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'UT. j-oKnson. 

S^UA ^vyj^ i4/tuó ^^/yvCtu» óy otri'. i.i 












*~" PVÒO Lived Fhe»and-Forty Tears Undifcovertd at 

PARIS;' -n • 

Giving an Impartial Account to'th&DiTan at ConiUntinople of 

the mofl Remarkable Tranfadions of mirope, and dif- 

covcring feveral Intrigues and Secrets of the Chrif- 

tian Courts, (efpecially of that of France) from 

, the Year 1637 to the Year' 1682. 

Written originally in Arabic, tranflated into Italian^ and from thence 
into Englijh, 






By Mundell b* Son, Edinhurih, 






JD£sides the Prefaces already aflSxed to each fingle 
volume of thefe Letters, which contain particular an- 
-fwers to the objections and cavils of fome, with fo- 
lutions of the fcruples and doubts made by other^ ; 
as likewife critical explanations of paflages^ leeming 
obfcurc to all ; in the Englifli tranflation of our Spy, 
it is thought necefTary to prefix fomething more by 
*way of general preface^ not fo much regarding the 
tranflation, as the feeming original abruptnefs and 
obfcurity of our Arabian author himfelf in fome 
places, with his frequent change of fubjefts, his di- 
greffions and ftar tings from matter of faft, thè then 
prefent wars, tranfa£tions, and intrigues of Chriftian 
courts, ftates, and kingdoms (for which he was chief- 
ly fent to Palis), and his immethodical falling upon 
philofophical, divine, and moral contemplations, and ' 
even to ancient obfolete hiftories, which fome think 
altogether foreign to his bufinefs. 

That the ingenuous reader, therefore, may not 
henceforward be left in the 'dark as to any thing ex- 

"•"46620"'* • 


hibited in the whole feries ofthefe kltcr^;, it vrWi not 
be amifs to begin regularly at the firll volume, and 
Jay fomethlng of the wars in which our Spy fonnd 
feveral nations of Europe engaged at his firft com- 
ing to Paris, efpecially France, Spain, and the Em-, 

After the barbarous regicide of PIcnry the Great, 
the name and malice of what they call the Holy 
League, feemed to be quite extinguifli^d, as if that 
deplorable tragedy had fully fatisfied the cruel and 
bitter zeal of the fa£lious catholics. France feemed 
to enjoy a ferene quiet and halcyon-day? from the 
year i6io to 1614 ; fortune fmiling on the greener 
years of Lewis XIII. as loath to difturb and rufile the 
tender paflions of the royal child with the harfli found 
of war, forefeeing that he Would quickly have e- 
nough of that, even in his early youth, before he 
could write man, unlefsJie had been a king. 

During this nainority of his, the guardianfliip of 
him, and th'e regency of the "kingdom,, were com- 
mitted to the queen- mother, Mary de Medicis, daugh- 
ter to the Great Duke of Tufcany. This prince fs 
had brought into France a favourite of hers, a Fio- 
rentine by birth and extraftion, whom fhe exalted 
afterwards to great dignities, procuring him to be 
made a marfhal of thè kingdom, and to be invefled 
with fo exorbitant a power at the court, that the 
princes of the blood, with the other grandees of 
France, began to look with an ill eye on him, being 
'quite difgufled at the too portentous authority of a" 

Therefore, in the ye^r 161 4, they openly fliQwed 


their dilcontent, by taking up arms, ntifing fetiitious* 
tumults and infurreftions, whicli lafled till the year 
i6i0f H which time the king was married to Ann 
the daughter of Philip UI. King of Spain, whilft an 
interchangeable match was made between thè young 
Prince of Spain, fon to the faid Philip, and Elizabeth, 
fifter to Lewis XIIL Thus, thefe two potent mo- 
narchs bound themfclves to each other (as the world 
judged),, in drifter obligations of peace and friend- 
fhip, by the facred bonds of matrimony, and a reci- 
procal union* of their blood v which was alfo accom- 
p^ied vedi the bleflfmg of an univerfal domeftic 
tranquillity, and ceflation from civil broils in France ; 
Henry de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, and the reft of 
the coiifedpr ate, princes being reconciled, in all out- 
ward appearance^ to the king their fovereign. But, 
on a fudden, new jealoufies arifing, about the begin- 
ning of September 1616, the Prince of Conde was 
feized and clapped up, and declarations of war pub- 
liflied againft the princes, his confederates. Yet all 
this was huihed up again, and a peace made the fol. 
lowing year, upon the death of the Marfhal d'Ancres, 
the before^mentioned Florentine, and favourite of the 
<jueen, who was killed in the Louvre, by the king's 
own con\mand j in that, when they were going to 
:vrre(l him, he offered to draw his fword in his de- 
fence.. ... 

The fall of this Italian fe^ined now to pacify all 
liialconfepts j but the queen taking it to heart, re-- 
tired frofn the court, which gave occafion to the 
king to affume the public adminiftration of the go- 



vernment into his own bands j and a while after, he 
leleafed the Prince of Conde from his confincmcfit. 

Much about the lame time, ihcrc broke forth civil 
wars among the Gnfons upon the account «of reli- 
gion ; for the Cathblics and Proteftants cOBiitinMj- 
yeled one another with mutual injuries, and engaged^ 
the kings of France and Spain in their quarrel ; fc 
ihitr the arms of tfaefe two kingdoms were employed 
againft each other, on a foreign account, for many 

In the mean while, the Duke of Luines fucceed- 
ittg the Marflial d'Attere^ in the prime n#niiCry e( 
France, the princes and nobles conceived as great a 
dfflike and hatred of his power ac the court, as yhey 
lunl before done of the others -, fo that, in fliorf , they 
took up arms aUb, and gave the king no fmall trouble, 
who was at the fame time molefted by the fadious 
attempts of the queen-mother*s party.- But by the 
afiiftance and counfel of the Prince of Conde, who 
now proved faithful and' ferviceable to him, he fup- 
prefled al! his domeftic enemies, and rcftored quiet- - 
nefs in France; the queen-mother aifo atul her party 
being reconciled to him. * * 

Things remained in this pofture till the Duke of 
Rohan and his brother Monficur Soubize raifed new 
commotions in the kingdom. The Rochcllers at the 
fame time took up arms in defence of their religion, 
and called in the Englifli to their affiftance, who fc^t 
a navy of an hundred and twenty (hips, under the 
command of the Duke of Buckingham, but all to- 
no efièft ; for, though the ^ngliih landed in the iflc 
of Rhee, after many fliarp conflidls yet they were 

fqon exfi^ed.again, and a long ficge laid to Rocbelle» 
under the condita Qf Carduial Richlieu and the Mar-r 
fttaX de Sehomberg, who reduced that city to the 
king's obt^ience» razed the wall»» andkft it a9 op^ 
ae a vitiace» that it m^ht be a terror and examine 
toother«9 teaching them rather to confide in tbe.cU-. 
mencj.and faith o£ their fiivereign, than to try the 
ffjpce of his arms* This was done m the yejtf 162% i 
from whioh time the rebelsi as it were by ftrife» re* 
turned to their duty, feeking who ihould be moft* 
forward in teftifying their obedience to the kings and 
their ntpwtance for what was paft» Thus was peace 
once more reftored to Framce at home, th^t the kiAg^ 
n^^;^ have the more leifure Co profecute the war in 
Italy, ^^liither he led his vi^orioas army, taking 
many towns in his way to Cazal, which he hafteaed 
to relieve, it being at this time befieged by Spmola 
the Spanifh general. In a word, he came within, 
fight of the very waUs, and fo near to the Spaniards» 
that hoth arniies were ready to engage, when Maza^ 
rini (afterwards made cardinal) ran between, and in^ 
duced them to ^rms of peace. 

A while after this, a peace was concluded between 
the Emperor and the Duke of Mantua> the latter har» 
iug tlie pofTefTion of Mantua, Montferrat, and other 
places, confirmed to him by an imperiai decree $ but 
as if fate had ordained that the arms of France ihould 
not ru(l or be long idle, but that they fliould be con* 
ftantly kept in exercife by equal viciffitudee of fo- 
reign and domeftic wars, no fooner was this pea^ . 
concluded, which gave fome refptte to the Freach 
abroad, when new ftirs atofe at home, occaiioaed-. 

a 4 


firft through fome mlfunderftandings between the 
queen-mother and Cardinal Richlieu, which after- 
wards were improved into open hatred and enmity, 
the queen-motilier having drawn into her party the 
Duke of Orleans, brother to the king, a man who 
had conceived an irreconcileable averfion for that po- 
tent minifter ; till at length things coming to an in- 
evitable rupture at the court, the queen. mother fled 
privately into Flanders, and the Duke of Orleans in- 
fo Lorrain^ from whence he afterwards followed her 
inta Flanders alfo. 

The next year he ruflied into Dauphin^ with a 
confufed army» and the Duke of Montmorency came 
oyer to his fide, who being governor of that province, 
brought great fofces with him, and gave new cou- 
rage to the invaders, infomuch as they entered battle- 
with the Marefchal de Schomberg general of the 
king's army. The fight was fliort and bloody, where- 
in the rebels were routed, having loft many of their 
principal leaders on the fpot, whilft the Duke of 
Montmorency was taken prifoner, and afterwards be- 
headed by fentence of the Parliament. This con- 
cluded the year 1632, but the Duke of Orleans did 
not return to his duty till the year 1634, from which 
time the kingdom . of France was ftiil, by various 
turns, kept in a£live pofture, either of defence or 
oftcnce, partly by domeftic fa£tio"s, and partly by 
foreign engagements of allies or enemies, even to the 
time of the Turkifli Spy's arrival at Paris, which was 
iiY the year 1637. 

I pafs over thefe three laft years before his com- 
ing to Paris, with the more brevity, that there may be 


rri.xi\ ro fay lomething of tLe other wars in which 
r.tirope had all along been equally engaged, from the 
'niurdcr of Henry IV. or thereabouts, to the fame year 
1637, and tLia iii.ill be doi.e as concifcly as may be,, 
that fo the reader may have the clearer idea and un- 
der (landing of wliat o'jr Spy entertains him with ia 
the courfe of his fini letter?, to the jear 1643, ^^^<^ 
Ijewis XIV. the prefcnt King of France began his 
rtrign, whofe life and actions gave an imaiediate 
turn to all affairs, both, in bis own dominions and 
the othef nations of Europe. 

• In the yerir 161 o, the town of Gulicic, in the Ne- 
therlands, was fa. rendered to Prince Maurice of Naf- 
fau, afrer mn.ny prlr.vs liad ch.tmcd it upon the death 
of Duke John William, wlio h:Ct no heirs of his 
body; and Prliice Maurice hlmfelf was obliged to 
the French for tlicir aid in obtaining it. Ab<^t the 
fame time, the Moors were expelled out of Spain, to 
the number of nine liundred thonfand, of which our 
Spy takes notice in fume of his letters. 

In the year 1 6 1 1 , Sigifmund, King of Poland, took 
Smolenfko, a very ftrong town of the Mufcovites, af- 
ter two years fiege^ whofe fon Uladiilaus, the Muf- 
covites chofe for their duke or czar, of which, re- 
penting in a little time, thete broke forth a hloodjr 
war in thofe parts. 

The fame year died Charles the King of Swede- 
land, being fucceeded by his fon Gultavus, though 
fomc endeavoured to transfer thcr crown to Sigifmund 
Eang of Poland. 

In the year 161 2, died Rodolph emperor of Ger- 
siany^ who was fucceeded by Matthias his brother* 

^ S 

A' orbile after. ^U, the Venetians made war upqtx 
Berdinand.Arcbdttkc of Anftria, fon of the Arch* 
dake Charles, ^ho was brother to the Emperor Maxi- 
snitAdin IL This war lailed to the year i6id> at 
wikich time it wa^ 6nifhed« 

In the mean while, the war between the Dukes of 
Mantvia and Savoy broke forth abont the principality 
of Montferrat -, it. was occafioned by the death of 
. Francis, Duke of Mantua, who leaving no male. ifTue 
behind him, Cardinal Ferdinand, his brother, under 
the proteftion of the 'King of Spain, took {{oiTeilioa 
of that principality, wWCh he defended by arms; 
againft Charles Philibcrt Duke of Savoy. This war 
alio iafted to the year 1618, at which time it was 
ended by the powerful intervention of the French» 
king* - 

Al^t this time there broke out a mod cruel war 
in Germany on this occafion. Ferdinand, Arch- 
duke of Auftria and King of Bohemia, received alfo 
from the Emperor Matthias the kingdom of Hun» 
gary on certain conditions, which conditions feeming 
difadvantageous to the Proteftants, ihcy made an in- 
furreflion, fir ft at Prague in Bqhcmia, where they 
killed.the magiftrates, and then tliey were fooa fol- 
lowed by all Bohemia and the adjoining provinces, 
Mìo tcxìk up arms againft the king, under the con- 
di]|£t, of Erneft Mansfelt and other grandees. 

Int,hc year 16 19, Matthias the emperor died, whom 
Ferdinand*, tlie aforefaid King of Bohemia and Hun- 
gary fucceeding, profecuted the war very vigoroufly 
againft the rebels. In the mean while tiley cshofc for 
Kiiig of Bohemia^ Frederick^ Eie^or Palatine of the 

. Rhtne^ who had man^ied th^ Lady BKzabeth) dwgh^ 
tor to James I. King of BngUitd j he, trkh his nt^ 
qtiecnj were the fame year fokm^ly crowned at 
Pi-ague ; and the year following, their forods beings 
routed by the emperor, they themfel^es w^ere forced 
to flee itìfo Holland, where they led a pirivatc fife 
ever afterwards. In the mean while, Bohemia, with 
the other revolting- provinces, returned to thefr obe- 
dience 5 and this was thought to be a leading card 
to the religious war, which about the fame time was 
ràifed among the Grifons, of which mention is made 
above *, nay, and the fame is fuppofed to have had 
infltience on the commotions raifed by the Huguenots 
inhabiting the foot of the Pyrenees, againft whom 
Lewis XIL made a fuccefsful expedition in the year 
1610, reducing the greateft part of that province to 
their duty and ^allegiance, though the following year 
gave him fome frefh trouble, and the lofs of many 
great-nobles, among whom were the Duke of Maync 
governor of Guienne, and tlie Duke of Luines firft 
minifter of (late. ' ' - 

About the fame time died Pope Paul V. being 
fttcceeded by Gregory XV, who fat in the chair but 
two years and a few months, 'when dying, he left if 
to Urban IIL 

Ih the year 1624, Breda -was befieged by Spinola 
the Spanifli generai, and furrendered in 1625. In 
alt ttìt»iì while, Count Mansfelt invefted Germany 
with' frequent excurfions, being got at the herid of * 
bold army of freebooters ; but at length he was de*-^ Tilly, a brave and expert genériil on ttilt 
MfpéàdA fide ^ then he was forced to flee -for fanShiv 

a 6 

^^'hitD Ttnntjivamhj and fromtfaenee going to.¥t:- 
niofly.'he idird in the year 1626* 
-' . Att thefe diings cor Spf glioc^s at in his \^tAt», 
bat vitjvfojsie abruptnefe and obfcurity^ which fen- 
•deis-him £catcely intelligible^ in tliofe pUc^s^ to £u«h 
as know not the hidory : It is for this reafeii we are 
at the pains of .giving a compendious view of (the 
wars and tranfa^lions in Europe before his coining 
to Paris. 

. Therefore to proceed, Guftarua, King of Swede- 
Lindi came out of hts territories in the year 1630, 
ftnd cotereti Pomerania with a mighty army j from 
whencei and from all the adjacent provinces, he drove 
the Iniperialifts. In th« year 1631, he entered the 
more inferior parts of the empirei taking innumer- 
able tQwn^, and filling all places with terror ; and 
this- he did under pretext of vindicating the Evan- 
gelica or Proteftants. In vain did Tilly the general 
of the Catholics oppoTe him \ all that he could do . 
was to burn Magdeburgh to afhes. 

After which the Proteftant princes held a diet or 
aflembly at Leipfieki where they entered into a con- 
federacy agàinft the emperor, joining their forces 
with thofe of Guftavu?. Againii thefe Tilly march- 
ed, with General Papenhelm, and laid clofe fiege to< 
lieiptick, which they were forced to furrender upon 

.• After this, the King of Swedehmd, the^Duke of 
Saxony^ ^itk the other confederate princes, took ta 
th^^ field, and there was a terrible fight between dttem 
and the Imperialiils at Leipfick, wfaofe confeqiience 
praved^atal to the latter ; fpf Tilly having loft tea 

ÙìÒMiknà of bis meny^2S' forced- to'iflee liimfetf» 
whilft Leipfick fell into the hands of the-Ddeeof 
S^:3«€Hiy. Thi3 viftory opened a clear ymf iat the 
King of Swedebnd to overran all Genaatty ; ib that 
having taken Wirtzberg, he- foon reduced pli Fian- 
cdnia or Frankenland, after tlui: Memt2> with; other 
provinces, fpreading like a fire or a deluge of water- 
In the mean while, the Didce of Saiony intaded Bo- 
hemia, and took Prague the capital city of that ki»g- 
dom. In- a word, fo general was the confternation 
throughout the empire, that fotne princes^ to divert 
the ftorm which they faw -han^itg. over dicir heads, 
hadrecoorfeto the psoteftioncdF^the £^ing'of France, 
who accordingly, by his mediation, Ikreened them 
from violence,"^ efpccialiy the ArchWbop of Triers, or 
Treves. .. ■ ' 

. Ili tiie year t63X,* the King of Swedeland ^rfued 
the courfe of his victories, ravagingi wittout ftcip or 
. oppofition, through Alfatia, Bavaria, and othcar parts, 
ilill taking towns and Arong holds, fiUing- all pkces 
alfo with ruin and defolation. At length, paffing the 
Danube, he roijjted Tilly; once more with all hia ar- 
my^ who died foon after pf a wound he roqqivcid in 
■the battle-. • : . 

.^ Walleilcin was ftraight fubftituted in his place, 
who recovered. Prague in Bohemia from^ the S&^on^. 
Then, after many conflifU and {kirmifhee> he>eii* 
coaot&red the K.t»g of Swedelimd at Lutaen,jajtown 
not far fr9m. Leipfick. , Thi^t battle proved htai 4o 
GÉftaYu», for in it- he k>il his lif^ a»d>.noi; Idngiitf- 
.tec Mm, Gestural Papenheim. on the Germanf l6cto«^ 
Xhi? &me^:jearj, gigifmuad £ing of £oIa{idl4yJa|j 

Lie foH Uiaèìfians iucceeded^him in tiie throne. I^e 
Sweies viftPó not th die letaft*idifc(Mjraged from pro^ 
fecurtng the trat by the dcadi of their king; but 
whereas before they £o«ght for oonquaeft and liberty^ 
n0W they feemed to- fight for revenge. , Chriftima, 
the daughter of Guftavus^ Adolphus, was foon .fet 
upon the throne of Sweden : After this, there was 
.a diet held at Francfort, confifting of Swedes and 
Sasons i then thqre was another ^ffembled at Hail- 
bruri; and in the year 163^, the ftates of Saxony 
niat dt He)berftadt to coniuk about their own fafety» 
Much about the fame time happened the fieges of 
Ratiibonne and Norlingen. This' year was noted! 
with tragical charatìrers, on the account of the great 
defolation made in the provinces lying on the Rhin<^ 
by war, peftilence, and famine, where people were 
reduced to thofe-ftraits as to feed on human fle(h, 
and to do othev things which will fcarce now feeia 

Th« next year> §635, feemed to give a new turn 
to the affairs in Germany j for the Duke of Saxony ^ 
Brandenburgh, and Luxemburgh, havmg had a treaty 
at- Prague »n Bohemia, came over to the cmperor^fe 
party ; yet the Swedes ftill purfued the war. 

The two following yeafrs were remarbable for the 
eleSion- of Ferdinand III.- who was chcfen king of 
the-Romarns- 1*636, and fucceeded his father in the 
empire 1637 ; as alfo for the irruption madb by G»- 
laffiò general of the German forces into Fraijeej 
which wa» attended with yariou* crents on h0àì 
fidesi'tiU at length, toward th« end 'of 1637, G^- 
laffio retu>b^ with ìàs anny intio tiie ààtfke «gaia*. 

l'ire Tame jtzr before» there was a notMt fea^gbt 
between the Spamacds and Hollanders* Prmce>Mau^ 
rice overcame the Po>iti%iueie in Brafil» and toot 
from them immcnfc riches. The Prince of Orange 
befiegcd Breda and took it. The fame year died Bo* 
liflàus the kft Duke of Pomerania. Much about the 
fame time, the pope earneftly exhorted the princes 
of- Europe to eftablifli a general peace. ^ 

Such was the fac#of things in Chriftendom when 
this Turk came firft to Paris ; and it is evident that 
the fcenes were often changed in the courfe of thofe 
foirmer years which rhave here recounted; ahd fo 
they have been ever fmcc, which was the tTuerea- 
fon of that variety of fubjefts with Whichour author. 
abounds ; in fome letters giving an account of bat-, 
tles^ fiegee, and other events of campaigns. ; gloflkig 
alfo, and defcanting on the good condu^, or' over- 
fiats' of great generals ; on the valour of famous 
Captains ; and, -in general, on the fortune of wkr. 
Ill others he treats of court intrigaes-, juntos of po- 
liticians, and fubtle propolals of flatefmen. - 

Aga*!, when he writes t<> his intimate friends, be 
either entertains them with melancholy comphifAts 
of his long abfence from Conftantinople, and his n'a- 
tive connCEy, with the inconveniencies, tóiferies, 
hazards, a*?d- hard (hip» that attend it; or-èlle dit* 
verts thtm with fome trifling difOoQrfe,- cortwcà* 
ftory, €xt fomcbhing tfcry unulual, furprifitìg, and 
ftrasgCi • . 

«nthe time of war> fee féemis fo be aeUrioe^ ènu . 
groffdr of.fhe earHeft a»d ^hoieeft newst - f n- trttt^^ 
pea«che watehe? the. motions of Cardinfe^K«àhfi€w,- 


Mazarini,^ Olivarez, and other great minlflers of 
ftate J for this end he had his agents about in every: 
corner of the Court of^ France, befides his Intelli- 
gencers of Vienna, Venice, òr fome other city of 

. But give him leave fometimes to lay afide the 
cares and bufy toils of life ; and wonder not if he 
fceni, in fome of his letters, very melancholy ; hi 
others, of a contrary humour, «heerful and frplic- 
fome ; for thefe unevennefles of temper happen to- 
cvery man. 

You (hall hear him fometimes wifliing himfclf a- 
niongft the pyramids of Egypt, confined and inclof- 
ed within thofe antique piles, a companion of ghofts 
and devils, rather than lead the life he did in Paris ; 
when, at another feafon, you fliall find him all over 
content, and refignation itfelf in the abftraft. 

Befides, the difference of his years ought to be 
confidered, which, at the clijnadlerical periods, are 
obfervcd to alter mens fpirita, as well as their bodies ; 
fo that it is no wonder, if, in the courfe of five-and- 
fortj years which he pafled away at Paris, Uoth his 
genius and converfation may feem to vary at fome 
critical feafons, through the natural force of 'time, 
and the change of the elements of which his body 
was compounded j as he himfelf, in Ws letters, . 
mak^§ the fame apology. 

Add to all this^ his daily improvements by obfer- 
vation, experience, reading, meditating, converfc, 
and habitual engagements in the world 5 for which 
n;afoi^ aloney it would be unequal to expe£l: tl\e 
fame method of writing from him, cither as to fenfe 


or ftyle, matter or formi when he was but thirty òr 
forty years old, as when he was threéfcore of three- 
ffipre and ten, Moft of the famous writers in the 
world have not only changed the opinions which 
they harboured in their greener years, but, before 
they came to the age of our Spy, fome of them have 
publicly recanted them, both with their tongue and " 
peni Neither is it a fliame to any man, fo Ibng as 
the old axiom is true : " Humanum eft errare ; at, 
^rrores feliciter retraftare, vere Divinum." 

Neither could our Spy, confidering his ediication 
in the Mahometan religion, take a properer method, 
in my opinion, to difengage himfelf from the legends 
of the nurfery, and the fables of the fchools, (as a 
great man calls our infant ideas of things) than to 
follow the coujifel of his beloved des Cartes, the 
French philofopher, whom he fo much admired ; 
and who advifes every one that would perfeók his 
reaión, and arrive at the knowledge of undifguifed 
truth, to (hake off the prepofTeirions and prejudices 
of his infancy and youth ; to wipe, brufti, or fwcep 
his foul clean of the very duft and relics left behind 
on pur faculties, by thofe firft foreign invafiohs and 
encroachments on our minds. Having thus cleanfed * 
and polifhed the foul, it becomes a* pure tabula rafa, 
fit for the beft or worft imprcffions. And here* is 
the firft ftart of the free-will ; for,, before this, a 
roan is a perfetì flave, driven up and down by every 
fpirit tliat blows ftrongeft on him 5 whereas, now 
he begins to feel fome ftrength and confiftenqe in 
himfelf, being able 10 fay, with interior and foUd 

rc^SoUf *f Cogi^ÉQcrgQ fum." Fixing tbcrrfprc.o» 
this foundation, 'h^ builds a fortrefe or ftcong^hold,' 
from whence he 4efìeg ali the §ttcrnpu of ope» eno* 
inies^ or flyfecret; interlopers; neithes permittiii^ 
him&If to be debauched, by the. profaneaefs of ii*' 
bertines and atheifls, nor by the ridiculoud eathuft*.. 
"tiiins qf fanatics axjd zealots. This is the eowlfe 
which aur Turk feems to have taken with himfclf, 
when he once arrived to thofe 'years wherein men. 
ufually begin to examine the grounds of reUgioiii: 
and briiSg the documents and traditions of their fa- 
thers to thejeft of fenfc and reafo«i. It is no won- 
der, therefore, if in fome letteM to hia familiar and 
intimate friends, he difcourfes of .fuch matters with 
more freedom than when he \Arrites to the moftii the- 
mufti's vicar, the preacher of the feraglio, or any 
of the grandees J yet. even to thcfe he maker bold, 
fometimes, to propofe queries, and fkart fcruples i 
which plainly difcovcr, that he .was not fully fatis- 
fied in many principles and practices of the Maho* 
metans. . ' 

On the other hand, when he writes to the Jew, 
his correfpondcnt at Vienna, he endeavours to re- 
claim him from a too fond and implicit confidence 
in the Hebrew 'Rabbis, whom he calls religious 
trifters, ridiculing their fables, and vain inftitutions, 
and perfuading his friend not to be over-pious, bue 
to attend the affairs of his employment with alacri- 
- ty, a;id to be, zealous in the Grand Signior's. fenrice. 
He likew;ife frequently explodes the vanity and fo- 
perftition of fpme fort of Chriftians, with fome tart- 
nefs indeed, but free froni all ill nature and bitter- 

OÈW^lLlkl- PKf£FACe. xiz 

ndfe, estèrf whfefc ii>eaking hottcmrkbly of Ghrift Jc- 
ft», our Blé^fòd Saviouir, offljr condtmning the vices 
tnd erro» of hh followers ; which laftr is no mòre 
titan what would become a Chriftian divine» whofe 
duty ft is to* reprove and correS whatfocvcr he fees 
amiifr In thofe that ptófefe the Chrrftbn faith. 

^bi general, he ajlpears a man void' of fuperftitibn ' 
and bigotry ; and^ if he feems jpartiaiy or bia&dany ' 
way^ it is in the point' of abftinente from lefh, and 
the -dodfriné of transmigration; whereby we Aiay 
co^liideli^ Wdd a Pythagorean^ which is no hew^inr 
uneommon thing among the Tiorli^ there being, ar 
pàftìcukr fea of 'Mahomctànìj.whoUf devoted ta 
tfce rules of that fftiilofephet: j and* it h well known 
that PyifhàgoftTm is in great reptrtatlon M ovet dké 

Hence #é ncfed not wonder that he appeats^ k 
much enamootcd with the- Italian Gentilesy who arc 
the ftrifteft obfervers of abftinence, aftid of the wìtcAt 
Pythàgofeah tKfcifjh'rie, of atty peopk ki the world, 
as all our modem travelkfrs cam teftify. 

Though he cannot be called an antiquafy, "yet he 
appears a gteat lover of antiquities, and ' no' tefs an 
aamirer of new dlfcovcries, provided they be both 
of them matters of importance, and worth a wife 
man's regard •, for it does not belong to either of 
thefe charaflers, that a man is a curious coltóftor of 
medals, images, pitìures, and a tioufand other in- 
figfiiificant hrifles, which can neither ferve to ilia-* 
ftrate hiftoryj regulate chronology, nor adjuft* any* 
moihentoufe difficulty in the records of Time, but 
are only Reverenced for their ruftineft, illcgible^thà- ' 

rftfteri, andexotiofigwc^ nor tfiat-he h fond, of 
CTterylkde impr^ttsment in arts car fdences, whick 
pethaps has no other tendency than the advantarge of ' 
feme particular trade or profeffion amofig racn^ ané 
fenres only to -divert the mind from move folid ©b- 
je&s : whereas our Arabian afpire&at higher thii^s:; 
he lov^s antiquities, but it is onlf fuch as draw the 
veil, from off the infancy of time, and unccrrer the 
cradle, of the world. This makes him iniift with fo 
much zeal and pafTion on the records of tbe Ghtaefe 
aiid Indians. He admires new difcoYertes> bwt only 
fiich a» &aU either condu£l: us to the yet unknown 
parta of thè earthy or psefent us with a truer and more 
perfect fcheme oi the heavens» than what was before . 
extant^ as nuy be fee» by his letters to Ofm^n A- 
drooncth, aftrologer to the Sultan, Vol. VIII. Book 
IV. page 191. and to Abdclnicice Muli Omery.piTB- 
fident of the College of Sciences at Fez, Vol. VIIL 
Book IV. page ^39. 

He often praifce arid recommends ihe reading of 
hiftory to his friends- j and, throughout the cpurfe of 
tbefe letters, gives fufficient proofs that be is no 
ftranger to it : which yet need not be laid to his 
charge^ as if he affe£led to be thought a kiiowing 
man, or that he fpent his time in ftudies- foreign to^ 
h^ employment ; foi' he began to read hiftoiies, as 
he bimfelf declares, long before he came to Paris», 
as foon as he was releafed from his captivity in Pa- 
Hrolo in Sicily, and had accefs to the academies^ 
which makes it no wonder that he fhould. employ his 
vacant. hours in the libraries of Paris, after he came 
thither, being a very inquifitivc man, and greedy o£. 

jcnowledge. Befides» «he wit&tcommaade^tby.iiisiftt-» 
picrìoTB thxiA to ìxntprov^i^mAfàiir^f^ào^tx 
abftrads of wfaatlserea^^ta CmSLiinmofkr whish 
isia fuffficieriiJ^jceBfc for aU< > .. . r , 

'It /only Ecamams now that wertauch. upon^&xnei 
trajifawftiott^ of the Eaft, as wo h»ve afaready done ^ 
upoftthòfe « ili the .Weft, thayt fo the .reader» who 
peshap^'iiasr not the leifure to 'pemfo^ the : Tarkiih 
bifliory^ jmay the-hgt^errjunderftandiome patflagesin 
thefelettcsB Tfektmg'thofeto. .• 

Gut Spy -was born inidieteigii of Sultan Acfamet, 
dittitig whofe iife, he be^g but a youthj it will be 
to nt> purpafe to reeowit what happened: in thctfe 
parts, or between that moaarch and the Chriftian?. 

Achmet dyingi was fucceeded by^uftapha fats 
brother, of whom our author makes fome mention, 
as, of ;his throwing gold to the fiflacs of the fea, and 
ot the cruelty - of Sultan Amnrat IV, in catzfmg 
him to be ftrangled- Indeed, he wars a prince -who 
made fo fmatll and contemptible a figure in the wof Id, 
,^tbat few hiftorians take , any other notice of him 
fhhn as a man more fit iota eonvent than for a tofal 

^ TherefOTc, he being depofed, and remanded to his 
former puifon, where he had fpent his youcii, Ofinan, 
the fon of -Adbmet, was placed in the throne of im 
fethers. He renewed the ancient leagues, whid» had 
been made^between his ^anceftors and fereral^Chri» 
ftian' princes ; wrote letters to' James I. King of Engi- 
land^ a^d Louis 'XIII. King of' France; ai^ed >tks 
Emperor ofi'Germanj^ agMnft^«hc iHungariansi* Bor- 
l^i^ians^^ and odiec cebels i hm at le^gth^ «luétitig 

ijiìtaz war with Poland, iwfaraiyiDi^ beaten, 'At>m 
which time hi6 jiffikirabegs^to^dedilie : And the next 
y.ear^ giving oattbatfaewicAiM madie a pilgrimage to 
Meccai he was ftran^^ed bf thè janraaries, who fti« 
fpie£bed that he defigned to aboliA their order^ and 
akér thfi canftitocion of. the empire* 

Then Muftapha waa taken out of his prifbn again, 
and the (econd time placed' on the throne, wha 
foon alter experienced the matafailit]r of fortune, in 
that he was again laid afide, and Amurat, the bro- 
ther, of Ofman, eftabliflied in his ftead. 

This Amurat was a very warlike piince, and e- 
fitoemed tfae.ftouteft man of his ^age. He had not 
long fwayed the Ottoman (beptte, when the Perfì- 
ans came and befieged Bagdad, or Babylon, which 
they took fnom the Turks. Then the Coffacs, with 
the inhabitants o£ the Ukrain, gave him fome di- 
verfion, making violent iiicurfions into the TurkHh 
territories, and laying all wafte wherever they came. 
However, the Sultan regarded the Perfian war with 
moft concern : He fent an army toward Babylon, 
;in the year 1626, who were defeated by the PcrG. 
ans, twenty thoufand Turks , being killed on the 
fpot.. This was revenged afterwards by the flaugh- 
ter .of tiiirty thoufand Perfians. Then followed the 
fiege, or rather blockade of Babylon by the Turks. 
A while after this happened that dreadful fire at 
Conftantinople, which confumed a third part of the 
city i of which our Spy makes mention in fome of 
his lettears, ^peciatly^ to Ms friend Dgnet Oglou, 
who had iaffered great lofies iti the conflagmtion. 

Nnt Ipng .after this^ there wai' a rebellion raifed 

«MIMI, msviiec. tiAi 

injfcbeHoly^LaaA, bf «Fseardltne, Aie iyraTHs ai^d fi- 
i^QUfi SintT' pf Si4b>%' wt|^ whom joined fome otKer 
difcpnteated Bafiàs and Baf8> o( Egjrpt ^ but^Achu- 
rat, (eluding powerful forces tgalnft i^m/ reduced 
^m to tbck 4l»ty 4 AfierwasdSy enticing Fae^rdine 
to Conftantinople, the oM Emir wen* aucerdingly 
m^ith .foKty ihòu&àd mtib at his hecl8|. who encamp- 
.ed at a^iftaace firom the dty ; but at length, trttft- 
ing too much :to $ipdtaa Aminrat't «dluren^hts and 
fair ptomifes» he ventured (b far into the 6)raiid Sig- . 
nior's clutches, that he was firangled. This oUr Spf 
defc^nts upoo in feveral letters* 

Next followed the taking of Raran by *hc Petfi- 
aiis, which was accon^anied by the rebellion of the 
Begierbeg of Greece ; at which ùnte there raged a 
doilrufUve plaguie at Conftantinople. In this year 
our Spy came to Paris. Much about the fame tinte, 
the P^rfiana^rpoted thp^ 'Pur^ before BaJbyloB, and 
foirced them to raife the fiege^. 

Arourat was fo enraged with àìcfc reiterated ill-fiac- 
ceiTes^ i;hat, colk£lÌDg tc^ther a mighty army, he 
led th^fn in perfon to the walls of Babylon, and laid 
clofe fiege to that city, refolding never to return to 
Conftantinople till he had won that important place, 
W^hich he accordingly did, with an infinite flaughter ' 
bf tl^e Perfians. Our Spy fpcaks much cff tfws 
fiege, fomcrimes extolling the bravery of Sèha<ìh 
Abbasi King of the Perfians, at oAer times mag- 
nifyiifig the valour of Amurat. 

Tfyi ^jhr^ Signior, returning from this iuccefs^ 
fui campaign» lentered Conftaniiaople 4h triuthph ; 
aii^ bciftg pilffed .up wkh his vié^ries, gave ihe reins 

tè hk paffi<wi, committing a thousand exorVitancics 
and cruelties* At kngtluhe died of a fever, which 
be got by exceffive drinking of wine and fpiiits, to 
whic^ he had much addi£t€d himfelf. 

Ibrahim, brothar to Amurat, faoceedcd in the 
throne, a prince wholly given oyer to the amours 
of women.j yet he commenced that long and ìtàì- 
ou$ waf with the Venetians, which cofl: fa much 
money and blood on both fides, which la(led^above 
twenty year?, and which was not ended till the fur- 
render of Candia, the chief city of the ifiand bear- 
ing that name, which confummated the conqnefl of 
the'tvhole ifl^. 

The occafion of this war is related varioufly. Our 
hiftories affirm, that it' was begun on the account of 
Sultan Ibrahim's fon being taken captive by the 
Knights of Malta, wlio was afterwards educated in 
that ifland, became a monk, and, for diftin£tion 
fake, in regard of his fuppofcd extra£lion, was call- 
ed Padre Ottomanno, oY Ottoman Father. Our Spy 
contradids all this, and fays he was only the fon of 
a female flave belonging^to the Seraglio, there being 
no account to be had of his father. 

Ibrahim being tranfported with an extravagant 
lull after women, and having debauched the mufti's 
daughter, the mufti, with the Grand Vifier, an4 
fome other baiTas, confpired againft him, drawing 
his own mother into the plot^ At length he was 
feized, depofed, and, afttr fome days confinement, 
growing mad, he was ftrangled in bis prifon, and 
his ibn Mahomet IV. afcended the throne ^ a prince 
ad<U£led more, to huntings and the pteafures. of a 

ccwmtyy life, than to war, or love of wonacn ; wlmnae 
it.ivas» that he fpent moil of hb fumq;^^ in fome 
deligh^ul folitude» where the agreeable. Aides of the 
4rees, the purling ftreani6, and harmoajr of bir4«, 
iavited him as to an earthly paradife. Yet this hin- 
dered not the Grand Vificr from profecuting the 
wars ili Hungary, Dalmatia, Candia, and. olfewhere» 
as there was ocQafion. Of all which things, oiur 
Spy git^es hints in his Letters^ according to their pro- 
per feafoi^» 

To draw tQwa,rds a conclufion. The. reader of 
thefe Letters may obferve, that our Spy in fome of 
them makes mention of feveral papers and. journals 
which came to his hands i ^nd of. one which he 
wrote liimfelf in the academiesi wherein is contain- 
ed the hiftory of his youth> with the mofl: memor- 
able adventures which befel him in, that part of hi« 
life, . c 

Butj a;nQng foreign journals, he.&enis fx> put the 
moli v.?iue on thofe of Carcot, P^eli Hali his bro- 
ther» and.Ifouf his couGn. The firft of thefe was a 
private- agent for the Grand Signior at Vienna, who 
lived fome years there after our ^ Spy came, to Paris, 
and held a Axiik correfpondence with him, by order 
of the. Turkifh Divan, as appears by fevcral letters 
in the. 1 ft and ad Volumes 5 but at length, dying, 
his journal and othe;; papers were fent by his fuc- 
cefTor to omr Spy, with a ring> which Carcoa had 
bequeaih^ him as a legacy and token - of his invio» 
lable fxionjdfiup, even to death. 

This journal» as vre may gather firom.ibme of 
our .Spy'4 letlersi .contains copied of all the difpatcb- 

Fo/.L b / 

C5 which Caicoa fcnt to the mimfters o£ the Porte, 
during Jiis.r^ence at Vioiaa, wiih fome of their 
letters to him. In thefe, as we may farther collet, 
is co4iched a hiilory of all the mofl remarkable tranf- 
aftions in Europe, with parallel occurrences and e- 
vents in the Eaft, from the year 1600, or therea- 
bouts, "to the year 1652, at which lime Carcoa died. 
Our Spy, befides other commendations which he 
gives this journal of Carcoa, pardculariy delebratcs 
it in one of his laft letters to Nathan Ben Saddi, a 
Jew at Vienna. At the firft receipt of that journal, 
h^ fent an anfwer to Nathan^ which begins thus : 
** Thy letter, with Garcoa*s journal, is come fi\fe to 
my "hands, and the ring whkh he bequeathed mei^ 
&c. And a little after, be fays, " His memoirs will 
be of great fervice to me, containing a more accu- 
rate faiftory of the German Court, from the year 
1600 to the time of his death, than I have yet feen 
es^tant. I am not unacquainted with relations of this 
kind," &c. Vol. II. Book I. Letter XXXI. page 78. 
But in the very kft letter he wrote to that Jew, he 
gives this journal yet far higher encomiums, praifmg 
the elegance and fuccindnefs of the ftyle, the foli- 
dity of the matter, and the great ufefulnefs as well 
as delightfulnefs of both y as may be {een more at 
iaige in Vol. VIIL Book IV. Letter XVI. page 250. 

The fecond journal is that of Pefteli Hali, brother 
to our Spy, and a great traveller in Afia. At his 
return to Conftantitiopk he was made mafter of the 
cuftoms, and fuperintendant of the affetial there. 
Hi& journal contains an accurate accoom d£ his tra- 
vels through Sysria, Arabia, Pedia, India, .Chi^a^ 

Tartàry Georgm, Circafftò, MiitgireH>, &«!. >»^ith 
choice remarks and obferv^itions en the divers' reli- 
gions, Jaws, ciiftomd, and forms of government, 
.whf^h he found among fo mjray people of diffcteot 
tiations ; a3 alfo feveral ftràige and jrfèafant adven- 
tures that ha^cncd-to Hm on the roads, arid in ci- 
ties j the efcapes he made from .robbers, and his 
intrigues with the Perfian and Indian ladies; all 
which our Spy profefles he took great deh'ght to read. . 
In a word, according to the character which he gives 
of this journal, we ijiay believe that it contains ma- 
ny ufeful and pleafant memoirs, in hiftory, philofo- 
phy, morality, and the politics. 

As for the journal of Ifouf, his coufin, we may 
conclude, from feveral letters in our Spy,, that it de- 
ferves much the fame charafter, only with this ad- 
vantage, that befides his travels through all, or moft 
of the forenientioned countries in the Eaft, he adds 
an account of his journeys through the South, having 
vifited the chiefeft regions of Afric ; and Mahmut 
appears particularly pleafed with this laft part. of his 
^oùrnàf, as containing narratives of countries to 
which he was wholly then a ftranger. In a word, 
upon the reading of this journal, he conceived fo 
great an afFeftion for his coufin Ifouf, the author of 
it, that he recommends him to his brother tefteli 
Hali, and to one of the baflas, as a man deferving 
the Sultarfs favour, and fomc preferments fuitable 
to his abilities, which may be a fufficient ground for 
us to believe, that this journal was not fluffed, with 
vain romantic fables and empty trifles, but that it 
had fomething in it extraordinaiy and Hluftrious. 


If therefojrttl|?puWifliff<jf theft volumes, whb 
has been at great expence and pains in endeavouring 
to retrieve the faid journals, fliould ever be fo happy 
as to fucceed in his attempt, be promifes himfelf that 
the publication of the faid journals will bé a Vofk 
both ufeful and acceptable to the world. 

H"^ .» 




"Wiii^ piay fe«m pbfcure anU UninteUi^ìtU «ither m thtfc Lr€t- 
tcrt or in thsir Titles; 

Ììlaraf» a plac.< of prifons ; purgatory, or a mid-rcctp- 
tacle of fouls between paradife and hell» according; 
tojthc doArine of the Turks* 

Allah^ the name of God. .^ 

Bassa, .a^iide of honour givjcn. to governors of provin- 
ces, and privy counfellors of the Grand Signior. 

Berber Ag A, the Grand 3}gnior's barber. 
• Bey, a lo^d. , 

Beglerbeg, lord of lords.: A title equivalent to out 
dukes and princes. '. 

BosTANGi, a gardener. 

C ADI L E s 03; £ R, a lord chief-j iiflipe» ; 

Cad(, a judge, prjuJ(Ìi9e of the, peace./ '. :-. 

Caliph, a prince^ or high prieft. • 

Chan, a duke. - , ^ • , . 

Che IK, a lawyer. ;, . 

Cheriff, a prince. 

C^iiAux, a bailiff, or feijeant. 

CoRBAN, a Mahometan facri^ce of fhcep, whidh being 
killed and cut in .pieces, are diftribut^d to the poor»- 

Dervi se, a religious man. . .^ ^ 

Dev, a governor. ^ ' . t -. • 

Divan, the Grand Signior's privy^council ; alfo a laifed^ 
ground in a hall, or any other room of a houfe. ' 

DuNALMA, a fcfUval, or royal holiday. 

Emir, a lord. < 

. *3 

Festa, the fentencc which tie mufti gives in the deter- . 
minatiop of any caufe brought before him. 

Harm A, the treafury. 

H*ARODA, the royal chamber. 

Hasnadar Bassi» chief treafurcr to the Grand Signior. 

HoDGiA, a doAor of laws. 

Ho LB AG I, a confeAioner. 

Imavm, a minifler, or clerk of a cburch. 

Janisar Ac a, general of the janizaries. 

Kaimacham» a deputy-lieutenant, or governor of a city* 
The Grand Vifier*8 Vicegerent. By way of excel- 
lency, ft 18 appropriated to hi'm Who gòvernlr Ofti- 
ftantinopfe in fhe Grand Vifier*» abfence. 

KiAYA B«Y, lcrd-1ientena»l ofthe}an}«irfw. /^^ 

Mandarin, a. governor of a province, or a lord. 

Minaret, a turret, or fteeple of a mofc^ue. 

MiRZAH, a generaL 

Molla H, a dodor or preacher. ^ 
. MuR GERMAN, a carricf or muleteer.' 

Mussulman, orMosEiMAN^ a ttuefWlievér; oac rcfigti- 
èd to God. This title i^i Mahometan» arrogate to 
thcmfelves, as the only ded of God,' ili their own 

Nabob, a lord. •: .- , 

Omrah, a colonel, or lord. .« , . . 

K4kis,£FFENixj«. a.fecretaiy qf ftata. i • 

Santone, a holy man. i ••/.. 

Selictar Aga, the fword-bearer to the itthan* ' . . 

Sera-squier, a general of an army. . ; 

SoLACK and S a ick, footmen. 

Sultan, a king^or emperor. • 

Tbfterder, lord-treafurer. 

Ì VisiER AzEM, the firft minifler of ftate. 


I,H£|£ a book- written by a Turk, whofe 
nx^tterjajfts inilruftive and. delightful ^^ the manner 
of i^ldiiPg it, was ftrange and furprifing. I do not 
doubt but ypii would k^ow wbexe it was written» 
s^nd perhaps whether the author be livings and whe- 
ther you muft cxpeéi a rqmance or a real hiftory,. 
Hear then in ihort what will fully fatisfy you» 

T^eycuriofity of feeing Paris made a man of let- 
ters leave Italy ii^ the year i6S2, where being ar- 
rived, he found fuch diverfions as caufed his ftay 
longer than he intended. 

Scarce had he been two months in Paris, when, 
by changing his lodging, he difcovered, by mere 
chance, in a corner of his chamber, a great heap of 
papers, which feemed more fpoiled by duft' than 

He was at firft furprifed to fee nothing but bar- 
barous chara£ters, and was upon the point of leav- 
ing them without any farther fearch, if a Latin fen- 
tence, which he perceived ontlie top of a, leaf, had 
not detained him : - - 

Ubi amatur, non laboratur ; et fi 
Lab(irBtur, labor amatur,- 

b 4 

[ XXXlI ] 

The furprife of the Italian was yet greater, when 
after having confidered thefe charaélers with more 
attention, he found them to be Arabic, which lan- 
guage was not altogether untnown to him, which 
made him look mote narrowly into them, where he 
found that they treated of affairs of (late ; that they 
contained relations of war and peace ; and difcourfcd 
not only of the affairs of France, but of thofc of all 
Chriftcndom, till the year 1682. 

The curious Italian was in no fmall impatience to 
know how and where thefe memorials had been writ- 
ten, and by what adventure they came to He fo ne- 
gle£led In a corner of his chamber ; but before he 
further informed himfelf, he thought It expedient to 
tranfport thefe manufcripts into another houfe, as ^ 
place of greater fecurity. 

He afterwards queftioncd his landlord^ with great 
precaution, concerning the papers,* and he informe^ 
him even to the leaft circumftances. 

He told him, that a ftranger, who. faid he was a 
native of Moldavia, habited like an ecclefiaflic, great- 
ly ftudious, of fmall ftature, of a very coarfe counte- 
nance, but of furprifing gòodnefs of life, had lived 
long at his houfe; that he came to lodge there in the 
year i654, and had ftàid eighteen yqars with him ; 
that being gone abroad one day, he returned no more^ 
^nd they bad no certain news of him fince : He was 
about fcv'enty years old, had left fome manufcripfc 
which nobody underflood, and fome moneys, which 
was an argument tliat his departure was not preme- 

He added,, that' he had always a lamp, day and 

£ xxziix 3 

ni^t^ . burning in his chamber ^^ i^ but few m^> 
ablési^òùly feme booksj a ùmlì tome of St. Auftisy 
Taciti^si and the' Alcoran, with the piftwe of JVt^fr 
gnidio, whom he prjiifed very muchj calling him 
die'Mofes of .Naples. He faid faxther, that this 
ibraii'ger's gxeatei^ frieh^ and whom he faw often> 
was a man which moft people took for a faint, fgnrie 
fof.a J?w, and others fiifpefbed ^o be ftTurt: .Ac- 
cording to the landlord'^ report,' hecamc to Paris «A 
the^year 1Ó37, being ^en but 2&'y«ars of age i at 
firft, he had ^lodged with a Fteming j he went of- 
ten to'cDttTtj moneys never failed him; he had 
firierids/and pafled for very learned.. As for his end, 
this man thinks be died miferably, it being fufppd- 
cd that be had been tlirown into the ritrer. 

The Italian,' bemg fufficicotly inftruQed by what 
lie had hewfd, applied himTelf to the ftudy of the 
Arabian language, and as he had ahcady fome know- 
ledge in it, he quickly learned enough to tranflate 
tbefc manufcripts, which he undertook a while af- 
iaer ; and he examined with»care the troth, of what 
the Moldavia» had written^ confronting- the events 
he rtiet wjth the hiftories of diofe Hmes ; and to fuc- 
Ceed the better, fearched the moft approved memo- 
lials,' having had accefe ihtojthe cabinets of princes 
and their minUiera» -. . * 

- Thefb letters ooittain flic ns&ft confideraBle intrig4icV 
^f the court of Fnmoe; « «ndi the moft remarkable 
tran&étìoas of Chiàfteiidofaiì which have been fent 
10 fevbrat o&étswrci the Ottoman court. 

By theifc may be. kxijawn^tlie perfpiàièkf uf thié^^ 
agent erf the Torkr,:iwidjby ifim /the pru^enccof 

£ xxxiv 3 

th(^.that cof9man4 m that nation, who. chofe (die 
better to. penetrate ioto the a&trs of Chriftiaps) a 
matt who could not be fuipeftcd hy hisexterlor, -who 
was deformed, but prudent and advifed, and, for the 
better concealing him, deftined his ordinary abode 
in one of the greateil and n^fl peopled cities of £a- 

-.Duswfjhui bèiog at Paris, which was.fortyK&re 
yoarSf he haa been eye^witnefs of many great changes, 
ha3 fe^xi the4eath of twogttrat minifters of ftate, 
has fecn that kingdom involved in war, ^without and! 
within. He was fcsuce fettled in Paris, but he \ra^ 
wltnefs to the birth of a l|mg, . who ùnpvSèà thofe 
that preceded him,, ia a timelwhen the <|àecn'g bar- 
rennefs caufed the king her huiband to defpair of 
ever having a foa tha|ifhobM fucceed him* 

During the courfe of lb. many years, he haihfeeit 
cities fievok, and return again to the Qb«dience of 
their ibvercigni princes of khe blopdmake war a* 
gai^ft. their king, and Queea Mary 4e.Medicts, wife, 
mother, i and mocfaer^in^law.Jto'ibme of the ^atefir 
kings in Europe^ die i» ex3e in Cologne* « 

He fpeaks frankly of the priiuses of Chjiftendoniii 
a«(iicxpiaisia.his feiltiments.with: libeity : He faith» 
tliQ £tr^cor i:QmmaaAsfainces,^e King of Spati» 
men, and the King of France fees men, and even 
Idbags obey his orders; he addst that the firft com» 
vmnà^ and.prayt^ the fceond^fises oft times snansef* 
^edl^d-than Jie commandcdy aadduup the tfairit éamt^ 
mands many hrare fioldtersv^and it^weHiiighvobeyttl 
Ii»f.)«rowarà:heada*: Thema^Nsars sia heàt w -atii^ 
mo^ i/kimf in ivl»t beiimt^ iigainft-tlK jMipe; 

i XJttV 3 

hi dìfcoùrfing'of the Entperot arid King of Spain", 
tie fays, that both of thein having provinces of fucfe 
v^ft qxtcht, they are not much' concerned at the lofles 
they fuitaiti.^ 

•Hfe ttetieved that England was mòre powerful than 
tte eitijrTre and Spain at fea ; he appcehendcd more 
the cottsi&la of the republic of Venice than their 
ar mg^ he magnifies what pfl^d in the wars of Can- 
dy, Which the Venetians fupported with fo much 
bravery againft the forces of the Ottoman empire : 
The Gerwefe with him are perfeft chemifts ; he 
fpeaks of the laft -plague, and laft war that this com- 
monwealth had been afSiéied with j he touches 
fmnething of Ae-late confpiracy againft the ftate fay 
R^iggi and Torne ; and to fliow that he underltood 
their hiftory, he fays f^mewhat of Vacherò and 

Th^tt wWt fee,- reader^ Ky (he pf<^efs of the work, 

. what this fe<5iret envoy of the OttomaaPorte thought 

of the o^r pritiicés of Italy, and thofe of the North ; 

and I have drawn his piéìare, becaufe thou mayeft 

underftand better wliat I give thee of him% 

Tim^ Arabian (fOr he dedaises himfelf in* his writ- 
iivgs to haitt been of: that nation.) having been taken 
adidfiviade a flave by the Chriftiaaa, was brought into 
SSdly/whereChe apf^d himfdf to kanóng $ he ftu^ 
died logic inliis capdirky, and appliedhkafelf mocJi 
tóMftory ; àe overeame ihem by fiiffevihg with pa« 
tinÉKethft) blows Jttf'àkanaAerv^ who ^ofcen beat him 
lMrgeiidBa«:oiBriagr.ta acquire' tho& ^lights whichthis 
ibErai9eiiad;ii(lt) iHod^^ttally» alter machikbvm^pe^ 
9fidmty(^*a«i Jbfig «àlc^ mims 



Uiizfidff to anderftand Gkeek ané Latin anthors; iie 
lad c^ntmcrce aftserwardsr^Arath the beft mafteray aski 
dinÒEig Uffi fojounsing in die Frenck court, he- joined 
experience to the knowledge he had acqunsd. ■ 

: He~expUrins him&lf neatly, and fpeaks of things 
with grent frankfijcfs i His ftyle ihows a greac libeitf^ 
of fpirit, and never paffion ; and if it appear that he 
^ccornmedates {limfeif to the fashion tof die court, 
one may fee that it is not out of defign to ple^fa^ 
but that he wifely conforms himfelf fometimea to the 
genius of nations; « « 

Thou wilt find in his letters wit and learning : If 
{omctibics he appears tart» it is to fbow his vivacity» 
not difoUige } and lie appeara all over fully inftfuét*- 
ed in andent and modern biftory : He is very re- 
ferved when he blames» and feems perfuaded whes 
he praifes : When he fpeaks to the great men of the 
Porte, hisftyle is very graven and he changes when 
he writes to .naeaner perfon« : He norer tetb news 
that he is not aiTured of, nor thinks of divining thing» 
àkat ièem obfcure to him. > 

He givea rare IcflTons when he writes erf the revo»- 
lutions'of Catalonia, the. kingdoms of Naples, Por«» 
tugal, and England, wliich happened i» our days, 
with ftraoge circumftanees» tennbte murders, aad «he 
death of a potent king, martyred by bisown fubje^ 
iq)on z fcaffoid before his own door.. . . - 

• He weighs much the Duke of Guife^e hardy re£l> 
ItttiQO 4^ going, to. Najdes .to fuccour the reyateid 
tberei and he reafons not as a barbarian^ but Iticelo 
»bk ijMeiimn and wife phib>fepheiSft i>n: ii» ti&iaiid 
tttiai'of ftate^ ^ be ahrayt difomcfe^ wttb iiixnif^ 

duMights': He^fpeaks foti;#biaie$ of ike cmelty:an4 
ppkniìy. of .àse^ TiidcS) ^fr*>&&fVfipknoe «f ^ie^iBifiù» 
fters of tthc Povte, smd upon • «he pvecipkated death . 
whid» motof iof tbeiSuhans^ Ba£i%' and Vifiers^are 
fanoed. t» fiiSer$ .but this ^kmg^age is only to hia 
iriiendà and.a»nfid<nt6« - . . 

tHowever, thoagh thefe letters he neither Greei^ 
SOT Latin, iior written by a Cbriftian, they contain 
nothifig of barbarous ; and though. the ignorant: be in 
great numbers amongd the Turks, there are^yet nieii 
of great nnderftanding that write the annalaof the 
Ottoman empita, though thsy ai% not eafily come by $ 
for their books not being .ffiiatei, they (czTct erer 
reach us. We may notwidiftanding believe, that a« 
mongft thÌ9 nation» that we term barbaroua, there are 
great and wife captains, good men^. and learned ^Op 
thors ; as we bare aniongft ns genorals -without coua 
dtt&, bypocrickal votaries, and ignorant fellows that 
pwtend to be maftcrs» 

To juftify what I affirm of the Tarics, let -us km 
confider their viékm-ie^ which have gained them fo 
maay kingdoms» their po^eir at fea, their es^aAnefii 
to' punifl) crtmesi and to rewatd merit*. • As for 
printing, they WQoldtievcr endure il-amon^ tbem^t 
A^'Grand Vifiof's judgmmt of it was r^narktiUe, 
which fbows rather their prudence thaia af^y effeA of 
their ignorance* A famous printe? of > Qolhindi by 
ieligion a Jew, cune to Cc^ilUoti^ppUu jbna^ng 
ps^efite J«ilh:<hitxi) trith dwaaci!» <)f all fcrtfiof 

Jhttom kiitmH '«riltk4«fign to.introdufeHBh 

|IPtiM%ìnt(!f >thae -g^eàt cttf ; a» fooit M the Vi&cr 
wà9 ififòttned of it, he caMed the Jew to ix haiig- 
e#9 ah A broke ìrH Ins tfi^nee, nnà mMons of €ha*< 
rafters #hich hehad' brought, declark>g^ft would-be 
a great cruelf'f , ttet one wran (hould^^ to enrich htm-» 
fclf, take the Ijread cut of the mouths* of eleten tho«« 
fand fcribes, who gained their' Itvingd at Cénftati* 
tfnople by their pens. 

* Penrfe, gentle reader, what I offir, without fear 
of tiring thyfelf, or being deceived. As Chtiftiafn 
àutìiors think of nothing oti^inarily, b«t of writing 
panegyrics in hoped of reward, we have reafon to be- 
fiere notato find all the truth in their works; iftfereft 
and paffion do often m«fce good princes pafsfof ty- 
rants, -and unjaft and cruel princes are fometiines 
transferred to pofterity for models of juftice and cle- 
fticncy. Thi^ occafibns hiftories, which iflue fron\ 
fb* corrupt a fource, to ferve like à pitdied field for 
modern winters, where the one and tfie other com» 
bat for the deftruftion of truth, the one falfely re-. 
perthig -what they have heard, and the other by as 
tedly répréfenting the things diey feem «^ witnefs. 
Moft princes wiU have tibeir altars, and- then it is no 
wonder if there are priefts found to facrifice to falfe-i' 
hood,' and idolaters to deface the ftatoe of trdth. 

Th^fiire is no general that will not always feem con* 
queror, and princes nevejr confefs their lofles, which 
occaBons a confuGon> and the anions of men do 
therrfyy become doubtfuK ' 

How^'many^tiifhea hare* we feeii both tile iMors 
TOiS vt!H]uiflied make bonfim fot ditd^ fiicoeite-7 
AnaVmoàr da^9 ^e haVelknoww the JftwHh wjoice, 

zfÀ the Spaniards and Germans fii%^heir Te^Deum^ 
for tbc fame thing» ' * *« ^ ^ -^ ^ 

As w£ are, parhapa, m>w left juft thati in ages 
pafti it is ckiffi^qltto write thi«tgs as they are, parti- 
cularly during the lives of princes, whofe hiftèry 
canitet be wi^ten without fear^^ nor the' truth feid 
withocte^ danger^ For ttiefe reafons) -w^e ou^ not to 
quft&ion the credit 0f oar Arabian, who ret}orts with 
Uberty what came to Iris knowledge 5 befidcs, he bc^ 
ing an univérfal enemy to Chriftianity, and a con- 
eealed one, neither difobllg^d or gained by any, and 
religioufly true to his prince, whom he adores as a 
diviniti^, k' Ifaiftiol; be imagined that he fays any thing 
for fear ^rfavottn"'* -- • 

' As théfe relations have been read with attention, 
^nd; diligently examined^ we may be aflured of ail 
exaAhiftoryy sibounding io^ eonfiderable events iSihé 
tW Mfttftfy being feparateid into JetterSi as the an- 
thbr wrote them^ the reader nbay read themwitHòut 
repining: If he will not acknowledge &e tranfla- 
tor's^atns, let him at Uaft receive the labotnrs of a 
dead man with civility, one that never dreamt hii 
memorials would be printed, and that ierved his ma- 
ficr faithfully. 

Thefe fentiments made him exa£kly follow that fen- 
tence of St. Auftin, found in the front of his works : 

Where love is» there is no labour ; and if there be labour» the 
labour is loved. 

-The trs^flator hath thought fit to retrench fome 
ceremonies and proud titles of the eaftern people ^ 
what is risprefented herci is in a familiar ^yle^ fuch 

[ xl ] 

96 the ancient Latins ufed in their writings to thcjt 
cónfulsy didators, and emperors themfelves ; and^ if 
the tranflt^tion be not elegant as the Arabici do not 
accufe the author^ feeing it is not pofiible to reach 
the force and beauty of the original. 

Haves moreover» fome refpeéì for the memory of 
this Mahooieun ;. for^ Uviyig iunknown, he was fafe 
from the infults of the great ones, fo that he mighl 
write truth without danger, which ordinarily is dif-» 
guifed by fear or avarice, having ilill reported the 
tranfaAions of Chridians with no lefs truth than elo* 

If whf^t I have faid cannot fatisfy the cutioiiSi er- 
pe£k the reft' of thefe letters, which will- be found 
fuU of great anions, profitable inftruftions, and good* 
morals. Thank God^ however, who raifes men that 
en^^ themfelves in vapq^i(hing ignoran<;(e andiidle- 
i}efs^ .And in rendenng jufttce to- Mahmut, a pair 
fiQn^.ilav^ for the intere A of his maftejr and Hie 
tf'uth^^have fome goodnefs for iht t'ranflator^ yfho^ 
being bofn free> f^knowkdges no mafter. bot-iGod» 
bis king, and his reafon- .. ;/ ^ . 


'-•*'. ^ 


.f>J ' -v. ' . • . ■" !*..,>/ 1 

. ■< - ■^ - ...... - / .....; .-' 

VOL. L , ; 

• ^. . . . • . 


' ' - - .- ' ■ » »•>: 

BOOK I. . . 

. ■' ". ...f!£.-. •'••:. i :. J •.. ■ .• i 

Litter . ,:"",,' r."''-P«mi* 

I«. jMabmvt^ an Arabku^ lad thfi Oima4 SigmorVViieft.i :.: 
. Slave, to Hafhadsrbafly, Chief .Treafurer toiftia. itfgh^' 
nefs-at ConfUntinopie, - • - " ^.' " X" 

df the arriini) of fttafanitt otHPaiai ; a deftf4]it]ett:é£ib« 
. place I faóa di%niftmoiit> wU mmaaet td^vjti^.mmiàgft 
thrCfariftiaot. > . • . .( . ' . 

II. To the fame H^ihadarbafff, - . - . '* 4 
' Of the liles of St. -Margaret. and Honoeat, taken by the : 

Spakiiarda; and of* the Archbiihop of Bolirdeaox* * 

III. To Damifli Mehemet» Baffa, .' . • ' 5 
Touching the Te Deum, and the rejoicings of «the.FccBch: '( ' 

fi>r the -vidfcory of Leucate. ^ ' «i 1..' In ; ' . > 
XV. Tolfouf, hisKinfinan, - . . U- ; ^ 7 

Ho exhorts him to love God, his celi^oB^iajaethe Grand ' ' 

V. To the Aga of the Janizaries, .# - . - • 8 

Of the taking of JBreda ; of Marquis Spinola^ he, ex- 
horts him to read hiilory. 

VI. To Mehemet, an Eunuch Page of the fiaitan iMother» xo 
He recommends to him hi* intercils at the Porte ; of a 

prodigy which happened in Germany ; and of an Eng^ 
Ufii Ihip. 
. VII. To thclnvinciblc ViGer Aicm, '- , > .-* ^ it 


Of the Queen of France's barrennefs ; of the court, the 
gnmis of the Fresch, and affairs of Afric. 

VIII. To Muzlu Rcit Effendi, the Chief SccreUry of the Ot- 

toman Empire, - - ^ - - x6 

Of hf« manoCT of living, wrd of the town of Paris, 

IX. To the Mufti^Princcof the Religion of the Turk*, i8 
Touching religion. 

X. To the Kaimacham, - - - - *« 

Of the piaure» of the King of France, Cardinal Richp 
lieu, and the Prince of Condc's fon. 

XI. Te Bedredin, Superior of the Conventi of the DerrifeiL 

of Cogni in Natòlia, - • ^^ • %^ 

Of the converfation he had with a Jefuit, touching the 
Mahometan religi<Mf. 
XIL^o Chiurgi Ifvhammet, Bafia, • «at 

Of the Queen of France's being with child. 
Xni.1^Carao««fcViiani»^ j - .. ♦ . -. . -->3. 

He 4fÉids;lUm dirai» ^li^utea; and i&i of him nec^fiàurlek 

XIV. T« William Vofp^, a Chriftiaor of AuiUlai - » ' 34 
TeioebiiigthrdeathQf^wifie^MtdoirthedefigQhe'h^ . 

Tof reti]7iqr>^tt»aeanx«*;of0unMlite#. - :v '^ 

XV. To Ibrahhn, that renounced the Chriftivi RsUglon^ . 38 
^ That one ihould not write faliitièi tónritingi<e%iflnu 

XVI.' tV) .Dich«EyHttffei% Bafia, * - - • ' ibid. 

Of the «verlaftittg wi^rs amongih CShrifliant; of Gnft«i)us 
King of Swedelazid, and Weimar*» vi^eAes. 
XVII. To Achftiet Jfeig, - . j - 4* 

Of luly ; of the Houfe of Sawoy ; and of the war which 
. . die Spaniards and French made in Piedmcmt. 
XVIH. W MnAapha, l^prbcr Aga, - ' -44 

Of the death of Marflial dc Crequi ; of magic, and of 
"^ the Fort of Breme* 

XIX. To Mttfiit Baffa, • - - 48 
Of Madam de Savoy ; the Cardinal de Valettc ; ofT"er- 

ceik, and of che Duke of Rohan. 

XX. To Dgnet Oglou, - -^ ' • 53 
Of his captivity at Palermo, and his employment* 

XXI. To the Kaimacham, - - j8 
• Of Picdznont ; and »f a confpiracy difcovered at Genoa, 

XXIf. To*thc AMe; - - - . ^ : 6» 

Of the iiege of FdnUnbà y «£• dar- Urince :of iCkmke ; 
' and of the lofs of- feveral Spaaiih veflcls* . i: . 
kXm« T»Afis»Ba£ra, - « ..• .1 64 

Of a ^diet hidld at SfocUute» when k was detcMiólcd 
to continue the war with Ocrmsasy^ and the FrcAch * 
defif n on St. Omers. - . ' 

XXIV. T© the Kaimacham, - , ' • ♦65 

Of the French annies; their progrefsf wd of • Cardinal 
Richlicu. - ■.'"." 

XXV^Wb^heflw», . r .. . . ♦ • •: d; 

Of the queen*! drawing near her time 1 of Caiimiff lakcn 
. • prUbner. ' - . ♦. ♦ r .x: 

XXVIiT#thtfi3iiiie, • * -. ' 69 

Of the King of PoluKf » témkhitilm Haagwy wè^^o 
many. ; - - «- ».«".. : . ...'J .lu .ij. .'.j-.i i m o I. .l-i 
. XXVif. To KerfcevRaflan, Bafia^ >. .*^ ?i ^^ :/ - - 70 
Of Anraradi'» ««ploioi^intfacifromlttra^of Peii»r A^iof 
the death of two great pcr(bw»gM» -'^ • -j^ 

XXVIli. TaibeKilwata», ' . «^ ijf - 73 

Of the birth of file- DMphifl.' '« 

XXIX. To the Capuin Baffa, ^ i« » |5 
Of a lea fight between^he Fnnchand Bpasiiidi. M.-T 

XXX. TotlMCH>taiiiBiitf% '■- ; - ' ' 7^ 
' Of the galleys of Malu. - -« 

BOOK U- ». 

LitTBR Page 

i. To the Captain Baffa, - '- - I \j% 

' '^ Mahmiit reproaches him'^ifh the intelligence he hctd 
with the Emperor of 'Germany's fecretary. 

II. To the fame, - - ' - - ' ' - 8» 

Of the galleys the Barbarians loft '* 

III. To the fame, ^ - , - * - 86 

He difcovers the means of furprifing Lorctto. 
IV". To thfc' kaimacham, • - - * 8^ 

He difcourfes of the minifters of folreign princes, and of 
the aifairs of Vallane and Loretto. 

3^. COI{Z£KT8» 

JbsT^KR Page 

V. To the dune» - • • ^» 

Xoocbìòg the fetttàg 9t Vhextj the «Id rencgado Durlu^ 

VI. To the fame, . - ^ - -, 95 
. ' Of the war of Piedmont] misfortunes, of the Hotfc of • 

Savoy; of the Dnke of Saatonjr ; of tho> taking of «BrU 
iac by the Duke of Weymar. 

VII. To the fame, - - '99 
Of the 0uke of Lofraio i zSain, of- GwrwskDy:, -Swe^e* 

land, and AUatia. 

VIII. To Melech Amet, . - 105 

• 'Ì Of ihe difil^race of Stfidjt Bey^ pmà of «aother adveiu ' 

. tiire. 

IX. To the lame, - . ^ . - X08 
. Of a particidar accident ^at happened to a fon» 

• JAÀccii at thè new* of his 6iihi^ 

X* To Eoguruli £min, Chcik, a Man of the Law, . . »/t xxz 
Of the king*8 goodnefs to a^ ancient father bf A £Ami]|% . / 
: that.^oòkl Deeds tiirs:ibldkr:in .hia old age,> &c. . 

XL To Cara Hali, a Phyfician, / 7 .-. .': XI4 

* : Of th»»inounuin8 of Sicily and Naples» which caii,fq|fh , . \ 

perpetual flames ; of the nature ^.tfiefe ftatneiy^aiié» 
of their eikA», ' ' ..v J . 

XII. TotheVenerahkMufli, &C. •; ., - * .», . *.- ; X17 
^ : On religion ; on fome of his fcruplcs^^and ttipchoyg, the 

Alcoran. .. i. ^. , o.. ,* > 

XIII. To the Kaimacham, - - X40 
Of a man that was fent as a fpy to the court of Rome 

by Cardinal RichliÀu'; and of vpther matters. 

XIV. To Egri Boinoa, the White Eunuch, .194. 
^ Touching the life of Henry IV. 

XV. To the Invincible Vificr Azeip,. . - - 13^* 
Mahmut*8 conference with Cardinal Richlieu, touching 

the affairs of Jerufalem. 
I^VI. To the fame, - . . - , 143. 

Of the Dauphin of France ; and the Sultan's voyage to 
XVII. fo Bekir BaiTa, Chief Treafurer to the Grand S^t- 

nior, -. . - - 144 

Of a pleafant and dangerous adventure which happei^d 
to Mahmut; and of the Jew Eliachim. 

ìatter ' • ^ ■ ' y^àgè 

XVIII. ToCarcoaof Vienna, - '"' ' ' '^4» 
Mahmut finvd» #ord,U)m lie 'has ìòft thè taorìcf lie fént 

him, and how. 

XIX. To D^ee Ogloii, '" - ' - 149 
A relation of the life <rf ffllfkabelr; and of a l^erfian 

prince. *• * '. ' 

XX. To Egri Boinou, an Eunuch, - - ~ ij^t* 
Remaim of thellfe of Henr^ the Great. 



i; To Muzlu, Reii Effendi, &c. - - 164 ' 

. Of AITam, bafla of Alters ; his death, and barharous fen- 
timents, in rcfpeA of his flaves» " 
II* To the Invincible Vifier Azem, at ihe Camj) under Ba- 

l>yloB,' ' - ' * - 165 

Of the memoirs which Mahmut gave to the Cardmal 
Richlieu on the liyei of illaftrious men. 

III. To JLùbano Abnfei Saad, an Egyptian Knight, 1 76 
What Cardinal Richlieu did at a ball. 

IV. To Mchemet, an Eunuch-Page, - 177. 
*Of the beginning of Mahmut*s ficknefs, and of the cruel- 
ty of Amurath. 

V. To Zelim of Rhodes, Captain of a Galley, x8i 

TTiat a man is parted exprcfsly from Leghorn to aftaflx- 
nate hfm ar Conftanlinople. 

VI. To the Invincible Vifier Azcm, &c. - 183 
• Of the flcge of Babylon. 

VII. To the fame, - - itó 
*' \)f Brifac, Piedmont, Italyj and Srandenbargh. 

VJII. To Bedredin, Superior of the Dervifes in Natòlia, 190 

Of his ilcknefs. 
IXi To Oucoumichc, his Mother, at Scios, • * 1 91 

X. To Pefteli Hali, his Brother, * * 1^%^ 

Ofiih'xs ficknefs. 
XI: To Bgnet O|lou, ^^ - , X94 

Of his ilcknefs, in a particular ftyle. 

idvi comrEVTs. 

XIL To tkc Kaimacham, • • t^ 

He difcoturje» of the dexterity of the dvaif Oùnia ; and 

of the ambaflador of Venice's folicitatieos at ctiirt, to 
induce the king to make war with the Turks. 
XIIL Tq Ifouf, his Kinfman, - - ftoo 

He fpeaks of his ficknefs; entreats him to give alms for 
his recovery, and to pray to God for him. 
XrV. To the Invincible Vifier Asem, ^c - aoi 

A relation of his ficknefs, and of the death of the X)uke 
of Weymar. 

XV. To the Kaimacham, • - a 04 
Of his ficknefs and cure; of^-Germany and Italy; axwi«f 

a fea fight between the Dutch and Freoch* 

XVI. To Dgnet Oglou, ., - . - « ao6 
Of his perfe(S): cure ; and. of friendfbip. 

X VU. To AJonai, a Je%, ^t Genoa, • %o^ 

He blames him for fending falfe news about the Genoefes 
to the Porte. / 

XVIII. To the Kalmach^ia^ ....?- - *!' 
Of Turin ; of the new iavrated bttUe;ts; ef the affairs of 

Italy, and Spanifli flcetftliat was loft, 

XIX. To Dgnet Oglou, - - . 414 
Of. M»hmut*s amours with a bAutifuI Greek. 

XX. To the Invincible Vifier Azem, ,- 222 
Of a Chiaus from the Porte, who came to Paris; and . 

touching the affairs of Pcrfia. 

XXI. To Cara Hali, the Phyfician, - . . 424 
He gives him an account of his recoYery ; of the violent 

frofts at Paris, and auftcrity of the Cscpuchins. 

XXII. To the Kaimacham, - - , W^ 
Of the tr©nblc6 in Spain, Catalonia, and Portugal ; and 

a defcription of the revoltin Barcelona. 

XXIII. To Dgnet Oglou, - - ■ aj2 
I^etter of confolation on the fire at Gonfiaixtinople» 

XXI V^ To the Captain Baffa.of the Sea, - 237 

Of the veffels of Afric taken by the Chriftians ; a«d of 
the Knight8 of Malta. 

XXV. To the. Invincible Vifier Azem, . - .- s^t 

A defcription of the revolution of PortugaL 

Ijft'TTER ^ -^ge 

XXV!. To EDgumUEmir Glwiki *....' ^ ^j* 

Of thè deitìi of »A«nfrath IV. ; • of tht new fakatt Ibra- 
him } and of the affitirs of the feraglio. 

. . . B O O K IV. 

Letter ' " Page 

Ì. To the Venerable Mufti, &c. - -" 2^4 

Of Cafainal Richlicu, his craft and policy. 
n. To the Reis Effendi,' &c. - - 256 

Of* a confpiracy difcovered at Paris againft Cardinal 
in. To the Kaimacham, - - .237 

Of Jtriius Mazarini, and his negotiation in Savoy, 
IV. To Dgnet Oglou, . t " *^ 

A particular defcription 'of the greatnefs of the Spaniih 
. V- To the Invincible Vifier Azem, . J . ' 26j 

Of the J)attlc of Sedin ; ot Count fioiffoh's death, and 
confpiracy agalnifc the cardinal. 

VI. To Solyman, his Coufin, - , - ' 269 

Mahmut comptains of liis perfidloulhefs. ". ' ' 

VII. To Dgnet Oglou, - '' * j,*" ' ,72 
Againft the iniMellty and inconftancy oftlic beautiful Greek. ' 

VMI. To Carcoa at Vienna, • - 276 

He informs him of the receipt of his letters, with the 
money, and balm of Mecca. 
13^. To Berber Muftapha, Ag", &c. - - a'77 

Of the Duke of Lorrafn ; the lofs of his country ; and 
of the King Of Francc'b irjdignation. ' 
.X. To Bedircdin, Suptrio-- of the Dervifes, &:c. , - iiz 

On hh own age, and ai a- man- that lived 12.9 years. 
, kl. To the Redoubtable Vifie.- Azem, - 22$ 

On th<« life and death of General Bannicr ; and imprifoi?- 
ttient of Don Duartus, brother to the new King of 
I*orttigal. - 
XTI. To the Kaimacham, - - 48.7 

*: Of the parliament of Pans ; and &£&irs of Catalonia. ' * "" 
XIII. To the VcBcwible Mufti, fitc. - apo 


Of Cardinal Richlieu, and calumnies publiflied agaioft ^ 
him, touching hh deiiga of making himfelf patriarch 
of France. 

XIV. To Oucoumiche, his Mother, &c. - .29» 
X.etter of confolation, on the death of her fecond huf« 

band ; that the Counted of SoifTons has greater caufe 
ef trouble for the death of her fon. 

XV. To the Grand Signior's Chief Trcafurer, ... 497 
Of the difgrace of the Archbiihop of Bouideauz. 

XVI. To the Kaimacham, - - 2^ 
On the imprirpmnent of Count Alile, apprehended at 

Turin, by Richlicu's order. , 

XVII. To the Reis Effendi, ... 30X 
Of a SpaniArd found dead in Paris, who had ia his 

pocket a catalogue of all the great Lords, whom Car- 
dinal Richlieu had caufcd to be deilroyed. 

XVIII. To WUUam Vofpcl, - - 30» 
Of his retirement from the world s on thieves, and the 

inyention of keys. # 

XIX. to the Venerable Mufti, - - 306 
Of Cardinal Richlieu, and what he did in rcfpcd of a 

General of Dervifes, and of the great U'iws brought him. 

XX. To the Kainucham,. - . - 309 
Of the books of Gcber ; and of chemiftry. 

XXI. to Mehemet, an Eunuch Page, - 316 
What Cardinal Richlieu did againil the. Queen of France, 

and of his ambition. 
XXlf. To the Kaimacham, - - 318 

Of Don Sebailian, King of Portugal, who died ia Afric; 
and of him that took on him that name. 

