, to prevent the bill for opening a commer- 
ciai Intercourse between G. B. and the U. S. from 
passing in the original form as introduced by 
M^ Pitt, and they have pretty well succeeded; but 
all this may be cured by a judicious Treaty. Have 
you heard lately from my B^ , and do you know if 
he is still in Congress? Who has succeeded MT 
Livingston as Secretary? 


BruxBLLHS, 2 April, 1783. 
My dear Brother: 

I have not heard from or of you since the 6th of 
Oct. last, nor from any one in Virginia for 11 
months past. Mrs. I[zar]d has since Xmas re- 
ceived several letters from her husband, in none of 
which are you mentioned. 


Knowing as you do the people in England, you 
will not be surprized to see by the public papers 
that in February the House of Commons by a ma- 
jority of 17 voted that the peace with F., S. and the 
U. S. of Am^ , was an inadequate and inglorious 
one. This vote was carried by a Union of the 
Rockinghams or Portlands with Lord North and 
all the rankest Tories in England against Lord 
Shelburne. The Nation, however, at large, ap- 
proves of the peace, and addresses consequently to 
the throne on the occasion are numerous; but this 
union has so decided a majority in the House of 
Commons that Lord S. has been obliged to resign, 
and his friends go out also. But for 3 weeks past 
there has been such a scuffle for the loaves and 
fishes between the nefarious and ill combined 
union, that they had not been able the 28th ult? 
to agree about dividing the spoil, consequently 
there was no ministry, which kept all public busi- 
ness at a stand, particularly the peace with Holland, 
a definitive one with F., S., and the U. S., and 
settling a plan of commerce between G. B. and 
America. The heavy clouds that have been for 
some time hanging over Europe, are not yet en- 
tirely gone; but at this moment everything stands 
still, for all the world is occupied in gazing on the 
madness of England. We are told that a certain 
Cabinet has been combined with Dr. F. in a plot to 
get him appointed by Congress American Minister, 


and his double refined Progeny^ W. T. F. to be 
American Minister at Versailles. I feel so much 
indignation over this impudent attempt, that I can- 
not suppose Congress will permit it to be mentioned 
in their assembly. Another deep plot is also layed 
to get to [blank]. This should by all means be de- 
feated. My present intention is to embark for Vir- 
ginia as soon as I can meet with an agreeable con- 
veyance; but as this is yet uncertain, you may 
continue to write to me as usual. We are all im- 
patient to hear what you think of the peace in 
America, and what you have been doing in conse- 
quence of it The Emperor, I am told from high 
authority, is very desirous of entering into a com- 
mercial treaty with the U. S. Our love to all with 
you. Every blessing attend you. Farewell (in 
haste. ) 


Bruxbi^lbs, II Apfril, 1783. 

* * * The ministerial arrangement seems to 
please you, and as it is your affairs not mine, I have 
no right to complain; therefore shall only say, the 
like was never seen before. But to make the whole 
complete Wedderburne must be Sole Chancellor; 
and then you will have at the head of your Coun- 
cils one young Scotsman who is esteem'd not three 
degrees removM from Idiotism in all the Courts of 


Europe, where he has resided, and he has nearly 
made the Tour, tho' bursting with pride and impu- 
dence; and the disposal of all the property in the 
Kingdom in the hands of another young Scotsman, 
who is too Notorious to need a Comment 

Oh halcvon daies for the Norths and all these 
blessings you owe to the Man of the People^ thrice, 
thrice happy and virtuous Isle! On the whole. 
Dear Sir, if this monstrous conjunction does any 
good, or if it subsists twelve months, I shall be very 
greatly disappointed. You have added to my other 
obligations to you, by offering to answer for my 
personal security with you, if I come over, which 
you think it my interest to do; but as I never cou*d 
make my feelings yield Bend to my Interest, and 
am not fond of forcing myself into a Man's house 
that I despise, and who of course must hate me, I 
do not at present feel any great propensity to 
trouble with my Company the Domains where N. 
S., W., M., E., &c, &c, wield the Sceptre. That 
this is the case with you now — a little time will 
convince all the World that Mess. F., B. and their 
party think, or pretend to think what they please. 
Besides I am at this time really in a hospital, my 
poor boy is yet in a vary precarious state, and 
y^ Girls beginning to prepare for inoculation; so 
that y^ real pleasure I should have in seeing you 
must be defer' d for some time. I do not see now 
any more likelyhood of a vessel from hence to em- 


bark in for Virginia than when I saw you. If 
y^ horses can't be sent at a reasonable freight di- 
rectly to Virginia, they must be let alone. MT* 
Lee is happy to hear that the ruffles pleased. 
When y* Carriage is ship'd there must be a case for 
y^ Body in w*;^ y^ Harness & other light articles 
may be put & also in y^ Trunk. 


Bruxbli«BS, 24 April, 1783. 

Above ten daies after its date I was honor'd with 
your favor of the ioV*inst*, and indeed am appre- 
hensive with you that America has lost the favor- 
able moment for establishing a desirable commer- 
cial connection with G. B. ; but this is not y^ only 
nor the greatest mischief that has flowed upon us 
from y^ same source. 

You will by this time be able to judge of the dis- 
positions of the new British Ministry and y^ Nego- 
tiator; therefore it is needless for me to say any 
thing with respect to them, especially as you are so 
well acquainted with their Character; I will only 
observe that self important Men are generally 
pleased when they are allow' d to think that other 
Men have as high an Idea of their Abilities and con- 
sequence as they have themselves. It appears un- 
necessary now to trouble M^ Dana with any obser- 
vations on y^ subject of a Treaty with the Emperor, 


as I aa UfA flat !tis y L kj G^\ has already x*amM 
a Mnriscer to go to Coiigressw aod I b^kve that 

some coQversatioc has been alrcadr cr vill be soon 
beld with voa Gcstlemec at Firis on die Scfaject; 
and as I conjecHxie that it vill be oommniucatcd to 
C^ de X. voa mav easilv ima^se into what Chan- 
ncl he will endeavor to turn the bosinessw Yon 
can^t have a higher opinion of M^ Saml Adams 
than I have, for he was long before I left Eng4 my 
constant Toast as \*. American Aristides. As to 
ly. F. I am convinced that with all his Art* he 
wonid soon sink into total oblivion like his friend 
SiL Deane if the expenditure of the Public money 
was taken out of his hands, and his adversaries 
were to cease talking of him, unless the>' mean to 
bring him to Public Tr>'al for his enormous mis- 
deeds. I know him too well to suppose for a mo* 
ment that he would pay a Li\Te of his own money 
to any little insignificant French Novelist for rank- 
ing him with y^ Gods. I propose to embark for 
Virg^ in three weeks from this time, but in order 
to make my passage convenient I have been obliged 
to purchase a Ship. Will you therefore be so good 
as to inform me whether an American passport will 
be necessary or useful, and if it is, can I request the 
favor of you to send me a blank one? I couM wish 
to know whether American Vessels will now be 

*And wickedness stricken oat 


admitted into the Havannah, or any other Spanish 
port in the West Indies — Should the definitive 
treaty of Peace, between G. B. and America be 
sign'd before I go, you will greatly oblige me by a 
communication of the Event, if there is no political 
reason that forbids your doing so. 


OSTBNDB, 22 June, 1783. 
My dear Brother : 

I have been here with my son ten daies waiting 
to embark in the Virginia, Cap*. Robertson, pT 
James River in Virginia. We shall sail in two 
daies certainly if the wind permits, but as we are to 
call at Madeira this is sent by a vessel from this 
port to Baltimore; and if she has a quick passage 
this may reach you some time before we arrive. 
Therefore wish you to write immediately to R. H. 
L. to prepare to come down to Green Spring, with 
his son Thom, to meet me, for I shall have great 
occasion to see them and our brother Loudoun 
immediately on my arrival. Therefore shall send 
an express to them for that purpose the moment I 
get on shore. Can I get 3 or 4 carriage horses in 
Virginia, or are they to be got cheaper or better at 
Philadelphia? If they are, can you purchase two 
good ones for me, and contrive them to Green 
Spring by the middle of September at farthest? If 


you can, I shall be obliged to you for doing so, but 
remember I cant afford to give above 30 or 35;^ 
Virginia currency a piece for stout, good, and 
young carriage horses from 4 to 6 years old. In 
In August last I sent you some important papers. 
They were directed under cover to the President of 
Congress, then by Mrs. Izard put up in a packet 
with her own letters, directed to her husband, and 
delivered into the hands of Gen'l DuPortail. 

If you have not received these letters, may in- 
quire of Mr. Izard and Genl Du P. about them. 

English and French news you will have more 
authentic and fresh from England and Prance than 
this could carry to you. It seems pretty certain 
that war is by this time commenced between Rus- 
sia and the Turks. The Emperor will certainly 
join Russia, and in this case many think that 
Prance and even England will assist the Turks. 
If so, the war will be general in Europe. 

I have just received your favor of the 19th April 
from Alexandria with its inclosures, for which I 
greatly thank you. 