XXIII. To the Mufti, - - - 313 
Of a mule laden with gold, which Cardinal Richb'eu fent 

to an unknown perfon in a wood. 

XXIV. To Berber Muftapha, Aga, - - 324 
Defcription of duels ; of a bill of defiance which the Duke 

de* Mediai Celi fent to Don Juan of Braganza, the new 
King of Portugal. 
XlXV. Tjo the Invincible Vifier Azem, 309 

Of anew coiifpiracy difcovercd . at Liibon, ^g^inftthe 
new King of Portugal. v * ^ 




^ BOOK I. 

^ETTER I.~Mahm^ut the Jrahtan^ and Vtlejl of the 
Grand Signior's Staves, to Hasnadarbassy, Chief 
Treafurer to his Highnefs at Conflantin^Ie, 

X HATE at length finiflicd my journey, after one hundred 
and forty days march,- arriving at Paris the 4th of this 
prefent moon, according to the Chriftians ftyle. I made 
no ftay in Hungary, yet (bjoumed one-and-fbrty days at 
Vienna, "wliere I obferved all the motions of that court", 
according as I was ordered ; of which I fhall not now 
fpeak, having given a full account to the ever invincible 
Vifier Arem. Being but newly arrived, I fcarce know 
anjrbody, and am as little known myfdf. I have fuffer- 
ed my hair to grow a little below my ears ; and as to my 
lodging, it is in the houfe of an old Fleming, where 
my njpm is fo fmall,* that jealoufy itfelf can fcarce enter. 
And becaufe I will have no enemy near me, I will there- 
fore admit of no fervant. 

Being of low dature, of an ill-favoured countenance» 
ill fhaped, and by nature not given to talkativcnefs, I 
fhall the better conceal myfelf. Inftead of my name» 
Mahmut the Arabian; I have taken on me that of Txtuf 

F0I.I. . A 


tke Moldavian ; and with a little caiTock of black ferge» 
which is the habit I have chofen, I make two figures» 
being in heart what I ought to be, but outwardly, and 
in appearance, what I never intend. 

Carcoa at Vienna furni(hes me with bread and water, 
f applying me with jufl enough to live, and I defire no 
more. The eggs here are dearer than pullets with you. 
It is to him that I will addrefs my letters. 

£h*achim the Jew came to fee me, who feems ta be 
fufficiently informed of what pafles in the world, and 
will be an ufeful man to me : Vet I will never truft him 
more than I need* Altliough I have a difpenfation from 
the Mufti for lying, and falfe oaths which I (hall be 
obliged to make, yet I have ftill fome qualms on my 
mind. However, our fovereign muft be ferved, and I 
can commit no fm as long as this is my fole end. As 
for the intelligence which I ihall fend, none fliall come 
from me but i<vhat is |rue, unlefs I be firft deceived .my- 

It win be hard for me to mention any^thing confiderà 
4d>le of a city which is not to be viewed in one day', I 
Ikaving been there but feven. Jt it peopled like the bor- 
ders of the fea with iand, the inhabitants lodging to the 
ytry cock-lofts, and houfes are built on the bridges. 

This great city is divided by a river, and both parts 
o{ it are joined by a great bridge of ftone, well built 
and very (lately. In the midft of it is feen an horfc of 
hrafs, with the ftatue of Henry IV. which beftrides £t ; 
whofe heroic anions have juftly fomamed him The 
Great ; and he feems ftill to command this capital of the 
kingdom. The other bridges, being full of houfes, are 
Hot feen i appearing as if they had been made for the 
city^ not the river. 

The king's palace is an ancient building, yet retains a 


certain majefty, which denotes the grandeur of Jtamafter: 
within it appears a defart, for the court is always abroad^ 
or in the army. 

A churchman, termed at Rome a Cardinal, is the prin* 
cipal minifter of fiate ; his name is Armand du Pleffia» 
Cardinal of Richlieu. He is efteemed a great politician» 
a man of wit and adion, and every way fitted for th( 
, place he holds. 

A^xhe people make vows to heaven, that their king 
may become a father ; for the queen has been barreo 
thefc many years. 

I go into the churches aa a Chriftian ; and when I 
feem attentive to their myfleries, I hold our facred Alco» 
ran In my hands, addrefllng my prayers to our holy Pro* 
phet ; and thus behaving myfelf, I give no pifence. I 
avoid difputes, mind my own concerns, and do nothing 
which may endanger my falvation. 

Preferve thy health, and exped to hear from me 9$ 
oft as the intereft of our great and mighty monarch re- 
quires, who is the mailer of my life and aSeóUons. 

1 make thee no prefent of my fervices, for they be dp» 
voted to that lord whofe flaye thou art, as well as .!• 
The letters I write for the future, (hall be dircéled to 
the minifters of the Divan» 

Live with the piety of a good Muflulman, and the 
prudence of an able minifter, and preferve the treafure 
as thine own heart, which (thou knoweft) is the laft ez^ 

Parii, 1 1th of the 9th Moon, of the Year 11^37, 
according to the Chriilian ftjfle. ' mi 

A Z 


II.— To the fame Hasnadarbassy. 

1 HAD too good an opinion of myfclf, and did not fuf- 
Hciently confider to whom I wrotc^ when I attempted, 
in fo little a time, to give thee an account of thè court 
t>f France, and how this king Kvcs. An old Arabian^ 
was wont to fajjr, ** To have a perfcd knowledge of 
things, we muft know them more than once, and forget 
them thrice, to the end that learning them a fourth time 
they may become pcrfedly our own.'* This will inftnift 
me how to write to my friends hereafter ; not as I under- 
stand affairs, but as they ought to be underftood ; for, 
lattee well done, h better than twice ill done. 
• t think I may fay, the Spaniards want ground them- 
selves, by taking an handfnl from others. Two-and- 
twenty of their galleys, with feme other fmall veflels, 
have taken two fmall iflands, named St. Margaret's and 
iSt. Mono'rat's, which lie. over againft Provence, and arc 
barren and unprofitable places, and will ferve to little 
purpofe unlefs for ports ; and it is alfo a qucftion, how 
iong they wiH bold them. 

The war betwixt thefe two' nations is 'like to conti- 
Kwe, cfpecially from the death of the two Italian princes, 
Viftor Amade, Duke of Savoy, and Charles Gonzague, 
Sake of Mantua. , 

I- believe it an effe£t of Providence, that thefe two na- 
tions know not their own intcreft, or knowing it, negleA 
It. Heaven is more kind to us ; for, as our empire 
tranfcends all others in.ftrength aod greatnefs» fo it doet 
in unity and concord; by. which means, it is in our 
power to make war, or Ike in peace. The Chriftians 
never confider the advantage they lofe,.and the good 
they may acquire, by attacking of us, whom they yet 
bate, and treat as Barbarians* 

Booifr !• • A Sf T AT PARIS. J^ 

The Ar<:hlùftiop of Bourdeaux is at prefeatgencral^tff 
tb« Fr«Dc; forces; who» thofogb a prkft, is yet 
permitted to turn torpatiliQ a;iid foldier» For my part^ I 
underftand not how a prelate of hù rank can for(ake hit 
fiock, his altar, and his fuaélion» if what the.Chnftiam 
fay be true : but that is nothing to uS ; and the King o^ 
France being fo enlightened a prìnce, and employii^ 
him as he does» he mu& needs be a good fearaaa and 

' To fay no more in this matter | ^* for princcB| of ¥^iat 
Fel^ion foeverthey be, are always fecred, and bft^ 
approachcdi but with ref^ed^i feeing their doiiigs lie above- 
the reach of a common capacity.*' 

I woodd&ia Ikear of the Xkand Sigaior's hcdih t for 
when h< isr weH, ail the world it fo to me, iMid without 
ìàm I am nothing. I wiU not write fofopn to the Grand 
Vifier, being defiroiu to wr^e what pafl^ here with more 

I am w this plaoe like a man loft ia confnfion i for 
this town feems rather a province than a city. All is 
hmrry and noife» every body braihing aboat after adUoo* 
The men, for the moft part, are for martial exploits, ei*- 
tber at fea or land ; and as to the women» they are not 
idle» employing themfelves» as becomes them» either ia 
the (hops or kitchens ; yet ttey take more care to ihow 
themfelves» than ours do to hide themfdves. Do thott 
be careful pf thy health» for I jfhall never be miferable» 
having thee to my friend. 
Parii, ajth of the loth Moon, of the Year 1637. 

fll. — To Darkish Mehemet» Bqffà. 

1 HAvi been at a ceremony which I am willing to fee 
«ften» to ^ive an account of it in my letters. It is the 



T&Deunit which Chriftian princes caufe to he fung in 
HieSr churches on the gaimng any conilderahle advan- 
tage over their eDemics ; which Te Deum is an anthem 
emnpoied hy two of their faints, to wit, Amhrofe and 
Anftin. When the French heat the Spaniards they fing 
^e Te Deuxn ; add when thefe vanqoifh their enemies 
tiicy do the fame. Thefe two nations do the duty of the 
MufTulmans, in deftroying one another ; and, when this 
is done, they give God thanks for the evil they have 
coounitted. When<?e we may judge of the vnfdom and 
piety of the Mahometans, amongft whom there is feldom 
^n an open waf; and if it (hou!d happen ft is genersjly 

The rejoicing of the French proceeds hence : The Spa- 
niards had'bèfìeged Leucate, a fmaU pentnfula ia Langue- 
doc, which is hilt four leagues round, with two ports, where 
a few galleys and four fmall vefiek may anchor in j&fety. 
The place was attacked hy the Spaniards with much heat» 
but was afterwards given over with as great fofs ; the af- 
failants heing obliged to make a retreat, not unlike a 
(hameful ftight, quitted their baggage, their arms, and 
all their provifion. 

Count Serbellon offered at fhrft to Barris, who com- 
«"manded the place, a great fum of money, which was to 
be attended with a conftaot penfion } which refufed, th^^ 
were neceffitated to betake jthemfclves to force; by which) 
in (hort, the Spaniards Were entirely defeated. Ser^llon 
withdrew towards Perpignan, with the Duke of Car- 
donn's (on, \^ho waB viceroy of Catalonia. He loft viHl 
hia- tents, his plate> »)d thè money dvfigned far payment 
■ of the army : and, I will fay yet more, that he has loft 
the reputation of a good captain and valiant fbldiér, un* 
tir he can recover an opportunity to fight and -wiqiùih. 
This vidory muft have been of confequence» and ^cr)i 

Book I. A srr at faris. f 

glorious» feeing the king afiifteà in perfon» toj^ther with 
the queen y two cardinals, the council of fiate» and that 
of the finances, and that which they call here the Courts 
Sovereign, which are a company of men chofcn to yxdgc 
others. Befides thefe, there was an innumerable concourfe 
of people» who teftified their joy for the advantage gained 
by their king, notwithftanding it be at the coH of the» 
brethren of the fame religion» 

Live happily, and conferve thy honour as thy U(e# 

Paris, 35th of the loth Moon, of thft Year 1637* 

rV.— 7a IsouF» Wr Kin/man, 

1 TSL& thee I live» and am wdL I have received uq 
news from thee ; perhaps thou thoughteft me dead. I 
ialute thee firft. with my letters, though thou oughted 
to have begun* If thou art afhamed of my kindred» ac« 
cufe thy parents» by whom thou art become of the lame 
fiimily ; but be not ungrateful to them» nor forgetful of the 
good thou hali received from me* Thou (halt now know 
where I am» and ought to ilay» and maycft azifwer me if 
thou wilt« . Believe in the mean time the counfel I give 
thee» although thou doft not demand it. Be devout inr 
thy rdigioh without hypocriTy» and remyember there id na 
more Gods but One ; as alfo» that the favourite and fent 
of God is Mahomet his Prophet. After that, love thy 
mafler» without dcfiring any thing more than the execu- 
tion of his pleafure. Embrace thy father as from me» 
and give thy mother a kifs, falutbg her as my fiAer and 
friend, which is the moil endearing title that antiquity 
could invent for perfons who had the fame fentiments of 
aifeétion* Live happily» and conferve thy chaftity. 
^ Farif, ftjtli of the loth Moon, of the. Year i637« 

à 4 


V.~7i tie Aga o/tie Janlfcarieì. 

1 SHALL give thee fome plc^furc in telling thee, that 
«he Chriftians lofe caficr than they acquire. It (eems, 
the Marquis Ambrofe Spinola^ whom all the world took 
for a great captain, has loft much of his reputation ; fee- 
ing tliat a place is loft in eleven weeks which he had for- 
merly befieged eleven months, and where he had expend* 
cd eleven ijiillions. If thefe circumftances are true, they 
are very extraordinary. However, he (haU continue a 
great captain in my opinion ; and it is ordinary enough 
to fee that loft in a little time, hy the cowardice of one, 
which has not 4)een acquired in a great while by the va- 
lour of a whole army. 

The Prince of Orange hath taken Breda, a place of 
great importance, which had been fiirrendcred twelve 
years and three montiis fince to the faid Spinola, who 
commanded the army of Spain. This coirqueft is great ; 
for it was the general opinion the place could not be ta- 
ken but by famine ; yet hath it been conftrained to yield ^ 
by the continual fire and valour of the befiegers. 

Had not the Hollanders become mafters of this place, 
fliey had been, as it were, blocked up on the fide of 
Brabant, and had the enemy always at their gates; 
whereas now they are more at large. We ought to re- 
joice rather at their acquifitions than thofe of the Spa- 
niards, with whom we never had peace. 

This place is fortified vrith much regularity. It hath 
fifteen baftions^ befides fome little forts on the moat fide. 
There are five horn- works without. The place is confi- 
derable for its greatnefs. It contains 5000 houfes, wjth 
great gardens ; and there are three principal gates. 
" I mention thefe particulars, becaufe thou art a man of 
war. Receive my letter kindly 5 believe me thy friend, 

Book I. ▲ srr AT Pi^Ris. 9. 

and do not doubt of my fidelity. If thoa wHt |idd to 
thy valour by new merity trhich will helgbten the conft* 
deration men have for thee, I will teach the« a fectfti 
which will not be very expenfive, but very delightfiiL 
Read at times the hidories of other?, and particular^ 
thofe of the greatest and moft fortunate, princes» an4 
their captains. Imitate rather the wife» than thofe whf 
have only figoaliztd themfelves by their valour. To coo- 
clud^f be converfant in hiftories, but choofe alwap the 
beft» I mean fuch as cannot be fufpedtd for lies. Thott 
canii not fail of goad books both Greek and Arabic, 
which are tranHated into the Turkiih and Perfian tongues. 
Thou wilt learn to be wife by the folly of others, and 
wile become yet more prudent, by obferving the hge 
<0ndu6t of fuch who performed great anions : Above all 
things, never negle^ to make ferlpus refiedions upon the 
leafl; «vents. It happens fometimes, that paflkges arc 
found in books that feem of no confequence, which may 
yet be of ufe in important occafions, for the clearing of 
difficulties r andi for example, leam this from a great 
king, Henry IV. who conquered his kingdom by the 
dint of his fword* 

I will finiih with a worthy faying of Marquis Spino- 
la's, which, I think, is to the purpofe : he faith, " That 
a captain's fword muft be tied to his heart, his heart fix- 
ed to his head, and conduéled by his judgmeut ;" which 
ought particularly to be formed by the reading of hif. 
tories. Love me as ^luch as I cileem thee, and thoi»» 
wilt never love me enough. 

Farisi s5^Qf th« xoth Moon, e£ the year x637« 

• A* 


VI.— TV Mehb^èt» PagC'Eunucb to the Sultan- Mother, 

X Rov faSift fpent fourteen yean in the Seraglio, and, to 
thy unhappinefs, always been in the fervice of women ; 
ferve now a man, who is certainly fomewhat more than a 
Vnfman. Thou knoweft, the confidence we have in each 
bther is afrivedto that degree, as to dlfcover our fil- 
ings to each other, and to fuffer them. Seeing I am at 
prefect for off, and by confequencc the more expofed to 
critics amd ill officesi do not forget the interefts of thy 
friend ; watch day and night for the advantage of my 
lift. Obferve, fearch, and endeavour to penetrate what 
people difdourfe of me, and what is faid concerning me 
at cou^t. Our great emperor fent me hitherto obferve 
what pafles here, and render him an account. I know I 
am where I ought to pra6iife what I am commanded to 
do, but I do not yet know whether I (hall return to the 
place where I would willingly end my days. Moft things 
are done on that fide, but they are not/ all equally per- 
formed. I have therefore more juft reafon to apprehend, 
that all men do know that I fhall acquit myfelf with fi- 
delity of the orders I have received* Confider how far 
his unhappinefs doth extend, who ferves another who^is 
mailer of fo many miUions of fubjedts. 

I will inform thee of two things, whereof thou ^alt 
tell the firft to the Baffa of the Sea, and the other to the 
Mufti^s vicar. We are told, that the King of England 
hath fet forth a veflel upon the'Britifh ocean; of fuch pro- 
digies greatnefs, that it eacc^eds all others, as well in 
force" as Wlnefs.. it i» arnftd with 120 bri^s guns,, it 
-dmws, unrigged, feventeen feet of water, and its bulk h 
110D tona. It is reported, that it cofl two mfflions of . 
piaftcrs» and, 4» if it were the king of all other fhips, it 
ircalled The Sovereign» ^Tbc fecend news ^, a prodigy 

Book L A 8Pr AT PAais. m» 

that happtncd in Upper Saxony, which finds hut a little 
credit with the wife, but is eafily believed by the wornc» 
and the common peo}de» 

They fay, that at Drefdeo one of the Duke of Sax- 
<Miy*8 courtiers having cut. a piece of boiled beef, there-, 
iffued fo much blood out of it, that the dedor't taUc, 
was wholly covered with it, which extremely troubled thi» 
prince, looking upon the adventure a» a prefiige of ik- 
mine and war. Let jne hear often from thee, and of ou** 
friend* ; but, make no confidence to any of that whkh 
ia betwixt us. Thou (halt learn from me fecrets of great, 
importance, provided thou be ^thful and difcreet, God 
grant thee in an inftarit, the good which I (hall wifh to 
acquire in my whole life.. 
• Paris, 15th of the irth Moon, of the Year 1637. 

VII. — Tq the Invincible Vtjttr Azem; 

Deiinc thou haft acquired the knowledge of things pre*- 
fftnt» by thy prudence and rare underilanding, and haiL 
defired me to inform thee of thofie things which fhails 
haj^en in the places whither thou hait fent mc; I will, 
endeavour to penetrate into affiiir» the.moft fecret, to the 
end that nothing in this world ma]^* be hid£rom thee. 

At prefent, there are but few aélioni in Chriftendonh 
which deCerve to be reported; and thou art fufiScienUy 
loBru^d in the affidrs of France, and touchiag.the per- 
fon. of her king. I expf& to inform thee of eveotti^hichf 
at the fame time, may divert thee» and iaftruA thee* - 
This prince ia calledHenry ^e Jufl.; he cannot bexall» 
** ed the Happy^ for having as yet no fon to {ucceed»himf. 
there will be always occafions of trouUe in. his kingdom ;. 
norls tl^rf any hopes that the queen may prove «ithi 


chMi hf rettfon of her long barrennefs. If the king 
wUl Fcfolve to be divorced from her» and take another, it 
cannot be effeéled without Rome ; and Rome, the Mufti» 
and all their priefts, will, according to their ufual man- 
ner, raife fo many difficulties, and be fo long before they 
determine, that it will be a hard matter to extort from 
them that confent, which the laws of the ChrifUans ren» 
der neceflary for the dtflblving a firft marriage. Certain» 
Ij this ilavery» which doth thus fubjeét the Chriftiaa 
princes, is hard ; but it is a point of their law, whick- 
being of no importance to thee,. I will trouble thee no 
more with it. This defef! of a fucceflbr in the King o£ 
France, is of great advantage to the Spaniards ; and one 
would think heaven had created this nation to be enemies 
tQ the French. It feems moreover, there i» a fecret vio- 
lence which entertains an antipathy betwixt the two na- 
tions ; which enforces a belief, <* that there can never be 
a folid peace betwixt them." 

Thou haft already underftocd from thofe I writ to, and- 
who dare hide nothing from thee, what hath happened^ 
"here during the fraall time of my fojourning in thefe quar- 
ters, I win not repeat little things-: the greatnHs of thy 
genius, and the eminency of thy employment, have put 
thee far above every thing that is not extraordinary, that, 
we ought to inform thee of nothing but tranfcending 

I will not: entertain thee with the taking of the old 
town of Sally, nor of the difordcrs in the new. Thou wilt 
have^med more fwiftly from the coafts of Africa, ad-» 
^ces of the hoflile aéts which the £ng4i(h have commit- 
-ted *rjth their (hips of war agaihft that city, which the 
]^ng*^f Morocco protefts. 

The attempt was great, . and is difcourfed of here as a ^ 
liardy enterprife. The. vaftnefs of thy uaderftanding will, 
eafilj judge of. the confequencc». 

Book I. A srr at takis* tj^ 

Tbcy fay here, that the King of France has written io 
Koiac, that he will wiUingiy refohe to make a loag cef* 
Nation of ùma with his enemiess If that happensi, this 
repc^e w31 ferve bat to increafe the forces of both fides, 
which may hereafter render the war more cruel. In the 
mean thne, it is thought they defign a general peace ^ 
but time will difcover to the politicians what we cannot 
at prefent divine* 

This court is great and magnificent ; it ft ays not long 
in a place, and is very feldom at Paris ; being in the- camp 
amongft the armies, or £qf pleafure in the country^ . ' 

The genius of the courtiers is different, but they have 
an equal inclination for two things vety oppofite, waf 
and loTC ; and apply thcmfelves to both with much con-^ 

The religion which they call Proteftant, and which ha8< 
been the occafion of fo much difturbance to the kingdom,, 
is now low, by the forrender of RocheUe, which was, ar 
thou knoweft, the principal bulwark of thofe of that. 

It feems this king will imitate our mighty and formida» 
blc emperors, and will regulate his conduftby thine, i»s 
Bot fuffering within his ftate two religions which are op<*^ 

The kingdom is, notwithftanding, as yet fuH of trouble» 
Cardinal Richlteu (who holds the helm of affairs in France» 
as thou dire^eft that of the empire of the world) feems,, 
as may be faid, in the midfl. of a tempeft, and hath rea- 
fon enough to appreliend danger ; for there -arel^ infi- 
nite number of people, who follow the ftandards of Lu- 
ther and Calvin, who have no other thoughts but of his 
ruin. '. * 

In the mean time, the power of France feems mighty • 
• great, and it is to be apprehended/ it tnay in time aug- 
meat, infinitely. • "* 


. Thou knoweft, invincible Vifier» wkaX the ancient Gauls 
did in old time. They were called GsiUo-graecians ; for 
having overrun Italy and lacked Rome» they, fettled in 
the middle of Alia» and could not be ovcitome hut by. 
the Romans ; becaufe the heavens had ordained» that the 
Romans ihould fubjugate all nations* But now that thefe 
Gauls are no more» and there are no more of thefe brave 
Romans, we muft pray the infinite goodnefs of the Moft 
High, that the power of thefe modem Gauls may be li- 
mited. If the French,, however, would do what a Spa- 
niard, who fled from the paffion of Philip II. counfelled 
Henry IV. their king, which was, to fet himfelf right 
virith Rome, to have a great power at fea, and a council 
compoiied of wife, fecret, and faithful men ; by that, 
means, he might one day, perhaps, equal the ancient^ 
Romans. I think, he that gave this advice was named 
Antonio Perez. 

I obferve every thing with care, but (hall obferve them 
nearer for the future», It appears to me,, that the geoiust 
of this nation is to aggrandize itfelf, and extend its hmits*^ 

The French have a common £iying, that kii^s having 
nothing above them that may limit them, God hath given 
the empire of the earth, to the ftrongeft. They add„ 
that Adam left no kingdoms to his children, but that 
they made diem for themfelves. They-gloi^ in certain 
prophecies, vdiich promife them the empire of the world.. 
In relating this, I tcU what they (ajf not. what ought to, 
happen. They entertain here the fame hatred for us, as. 
Giberto, when our power » formidable ; but, wife men, 
who have knowledge of our hiftory, fpeak with more 
admiration of the Ottoman, empire,^ than of that of the 
Romaas ; and if thefe laft were reftored by the civil vrars. 
which tore them in pieces, the other will increafe and 
maintain itfelf, by the great precautions ufed to hinder 
ihem, and by the union of their forces. 

Book'L A srr AT fae»; 25 

Hott knoweft more of the extent of that city of Pa* 
ris, thaa I can tell thee. It appears to me great» and 
fuU of people ; but Conftantinople ia yet greater and 
more populous. 

Thoa wilt pardon me after all, i^I make not« certain 
judgment of a nation, which I do not yet well compre-* 
hend* However» I ^ill aiTure thee, the French are no 
fook» and» I believe» never were. They do not love 
novelty through kvity» but for rcafons of fiate ; and 
when they are inconftant» it is not to do ill» but to ac- 
quire good. They are ba{)py and unfortunate in wars» 
like others ; but what is confiderabk» they. do not coin*^ 
bat their enemies becaufe they hate them» but in obedi* 
enee to their prince» whkh occafions the great difc^h'na 
which is in their armies. And what feems worthy of re- 
fieétiòn is» that they love their king by inclinatk>n i and 
this love produces in them» that which our attachment txx 
the precepts o£ the. law ^es in the hearts o£ the befl 
Turks. I afe this comparifon» which I learned froar 
tiftee» who art the in the world» from whoib 
mouth I have heard» asirom fin oracle^ ** That it is not 
much material -whether fubjeds love theif mailer by iik 
clination or fear» provided they always fùthfully ferve 
him» and are always humble." 

If ever it happen I am difcovered» thou wilt do me a 
great honoiu: toilet me know» if I ought to avow myfelf ^ 
an agent from the Sublime Porte ; or whether I ought to* 
die without cOnfeilif^ any thing. . 
' I ead with my head in the dufk^ without ever^eafiug 
ta fup^oate the Moft High» that he vnll ihower his .coo»< 
tkmed hàppineis .i;^n thee and the empire.. 

Paris, 15th of' the itth Mobn, of the t'èai 1637,. 


jé irErnss unuTTEv Br VbL L 

VITI. — To MvzLv Riis Effendi, Prlncìpaì S^retarf 
of the Ottoman Empire, 

JL HIS is the fecond letter which I have vv^ittca ta tbec- 
M7 dtfpatches hitheHo have not been filled with things 
of great importance^ by reafon I have not ytt had time 
to learn them* . I wifh greatly to write what may ple^e 
thee. Receive therefore what I offer kindly* ^*4 t>c per^ 
&aded» that I fear thy ceofiucly a» mock as if J did de-^ 
ferve them. 

I live here accondiag to the inftni6Uons ip^'hich werr 
given me, and live eafy caough. The country is good 
amd &t, the men good companiona^ aie frank, add £eens^ 
difcreet. . , 

I have not a« yet amy acquaintance with the yfi^tn^ 
and yet il is neceffary I find means tO' introduce royfelf 
into their companies. It is a kx that will not pardon^ 
when they think themOelves negleéUd. Xl^y arc proper, 
to difcover things one would, know^ and to (ay them whea 
one would have . them publiihed ; and likewifei they a>^ 
much penetrate into the feerets of hearts», ds the moii. re-- 
fined and fpintualefl couiticrs :. Further» there ^e manyipf 
them that can conceal nothing, but what they jlo not kncyw. 

1 frequent not the Monks, but when Beceffitated. If 
I fee them, it i» to feem devout, upon defign of being 
introduced by theia into the houle of a cUnifter of ftatCyr 
when I teach .his fon the Greek language. 

We muft not expe6l to find here the great traoquiliity. 
which £^at Conftantinople. The town is^o full ofcoach* 
es, of hories andwaggons, that the noife forpaflies imai^ 
gination. Thou wilt certainly find it fbrangé, that men 
who are in health, and have no fore legs, fhould caufe. 
themfelves to be drawn in an engine with four wheels : 
but I more w9Bder,.to fee thefe famemen caa refolvctq^ 

Book L A $rt AT FAitis* 17 

faflinr the lACooTcniCttcy of the AMfe^ and of the expence 
which they throw away out of taoity. ' The more HsO- 
derate French, which do not appru^ of this luxury, fay, 
that in the tune of Henry III. there were hut three 
coaches in Paris, whereof two were the king^s : hut the 
number is now fo great, that they are not to be counted. 

I can tell thee no more of the genius of the French, 
thou knoweft it perfeótly. There is in all their anions a 
fpirtt very delicate, and an aétivity like that of fire. 

It feems as if none but they knew the (bort dnratioir 
of man's life; they dk> everything with fo much hafte» 
as if they had *ut one day to lire 1 If they go on foot, 
they run ; if they ride, they Hy ; and if they fpeak, they 
eat up hatf their #ords. They love new inventioné^i^' 
fionately. I can fay nothing certain of their fidelity, though 
methinks we might fufped /uch, who do not read as they 
write, nor write as they fpeak. They lore money, which 
they look upon aft the fii4 matter, and fecond caufe of 
all things : they well nigh adoie it, and that is the origi* 
nal in of all nations^ 

Paris ought to be deftfoyed, to enrich many cities m 
Europe : 'whence thou mayefb comprehend her giratncfs, 
her traffic, how rich ibe is, and how all forts of arts io 
^outifh in her. 

The French nobility is always ready to get on horfe- 
back at their king's commands : and they love war fo 
well, that it is to be fuppofed, we fhould have enough 
to do with them, if we were as near them as the Spa- 
niards, and they did not want infantry. 

I (hall hereafter obfen^e every circrnnftance with fo 
much care, as well in this kingdom as elfewhere, that no. 
thing (hall efcape me. In the mean time, I (hall endea- 
vour to get acquaintance ; but (hall want more money, 
than is allowed me to anfwer what is expe^ed from me» 


Two chequins a day» are more than enough to fuppoit a 
nan that will live like a cynic^ bHt.not fiiScient to in- 
troduce me into houfes, to di^e into their fecrets» and« 
enable me to difcover the affiurt of moil importance, i 
according to my commiiiion ; fo that thou rauft aflift me« 
to obtain more. 

I hope to fucceed in my employmcnti if thou doft 
not refufe me thy affiftance, finding bo dtfiBculty in the 
execution of my orders» but the neceffity of lying» when 
I pafs for a: ChriiUan. I fancy I fee Mdliomet in a rage» 
and believe my fool loft ; though I am from my heart 
more £uthful in my religion than all the Mahometan» 
put together. Seeing I am refolded to do a thing to 
which I have fo much averfion» thou mayeft be aflured^, 
I. will bear aU the evil imaginable that can happen to me 
with firmnefs» though in aJl appearance I ought to hope 
nothing but good* 

Denver» I befeech thee» this enelofed letter into the 
hands of the moft venerable Mufti» and extort ^rom him, 
if poifible» a folution of my doubts. There is nothings 
diat touches me nearer than what regards my religionp 
and with my rdigioa the Cervice of my emperor. 

* Pam, X 5th of the I z th Moon, of the Year 163 7. 

IX.— 7« fbe MuPTi, Pnttce of the ReUgìon of the Tur is* 

I WILL die a true Muflu^man» though I fhould fee all 
the croffes of the Carthaginians fet up for my puniih-'. 
ment» and had before mine eyes all the inftruments ot 
the moft cruel tortures that the enemies of our holy re« 
ligion could invent. But» feeing there is no queftion at 
prcfent of dying» but of living to ferve my emperor» I 
beg of theci fovereign prelate» that thou will be pleafe4 

Bookll A srr at vjom. 


to comkrvc my iaoocence^ m giting mt an affile abfolu* 
tioQy' impoiing a penaace that may caned all my' 

Paris hath alwa^cs been the refidence of the kings of 
Fmnce» whence it is» that the cxerciTe of no other reh'- 
gion but the ChrifUany is fuffered there ; and thofe who 
acknowledge the Bifhop of Rome £or their h^d, have 
the prindpal managei&est of the «ffiurs cf tfi^ion ; and 
it is with theie» that the rites of the Latin church are 
more ftridly obferred. 

I Hre here» in appeanmce, as if I were a Chriftiaa ani 
a Caitihc^. I enter into their .chutdies» aiffilb at their 
Ofcremooks» kneel before the crofs ; and I appear with' 
great demtioa aad humility befoK the ifaa^es» whkb 
are had here in Tcnevation. ^ 

. I know well enough (if the life which. I lead be not 
pdtaiitted me, as advantageous to the a£Bsirs of Hate» and 
the perfon of the Grand Signior}» that I commit facri- 
lege» ading as I do, cotitrary to the precepts of Mahoi 
mttf expreffed in his Alcoran. 

. I am guilty of violating the law vi4iich is prefcribed 
mC} and deierve death» if thou doft not» by approving 
thi^ life I am obliged to lead» afiure me of both my &U 
vcation and life* It is true, thou haft already given 
nie abfolution from all the falfe oaths I fhall be neccili^ 
tared to take, when they arc for the Service of* 
fter ; but I am not aiTured this abfolution extends far 
enough to feòure my coafcience, when I abufe holy things* 

It is thy province to decide this point, which- is o£ 
fuch impQrtance to my repofe» which makes me expeft 
thy refolves with impaMence ; if thou thinkeil a faitbfìA 
Muflulman, who con&rvcs his religion in his he^» and 
live% as I do, amo^gfi; the enemies of the lawy worthy thi% 
gwc. ' ; 


The intertft <of my^ «onficieacc oUigct me to dennod' 
mfcer whu nuuia^ I ought to govern myfelf» when I fee * 
them, who are effeékìvely what I feem to be, prafU£e the 
fame ails of reKgion* 

The French wPi in a little dme celebrate their carni* 
vai, or Shrove-tiie. As foon as it is done» the catholic» 
think of fafting, having firft affifted at a ceremony» where 
aihes are put upon their foreheadty to make them re- 
member ** they were fomttd out of the dud, and (hall' 
return to dud again." It is at thia time they go to hear* 
Sermons» their peieftf expliùsiag that which they caE the 
gofpel» and fireqoent the ehnrch more than ordinary .^^^^ 
"Xliey i^ply.themfelves oftener to works of piety; uuL 
having purged their confciences by penances» and f cc i t t; 
confeffions» which one man makes to «nothcr, theyeat. 
of a certain bread» which they call The Sacrament of the. 
Eucbarift» where» after certain wocds pronounced by~ 
their prieft» they will have the body of their Meffiah to* 
be seally pident under tliofe apparent fpecies. 

This ceremony is an obHgation ^t good Chrtfttaafti 
éannot difpenfe with» it being ordained by their law and 
by their great prelate» the Bifhop of Rome. They com- 
monly call it Confeffion» and communicating» an4 keep<» 
ing Eaft'er. Ought I to hazard myfelf in committing fo^ 
horrid a facrilcge» and tempt, as I- may fay, God by fo 
great a fuperftitioQ» and fo irritate our great Prophet f 
It may be faid, perhaps, that many Jews have done . the 
feme thing, and do it yet every day» to preferve themfelves- 
more fecurely : But how many of them have been cha* 
ftifed by vifible miracles from heaven, and undergone ter-A 
rible puniHunents by the ordinances of the judges ? 

All thcfe reflexions trouble my fpirit, O b<dy Pri* 
mate of the moil divine. law. I do not think it lawful' 
to mock the myfteries of any religion whatfoever. The 

.Sode I. ASFf ATFARIS. dt 

Ood <if the Chnfttuis it the Cune that ve adore ; but 
thatreiiglon is quite oppofite to curt ; There is a girat 
difference betwixt their Jcfiis cnicifìed, with aD the igno» 
mimes poffible» as thefe iniidels dò believe, and a Maho«> 
met immortal and triiimphant, a great legiftator» and £he 
angular ftone of the firft empire of the woiid* 

Give me then pofitive orders» to the end T may be 
«afed of my fcruples» and may beiiere that w4iat thou 
permitteft, may be an effed' of thy jafUce» aitd not of a 
toleration wbch may be pernicious to me. 

It is true, I may #ave all thefe things in feignmg to 
bare done theih ; but it will be more advantageous for 
my affairs, not to exempt myfelf, if that may be without 
a crime* ^ 

Teach then a moil obedient flave what thoti* (hah bew 
lieve mod condiicible to the glory of God, and mofi! pro- 
fitable for the fervice of bur fovereign lord. T do not 
fend thee my doubts to puzzle thee, but to draw from 
thy great and fubUme genius fuch lights as nay difBpate 
the darknefs I live in. 

This dqnèt fovereign Pielate, remember thy humble 
fervant,- and pray our holy Pìhophét, that he wffl keep 
me from peiiftiiug. 

Paris, 15th of the jith Mood, of the Year 1^37. 

■L ■ ■ • m" ■, ■■■ r>, I n..:r. ,ft\ 'V '1 1^ I Ì .r; : 

X.— 7a /itf Kaimacham. 

I RECEIVED from thy hand the firft difpatch that had 
beeii addrcffed to nae ftem the Sublime Porte, and I re- 
ceived it at the beginning of the year, according to the 
moons of thefe infidels* The date is of the month Mie- 
lidge^ Thou ordered me to write to thee of two things; 
ind to do three. Thou wilt firft^»ew^ if this king be 


aged» «nd of pofeA health ; and afterwards» if there be 
any hopes that the queen i&ay have children. Thou 
yrouldeft alfo have me fend his Highnefs the pidures of 
the King» the Cardinal of RtcUieu» and the ddeft fon of 
the Prince of Conde. 

As thou art one of the principal fupports of the power 
of the Sublime Porte, devated abore all the thrones of 
the world (after the Vifier Azem, whofe orders are the 
rule of the univerfe» mim'fter and firft ikve of the happy 
Emperor of the Ottomans)» I ought to do what thou 
conunandeft -me* 

I tell thee then» I have feep this king thrice» nor 
doth he appear by his countenance» by his hair, or by his 
fhape» to be yet old ; neither would it be eafy to divine 
the number of his years» if we were ignorant of the day 
of his birth ; but it is known to every body» that this 
prince was bom the 27th of the 9th moon of the year 
2601» according to the ftyle of the Chriftians. 

By this thou maycft juftly cidcuhte the age of this mo* 
narch» who» though he is in his flower» feems fading» be- 
cauiie he hath as yet given no heir to his kingdom ; be- 
iides» h^ years being near forty» furpafs that of a young 
man ; and it is obferved» that few princes arrive to a great 

The «pieen may ftiU lie-in» if (he proves with child» 
which» if it ihould happen» after twenty-three years of 
barrennefs» it is certain» a ftnit which hath been fo long 
in ripening» will give an ample fubje^ of reafoning to the 
^rologers of Europe. 

For my part» I fancy this kiag will fcarce become a 
Cither» unlefs he repudiate this wtfe» and marry another. 

It is not permitted to be inquifitive into the caufe of 
this fterility. Hereby thou feed: the weaknefs of thole 
ChriiUan piinoe^ who are fubjeAed to the laws of Rome, 

Book I. A SPY AT PARIS. 7^ 

vrhiA tidok & a crime to give thcmlelTes heirs that are 
not bom of lawful wedlock ; though it often happent» 
that when fuch are wanting» this kingdom is expofed to 
ruin* by the diflenfions and civil wars which on thefe 
occaiions are always inevitable. 

The Moil Hight who hath always proteéied the gran- 
deur of the Ottoman empire, hath left the infidels in 
thefe errors, to the end that he might give our mofk 
mighty monarch, who is the avenger of the divine unity, 
an eminence fuperior to that of aU kings, who are his 
flaves, and at the fame time made him holy above all 
the faints in the world ; and permitted us to have chil- 
dren, that may fucceed us, from as many wives aa we 
can entertain, the children of true beHevers being always 

I humbly beg pardon, I foigot I fpoke to thee, who 
art wifdom itfelf, smd to whom no &crets of the law or 
ftate are unknown. 

I will fend to Cfuxoa at Vienna^ the jn&vatH of the 
Xing, of the Prince of Conde's foa» and of the Gurdinal 
• Richlieu,. according to the orders I received lirom the^ 
and they fhsdl be difpatched in litde time : I would to 
heaven I could as eafily fend thee the originals ; I (hotxld 
at one fboke difarm this kingdom, which would thereby 
be fuddenly i];Lvolved. in £re and bkx>d, 
. The habit I wear, and the-mannet after which I L've, 
liave already gained mc many friends. I find means to 
go once a week to court. My defbrmky proteéks me 
againft the jealoufies of huibands. Some people take me 
for a wife man, and diicourfe confidently in my pi:elencc 
of politics and affairs of ftate ; neither da I negleól the 
making ufe of every thing whiefa may h^ advantageous 
to me in my minifbry. Thus, in doing a thing, for the 
which I have much averfion» i compafs aH I defire ; and 


I aflttfe ih^e upon my faith, if thou wilt continue to 
protesi ine» and afiift me with thy cooofeb, I will do 
fomewhat extraordinary. 

1 fuppUcate the gteat God to gire a perpetual heakh^ 
to thy body, and make thy foul enjoy upon earth, and in 
heaven the felicity of the bkfied* 

Pari!», xft of the ift Moon, of the Year itf^jJf. 

XI. — To BfDREDiv, Superior of the CmivenP of Dervtfes 
of Cogny^ in Natòlia, 

1 waiTi to thee, who art venerable hy thy age; and fo 
many kmg voyages which thou haft made ; thou who 
had been fo many times on pilgrimage to Arabia, Tar- 
tary, Perfia, and the Indies, always barefoot, and beg- 
ging out of pure devotion to the faint of faints, our gresft 
prophet Mahomet* 

r addrefs this letter to thee ; thee who beareft the fears 
of five-and«twenty great wounds ; thee, who- haft pray* 
ed nine-and-fifty times in the facred porch, and adored the 
lioly myfleries in the moft retired fanduary of Meeha^ 
and haft lived more than feventy years of religion amongft 
the dervifes, where thy merit caufed thee to be ele^ed 
fuperior of the convent in Natòlia. 

Thou lenoweil well that I ferve him who is arbitrator 
ttf the deftiny of the univerfe, I mean the Sukan, fove- 
reign of the world. Learn what I heard here from the 
mouth of Chriftians, and pardon me. If I have not fuf^ 
ficiently anfwcred them ; but do not accufe me to have 
defervcd death, for having fecmingly curfed our holy law, 
and him that gave it us ; and if I have feemed to reje^ 
lus fucceiTors, Ali, Ofman, and Omar, it was expedient 
that I (hould commit fome evil, not to lofe the opportu- 
nity of doing much good. < 

Book I. , A SPY AT PARIS. ' 25 

Thou knoweft well I am dcftined to ferve ; and that 
being abfoKed from all the perjuries I fhall commit, I 
may tranfgrefs the law by being permitted to He : That 
Cufifices. Read my letter, and learh how far their malice 
does, extend, who are enemies to our religion. 

To inftruA thee better in what has happened to me, 
■I mùft tell thee, that amongft thefe infidels, there is an 
order of religious much in vogue, called The Company 
of JESUS ; wherein there is an infinite company of 
men, fome more able than others in all forts of fciences, 
facred and profane; and, according to appearance, ought 
to be very recotomendable for the holinefs of their fan- 

Thefe religious, who are ordinarily called Jefuits, have 
the education of the youth almoft in all the cities of Eu- 
rope, as well as in the Indies ; and many excellent wits 
are brought up in the feminaries they have eftabliflied. 
When they preach, the people crowd to hear their fer- 
mons. They are the qonfeffors of almoft all the princes 
and monarchs of Chriftendom, who difcover to them 
their weakneilès, their fins, and the vices whereunto they 
are inclined ; and receive from them, upon their knees, 
like (laves, iuch penance as they think fit to inipofe^ on 

A man may fay of them, that being difpenfers of pc- 
Hances, they are alfo the matters of recompenies. -They 
are habited in a long veft of black wool, which drfcenda * 
to their heels. They go not barefoot, but their veft* 
ments are fimple. Th?y obferve great modefty in all 
their atìions 5 they march with gravity, never go alònef 
and fuffer not their beards to grow. They apply thcm- 
fdves to edify the good, and to correA the bad. 

The founder of this order was a foldier, called Igna- 
tius. The Spaniards will have him to have been of their. 

Vol L t B 

^6 1.ETTE&S WJtITT£K BT VoI. I. 

imtioB ; and tb^ Frc^och affirm tbat b,e is of tliat part of 
NaYaxre» vikich, h fobjcft to th<e crpwii of France* If 
iiX9^ MTo^ldf ft have me to fpeak the truth, f think this 
founder was a good man^ feeing aU hU difciples «re mea 
of good exiunpl^» of great mod^iiby in tjlueir 9^Qiu»> and 
vejcy difcreet in all tVeir undertakings. 

Tb^ Ignatius b^n t^ ftudy the gran>inar in hh ferex»- 
a^nd-thirtieth year, wjiich Wig^ vaakt oncbdieve he took 
t^fs psuQS to becQiT&e a {gLwi, than ^ fchokur. His enemies 
^ ^s difcipks. The Politicians of the ChiircK; and I, 
9n the ^oiitrary^ call them The Camds of Efcu ; be» 
caufe, % Ijewing the hiinkn of thj? a&irs of their reK* 
gion, they are loaded more than othets, and forced to 
couch under th^ir bur,dcm. There is <?ne thing ieems 
ftn^pgi? ip tihem, ta wit, tfeit they Ihould name tbcmfchres 
Thje Religious o£ the. Society of JESUS ; as if tbcy had 
a. defqjn ta diftinguif^ th^xpfcWes from other ChnftiaBft, 
and that this tilA?»' which is. p^urticular to them, oughj. no^ 
wly to agree to aU the ojhjpr religious, bi>t to ajl the foW 
lowers of thj? NA^ARITS. 

V t^ey follow th^ pi«^epts of their father Ignatius, 
tbau mirfl ne^ appicote tJicir way of Kvii«. He has 
tangjjt no other way iha» that of obedittac^. to thofc 
that profefs his order. He ordains, that thofe who en» 
X^ i^U> thi« fotjl^, do «bwdon thcmfeWes to the difcre- 
tiQH of tkmr, &pe»0i».: And they affirm, that if th« 
pixpt commawdfi them to paf$ the fca in a ▼eiTel without 
oai % withpHt fa^ls* and without a rudder, they would 
4>beyi and m»ft pa6u And fome having reproached them 
that there vas folly in fuck hKnd obedience, they anfwer, 
That wifdom ought to be obferved in the commandments, 
and that it oUght not to be fearched in obedience. Make 
rejie^iftofi upon this fentence, which is conformable to 
Q^i' laws, 

To iqfocm t'h^e c^ t\^ gQM^er ^wd greatjncfe gf tU» or- 
d^r» it f^fficea. tQ teli th<:c tWt (iuri»g ftxtcen years that 
%liis foldkr gQY^ragl it^ Ke Dsiw aii Uufttked colleger m 
Italy k in C^rqumy,, in Fnuiee» and in Spain ; and ttat ia 
^fvne, vfhis^. was fouocjjed by Bori^ia, faath becii» as may 
bo faid» the pare at gf all the red. Jg.dge hereby the 
nmpher of tbpr houifes and difciples. 

H^yiog qi¥? d^ tnet with, one of tlus ix^cicty who uor. 
^e^ftood the Ori^ojt^ languages, and wbo converfing 
Mrijih m^% did not hdievc' he; dilcQurfed with a muflulman,, 
I heard him nomit ^juriou^ and fearful imprecations. 
agsiljA Mahoviet» agah;il his hm, and ag^nfl all true he-. 
UenQr^. I have fo much hqtroc to write to tiiec all he 
f^dy that I \KÌll, tei} thp^ but fJoun^ few o£ them ; agd thjc 
ra^tji^ tq 4wr^ thee by the kAPwkclge qf the en:orj8 of 
Qiir cQ^t3;ucs.| aqd «Up tb&t thpu ms^yeft nqt be aiBi<fie.d 
at fpmp things oftt^ v^ reapDQable^ which are obfenred 
if}, Tf^if^f of, tl^ pF,«c«pt&. af the law which wjc- follow.-— 
I^ 1^1$ be f^idi a^ if I hftd not fpoken it> il^eiag I pQur 
frankly the fecret^ of i^iy hssMlk into th)r bpfom ; novyife 
dQubtingy. l^ujb tj|[iQU. kBowdt to b<^ filent in what may 
cajufj; B|y ^s^h. ThiSk }e(uit maintains, that the muf- 
ful^p%4fQ ^^ iwifeja foUpwif^g the precepts, of a drunk- 
afdr, «sh9 ft9^4^^ drinkjng of wine». aj|;id committed ex- 
cd£^ himfelf, wh<;n be tbougl^t he ws(s uqobferved. He 
mainUÌpfL i^heT,.th?i( i^.is^ fooli&itq.give credit ip fuch^ 
a fclJipw, who make* % paradife. to confifl. of beautifuL\R^ 
n^epft v^h^e one may abaodon hin^felf to all forts of plea» 
fi^ ^nd debauchery J and tb?^t he hath nqt foifrfecn a 
hrfli where he;, and aft hia follpwprs, ought^tp fufifer the 
pains due to their cnmes. He adds f^^riher, that one 
n^ hfi v^vf foolifh to adore a blafphempr, whe hath 
cqipgM^dcd his.lw &quja be maint^ncd, bjf the fword, 
wi^, It cquld Rot b^. fuppftited by reafen» 

2 12 


The father did not leave off fo : he faid, that feeing 
the Alcoran is filled with dreams» with beilialities, with 
blafphcmies and impurities^ the mufties, the dodlors, and 
Interpreters of the law, muft be in a great blindnefs not 
to condemn a pofleficd, an enchanter, who gives for the 
precepts of his religion^ the committing of violences, rob* 
beries, and all that may fatisfy the moft irregular appe* 
tites. What extravagancy, urged he, to adore the heel 
of fo vfle 'a flave as Mahomet, and to believe, upon hi» 
report, that Jacob's father was his porter, to deify his 
camel, and to place it in heaven ? He adds farther, that 
there is nothing fo abfurd as to comaiand the Turks to 
wafh their bodies, when their fouls are defiled w'ith fihh ; 
to give them at the fame time charity by precept, and t» 
command them robberies by devotion. It feems alfo to 
him foolifli, to believe that Mahomet is the only true 
prophet, the only agreeable perfon to God ; and to f wear 
afterwards by one hundred and twenty-four thoufand pro» 
phets. He (Wl entertains me ^ith this Tort of difcourfe. 
' But all this (O great Dervife 1) is nothing ; he vomits 
yet this damnable herefy ; that the wickedeft wretches, 
and the moft deteftable that ever lived, were Jndas, Ma- 
homet, and Luther ; .that thcfe two laft, as moft impious, 
arc the more tormented in heB. Judas, he faid, fufiered 
lefs pains, becaufe, if he betrayed his Lord, he was one 
pf the inftruments of the redemption of all mankind ; 
whereas, the others in damning therafelves, damned alfo 
an infinite number of other people. This jefuit would 
have continued his blafphemies, if Cardinal Richlieu, in 
,whofe anti-chamber we were, had not come out of his 
dofet to go to the king. 

I had been filent all this while, becaufe he gave me not 
a moment's liberty to fpeak. * At length he aflccd me at 
par'ting, If I was not of his fcntiment* ? And I anfwcr» 

Book {. A SPT AT FARIS. 29 

cd precifely thus : My father, if thou art a good man, I 
approve what thou fayeft, becaufe thou fpeakeft out of 
true zeal ; but if thou beeft a hypocrite, I difapprove 
jjl J becaufe thou fhalt be damned with Mahomet and all 
the muffulmans^ 

The jefuit fmiled, not comprehending the venom which ^ 
lay hid in my anfwer. But doft thou not believe, thou 
who art a' dervife, the mod illuminated, that a man, of 
what religion foe ver he be, provided he be a good man, 
may be happy after his death Ì Tell me, I pray thee, thy 
opinion herein j it is a point very important .to be decid- 

As for me, I begin really to think that there may be 
faints amongft the Chriftians» as there are amongft us. I 
bave feen and undcritand many things that denote true 
piety in fomo of them ; and we muft acknowledge, that 
the precepts of their law have fomewhat of juft; and if 
they be well obferved, they feem no léfs holy to me than 
our own* They have one article that puzzles me ; they af- 
firm there is but one truth ; fo that we are loft. If we 
are not Chriftians, or they are damncd> if they are not 

And this is what I had to fay to thee m this matter j 
but I fhaU not end this difcourfe without fome violent 
icruples of confcience. Pray the great Grod with me, 
that he will illuminate my underftanding with inward 
lights, until, the man prpmifed by our Holy Prophet, the 
man, I fay, who ought to be. born of his race, be defcend- 
ed upon the earth ; who is to fee all kings humbled in 
his prefencc, and to unite with Jefus the two religions, 
tliat they may make but one. 

In the mean time, let us live as honcft men, who have 
fin in horror, like the plague, which poifons the foul ; 
and apply ourfelves, as much as in us lies, to what is tiu- 


JO LETM:^^ \#tlTTÉK BY Vol. I. 

ly good; 6nd above all things, let us carefiilty obferve 
tbis precept, t^Htten in the book of their law, bia is not 
always imprinted in tbeir heartfe, <* Never àò to others, 
iro not to thy eliemieS, that whlc!i thou woùlàft not h^vc 
done to thyfclf/' A duke of Guife gave an example of 
this to all France ; and it is what thou oughtetl to preach 
m the vaft empire of the mufiullnans. This prince fur- 
prifcd a vfllam that would have affliflinated him, who con. 
fefitd that the mtereft of hii -rdigfòù 1( whièh vvlis that of 
Calvin), titd otìlged Wm to fo'fm a d^gntotàkè hinl 
away, to ddivt?r hhft&lf, ati'd thofe of h'l^ "party, ffòih fo 
great an enemy. The duke, inftead of caufing him 'to 
ftÉef the pains dtìe to fo bfack an eaterpriife, pardoned 
him, feoniJrtitlrTg himfdf tb tell liim, •* t^'riehd, if thy re- 
ligion ^Ì5lig«d thee to kill me,' without he^afifig me ; my 
n*ligi«n obliges mt to give thee thy life and liberty ho\Nr 
Ì htHTQ heard thee : Gt> thy ways and ^mend thyfelf.* 
Thts prince was then general of Charles IX. "s 'afmy. 
• Sàgtt Bcdredin, our Mahomet wsver ihomi fuch ge- 
nttottt fentimcnts, wheii hfe prefcrfbeà in hfe law this pre- 
ccpt againft Chtiftians, that had never offended hiin.— 
" When you encounter the infidels, kill them, and Ctit 
off thetr hc^ds, imprifon them, and keep them in chains,, 
until they h^ve paid their ranfoms, or until: youfind it 
r^uifitt to fet them at liberty. ?eifecùte them until 
they ha\tr all fubmitted, ot are entii*ely overthrown.*' 

Obfervie in this letter what may be of ufe to thee. 
Pardon, by fricndfhip, the fiank manner of writing, and 
remember Mahmut in thy prayers, who perfonates a 
Chriftian, and h in his heart a moft faithful muffulman. 
If it be in thy power to fuccour me, never do mc any in- 
jury. God proteA and govern thy great age to the Lift 

Paris, 28ch of the ad N^oon, of the year 163?. 

Ifook L A SFT AT MRW. Jf 

Xn. — To Chirurgi Muhammet, Bo/ffa* 

1 *B queen is with chfld, when leaft cxpefttd, which 
occafions much joy at court, cfpcciaBy to th^ king, Wh# 
after fo many ycart of khamage, wIH become i father. 

Thou who had applied thyfdf fb long to the ftudiefc^^ 
of àftrology in the fchooh of Egypt, yet mikeft profcf- 
fion of this divine art, which difcovers thte things the 
rtL^a hildtti to theei ^ho tcàdell fo leamedly in the 
book of h^Ven> whatetct the ftars haw "trùced there v 
who haft fotttid thie tttoiAent oF their rifi'ngani dìfiippeàr- 
ing, ^ith the intervals betWist theife tWo times, and the 
cnufes whkh Vender their ii\t)tibTi quicker ór flower ; thoiV 
11*^0 pcnelrateft kito the «loft hfddtn fecfets of men, and 
kiioweft the féafòhs of famine, of fliipWt-cels^, of tì£^ór- 
i«, and lofs of battle : Divine in God*8 name, great Fii- 
terpreter of the- fecrets of nature, wifer than AIButtazàir 
and Ptolemy^, what wffl become of thS imp'rcgttaiìóù ; 
and whether k- be trnc^ that "thi* chfl^ that h to be bbiHi*, 
has been more tltòh twti hundred smd icventy moohi itt 

If thou beliei^eft what I writ feLft to tKéc to be impoK 
fible^ fay nothing of it ; ft would be lio credit to me to 
pafs for \ht aùthtir tjf à novc>, that has lib grourtdà of 

The city of Pat is is in ah inconceivable joy ; and this^ 
joy is {pread all over France, I'hbb hiày'efl perceive by 
that, Ihe paffion of thi^ pitopic to Tec their kihg a Father. 
It is true they hate much tt> hope by it y But ft is as cer- 
tain they hare yet much to apprehend, feting «dl their 
hopes vanifh in an inftant. 

Natui-e ufts all her power when (he fbrihs a mail> the 
ifiofl perfed of all creatures; But there needs but a flight 


fall to deftroy this workmanfhip before it is fiaiflicd, as 
well as after. 

1 have heard a great many people queftioii much the 
fcx and life of that which will be born. 

All the convcrfation at the court, at Paris, and in all 
the kingdom, is no more of wars, of leagues, of peace or 
naval preparations ; they all rowl upon the bringing-to- 
bed of women. 

. There will be other reafoning in fome fmall time in 
Chriilcndom, and even amongft us, if the queen do not 
mifcarry ; France being no lefs confiderable amongft 
other kingdoms, than the Bourbons arc amongft men. 
Henry IV. who introduced the. crown into this branch 
of the family, was a prince very brave ; and if we 1Ì¥C 
long enough to fee his grandchildren, we (hall fee whe*' 
ther they will hive as much courage as the chief of their 

As for thee, thou wilt have wjierewith to dive'rt thee, and . 
exercife thy talents, if this queen be brought-to-bed happily 
of a prince. I (hall in the mean time be very exad to mark, 
not only the days and hours, but the leaft minutes ; to 
the end thou mayft know, by the fituation of the planets, 
which ordinarily regulate the inclinations of men, m 
what manner a prince, fo long expedied, will regulate his 
affairs, and'confequently thofe of others. 

It is .a great while fince we have had any commerce 
here with the fun, there being forty-nine days fince this 
beauteous planet appeared to us ; and the cold is fo vio» 
lent, that it has changed, as I may fay, the waters of the 
Siene, a large, river, into cryftal. Do not look upon 
thefe efFelfts as extraordinary ; it happens here frequent 
ciiough ; for, when, the days are fhorteft, the cold is moft 
intenfé. ' Thou knoweft that this climate is very incon* 
ftant. I have often feen, in a little fpace of time, rain,k 

Book I. A SPY AT PARIS* 33 

iaai, fnow, «md terrible winds; and prefently after» the 
air becoming fair and ferene. This tnconftancy of the 
climate has its advan^ges i for if the fair weather do not 
laft long, the foul is alfo of iefs duration. 

Fail notyupon the receipt of my letter» to communi, 
cate the news I fend thee to the Grand Vifier, without 
teliing him the reflections whtdi I make. They are of 
no ufe to fuch gzeat minifters ; partictilarly by us» who 
are in. comparifan o£ them but vile flaves, always fubjeCl 
to the ientences they, pronounce of us. 

Liove me, and confult the ftars to know whether thou 
wik )[>e always faithful to me ; and^ if it be by force or 

As for myfelf, I afiure thee» that following the iodi- 
nation lof my heart» I will conferve thee that* fidelity 
which I owe by obligation. . 

Paris, aSth of the id Moon, of the Year 1631. 

' Xllh— To Caìlxio A at FUnna. 

JL HE Kaimacham commands me forthwith to fend the 
pidures of the King: of vFrance» the eldeft fon of the 
Prince of Coodc, and of the Cardinal Richlieu. I caufcd 
them fuddenly to be copied from the originals» by an Ita- 
lian painter, who paffes for one of the bed of thefe times. 
Thcfe three heads^ are the princlpai of France, if not 
of all Europe : The firft, by reafeu of a greal and po- 
tent kingdom» which» this day more flolirifhiiig than all 
others : The fecond, by reafon of *his nobility or royal 
blood» and by his extraordinary courage : And the third, 
by a wife condud in a minrftry full' of ^difficulties ; be- 
ing» as it wesc; the abfolute mailer of difgracies and xr- 
compenfes» . . 

> J 


• Az &OII m thefe pidurct^ aic ddivcrcd to tface» wfek 
«id weil cotididoned^ pay the elprcfs 1 difpiUchcd to 
thee the iiim contaiaed in the bilk» wkkk he will pre* 
fent to thee from me. Thit done» fettd the packet to 
CottAifftin^le» withcmt lofs of time, ud addrcft it to 
the KaiuMkdiam. 

I befbedi thet onder ùk bof»c£i of xny peniioii fo that 
I ihaU nat need to defire the paydwat of it. Send me 
pti^ttf wiMit ifr ordered me for. taj fubfiftence. No* 
thing in the world appesrs £» ttrribk> aa to be 
obliged to a(k» 

I have oaly ttioniea iot fix d&yt» though 1 (hoald est 
iK^hing but raw herba and water. Both coil money hare ;. 
" sud e?ery thiiig h fold tery dear» except ctviHties and 
•bligttig terno» which yoo have for notlun|ry and where- 
of tkey are very liberal.^' I ma& hve» I mufk have dothcs» 
and go to court ; for all which there muft be bread, cloth 
•r ferges^ and coach hire. 

Thou knoweft, at prefent my wants, fuflcr me not to- 
laoguifli with, expectation. Thou wMt injure the em» 
peror» and not Mahmut, if thou dofl not readily aifift his. 

The ^at Crod preserve thy life, if thou doe(k sot for- 
get me ; And give chee grace to be ibber, in a country 
wheiv peepk do not aWnys drkk wine to quench theis 

Paris, 28th of the 3d Moon, of the Year 1538. 

XIV» — To William Vospil, a Ctrifitan of 2ltt/lrta^ 

1 Am obliged to thee for the oonfi/ience thou haft sn nie 
in decUaring to me thy loffei* Another monUL have fé- 
ioiced in hearing of thy two adYentureM.buti»^i40^fiot 

Book 1. A SPY AT fAkti. 35 

believe it 1» a great evO to Me à tvlfe, fò I cantiot Ihirtk 
It w a tonfidcrable good to tarn monk. It la hnpoffibk 
for rtte to forbfcar telling thee, that I fiad thy rcfoltitlon 
too ruddett to approve of ft. Thou art not the caiife of 
the loft thou haft fuffered, and ycft rctlrtft into a convent 
to do penance, as if thou hadft committed a crime. 

Is it ncceffary thou torment thy body for the death of 
à wifej if thou hàft not murdered her ? If thou didtt love 
her, becaufe fte this difcreet, it is not impòflible to find 
another as prudent. If her beauty charmed thee, theffc 
are enough that may pleafe ; but if thou -^rert weary of 
being a htifband, why art thou then of being a tvidower ? 
Tell tne, virhat wilt thou do at prefent in tjie convent 
thoÀ art fkui up in ? The Carrttelites are wife indeedj but 
ktiow not all things. It is true, they are irery devout, 
bat hot exempted from fin : Finatly, they are rrttOy and 
too auftere. How canft thou fo fuddenly accuftom tby^ 
felf to that kind of life thou haft chofetf j aM bfcomfe at 
once clmfté and fober ? As for me, who am no Chriftiau 
lis thoti aft, ktid more reftfained in my pkafufes than 
thou haft hitherto been, 1 cannot tindcfftànd what 1 fee 
in that order thou art entered into : neither can 1 figxirc 
> to myfelf, how a tt^in barefooted, without a fhirt, covered 
with a coarfe habit of woo!> who Js no maftd- of crówtts, 
and who hath nò arrfiies, fhonM abfolutely corfiraand, not 
only afiother man, but many, who obey blindly what he 
teqaircs of them. 

To live well in thy order, thdu rtiuft faft ; the kaffi 
faults arc riot parddAed ; thoti muft receive ofiertces with 
thanks : Finally, the combat is affuted and conftant, and 
there is but little crttitude of the crown which ought to- 
be the tewatd. Thy gveateft friend li obliged to betray 
thee, and thou vnk be deprived (as' It hAy be faid) of 
the dements, to vnAt thee define the ufe of the watèr> 



air» earthy and fire. I cannot perfuade myfelf, that ther« 
are fo many things required to make a faint ; for when 
thou loved God, at much as it is in thy power to do, 
and pafTeft every day, as if k were thy laft, I believe 
thou wilt live and die a juft man. Return me an anfwer, 
and let me know, if what I write to thee be conformable to 
right reafon ; or, that I am deceived in my opinion. The 
friendfhip I have for thee obliges me to write as I do» 
and to tell thee all I think that regards thee, becaufe af- 
ter thou haft uken thy laft relblution, I would rather fee 
thee fufFer with conftancy all the evils imaginable, than to 
fee thee change with confufion. There are many who 
have abandoned with (hame, the places which they en- 
tered in triumph f and how many have been pu(hed by 
their defpair to commit follies which feemed adions of 
piety, which they had never undertaken in their right 

We fee in our hiftories, that many great men have 
caufed themfelves to be circumcifed, thereby to have com- 
merce with the Jews, and be inftruéted in their doéb-ine, 
finding their ancient temple magnificent, venerable, holy, 
and full of majefty. We alfo read, that Pythagoras 
clothed himielf in white, and (laid fome time amongfi 
the folitaries of Mount Carmel, to learn the myfteries of 
their religion. His curiofity was the occafion of this 
great man^s voyage, as their ignorance had caufed the- 
fame dcfign in others. It is not the defire to be inftrud:» . 
cd, wluch made thee enter into the convent ; the aiHic- 
tion for the lofs thou haft fuffered, made thee take this . 
refe 111? ion. Take heed of quitting it by a repcntarice, 
which would prove an excefs of foUy^ . The Jews are at 
prefciit vagabonds, without law, without a kingdom, 
without altars ; and according to the Alcoran, they will 
be metamorphofed into afies, to. carry the fouls of the 

Book h' .A SFT AT PARIS» 37 

wicked Mahometans into hell. Who knows what wIU 
become of the Carmelites ? They fay, Ehas is not dead, 
but is to return to the earth, to combat thofe men who 
fhall rife to trouble the world about the t^ftablifiiing a 
new rehgion. Stay ftiU where thou art, or return pro* 
fently from whence thou cameft ; )eft,*Hifter too long a 
ftay, to come out in form, thou commit a fault that 
God will not cafily pardon ; which will doubtlefs happen» 
if thou peirfuade thyfelf, that thou canft not find the 
way to heaven, but out of the noife of the world. 

If thou dod not find I adyife thee well, do thou bet« 
ter ; but, above all things, govern thyfelf fo, . that God 
may not reproach thee one day, that a Moldavian gave 
thee good advice, and thou didd negled it. The worft 
of Turks might give the fame advice that I do, as a 
good ChrifUan ; and it would be no furprifing thing, if 
thou received better from a Mahometan. Thefe barba» 
ri^ns are fuf&ciently inftruéted in xnorality to teach otl^ecs 
that which they do not always pra£iife themfelves. Vic^ 
tue and truth are lefpeded- every where. Turn thee 
from eaft to weft, from the fouth to the north, thou wilt 
find on all fides impious men who blafpfaeme againft the 
Deity ; but true, virtue has that of fingular, that ihe i» 
always refp<;6led, and even by the moft profligate» 

Confult once again thy forces and thy courage, and. 
take a better refolution, if thou art not yet well fixed in 
thy firil. Titus falutes thee out of this world ; and prayt 
heaven to give thee the pleafures of the happy, in |hy 
foHtude, if thou beeft no hypocrite, and if thou haft not 
yet repented of thy refolution thou haft taken. 

Paris, aSth of the ^ofbloon, of the Year 1638. 

XV. — To TsRAHiM, wLo renounced fie Chr'ifiian Aelroion* 

1 Hou haft ren^HKcd thy religion, feithcr td fave tli^r 
fife, or for fonie other con(fderatk>n» 1 db tìtìt fay thrs 
to tnaàtt the« fcHipuloui, but in ^Ality of reitdent iti . 
ihis kitigdotn^ to fci-ve here the Solta» emperor of botb 
feasi and of the twY> ][Mitt9 of the eiHh^ diRfibtttet of all 
€ro\viì3 ; the grandeiH: of vrhofe «lajefly, I beg of God, 
may laft Until the day of uftiverfal jttdgmcfit. I advife 
thee to tftke heèd, not to folitit thofe infidels, whofe re- 
ligioii thou haft abatidoiiedi to run the fame cotirfe that 
tho« haft dione. 

Thou haft written to thy brother, that he Is become a 
begfgaf, becatife he renounces his Ood a thcnifand times^^ 
at play ; and that thoa'art at prefent very fleh, for hav- 
mg tenounccd kirn but once, atìd by tfeat thoa eihdtttft 
him. to turn Muiftllman. 

I thought gt>od to write to thee, that fotils are not td» 
|>e gained with a letter and a fcurvy jcft. Think tìf feti 
«éming a goiJd man after thy change of rcltgioft, aftJ 
give no occafio» to the MarfeiUians to fay, that thou art 
infkmotts, becatife thou haft renounced thy fòlth, a«d that 
We are «ft dèmned, becaafe we are Mahometans. If thoii 
doft not approve the "advice I give, I Ihiill be obliged td 
ic^aiut tfec Porte with what fhall come to my kfiòw- 
kdge ; which I'lhi^I do with regret, becaufe tKcru mayeft 
The gtìiat Crod make thte talher wife than fortunate» 
^arls, i%Ùk of the 3<f Moòb^ of the tear 163S. 

XVI. — Tu DiCHKo Hussein, Baffa. 

i\ s the knowledge which I (hall have of affairs wjU aug- 
ment-daily, fo I fliall have the more mjtttcr to write j; 

Book L A snr at farxs* j^ 

and «ritt omit no otcafioA to remark vrhat occur»» wliicU 
I mtt noe fail immediately to communicate* Thou, who 
with great a^licattoii obCerrefl what pafi^ih amongfl 
men, and art deiroua q£ feaowimg the moil feoret tranf* 
anions of potentates ; thou mayed: obferve, that there 
are more violent enmities hetwixt the Chriftian princes of 
Europe» than all the other pance» of the worlii. 

I «anaot compreiiend whence it i^ that thtfe infidels 
oamiot live ia peace ; and, perhape, the3r do net com- 
prehend it themfeives. It (ieems a decree of heaven, that 
man ought to be coatrary to ma», and that vdiflit there 
are kiagdoms there will be wars and enmities. 

The wars which are carried oii at prtfent in Alfae^» 
look as if they would kft long. The death df Giiftavlis 
AdolphoB» King of Sweden, the (econd kolxrge of the 
Imperialtfts, who was flam fix years fiiice, did not termi- 
nate the differences of Germany i they are greater thant 
ever ; ami there appears in. the new generals ^f the a^- 
ttles, ^fter deflgns tha» thofe iu their pfedecefibrs. Per- 
haps they witt revcage the death of OttftamM» wild wa» 
killed, not as the Chriilians afiSriti, h«t hy «ma of the 
forty GeflAaas who had boaad themfcltcs hy oath never 
to quit their Iwotda before they had fialo lutti, as the 
Turkifli hiftonanadowntf. * ' 
. Duke Barnard Weymar^ of no left valour than Gulla- 
Yus, comm^ds. the ceft of the Swcdilh avmy, with w 
good number of Freiich troops, and maay Chriftian Ia- 
fetica of OcraMByw Vta«ry atteads the aama of this 
generai { and the prhuaes which are oaited for defence 
of the ampke iegiart^ apprebeaid a captain, who db- 
ftrves left the nùù of wsir thad the emotions ai this va- 
ìmir» aad. w|om ihey pcrcerie iecoodcd by fortune. Bat 
he doth «bt cdiifidef) that iit weabcaing an emperor he 
d»tb Mgiaefit Uie fettea afa hasgi. lih^ wiU enjoy the 


frtfits of his labours, and fupprefa him in fpite of his 
bravery when he pleafcs. . In the mean time, I am. of 
opinion) that it is our interest that Weymar be always 
viélorìous. It ma^ be faid of him, that he hath fold to 
France all but his glory, having rcfcrved nothing for 
himfelf but hope. 

All that this- duke can conquer from the .Germans is 
for the French king, who furnifti^js him with troops, 
with arms» and with money, bèiìdes wife advice. Cardioal 
Richlieu, who is an able ilatefman, fails not to perfuade 
his mailer, that the places which Weymar ihall take in 
the empire with the army which he commands, arc the 
effects of his counfds and his majefly's - money. The 
French, begui to preferve their conquefts, and know how 
to defend the i^aoes which are fubjeéi to their power. . 

This prince makes acquilkions, which are in truth of 
more importance than they feem confiderable for their 
greatnefs. H^ took Rhiodfeld «imoft as foon as he had 
befieged it. The f^ace wa» iirong» feated near the Black 
Fereft, where the garnfon was furniflied with abundanoe 
of all forts of ammunkions. 

John de Wert, general of the Im^rial army, had re- 
licvied it with nine regiments of horfe and. 5000 foot. 
He defeated Weymar's horfe, took part of his baggage 
and artillery. The Duke of Rohan, a great captain 
aad great ikatefman,' was hurt, 'and taken fighting ; and 
.the city relieved with men, amonuutipn and vióiuals, 
which rendered the taking of it ^or^ gkurioQS; 

They write, that two Imperial general; tbe fiaid John 
. de Wert, which had fuccoured RhindfeM, Enhenfort, . as 
alfo Duke Savelli, had been taken in a combat whidi 
preceded the rendition of .the place, befideà jo cornets 
and 19 foot captains./ Thefc fpoib were gained by tthe 
bkod cif the Swedes^ and feiit.tQ.tì^Bfen«l}iJUDgjifrI»o> 

Book h A SPY AT PARIS. 4I, 

. after he had caufed them to march through all the ftreets 
of this great city, commanded them to be hung up in 
she principal church, where I faw and coniidered them 
as marks of the triumphs of policy • The fiege of thi» 
place lafted but eighteen da>3« 

The Duke of Wcymar, after this vidory, marched 
into the marquifate of Durlach, where he took the caftle 
of Rotelen, defended by the King of Hungary ; in 
which he found great ftore of provHions, and all forts of 
ammunitions, which ferved greatly for the refrefhing of 
his then needy army. . 

In the mean time, Duke Savelli efcapcd out of pri* 
fon, and retired to -Luzerne in «Switzerland* The offi» 
cers that guarded him were accufed of favouring hi» 
cfcape, which cod them their heads. 

All I write to thee is nooft true, and tjioii mayeft caufe. 
my letters to be enregiftercd. God grant that Brifac, to- 
gether with all Alfatia, may fall into the French hands» 
and that the Emperor of Germany be fubjeéied to the 
law of. the Ofmans, " Thou feeft thè time come» wherc^ 
in the French make conquefts without being piefent at 
them." The king of this nation appears not only happy 
but is fo in reality $ all things fucceeding that he under-, 
takes. His queen's being with child, and the cardi» 
nal's policy, puzzle the Spani^dsand empire, and Italy it- 
felf. What will happen none knows, but God and Ma«. 
homet. It is our duty to humble ourfelves, and fay what 
we fee, and not be fo rafh as to penetrate into the fu- 

Do what thou canft by thy'intriguea to augment the 
German loffes, for the reafons thou knoweft ; and parti- 
cularly to facilitate the Sultan's conquefl in Hungary. 
Aflift, in the mean time, the poor aind faithful Mahmut, 
not with the fword that cuts every things but by good 

42 LETTERS WkiTtW BT Vol. I. 

tfotinfel, hy which we ordfljarffT prrccive tifc tcaAfon oF 
what the fWord hath fcpatatcd : and I will pray die Moft 
High, that al! the itifidels bow the Itìatec before Atott- 
rkth, and that ail that breathe tnay enjoy their htcsy %^J^ 
by an effeél of his clemency. 

Paris, aoth of the 4rh Moon, of the Year 163!. 

XVII.— To AcilMET Beic^ 

I RiCKiTE none of thy letters ; I recem noitc from tbe 
Kvtn \ aiwd I tan molte from wAf of my frientds; Itaifyf. 
whev'e thtere ore fo amny people proper for war» tto pr»*^ 
vkiée "f^kh lUith cominnn^d tbe world, h at thift timr 
troubled by the arms of Fratvee. The Pope and Vene- 
tfftfrs) who appear bo have the priisctpal intereft there^ 
imike no advanee to divert the ftarm th«t threatens them^ 
PiediiiOnt) Which beloftgs tO the Duke of Savoy, begina 
to ^d \ht fneommoifitics chat waV drawa alwayfc with if. 
That ftatte ts fn thè midd of the Spaniardt who BtUck it, 
and Iht Freàch rUm it in tìéftftdfttg ft. 

Thefe M: ea^not abandon ih« fàtèttft of the honft of 
Savoy, the d\»clU^ti being tàdìr king's m^^ an4her tel^ 
drcn his ttfephè^s* iPhe f refech à!t€ already ftr^hg onthét 
fide, havi^ig a gri^ét gàttifott ift Pìptc^f A place irtéry 
confidfet-At^ which they eall Ohe of the gates of Itvltfi 
whereof Ih^y hi^ be^n maftert fiiàce the year 163 1 •; àh'à 
their powt?r will Aiwèh ilièrerfe bj ^é aefeetìb^ ©f tM 
fort of Brcme, which muy be termed a rampart, co^^er- 
ing Catal afìd Vercfellè, and which alfe, defbnd* both 
Montferrat and Piedmont. The Màrqois of Legànez^^ 
governor of Milan, having rendered himfdf mafttr of Hie 
field, had laid fitge to Breme ; and Mhrfhal Crequi, havw 
ing in the name Of the king hÌ3 mafter,. undertaken the 

dook t A &» At r AHiSk 43 

defence hi thè fcrùn^ t9At pi Sàvcfy, òpjjofed the éc» 
£gh of t)it l^^lardft. It is MicVèd the war wUl bt 
Gfuei m «his quatter, being tWe «^e vtrf (bong, and thè 
w;hf» >ewy icxfctt, 

Th^ (haft k4K>inr the event. Ifi the mean tìbie» afi 
the a^'rt^f the French ;dò not «ppear fo fortunate «i 
Italy $ and> at this honr tifot I Wntd to thee, the court 
kmentà the Ws of the geftei^l that comfimtfdèé their arw 
mìe» in that country, 

- Thdk^ k ckktÀh «e«i% èf thè éckt^ of MEat&al Grequi, 
who W^ iho!t %ilft a ^fl^iiftètt htiflet t^Offgh tlie body, ai 
Vt mi g«^^ to ^e«r %iri* ^ay àMs itre^in be^>rt Btmne. 
This teff was t^y fe ftta<* theh^w« ietììhle té the trench-, 
ki ti&Lt ihey £iW itoir IMtfiffts tAàk« ft(^ f^^t rejotcingi 
at It. 

All men conclude, this Cfcqni Wa* h^h ,a good fol- 
4fef éAd à giWd ta|)tàin) a wife «kB, and of cxcelltnt^ 
ctMidvi^. He h«d as:qui^Wl grea ¥èptiMiétt for the 
kitfg h4d «liaifter Iti Ibly. Hb (lew D^ ^ih>, beAani 
df dà'wyy iJC^ho chalfettged him fti the fight of two tenies. 
He ftVef^ taài^ é^ft^faà hk{cn>&r^ìì*% en^^esln hfofnt^ 
ferrat, and in Piedmont, and beat back the Duke of Feria 
to the gates of Milan. 

There remains no more of this great man, who did 
to many brave things, but the bare remembrance of them. 

Scarce any thing of his body, favt his eiltrtiils) was left 
for his foldiers to celebrate his obfequies with. His fotÉ 
is iaefore the throne of God ; his friends honour his me- 
mory with their élogiès ; his kindred mourn for him ; hi» 
fovereign praifcs him, and his foldiers crown his tomb 
with herbs and flowers. ' 

The Italians fay highly upon this occalion, that Italy 
has been fatal to the French, and that it will be fo aU 
ways. They affirVr, that the Duke of Savoy will loie 


his eftate, if defeated by hi« eifcaue«, which' he will Hker- 
wife do by thfe vidory of his friends. But thcfe are the 
conjeéiures and ordinary reafoaings of men, which I write 
to thee, to the end thou mayeft not only know what is 
done, but alfo the difcDurfes which are entertained upon 
the events that happen. We (hall (hortly have news of 
the fiege of ^Breme ; in the mean dole, it imports the 
French much, to conferve the opinion had of their valour 
and goodnefs. 