Adieu till I see you. * 

*Mr. Lee sailed from Ostende on the last day of June, and 
arrived at Gxeen Spring, after a tedious passage, on September 


Ml Rob*. Morris seems to be a most dangerous 
man in Am? , from the particular attention that is 
paid to every creature, dependent and connection 
of his that appears in Europe, by Franklin and 
Jn? Adams, two Men that are Rivals, in all the low 
cunning and . . . tricks of Politicks — This con- 
duct puts one in mind of the Theology of the 
native Indians of N*; Am? , on the first discovery 
of that Continent. They never worship'd an all 
powerfull, good and gracious Divinity, but they 
paid their adorations and erected Temples, to a 
wick'd, malignant, Artfull, and malicious Being, 
such as the Devil is painted to be by the Europeans; 
because, they said, that a good being wou'd not, 
nor couM he from his nature, do them any harm; 
but it was necessary by adoration, sacrifices, &c, to 
appease the malignant spirit of the wicked 

In this principle of their conduct, no doubt 
Mess*:* Franklin and Jn*J Adams have been directed 
by observing that M^ Morris, long before the War 
between Am? & G. Britain, tho' supported by the 
large property and still larger credit of his partner 
M'. Willing, had bro't the house of Willing, Morris 
& C? to a State that is calPd Bankruptcy, in every 
commercial Country in Europe; and when the 

* Prom a Memorandum in Lee's Letter-book. 


Am? War commenced, he had the address to get 
the direction of the expenditure of the greatest part 
of the paper money issued by Congress^ 'till at 
length he bro't the United States of Am^ to a Pub- 
lic Bankruptcy, while he at the same time amassed 
an immense fortune for himself; and even after this, 
when the Congress paper money was driven out of 
Circulation for the want of payment, Ml Morris 
had influence enough in Congress to get himself 
appointed Financier General of the United States 
of Am^ , when nothing but Gold and Silver were 
allowed to be Current, by which manoeuvre M'. 
Morris cou'd secure to himself the payment of the 
immense quantity of the former Congress paper 
money that he had collected while it was current 
at locx) & I200 p*? under value,* 

**' Robert Morris (since yon ask me my opinion of him) was 
a frank, generous, and manly mortal. He rose from nothing 
but a naked boy, by his industry, ingenuity, and fidelity, to 
great business and credit as a merchant. At the beginning of 
our revolution, his commerce was stagnated, and as he had 
overtraded, he was much embarrassed. He took advantage of 
the times, united with the Whigs, came into Congress, and 
united his credit, supported by my loans in Holland, and re- 
sources of the United States. By this means he supported hi» 
credit for many years ; but at last grew extravagant, as aU con- 
querors and extraordinary characters do, and died as he had 
lived, as I believe, all his dajrs, worth very little solid capital." 
John Adams to Benjamin Rush^ i6 February, 1809. Prof. 
William G. Sumner is preparing a biography of Morris. 



In the name of God, Amen. I, William Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, late alderman of London, being of sound dispos- 
ing sense and memory, do make, publish and declare 
this instrument, or written paper, to be and contain my 
last will and Testament, hereby revoking annulling and 
rendering void, to all intents and purposes, all former 
wills or testaments by me heretofore made. First, my 
soul I commit to our Gracious God and Heavenly 
father, stedfastly hoping, that through his infinite 
mercy and the precious merits of our blessed redeemer 
Jesus Christ, it will enter into eternal salvation. 
Amen. Item. I desire that my body may be com- 
mitted to the earth wherever I may chance to die, 
without any pomp or parade, or any unnecessary ex- 
pense whatever. Item. My will and desire is that my 
executor hereinafter named, do pay as soon after my 
decease as may be consistent with the good of my es- 
tate, all my just debts ; that is to say all demands not 
debarred by any act or acts of limitation, and which 
shall be supported by indifferent testimony, and no 
others. The various affairs in which I have been con- 
cerned ; the variety of Countries in which my transac- 
tions have been, and the circumstances of the late 
Revolution, which have necessarily occasioned the loss 
of many material papers and vouchers ; together with 
the misfortune of loosing my eyesight, which has 
caused my accounts to be more imperfect than they 
otherwise would have been, render this precaution 


absolutely necessary. Item. I give and devise and be- 
queath to my dearly beloved Son, William Ludwell 
Lee, and his heirs forever, all that estate real, per- 
sonal and mixed, lying, being and situate in James 
City county, James Town, and the City of Williams- 
burg, which descended to his mother, my late dear 
wife, Hannah Philippa Lee, as coheiress and legatee of 
her late father, the Honorable Philip Ludwell, and as 
coheiress to her late sister, Frances Ludwell,* with all 
the Horses, Mares, colts, Mules, asses, Hom'd cattle, 
sheep, Hogs, and stocks of every kind, and all the plan- 
tation utensils, that may be on the said estate at the 
time of my decease, and also all my Books, plate and 
furniture, that may be in my house at Greenspring, or in 
the hands of any other persons or person, at the time of 
my decease, except such particular Books and pieces of 
plate or furniture which I shall hereinafter bequeath 
to either of my two dear daughters, Portia and Cor- 
nelia.t Item. I give and bequeath unto my dear 
daughter, Portia Lee, and her heirs forever, all that 
tract or parcel of Land lying and being on the waters 
of Bull run, and in the County of Prince William or 
Loudoun, which I purchased of John Page Esq., of 
Rosewell, in the County of Gloucester, containing by 
estimation twelve hundred and fifty acres more or less, 
which tract of land was conveyed to me and my heirs 

♦Frances Ludwell died 14 September, 1768. 

tPortia married William Hodgson, of White Haven, England, 
and died at Alexandria, Va., 19 February, 1840. Cornelia mar- 
ried John Hopkins, and died in 181 7 or 1818. 


forever by the said John Page, by deed bearing date on 
the twelfth day of October in the year one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty seven, and by him acknow- 
ledged in the General Court on the twenty sixth day 
of the said October, in the said year, and then and 
there ordered to be recorded ; together with all houses, 
improvements, advantages, and hereditaments and ap- 
purtenances to the said tract of land, in any wise be- 
longing, when she shall arrive to the age of twenty one 
years, or on her day of marriage ; provided she doth 
not marry without the consent of a majority of her 
Guardians herein after appointed, who shall act in that 
capacity, to be obtained in writing, and not before she 
shall arrive to the age of sixteen years. My will and 
meaning is, that if she shall marry before she shall be 
of the age of sixteen years, or after that, before she 
shall be of the age of twenty-one years, without the 
consent in writing previously obtained of a majority of 
her guardians aforesaid, as aforesaid, in either of the 
above cases the devise herein made of the land afore- 
said, shall be void and of no effect ; but the said land 
shall pass and go to my son, William Ludwell I^ee, and 
his heirs forever. Item. I give and bequeath to my 
said daughter, Portia Lee, twelve hundred and fifty 
pounds sterling money of Great Britain, to be paid to 
her at the age of twenty one years or on her day of 
marriage, but upon the same condition and provision 
which hath been herein before annexed to the devise 
of the land herein before given to her. And in the 
meantime my will and desire is, that the profits of the 


land herein before devised to her and the interest of the 
legacy of twelve hundred and fifty pounds sterling 
aforesaid, shall be applied, from the time of my de- 
cease, to her maintenance and education, or so much 
thereof as my executors think proper, and the overplus, 
if any there be, shall be paid as before mentioned with 
regard to the said money legacy to my said daughter, 
Portia Lee. Item. I give and bequeath unto my said 
dear daughter, Portia Lee, a Mahogany desk and book- 
case, which stands in my chamber, and was used 
always by her late dear Mother, together with all the 
printed and manuscript Books therein at the time of 
my decease. Item. I give and bequeath to my dear 
daughter, Cornelia Lee, two thousand pounds sterling 
money of Great Britain to be paid to her when she 
shall arrive to the age of twenty one years, or on the 
day of her marriage, provided she doth not marry with- 
out the consent of a majority of her Guardians herein 
after appointed, who shall act in that capacity, to be 
obtained in writing, and not before she shall arrive to 
the age of sixteen years. For my will and meaning is, 
that if she shall marry before she shall be of the age of 
sixteen years, or, after that, before she shall be of the 
age of twenty one years, without the consent in writing 
previously obtained of a majority of her Guardians 
aforesaid, as aforesaid, in either of the above cases the 
bequest herein made to her shall be void and of no 
effect, but the said legacy shall pass and go to my son, 
William Ludwell Lee, forever, and in the mean time, 
until the said legacy shall be payable to her, my Will 



and desire is, that the profits or interest of the said two 
thousand pounds sterling from the time of my decease, 
shall be applied to her maintenance and education, or 
so much thereof as my Executors herein after men- 
tioned, or a majority of them, shall think proper ; and 
the overplus, if any there be, shall be paid as before 
mentioned with regard to the legacy itself to my said 
dear daughter, Cornelia Lee. Item. My will and de- 
sire is that my property in the British Funds which is 
placed there in the names of Thomas Rogers and 
George Welch, Bankers in London, shall not be ap- 
plied either to payment of debts due from me, or oi 
any of the legacies herein bequeathed until after my 
other personal Estate not herein before given shall have 
been applied and found insufiScient. Item. I hereby 
nominate, constitute and appoint, the Honorable John 
Blair of the City of Williamsburg, Benjamin Harrison 
Esq:, of Brandon, in Prince George County, and my 
two dear Brothers, Francis Lightfoot Lee, and Arthur 
Lee, Esq. to be executors of this my last Will and Tes- 
tament, and g.iardians to my children; and I also ap<- 
point my dear Sister Rebecca Lee,* of Menokin, guar- 
dian to my two dear daughters, Portia and Cornelia Lee? 
particularly desiring, that they may be under her sole 
care and discretion respecting their education. Item. I 
give to each of my above mentioned executors a mourn- 
ing ring of five guineas value, as a testimony of my es- 
teem, and in full of every claim that they might or may 