The bufinefis in hand Is to defend a great add illuftri- 
OU8 houfe,. which moreover pret;ends to the fovereignty 
of the kingdom of Cyprus» troubled by the ambition of 
kindred, and the pontics of thè Spaniards. Thefe' en- 
gagements import much to princes, who have as many 
maxims as differing interefts ; but we have nothing to dò 
with the diiFerences of others. 

May it pleafe God» that our affairs be alway attended 
with an equality of good lack, for the min of thefe in- . 
fidels. Be thou conflant in the friehdfliip thou promifedil' 
me, and always faithful to thy friend, who recommend» 
himfclf to thee, as the law obliges thee to be to thy fo- 

Paris, aoth of the 4th R^oon, of the Year 1638. 

XVI 11. — Tff Berber Must APHÀ, -/^^r. 

1 THIS day entertained a man which caoae from Italy, 
and hath ferved in tlie French troops. He gives this ac- ^ 
count of the' death of Marflial Crequir 

The 1 7th of this moon, this general having approached 
the lines of the Spaniards to view their works,, and to 
fight them, in cafe he judged it expedient, a cannon 
bullet feparated his body in two ; and, the bullet being 

Book I. À SfT AT iPAJllS/ 45 

taken up, they were' furpriifed to fee a crofs graTed upon 
k» about which .were al{o engraved letters, which made 
thefe two words, TO CREQUI. This bullet, the croft 
and the letters,^ caufed no lefs aftonifliment than the death 
of this captain did forrow ; and every man fpokc his fen- 
timents of it* 

Many treat the Spaniards as magicians aiid forcerers* 
Tiofc who are perfuaded of the power of necromancy» 
affirm, that the devil can carry a buUet to the place whi- 
ther it is ddigned : others are of a ;icontrary fentlment, 
and believe there is no power without the commandment 
of the Great God. There are others, who believe nei- 
ther charms, nor charaifters, nor magic ; who, . defpifrng 
all thefe fuperftltions, attribute aH to Deftiny ; and I bc- 
hcvc the fame, Ahmet Gelebi explains this pcrfeftly well 
in his Journal, ^ich begins In the f ot.6di year of our 
Hegira ; when he affirms, that all things which pafs here 
below are effeéled by the orders x)f heaven, ^* We can- 
not doubt ^fays he) t)ut the events which we fee, are 
the cfFeds of the will of God % yet we muft believe, he 
foffers all thltngs to happen by fecond caufcs.*' 

Had not ^Sultan Ofman irritated the Janizaries and 
Spahi's, by throwing them into the river alive, when 
he ran difguifed through the ftreets of Conftantinople, 
and found them drinking wine in taverns: and had he 
not publifhed his defìgn of reforming his militia, and 
tranfporting the imperial feat elfcwhere, he had not per- 
haps hepQ murdered with fo much ignominy. 

God fent him a terrible dream before his death. He " 
thought he faw our great Prophet fnatching the Alco- 
ran, which he was then .reading, out of his hand, and 
taking from him by force his coat of arms, and flriking 
him down with fuch a great box on the ear, that he 
x:euld not get .up again. Thou knoweft he confulted the 

^6 LETTE»» WaiT*fl^N BT V4* h 

^rolog^n^ and iot^pr^tevs oS drea^i^ thcrf upon. I wjft 
Siigli report wlaìt he, whjo wa» |Ù9 pcf^^toir» &i4» &r ì^ 
\r9ft.pbhy fiatt,<fiy i but ii(re> fav, wh^ V4» fottiold by 
ihfi aftrgl0g«r9 c^Wft pwi^Hs^f ^ p#&, "7M^ ha^ foi;«- 
told» tH^yt the* ^mpeior Hioi^ nex^r £@^ tl^je ^«ft o{ Ram^ 
zan, becaufe the ftar which preiìded at hi^ lH|t|) W9f^ 
i^uch obfcur^ ia às co^^uaétì^B w^ith the p]^i9€« t^at 
-ifad thea pre^mmai^; ifhich mad^ them, a|^i9f ht 
would dk inb zv^fj ìiffit %ìme» Th« igRCuniny wherevidi 
hia deal^K wa^ aoe^mpanìed» was aa efii^^ of dieQ^ay i 
for neTer aipy of thl^ Oiìiia^e fuffered £d much ih^m& 
He had fev^ral tùnpe fe^p the fa:^al cord aboot hjs neck 
vrkhout dykg. A hliier, in chanty» ki)t hìm hialiia^d- 
kerchlef lo cov^ hts head» which yr^» without a, tarpan. 

He faidy aU 'm tears, to h» mucderei^ *^ Ye ii^^ tj^ 
mprnmg yo^r ^«^eror upoa the th^ne» aed t)^$ evenìfig 
youi are hr thr/>wing l^itfì. ii^to a dui|g-<;arty dofìgoed- to. 
carry dirt into thie f«a : you cai^not Uv.^ always^^ and God 
will riequire a reafosn for this cnjelty." Thou k.noweft. 
his refifting of thofe that &mngi^ l^mx Qai)fi^d. hi)H to 
fuifer much pain. They tpok hold of bim by the^ fi^jet 
paste f and one of hi& ears was cut off, and qarried to the 
y^4^, wh^ ^xpieébed.tbe news of his deatk. The will 
o^ G<?d appears in this advenuire > as alfo; the power of 
fecond qai^fe^ Thou mftyeft f^ aU. ihw in tl|c Journsil of 
Aboi^t, Had not Marihal Crequi b<ea in tJbe vi^fs» be> 
had not p^haps cpded bi^ days by a. vk^ent de^th"; 6i^ 
had he not been fo tafli as. to approaqh top n^ar tQ the 
cnemieil works, the fatal bullet h^ nof: touched- h}i|i* 

We. fee hereby an oSedi of God's will, accompanied: 
wjith. our confeat J becaufe we fes^rchby Qur own cl^ojee 
tb^t which we m^ght avoid. 

. in tl^mean tin}e» accqi^ zsie nqt of igo^rs^ice- «^ £u. 
perllitioq» if I hav« b^en ipi^in enurtiHmiig the^, u^<hi 

a ouxtter in ad^n helwU^ man and tbe dcv3. Tbov 
kaoweft tbat;l;> we number thj( twelve ^tuiu 
or angeUy which prefide over each oC U^e figna ^f the 
zodi^Cy wUdh gosem the i^tion$» people» and cities 
iCommittedtath/Eir care. In Hke manaor, in the fecret 
icaballa, of the. Jews, by the tjwclve ^agram» of the 
gixat n^me of Gpd, and according to. tbe colour of the 
ftonea' where tbefe anagraip^ were eagraved» they judged 
the ful^ure ^ performing thereby thinga very aftoniihing* 
They have fubjeélcd our bodies to tbefe twelve, iigns^ aod 
divided them into, twelve principal, menDbera^ But how 
inany fufprifing things are done with the ni^mbcx feveiv 
to which they have applied the feven pianeta i by niieaiw 
whereof they difcover ^e fecret of the good or evil f^?- 
tune of men ì Add to thie», the invocation of fpitits» and 
the power of figures, of words, of herbs, of writingi^ 
of holy characters», and fo. nuiny other, inchantments, 
wherewith they confu^ the blacì^ aageU ; and thou wi^ 
fìnd that men do msuiy wonders by this art, w^ch they 
cannot do without fupernatural. aiSftance. 

The little bits of ps^rj» cut tn^ogularwife» ^rìnA 
To<?kta Chftm, tbe King of Perfia's general,' caufed I9 
be thrown in the night ro^nd about the imperial tent of 
the great Vifier Afis (in each of which there ^irs^B a cer» 
tain wprd wm) wrQi^gtit ippre confiderable effeds, than 
the Spaniard's ipchaa^d buUet, whicl^ lulled M^ibfi} 
CrequL The Ottoman army revolted the day following, 
as if pofieffed with furies* The moi& feditious took a^d 
bound the Vifier, and made him raife thefiege of Baby. 
hin s And the King of Perfia, who had already difiniifed 
Muftapha Aga, our envoy, with the treaty, whereby he 
fiirrendered this place, being advertifed of the precipitate 
reUre«it of our army, caufed Muftapha to be called back, 
H^àlg the .treaty ba bad given him in h» pr^feace- $ ^nd 


Ijade him tell his general, he could not do fo ftiameful all 
aéìion, as to furrcnder fo inaportant a place to an army 
-tìiat ^'as running away. 

Haft thou ever heard of any thing fo ftnmge f Read 
this Ahmet Cclcbi's book, and thou wilt, fee, that ail 
thefe prodigies arrived in one day. The hiftomn makes 
tio judgment upon this adventure, he only reports it ; 
neither do I believe it was an effeéi of the enchantments 
of thefe bits of paper, and the charaélers contained in 
them ; becàufe it is certain our army was greatly preffed 
with hunger. But In effe A, when Muftapha, all in tears, 
reproached the Vifier, that if he had gained but two dayi 
time, he had made a peace equal to a viAory ; Afis an- 
fwered him. How couldfl thou with thy tears, retaifi an 
army polFcffed with all the devils of hell, and refolved to 
t)e gone? 

' If thou finifh the reading of fo long a letter, accufe 
thy patience, and reproach not me with tedioufnefs, for 
having writ many things to thee, vsrorthy of being known. 
After the death of the French general, Breme was pre- 
fently delivered to the Spaniards, by the cowardlinefs of 
the governor, who incurred in time a rigorous deftiny for 
It ; having his head cut off at Cazal, where they had im- 
prifoned him. 

The great God prefer\'e thee and thine for ever; and 
protcéi thee againft the ill- will of thofe that do not love 

Paris, 20th of the 4th Moon, of the Year 1638. 

XIX. — To MuRAT Bassa. 

1. HE Duchefs Dowager of Savoy finds herfelf extreme- 
ly preffed by thè continual incurfioiis which the Spaniard* 

Bock h A SVT AT PARI». 49 

nake into Pkdfliont : tliey having bcficged Vcrcdk^ 9, 
place which covers the country on the ùdc of Milan. 

She herfelf appears on horseback with great courage, 
being lefobwd to recoYer what is loft» as well as to dew 
fend the reft» which is in fome danger ; having joined ber 
hcà t3XK>ps» with great diligence» to thole of France. 

A Cardine, which they call the Cardinal la Vaktte^ 
cpmrnandsf in the place of Marihal Creqni» tboie troopf 
of France» which ccMiiift of twebe thooCMid foot» jand £om 
thouiand horfe. 

Thou doft not know* perhapSf vhat thefe eazdiinb 
gre : they be the principal priefU of the Roman church. 
Their profeflicMi U not to .conuBoand armies^ though that 
{DQ;eti|iies happ^is, ijtbf r tbcough want q{ iàge oiptainsb 
whi^h tbefe ioEdd kiqgs soay fometimcs fiand in need o£$ 
pr for pthcr fecret r^fgos which are not always cafy ^o 
peoetratf^ and muft be of great iisportwce» France not 
wanting fit ij^cuJarv ; ^ .R,oman m.ufti» c^ed Innocent 
IV. gave the purple habit t9 ihefe priefts» .and obliged 
than to wear red hatg» ^aps and bonnets» that this co- 
lour Slight always put^h^s} in mind» they ought to (hed 
their bipod for the ikrvli^e of their church and idigioii. 

I lm3rc beoo told» thatiÌHmerly there were but five-and» 
tw€pt]f» and now thfiir ausoher is &id to be feventy^^twoi 
K^liiphis that of thp diJi;^s «f 4he ChriiliaB Mcfliahj 
hut thi^ afe feldom c^paplete. I waa deiirpus <^ htLag 
pr^ciCdy informed what .the d^ity of a cardinal is ; mi4 
an old pbyTicsan^ that (asm» to be an honeft ngian» in^ru^U 
me .10 iiQ thia|^ that xegard the religion and politics of 
the ChrifiLiaps. : be is f uch an eneniy to the cirjciimciijon» 
that he gÌT£S often 4e vncleaned of all meats to his pa^ 
tienti^ fuqh 9M we think unwhojeibme» and cannot be 
eaten without fin. 

Tboo ^t J9ft .a ftatefinao» tmd obliged to aSft at 
JW. /. c 


coQticil^ and in the divan, ought to knowinorc things 
tjhaa others, and thofe more pcrfeftly. 
. I wifl inform tnyfelf with care of the life, a^ons and 
genius of this Cardinal la Valettc, to know, whether the 
king his mailer has any other reafon than that of his va- 
lour and experience in war, to make ufe of a pricft in his 
armies to fhed blood and ruin people ; for I never heard 
the muffulraans did ever make ufe of a cheik to com- 
mand the armies of the empire : befides, they are with- 
out experience, fearful and fuperilitious. 
' The Spaniards are more powerful in infantry and ca- 
valry, having 18,000 foot, and 5000 horfe, whereby they 
pretend to render themfelves mafters of Piedmont, and 
drive the French wholly out of Italy/ The Mar4uÌ6 o^ 
Leganez, governor of Milan, affirms, that his king will 
not fuiFer the children of the late Duke of Savoy to be 
under the prote Aion of Grangers. He (ays, that Pigne- 
Tol, and other places in the power of the French, were 
ufurped upon the houfe of Savoy, and muft be reftored. 
They affirm, that the houfe of Auftria will hinder the 
widow, her children and fubjeóls from being oppreffed. 

Behold here aVi example of the iingular piety of the 
Spaniards, in favour of a widow and her children ; and 
on the other fide, admire the kindnefs of the French» who 
fight againft thefe fannfe Spaniards, for the cònfervation of 
that which concerns neither of them.. It will be diffi- 
cult to difcover thefe fecret myftefies. Every prince put» 
a value upon his reafons, as he does upoti his monies. 

The Dutchefs of Savoy came accompanied with a great 
ftumbei; of ladies, and the greateft'of her court. She 
'was oh hbrfcback, at the head of all the company, both 
horfe and foot, and harangued the army amidft the bat- 

She conjured, not only the captains, but *evc'n tHc cqi> 

Bbok L : A irt at paris. 51 

fonik and ponte uAaien^ nut to abandon her defence. 
She (howed all the ientiments of grief that a perfoa of 
conrageconU faav«, in ieekig herfelf expofed to lofe her 
eftatCy or ta fee her chfldren» in a manner, captives ; and 
upon thb occafion» (he failed not to mingle torrents of 
tears with die moft charming expreffibnt, which is ordi« 
nanly die ftrongeft do^tience of women. 
. The army being fcnfiUe of the dutcKefs^s misfortime, 
which flie had reprefented with all poffible eameftnefs, 
the Cardiaal Valette caufed it to difcamp to relieve Ver- 
celle. He forced the Spaniardt lines, and put two thou- 
fimdcmen into the place. 'The befieged^ fortified with 
fuch foccoors» made a great fally, and mach infidel blood 
was (bed tm both fides. But aU that the cardinal could 
do with his care, and the dutdiefs with her tears, could 
mrt hinder VerceOe from falling into the hands of die 
Spaniards* It is (aid, that the commander of this place; 
and his garri&n, defended themfelves to the laft extremis 
tf; atid having no more powder or lead, they fought at 
pufli of pike, with ftones, and finally, when all was gone, 
with their fifb. 

. But thia is not believed here, it being alleged, that the^ 
governor at the general» did not do their duty. ' The car- 
dinal, fay they, failed in his duty alfo ; for knowing the^ 
wanted ammunition, yet he did not fend it, though he 
found means to put into the place fuch a great number 
of tnen. But the governor is blamed yet more, that did 
not difcover this his neceffity to the general 

I tell thee ali thefe particulars, to inform thee of the 
manner how the French make v«rar ; many of whofe over- 
fights would cod us our lives. 

Thepe marched out of Verce&e 4000 men bearing 
arms. Thence thou mayeft judge, that our generab art 

c 2 

■^% LETTERS wainiir bt VdL t^ 

iot crud ffhfiKk they cau^e the hesdaf dcefmamtoen tm bt 
^isikcn off that behave thcmfdiFCs fo ii. 
. The Prìnèelb of Mantaù, nt^hò hsa loft ìàer fittfloffd^ 
igoMf they {ay, many a prmce of the Hou£e of Ao» 
ftxdat cafied the Cardinal Infant, vMck it aa tffeft tyf thci 
IM^ky of the Spaniards to have a hetter preUmde to ^1^ 
tack Mountferrat, and drive oat the FttAch, %ho e^ttOfu 
ed «bere by confeat of the Dvfce of Movtan» %fao was 
fiyteneigft theredf» 

The ^tant Dtike of Rohan h at iengtii àtanà, in n 
esftle nnrr Berne. I think I imt he vas huit axiS u!£m 
prilaner in the ba±tk ipi^^ht by the Sunedes li^&ft the 
Gfsxmzm^ He ms in the £xty<*cighth year of ikk aye, 
and waa veiy confidBrabk for his cmditioit, «dtfia*»^ tad 
«xperiejiceÀi-nran HetvasbndaffddierfiroKihisycootlii 
vds aiw^T» emjèoyod in mictary ifialrs» aoA had o'fléii 
commanded arnoeB. He iopported by iiis bra«ery and 
eKpfffieace, for a long time, the i^ennahis of a feeble ai}4 
dyin^ party agaioft the poarer of the kfof . Ha i«as fl« 
Vftwtttby ^ giea£nef$ dF isis hotA? ; and hi« Mli^on 
was that of the Calvinifts, called the ReFormbd. His 
body vas émbalmsd, and sftervtaxÓB bdoti^t- to "Geneva, 
unA great magnifinenoe aaid warlike fiomp, This dty ìm 
.^reireatof &ich as the cbundi of fitomr'Calt^iierótiés, 
who are afi xneH received here; irhich glws' gtreafocca* 
fioa of complaint to the Pope^s pardeone ; how reafon* 
tìdbft I ^vili not prefame to determme ; ^Hit there ^Sp^wn 
to me much mote f^^endovr in the cewmohies of thofe o€ 
tÌK Cadiolic cburdi, and they pretend to gf«atet* virtue 
and aatiquijty. 

Thefe are the tranfadions in Italy whidi -oaitiè to diy 
kntiwlòdge. I wiK ntit &d to vnrite what pa^d th Crer. 
a»anf thefe hut moons, as foon as I have the ctkainty' of 
them. ..... .^ 

J|oQk L . , A trx AT ramzs. 53 

. Pn^ God the jDUW}r dSSbrcsces woA wan wUch are »• 
inoiigft the infidda^ om j never end ; that Italy may be 
hwiAlc4 crenjto tkcftkni^ of the koffe, on which fides 
the great emperor of the ded of God» the £ùthlul muf- 
ùiimalas ; ajod that all Germany may adore the facred 
fprch of Mctxau 

I pcay. God (ii{)q^ thee always» that thott never fall ; 
and fo QooduA tbecr that ^u never goeft aftiay. 

Parb, aoth of ^ 4th Mooa, of the Year i6$S. 

XX,^ — To Dgnit Oglou. 

,X «a eonditioa I am in at pit&nt» imkc^ me think of 
thoie los^ juid tedious dqrs we paSed together at Paler- 
emo in davery. How fruitkfa were the tears whieh the 
irkibmeefsof our captivity made us (hed ì yet m^lung 
hefel us» but what is common to other men : bat thoa 
wert too young to fapport it,, and I had not experience 
eqoiigh of the world to conceive the unhappineft wheret 
unto fortune had reduced me. 

Thou art at prelent at Conftantinoplct where thou haft 
all thy heart can delire ; and I at Paris, where I have a 
tho^fand .things to take care for. Conftantino^c aod 
Paris are indeed two of the g^reateft cities in the worlds 
b«t much dtfEering in manner of living, clothes, language» 
and religion. Thou art at prefent in the midft of pleik 
fures. With thy friends; children, wife, with the liberty 
of exerciGHig thy religion, which is the true one ; aikd 
that, in the oiof(|oes, whicb our fathers eftabliihed t 
jnore<èver, thoa art elevated in dignity. I, on the coQ« 
tnury^ am amo»gft infidels, amongft idolaters and hm^ 
U^ ob%ed to live with a nation much difering from 
ours in their iocliaatioos and cuftomaw FinaUyj I ]ive 1^ 

c 3 

54 UXXfilbS WBZTXCK BT Tot. h 

moagk the deviti psaeooks* ^^ Tbc exceffivt liberty tkey 
gke them&lTes, it not-fodi «• it enjoyed wkh tnie iatif- 
faftbn of mind ; iodbg! they do a thou£uid ttiings Whicli 
4iarry .repentance along with them. 

The philofophy of the Stoics, which I learned during 
my captivity» gave me to underftand of what ^portancc 
it is far a man to knofw^himielf* Thou mayefl remember^ 
perhaps, in the beginning of ^ur ila^^y, that thy mafter 
and mine were no lefs oppofite in their manner of living» 
than our geniufes were differing* 

-My imjimy^wasafterbooks and writings ; and watch* 
ing did not weary me, provided I emj^oyed it in leani« 
ing fomewhat* On the contrary, thou being always és^ 
ployed tvit^ difei«it haadyiworks, didft little think duit 
HèaiKn had^iigned thee to wiear a fword, and^sconfe^n^tt* 
ly to the employmehts of war. •. ' i. 

How many things did we fuffer i» tht>fe days, whereat 
«xeda now laugh ? Thon wert always chained, and i in 
ptifon in a den ; thou wert beaten^ beeaufe thou trouidftr 
not read, and I was banged to pieces becaufe I would 
not embroider. ^ 

J The reading of Seneca could not induce me topardon 
my mailer the b^ftinados he gave tne* That which I en-> 
dared was greater than^the pains which thou didft 4u£Fer( 
I was*per&cttted'for thepkafure I took in reading ; and* 
they wotdd oblige thee to ftudy^ whereas thy inclmationt' 
vere qnitic: di&rent from mine. 

This hardlhip made me itefblve^o hide myfelf in a cel- 
lar, without bread and without water. I had nothing hvtU 
my Seneca with me ; and I was refoked to defiver myfelf 
bwxi my iiervitude by death ; fo far had this Stoie per» 
fnadèd me not to live. *^ Thou att fo near deuii* (quoth 
he) and in the iklean time art a flave.'' J^ge the fovee^ 
of my temptation, by the authority èf this great man. 

Book L * A SPI AT PARIS* J 5 

WJixlft I was tlius hid,, my mafttr feasoheifo? mt invaili^' 
in the garden» ^e ftable^ the kkéaicn^Aisà had O^ lek pnma 
to.find me than I had to htdemyfelf firoini'him.f : BuC )te 
length I chofe the better part, which was, to Jm «nd M 
foc|^Tb« ''.Vi • • 1 \ '. •• 4 

Mj Bsaikr owes his life to Seneca $ ke Uoght me fo 
well? to Jfoiget oiFences, that my defpaii changed mtb re- 
fpedL I had no more mind to die. I felt my courage 
fail^ and fear made me pardoa my mailer. Thou hadft ^ 
no knowledge of this advent ure,«becauf« I went into the 
country, and Uiou waft ranfomcd whflft I war out of Pft- 
le|ino« I was fo very intent, upon my ftudies, that my 
ov&fter, yanquiihed by my obftinacy» gave me liberty ta 
api^ myfelf to them, being himfelf aihamed to continue 
ignoiBot». whilfl i breamed of nothing but of improving 
my mind. 

Xn the courfe of four years and four moons, . that . my 
Qsptivity laftedt Nero's xxiafter gave me the firft t^dus^ 
of moraliity ; add after that, I went into the academies» 
where I writ the. journal of my life; Flutarch^ Livy,» 
and Tacitus, made me forget the odious names of maHes: 
and f]ave« . • 

. Thq examples of fo .many great men whofe hiftorie» 
vjf^ ;6nd' there ^ of fo many emperors, kings, captains;» 
xaaftcrs|r or. (laves of their paffions : fome dead ,by th< 
hands of their friends by poifon ; others by the fword: 
and furprife ; others perfecuted by their fathers or .theia 
foos^ fometime» by their wives, and often by their native 
country And (laves, fo often faved mti defended by them* 
(fives, difpofed me to fufier patiently the ftatc whereua<^ 
to I was reduced, and to acknowledge, *^ That the honed* 
man i^.n^ver a flave, wherever he is, when he can find hia: 
maficr within i^mfelf/' I had time then to do a thoufands 


good things, Ythtch I (hould n^r have <3onc, if I had 
iS&t been HI the condition I then found myfelf in. 

Coniider how much wc learn by books, and more yet 
iy the difgraces that happen to iw. We fee the 31 as in 
a perfpedive, and the good in little. Dlfgraces afflid 
us when they happen ; and g^d fortune when it leaves 
' its< When I was in my houfc, I lived not at reft, bc- 
canfe I fancied ferving ; and now I am in fervice, I am 
ÌA covtfnoal fear of not plcafing. How many (buia hath 
Amurath ferit into the «ther world to cxpeA the univer-^ 
hi day ^ jud^ent ! And how many more will he fend 
ki thi» (lege of Babylon, whither he goes in perfon^ car- 
tying terroi^ with him, and forces fufficient to deibxTy the 
empire of the Perfians ! 

He hath commaoded me to obferve the sezioni of th* 
Chriftians with all poffible application and exaj5^nefs, to 
give information of them. He will iti doubtful affairs 
have me to write to him my own judgment, and not th^t 
•f others. He will have me hot to (horten hut extend 
my explications ; that nothing may be left that w31 ad- 
mit of a double interpretation, and wffl rather have Ac 
tedious than appear eloquent by the concifencfs of my 
relations. He orders me to receive the advices of Car- 
coa, who is at Vienna, and to inform Adonai the Jew, 
who refides at Genoa, in what' is neceflary, to the >nd 
that all that paffes in Germany, Italy and France, may 
be difpatched to the minifters of the Divan. 
' The fecretary of ftate, as mailer of all that is written, 
has "orders to enregifter my letters, and examine thcin> 
He, according to his capricioufnefs, ór ignorancéi may 
render the exaftnefs wherewith I obey criminal, by faying» 
** I^ am a fool, or do not write the truth.** This regifter- 
iiig puts ine in pain ; for as many mean' things riiay ap- 
pear very good it4irft fight, and are often commended' 

^oek^. A SPt AT FJJOS. 57- 

heqaah of th^r noveky ; fo ffattjr jMy s^ipear aU» Tcrf 
de^icable wheQ tfaey cpme (o be cxaminedf and may db* 
ferve a check. 

I tell thee what 1 have i;eafoa to fear» without leUmg 
thee tkofe things which might Vaife a belief ia thcc that 
I hare reafon to hope. 

Our foYereigas are imghtf» and they diftiDguifli them» 
iArta from all the potentates of the world, by the iatipe* 
tuoufnefs wherewith they give their orders t and there is 
no empirà where puaiihments and rewards work fo great 
effeds.^ Thou kaoweft the reft» which is fuperfluoua to 
tell thee, and which princes do not willingly hear. 

Explain to me better the news I heard of Mofihladdm 
Aga, of an adion of juftioe of old Berber. 

He writ to me, that a creditor to whom he owed for a 
ftirt, being dead, he had put the price into the deceafodft 
handy -and went His ways. This new way of paying debu 
feems very exlTaordioary to me. There is an author^, 
frhether Crreek or Latin, I have foigot, which talk an0« 
thcr adventure, not unlike this, of a man, who, not &ati» 
hig ttis {hoemaker alive, threw the price of the &oes he 
had made him into Iiis Ihop. If thefe aéUo» be not 
doQ^ for oftentation, they ieetn virtuous ; ]iut if out of 
vanity, I cannot believe that our negligence to paty o«f 
creditors, whilft ^ive, can be ezcufed by the caxe we take 
to pay them after their death. 

The dead want nothing in the other world f they ave 
Bving that have need of fappliet in this, and who foffitf 
fometimes very much, when they are not pundbi^iiy paicL 
The ancients could never fnfficicntly dcfcribe the exceft 
which men committed by their paffions, and the modeiiia 
do it as Httle. They are juft (bmetimes even to fuperfti- 
tion, and fometimes unjuft even to ezcefs. Sidtan lilu^ 
a'« charitj for the poor tras very gfeal« Hp waa 


^9% ÙMisàcé, aecordiaf to the precepts ofiFfthagoras, to 
give life to beaib; hia fimplicity went yetfartber, oot 
precedent cd by any prince or faint ; he threw «pieces . of 
ipld to. the fiihesy in ponds and rivers^ alleging. for his 
reafbtt» that the took feciet alms were the moil agreeable 
to Cody and that thefe animals would never tell of it. 

' Thou wilt anfwer me when thou haft time and conve- 
nience. God give thee the fuccour which is neceflaq^ 
/or thee ; and l«t our Great Prophet be always favourable 
to thee. 

Paris, acth of the 4th Moon, of the Year 1638. 

XXI. To the K AIM AC HAM, 

JVLt laft letter» (how what happened in Italy, on the fide 
of Piedmont, which thou mayit have f«en at the Divan* 

I have informed the council what .the infidels have 
done there,, where three dif^cnt nations» which haveBdt 
one Tdligioo, fight together : The French make war upon 
the Spaniards^ to aifift the Savoyards *, and thefe latter 
would drive the other out of Italy, and reduce Savoy 
«under Ack power, which does what it canta avmd the 
yoke cf both thefe nations. :'...«. x : ::jb 

> it is to b« feared thi^ new troubles, may. anfe from 
tbiswa^r; which will undoubtc^y hiq^pe0,.if itiie sqt 
Auidtttly tetxmtuited by a peace. I wlli onlyawritrto 
%bte wtbét'I ki^w>, atid perhaps* what is. not cook, to thg^ 
iinowkdge» I vwSl not rep^t what I have already wtk^ 
ten^-betavfe i^y-teciers pafs-ftcurely», by thcgood 4icdGr 
^hichthoK.hlAtakcn»' - • ^ 

The different lAterefts of- the pàneesc'of Itafy, xieos^ 
ftdflf fmafi intelligence betimt them. A^ their eftaH« 
are feparat^d,, Ihe^ne from the "^à^fi^ia tlfidytacfidlvkfed 
. 3 

Book h A SfT AT tAAlS« ' S$ 

by thetr ma^twM^ thdr interefts, sumI prctcttfioni. Thqr 
iia?e, liow^veri but^one reUgioo» iwhich they make |p 
ferve for a pretext to their defigns» which are aQ differ* 
ent ; and there k not one ni them, which wholly rniad* 
his reh'gion» which cMi have but one only end* 

There are few that caa fuffev the conquefta of die 
French in Italy, becanfe that nation feema reftlefii» and 
«inen would not fee the Spaniards mòre powerful than 
they are, becaine they play too mach the mafters. But# 
however» as the lead of theie ft'vuc^ have their partieo- 
lar indinatioQS and fecret intcrefls with thefe two nauoits^ 
thou art ignorant of thofe of the republic of Genoa with 
the Spaniards, with whom they have ftrong alhancas > 
But peradventure thou- haft not been informed of a coa-r 
piracy» which appears to have been carried on in that 
city, to introduce the Spaniards into it» which the f^« 
Uic will in nowife fuiEer... 

The fatfd.Gooipiracy is tbua related: The li^urqiùi of 
Monterey having finifhed the time oi his government «f 
Maples,, and bein^ embarked with £om< g^lleya^ for hia 
jeturn into Spain, came incognito into Qeaoaj havipf 
had a ^ village near the town with fQfne o£ 
the conipirimirs, to, rendor himfelf miifter of the purl» 
and afterwards built a^ckad^l upon^the hig^ft fide of .^ 
Far. Some of the moft qualified were to open one of th^ 
^giiles jby n%ht» and reo^ve .the. troops that (hoM be dtf- 
barked ottt of the galleys* The Marquis of Legawir 
govemur of Milan» promifed to fend ta Genoa .a chaia^pff 
flsves, ftronger and more numerous, th^m of dinari^, whiobr 
mftead <^' confifting.of condemned criminals, who wafl^ty 
be compofed of the braveft officers, of. Milan ;^alld (0090 
aoUea of the aocoo^ljcest who Wjere to (hare i|i the f rea* 
ly, were to receive die troop^i ai;u} ^99^' armed, f9r.^t]^ 
cSi€ting.of thecatoiipie* ,2 .,,, j . .1. 

c 6 ; 

After ade%B fo wdl laid, the Sfamards were ready 
to emccm^ù^ iaréy «n uodortaking ; wèeo the repvèlic» 
Mug fttdd^ttly advertifed of the plot» «aufed tt to mif'- 
ctmry, wkhMit «oife, by redoidb^g the gOMNk, wiiich 
did not a Utile fiirpri^fe the confpiraton^ ^ 

CtfdifNd ftiddien't creat«re§ give «ut, that one Do^ 
My cafitd their prittce» did difiuade, m hinder the pkt^ 
i«hieh waf pmfitable £»: Italy» but contrary to our m* 
lerefts ;- lor thence tindoubt«dty had fpriHig a war, which 
woidd «ever have had en^ whether betwixt the fubjeéb 
«f th« commonwnealU), who would have nrkied each 
odier^ or France and Spain ; and thou wik alio find, 
fhat'4n preferring the Kherty of their country, and keep* 
iftg the Spaniards at a diftance, they will fnalntain ihenrw 
M^sétM in a condition advantageous ior the common^ 
v^al^> and neeel&ry to the crown of Spain. 

They fay, that the conftancy of Doria hath acquired 
&e lionoor «{ having twice Icrred the lihtrty of his coun* 
toy, ■ •^- ■• 

Thiè Dkma id; éefcended from Axidttw Déria, that 
^leat eaptaia who 4aò fo ^sany hnhe addons àgainft ott# 
nation^ coRimanding the niarithnc arimefrof Charles -V. 
Bmperof^of- Ocnnany ; -and imee thofe ollPhSip f I^ his 
Ibn, Khi»g ef^fifain, and who* oftèA eotnbàled the'fnwn* 
éJMa AfkéèBfc''- •• ' ' -' - r * o ■ -i 

'1 do not hcie^ lihftt Adonat, who wni at Cren<Mb hatk 
writ tlvb adventiire to thee, eàher b^afife it may net h# 
«fue, orbceanfethc AingBckigvery fe««t, kTwàa «i a 
mat|nér ftifledtrf lOOB as dliéo'vercd* 
^ BFthon wSt'know IJK pa t ti ft Au p tei ft ini n g n inide ì^on 
tfti ìòcca$eciìc B wil tdl ^eV T^t'ìiìé noft aé^«l 
Fréifdi^élieee, thnt the 8p«MrdÌB did attempt It» ^nr a 
Hew r^ ^^^ "^ *^ fvitic^ i« theeky» ^eméi^ 
pitf«f>M^h«ir da>efty« and tho «tliar ,to.rlMuift4l^ fluNi» 
authoiit^y did %oth avoid the to&du&on. 


The d%H3nirfe « «t prtffent varidut concerniiig this re* 
p^bHc) and the French ed aemucli endeavour fe innke 
fecret treatieft vrkh it, m the Spanianit to hinder its change 
of « iafaw I k hcing alwaya of great adtantage to fach 
who have pretences k Italy to be in good corvefpaodenee 
with thk place, mhidk may be termed the pviacipid pott. 

The French make, a great aoife with their prttciices 
upon Genoa ; and they at prefent revive many ancient 
hiftories. They affirm, that the Genoefe, when they 
had differences arooogft tlieio^T£S> have oftentimes chang- 
ed their bws and their mafters ; and that they have been 
febjc^ed to ftrange powers: that two CkarWs, oat 
Lewis, and Francis I. all kings of France, have take« 
them into their prote^on, liaving alfo fttbdoed them try 
force of arms. They add, that this Francis I. continued 
a great wlule to fend them go^vemors ; and: that it waa hf 
Ifhe valour and refolution of I>orta, that ^lis repiMc reco» 
vered its firft liberty, 

Thefe are the diicourfes thai people make at Pltrts, th« 
entertainment ^ofitBeperfons, as alio of ear pélkicnnsu 
It wifi he a hard matter to td what the kteg tiiinks^ 
and what are the fentimehts of his eooncfl. 

Coniider m the mean ttme, with what trnpodettee peo^ 
pk ^^ottffe here; they -prefame to éecMe «Aira of 
ftate; they decide and accommodate éiìfiarenees t they 
fiipportand rmn commonweafldis and kingdoms. Bnt 
this is no new thing, the peo[^ m aH thues having takes 
the fibeity to *cettftne the a^ons ^ fe vc reig ns . t 

It is not for enlarging my fetter. Chat I write tbele pam 
tletilars'ofUhe'hiftery of Crenóa; but heinrg en ancient 
nation^ whiéh Yiatk formerly * wcane<!l the courage of' ^btt 
Romans by their enterprifes and oppofition» and* hatf 
perfbrmed upon ott feat great aid néUe iftions i Thf 
QfisMMi^ havtf4ier tbercferc tà GonfidctsitoiB } aito 'ttC' nt^ 

6% L£TXElLB*im|TV£N BT V^ I^ 

ther becaiife we poflefii many couatries» and coofiderablc 
places that were under their dominion in Afia Minor^ 
upon the Black Sea» and in the Arcbtpdago« 

I (kail ever recommend all thy word» ^fid •Sdom to 
Ahnighty God» and pray him to hinder thee from fall«» 
iog into error» and to profp^ all thy undertakings. 

Parif, 44th of the jth Moon, of the Year 1638. 

XXlL^^Tù the fame. 

xIbn&y of Bourbon» firft prince of the blood of France^ 
marching by Bourdcaux» came upon th^ frontiers of 
Spain» where hebefieged Foatarabia, ftrongly £eated np^ 
on the brink of the ocean. His army is made up of twelve 
thoufaod foot» and twelve hundred horfe.. The two nationi 
have, had feveral encounters and flùmdihes» wherein th& 
lofs and gain have been equal on land.. ■ 

^ '. But the Spani(h affairs go fo fll at fea» diat thou wilt 
wonder at the^ giaeat lodes they, received there. The 
French have bumt two gsdleons. upon the ilocks» that 
were making» and fix others entirely Bniihed». which had 
not been yet at £ea. They have farther taken eleven 
great fii^s». whsreof fix were nicbly laden.for.the Indie^^ 
befides the equipage and muniuona of war ; witktwo old 
galleons that were-of no great ufe* They &rther took a 
prodigious number of cannons» which lay upon thefhorCf* 
lOO whereof were brafs» all with the arms of Auftria. 
. If all this I write be true», as i verily believe it is» 
we majF &yr that this- prizc^ in^er^ there no more than 
a hundroLand fi£ty piecea^if .ordnance» was m mean pur« 
chaiie.. . . 

I iay. nothing of the g^9t quantity, of artiUery mooqt* 
ci. 19^ the fiiips and galleons» for fesur. of troql^ng^theft 
«vith the news of 16 great a vidory» wherein the Ercilck 

Book L ▲ srr iMi faris. 6j 

g^iisàoà£o many veflek» and fach great ricbes as will fuf- 
^€0 to equip a great fieeu 

The prince befieges the place and preiiès it ; but the 
Spaniards defend themfelves brarely, and much blood 
will be ihed there. 

The prieft of Bourdeaux, which thefe infidels call the 
archbiihop, was com^ thither with fixty fail j whereof 
forty-two are men of war, and the reft attenders ; with 
fome firefhips, filled with bituminous matter ; which in- 
flames eafily, t9 bum the enemy's ihips where they can 
come at them ; fo that there is nothing wantii^ in the 
armies by fea or land» 

This Archbiihop of Bourdeaux makes more noife at 
prefent than the pope ; and it is crediUe that what he 
has done» wHl gain him great favour with his king. 

He haS) with as much courage, invefted fourteen gal«> 
Iks and four frigates, which came from the Qeighbouring 
ports to the relief of Fontur^bia» with three thoufand nz*. 
turd Spaniards. 

. He foi]^ht fix hours together with this new army, which 
he entirely vdefeated, having burnt and funk allthefe ùàpBp 
except one galley^ which was ftranded and rendered ufe- 
lefs. The Adminé of Spaio, with eight hundred men, 
was blown up ; which w^ts aa fmalL mkfiytnnc to the 
%>antm^ who loft upon this occafion a great number 
of foldiers and'ieamen : and it ls< believed they will not 
be able to appear before their enemied at fea this great, 

. K fo many loffes fuSered by a party,, are not advanta- 
geous to the Grand Signior, becaufe the. other is grown 
fi^-tQudi ihe4lnmgier> thereby,. he will ^ow^rer g^in this 
benefit by it, that the French and SpwHi being both. 
cacÈtien to our natioo-iandreligicsi,. our affairs will be in 
^IM^ ' feeurity^ when of . two enemies we fee one ^up- 

64 LETTUS WEinni bt Vol» X^ 

The» Frenck pubtifli by tkeir joy and contnuiJ feaft^ 
ibgs, the advantage they recei^ from thcfe fucccl]fes«. 
And tkef^ infidels have reafoa to rejoice, tfaeiF vkj^ory 
having :dlthe agreements {K^ble ; It is indeed gre^t» aad 
theii^ lofs very inconfiderable* 

They fay there were but twdve of the (hip8 of France 
dtforderedy and that they loil not; above a hundred fea-< 
men, and very few officers. Here hath been made ai 
lai;^ relation of this vi^ory ; and it is engpraven in cop- 
per, to the end it may be made public in all its partieu- 
hrs, and the memory of it conferred to ftitm^ ag^* 
Since the lofs of the armado, furnamed the Io vincible^ 
which PhOip IT. fent into England, in the year 1588, tO' 
make war upon a woman, we have not known that Spain 
has fuiBcred fo great a lofs. . '^ 

This is the only news I can teH thee at prefetit. So 
many armies as are in eontimial a^ion, wiS fumifii matter 
enough hereafter to divert thee, by reciting the foHieé bC 
thefe infidels, who feem to dcftroy themfdves daily, and 
ruin their affairs to gratify ns by their defeats, and aiake 
«8 triumph. 

Paris, 1 7th of the óth Moon, of the Y<ar 1658. 

XXUI.— r« Afis, Bq^. 

If thou always followeft thy inclination, and thy nattl« 
ral hoaefly, thou wilt be indefatigable in faithfully ferv- 
ing the fultan, and thoa wilt not be averfe to him that 
efteemjB thee, and loves thee. 

Read what I write to thee, and publifli it wfiCB thov 
hail read it, that the council may know, diat it ia refohr*- 
ed at the diet held at Stockhc^m, the refldence of the^ 
King of Sweden^ to continue th^ waf agamft Aiiftria ;. 

Booll. 41 ipr AT FAXis. 65 

wl tfaat the DtBke <if W«f«ttr, atid the General Bta* 
ner» begin «Ifeady to combat the Impcriaìifts. Tkoa 
wSt fee Spam «ad C^enfiany attacked on fo many fideSf 
abd by fuch powerfai enemies» that it is cre£blc there 
may happen fiich vaft laStt to aQ thefe Chnftians, that 
the true beGe«»aw% hate'occafion to rejoice, and to 
hope yet the aggrandÌKÌa^ of the great and moft mighty 
king of kings Sultan Amun^h, mafter, and abfolnte fo- 
Tvre^n of both feaa, and yanquHher of aU nations. 

This king hath feat an army into Picardy, under the 
eammand of MaHhal Chatiioti» to h^^tgc Bt. Qmer, a 
very fttótig plode in Ait jis» belonging to the Spannrds ; 
iticnl ^Stages ^nd fotrtia of cenfidemtion bdng sdready 
bomt and pttaged. 

. Tbe (mhBA Hate M^nwt falotes thee ; gires thee a 
fiseodiy ki&^ and wilhls thée afi ton. of profpenty. - 

Paris, 24th of Che ,6fih Moon^ oC the Year 1638. 

[ I ' ii r ■ i ri i 

• , ' i ■ ' . . 

XXXY. — Tatif Kaìmacbasu . 

1 HE King of France hath fent forth another army. I 
have afready informed thee, that tfiis prince hath already 
three armies in three parts of Europe. There is one in 
Piedmont, commanded by Cardinal la Valette ; another, 
whereof Pnnce Henry of Conde is gencraliffimo, which 
they hope wfll quickly take Fontarabia ; and another, 
commanded by Marflial ChatiUon, which beficges Saint 
Omér. ' •■ * ■ • * , ' 

The Duke of Longnevilfe is at the head of the fourth,' 
which IS entered into Burgundy, With défign to ruin the 
French county,* defended by Duke Charles of Lorrain, 
one'of 'the Emperor's generals. ' »• 

Sò'iiiàtiy'annles; and fo many taptains iharch ^gaiiitf 

tjlie^ Spaniards. Th» nadbn- fuficteiidy màtiikfts her 
£once* . She is attacked on all fides» ^od lefifts «id dé^ 
£eads herfdf on all fides. This uraft exteat of countries^ 
which the Auftnans pofieb, though feparated from eac^ 
othcFi is the reafon that thej-are always employed in de* 
ibndiog.themielves ; hut they will he.etenially expofed to 
lofs» without any appearance of gam. 

Thou knoweit that the trjue fecpet of preferving unioii 
amongib the good, is to entertain pei'petual differences 
amoogft the bad i and thou wilt fee»^ that all the adven- 
tures of this country will render us ifiTÌncible. > What I 
ten thee is a true {aying. llie Frenchiat prefent aire too 
powerful, with fo many troops, fo many armies by fèà 
aisd lands which are feen in the provinces of ti^ir enemies. 
. The other Chriftians are in continual at>prehe&fions; 
The ambaffadors of princes, who refide in.this town and 
court, obfenre with great diligence fo many extraordinary 
things, but £iy nothing; they do, like me, they write 
9Bd advertife their mafters. 

I am afraid thou wilt take no pleafure in the relations: 
I make thee of the fucceffcs of fb grtfat a power ; but I 
ought to let thee know the truth-. AffaU-s are carried on 
here with much art. The miniftcis fcijve with great fi^e* 
lity, and are very fecret. Cardinal Richlieu^cjif 
tire afcendant over the king's fpirit ; arid to fay truth, is 
a perfon of great merit. They fay he afpires to true glo- 
ry, and will place the crown which Charlemagne wore, as 
emperor of the weft, upon his nutfter's head. If the good 
fortune of France marches always at*this rate, the misfor* 
tunes of its enemies mudi be eicefiive. 

The manifold wars which this monarch undertakes^ 
and Richlieu counfels him, do in the mean time make thr 
people (who bear the burden, by the taxes which they are; 
forced to pay), murmur ; befides t^ieir grief for the lufa o£ 
their parents and friends (lain in thcfe war». 

BookrI. . A tnr a^ ? aiis» ' 6^ 

Tht tsaaakosi ftan^peace» add apprAoidt his eiieiiiks 
jBay dbftioy klm^if they have Idfore to cabal agai&ft hn». 
lliMliie jfiads. his Àiteidb in the war, and the arn&es fop» 
port bis authority. . « 

I caanot y«t make any certain judgment of him, nor 
hate a perfxQt knowledge of his mann^rs, no m«re than 
of the extent of hia gemns, becaufe the man hides many 
thifl^ during hk llhmiilh a dfe£H ^^ch will be difcover. 
ed when he dies. We cannot fee which are his good in- 
dioalions» and it ia not eafy to penetrate into a ^icovcry 
•f the vices whid& he is inclined to* 
, in £ew. words, he has much contributed to the peace 
^ Erance^. divided by diverfity of religion. . He hatii 
fuccoMsed Italy, and manifefted there the power of th« 
king his ibftf^ign ; has weakened the empire of Ger- 
many> by the war he hath carried into her bofom by the 
joint forces of the princes of the north, and them of 
France at once ; and no Itfs weakened the power of the 
king of Spain. . . . > 

Thou that knoweft' evety thing that pafles, and haft 
intellig^ace frpm all paits of the world» canil truly judge 
of affairs ; which makes thee know, and forefee all thai 
may prejudice the formidable empire of the Muifuhnans* 

" Paris, aoth of the 7th Moon, of the Y^r 1638. 

XXV. — To th Kajmacham. 

/Vli. is in peace here, the war being carried on abroad* 
The court continues to make vows for the queen's health 
and happy defitery. They feem not fo much concerned 
for the king's welfare as the queen's ; every body being 
perfosaled that the happioefs of France depends on her 
&fe deliréiiy. 

€$ LExrus mtcsmr n V0L l^ 

* I^wpnt to CkkniEgt MuluMict, that fatt ftouUmenlio» 
tlw queen's being wkh chfld as s daubifal thii^^ «ad 
which. might vaoifh ; but at pit&nt k U moft cci«ativ; 

for (he will ihortly be brought-to-bed. She lises in gnat 
repofe for fear of huxtiag hctfdf ; (he fcarce Aire a^jil of 
her bedidnaoiber» aud every body eodeawara ta {dqale facr*^ 

There is news from Praveoce, of the arrefting of a 
king's ion by chat goveraat» Timpiifuiiir is brother to- 
Uladiilaus king of PoUumL 

It ia laid that tlK King of Spain had made PnnccCa^ 
fimir viceroy of Portuf^, in recompcnoe of the tco^a oJT 
•officks he had fionneily raided to de&nd the oonnt]p of 
Aunrgtmdy* They add» ^t being embarked at Genoa». 
upon on^ of the gaHilBi of that repnbhQ» for Spain, ta 
take pofleSon of the find chaige» witka £EnaD tx«in ot 
démeftics» and count Kookkpolfti, who calfe(i hi»Mf 
Uladifbus's ambailàdor, wkh the Maniuis of GonKagne, 
his kinfman^ being arrived in Proianeer andr vifitkig wit^- 
care all the pores aud fortreiTes, this gave no fmaB cauto 
of fiifpicion to the French» He (laid ibur days piiv«te.<- 
ly in MarfeiOes *, but his^ galley wag nmfted at hmfif the 
hJà port of France» by orders of the king. 
. It is not yet known wluit obUged France to make » 
perfou of his quality prifoncr, having nothing to do with. 
Poland ; and King Louis XIII. having no particular 
pqne againft Prince Cafimir : But the fecrcts of fiate be^ 
ing only known to them that govern kingdoms, I pre- 
tend to penetrate no farther, but content myfelf to yrite 
what ihey do, and what they fay» Thou» who I» the 
9bfence of the Vifter Azem, art the glory of his high- 
tefs's council, art beft able to difcover the reafon of £» 
cv^raordiDary a novehy. 

, The moft knowing perfons at court fay, thl^ prifoiitv 
will fuddenly be fet at liberty ; and that havii^ nò W4ir 

Book t Jkfm AT f ARIS. 6^ 

that mzj avthofife liis d^entionj it would be m^ft to 

The ei«iit wiB eeaìch me, who wm ìgmnmU tni theot 
that twodd tdi^e, that whkh perhaps nàbody knows at 
prefent. May it ^ea(e«the great Godj aiafter aod fove» 
TeigQ moderator of v3i tilings, that the inteUigences and 
gtt^B» which I five, may dwafs he profitable ai»i agree- 
able $ aod that thy Ufe may be of «tenid duration, -hr 
the ha^tiMfr of our great ea^peror and his empire. 

Th<A fliait faddeniy know whefdner Prince Cafimir be 
tetaiaed longer in pivfon, or £et at Kbcrty • I would that 
King UIadillB9s were in the finse ote'sfcitime in the hands 
of the jani;iai»es ; and that he, as well at his kingdom^ 
were fhtves to the invincible Sultan, king of kings; to 
whofe power may it pleafe the Divine Goodnefs, and the 
wgell of his prophets» te M^ nfi èie eomUssea^of the 
jbfidds, and then to place him with his wives and all the 
propheté In his paradSTe. 

, .Paris, aoth of the 7th Moon, of the Y«ar 1^3}. 

XXVt.— To /i^^ Kaimachaw. 

.•■'■" , 

^XXAViMtG given thee an accoivit of the impn£»ainent of 
Cafin^tr, I will relate to tjiee the voyage of King Uladl- 
^bu, biS brother, who is gone » progreft into Hungary 
and Germany, 

The news here is» that the Kinjg of Polapd was gone 
to mak^ a vHft to the Sang of Hun^^ry ; whoj to do 
hsm honour, fent the chief of his nóbks to receive hi» 
upon the confines of Moravia. 

They write alfo, that Archduke Leopoid went ^m 
Vienna to meet him : they embraced like brethren ; aaé 
Tctumed together with ^e Qjjeen of Poland and her 


Mcr tack to court. It is added, that the people rccèf«'- 
ed this company with great acclammatiotis, with' thie' 
noife of the caimoo, and all the fm^U fhot of the city. 
\ The day fdlowing, having dined in the Imperial pa- 
lace, they went together to Luxemburgh to vlfit the Enl- 
prefs Eleanor, widow to the late emperor of Geitrikny. 

If Carooa hath not infontfed thee of thcfe particular», 
thou w2t receive them firom Mahmut, 'who watches in* 
cefiantly to give true intelligence, and penetrate as much 
as may be, into all that occurs and is done in this great 
court, which gives motion to aU the courts of Europe. ^ 

■Reprove me if 7 do not well, and punifli me if tlie 
emperor be not Well ferved, and thou fatisfied. 

Pari^ 15 th of the 3th Moon, of the Year 1638. 

XXVII.— To Kerker Hassan„uB^4 

00 not accufe me of being ill-advlfed or negligent, if 

1 write to thee things that thou knoweft already. I am 
only catefbl in telling thee what happens here, and my 
bufinefs is not to inquire whether thou art better inform- 
ed another way. When I am ordered to write all that 
comes to my knowledge, I do my duty in doing it, anà 
I odght not to be reprehended for it, 

I am told that the Sultan is gone with an army, mòre • 
numerous than all the leaves on the trees, to deftroy the 
Red'Heads^9 and conquer Babylon 5' I knov^ that the 
mufti, the grand viiier, and all the grandees of the divarf 
fi^owfd him ; but I am ignorant of what he did in his 
firft expedition when he took Revan. 
. An old Engliih merchant, who comes from Ifpahan, 
and had ferved in the. army of the faithful muflulmans, 
* Periians. • 

^B^k I. . A SFr AT PARIS. Jt 

paffed this way in his return to England. H^hatli bcefa 
an cyc-witncfe of the great anions of Amurath. He 
fay s^ that thi» mighty emperor, after his taking of Revan» 
left twelve thouiand foldiers in garrifon there \ with two 
hondred thoafand crowns in filver, befides copper moneys 
to pay them* 

,He faith alfo, that our mighty monarchy being wearied 
to fee fo much Uood of the feithful» yea, of the heretic 
mufliiimana fpiUed, he had fent the King of Perfia a chal- 
lenge, offering to fight fmgly in duel with him ; but he 
i^ovàà not accept of his d^. 

He tell&'how Amurath being fallen into the water, xi 
paffing the river Haret, was in ^reat hazard of being 
hàà up in ezpeéUtion of the laft judgment-day in the 
other workl, had it net been for a young lufty Solack^ 
who took him by the arm, and dr^ged htm out of the 
river. This accident was the prelude of a great good for* 
tune, which haj^ned to this mighty prince upon the 
bank of anotJier river, called Mako, where hie had the 
new3 of the birth of a fon, born to him in the feraglio at . 
Conftantinople, whom they call Ahukldin ; whoCe naitivit^ 
jiath been celebrated with infinite demonftmiont of joy.' 

This Englifhman tells us farther, that Amurath has 
taken Tauris, and appeared publicly there, with all the 
marks of a formidable power ; thatiieriiad deftroyed the 
King of Ferfia's {eragho, burnt. the piUic markets, and 
caufed a million of fine tnees, which renders the k>f8 irre^ 
parable, to be cut down. 

XiCt me know, when thou art. at leifure, whether this 
news be true, and do me the favour to tell me our great 
emperor's fuccefs in the expedition of Babylon. The po- 
liticians here attend; the news of it with much, impatience* 
It ia «Uowed that Amurath is themoA potent of all prin- 
ces» 'the: IbisB^ft man ahve, and that only he can vanquifh 
andiijui«vthi:king»x)f:thècar^h. - -I >i r . : 

f% L£TTfì«$*^wmttmil BT Vàk>t! 

Tmo ftnuigers of «Uffereni nstfionB» ftnd both df Toyal . 
Uood» are dead in thk city. TKt one is Don CSmftpphav 
fon of Dan AiiUakb King of Fva^^gtl ; wbo» after ^ 
bad lived fixtf4i% years, wiUi<M*i ever aj^teining the crown 
of UaliMfcbery 4i»l in a convent of fIcrnC»» cattod Corde^ 
llersy where he was buried, in the fame place wkeic his 
fether'g brotber bad bcea iiprmeHy* 

The other ftrasiger w^s caUad 2a|^ Chciftoa^ whofvat 
the legiwmte ti«Gce£br of ikt imgifm of F^rtriiìpta ; • 
f oaagina» of i«i^enty«five years» fao to «be £a9preis Na« 
zarenoe» widow of Jacob, Scaperot «f ihft Ab^ffiaet, 
mdio 4ied in a vifis^ near Paris» He qvaftaed bis iting- 
it^mt aa thoa kaoweft» forced by <ci«tt wavsi aad aniM 
io Fntnoe in the year n^^ of the bagsra of die €hii& 
tiaoa. After aaany adxoatairefi be «otnpa&d.tàe Mìàory 
of his TaavAb». n^ofa be pecfaanoi \Mk aooaUea^aad 

WJm& has he liot AiCered iji trawsfiagmanf JbiofdoMil 
Am)m tbalMavt, £gypt# AfiaMiooiv andjcwafalaiii 
viJKene jbe raa the faaaard <of bmg atocfted by the Balk 
tbat ««fidas there, vinm be cfcaped, by Totsatngby iù^ 
to Naiwacfih, émoogft site Chnàten den^s» ^trikei^b^ «éoni 
eealod biaafelf fire moans. . . .i .. 

He faid here* that an eunoeh of the Baffa of Gairo» 
bad letiok&aieiud bim to foriakeiflwClirifttan«e%lom 
|»vbUib»««eouid3is«ercQBÌeat; ^Méwfyéd^t» gt> lA 
GonftMiàiM^.to bandble bjaofrif % pi>oÉnttHi{r.|icrÌse<a 
in the duU of the Grand Signior^ leèt ^ «ddibiigb tbt 
bs(8a7f]i|«itnely preflcd him to k, snth ineay -ad^uitSfaous 

' This kii^ bA0doaeaBttcbbonBurtetbeiiiaMsof«tlK 
dead peìpoe» wbilft ipetbapa he fnfFeta cawtbAiag totiM w aUt 
wbiab smitkff thois nor I Aatt Mktf i£ -wt aAway» ^Hvc 
|tbe>tM»hWwiffidma«i>aflo o a ài^ 
law» ordained by Mahomet^ aadtrrictait.'initbiiiihlooiba*' 

Book I. AunAXtàMXs. 73 

. Aldi i^Uly hear d»l thy Ufie is fafe» aod of fiaend* 

Paris, 20th of the 8th Moon, of the Year 1638. 

XXVIII. — Te the Kaimacham. 

1 HAT wfaich hath been fo long expeé^«d, is at length 
kappencd : The queen is brought-to-bed of a dauphin ; 
the kfng is a fòther» the kingdom feems to defire nothing 
more, and the people witnefs their joy by a thoubnd dif* 
' fevent feftivities. * 

The men, the women, the children ahd the aged, run 
through the (beets as at bacchanals. 

They re'oice with their firiends» they go to churchy and 
thank God, as if a Meifiah had been bom to them. 

AH the pridU praife God in their temples for fueh a 
prefeftt $ and the monks, not fo content, deafen the people 
wkh the noife of their bdlls, and dQ more than the drums 
and trusopets of the foidiers, and all the cannon of the 
isitadcl and aifenaL I did in coo^any of others» what I 
(hottld not have dared to perform i£ I had been atones er 
had not been obferved. 

Thoie whoaihrmed the queen would be.bnmgbt«to*- 
bed of a Ìm> pr«tend now they had .beoi advec^fied by 
lame difine revelation» and will pa£i f«r pre|>bd»i and 
ansQogft the{e theie >aie many xdUgiotts^ ObCexwe bosw far 
their Ji4>e^tion extends. ' . * ' 

Xbe^ecnirt has d^patdied many exprefies into all the 
provinces of France^and others have been fent to aU the 
attbafladors» U> give4>bliee of this bkdft t<^ thdr rei^ótivv 

A prieft, abifliop, hath baptised this child with* 
«Blany ccfeaMuyt i» preienec of the Chani»Uor of France» 

VoL I. 

74 XETTflKft WillTVEM BY KM*)]. 

tilt priimeBy pnaoeffcs,aiid gmkécH of the'Uiigdttiii ; tlic 
further fokmnity being referved for aoMlier tmCé 

The king commanded Te Deum to be publicly fang» be^ 
ing ^ hymn which is ufual to aB Chrifttaos» to thank 
^€tod far wmwUi nary fucpcifc», 

Nothing is iieen in the ftreets of Parts bat boocfire^ 
4md fottniains of wine, which run day and night« 

The people teftify their joy ; ifid^the Sres «re lb great 
t)» 4U*fide% that it looks as if the cay were to be rcdi^ 
«td ta aftet^ 

Amongft fo QMny fnbjftéÌB of jay» the king has whewii 
with to afflici him, having been for fome^days tormcatoi 
with a violent tertian ague ; and it caanot be but he muft 
liave his fpicits agitated wkh fo maay wars at once. He 
has amóes againft Spain» ia flandcm, Italy» Burgundy, 
and the empiee in Germaay ; wkhont meimoning his 
aaVi^ fgi-ees» and the dsfigns and pretenikms which he 
éotb f»t yet dfcbre* Thou mayeft betsonfideat tihot 
.kagues will be formed agaiaft him, and con^racicB 
agataft h« ftate. The great ones of the kmgdom are 
aot afieep ;" having hmg fince had defigns to humble the 
wvQaritKB and asminErs^ .whafe 'depoitmeata -^rnipcsned 
them, and to make themfelves maftert of ^iSàn and the 

I fama a pieee of news to tdl thee ; but receive Jt 
«•tomàig fnm, a wonan, aot Mafaaurt. I ftldom knk 
that ibv afttscdf wfaich-in appeatfame is not truths ^iVtet 
I am going to fay wiU undoubtedly ieem ridicidims. - c • 

The women give oat that the daophin has «eeth^ «od 
«hto aarfai will wkaefs h. Thofe who:.«iMy bcite«qai|»n- 
^ers, piMfflfcthk aa a .meA oettaid tratfa.' <E%a;>pecffa 
who add £uth to the moft incredible things, raife teaiel 
>afo» tllÌ0r and arc'iitf t>f p«cteB^k#>a^giiriN» ^^vw v^T 

JBat tltore Mag né ]#r t^MpaliKgotkjiia'MilriiefajdHtt 

i^rtóck W0<cfij»d.i Ì9<ard9»k^i.tho&Tinayeft thorcfore receive 
this new» m tbuv^xlesfefly axid look upon it as uCcl«&» and 
<mic^e mei . 

::TWyjgiv()[.tbe.kÌBg the title. of Siuty which tiiey add 
to that «^ Jaft» becaufe loi im gi^ pw^ria dcvciiiig 
biaiioo»- before he was 'bom* to the Viogm (whkfa' the 
Chriftianiiiay isithe .«other of ùtck Meffiah), wtUi iai 
hhg/à^ixi^ijpcafk^ aadperfon» which he hadi j^t iii»i«r 
i^ predica of ^he mother of hts God i which he hat 
made appear hy prayers, piDceffions, and eztraofdiaàry 

This ceremcnvy is ordinary enough with théfe infidels ; 
whOf b^atf inescufi^e i^doktry, devote their towns» antf 
dedicate their temples, to ia«a that are dead, whoa the^ 
caiilT&iatd; worii^i^g 'them sEft«i:wàni» upon their al» 
t^|} and invoking tiiem ta their diftr^s. 

{ It-bnve iMthiag move aft prefent to wrke >to theet 
Qua fpyis. thffe «twap <tbe gmce to be jiift t0 «hf^Eclf ami 

Paris, i6tii of the 9tÌi Moon, of the Year 1638. 

-«-Jj h.>. »i. XXÌX.— yb /A^? C'j/tom Bassa. 

5^#te^irtÌB-k)f th^rDanphin df "Franca happened this 
hraàth^nfrhereof I ^srthwith advcrtifed the Kaimacham. I 
iaS^&tS'in a great éfty where ;thry fést^ continually^ 
ttf ttOSi^^éit lort they fttwè for àk king, the queen, thè 
9«ttnjgfipfcè(ée^andtlie{bite. ' 

■I «fby^^pra^li^lfy*; 4{fe'xftoèn^fertflble,t(f whom foie- 
ièMe-Wl^ci itfthtng 4Mt ^«fts, 46 dò# dSvert them* 

The wome»"«^Mcé'^yet «oft ; and ft feetna this aS^ 
wftftuif àgft Jr^ftiitf |^lftàto>aBy. Thettodriittft'Otte.of 
a Da 


7< I-ETi:W|S, VIUfWH BY ^àk.V 

tbamiUt woul4<iM>t Jii^-in i^ilXtm maid» wonldM mo^ 
iticn.* '^nd flbff.^aoib .a4\»nced in fraart d^ ^ot 

/' It f««mft.hci»» j^trOod^oolj be^9.^ipciB7eca.of tht 
"Siftmk ; &>r |kf]^ hàk^^ At qaeea had n^vier bee» with 
Aad,T}£..^^vPi^plc w«re m)t. ioisf. Thw jail WKevc, 
that they pwc it to a miracle of htatmi) not of nature, 
t^ thc^j&hild kh^mt aadforihatfcafim he is^calkdGiyejri 
%£iGoa. .. 

» If this he fo, thou muft conclude this «prince w2i be 
very great» and, mvcb to he redoubted» who hath God for 
his father, and is heir of a great kingdom. Tp £ay the 
Inuh^ France was. never (b flourifhing» befides the. great 
armies they entertain by fea and land. 
. But th^ which appeax? moft important to me k, their 
vanquifliing the Hogonots» and de&aiing the rd>elB. 
The birth of a, fucc^or does much heighten thefe ad- 
laKtages» and cauies a great bappineis to this kingdom. 
I have my Ihare in the feafting, being obliged to do as 
others : For to what purpofe fliould I appear abided ì 

Before I relate to thee a bloody combat of galleys» 
which was fought in the fea of Genoa, I will inform 
thee of a ludicrous one in that of MarfeiUes, which re- 
fembled thofe. fpedlacles the ancient Romans exhibited 
with fo much pomp and nugnificence, called IsTai^na- 

The Count of Alais» govempr of Provence» cauft4 
£our galleys, two againft. two, to con^t, ficft ^th <«£« 
non, and afterwards with {mail ihot ; and laftly» ^ hodià 
with fwords and pikes, which was a fataipre&ge i^r tito 
nations, who ran in fearck of /eaish other- throt^b.^.^he 
ocean, and ej^hibited a fad fpe£Ucle by battles, wlum^yi 
number of valiant men wcreieei^.to per^h., ; •• "f^ 

. Fi^^c-ftpd-twenty Spani/h galleys syjesja^o^the^pbafi» 

Soék'I. A SPt AT Pi£RIS. ^ 77 

of 'PKhreBfc, wÌNfi^* k was ^id thcy#ere come to ftirw 
^nf<er fome markiihe pb<ie. But the Count of Harcourt, 
general of the armies of the Levant for the king, 'ha?*- 
hig giveit>tiiefli cliace, ibme of them retired to the coafts 
of GttsotSy "where they ^ete attacked by a Hke mimbefr 
of thofeof France, Whlchf^adftiU followed l3ie<n finte 
they were f«eii hirfbxecMarfi&iiles. 

- ' It \ra8 the fif It of this moon that th^y fought. ¥U^ 
ver appeared more valour ; never was a combat more ter- 
T&le ; and it is fcaree conceivaUe what blood was fhed. 
Thou who aort a great captain, and eaficeUeat ieaman, may^i 
cfil eaiily guefs» 

Thefe thirty gaOeys having began their combat with 
their cannon and mvikets, tht fea was in a little time 
Gc^ured with blood» and covered with dead bodies. Eachi 
galky having fin^d out his enemy, the fight was the 
.more bk>ody.aiid obftinate« It is faid this battle was (oea 
firom^tlàc walls and tops o£ hou&s ra Gcnoa^ which fere. 
crowded with fpe^tors, and looked on with the i^me 
cctDcein as if they had fought for the empire of Italy. 

Th^ vi^fiKry coft much blood ; which the French pre» 
tendini. i<3^ feeiiog they took fix gi^ey^ from their ene- 
mies, amongft which was the Royal Patron of Spain, the^^ 
C^ptaiii, ^nd; the Patron of Sicily, with eight hundreds 
prifotO^HS^i having themfelves loll but three gallep, which, 
were taken by the Spaniards* The following night there 
.afcXe^fo violent a tempeft, that the fea had weU nigh 
(w^Qowcd the viSonoua and the vanquifhcd. The French 
IqìI the Royal Patron of Spain, which breaking loofe^. 
»tired }at9.a.lÌEttle port of the river of Genoa, where the 
-iAbabitaptojof Aruizano ftizing. it, reftored it to the Spa-, 
^.n^uds, which, they foy here^ the French will not fail to 
»;*v Jj[JWipr8rfwadc4 ihat, all 1 write to thee is true, bccaufe 


ftf %zvsus wBarniir by Vofc^ K 

I hHv^Pit §MUi 4i6iUf«ft«d ll«Q<it» mA étàx at know flie 

Th#jr add ^ly, th^t the giiHeys <»€ Spain liavùig^ is^ore 
ihNes aii4 feMierSi %be iriétory of the Frendi wa* by io 
xtibck tkt more f^lònons » imd tbey-afirm that the' other 
feift two thjOffend U(Ac c«ttjF««rdiimrf, deigned fer MOao^ 

God give thee always Ti&ory oyer thy efiemiesy aod 
»Ae thee feared of ali-the wotid. 

Paris, 24th of the 9th Moon, of the Year lefjJ. 

XXX.— 7i tUfam, 

1 HEY do here fo higWy magnify thctr fucceffcs-, as alfo 
thofc of the aUic8 of the crown of France, that 1 know 
riot what to believe, thefe exaggcrationa being fo contrary 
ta the glory of the Ofbans. Having gfvert thee an account 
of Aff fight betwixt the gaflcy« of IPranec and Spain, I 
will at prcfent tofbrm thee of the advantage, they fay, 
thegattÉyvoflMtfthayefaad. ^ '' ' 

«They>àffirni, that this i^tadrot» hai dvfòated a very 
gfcat gaBcy of the Bi^a of TripoH, kden \Htih grw» 
ftorc of rich merchandife. ' We know weUi that thi» 
veffel atjd her lading are of good vahe^;' biit not fogreat 
as the infidels puMifh; They fay farther, that they toot 
upon the coaft of Calabria two gfeat veflek, and aF pola* 
gu, commanded by BifcoceJ admiral of Tripoli; ^ho i« 
af renegado of Marfeilles; They fay there were two httft* 
dred'Tarks, three hundred and fifty pnforters*t^etf, and 
fifty Chrlftian fla ves fet at liberty. If what ' they fay ^ 
true, there were a!fo à great many bràfs canndn Iff thefe ' 
fhlps. They conftfs, that the general of thefe' gafleys 
did all that was to be expcfted from a valiaii% iwan', at' 
though he had the gout ; and that they loft* bat- eight ' 

Book n. it srv AX rA^ia»- t ^pr 

jEiiih fo great a lie. It is trae» that the QÌMpftiaiii. hm€, 
takcivtbe lioffels-ÌD ^ueftaoof biit.itit nottiur thiitlièic 
advantage ii^th beea fo great a» (bey, maic^ ^, £efli«g 
Uieft wcM no lyn^frirannoiv bat a few Ouiftwib4cli«fr4 
ed-; and tàey hs»ihg lo& much moxc tkbi tbiey aokaosifir, 

Thou act valiant, thy emj^oymeitt g^v^s the? the com- 
maod of the fea ; root out of t^^e world this tittle neft of 
obftinate pirates» wha breathe but by the goodneff of 
AflEKirath» whofa «kmency hiod«rs Jtheif dcftiwftiflp» 

Paris, 4th of the roth Moon, of die Year ió^B* 


LETTER I.— .r© />5^ Cj/te/a Bassa. 

Vv H¥ w3t thoa be more cruel than n fcfpeatty and git» 
mepoifent mhm Iftad thee ib good antidotes^ to pf«* 
£enre<hee fbomthc m6ùàth wi^ wineh thou maycd ba 
overwhdmed ? If thou beeft not (kdafied wMi my friend* 
' ifhip,' be ae laaft wife with the fitioerity wherewith I have 
gtfeo my advice* Thy proceedings I muft eoofeùf make» 
me repent I did sot take another conrfe : I ihould there- 
by» in all probability» have put a ftop to aU thy ill prae* 
tices* Had I made known to the Grand Vifier vdiat I 
wrote CO thee fh»m Vienna» I ihould have i^ceived «hjUdt# 
for my care and diligence, and thy chaftifement migh* 
have, been of good example : But I tcU thee plainly nc^» 
that I ^9 be c4>liged to accufe thee of treafon». in caie 
thou oontinneft thy commerce with the £mperoi;.of Gof^ 
many's frcrctary. 



. What InterpreMfctioA wouldft thou have nse gine the 
coKreffjtndence thou hoideft with this mioiiler, wkqi I 
difcover thit he fends thee continually prefentp» and re* 
ceives the fame from thee: Be perfuaded, every time 
thou appeared favourable to the Chriftians» that the plea- 
fttics thou doft them render thee criminal to the mufful* 
inans ; for, in fine, what is the meaning of thofe Per- 
iim horfes, thofe Himgarian flaves, which thou fenteft, 
and that quantity of magnificent veils which thou . pre^ 
£ent«dfi to thy friend Ì liWhat wouldft thou h^ve a nian 
think of tint iUver Hercules, and cloak enàched witb 
pearls, which one of the faithful receives from an enemy 
of our holy law ? It figiiifies nothing to anfwer my Jet- 
ters with paiGon and raging : Go to the tribunal, where 
tbefe kind of queftions are to be decided ; the judge will 
tell thee whether fuch a commerce is lawful even in timee 
of peace. Thou much exaggeratefl the obligations thou 
haft to thy friend at Vienna, becaufe he ufed ihee well 
when thou wert his prifoner of war : To this it is eafyto 
afifwqr, That if he. behaved himfelf like a. gentleman» 
thou o^gbteil to imitate him like a good Mahometao. 
Should he happen to be thy prifoner, .takc-^eii thji rt» 
iienge, and endeavour to requite him. . 

Again, fuppoilng it ihoidd be difcovered, that.^Hs^iy 
friend has pre&ntcd thee with this famous cypher, com- 
pofed with fuch ingenuity, that it may be fitly called 
Art's Mafter-piece, what opinion can the mufiulmans 
have of thy fidelity ? It. is known with, what application 
thou ufeft it .to write into Germany, and tq decypher the 
anfwcrs which thou receiveft. Are not thefe fufficient 
%n8 to fho^, that the difpatches thou wxiteft, and their 
anfytfers, are like the Trojan, horfe, concealing abominable 
and dangerous myfteries ì Be perfuaded, that I had iiot 
writ to thee from Germany, the letter which has b great- 

^<3^feMédthhifi' Oli fim^le còttjrfkHÌrtw.' 'Thè ^òróary 
khjr'Afend^feiéòneclay, he^muft be a wtttli'ofla-BeVÌI 
-filat tìtn difeòvcr the artifice of thefe chàAAeri ;\fliàt^h 
Itaìiati^ wli» was còiidemtied to perpetuai ntipràbiìriféiit, 
ia&i^^óttgHt twenty years to 'me!lbratè Ais'àrt/àfttflfàtl- 
brought it to fuch great perfeélion, that He *ne^èr"faw 
any body that could underftand his letters with* the* key 
itftlf/ wfafch hr g«ve them. It is (aid that this invention 
Ì8*wk«^ »ew; and the more admirable, that a letter oS 
ai> ordinary flyle, of domelbic affairs, of love, and complin 
AfteAtB) inay eontaìÀ fccrets of the greatcft importaticela 
w^hout uiing equivocal exprelEons, particular chara£ler% 
figures, f«ppo£ed names, hieroglyphics, juice of herbs, or 
Kqaors ;. it being impoffible ever to difcover what one de- 
figns to bide. He adds, that one may write in Turkiflv, 
Arabian, French or Italian, and conceal a fòcret written 
in any tongue whatever. 

Thy &'ieiid carries- it yet ftrther,. and fays, he could 
make Mfe of verfes to decypher profe : And this audac 
ouB man affirmed one day in the emperor's anticbamber, 
that b« woilld put tato French ^tibis h«(nrible blafphemy, 
^vThe tynmt Amultttb will fooi^ die ;'' ^ch is found 
in the foUowing Series of an Italian poet», whereof he. 
iimnedifttdy? made« proof : and tbcfe are the itaHan ver- 
f«*c . . " 

Giace l'Alta Cartago, a pena i Segni 
De Valle fùe rulne illido ferba 
Muionolt drta, niuiono'i Regni • 

• ' ' Cbope i 6111, e' le pompe arena et hctbaJ . 
3t IfhtMm di effer ttbrtal pltfdie fi 
, . * O ooftta mente cupida, et»fupfirbs fd^&i. • 

' ff ìt jq^peats that I atm too fliarp agwnft' thec, I wiB' 
rtfèfci^e *y etitfes without reply : But if thou knoweft I? 
kàvePhfté Jèftreafons to ^te to thee as Ihjhre done^ 
why tré tiy aafwcr» fo fidi of injury ? Think better on» 

9Js> LETTilL§ WWTWKnBT ^foU.ftl 

Ha^^thtsfiliB^^tfaiJecMU^of tlieYeti>Xi638. .^ ? ':< 

'" • ■ * • . . ■ .,: f • - •» • 

' k i- > ■ ' ..,.'■ ; 

IL — 7*0 the fame, 

JL HE fiTJàU fuccefs ^"hicli we always meet whh at (cttr'. 
oblige» me to entertain diee thewon. I (ball tal^elio ao* 
tke of this to the other grandees of the PorUif . na ;iiot 
W thè K^macham, to whom I hi^e ' not wri^ttm tl^^- 
three poiU. If thou haft received > my two laft letlen^ 
thou oughtcft to be fatisfied with the care whMijUhe 
fìHIhftd Mahmut takes to give thee found . adirace* Cqa« 
id^r well all the drcamitaBces which arttebttahofb^ 
eoncerhing the fea ailkirs. 

■ Thè lob of fo many galleys, g^^^ ^pB» and «tkor 
tcfielsy made this year by the friend» of the empire^' the 
true iaithftd, do m«K!h lei&n the neputatioik of ihe^Or- 
toman grcatnefs» • i 

The (fifeourfes imlòc hete<ki by the Chrifiaiiai. aie fe^ 
many-inre^iVeS' a^irift tile hènét# of* AfHUftttk»^. w^M 
thfne, and^at 6f om-nadom- if it be % adeoree o§h^ 
ren, that thcfe Venetian piftttes^ have cakernthfo ye» a& 
the gsdleys of Afric^ we mtft then c(mckde that (JM^- 
h offended with us, and does nlot hear our prayers. • For 
my part, I believe it ; but I ihoulid not be a good nm£> 
fidman (hould I pretend'' to undei^^nd'the fepr^taol^ Pro- 
vidence. " •- ' . i 1- J • * , - 
* They wrftfe Kfem NBfftflles'; llMlf^tfite people of Tuiiia^ 
IBzerte, andiAlgkra^ arc gjreatty dllii»yed' at Abe ìofcÉiofr 
tlieir' fifteen gs^éysi which: General Capelli h^s team 
fWim tb««n this yèsf..' Thoa^k0O'«ieS'h)d^ihitt|aft{^AHka#. 
h^jptncSf. the iftfr&aSòà:of tbetteal)e!iiftti&^^ 

Bock ti. A STV A'tvMÈS. * i^ 

tliev^Hd» as well as the infiiitiogt 01^ the fertneft of 
the Grand Sigiuor. I cannot imagine what cscofettfae- 
feirators of this r^(d)lic can make for wbat their adni« 
ral has malicioafty done agamft us, when chef (hall; be 
obliged to give an account of their aéVions at tlie feet oF 
Amiirath. I fpcak to thee with all poifible homilkf» 
and thoa needed not doubt but I fpeak with zeal. I be- 
lieve it is time for thee to oppofe and put a ftop, noi 
, only to the pifacws of theie peo|}lev bat the iacarfinna 
and contioaal enterprifes <i£ the corfain of MaitSy ^d fo 
ffiuvf veiela whidi iafeft our &as^ under the kMbcr of 
tlae Dftke of Tofcany, and other infidel pnncas; l^bm* 
GBghteft «o fnccour thofe people which, are fimda iat 
tributaries t» thePoite, whofe affiftance ^bcm haft otett- 
ad^WQfiagtttMiQf uiad; «either doft tàau want means for 
this, having at thy difpofal the terriUe forces e aft g ftcd 
tcMàee iby> Amwmik r and, ^th theie, the magnaaiiiiaiit; 
cMtage given to tiKe by nature. 