*Rebecca [Tayloe] I^ee, wife of Francis Lightfoot I^ee. 


have against my estate as being executors thereof ; and 
my meaning is that my executors, or any of them, shall 
not be discharged by virtue of this will or any clause 
thereof, from the payment of any debt or debts that 
they, or any of them, now owe, or at the time of my 
decease, may be owing to me. Item. I give to my 
dear sister, Rebecca Lee of Menokin, a mourning ring 
of ten guineas value. Item. My Will and desire is, 
that my son William Ludwell Lee may henceforth 
omit the name of Lee and take and bear the name 
of William Ludwell only, that the family name of 
Ludwell, so ancient and honorable, both in England 
and America, from which he is lineally descended, may 
be revived. Item. It is my will and desire, and earn- 
est request to my executors, that they take special care 
that no woodland be cleared, and that no timber or 
other trees be cut down on any part of my estate in 
James City County, on any pretext whatsoever, except 
for the necessary purposes of my said estate ; that is to 
say for firewood to be used on my plantations, for the 
necessary building and repairing of the houses, for 
making and repairing the fences on my lands, for to- 
bacco Hogsheads and tight casks for the use of my 
plantations, and for wheelwright timber to be worked 
by my own people, and for coal for my blacksmiths 
shop. Item. I desire that my Executors may have 
two women servants at least to be occupied in and 
about my house, Greenspring, and a man and a boy to 
work in the gardens, to take care of the fruit trees on 
my several plantations and to take [care] of my stables. 


Lastly I give, devise and bequeath to my Son, William 
Ludwell Lee, and his heirs forever, all the rest and 
residue of my Estate not herein before devised, whether 
the same be real, personal or mixed. 

In Witness whereof I have this twenty fourth day of 
February, in the year one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty nine, subscribed my name and fixed my seal. 

W. Lbe. [seal.] 

Signed, sealed, published and declared, 
by the said William Lee in our pres- 
ence, as his last Will and Testament ; 
at whose request and in whose pres- 
ence, and in the presence of each 
other, we have hereunto subscribed 
our names as witness thereto. 

Annb Lbb. 

Thbodorick Lbb. 

Charlbs Lbb. 

I, William Lee, of Greenspring, in the Parish and 
county of James City, and Commonwealth of Virginia, 
do make, publish and declare this writing to be a codi- 
cil to my last Will and testament dated (I think) in 
February, 1789, which is now in the possession of my 
Brother Francis Lightfoot Lee Esq. of Menokin, in the 
County of Richmond, and Commonwealth aforesaid : 
Whereas in my said last Will and Testament I have 
given and devised to my only son William Ludwell and 
his heirs forever, all my lands both freeholds and leese 
hold in the said County of James City, all my Houses 



and lots in Williamsburg and James Town, which 1 
hold in right of his late dear Mother Hannah Philippa, 
oldest daughter and coheiress of the late Honorable 
Philip Ludwell, also all my lands in Loudoun or 
Prince William County, which I purchased of John 
Page, Esq., of Rosewell, in the County of Gloucester, 
also all my negro slaves, horses, hom*d cattle, sheep, 
goats, hogs, asses, mules and stock of every kind, with 
all my plantation utensils which may be on my said 
lands ; and furthermore have made him, my said Son, 
my residuary legatee, whereby he will be entitled to 
and inherit all that Tract or parcel of Land adjoining 
to Green Spring, being part of the Land commonly 
called and known by the name of the Main or Gover- 
nor's Land, which I have lately bargained for with the 
Professors of William and Mary Colledge, and with the 
approbation of the Visitors of said Colledge. Now I 
do hereby declare and make known, that my intention 
by the before mentioned legacies and devises was and 
is to give and bequeath all the said before mentioned 
lands, houses, lots, negro slaves, with their increase, 
and all the other property therein mentioned to my 
said son, William Ludwell, and his heirs forever, when 
he shall arrive at the age of twenty-one years ; and in 
the meantime so much of the produce or profits thereof 
as my Executors shall think proper, shall be applied to 
his Maintenance and education, and the remainder of 
such profits or produce* if any there be, to go and de- 
scend to him with the other real and personal Estate. 
But if my said Son, William Ludwell, should depart 


this life before she arrives at the age of twenty one 
years, then and in that case, I give and bequeath to my 
oldest daughter Portia, and her heirs forever, when she 
shall arrive at the age of twenty one years, if she then 
be unmarried, or at the age of eighteen years if she be 
then married, or at any time thereafter when she shall 
be married, before she arrives at the age of twenty one 
years, provided always that she marries agreeably to 
the restrictions pointed out in my said last Will and 
Testament, all that tract or parcel of land lying and 
being in the siaid Parish and County of James City, 
commonly called and known by the name of Green 
spring, whereon are the plantations called Green 
Spring, Scotland, and Vemeys, and several tenements, 
also all that tract or parcel of Land adjoining Green- 
spring, being part or parcel of that tract of land com- 
monly called and known by the name of the Main or 
Governor's land, which I lately bargained for with the 
professors of William and Mary Colledge and with the 
approbation of the Visitors of the said Colledge, also all 
my Lots in James Town, also half of my Negroe slaves, 
respecting quantity and quality, in which half all the 
tradesmen are to be included, together with one half 
of all my Horses, hom*d Cattle, sheep. Hogs, and 
stocks of every kind, and all the plantation uten&ils, 
that may be on the said lands, and the produce and 
profits of the said lands and personal estate from the 
time of my decease or that of my said son William Lud- 
well, whichever shall last happen, shall go and descend 
to my said daughter Portia, together With the real and 

:- ^ = T- 

iriis jgic of 

Mj^ ■:' ^i^nre*:! ^iaas. i" sat iszil be :iKa mi i irri . or 
sc ur- TTTTf 'iie^esdc Trnne ssc szircs^ jr the jge of 

iaiLL ls£t ITil miL r^ssxrasc lil 
IT TsiT^^.-^ IT .TTTtr '.' - .jn^ imt jm^ *^ ibc szd cmuitv 
n' J.iize* sllr- -i niinn wi^ ^nrn xad known by tfie 
"Hirrrea^ if Ziirmrcr. ind 5i-F ^narrEE. jH 
inii .ris a "iie ^r- 7i"iniianE£nur^ jnd. lil 
-XI Ijuiiccn :r Prnxis IrHiam C juuTj. . vmcit I pup- 
^jsei f J»'i2a ?airt Bsa. n GkmssscEr Canxxtr. and. 
aiic rire r^snuinin^ jne 'laif if jH ay jc^u aavesy of 
xil TH*- .n:r**. Sum i Jjcrftf. ihess. &g5. 
^*f evTST' *^£:nu« ami ill :f2e gianacon Ubsals tftot 
^ nx rx«* *tBxu^^ itzcsm msn oa bo-, tiie ^mzixce sad, 
Tix'db^ *f rtt* sKiii ireii jzni jia^iiia i escice »iil tite tnoe 
jf -nv it!c^nfi*«. JT rrar if ny jqh wuiiaat LadweiL 
wl2:ca ;;^'T:^ >uu:I !u2^r ranpes. ^mil ^ rod ^eaegsatt Wm 
31V Si a: Jau>^'.i%r C-'neiiu. ru^cuir wixh tfte real aHt 
c^jr^ciKu* ,fs;u:x* *i«;»^'u '3ti!cn; i^Tei aa aer. Iiprri I 
biir;:*:*^ -icmiiMCv aitu a^'ucinc Mr. Robet Andrews of 
tliv C'r^ ,*i W'-iMinjiCiir? 5Ir W^^IIioin Wukinsoix Jul 
>:f :;.!«: >Li;jt» >:xwuc!L*r^ ,Y riis codicil and of anr last 
U":I1 ^:jii l\>iuim:ttC -cm civ wit!t tfxoae 


tioned as my executors in my said last will and Testa- 
ment. Item. I give to the said Robert Andrews and 
William Wilkinson, Jun., to each of them, a mourning 
ring of five guineas value as a mark of my esteem and 
compensation for their trouble in acting as my Execu- 
tors. Item. I desire that this codicil may be proved 
and recorded in the same Court with my said last Will 
and testament. Given under my hand at Green Spring, 
this twenty first day of April, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety. 

W. Lbe. 
Sign'd, published and declared by Wil- 
liam Lee, being of perfect sense and 
memory, to be a codicil to his last 
Will and Testament, and, at his re- 
quest and in the presence of each 
other, we have subscribed our names 
hereto as witness. 
John D. Wilkinson of the Main. 
William Moody, York County. 
RiCHD. Moor, Overseer at present 
at Greenspring. 

Know all men, that I William Lee of Greenspring 
in James City County, and Commonwealth of Virginia, 
being of sound disposing sense and memory, do make, 
ordain, publish and declare this to be a codicil to my 
last Will and Testament, to which I shall subscribe my 
name at the bottom, this fourth day of February in the 
year of our Lord Jesus Christ seventeen hundred and 
ninety five. Whereas I did on the sixth day of Octo- 


ber last, at a public sale of the lands and other prop- 
erty of John Warburton deceased, purchase of his 
Ex'ors one tract of land in the Main, containing by a 
late survey three hundred acres, whereon the late John 
Harriss some time since lived and dyed, and one other 
tract of land lying in the pine woods between the land 
of William Wilkinson Jun. and John D. Wilkinson 
containing between fifty and sixty acres more or less, 
for which two tracts or parcels of land the said Execu- 
tors of John Warburton deceased have made and 
passed deeds of conveyance to me, which are recorded 
in the County Court of James City. Now I do by this 
codicil give and bequeath the said two above men- 
tioned tracts or parcels of land with all their appurten- 
ances to my son William Ludwell, and his heirs for- 
ever, exactly in the same manner that I have given 
to him my other lands in James City County, with this 
further condition, that he is, in consideration of this 
devise, to pay to my two daughters Portia and Corne- 
lia, the sum of seven hundred pounds current money 
to be equally divided between them, their respective 
portions or moieties of the said seven hundred pounds 
to be paid to each of them, when they shall arrive at 
the age of twenty one years, or be married, which ever 
event shall first take place. But in case my said son 
William Ludwell should depart this life before he ar- 
rives at the age of twenty one years, then I give and 
bequeath the said two before mentioned tracts or par- 
cels of land with all their appurtenances, to my daugh- 
ter Portia Lee and her heirs forever, she or they in 


consideration of this devise paying to my daughter 
Cornelia Lee, the sum of five hundred pounds current 
Money when she, the said Cornelia Lee, shall arrive 
at the age of twenty one years or be married, which 
ever event shall first take place. In Witness whereof 
I have hereunto set and subscribed my name the day 
and year above written. W. LBS. 

Signed published and declared in our 
presence by William Lee, of Green- 
spring, in the County of James City, 
to be a codicil to his last Will and 
Testament, and at his request we 
have hereunto subscribed our names 
as Witness. 

John D. Wii^kinson. 

Leon'd Heni^by. 


Virginia to Wit ; 

At a General Court held at the Capitol, in the 
City of Richmond, the nth day of June 1796. 
A writing, bearing date the twenty-first day of April 
1790, purporting to be a codicil to this will was proved 
by the oaths of John D. Wilkinson and Richard Moor, 
Witnesses thereto, who being further sworn deposed, 
that they saw William Moody the other witness thereto, 
who is now dead, subscribe his name to the same in the 
presence and at the request of the Testator ; and an- 
other writing, bearing date the fourth day of February 
1795, also purporting to be a codicil to the said Will 
was proved by the oaths of John D. Wilkinson, Leon- 
ard Henley and John Nettles witnesses thereto, on the 


seventeenth day of the same Month the said Will was 
proved by the oaths of Ann Lee and Charles Lee wit- 
nesses thereto, and together with the said Codicils or- 
dered to be recorded ; and thereupon for reason appear- 
ing to the Court, and because the Executors therein 
named had not attended to qualify as such, On the 
motion of William Ludwell Lee, who made oath, and 
together with Charles Lee and Robert Gamble his se- 
curity, entered into and acknowledged their Bond in 
the penalty of eighteen thousand pounds conditioned 
according to Law. he was appointed to collect and 
preserve the goods and chattels of the Testator, 
until the Executors in the said will and codicils 
named should appear and qualify, until the further 
order of the Court. And at a General Court held 
at the Capitol aforesaid the thirteenth day of June 
1797, John Blair, Benjamin Harrison, William Wilkin- 
son, Robert Andrews, and Francis Lightfoot Lee, the 
surviving Executors named in the said will and the 
codicils thereto, having severally renounced the Ex- 
ecutorship of the said will, on the motion of William 
Ludwell Lee, Son of the Testator, who made oath and, 
together with Theodorick Lee and Robert Gamble his 
securities (who severally justified as to their respective 
su£Bciency,) entered into and acknowledged their Bond 
in the penalty of Thirty thousand pounds, conditioned 
as the law directs, certificate was granted him for ob- 
taining letters of Administration of the Estate of the 
said Testator with his said Will annexed in due form. 
A copy, Teste J. Brown, CI. Cur. 

Teste. Peyton Drew c. g. c 




Hayes, Sept 24, 1774. 
I/)rd Chatham presents his compliments to High 
Sheriff Lee, and desires to express many thanks to him 
for the favor of his very obliging attention in communi- 
cating the instructions from Philadelphia. A true 
friend and affectionate well-wisher to America cannot 
but lament extremely that zeal overheated by persecu- 
tion has carried a suffering people much as I conceive 
beyond the mark. To be restored to their Charters, and 
give as they judge proper their own money were it 
was thought the essential objects. Declining as they 
now do to recognize the Supreme authority of the Par- 
liament of Great Britain to bind America by laws of 
trude & Navigation, must if persevered in disarm their 
friends here, while it multiplies and strengthens their 
enemies. Overstrained authority on this side has united 
America in one common cause. Pretensions & Claims 
pushed to excess on the part of the Americans may 
dispose and unite England to resist even their most 
just demands. The cause of America, which I have 
sincerely at heart, will I fear lose ground apace on 
this side of the Atlantic as soon as their unadvised in- 
structions come to be more publicly known. 



6 March 568 

3 May, 1778 429 

Committee on Foreign Affairs. 

12 September, 177S 
jj October 499 

15 February, 1775 

35 March 603 

zS September 739 

Deane, Silas. 

II August. 1777. ... 315 
17 December a88 

16 March, 177S .... 399 
Delap, S. and J. H. 

— March, 1778 .... 578 

Digues, Tboniaf^. 

7 October, 1779, - . - 757 
Dolman, William. 

20 rNOvcmber, 1781 . , 895 
Dnbourg. Barben. 

17 August, 1776. . . . 180 
Dumas, C. W. F. 

10 September, 1776 . . i8j 

21 March, 1777 .... 190 
Ellis, — . 

I4juue, 1778 459 

Pauntleroy, Moore. 

33 Deceniber, 1774. . . 100 
Franklin, Benjamin. 

35 February, 1778. . . 367 

13 March 395 

13 March 397 

30 March, 1779 . . . . 61 1 
a? June 695 

7 October, 178a. ... 881 

■ 12 November 888 

I Griffeu, Thomas Bartrand. 

I 23 December, 1774. ■ I02 

llas.seiiclevpr, Peter. 
I 2 October. 1779. . . - 755 

Henry, Patrick. 

3 September, 1777 , . 345 
Hicks, William. 

31 December, 1774 . . 105 
37 January. 1775. . . .131 

13 June 160 

Izard, Ralph. 

4 March, 1775 .... 138 

14 August 16S 

10 May, 1778 430 

3 March, 1779 ... 535 

iojmie 675 

asJune 689 

13 July 706 

17 July 7" 

31 .August 737 

I Jefferson, Thomas. 

28 September, 1779 . . 745 

jjeuings, Edmund. 

11 April, 177S 416 

I 24 Juue 454 

19 July 466 

Kenner, Rodham. 
: 15 May, 1775 155 

■ Laurens, Henry. 
; 24 December, 1783. . . 903 

35 December 904 




3 January, 1783. . . . 907 
14 January 910 

Le Blanc. 

19 April, 1779. . . • • 618 

20 July 721 

Lee, Arthur. 

6 August, 1777 .... 204 

12 August 212 

14 August 216 

21 August 227 

30 August 230 

5 September 247 

23 April, 1778 418 

30 April 425 

10 June 444 

20 June 445 

24 June 448 

27 June 460 

16 July 4^2 

30 July 4^ 

8 October 482 

18 October 503 

27 January, 1779. . • • 5i4 

7 January 5^6 

21 January 523 

27 January 524 

28 January 533 

17 April 615 

4 May 624 

10 May 635 

26 May 644 

10 June 652 

14 June, 1779 ^56 

20 June 670 

29 June 697 


7 July. . . . 
I4july. . . . 
17 August . . 

I September. 

4 September . 
12 September . 
28 September 

. . .699 
... 709 
... 724 

. . • 731 

• • 735 

... 737 

... 751 

24 December 769 

29 January, 1780. . . . 774 

24 March 787 

24 March 795 

9 April 790 

24 April 800 

15 May 785 

16 June 809 

23 June 808 

8 October 813 

17 October 815 

6 November 818 

6 December ..... 826 

10 December 833 

19 July, 1782 864 

30 August 875 

25 October 883 

26 October 885 

20 November 889 

17 December 899 

10 February, 1783 . . . 923 

24 February 928 

2 April 939 

22 June 945 

Lee, Francis Lightfoot. 

16 July, 1774 85 

24 December loi 

13 January, 1775. ... 109 

25 February 115 

1 March 137 

II March 151 

24 May. 158 

11 November. 177? ■ ■ »^3 
4 January, 1778. ... 325 

38 February 374 

23 March 402 

26 March, 1779 - • ■ ■ 607 

10 May 6a8 

20 May 638 

2 September 733 

12 February, 1782. . . 85a 
Lee, Henry, 

7 June. 1779 648 

Mjune 659 

Lee. Richard. 

gjanuary, 1775 ... in 
9 l-Vhrii^iry . . ■ -124' 
Lee, Kidi^ir.l Henry. 

17 March, 1774 .... 81 

10 September 87 

I January, 1775. . . . 104 

17 January m 

20 January 114 

10 February 123 

3$ February 126 

3 April 152 

24 May. 157 

13 July 16' 

22 September 171 

15 October, 1776 ... 184 

I September, 1777 . . 239 

18 September 249 

7 October 254 

24 November 271 

30 November 279 

ajanuary. 1778 ... 314 
9 January . ■ • ■ 334 

24 January 346 

4 February 353 

13 February 355 

15 February 363 

28 February 370 

23 March 407 

30 May 440 

1 2 September 477 

15 October, 1778 . - . 487 

20 December 509 

10 February, 1779. . .519 

25 February 529 

25 March 594 

24 June 680 

14 October 758 

30 October 761 

15 February, 1780. . . 776 

13 April 796 

26 April 803 

3 December Ba» 

10 February, 17S1. . . 843 
13 .^pril 849 

11 March, 1782 .... 855 
aaju'ie 863 

29 July 867 

I October 877 

1 October 879 

23 November 892 

II February, 17S3 . . . 927 
Lee, Thoiuas, 

13 March, 1779 . - .537 



Lidderdale, John. 