%e €lkrilinm»ii«te vewed to pierce thtt y«ar inio th& 
Bo^honis» and pot sdl to fire and fword. Above ùiHOf^ 
Bfenth ]ra%ht» ate^detotniaed for Maka» Jto jwn tlMm* 
Mvt^'tritbtiiiefreemniéefl^ tm crwe our {eas with théou. 
ÀadihpoDkffioweft^he reibhitìoii and€oara^.of;tfaàB mMw 
ta% and the.ptDgpeCathtfy ettry day make* 

Belkve wbaH MahmiH tdk thee. Thoa haft two feaa^ 
to keep, and, il it be trae» thou haft nkade Ali>Picciaino^ 
to come fiom Afm v4lb iomMif galleys^ defigned to. 
the ktcpàng of the eodls of Barbary» It ia not to br 
doabted but the Bivniie Provvdniee has ordiered it (con-^ 
oeming fd» gvetllf A«H»f«^^d fawMpr) that the guiltybe 
purAwdy f&tkat«ot«Ae of them may efiga^pelili^eflgt» 
aaces. - r/.. .; . • ' " 

AH 'péQ|le fay hrer jtbaft Biceiin&d Ins I0& hi» asm^^ 
Sm WMt ^ (ani iMAttìk « HM«rer> l|ere ave gtMk 


i^ciags'at our Loffes ; and, if pofGbk, more in Italy, 
vrìxtve they- fed the advantage of fò èonlidcrable a pfrize 
at tbc failkc time* together with the honour of the viète- 
ry, andf vrherc we arc hatted more than in any place elfe 
bdided; 1 bcfecch God to chaftife thefe people by thy 
hand ; arid that the edge of thy cymetar» iu giving death 
to our encRiieSy may put an end to flander and flan-' 

.Here 18 an impudent fellow, who reports he has feen 
thee leverai times at Conftantinoplc. He with great 
confidence affirms, the Chriftian corfairs will bring thee 
•one day, laden with chains, into the arfenal of Venke 
or that of Malta. He grounds his prediéiton on that 
tiiou'art, fays he, furious when tliou commandeft ; and 
that being too forward, thou canft not obey the orders 
given thee. He adds, that tobacco, joye of boys, wine 
and women, drive thee twice a-day into a condition un« 
capable of exercifing thy reafon. He moreover fays, 
/ thou wanteft courage in a land«fight, neither art w«]l 
Acilled ia.fea combats. I would not write thefe fooleries 
to thee,' were I not perfuaded that they really are fo, 
and fthat thou wamteft neither courage nor experience. I 
anv moreover perfuaded of the matignky of thy accnfers, 
touchtfig the debaucheries I meotioneé ; aad it appears 
to memore pertinent .to write thee this, than to the 
Grand Vifier ; though I muà confefs I am enjoined, tor 
iofoAn the minifters- of the Porte of ii^hatevcr I hear 
without, any referver. 

. It is iaid> that aa to what concern» the republic of V«- 
mccy and Capello,, who coihmandt» ita navy, that thisg^ 
aerai will be pumfb«d for doii^ (oo well ;. that this puif- 
fant fiate will be humbled to the killing the flirrup^ of 
our great Emperor'», horfe ; but it will juftify the law- 
fulne(Ì3 «f the. prisbc whicl^ th^g^evikl DMd«> as being hq. 

breach of the treaty wkh tl^e Subline Portc^ wbeipicc 
coBpie the orders by which the world is to be governed ; 
mdd that» in fine» the pirates of Afric ar<; npt compre- 
hended io the treatljes of peace made with hie Highnefs* 

J^xtà it 16 moreover alleged^ that (hould .this republic 
be obliged to refiore thefe galleys yirhich (he had taken» 
it will appear they have been loft through feveral acci- 

All Chriftendom is perfuadcd there is no republic in 
the world goyemed with greater prudence ; which will 
make her avoid all occaiions of difference with the Forte» 
and feek all ways of reconcilement with Amurath» to 
prevent a war which cannot be for her intcreft, 

I happened into a company of difcreet perfons, who 
blame Ali Piccinino's condudi» and attribute, his misfortune 
to.hisr want of fkill, and to his raihnef». They affirm, 
tbat had he^ had the courage of a true foldier, he would < 
bsKy^ behaved himfelf» not only in the Archipelago, but 
ia the Adi^ti^ fea» like a captain, and not like a thief i^^ 
and ;that God has given him ^his mortificaticHi. as a pu- 
nifhment for the cruelty he fhewed to the inno^«nt ve- 
ftals mh^m^ he made ilaves at Calabria, together with a 
gceat multitude of old men and children $ which was an 
ad Bowife (uitabk to a brave commander. And this is 
the difeottufe caufed by the hatred to our nation, and. 
efpe^jally to Ali. 
. The gjreat. God» Sovereign Moderator of all things», 
ke^ep thee in perfeiél judgment, and make thy valour re*- 
n«wned, and thy glory proclaimed in all places enlight* 
e«edby tbe<bi£a^s.ofUhefun.. . . 
. Fads, 6tho£thcifthMoon, o£ tbe Ycac 163^. - 

IIL— 'To the famtV 

J WROTE to th€C y^ft^rday, Virhat the fenfe of tlitf worf* ' 
was of thcc ; and I write to thee this ^ay w^rat tftine hi 
'Although thou aficeft not my ?tdmct, y^ I will give 
ttìee fuch as, perhaps, thou wilt approve of, and may he 
ufcful to thee In due feafon. 

Wilt thou be revenged of the Venetians, and ali'the' 
Chriftians at once ? Pafs over into the Adriatic fea» witl^ 
twenty fmali galleys; draw near at night to the flMve-at 
Ancona ; and before the fun be up, r^fac^k the fani0U#' 
place of Loretto ; thou mayeft cany away thence aS'^rtad* 
booty, as ever the confuls and Roman enfipererss :éì^ ^ftr^ 

Couldeft thou conceive the immenfe riohe» (hat- lap iiii 
a little chamber (where the Chriftians ttSiPOi, tàat a v«f^ 
gin received an ambal&dof* from heaven^ uti^ei» théfonm 
of àn angel ; afta* whofe words (he found &tt had ci«ni&^ 
eeivedthe Meiiias, whom the Chridian» W0r(Htp) thou^: 
wouldeil not defer the esceeutlng of what JVbhmut «o»iw 

It is^ reported in this kingiiotti^ as iBWiécMa»haii-[éA 
9 defign. Why 'did not this^ ìfrt^^ ijpatk then exeooor 
what he had fo wdft contìnhred^? When he- Was in Afrie^ i 
he was to ravage A ItsAfy and he badi n# fooiiet^ come 
on thòié coaftsy but he loft all the tnie AfHcan couMgCé. ' 
He let himfelf be taken prKoner ; hte offered a mighty 
fteet to be loft, and the fhairiefuli^iefs^ x»f Ms ^«Icét v^iSL 
for ever blaft his name. . • • 

If Amurath ret'tnus a 'Conqueror «f 1klll^^^!b»y wftvAn . 
ts very likely tc> happen, aMthbu takeft Loretto j k may 
be faidy that the Ottoman empita is arrived at its fuU 
height, Loretto being the Mècca of the Chdftians. 
There U no itiifbii^ wheretn one fees, viofi 9fià»9 aaioi ^ 

Book'^. M mm est Mii^kr; 82 

&iitc number of pflgnma kom all p«inp^ ^irk^- come to 
o&r there their devotionft^ with the fame zeal ^ the ^th* 
fi^.ga and' {nray: »t tfa« U)m]| of our holy prophet ; and . 
th^ oftott jfiitk with /thctr pfi^^rl, . offcnx^s pf .fpan^der- 
sUje iradf^ , A .finaH itimgdker o£i.pne&s of. the Romatt 
(À«r«4i hav!e. fiich/treafuces tl|ere ifi thtòr keeping, aa can- 
not be foUy Tidued : Veilelt of both gold and filver» with . 
vsftioiei» and- ornaments» and precious ftones, >yluch. ferve 
to (et. forth tUa temple» thi; moft magnificent and famous 
amongft the Chriitians ; aaJnEniie number of lamps, 
crowns and fc^tres, offered by th^ gi^efl piinccs of the 
Chriftiaa bdief ;. and» in flnef whatever can be imagined 
moft bcami£^ moft ^reat aad cogly. Thou tlikat know- 
eft not what fear », thou canft forefee nothing in thif 
cntex^pn& which m»^ deto: ihfye;. The prieiU of this fa^ 
mous temfde flcep all the nigh^ long» and fpend the day 
tn chanting. tK$ur mailes» and the foldiers defigned for the 
keeping of this place» are few in number» and can make 
but finadi refiftance : If thou beeft perfuadeé of the ire^ 
of what I vfxkfi^f 4o«mope; than CsB&r.i go, conquer» and 
repofe thyfelf. I kave no more to write to thee : I fend 
tiK Kamiacham a copy of this letter* I haite.writ th<c 
whatever has cosiie to my knawiedge, and thmi wouldeifc 
fiuther know» what Mabmat, milder the habit of Ticnsy 
has difcouffed at Pans* lam wiBmg to inform thee» £ 
have anfwercd fome people» who have had the boldoefil^ 
to fay, .** That the Ottoman empire will be fooa ruined^ 
ihotdd ft receive foch ano^r Uow ;" that if trees, be not 
wanting in Afia» the Màhi^metails will not wtwt ftups nor 
gsStey^% and ^t i^ty vriB have as mai^ foldiers ané 
fèamen aB they plei£s ; <f: the woitt«n do not happen aU 
of them at once tq ht hs^k^ ^ Tkmkw^vfcSt that af» 
ter the battfe of Lepatttp» jlAy&r^ Òic gtcàt Gaà ané 
out Brof tmt <{e%Qcd^ ti^ ii^llfxh^bkf}éA,iia^^ 

S9 LEnSEs WAimif bt itf4ìL% 

Iim*s'litvounte maliitiif ned ^he gkny ofiàà TsmStssy tndiud 
fp«aknig to the* Bailo of Venice : « There is this dif- 
ference httWe^ii the Mfes which thé'refmykc nlakes^ cttd 
the ttiitfoHttnes which happen to the mufftifouttia ;' ^lat 
^hen'We'took from you the ^kuid of Cypms, we cut «ff 
one of your arms ; and when you defeated' as in battle^ 
it was juft a$ if you had cut off our besxHs, which witt 
fòon grow up again ; and if women and trees do not fad 
us, we fhall foon have (hips and men ; but the lofs of 
your arm can never be repaired.*' • 

The eternal Lord» without i;s4iom nothing can fiubfift^ 
make the fea always navigable^ and without tempefts, 
that the winds may favour thy defigns; and when thoir 
haft finiihed all thou oughteft-> for the glory of the em- 
pire, I pray Heaven -make thee poffeifov of the infidti» 
countnesy which thou fhak fubdae. 

Paris, 7th of the nth Moon, of the Year 16'^d, 

IV. ^To /^^ Kaimachamv - . • 

JL HIS letter will peihaps prove tr-oublefoxu« to tibet» 
wherein thou wilt find an .odd uiixture |. however, thou, 
wilt have no caufe to .complain, of mei./bi: yfbàteyfiv h 
write*to thee, (hall be put iato fuch ordeiv t)iat^ 
firft news be troublesome, to- thee» the laft will prgye othjer-t 
wife. Thou hail received none of my letteiis ia the hi;. 
packets wbich I fent thee ;, and I have fou^d it, m^^, 
to the parpofe to make tbee kppw a^ o«ce» though fo^i^-: 
tiling later» what I couid« aot wr^e -i^t at thrive t'mtf ii 
whereby thou wilt be better informed than others» to w}iO(i^ 
I wrote the £rft notices I had» /There.» nathigg^ likc^ to. 
patkaee> as in afi other, t^ngh (b more^ efpedially. ^, tfit-, 
wfaat^conceraa ncva y ths lame goftalway/i hriaging ti^c^ 
beft inteUigence. 

Book II* ASfTAV PAftlS. 9ff 

/ Jiowev4r» I hope tbM wflft pardon me», if I wrote on* 
ly to one perfon» who is tfve Captain Bafia, .ihok ^* 
H^egridc thiog^ vàòdi I iMiitd, that I neiight not make 
a i\^w r^tai». wUcH \roiil4 not pieafe ; befìde»' that he.» 
obliged» as well as the lOtjber nùnifters of the l^orte^^ to» 
iiqpait to ibee the adviceà he receives from mt» 
. Thou wilt find by the copy of xhc letter which I have 
Wi^^» that it is not without reafon I aon angry with 
hipQ. My de^gn is not. to learn thee what thou knew- 
eft probably before me, but .what thou mayf:ft be igno- 
rant of» and yet oughteil to know. 

Tbe Chriftians exprefs continually their hatred againil. 
us,; alifays fpeaking ill of our affairs» Although there 
be no war declared between tkefe infidek and the ever. 
inv{ncibk Sultan, yet they ceafe not to be our enemies ; 
and thou mayeft know by th«ir. difqouife, they are ever 
laying defigas agaihft us. Thou knowefl the ufual way 
of the world is to difcourfe firfk of affairs, and then take 
their rdMutkms. The French, are g«ie«ally excepted- 
from this rttk, fortify haspc executed their ^^fign^ be* 
fore they bega» to fpeak of them ^ fo lively is their ima- 
S^aatàon, and fo ready afe they to take their refolutiens. 
They do in aSairs of iUte, what we are «wont to do inr 
thoib of Fcligkm f they decide them by the fwordc They, 
affirm, that priacds who have valour, have nojufter tri- 
buaal than war $ and that their ibldiers are their lawyem» 
What meafurea then, mod wt£e K^'macham, can be taken- 
vith a nation which is in a continual a^vity ? 1^ French, 
eaanot fqnisun at »efl ; and when they difturb not their 
neighbours, they make war amo<ngft themfelves. -■ The 
miniftcrs of foreign pnnce^r ^'^^^ ^9 near the matter,' 
what I do, although they hvce a chara&er vriiicà I have 
not, are incefiantly in a6^ion ; They' .watch without ceai^ 
iog» as I do, on what gafies»; and thou- mayeii affttie> 

thTfdf, ùmt the BifM fl^ft b« MIy and c€Kt$à»kfrBàmr* 
tì£ià of nU tilings*. . . ' 

The Bope . Jtéepa here^ >Gn bit andbafiadoi^ a pnàtA^r 
called « Nuacio» The Eo^ror of Germanyy liie King. 
of Spain» thofe of Enghttd» S^vredciaad, Btntiitark» and 
Folaody the ekékon» aod feveral other piiaces of the 
entire, eatertaui sdfo ambaffadors, to obliem' the moe 
tions of t|ììs prince^v who often bi^eaks all their meaiuteG.. 
The dates of Italy do sdfo the fame. There are, in thi# 
part of Europe» prineea and republics : Thefe Httle fo* 
vereigns are more jeaknia than otlunrs of their inteceftsy 
and do more concern themfelves in aU a&irs which pafs*. 
The republics likewife ufe greater precautions in ihsiv 
conduét than the monarchs dò. 

The republic of Venice has acquired a great téf»^ 
talion ; France keeps a good correfponckace with her ^ 
the ambaiikdor of that ftate limg here with a^ the 
maKks of grandeur» and the fame pttnotgatiyeft gsnnteil 
to thoie of downed heads. Neither Pei>6a noe MnCt 
cavia» keep any public minifter hqre».yet» perfaa^M^ they- 
may have fome that give pnvase kitcA^nce to thcar ma* 
ften» Aa to what eoneeis» the prme'rs of the Imfafl» 
they fecm not to me to have any inlcreft het^ f Co timi; 
they ha«e» I believe» bo agent in theCe par^ eidier pub*-: 
He or private. If the torn» of -Spy be mean a^.èiO^o^. ì 
nonrable» I know no body that ii ^allod one ; f^ I bo* i 
ifig onhnown». my leputaùon- therefore runs n0 hazarck ; 
I fn^e» without being observed. But ta fpeak plainlyy. 
what are the ambaffador^ and agents of princes» but k»"i 
cret fpies». as- 1 am» who» under pr<^3e3ice of keeping a 
copsfpondence between their makers» inform them (^ * 
what they* can discover in the courts where they are §aA*y. 

Thou Omit be fuSbeiently informed by the Ba& of ^ 
du^&a of Ficciniiio's adventure | he will fiiow Ihee.wix^ 

I htfés wtkten. : Jfowewy tH«ir «e (facly gBftryrlefti 
a&d pur greatcft ooitfdsdon is» that we- Audi ttot' wifit 
mtail^to bt: fmumigoà r I£ th4 Qiiiftiaiit fame cut 'off ooe 
of ovAr fingers^ we ought to fdock- out both their eyes. 

It 1» faid here, that this admind is made prlfoner by 
the Venetums : If thk be true, his coDfincment muft be 
vary uacafy to- him; But aii* people are ìiót agreed; 
whether he be a prifoner orna; for fome maintain» he is 
at Conftantinopley where he juftifìes himfelf with his ufual 
(fftog&mce; hffhg C|U the f^nk on the renegade, who 
p^ittaamaòfié tbe AdmM of Algie«. 

I i|a«e recMM^ndtA ^ the Bdfe «if the fiea» the en* 
t^rpri&of Xioneitof If ib^u haft kifme to examine the 
^r^^^e^ tboix wk fiad» though I am «o captain nor ma^ 
xytmf wèat I hare haàùà i» «^ordi reganUiig; Tìm 
Imo^i4edge vfak^ I hmt^ftim 'wotld, of* the manner 
o^tiviog oftiie (à^liftÌM pmoeè^aAd ^'ofts ci ftpiiie, to- 
g4tiier with4lM othcrriHstkts^liwye aocìiwed^bfìthBBTcadiL 
kg bf WflKMsies, ikm^* dMàf me castbàtmÀ\ » a nan 
t)m i» 9hktfp oibw ai( gleat tMog^4 thoogfa bhmcsmà 
a& )i^ gamed ottdh ctfddfft iii'lihe world. 

liUtHber itpttbifQ. wffl iatisfy th» Ontné^ Stgnkr $ affn»« 
ioigV^lMA AH is isperaìtc^ that the Africans hanrebrok^ff 
dié^ftiKc ; •^'tto t)ie aAnm ^ i^fir geneeal Gapeib 
ia^ ìindficrèknl \ and that Amorath fasniii^ will diaf^ 
iiSàfitémm* H« moreo^ei^ pretends that the gaEeya 
which were taken ma not. be rrflorcd, leeti^ it w^ ba 
made^pa««nt, ^t thejr have been loft bydifereist ac^ 
c^OtS-s. ilhink'he iays^ they have been aS fnak before 
the^Ifr>of Coffon, èy dbe Senatefs oinder, to preiient tbe 
expeé^atfon of % foirender^ the Admiral of A%ieis only 
exbepted» wUch llhéic. infiddi hove bntught in triumph 
uusn ibehr ar£t»al» to pteferve thr t^me&knme ai as 



^veotf wbich -tiney prateni to b« -vevy gltffious to tliefrr. 
B^t thefe miafortnoes are sot eMtx^mé nor pàiV remeàfi 
if Glo4 cootinue» tlie life of our gre^t emperor, and'thf 
healthy . , 

^' Paris, 7th of the nth Moon, of the Year 1638. 

' ' "^ .—To the fame. 

X HEY have at length given over talking' of ourlofier^ 
but I give not over devteng the means to be i'evenged of 
the Chriftsans. Remetdber, thai the Grand Vifier keepb 
in prifon a man fit £or great thkigft at thts time, who ean 
do the Nazarene» confiderable- niifehielii, and procui^ 
notable advantage to the mufiulmans. If the old rene- 
gado of Dalmada be yet alive, he is «apafele of deflroy- 
ing^all places in the Meditenranean Sta. Advìfe with 
him about the iéefbu^on of Loretto. Thi^re is no Cof- 
ikry; thHhas done more boÌd> expbits. He has fpent 
&bty. jHsars in coiirfing on the Archipelago and Adriatic 
iea ; wh^^ he has made hcmid deviations, with infi- 
nite pci^ef. He.bas Ukewiie lixoft. confiderai^ damnified 
the Coflacs.on the Bkck Sea» He began the-tiàiie<& 
nine years x> a Iktie velTfi,^ has ' been wounded *ih 
twenty, or twenty*two occs^ne,. taken priibner ibur 
times b|r, our. ptrates, and thrice efcapedont of -their 
hands s and .not faesag aible to fiy the fotirth -tim€» nbr 
eedeam himfelf by money, he redeemed himfelf by his x^ 
fiigion, which he quitted to embrace ours ; and fince he 
has been circurndfed, he iiaa brooghtio Conftantino|itè 
d»>ve. thirteen thoufand flaves. in about thirty year^-ifpacei. 
i^e.has,pafied fill! five years in the ckftof a rock, alon]^ 
the bai:dLs of the Adriatic fea ; which by his indttfiry he 
Iliade of x«trcat« Here it was that' he hid 

himlblf ,frit)i hk tàmyànà.^tSàt'i ISgt: a v^Md htOk in- h» 
den ; and it is h^rd to iniagiaie hew maiiy fnuret- àe Ma 
dunag that tùgo^, Av thofr of hk own relagioii^ He has 
been often porfaed» but could never be uken ; and Hit 
Aame became fo terrible amongft the Chriftianfl»that that 
was no place but dreaded him. But^ in fine, havingy a» 
it is f»dt attempted to betray bis mafter, in delivering in* 
to the Chriilians bands the five gaUies he commanded» 
he was fent» by order from the Gramd Vifier, into the 
caCkle of Seven Towers, although his crime was not cer. 
tainly^prpved. Itisjabove two-and fifty ;moons fince he 
has been there kc|>t prifoner, and he is not only very old, 
but decrepid. The long penance wluch 'a man has un- 
dergone that has done fuch great things, and who is. ac- 
cufed of having done one ill one, of which he is not con** 
vióied, does plead for fome indulgence* 

1 fhall never go about to fcdicit for the liberty of a ' 
traitor ; yet I muft fay, that men who have dared to exe^ 
cute great crimes, are often capable of heroic . a£Hona* 
This man was, and i^ fUll, at the end of hi» life j peibaps 
if thou wilt endeavour to procure him fottio advantage, 
and mak^ him hope ftill greater, he may repair his fault, 
iff pifrforming fomething for the good of the eotpite ; 
jf>r at leafl give; fome good 4idfice« Tbo» knoweil the 
^ncie^t . Perfians ^d a law, whereby tl^eir kjngs weei^ 
obliged, pot to put a n(UJc&£Ur. t^ death focone crhnè'^ 
.^d px}v^U perfens not to chaftfe^theif domeflicsor Jlavea 
f^rone fa^dt.,. ,ThQU>ka^wefl^ mqveoTer, that'pllna^ 
ihould .obferye ia, the chnf^ifement of their fobjcds,' wlu^^ 
tber the fervices,they. bad-rfudeced have xtot been grc^trìr 
tf^n^th^ir prefent faiUiigs, and pardon them if their good 
Ìfi^à9 fyTS»^<à thefr b^^» . I^befe lavrs^ ^thovgb no )on^- 
j?jr ol^fjjry^^Jn f^ffia^.yet <;cafe Q«t ta*c wife prcoepl»^ 
;l^^yr)ùcb ifthott haft i^ ff<;g#rd, yct^thou wilt^have UiftStt 
i 3 

^ tETWMi vmtwMmnf BT ' ^VM";!. 

t»tlv«al ftiu} «ffea^fv ol Mdutiur. Atte 'é' ihtsm «fit 
.faSenme «n tmke' lier« a ihtirt dignsflkm^ in compcAtlf^ 
liie.ftBte'wlMfdD^w^-tre ifM thttof tiie anekitts, flit»ti 
wflt find how much* our moHardt^ htepiSki' tl- othenf. 
BolkUkow Mkv«9«gefierou5 Kaimadiam, that tlÀ- Octo> 
Bian .empire ìl^<quàl» inferior, •or fopcrior to ihfat dt Hic 
-Ronumft in PMnp^'à time ? Lrt us contcné crarfdvtf^ wtti 
iappofmg it equal, to fpeak \vithocrt pafOioii, and cdt tile 
odurfir of di^tes, which might be made heretìpony atid 
nràff^^ i prvy thee, on t^ conditél which Pompey hdd 
IB the war ke made agarnft t^tìfe infittite nnmber of pi- 
sates ti*ich ifffèfted the feas ctf Ital^p, Africa, and Afia; 
He was made geaeral of an army of five htrndred (afl^ 
vdth abfolote power to do what he thonght fitting, with- 
out gì^itìg any acconnt. Thou knoweft his conduift was 
fo prudent and full of valour, that embarking with ten 
dioofand and twenty foot, and fix thoufand horfe, he in 
Ibrty days cleared Lybia, Sicily, ^)3Ìn, Sardim'a, and in a 
wovd,mll thefeas which depended on the Rothtfn power, 
from àn kiflnìte nmnher of pirates, who had, zi k wiere> 
befiegod the capital of the empire by their fncutfions,' ran 
pines and irioiences. .. ' 

Kow^ aithongh the number of oar enemitfri)e not té 
great, northev ^ftfength fo confidèrable, yet it is to be' 
iearad^ leftthe^nfidels bé one^ day bold enougli (having 
jpkitd tb^r^Mtret!, wb^ now He- difperfed) to fafi upi> 
«i'«s,<and^fhike the vatt* monareby of t%é ^Wmà^^jf, 
winc)rth4»y now often "difturb by frequehat enterprise 1# 
lèseral prnts», ' ' . • v »- i • - ^? f ; -f. >-. 
^»We hlife an^Aflhfte tiiAWbt^*cff ^afeès'tb prcftWè*^ ^iffT 
kwe feveval kMgdoA«i^-p6|^tifons IKfs'; ^t tt^ttktOthé'ihìH^ 
ÌSké natio^, mìa the'-Afinfber óf^e emp^s;ffll5é«^ 

IMde;/n. r^ f4«rTi«r B«m. r 95 

i^,gp»mamn of Itriyr» becfiufe he ockounankicd c 
^esty M^thia.h«ior]i>l^ the Greeks ^ortiedy^ìd» But.à 
b^g tSxì&tàY midoight» I am fbxeed to.&iAk tÙs^ttcì^ 
k^it ihmài h^ ^c^late for the poft. 
. I ih9Ìi adqprm thee by the fiift , Oftportuiiilyt of jwhit 
hta ha|^«ned ia Italy and Germany» and of femoral other 
things which I.thot^ht I ought to gwc thee notice of 
kef this exprefe ; but accnfe me not of oegleét, ia ootiiav'- 
pag written all to thee in this IttttVy and receive niy ex- 
ctife^ whkh 1$ jnft and fincere^ ^and grant me thy &vaim 
The gpeat God iocreafe thy profperity, mad continue 
thy heakh and credit in the domintons of the invinciUe 
{ultan* Kader whofe glorious reign we live. 
Psris, 7th pi tikc nth M»on» of the Year X65S. 

VL— To the fame, ' 

1 VAA9 iiMnddiatelf into Momferratt wilh«lat ieanng 
France, to tell thee» that the Spaaiardt haT« there, made 
themi!eli^ mttfters of a ihtk town^ which) lite Ftendv 
could not keep for want of men ; atid ha;^ alfb tl«mo*; 
yfiìCfì the foitrefe which gva#ded the pkiecp that their 
«penMi» might not have* any Ì9àt6 after a rtpnUL 

Theeldeft ha oi Aj^sbs» Duke of:Sa9ory»-'is..ooiri 
4tsfà^ He .was oalkd. Lewis Ai^noiteu» ; he .was^liot fetent^ 
jeai^'Old^vheA d^chre^! f'^^^eigil» and wte fo but-^fewr 
mponaf . He d£^ four d^ after the .eenemoay of hm 
baptifin. The King of France and the Queeaof Span! 
w^e g9^ttl|er «id ,gad(m0tVc# to thi» pnsoe. Thoo iA 
a%,iaf.|)ptthaps, how tJppii cQitldhe» feeiifg^ey oouhl oot^ 
bCf^iQie.fPrefoit; But thou muft linow, that thefe N^ 
ayayyfljll^ft .oftea. at thefe cefemonics by pvoaimtiom • 

LEtTftRS IfqUTf KK BY ^UNtfpt 

dk>fi, hx9mg loft in one year hoA her hùfbancl'mfti tier 
fon, and a good part of her eftate, andiecs wliatTgiititiiil 
to her czpofed to the hazank of wsr ;' bat ft» im% ««er 
fhewed herfdf a woman of couragt and reColhtML -^Htr 
feeond Con has Ibeen declared his brother^ tictr^ «od the 
ftatcs have chofe her regent during hia fnsnórity» ^ • 
- The reafon of the fudden tifit which the JSLeSsot of 
Saxony gave the King of Hungai79 is not yef kiiowa 
We have had advice of his departure from Drefóeir, the 
capital town of his country, with a great train of couiv 
tiers, and the three princes his fons, and that h«. went to 
Leutmaritz, where this king expeé^ed him ; and it m 6b> 
ther faid, that in the fmall time they were tt^ether» they 
have had feveral conferences, the fubje^ of which it not 
yet difcovered. The king has prcfented the duke with 
a rich coach, with fix (lately horfes, fumptuouOy har- 
neffed, and given diamonds and gold chains to his coitr- 
tfers. But thou being nearer the place of this confereaee, 
and the Porte having everywhere fubtle afcntsi thoH 
mayeft fooner get this fccret than 1 5 for it is, not to be 
doubted, but there id fomething hatching agaiilft tfaic Qt» 
toman empiva, whilft Amurath is at thatdii^]Ke».aiid«tfaf 
chief forces, of his empire employed elfewfaere*. . 

As to what- concerns the progrelsof the Duke of Wcy*' 
mar, who carries on the war in AJfatia^ there ans ma'- 
nitely dilFerent news come Irom thence fisce I wrote t» 
thee'; but this is what is moft cerjtmn. After the takmg 
of Eriborgh, this general «nade himlelf ms^er ef tht 
jcampaiga about Brifac, and his army feizin'g tqpds aM 
tlie pofls thereabouts, thr Imperialifts put themfelvet id 
a pofture oC^hindering Aém ; but for three niontfaa tiaas 
^y eottld do nothing but fpeil the cotn^ aad hnrmgt kk 
the country, whereby they waded tAmr owii fabfiftcaaei 
Th^iaive aifo fraitle&lf endeÉ^ustd tb bileakda»iiliie 

4lKir^»£t«wi^X4ch refiiUocci th^t tb^ey were forced. tp 
retire wit}).^tb^rarmy» whipb. was in gi^esit dacigcr,. Buj; 
* ÙiC- àukf^ aìfo m4t with no fucceiii in his ci^tèLprife oa 
Offealwrgbr ^broi^ the fault of 6ftee& tiuodred muf- 
queteersy French aad Geriixfnsywlio came oot foua enougk 
t^ plimv tlieir ladders againil the walU, and furprife thia 
place I and h^ has fince made difiercnt trials, which hstve 
jH^Tcd all in vain. A» officer had already e&tered as far 
aa the f amparts* with a fmall party which he commaiided, 
by means of a falfe pafsport ; hut heiiig difcovered by a 
ceatifldi, he was forced to retreat in confafion, with .the 
lois of Some of bis meik Weymar fince defeated t^o re- 
gi»ients of dragoons, and tw;o other regiments of hoifc» 
and kiZQd on the caftle of Mauburgh ; the garrifon of 
which place furrendered at difcretion to a Swediih o£Gi- 
cer* But I am informedy.that the two armies came near 
to one another on the bank« of the Rhine, of which I ihaH 
% no more than what is necdlary. 

The ci»peror*s troops being difcovered by Wcymar^a 
«Sit-goard» commanded by Turenne, gained an high 
ground, oa which fortifying themfelves, they fheltered 
bdiind a cliufch and fbme hoafes, before which there was 
» battery^ raifed of Deverai pieces of catmonj to keep the 
Swedes at a dtftahcej and hinder them from encamping 
too ntai^ Some Freaqh imprudently advaBcin|^ to, dif^ 
€0¥tr the ««emicB podure within lefs than muiet (hot, 
«wrèalmoft allkSledon th^ place. By tlas time the 
DuW of Weymar, feeing he could not draw the Impc- 
nalift^ to fìght, and it. being impofiible to force them 09 
tim mountain,, where they were intrenched, retired unde? 
Ae*«aiU€ nt Mauburgh wih Ws rear-guard» commanded 
h^MhjiilCauvt d£,Ci»rbian^ a French gentleman. The 
^^^bsj^'acd.thefeitof his arii^y, and being in* 

roL I. - K 

9Ì LETTERS WRITTEW BY Vol.t, a léofctr tlmt ferved hìmy and in wk<M he ^ 
•great confidence^ tfcat the Impertdìftshegan'etRiy^iiMtìie 
morning to retire, he immediately therefore put himfelf 
into a condition 'to fallow xhen>> makin|r his army to ' 
marcii in battle array. HÌ3 liorfe confined of fmnvand- 
twenty fquadrons, and his foot of ^ight battaHons^ èWkks 
the auxiliary tfoope, of which he made a nefcrFed èb4y« 

The French affirm, the ImpenaM^s wetc the ft>|)ongei:,a« 
having foHTthoofand itfen more tlah^e Swedes, of which 
it is hard to know the certainty, but the particnlart o^ the 
battle are worth one^e writing. It was very bloody, the 
fight being obiiinately held by both parties, ^nd the vic- 
tory long ineliviing i^metimes to one fide, and fcmietinies 
to another ;« fo that the combatants were ready to retire, 
weary of- ftrikihg aùd being ftru<:k> when fortune on a 
fudden declared herfelf for the Bake of Weyinar, who 
behaved himfelf in the fight like a wife captain andva- 
.liant foldler. It is certain the ImperiaUfts hare loft two 
thoufand men on this occa^n,^ with federal of their prin- 
xipal officers, and alfo above fifteen hundred were made 
prifoners, amongft which there were above two hundred 
pcrfoas, coniiderable on the -account of their birth and em- 
ploys. I make no mention of the number of thte can- 
non, «either do I reckon the hundred colours or cottiecs, 
nor three thoufand waggons laden with all forts of am- 
munition,, which fell to the conquerors f but I greatly 
value the box of writings of two great . commanjiers, 
wherein were found the inftmtìions and fecret orders of 
tlie King of Hungary, and fome treaties made witli the 
fublime Porte, to which all the potentates of the world 
fliould pay homage. 

It cannot yet be difcovered what thcfe treaties con- 
tain, yet I ihall do all that is poii^ble in order to it» The 
hfioty hM been great j however Weymar fecms not to fct 

Bofj!^ II. A &rt AT pjk&i®. 99 

lOM^ by it», afi dimk^g at fomethmg metre cosfiddrable. 
Hq re«»siiaed two days in the iield of battk, the better 
to alTure his> enemy of his coaqueft^ He moreover prc- 
^adft m hi6 lettCFS to this court, that he had not in this 
.expedittoar above £ve hundred foot, and a iew cavalry, 
which out of a bravado, he (ays he wiU reinforce v^ith his 
pages. This is that which our emperors, who are the 
snafters of the world» would fcruple to fay in the prefence 
of their flaves, fo far would they be from fpeaking fo be- 
fore an arofiy, as this -prince did in the prefence of a great 
king. See the vanity of one of thefe Infidels generak. 

In obedience to the orders which I received from thee» 
I here end ray letter, fo thstf thou wilt receive a very im?- 
perfe^ relation of the events which I began to relate to 
thee ; and I (hall continue my difpatch to-morrow, that 
thou mayeft the better remember what I have «dready 
writlcn to thee, that I may not lofe the thread of the 

. JFark, 94th ^ the la$k Mogn, of the Year 163&; 

VII.— ra the fame. 

1 FIND ill the Alcoran, the chapter which fpeaks of 
Linibo^s to be very long ; and I believe, I never wrote 
thee any letter, wherein there were fo many words ; thoa 
/halt not rece^re hetìc<*forward any from me larger than 
tht hundred and fix verficlcs of this chapter, feeing thou 
efìjoineft me to be ihott. 1 have therefore divided this 
dii^arcfh iftto two, left it fhould prove tirefome to thee ; 
ahhottgh I bdieve thou wouldft have found it, when en- 
tiite. Hot fo long as the chapter which treats of heH. 

Weymar loft no time, but went and encamped before 
Bti&ù» He caiifed thè trenches to be of^^ned with great 
dft^ffeé; and htts fo-befet the Rhibe, that nothing can 

s 2 ■ : ■ ' " ■ 

100 LtTTEftS WKXVSnn BT :VflM, 

pa&'^tiout his le&vjf. This n'vevri» ccnfidertfble for its 
hrgene&f and kngth of its courfe ; carrying vcffds' of 
great burden, which make it much frequented* 

This x*aptain perceiving the. town wanted provifions 
of all kiodsy ufed all imaginable artifices to fnrprife» 
it, or carry it away by aflault. It is the capital of a 
great province, where he U mailer 'of feveral confiderable 
places, and feveral flrong cables, from whence one may 
fay, the place was already befieged. 

Things were in this condition, and there was no other 
difcourfe in the Swedes camp, but of vi6lories, loffes, 
and wounds, when the news^of the birth of the Dauphin 
was brought there, which caufed another noife to be. 
heard. The horfe and foot joined their (houts of joy to 
the founds of the drums, trumpets, and the artillery, 
which was feveral times difchargcd. 

The valour of the Duke of Weymar, and thaj of the 
troops which he commands, made not the Jmperialifls to. 
lofe their courage, having recruited their army with oc w 
troops. General Lamboye, a man of .coui%e mA good 
condu£i, appeared in the fight of the Swedes» having 
added to his army five thoufand men, with the -relb of 
the troops of Prince Savelli, and wafted the country 
wluch the enemy was in poiTeflion of« If thofi w0m)(^ 
know the fituation of the Swedes camp, and ^it^. whudi 
msinner they made their trenehes a^d circ«mval!atipii8« %j 
caxL certainly inform^ thee, having had.fome tjizie fiace ai 
very exa£l draught of it. TVs . camp is three Gecma^. 
miles in compafs, fortified on each fide by a trench^x-- 
teen foot thick, with a large deep ditdi, a double pliUr 
fado, and feveral redoubts» The lower, as well as tl^c. 
upper |»ttts of the towi?,.are mightily annoy^^d. by tywo» 
biiiiges made oa the Rhine. The d;buQdance .of all £^» 
of amnu^iition doea much hit^rt^n t|i« mny.. T^ emr 

Bòtìk li. '- ' A Si^Y AT PARIS. ' " lor 

rtiandfer, altliou^h very ill, yefr is inceflantly 't^àtchfulv 
and fdems itidefatìgabk. The foldiers, animated by their 
pad fucceflcs, thiok of nothing but new conquefts and 
new booty, imagining thcmfelves invincible. The artil- 
lery which is in the camp, is fifty pieces of great cannoOi 
with which fuch batteries have been made as drive the 
befieged to defpair. I mention not to thee feveral fmall 
ikirmifhes which continually happen, yet this is what is 
moft confiderable : Some troops of young foldicrs of the 
Imperial army, having taken feveral catfle from the 
Swedes^ and made fome prifoners, had notice of the 
march of Colonel Sillard, who came from France, and 
brougbt a good fum of money for the payment of the 
troops. Tticy went to meet him> and took it togetl^r 
with feveral young gentlemen prifoners, all men of note« 
and who had alfo a great deal of money about them. 
At the fame tane, the Duke of Lorrain, a prince of 
gr^at valour, who fervcs^n the Imperialifts party, had 
Undertaken to relieve Brifac, which he knew was reduced 
to the vtmoft extremity ; and having chofen for this de- 
fign forty companies of foot for a convoy of provifions,. 
and being on his manch, be met with the Duke of Wey- 
ntar. And this is the ^ort of the ftory : The prince* 
wa» Ml indifpofedy by reafon of his late ficknefs ; yet 
tU» could not hln^ him from embracing this occafion» 
which he believed to b< of great importance to his party ; 
he got tlierefore on hoifeback, and nuurched up to the. 

The cotnbat kfted five hours, and Lorrain did all that, 
could be- expeftdi from a brave and experienced com-* 
mander. But he was conilrainéd to yield to the duke's 
fortune, arnd retire into a wood, with what he coukl fave, 
of his troops ; and the Swedes courage was not a littler 
increafed by fo great an advantage, which will certainl)^ 



be attended with the furrender of Brifac. The Duke of 
Wcymaf remained mafter of the field, having entirely de- 
feated the Imperialifts foot, and put the Duke of Lor- 
rain's hoife into a horrid diforder: There lay above twelve 
hundred dead on the place ; and all the baggage, toge- 
ther with the ammunition, fell into the hands of the 
conqueror, A man would think, illuftrious Kaimacham, 
that the god Mars has united himfelf with this captain ; 
for notwithftanding tfie wcaknefs of his body, he per- 
forms every day mofl heroic anions with his valiant fol- 
diers, who are" ready to undertake any thing, when he h 
at their head. Whether this happens from his not va- 
luing his Kfe, or his thirft aRer honour ^ yet fo it is, that 
he cannot live without notirifhing himfelf with vidlctrie» ^ 
and he begins already to equal the famoifs Guftavus, tiA-^ 
der whom he has learned his trade. Yet he Has left, -not-- 
withftanding his diligence, two forts he buik pn thfe* 
Rhine ; which if he retakes, it*v««ai not be wkhotft Hhe , 
coft of much blood on both fides. The Gc¥miifMi liavte 
already loft fixty thoufand men there, among# v^^cfi 
there were four hundred drowned. 

The extremities of Brifac, of which we have tó^ady^ 
private advices, arc at prefect lAowti to all the wo*M. 
The Swedes intercepted, the laft moon of .Oftober^ a 
letter from the governor to the King of Hungary, whefe- 
in he laid x>peii his condition, and told him plainly, that 
places wliith wanted men, vitìruals, andamm'uriition, cotold 
not be defended but by a miracle ; adding, that tlie b*fe 
officers and foldicrs were already dead ; and thofe that 
were jdrve, were either fick, or lay wwitided', and fo gWat- 
ly tired that they could do no fervice ; and befides',' thdr 
viéiuals would laft but twelve days. He feemèé &fte<^ 
wards to repi'oach htm for letting the time dip, ift which 
he ^éd pi'é>mifed htm affift^nce ? aftd pùt>him in wmdf 

Bool? II. A spy AT PAR^S. . . lOJ 

he did not btlieve he cQuld hold out to, the. fourth of Uie 
mpop of September, being reduced to fuch cxtrepiities*. 
that be d^urll not mention particulars, l^il his letter fhould» 
fall into ,othtr bauds. ObjGerve the imprudence of the 
cxpreffions ; he dares n©t write all, aad yet he. writes more 
than needs, to difcovex that the place will be infalhbly 

. If thou beeH impatient to know the forrender of 
Brifac,. thou Jflialt be fatisEed by this difpatch. The poll 
is now come, which brings news of the taking of that- 
important place ; and be is come hither ^n three days*. 
The place was taken according to the rules of war, fuiv» 
rendering the ninth of the laft moon of this year, accord- 
ing to the Chrifiians ftyle. The governor procured verj" 
hohourabk terms ; and truly he fuilained the fiege witb' 
all the vigour and courage poffible, to the laft extremity. 
He. is called the B^ron de Rcynech : His name defervcs-. 
a place in the letters thou enregiftereit ; and that the Di'* 
van &LOuld be informed of a man who knows fo well to 
defend what is en,trufted to Iiim, that they may give U> 
virtue her due. There went out of Briiac only fovm 
hundred foot, and feventy borie, who w^re all naked, 
wpuz^ded, and almoft dead with humger : They were re-; 
duced to thofe extremities, that they had already eal^en 
the i^ih of horfQs» cats, aad dogs ; and fome were faid 
tc^ have dcT^red human ^eih.. As touching tlbe booty^* 
«here are different diicouries j but it is certain, the. coi^ 
queror foiuid above two hundred pieces of cannon in th^ 

But there is a ftraage. ftory related of a youag k4y, 
of admirable beauty, who falling down at th<: Lfuke. of 
Weymar's feet, thus fpake to him : 

"• Sir, I have but fome few moments to live, hunger 

having reduced me to the gates of death ; but I fhaU die 

E 4 

^6^ J,ETt'EìlS'WRIXt£Ì^ BY 'Vol.'l 

(kfperatc, if )roa de not Ttvcngc me of a bafc fellow, 
who has exadcd of me a diamond of great value, whick 
i have been fovced to give him for a roafted moufe : I 
am not angry with him for taking of me a pearl necklace 
ihiring the fiege for fonr ounces of flour ; but I confcfs 
my weaknefs, I cannot fee m) felf bereaved of what I 
inoft valued, and die without fatisfaéìion." It is faid this 
prince could not forbear (bedding tears at fo piteous a 
rpeélaclei this lady dying almoft at the fame inftant (he 
had done fpeaking ; but it is not known whether he. call-r 
ed this hard-hearted fellow to an account for what he 
Ited detained. 

The ficgc of Brifac laftcd four moon», almoft four- 
fcorc thoufand men periftiing in the town, by ficknefs, 
#òuiids and famine. Bort fires are made at Paris fbr fo 
great an advantage ; and the Duke of Wey mar's praifes» 
are evtry where celebrated, and great commendatioiis are 
]g[iveri him in the letters from the court. Our empire 
rtiaj have one day fomething to fear from fo brave, fo 
experienced, and ambitious a captain, were he at leifurc : 
But "Germany is fo large a country, fo full of ftout men, 
and eontatns fo many great towns, and thofe fo well for- 
t^d, as win afford him work enough, without trou- 
bling U8. 

' It is'pleafantly faid hiere, that the emperors of Gér- 
miftiy wifi ho more flcep quietly; for in lofing Bnfae 
they have loft their pilIow\ on which they retted ; and it 
is thouglit, France may one day unite this conqueft to 
her crown. The great God multiply the years of thy 
life' as= the fand* of the fea,'and Increafe every day thy 
IbrlttBC, anfd continue thy health. 

.' Pariis, «5th of the lad Moon, of the Year 1638, 

:VIIL^7>Mexech Amit. :. ' 

I HAVE heard here a confufed difcpurfc of the dìfgracf 
! of Stridya Bey ; but thy letters have fatisfied nae. . Thou 

feeft, friend, how thiogs go. He had the priiucc's fa- 
vour, and yet could not fave himfelf. He had moreover 
great riches, and yet was obliged to undergo fuch great 
ignomi^iy. He will be more deformed than he was, hav- 
mg now left his nofe and ears in the hands of the com- 
mon executioner. 

Amurath, in condemning- him to this puniihment, has 

, done an aft of juftice w«rthy of him ; for the lionefteft 

1 men in the empire have ever wiflied ill to this proud and 

I infolent Oreek. This man, who was but a pitiful fifher- 

man, and feUer of oyfters, got this intolerable pride by 

• the prodigious richer he acquired in this mean occupa* 
tion. His great wealth made him find the means of ob- 
taining the favour of the miniflers and favourites of th^ 
prince ; and his- Ifighnefs himfelf honoured him with hi«. 

I friendfhip, gave him «ifices, and heaped up riches on; 

him.- Thou fhouldft know all I fay 5 but I am uftonifh* 
ed thou (houldft . write to rae, that this wretch having 
been put out from the government of Walachia, by rea-* 
fon of his infupportable pride and extreme covetoufncfs^; 
. fhould pretend U> re-enter on this office* by means of ^ 

* inoney, trying in fome fort to corrupt the jufb'cc of A* 
murath. Obfervehow na^ny ways he. draws on him the 
prince's indignation ; The emperor muft have been more 
coyetpus than Stridya, had he ^voured his deiign ; but- 
it ivas the decree of Heavjcn that Stridya fhould b^. pu- 
mihed, and that our ttiafter ihould give a terr3>le example 
of his juftice, to terrify thofc wht) ufe their riches to 
commit all forts of crimes, and to purchafe all manner o£: 
wfiunom pleafuise. 


TWe new* trf'the fail of iKk (lave had in &me fort mii 
. tigatcd the great melancholy I felt, when I received thy J 
Utter : But thiat drtith. of Zagabarafci, oar coairtion frkndv 
does not a little affliid me, as well as the marriage -of 
his fon Caragurtì, made the {ame day» does aftoaifh me ; 
for I cannot comprehend how there could well be cele- 
brated on the fame day, and at the fame houfe,' two 
fuch different ceremonies, as are a funeral and a wedding* 

I find this adventure very ftrange; and though our 
friend indeed was very old, yet I bewail him, as if he 
had died ^fiore his tim^. He was an honcft man, of 
^at piety, and moderately rich; and this is what makes 
mortals happy in this world, and the other too. But thou 
doft not inform me, whether the exceffi ve joy he had to 
ft e his fon married to a Greek, rich with the goods of 
fortune, endued with great virtue, and a mnte, has not 
caufed his death. I rather think thcu wilt fay, our friend 
Zagabarafci is dead by fome excefs, than yield to what 
we contefted about formerly. I always found in thk' 
friend great marks of honefty and fobricty ; and he atfo* 
appeared to hie to have great tendemefs for h» Ton. '• I 
cannot, without offending thee^ accufe this oki gentlè>-> 
man of want of moderation, yet he is dead with a.tranf- 
port of joy. Tliou feeft, I affirmed no impoffibie 
tiling when I maintained in my youth, that «n e*^ 
traordinary and uafofcfeen joy is vaevé likely to kiB 
than fuddei^ grief, ,t hough never fo violent. -Didft 
tbou t];iin>k' It a matter of fmall fatiììfaé^ion - to a fet^m^ 
that is a wife and.fober man^ to obtain for his ion a wo-« 
man that 10 a mute ? For what greater pkafore can a littf« 
band have, than to have à wife that 19 tiot talkative ? Vkti 
Ckriflians uitderiland not the firifdomr «if the Turksy-wbttft- 
they laugh at oar fultans, who find thi? gret«eft part of 
their pleafure in the conver&tioA of mute»^ Is tlmm 4»^ 

BDQk II- ^ A »n JkHiJAm^*^ Ì ' P^y 

thing more deUghtful titaa to^ hear a mafu tbat doe« not 
fpeak, and to fee one that has bo tongue reaibn.oaaH 
tilings ? Thou knoweft how many things thefe mutes 
of the feraglio do giv.c one to undeiftand, and what elo- 
quence time k in tbeir %n8 and gcfl^utes, ThoujjC' 
mcmbereft, that when Araurath would give thanks to- 
the fovercign Moderatoi of all the world, in that he 
bad efcaped death,- wi*e<i the lightening fell on bÌ3 bed, 
and burnt to his very Ihirt, he fcemed to offer him a 
great facr/ficp, in putting a mute out of the feraglio, 
which he dearly loved by rcafon of her tricks and gpef- 
turcs. The MuCm were one day ready to fall together a 
fight ii^g^.becaufe they would not receive amonglL them a 
tcath o6m|>anÌQn, fent them by a Mandamus from a king 
of It»ly.} biit when this tenth Mufe fignified to them 
th^t flip was dumb, all the voices were for her. Dear 
Mi^chp^jt is not without reafon I write thee this. Thou 
s^t.ftiU* yiouug, and defigneft for matrimooiy: Believe 
Miijl^u>pt,i tbsfc are few women that are wife, and they 
fay» little jthat is good : Think then what thofe fay, who 
know f|otKing,^aRd whofe number h infinite» When they 
hsife^ t;alk|8d a whole day, believe me, they have faid no- 
thing.. If thou j»in-ieft, follow my^eouniel, take not a 
a iQttfce, for thea thou wilt marry. a beaft ; neither choofe 
onc^ that ijalketh, for thou wilt be h'nked with a monfler. 
Aa to^ottr friend, he died by a particular grace from hea« ' 
vea: >Yet I caiifiot but think fiill of his death. How 
namy more extiaordjnary accidents wilt thou fee, if thou 
Uvcft to old 9ger and efpecially if thoa litreA at Cdnilan* 
tinc^le, where are. continually bdield flrange adven- 
Murea, ^aod -extraordinary effed^s, both of life and death, 
cnusky and plem^acy, as well as -of good and bad for-^ 
nmeb Being, in breath, I cofdd continue ftill to wi^ke to 
thor^ but I think it is time to «nd^ leift I prove tiVefome ;» 

E 6 

^o8 LExnft&iwAincMiBr ^F^tioS. 

amili fìviiìo pakpsiQ kjoq> Jibec tn <>hcEdti)9 
«^toaci(9* tluMi art». 

Paris, 25 til of the laft Moon, of the year 1638. 

IX.— To the fame, 

Jr ARIS» where I Hvei is a very healthful city, and fo at^e 
all the place» thereaibouts» free from peftilential air»-; and 
yet there oft liappens fudden deaths a» well a» at Con* 
ftantinople ; and they die here likewife of joy. I will 
pelate to Chee what I have partly feen, and not whaitl 
ha^ heard» to happen in London, the moft ancient and 
chiefed; city of t^e kingdom of England: A -riehoM 
mjm falling tick» and lying on his deathbed» fent to his 
only fon» Htlng at Paris, where he fpent hw tkne in plea- 
fufc, to come over, that he nnght, with his eftate^'gi^e 
him his hdeffiflg. Think what news this was to a y^onAg. 
man, to whom the life of a father was ttottblefotney ^às 
being an obftaclc to his liberty, and who waited his 
death, to lake his fwing of all the pleafiines which his 
corrupt nature makes him refpeé^as his ibvcpeigiii good. 
This young man intending to get updn hor£d»aak to'ltm 
where he was called, found hhnfelf embarked for a v^y* 
age which he did ilot de%n to ntake^; àefèUdead en 
the plaee, and I faw Iiim in the fame inHant, wherdn he 
was living and healthful, to expire; Were I of thefe^ 
of our pkilofopher Moilaadin Smidi, I wotdd tell thée 
it matters not, whether one dies Aiddedy^ or laoguifh a 
Ipng time ; whether a man dies in his bed,, or at the gal- 
Ipws. But I being none of Zeno's difciplcs, aàd know- 
ing no Péripatetick, or phSofopher^ amongft» fo'^atty 
fedi that were in Greece, who dif]^led whethd^ lile tor 
ik»th is to be prcfetred; & -expcsft not from tot. iuif^it^ 

BoidsLlI. V jk tir JIT' pi)rt»; < ^09 

giiiags .on tie oaonals» of rtho£i Grcdssi noriyet l»fithe 
Perfians. But if death be fuch a tembletldng/ cadea- 
Tour to live in fuch a manner that it may never affright thee 
when itthall approach thee, or when thou faall fee it invade 
othfis» ^sxptùmg it at ali times, and in all placc6> D^ft 
thou know by what herb, or by what fccrct magic charm 
I do not fear it f It is by the leading of an innocent 

Here is pubiiflkcd» and that with gceat reafon, the laft 
wocd» o£ a qckaa of gi^at biith, who died when h^ was 
very old» by a wound he received. He had ferved divers 
\impb in places of the lu^heil truft ; and being mortally 
.wipunded in a battle, mark what he faid to thofe that 
,e9(hi!0>it€d him to die like a g<ood Chriilian, arid with the 
ijime courage he. had ike^ed in his life ; his reply wa.^*- 
f:^ That » mae who had lived well fonrfcore years, cannot 
b^tp..{t^ek bow tQ die well for a quarter of an hoi;^*" 
JJiiii^ gi'^lit man, who was a. famous foldi^r» was alio a 
tr^^.jj^ìÌQtQ^tf and I might fay he was a faint, had he 
.been .of t^wr religion. I believe be was a moft edifying 
fi^tàmiihwd the m<Nre con£dcraUe, iu as much as the 
ei^ifiple b& gave c£ dying well, is more valiiaUf than th^t 
"which he.giive in fo vm^y baules of courageous, fighting.. 
He was called Anne de Montmorancy» confisele of France ;, 
mhl^^ life I kad the, curio&ty of reading,, being to. be 
iput^l in A^ kiftary fi£ the cjvil wars of ith$U kingdom^ 

; Bat b^Qre. I end this^l^tt^r, let me demote to thee the 
.difference tkefe is bfiisreen the efffc£^« of grief and^joy, 
The mefleog/erfrom England, of whom I already fpake, 
j^diog at his return the old man, whom he had left dy- 
ipgy.iUU aVve, he gave him fuch a ftrange ftrokc, by tejl- 
.^1^ to. him the death of hb fon, that grief having van- 
.qui(b^d the ftflad^t of death» refiared tv this unhappy old 
i9i«, tb«| ^.epgith behadloft ^ hi^ jQickncfa j fy tb^fi 

t f o LExzs&s vrsiàTrmxf by YqI^M 

cpmirig himfeif .A>me day ^ after to, Pans, I faw h^n he^ 
wail the lofs of his only fon« 

He that faid heretofore» A man Should learn all hit 
life to die tvell, uttered no Grange dogane; Otar.daiyA 
will ia(k long enooghy if we be ready t» iàyat sdì dmee^ 
We ha^ehvsd enoagh ; and i£ we lote as wt ought one 
great emperor^ n^o is invincibley holy, and the iito£k jufl 
amongft men ; and if wc obfcrve what a French pea&nt 
faid to all thofe thait paibd before his idoor. Never deny 
your a^Gdkance, and never do any body awy hurt. ^ 

X»et thou and I number our days (as was« preadked 
heretofore in the feraglio, to the white eunuchs by tLe 
Perfìany whofe eyes were put out becauie he ùew toa 
clearly)* He always infiftcd on the ihortnefe, unceitan»* 
ty, and vanity of human life. He faid, ^ it was ihort, 
confideijng what we had to do im it $ uncertain &s td 
what we iiall do in It ; and always mixed with what wt 
have donev and what remains for us to do." Teach not 
thy fon Mehemet yet, for whom thou «aafb fo much af* 
leétion^ the£e ^ecepts. CMIdren have not that ripenefs 
of judgment^ as is neceffary to hear difcourfes of 'ckiith.; 
tkey aye too h»rd hits for theif ftotnaehs, and wkieh iih 
deed old men can hardly digeft, and whieh tliey fwcdlo^ 
not without fecKng all the bitternefs of them. ^' 

I pray God keep* the imperii city, #ith^ thofe» thar 
dw^ in if, and ùiékérìt from the Aorms whiéh«fall:Wa^ 
ii^mous cities ^ and I befeech htm thoo Ilili3feft live with- 
out ofifence, that thou mayell never^tar death/ ** ' 

Paris, 25th of the laft Moon, qf the Year 16^8.. . .^ 

. • ■ ' ■ • ; ..' '^. :»..••> »-' 

Sbgk il. :^Arsnn aiv«ì[R£& •; i.>x 

X.— To Enguruli Emin Mehem5t Cheik, a Man of 
the Laiv, 

Whem I parted from . Cdmibatkioidc I gave tbec a* 
iioac of excellent virtue agaiflU the gravely 9nd thou pre« 
feotedft me with a paper wk'ch was to fecure me ^aio^ 
all bodily evils. Time onbf can decide wiilch .of us tWQ 
made the be ft prefent to his friend. Thou haft pretend- 
ed to teach me in few words how to live amongil the inli- 
dels ; and I thought in giving thee a ftooic, to give thee 
a remedy againd the diftemper thou art troubled with. 
I never turn myfelf towards the place where Mecca lies, 
hot I remember where thy amity began, and how far 
fince it ha» been extended towards me. Abfence has not 
lei&ned thy kindnefs» nor hindered thee from fending me 
thy grave counfels ; but I am as yet too youag to let 
about tbe preparing myfelf for the other world ; andt<M> 
vigorous aiid healthful to hearken to thy ferioua and mt^ 
lanchidy difcourfes* 

I wiik thou wert but at Patis, where them wouldeft fee 
a great number of people, wjio fell a moil precious thing 
to pur^hafe a vain and fanlailic title. How maay wii|i 
great earneftnefs. fue £ar plateau from tke king» that they 
may feek their deaths t Perhaps thou never thoogbteft 
tk^^ wtce any iiich kòad of people. What dofl thou 
thiak. theiv of the ibldtory m genend ? Are they any 
othc;r tlum martyrs of ambiliom to whom (ine w«uU 
think life is a burden li It is a (ad fpedacle to ièe Ji»owf 
many dead lie in the ftreets, or carried dp the (houldc» 
of thieir friends or kiofmen to their graven : Yet this is 
fo common a thing in Parb that the people make no 
wonder of it. 

Till» VKLf «f li^g «bilges me to do as the reft. I be- 
gift to confiécr, that^wbat ha^oa to another may hap» 

\\^ LETTtBKS WainjEH. Br !yil'l!>^l^ 

jf » to ?ne ; U>c;re is no avoiding one's deftirjy^ Tl^s pre- 
face is .only to briiig in *a ftory of tW king^s goo^flefej» 
uhmh ought to be an exaniple to all ptinces» \, 

•' Ths French hare need of frcfti foldkrs to fiH wp fò 
many troops- as they continually entertain : -Not ItSJg^ 
fioce then, there came a man full of years, ^ad ovefi- 
whelmed with dcfpair, who defired to be lifted in tJiJs^ 
prince's fervice. To obtain what he defired, he told the* 
king, " That he was,the father of twelve children, feven. of 
which were daughters, who were marriageable ; that he 
could no longer live, not beings able to maintain fucit ar 
gi'èat family ; ?md that Joeing ignorant as yét how to. die,-» 
lie would learn it in. the king^a fervice.'* The prince hnvfng 
appointed him to wait upon him one day privately ♦» hist 
dofet, thus fpake to him : " Thy defpair makes thee 'de* 
&foua to be lifted amougft my foldiers, and diarity obHges* 
X3(ie to retain thee amongft the citizens. Thofe tliat iaré^ 
fools when they enter into troops, commonly come- oar 
wifcr ; becaufe they learn feveral things of- tt4iI(pTfi tbcy* 
were before ignorant : But as to thy part, what time hnaft 
thou tt> learn, who art ready to fall dead at the fame^ 
moment thou entered into the fchool ? Yet I iteceiWi 
thee; take this fword, go and combat thy fdUy, andi 
take this purfe^to fuc«oi?r thy family, and be carta f-- 
but if thou art wife, fay: not fi^om whom thou haft' re^ 
oeived thy 0ure.'* I kno$^ not what fum wat inthe put^fo,"^ 
no more than I do of what metal the fword was* Bat' 
I»bave ilm ftory from an o£icer of the king- d-clofèt, with- 
whom I have that ftriél converfe, that- hetoldme thir 
paiTage as» foon as evcar it happened. 

I will tell thee, if thou wik> fome of tfi^ prfhcipal pbf^> 
fsiges of my life ; for I conceal nothing fr^^ tbe^waii*^ 
I^S(.^ad the>moft Tcnerable mufti, wba kjaow^.ay,^^. Jn 
d^ ; t adore the Sovereign Maftcr of t J^<;. .iqù?cs(i^;#p4^ 

Bodk il. A' BPY AT PARIS/ ' - f f^ 

havt a great veueradòà for his holy Pi'oph'et : I nefté 
defiled my hand» in blood, neither bave I ever violated 
any man's bed: I eafily forgive my enemies, and hale 
above all things the crime of flaadering. If this be not 
fufficient to merit falvation, I do not know what is.' 
Thefe are all my virtues, as to other qualification^ I have* 
none. I have no knack at thieving ; my talents lie not 
that way ; were I qualified, I might, as moll do, devifc 
means to put my art in practice. But living according 
to tkefe aforementioned maxims, I doubt not but I (hall 
find entrance into that paradife where faithful foals will 
. enjoy perfed): happinefs, and fet their feet on the necka 
of the enemies of our holy law ; where they (hall fuffer 
jickker hunger, third, nor nakednefs, free from the parch- 
ing heats of the fun, and the pinching (harpnefs of the 
colds, caufed by the moon ; where, under the agreeable 
ùkadCfG£ trees, they ftiaU gather the * precioufeil fruit» 
ftaodingv fittings or lying, and drink in cups of gold, or 
efnctedd^. the onoii delicious liquors, which fpring from a 
cjkar fountain^ and be ferved with inconceivable magm- 
fii,ùQtQu.' In tliis divine place they (hall be more beanti^ 
fi»l^dodr (Kiniag than the ftars in the firmament, whole 
hr%ht9isfs' enlightens the darkeil night; their robes 
iHiall^ of fineft filk, <^ a colour more green and pleafing 
tathe.eye thiintiie heii» which fpring up in May ; and 
flail further i^eceive from the hands of God a potion 
more fweet and delicious than can be imagined, as a re- 
còmpefife for the good they have done during their abode 
amangft. iben. Thou knoweft it is impoffible for me to 
go on pilgrimage to Mecca, feeing I am obliged to abide 
at'£af^* Thou knoweft alfo I cannot give myfdf to 
cotttémplatfon, being forced to lead an adive life ; for I 
riuft^hotremain among the dervifes who pafs their days 
iiy^lieUd^,• (brving itì France, as I muft do, our puiiTant 


and Invincible emperor* Thou fecft here what my con- 
éltion will bear ; aceiife me not, therefore, for neglcding" 
the pious advices thou giveft me, I forget not fo mQeh 
death, as I forget that I muft die. 

Be informed of this from me, there is not a town in 
the worid where people do learn better to live ill than at 
Paris ; neither is there any place where they are better 
taught to die. I need not tell thee, here are public aca* 
demies (as were heretofore amongft the Egyptians) where- 
in dead bodies lie expofed to public view, to make men 
remember the indifpenfable necelfity of dying. But I 
may tell thee, there is no day, wherein, in this great 
town,' a great quantity of fools do not teach wifet- than 
themfelves things they have been ever ignorant of; for 
the gibbets and fcaffolds £et up for the punifhment of the 
gttiky, hinder the deftrudrón of a great many people, 
whofe innocency is preferved by thefe kind of fpeebiclesi 
Here the poor, who had heretofore plentiful fubfiftenccs, 
teach good huibandry ; the proud, humility ; the debauch* 
cd with women, chaftity. 

I believe there is no part of the world vvhcre there ar« 
more thieves and pickpockets, and who do their work 
with greater art and fubtilty : lliey exercife their craft 
in all places, in the chtwches, as well as the ftrects, mar- 
kets and bridges ; fo that our people of the Morea, who 
are thought by us to be fuch great mafters in this fciencr, 
are mere affes to them. Adieu. 

Paris, loth of the ift Moon, of the Year 1639. 

XI. — To Cara Haly, the Ph^cian. 

I KNOW not whether what I thought I faw laft night ia 
my bed be the efFc6ts of a dream, or of a real vifi9n. I 

was «waked' by a g«eat earthqiiake, whkh made mt rife 
affnglslLcd out ofiay bed. But informtng myf«lf by (t^e 
pc€i|de, I found it was but a dreann. 

My adventure has renetrcd the remembrance of one, 
which' proved of fad confecpicnce to one part of Italy. 
Phyikrians are at a lofs to fmd out the caufes of thofe 
horrible fires wliich arc vomited up at certain times by 
Mount Gibei, Stromboli and Vcfiivius, mountains in Sp- 
ciiy, ^lot far from Naples, wboCe roots feem to fpring 
fram beli ; whence arife o&ea filthy exhalatioos, fmoaks 
and fdij^ur, wkh flames which caft up ^xies aud aihes to 
the; dottds. 

It is knowB^ I believe, at Conftanttnople, that towards 
the beginnmg of the moon ©f Febmary, there was loft near 
Niipies a Uttkiihutd that had four miles in compafs* it 
h v^bced m a things certaàn, diat aiter this ifle was fud-^ 
. desly fwarikmod down into the iiea, the fire which it in* 
ckidedy not fittdtng its ufiaal vent,' therd was opened fome 
days «iter, a new way along' the coafts of Calabria, neaif 
Meffina« There did it appear, having fidi caused art 
lMffr9>le earthquake, which overthrew a great pile of 
buiding, which the ChrifUans call a ileeple, that be- 
longed to a principal church, which buried under its ruin» 
a Tsft number of people, whom devotion had at that time 
brought thither. Some towns of the kingdom of Naples 
fo^red by this earthquake, with great multitudes of peo^ 
pie, and herds of cattle, which were miferably loft in the 
fire by the fmoke and heaps of aflies ; and ambngft thofc 
that have been fmothered to death are reckoned feveral 
lords of thofe countries, who are matters but of few fub- 
jtfìs, and yet bear the title of princes. 

My dear friend, Cara Haly, thefe are dreadful effeéh 
of nature, whofe caufes will not be found out by us. Cer- 
tainly tbefc countries of Italy muft be far from paradifc. 

I*d LET«1g»fff'\f JtllrPEl* BT VékÉ. 

feemg'th«fo'nMJUllft of ii^ (if it be true, a» many people 
£^yt, tliey ate in thefe tnòutitahiB ) do fraquifintlf i»t«iv*ry 
th«fe irmptio58 Calabria and Sicfly. Nat?iiraljftB affirm, 
tiiat'thefe moutltaiils BOUTidi folphurieous m&tter ih tHeii' 
bowds, trhich is ea% iiiiiattied^ and iffuesouÈ with mòre 
or Icfs vehcmcncy, and more or Icfs frequency, ttccoipùm^ 
as the matter is more or lefs dtfpofed, and the fubterra- 
nean winds kindle and eje^ thefe fires, and open the mafft 
of eaith, under which they are fhut up. But the opinion 
of certain phiiolbphers, who maintain, that mere chance 
produces thefe exti'aordinary events, appears to me very 
ridicuious ; affirming, that one ftone ftfiking anòth^' 
produces a fpark» whence happen thefe gneat infiafniftia* 
tions: Nay» they proceed farther» and would pa^ùadé- 
us» that a lighted lamp» kft by chance by- thofe* who 
fearched into the bowels of thefe motmtains» to dSfc€Mref' ' 
thcfccrets of nature» might make thefe flames ^ which-' 
L'ghting on a combuftible matter» and laeetiag with Mé^'- 
thing làat b contrary to them to extinguiih them»''4^' 
caufe thefe furprifing effeds. They alfb fay^ahat lighteft-'*' 
ing ftriking fiercely on fome one of the coaib ^- thefi! 
mouAt»D8, may do the fame thtug a? the ftoÀes ftriking * 
one agatnft another» or the lamp left lighted. -> 

Thdc opinions would not appear- fo ridicuk»os» were ' 
k podiible to make any demofifbfatioA of them : But thefe 
events being all extraordinary» and in a manner prodigi^ 
ous» Ji &all willingly fu&r thee to believe that it Is a 
work of ntiture» or hell» or chance alone» which caufes 
the perpetual motions of thefe fires, which are fa ter- 
rible, and fo greatly damnify one x)f the fincft countrki 
in the world, as Greece is, and this ifland, which is the 
delight and nurfe of almoft; all the provinces fituated oa 
the banks of the Mediterraaean foa. ■ ^ 

We ini alia in Jreland thefe mountains of fire» 'y^t 

Book II. , AnnAiifM^i i , Uf 

vath tkiV<li&s<nce»Tthatiheir Aunti,:hmU v^icb. 
makes ihcm nowife dteadC^to the mbabiUotftì •' !« think 
too X havie heard my father fay» that bdng is coiopaay 
withcertaia Arabians ia ott^ Lfcia» Jbe f«vr ihefe kind 
of ^res come oiit of the eacth^but they broke out gait« 
ly aad caufed no damage. 

I am now 'perfuaded of one thing, which I would ne* 
va- believe before» which is* that old PHny» kitendsng to 
relate to tbw Empexor Titus» and leave to poilcrity a re- 
lation of the effeàs of Vefuvtus, and a perfeéi difcovery 
of the caufes of fo many prodigious effe^ ; he therefore 
went himfelf on. the place, becaufe that in his time this 
famous mountain had caft out an boniUe quantity of 
fi%.'ftQoes and afheSf with fo great 7Ì<^ence, and fuch 
t^r^i^le^noiiey that the efiìeéls of it wecie fdt in Syria» 
Airip, and efpeciaily in £gypt* But. the curiofity of 
tbi&.wretched philoDopher having coft him his life» the 
Rooaana expe^ iUU» with his xetom» the discovery of the 
fepfiet «aufes of fo many prodigious e&£b. Take care 
ofihine own. health» and let net ady of thy gitients mif* 
candir though thy negle^ or ca&nefs. Continue to love 
me» fbottgh ,1 am at. a great diftanee from thee. Write to 
me fometimes ; and believe that I am not able to con« 
for^ myfelf to the way of living of ftrangere amongft 
wl|pm I r^de. I (hatt be alw^iysa good mttOulman» and 
a fjuthful- friend. , - ; 

Paris, loth of the 1 ft Mo«n, of the Year 1659. 

XII. — To the Venerable Mufti, Prtnce of the Selijion of 
the Turks. 

1 HT decree is very crod, to Itj^arate ine, Wifhout hkv^ 
ingcemmktednrf'oiimey frMi tlie'domiatfiiioi^óf thè 
faithful 2 

1 13 L£Tnua vanTUM bt ' • VM. Ì. 

I \haHt read the holy anfwer tho«< hàSt tÉOuàe me with 
^(Oat veneittition ; bMt this, has not been • wichoCit màny 
t^ears : thou ha^ not antied the- knot of the difficultfe» 
which perplex r lae^ but madck iiicUfldkMe ; fo thAt I 
only live in thcjceitsunty oi having no certitude ^ and -my 
foul, which is encompafled with fear, will be in df ead till 

If I do what thoii propofeft, how fhall I be fure of 
not failing, feeing I dò not iinderflrand what I ought to 
do. I am fo dull, that I cannot diftingaiih whether thou 
exhorteft me to do what I have ever done, or whether 
thou forbiddefb me what I aikcd of thee. 

I entreated thee to let me know, whether I m if 1 te 
amongft the Chnilians, and do, in appearance, wbat 
they do effeé):uatty in the obfervance of the ceremonies of 
their religion Ì and.thou. anfwereil me, ** Tharthe ctr» 
cumcifed, or faithful, ihoidd have no doubt in his law, 
and need no other pixcepts ^ obferve it than the law it* 
klL Moreover, that the true mnfTulmau maSi be ^Ming 
to lofe his eftate, his life and honoiir, in the luhan's ier« 
vice ; that the Chriilians arc ettemiea to the true God, 
the emperor andjreligioo^ and that, in 6ae, one ought 
to facrifiice aU things not to betray this God^ who ss onr 
chief maftcr.*' 

Tell me, I entreat thcc po my bended kaess^ camiot-a 
man be a true Mahometaa without hatiaag eterialiy* cbs 
followers of Jefus ? ,and in living amongft them, fecrei^, 
a true muifulman, mxxH one (how one's felf to be of, ano- 
ther rdigAeOr «r pi«t«ad to- be ^ theirs-l Thott wiktteH 
me, the Alcoran fpcaks witli great cl^ajrnefs $ ,yet how 
many obfcure paffagcs do we .find In the words of our 
holy Prophet, wherein we need thy expofitions ? 

I have no.beljpf ipr T^c^t, ^peithe^iTjHill.igiva ew^dit 
to the 4^vil.; my law oxpre^ily ^bidsjfe:; fo# I h«)>awe 

Book IL A'Stdc jot tAXis. X19 

i«t)ne only true» God^ who 'knew tite> ilitentioii of our 
b^y lawgijr«r9 ma i<«$ «hat' we casmot difbò^r. And 
the prophet cxiea out, that ke that has fuch princiftkè 
ieaos fin the ftfaQg^.pr«p he cap e^r meet with ; there 
being noth^ig which is. ahk to overthrow iU 

Difperfe, reverend fir» as moch as thou canft» the dark^* 
ncfs.of my fpirit : I conjure thee by the ahnighty Ftatfaer» 
who can make lure Beùk come on the diy hones of the afs 
which died an hundred years ^fl:«. 

I do not diicpntiaue here my ufual prayers» which I 
make in the manner they are prefcribed me by the law, 
with my face always turned to the fide of Mecca. When 
I faft, I eat only at night ; and I continue my repafl 
tiU» Aurora advancing, the day gives me light enough 
to diftiBgmfh black thread from wbàte; and I pafs over 
the day without taking any tiounfhment, till the darknefs 
he £0 great that I eannot fee the eye of a needle. It is 
true I give no alms to the poor, becaufe I doubt whe- 
ther k be bwful to do good to thofe who continually 
move heaven againil: us. 

The bifhops here are in great veneration. They have 
not aaahf(^ute authority, becaufe they depend on the 
Roman prelate and the king; yet their jurifdidion is 
very large, the kiagdcm being full of churches, and thefe 
churchea frequented by million» of people. They wear 
ahomt thieir necks a golden crofs. They Kve, in public, 
good lives ; are obliged to- know all the points of their 
law ; they muft be dodorsr are obh^ged to celibacy, to be 
£ober, hofpitable, pnadent, irreprehenfible, without covet- 
ing others goods; they muft never be drunk, or fhcd 
human bk)od« Their habit is a long veft reaching to 
the ground^ of bkck filk or violet. They go little on 
foot, hut a»e carrtried -m coaches to avoid the wearifom- 
Bc^-wkidh would opp^efs them, in a town which feemi 

IZO LETStMSMfmTnv^ BY Vol. t. 

thft greateft in tbe woiid ; wbidk tbou wottldeft ào too 
perhaps, wert thou deiigaed to be tbett fiovenifB pee-, 

The great ArbiUator of the world, favour by his mer- 
cy, or by an cfFeA of his juftice, the inconceivable ho- 
nour of fuffermg thee to fweep during thy life» his moil 
holy and only temple of Mecca, in the company of If- 
mael and Abraham, that thou mayeft keep it clean, with- 
out any fUth of what kiodrfoever. 

Pari?, loth of the ift Moon, of the Year 1^39. 

XIII. — To the Kaimacham. 

The French armies arc at preftrnt in winter quarters, 
and the court is buiied in contriving what they fliall do 
in the fpring. I do not believe I write thee any £aliè 
ne ws' for it is to be believed that the {harpncfs of the 
winter will hinder any thing from being undertaken be- 
fore that time. 

^ The eyes of all the court are fixed upon three objeds, 
tV^ king, the dauphin his fon, and Cardkial Richlieu ; 
but they more carefully obferve the latter than the for* 
mcr. This man hath made himfelf creatures by his be* 
nefits; the thankfulnefs for which, and the hopes of 
new oties, has bound them to his inter etf. Yet it is to 
be believed, he has more enemies by means of the great 
credit he is in with his prince, and the occafions he finds 
to increafe it. His antichamber is always full of at- 
tendants, who afpire to employs of fuch as are in of- 
fices, and feveral other perfons, who are défirous to be 
witnefTes of his anions. Thofe who threaten him in fe- 
crct, do but increafe his courage, and make him more care- 
fully flauS on his guard ; and thole who have sloft escpe* 

Bèokli. t.A.9WtÉei,wàa&. ut 

ricBce ci ibt worid «ftrm» ib» cafdìnil knovrstoo miicii 
to-bt t ttf wiftd. i&artheTatkiilo£ am o£ tbo kaft of 
Itts a^CHiSy wberd)y th<Mi xoayefl figtire the gresiteft, asd 
gìirc tkem itlie dsc pfioe cbcy defervr* For duce years 
tog«tfaer .was ObCenrcd in Itbts tardinal^s aaltckambov 
a maa «éiQ was not £nr ad^anoed in years» aod as ai&dii» 
cms to tiahA his courty sb he was modeft in his difcoarfe | 
very idcrved and patient.; and, wkidx k rery rare at 
cKMtrty was never heard to cotnplaio. The cardinal» who 
pretends to read the fouls of men» and who is inferior 
to none perhaps in this art, caufea this perfon» who had 
fo long attended y to be called to him» and thus fpake to 
him ; *' I know who thou art» and how loag time tho« 
haft fpcnt in obferving me; although thou outwaidly 
appeared a Frenchman» thy great patience afiuces ma 
thou art of another diaoate; get thee to Rome» and 
wait bat half llie tane in the Pope's aatichamber» as thou 
haft* done m mine» and I donbt not but thou wilt pene* 
tmte Into die moft hidden Secrets. Depart tiien imme« 
dxately lor Italy» and obfenre the aélions and motions of 
the và£dk and meft ^i&miilatif« court ia the ufuvcrfe i 
difcover not thyfdf to any body : Send me an account 
every w«ek what thou canft difcover ; and in this man« 
ncr*tho« wfit be ttfeful to me» and avoid idlenefe* My 
feeretary wifi give thee a cypher, and my treafurer hM 
order to give thee what is neceSary (or thy voyage» as 
well as to keep thee when thou art at Rome.*' 

The cardiiial ftttdies to extend the bounds of the knig^ 
dom» and for that purpofe» eonfults tììefe whO'<f«ft any 
ways advance his projedls ; e^ecially» the king being 
now certain of a focceflbr» by the Urth of the «fouphki^ 
who feems very llkdy to "live long. All hands ait em- 
pbyed at Thoulon and MarTeiHes fiir the fittins' out of 
galkrya and other veffeb; sad* it is thought» the chief ^ 

Foi.I. F 


defigns of this mmifter are on the coafts of Italy» I am 
told he was heard to fay, that the Romaas could never 
have conquered all the world, as they did, had they not 
before been mailers of Italy ; that Hannibal had the fame 
deiign; and after Hannibal, Pope Alexander VI. in« 
tended to fee whether fuch a defign would take effeéi, 
but his pride and cruelty made all his projeéU prove a- 
bortive ; and that he could naeet.wtth greater fuccefii than 
Hannibal, could he be fo happy as to attain one thing. 
And here he ended his. difcourfe. 