2 January, 1775. . . .105 

Limozin, Andrew. 

21 March, 1778 . . . . 574 

Lloyd, John. 

25 February, 1778 . . . 365 

7 March 392 

21 March 401 

Madison, Rev. James. 

24 June, 1778 451 

Marbois, Barb^. 

16 May, 1779 ^36 

Mason, George. 

29 July, 1775 167 

Morris, Robert 

21 August, 1777 .... 223 

Morris, Thomas. 

4 January, 1778. . . . 330 

8 January 331 

Nenfville, Jean de. 

27 August, 1778 .... 472 

22 April, 1779 622 

Nicholas, Robert Carter. 

6 March, 1775 .... 139 
24 September 175 

9 August, 1777 .... 209 

Page, John. 

24 June, 1778 456 

Partridge, J. 

24 December, 1779. . . 77^ 

Petrie, Samuel. 

4 May, 1779 627 


Pitt, William. 

14 March, 1783 • • • • 933 

President of Congress. 

5 October, 1777. ... 255 

22 January, 1778. . . . 345 
28 February 384 

23 March 411 

30 May 439 

8 March 54© 

16 March 584 

17 March 539 

10 February, 1781 . . . 840 

Robinson, Josiah. 

14 June, 1779 662 

Rogers, Thomas. 

8 December, 1777. . . 284 

18 December 300 

Schulenberg, Baron. 

16 January, 1778. . . . 343 

6 March 390 

28 December, 1780. . . 837 

Schweighauser, J. D. 

21 March, 1778 .... 575 

Secret Committee. 

I September, 1777 . . 231 

Secretary of Foreign AflFairs. 

31 March, 1782 . . . . 856 

Shippen, William, Jr. 

9 March, 1775 .... 146 

24 June, 1779 689 

Speaker House of Rep., Penna. 

22 March, 1775 . . . .151 



Stewart, Anthony. 

4 January, 1775. . . . 106 

Stockton, Samuel W. 

13 June, 1779 654 

17 Jnne 667 

20 June 672 

24 June 690 

27 June 693 

8 July 701 

21 March, 1780 .... 784 

9 July 812 

10 February, 1783. . .921 

Tayloe, John. 

ID February, 1775 . . .124 
20 March 150 


Thomson, Charles. 

24 November, 1777 . . 281 

18 December 398 

2 January, 1778. . . . 320 

Thorpe, Samuel. 

II April, 1778 413 

14 October 483 

I December, 1779. . . 767 

18 June, 1782 859 

27 August 872 

17 January, 1783. ... 915 

24 January 917 

II April 941 

Williams, Jonathan. 

5 March, 1778 .... 387 


Abigail, the, 557. 

Accounts, commissioners*, 275, 

public, 522, 694. 
Adams, John, on futile mis- 
sions, i'95 ; ap- 
pointed commis- 
sioner, 402 ; as com- 
missioner, 434 ; con- 
ceit of, 420, 445 ; on 
Deane, 437 ; on 
Deane's address, 
517 ; ambitions, 808; 
leaves for America, 
594; recall of ap- 
pointment, 717 ; ar- 
rives in France, 776 ; 
letter to Lee, 782 ; 
his powers, 788, 794 ; 
at Amsterdam, 816 ; 
treaty with Holland, 
880; anonymous 
charges against Lee, 
908 ; on Robert Mor- 
ris, 948 ; mentioned, 
419, 425, 426, 430, 

463, 925- 
John Quincy, 97. 

Samuel, 599, 944, 

Agents of Congress, 186, 193, 

Alliance^ the, 762, 800. 
Alliance, a quintuple, 787. 
Almon, 676. 

America, and Great Britain, 81, 
88; question in England, 
185; intelligence from, 181, 
220, 248. 433. 497, 647, 655, 
689, 730 ; not indebted to any 
power for independence, 923, 
924 ; taxes in, 458. 

Amherst, Lord, 89, 168. 
Appointment of ministers, 926. 
Arbuthnot, 643, 669. 
Aristocracy in Virginia, i. 

Arms, quality of 189, 210, 695. 
prices of, 498. 

Arnold, Benedict, reported de- 
feat by Burgoyne, 266 ; trea- 
son, 830, 837 ; in favor at 
court, 868. 

Artope, 621. 

Associations in England, 792, 

Austin, 287. 

Austria, war with Prussia, 428, 

439i 603 ; and America, 857. 



Babson, Captain James, 228, 

Baker, William, 26, 112. 

Bancroft, Doctor Edward, rela- 
tions with Deane, 
49, 50 ; mentioned, 
2b6, 409, 422, 618, 

Mrs., 189. 

Barclay, David, 22, 113. 

Thomas, agent of Vir- 
ginia, 9cii, 91a 
Bamett, Captain, 726, 735. 
Barr^, 869. 
Bathman fr^res, 429. 
Bavarian succession, 379, 385, 

439. 441. 453, 458. 4^, 47©, 
Bayonne, free port, 363. 

Beaumarchais, relations with 
Deane, 47, 48, 226; ship- 
ments to Virginia, 504, 770; 
demand upon Congress, 382, 
610; intercepted letter, 615; 
mentioned, 324, 3S2, 421, 610, 
626, 631. 

Berkeley, Sir William, 2, 4. 

Berkenhout, Dr., 616. 

Berkley, Sarah, 75. 

Berthault, 388. 

Billingsport, 288. 

Blackburn, John, 130. 

Blake, Daniel, 581. 

William, 253, 270, 365, 

Bollan, 170. 

Bondfield, John, 366, 392, 393, 

408, 418, 435. 437, 569, 576. 
Bouvooloir, 46. 

Boston port bill. 24, 82, 94, 1 14. 
Brailsford, Samuel, 874. 
Braxton, Carter, 536, 596, 651, 

Breteuil, Baron, 448, 464, 531. 

Bribery, ministerial, 149, 378, 

496 {sitt Johnstone), 
Bridgen, Edward, 24, 214; 

anonymous letter, 905, 912, 

Broglio, Marshal, 453. 

Bromfield, Thomas, 29. 97, 13a 

Brown (of So. Ca.), 372. 374. 

Browne, Edward, Lee's partner, 
105, 285 ; suggested as con- 
sul, 349,. 363. 49'- 

Brofvning, Oscar, 213. 

Brunt, the, 572, 374. 
Brunswick, Duke of, 782. 
Bull, Frederick, 17, 18. 
Bunker Hill, 168. 
Burgoyne, General, 191, 266, 

287, 321, 391, 423. 457, 471. 
Burke, Edmund, 85, 88, 112, 

120, 169. 
Bute, Lord, 439, 457, 609. 
Butler, Col. John, 486. 
By land, Admiral, 788. 

Campbell, Frederick, 148, 535. 
Capes, E., 285. 

Carleton, Sir Gny, 89, 191, 376. 
Carmichael, William, secretary 



to Deane, 50; Lee's suspic- 
ions of, 58, 60 ; qnarrel with 
Lee, 205, 207, 215 ; Lee*s 
warnings against, 217, 265, 
338, 351, 405 ; intrigues of, 
326, 334, 355» 403, 409, 420, 
495, 513. 579> 609 ; stolen de- 
spatches, 425, 426 ; secretary 
to Jay, 700, 708, 786, 791 ; 
statement to Congress, 716, 
793; mentioned, 522, 653, 

724, 734. 
Cartel for sailors, 239. 

Carter, Col. Charles, 73, 96. 

Catholics, 89, 92, 164, 323. 

Champion, Richard, 99, 112. 

Chatham, Lord, 6, 93, 115, 134; 

letter from, 963. 
Chaumont, Le Ray, 269, 422, 

697, 851. 
Choiseul, Duke de, 431. 
Ciphers, 283, 417, 666. 
Citizens, not subjects, 935. 
Clarkson, Mat., 524. 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 375, 376, 

536, 703, 707, 709, 813, 815, 
830 ; spurious letter, 809. 

Clonard, Count, 866, 883. 

Colden, Governor, 128. 

Collier, Sir George, 700, 757. 

Colston, Raleigh, 424. 

Commerce, American, 515, 619, 

623, 933- 
Commissioners, American, in- 
troduced at French court, 
402, 403, 411. 

Commissioners, Britistr, to 
America, 468, 496, 506, 513, 

Common Council of London on 

New York Petition, 31. 
Comyn, favored as consul, 464, 

Conciliation, North's^ bill of, 

377, 385, 433, 451. 
Congress, Continentaf, r eported 

action, 167 ; petition, 169 ; 

rumored dissensions in, 177, 

701, 713 ; on recall, 715, 725. 
Consuls in French potts, 363, 

Continental money, 401, 8)33 

(see Paper Money), 
Contracts with foreigners, 209. 
Conway's motion, 855. 
Conyugham, Gnstavus, 223, 

Comwallis, Lord, 375, 8301 
Coventry committee, 23. 
Cutler, Samuel, 671, 672, 677. 

D'Acosta, 423, 464, 6r4, 695; 
Dana, Francis, 849, 933, 937, 

Darby's fleet, to be intercepted, 


Dartmouth, Earl of, 25, 88. 

Deane, Silas, appointed agent 
in France, 46; his connec- 
tions there, 49, 50, 51 ; Lee^tf 
antagonism, 59, 264, 273, 277, 
280, 288 ; charge of 6ath 



honesty, 60, 493, 596, 694, 
•915, 922; Adams on, 437; 
presents Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, 187 ; appointed 
minister, 193 ; appointment 
of Williams, 197, 397, 399, 
544, 572 ; of Ross, 407 ; rela- 
tions with Thomas Morris, 
213, 256, 259, 301, 367 ; on 
Lee's allowance, 235 ; in- 
trigues of, 334, 419, 495. 609, 
688 ; against Sch weigh auser, 
358 ; on I2tli article of treaty, 
360 ; card, 387 ; on agents, 
392 ; stolen despatches, 425, 
478 ; recall, 402, 430 ; ru- 
mored appointment, 513, 61 1 ; 
statement to Congress, 366, 
516, 522, 523, 541, 642, 654, 
660, 669, 680; and W. Lee, 
549, 584, 682 ; intercepted 
letters, 615, 836; before Con- 
gress, 713, 717 ; at Passy, 817, 
825 ; a British agent, 835, 924; 
mentioned, 206, 421, 422, 426, 
434, 445. 629, 651, 671, 673, 
675, 701, 702, 709. 711- 
Deane, Simeon, 333, 337, 370, 

375, 384, 421, 463, 469, 478, 

De Berdt & Co., 11, 865, 875, 

Debts, sterling, 649, 660. 
Declaration of Independence, 

182, 183, 187, 195. 
Delancy, 128. 

Delap, S. & J. H., 324, 392, 

408, 418, 569, 577, 578- 
Delicpore, 365. 
Denmark, 533. 
Despatches, the stolen, 421, 

425. 440, 463, 558, 60 r, 676. 
D'Estaing, 428, 469, 497, 535. 
I "Detector," 660, 694. 
Deux Fonts, Duke, 441. 
Dickinson, John, 169, 753, 784. 
Digges, Thomas, 339, 670, 724, 

757, 809. 
Digname, 232. 
Dissensions among American 

commissioners, 606. 
Dobre^, 208, 248, 531, 579. 
Dohrmau, 731. 
Dolman's English property, 

Donop, Count, 288. 

Dorsius, 235. 

Draper, William, 89. 

Drayton, W. H., 718, 734. 

Duane, James, 716. 

Dubourg, Barbeu, 47, 48, 49. 

Du Condray, 50. 

Dumas, C. W. F., 500, 504, 672, 
700, 791, 801, 811, 925. 

Dunkirk, a free port, 363. 

Dun more. Lord, reported dead, 
109; letter to Lord Dart- 
mouth, 127, 140, 149; con- 
vention on, 156; taking the 
powder, 162 ; proposes a reg- 
iment, 355; forging paper 
money, 401. 


Eden, William, 421. 

Education in America, 452, 
863, 879. 

Elliot, Hugh, 213. 

Ellis, 243, 361, 489. 

Embden as a port, 322. 

Esdaile, 16. 

Europe, positiou of, 166, 278, 
404, 430, 455, 469, 520, 603. 
611, 623, 634, 641, 646, 687, 
712, 728, 734, 740, 759, 769, 
780, 786, 787, 798, 802, 805, 
817, 838, 847, 870, 891, 893, 

Farmers' General, 217, 226. 
Faucitt, General, 282, 527, 813. 
Fauntleroy, Moore, 243, 489. 
Fisheries, American, 404, 410, 

467, 469. 
Fitzhugh, 467. 
Flood, Doctor, 69. 
Folger, John, 421, 422, 425, 441, 

Ford, Hezekiah, 625, 706. 
Fordyce, a bankrupt, 684. 
Fox's motion, 361. 
Fox, George, 889. 
Foy, Captain, 143. 
France, aids to America, 48, 

263, 270 ; officers from, 181 ; 

policy, 249, 279, 327 ; treaty 

with America, 354, 357, 411, 

584, 592; free ports, 363; 

ready for war, 383 ; change 

of ministry, 821, 828. 

Franklin, Benjamin, Letters in 
favor of Deane, 47, 49 ; comes 
to France, 50 ; draft of reply 
to I/ee, 53 ; and Williams, 
55, 397, 568, 571 ; Lee's an- 
tagonism, 61, 207, 400, 727; 
letter of, 98 ; Thomas Morris, 
305, 561 ; recommends Car- 
michael, 335 ; proposition ot 
reconciliation, 132 ; of peace, 
734; on 1 2th Article of Treaty, 
360; on reconciliation, 376, 
378 ; opinion of Digges, 340 ; 
on agents, 390, 392, 395, 401, 
408 ; conversation with the 
French king, 416; intrigues 
of. 419, 420, 427, 445, 504, 
944 ; the stolen despatches, 
425 ; relations with Adams, 
437 ; on plurality of minis- 
ters, 437; dictator, 49 ^ 734; 
•* doctor," 505 ; sole minister, 
524, 535. 593. 655, 660; op- 
posed to Dutch treaty, 531 ; on 
Deane and his charges, 534, 
915, 922; the Teschen con- 
gress, 536, 604 ; on Schweig- 
hauser's commissions, 571 ; 
on Lee's salary, 598, 876, 882, 
886, 888, 889, 924 ; loans, 653 ; 
Say re, 657 ; before Congress, 
717 ; on the Lees, 795 ; ap- 
pointment of grandson, 937, 
940 ; mentioned, 256, 426, 431, 
434, 464, 465, 469, 545, 640, 
711, 79i»8i2, 902. 


Fmnklia, William Temple, 
6i8, 925, 937, 941. 

Gage, General, 89, 99, 156, 161, 
164, j68. 

Garth, 17a 

Gates, General Horatio, 591. 

George III., bis obstinacy, 83, 
166, 354, 383, 609, 693 ; on 
territorial cession, 405 ; rage 
for revenge, 366 ; on peti- 
tions, 2^, 30, 38. 

Georgia, 171, 444. 

Gerard, and Morrises papers, 
353; and treaty, 359, 428, 
600, 629. 

Germaine, Lord George, 287, 

375» 376, 690. 

Germany, war in, 379, 385, 403; 
mercenary troops from, 443, 
511, 520, 526, 536, 603 ; policy 
of, 461, 520, 526, 532, 642. 

Gerry, Elbridge, 716. 

Gilby, 477. 

Gillon, Commodore, 653. 

Girt, Launcelot, 130. 

G. G., 205, 215. 

Glasgow, petition of merchants, 

148, 174. 
Gordon nots, 806. 
Gourlade, 290. 
Grand, 368, 419, 464, 469. 
Great Britain, relations with 

America, 413, 466, 484, 511, 

637 ; invasion by France, 453; 

declares war upon the Dutch, 

800, 802 ; associations in, 793^ 
797 ; riots, 806 ; trade with 
America after the peace, 919, 

920, 933» 939» 943- 
Green, CapUin, 372, 374. 
Green Spring, 363, 459, 488, 

854, 863, 928, 946. 
Greuville, 93, 871. 
Griffin, Cyrns, 753. 
Gruel, 57, 58, 208, 224, 228, 234, 

240. 301, 356, 423. 
Grymes, Charles, 648. 
Lucy, 648. 

Hake, 189. 

Hardy, Admiral, 738. 

Harmony in public councils, 

Harrison, Benjamin, 51, 176, 

Hartley, David, 219. 

Hassenclever, Peter, 653. 

Hayley, Alderman, 22, 23. 

Henry, Patrick, 162. 

Hessians, 190, 282, 298, 321, 323. 

Hinman, Elisha, 332. 

Hipkins, John, 159. 

Hodge, William, imprisonmetit 

of, 222, 231, 268, 280, 328, 334, 

Hodgson, William, 63. 

Holker, 352, 421, 515, 671. 

Holland, proclamation, 153 ; 

Lee's treaty with, 472, 475, 

478, 480, 487, 499. 509. 525. 
531 ; goods in, 427 ; policy, 
714, 781 ; Adams's treaty,88a 


Hopkins, Benjamin, 41. Jackson, 724. 

John, 63. Janson, S. T., 155. 

"Hops," 286, 342. Jay, Sir James, 494. 

Hortalez, 48. Jay, John, charged with loy- 
Howe, Lord, 132, 190, 191, 271, alty, 51, 127; appointed to 

288, 344, 375, 376, 39h 497- Spain, 786, 791, 824, 828, 847 ; 

Hunt, 130. on Clinton's letter, 811 ; in- 

Hutchinson, Governor Thomas, triguing for position, 925. 

120. Jenings, Edmund, suggested 
Hynson, Captain Joseph, 421, for Madrid, 195 ; on Car- 

422, 425, 447. michael, 205 ; on Molleson's 

failure, 369 ; suspected, 617 ; 
Independence. Afnerican, 211, *>° divulging treaty. 645, 685 : 

354 357 403 mentioned, 465. 658, 671, 808 ; 

Indians, employment of and 925 (see note on page 930). 

barbarities, 486, 642, 707. Je°«»e. 557- 

Jett, Lister. 213. 
Instructions to Lee, 193. jobbery in American .£Fair», 

Insurance, 342. .^„ 

Intelligence from America, 711, j^^^ ^^e Painter, 543- 

726, 757, 8q5. 837. jQijngon, Joshua, 29, 97, 420. 

from England n^^t^^i^ t«^ t^^ ^*t 

^ Captam, 197, 199, 231, 

wanted, 663. ^^ 

Interest on continental loans, Johnstone, George, 439, 457, 

777- 496, 510, 600, 610, 680, 708, 

Ireland, 643, 668, 789, 792, 819. 803. 