He fo greatly minds whatever pafles in the royal fa- 
mily and kingdom, that he can difcover, as he pretends, 
all the thoughts, yea, and the very dreams, of the gran- 
dees, governors of provinces, and tbofe that command 
in places. 

. He fays, he has learned feveral ufeful things in the 
relation given us of the government of the Chinefes, hav- 
ing from them the way of difcovering the mOft di£Bcu]t 
matters, without its appearing be does any thing for 
this purpofe. And this is the method of governing, he 
pbferves, in this kingdom, wherein are fo many reftleft 

He. maintains, near all people whp are in ai^y coniider* 
able o^Bices, perfons that depend only on him, and who 
are known to nobody elfe, who in all places wear mean 
clothes, and inceiTantly watch over the ajftions of the 
officers, and give him notice of whatever pafTes. He 
makes ufe of thefe kind of people about his mailer's am« 
baffadcHTS in .foreign courts. He always carries a^ book 
about with him, which he calls Richlieu's Soul ; which 
^ok contains the defigns, the intercils, the fecret prac- 
tices and inclinations of all the princes who hold a cor* 
refpondence, and have any ties with France, and on 
whom France has any pretenfions. The moftikilfula- 

Éoòk li. * '• ^ A Sf y "Ài: ta^iì. 1 23 

ftrologeh in Europe have alfo fcnt him the hbrofcopes 
bf ali the kings and great men, with their judgment 
touching the terni of their lives, and what they may pro- 
bably undertake in all times. This cardinal faid, on an- 
otfier time, that he kept a great many courtiers, yet he 
could well enough fpare them ; that he knew what paff- 
cd in remote places as foon as what was done near him. 
'He once affifmed, he knew in Icfo than two hours that 
the King of England had figned the warrant for the exe- 
cution of — — — . If this particular be true, this mi- 
nifter muft be more than a man. Thofe who are his mod 
devoted creatures affirm, he has in a private place in his 
clofet, a certain mathematical figure, in the circumfer- 
ence ojF which are written all the letters of the alphabet, 
armed. with a dart, which marks the letters, which are 
àlfo marked by their coirefpondents, and it appears, that 
this dart npens by the fympathy of a ftone, which thofe 
who give and receive his advice keep always at hand, 
which Hath been feparated from another, which the car- 
dinal has always by him ; and it is affirmed, that with 
fuch an inflrument he gives and receives immediately ad- 

This great man, who knows all thefe reports, only 
laughs at them ; yet he fays with a ferious air, that God 
has given him two angels, one white and another black, 
to inform him of both good and bad matters ; and that 
with their affiflance he fhall overthrow the cabals of his 
enemies. He fent, fome days pad, a man to the gal- 
leys, that was accufed for cutting in pieces the king'i 
picture ; but having been better informed, and knowing 
it was his, he told thofe about him, that this man fhould 
be pardoned, bccaufe he had done no hurt to the origi- 
nal. Here are theatres and feafts preparing to entertaia 

f a 


the people in honour of the king and cardinal ; and it is 
whifpered that the queen is again with child. 

Heaven preferve thee ever from the fultan's anger, and 
all other misfortunet which may four the comforts of thy 
» Paris, a5th of the ill Moon, of the Year 1^3?. 

XIV. — To Egri Boynou, the whitt Eunuch* 

If thou go^^ into Prullia in Bithynia, as thou writeft, 
above all things remember to prepare thyfelf not to Kve 
]ong, and never to inform the young fultan Muftapha of 
the misfortune of the grandfon to Solyman the Great » and 
ion to poor Bajazet» whom his grandfather caufed to be 
fbrangled in his infancy. This unhappy pkce makes me 
fearful of thy life, as wcM as that of the princess, the 
care of whofe education is committed to thee. I can- 
not forbear weeping every time I call to mhid what pair- 
ed between the vidb'm and the executioner. Thou thy- 
self toldeft me, that this unhappy child embraced and 
klffed feveral times him that was to give the fatal ftroke, 
even in the moment when he was putting about his neck 
the iilken firing which was to ftrangle him. All Aiia is 
informed of the reft of the hiftory j and it is known» 
|l9iat this clliU» although ftrangledy yet triumphed at his 
deatk over his murderer; for, being foftened by the ca- 
refles of this infant, whom he was about deflroying, he 
dropped down in a fwooa ; and Bajazct's fon had by this 
occafioa efcaped death, had not the other executioner, 
mote cruel than the former, done die work* 

Altbough thou doft not certainly know who is Mufta- 
^a's father» yet thou rnayeft méSL prefume he is the em*» 
pcror's fon. Thy age and prudence ib long experienced, 

Book II. A SPY A7 PÀiu:|« 1 25 

and the office of chief of aU the eunuch's of the empire, 
which thou hail fo long enjoyed» leaves ^o place of 
doubt ing> but that thy pupil is of royal biood. Arm 
thy felf then , with courage, and ftudy to perform well 
thy duty in this folitary place : Nothing is fo trouble» 
fome as the inftruding of children, when thcQT will be 
taught as maftcrs by their flaves, and win oot fubmit to- 
rules, Uke pnvMe par&ttt» 
I Thou mayeft be fure, I fliall render thee all the fer« 

vice I am able, feeing I confider thee at a friend diat im 
extreme dear to me : But why doft thou feek anMnigft 

I the Chriftians an iUuftriouB fubje^, which . may ferve for 

a model to form a child bom in the reh'gion of the AAviTul- 

Did I not know thy wifdom, , I fhould think thou art 
wry fimple in feacchiag after e&an^ke amo^gil the eoe* 
xnies of our holy law, to propofe them to be foUowed by 
the OttoII^u) cbildrea. Hiou haA diofoi lor this pur-^ 
pole Henry of Fiance, termed The Great ; aad art tho» 
I ' ^nomiit, that tbja fo famous a king was the rndfl, im* 
! placable enemy of the empire ? Be it known {o the<^. 

that this prince undertook the boldeft and dangeroufeit 
dcfìgn as iftsa ever, ims^ined, to dcftroy the .monarchy of 
the miifiulmans; and might probably have fuceeeded, 
had not heaven, by an unforefeen ftroke, fnat<:hed him 
from the earth, to appear before the tribunal of the true 
God, who judges kings as well as other men. But left 
thou (houldeft imagine I make this pretence to e&cufe 
.myfelf from fatisfying thee in what thou defireft, receive 
at leaft one part of what thou expeéteft. Thou would^ 
eft have me fendlhee the hiftory of this prince ; content 
thy£^ with a ihoit extrad of it, otherwife I muft be 
forced to fend thee a large volume. However, make not 
uie of his cxampkitt all things ; the way of living, the 


TS6 . LETTffilflPWaiTTfill BT Vtl. h 

knw ani* cu&oms of the French» do noi) * fati with* the 
Turkic way of regimen. If- tjiou wilt make thy pupd 
accomplfflvedy form him on thb model of fome one- of 
tiixff e iieroes which the ed& has given us. = MuiUpha wiU 
read with gnsater profit the hiftwy of Alexander and 
FfrrhiiQy than that of Charlemagne aad Heni^yi and 
ftould one wonder at the defaults of the King of M«ce« 
donia^ fon» and at the fmall fortune of the othev^ psa^ 
ibow me what men there ever were» who had at the ikmt 
time the frailties of human nature, and the perfe&ioof 
•f the Divinity. 

And if thou wilt fearch into Pcrfia and Egypt, (ho« 
wilt find a Cyrus, and an Artaxerxes, Ptolemy, Fbtnr 
meticus, Campfon and Tomombois, all great prances,^ 
whofe aélions honour antiquity. And how many heroes 
wilt thou find in our Greece, if thou wilt takc^ no notice 
of thofe whom Rome has fent into the world ? But not 
to go out of the Ottoman family, thou knoweft very 
well, that we Turks have for proverbial fpeeches^ the 
modefty of Solyman; the good mien of Ali»; the juf- 
tice of Nonquirevan j the majefty of Ofinan ; the gra- 
vity of Humer ; and the juftice of Abubekir ; notr to 
mention the courage and magnanimity of Amuralh, ^ho 
is, at this day, mure valorous than any of his commoQ 
foldiers ; whether he be in his fcraglio of Conftantioopl<^ 
or in his tents before Babylon. ? . x ^ 

Ten days ago I received thy letter, and I have eij»- 
ployed a great deal of that time in coUe^ing what thou 
hafi; defired of me ; and to fpeak truly, thy commands 
have fupplied me with matter wherewithal to divert me. 
Thou wilt be, without doubt, furprifed that two men, 
who long ferved this king in mean employs, have difco- 
vered feveral particulars of his life, with which the French 
themfdves, perhaps, are not acquainted. My fentiment 

Bodk'IL Y *< JL srr *ìit pìhbs. > tuff 

hMÉ &ténhtìbah that it is more neceifary to hobwrAmmm^ 
nera. and coftoms of men»; tfafeui ta know Jthcr.auinber of 
places thc7 hare bditgied Ontaken/; and itol br iirf on n ei 
of theitf godti qualitiea «td bad ones» tìiAn feo^ Jotm tbie 
maimed t(^' tbieir •envafnipmetttSy and tiw ; nsmfasr of itiho 
battles wbkh tbey . hate 'won or IdL All < hiAorjea coàì> 
tain thtf aekiDi» of nUen, aad the ptànci^Mil is to know 
tbefe men; to iaftrad others ; for hiftories do geaeralljr 
rather divtrt duo iaftma meiK Thefe will teadi ihoe 
better what thoo art to leani, tlun the hiftoriaas them» 
fdtes. Chriftiaa authors are" at prefent like the dementi^ 
«Iwaysnr war^ and ever poDtrary to one another» and 
never agreeing^ 

Thefe' two nbove-mentioned friends» who are now 
very dd'men» have ferved King Henry above thirty 
years» and ever hdd a &ri^ correfpondence with one 
anodier} one was his barber» and the other's bufineft 
was to divert him with reading to him when he was go» 
log to reft. * 

That which is related of Henry's coming into the 
world without weeping» is certainly a fable ; but it is 
certain the Queen of Navarre» his mother» fung a French 
(bng in. the time of his birth ; whereby this princefs 
feenned to fhow other women»* that it is poilible to be 
brought Ur bed without' crying out. The firft milk 
which this royal babe drank» was an ambrofia» which 
the gods of our friend» the poet Oglou» never tailed : 
His ^her made him drink in a golden cup» of the ftrong- 
eft wine that could be gotten, wherein he put and fqueez- 
ed a 'clove of gatiic, which he thought proper to ftreng th- 
en his tempennnent»' aad render him more vigorous. He 
was afterwards bred up like Cyrus» fpending his firii 
days in woods» and oftentimes- in the company of (hep- 
herds. ■ He went^alway» with his head bare» whether 


ca^fod to the f4K)fciiii]g Ii«at3»«f the fiimfiKif'-s fan» ot 
4amig winter, to the rain aad moft r^mxnit ffoftty 
&OW and h«H. It fecnu as if he had begon k» IM* ki 
]^9ÌÌ0n,^beiiig ocmfined to the Mdsi diftant frcnsiia^ coli« 
i^erfe, dad iti coarfe hair-cloth, to accoftom bts bodj to 
Attigue^, and ftipple hit fpirits to the accidentt of foo»- 

He W9LS but nine years dd when he loft his father, 
Anthony kin^ of Navarre. The doitii ù( dxii prts^ 
fftay fc^e for a kfibn to Muftapha ; for, having ncehf^ 
ed hk lieath^s wound at the ftege of a eonfiderable phtóe, 
he made the wi^ of the éhanìbef where he ky to be 
broken down, that he might be carried >ft hi« OWn bed» 
dying «É it were in triumph, ìnté thet^wit: Mfférable 
ambition tt great meni who ftrip not th^mftl^^ of ki 
ffil death ftrip them of their hVs I Se^n years t^cr th€ 
éeath of Anthonys the youtìg Hemy W*à declared Head 
and defender of the Hugonot party ; and, when eigh- 
teen years old, he was in a confidcrable fight j but it is 
iWt Well known, whether he himftif was engaged. For- 
tune was fo contrary to hiin in the beglhning, that hav«^ 
ing loft a battle, he was obliged to fl^ for fi* months 
together with the reft of his army | stùé ko traverfe "kh 
almoft throughout all the prcMnces of the khigdon^^ 
without taking any reft> for- fear of being furprifcd,— 
Tliou' haft nevef" read, I helievev of any captain that made 
a flight of that durance before hfm. The queen, his 
mother, being a 'woman ""of mafculine eoura^e, and'firtn- 
neft of mii^d, died, poifoned'by^a pair of gloves. At 
0ittet«en years of age, he marri«! the king's fift^» who 
then reigned, named Charles- IX. and never any wedding 
was folemnized with fuch bk^y tragedies. It is hard 
to belieyerwhat vh' Infiiitte number of Hugonots were 
xhtn amfliesed$ the de&gd'vtw^ fctnùy AM daring 
V 1 

t&e celebf attoBr of «the «eddmg» and executed ex diy« 
alter» at f oU nooiw It it fajdf that in one day «U France 
waa'dyed with the blood of thefis poor peof^e» tihen hc^ 
iag at leaft an hundred thoofend of them Qakkf anaoRfA; 
which were twenty lord» of great cooSderalio»» with the 
great adodral of the kingdom $ and, at the feweft, four 
thou&nd foidiers maffaci^ in Paris^ Hesry did«» 
riOk oa that unhappy day, hut he was very near death ^ 
aad the king having called hnn> thus fpake to him, with 
an angry tone, and fierce countenance, ** Henry, thou art 
ative, hecaufe I wouM fpare thee, bnt I will not fpare 
thee, if thou perfift in thy hcrefy ; ehoofe one of thefe 
two things, either the mafs or death." tf thou knoweft 
not what the mafs is, I will fliew thee in another letter* 
This prince chofe to go to mafs, rather thin to lof» 
his life ; and therefore puWkly iA>juped the religion he 
profeffed. Thcfe two oìd^mea affirm, that Mero or Ca» 
lfgula*4 court was never corrupted an that of Fhince wa» 
them No people were more- in fafliion than huffoons ; 
and never did the worft fort of debaucheries fo ahound« 
Sorceries, impoifonings» aiTaffinationS, and all other forts 
of crimes were permitted in fttch a manner that all the 
laws and good order feeaaed to be^oyertfariDwn» It is not 
known whether the Eling of Navarre took up his foitner 
religion through policy, or fome corruption he faw 
amongfl the catholics ; however, he returned fome. time 
after toCalvinifm,''whereunto he was foobftinately ad* 
diàed, that having lived feveral year» in this fed, he was- 
forced to ofier great violence to himfdf, to enjoy peace* 
ably the kingdom of France, and accommodate hhnfelf 
with the Pòpe of Rome, and to make again publie pro* 
(effion of the Roman ndigioii* 

Never «ly prince more loved t^ormen than he did». 
His pafBon prevailed tfvtt iam aD the dayt of his Gft;^ 

^ i 


and there w€m twb éWerent natures lobfervable^ ia his 
perfcm— «n mvindbk courage in the field; and ^di^ a 
pafiit>n fer women, as made him be often feenito weep 
amoBfffL tbern. He has had greater weakeefSts .-^an 
Herculesy and he gloried in them. He cfaalienged the 
bmveft man- in all France, the Duke of GuiTe^to a &ig^ 
fight ; but die king interpofed his authority to hinder 
the combat* 

This king performed an adion diuring his youth» which 
our dervifes would have certainly fet down in their -re.- 
gifters as> greatly remarkable. On a certain day wk^rfh 
in he was to fight a pitched battle» being on horfeback 
in the midfi of his army, he made public reparation to:ja 
young woman whom he had deflowered, and fpake in 
tbefe terms : ** I have forced this woman you fee here, 
and ufed threats when entreaties would not bring her to 
my luil« hct all that hear me deteil the bad exam;^ I 
have given». And as for your part,, whcmi I faav« thut 
wronged, choofe an hufband, and receive £rom me fuch^a 
portion as- may feem in fome ibrt an amends for the in:-, 
^ury I have dop< you," 

It feems as if laudable an adion waa approv- 
ed of by l^eaven : For having immediately hereupon 
given battle,, he overthrew a. mighty army with a few 
troops.. , : . 

The ladies, who bore Henry. no.iU will for his tender* 
nefs to their fex» greatly ihl^erffted them£elves in the af- 
fairs of war, wherein this prince was always, head of the 
HugonQt party ; and they gave occaflon to a proverb 
which; lafted a great while : There being fome who were 
fps: n\p^Tng a peace,, and others war, this war was called. 
Tie Ladies War. This prince had been in fo maay^ 
fight Sy th^Ivbelieveonemay truly fay in this partici^, 
x^v«^'an3r prkce came; for who, ever in.oae diqr- 
was in. two battlfs^^nd tame off vidorious i: 

Bbok^lL . A £rT at kahss» i % i 

> King Ckaks IX. dying daring tUs tkitf» the qn^oa^ 
mother fent for her other fon in great diligence^ who had 
been ek6bed fome moons before king of Polandf by the 
dea& of Sigiimund Auguftas. It is ùlà^ that Chailet's 
fucceffor havmg been advertifed of the death of the lung 
his brother, fied ia^ the ni^t from Cracovia only with 
two perfons^wko'were his confidantSy and retired to Ve- 
nice ; and it is faid, that the courtezans of this fomous 
city alFured the crown to our Henry ; for, having been 
iafeéied with the diftemper which the French call the 
Neapolitan Difeafe, and other nations the French Pox, 
he became incapable of having children to perpetuate the 
crown in^ the branch of Valois. 

After his death, which was violent, and perpetrated by. 
a Chrrftian dervife, Henry III. dying without an heir, 
and -hft throne Veing fought by different pretenderò, 
Heoryv to whom alone hÌ8> birth had given right, becaa^ 
mafter of it by hk patience : Hi& fatigued in war, anii. 
his coufagc^ made him vanquiih all obftacles. He main- 
. taihed Itis. light' with an unparalleled , valour, and carried 
himfelf with the great eft. prudence ; yet his greateft fuc- 
«ie(i«B4 are. owing: to the greatneCs of his heart* He fnet 
.fbmetimes with dtiàdvantage, . but . of ten^ cfime put. cqa-r - 
qoeror^ from all engagements ;,.|md it . is obfipr.vabl^, .. lie- 
was the prouder after the battles won, bectfufehe J[i%d 
before appeared . extraordinary familiar with the fojldiers 
who .had hdptd him to win, them.. He was. wont to be 
often in his IbUesto fee his.horfesi and.oft^n Rtf>X 
amongil^thele creatures, whom he. termed his moft faith 
fui courtiers*, Horn difficult foever thè way was. which 
wae&to,lead him to the.ihn>&e, he would not be d^eai-t* 
eoed ; «theCe difficulties ferving only to incteafe hiis coii4 
n^e* He faw the Spanjards confedemted with his.ei^f . 
«tss I . .yet' he alose, without any other «iffiftaacchut ^i ^ 

Ija LETTE»fl WHl-TTEM BT Voh I. 

fane kmSMcM' ttoop^t (i^ éown before Psm^ ^tch 
«wihenoft fimiout ùcgc finer that of Jeni&lem by 
TXm^ th f«duced Ibe inlmbftants of this vsjpAtal of 
the kingdon to live on the moil abjeék means one can 
imajg;ute^ after tkcy bad ctnifiimed cbe rats, mice, dogs 
and cat% viàieb were for fome time the gteateft delica* 
eiei people of the town could meet vrith. But 
he wasy &r all this (afier he had given fei^eral affitidts}/ 
farced to raife the ficge» and accommodate himfeif with 
the prmce who commands all the prìefts amongft the cai* 
thc^ics ( and he again renounced Calvinifm, whèrewìthr 
be was iofeéìedv and which ferved as a pretence to bis 
enemies» He was crowned in the fame manner as his 
other predeceffors had been before him» He began to 
govern his* kingdom, mined by fo many wars^ pilkges»' 
and coficuiSonsy made by all forts of people-, and fore- 
paired ft by his good govermnenc, that he was focM in ai 
condition to embdlifli it. He buflt faterai magnificent 
bridges, railed lately edifices, and forgot nothmg whicb 
might re-eftaii^fii thofe good orders wbidi the licentioii£^ 
neft of the times had overthrown. 

But what this king de£gficd agamA us as foe» at he 
was fettled on the throne, w3I appear at the &me time 
to thee botli dreadful and admkable. As loon as ever 
he had made a general peace with his enemies, he -lind 
the feunteiba of the , moft heroic défign that ever man 
novented, wherefn be ftewtd hlmfa^ not inferior to the 
firft of rhe Oacfars, nor the conqueror of Afia* 

HenndeitocJc tm o^orthvow alt the monarchies of the 
woild; torgm a new face to alf the ii^^ of ^ity ttA^ dew 
fcfoy, in a itmt tfaie, the empire of the Ottomans^ BntT 
before he began facbn great *n»^t«!lr, he wiij fbr pay- 
ing^ tbe debt» ef tbe «row^ and hi« oWn m )>ank^ 
bu* ; ivbkk dmwm^à attogether to&n<tt^aJl tflEnfefedl^ 

Bqok U« 4 ftvr at fa&is. 133 

lioQV-9nd It wa^ si profUgious th;^ to find Co muck ino« 
ney without fcUing the kingdom, or cngagiAg the people; 
yet it Ì» true th^t he got tim mon^» «ad p^iid thofe debts 
with it* 

He was for dividing ChnfteBdom into fifteen equal do«. 
minations» five of which ihould obey kings that were £» 
by ittoc^ffion, aod -fix to be fubjeél to kings that were 
ekéiire, aod the four reniaioiag (hould be lepubUcs. 

'By t|iid divifioo he left the pope the countries belong-» 
ingto the<^urch» «ad added thereunto the kingdom a£ 
^^les, with the homage of Sicily, and the greateft part 
of .Italy « modelled into a republic; with obligation to 
give the pope «very year a golden crucifix» tndf^urtkou^ 
iand.feqotttS4 Only Venice was left in the condition it 
was iflLi with its laws and cuftoms* But there vrere aBoU 
ted ;t9 this repubUc, kingdoms and iiles, which were to he 
ti^fQ fjpom us in the Ard^ipclago» vrith an homage to 
the Roman., prelatci of an embafly to kifs his feet ; and 
at: the end. of every twenty«five years, a finali ftatue of 
goldyxepreConting St«. Feter, vi^m they term God's V}«< 
ear on earth. 

«Flaadecs fiioiald make a republic with the reft of the 
Low, Counlriesywhtch would be a lofs for the Spaniards $ 
and, to this r^spublic fiiould be added forae «of the ne^h« 
booring dates. 

The Frandw Compte, Al&tsa, Tm>l, and Traate, wer^ 
added to the denaocratical fiate of the SwiHes, with the 
homage, every fifteen years» of an hunting>dog, with a 
golden collar about his neck faftened to a d^ain of gtdd, 
ii^iicb.< t^ repidilic^ /hotdd prefeat to the Emperor of 
GcsnanjB» . 

The qhpfe ro K fiiocdd be obl%ed -to renounee the ag'*- 
gonditwg of his ftffiily, and only dtfpdfe of vacant àds^r 
€ÌxiBÌrtnr«fitliire'o£ wideh'he ftoddi^ootfaelbow oft4wyo£ 


t34 LETTERS WRXtTE* BT 'Vdl.'I; 

hh kmdrcd t and there fliould be a law inviolably obfenr* 
ha in the empire, that never two princes of the fame race 
(hould enjoy f uccelli vely the imperial crown. 

The dutchy of Milan (hould be added to the other 
province» bcloi^glng to the Duke of Savoy, together with 
the title of Kinv of Lombardy. 

• The kingdom of Hungary fhonld be enlarged with* 
the principalities of Tranfylvania, Widachia» and Molda- 
via ; tod the king, who was to be deft i ve, fhould be 
fchofen by the fuifrages of the Pope, the Eniperor of 
Germany, the Kings of France, England, Spaio^ Swede^ 
land, Poland, and Denmark ; and Bohemia (hould be 
lubmitted to the fame laws. 

*' Fraoee, England, Spa,In, Poland, Swedcland atfd Ded^ 
mark, (hoold not change €heir form of goverriinent» whew 
§or the general afiatrs, thefe kingdoms were to be futje^ 
to the nniver&l republic, of whicb the pope was to be 
the head. 

. ThmgH thus cftablÙhed, Henry was to be the umpire 
éf aaliiChriftendom, to decide alMIfibrences which might 
happen between the aforefaid princes and ftates, with fif- 
teen peribns ciiofen from atnongil the mod famous for 
katniag and arms, whioh could be foimd aniong thefe 
ifteen dominations ! Aaé beMes thefe, there* was to* 
be cftabliAied a general council, confiding of fixty other 
perfons,'iòr aH the differences whicb might happen in all 
the kinpedoms and republics between thofe who govern'*- 
ed them ; and this great affemblyfliould'make their itefi- 
dence in the capital city, Rome. 

Every ftàte was to be ol^gcd to furnifli a- certain iittm« 
ber of troops, and fum of money, to make war agunifr 
the Turks : And the bufmefs of Poland 8né:Siweddand 
fhoukL be to make war together agaiaft the Mufco^iter. 
and Tartars. There were afterwards tfaacec geiwrab >ti»^ 

llt>dklL à »FTr AX P4|Ri«i , X35 

he chofen^ by conunon confeotA; for tli< .conquering of 
Afia, one for ike ft»,. an<i t^o for xht land^ and 
three hundred tbouiand foot ^ntei^ined, with one hmi^ 
dred and fifty thoufand horfe, and four hundred pieces 
of cannon ; and the naval army was to confid of an huo* 
dred and fifty veiTek, and one hundred gaUies4 ^^^ a fund 
wa» to be raifed for this of an hundred millions of gold. 

This treafure was to be put into the pope's hands :^- 
The iile of Malta was to be the ftorehoufe of all thing* 
beloi^ntg to the fea, the port of Mefiina the arfcnal of 
the -galleys, and the city of Metz one of the principal osai» 
gazines for the land forces. 

All the Chriflian princes were to be obliged to lelSkm- 
their ordinary expences, and to contribute to this great, 
defign according to their ability. . . 

There were to have been feveral fpies in Conftanti*» 
nopk in the habit of Greeks, who were perfedly (kilkd 
in the eaftern languages, to obfei-ve the motions of' orit 
empire : . And befides thefe, forty refolutc men, who were 
at a certain time and Tignai, to fet fire to the fcraglio.axld 
arfcnal, and feveral other quarters of the tows. 

There was found in this hero's clofet, aftetihts death» 
a. memorial written with his own hand, wherein be had 
already mark^ed twelve ambaifadors for feveral places ia 
Chrift^ndom, for the negotiating of fo. great- an a&ir ( 
and the Pope, republic of Venice, and Duke of. Savoy^. 
had been already acquainted vvith it. 

. In the mean time, this king had an army already of. 
forty thoufand foot, and eight thoufand horfe ; and hft . 
was» under pretence of vifiting the frontiers of Flanders, 
theoce to begin the execution of his projeót,,aiBnning^ 
that, as. to his own part, he had no other pretenfion but . 
the glory of delivering Chnilianity from the tyranny o£, 

13^* LETTBM wmTTE» BT Vok L 

' It M find lie applied himfelf for teir yean togetkcr is. 
fóirchni^ the meaos to make his projed take ; fac gare 
great peiifions to the cardinals at Rome^ and m Ckrmany 
toferenl officers; and he had «n France^ befides the 
troops I have already mentioned, four risouCand gentle* 
men, who were fo devoted to him, that they were ready 
to monnt on horfehack on the leaft^order from him. 

He had already fifteen mSlanns in the Bailik ; and he 
that had the fttperintendency of his treafwY, premifed 
to add thereunto, in lefs than three years, forty more 
laSfonSf without touching the ordinary revenues. 

I have no knowledge of the manner how he would du 
vtde the eftates of the fnltan.. But Henry was alFaffi* 
nitted jfift as he was ready to leave Paris to begin fo great 
a work, being killed in his coach, in the arms of his ' 
moft faithful courtiers ; and the fatal ftroke which car- 
rJed him out of the Worid, delivered the ernpn^ of the 
true believers ; this empire, whofe throne is fo high that 
it reaches up to the firft heaven, whence it fcares thefe 
iniidels, and fecures the good mufUdmans from the infults. 
of the Chnftians. 

One of thefe old men I mentioned has aflured me» he* 
heard the king fpeak thefe following words fome days 
before his death, ** I (hall never go put of this town : I 
know not what withholds me : I Hiafl never accomplifh 
what I deiign ; never fee the deftmd^ion of Confbnti- 
nojrfe ; for I am told by aftrologers I fhall be killed in a. 
coach. I muft then always go on foot, and never fBr 
out of Paris." 

Stich was the end of this prince, fo highly venerated^ 
by dte French. He was really a man of great courage 
and great penetration ; and fo much the greater, in that 
he regarded the defhnéUon of the Ottoman empire, at 
one of tht ^fficulteft thTngs in the wofld i and tndy. 

Bootker prince '4ìé that hodbiKr ta. Mahomtt^tt^hif 
fiKwefibiv. Bm yet not finding hift own farces fufficieot 
to invade t^d deftrey the Turkiih empn^e, he invented;» 
diimencid projt^ to find a poffibilitj in a thing wiuch 
ever appeared tfUpoffiUe, 

In the very moment I am writing, I have rc^eiv^ 
certain aewsol my tuts* If I be apt-tj^k^n ^S this^ 
time at Fari% I fiifall perhaps be more, foitunau thaH 
ever» aiid mote feceeftfuUy %nd faiUy* £^e our great 
trnpenyr^ iphofe- ekm^ey is equal to hia gi^ndiear, and 
rAo M whmt ^ the pi^vrer^ s»n ea^h. Can^a^ilUflhlie]! 
haa feat for me to eame to him :r I> therefore fioifti l^if 
leiftermliaAe» whieh pMnips will be th& kft I wii^ 
^^g f^tly afraid I am diicovetcd. If «ny iear ^ 
tatii» i flnfi Umtbcei ia .another letter, the moft re« 
madk«bk events of Hehiys lik^ In 4he mean time, I 
am relohradtittd difpoftd to ftifer the marty#do^. If- 1 
èk, my ifaar Egri, wc-fhall feeotie ane^her in the «lihff^ 
woMy it it be trae that .we ihaU have eyes there,, and 
rtflKmher what has paft here helow^ IPray ^ Gxta^ 
God for Mahmtit,' and take care of thy heidth. . 

Paris, 25 th of the ift Moon, of the Year 1639. 

XV. — To the Invtncilte VisiER A2EM, at the Camp under 
Babylon, ' 

Cardinal Rich lieu made me come into his prefence« 
and yet I am alive : He has not attempted any thing a« 
gàinft either fìfe or liberty ; bat has done me* the fiiQie 
hoimar as to other foreign churchmen $ ' for4ie believes I 
am of Mcddavia, caUing me Titus, not koowii^ any 
more of me than what I told him* It focms oa the con» 
txmy, as if he intended me kindnefles, fn^qi^ofing me a 

rjf LETTtna 'murmn by Ve*. L 

hhtet enemy to the Turks ; and perhaps I (HàUTcccf^é 
fomc prcfcnt from him, for having fervcd him already a^ 
ta interpreter. I (hall tell thee^ invincible Vifter, V^hàt 
has pail between him and me» whhont any^fèar of* being 
tedious to thee. I ferve thee faithfidly, and Write t0 
tìiee as oft as ray duty requires; -. ^ 

As foon as I was in his ciofet» he thu»^ ^otBe'to-me t 
•^ Titus, What doft thou do in Paris ?' What tofineft 
haft thon in this tovra> And what is redly th)r còmi'» 
try ?*^ I anfwered him, «• That I was a* pcfer dftk of 
Moldavia, and came to fludy diviaity, and be a prìett'; 
Chat I knew no better pSace to beeome wife and IcarÉéd) 
and that I would willingly facrifiee all thinga to render 
ftbi fervice.'' He afterwards aikcd me, « Whether I 
was acquainted with any of the Eaftem laaguaget $ and 
whether I had ever been at Conftantinople ?"— i^« I have 
been," replied I, ** in this great town when I was u 
chSd ; and that my either atnd mo^r were tben ia Qa* 
^ry. My father is dead, and my mother is married a* 
^tn to a Chriftian Greek. I underftand . Arabic aaé 
Tnrkifh, -and am perfedly flciDed in the fchool Greek.'* 
«* What do you mean by fchool Greek ?'' replied the car. 
dinal. ** It is difierent firom the vulgar Greek,*' atifwer-- 
édi,^*"trhich is fo corrupted, that learned people wffl 
not give themfelves the trouble to underftand it." He 
afterwards bade me go into a little clofet, where I 
fhould find one of his fecretaries, who would need my 
help ; where I had no fooner entered, but the iecretary 
prefented me with a Turldfh manufcript, to turn into 
Latin or Italian^ if I couJd not do it .into- French» > I imi 
mediately tranDated it into JLatin, and* now will inform 
thee (wife Mtnifler and Governor of the great Empire 
of the true Faithful), of the contents of it. 

The Chriftian der^afss, called in France Cordeliers^ 

Bode Ó. At SiV AT PA«19. V f.^ 

keep, as tkoQ knoweft,. itt Jeru&lem) th« fepulchfe of 
their Mefliasa by a privilege which 2S«lim9-the conqueror 
•f PaleAine^ granted them. «Thefc reHgious have neither 
peace: Aoru^iice. withrthe.Grcok Chriftians, and they have 
fcich differences togetber^ as are of ill confequence to all }- 
they perfecute one another without ceafing, and fpread 
abroad' moft bitter fatires againfl each other» Each par- 
ty makes ill neports to his fuperior of that which is op» 
pofite» «od naixes among f<Hne truths, a great many li«f 
and dbfiird ft<KÌee. But it appears to me, that the Greeks/ 
who naturally love cabals, and have the reputation of 
great romaaccn, are more de3tteit>as than their adverfe 
party to do mifehief* 

The Chriftian dervifes have reprefented a great many 
t^ngs to this cardinal, to authorife their prctenfions »- 
gainft the Greeks, by mestna of the French ambafladoiv 
They not only reproadi the Greek* with fevend injufticca' 
and violences, but accnfe the cadi's of cruetey and tyranny»* 
and the foldiers which guai«l Jetufalem of infupportable 
esaétìotts. Thou (honldft be thoroughly informed, whether, 
thefc complaints be on joft grounds ; for tl^ey affirm, their 
patience is: beyond the cruelty of the officers thou em* 
ploycft ; yet that they can no longer bear the infolencies 
which are how put on them, and are on the point of 
hazarding all by a ilroke of defpain It does not belong 
to me ,to be advocate in the behalf of thofe who arc fub* 
mitted to thy authoricy, and efpecially of thofe who 
ought to bear the yoke of the Mahometans ; but it is 
the duty of Mahmut» thy creature, to inform the< of 
the true circuitoftaaces of affairs which come to' his know- 
ledge*. Yet, if the oppreffion of the dervifes be; fo. great 
as they make it, .thoEU that art the triie light which es^ 
lightens the empire of the faithful, and fcattereft the 

t^ Z.ETTU9 WftinitK BT Vol» h 

darkaefs of it, tliou wilt iiot permit thofe that Uve uo^ 
der the public: faith to be opprefifed ; and that four 
wretched Greeks ihall be. the caufe of fuch diforders as 
may happen to PaleUine, the conxplaiotB of which have 
ixached the ears of the greateft priDces ia Europe^ and 
to whom fuch things may give falfe ideas of the govern- 
ment of thofe who are chofen by God to command all 
the world. Invincible Bafla, I have diiopvcred^the true 
circumftances of this affair» in the Turkilh maaufcript 
which Caidinal Richlieu's fecretary has ^ut into my^ 
luwds. I have fully di£coyered the falfe reafonings qC 
tbe Armenians and Crrseks» who by commoa coD&at 
have offered feveral things to the moft venerable mufti, 
iifhich I an fare thou wilt not approve of; for they 
nytke moft wretched eacufies» to ^(^ur over their perfi- 
diottiiie(s. They fay the Romaoifts ought to be ill ufed 
on purpofe to get rid of them from Pakftiae» beuo^ like 
the Jewa» bitter enenoues in their kfìartft to the wclfsre of 
the empire ; that the time of the. privileges granted by 
Zelim and his fucceflbrs is expired ; aod tbaft moreover,, 
it is great im{Hrudence to faffier pilgrims to come over 
from difbunt oountries, who under preteace of vifitiog the 
Holy Sepulchre, and oUier jdiaces which fisperftitioa has 
confecrated in Palesine, come to eipy the adioas of the 
Turks, examine the form of their government, vifk their 
places, and meafure the roads and ports which they pof- 
fefs on the feas, which may prove of difmal confeqaence 
to the honour and intereil of the Ottoman empire. I 
camnot inform thee how this memoir came into Richlieu's 
hands, but it was either fold or intercepted at Conftan* 
tinople, where it was addrefied. However, I muil not 
forget to tell thee one remark which this miaiHer made, 
whence thou mayefi guefs, whether he reafoned hke a 
wife and prudent man : " Were I,'* fays he, " the fui- 

Boék ti. A SPT a'^ rARis. i4i 

tan*8 chief minifter, I Ihould have added privilege to pri- 
irilege to the monks cordeliers, not only becaufe jaftice 
reqliiiTS it, but by reafon of the advantage which might 
redound thereby to the TTurks. I would make the ways 
to Jcrufalcm eafy to all people : I would Icffen the tri- 
butc ; the pilgrims fhould be well ufed, the Chriftians in 
general, as well as the cordeliers ; and I would feverely 
punifh the officers and foldiers \frho guard Paleftine, and 
the facred places, if they did otherwife.'* And then 
turning himfclf towards me ; ** Does it not appear to 
thee," iays he, " that thc^ beft way to enlarge a king- 
don* is, to procure it an advantage which increafcs the 
number of its fubjefts ? It is not enough that the prince 
ihows the ornaments of his principality ; he muft (how 
aUb the prince, otherwife ke will be like the philofopher 
who was brought into Herod's prefence : « I de not fee," 
fays the king^ ♦* anything clfe but the beard and cloak 
of a philofopher," If the Turks do as the Scythian», 
when they made themfelves mafters of Athens, they will 
do better ; for they would not burn the books which 
were gathered together in this famous town, alleging, 
that thofe who applied themfelves to ftudy, were not 
wont to do any great hurt. If the Chriftians meditate 
on death, in vifiting and honouring the fepulchrcs, the 
muflalmans fhould confider, that if they make war a* 
gainft them, they have only to do with contrite and pe« 
nitent perfons, who will therefore be the more eafily de- 

And this is a faithful and exa£l account of the con- 
verfation I had with this chief minifter of ftate. Suffer 
now that I add, as a note of the juftice of the Chri- 
iliaus pretenfions, what fome particulars of this kingdom 
had given me to underftand, touching the juftice and an- 
tiquity of the privileges of the religious Chriftians at Je- 

141 LE'n'EllS WKItTEll BY Vcl. T. 

Ktrfakm. "Ttiey lYiake appear, that for above three liutf- 
dred years thefe places do belong- to the Roman Catho- 
lics ; that Robert 'd'Anjou bought them of the Soldati 
of Egy|)t, and made thereof a prefent to the Roman 
èhurch, and put them in poffeflion not only of the Holy 
Sepoldire, but of Calvary, of Bethlehem, and their de- 
pendencies ; which fettlement lafted till ZeHm I. who there- 
iti confirmed the religious Chriitians, with an augmenta- 
tion of privileges, as foon as ever he had conquered £- 
gypt and Paleftine. 

Francis I. Kinjr of France, having made an alliance 
with Solyman II. he inferted in his treaty an article 
which confirmed the aforefaid privileges, which were 
fince folemnly renewed, till Amurath's time, who is now 
on the throne of the muflulmans (an happy emperor, 
and mader of the univerfe, for whofe fake alone the fun 
enlightens the earth), and confirms what his predeceffors 
had done in favour of the Chriftian Roman dervifes, whom 
he has maintained without any regard to the vain pre- 
tenfions oi the Greeks and Armenians, in their lawful 
poffeflion of Calvary, the grotto of Bethlehem^ and the 
two little mountains thereunto belonging ; and granted 
to them the keeping of the ftone on which their Saviour 
Chrift was embalmed, as well as that of the two fmall 
domes covered with lead, under which is the Holy Se- 

Thy humble flave Mahmut has an unplcafant tafk im- 
pofed on him by this French miniftcr. He defircd me 
to give him fome memoir in general of what I know, and 
bade me not wonder at his curiofity ; it being his maxim, 
to make friend(hip with all ftrangers of merit, whereby 
he has learned feveral important matters, and difcovcred 
fecrets of great importance ; and tliat it lay in my power 
to oblige him greatly, in giving him an exadt account of 

Book^ A Sf)^ AIL PARTS. 1 43 

thf foifrceji^c]^ the Ottoman empire» and wbere they, lay 
mad Qpen tpbe attacked. I aafwered him very modefU. 
]jf, that my buiioefs being only to iay my breviaryi he 
<;ould not.4acpe& any. great capacity from me in thefe 
matters. He fmilingly bade me try what I could do in 
that matter ; yet, however, he would not lay any thing 
upon me which might make me uneafy ; adding, that 
though he were a cardinal and a prieil, yet he knew 
Ibmething more than divinity, and that fevcral Rjoman 
prelates had made wax with gpreat fuccefs from St. Peter^s 
chair. In fine, I could not b^t promife to gratify him ; 
and thou. Aialt know in due. time how I difcharged my« 
felf ; for I thall rather part with my life than a£l contra- 
fy to my allegiance. However, I muft avoid giving him 
caufe to fufpedl me, and acquaint thee alone with the 
conferences I have had with him. 

The holy Prophet multiply thy line, that the empire 
may not want miniftera of thy lineage ; and the Great 
Ood fo aflift thy valour, that thou may& fee the empire 
of Amurath without bounds. 

Farit, o^tb «f the %d Mo6n, of the Year 1639. 

XVI. — To tht fame. 

X HE winter is fo far advanced, that the king's armies 
lie quiet. It is no fable, that the dauphin was bom with 
fome teeth, and that no nurfe dare prefent him the teat, 
for fear of being bit with them. It is faid alfo, that 
^ there being no woman to be found about the co.urt which 
can endure the fuckling of him, there is a certain pea- 
fant, a very healthful and hardy woman, that has under- 
taken that employment. 

Here are four polls arrived at the fame time ; one 

144 LETTUS WftlTUK IT Vol. li 

come« from Rome, tke left from tke anmet ; hat what 
news they brin^ i» not yet known. It k thought that 
he which cornee from Oennany brings news of AUatn 
and Bri&c. The King of Fnraoe is very wcH* - Hene 
are great preparations at Court for the camiT^» Ì0- which 
time the Chriftians play a thoufand mad ptaakf. 
• It is commonly faid the queen is with child agaio. 
Here are aUb many reports of the Grand Signtor's^xpe- 
dition, both in prints and news-letters ; and feveral prog* 
tioflics are made on hisr enterprife on Babybn. 

I ihall inform thee by the firfl opportunity» what is 
f»d here further of our evcr«-vi£lorious emperor, axid of 
thee alfo who art his chief minifter, and the right arm of 
his empire ; and at the fame time teH thee what news 
come from the northern parts, of which, I fuppofe, the 
kaimacham has giyen thee fome notice, as weQ as of the 
moft coniiderable events of the war of Aliatia. The Im- 
mortal Being reward thee with the taking tff Babylon, 
and aH Ferfia, as a reward of thy fiddity.and valour, and 
pains thou haft taken in ferving faithfufiy thy mafter ; 
and give thee the good fortune q£ leading triumphantly 
in chains the fovereign of this empire, that lie may be 
humbled to the kii&ng of the flirrup of the invincible 
> Amurath's horfe. 

Paris, i6th of the ad Moon, of the Year 1639. 

XVII.— TV BEKia Bassa, Chief Treafurer^to the Grand 

lii&iACHiM the Jew, whom tbou thoug^hteft fo wife and 
virtuous a man, concealed his ill qualities at Conftantinople, 
to difcover them more advantageoufly at Paris. It was 
not his fault that my affairs were not entirely ruined. 

Book n. A WY At PARIS. 145 

The vlKrfn gave nni4t« of h» tt-ctólicrjr hi the véry'mò* 
mcnt he iaw mc receive the money from Carcoa at Vien- 
■A tipon fey iSrdtr. I wrote to thee, I thoaght this man 
would be feithful in inAni€b*ng me in the things which 
Were nece&iy for mc to know, and that I would be up- 
on my guard m thofe things wherein he might do me 
mift^ef. Thou mayeft eafily imagine how I am vexed 
at prefettt ; for I can neither accufeiùm, nor drirw front 
him a jttft revenge. He made mebeKeve, that a htwyer^g 
fon at Paris, a young man of great hopes, having w- 
cdved fome dtfpfeafun? from his relatfons, was refoheJ 
to be circomeifcd, anéembraec the hfahometan religion; 
and that he wo«dd ^t Me fo happy an occafion of doing 
mr ferviee ; and therefore had contrhred to hide thtsr 
ydung nam ht a dak celhnr^ undemeath the houfe where 
I lodge, without di^eovering to him the place where he 
iliould be. He added, he had promifed him money, and 
to^ procure him a oonfiderable employ in Conftantinople ; 
and that he had, m fine, filled him with all the hopea 
which are wont to be given «o thofe that, through ftckle- 
nefa, or temporid aedvaiftages, '^rùké the religion of their 
fetthers^ to proiefs anocfter. Ke 9M0 afhrred me, I ftould 
have no trouble by this'bufhieiii, having taken all necefia- 
ry care to tranfport hi» convert i mm ediately to Tunit or 
Algiers, and from thence to Conftantinople. I yielded 
to the- realbtts he aQeged, and this young man waa 
brought in the night to the houfe wl^re I lay, and hid 
withoat my fccmg him. But the next day waa not opem 
ed withoat a ftrange fcene m the houfe. I was aftoniih- 
ed to fee » woman in a great rage ftand before me, de<* 
manfitfg fetisfaélion tor violating her daughter and tddng 
arway her lifb, charging me with having forcibly carried 
her away, and Acn murdeitd her *, and he made me all 
FoL I. o 

lJ^6 L£TtBiis AvmixAK BT a^Qi«4- 

(jjidiB Dcproadics in the . ccflBf^oy «f//a gr^tyjk' rmff^ ofii- 

.: Thttik then the conliiilon I w4Ui in ; the morp I «kmed 
the cnnifi» the mcve fiercely they chafed it op |ne« I w^ 

thceatened With destb if I did not confefs it, ^nd gire the 
ùtadà^ìon required of me ; and at the &nie tiQie this fly 
. Ifczabel ga^e a fign to one of the roguies her companions to 
go dawn ,to Xuch a place, and hfing upii<r daughter, who 
inaa found alive in man's clothes* and melted into tears. It 
fignified nothing to allege reafons to prove my innocency ; 
£o that I was forced at laft to throw out to thefe hung- 
ry, wretx^hes all the money. I had, and they withdrew not 
till they had ahufed and reviled me in a moft bitter man- 
aer« They got from me about an hondced and eighty- 
four feqtiins of goldyuand about an Himdred pi^Atrs. of 
fihrer*. Eliachim has the confidence to affirm he knew 
nodiiog of the cheat $ and thmks to juftify himfelf ia 
'fàyjbgy that if he who is a Jew was deceived by this 
ipoung many who pretended to become a Turk, there 
were a ifaoufand FroKb people who had been cheated in 
like) maimer. J ihall not here mention what I i^cged to 
kirn to make him own his perfidioufnefs, this being firuit- 
1^9. On the other hand, refledting on the, <cm{4^y I 
had, aai my prefent circttmiUnces, it app,eared to Tue 
aecfffiiry to diflèmble this tnith, and to wspt for fome 
(avourable occafion to fead this villain Qut . of ji^aris, and 
.%» lay fonie fnare for him. at Coaftantinople. I give thee 
9Ptice of this event for two reafons, that I may have 
piore niQney» and provide for my fefety, believing n^fe^ 
ip gre^ danger a^ long as I live where fuch a fellow 
comes* I, ihall npt mention the interefts .qf MahmiU's 
life ; foni fl^U ever think it well fpent. (hould. it be loft 
. ill the f¥ilia9'4 fcrvice^ wJia is the cirtly prop of tlje uni- 
:y«rfe#. ; ^ 

BoekH. ▲»pr at pasis. ? 147 

HifOtt wSt pot w^Bt o]»poriiiBÌtks(wbefeia>thf>u maydft 
draw out of EHachim^s purfe the money he has robbed 
■ine of; neither wilt thou waat means to remove from me 
fo dangerous a companion* Thou fhouldefl know what 
the ChrifUanSy who are always irrcc<mcileable enemies to 
the Jew8> fay of them : they affirm, that thefe infamous 
wretches are the flares of all nations e»;epting. Turkey ; 
and efpecially in Conftantinople, where they are maftetsf 
they are at the fame time carefled and curfed ; in the 
midft of abundance they appeal* always miferable ; and 
yet they lay hands on all others properties. They add» 
that they be vagabonds like UlyiTes, yet in whatever 
place they are they find a country like Homer ; that 
they are all perfidious, and in public aifed to appear re- 
Ugiouo» but Uve in grievous diforder and luxury in their 
own houfea, (licking at no fort of crimes ; bragging, 
that though it be not permitted them to purcha£e lands, 
yet they have found means to get into their hands a great 
part of the gold in Europe. The Chridians alfo fay, 
their number muft needs be great, feeing they never go 
to war ; and there are none amongft them that do not 
many. They are, fay they, ever cowards and poltrons 
wher< there is any danger or pains ; but bold when they 
ftM-efee any certain gam in the markets they make. They 
never fpeak the truth but when it is to deceive ; they «re 
ever liars, and there is no impiety or facrtkge at which 
they will fcrujJe ; and thefe fame Chriilians affirm, thfij 
wiU commit, one time or other, fome horrid crime in our 
great imperial city, being the Turks concealed enemies, 
though they put ' great confidence in them $ and that 
we are willing to be deceived by them- I have writ- 
ten to C^^coa to fend me fpeedily fome affiftance ; and I 
have been forced to borrow money of thift fame Eliachim, 
that traitor who has brought me into the condition I am 

43 a 

f 4t ^ LETT»!» WàlTTEH BT Vol. f. 

ftft' 'He^tduld liotjdttfy'ttfe, thcmgh -he pltah pBce a 
ttfg&t %ff be «) cirtSrtme povttty. 
' 'This tHA which has bcctt put upon me, ^31 oblige 
rtte hcttce f b i in r a rd to^ keep a vrict, but I wiB take one to 
Kttlc; that 'ttt>- man ftal! reproach me with choofing 
iMtJKlt of an iff thhtg. Abandon not the poor Mahmnt, 
who prays God that he woiild give thee all forts of pro« 
fp e ritiés , and make thee live m perfeft beahh ! and 
<kitttt9 that aH the monarchs of the mfidd nations may 
keeofti^ ilaves to the foltan, whc^flxaH be ever Invincible ! 
and that theif riches may increafe the treafiire thon 

Paris, 15th of ihc ad Mooo, of the Year 1639. 

XVIII.— To Ca&coa at Fuwim. 

X HAVE received the money thou didft fend me, and im- 
mediately loft it ; yet without my fault. Bckir the trea- 
furer has been informed by my letters of the lofs I fu- 
ftained, and of another affair which is not neceifary for 
thee to know. I alfo writ to him, I expedled a speedy 
Supply from thee ; for I (hould demand it of thee. The 
Grand Signior's Intercft requires, that thou doft not 
oblige me to give thee any other rcafon, and that thou 
defetreft net to fend me, as foon as may be, a fuftcient 
Aarm of money. I can only inform thee, that in the at- 
tCtnpt which was made on me, I loft only what I can re- 
tttVdr. My Kfe is in fafcty, and, by a miracle, my affairs 
jirtfin the &me condition ; for nobody has as yet difcover- 
tUli^ho r aft. If thou^ writeé any thing to EEachim the 
}eW, be fila-e t)e careful, and do not truft him more than 
«éédì.'" ' ■' 
^ Send witho«it bfs of time to the Pbrte the padcet ^I 

^àdxfSkd to thee, aui4 U( ipe ix^t Jbqg«i/h f#.F«!Ìii|n tho 
«xpcttatioD of ixipncy, ItÌ4 tcuc^ 'j^t^d'^ is^ a-.^au-^ ^aams 
]?aodit7« bccauC: cTcrjir Ixvlf 4t£irci^it* In |:hif.j^eat.towa 
Qf P^rif^ pae ma^r iioQMir iiQd.aa.h|iQ4r€djEs^)a^ tba^vomi 
Vbfftsl perfon, Xbe Freo^ (ay it Wong«. on}]r«to (^ 
to h.c ficee oi (heir money ; tb»t a man fti9u)4 .facc^^WT 
his friend with gac4 covinfeVavd ther^eìs noneed oimf 
thing «UÀ» liearg^ Carcoa» to have . na ^ecd ^ <^her 
peof k'fi help, and haye a care lof being. loo frc«. : Miqi» 
that ar^ accuSomed to receive good Uims» ara gaumllf 
WQCkC to rec)u>B them aa debts* 

The vanity q{ that philoibpher, who died with miOor 
ry, is 4 great exan[iple of men's idblency* When Pc« 
ricles would give him fome fuccour to proJoog his life, 
he .hadlht audarioii6te& to iay to ìùatf ** Than «ameft 
oil, O Pericles ! becaufe thou baft need of a lamp." 

The Sovotigo Moderator of all things keep thee from 
faOing into neceffity 2 This is the beft wiih the po^r 
Mahmut can naake for thee, in the low efta^, he finds 

^vih Xit& of ihasd MoQO, of the Ysar iC^ 


^laxABEB's father was a rich man in Arabia, and hlP 
\irtue was equal to his riches. He had nineteen ohil- 
dren^ who all died of the fame diftemper when they ar- 
rived to ibmc ytears. Never family was more united aa^ 
r^g;ular» fiirkc^beh. vna natarally «f a* quie^ foft temptr^ 
bi^ fp hol)( a ipaip^ and ajt tfft died fo poor, that % -^bkf 
coming^into his chamber one night to .fteait, a^ .findioj^ 
nothing, he called him to him, whilft he was going away^ 
and g^yt. hj|Xi hjs 1^. f$ vot^^ttiag, wySjIing be (hcK^ddb:* 

G J 

15^ LETTEflS WRIT^TEN BT Vol. 1. 

part en){)tijr^lifthde<i and Me his labour. Being forced 
9her tìàs to be on the floor, he received affiftance from 
heaveif by the hands of his wife ; and Icance m^re twenty 
moons pad fince this adventure^ bttt there happened ano» 
their mbré ftVange than the former ; fdr he became on a 
fudden very richy and at the feme inftant ceafed to be 
wife. He had a wife of as haughty ajdifpo^on» aad 
nojfy humour, as his was quiet and humble. This wo- 
man kept the flocks, and, wtth a flond youthfuhic&y 
was endued ^ith great beauty ; and it is not known by* 
what accident a prince of the race of die Sophy of "Pet* 
fia, who fied from his fovereign's difpkafìiret met with 
her. It is certain, that having recommended himfelf to 
her, and entreated her to favehjs life, and not difcover 
him, ihe'led him into a vary thick wood, which was ne- 
ver frequented, where the prince lived for fourteen years 
concealed. But growing at length tired with this fort 
of life, he perfuaded this woman to go to Ifpahan dif^ 
gulfed in man's apparel, and find Arfamus, who had 
been his governor, and was a faithful and wife man, who 
would give her money and jewelfl» atid a vmter whMi 
would fo difguife his countenance, that his neareA friends 
could not know him ; by which means he might hold oti 
his way to Rhodes as he had determined* This woman 
fooiT arrived at Ifpahan with the prince's tokens, whfeh 
were fotae ftrange chara<^ers, and a ring which he tifttaK 
ly wore ; which Arfùmus knowing, he entrufted her with 
a confiderablc fiim, and feveral diamonds, together with 
a little golden pot wherein was this water before mention- , 
ed. This meffengcr returning in lefs than forty days 
time, found the prince dead ift the gfotto where he with- 
drew, with a paper in his hand, wherein he entreated the 
firft which chance fhould bring thither, to bury his body 
at the foot of a fair oak near by ; and alfo entreated the 

Book II. A a^T AT PAiti8%' 15^, 

party #hich Jiad ihiV ring to csfrry it lo t}ie.fopby>.sw4> 
beg pardon for the offeace be hadgiven him.. Bickaheb'%, 
wife then* dtfcorered to him a]}> that had hs(ppe|ifd,.Ud- 
hkir< ihte the wood^- (bowed lùm' the ^ead^rpriace^ tk»- 
letter, the ring» and tjie ptecioiaa ftones, and onl^r refervfi 
ed to heinfelf the Secret of the water, which fte. would not 
entruft htm with. Having after this reibl^d to go to 
the fophy, they went together, by whom they were weU- 
reeened, and laden with riches. Bkkabeb took up hia 
abode at Ifpahaa, tarrying there four years, and there 
led a YoluptiKMis and di(hooeft life ; whilft hia wife, leav- 
ing him, ran away with a young Ferii^ and made Hevc 
nd dIffienent'Toydges into A£a, under fereral figures» and' 
by means of the water which fhc had received of Arfa* 
mus» (he deceived her hufhand, and as many lovers as (be 

, The unhappy Birkabeb, being by his wife's lewdnefs- 
become again poor» refolved at laft to return to his own 
country, where he died in his houfe, full of years» and in> 
fuch repute for holinefs, that the conugaon report is, he 
wnmght'.cUvers miracles. He left four fons, of which I 
knew only Ababar, who is he thou mentioneft in thy 
» letter. And this is all I can tell thee of Birkabeb, of 
|ùs\ fon aud^- grandfoa. Ababar, whom I look upon as a 
very honeft man, and in whom I believe thou mayefl put 
confidence; yet with this reAedion, that he which is 
honeft now may ceafe to be fo. Salute this perfon from 
me, and continue to love me. Anfwer my firft letter, if 
thou had not done it ; and this laft alfo, if it be not too^ 
trpuUefome to thee, FarewelL 

Paris, 15th of the 2é Moou, of the Year 1639, 

G 4 

{{a LSTms WKXTTSK BT ^^ Iv 

XX. — To Eg&i BoYNOUy the tVblte EunucL 

Jam (till aHvCy and in beakh ; mj fear has proved vain, 
8hd I hatt efcaped the dardiivil's liands without any daa- 
£pcr ; which wiU make mc hope the £nne good forcane 
dv>M he eva- fend /or me again* But thou (halt not 
know hi» biifineft wà;fa tne» that being a fecret X am 
obliged to conceaL 

Thou hafty I hope» received the long letter t wrote 
thee, eontaicttog fevcaral particdars of Henrj IV.'s Itfe. 
I fend thee 210W ienieral of Ub Ceiyinga, vààék waj %t 
termed foitences* * Read them wi(ii a(ttenti«i, thcf are 
as plealaot at profitable for Muftapka'iB ufe, who wU 
koA thii goeat kbg to have had an inWncifaile courage in 
adveffìty, and great sìsméacj and generofky wheo he 
was in his profperity : He was valour itfelf amoagft die 
fSldicrB, wife and pieàfanc àmóng& iiis ctMsrtkrs, tumble 
m battle» ^Hafj ttid éttt amongft tbe bdiel, full of heat 
wfien-any aéÙon offercdritfdf, and xourteoo» and afbUe 
t& sdi foru^ people* 

* iScMj died in the fame mahner as taoft of our fukans» 
that it to fay^ a violent death. He bad lived tifty-ieven 
jtartf vnd fome montlis» and reigned about twenty yeairs* 4 
Several of huiÉoifftiers named him» like the ^rft Cseflur, 
jSI Wmnens Hufiand^ becanfe, it was bdtevcd» he uever 
fiw any thai he £iocied, but he obtained her. He' had 
fc^urteen children» £x by the queen» and the others by 
foor bf liis miibreflies. She who was called the Beautiful 
Gitbri^y of the family of Eftree» leemed to have more 
pdwer on his heart than aiU others ; he often duned her' 
about witn him in his army» and to the places Wbe&ege4 
in perfon. Henry was wont to fay, ** tl was as diffi- 
cifltto* knoW'tiow to tóve well, to pfepaire'a fcaft,'anà'to 
dahce'àrth'é fethe tWe aèr^eeàtly,'às't'o draw up an^itàiy 
for battle, confiftin^ of feveral nations." 

Book If. A Sf T AT TAU9^ tS3 

And when he was more advanced in yearsj he Ikxdy 
'* He loved dancing» for it made him appear young ; lie 
loved plajf forr it ihewed he couid be angry ; and ladies^ 
becauay he faidj he believed a man oi^ht to Igve all the 
days of his life.'* 

He was fo impatient at play when he loftf that he 
feemed to be as much concerned at th^ lofs of aa hun» 
dred crowns» as at the taking of a city from him. 

He often di%iiifed himfelf like a peafant to approach 
his miilrefiès without being known ; and he has often cap- 
ried on this humoi^r to that degree, as to drive aifes laden 
with fruity and fometimes carry a trufs of hay on hid 

When he Was peaceably fettled in hts kingdom, he 
(aid to thofe who were his greateft intimates, <* That he 
that grew weary at difficulties, ^d not deferve thofe 
things which might be acquired without trouble* I £iw 
myfelf a king, faid he, without having a kingdom, aa 
hu(band without a wife, a captain withoot foldiers, and 
libetal without having any thing to give« I have had, in 
£ne, a kingdom, children in lawful marriage, my uoepa 
are numerous, and I can difpofe of feveral millions.'' 

^ This prince has been wounded feveral times, has re- 
ceived three wounds in the wars» and three others on his- 
throne in the calms of peace. The adtioas which have 
gained him mofi glory h-^ve been, the winning of four ' 
battles, whence he came out conqueror, having very few 
troops, and his enemy having very numerous armies ; 
the general peace he gave to. Europe ; the reconciliatioR 
of the Venetians with the Latin church, which had ex- 
communicated them I and the great projeéi I fpake to 
tfacjE about in my forcing letter. 

The pppe's nuncio having o^e day a&ed him how long 
he bid made war ì his ainfvrèr wUf*^ AXL th« d^a of my 

• 2 , ^S 

154 LErma wnmm» b? Viriki^ 

life ;i waBi taf «tmjcsf hali&^iieYdf hadntnifijOl^KTg^ialeitd 
but xnyfelf/' He was feen onoe ^r lieinyrltéum.t N»f o- 
ther on horikh»ckì mia he kd at thatftii^^-AV^ttnb^py 
Uff) yet he beve up>with an tnvlneibk> ct^itir^ge». ^«ijìmA 
made his foldiers call him the King of trt^ Ati^lhc 
fame' time he held a morfei of «oarfe bread i» oaehsrad, 
he woidd with the other form on the grottod the ddigi» 
of an entreochmeat ; and when he would fiiowlus fncoda 
tho fineft gallery of his paUce, he would at the fa^ie 
time lead them down into his (labkft to fee his horfes* 
He was wont to fay, " That a ktng>who would scign 
.happily, mud not do all things which he may." He had 
fuch a greatnefs of mind, and was fo merciful, that be 
pardoned thofe who confpired againft his life* He Show- 
ed oft to thofe that were about him» a foldier that .was a 
ftranger, and had wounded him in a battle, whom he^vf- 
.eompenfed for doiog his duty^ and made him oae ofihi» 

Though he was not learned^, yet he read books «ofithl^ 
vdigioa,.and took a iingi^r pleafure iu hiftory, andrffOA- 
vcrfing with learned men.. Hearing one night the A** 
nals of Franee,. and being ahnoH, half afleep. inf •l|Ì8irt>ed, 
he bade his reader continue his. readiogj, for he^wo!^ 
ikepno-Okore that nigktr 

' . Having laid ikge to a m0{i'in(i|>orta|it plac/^ in a 9^ 
.Geld feafon,^ he flipped osw night, rwi^pt up ini hisck$^» 
' to. the pkices where thel^bottrer^ w^e.sit won^, jtnd'he^l^ 
*rz foldieF there curfing. both God aud^himfelf ;, y<£, widt*- 
-^out; oonoeruiag him^fdf myfiiftk^r^ jbe whjfpered i^r^s 
foldier's ear, ** God hears t^^j and- th|rollJ»Jg&|<9(0» fi^r, 
jiflBgbtrillioit kn«m^ ;aif:<tliOu jfca^ft fiatrwgife^JiftWithy 
cpcace^ and be^ooe," l-4tti.ii%fe|: ^»Qo\ri^» -th?:;^»»^' 
^tiiig ttr woik tàafetf» to<^ excite <)I^Ì^r|^Jbp^^^fi^fe4^8 
f«tói» ti^kieincaWd ^Wlq^Jig^J»* tl|$}fbAF>9j{»^ 

^ Hdp'me to rmunre lb» «ai«hy aod ^do 90I 6nftn ^ 
tìow the king li«iu« ih«ej*' «» . • ' 3 , • •"! 

To conwft the vtcee» the ti^itftitevr «nd «Mlence» of 
«ythtersy he idid not uk kfions» but gave rxdmplec. - And 
one d^y tfaèat- he heard bne of his captaiot io a ragey for 
thai hk credltorB had feised on all he had, to'hi» horfe and 
imtM^ he thurfpake to hin, << I diat am thy fa y cff e iy i 
4iat« fiaid- my debts, and -ibid 'all that I am w<Mrth for 
that end ; and thon that an my fubjeét oughteft to do 
the-fiimc thing witliout murmnHng :" And then,- taking 
hks a^ort, he gare him feme jewels to help' him out. • 

«He often fhowed the Marihal de Biron to his firieadl» 
«nd'tUus fpake to them abont this captain, <^ This man 
knows how «o aél, as well as talk ; and I have a great 
llMTf- fop him.'' • Yet he fome time after canled hkn to be 
putito- death) having thxee times pardoned his óiùopàìf, 
Thia eflptatn hti^vng continued hiaj^ois againft his lifr, 
and againft the ftate, yet remembering he had \ov^ 
^hCa^toLWOuld fpam one poartof the (hame of his puaifh- 
mani^wid th<»refeii« ordered he fhoold-be cxèosted^in pri'* 

A^^(bhohr, 'tWo-monhs) and a f^aol, attempted at fese* 
ral^dtnes t^killfhim; and, as I have alfcady told thee,'*he 
was feveral times wounded^ and'at laft secei«ed a mortal 
llirdke. A ^woitiàn^lhlit had undertaken ta poiibn him 
was» burnt adive; and ihis^fboliA Creature. &id at 4ttr 
death, ilitnkittg to M^n her «tune, ** Tha^ having fa»« 
ftètf the'king wast io^h«va<been ftabbcd todea^ by the 
hand of^a ru&tti^'lhe^ii^fMtterefere procoM'hiaLsaose 
'Hff and'liottomi^blè detfth/' • 
«"'Hmi^ éìÉtrfeirieiy- let«fd^ bodtf^ ; and: cm day^beM^ 
^foiMvM^WléÈtff ìini*<aurdl^t.fiMiiiiiscompany»'a 

««Wi(Mik^dAaiice> ^Hk dBttftrèiiaqpigfejrfwrhqiit OT^ dli » » 

o 6 

ij0 LE7fM# nunejr Bt VM,fi 

ingjL ìnAnd dfl|^and6ìd tfacfe «namb'to htmia ihdiCi 
mal tone, ** Exped me» and bear me» rcpem; apdanaBoA 
tkyhk t doft ^bott iiadcffAaAd-ioe i** Thob «a^Kft «ali- 
}gr beUcfttilM vifion ^ not « Utdo'Aftiiib bm Yet b^ 
MIS m«re traobled at what a pettet eoe daf^oU bm* 
wbo fpake to bim witb great freecloia$ a»d hw ditcoarfe 
fM^ him «bat diftiirbaqpc wUch be could aevar get rid 
•& Tkis ,man la&ed to tb« |Mrtnce oftea witbgicatf»» 
wUanty jprben be found bim in the field ; and wt^imf- 
beid this diDcourfc to bim : ** We are bere two aaan ^ 
tbott art a great biog» and I a poor peafaot ; yet I a» 
^ediapt a better tnan» becai:rfe I am mote iaitocQnt : I 
bftfe bii afi the good I can of tby perfoa to wj Ueoà^ 
heiikg fcf^Me of tby jttftice, thy bouaty and liberaliiy t 
Hal all tbefe virtoee are borrìbly foSed <by a gmvoua 
mc^wfaiob Cad wiU aever fpigtve tbee* «nleft tlvm Itawi* 
eft it off-iHbou oammfitteift, gromt pruM»i o^tttimnd «dd- 

jllit oertain tbsa prince acknowled^^ to ùtme o( km 
ewafidafflSf thttt be bad Ih^t day beard in paftkabr » 
peeaebei^ wbo» without any ikill in theology and rhcti»> 
xic^'bad more moved htm than att tbedodort of «be Sor» 
boiMi» put tpgfilbar cwdd do. ThisSoi^aM ia'a««at 
la^e m Faraw umom for karoed divines, 

i Tbi> peince pat a ploafeat ìgn9k 9a>lHa oonfeflbf» wbo 
often urged bim to iotbiffi hb mfftrtSee» ^ad ^coaieat 
biflsfelf «Ml the embimm ^f bi| wi£r* Ha ondeved a 
cook» wbo wa» woitt to 4fefa iUa doaor'^^nAnab^ ¥^ 
fgÌpe.bmi.«QìbMg to tat biit< paataidgM ( ìabieb^ fo gDWl^ 
l|;,ùred bim» that be oouid mUfeifaeariiPWplìMiing t» 
Iè»iki9i[ bimiflK tbaf^ tbia>oodc^4rat<biwifia'M»lh^ 
waofudbam (tb«t jbe^vfmidblat tenteve »6tbtii|»^bii^pM^ 
^dgiaaa ifriliittbct«rewio weaiy^jtb tbaiithMHl£«M» 
oaiMiteJiitt} Sùk^ttAit fjjMwrìif (rrf ili ^ "fìJMi "rrnMiriniiiìr 

BotkIL « Ajmt^AWMMMm^ 157 

£blQHidj0vnfted me%aiulafnk&»t.pat«oiii>f tkeoy; 
yet hn biA tbat ii0ceflity.afaitgft4>tùm to ioUow amw, 
imi.hld br l>«ca kft. ta iù« «va iadHtt t i& n , be «ouM 
Iwflt chpIoBi t0 jbavc bfiea a &ko}ar. 

. iiBLhflii «00- gjpcat efteem for pkfficÙQ» ; as bclievii^ 
tfae& kind x>£ people with iU to men ; being of Tiberiu^^ 
foiiid»' wbo thought that a maa of tbirty yours of age 
jnooded tbep jMit* 

But on tbe .omlrary» be woù. efioeyned biftoriaM, «od 
^ayc peafioas to fev«ral of them in Getmasy, Italy, and 
fKher-pbuscft; layiog o£t» tbat if a^iy une coiài find^tbc 
bo^ of Tttusr Xivy which are w^tiag, aid tbofe <£ 
Taoijai% tbat be would wilUngly beftow on him the ùmìt 
>g£t oi tbxte cities vwhich Xerxes made to a Greek <ap* 
19004 .tbe one for breadt the feoood §or wme^ and the 
third for cloitbijag; and tkefefbre there are above fi&f 
aitthors wbo bave written bis hiftory. He eawà An^ 
gaS^r by^eafoo .of tb^bappinefii of having ib many 
learned men in bis reign ; «ad that he more eibtmed 
MvpoK»» Jiving a.peaceable citizen at Some, tbaq Alex* 
aiidei:. tiiuaipbiog «ver all ASa ; and tbat Maecenas'a p*» 
^onizipg.and recompenfing iUuiUious men tbat excelled 
in Rome in all «ctsy^bad rendered bis. name immortal, to- 
H^elbevsviih that of ìùa fovereign. 
. He bewailed tbegreat paioa be bad taken to obtaial 
the command of atbei»$ and ior bis having Jeamed no-» 
^àÌ9g bimfelf I a faim' ja g » it had been l^tMuribr4ùa(v>«i! 
barf^kmixiQdftfteominafid/himielf. He was 4]fo wW 
to ùfffff^ il%at.^^ie pfftBCC 4K^ neeer io nbk'^f 
ftm^mikf» itibe fannid ja y aeipwfndfcasi Am v^a»/* » '^ 

^Àeiag iMM^day connorfing with tbelS|p«alfr*|in«baflU<M^ 

IwnfajBWTUp mUk mj< Ut^^i^99é f*mirì»9 tk^é^mM» 

mcn% ^ dtts irittnfttr» ^ You foe (%8 he)^l^<'I^àa 
ftSà inoimt on hfitfebacky and mareh da foot too»,^^i4ìk 
be neccifary ; and that the gout haà not dépvti^d me of 
the ufe of mj legSb*^ His ralóur was fd adihtrs^ie, 
that a gnuiéee of Spain being at a eerémo^y, #heréin 
the fword of this prince was carried naked befoit Mm, 
he ftopt opeàly him that carried it, and ktffed k, faying» 
be did this hoAOtit to the fword of the firft and chiefìéft 
captain of the worfd. * i-' - 

A chemift one day prefented him with a receipt t6 
change lead into gold ; to whom he aiffwered. In making 
a large empty coflFcr to be brought to him, " When thou 
haft fifled this coffer with the metal thou talkeft of, come 
to me, and I will gite thee as much lead *as thod wik 
hafe/' • / .. 

Being at Fòantainblèau> a place famoiis ilnce levéht 
agesy and lowing aB the buildings there to a foi^i^ 
l^mee, who told him, when he had ffiowed him the cha^ 
pdV ** That he had lodged Ood in too narrow a comi- 
pafej" heanfwcred, «* That God w^s better lodged fil 
tite heart, than in great edifices «f ftone.** < • • ? 

♦ When he dit!W the defigns againft' the ' maffidmàtì^;. 
wfeièh r mentioned in my other letter, he did an tl6tìdtt 
of generofity very beneficfal to the Mòorfr who were 
driven out of Spain, perm5ttii% above fifty thoufeW 
men, who had paft the Pyrctiees, to embark themfelvtìi . 
fn the ports of IVovcnce and Languèddò-, to iétìre ftìtò 
A^ic. I cannot call to mate, that time wftHout'bèwaS 
ing^the lòfs of a million of perfons, who pcriffied^By df- 
iirersaocMents-and inifefSes.' ' -" -' ^'^^^ ^*' ufji :// 

After a^iattle^ wHei^ Hèifif ì^t^^i^e-haz^O^^ lie 
laid; ^«'«e had of^^fbughl^f^^ifaerf, bfnr^t'mi^de 
he fought for his fife." «- ^'^-^ • ' « #*^« ;? - 

KlPhftd «ifid 4Éèrè b<«i^lfiN9N^«l^sf ^^ite^uili^^^ 

BookJI. . AMtmUMAM^ . tj9 

h» had b«ie4 Ufap.^e kitMé^ìAiim the IMc«'éf liayome 
kad been at taUe ; this lsiu«r c«nm«adiiig^ dun tho ar* 
my o£ the kagtie^ > ^ : 

This 'king ddked to be thought « teA father to his 
fulijcéb; he dierefere i^pUed.hnbfeK in^Ceafchmg'the 
means <d tcdre&ng the ia&nious abvfes of the bar ; but 
he advanced not much in the bufineCs» whatever care he 
ufisd ; it b^ng xmpo£&ble for him to bridW the cavctoufv 
nefs of the lawyers» and to hinder the length of fuits» or 
corredi the injuftice of judges,. to leave nothing to be 
done by his fucceffors. He feemed to be much troubled 
fDaay times» when he fpake of thefe kind of things» is 
that there were in Paris more courts and lawyers than in 
all the vaft empire of the Turks ; his deiign being» after 
the example of the mufiulmans» to make all fuits» which 
were ererlafting by the knatery of the lawyers» to be dc'* 
cidcd in three days } and he therefore defigned alfo to 
burn tiie books of all thofe who had written iafinke 
cooHnentaiies. on this fubjeé^» which ferved only to rm'a 
the).> people» «nd oayfed oftentimes amongft relatiosisi 
friends» and neighbours» fuch broils» as may be fatd to do 
p»re miicltitf tha^ a civil war* He affirmed^ thai in 
ioutating herein the Turks» be fliould ufe hia fubje^s aa 
his real chUdren* and hinder them from deirouring oaie. 
another-; tha^ he would eaufe iharp nails and razors to 
be (aftencd |o the feats where, the judges fat» that thofe 
who fuffered themfelves to be corrupted might At there*. 
Qa;:,And ipdeed. in. thi» particular ltCsu»not.but wonder 
at the GbrifUans blp4]^&. 

We fee oftentimes decidcd^iBvone ^idy eapi^|»}gn> l^e 

4jffeienc;e& of , two gse^ ft«|tcf ^ but a fuit ii^ l«w for t v^n^r 

tjfir^iieiq^ma^JPutUioften^Ull ^ loan's wl^ life» and perhaps 

, be entailed on his heirs. ^ •• 

fowTfig».. There ware.wip^wrmild hauc j^rju^^gd, Win 
to. b9ve tappi-chcadcd «be .Q^ of Sa;?oy* wl^^^i^ame to 
Paris U> terminate fome di&renpes he hj^l. w;8fcH him»^ 
He anfwer(^ thoft; tfa^( ^dvjfed him witji. t^'s i ^* That 
Francis the Firft, one of his predeceiTi^i^ hfid taught 
h!«» a prioce was more oblJ^^to ào what be 
mifedf than to obtain what he deilred ;. that it was ia hia 
pover to have appneheoded a ptince ht Biore coniider* 
able, but would not do kf iuffezing the Emperor Charles 
the Fifth to. pafs out cS his kingdoxn^ who had come 
therein on his word* After this (added he) ftiall Hei%ir]r 
give iadk an example to princes ? If the Duke of Sa- 
voy has often broke liis word with me, .it does not there- 
Sore foUow I mud imitate him : Crimes can never be au- 
thorifed by examples." The fame Duke of Savoy having 
aiked him what revenue he drew from his kingdom, he 
aufwered him in diefe terms, " I draw as much as I will, 
becauCe I make myfelf beloved ; whence^it is th^t my 
fnbjeeb count all our eftates are common*^' 

He anfwered very plealantly to a prince's eiivoy, who 
came with a compliment of condolence for the death of 
his Ibn, who had been dead near a ypacy <^ That he was . 
no longer grieved at that lots, feeing .God had gi^en kim 
t^o more iincc." 

A captain of great reputation having faid, tjiat the 
king's liberalities, though feveral times reiterated, could ^ 
not oblige him to love him ; Henry fent him word, 
^ He would heap fo many favours on him that he would 
force him at laft." 

He often ufed this proverb, ** More flies are taken, 
with a drop of honey, than a ton of vinegar." 