Izard, Ralph, appointment to Jones, John Paul, 437, 636, 702, 

Naples, 194, 252 ; on Morris 7o6, 763, 812, 817. 

incident, 256; payment of ^endrick, CapUin. 221. 228 
allowance, 314, 362, 844 ; on ^^^ ^gg 

I2th article of treaty, 359; Keppi^l. Admiral, 512, 535- 

resigns, 599 ; on negotiations ^^ j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

with Germany, 678 ;remov^ Kirkman, John, 13, 23. 

from office, 718; mentioned, Knyphausen, General, 470. 
58, 59, 392, 404, 420, 436, 516, 

522, 524. Landais, 815. 


Landlazuge, 388, 

Lane, Tliomas, 21. 

Langdon, John, 51. 

Laureguais, 48. 

Laurens, Henry, reported duel, 
669; his capture, 813, 816, 
818, 825, 827; commissioner 
to negotiate peace, 893 ; and 
anonymous letter, 903, 904, 
906, 907, 910 ; mention, 271, 
522, 812. 

Lee, Arthur, connection with 
Wilkes, 9 ; speech in favor 
of Sayre, 13 ; intelligence for 
Congress, 43, 48, 51 ; prevents 
recall of Morris or Williams, 
56; hatred of Deane and 
Franklin, 58, 338 ; favors 
Shelburiie, 94 ; pamphlet, 
152 ; appointed to Spain, 194, 
791 ; on Carmichael, 206 ; 
described by the Ledger ^ 208 ; 
papers stolen at Berlin, 213 ; 
on Schweighauser, 239 ; Mor- 
ris's papers, 353 ; the treaty, 
359. 360; on Lloyd, 373; 
financial matter, 419; Deane's 
attack, 517, 524, 534; re- 
called, 535, 715, 717 ; resigns, 
599 ; on Williams's accounts, 
631, 696; on Prussian nego- 
tiations, 678; snuflfbox, 774; 
mutiny on Alliance^ 800; 
mentioned, A'S) 87, 170, 182, 

434, 436. 
Lee, Brutus, 63, 611, 651. 

Lee, Cassius F., Jr., 65. 
Cornelia. 63. 
Francis Lightfoot, 74, 75, 

671, 675. 
Henry, 648, 651. 

Ludwell, 241, 362, 490, 625. 
Philip, 652. 

Philip Ludwell, 364, 877. 
Portia, 63, 651. 
Richard, the immigrant, 2. 
of Westmore- 
land, 4. 
Richard Henry, 383, 434, 

495, 517, 523, 638, 645, 
654, 680. 716, 735; re- 
ply to Deane, 517. 

Thomas, 4. 

Thomas, 241, 320, 349, 358, 

362, 363, 374, 491, 732, 
753, 761. 
William, birth, 6 ; goes to 
England, 6; commcr^ 
cial aims, 10 ; marriage, 
10; trade letter, 11; 
elected sheriff, 14, 17 ; 
addresses to Livery, 19, 
77 ; candidate for Alder- 
man, 20 ; merchants' 
petition, 22, 24, 123, 124; 
presents petition to the 
King, 26 ; elected Alder- 
man, 26, 157, 158; in- 
tercepted letters, 44; ap- 
pointed Commerc i a 1 
agent at Nantes, 45, 
52, 542, 585; receives 

98 1 

diplomatic app o i n t - 
ment, 59, 558; instruc- 
tions, 193 ; relations 
with Thomas Morris, 
201, 204, 212, 228, 255; 
comments on appoint- 
ment, 198 ; the German 
mission, 196, 244, 251, 
254, 264, 282, 321, 341, 

343, 345, 380, 385, 390, 
409, 412, 423, 429, 438, 

447, 474, 499, 621, 678, 
704, 741 ; errors in the 
commission, 272, 283, 

345, 350; Morris's 
papers, 355, 365, 367, 
370, 384, 408; allowance, 
272, 314, 350, 362, 432, 
538, 597, 608, 844, 849, 
853, 864, 876, 882, 886. 
888, 924; speculations, 
244, 368, 706; on North's 
concilation, 378, 391 ; 
on tobacco con tract, 382, 
545 ; Beaumarchais, 382; 
appointments, 353, 393, 
401.408, 569 ; prizes,399; 
treaty with Holland, 472, 

475, 478, 519, 525, 673, 
677 ; retaining the Al- 
dermanship, 507, 583, 

591, 677, 767. 772; on 
Teschen Congress, 514, 
536; Deane's charges, 
517, 521. 530, 642, 661 ; 
reply, 539, 595, 605, 707; 

applies for draft of 
treaty, 562 ; sacrifices, 
233, 494, 597. 639, 650, 
701, 863 ; on Petrie*8 
charge, 627, 644, 683; 
on tender laws, 648, 699; 
reply to Cutler, 674 ; re- 
call of commission, 63, 

715, 725, 753, 758; fix- 
ing his residence, 731, 
751; the Virginia 
agency, 737, 762, 778; 
mercantile matters, 797; 
executes a will, 872 ; 
his father's estate, 877 ; 
anonymous letter, 903- 
915 ; to return to Amer- 
ica, 928, 944, 945; on 
Pitt's trade bill, 934, 
946; will, 949; death, 
63 ; character, 64. 
William Ludwell, 63, 651. 

Lees, the English, 2. 

Lemaire, 443, 446, 461, 613, 696. 

Lewis, Francis, 275. 
John, 454. 

Lexington, battle of, 160, 161. 

Limozin, Andrew, 279, 392, 408, 

425, 569, 574. 
Lincoln, General, 706. 

Littleton, Lord, 120. 

William Henry, 383, 

Livery of London, 12, 15, 25. 

Lloyd, Col., 265. 

John, recommended for 


consul, ^i, 275, 348, 

354, 365. 373, 392, 398, 
569 ; and Morris's pa- 
pers, 365, 372; men- 
tioned, 388^ 410, 420, 
522, 580. 

Loan in Europe, 275. 

JU>an office, continental, 602, 


I^ondon livery, 12, 15, 25 ; for- 
eigners in office, 27 ; corpo- 
ration, 152, 163 ; election, 483 ; 
aldermen of, 507 ; consis- 
tency, 710. 

I^ong Island, battle of, 189. 

L'Orient, a free port, 363. 

Lott, 128. 

Lovell, James, 434, 721. 

Luzerne, 629, 686. 

Madison, James, 451, 460. 
Mansfield, Lord, 414, 439, 457. 
Marbois, Barb^, 636. 
Marseilles, a free port, 363. 
Marylanders, warnings against, 

814, 832. 
Mathews, 699, 710. 
McCreery, William, 418, 434, 

McEvers, 128. 

Mercenaries, German, 179, 282, 
298, 316, 321, 323. 

Merchants, hollowness of peti- 
tion, 28, 29, 90, 95, 106, no, 
131, 148, 154, 162. 

Merckl^, 435. 

Meredith, Sir William, 23, 690. 

Millar, 676. 

Ministry, British, policy, 103, 
112, 114, 129, 133, 141, 166, 
168, 171, 185, 413, 439, 454, 
456 ; in want of troops, 385, 
520 ; change in, 856, 867. 

Minority in Parliament, 360. 

Molasses duty, 358. 

MoUeson, 24, 74, 108, 368, 377. 

Molesworth, Captain, 515. 

Monroe, James, 892. 

Montaudoin, 47, 289. 

Montbarey, 613. 

Monthieu, 544. 

Morris, Gouvemeur, 716. 

Robert, on his brother's 
conduct, 255, 258, 
300 ; his distressed 
condition at begin- 
niug of the war, 596, 
947 ; a supposed Brit- 
ish agent, 803 ; Lee's 
estimate of, 947 ; 
mentioned, 57, 357, 

371, 372. 394, 402, 
407, 409, 410, 420, 

493. 524. 5^. 600, 
663, 669, 693, 887, 
Thomas, appointed 
commercial agent, 
45» 188, 543 ; Frank- 
lin's letter on, 53; 
Lee's union, 56, 57 ; 
commissioners called 


upon to interfeiie, 
195, 255, 561, 592; 
his misconduct, 204, 
212, 224, 234, 240, 
301, 543 ; death, 353, 
565 ; his papers, 355, 

365, 367. 370. 374, 

384, 395, 407, 495, 
566, 585, 600; men- 
tioned, 52, 54, 55, 
199, 216, 232, 273, 
277. 290, 331, 348, 
357, 394. 

Moylan, 290, 421. 

Mulberry trees, 364. 

Navy, American, romantic, 922. 
French, a scheme for,84i. 
Great Britain, 807. 

Negotiations at Paris, 184. 
Negroes, care of, 363. 

emancipation, 130, 144, 

Ncufville, Jean de, 472, 499, 509, 
525, 624. 

Neutrality, armed, 526, 791, 796, 
817, 819, 824. 

New England, bill against, 137, 
139, 140, 145, 146. 148, 151. 

Newnham, Nathaniel, 20, 483. 

Newton, John, 69. 

New York committee, 31; offic- 
ials, 160; traitors, 128. 

Nicholas, Robert Carter, 139. 

Nicholson, Captain Samuel, 197, 

199, 223. 231, 409, 450, 454. 

Noailles, 41 z. 

Non-exportation, 99, loi, 105, 
109, 144, 148, 154. 