A monk entertaining him one day about military af- 
fairs, ^* Open your breviary, father (faid he), ^nd (how 
me ffk<fe 700 leaiped thefe .^»e kfibos.'^ 

BooktL A4P9r/ir PMI8/ Idi 

One iaj m tsSor prcfioQ^apg Ue» wità z hook of pdK*- 
tM:3» be £ild to tbc chanceHoK» who wai there ^^frntt 
Manfieur duoie^dlor^cpt ntf put « futt of dotiies ; èere's 
il Uìlor wh» ^aderfUndt your «ruie; «od tcHt me bow I 
fttall govern my kiogdom»'' % 

Qiie day» whe» tbe pope'« vnnclo vntB at a great feaft» 
wbere there were betw^eo tw^eifty and tUrty ladies of 
great beauty» he told this prelate» ** He had .been ih fe» 
verd battki» but aever found ìàrnSàf m b great danger 

jKot^Mf fon» nHwe i^eetUe thao ^he anfivcr èc 
■iui4« to ibe ftmot, W tbe iMiscbaol» of Parili who w«» 
mgem iritk i^m ^ 4o9fuii> Xp m im^oA^ <wUeh mm tè 
be Jafil m én^iomnàm of ^e 4k)im» to Aunife die es^ 
pelasse .of f^Hfdepmim of fl» Svòtoert» who oMoéitÈé 
France to renew their ancient aHiance with* this 'Ipiag^ 
doB^ »d h««ri««r M^ << Use tbt; !!«g^h«U Aét!k! 
find foOie otiier expoèieot tian Id cimnge wiéer iiitò 
w«ie$ whìoh was a iDsnde that nev»" any fiody wioa|^ * 
felt Jeftis Chdft ;" who as» » thoa koowdi, the CtaHAhi 
fatrioor ; and^ tor -thy farfiier inArofibion» h k neceflbry 
£[>r thee to know» the Switzers love w3ne AoYt aM thiags * 
ID toe vDiuly and '«lat not wilhottt Teafim. 

lluB prince went to the wars at tbe age of fifteea, and 
atieventeen klDod an enemy, and in the year f^owi^g 
be &7td the life of one «f Us captains» aod had his hode * 
k^èd under htm. He was in five battira» and in nK>re ' 
than an hundred combats» and at the iiege c^ albote twa 
hundred places. He Cuftained feven diffei^nt wars» in 
wfaidi his enemies acknowledged» that he bad fifty-lrre ar*» 
mies upon him at feveral times» and in dMierent places,' 
and afways ébukiéd foMe i^onfiderable advantage. 

iniofe that have given him the term of "Gptat» have 
given him his true liiiiiife. He %as UgUy éft^med %9^ 

Uit LETTfiltS WmiTTEW BY Vol. I* 

rQ nationi ; and tkou knóvreft vety weQy that our ful- 
taas» though the mightieft monarci in the unlverfc» have 
admired this great prinee's fortune and valoon 

Above fifty Uftoriani have lirntften hit iife $ above five 
hundred poets have puUKhed lab pratfes^ 

1 vnUl lowe thee at prefent the liberty of comparing 
this king with thofe whom thou wilt choofe from amongfi 
the heroes. 

If Mahomet Xt. has not done mote than him, he tazy 
be compared to him in warlike actions» with this dif» 
férence, that King Henry conquered the Gc»ils who 
were of his patrimony, and Mahomet conquered twelve 
tdngéoms and an empire, becaufe he was perfuaded that 
an the earth bebnged to him* Hehry fubdued the city 
of Paris, and Mahomet made himf<^ mafter of Coaibitt-» 

The King of France kft an infinite number of maika 
behind him of his grandeur, on marble, and -in the venb» 
ingsof famous authors, and Mahomet left onl^ on his 
tomb, thofe which ihowed what. he had'.defigned to exe* 
cute, but never could do it, whidi was, to take Riuslev 
and fubdue proud Italy. .' -• 

We muft alfo acknowledge, there was never found in 
imy Mahometan prince, the admirable clcTnency:of Hen- 
ry, fhowing himfelf herein greater than m Tanqutihmg 
his enemies ; contrary to Mahomet, who fhowed ^only 
great kindnefs to an ox, whom he caufed to be carefully 
fed, becaufe Ke would never forfàke the tomb of his 
mailer, whom that prince had killed, abiding idmys by 
it, and cxprcfling his forrow by horribl|f bdlówings. 
On all other occafions he was very cruel ; far from the 
humour of this French king, who heaped benefits ob 
ifcofe who drew blood of him, Mahomet, by a bar- 
Barous cruelty, caufed the bellies of twenty, of liis inno* 

Book ir. A -snr AT t/aoM. i tfj- 

cent pager to be npt xipeitf to «fifcorer him «haK Htié^ 
cattili, a mrioB ÌQ his garden. >^ ^ ' • * ^^ 

Henry was» great ioverdf Isedies» and an extreme ad-t^ 
inirer'^f'i^t>-fex$^ and Mahomet, jealous of the^ too 
great beauty of hktmfttehf cut àff her head himfeU tit ' 
a full éiYan; And farther^ if Mahomet gave in the eaft, 
a great example of juftice, in putting his own fon to 
death, for deflouring the daughter of the Baffa Achmct 
in a bath ; Henry gave a greater in his own pérfon, in 
repairing at the head of his army, the outrage offered to 
a ytmng girl, from whom he could not fear any vexa- 
tious confequences. 

Be furc, however, to be filént in thefe judgments I 
make, and (hotr'thyfelf dlfcreet, if thou intendeft to 
hdd any correfpotidence with me. 

Imitate the bees ; gather from fo many flowers pre* 
fcfited thee#, what appears to thee the fwccteil and moft 
pmpei'to form Muftapha^s mindf and fupple his fpirtf 
like trax. 

1 coidd reiate to thee more things touching this Hen-' 
ryy'-but th^re ii no neceSty of writing all ; that thou- 
mayeft have ipace to imagine what fuch a prince might 
have done, who had re-eftabliAied hi» fortune by his va- 
lour^ alone. . . 

Let'me know of thy departure j and when thou flialt 
strive at the place of thy repeat, forget not thy faithful 
fyiend Mahmut, who wiihes thou mayeft prove an happy 
tutor to \àxc fon of a prince, and a faithful minifter of a 
wife emperor. 

Paris, i8th of the ad Moon, of the Year 1639. 


BOOK m. 
LETTER l^n M¥»i.v Rut Hrwum, Iffmc^ 

Scarce had I finiflKd my letter to Egri Boynou, when 
news came from the coaft of Provence^ of fo ex^raordif 
nary and Icandaloas an event» that I cannot but inform 
thee» who art a wife and experienced pofoni^pf it j ^4 
bccaufe I would have thee let it down In the £i9,re.d. re- 
^ifter-books of the empire of which tho|i haft ^ ^hsirffp 
Afiam Bafla, a corfary of Àlgi^rs^ dic4 9t ÙifL V^^oi. 
forty yean ; the relation of whofe death yn» attepded 
with fuch horrid circumAanpet, that cveo iht «ncifilea ipf 
. the Alcoran do deteft them* 

It if faidj that being fc nfibk he V|» tmx hi» «fiaj! 6f 
cauiedLtwo young Chr^iaa flaves to be ftquigled» who* 
were nobly defcended» and for whofe ranfom great fama 
«f .money might have been ezpefted» vntfaoat allegmg 
any reafon for his cruelty ; nay, after he had -coaleflclR 
he had no caufe of complaint agaioft thesa, having ^ 
ferved from certain tokcoa in thciir o<niotcoaiicei> tliat 
they were of a fweet difpofition and inclined hj iMittt|]& 
to be £uthluL When he wai layiii|^ out, there^was 
fcnnd a kind of fine fcarf about him» with theie worda 
embvpidered on it ia letters of gpld ; ** ASui Ba&<«ai. 
have the handfomeft of bia flavcs to be buried aiive w^ 
him» being defirous of good company in hia vo|qige issCO 
the other world.'* . • ,-. 

The report of fo terrible an adventure» has tncreai^ ' 
the hatred of the French againft us» and that in (b .e»"> 
ceifive a manner» that I am forced to keep myfi^ cpifkn<* 
eealed» left I fliould by my zeal difcover myfel(:%keÌ9Bh. 

Hoék In. A ntr at rAtis* tàg 

not ^faie tu eftdure die bhfpfaemies of our enemies. There 
k no queftion hut thii crudi monfter it kept by the black 
angela bt the other world. 

. Cod grant that (b h^iid a erime fnay not corrupt tk« 
reft, of AfHc. Ho^e^icr, may I be & free at to counfel 
you ; let the body of this impious wretch Afiam be dug 
up and burnt, and his afhes thrown into the fea, to drown 
the memory of him. 

' Wfehmm fahites thee from the town of the umVerfci 
theftdleft of tioi£e; and wiihes thee at Conftafltinople, 
or wherever clfe thou art, a long fequd of happy years» 
and after death the enjoyment of the ** Mife of our hun- 
éwi twe«y-fonr thoufand prophets/* 

.Psuis. x8th of the 3d Moon, of the Y«ar 1659. 

II.— -7« the Invincible VisiEa Az£M, at the Cam^ under 

SfiroRE 1 give thee an account, great and magnanimous 
"WSer, of whatever I have done to fatisfy the curìofìty 
of Cardinal RicMieu, I am obliged to tell thee how I 
fpend my leifure hours. 

It is impoffible I fhould obferre exaé^ly the motions of 
thk eoupt, without following it, and holding a con*e- 
Ipondence with people of aU forts, as tradefmen, fol- 
ders, fcholars, feamen, politicians, and cren mufician». 

l[iie 'court eonfifts of all thefe profefllonsy and there 
are fome particular perfons who are mafters of all thele 
fcfenced, of which number is Cardinal Richlieu. He is 
not content with this his knowledge, but feeks Itili for 
ferfliler light in the commerce of aU-perfons of merit who ^ 
an^Kre Hei^ ; negléfting nothing which may enrich this 
kingdom with new difcoveries in arts and fciences, out of ^ 


iovQ to bis country» and defirc ta render his miaiftly méte 

Thou feeft by this, Invlncihk BafIa,that-tio keep-lldm* 
pasy with courtiers» who have fo many diflbseiit i^valiet^ 
a man muft have fome £or his ihare» that he *cnay^y 
fomething in his turn, and not be alway&a bare hearer -of 
other people's difcourfe. 

For this purpofe» the particular fludy to which I ap- 
plied onyfelf whilft I was a flave in Sicily, does much 
help me, though not fufficiently* It was books I read 
in this ifland, not men. Now, knowing my bufinefit se- 
quired much dii&mulationi an awakened mind» aad efpe- 
cially prudence» eloquence» and learning» to ipeak pco- 
perly on occafions ; great reading, to obtain the know- 
ledge of ancient and modern things $ a refined policy» 
to difcover or conceal one's felf, and to counterfeit ibme^ 
times a mighty honed man : Nothing» I fay, appeared 
to me more conducing to this purpofe» than the turning 
over hiftories ; and therefore I have earneftly applied my- 
ielf to this work. And becaufe few books are not fuf- 
fident» and a great many breed confufion, I' have hap^y 
got admiiHon into the acquaintance of an ancient learned 
9ian» whofeiiudy confiib of none but choice books» ^md 
has travelled over mod parts of the world ; not like A- 
pdloniusi to learn the language of birds and beafis .$ but 
to know the cuftoms, laws» virtues» and defe&s qf na- 
tions. Ì was firft for informing myfelf of all the. pro- 
digies which the God of the Jews had done in favour of 
that ungrateful people. I .afterwards inquired into the 
life and dodrine of the Mefllas» whom the Chridians 
worfliip. I alfo looked into what had been done con* 
fidetable at Athens and Sparta« Theb^s^ Rome and Car- 
thage» and carefully remarked wba£ divinities wereadoiv 
ed in thofe fo famous places^ and foi^nd that jhct ^«at 
philofophers and captains, who made fuch a nolfe about 

thcjr rrli^oQSi .had at bottom none at all Having ma 
over what the Chriftians call the Old and New Tefia- 
ifi^tt, the Jbtiftoriea of Jofephus, Xenophon» Polybius, 
eTbucydldkSf Lirius and Tacitua» my greaufl apj^ieatipn 
ka» beciP/ and (ball be for the futurei to read and medi- 
tate. oo^ the works of the great Plutarc^h, efpiscially his 
lives of illofirious Greeks and Romans» related by hhn 
with fo gveat ei^adnefs. And thus far have I arrived in 
this. 'fliort.fpflice, and here X have Hopped. I have learn- 
.ed by the «eading of PluUrch^ to apiufje the Cardinal 
RiciiUoL; to. whom I offered myfelf two days ago, and 
h^ve pot into his- hands the following difcourfe^made af- 
ter{the nuinner of Chriftians, and have Gripped myfelf, 
i£ a man may ib fpeakj of the manner and ilyle of the 
Tuidsf, as I have done of their habits, the better to dif- 
: Titus, the faithful (lave of the great Amurath, 

*< Qreflt Carenai, .ami mofi /age Miniver 0/ the Greafefi 
: ^ ! of Chr'tffian Kings» , 

** Titns of Mddavia is come to' wait on you, accord' 
fttg(o*yoiiv commands, not to entertain you with the 
tiehesof Aiia, nor it» what manner, by the wifdom of 
your counfels, and fovces of the king your fovereign, 
ybu'lhay deftroy the mighty Turkifh empire, of whom 
yoii have no reaf(» to complain j but, to tell you what 
fttmé mod i^eeable to the greatnefs of your genius* 
Knpw then, lage moderator of the French monarch, 
thai I ihall not c^er any thing which may make you 
hate me, smdj^pent of believing me, feeing what I pro- 
pole is an e^y enterprife, and full of glory. .Thy kmg 
has a fon, who wiU one day inherit the greatnefs and au- 
thority of liis4athe« ; *you know not tlie temper and dif^ 
po&ttoos which this heir may have, being as yet fo m^ch 
i^ehàid^ that a man caniiot gather any thing certain of 

t68 LETtÉHS WftlCTMlf BY VóK I. 

tWs matter* Bet a prince' that has been £> kntg looked 
fer» req[airet extraordinary defigM to be hid for htnr» 
and great preparatiofis made btumes to raxfe a paface 
iBat mxf he \tortbjf to oaveitaia him. I woiAd propofe 
toy^ua palace» I &y, of miraeulous architednre, the 
£ke wa» never feen or ìma^ned^ una vrhich you may 
with your own hand» rear i^ ià Fm % which muft be 
of a fallare forih, whofe coracra (hall tcgìcrà Earope, 
Afia> Africa» and America» and whofe^ richne€i (hafi draw 
aQ naliieus to it. Yoti will net need itene, hné, wood* 
nor iron for thia work. The ift^hiteaf» whieh jwt fhA 
employ fkàlì hare the feeret^ with their pen, hai, aad 
paper, t^ ratfe this edifice, which Ihall be of a more Iaft« 
ing dtrrance, thto the pantheon of Agrippa^ and wher^ 
on, as on the temple of Solomon, there IhoiM be no 
iioile of hammers. 

«< Think not, wife minifter, they are chimeras which 
Titus has in his head* Hear then the dcfign of this 
majefUcal palace, whofo foundations arc a^eady laid by 
Plutarch» with material more precfons than gold or ru- 
bies. Thou knoweft the happincfs this phdofopher had, 
of rendering immortal the anions of fi> many great men, 
of whom, perhaps, there might have been^no metitioiilt 
had Plutarch lain filent. Men now, read in the moft re- 
mote provinces of the IndSei, written on leaves and barks 
of trees, the fives of Alexander, Gsefkr, Scipio| Pom* 
pey, and Xerxes. Amongft the fofitaries of the moft de- 
fart parts ofs Arabia, and amongft the dervii^s who dweS 
at Medina, aie found written in ArabiaH eharaékrs^ ^ 
kiftories of Numa, Ariilidas, Cato, Lycurgus, and £- 
paminondas. The Spaniards and Portuguefes have ren- 
dered this author fo famous in China and Japan, that 
thefc barbarians, not contented with having trandated 
into their languages all the lives of the Greeks and Ro» 

Book III. A S?Y AT PARIS. l6^ 

nans» ijiey have ordered (If I miilake not) that every 
five year» new copies be made, to the end they may be 
eteraally preferved* I have feen myfclf at Conftahtin- 
' Oplfi above an hundred volumes in filken paper, where- 
in the works of this famoas Greek are read with venera- 
tion by the greateft captains, lawyers, and divines ; and 
thefe works are enriched with moft curious notes in A- 
Tabic, in Porfian, and the Turkifh language, by the 
cxpre£p orders .of the fultans, who make them be pre- 
ferved as iliuftrious monuments of the ancient Greek elo- 
quence» You are not ignorant of the efteem which So- 
lyman the Great had of Pompey, Casfar, Pyrrhos, and 
Alexander ; and that he never undertook any military 
enterprife till he had confulted thefe great mafters in 
the art of war ; being wont to fay, He knew not whe- 
ther Alexander or Pyrrhus had (bowed more valour in 
engagements, than Plutarch had (bowed wit and judg- 
ment in defcribiag them. But in a voyage I made into 
Germany, what did not an old rabbin tell me, in (bow- 
ing me the lives of illufbious men- of this incomparable 
author tranflated into Hebrew, which he carried ever a- 
bout with him? He a(&red me, that the curious of his, 
religion fet fuch a value on them, that there are above 
ten thoofand manufcript copies difperfed in the fyna- 
gognes» both in the eaftem and weftem parts.. 

<* Men, women, and ch^ren, know of what account 
this fiunona autbtMr k in all our Europe. He now fpeaks 
afi languages ; the £ngii(h, the Spaniards, Italians, Ger- 
mans» Poknders, and Hollanders, have naturalized him 
among them* And you know very well, Sir, that in 
this kif^om of France, the learned, not content with 
having him tranflated into dieir idiom, they carefully 
adorn their libracies with this author in his own natural 
Fci.I. u ■ 


toDgudy and have colleéled die Latm« Italian^ and Spa» 
fiiih TcrfioDS of hun. 

^^ But it is now fix teen hundred years (mcfe Fiutaceli 
keeps iilence ; fo many men famous for their knowledge* ' 
and fo many great captains who have lived fmce, are un- 
known to the world, becanfe they have met widi qg P1u« 
tarch to kaow them. And this is the ^8U:ely hallding 
which I offer you Co finiih who are fo great a lover «of 
glory ; for Ood has given you a mind, with a ne^eiary 
power, to finafh what Phitscnch has io profitably begun.«-p~ 
Aaife up tnunedxately, by ymir authority, on the precioujB 
foundation which this inc^vaperal^ philofopher has laki^ 
■the walls sad roof of this fz(k building. Order k^dg- 
ings :to %e made ready for all die heroes who could not 
enter iixto this fiiA ediike, I mean thoie ilhiftrious dead, 
whafe Jives ha\fe not been carefully colleded, and who 
ihould honofor Europe, Afia, and Africa, whet« they 
were bom ; and the new world will yield you where* 
wiibh to fiil this palace with Atabs^ippa's and Montezu- 

" Hereby wik thou be the reftorer of thodie ruins 
wkich time has made ; amd Jn raifing the ftataes of fo 
m9«f exccUoH petiToas in fcival adminiftrations, in war, 
apd in g>ood lectert», you wtU raifc up an mfiante number 
throughout ^t^e world> as the firft emperor of the Ro- 
nBan8 4id. It/ is to no puipofo to iay, there are a great 
many authors that have written £nce Fhitarch the anions 
of fevonal 'gu^% oommandcrs, kings» and great nunifters» 
whofe virtiMs were einiaently eonfpcuous both in peace 
aitd yrnr. ,1 hopse I fhall «lot give jjaSt offence in fisying^ that 
f|iw of thefe waiters have obferved Plutarch's ODcellent 
method ; for either they appear obkiure, by reafon cS 
their great conci^^ncfs, or the &£b are ordinasily con* 
/ounded in geneisil hiftories, or written by interefied «r 

Book ni. - A Bft At PARIS. 1 71 

paffionate pen», who difguife the truth, and impofe fabu- 
lous relotiofis DB tlie world. For a proof of this, be 
pleafedto examine particnlar events rdated m the lives of 
Francis I. king of France, and of the Emperor Charks V. 
and you will find there are thofe who affure ^s, that 
Chiarie^ died a faiat $ and that fcarcely was he expired 
when ** ^ower-de-hiees were f»en to fpring up in Ws 
ciiambtr, which yielded a moft admirable fcent ;*' whM 
ot^rs sfffimi, that this hero died an heretic by the affift- 
ance of his confeffor,who had embraced the Lutheran doe- 
trine. And how many romances are made of Francie I. ì 
Has it not been faid, that he fought a duel with this eni- 
perot; and that this pfince, paffihg through France, the 
king, by a motive of generoflty (beyond any precedent) 
offered him his kingdom ? That Charles had one day 
fat on Francis throne, and condemned a malefaélor, and 
mftc i w ar ds reprieved him, as a mark of his authority ì 
. And has it not been moreover faid, that Francis took 
Charles in a battle ? How many falfe relations have 
"been made of Andrew Doria, and Barbarofia, two fa- 
ikioas fea captains, the one a Chriftian, and the other 
a muMman, and both of them chief admirals of tw6 
snighty Em^rors, Charles V. and Sidytnan ? Has h 
not becto confidently affirmed, that Barbarofia, btfng tn 
the Arcipelago, ^ve a vifit, in the dlfgrafe of a monk, 
to Doria ? That in an idand where this interview wafc 
ttnde, thty had fwom, t)nc on the gofpel, the otSicr oft 
Ac Alcoran, to help one another to conferve their ati*- 
thòrity, which their employs gave them, at fea ; and to 
Make themfclves more «eceffaty to their fovcreigns, they 
wert always to avoid a decifive combat, that they migirt 
not rttiÉ one another? That they had moreover both 
finned this treaty with then- own blood ? Has there not 
been added to this fabfe, that the Turkifh admiral fent 



to Doria a Moor, who pretended to be a fugitive from 
theOttoQiaa «rmy» aad wore two pearb of an ineftimable 
price in his ears $ and that in exchange Doria had afibrcd 
Baii>aro& not to interrupt him whenever he pleafed to 
invade any of the ^^oafts of kaly i 

f* It is time» that under thy aufpjcious condu£^y the lives 
of great pierfonages b^ cleared from thofe ialfe relations 
which corrupt them» and be orderly inferted into the 
booàft of the moft excellent Plutarch» with fudi a kind 
. of tide» 

" Here is the reft of the Lives of Ubiftnous Men» 
. *< fremi the Emperor Trajan to Lewis the Jnft, of thofe 
'* that have excelled in Arms» Learning, Affairs of Sute» 
** and of thofe who have held the firft Rank in the 
«< Church in all Parts of the World ; and thefe Hifto- 
** ries have been colle^bed by a College of the leamedeft 
*^ Men in Europe, confifttng of Spaniards» French, Ita* 
*^ lians» and Germans, under the aufpicious condué^ of 
.** his Eminency Cardinal Richljeu/' 

** I would have three peifpns of each nation .to attend 
this work, and who (liould make their abode in Paris» as 
being the principal city in France. And I propofe Spa^ 
niards, Italians, Germans, and French, as the moft poliihed 
nations, and who have furniihed the world with the moft 
able men. Now, every nation having its particular way of 
i|>eaking and ^^ng, the edifice will be the m<Mre agree- 
able, and each architect w31 have greater room to (how 
his (kill. Thofe who (hall read thiefe larorks, will find, in 
fhc foftnefs of the French ftyle, wherewithal to mollify 
the top fevere gravity of the vSpaniih eloquence. The 
fincerity of t)ie Germans» ever attended with fome kind 
of drynefs, will appear without rudenefs with the flowers 
and good fenfe of the Italian writers. And as all the world 
will be interefted in this magnificent defign, fo w( moft 


Hot doubt but the wifeft of all thefe ftates wiS take care in 
the choice of the fubjeéks which they will propofe. And, 
in fine,- if thou wilt ha¥e the chief men in the world, 
thou needeft not Want the fecret of raifin^ tfp ^utarchs. ' 
Be not weary of giving marks of thy liberality ; for if 
thou wilt have Titus Irivy*», become Maecenas^. 

** It doth not belong to me to fay in what manner it 
is ncceflary on this occafion to feparate them of feverai 
sationsy and to diflribute thefe employs : Thou art equity 
able and prudenti fo that this work being begun, the end 
will have a'fuccefs anfwerable to its beginning. 1 fhall 
only put thee in mind, that thou wilt not a little contri- 
bute to render thy immottah'ty more glorious^ if thou re- 
membered the Turks, thy fwom enemies, being perfuad- 
ed thou mayeft find amongft the Ottoman emperors, baf- 
fts and vifiers, wherewithal to enrich the new Plutarch. 
Let not the greatnefs of the work difcourage thee ; how 
great foeyer it be, thy wit and courage are above it ; and 
thou wilt. not want ancient and modern authors to affift 
thee. Suetonius will furniih thee with the Lives of the 
Caeiars, which may be left entirje 9S they are. Diogenes 
Laertius gives as good an account of many of the philo« 
fophers. > You will receive advantage from the works of 
iEmilius Probus, Paulus, Jovius, and feverai others, who 
have acquired immortal rq>utation by the books which 
they have given the public. You will find a draught al- 
ready made of the iiiftory of two hundred and twenty- 
eight emperors, from Juhus Caefar to Ferdinand III. and 
Ibrahim- 1, the one emperor of Germany, and the other 
of Tuirkey ; which thou (halt caufe to be cai-efully exa- 
mined by the college, to clear up fuch things as are ob^ 
£cure, adding what is wanting, and retrenching events of 
which there is no fuificient proof, and which feem fabu- 
kms 'y and, in a word, £ot drawing up particular li%e» 



which are to b« met with ia general hiftofka, which have 
been the method of moft writers of late ages. 

** I would alfo have Plutarch's maaiief followed», of 
comparing the iUuftnous men of one nation with thofe of 
another ; where the difcreet writer having weighed the 
reafons which make ^r the one and the other» pronoun* 
CCS a featence which does both delight and iitftruéi the 

** The mod imporUn* ififtruétioa thep which caa he 
given, being tlie feenet of knowic^ men perjedlf, who 
feek wQth fo great care to hid< th«mfelves ; the tene 
iQptts for this i& thf choice of matfi»» it^at tbe- ctadsr 
may uot lofe his time» nor ftud-jF in vain» bn4 gathcY the 
froit which all men of f(£n£è fearehi for» which kr to haw» 
vriiat is goody that they may foUow it> aad e^ tok a»«id 
it* On this groiHid yo« will be eafily ptrtiwidcd, tbeic 
i% greater pleafure to behold the fciQmc& of Scipio, wh» 
pafles- with one only gaUey ta find out Sipbs»» tb«0«thr9e 
ia is considering him wh^n he gives battk to Hannibal 
in the plains of Raj»a. We ave mo«c edified in feeiog 
this young general a co^querofy aad yet & eofitineBi:, as 
to fend the ineft wom^n in the world, who was his pri- 
foner, to Ludu» the Spaniih prince, her hufl&nd» with* 
<mt touching her, than ia the relation of aji hundred 
fieges of places, where the effects which the foldicrs fiuy 
produces hunger and thirft, and the effufion of human 
blood yield» horror inftead of diverfion. In like man- 
ner, Sir, you will acknowledge, that a prince or cap« 
t«n will be more inftruded by feeing Francis» who liv- 
ed like a king, though in priiibn at Madrid» who carefTea 
aad recompences learned men all the world over $ and in 
feeing Fabricius, who refùfes and defpifes the greateft 
himours which are offered him» with immcnfe richer and 
who fnatches away the poifon from the mouth of the 
greateft enemy of the Roman people, than all the com- 

Book ni. A srr AT farisii 195 

bats and molt bloody battles foDght by Pyrrhus, Charks 
V. and the gvcat Tamerlane. 

** I have made you this long dMcoisrfe as a mark of 
my obedience ; and Titus of Moldavia, at the feet of 
your eminency, fupi^icates you to confìder, that when* 
by your negotiations» counfels and armies which receive' 
your orders^ yofu filali have added sew kingdoms to that 
which ywir mafter holds ; when, for the benefit of trade 
and navigattiaa, you ihaU ba're joined all the feas tc^e- 
ther ; and when, in a word, you fhall raifc bridges in Pa- 
ris, pyramids with move palaces than were built by the 
Cstfars, and all the kings of Egypt ; thefe piles will 
not be immortal, but fuìsjeét to the injuries of time : 
Whereas, on the contrary,, If you fend for the twelve ar- 
chite^s which I mentioned, to raife the llately palace 
aforecited, all the world will blefs the^name of Armand 
Cardinal de Riehliéu, rcftorer of the repuUic of learning 
almoft vttiaed $ and who, like another Archimedes^ hath 
k»owii by the «samples of the virtue of ffiuftriou» men, 
fnatched away by death out of the world, to coa^t and 
deftroy the vices and ignorances of the living." 

If thou approvcft not, magnanimous Vificr, what I of- 
fered to the King of France's minifcer, punifh me not for 
a fault which was not defigned, having, on the contrary, 
imagiaed to do thee a very agreeable piece of fcrvice. I 
thought I could not take a better courfe to conceal thy 
(kye Mahmut, and to divert this cardinal from fome pro- 
jeéls, which I am informed he deligns againft the Turk» 
ifh empire. Should he undertake the great work I fet 
before him, thou feeft the fukans will have fome fhare in 
it ; and he will, I fay again, have by this means, not to 
mentioR any thing eHe, his hands fo full of bufinefs, that 
he will not have the leafl time or 'ability to mókù. us. 


I fii^plkate thee» proftnte at thy feet, to call to mind 
the general diflike of what happened to Athens, when it 
was fackedand taken» fuch prodigious nnmhers of books 
being burnt, in all arts . and fcienccs, which had been ar 
coUeéiing feveral ages, and preferved with fuch great 
care $ and fo much the more» inafmuch as one may be 
afliired there is nothing to be feared from thofe that make 
learning their whole bufinefsi. who are always avcrfe to» 
war, as finding their reckoning only in the tranquiility of 
a well eftablifhed peace. 

Thou {halt receive» by the firft opportunity» whatever 
I can difcover of importance for thee to know» cither 
for the good of the empire, in which thou holdeft f» 
great a rank, or to fatisfy thy curioiky» provided the 
fioftg hinder not the pafikge of couriers, as they will af« 
fnredly retard the progrefs of the armies, which are con- 
ilrained to lie ftill during this vigorous feafon. 

God give thee an entire vié^ory over the enemies of 
t|ie mighty Amurath» and make thee the conquercur of 
ali nations. 

Paris, 28th of the 3d Moon, of the Year 1639. 

III. — To LvBANo Abufei-Saad, an Egyptian Kmght^ 

X HE king, fome days ago» was prcfcnt at a ball where- 
there was a great number of perfons of quality of both 
fexes. Cardinal Richlieu» who never lofes the fight of 
this prince, was there alfo. It was obferved, that' at the 
. end of this divertifemcnt, the cardinal would have gone 
out before every body, but dared not, and indeed could 
not get through the crowd, which made him £0 impa- 
tient» as was remarked by all, even the king himfelf» 
^ho ttddug him a little a-part» very ferloufiiy bid him paf» 

Hook III. A SF7 AT f ARIS. Iff 

on, feeing he was mafter. Now, what did this mmifter 
do in this aftoniftimcaty but anfwer nothing ì And tak« 
ing a flambeau out of the hand of one of the pages, he 
carried it himfelf before the king, with a countenance 
that fliowed neither defpite nor confufion. Thofe tha^ 
took notice of the name of mafter, which the king had 
given him^ interpreted it in his favour ; and there were 
them who thought, that in abaiing himf^ fo low, he- 
plainly fhowed the defign he had of raifing himfelf the 
higher; however, every one therecHi fpake what he 
thought moft proper. 

I give thee an account of this paflage, remembering 
what thou didfl in the prefence of thy mafter, throwing 
thyfelf out at a window, to take up a little note which 
Amurath by chance had let fall ; which aóiion of thine^ 
being known in this country, this a^on of the cardinal 
was compared with it ; yet with this difference, that the 
cardinal, without .rìfÌDg from the ground, has made a 
greater leap than thou. God preferve thee from fallmg 
into a precipice, if thou becft fool enough to leap a Ìt« 
cond time* 

Paris, 28th of the 3d Moon, of the Year 1639» 

IV. — To Mehemet, Page-Eunuch. 

X Hou haft recovered from a great ficknefs, and I a^ 
pe6t one. I have had for feme days a faintnefs, which 
does extremely deprefe me ; but by the grace of God, I 
need not yet the phyncian* The letter which I received 
from thee this moon, has g^ven me fomt eafe ia my in- 
difpoiition, which is no new thing with me, being necef« 
fitated to live io far from my friends, country, yea, and 
rdigion too* And though it may ieco^ difficult lo be a 


178 LETlJBllS WAlTTBK BY Vol. I. 

famt, in paffing one's days in a profone place, yet think 
not my piety grow» lukewarm, or my fitendfhip dnni- 
nifhed 5 feeing I have made a mofqae of my heart, where 
friends are ever prefent. Be then perfuaded, it is impof- 
fiWc for Mahmtit to become unfaithful, and lofe the af- 
feéHon he has for his fnends ; for he ncTcr ceafes to love 
where he has once begun. It is true, indeed, that I call 
myfelf Titus at prefent, and am clothed in an odd fort 
of drefs ; yet this is no hinderance of my affcftion to 
niy reKgion, my country, and my fnends. 

The ancient Greeks have written a great deal about 
frlendfhip, and the duties of a friend : But there remains 
ftiU behind more than what they have faid, as there re- 
ixtains more to do than they have done. The word, 
friend, » a common name, and appropriated by moft 
p^plc ; bat where wilt thou find a man that gives proofs 
of a true and unfeigned friendfhip ? I think f am no hy- 
pocrite ; be thou as true to me at Conftantinople, and in- 
form me what paffes in the feraglio, and how it goes 
with our fnends and relations in all parts. 

I fhall give thee no account of the tranfaAions of the 
infiddsy anK)ngft whom I live, being tired with writing 
them to the Grand Vifier and the Kaimacham. Imitate 
me not herein, for thou abounded with leifure ; let n^e 
then hear frofm thee every moon. 

I have had fevcral fits of laughter, at the pleafant 
adventure of the chambermaid to the old flave, with the 
eunuch Melech Aubi. Blefiings on the heart of Maho- 
met : I believe the holy Prophet will laugh himfelf in his 
paradife, when the angel his meffenger, who brings him 
news from this world, (haft gire him an account of what 
thcfe two perfons have ridiculoufly done in honour of him. 
Could there ever be a greater fhnplicrty, than to cat 
every night a verfi^clfc of the Alcoran, written on a pi«c« 

Book IIL A 8W AT FAHW. Xf^f 

of Chiaa fatin I Wheoce 4i4 this eunuch, thy comrade, 
kairn this firange fupf rftitioa ; and by what fpirit did he 
authorife that of thia flave. In taking the pains to write 
thefe verficles with hi$ own haad ? And wh^a could they 
imagine both of them they fhould make an end of this 
{eaft, feeing the whole Alcoran could not be eaten in lc& 
ihaa fijc thoufand forty-three days, the book containing 
So ma«y verfìcks. ì Pray let me know what if done to 
them. They deferve not, in my poor judgment, an over- 
rigorous punifhment, their crime being only a ridiculous 
devotion. The great and venerable mufti will foon de- 
cide the bufinefs j yet i would fain know the manner. 

I ihall now impart to thee an account of a viiit whkh 
I gave a foUtaiy in my travel» into Germany, who fpent 
his days far from the commeirce of the world, in a Uttle 
hermitage, about fifteen nuks diitance from Vienna* 
This mafi, who is bow very old, baa^ pafTed forty yeara 
of his life in great auflenty, doing every thu^ our fa- 
mous Santons are cekbrated for ; and thou fhak know 
wh^t moved him to this fevere penance, and^ to retire 
aiCter tbie manner. It is faid^ that in his youth, having^ 
been threatened for fomc mifdemeanor with imprifon- 
iQient, he hid himfelf in the houfe of a faithful friend, 
lying in a barrel covered Ovtfr with flraw,. where was 
brought him privateliy his^dkt. Whilft he thus lay con- 
ceali^d iaa'thi vefTfl, a certain perfon went up into the 
garrest, his prKon^ with his bofl's ii&ep ; wheo thefe two 
pc^tlOQs tkybking tb^ufelves alone» eame to fuch famili- 
afities w much, fcandali^ed this new Diogeqes, who faw 
aS that paffèd througb^ the onevices of his tub ; and be- 
iogDQt aUe to co«taia his refentmeats, he thus paflion- ' 
ateif fa^ke ottt^ ** God fees you» you wretches, and q^uk 
too•'^ In a word, hisindigrnation was fo great, tlwt tbe^ 
iub or barrel vr^^m^ftìagfimu ; wkh the noife of wl^b^r 

H 6c 

l9ò LETTEftS WRITTEN^ Br Vol. t 

and his fcramblmg up, the two lovers were fo aSHgbted'y 
that the gallant for hafte broke his neck down ftairs, and 
the nymph lay dead in a fwoon on the place. Thi» 
ftrange furprife to aS, efpecially the fight of fo- filthy 
and tragical a fpeelacle» fo affeded this young man, as 
made him retke from the world into the folitude wJiere 
he now remains. He lives only on bread and water ; 
and the averfion which he has conceived on thk occafioa 
to women is fo great, that there is none dares appear 
before him. There were two who had the curiofity of 
feeing this hermit, in men's clothes, but they foon re«> 
pented of their vifit ; for this folitary, full of rage and 
indfgnation, thu» welcomed them, " Get you gone,, you 
demons, fiillen firom heaven for man^s deftruétfon ; I 
know very well what you are, and cannot behold you- 
without horror." He makes excellent exhortations to* 
young men who vifit him ; and having fhowed them the 
care they ought to take to live with purity, and rule 
their pa0lons^ to which corrupt nature renders^thcm fiib* 
Jed, he alfo exhorts them to hold a glafs before their 
faces, when feized with anger, or when carried forth to- 
the commiffion of any brutifli or unfeemly aéHon. 

My letter is longer than I intended ; receive, as a mark * 
of my fnendAiip, the long time I have enfeertained my- 
fdf with thee, when I thought at firll to fpeak all in^ 
two words. Give this letter^ direded to thee> into Ze^ 
lim's own handk ; it contains things which concern his. 
life. As to what remains, love ever thy fatdiful Mah* 
mat^ whilft I (hall pray the fovereig^ of tht greauft 
inonarchs, as well' as other men, that he would, after this* 
]ife, give us eternal felicity, and the grace to. appear in-^ 
iKx-ent before his dreadful tribunal, at which all raea 
ihall be judged. 

Paris, «Sth of the 3d Moen» of the Ycftr i6^« 

Book m. A Srt AT FARI9. l8l 

V. — To Zelim of Rhodes^ Captain of a GalUy. 

AlBHfMBTy ps^e of the feraglioy will deliver» or caiife 
to be delivered to thee, tkis letter, which is written to 
thee by Mahmaty flave amd faithful minifter of the great 
Siihan, the invkicible and happy Amurath, who com» 
mauds me to ferve him in thefe parts. There is no ne- 
cefilty of my fending thee the pid:ure of a man who fet» 
forth from Leghorn for Conftantinople with a dcfign to 
kill t^c. Thou mayeft eaiily know him, feeing he ha» 
been fix years a dave in thy galley. Adonai the Jew 
fe»t me this advice from Genoa, fo important for thy 
£fe ; adding, he fet oilt with his brother, being refolved 
to petiihj or be revenged of a great injury thou haft 
done him. 

He has filled Italy with difeourfes of thy eruelties» 
He affirms, that haying tried all ways to make him ar 
Turk, feeifig neither prefents nor promHes could per- 
fuade him, thou haft made him fuffer the moft cruel tor» 
mcnts a man can undergo \ and that being laid faft a«^ 
fleep, by a potion which thou caufedft him to take, thou- 
haft made him be eaftrated. The weapons he bears to- 
rid himfelf of thee wiH ftrike thee withoat noife^ fo 
that thou needeft be much on thy guard. He hides that 
which is to do thy bufmefs in a little prayer-book. Re*' 
venge, which does ufually make men induftrious, has put 
him upoD concealing in this manual, a Httk poifoned 
fteel dart, which is enclofed with fuch great art in the - 
leather that covers it, that it Ì4 (hot thence as from a 
bow, and ftrikes with fuch violence and fwiftnels, that 
the ftroke cannot be avoided, nor fcarcely felt by him that 
receives it, it caufing not one drop of blood to follow^ 
nor wound to be feen; fo delicately tempered is the mortal 
weapon» that the maa doea uiiaToidably die whom it hits.. 


I do not doubt but this revengeful fplrit w3l cunning- 
ly conceal himfelf, fo that it will be hard to difcover 
him. But having had this advice» it belongs to thee to 
take care of tkyfelf ; and in the mean time» corred th» 
cruel and fevere temper of thine. Thpu commanded a 
galley manned with flaves, who live at thy charge ; thou 
reckoneft amongft thy riches three hundred ChniBans» 
who drefs thy gardens, and ferve thee at lea ; ama thoa 
haft never remembered, tibcy are men which may fave or 
take away thy life ; and that ranging the fea& as thou 
doily it is pofiible thou mayeft meet with the fame fbr«« 
tune, and be miade a flave -thyfelf. Thou haft never con* 
ildered, that death is more fupportable than flavery ; and 
that thofe that defpiie theif own lives^ are m^ftera of 
thine. God preferve, thee, and incline thine heart to ufo 
gently thy flaveSf who are fo ufeful to thee« Follow my 
advice ; thou haft three hundred enemies in thy houfe, 
do what in Uiee lies to gain their love. X<earn this of a 
famous Roman, who made his flaves, born sp hi^ houfe* 
to be ii^urfed with the fame, milk his children, were^ If 
thou art not for fucK an induìgence, at leaft. ceafe to ht 
cruelf otherwife thou wilt be more a flave than thofe 
that ferve thee. If thou wilt not fpare thefe people ia* 
l9ve to therai pity their condition» and fpare them in love: 
to thyfelf; wheseby thou wilt live in fo great tranquillity^ 
as canaot be imagined.. The hcdy Frojph/et. gu«MFd thee, 
from the danger threatened thee, and deftroy ibi» nifli> 
ChtiitiàQ who would aiTaiffinats thee* 

Paris, zSth of the 3d Mood, of the Year 1537,. ' 

Book III. A SPY AT PARIS. 183 

VI. — To the Invincible Visier Ai^h^ at the Camp before 

JL HERB are variout difcourfes here of the Grand Seig- 
nior's warlike preparations; and it is common for people to 
confound here, the ancient Babylon with Sufa and Bag- 
dad ; but this is no great matter. It is certain all the 
infìdels wiihes are in thy favour ; for they defire to fee 
thee conqueror, not only of Babylon, but all the eaft ; 
that Amurath may be the longer in his return to Greece, 
and choofc a place far diftant from the feat of his em- 
pire. It is difcourfed in this court, as if the invincible 
faltan carries along with him to this war, four hundred 
thoufaiid foot, an hundred and fifty thoufand horfe, and 
two hundred bafla's ; and moreover, twelve princes tri- 
butary to the Porte. It is alfo faid Bagdad is a place 
not to be won by force ; that a river, the fwifteft in the 
world, runs through the midft of it ; and that the place 
has an hundred gates of brafs, and its walls, which are 
very high, be defended by three hundred pieces of can- 
non ; that the Perfian forces are great enough to tire out 
the Ottoman army, and that the example of Cha Ab- 
bas, father to the Sophy who now reigns over the Per- 
Ihms, will increafe their valour and obftinacy, to fuffer 
the greateft extremities, rather than to think of a fur. 
render. The rafh refolution of this King Abbas, in the 
laft fiege of this great city, is fo cried up and magnified 
here, that fcarce is there any room left for the praifes of 
Amurath. This prince's pafRng and repaffing more than 
once in a bark, in the fight of two hundred thoufand 
Turks, to advertife, in perfon, the befieged of the con- 
dition of affairs, and to give them a frefh courage, aflur- 
ing them, they fhould be foon fuccoured, and having at 
the feme tfmc about him wherewith to hinder him from 


falling alive or dead Into the hands of his enemies, was 
an adlioa which they think is ahove all eulogiums, and 
appears to them greater than Hory could ever pars^Uel. 
It is faid| that this king carried in his hark two great 
Hones faftened to one and the fame cord, to put them on 
hi^ neck to fink himfelf into the river, which was of an 
unfathomable depth» in cafe he was difcovered. To which 
they add, that Amurath, who can never have his fill o£ 
blood, wiU recompenfe thy fervices in the fame manner 
he did thy predeceffor's. 

Thefe infidels hold, moreover, other difcourfcs whic& 
are very impertinent, confounding fuch things as are true 
with falfe ; as they do the juilice and liberality of the 
generous and ever invincible fultan, with the cruelty and 
avarice wherewith they reproach him. It k faid like» 
wife, that the fcquins which he diftributed the day whete- 
on he was proclaimed emperor, were not by one half 
of the value which was^ fet upon them : That he cauftd 
Mehemct, BafTa of Cairo, to be flrangled, for no other 
reafon, but to become mafter of his wealth. It is far- 
ther added, that this prince haying had advice that s 
galley was taken, having feventy-five confiderable officer» 
belonging to the Porte on board, whilil he was diverting 
himfelf in a pleafure-houfe, at the entrance into Afia; he 
faid, by way of jefl, " Let's drink the health of thefc 
ftout blades." It is, moreover, faid, that having givea 
his word, and promifed a fecurc paffage to the brave 
Facardine, an Arabian prince, he caufed him to be 
ilabbed in a thoufand places in his fight. But what do not 
they fay of his deflroying the mufti, and Cyril the Greek 
patriarch ? In fine, they fet forth Amurath as a facrilc- 
gious wretch, that defpifes his own religion, an heretic». 
and enemy to our holy Prophet. They relate the parti- 
culars of Cyril'» death, which makes me doubt there be 

Book III. A SPY AT PARIS* 1 8; 

traitors at the Porte, who advertife the infidels of the 
moft Tecret matters which pafs there. Some fay his ekv 
quence rendered him fufpeded to Amurath ; and that he 
faid thefe words, when he was led to the CaiUe of Se- 
ven Towers, " Could I fpeak but once to our great pm*- 
peror, he would be forced to loi^e me, or repent." And 
it is fafd, that having voyaged into England, he had 
learned magic there. Many people believed, he would 
introduce novelties in religion ; and, for this end, held 
&n€t correfpondences with the Latinized monks ; and it 
is known here, that, when his fentence was pronounced» 
he faid, •* He would rife again to torment the emperor, 
and perplex his afiairs." The French having blamed 
what I now mentioned, do extremely praife the modera- 
tion of Amurath, when he took the Perfian fpy, who 
(fid into his camp in Turkifii habit, and crowded amongil 
the true faithful ; for he carefled him, and fent him back 
with rich preients. They alfo admire the patience of this 
prince, in only condemning to the galleys the thirty In- 
dian pflgrims, who occafioned his fall from his horfe in 
the capital city of his kingdom ; for the horfe was af*> 
frighted at the apparel of thefe men, and the ftrange à* 
gure they made, when they threw themfelves on the 
ground to beg money of him ; but they at the fame time 
charge this emperor with brutifhnefs, for killing with his 
own hand immediately the horfe that threw Kim down. 

The difcourfes ©f this nature, however injurious* they 
are, be not of great importance. But, if I be not mif- 
taken, there is fomething carrying on againft us with the 
republic of Venice. I obferve its ambaflador, fince the 
lofs we have had of fifteen galleys at Valentia, has fre- 
quent and fecret conferences with the King and CanJinal 
de Richlieu. As it is not doubted but that the Ottoman 
empire will be revenged for fo deep an injury, fa it is alfe- 


jmjgeA th{it tile Venetiafis wUl «& tkeir utmoft endea'^ 
vours to uake iota a confederacy the ChriAian pnnces ; 
a«d k ia to be fesured» left they take the time when the 
CBifieror is employed in the fiege of Babylo» to form 
fonte entcrpiifc, or put thcmfekes into a conditioiy where- 
in they caoAot be attacked. I (hall careMty obfisrve all 
the motioxifi of the Venetian ambaf&dor ^ and, if need 
requires, difpatch an exprefs mefTenger to the Kaiaia- 
cham. I adore thy grandeur, buried in the èaik of thy 

Faris, lotk of the 4th M«on, of tke Tear 1639. 

VII. — To the fame. 

k H» courier not parting till thr morrow, I n»he vie of 
thia AoFt time to write again tf^ thee. Bnfac» as I have 
ah^ady given adviee, ^as takm by the Jbrciea of Fvaiicft 
and SwèdeUmd ; and the Duke of Weymar, who con»-'- 
manda the amy, braga, that being become maftcr tif thia 
place» which has alwaya been beficged in vain, he fhall 
take feveral others, there being nivifi which henee&vward 
can reiift hkn. 

The Marefchsad de Bs^nier, one of tbe generals of the- 
Swedish armies, wearied out the Iinperialifts in Pontenu 
nia with continual alarms. He took Gratz, a confider- 
able place, and has beatelo Galas, one of the Emperor of 
Germany's generals : but Fortune having changed her 
countenance, has favoured the emperor againft the troops 
of the Palatine, who is taken prifoner, with Prince Ru- 
pert his brother, having been like to be drowned in the 
river of Wezer, whereinto he was drawn in his coach by 
fa» horfes, who took fright at the noife of the cannon :. 
and thefe unfortunsU:e princes have loft on this occailon^ 

Book III. ▲ 8FT AT VABlfi. 1 87 

with tl*cir libeity» .wbale^Bcr was moA precJoos u them. 
The Swedes ^ave, in the mean time, iiicrea:Ced their 
flrengtìì by the coDJun&ioii of new troops : They make 
frequent inoirfions 011 the Impenaliiis ; and it is thought 
this war will laft a eonfideraUe time, by the great prepa^ - 
rations which are noade on all hands» and efpecially by 
the French, to whom it fbesis impoitaot that it fhould 
n«t end. fpeediiy. -_ 

Theire is news from Italy» that a difcoveiy has been 
made is Piedmoat of new cabals of the princei of the 
Hottfe of Savoy, who deBgned ta^ pfnt by the dutchf fs 
hma her regency» and make themfelTes mailers of the 
govemnient during the misarity of the young duke. 
There is a cardioal of this name, an anabltious man, a 
great loret of wu*» aod give& to hbcrality. He would 
fain have the chief fbare id the gOTemmcni, and be raai^* 
of hit nephew^ jbrtune« This caidinal lay cosce aUd ìa 
the ftate of Genoa, being c^hed in a« habit little be- 
cÌMBung Us charaiéier, and whence be £snt hia orders- for 
tkc c^cecvtsQii of whatever he had concerted wxth.his par* 
tloana ; but the confpkaey got wind, asid profved a. bloody 
tragedy to his accomplices. It is laid, that this prince 
ImTing twice difguifed himfelf in the habit of a peafant, 
had entered with a bag of fruit on his back into one of 
the moil confiderable towns in Piedmont, to give by his 
prefence more heat to his party ; and that, with a great- 
er boldnefs, he had entered into Turin in the habit of a 
capuchin, with a long thick beard, and abode there two 
days ; not with dciign of ridding himfelf of the prince, 
or his mother, but to become mailer both of the one and 
the other, to govern the ftate alone. But the confpiracy 
having been difcovered, and the accomplices feiiped, four- 
fcore of them were put to death by the common hang* 
man $ and he efcaped by a new flratagem. A fecretar]^ 


of ftate of SftToy xsto be reckoned amongft this number. ' 
Another cardinal, who commands the army of France, 
fent to the ailiilance of the Buke and Dutche&> had alfa 
put to death the governor of Cazal, accufed of treafoo, 
though he was not fully conviéied of h. 

It IS written from Rome, that two ambafladors froar 
the King of Hungary, who is lately elefted Emperor of 
Germany, had made a magnificent entrance into that' 
great city, clad after the Hungarian manner with vefta^ 
called here a la harhurefque $ that they had above anhon- 
dred horle> whofe hamefs were of gold and their (hoea^ 
of iilver ; and it was efpecially obferved, that all the fo^ 
reign miniflers in that court had fent their retinue to ac* 
company them in their entrance, that it might appear 
more magnificent ; and that thefe two ambafTadors of the 
new emperor being arrived in the prefence of the Infideli^ 
Mufti, whom they call the Pope, they told him their 
prince would continue to render him the obedience which 
his Father Ferdinand, now deceafed, paid him ; and that 
be reconusended to his holinefs his perfon, his houfe, and 
his ftate, as a new emperor, ele£led by the fufiirages of 
the Princes Elediors of the Empire» 

Obferve, magnanimous vifier i the authority of thi» 
mufti. Thofc who are fo audacious a» to refill the muf- 
fttlmans, will yet abafe themfekes at his feet, which they 
really k-ifs before they open their mouths to fpeak to him* 
The greateft Chjiftian princes arc wont to choofe from 
amongft the nioft confidetable perfon s of their ftate, the 
ambafladors wbich they fend with great expence to pay 
their homage Xo this fupreme head of their church. 
Moreover, thefe ambafladors of the new Ca&far have af-^ 
fured the pope, as from him, that he will never ceafe to 
make war with the enemies of the Chriftian faith ; and 
it is faid they received this anfwer ; 


« That he ever rcTpeAcd tlie IKmg of Hmigary, the 
late cle6led emperor, as hit foa, to whom he wooU iie« 
▼er be wanting in coonlid^ mad all other nccei&ry aCft- 
^mces ; and exhorted him to employ fait «idoiioiit aims 
agalnil the enemi^ of the crolt ; and that, on hts fidc^ 
he would em^y the fncconrs of hit prayen, that die 
chupch flionld open her tieafbresy hy gianting indidges- 
4:e8 ; and that he would, hefide this, give f applies of 
men and money.*' 

People, who ait idle, amufe thcmfdvet with difcoarfcs 
.on fntore events ; and thofe that confak the ftan to pe- 
netrate into what is to come, have made a maniage be- 
tween the dauphin of France, a prince bom fisme months 
^ce, and the In&nta of Spaio, lately come into the 
woild. It is true, that at the moment this princefs law 
the liglit, the King of Spain, and the grandees of the 
iungdom, tried who (hould outdo one another in feaft* 
ingSy to foleranize this birth : And the like was done in 
France for that of the dauphin, both being accompanied 
yjrfih ext;xaordinary luagnificence, and prodigious liberali- 

The Catholic King has given the quality of grandee 
jto the Dttke of Modena, who vras godfather to the 
Infanta, and has declared him generaliffimo of the foui 
feas, mìùk a penfion of twenty thonfand fequins of gold. 
He has, moreover, made magnificent presents to the 
dutcheis his wife, efteemed at an hundred thoufand 
crowns ; and, befides, made knights of the Order of St. 
James, fevend gentlemen of this prince's court. 

The Eleélor of Brandenburgh has alfo given fevend 
/jplendid entertainments in his houfe and ftate, for the 
marriage confummated with the Duke of Saxony's fon ; 
and, whilft I am writing,^ I am told there is a fon bom 
to the King of Hungary, now Emperor of Germany. 



But whilft thefe rejoicings are in fevcral parts of Europe, 
•n unforeieen tempeft has ruined whole countries ib Get- 
fniny. The dafnage done thereby in Francotim, and 
near Frankfort, h incredible ; and it lacked but little, 
but thiB fame Kmg of Hungary, now mentioned, being 
at the hunting of a boar, had been Ham through a whiii- 
yfvmày which having pulled up a great oak by the roots, 
of prodigious grc^tftefs, it fcU fo near this prince, that 
he received fome flight hurt by a branch of it. 

I pray Heavens, that ail the wiMom of onr holy Pro- 
phet, and the bleffing of the Great God, he ?dways upon 
thee, and in thee, and ever augment thy ftrength and 
good fortune, to the ruin of thefe Perfian heretics, whofe 
country I hope will be fubje£ted by thy fword to our 
dread emperor. 

Paris, loth of the 4th Moon, of the Year 1639. 

VIII.-i-To Bedrhdin, Superior of the Dervtfes in the 
Convent of Cogny^ in Natòlia, 

L Hou att happy in livmg long and holily too. I can- 
not choofc butrefleA with regret on thy great age, confi- 
dering how infirm I am. After fifteen days illiicfs, my 
ftrength quite failed aste, fo that necdfixated I was to 
look out for a f^yfician ; for I carniot eafily commit my- 
fdf to the hands of thofe of t^s country, who kill foch 
as truft them, ki the fame manner as if they were their 
enemfts* When I difcourfe thcf« daflors about the ftate 
of my healthy they tdl me I anm in immiiieni danger, mtA 
that my cure is haaandous. in writing tims, think not I 
rave, for I fpeak the pii« troth. They wffl cenainly 
kifl me Ihotdd I ^diibov^r to them under what ckmaee I 

Book IIL ▲ 8F7 AT ?ARIS. ~ I91 

-Was born, tirbereas if I tdl thon I am of Moldavia thtfy 
may ciwace to^ do me good ; though that countiy air is 
i/try different 'from that of Arabia, where I firft drew niy 
breath. To how many miferies is the life of man fu^« 
jeéi» elpeeiaSy mine, when I cannot Q>eak ^e truth, 
though k be to ùlvc my life ? Pray for me, holy dcr- 
vife ; and if you hear no more from me, belieTc Mahmut 
is dead. Pardon hioewife the offences I have given thee, 
which yet bare been agoinff my wilL Adieu I We fh^ 
fee one another in God, with God, and in the bofom of 

Pari», nth *f the jTth Moon, of the Year 1639. 

IX.— To OucouHicHi, hh Mothery at Scios, 

x ARDOM me, my dear mother, {£ I write kfi to thee : 
Pardon me, moreover, if I have not written to thee, to 
pay thee the marks of my duty whilft I was in my heakh ; 
and let me feek after thee, when, perhaps, in feeking for 
ne, thou wilt no knger £nd me, I aip ready to die. Af- 
fli^ not thyfelf if God calls me to him ; though I am a* 
mofigft infidels, yet death holds his empire here as in 
other places. The worft news I can tell thee is, tfatft 
commonly thofe who defire to lite longefb are foaireff t»- 
ken away ; and I am not afhamed to tell thee, I am one 
of that number. I cannot willingly, as yet, leave this 
lower worlds O wAappy tife ! O UHWsdeome dcathi 
What apprdienfions have I not ! And with vrhat terrors 
am I not ftruck, fince I have lived among the Chriftians 1 
They preadi agaiaft our Akoraii,.aad wc dedEotA agoifift 
their Gofpd : They affirm, that Mahomet was a great 
impoftor ; and we wcrfliip him. They believe they only 



know the truth ; and that they be the only ùlnts, the 
eled and chofen of God. What then will become of 
u<h if we be wedded to errors» and. oar Alcoran be only 
. a parcel of lies ì 

I have neither good nor bad news of thee, no more 
than of thy new fpoufe. God grant the merry Greek 
. thou art married to have the vices of thy firil hufband» 
my father. Thou knoweft my meaning. He called 
kimfelf vicious, becauiie he hated the virtues of the vul* 
gan ' 

I thank thee not for my life ; for that is what thou 
lead thoughteH of when thou becameft big with me. But 
if thou cxpe£left fome recompenfe for fuckling me at thy 
own breafts, expe£l only words of thanks frona a poor' 
(lave, who poffeifes nothing. Love and hate all the time 
of thy life ; this is the greateft inheritance thou canil 
expeé): from a fon who is juft a-dying. Engrave thefe 
words in thy hearty " Love ever what is honeft, and 
hate always v4iat is contrary to it." Thus will thefe 
different pafiions be fettled on their proper obje^. 

If my brother Peftcli be ftiU abVe, give him my love 
with an innocent kifs, and a touch in the hand. Our 
great Prophet proteéi and fuilain thy age with the ftaff 
of Mount Liban, and obtain for thee from the mercy of 
the Mod High, that thou mayed enjoy thy fenfes to the 
laft hour of thy life. Adieu. 

Paris, xzth of the 5th Moon, of the year 1639. 

X. — To Pest ELI Ha li, hu Brother. life is near its end» I therefore, with a& 
imaginable eagemefs, write to thee, in the third place, 
although indeed thou holdeft the firftia my heart. We 

Book III. A SPT AT P4&IS. 193 

fliaU fee one another, dear Peftcli, in that world where 
every one receivet according to his ^e^erts* When I ar- 
rived in this great town, I waa aftoniihed at the con£«« 
fion I met there, but I received no other hurt. Although 
. the weather be very inconftant, yet the air is good, and 
proviiions wholefome and agreeable to the tafle ; the wa- 
ter of the Seine is fweet and clear ; the men are good 
company, and the women have done me no harm ; the 
king has not ill uied me. Cardinal RicUieii, his chief 
minifter, does not hinder me from living after my ami 
fafliion. Oar great emperor is not difylei^d with me, 
yet my diftemper is impetuons ; a fad faintnefe has felxed 
my heart, and I begin to Ml into fuch a languiflttng con- 
dition as matkes me Mpftir of heakh. If thou ftiU con- 
ferveft any alfedVion for me, read this letter with ooaU 
paffion. Forg^ the ill offices I may have done thee ; 
and if I parted without dtfcovering to thee the occafion» 
give God thanks for the ability he has given me of fa- 
crificing the tendemefs which I have for fo good a bro- 
ther to^the obedience which I owe to the emperor's com- 

Onr mother will fahite thee as from me, in giving thee 
a ktfs ; recetre it as coming from me. Keep thy gravi- 
ty, and be honeft in * Afia as well as Europe ; and, rf 
thou goeft to Africa, fttffier not thyfdf to be corrupted 
by iH exampks. It is not without tears I write thee 
this letter. But ktment not if I die, neither rejoice if I 
efcape ; for I (hall be thereby no lefs mortal ; and that 
tribute which I do not pay te-^ay, we both flitfU pay, 
with idl other men, on a certain time. Prepare to paft 
willingly ; fludy more how thou (halt' die than hew thou 
(halt live ; and if éhou wouldft liv« till thou art old, live 
ÒM if ihou wert to die when thon art young. 

The 'Great God preferve thee in the f>erfed ufe of thy 
FoL I. I 


underilanding, and guide thee into all troth ; and if thou 
défir«fl to be the beft captain and commander in the 
world, learn to conquer thyfelf. Adieu. 
Paris, itth of the 5th Moon, of the Year 1639. 

XL — To Dgnet Oglou. 

i^HOVLD I teU thee I am in health, I fhall write an un* 
truth ; for I am really out of order, and expe6l a fit of 
fickneby which I wiih it were in my • power to avoid, 
though it may prove (hort and mortal. An he^^ic fever 
puts me ^ft in mind, how frail and brittle a thing it 
man ; and that he. ought in multiplicity of bufinefe, in 
times of pro^rity as well as adverfity, to think of dif- 
lodging hence. The bread I eat has no reliih ; folitude 
appears difmal to me, and company wearies me ; for I 
cannot attend to what's 4ifcourfed, and yet I do not like 
they {hould fay nothing; there's nothing pleafes me but 
drink, yet all the fea will not quench my thirft. I am 
leftlefs in bed, and find myfelf more tired thereby than if 
I fat up i ^and that which I loved yefterdayl hate to*day. 
Thou knowtft how I loved books ; this humour is quite 
changed. If the fun fhincj» into my chamber, I as foon 
ihut my windows, being not able to endure it ; and hav- 
ing remained a minute in obfcurity, I am impatient for the 
L'ght. Paris, where one may fay ftrangerscome from all 
-parts, to fee the varieties and diveriions there to be met 
with, appears to me now an hofpital of fools : I long for 
nothing more than Conilantinople, and to be with my 
friends» imagining I (hall find eafe in their company. 
And this is the unhappy condition of thy friend, with- 
out hope of feeing any more turbans and mulTulHuns. 
I loath as much the fight pf an ignorant phyfician, as 

Book Ili. A srr at paris. 195 

the Emperor Sever as did a corrupt judge ; and I look 
on a little ralet that ferves me as a neceffary evil. Yet I 
would a little divert thee» maugre the illnefs which hat 
feized me. It is not above ùx months fincc I entertain^ 
ed this enemy in my houfcy which is a ^French valet, who 
makes himfelf a fool, ot 2l pigmy's flature, yet a giant 
in roguery ; he is clad like the Graces, being half naked* 
and wears buikins like the poetical divinities ; his ordina- 
ry function is to fweep every day my chamber, which 
yet is as nafty as Augeas^s liable : When I am awake he 
U aileep» and he is always awake when I am afleep. For 
this thirteen years that he has feen the light, he can« 
not remember he has been two hours without eating y 
when he eats not openly and before folks, left he (hould 
ihame me, he will yet be fure to keep his chaps a-going 
on fomething in comers. When I went abroad I was 
forced to foUow him ; and now that I keep my bed, it is 
hard to judge which of us two is the mafter, for he ne« 
ver parts with his hat froQi his head. He is more ready 
to pull off my clothes than to put them on ; which makes 
me chiefly careful of him at fuch times that he leaves me 
not ftark naked. He is» moreover, a politician as much 
as any Florentine; when he is to do any good office he falls 
into the Spanifh pace, but to perfed a bad one, he is as 
nimble as Caeiar was in the quickeft of his expeditions ; 
whence it is that I am a debtor to my own arm and 
hand for the fervice I draw from him, being like certain 
drugs which never yield an odour till weU beaten. As 
to his religion, a man would imagine he held the me- 
tempfychofis, fo care&Uy does he preferve the lice that 
eat him, left in kXing them he ad contrary to the precepts 
of Pythagoras. He is moreover, befides, an irrecoficileable 
eneipy to all nèatnefs, to water and to truth ; and he is 
more ftinking than à fynagogue, drunker than a SwifSf 

I 2 

Iptf LETÌ1ERS \)rilIT¥t]t BT VoL t. 

and a gneatcr Har than an oracle. Ifi the mean time taf 
ifln^s increafes> and tmj do!Mftic ^nemy k fo well, dmt 
he Afluredly iiraits my death to liv% nidore honoumbly on 
my fpoiia* I differ much this day from what I was yef- 
tcrday, and I know not whether I (hall not to-morrow 
go to my long home. Pray the Immortal for me, and 
vemember we were once in flavery together. Shoiild I 
dcape, I (haH have the joy of ne^Her feeing thee in the 
ha condition I am ; and if I cannot efcape death at this 
time, I fhaH have the fatisfa^ion of filtering it before 
thee. However, believe I do not defpair, though I much 
^omplain. I ceafe writing to thee, but I will never ceafe 
loving thee. Mahmut cirf)race« thee in this country of 
inJItdels, having thee dways in his heart, and praying for 
tiret continnaBy. 

Paris, xith of the 4th Moon, of the Year 1639. ' 

XII. — 7<>/i&tf Kaimacham. 

X KE King of t'rance has a dwarf called Ofmin, bom in 
a village of the Morea, and carried away in his infaney 
into Italy by pirates. He was bought by a Spanifli lord, 
who afterwards made a prcferit of him to this king, with 
fach a bonne grac^^ as entitles magnificence to the fmalleft 
things, after the manner of that nation. The Spaniard 
having prefented his dwarf, faid no taore, the dvrarf 
making this following difcourfe. 

** Sir, I am a Chriftian, although my parents be Turks. 
If thou willingly receiveft me for thy flave, I receive thee 
yet more willingly for my mafter, being a juft and mer- 
ciful prince : But I am obliged to tell thee, if thou vnlt 
behave thyfelf like a mafter, whofe Bberality is guided 
by prudence, thou wilt never do me any hurt, nor ever do 

Book HI- A SfY 4.T FARIS. I97 

m« mj great goo^» Sii^ldfl thou give me opportuni» 
ticft of acqqin^g riches^ an4 tbrow open the gate of ho- 
soiu» t9 wc, I ihall V^preVy, perhaps» grpw vicious amd 
sufQlent* Jkftow ooJ? Qne thiag qn me».whkh will not 
^e aftcmrarik in thy power to t^ke away ; give r^c good 
cducatiofi, and let a sjaan of kaming take the charge of 
me s by whiclv na<ana I ibaU be revenged of nature» ia 
making me but an atom of a man ^ and perhapa make thy 
comtiers one day repent of their prefent laughter at me," 

Qfmin hag behaved himfelf fb well, and gained fucb 
credit by the fubtilty of his wit, and readinefs of hid an*- 
fwer^y that he i^ at prefent one of the court's choice& 
entertainments, and the fcourge of debauched people. 
Coming one day to divert and comfort me in my iOnefs, 
he tpld me, that being in private difcourfe with one of 
^ women belonging to a lady of the firft rank* he wa9 
fuTCcd t^ €oiic«al himfelf ^eedily behind the hanging!^ 
tfi prevent being furprifed iath^ dutn^eTj^^h^rt this hiijr' 
vnespeéUdiy ^tered with the Venetian sM&baflador, wh^ 
•tdinarily refides in thk court, aad where he heard tbf 
following difcourfc from this mirafter'g own mouth. 

*^ Madam, I fhaU willingly difcover to you, now that 
Hre are alone» the intentions of the republic I ferve, touch- 
ing the Turkifli aSaIrs, provided you promife me to da 
me two difléreat good tunts^ It is abfolutely neceffary 
we noake war wkh thefe barbarians, before they declare 
ti againd us. The Ottoman family is like the mathemi^ 
tocal compafs, which enlarges itfelf the more it is ppefled» 
You are not to be informed of the famous viàory gained 
by our General Capello, who has led in triumph all the 
galleys of Afric ; but thoi^h Amurath be emjdoyed oa 
the frooticrt of Perita, in the fiege of a msA important 
place, yet doea he already threateo to be revenged £mp 
tltf defeat of the& baibailutt. The a^ftifteia of thff 

» 3 


Porte do alfo prefs him to ihow his refentment ; and we 
certainly know, by fecret relations from the Torkifli 
tamp, lying before Babylon, that the Grand Signior hasi 
faid in full council, that he will himfelf throw the firft 
fire-ball into our arfenal. That, Madam, which lies in 
' your power is, to perfuade the king to engage in the 
common caufe ; and for this end make up a peace with 
his enemies, that he may join his naval forces with oars. 
On the other hand, wc could wifti you would offer the 
contrary to Cardinal Richlieu ; becaufe this minifter 
ufually flighting women's counfels, will come to our pur- 
pofe through his obftinate humour of contradiding you : 
And I do not doubt but this artifice will fucceed, if thou 
perfuade him the king is refolved iiot to give us any 
aflillance. . There runs a report as if our bailo has been 
laid hold on at Conftantinople,, and retained prifoner in 
the Caftle of Seven Towers, by the order of the KaiiAa- 
chatti. And it is added, that the Grand Signior offers a 
peace to the Perfians, to return fpeedily into Europe, 
that having no diverflon on that fide, he may turn all hit 
forces againft the republic, 

" The pope promifes much, and we need not fear but 
he Will keep his word, being the perfon moft fnterefted 
in our affairs. He will fumifh money, join his galleys to 
thofe of the republic, and moreover fend us feveral ftout 
men. The King of Spain promifes us forty galleys, with 
all neceffaries, together with fifty veffels of war. The 
Great Duke of Tufcany will aflift us with eight veffels 
well fet out, and fvs. galleys well armed. The King of 
Poland promifes to fend into the infidels Country an ar- 
my of fifty thoufand Coffacks ; and others (hall eruife 
about the Levantine feas with their brigantines, and cfpc- 
cially thè Archipelago. As to what ref^6U the repub- 
lic, the chief families in Venice have akeady proffimd to 


fct out) and entertain at their own charge» a vefTel till 
the war be ended ; and all the great caftles and towns on 
the firm land, freely offer to fiimiih the republic with fif- 
ty thoufand ducats a-month. This kingdom, which is fo 
full of men, amongli which there are fo many good offi- 
cers, which are rich in money, and at^prefent fo confi- 
derabk at fea, muft not only not trouble fo noble and 
neceilary a projeé^, in continuing a war with Spain, but 
alfo gives its alfiftance, by fupplies of men, money, and 
▼effels. If you can. Madam, oblige the king to enter 
into this league, you will merit an everlafting remem- 
bmnce, and have an hundred thoufand crowns, which lie 
ready for you at Venice, to be paid wheu and where you 

** This is God's caufe, the occafion is favourable, and 
all things feem in a readinefs. You may immortalize 
your name, and with your beauty, your credit, and elo- 
quence, give good grounds of hope to Chriftendom of* 
foccefs, by obtaining the afliftance of the moil puiilant. 
of the Chrifiian monarchs.*' 

This is what the dwarf heard, and what he entrufted 

me with fince. Were I in a condition, illafbrious Kaima- 

cham, to relate particularly the life of Ofinin, I am per^ 

fuaded thou wouldeft give entire credit to the difcourfe: 

. he made me* 

Ofmin is bom a Turk, he loves me dearly, and has a. 
certain fympathy with me s which obliges him to feek 
me often, and entruft me with all the adventures of hit- 
fife, treating me not only as a friend, but living with me 
as if I were his brother. 

There being fome days fince I languifiied in bed, tor- 
mented with a diflemper, which at its beginning threat- 
ened me with vexatious confequences, and which caufes- 
i^e to droop and languifh, thou wilt pardon me if I rea* 

» 4 



ftìa not mìxh on an adventure fp esstraordifiaiy. Should 
God reftorc me to my bcdtb, I ihall iovhU mj care and 
diligence in obferving the meafuret of tbls court. Order 
by thy prudence and valour, that the prep^irations of 
thefe infìdeU ag^ainft the formidable mooarchy of the true 
believers may vanifh into iJmoke : And the Oreat Sove* 
reign of the lower and upper world grant thee perfed 
healtb» which is fought in vaia by his Highne&'s flave» 
and thy fervant Mahmut. 

Paris, lath of the 4th Moon, of die Year 1639. 

XII I. — To Is CUF, hù JGnfman, 

INoTviTMSTANiiitfo fl»y weaknefs* I fi^ee myfelf to 
write tbee this ktteri to thee wiih whom I am eagagcd 
by intereft as veU as by blood* My diftemper lies & 
heavy upon me* that th^re rcmm» o«ly ibe time to fpeak 
two words of devc^ioo to tbee, . lipuf» thou bught^ft 
towards the end of the moon in May to go to Mecea t 
carry me along with thee» though I sun at t^s diftanpe. 
I estreat thee, when thou fliak arrive with the caravan 
of pilgrims ^ the mount of Ararat» to offer there a fa- 
orifice in ray name ; immolate a flieep in commemoration 
of Abraham ; and if thou arriveft in health at the holy 
Mofque, and in full ftrength» offer devoutly my prayers 
to our great Prophet. I sJk not honours of Mahomet 
no more than riches : I oidy beg tlat Heaves would n« 
flore me what I have loff ; it is health I dcfire, whereby 
I may ferve our great emperor, and live more holy than 
I have done. But b^fdre thy departure, diflribute a 
good dole to the poor ; and if thou wantefl money, go 
and find Dgnet Oglou, borrow of him in my name feveà 
hundred and fifty afpers, which tl»>u (halt intmcdCatelf 
deal out to thofe that have moft need. 

Book III. ▲ snr AT rAitn. mi 

Thou knewcA how greatly the worii» of «ktrky «rt 
vccomm^ndcd to ua : They multiply the beiiediéUoas of 
Heaven» and iocreafe oar wealth. I neither do nor cas 
do thif in the tnfideU country | thou knoiireft my ioabSa- 
ty» fpeedi y fuceour me in the oeoefficy I an of ioing 
good, and let nothing hinder thee» no argunneafc of gooi 
hufbandry nor fuperiiition. If thou aegtc& my {Mnay^ 
the (hame of tha fault will lie aft thy <jk>Of ; and thoa 
alone fliall bear the iniquity, ii thom esecute& not the 
trm of a dyin^ noan» «fpedally hftviag the power* I foi^ 
got what I had of greaited hnpectanoe to teU thee» aoi 
v^ich i& the moft ho}y» and aimed at to obtain with thf 
greateft earneftnefs ; endeavour to get for wmì 9k K^tk 
pione of the cloth wfaeeewitb tiif temple of Mecca i» 
enery year bung» and whkh the pilgrims tear in piepff 
to have each of the» n part i and fend aa foon aa thoil 
canft thia holy rebc in a little filver box to Carcooi ai 
Vienna, who will t^ care \ receive it* If thou beeft n 
good mu^lbloian» gw^ ipeedy help to a diiciple of the 
fiuae law ; and if ibou bctft a feal hin&nan» affift Mv 
fare mc> and, take wk ihcc my defence when neceifary» 
i embrace thee wi^h s^ll my heart aod ftlength| an4 
though I belkve myfqlf very near death» yet I wiA thif 
long and happy U{e, 

Paris, rtth of the 4A Mo«n,^ t&e Year i€j9- 


XIV.'— To the Inwuiòle Yisi^K Azem» at Confiantìnopù*^ 

Jlf thou beeft the feme that coniinsoded the army of th« 
true believera before Sabyloa^ \ write to thee withoul 
congvaitdating thy relurre^oo. The people at Pari% 
hafe kiHed thee by their difco^upfea,. becaufe they wifiie^ 
thf 4»th|.iiid k m pftmtty &idiboii woa ft»i^e4 by 
a »5 


fùut mutes. But if I write to another, raHed fco the 
chief dignity of the empire, I pray the great God, who 
4wll one day judge all men, that he will long continue 
thee in Amurath's fervice, ever happy, and always at« 
fended with viiftory ; and give thee better fortune thait 
«U the other vifiers who have governed in the vaft empire 
4>f the mulTulmans. 

I 'have been fick during the fpace of eighteen moons, 
and my health is not yet fully reftored : I have lived sdl 
that time in continual expedtation of death, and fo many 
odd things have happened in my ficknefa, that I (hould 
fall into it again (houldft thou oblige me to make the re« 
citai of them. 

The charity of the Chriftian dervifes has been very 
great towards me, having negleded nothing which might 
be anywifc ferviceable to my happy departure. The 
graveft of them have often attended me with difcourfes 
of the immortality of the foul, of heU, their purgatory, 
paradife, and the merits and indulgences of the church. 
Several phyficians have come to fee me, and ufed their 
utmoft Hcill to keep me alive, and imagine I owe my life 
to them 5 but if it be fo, they have paid- themfelves for 
their care, by drawing fo much blood out of me, having, 
I think, quite emptied my veins, to refift, faid they, the" 
feveral diftempers which affaulted me, and to take from 
me the Turkifh fever which I nourifhed ; for I afluredly 
brought it from Conftantinople. 

The greatcft fin I committed during the courfe of ft 
long a ficknefs, was the pretending to confefs myfelf to 
ft captab dervife, as the Chriftians do in the principal 
fcafts, and when they are ready to die. I ufed this cere- 
mony but once, and I do not think I have committed fa* 
crilege, for- 1 have told no truth ; and if I may fpeak 
freely tP th^e, invinwble, Vificr^ hear what » pleafant pe« 

B&ok in. A srr at pajos. aoj 

amce was enjoined me for an imaginary crime of which 
I accufed my(elf. I confefled I hindered, by an apolo- 
gy I had made» a Mahometan from embracing the hiw 
of Jefns } and the derrife (aid to me in a paffion» ** You- 
are not then a catholic ?" *< I am (anfwered I) ; and on^ 
ly difliiaded this barbarian oii account I had obferved it 
fHdom happened» that a Turk who changed his hiw 
clone to a good end ; smd that thofe who ceafed to be 
muiTulmanty.feldom prove .any other but bad Chriftians.'* 
*^ Your reafoniflg is alfo as falle (replied fliarply the monk) 
as the deiign ypu have had is bad ; for you never ought 
to hinder any thing whic^ is good, for the fear you may- 
have that in the end it may ceafe to be fo ; and I en- 
join you for penance, to fcrape out with fuch exaeincr» 
all the charaélefB of your apology, that there remain no 
duuck of it, fo that the paper become as dean and £iir as 
if there had been nothing written, that fo black and 
deteftabk a difcourfe be entirely de&ced, by the pains- 
you ihall take to hinder the remaining, of any trace or 
oiark : After which, you ihall pray to God as long as 
you live, that he would deilroy the teasple at Mecca, fo 
famous by the impieties committed there, and enlighten* 
the eyes of the blind Mahometans.'' But I am oonftrain«< 
cd to flop here, being fo feeUe and indifpofed, thiA L 
have not the ftrength tawrite that I am now^ recovering»> 
The MaxB which has made Germany tremble, Lmean the^ 
Duke of Weymar, is, in fine, dead», at thirty-fix years o(t 
age, and buried in the &me field .wherein he gathered his 
laft laurels, that is to fay, at Brifac. I (haH diftinéàly in<^- 
fon» the Kaimacham of whatever has happened during, 
my ficknefsythat I may not give thee the- trouble to read* 
tile relation of feveral adventures which have been al« 
ntady puUiflied ig the world, whilft thou art employed^ 
in the great affairs of the empire* At fbon as I am abk^ 



I fliaB» U peliUe, do wMt gicater dil^occ xht oftetr 
of my f4ace, aad k«iic«forward ponétually advertìfe tbco 
of thf cabals, intrigues» aaH dcfigas of tht Naaaveaef» 
that thou Bfiayeft not foe unpvovided againft alt che fiU 
tenpis of the tnfidela. 

I entreat the Being of beings to aecompaay thy iiff 
with all the happinefa thou canft defire on earth» ami 
that thou mayeft never undertake any thing for the goni 
of the empif e and ka religion without fuceeds» 

Paris, 15th of the xo^h Nloon, of the Year 1640. 

imkU iju.1 ijiji U Tg^qpFFsgwi mm jiii à\ .h ^ \n > ay=g^tipgg a > uiMè »r - 

XV, — To the Eaimacram^ 

1 MOV wert but little miftafcea when thou thoughtcft I 
was dead. I have been fo b^ ar the grave» that I OMqr 
have received ^Dor of thy letterp wi^eut being aèk to 
read them ; fo far was I from the power of aaiweriog 
them. I have b^en fick a whole year and iu mootba» 
out Af the oommevce of the living, and without r^om» 
i«g amy ooniblai»oii from any oaei. daaiidooed to phyfioA 
a«d bcGome the prey of the phyfieiMu^ ancl in (hor%» o«( 
of hope of ever secorering ; bui ti» d^y where» I 4Ml 
W be judged u not yet come 3 I om» ia fine, ftilt sdvrf^ 
and (^aSL foon» 1 hope, be weM again, if thoD» to oyer* 
wbeki ane» chargeft not say king mabdy ae a «rime itpoa 
AM, aad fttfpfdeft me oftot guilty of iafidsUty» 

I hawe ioformed myfclf» withn thefe few d%y4 of fen 
vend events wUeh have ha^peqfd duxtiig the conrfe of 
i^ral mooas, whieh I ihaU relate to. thee if I €»a ift 
this letter,, to make amends for thf time I h^Mfe loft» bui 
IB fo £bw wordft as wiE occafioft thee to think I fun ftflL- 
flck \ 4»r which dio» Muift BOt Uwno vm^ Itìdm |Im» 
; bieviif • 

Book in. * ASRATTAtB. afe; 

Fnuwe, àmi^ the tiaie I birr not wnt to thee, Ims 
gifcn me marks of its powvr and policy. Four plaect 
bi«e beiBa b«fi^d mi the year 1^99, who£e fuccofs Ihii« 
not bee* e^«al Tkt French hare met wtth diladva»* 
tage be£ore Thionvilk» by the valour and condii^ mi -Fi* 
eplemìm, one cf tàe emperor's g^aerals, who was bom 
in Italy» and brought up from a ch^ in the tnuU of 
anus, it it ifid hs li«i attacked and vanquifhod his oiof- 
tcr*a cnemks tvitk fnch fpeed, that one may compaec h» 
aéìion with that oÌ Claudius Nero» whea he defeated 
A^dnibal» who had entered Italy; he has broken the 
enemy's army» footed die hov£e, took the cannon» kiSaé 
the French general» and immediately rasfied the fiegc 
but in revenge, the fame French who were beaten befonr 
ThfOfrrille» hame made thea&Mves maftevsN of Heden^ 
Sm«Mi and dai£e» whkh laft was taken by die young 
Brinoe of Conde » who gi«es the marks of an extraoydi» 
nary valour ; but the Spaiùards have letaken thefe fdacee», 
vMch have coA them dear. It is (aid that the governor 
left hfy the Prince «rf Conde thore» being prefled by the 
Spaniards to furrender the place» threw out to them mt 
hot white loaf» ^yiiig» ** That tholie who eat of this 
bread would uot fufronder themfekes before the enemÌAS 
come to the time wherein they might eat ict.'* 

Yet the place was funrcndered befom the fpri >g time 
was-oome to change the face of ^e earth ) fo far we«r 
they from holding out t^l it was oovered with iee* - ^ 

This king immediately i^pealed the infturveetioDS whick 
were made in NonoMKidy. But what mk thou fay of 
Cafimir» the JSong of Polaad'i brother» wha being rc« 
tamed a fecònd time into France alone and dilguifed»^ ' 
was diicovered and carried priibner to the caftle in the 
wood of Yismi^imt ^t9$ Farliy where he is cacefuU/' 
Ijo^dJ ^^ 

2«d LETTSM WAinXM Bt VoL lA 

The war has been very crael in Italy between the 
three parties, who are extremdy animated agaiaft ome 
another. Prince Thomas, of the Houfe of SaVoy, drove . 
out by furprife the French irom Turin ; but thou wilt 
foon underiland that our capital enemies, the Spaniards, 
have been beaten and entirely defeated' imder Caaal, by * 
the Count Harcourt, of the Houfe of Lorrain. 

The Spaniards and Dutch have made a great noife in . 
the oceap with their fleets ; the former came with four- 
fcore veiTels of war, to land fifteen thoufand men ia. 
Flanders ^ but having been met by Van Tromp» a com^^ 
mander of great courage and experience, there was a. 
bloody battle fought, which lafted long, but at length, 
ended in*the defeat of the Spaniards. 

The Dutch have taken thirteen fhips, and above twenty 
of them have been driven by bad wither on the coafts 
of Engknd^ where they are lod, and eight others have, 
had the good fortune to get intp Dunkirk* 

The viiilory of the Dutch is complete, having loft but. 
one ihip ia the wh<^ engagement,, againft Co puiflant aa. 
enemy,, and whofe fubje^is they were formeriy. 

Bear with me, illuftrious and happy Kaimacham, vrant-- 
ing ftrength to continue on writing, though it were the., 
vi^ories of Amur 8th which I were to relate. • 

I fhall make known to thee, on the firil opportunity,, 
whatever ihall come to my knowle^e.' In the meaa^ 
time, the. Creator of all things direct, thee in all thy ways^^^ 
aadpro4>er all tby undertakings* 

Paris, xsthof the lotk Moon,, of the Y«ar 1640.. 

XVL— TV DoNET Oqlou. 

I AM in a manner raifed from the dead by reading thy 
letter i there if not a line or fyllaUe, but ihows the markr 


of a true bearti and a tender and ]%al fympathy^ with mj 
condiuon { I pray Heaven, we may do nothing, either of 
us» to leflen this affeé^ion. 

Thou informeft me in thy letter of the departure of Ifouf 
for Mecca : I give thèe a thoufand thanks for the money 
thou haft given him, for the offering of a facrifice in my 
name on the facred mountain, and to diftribute here be- 
low the alms which I enjoined him. I admire thy botm* 
ty, and the charitable care thou haft had of the falvation 
of thy Biend Mahmut, in fending one of our devotees to 
Medina, to go the pilgrimage and fay prayers for me* 
In a word, I fee thy kindnefs makes thee forefee and 
provide againft all my wants. There is no place or time 
where I receive not the marks of thy favour. 

Seeing I am fo dear to thee, and loving thee fo great» 
ly as I do, let not diftance of place, poverty, difgrace» 
imprifonment, or any other misfortune, extinguifli, or fa 
much as damp our mutual affeétion. 

I have, in a manner, ftole the time I write to thee ; 
for I have nothing which is truly mine, and I make 
thee a prefent>of a thing which I owed the Kaimacham,c 
for whom I ought to employ more time in writing. But 
let us lay afide all thefe troublefome a£&drs, and entertain- 
one another with an entire confidence and faniiliarity.. 
Thou wanteft not wit, employ it in the ftudy of hiftory,, 
after fufficient inftrudiion in the matters which. con« 
cem religion. If thou wilt be a prince among other* 
men, feparate thyfdf from the crowd, by thy applica-^ 
tion to good authors ; read much, yet read little ; read 
ever good books, there being few of them, and thus thou, 
wilt read much. If thou canft attain to the knowledge 
of whatfoever is known of men, thou wilt be a kind of 
god amongft them ; whereas thou wilt be of the number- 
of bet^s if thou failed of acq,uiring the notices thooi 


oughteft to li«ve. I wifli thou wtmldft mina moce iov 
fkj fricod'a fake what pafles in the fevaglio^ in thje di^r 
van, and in the prince's moil Qsci^i councils, to know 
what i« faid t^rc againft mei^ and for ni« i Good and 
fcafonabie adf«c« dMt oftentimes hiadrr much mì&hìtir 
flknd do«s a great deal of good. Pri^ndftiip makes tiio£s 
things which are otliermfe hard, very «afj : ** He that 
ia not rtady/' fay» ao holy man amongft the Chriftiaas, 
^ to fuffer all things, and to k>£& all» and his^ very wiQ 
«oo> for the hke of him that ha lovts» defetvea noli the 
name of a friend*** 

Let us ever forget the wovds, mine and thin« ? Thff 
Ifood fortune ie mine, even as thy difgraces are : if wt 
thus eftahlifh our frteadihip, why may we not, thavglt 
modem Turks, compare ourfelves to thofe ancient Gpccksy. 
who ha^ given fiich glorious marks to the world of theii^ 
frieadfliip i Why may we not he th^ imitator» of Pclo«. 
pidas and Epàminonéas, who eontraéled fo fln<^ as» 
«nion, that nothing coidd change it ì Altliough we were 
ftot honi the fame day, .in the fame climate, and in the 
iame town, as Polyftratus and Hypoclides, who weie 
born in the fame houfe, al the fame hour, and Uiteé al* 
ways together, and fell fiek at the lame time, and kMre4 
equally ; yet let us furpals them in aÌe6lìon. Lov€ we 
one another m<Mpe than T|iefeu« and Pirrithous ; mott 
than Damon and Pithia» ; the fornoer of which eontraél* 
ed in arms» and the other io ftudies, that ftn£l amit^p 
that has rendered them fo recommead«d)k to pofterity* 
Hi thou knoweft any (ecret wherehy to leftopc my appi^ 
ACf which I ha^ loft, fend it me» I ana h^e ^e^ato» 
of a million of mouths, who eat lour timea a>dafy, aaé 
èonfume &teen thoufand oxen- every week, and filtee» 
thoufand other pieces of aaimads, hefidvs mutton, veai^ 
hogs, not to reckon aU forts of fovds, and fruits prodcfo 
€cd tyj the eartb| and the fifhes from the leas and rivers» 


I am forced to dk with huoger with my meM in my 
hands ; and in a town where there is an abnn&mce of aS 
forts of things, I want aQ things. Bread, which is fo 
pkafant to the eye, and fo favoury to the tafte of aU 
other people, is naufeated by me. Wm^ only, becauie 
It is forbidden by our Uw, rejoices the fight of me, and 
ilirs up a defire of drinking. Let me hear oft from thee; 
let thy letters be infirodive, and be levelled agaiaft my 
melancholy temper. The God of Mahomet keep thee 
ever in health, and make thee love me, as thou doft, con* 
timully. • 

Puis, 15th of the 10th Moon, of the Tear 1640. 

XVn. — Tq Aoonai tie Jew^ ai Genoa. 

X »9V 9rt as ]a«y » writing, as iaconfideraUe in thy 
judgment of tJii«gf , Hum haft written to the Gnod 
Vifier, that this repitUic is ^fyAA to join its forces to 
that of Venice, for its aSftancc in' the war againft the 
Porte ; but what ground baft thou for this advice } And 
if the Gfand Vifier fi^idd oblige thee to give a reafom 
for this, how caaft thou fatisfy his curiofity, and hinder 
him from accvfiag thee of great lightnefs ì 

I now received a copy of the letter thou didft write 
to Coailantiaopkf for which I thank thee. It would 
have been better I had received the original ; for I would 
not have feitt it. There is no likelihood that a republic, 
fo defiroiM of eftdbliiUng a peace in her dominiofis, wiA 
difturb her own q«àet for the feivice of a ftate with which 
&e is always at war. 

Had the G«noe£es any canfe of eomplaint agmnft A« 
murath, they would waat neither folcUon, nor arms, nor 
velTels, nor money, to raife enemies againft him. Bui 


at prefent, whilft their affairs are in a full calm, both a-» 
broad and at home, they make (with greater prudence 
than the Venetians) war in the Spanifh Indies with their 
regiftersy and arithmetic ; and they have always the ad- 
vantage in this kind of combat, wherein there is no ex- 
ample they ever loft. Let this nation alone in peace : 
Write rather to the Porte, that the Genoefcs, condemn- 
ed by nature to dwell in the rocks and defart mountains^ 
have found the means of making thefe the moft delicious * 
abodes in Europe. 

Tell the Grand Vifier, that fo many extravagant phi- 
lofophers, who continually fearch for what they will never 
fisd, have at length ihowed, that there is no other place 
where are more perfed chemifts to be found, having con- 
verted into gold almoft all the ftones of their country, 
changed the horror of their defarts into moft pleafant 
gardens ; and the cottages of the aoctent Ligurians are 
transformed into palaces, enriched with marble and por- 
phyry, with fo great magnificence and propriety, that no 
houfes are comparable to theirs. To which thou mayeft 
add, that the inheritance of the pooreft Genoefe does 
at this time much furpafs thofe of their predeceflbrs. 
Show him they have begun to give confiderable fuccours 
to great and puiflant monarchs, by immenfe fums ; and 
that, in fine, in the regifters of particular traders, one 
may fee the names of the greateft monsu-chs on earth, to 
whom they are become creditors. 

Be more careful of what thou writeft for the. future ; 
and when thou giveft advice, fet down what thou know- 
eft without exaggeratings,and be referved in what is 
doubtful : Never write fiilfehoods in thy difpatchcs. Be 
alio never the author of vulgar rumours, and ftories made 
by people at leifure, who abound with extravagancies. 

Book m* A SPr AT PAKXS* 21 1 

God hdp thy anderftaBding, and heal thy diftempers» if 
thoa haft any. 

Paris, xoth of the nth Moon, of the Year 1640. 

XVUL—To the Kaimacham. 


X HE Chnftians are become magicians ; or, to fpeak 
better, the Spaniards who make war in Piedmont, have 
filled the world with aftonifhment by aa extraordinary 
and new inchantment. I wrote to thee, there were two 
great armies before Turing one to take it, and the other 
to fuccour it ; but I have not yet made known to theCf 
that the cannon of the Spaniards are become couriers, 
who carry their difpatches in the air into the beiieged 
cities, and moreover ammunition, powder, faltpetre, 
and money ; a marvellous invention, which fills me with 
admiration in writing it. There is a man in the camp 
of General Leganez, who makes brafs bullets fo artifi- 
daliy, that having (hot them into the ditch of the place, 
they have for a long time fuccoured the befieged. It is 
iaid, that being made in a vice, and hollowed within, 
they have ferved for two ufes, to convey into Turin 
what was wanting, and to bring back into the Spaniards 
camp the things they moft needed. But this induftry 
proved in the end ufelefs ; for after feveral confiiéU, Tu- 
rin has fallen again into the hands of King Lewis, who 
ha» therein re-eftabHfhed the Dutchefs of Savoy, to the 
great fatis&éUon of her people, who have thereupon 
ffaowed the figns of the greateft joy. This re-efl^ibliih* 
meni is owing to the valour and condud of Count Har- 
court, who has fuftained and repelled the afiaults of two 
armies ftronger in number than his own. This captain 
has made bis name as famou$ in Italy, as were heretofore. 

2It LEXTW* WlltWk BT Vol t 

Aofe ^ the haroct of Rome wA Atlieiis^ Thft Man- 
quls of Leganez undertook the fiege of Cm»I» «Q. im* 
portant place belonging to the Duke of Mantua, fituat- 
ed on the famous river of Po in Italy» Count Harcourt 
not being able with all his army to put fuceours into the 
place» he took the party of forcing bimfolf the befieged» 
entering on horfeback into the lines with his fword in 
las hand, where he was followed by feme of hia gentle» 
men. The Spaniards being furprifed and aftonilhed» 
§(mad BO fiifiety but in retreat, which they made difor* 
éerly ; and the French, under fuch a captain, bore awaj 
^at day the greateft and mofi glorious Tidory they crcf 
won in Italy. 

If thou requireft an account of me of what has paffe^ 
in Oermany, I can tell thee, that the war has been car^ 
ned 4xa there this year with equal fuccefs and lofies to both 
parties, to whom fortune hai been fometimea ftYonrablrt. 
and other whiles contrary» 

But 1 am informed there is a defign of making a gpreat 
aftmbly at Cologne, to re-eftablifli a peace between idt 
the Chriftian princes ; and that the ISang of France ha» 
named for his plenipotentiary there, the Cardinal Julio» 
Masarim, an Italian by nation, a man of great parts and- 
^perience m bufinefs. 

Prince Cafimir is fet at liberty, at the entreaty of the 
King of Poland, his brother, and has been fioce well re-^ 
ceived by the king, who made him dtne at his table, and 
prefented him with a rich diamond. The town of Arraa 
which the French have taken in the Spani(h Netherw 
lands is of great importance, and Is a coniiderable lo& 
to the Catholic king, and wìH give great reputation to» 
bis enemies, that have taken the place in the fight of a 
great army, commanded by the Cardinal In£u)t, govev» 
aor oftkc Low Ckmatries; n^ucb conqueft has oH^htilf 

Book HL A 8Pr at rAiixs« ^13 

fauftdthe French cDU]*agei aod imrreabd the gloiy o{ 
fthetr prince. 

The queen is brought^ttD-bed of a feoond ion, who 
was bom the zia of September» and he is named the 
Duke oF Anjoa* 

The Speniardi are «a unfortntate on the fea^ as^ at 
land. Their fleet, which returned from the Weft In- 
dk»f richly laden with commodities of aU forts, have 
been moft of diem di^ifed hf the French nand araqr* 
ocnanai^ed by the Duke oF Breze. The Spaniard! 
tmly fooght with much ^vJouf» but fifteen thou&nd of 
^neir own wefe ihiin, and two bundled taken pnfoaei!», 
together with five great veffds richly laden. One of thc«r 
^rest gidleons. was burnt ; and it is faid the other ihips^ 
were faved, having firil thrown the beft part of their 
lading Dverboardy which they had brOHght with fach 
£reat care and pains from the other world. 

That which has pafied on the ocean, has not hindered 
the archbishop of Bourdeaux from (bowing the ftrength 
of the king his nrafter on the Mediterranean, where <hei 
has fought an occafion of fighting the Spaniards with a 
lighter army, confifting for die moft part of galleys. He 
had fent a defiance to the Duke de Farrandinc, general 
of the Spat)i(h galleys ; who being unwilling to accept 
4)f the challenge, this prelate advanced towards the coaft 
of Naj^eff, where he did fome mifchief. 

One may fay, that the misfortunes of Ph3ip, King of 
Spain, are as great tliis year as his power is. But it is 
find, thefe lofies are not comparable to what he is threat- 
ened with, if Portugal and Catalonia fhake off the yoke 
of his domination, as the common report runs. 

I have heard much talk in general on . thefe confider- 
8^1e aflfairs, without being, however, informed of any 
eertain particulars. But henceforward, whai I fhaH be 

914 LETTElfl WRimir BT VoL I. 

Me to leave my chamber, to go into the churches» walks, 
and gardens» about the city and the court, I (hall let no- 
thing pals without a ftrift inquiry» and give a faithfid ac- 
count of whaterer deferves thy notice ; and (houldeft thou 
deiire any particular thing of thy flave Mahmut» it is but 
mentioning it» and thou fhalt not want an exa& and 
humble anfwer. 

It makes me tremble in teUing thee» that a report 
runs, here of the death of the invincible prop of the 
world» the mighty of mi^hties ; in fine» of the glorious 
Amurath. It is falfe news» I hope» yet however aflfert- 
ed with great confidence. The Arbiter of heaven and 
earth confound all our enemies» and give the Grand Sig« 
nior» and thyfelf» a life which knows no end» and attended 
With a happinefs which cannot be increafed. 

Puis, 7di of the lad Moon, of the Year 1640. 

XIX.-— 70 Dgnit Oglou. 

X HB lovely Greek» after'whom thou inquireft fo eameft- 
ly» is long fince retired into France» and has been mar- 
ried eighty moons to a great French merchant» vfàth 
whom I am not acquainted; but am informed is very 
rich» and fortunate in his dealings ; but infinitely mora 
fortunate in being the hu(band of Daria Lena Maani» by 
whom he has feveral fine children. 

This diarming Greek does now profefs the Roman 
religion» which is the only fault I find in her. I never 
knew woman whofe whole carriage is fo graceful» who 
does all things with fuch a carelefs exadncfs» and whofe 
virtue is lefs morofe. Merc chance brought me acquaint- 
ed with her 5 whom I no fooncr faw, but I was ftruck 
with admiration^. She came to Paris the lail year to fo^ 

Book III. A srr at paris. 2x5 

licit a lawfuit agunft a ftranger about ao cftate. It was 
at court» and in the prefence of the king himfelf» that I 

.firft law Daria: She fpakc to him fo fweetlyf that (he 
foon obtained what (he deiired ; and at the fame inftant» 
I felt fuch inexpreflible paffiont and longings after her 
acquaintance.— -Suffer me, my dear Dgnct, to tell thee» 
that never any creature made fuch deepjmpreffions in the 
heart of a sum» as this charming Greek did in mine. 

I drew near to her as foon as I could. I fpake to her 
in her own language» teUiag her I was an Arabian ; and 
(he anfwered me with as great modefty as benignity. I 
went the day following to give her a viiit in her own 
lodgings; where this adorable perfon received me with 
the greateft civility, not florbidding me a return ; being 
pleafed» perhaps» to meet with one that could fpeak her 

'own language» which is very rare in thefe parts. 

Since then I could not for my life forget her : I have 
ferved her with the greateil dihgence» and fo doated on 
her» that I foi^ot myfelf and thee» and» if I may dare to 
fay fo» the Grand Signior too. Pardon this infidelity on 

' the account of a paflion which knows no moderation, 
being not able to withftand the force of fo invincible an 

Daria is young» of a generous temper» and in whofe whole 
deportment there is no grace wanting. Her virtue is faf 
above Lucretia's ; for this Roman lady killed herfelf^ 
having firft endured. the violences of a tyrant ; whereas 
ihe would die before (he would come to fuch a trial. If 
you have feen her at Conftantinople you muft have known 
her perfe^ons. i» for my pan» who only knew her at 
Paris» have remarked four beauties in her perfon» which 
I bdieve are not to be fmad in any of thofe ladies kept 
in the feraglio. Her eyes, her mouth» her teeth» and 
her hands» feem to have been made only to furm'fii the 

^1$ LETT&RS sfSirmm by * Vel^}• 

^od^ of le^ with dftn«» Sht k §Qtt to fti&e "wher^'llie ' 
vriU with h«r fine black eyes fi]A i>f fire $ ahd'^fiie hsfr ^. 
fo the fecret of hading the wo«nid file nrnket» vihtti fin» 
pleafes. As loon as ever (he opeiis her mouth, the three 
graces are fieen to fit fporting in her cottntcaanee ; and 
her body 9 moreover, is fo proportioffed in aM its parts, 
that had (he lived in the time of Phidias, he had cettain- 
ly taken her for the model oÌ his Venus» wUch was the ' 
admiration of all the world. 

I have plied this fair Greek with vtfiis, loved her even 
to idolatry $ my refpcft has been eter ^^aal to her vii^ 
tne ; and the greateft favorir I obtained frofm her was to 
fu£fer me thus to fpeak to her: " I love yoa, Dam^ 
Baria, I adore you ;^* but (he would never fuffcr theksft 
exprefiion which might miake her imdci^a&d smy thifig 

This incompsrable beauty often f»d to mei << Mah- 
imit, I have a great refpeA for you, becaufe you art 
difcteet and virtuous, and Ihould alfo love thee» wert thou 
not a man. Live on (till as thou haft doae, and thou 
wilt thereby oblige me to refpeft thee yet «Sore ; but think 
sot to obtain from Daria any more than an kmoceot sf- 
fedUon ; I owe all to my hufband, and I will never be 
unfaithful to him.'' If I ever attempted to firntch any 
fmall favour, ft wa« always in vain, having ever repelled 
me in fuch a manner as made me lofe all hope, and, «t 
the fame time, feel a new increafe of paEffioa. Confider, 
dear Oglou, what pafied then in my heart, and what a 
•war I was to fuftain. 

In my great inquietudes, and -(harpeft and cruefieft 

pains, philofophy fuppBed ^e' with no other reaiedids 

hut patience : She fet before ^e the ^estsimples of the 

efteem which the ancients had for pudicity ; bu| (he hiu* 

'dered me not from alfo remembering, tbat We fiad kx hi* 

Book IH. A avr AT paris. . ai; 

ftoiy «dmoft all the phflofophers snore tranfported with 
▼enereal pteafurcs» than retained by any precept of wif- 
donu .Diogenes and Ariilotle» became they not fo<^i 
hereby ? And Seneca, whofe morals arc the rules of the 
wifeft» was he not driven out of Rome for his adulteries ì 
I tell thee plainly» the precepts of philofophy have infiuv 
enced me not a whit ; I derided them, and was refolve4 
to love on» and that more exceflively than all the philq- 
fophers together. Daria's foft feverity has laid on me 
ftronger laws than all the dogmas of the Stoicks ; fo that 
nothing' can make me change my refolution of loving her 
eternally. If it be true that love is a weakqefti, only 
men, who are noble creatures, are thereunto fubjeél ; it 
being certaiù that mean fouls cannot love, becaufe they 
liave no heart. ** Nature's original is far higher than 
reafon ;" one is the work of God, whereas the other 
comes from man. Be not then aftoniihedf if Reafoa 
does (b oft yield to Nature. 

Daria had a mind to learn Italian, which (he thought 
a better language than others. I taught her a great 
deal of it in a little time ; but bufinefs quickly deprived 
an unhappy mailer of the moft perfed of fcholara. .She 
faid once to me, ** Mahmut, let us have a perpetual ami- 
ty for one another, but let us love and efleem Virtue far 
before Friendfhip. Teach me Hiftory and Geography, 
to the end, that knowing kingdoms, towns and provin- 
ces, and thofe that govern them, I may know into how 
many parts this earth, which appears fo admirable, is di- 
vided ; I may now learn the forces, methods of govern- 
ment, manners, religions of nations, the difference of feas 
and of mountains, of lakes and rivers, of i^ihabited places, 
iflands and deferts, that I may not confound the barba- 
rous wit]| the civilized nations, and republics with mo- 

220 LETTERS WAItT£H BT ' ¥èi.iÌL 

times» and in all places, never any body loved fo mucli. 
I have difcovered to thee my whole hearD^^excufe my 
pailion, if thou wilt, not exòufe thy friend fo horribly 
tormented with it ; and remember what the beautiM 
Roxahna (aid to the great Solyman» ** That the plea- 
sure of commanding, and^ making one's felfobeyed, is 
to be reckoned but in the fecond faqk of \pl<arurcs ; 
. «whereas that of loving, and beii^g 'beloved, is the firft." 

Henry IV. was one of the greateft kings of France, 
than whom no man ever more greatly loved. When he 
reproached the Duke dc Biron with the love he had for 
A lady, mark what this cavalier told him : *' Great King, 
how is it pofiible thou (houldft not be indulgent to lovers, 
who haft fo often faid when thou waft in love, thou .fbr- 
«gotteft thyfclf, thy kingdom, and thy fubjeéls V* And 
.this, dear Oglou, is what has happened to me at I^iris, 
-with this admirable perfon, whom thou couldft not find 
at Conftantinople. But alas ! I fhould be an unhappy 
friend, if with fuch a love as mine I flioald ptx)tc *fhy 
rival. I will not imagine, it ; yet Imuft tell thee, th«t 
.rather than yield thee Daria, I will fàcrifìce to thee all 
the time I have to livfe. I have given my pidure to this 
charming Greek, who hais received it very còurteo>^y, 
yet rather as the work of an excellent painter than the 
.,pi6lure.of -a lover. • * 

But being full of goodnefs, and perfeAly difcreet, fke 
faid thus. to me when I gave it her: ** Mahnrnt, thank 
Heaven thou art not handforoe ; fuch fort xs£ men have 
not ordinarily aU the fucceJOTes they pristehd to in their, 
amours. -Wife bdies think th^fe kind of ip^ple doii| loo 
much on themfelves ; and thofe that are difdainful; find 
them not fubmiftive enough and refpeólfid; and fuch as 
fear evil tongues^ dare not look on them ; and alfo thofe 
gentlemen imagine ladies favours are grante'd them be- 


BoéklII. . Al $f^ 'AT vAms. 2Si 

dMeitfaèy. cannai withftaod tbem, and they expeft often- 
times to b%mtrìeated to receive them : whereas thofe to 
whom ITatut* haa jiot been fo libera of her favours, do- . 
more than barely love ; they adore their miftrefles, they 
are always humble, and know how to gain the <:oye{l 
èeauty by tlieir rcfpedfuhiefs. As to thy part, who art 
jione of the faireft, thou wilt be happy if thou changefl . 
not thy manner of living with me." 

It is impoffible for me to fay whether Daria has any 
confiderable imperfedion, being too greatly prepoffeffed'^ 
by my paiBon,- to difcover defers in a perfon whom I 
regard as an angel. Time and her promiles will one day 
Glow me, whether ihe has the vices ufual to thofe of her 
naticHi» which arc commonly an infidelity covered over with' 
the moft fpecious pretences, and a continued diilimula- 

. However, fend me a calk of the white balm of Mec-^ 
cai and of the beft fort for fcent thou canil get ; and at 
the fame time fend me alfo fomc of that precious eaftern- 
wood, wbofe fccnt is admirable' to perfume the body. 1 
have promifed ' the fair Daria this prefent ; let me foòn 
havcit^ to the end I may accuftom Daria to the neatnefs 
and delicacies of the Mahometans. Preferve alfo thy 
health r and^ if thou envieU me, love as much as I do ; 
Uut love with continency, if thou wilt love long^ and be 
long beioved. 

The Great God preferve thee from loving, however, fo 
, c^^cffively as thy friend Mahmut does ; the dolors being 
therein always certain, and the fruition uncertain. 

Paris, lOth of the xd Moon, ò£ the Year 1641. 


XX.— To the IpvineibU Visibr Az«||< 

1 HE Chiau» arrived here this fame moon in which I 
write to thee, and is in perf ed health » with all his at- 

I do not tell thee in what manner he wa» received by ^ 
the people at Paris, it being of fmall importance, feeing 
they have no other part in the government of the king- 
dom than that of obeying. 

Th^ populace curioufly obferved bis habi^, his beard» 
and his gait» all as extraordinary. It is certain (lovio* 
cible Leader oThis Armies, in whom God has placed h» 
authority of governing the earth), our envoys ar^ not 
cftecmed wherever they come, unlcfs amongft th^ moft 
rational and honed part of mankind, which are alwaya 
the Icaft number* 

Not only the common fort ru» to fe« our am]>a0ador$, 
for the veftmcnts they wear, to which their eyca arc npt 
aiccuftomftd, but even confidqr^ble peribns hsive the £uae 
curiofity* Some fikntly approve ; others lift Up their 
banda to note their aftaniifa^ent f and others, by an ia« 
folent murmur, difcover their contempt, not underftantf- 
ing the juftice due to ftrangers, whofe manners and 
fa(hions ought never to be Uam^d ; it being impoflibte 
but whole nations mud have good reafons for thekr eul^ 
toma and pradtices iince fo many ages. 

But he was not thus received at Court, where the king 
and his minidersdo all things with great prudence ; being 
refpcéled as a man that brought good news, and fcnt by 
the greateft and mofl puiffant emperor in the world. As 
to the fubjed of his coming, every body fpeaks divcHly* 
The minifters of foreign princes arc fearful left the new 
fultan fhould attempt the entire ruin of Chriftendom, and 

prove more terrible than Amurath. . In thè me^ time, 
this l^eatl^^ ^efpk ^ow im»x4ible joy at-thf hurnù;^ 
of the Imperial city of Conftantinople, But the klp^g 
tias nd part in the fe^tini/^i^s of Ms (ubje&. . 

Macy f?iy \h^ the King of I^e^ Heads will renew the 
war with the empire» and ' is perf^uukd tQ- this by thje 
Gr^at l4ogul i aadj there ai% fonie who affirm he has al* 
ive^dy lai4 (ì^^ tQ Babylpn* But thofc who fpeak with 
more fenfe, and Icfs hatred,' affirm^ that all th© Porte's 
enenues are like reeds expofed to the wind» which will 
be q^j ovorthjTQwn^ if the French take sot p^ with 
tkem I .^md ^ is t)^e fp% oi this nation (wh9 believes 
isrkyL lupenior to all pthers, and the sM-biter of the 
world) to think too well of herfelf, becaufe fhe is refpeifir 
cd as a friend to the faithfi^l niuflulm^ns» 

The Jews (Invincible Vifier, Principal Minifter of the^- 
l&mpam, hPRmMè'ef Ood), are the ew^deft race ef afi^ 
nations ; the Chriftians accufed them of having fet Con- 
ftantinople on fire ; and greatly praifed the Greeks for 
^omrbifig it, to whi^h| iay tUey» lb«y h^nre ^o l^s con^ 
tf^utfdbj thjaif H^ds ^h^ by- the fervqncy .^f th^if' 
prf y^er^ ; ^i tb»t Meav^n hs^d pi^iiarvfd it ùqvo, a tQU4 
r&in, hecJiu^K -of the fs^rtd reli^ of fo naany Chciftif^t^ 
wbofe bodies lie buried, in <Mir ipofiiues» ^ 

^ Ttio news which i^oi^es from foreign countrxeSf does 
evfty dfiy denote the di&rder. there is in all parts, ther^ 
b^ipg nothing he^rd from the fide of Sp^in but (eg^ft 
copipkftcies and p«bli« r<vo)«s. 

The pfiopl« 9Ì Gat«l«ni» ar^ ip a <^atin)iM «:QinnMtÌ9a» 
«ad & irritated, that they give no farther quantr to thf? 
Sparàrds ; and fhxn Portogli there come» mQfc f««- 
prifiag news. . ' 

X^ondon is as iMl of dafquiet, new parties ei^ery iky 
forming themfdresjagainft thtir fovei eigs Chark^ mafisr 

K 4 

224 LEttfeUt 'im'Ir^fiN BY VoL Ì. 

of thofc three fo fiimdtrt iflahÀ; iii*ciiéfe^^^t appears, tHat 
the God of the Nbztfrents fc aògVy ^thttìcfbnnbe!ieTmg 
people. • '^ »' V *.r .^ »■ m- .-» - 

I ihall not fail to infoftti <lieè in Aie time of fùcli 
events as deferve thy knowledge ; fBi- if thiiig? do hot 
foon change £heir poftnre, thefe countries,' fdrfakcn of 
Heaven (feeing the true law, eftabfifhed by our pro- 
phet, is not received here), will foon change their maf- 
ters, their manners, and religion. 

I adore, with the profoundeft humiKty, and with my 
head lying at thy invmcible feet, the authority which the 
fultan has entnifted thee with, and which thoti defervéft, 
as well for thy fSdthfiihiefr as the greatnefs of thy ac- 

Pftrlf, aoch of the X ft Moon, of the Year 1^41. 

XXf.— Tip Cara Haly» the Ph^àan^ at Confiantinople^ 

OmcE I received thy letter, and the iharks of thy re- 
membrance, I imagnie myfelf much better. I make two 
teeals a*day. I walk about in the morning, my appetite 
«ncreafes ; I have no more of thofe naufeotrs belches ; I 
can read longer; and I fleep a-nights more foundly: 
Yet I cannot fay I am in petfcél health ; fo long an iff- 
nefs has deprived me of that which I do not fin*d return. 
There is wanring to my intellcdaal faculties a certain kind 
of vivacity and readinefs in their operations, which is 
txtremdy abated \ but I know not whether this be an 
effcÀ of the pain I fuffered, or vsfiether it comes not 
from' sature weakened $ as faft as our life advances to 
throw itfelf, as it were, into the arms of death, wfiich is 
inrhat is moft certain for me. I would wiUingly enteitain 
•thee 00 the Goa4ition wherein I find myfdf, could I 

BopfejIII. ,^,^ A S?Y A;r PARIS- ^ 27$ 

overcome xhcvfiedkmts of my d^pofi^on, and the cold* 
ncffi p( the^ fcafon^ whiph pi«rc€« -m^ maugre all' my care 
to prevent it in this icy climate. The ink I write with 
freeze* on my pen» and a body may fay the fire freezes 
too, srutting, %f ir*doe0) it8 ufudl aékivity, the cold be- 
ing fo (harp that It ertinguMhes the natural heat. The 
city where I dv^eB appears on a fudden transformed into 
cryftal:. the- northern wind- has in one night frozen the 
river ; and aH'tbe fountains which were wont to quench • 
the ^hiril of a nùllion of people, are dried up. All trade 
feein$ to have ceafed ; the rich are retired to thieir fi'res«- 
awd the poor are creeping about the ftrects, where, not- 
withilanding the e^Cercifcs they ufe to oppofc the cold, 
they fecm already ftarved. The bread is become like 
marble or an hard ftòne ; all things are frozen, and an- 
ctent'people af&rm never the like has happened in their 
day«, or in the times of their fathers» There has i>ee(i 
found, fome few miles from Faris, in the great road, two 
men clad in ve^coarfe ftttff, without fhifts, their lege 
naked, heads fhaved, ami cords about their middks dea({' 
with cold: they. were, found embraotng one anotherr». 
thinlpng thereby to communicate mutual heat, to keepr 
off, or at leaJ(l,rctard, .their: deaths- Theic people are. 
dervifcs of the Latin church, which are. called ^rapuchinsr» 
whofe life is a continual/pcnance». They rife, iathe nighir 
to their devotions, and' fpend their time ia contempla^ 
tion. They live, upon alms- which they receive of the 
Ck^iflians, which confift of. bread, and roots and herbs ; 
«id if the charity of the£e Na«arenes extends to thf 
giving any thing more, they ufe it with fobriety. Tkey^ 
fleep on ftraw, and are obliged to wear the habit night' 
and diy, which is dreadful to look on, and in which they 
are buried .when they. ^ie. 'When their occafions require- 
them to travel, they are not permitted to go On horfe««- 

K 5 

1%6 LETTERS WRiftEK BY Vol. I. 

back, la a eoach or chair, but only ia v^ls wHeo th«y 
go by fea, or on rivers, fo that they bave only that grant- 
ed them which Cato was Co afraid of, and every body 
elfc but fools, which is, to travel by li^ater. 

In fine, their life is accounted a continual lìtlì\ and , 
they will be finely choufed if thèy find not a heaven 
when dripped of their mortality. 

Thefe religious are under the dire£ììon of one general ; 
oUerve a long filence, which is a great virtue among 
them, and with this are fo e^adUy obedient to their 
head, diat they have no will left. 

They have very obfcurc prifons under ground* where- - 

into they thruft thofe who fcandalizc their order by their 

crimes; >for, notwithftanding the faolinefs of their rule, 

and the vigilance ^of their fuperiors, to make it obferved, , 

there is never wanting fome who wander from the right 

way,, and often make ufe of Uie efteem winch men have of 

their piety, to commit fiich enorm(tie$ as would be buod- 

ly puaiihed by the men of the wodd. Thefe kind of 

dervifes canaot handle money without being guilty of a 

m<Mrtal fin, Notwiifaftanding this profeffioa of poverty, 

I have feen thefe dervifes dneil up with greater magnifi^ 

ceoce than our mufti, in the time when they celebrate 

their maffes, aCcending up to the great akar, covered 

widi the £»eft linen, and thereon tcIIb embroidered with 

gold, the mod dch'cately wrought as can be imagined, 

and oft enriched with pearls and precious dones. In 

their facrifice tbey eat the confecrated b^ead, which they 

call the Meffias his body, which they are wont to place 

on a plate of fine gold ; and they aifo put into cups of 

the fame metal, a liquor which they £ay ia changed into 

the bbod of their God, as the bread Into the body, as 

ioon as they have pronounced certain words which they 

fccretly ouitter*^ 

Book III. A'Mt>T E^i^lft. .:(37 

, The facrifice is offered «very day» and DOt onix the 
people are pr^fent .^t j|;, bu^.thf gj-eateft of the. kingdom» 
with their monarch on hi» knees» and in a fuppUcatiug pof- 
ture.. Then tù^pd a^ut.|he altar («v^ flk^if Q9ffdk- 
ftjcl^, wberqia bwi» white wax-candles» which readier the 
facrifipe ftill more fblcflin- 

I relate to thee w)iat I have fo often feet) ; fprlc^£b 
to be frequet^y ii^ |hefe in&dels churches, mi «t tiheir 
fbl^Bifi. feiUvals>. t^ better to conceal who I am» 

Yet ha^py is he fi^^t livea.fatis$ed with biiafelf, affur- 
«d hfi ferves Crod in the inanoer be will be. ferY^ 4 Tk9!9i 
b^^ ^\s good fortune» and that of being i^ tbini: hpi^dp 
at thine eafe. Whjsn thou goe& 9m thoa w^r^ft 9 loqg 
veil down to thy heels» Hned with, bh and warm furs» 
whiUl I am ob%ed to (^over my£elf barely with a black 
ihort do^^ which fcarcely reaches below my knees» f^t^ 
is too thin to refift^ t^e |>iercisg northern blafts» and is» 
'uji truth» a very ridiculoias habit f yet which I am oblige 
cd to wear for the. fervice of him whole flave I am, whic^ 
cannot cover my bandy legs and ill«ihaped body. I ex^ 
peS» with great impa^qce» the fcafon which overfpr/eadf 
the gardens with flowers» the fields with ^ais» an4 crowns 
the trees with bloIToms» and brings back the pretty birdsi 
who publiih the joyful news of the ff^nng's approach; 
that being the tjxne whepejn X >nay cxpedl n>y health- 

A» to what remains» thoa wjlt obhge me in m^^ng 
trial of my friendfhip» tlmt thou mayeii j^now there k 
i^t in aU the empire of the true )>elievers» a more fajtbh» 
fui friend» and one that loves thee more cordially* Adieu*.. 

Parìi^ zoth of th<¥ %d Mo^ii, ^i Uie;lC^r tf^i. 

K 6 

M8 LETTBUS y^ffTtiX BY Volk K 

■* XXII. — To /]&e Kaìmacham. 

• 1 H« Court of France i» an aflembly ot politicians^ whd 
difcover or hide themfel'^cs according to their int^eft*^ 
and are more wont to hold their peace than to talk« 
They expkia then^ves in more than one manner on the 
things vhich they t:annot conceal ; and I draw from thenr 
what is aeceilafy br my iniimé^ioB and thy information. 
There have happened fiich itidden and furprìfàng motions 
in Spain 'as cauie confiderable advantages to be hoped for 
by France^ Hfhich feems to have had a great hand ìa 
them, on which thou mayeft make what refleélion» thou 
thiiikeft convenient.' 

The mountains which divide France from Spain arc 
c^ed the Pyrenees. Catalonia is a province watered on 
•ne hand by the Mediterranean Sea, ahd bounded by 
Navarre'^; it lies fituated at* the foot of thefe mountaioi.^ 
The people have taken up arms and vigoroufly oppbfed 
the Catholic Kings's minifters ; and the Portuguefes have 
done the fame thing, but with different fueceib. This 
kingdom is comprifed within the Hates of Spain, and the 
richell under her dominion. Her f^luation is advantage- 
ous, lying between Galicia and Cadile, and watered with, 
the ocean, which brings her inmicnfe riches. 

The principal town of Catalonia k Barcelona ; and 
Lifton is the chief town of Portugal. The firft has ta- 
ken for the pret^mce of its infurreétion, the infokncies 
committed by the Proteftant troops, which fcrvcd the 
Cathdic King, and werie quartered in this province ;,and 
the oÙìtT having long concealed its defign, has at length 
^aken of the Spanici yol^e» and fet up a king of their 
own royal race. 

It U' (aid that Count QUvarezi the King of Spats -s^ 

BiDok I'll. A SPT^AT PARTS. 2Ì^ 

chief miniftei; and fevouritc, dcfigning to mortify the- 
Catalonians, horribly charged that country with foldiers» 
and fent thither the moft licentious troops to quarter, 
imagining .to (shaftife the pride of this people in this man* 
ner, ^thout any form or procef»4 

This minifter's defign has had fo far its end, the pro- 
vince 'being full of divifions and llaughters, there wanting 
nothing to complete their miferies. The fddiers exerctfc 
unheard-of cmclties ; they (hed, indifferently, the blood 
of in&nts, old men and women ; overthrowing akars» 
and ruining te^nples. The moft courageous peafants ga- 
ther together to repel force with force, and revenge 
themfelves moft cruelly on as many of the Caftilians as 
they can light of, without fparing the King's miniftcrs ; 
kiUing^ all they meet, feeking thofe who arc hid, to pu- 
niih them with the greateft rigour ; running after thofe 
who feek their fafety by flight ; not pardoning the very 
priefts, if never fo Kttle fufpcéted. 

The Count of St. Colomme, commanded not long fince 
in Catalonia, with the title of Viceroy ; which poor 
man is now before God, where he receives the recom- 
pences or chaftifemcnts he has deferved, being the firft^ 
vìéUm facrificed to the peafants fury.- His blood was 
the prologue of a difmal- tragedy, which will not end 
without more difmal events to the Spanifh monarchy, and 
the Catalonians themfelves. 

The viceroy withdrew^hirafelf into the arfenal of Bar- 
celona at the firft infurreélion of the peafants, where he 
was befieged by a great multitude of thefe feditious peo» 
pie ; and, feeing he could not remain there in fafety, h'e 
went out to go on board the galleys ; but the groffnefé 
of his body hindering him from haftening as faft as thbft 
who accompanied him in his flight, he remained alone ;' 
and, being tired, fell" into a fweon, and lay dead for-fomc 


tk$c on the bnd between the nxj^s wjiieh lie upon the 
{b9u ìiì» fervnnty the only one thai remained with him^ 
hroi^ht him again to hinifelf by cafting thf ff a-]«rater op 
his fact } but he opened his eyes only to fee his own de- 
parture more nearly. He was fet upon in this condition^ 
whereia he could not ftir himielf» by a crew of blood- 
houadsy who firii (hot at him» and th^n hacked him in 
pieces, having firfl ftabbed him in a thoi^fand places. His 
fervant defended ^im as well as he could, in covering hina 
with his body» but his zeal was fruitlefa i afid ajil the 
wounds he received iav^d not one from his mafter. He 
was an A&ican, and had been his ilave* The c<)urage 
and fidehty of a maa of £o mean birth, deferves at le^il 
that it ftiould be faid of him, that he died in imitating 
the virtue of thofe ancient Romans, which are at thia 
d^y praifed and admired by all the worjd, 

The viceroy's des^ HQpped n^t the peafants ; they 
proceeded to excefTes fcarcejiy imaginable ; and their bar^ 
barity made them commit fuch horrible, together with 
fuch ridiculous a^i^ions, a« can hardly be expreQed* 

Th^fe wretches went to the palace of the Marqiiis d^ 
Ville Franche, general of the galleys, where, having cut 
the throats of as niany as they met with, they burnt and 
battered 9U the hQ«ffebold ftuff^ and carried in proceffioa 
on the top of a pike a little bnifs figure which they 
thought a black angel ; which figure was only that of a 
man, wherein a clock was included, whole ingenious 
^xrings made him move his eyes ; which fight fo furprif- 
ed thefie peafants, who had never feen or heard of fuch a 
machine, that they remained in fuch a iitupidityv as rcr 
tarded for fome time the effeéb of their fury. But \h^e 
v«^ one more bold than the reft, who, approaching tp 
the piece, cried out, << It was th^ familiar fj^rit of t^ 
Marquis de Ville Franfibe» and oj^ght to be feized on and 

Book IIL A S^ AIJ PAKI5Ì- *il 

thrown intQ prjfan to isii^e Awsiy ics power ;'' wliìcivi^ie 
had no foóner feidi, biit h« l^òd handi on It» apd tje4 9Dd 
bound it fiifr on the top of a fpear, and, with great 
fhouU, walked *t pbout tb^ town. The ignorant pea- 
ple» capable of any ridiciiknis impreffionS) as well as thie 
wo^ien, who are not hard to be deluded, followed them» 
convinced that the marquis's devil wa^ carried triumph* 
antly along th^ f^r^ets» Having ran through all the town 
of Barcelona; this rabble gave the clock into the ha^id^ 
of the bifhop and inqiiifitors to exercife it^ and drive out 
the devil, whom they thought capable of deftroying their 
wh<^e province. 

Affarrs are carried pn more ferloufly in Portugal, and at a 
more moderate rate ; the inhabitants of Lifbon, as well as 
the nol^y, have treated the CaftHians with more huma- 
nity : They immediately eleéì^d a ki^g, who reigaa 
peace^y as heir of the Crown, and thereby afcertain»'- 
ed of being mauntaincd by the affefiion and fidelity of 
the ' people. There is already news of his coronptio», 
the cerwiony of whidb was perforoied wkji pomp 
and m^gi^'ficeace. . The pe<>f4e, as a m$i>k of their af/- 
fedion, have prefented a miUjon of gold to thejr a^w. 
lord ; ihe cJergy, fixty thoufaod crowna, »nd the nobili- 
ty fo»r hundred ; and the new king hsus taken on him 
the Bame of John IV* King of Portici, inftead of that 
of Don John Duk( de Eraga^za. 

Never any jJiot be:tter fuceeed^d. The Portugueses 
have driven out from theirt ja puiffanA and politic natiott 
witbout bbpodih^d, faving'that of a viUain ; but of that 
thoo (hét hea* toore the next bpportunity ; for I fha£L 
carc&iHy infojm myfelf of the particulars of fo eactraor* 
dinary aft events -to sj^^e an eXfiÀ account to the y't&tr* 
It it taià ÌSSng PUHp is ths Toaà vafì^rtunabe prbce thai 
ever a&imdfiA the tbroofi, fHUomkting his a&irs to the 

j^anagement of another t fo that -it may, be faid *tìie 
duke» who reigns aa fovereign ia Madrid» has chafef Phj* 
lip IV. for his favourite. The minifter commands, ai?d 
the king obeys; the matter's weakncfs authorifes the fcr- 
▼ant's power ; the confuficm of that nation being fp great, 
that thofe made by Heaven to receive orders, are the oji-, 
ly perfons who ^vc them» 

I kifs the hem of thy garment, with all the fubmiffio^ . 
poflible of a poor and humble flave. 

Paris, loth of the ad Moon, of the Year 1641^ 

XXIIL— Ti» Dgnet Oglou. 

i what purpofe doft thou bewail the ruins which the, 
fire has canfcd in Conftantinople, if there be no remedy, 
for the lofTcs thou haft fuflFered ? Not all the vifters to*, 
gether, nor the prince himfclf, whofe aiithority knows no/ 
bounds, could refift the fury of this- element. What then 
can we do, wretches as we are, -liable to aUinjuries and' 
difgraces ? Art thou the firft honeft man that has been* 
ruined? It is true, Hcaveh had enriched thee: Thy 
chambers .were hung with the fineft Perfian tapeftry ; 
thou hadft a great number of flaves, 6ne gardens and' 
bathing-places befet with delicate fountains ; muft' thou 
defpair for the lofs of the greatcft' part of thefe ? Com- 
fort thyfelf, feeing thou art not in a fault, nor haft con- 
tributed to thine own misfortune Ì 

Thou telleft me, that the burning of the chief city of' 
the univerfe has deprived thee in one day of all the com- 
modities and conveniences thou haft laboured for many 
years : And I anfwer thee, that he whtdi ga^e thee thefe 
goods, er peels thfinks from thee, in that having $nriche4 
the^e with what ihou hadft.noti be did tiot. take from. thie;e/ 
thy life at the fame time. 

BÓokttl. A^YAtiÀRftr 2'f3f 

ftaft thoù fóToon forgotten Scncca'dDemetndsF'rfaW' 
thdii lift any thing ^hìch thou didft not itcelve frorii 
the' h'bcralit/ of fortune ? And if whatever thou hadft * 
was given thee, wherefore doft thou affidi thyfclf as if 
thou couldil not obtain again as much ? Stretch out thy 
hand towards heaven ; pray and befeech : He that has 
given thee once, is not impoverifhed by the liberalities he 
has.fho^ved ; but rather afk of him fpiritual than thèfc 
temporal gifts, wluch do all wither and die. 

If thou lireft, thou wilt fee thyfclf in the fame condì* 
tion again : I cannot give thee a better confolation : I 
will not lament with thee, it feeming to me a fruitlefs 
thing. If thou bccft defirous to forget the loffcs thdu 
haft fofferedy confider the great damages the fame fire has 
caufed to fo many believers in the fame city where 
thou bewa3tft thy misfortunes. How many people that 
had Icfs than thee have loft more ì And how many bet- 
ter people than thyfelf, as more fubmittlng to the will 
of Heaven, have fuffered mifteries infinitely greater than 

So great a conflagration, wherein the chief city of the 
w^rld faw itfelf near reduced to afhes, muft needs have 
been a very difmal fpeélacle. When I read the relation 
which thou haft made me, I tremble with horror to fee 
fo many magnificent houfes and ftately mofques devour- 
ed by the ftames, and reduced to nothing $ with fuch 
riches, goods, honfehold-ftuff, and ineftimable merchan* 
difes, public regifters, and choice mannfcripts, whofe lofs 
can never be repaired, being become the prey, of this ele- 
ment, which' devours all things. But thou and I are not 
the fifft; neith^ fliall be the laft, who bewail the ruins - 
of àùx cotmfry. How many towns in Afia, how many 
ià Greece, fa^ve been fwallowed up in an inftant by 
dreadful eartftipal&es ! And' how many ruins are to be 

^34 XETTEPIS Vì^n!99^ B7 V^ h 

found in the iamouft cities of Sym tnd Maceria ! And 
how many (inaes h^ve the iilis of Cyprus s^n^ Pafdhoa 
, been entirely depopulated I We fee not only |he moft 
iblid edifices perìfh, which are the works of roen^ but 
even mountains annihilated. Th^re sire whol^ coi|n|neft 
which have (as it were) vapi4^; the fe« ha^ c^yefed 
fuch fpaces of land a? mjlgh^ have JP^de whole proviapes, 
and which were, extreme populous* How vp^ny pro- 
montories do we ffK» which were heretofore certain ^uide% 
to pilots» but ^t now binned ui the fafids, ^nd cj^ifa of- 
tentimes (hipwrecks ! Aia4 if the works pf nature ^ 
expofed to fuch grea^ ruins, whs^t m^y n^t ^ort?4 ipfn 
^xpeél t« fuffer ! Bpt I fpend time in rék^iùg ordtpj^ 
^u^idents, when I might remember thee pf greater fWft 
which the fiiw made in |he fame imperi^d sify, aft^ ^ 
had been built by th^ great Cpnfta^tiiM, U wlum ftr 
owed all her fpl^idour» before thf mighty a«d fi»ccef|f^ 
emperors of the mnflulmafis bsid tbereii» e^t4iih«4 the 
feat of their empire. 

Under the reign of the Emperor Leo, if I be not mif> 
tahent tìie whote continent lying along the Bofphorus, 
between both the feas» was entirely ruined by €re. And 
twelve years after, under the reign of Bafil, the £atmous 
library U> carefully coUeAed, and with that extreme 
chiirge and trouble» and which confifted of above two 
hundred tboufand manufcnpts, with the fkin of a fevpeot 
two hundred and twenty fe^ long, whereon were written 
the entire works of Homer, was confumed. The ftre 
which happened in the time of Juftiniaa, might mriu one 
ferget others ; the famous tempk of St. Sophia» whs^ 
k at this day our chief mofque, could not 'be prefimred 
from the fury of the fliunes, being almoft wholly confiim*- 
•d by it. I ihall not mention the ruins which have bap»^ 
^ned by earthquakes under the reign of the Empnur 

BoqJ^ hi. a $^if A»TAUJ^ ^35 

2fCmi X90XÙU Tlure was a far greater under Bazajct II. 
fpT in ?ru9da, aa ehtioe QÀty, with its hpuTea, walls, and 
three thou£i(id inb^UuoUs were buried in the entr^Ss of 
^be earth 1 whioh »uft convince us there have been in 
aH iagcs {ncl^ exeoj^ ^ ^n^y i^ftrii^ u9 to bear our mif- 
fprtunes with patience, and to believe, a, ProTÌdence» and 
fubniit ourlelve^ wholly tQ iu 

Let us (my dear friend) for once rejoice in an ocea* 
iipn wherein all . others mourn ; in that we are ^ble to 
pcrfuadc our^v^s " T^rc i» nqthingf fcerc below defcrvca 
ot^ir caj^." I ig^ not.fiiy.we flipuld laugh like l^^ro» 
when he faw iRome burning, which he himfelf had.^ed« 
4^4 fepg tjw irifeg^ of Ifcjper wheW« the coofl^sra- 
pm 9f TiPJ k d^(crih^d« &4M:l|^r.. d(^ a? ^U^ASiL tifkOL 
Wii^ ùmi f^Hxi th£ flames which devoui^d his ffpun- 
Irjr iumI dbkift» Ui0 Maliebr gp4^ Iw f4(hf r Anch!(eSf hi^ 
twailj wA bmkUt^^^c^fffi. fin hero that li^rved fgr ^ 
esvQflfl Ift pofteti^f 1 'H(fc.4iduot ìj^hì his time in h«^ 
wftfin^ the good9 h^ h^c^ toftt but aln'^y^s kept an u^^ 
dwRtfd Qdur^gfi. m ^ fpidft of the ten^eft wbiclv ' 
thr«nt(eiic(d ti^ ovf rwhv'lvu -him as foon 2|s he W4S pn the 
fea, and which forced him to- wander from pgtt tP .^0X1» 
void of all belpA perfeqitcd by a goddefs, and oth^r gQÌ& 
who wjirc of her party | and having gallantly endufed 
fo Q)any difgracesi h« IxTcame the founder of the br^^veft 
and famou£eil nation of the univerft. ^neas, in laving 
his gods and his («vther, who were the companion» of hi» 
fortune, drew dow^ the grai^es of Hearen» whielf pnt an 
ead to ìo^è miferies» il» fettling him in a country where be; 
laid the firil H^ndalions jof an empire^ which fince has^ 
given laws to all the world. 

Our £uns have kindled the iire at Conftantinople ; the 
debaucheries, impieties, hypocriiies, and continual rapines, 
which remain unpunifhed, are th» caufes of the deftrudioB 
of the famous city of the univerfe. 

13^ LETMRs*wiarr«».By v.Va.L' 

• Gàn we imagine, when Grod fends biSrjjQ^gments down 
•upon us, that we can be able to rcfift them i Amend thy 
Kfe, if thott deiireft to -be reveéged^ «yf ^ortiinfì; .and le 
proof againft all her darts*- Incrcaf6.hir>v3rtuè, if thou 
wouldefl be invulnerable ; be as good in pro^peifiey as ki 
adverfitf. Nothing but good works can histke thee hap» 
p7 in this, world, and, lire when tins wcftfó fhall be 3ta 
more. ' . ., 

If reafon 'cannot ftop our tears, foitunc, I am fure, 
will never do it. Wc feem herein 'very unreafonable ; for 
when we firft fee the Kght wc wtcpf and when w€ leave 
ity wc groan. 

Live ever with me more nearly than an iatknate frtend^\ 
dnd imitate (if a man may fo cxprefs himfelf) the £rt, 
v^ich (according to what appears to us) cònfomies ali 
things, and converts them iato its own proper fabAaacc } 
but which yet, according to the rales i»%f€»iheé,by ttf 
Creator, bams not the air, ùor the mher elements^ but 
keeps them vmited, warms and conferves them» God hat 
endued men with an infttn6t whii^' ought to do the bmt 
thing ; he ha» &ftened them one to another with fuch 
bonds as nothing- can break ; I mean the intereft and 
fflutoal needs which they have of one another. There 
bemg' no body that can be Imppy and* become lich of 
hixnfelf, there muit be dependencies and commeice,rwith^ 
wxt which it is impoiHble to have what is moft liecefiaiy. 
There is alfo a more refined commerce» to wtt, the noarks 
of efteeiB vthidi men give one imother, fmocours in cafes 
of need,. whether of money or goodcoui^d j the latter 
of whkh k all that can be expeded frpm^thy.&ithfiiL 
Mahmnt. 1 

Paris, loth of the ad Moon, of the Tear 1641. " * " 

/Book III. A srr at faris. 337 

' . XXIV.— To the Ba^sa of the Sea. 

fJl HB vcfleis 1^ A&k have again been worftcd by the 
iiifidelB, die particulars of which mufl needs be known 
to theé bcfere they could come here» where there^ìs much 
difcourfe of the accident at Goolette, and the battle of 
Caragoe, to the gr^at difadvantage and prejudice of the 
Mahometan name. Thefe heathenifh people make pub- 
lic rejoicings ' for the vif^ories .obtained by anotlicr na- 
tion. It is faidy that of iive galleys, and three other great 
Tcffels, only one fhip iavcd itfelf by flight» feveral being 
funk to the bottom, together with the Admiral of Catt- 
goerthe reil having been brought iato Malta ; and that 
tiiore were fix hundred muiFulmans killed f in whofe 
death onr only confolatiòn is that they died martyrs, and 
thdr blood will cry for vengeance againft the infidels that 

' It k hard to find the ifle of Malta in the chart, and yet 
tadrdcr in the fea ; it being a mere atom of invifible earth: 
But it is not fo with the knights, who are the mafto^ of 
it ; they being a hundred, o&en feen and felt by us. 
"^ Malta is a feminàry, tvherein are brought up the brav- 
eft fparks in Chriilendom, picked out from amongil the 
Ynofl iUuftrious families. Thefe perfons know not what 
fear i^; thtìy have impofed upon themfelves the neceffity 
of va&quiihing or dying ; and therefore they get the 
ma^ry of whatever they attempt ; and with thofc few 
veffelsth^iiave; they make the Ottoman, fketfctrcmbie. 
Titey wear » golden crofs on their ilomàchs, which is al- 
ways dipped in the blood of the faithful mttfluhnans.-^ 
Edipfe this impious order, by oppofing the facred &Mr 
of the Ottoman ^moon agàinil the force of fo fn^l a 
number of knights. My zeal obliges me to fay fuch 
.things as may be troubkfome to. thee ; and wbigh per* 


Kap8 tbou knoweft as well aK I \ vrhkh. is» that I am 
petfuaded thou wflt be the conqueror of thefe pirates, 
J»rovided thou otlcc rcfolvcft to draw out m good cameft 
tTiy fcimitar, " and caft its ftiéàth away.** 

Tht kitig htre is very i^cB : Md faid puMicly, wheft 
hie heard of the ^i£h>ry of the MaKefes, that if he wtì-e 
not a king, he fliould choofe to he One of the knights of 
that place. 'Hiou tvih gan greater honour, and more 
trophies wiU he raffed to thee ihan were to Ariademus 
and Cigala, if thou undertakeft éffeélùàHy the deftm^ioii 
of this peopk. Thou haft my pfayers, that our holy 
rtophet would ftrengthen thy arm ; and that God would 
give thee ftill favour in the fight of our moft puiffant em- 
peror, chofen to be thè chief commander of the World. 

Paris» 15th of the 3d Moon, of the Year i6j^j^ 

X5tV. — To the Iniiincihle V.i&ier Az£M. 

Ak ffluftrious Woman of tht Honfè of Savoy governed 
not long ftnc€ in Portugal, in the name of ?hi!iplV. King 
«f Spsift. Her name is Margarita, and continonly resides 
at Lisbon ; but this princefs, with the title of Vicc- 
<;^ten, had not the tredit or autliorJty neceffary to fu- 
ftain the dignity, though fhe had otheiwife all'thc prndenec* 
and courage requifite thei^eontto. 

Michael VfffconcelU, her chief fc<5retaty, having nftirp- 
cd all tbt «uthorhy, carried all things with a high hand ; 
to which he added a moft gripfhg covétdUfìiefs, Which 
woB no kfs disadvantageous to his miftrefs's imputation. 
And the Marquis de la Puebla, H Cafti^n mrnSfter, Ha 
accomplice of Vafconcelli, had eftablilhed himfelf ¥^ this 
. court, as a rigid cenfufer of all the Vice-Q«een*s anions. 

The Chriftians call thefe two «len-tWo pe^afttfi, fet -over 

^OOk lit. A SPt AT PAHIS. . ft3$ 

thfe |Aiii<;e&, a% if flie had ftill been in her minority, to 
dòrre6: àiid i-egtilate her aftions. 

The tod great authority of thefc two minifters bt- 
cAme àt length a kind of tyranny. The nobifty com- 
plained for the loft of their privileges, and the people at 
their being oppreffed with taxes ; which made the iriinr- 
ftry <jf VafcónceHi feem infupportable, in which it was 
féen the vice-queen had no part. This princefs not hav- 
ing the power to flop the cotirfe of the mifchiefe which 
began tb fpring up, gave adricfe of it to the court oF 
Spain, and expcded thence the remedy. Birt whether 
the king was not in a condition to give any, or his «Hi- 
nifters concealed from him the ftate of things, the mif- 
chiefe incfeafed, and Vafconcefli's friends, by excufing 
him, made it almoft impoifible to avflid them. 

When Margarita reprefented the danger whefein Por- 
tugal lay, (he was heard as a Vireak and credulous woman, 
and w^s often accufed of being over timorctos, which 
caufed a general revolt in this kingdom, which Was few 
liay ill contriving, and as few hours in «executing. 

If thou wik hear thy humble (lave, I will relate to thee 
ìEtfl the cìrcumftànces of fo great an event ; which will 
ketn a fable, fhould we refer ourfelves oiily to fèafon ; 
but which however is a real hiftot)-, as fs now well known 
throughout all Europe. 

Never was there a greater hatred between two nations 
than that which was between the Spaniards and the Por- 
tuguefes ; and though they had one and the fame reli- 
gion, and almoft the fame humour, yet it is not to be 
imagined how far their mutual averfions carried them. 

The Portuguefes have a common proverb, \^hich faytf, 
thkt a man is obliged to treat and love another man as 
his brother, whether he be a Turk, a Jew, a Pagan, or 
a Moor, without excepting the moft barbarous of man- 
kind ; yea, thoiigh he were a Spaniard. 


.^4C L£TT£RS WRlTT£ir BY Tol. I* 

They trave lived with gre«t patience under the domir 
nation of Pbih'p II. and his fucceflbrs, fince the death of 
their King D. Sehadian (who was killed in Africa, in 
a hattle againil the Moors), whilft they were fuffered to 
enjoy the privileges which were granted them. More- 
over, they ftill cxpcóted the return of their fovereign, 
who was faid not to l^ve died in the field, but having 
long wandered about in drange countries, was, in fine, 
about to return. But the example of the Catalonians 
made them at .length xefolve upon what they now exe- 
cuted. The nobility were the firft that began the re- 
volt, and palled over thofe bounds which refpe£l does or- 
dinarily place between the fovereign and his fubjeéis.-* 
They alleged feveral pretences for their rebellion ; but 
'the mod fpecious was» their unwlllingnefs to be facrificed 
in unjuft wars, wherein the moil dangerous pods were 
conunitted to them, as they feveral times reproached 
the duke, favourite and minifter of King Philip IV, 

They immediately carried on their intelligences with 
great fecrefy ; and when they came to declare themfclves, 
the greateft perfons confented to the confpiracy, and the 
boldeft amongil theii) have executed it vrith great valour. 

Don Juan', Duke of Braganza, is the greatcft noble- 
man in this kingdom, and perhaps in all Spain, and 
already of the age wherein men are wont to have wifdom, 
together with ftrength of body. He wants not for inge- 
nuity and fweetncfs of temper. He received the crown, 
after long preffings and refufals ; and indeed is the more 
worthy of it, as being the lawful heir to it. 

The favourite duke was well enough informed of the 
reputation and authority of the Duke of Braganza ; 
and confidering him as a prince who might lawfully pre- 
tend to the 'crown, he made ufe of feveral artifices to 
drive him out of Portugal, or feizc him prifoner. But 

Boek>IIL A Sit AT PARIS. Z4l 

haying dways tried tbi» ia vain, whether by r«8£bii of 
the^xtraoriMasry watdh&iBefs of Don Juan» or thai th» 
heajrens^ oa which depend the things here beiowy i»t 
otherwffe ordered il^ it wa» impofliUe for thit tomi» 
tx> get fo gped a prey into his handt% 

This crafty mitrifhn' has tried all way«« and lometinc» 
made ufe of the fox^s flcin> imd oth«r vhtles of th« lion^a 
Toice, te bring ahont his «nds. Sometimes he tried to 
draw him to cotiit, oAeriiig him the, moil faonoumbb 
employs there, perfuading hkn to aecompssy the Cth 
thdfxe king in his voyage into Catalonia. Bat the ddbs 
.knew how to defend himfidf againft the ùaaé^ and timc« 
ly v^ithdrew to Villa Yidofa, the ordinary plaee of his 
abodef ; and whence he exceled hlm&lf from gomg to 
Bladrid, fometimes for that he had not DuScient to bear 
his charges according to his qoality in fush ajoomey» 
and other ^philed on otli^ pretences, with which the fa- 
Tomite duke was obliged to feem contented* Though 
he ym not, yet he feigned tónn^etf to be iatlsfied, to put 
iir pra£Hce the mod exqtulite piece of policy he ev«r 
imde nfe oL 

He fekit him forty thoufknd piftoles, to buy ileeefis^ 
ties, and at ^e fame time lent him alfi» the general CQmi< 
mand of the troops in Portugal ; with order to conte to 
UfyoTtf and as high confta^ of the kingdom^ to ob« 
ferre tht motions of iSié tJnk!ed Provinces, v^ìàóti thitat- 
«ned Spain and Pomigal #kti a pewerM Aeet. But he 
had fient dite f^UéwnAg order so D. Lopez d'Offio« 
^ Thou haft the jeomn^and of the naval army ; get im« 
mediately before l^oHV JDon Juan de Bmgana^a' has 
ciders to Yifit '^e^i^eiSfeh? As (ooii as he ftall ei^ter the 
Inrft galley, cktp- Mm ia n^ons, and immediately dq)a»t 
witli ^bis prìfenéf to Cadiz, where I have appomted peo- 
ple to convey hm to Maiid»^ 

Fol./. t 


Don Lopez could oot execute his commifCon ; his 
ara^ was io ft in the Englifh ieas, and it was written in 
heaven, that Don Juan fhould live and be a king. This 
artifice having failed, the duke had recourfe to another, 
which was, to fend an order to the Duke of Braganza 
ta srifit all the forts on the frontiers, where there were 
Ibridi injunékions to detain him. But he perceiving the 
projeék of the Spanifh niinifter^ knew io well to excufe 
himfelf from undertaking this bufii^ef^, that he made the, 
deiign of his enemy to vaniHi this time alfo, and get 
leave to retire to Villa Viciofa. Thofe who penetrated 
not the artifices of the court of Spain, were aftoni/hed 
at the accumulation of fo many favours and honours on 
tibe perfon of the duke ; affirming, the court had inten- 
tioas of raifing him to the throne, or bringing him to the 
fcaffold ; in which laft they were not miftaken. 

Olivarèz, who let flip no occafion of laying fnares for 
Braganza, grew the more obftinate by the difficulties he . 
met with. He fent him a new order to raife troops, and 
to lead .them himfelf into Catalonia, for the chaftifement 
of the rebels ; this being of abfolute neceffity, faid he in 
hÌ9 letters, for the upholding of the Spanifli monarchy, 
xo which the revolt of this province caufed great mif- 

The duke obeyed in part ; he raifed a confiderable 
mimber of troops at his own charge ; but he took care 
:of his ow^ pecfoli. Jie wrote to the court to excufe 
him from that voyage^ and added to his excufes moft 
cameft prayers ; reprefenting, that being fick of the 
world, he had retii:ed to his own eilate, to lead there a 
<}uiet li£e, free from the vexations of bufinefs ; which 
obliged him to entreat his Catholic Majefly to grant him 
that reft, which was the only thing he defired. The 
Puke de Braganza's letter drew no anfwer from the 

Book IIL ^ A 8FT AT TAKlSi 2^$^ 

Spanifh aunifter ; but his de&gne were difeov^red ; andk 
the nobility forefeeu^ hovr.likely-they were to be bioi^gbA^ 
under a ffiose ù.n&. fttbjeékion, began to mui muryiaytiq^t^ 
it was their duty to rid tliemfeWe» ofvtbbfe opprefbriy 
who had folong peeled them, and fet up a new form ^ 
government. The poor, who fuSered moll by the tax** 
es, were the boldeft, and encouraged the reft* - Some 
were for fetting up an elective king ; others propofed 
the ralfing to this honour the family of Brngasza* wfav 
alone feemed worthy of it. Some there were who were* 
for putting themfelves under the domination of France^ 
and other perfons of credit among the people wdre lor a 
democratical government ; and/ others again were for 
turning the kingdom into a republic* 

The nobility were in great perplexity in the chmce 
they ihould make ; for it was not known whedter the * 
Duke of Braganza would receive the crown^ in cafe it 
was offered him again ; for the moft qualified perfons of 
the kingdom had propofed it to him. 

There was none but D. Gallon Cattn^ue, a* gentleman 
as eloquent as ftout, whom Heaven deiig^ed for the per- 
fuading of this -prince, that - could accomplifh it. He 
pretended to iight a dud ivith a nephew he bad ; whc»n ^ 
having ilightly wounded, he left Lilian, as a man that^ 
had brought himfelf into danger ; and wandering aboat 
from thence, uncertain, as it were, of the place of re» 
treat :he would choofe, he went at kngth to ViQa VU- 
ciofa, where having lb«nd Braganza in his ibUtude, he » 
thus fpake to him : .. : , 

<^ I bring thee this day a crowà, which the. aóhSifty' 
of Portugal prefent thee | and if thou haft ^c courage -. 
to receive it, we are ready to put it on thine head. This 
kingdom belongs to thee, as the undoubted hear of our 
natural aad ^wful princes* If thou accepteft of .the 

L 2 

344 LETmts wttrttn it VoL L 

ctOW0, the kingdom juftly belongs to thee j a*é rf tfeoa 
akivft tMt receive it, vm i;Wll choof< aavother foyereign ef 
giTSter rcfcihition, and wtio 19 wlUhig ttf cdAURaUd us. 
Thv iceptrc fhakes m King PhiBp^s haÉd, by feafon of 
the wars made agamil him £rom att parts. C&nMtry 'é 
thoft remvell aot at prelent what fortune prefent» thee» 
tbcm wilt be obfiged again ft thy will t^ obey another : 
Nether Ac nobiHtyy the dtrgy^ nor the pieopk, wiO aiy 
loBiger iaSer iàic arrogance, of thtf Caftfliandw It befóng» 
td th«ef at preTent, to declare, whether thou wiit reigit, 
and be a happy prince. Ail the fyth&l P<>naguiefe 
breathe after thtv, and dsTim dbee fdv Ihdr fo^reign. 
Red)l^ t« a«aept of what is fo ad^ntageous, and let us- 
alone for the executing of our peft«.** 

H&jL Jmki anfwercd coldly to fadh a bold propofklon ; 
xmre f^ft%hted at the peril there wa( kr fu«h an enter- 
'prife^ than flatbed wtth the hopeaof pi^dSBng a king- 

But in another conferencer wherchi tht dake was told, 
the Gcmfpifatora were refoh^ed^to raife on the throne an- 
other kthgv 10 he oanrie not to a fpeedy- rcfolution; the 
datdhefe!hift wile^ whoiiia» a xnanV heavt, and k iswrt 
cMrageoui. than her haft>aiidv A>mlng Inlto the co»verfav 
tton> thd» fpaltt to him with grea^ a(llH«an^« : 

^ My lord, the Catholic kmg^ has font for tbiMf a^aifi 
to«otBfftj atM^adrfd thou i^llt cortathly-fiMet wiA tfey 
àtì&ùij amd in reeciiwng^ the erown which k offered thee, 
thwi art fHfi in dange)^ of it ; btit if t>hoa' rtmk peri/h» 
which way foever thou turn eft thyfclf, is^ it not Inord ho* 
nmjMiH^ to die a king hi thine own coi^lry, than- to die 
iir chaùxB: in a prifon by the hand9 of thine enemy V* 

Sacouragewu à dtfcourfe brought Don Jnan to- a- refow 
littion ; wherefore he fent word to xht nobiM^y^ tthk 
readiiKOs to comply with i^em. 

Book III. 4«P¥ATraAfó« t4£ 

The G(nrpii{a^ors wesc ready, at the hour appoiattd £oir 
the execution of their .defign^ being well arsaed» aj»4 
each of them accomjfuued with a gooi number of jQtMg 
men, who were to follow them» although they knew not 
ibe de%p. A$ ioon a« e«er the figoal wa» girea, thef 
. all (etibrth fiuixi the places where they were aifembled ; 
and thofe that were faubeft diAant joiaed the neareil, and 
jdl together foon pofiefled themfelves of the palace of 
the vice-^ueea ; they imviediat^ly made therafekes ma- 
fiera of the guard» fiadtog no refiilaiice from them, and 
this witfaout t^^ng a dr^p of blpod> or doing any vio- 
lence. They afterward» cried out all together» ** Long 
iinfc tì»A aew king* Don Ji^an die Bragaosa» and let them 
die that govern SL** They £eized on the nce-queen, 
and catneated her U> retire iato an apartment» where (lie 
ihauU be treated with the refped due to a priocefa» but 
j»ot obeyed m having au/^bority to. command than. 

VaiconceUi» who knew himfelf faulty» and to whd|» 
bit GomkkBCt rapr^aebed Us «rtmef » in this moment hid 
Jiìoafelf ta a great prefs» vmo^r an heap of papers» wbci^ 
htmag been dtfcovered by an old wkhdius» be b«d imme^ 
lUaftcilyhis ihiroKcut» and his body thrown ojut at a 
wi n d ow s wbere be terred for fome time a May^game tp 
tbe people ; who kit m»t one part of his body free from, 
£$mti mark of tbcar iadignation. 

Qmc of this «maifter's domeiUcs threw himfelf out a^. 
the fame wiadowbia maftcr was throwi ; n<^ in a defigy. 
of foUowing bis £ite» but of iaring himfelf ; and he died< 
«itboiat its b«t«g known vdiether it his fall» or 
the muflu^-Aot vbich he roceived. 

The 4Niafttd<mtfli with as little tnmUe feivsed on tbe 
gdlf|is and ether «éffela in Jtbe porfes» whence 4^y drove 
the Spaniaedi» They ^erwards opmwanded the vicc^ 
i|ueeii to rettsc. This princela thuwght Ae pu^t oa this 

^ 3 


occafion to infift on the greatndfs of her birth ; fhc 
-threatened the confpimtorBy and afterwatxis flattered them, 
afibrhig them of the clemency of King PhiKp : She fct 
•before them the greatnefs of his power, and forgot not 
to fpeak of the authority of his ^ivourite, vàto muft 
needs be much offended on this occafion ; exaggerating 
the offence committed againft her, both as a princefs, 
and depofitory of the CathoKé king^s power. But as 
well her promifes as her threats were in vain, and fhc her- 
felf was at length glad to accept conditions from them, 
who a while before, by connivance from the prince, 
might have executed an abfolute -power. 

In eight days time, all the CafttUans were fubdued, or 
driven out of the kingdom. All the forts were furrender- 
ed without any trouble to the new king, except the 
^caftlc of St. John j which having made fome flight reM^ 
ance, was fdid for forty tjioufand crowns by the gover- 

The Duke of Braganza appealed immediately after- 
"wards in the city ofLift^on, where the people foon ihow- 
ed the affeéiion they had for him ; the prifbn doors were 
fet open, and all poor debtors freed, aad a great part of 
the taxes taken off. Such an aflomihing fuccefs was at- 
tended with whatever might fet foith the joy of the:peo- 
pie, who folemnized the -feftival with the found of titmi. 
pets, and the noife of the cannon, and by fhouts and ac- 
clamations which reached up to Heaven, whom the Por- 
tuguefes thaùked for the liberty which they beb'eved tliey 
had recovered. This event was accompanied with fo 
many miraculous things, that the wifefl as weO as the 
vulgar were perfuaded, it was marked in Heaven from 
all eternity by the finger of X>od. The clergy,^ the no- 
bih'ty, the citizens and peafants, ivere profri£e. in th«ir 
liberalities or this occafion, to gife' their, sew fbvercign 

Book III. A SPY AT PARIS. ^4^ 

ample marks of their aiFefkion ; and even the poor hid 
their mifery, that they might not leflen the public joy. . 