North, Lord, election squib, 16; 
submits American papers, 21 ; 
characterized, 24, 88; bill, 82; 
motion, 133, 135, 137, 141, 
150; eager to resign, 361; 
measure of conciliation, 376 ; 
on commissioners, 513; men- 
tioned, 94, 128, 414, 470, 710, 

North ministry, 361. 

Norton, 454. 

Fletcher, 819. 

Nova Scotia, 433. 

Oaths, 601. 

Oliver, 16. 

Opposition in Parliament, 470^ 

710, 782. 
Orvilliers, 676. 
Osbaldiston, Richard, 71. 

Paca, W., 718. 

Paine, Thomas, 669. 

Palisser, Hugh, 512. 

Panin, 648, 728. 

Paper money in America, 649^ 

660, 833, 850. 
Paradise, John, 891. 
Parties in America, 637; m 

Britain, 153, 172. 
Partridge, J., 26. 


Peace, iustructions and propo- 
sals for, 599, 633, 723, 735, 
744, 840, 857 ; Franklin's 
proposition, 734 ; Necker*s 
proposed truce, 779; negotia- 
tions at Paris, 860, 885, 899, 
917, 927; black work in, 893; 
the treaty in Parliament, 929, 

Peculation, 596. 

Peltier du Doyer, 387, 556, 631. 

Penet, 46, 301, 356, 374, 423, 
460, 464. 468, 497, 778, 919. 

Peuet, Pliame & Co., 47, 58, 
224, 228, 234, 240, 267. 

Penn, Richard, 169, 669. 

Pennsylvania, proceedings of 
Assembly, 146. 

Petition, general mania for, 40; 
London merchants, 23, no, 
III, 120, 121, 122, 123, 148. 

Petrie, S., 208, 219, 297, 618, 
625, 627, 644, 657, 684, 794, 

Picquet, La Motte, 643, 647. 
Pirates, 237. 
Pitt, William, 868, 900; his 

trade bills, 933. 
Plater, George, 787. 
Pliame, 46, 301, 374, 464. 
Plomer, 13. 
Politics, English, 6. 
Ports, free, in France, 363, 427. 
Portugal, attitude of, 317. 
Post office, insecurity of, 620. 
Powder for Colonies, 89. 

Pringle, J. J., 368. 658, 

Prizes, questions arising on, 53, 
220, 228, 230, 252, 267, 280, 
287, 292, 324, 332, 402, 551, 

Privateers, regulation of, 278, 

Prohibitory act, 378. 

Prussia and American priva- 
teers, 501 ; position of, 416, 
428, 439, 609, 785 ; trade with 
America, 276, 299, 318, 756, 
838 ; king of, and America, 
321, 354, 403, 668, 678, 741. 

Pulteney, 428. 

Qiiebec act, 89, 92, 164; mer- 
chants, 22, 920. 

Recruiting in Great Britain, 
164, 179, 192, 316, 323, 329, 

360, 379. 385. 616. 

Reed, Joseph, 51. 

Richard Penn, the, 534. 

Ridley, Matthew, 370. 

Roberts, John, 17, 77. 

Robinson, John, 337. 

William, 70. 

Rogers, Nicholas, 207. 

Rolleston, 130. 

Ross, Captain, 40, 394. 

John, sent to Nantes, 46, 
203, 549; sketch of, 
199 ; interferes with 
I^e, 215, 356, 370, 389, 
394, 396, 407 ; charges 


upon Lee, 371, 399; 
seeks appointment, 
354, 420 ; set aside by 
Adams, 435, 437 ; men- 
tioned, 52, 213, 225, 
302, 354» 361, 365, 373. 
374, 409, 410, 418, 419, 
493, 524, 663, 671. 

Rjissia, troQps from, 179 ; decla- 
ration of neutrality, 790, 
796 ; may injure France, 647. 

Rust, Vincent, 69. 

Sampson, Captain, 752. 

Sawbridge, 16. 

Sayre, Stephen, 13, 15, 17, 77, 

213, 657. 
Schulenberg, Baron, 679. 

Schweighauser, J. D., 239, 357, 

358, 366, 388, 

393, 408, 418, 

419, 435, 437, 
Miss, 208. 

Scotch, the, 164, 174, 183, 424, 

626, 942. 
Scrutiny of votes, 77. 
Seal for Virginia, 482. 
Searle, James, 816, 819, 825, 

828, 849. 
Secret Committee, 362, 381. 
Selkirk, Earl of, 636. 
Separation of political and 

financial concerns in agents, 

Shakespeare, John, 16, 26. 

Shelbumc, Lord, election 
squib, 16 ; a wicked man, 94 ; 
414, 417 ; minister, 447, 867, 
901; duel, 789; hostile to 
America; 857, 869 ; on peace, 
899 ; mentioned, 926, 930. 

Sheriflfs of London, address, 77. 

Shipwrights, petition of, 165. 

Silk culture, 364. 

Sloane, Hans, 383. 

Smith, Lieut Col. Edward, 421. 

Meriwether, 716, 753. 

Rev. Thomas, 102. 

William, 301. 

Snuff-box, 775. 

Sollier, 54, 215. 

Spain, friendly to America, 
279 ; political position, 357, 
383, 386, 519, 610, 641, 698, 
699, 703, 727, 741, 821 ; Amer- 
ican prizes, 269 ; king of, 939. 

Specie, bills in America, 489; 
suggested introduction, 834. 

Stanley, Hans, 383, 384. 
Stephen, Adam, 825. 
Stevenson, William, 61, 325, 

334, 363. 
Stewart, Anthony, 106. 
Stock jobbing, 285, 300, 901. 
Stockton, Samuel W., 528, 657, 

Stormont, Lord, 411. 
Suflfolk, Lord, 119. 
Supplies, purchase of, 276, 283; 

quality of 189, 210, 695. 


TaxBtion of America, 93. 

Taxes in America, 318, 45^, 

Tayloe, John, 75. 

Tea in Mar>*land, 107; Virginia, 
no; payment for, 87. 

Temple, Lord, 93, 414. 

John, 43^698, 707, 713. 

Teschen, Congress of, 514, 536, 
603, 74a 

Thomson, Charles, 332. 

Thompson, Captain, 447. 

Thornton, Major, 286, 369, 428, 

Thorpe, S.. 297, 872. 

Tobacco contracts, 59, 217, 226, 
263, 3S2 ; sales and trade, 73, 
74, 86, IQ5, 107, 109, 125, 145, 
150. 159. 297, 490; ware- 
houses, 69. 

Tories in America, S23. 

Townsend, Alderman, 92a 

Townshend. John, 16. 

Traitors in America, 832. 

Treasonable correspondence, 

Treaty of commerce with 

France, 12th article, 358; 
with Prussia, 299 ; with Euro- 
pean powers. 433, 931. 

Trecothick. Barlow, 20, 29, 96. 

Ttmnboll, John, 831. 

Union of Colonies, 90L 

Van Berckel. 499. 
Vanghan, Samuel, 22, 288. 

IVergenncs, 48, 404, 518, 534, 

Verplanck, 372. 

Virginia, aristocracy of, i ; con- 
vention, 156 ; resolutions, 
IG4; disturbances, 162; re- 
ply to North, 178; defence 
of, 172 ; agency of, 241, 247, 

737. 762, 778* 908. 91& ; s«al 
for, 482 ; purchase of arms, 
443, 44S, 611, 613, 695, 700. 
745 ; loan for, 635, 729, 749; 
paper money, 823 ; invasion 
of, 699. 823, 846, 85a 

Washington, George, 177, 271, 

288, 391, 453, 456. 938. 

Watts, 128. 

Wedderbume, 361, 709, 941. 

Welch. 2S5. 

Wentworth, Paul. 170, 286. 

West Indies. 359, 723. 

Wharton, Samuel, 658, 810, 812. 

White, Henry, 12S. 

Wickes, Lambert, 53, 197, 199, 
202, 222, 231. 251. 662- 

Wilkes, John, 7, 16, 25, 40. 

Williams, Jonathan, commis- 
sioners appoint to receive 
prizes, 52, 197. 199, 202 ; op- 
posed by Lee, 55, 56, 262, 
273, 277, 2S9; removal de- 
manded. 60, 556, 559; the 
Nantes prizes, 229. 230, 253, 
267 ; Morris joins with him, 
331, 54S; commissions, 366; 


appointment suggested by 
Lee, 373, 392, 397, 398, 401, 
408; Adams and, 435, 436; 
Arthur Lee on his accounts, 
631 ; mentioned, 418, 428, 
493» 541, 567, 663, 736, 770. 
Wooldridge, 23, 42, 132. 

Wonneley, 75, 454. 
Wrixon, Major, 515. 

Yorktown, breach of capitula- 
tion, 859. 
Young, John, 357, 358, 381. 

Page 58, 6th line 
195, 14th line 
208, i6th line 
327, I5tb line 
368, 6th line 

387, 6th line 
390, Heading 
428, 1 6th line 
825, 6th line 
905, Heading 


from top, for Dana^ read Deane. 

from bottom, for Edward read Edmund, 

from top, for S r read S[chweighau5e]r, 

from bottom, for Jennings read Jenings, 

from top, for L / C / read L\amber'\t 

from bottom, for vice read nee. 
of letter, for Scuhlenberg read Schulenberg, 
from bottom, for Thoronton read Thornton 
from bottom, for Stevens read Stephen, 
of letter, for William read Edward, 


**necl to 
^ date 



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