The Spanifh veffels which returned from the new woiid, 
which then entered into the ports of Portugal, remained 
at the difpofal of the new king, the pilot» not knowing 
what had happened; fo that the coffers of the prince 
were filled thereby (as it is £ciid) with fome millions. 

The king was exalted to the throne m. the laft moon 
of the laft year ; and wife people do hope he will reign 
very happily, all the planets being too well difpofed, not 
to make him finifh his reign with the fame fortune as ht 
began it. ' . 

The vigilant Portnguefes have ordered out fevcral ve^ 
fels filled with good foldiers and nedéffary provifion», to 
feize of places and ports which this nation potkSt^ ip. 
the new world and in the £ aft' Indies ; and it is to be 
fuppofed they will meet with good fucecfs, if fortuiie 
prove as favourable to them- in A«ierica and the Indies,, 
as fhe was to them in Europe; » 

As foon as the Duke* of Braganza was proclaimed 
king, he fent manifeftoes into all parts, arid difpatched 
couriers and ambaifadors to give advice of his promotion 
in the courts of France, England, Holland, Swedelandf 
and Denmark. It is not to be imagined the joy which 
this adventure gave to the Catsdonians. The king itn- 
parcing to them what had happened^ offered them alfo Us 
afllftance ; and the^e people anfwered him with the fanite 
offers. And this is the end of fixty- three years of the 
defpotic authority, which the Spaniards have excrcifcd 
on the Portugaefes. 

The news of foflrange a revolution having been car- 
ried unto Madrid, hear, and coniider well the unhappy 
condition of the Catholic king, to whom his favourite 
t declared thi»new8« 



" Sir/' faid he» •* I come to rejalcc with yoor nut- 
jekf at tbe good news I bring. Your majefty is now be- 
•come mafter of a coiifiderable dutchy. Don Juan dc 
Braganza has had the boldnefs to make himfelf be pro- 
claimed king of Portugal ; has thereby faUen into tbe 
crime of lasfse majcftatis s All his eilate belongs to you> 
and k dcvc^ved to the crown» and his perfon will foon be 
in your power." 

Don Juan was fon to Theodofiua Duke of Braganza^ 
.graodchild to Donna Catharina» who was the daughter 
of Don Duarte» brother to Henry King of Portugal ; 
and PhUip II. King of Spain took away the crown from 
4hts Catharine» to whom it is faid it did rightly belong. 
. The titles he afiumes» are» King of Portugal» of Al- 
garveSf' Afric on both fides of the iea» JUord of Ouiney, 
<ii the na?igation and commerce of Ethiopia» Arabia» 
Perfia» and the Indies. 

This ittw king is not above thirty-2e«en years old* of 
a middle dature» but well proportioned ; his ^^ mark- 
ed with the (maS-pox» his hair iocliaing to yePow» an 
iiq[uiline sole» high forehead» lively eyes» his mouth in- 
different great» and a mafculme voice. His carriage is 
frate» affe£ÌB great modefty in his clothes» is temperate 
in his diet» aifable to all fona of people» unlefs flaves and 
fuch 9& he believes are hypocrites ; and his common word 
is» '* That mean clothes will keep oat the cold» and or- 
dinary meats fatisfy hunger.'' 

This prince is not much verfed in books» is of an 
healthful conftitution» loves laborious exercifes» efpecial* 
ly hunting, wherein he is never tired. He is alfo mufi- 
caily given, and fo light of heel» that there are few peo- 
ple can outwalk him. He is wont to go to bed late and 
rife early, as knowing that fleep does take off much froin 
man's liife ; and to complete his happineis, he bat chjl* 

Book III. A spr AT FARisu a4p 

drcn of bath'£e9Le8. His wife ba Spaaiih ladj of cx« 
traordiaary merit» to whofe marvellous courage ^nd good 
qualities he owes his crown. 

The kingdom of Portugal contains one hundred and 
twenty leagues in length, forty in breadth, and has fe- 
Tefal ffiilliofift of £iihjc€Uf oompr-ehcnding thoie in the 
two Indies. It has three archbifhoprics, and eight bi- 
shoprics, keeping ordinarily forty vefTds, which iind port« 
in eight places of the country. They can maintain thirty 
thoufand foot, and fevtral regiments of horfe. The re- 
venue of thÌ5 kingdom may amount to twenty millions of 
j^old, reckoning io the riches which come from the In- 
dies, Brafil, Angola, and feveral other iflands. 

The Preoch monarch- will hold a good intelligence 
IHrilK the Houfe of Braganza ; England will enter into 
an alliance with her ; the pope will concern himfelf on 
neither fide ; the emperor, united by blood and intereft 
to the 8paoiards> will be an irreconcileable enemy, but 
jinabfe to do them any hurt ; and the Hates of Hpl- 
land will find greater advantage than all others in this < 
Axaoge revohitioar Thefe are the fentiments of tbofe 
that pretend to penetrate into the. future, and to know 
jxiore than othex;^. And if it be true that this new fove- 
ore^n has bad, as all men in his place would have had, a 
fiscret.defire of being king, he has fo well concealed his 
aabitaon, that it ùi to be fuppofed he will prove a moft 
judicious prince» that will uphold his authority more 
hj hi» wifdom and pradence than by force. The juft 
£rod cu^ (hort the comfe of his ill defigns, ihould he have 
the courage and defire of reveagjbg one day the death of 
bis predcceflbr Bon Sebailian>on the faithful muflulmans 
of Afric. 

Thou wilt find, invincible Vifier, the faithfol and t&* 
i^gcélful Mahmut always ready to execute the ordci^v 


which thou (halt fend him for the emperor*» fervice ; and 
ready to obey the leaft figns of thy viftorious hand to 
death, whether natural or violent. 

Paris, 15 th of the 3d Moon, of the Year 1641. 

XXVI.— 7(? Enguruli Emir Mehemet Cheik, a 
Man of the Law. 

L ELL me this once, whether thou beeft alive and at li- 
berty ; and whether thou doft reàUy love me, or only 
pretend it. My friends return no anfwers to my letters, 
which makes me ftrangely ignorant of all things ; I know 
only by conjedlure that which is never fo little doubtful ; 
and that which is certain cannot be known here truly as 
It falls out, as being related according to people's paffions 
and interefts. There is no body dares write to me freely 
what he thinks ; and there are few that will inform me 
of what 13 come to their knowledge, left their letters 
fliould be intercepted. 

I know very well we have a new matter, but I know 
not whether he be thought a more able^prince than Amu- 
rath, and has the fame courage and fancy for war. The 
Chiaus that lately arrived in this court of ^France is very 
referved to me, and makes a myftery of every thing. 

Amurath is dead : Thofe who fary he was cruel, yet 
declare him to be the moft dexterous, valiant, and com- 
pleted man in his empire. Th<; Chriftians arc fools, who 
will not hence gather, that our monarch» moft certain 
maxim to reign with authority and perfeft fecurity is, 
' « To make themfelvcs be feared, and not to be fhy of 
* fpilling the blood of thofe who ferve them ill, who are 
fufpètìjed by them, or may prove troublefome to them." 
Thofe troops of mutes which abide always in the fets^ 

Book IIL A srx at pa&is. 25 i 

glie, ready to obey the kaft %n of thofe who give them 
orders» maintain» increafe» and render formidable the:Ot* 
tOKian power ; for the en^re would never be at peacr, 
but in continual trouble, fhould all the Tons and nephews 
of our fultans be fuffered to live ; and we fhoald have a 
whole nation of princes, who- would be alwaya a-biting 
and tearing» and ruining one another by civil wars» as i» 
often fcen to happen among the Chriftians. Whence thk 
certain maxim is pra6lifed, " That it is better it (hould 
«oft innocent- perfons their livcs^ than not to deftroy thofe 
who may be faulty." 

Indeed, I muft confefs, I knew jriot that Amurath him- 
fclf killed with his own hands his own fiiier. Thou that 
kaoweft the fecret of this tragedy canft tell» whether he 
was tranfportcd to that excefs, becaufe (lie anfwered with 
great haughtànek to the fukanefs her mother» who re* 
prehended her on fome fecret love flie entertained. If 
tbis be the cafe ihe died not innocent» and I have a great 
€uriofity to know the particulars of it. 

But dò not relate to me the. unhappy end of his two 
brothers» Bajazet and Orcan, left thou make an old 
wound bked afrefh. Poor princes» what crime have 
they committed» if their brother, re^ns? Cruel king ! 
How great was thy inhumanity» feeing they obeyed with- 
out murmuring. 

But Amurath was a dreadful lover, who tamed his paf*- 
lions widi a poniard ; he ftabbed the moft beautiful of 
his fultanefles ; and for what reafon? The Chriftians par- 
don hkn the blood of his brethren which he fpilt» of his 
lifter» and of the brave Facardin» feveral vifiers» of bis 
friends» and fo^ many brave commanders» and illuftrious 
perfons» but they will, not pardon him the death of a 
nùftrefs ; for they cannot conceive how a prince» a muf- 
fulman» can play the hangmtn in fuch a delicious place». 

25^ LETTIM WRITtCll Ù Vol* I. 

where he has nothmg to do but t» MA. té g^g ht». 
io^ agreeable markt^ of his paffioo. But 700 wfli tett 
me» perhaps, flie was fo bold di to wear in his iight, flo«r« 
«rs and perfumes which came from his bmtber : It is 
cettainlj a great crime not to obey thofe who have aU 
power to coBunand us ; but it is a gpneater crune to hj 
on commands, to hate an oceafion forcnidty* They tajr 
a man which does fuch an a£tioa is a monfter, but I do> 
not (ay £o. 

Inform me what the new Sultan Ibrahim does, of his 
humour and inclination* It appears he is ftill infirm» 
and ftuptfied with his long imprifonment. What altera» 
tions has his entrance into the empire produced ì Wilt 
be be faaguinary as his brother was, or graciousand mesv- 

Speak to me once, my dear friend, wTtk all freedom, 
void of difguife | is he amorouOy inclined ì I much value 
inch princes, for they are generally m^ ; and this paf« 
fion fofteni them, how cruel foevcr they may be , makes 
them liberal, and ftraiagers to cotetoufiiefs, that cruet 
monfter, which douds and fuflies the hrighteft vjctues*-*«- 
|iow many peHiM» as» emplof ed' to ehooie fine «omen. 
foK the («raglio, to cootribvte to Ibraliihi^s ploafure? 
Happy win the handfomdl wiomen of Aùt be* But the 
eyes of this monarch wiU be made like other nea% wbidi 
•re not iJways alkred with the greateft beauties. Hence 
it is that we ha«e feen in our emperor's fetvglio, ladtcfe 
whicb Airpafled in charms all others, and yet died viiw 
gins, and neglcded by them t^ whofe pleai^res they were 

Thè Chia«s h» only informed me, that Ihfahiai up» 
{tears often ou horfeback in the city, and feemi a-joft 
and merciful pnnce, and d^figns to mtkc the .(hepberd 
li(a&in» Smirne vifier $ he tbstt was fo feng t^ c<mipa« 

Book IIL A%n AS FAUS* 253 

«km of hi» prUba. It is ftud he often made it his eta» 
plo^mcot to divert I^him in hk conlbement, by play- 
tug oa his p^y %nà mdking him dificourfes without art, 
and ^extvene inooceiit» of what be did when he kept 
iheep. He told me alA», that he often weat for his ^« 
veriion on the Black Sea, to take the air, and enjoy that 
liberty of which he wa» fo long deprived ; that he is alfo 
much delighted with the readiag of Greek books, efpe- 
cially Xenophoa and Phitarch ; that he is very devout^ 
though not fuperftitioBS» a^ordtng to the humour of the 
devotees of our law, who will have our fovercignt be im- 
placable enemies to the Chriilians. If this be neccITary 
to falvation, to perfccute a reh'gion contrary to ours» 
what will become of all thofe who are dead, and never 
did it ? I am of opinion» ** That true holi&efs coniiils in 
doing good, and Hving in charity with all men." 

The in^dels with whom I live at prefent, for the em«» 
pcror's fervice, whofe fubjeA I am, do glory in their 
ftri^ obfervance of thit precept, which is in their reli» 
gton, and they are happy if they keep it. But tell me, 
doft thott think our emperor is not like to have children, at 
» akeady reported, and that h» cannot Hve long. They 
«re not only tbe idle people that ti^ at this rate» bni 
thofe whofe interefl oUigea than to know who is to fee 
the iuccefibr ; and many of the iblideft think it will be 
the King of the Tartars, and that thofe of the tace tì£ ' 
lifula Honkair wàU -be esclodcd» 

H^it race is really iilufirious, hut etery body know» 
not the rife of \t* The head of this £imily delbends froA 
Tamerlane ; thou knoweft die reft, and i w^ not dilute 
^tth thoe dbo«t geoealogtes. 

Whatever pafles het% helow ft ifo vncertaki, tkat thoti 
mayeft accofe me of impradence in étfeowrlmg of thingiB 
«t tkia dJOwicc ; fiir, mcffeft, Bmdum tnsy be a father 


hj this time. Pray to God, who difpofcs of throne^ 
makes races endure, or decay ; merit from hkn, by fall- 
ings and prayers, and beg of him, that he would gire 
me the grace to lÌYe-blamcle&, and àk innocent ; that I 
may enter with thee into heaven, and there enjoy tbofe 
unfpeakabk good things whkh are refenrèd for the ^aitb» 

Love me, though diftant from thee i and let me have 
tokens of thy friendfhip, by ftcaling fome moments of 
Ictfure from thy ordinary buiinefs to write to mc. 

Paris, ajth of the 4th Moon, of the Year 164 1. 

F O O K IV. 

LETTER l.—To the Fenerahle Mufti, Prince of the 
Religion of the Muffulmans. 

.L HERE is now foundvin one man alone, whatever fevcr 
ral perfons of great ingenuity could acquire by long ex«> 
perience ; and this man. is Cardinal de Richlieu, to wbofé 
reputation thou ai:^ no ftrangen He was deiigned, like 
.tiiee,.£or the afiairs of his church, and dedicsated to reli^ 
gion ; but he is not fo much employed about them, but 
that he applies himfelf with as great care to the affaiia of 
^e world ; and it is he, who under the authority of the 
king his maftef , governs the afiairs of the French. I 
obey thee, venerable mufti ; thou haft enjoined me to ia« 
form thée of the particular aélions of this famous pre- 
late : But I (hall not fay much of him, it being impof- 
iible to fathom htm« He is the moft dexterous and fobtk 

JBooklV. ^ A*SF7 AT PARIS* ' ^55 

polfticran that lives in all the countries of the unbelieTers» 
The famous Greek Lyfander was never fo cunning ; 
neither did Tiberius Ihow half fo much difiimulation at' 
Rome, nor judgment in af&irs, '&« he ; n# not in the tsme 
when he fet himfelf to remove his rivals, and take sway 
ali obftaoles which might himkr his* obtaining the em- 
pire. He interprets all the doubts which arife ki his re- 
ligion ; iie is the arbiter of rewards and puniihments, and 

! thè king, who knows his'zeai and ability, leaves to him 

the direé^ion of his^ kingdom and people, which he ga^ 
irerns aiid leads as Jacob led the flocks of Laban. This 
cardinal Wants only the art which this great patriarch 
had, to make men be bom as he pleafes, as this holy Is- 
raelite made the (hcep. 

There came fome days fincc a perfon from Germany^ 

i who went immediately to the palace of this minifter, and 

j fent him word by his captain of the guards, that the let- 

ter B was come. The officer was unwilling to deliver 

I this kind of mefiage to his mafter, and therefore defired 

i ' the German to explain this riddle ; but he only told him 
laughing, that the cardinal's alphabet was like the fa'- 
mous kntfe of Delph, which ferved to all purpofes; fo that 
he need only mention the .arrival of the letter £, and he 
would be underftood ; which was no fooner done, but 

I this German was privately introduced into this miniAer's 

clofet, where he had* a long conference ; but I could ne* 
ver hear the fubjeA of it. 

I ' He that by his wprd created all things, increafe thy 

health ; and make thy authority ever adored and feared; 
even in Rome itfelf, 

Paris,, afth of the 4th Moon, of die Year i 64 1, 

II.— 71? ih Re IS T.V TEHi>i 9 Prtncipai Secretary of the Ot- 
toman JSn^re. 

i cons but now from hmrmng^ an adrentiuie, wàich yet 
Iwppeaed fame dayi £oce » bat all things are carried ge 
with jiich fecrecy iti Frasce» that it is almoft impcd^hk^ ' 
to know any tfamg bcfor« it is made public. 

There was apprdiended here» in the lail mcoa p£ J^^' 
fliuary, certain ruffians, in the bdbk of henxutf» who were 
to aiiaiimate Cardiasl RichUeo. 

ThcDe wretches confeifed before the jn^pes* ss fcMm as 
they were put on the Jack, their intention ^f killing the 
king's favourite, becaufe he was no friend to the Dukt dc 
Vendofme, who is natural fon to the «kceafcd King Henry 
the Great. This adventure has greatly furprifed the 4»urt ;. 
each man fpeaking of it according a$ his intereil or af- 
fe&km inclines him. Tke Duke of V^adctfuac's &ieads 
have declared themfelTes agacnil the cardiaal ; aod this 
minifter's creatures have much aggravated this attempt^ 
to render this prince'^s family more odious, and he^glHe» 
the cardinal's reputation. But the Duke de MercKur, 
the Duke of Vendofme's fon, rode èanoediately to Pans 
with the Duke de Beaufort» his brother ; the iirft imt^'^ 
mtOf to confuk his friends, and the otber to prelent bim- 
felf to the cardinal, to obtain that thmr father miglit juf« 
tify him&tf before the king» from tbt aocolatjon laid 
again ft him. 

The grandchild of Henry the Gveat has ^3»ee àdktd 
to be confronted with the hermits, and has obtained k ; 
but his departure at the fame time into Engjlaad has: 
wrought much amazement. 

Some fay he has taken an unwife courfe, and others, 
fay no ; becaufe he could not prudently expofe himfelf 
to the teflimony of fuch wretches, who would not matterv 
what they faid. 

Book IV. ▲ firr AT pajus* 257 

However» thefe httmits were puUidy cxecut«4> and 
thetr aocompUces are oofe yet dtfcovered ; ikeither i» k 
yet known whether any pcribns of qudiity have had a 
part in the con^iracy ; which h not the firft that hag 
been carried on againft thh ÙPHmnte ; aad it is believed 
will not be the ImSt, He has a great naany enemies ; and 
the ahfolute authority with which he governs, by the fa- 
irour of his prince» will always raife him fuch adverfariea 
ms wiU either ruin his fortune, or take away his life. 

If I write not oft«ner to thee» thou oughteft not to 
ihiak my «fiedipn ever the leb. Set down in thy regi^ 
fter what I inform thee. Let me have thy friendfhip and 
prote^oB in things whicb are juft» and change not thf 
«l>inion #f me tfll I am changed myfelf. 
' Pmris, 15& of the 5th Moon, of the Year 164 c. 

III. — 7*1? /A^ Ka I MACH AM. 

JvLivs Mazìjlini» a man i6oat fortynBve years of 
age» of a foltd jtidgment^ and incredible perfpicutty» of 
whofe family I know no DK^re but that he is originaiiy 
from Sicily, and bom in Italy» in the chief city of it» Romq^ 
is lately introduced into this court. He has by his inge- 
nious carnage gained the favour and confidence of Car. 
dinad RichKeu ; and he begins already to be employed 
in the moft important bufinels* Thofe who make re- 
flections on the a£Fairs of the world» and carefully exa- 
mine the extraordinary talents of this Italian» are per^ 
fiiaded one may expeék great things from him; yet» 
however» the beft way ts^ not to be hafty in judging of 
the good or bad qualities of a man. He has already 
been employed in quality of plenipotentiary of the King 
of France ia Fiedmontj^ to negotiate an accommodation 


l)etween all the princes of the Houfe of Savoy ; and he 
has laboured fo fortunately^ that every body is aftenì^hèd 
that h» firft undertakings fhould meet with fuch happy 
fuccefs ; efpecially confidering the hatreds and preten- 
fions between the Dutchefs of Savoy and her brothers-in« 
lavir. Thou mayeft remember that I- wrote to thee that- 
the differences of this family were like to laft, and unlike- 
ly to be determined without g^eat bloodihed» both of the. 
French and Spaniards. But Mazarini, who is a moft 
expert courtier» and dexterous agitante has ended this 
a£fair much to his mafter's honour, to the fatisfaéUon of 
the parties interefted» and the cardinal» who procured 
liim this commilfion. He eftsd[>li(hed the peace in Piedr 
mont, and an union betwixt the parties, by bringing over 
to the French intereft two men who were enemies to it, 
who were. Prince Thomas, a captain of great reputation, 
and the Cardinal of Savoy, his brother, a perfon of a 
confummate policy, and an excellent foldier, though a. 

It is mentioned in the treaty, that thefe two princes 
(hall be received into the King of France's proteéiion ; 
that £r the young duke dies without chfldren, and the 
cardinal 'marries, hi» children fhall be the heirs of the 
eftate of Savoy ; and in defed of thofe Prince Thomas's. 

It is moreover declared in the fame treaty, -that the 
King of Spain fhall be fought to, touching the liberty 
of the wife and children of Prjnce Thomas,: who are de- 
tained prifoners at Madrid ; and he fhall be dMo iblicited 
to furrender the places he holds belonging to the Duke 
of Savoy; and in cafe the Catholic kmgrfhaU not re*> 
Hore them, and fet at liberty the wife and children of 
this prince, he fhall be obliged to ferve againfl the had 
king in the army of France. It is moreover inferted a*> 
*mong thefe articles, that the moft Chriftian King fhaH 

Book IV. A SFT AT f AltiS. 2$^ 

procure a mstfriage made between one of the chil- 
àrea of the ùdd prince» with the Duke of Longueville's 
daughter, who is a rich hetrefs ; and that France (hould 
never make any treaty with Spain, without comprehend- 
- iag the liberty of the princefs, and the aforefaid princes. 

Prince Thomas is now expelled here ; and it is faid he 
wiH .command the army of France in Italy agamil the 
Spaniards, it being certain they will never reft<»'c what 
tkey have once taken, neither will they fet their prifon- 
ers at liberty. 

The king entertaining htm£^ fome days paft with the 
«ftbaffador of a foreign prince, fstid ,to him thok words : 
« When the Spaniards fhall rettore to the Duke of Sa- 
voy the places th^y -keep fìom him, I fhall willingly 
difdikaiPge myfetf of the burden of the government of 
thofe.l keep.'t lAndv&hc- cardinal has puUicly exprefi*- 
ed himfelf toJthis pwpofe : " That his mafterfs defign 
was only ta humble the pride of the houfe of Auibia, 
and reduce it to («ch^a condition, as that its neighboui's 
might have no- fuc^ great cauie of fear from them ; fee^ 
ing the leaft- motion of theii<s xatfed alarms among them. 
Aat hi^ endeavours wefe n«C kid out in aggrandizing 
the dominion of France, feeing the bounds of it were 
large enough already ^ his intentions being only to give 
his fovereign the laft proof of his zeal and aifeétion, by 
leavnig "the kingdom in a pfotourid" peace, 'which might 
make his majeily beloved of his neighbours, and feared 
by thofe who are jeak>us of his greatnefs and power ; he 
being hereby the arbiter of Europe, and reigning more 
abfolntely by this means, than if all their eilates belong» 
ed to him.'' What I have wtitten to thee, happened 
fome time fince ; but whsft I am now to inform thee of| 
is quite new. / , . . * 

We have an account» -that the.priaces of Savoy hart 

96o LzrxEMM mnnaEtf my Tid. L 

not k^ their wofd vrìùt tke liiogt Oaséiad BiéàkUf 
and Mftzarioi ; and dcfigns an noir taking am kand t» 
punifli ff) great aa aiiiroiit; and tkcfearr baficdaatkoiq;iita 
flf revengiiig a widow prtncefsy wrha faaa keen £o iong 
forced to hehoki bkxidy tngedies ia h?r kottfe, hj tke 
wars which the princes of the blood make contàanily r 
wherein ftrai^cn do iateveft thentfelTco» who lum 'die 
eftates, and keep then up io perpetui^ difcord* 

This bufinefs will canfe new troobtes iu Itady, aad'- 
thou flialt therefore not fail of inteUtgence of the paiticu^ 
Ian. However, tke priocet of Savof foie bkunod by all. 
tke world» and chained wkh want of finoerity. But tkia 
being almoft a rule axnoagii the Ckriftiaiu^ ^ to-tbkrrt 
their word no longer than they find i^ieir admottfge im^ 
ki*^ thounecdeft not tkcrefore mudi wonder at. mhm^ 
tkefe princes have done : Whereby thou ^itik kciows .that 
a mean intereft being the Biotite that fcU^tbem at w^ifc^ 
and which is all their reafon of ftabe i he that will Mie 
day equally judge all the woHd, and can overturn aU tktf 
«nivetiÌB in Ida time than fe created it» will dcfttoy thr 
Uttle powers c^ thc£e weak poUticiana» whaackuovrfed^r 
the law of i^e Naxatrite» to the «maaartdi glory of tkr 
leaerable and koly name of the faithfol muflutaam^. 

Paris, 15th of the 5th Moon^ of the Year T64X. 

vmBsaBssmKatmmaaaBBSsmasmBsmsssBBssss: , 1 „ , 1 ,s mmmtl^9^ 

IV,— To Dghet Oglou. 

1 Mvsr forget myCelf, af X ibiget thee ; but tkinkaag 
often on myfeif, i cannot fiwget thee $ 4>ecatde thou art 
my fecood £dù Be perfoaded, I fpeak my keaic, -and • 
that I have no otker étùga but that ^f kwing theew that 
thou may eft anfwer me with the fame afPe^'oa ; for Idei» 
ire thy kappiacfii as I do my own. 

Sbc&rV. A ^r At f ARIS. 1k6% 

t Urti endeavouring to procure tbce th«f confitience of 
tlr« kitindUe Vifier Acetn» withoist ìàs parceìving my 
4dlgti ; aii4 this i» tke bffft msimer I coukt devile of do« 
ii^ k* l^ou (tkA pretend to reeeire kwa fome friendi 
whicb thou Cbak leave at Palermo, the memioifs which F 
iénd thee with this letter ; and k will not be dilficuk to 
ttakitnt be believed, thou holddl a correfpondence iothi* 
téWtt of Sieilf ) confidenng the time we haire lived there 
together during our flarcry; 

The sagtift vifier, who ruler and governs the empire 
xÉitàtr the» orders of -the moft mighty and drcadfiil potcn* 
%mè of the earthy will receive by this oidinary, an ample 
ifrfbrmatron of ejctraordlnary events which have httppen- 
té m Portugal ; and I have alfo informed him of thtr 
ftrtfnge revolutions of Catalonia, which do much weaken 
the ftrcngth of Spain, and notably mortify the pride of 
this haughty nation. I hàVe made known to him, that 
I'brtugal has already made choice of a king, and that 
Catalonia is departing, from her allegiance^ But I have 
gJven him no account of the choice memoirs which I 
firtid thee ; v^th which thou mayèft make advantage, if 
lihfefcby thou canft find the way of introducing thyfelf to 

Thou mayeft then fay to this great minifter, Aat thou 
haftr received the memoirs thou prefenteft him with, and 
aflure hint thou haff tranflated them out o?"the Italian 
into Arabic ; and thou muft tranfcribe them with thine 
own hand, that they may not appear to have come from 

The Kirig of Spain, Philip 11. died of a (hameful 
Afeafe, whith happens only to bafe people, which ap- 
peared a chaftifohent from heaven, for having, like Da- 
vid, numbered the people which dwell in the countries 
fnbjeft to hmti, to miake kttowji to sdl nations the great- 
■efs o! his power. 


It 18 certain this monarch reckoned as far as 750 cities 
cveded into bi(h<^cs ; therein comprehending 60 arch-* 
bilhoprict: That he had afibies 11490» chapters 9830». 
as many cdlegiate cathedrab; pariih churched I37i900y 
hoCpitak 43OOO9 confraternities zytoOf congregations of 
feculars 2300» honfes of «ntertainment for pilgrims 3000^ 
46000 convents of rehgious people, and of virgins I35<^; 
with 15200 chapels wherein mafs is faidy as well in pain 
lie churches, as particular houfes and prifons. 

And after an exaél fearch, this king found, that to 
ferve fo great a number of churches, monafteries, con- 
vents, hofpitals, and chapels, there were 12900 religious» 
monks, priefts or derks, amongft whom there might be 
found 12400 priefts, which celebrate what the Chiiiliana 
call the mafs. And- to maintain fo many people, it was 
computed that the revenue for this amounted to 3,000,000 
of Roman crowns, without reckoning the alms which 
were diilributed every day, which amount to the fum of 
4,000,000 of gold. 

The curiofity of this pringe went farther; he. would 
know the number of all his royal officers, governors of 
provinces, towns, cailks, and. citadels ; and, in fine, of 
all officers, as well of fea as land, judges, jufbiciaries of 
all kinds, and of all thofe who had patents from him or 
his viceroys ; and he found they were 83000 who were 
employed under letters fealedwith his hand, and 36O9OOO 
who had them figned under his piiacipal miniilers. 

He would not know the number, of pcrfons that lived 
in his flutes, left he fhould become too pr^ud, and to 
pi event his fall, faid he, into Ahe iin of David ; which 
he yet could not avoid in his own perfon, as I have ak 
ready faid, God liaving fpared his fubjeéts, who bad 
otherwife fufficiently fufforcd. 

One may now fay, that thif puiffantp^onarchy begins 

JBook IV. A srY AT FAitis. aój 

to be difmembercd by the lofs of fo maoy pvovinces, 
kingdomsy and places; and that Pyiip II. knew not 
the full extent of his power ; Philip III. knew not the 
greatnefii of his forceìi» nor the riehes which he pofTeffes, 
bècaufe his miniftert governed him ; and Philip IV. nofr 
feeing when he might feCf , could not fee at lail when he 

I think I have faid enough to thee to be underfioc^ 
Do now what thou canft» to make thyfelf underftood 
by perfons to whom thde advices may be agreeable or 
profitable ; and if thou believeft, the knowledge of thefe 
thin^ may be acceptable to the invincible viikr, who is 
one of the lights of the worid, endeavour to procure the 
giYOur of this great man» who governs all the faithful, 
and to whom the Divine Alcoran ferves for a law. I 
embrace thee» and cordially kifs thee with the lips of my 
foulf if a man may fo exprefs himfelf. Adieu. 

Parifl, 4th of the 7th Moon, of the Year 1641. 

v.— ^7(9 the Invincible VisierAzem. 

X HB poils which came fome few days paft here, have 
brought ni news. One of the king's armies has been de* 
feated by an army compofed of foreigners ; at the head 
of whom was a prince of France» and feveral malcontent 
lords who followed him. This lofs has much afflided the 
court» and Paris feems to be thunderilruck. The people 
difeourfe and argue hereupon according to their different 
humours» mofl making the lofs greater than it was. But 
thofe who have loft their kinsfolk threaten revenge; 
and only thofe that have heard of the death of their 
friends are filent» bccaufe their grief is above exprefiion. 
£ut all in general appear in fush a confternation» as would 

naàe a imtn iaisgiM das fkrolt» is itfxftnìàm^ liNtiMt i» 
1% thi* loffi» are kfuiFcrable u tkaéf tlwt Me sett laiM 

cttftomed te kfe. - •-<- - aaua 

0<K wottld think» to heai» thti FiMttk tall^ iàagktkm 
Spanóavcis art alitad)t at tbe -mJas ^ IMbt a«di«lttftitàafe 
eebelfioas prktce» ate reaéf to' gife w» adM&to. iM 
great town. T.hey have retked into a place i^hkk taefT 
fay » Impregnable» and whieh Meng» t# atFrewelfrioiE4y 
wfaidh place k calleé Se(kn,i arai k k pa^ isat* Aeace 
where this^Uoody battle wa» fought, wherek the ki^ig^a 
party were woriVed ; bat the mtkle&mc^ ate nméh ai# 
iidbed at the lofs of their getterai» whO'wa» k^MtftfiiM 
hesrt of the %ht. Some fay he died by treachery ; eabtm 
by the enetny ; and there are ^«dio aifem^ «hat €m4àmi 
Richlieii got rid of him by means of m affiifikt* niteii 
he entertained In his troops: Others s^<» fay he AsiSM 
htmfelf, by HItmg up th« v4zor of W héknét .wkWhk 
jii&ol, which difcfaargs^itfislf; HoiW«ier,, tkeae is deoA 
in the perfon of this prince, a prince of great valour. 

I fhaH make thee a recital of this adventure i 1 fiiafl 
learn thee the niotives of ilm^ war > infi^^it thee Who 
were the malcontents, and their qualities ; and, in fiafW 
by what cabals this tempeft is ratfed ; that that»' maiyà& 
know,, great and principal prop fif the Qt>£l»matt mxvpm^ 
Ùsat ambit itm amd jealouTy catffc difordet» in- France^^ai 
wcfi as in other countries. 

Lewis de Bourbon^ Count de Soiffofis>waa'a piinftc of 
the Ucod ; he had fiidh a fiereene^ i» hi» ft^athr-m 
drove away dl from him, who dace <sm^ neait hin».f Jiut 
having got over this humour» whvsh difi»i^gj9^ <maf 
body, he became poptdav, and fo cotiiteiAMy fhat iaa.ifnui 
now followed as much aa he was fhwane^ ]i^Bom*\* j^ 
ipfed the nobility as becakne their ^udity $ had ^a^amé 
the fnendlhip of other priades, and thofe of infaKÌ0f>aittk 

4K»uU not oimii^li admire him. He was - ad<^«d by the 
Mdieryy bdoved and efteemed by the people ; ahd he 
.had» in a worà^ fa b^iaved himfelf, that he had gotten 
«he gemar^ i^pIm^b. 

Catdkial Riohiiett has a niece named Madam ^ Cook 
bidet» who having b^n^ married to a genjtiemafi/ afpi^^ 
t0 an ygher iDH/^h* feetag aU things to g^ve phice, and 
kumbk Ihemfi^v^ befote her uncle. 

The caMiiial deigned by the marriage of this niecCf 
.to..|^rocui?e himfelf fuch a puiiTaat prop, that nothiag 
Ihould be able to overthrow his fortune» or oppofe his 
«#|itWtri£y*; be pretended alfo, his life would be more in 
,£rfety ; ^d ^fhat/fuc^ an alliance, with th<^e he already 
'haàf w0u}d put him out of a capacity, of being ever at* 
i^^^kvd by any enemies» fecret or declared, whofe nupon- 
ber jactea&d as fa& as bjs authority. 

Several affinn» this prieii had an^bitbn enough to give 
•8 heir, who might one day afcend the throne ; when k 
appeared by the queen's barrennefs, the king could have 
no child to fuecc^ed him. 

• 2^t the iute Af affairs being chatnged, he took other 
«leafiires i and thinking of hisiviiig the ^ount in his a}- 
UsmC^9 he caufed the propoials of thÌ8„ marriage of his 
iajeoe. to be offered the prince, by one of his m<x(t inti* 
mate qonfidants, who offered him at tlie fame time coa« 
fid^abte fiiais of. money, aftd dignities, to make him hek 
of eU Ma vjift. elates, an|d to procure him the greateft of- 
$(M m the jdag4Qni, which ^is that of conftahk. 

The Count, of Soiffon's anfwer to him that made the 
propofiid, was a box on the ear } being in an extreme 
pafllon at any one^s daring to offer him a match fo great- 
j^'heneath him, when M^uiam de Conj^alet was the wi- 
dow 9f 9. gei^thfam i»f mean cottditioOy and niece'^ to a 

/W,/. ...... , M 

Mood.- .•...••:,.• ,y . 

fuectfedy was not repelled by this afffMlt« ^W» iti&ktò^ 
^Ik ^f^é'^f -^t^ Mi^MsPi nieces fàjHkig, Hm «im»^ b« 

•ec^mewkitioii of this lady^i that '^ftie j^^ìA' a^'mgiii^ ^ 
tlK>ugh maniedy bemmfe Ke^ IMlMMri^ eiit -'df mIj»^ 
■ihy o^ BOliaf^yrMieb her $ trnd tbit Wa^wtiw-Ai «irclèred 
ir» ^*t <li(» ad^rfture fhotùd be ^ound ^wftttei» ih lee :a- 
«agvain^f h!er mtme. * ^«' • • - 

This Hiinlfter eould ff«t difknAAc bui'Tesia^oÀ»^ "te 
«^fal; 4ii4^oler became «xcéffite» ai^4id i%£»lt«ita 
-pratile li^ afual maxn»^ ^ of vid^enfly p M< ge tf t l fig ttiofe 
tllrafe'^iendflHp be bddfétfght wi^ «left ea^eraefs^"^ Mfe 
therefore wholly fet Umielf ftgttfAÌI'<tbÌB frmet^^iftkM A 
tbf i^he c<ircild<)i him) ptH>McIy tbreatiéttet^bM «éiitoiy ; 
%»«clievtihKd him net^ looking on tbe cardinal as btf- 
«eatbibls'notiee. > <''»:« 

In the mean time, thtf cardinal {)k}tte€N»)Htt bifttl#e«ii 
Mo eifcectiiièft, kwdrbmillllht €be kÀ)^ n^» to cedfl^ttMtfce 
4tflt%y bis at<lbD^(^ l>t;t4tioh^o^ged the «éunt to alM 
4ijlit%{a^tf aiid rriàIce'a'T<>ytlg^ into Itdly, t&'wroid tbr 
-ftènn be was threatetted '\vith. Yet his "^oyiige 4a<lcA^is€flr 
ilMgy arid lit hÌ9'Vtfttfm%b^<ea¥diiiardYd ^ be ^mdd>tili>«»' 
'«^••vi^a him ; <he ppoetii^d 4ibh lilh^lé^sMfld^ Iftthir 
wtmiest ^nd made him at kngtb be déliap«d geniinkl^ 
that whi* the kÌBg^eftt^oiiJtbé' ftotttifew^f -iFi»*^. 
9èt tbft haughty ^t^ée^^K^Wéfd {^'xfkb'liiriHl^ié^qrt 
fitying openly, that a cfaptAla iraé gi^ te the aMay^'^n^ 
"■Òt an tffmy to à traptaln. ; ■ • nt 

' fThc gtatidèes of -tht ^trtt ^**ib «^bfervtfd tf&r IrtFWb^t 
^aftd^in 'this intvlgiie,' lftftea# ^f ^dlt^;^ 1^ ieoftm^^ 
biimour, did a& they could to (harpen it. Tke^&$^ of 

fiqr's eo^my, lip}u4 hjnii^slf wii^ SotHond $ ex^^i'i^ hi)^ 
jAat4:to ))>miM«%6K}|1k k^^^ib^'^ pttiiukfi ^ a|id it k^^^ld he 
4ff6w il psomKe fr^mhjm under his h^4« that -he wov^ 

«M^iftvoÉe M^ty in OB*^ ancithier, .««4^^ tì?ey WhW 
join/togtfther fov.thc d^ftmi^iOH <>f ;Jthe ^mm<^ii coemy ; 
.^/oe ^s i&ft' titey took meafiires wi|h Pdaoe Th^ 
j»?^ of ^he Hmk of Sayoy, \^ i« at ^nt fcf^t ge;i^ 
of the Spanish Jinny, in. Fbndere ^ Tk^y ^ beoaglit Ù^ 
Dul^e ^e y^tte» aad fovcral Iqrfls of tl^ kiagd^H^, into 
tbar^^rty. « Alm^ft à^the conspirators were for kiUiog 
||}e:«dr4MU iind ,the time of the {tr<^ ihpuld be yrhm 
kfhififitipàikt quaffli^a.of the aroay. whk;b. befi^ed Qo%n 
Ujpi; %|*t ^ count alone -txRodid 90l confe^it to.4ip \A^ 
ììlt^iàm the blood of a prieft. 

, fifH^ ^e DmJm 4e Valet^^ jn^ho bm tbe 49Qg«r wjierie- 
inJie wa9 . wb^n ^<3 cpnCplracy carnai to jb£ difsof^ild» 
refoWod to ihelter himfelf by the bjacked .«rf{fi«h«i>y thut 
««i^éibt ifni^Ì9«d 1 H/^ ^ifcoveripd to tbe cardinal all tbe 
r^9&l^9^mi .of .whWi the Cf>wit d«s S«*ffoi|» b0?fii|g o«- 
tke» ^ /pfi$d>ly> wii«h4i«»F to Sedan* X IbaU not . mak^- 
Ikee (invb^Mf kader) a d«f<;i4pt|DQ,9tfdt^}piaGeriritiQh 
n^itde|4»fi 0IW fide J^ui^etnbm^ aa^l-oè/tbe oth^r FranoTf. 
iMiptJ:yjiig4o my way t^ n^ake^^^^^ig^s of fisrti^aitiQH 
like in «ogliieer» b^ to gkie «hce a fol^ ac^ocmi of what 
the infida do> and difcove^ft^eir é^ùg^ wb^r^y Chau 
Bwyeftiga^Kr fnhat fiiayrj9i^« f^ the ndwiUge ^ our 
gv0at^i90«fiP4>rb« B^hafe pQwer c^napt be ibaken, im kf 

^dan Ì9 a dofnintoB whi^b lfM1&erly;bf!pi>ied.^o ib^ 
I]ktMW''rQk%»,fftbP¥ffre^«rdgaB o^ itj ;a)id at,tke 
ÌAiim'lM|i6.Jì>uke0ide>9oi|iljk3iB,. When ,th^,€^^t.wa# jn. 

Iff z 

%4% IS^^riMt» #ltl«¥M BT Vlfffat^a 

Sb«lBl()Tr,^ho met tite nmftcr^ffft^by ^'4«ih^liefft^0^ 
4aft of thn family, declared himfelf of his pmf/tkìUrto 
^a)te W tbgirthcr agirfnft tì^e«tttil5ilal%ió|feft'*fe*ce^ or 
•^'yr-hirti t>ut of this kingd<stt), olr *6*gct ttà of tifib hy 

• death. Here it was they m^sde thdr ^et tràrtks wi^ 
•thofe who commanded feìr the^ SpaliiavdiP ht- the^Iiow 

Countries ; and a prince of the Hoafe of Lorrain en- 
tered into their cabal* He bears the cardinal as muchlU 
will» and appears as refolute as the r^ft fcr his 4^ftnic- 
tion : He is called the Duke of Guife. 

• There wanted only to this party the Diike of Orleaiéi, 
ithc king's only brother ; and therefore the l>ttke'%f 

Gutfe difpatched a mcflcnger to him; who- f<4d in dik 
'day both his mafter and all the reft that were of the c«i- 

fpiracy. He difcoi^ed di! the fecrets ef the cabal ; aiii, 

the better to carry on his deceit, he ca^afed hiofifell to Ik 
- apprehended and thrown into prifon, havmg given ìàz 

difpatches to the king's brother, which he had before 

• Aowed the cardinal. Thi» traitor was not contented 
with revealing thefe gentlemen's fecrett who bad f«fit 
kim ; but alfo made ft appear that the prkice, th« kiii^s 
brother, was guilty as an accomplice of the others- ie- 
MKon. Thus thefe great men, grown defpoifte atltlie 

v«Kfcovery of theif ^Hnojefts, which were indeed coiiCtity 

• to their Ibvereign'siftterefts, abd the kingdom^, w*e 
forced to throw themfclfW into tì«e arms of the Spaài- 

• ards, and to join with themv 

' They have taifed ti^ops àihdngft' their «affilia tmd 
fiitft^,?and opettly declafed thèmftlves i and ^gtit wMi 
{reàt valour, as I have already mentiolièd 'hi the begin- 

* Àing'of myletter; The king's army has bten irier^->iU 
/iàndled, arid it appeal^ tltòt'the-^ad^tfta^ w«< whèOy 
-^ èùthéeronfcdetitesfidfe; bwt k^has^eofttHii^Gdiintof 
'^' 99^M%f&^<^ who wal'-gdAshd alid éddl^piAiè')^ ; 

ail(lb4l^t9^al4M(<SII^ #p^t{sdito whoiiL k due' dicdonqiy 

' ìi,j^^lfy^^t^^m^di4;<)^^xvJa^ ai thy .foet^ to Jkifs» wl^ 
aJK hiUJpa^f, tl^e^t^ft fif th^ffiy. affurìng thee thoa baft io- 
I94ca>m«^-^bkl4u]t ^^P tfaat will never chaogi^i 

n^^it^l S5tll Q^4àc^3|i^ 9tfo«|i o£ thcYMT U42- 

Vl.-^Ta SoLtMAN^Kf C(?«5^i at Gon^nÉÌmpU. ■' 

irQN'nf « I^Ji^ATc was ao honc&er man thao thcfu. He^^ 
dth#iigfi a fagaii, excuCBdhimfelf of the falfe fenUnoe 
he (hadd ]Mroaounc« on the Chrìftian» Meiias» by walk- 
lag imi band» before - the Jewa ¥Fho fought bit dcàt]\ ^ 
and , thou that art a Mahonietan,« aa- 1 am», and waiheH 
Ifiy t»bok body in the batht at Conftantìnopley in the.- 
pre(Mioe ef our iìriends^. accufeit and condemn^ .qae< 
<.f»(Uy wtdiout any (empie, Tbou ufe£tme hkea ro^^^ 
CiMndbsonAy art thouiCet againft. me, «bo am of tbe£u^: 
nd^R whkbtihpu prc^eSeft» . How; can& thou }p&^ 
f ^ haisrd tbou bearefi: mCf in .endeavouring, to make tlie- 
'Kaimacham. believe I ba;ve been c<»t«:^ted by the car^i* 
Pth . whoift the King' of Francese chief minifter ? Ad|4* 
iogf that he .ought no more to heed my letter» and re^*. 
tiftns hottto the SubHif^e Fotte (where lie proftrateualL 
the pow^rsfof the world), a» not written by an Arabian* • 
but by a facrilegious heretic ; that I deceive the niufti,. 
{g veneiskble fqr the authority which he has in fueh an 
hoLj.isdi^Q^f, of which he i« the, worthy head ; and,.tjj^at 
X^fliufc-h^..h,y,^y.let^rst the betjter to, conceal my 
cha{\g^),fiE}eigg.I,adQre in. my heart, and pubUcIy FCO^^s». 
aiv ^tig^fnhmiffion ^o the decrees of the Rqman prelate» 
-, ,.*jrhe,q*Hditaf;.Qf thy couJ&i^, which I have whetjhej I 
«iU.QCrfic^ % ^i?i w;ijhh<jljyng J^fft^tb^jj i§. 

11 i 

é]0 LETtttS vfEtittH'm ^ol. Ti* 

inadtf ufe *of to carry on thy pcrhiciotrt éeiigfts. ' Òj5^ «*^ 
worthy kinfman ! infamous hypocrite ! Thott "#itó^^B(R*r#>i' 
£t flic, and break off the cottrfe of ttiy dh^foylttitìit, fee- 
eaufe" I ferve eflfeAually the ^ateft piinde of the MfA^ 
▼crfc. Thou approVedft not only my condrite when I b^ 
gan my endeavour», under the orders of eh* nàà^f^i 
die Divan ; but thou applaudedft me, gave me praifes : 
And^now, when all the mlniilèrs afe fatisfiedwìth me, aiidt 
approved of my behaviour, and g^ve me tbeir comaiend* 
ations, thou art the only man who thiakeft it fitting ^o 
travcrfe n*é, to òbleurè my rep^rfatiort, arid Mslck^ll my 
i^ions; 1% tfhh the frùft of thy IhldicA with H^pl^ a«£ 
A#<!^fis, io wiwih tììòu oweft thy kflowledge^iof Greek 
a^ithori, i**hich thou fo greatly, bfag^geft <rf? AnA^tt 
me, unjuft* cowfitf, tVhat is thy defign éf havfe^ «« «ailed 
a?way by t&y bafe dfefara«tJonfé^ ^h€»n did I «?ffe»4' 
thee, 'arid wherciir, f pray ? But tfty artifices, hoWgteat 
mitf màlkio^ fotiver «hfey be, ^Vitt' rtot piovali c^r t*t» 
ffrt^erfey df ni^ heMti atìd stó f fli&tt rfivafs eJ4«My f*ie*' 
fSfrt» riiy duty> fb I féàì' not tlie k^ ^ tof ptmcf^s* fc^- 
Vòròf ; 'he wl!l approve ef what I dò, ^StA ^(Ai. wit dk»^ 
xfith envy arfd defpftfe. 

- I needed nò% have been r!iill^é(^ ; I *)igte hftfe fééll 
t!ie felfiWrefà of thine heart lyy tliy coutìtWtaaOc. Tl^M^ 
aj^ aft Heradkusy ^(hr&ys lAekiifbholy, àftd ohi ^ te* 
mtntr, that cannot rejoice, (hould Heaven favofir ottf i»-' 
vincible monarches projeéts. Thou art a falfe Ztné,: 
v^o, under the àff^ed appearance of a Stóie, conceSAèft ^ 
a Cynical heart, whofe critical huniour is always biting 
oh the aiSHons of others. Nature has covered tky fece 
itith fadnefs, mixed with a deadly palentìf», "becaufe thou- 
ait tJOvay^ bulled about fomè doleful tttatter. 1ft like' 
ittann^r it appears, that Pythàgortrs has inftru6M thee to' 
fffcaic ttéfe, a^ Kni'c^g tìiou^ art iiót et tb f^ cftf do aiijs 
i ' 

TSbok IV. AWC A%9Am^ , " 2!f,t 

tìitfiglìut iirhst k h^fxtbli,., I kaow not, wM; i» hcQitìm, 
<kf Ifettf^ bafiogno ^cQunt of biiQ« I am ikfrmd ^o«i: 
hd|c«w^«|»tcdtU84n)i(kÌQÌi»»oi, thai. I n^gbt bav« im». 
aUy- or £akhful friend. Thmi haft otot failed .to. i«i;ru6]i^ 
him weU». bawrmg; given him fo good ae eatampfe ( and be^ 
lìÉ0#. widMHit dfi»ibfe# bacìi fa ungrateful as tQ imitikte theew 
He- 18 returned from M^oca» aod ili^kes <ae i)Q,ac^£ff^eSi^ 
giving me no account whether he has made the pfFering 
for me oo the mountain» whethei* he has facrificed the 
%€j),..whcthcr be has diftributcd the alips I enjoined l^'n^ 
and whether he will fend me, as I entreated him, a fmaU 
piece of the old.hangii^s of the £acredr mofque. But I 
will not cQBpceni myfelf fo mnch at what others* do, my 
tilt€fftian<be»fig w» complaiti only tfi tkee, buscata othera- 
o&noel are tt^tcromparalik to thine», ilioa hAtiAg aot kft 
one iume tnttumad v^ roin me;.. 
r CdittHiue thfsttin rixkii iU mmx : 2 win«e only to ao^ 
^(inìM tbcKfy thaa I am not igncanal of «4iat«rer tbMi 
kaft^oneagalnftiiie^ There k nobodjr bat old Bate 
thine unak wiio enn w«ik4 «hatige >itii^;: €U» to ìush 
be not afhamed to fee a man who is employed in tbe* 
sleatieftworksito btfvQiiiDWjqadginelit «hau thee: Show 
Iiisifh»iilfiAnltks' foul) or, t» ^eakbvtteVy con» 
£A t0 him- an theillMfiiitigè thou haft dene> il thou kaft: 
z«f intetfiiofi ,of Incoming an honeft man. Akheug^ 
he he but a carpenter, he knows b^ter than thee te 
fona the mind ; he can teach thee how to polifti aoi 
£quare thy foc^ as he poliihes a pieee of oak» thongii &t» 
▼er fo hard and knotty. 

fie iS perfe6Uy inftrotftcd in the few ; lie is brought 
up iti the prindples of religion ; he will guide thee^ tf 
theu wilt fuffer him, in the way #htch leads to perfec- 
tion ; he will not permit thee to lie ; he will put thee ùm 
fl^faknig reAitution'to thofe whofe good «ekme tào«i huA^ 


^^aliy fofrówfal fot the ili thoU haft ddhe^wl^'tf tótófat 
fliówcflr any regret aC thy former pui^es' of ^Hefiììb^Nba^ 
a'kififfpaiì that ìo^à thee, and flil! v^ifheb thee ili'kiildK 
rf happióefc, if tho*> repeittéft of thy uttjiift peffecuftoSir; 
addify of abadcoufin» whkh'tfaouliaftrbèea, ttfòu;^^ 
l»ecome a fincare and hearty friend. ^ . . . .i 

... -j-'-S 
♦ Paris, aoth of the loth Moon, of the Year 1641. 


VII. — To Dgnet Oglou» 

1 SAY; not that thofe arc fools who nrt hk ^ove» but nmfr 
needs think that tfaofe who believe lightly, are 'iK>t over^ 
kden with difcretion. It is bard for a man always ta, 
keep bimfelf ^m falling into a paffion ; but itiaiiot fo 
thafd for a maa to keep himfelf from belkving thuiga 
%irith too great fitciHty, and froto beiiig taught witb 
ftl^dKiods^ which are the moft «otaftant attendama of wo^ 
Men* ■ 'i, 

Tkoa haft fpoke the truth to me^ tn fendlog 'me the 
brim asd s^es I wrote for 5 and I Qnsàì not aniwer thtt 
^th lies, ita fpeaking of Daria,, who is- the fubjeék of 
the letter which I receited from thee. - Let tne thaak 
tiue, without- faying any thiag of the prefent thouihadeft 
ne,, w^eh is very magnificent and acceptable ; and fu& . 
fer me to complain to thee freely of the hurt ^hich anoi 
tber has- done me. I need not confult my regifter to 
réttembér whatever I wrote to. thee abdot thitf Gmk ( 
my hearty Whldi ik yet full of it; repmache* Ae^tìf 
ìhòment &r having^ faid'^ too mucli to ifheé on that fv^ 

jija.-' '■ •■' ■■"■ ' ' ' • • .'••^ . -- •>} 

'^^Ne^c/^nf^'thittg apfJ^attd to me' fo- éefiréAk» ^-tfcal 

hf^"^ IP"^^^, ^^^ Nepente, to cur^ m^,.«^ .% 
?/5ftfl 4i^pn|>er w^jh which I, am tomnjn^ed, Thwpjinc^ 
^f^f^jxa^sfiSBL qviecn gf our Egypt to prcfeat tjiis ac||- 
ipi|::a^k.^fiqiple to Helena, which has the virtue of ajpc,afr 
ijg; immediately all dolours, and makes us forget the vei^- 
^d^ng^j^ offei^qes offered us. But thou wilt npt under* 
ftand me, unlefs I tell thee clearly-j, that Daria has fpi:? 
gotten all the promlfes (he made me, as foon as ever fhe 
was from me, not remembering in any fort my love. It 
is true, (he wrote twice to me fince her departure, but ia 
io^oH a ftyle, that it is plainly feen her heart is as coI3 
as ice to me» As icon, as ever fhe faw herfelf in the arms 
of her hufband, (he made him a facrifice of my pafllon ; 
s^id the better to make her court to him» and perfuade 
him of her fidelity, (he delivered to him my letters. The 
^ufband laughed in reading them» and faid to her, in a 
)eer to me, ** A man then fo defperately in love, ha| 
pnly fighed and wiote V ** He has done fomething more 
(replied this diffembling woman), having promifed to fend 
qg^^ a box of white ba)m^of Mecca and aloes-wood, to 
perfume me» which yet I do not expeft to receive fooQ» 
a|id perhaps never ^- for if Mahmut be not become a fool, 
|ie. will as foon forget me,» as I (ball certainly forget him." 
5^ And what haft thou, promifed this barbarian ?" replied 
IRimediately the hufband, " I promifed," replied Daria, 
5V to fend with my piélure that of the moft challc of aU 
womeii ; whiclr yet I do not pretend to do without yovuE 
COi^ent, nay, and command^ 

.. What I now inform thee, come* from a place whlct 
n^fiffiBt jne not at all doubt the certainty o£ it- But hav* 
i^-^)fis^f\cihj yàìsX I relate, the virtue of this w ornane 
i|pw k^x ^bat^Jie ihufba^d's >^.as^ who haying feen.ipjf 
picture, and commended the painter that drew it, e^r 
l^)?K^4iqk4jprly his wife,, whgm, be refpi^ae^vM *?»<>% 

Jl^4 LETTWti -ttmiTtTEN BY ' V^l* H 

fcigufer cjcample <rf eonjagal cfiikKty. ' Thoa Irife woIk 

eld .do it, and her coii£(}ence has Ixuntitd to- accollila»:' ihe 
having received a thoufand chafte embraces for a reefym^- 
prnfe. Thou fecft here tìie happincfs of the Chrlftian 
twtnetiy who bave hufbands who take fo favowahfy the 
t>ffeiicc8 done them during their abfence. 

In the mean time, Daria's piélurc does not come ; (he 
returns no more anfwers to my letters, which has difcou- 
raged me to write to her for fome time. My paifion be- 
gins not to be fo violent ; and this great fire which con* 
fumed me will foon turn into afhes. I have been mighti- 
ly miilaken, for it is only amongft perfons of àn equal 
condition where true and kfting friendihip» are to be 
found. Let us- love, my dear Dgnet, let the- bonds t>f 
45«r friendfhip be fuch as wIH nc^er break nor be difiblv- 
ed. Daria is really a great example of fidelity to her 
huftand ; but fhe is alfo an example of jnconftancy and 
treatehcry to a ioter who had facrificed all to her. 

I am reiblved henceforward to love no woman ; and I 
am certain, my dear friend, that my refolution (hall hold. 
-Rejoice with me at my cure, and brirevc, that if a fine 
and charming woman dtfordered my brains, the good hu- 
mour and patience ©f her hufband has brought me again 
to my fenfcs. My adventure (hould make thee carefut 
to aroid the lifce incontenlcncies ; but thou canft not run 
that riik, being hap)>y with the other muCTalmans of Con- 
ftantinoptet who have laws which retain and binder them 
from fattnoft into the jifce irregularities.. 

1 hope alfo thou wilt give over being my rivda, l£ thoit 
huft ever b44 stny kjiufeefs for this ungratefiil Greek. If 
.t&tn modJoyeonce in their Kvesj fet |:heiii have a care of 
AJlJQg in;a thofe jCxccffes which deprwc them- of ^thenf 
ff^f^Ui: and, make ^t^eztf ri::pent;9f their love d lise dvfs 

i^tMt^Yimi^ ■MyttptìatvàmÌK gtebt ; and dxoui^ mt 
pÉfibìr Uo^ìiqt i^vàdif «xtiiiéi, yet I tei a jo)r «Mdi 
i«àkd!f'i9Ae kiM^/ ìlM^ 4 filali by dsgrdeslofe my paffiiA 

• Tkòtf nft^eft «weS Im tined tvith tliM Ì019 clHcditife$ 
btit J fbdl'Cfid it, inirading thee a dcfcrìption wkiair<Mie. 
of the grcateil wits io Spain has made of women. 

He fays, " They be the fourcea of life and death ; 
that they are to be confidercd as fire, becaufe they ufe 
alf that come iiear them as that clcmcm docs ; yet -thtfjh 
give man a certain neccfiary heat : They arc fine things ; 
brir^g joy to families and whole towns ; but are danger- 
oué'to keep, eflfiaming 9XL that €om«s heatr tkcnw and ro» 
ducirtg them (?ommoftVy into afhes. . They vtii»a21y giinea 
great iiiAre, but this b ftre is never without fucb a haokt 
as darkens the andedlandifi^, and makes them o&ea fiicd 
tedrs'Who onl/behoW them» * Be that has no coKBmcaijGi. 
'wkhowofilen, fiends his life in mtflanchoiyy and yetithisy 
are feldom iben without dat)ger« Tlie way to aaiwgc 
them is not to do'cxcdfive 'things for th€M, no more tìian^ 
wholly to negleft them. A man oft'otvtatns ^em^eafiiy, 
and commoiily lofes them more eafily. Firt and a mo^ 
flhaii are exfttìfly the fame ; nnd he thHt faid women^ aoe 
fire? which burn all /things, haarfaid likefwife^ that ifo .is* 
/l&'e women, which confumeth all things;*' 

Btft' our reHgiou» Arabians havfe fpdten yet more 4ldw 
gantly, when they wrote, " That Goéfrtade'aftorlic»- 
lafparadife' for tHem ; bec^nfe, fay thcyi fhonii^tln&j' wai- 
ter into that of men> they would foioiv (ihange k into-H' 

hen:'» ' V' ' '' 

Evfc ijlayed'hct part fo well, wten flf»e Mra* Induced by 
*Ae feijent 5n the ttiteftriaf paradffe, tfhat fhe' d^céiwè 
tier fpoufé aflb, that he might he under the^l&c cctti^Wli* 
ritóoh/ l^ut howevar^ thiy Tct hatingi atìi«f»g^ fef*iiÌÉ»f 


etBoQa^ fomelliag $ltat is mablo^kfc. tik^ ^mk^ìI^q» -pél 
leaft becaufe of their ufefulpefs for contiouiog. the fpeci^ 
bat not for their bcstiit)ri wbofe- e^toàfìttiUigtonipt 
tkt mmdy and hinder all the eteeDeat ^ensàukattai «k^ 
fb« men pérhap» vtoikld be «ngcU were.there.a& matneh^ 
I tneaa bad onei ; for good women^ 98 wdlb.«9. goadi 
men^ can do no hurt» Adieu*. 

Pari'8, 20th of "the loth Moon, of the Year 1641. . 

VIII. — To Carc«va at Vienna* r 

li HE courier whkh is now arrived has brought me let» 
^ten and money from thee» I fhall rcc^iee the money' up- 
on the bill of exchangey when it is due^ under the name 
of Tifiig. I am extremely obliged to thee for the care 
thon haft taken in procuring it me» being- >ii^ a country^ 
where good words are of no credit. I have leceivod al-», 
fo the bozy wherein is the balm and aioee ient tneby m^- 
friend: Oglou> all m good condition, and come in. goodi 
tjme. I want only to kno\v liow it is with I(buf ; for^ 
he- write» no more to- me*, I am informed he is retumedi' 
from his pilgrimagey and yet has not fent to thee what L' 
dcfired him to bring from Mecca. ^i 

t will not complain- of any body ;. if I do, it (haU bc^ 
^ «f myfelf. Take care of the letters I fend thee» and let 
ne know vi&ether we may hope well from the Grande 
Senior, and what h reported at the court where theu^ 
a^y.and if there he any Hkelihood of making war afrefk^ 
9J^àinft the infidels. . . 1 ',. 

' Myheahh Is inSfFeifint. I Hve here without fafpi^ 
«fenri and though Cardinal Richli<fu be an Ai^^, heiad 
Uihd as to what concesus me ; for he knows nothing ofr 
tf)^'H»i£iK&i^'or fógna fo at lòaft ;• aeitiber.46^i do 4tìfi 

% mftìaàmg^véàck>tii9f.usdx ms Itt^caed-for ^ enti» 

Vj£iQffiire?tÌKs ItkiM Gdd^ have a^great refp«d fop hM> 
hwy udMbw siy buiìoefe with great fidelity. If thott.^ 
w3t"ka«e>ine do more, advectife thy friend of it, whoioi 
tiuui^kfiowsfi ; ihow tne the example, and Itwe happily* . 

Paris, aid of the loth Moon, of the Year 1641. 

IX.— To BERBER Mu STAPH A» jfga at Con/lanttnopk,^ 

W E have arrived to the end of the year, which the in- 
fidels foleamize by bonefires, and which I niark by ajb 
extraordinary fadnefs. I complain ^ot, in that Time 
making itfelf the mailer of my heart,, will foon begin to- 
weaken it. I underhand the folly of thofc vows which 
are njade to Jleaven for the ob tuning of a long life.— *^ 
Tho£e that defire it are wont t,o make contrary ones, ^ 
vnben they become overwhelmed with the infirmities 
which atiend for the mod part old age. The occafion 
of my complaints is of another nature i I am troubled • 
at the being' fo. far from my friends and country, ^d at, 
nly being banifhed ii^to ai^ enemy's countiy, where I 
mud live like. a man tha^ is in: continual fear,, among peo*^ 
^e who feenv to matter nothing. 

; Thou art now above fifty years of age, and I not, 
i^ov^.twoand-thirJty ;,and.y^t I know thou .reile6le{i>not, 
iQuah thereupon,^ thinking thou haft ilill.a long time to 
li#e«. Thou, art of a ftrong cooftitution, art a lover of 
pleafures,fearching them everywhere withput any thought^ j. 
q£ 4^th^.wJjOvwiU|pai-e,tl^ee no nfiore than others ,\vhoie 
hfakib is decayed ;^. for ," be comes,, taking great ilri^^ 
téwards us all." Thou art, very fortunate, I muft , nep^frf 

tfj^ LETTERS' tl^i^ItMlIk BY Vbk ft 

thou gft in purfaft of divertifcmentu, I am coatiniiailf 
thinki-mj of death ; bocaaf^ I believe I hvft- Kv^ too- 
long. • ".' 

Should the king, or cardinal, near ^«^hoto I Hw>-kTitAr 
this night, that Mahraut who wHtcs to- thée is^ one of 
the Grand Signior's fpics, I fhould loTe my life, perba|>» 
before th^ next Kght : Yet the fear of fuch an adventure 
gives me no difqulet, having entirely facrfficed nxyfelf 
to the noafter I ferve, who compaaind» all men- on the - 
earth. Should thefe barbarians put me to death, I (hall; 
only finifh a little fooner that coiirfe which I miril cer- 
tainly one day put an end to ; and if I live, I fhal! have* 
ricither recompenfe to expeft, nor pain to ap'prehj^nd. 

Here is much talk about the Duke of Lorrain ; yet 
there has been more done againft him than faid. The 
French affirm, that in ftripping this prince of his^ coun- 
tries, he has been very mercifully dealt with ; for jiritlce 
Inquired more. There are, ort the contrai^, bthèir peo- 
ple w|io do riot believe it is poffible to do a greater piece 
o( injnftice. In fine, every maiiT fpealts after hl^ maniier^ 

It is faid, moreover, that this fovereign b^ing" feOtnC' 
again into the king's favour,* who had given him à thott- 
fand teftimonies of good will, after what had pafled iti- 
1634, when this court had great reaforis to complain oF 
his cónduél, he drew down again' afrc/h the indignation 
df France upon him, by a fault which cannot bo eXctif- 
<d. I think this duke had cOncTuded two treaties that 
year, promifing A fubmiflion and eternal obedTetic^. lit 
had the honour to dine with the king ; and having feh-- 
dered him homage for the dutchy of Bar, he again fhre#' 
himfelf into the arms of the Auftnahsf; although' he'h'ad* 
ftvorn on the gofpels (a boofe as mucli refpédlecTarhongft* 
tìie Chriftfeittó, as the Alcòrah is among ftc trii^ìlàifftFùìJ^. 

fifaokW. ^^ MtttAtfmSBBtti. t^ 

Ibaf he vfosM ùé^et ibrlkkr tke intefefts of Fi»ft<9è,^Jittr 
wars foever fhe rfiight find j that he would be perpetual*' 
iy Jxbd €oH;lie intcrcfta of that crown; and never hold- 
any correfpondence with the Houfe of Aiiftria. In co. - 
itéeratiof» of which, Lewis fhould re-eftablifti this prince 
in his eilatesy which he was to furrender entirely, bating" 
fomc places, and the. capital, called Nana, whiph he 
would retain during the war, as a pledge for the perform.- 
ance of what he had fworn to ; and which yet was to be 
girea up, after the conclufion of the peace. It is added» 
that this fovereign having occaiìon to complain of the 
Spanifh miniftera, and the grandees of this nation, who 
carry on the war in Flanders, he had written to the C^rdf- 
nal Infant, governor of the Low Countnes, a letter to 
this purpofe, and very near in thefe words : 

,** The King of France having required me to jein tny- 
felf with my troops to his army near 8edan^ I would 
net obey this puiffant king, much lefe your highnefs, fee^ 
ing the towns fubje^ tx> the. Spaniards treat me as if i 
werfc- an- enemy.*' 

The ladies have had a great part in this accommoda** 
tion of the Duke of Lorrain ; which has had, Bkc all 
the works of women, a direful event. This priaee, be- 
ing become amorous of a French lady, w«is for repudiat- 
ing his lawftd princefs, to whom. *he owes all his eftate ; 
beginning to feparate from her, that he might give hi»** 
fe^f entirely to the Couineft of CanCe^roix, whjOm he 
tfed' as his real wife. • i . \» 

€k>od people are fbrryfor t^'s priiKe't difgraoei as be^ 
fieving his oonditioa to be paft remedy. The devout- 
pfttt (sji that hafli^. been ufijtifQy deprived of' hltt 
eftates^ pod w^ worJk mirdcl^ in h» hiowy4:,<^fidcrét 
hg no . lefs than three lulled f^iptSy as tbey ^97» /havit 
beciir of ^n» &raBy, wliicb muft nteeds reeonoST Utli t«i 

tteéifàirT •fcMwifcii ; .«wogfe ^ì4|Ì^tÌ%i^ itm^m^ 
Gndfrcy. of BttlW v*o .^90 JcrqfelWii^'^>Efrfeftjjj^ 
£acun tl«i.Saraccwi.i Wf^m w^.àwx^^q^ntPii^y^jùs^.j^^ 
great jato, whctlwr w< o^ofidcr i|i^ c^WKtfc^i^f ^e^.^^ 
bis r^igion^ wluch i>iight:t« fl|aÌM?Jìt».ffl^iaoqg ;^ m<^. t ya^ 

I GMi.tdl fcliee^ notblfig e»Kj:.€Qitiua:.on ^k fvbjf^ 
IwiQg cndcBvoared to be Jpform^of w^at I wrifg 1^ 
ikee to (àtisf y thy cunoiity ^ and wi\at$ver I now ceq^Keji;^ 
hat paft in Fcaoee with little noife, or rather ixrith. great* 
iileiice aa to me ; for indeed I mu£b w|th fliajcne ccwfefs^ 
that I have fcarce heard ia Paria thi» event» fo famou» 
throughout all Europe. 

Man has nothing but what q^mes from. Heaven, and 
oommonly the ilronge&, when he has right on his fide,^ 
£id>dues the weak, and enriches himfelf wllh-lik fpoiis. 
^ By the law. of nature» every one has right of judg* 
ittg.hia own neceUkies^and the greatnefs o£ the 4af)ge£ 
whcrdn he finds himfelf ;^and if it be contrary lo ^e%*: 
fon I fliould be judge of/ my own danger, ,it is reafon- 
able another {hould be fo. But the fame reafon which 
tfhiblifhed another judge of what concerns me», has madir 
me .hia judge y and, confequently give8> me authority tcjr 
judge of the fentence which hp (hall give again ft me^ 
and to decide whether it be jiift when it is favourable t(>. 
me, or unjuft, if it be contrary, to my inttrefts. 

Nat^ireha^ given all- to men f. and thou and I» and all 
men» have an equal right to all things ; henc$ we hayo 
power to. do whatever we will,. tOipoiTef». and^ei^y wiiat 
we think is fitting ; and yet fuch an ex.tQfifive...r^ht w 
juft a$- if we had right to nothing ; f^ti at- 4be/am«, tiiQQ 
1 ha^e tight 'to; ^ thing whidi ^-yintsiim, mi% a^Qther 
ftMflg^r «ha» jnyfelfy by virtue of the lame right» t%ke§ 
ir^éito» m%4Midjeqf9y:swit p %t9 q£^ix^ Um^fiS^i^iH 

wbkSì ' Wde^ends-bfmfelf r Wbenee 40f asd trfli ip]J9gai{y 
ah^ayi^nHlè' titeftfiott» of ^}«aldd}4tt^«iì4 dtfbcwd» «htok woe.^ 
MMng^ ìbé^y'^bicirmÀé tHem M coiitiatial'écfiaB«C!>s 

fìibcia ov«r th^ur ncigUxHirf. : & 

« It;» ikk liberty» fboDded .ii» «glare whkh anlDes^xt. 
hwftd in time of war t» refifti and invadet not wfy hf^ 
open force» but witk <ii^ .4he fccret arts and fbratageaa, 
tint can' be -denfed ; and.vrken a man would avoad.tiMB 
danger he is in in fightin|;i and lias his a^emy in Ua^ 
hands» he has a ngfa<^ to afe aU meant to avoid iiimrand- 
fccure hioofelf from him. 

-: Tbovt wik -apprpte fif ibefe refleeUons^ which Aow.- 
thee theoflltuml .-right tho«.hai^'«f oOminandiag me, aa* 
being thy irferior ; and I hqper by what X have writte«^ 
to. have fatisfied thy cìUkfùxj- % ma by myfahmiffioa and 
dbtdieBbe» to have gkea .thee a proof of. my profiauiA 
refjpcAa iO'lhee* ^ 

Taris, 7^1 of the hft Moon, of the Year 1041. 

X.— To BxDazDXN» Svfenor of the 'Derbifes of Cogny^ fi 

Natoita, ' 

JLjbt me» mc^ holy imd pade&t dervife» fidute thee wiftbr 
my head bowed down to the gruuad, witivthc gjreateil 
humility l^m«Ue« ' I tìo\^ write to thee with my feat 
listed» inathottt efthep>hofe ór ihoas» as a mark of my rei) 
Q>e& c^nd "vegor^ion which ixhave.for .thy okl age» and. 
^e admiration I have atthy i&eorcupitKUe innocency« 

The kiodaefe Umiu ^onrcft . me l^ the :h>»g letter I 
have redeii^d) hsa given me.iuch joy as ^. cannot tyfroGtr 
al^màkaa-nio foi^get ^my g^uj^aias». a>nfi ^indf ^/gvetzfaw» 

tÈMtkig'éi lAitie'^lifcb Art» t& htip^ t» ni»|> fdr I ^am- 
HHW ivMtiiglf lettre thb urndd» havings had ^idb t«fK»o« 
i#^ bf t\!fy't^&.ioTh Thy great agt doee/not sSkmik^ 
tH^t'fhààg thy ÌM:licr) wh» is y«t altfe»' i» «ne hul^dftt^ 
mfd fr^^e» yeim- dd» «nd thou iiDt id)o*0 «i^tf>«iin9«|r 
which makei me hope to fee « gmft «tifi» 5>«t, botk^wtf 
aMd «H» «thery dMW'dli^ii by ^ihrir pfifty«i% sMÉd mnrii^f 
tketrgiMKl«£yMiiir» the htellhigii ofC'HMivdHtoft tho|^ 
AtMr mtfins el lihé Ottammé, t» wbtmt dbiAie «mp^^ 
|iii^ tftid moHimichtetr o# tl« irotM nought. to. fiilMk^«««« 
1)Mp ^Iwy biiMihneii who frcfimted tbcmftlvtB to Sdfaa^ 
ti^l»e^Mi%lledlir th« tMope which were to lefTeagnsft 
the Pediansy made the father, who* badchcm att bygone 
W(MMn> t«^ i^alft^^fof tho happieft itf ail diB.mofitfiiaaaia^iiE 
httMiif^thiC good fonme t» bcgtt Aicb"* miidbor ai6 the 
flioft M^le ^éiens^ in otttiivew Bur «him-aBtd thy fs^»* 
nftttft Meed« ^ ^itoit hupjoy tfito ttofdrtBeLpffeta; Thfi 
Mm» hi» lbttgl« awf «tìMie^tilt «MuHm* fiMk tbirpois^ 
Terfity of the age» full of fears and {ìiSettUgBrtìm&m^^ 
the force of hit ttoumgc)» %\ni lxm»9fijafif of: iMVma^uKr;,. 
and his great fobriety ; and as to thy part, what haft 
not thou done to make thyfeff the worthy fon (S ib gt5« 
riotis a fMier .> Theo haft not oxàf dcme what .^ fa^ 
ther did before thee ; thou haft acquired the fame yir*. 
toes, and haft fo far outdone them» that one may .ùfy^ 
thou hiaA fiirpaffed virtue itfeif. Thy ftrength ia admir- 
able in the midft of abftinencies, and other aufteritie» 
vAMi tliou ondtn-goeft ; in which it is cenalo thou canft • 
ndt be imitated* Bat Heaven» to whom ottfy theu liveft» 
« will recompenfe in this world thy pure faith^ whidi the 
enemy of mankind can never weaken. 

The Cbriftiana iky, when God gave diem the . eottw 
mandilients» he promifed long life to fuch only whopper— 
fe^y honoured thefe» who^ under God» breught .tbean^ 

ìfftD &»lightf dtf tlw^ tmcy ascit tfe t«r)9 likdgrv jt^i»> 
n0t'toi)e doubénd bttt'that.» kaig ìàit it th« Tecì9in|»eiiÌ0. 
nllMirGod-'gitcs «hofcM*^ litre waUs Aad tbeNaMn 
rtùii^ who i«re. critics, «iffirm, that 6n alène is ibc ouife 
that ibtD ^•'nttC iiire & bag- at tbey 4«d before the de*- 
lage» f<or tlwa tbf^ iKiaaiaed fiwk a while la life», ft 
ifotédr-ieiifc .oM to «hid&ièeyi/wfers» t0 have kfeen im^ 
nwktaL 1?he|pi (a|r» that ìtAcr ^e 4elqge# Cod changed^ 
the naairo^af ttcii ; and laAeadì of tte greal wmfbtx of 
^leatv^ which jaade up . thecacrfe of £o long a Uie^. thcff^ 
oaolloC Uh At fattfaeft «bote -one hundred «ad tweoftjl 
years» a*d that there ara few wèidi^ arrm t» eighty ; andt 
w)fat«#er it be^roffd this is lùi&ty aad.tornaeat» or« kimb 
oi Icfkifekfiaeft wlikh mak^s tbtta ìàìu Deaftsi. 

I kAow^ew ^ec^le Imt what ave ^f«ed/oae maf ctiiW^ 
or mitigete the toooavbaienciee Kirhich' happen toms ji bè^ 
few aire of 'opinion that life can be lenf^heoed s yaU ifi 
thifbe poi^le» we may tb«a bdicfe a ftory whtoh it b4< 
lievfed hertt »fed which happened the year paft in Paris» - 

An«flattieat atan Mroat to a dervife of this greiaft town» 
ahd thueaeodfted fainiy ** I am some» reverend Fatlriei;». to 
know of yon, whether I may in good confcience detioi' 
mine bo live no longet, being ipiite .weary of ]knmg f I: 
have alftfady aitivedto the one hundred and tweaty*mnthi 
yvar of my age, by mcane of a Hquor whidi chemiftfy hat' 
taaght me, whereby I did fcarce perceite from any thing 
I ^k diat I Wa» going down ^ yet, however, thia Ickig 
life appears at prefent to me irkfome and intakrable.^*^: 
My blood ft fo -pmified in my veins,. that I have remain* 
ed withpot any of thofe paifiont whereunto mankind are* 
generally fubjed. My tafte fervet me no loaget to -dif- > 
cover the debkttry of meats^ My ears, altho«igh they 
be not deaf, yet will not let me diftingui{)i true harmonyp 
fi^m^ what- is only a confufion of fowidt* Mine eyea 

are open t& fee, but 9ns oot de^red«wh& any)rt>je6i«— » 
My fact^ty of fnelUng is ftruck with fcents, yet thee 
«Mkenoidnproffioii onriu ItonclH Iftut I^M noi^illiaff 
I foack; «iid I 4oiich ^ tltinga^^ iMffMenflt. WSit 
htiHrt- -it no: longer fenfiUe^ tier i^feéted with t«ttdeMftA 
a«d pai&M for «ly fìicnda.. Bde i» '»d hM ao lODgef Aft. 
«filai koac; Jof and* fiorrow^' anger, defii« «if ha^g^ 
hope md hatved» aite-caaai^iflflied'.m aar;' l »klwi 4sy . 
I am become infenfible ia coDfevvkg,4sfti aitf f<i»^Uyi. 
ill mj fenfca. I aoi refoked^ tkere&ie^ eo" l»t nyfi^: 
Ale, provided yoa can affiue lae i may do it ^fthòur ft#^ 
for fliould I fematn two days witho«K taking thiè pf^éf^ 
OIK elixir, I am certain I (hall foon expire, atid fo'l»e éef^ 
Uverfd from the vesataon which overwhefant me/*- Ik i»> 
Uà that thedcrvifeaniwered this philofopher^ «>Thae^iè: 
flight not dcfire' death,: bat, on ^e contraiyv "préfér^é^ 
his life ; umd fnf^nfing be made u£e dF no ifidret <^ mli^ 
gk to ppoloi^ hii days, he ihoidd Mievr thlir- the l'alisi 
veUaas potioa» of which he had Sound ^Att^ieen^'kff ^htik 
ftttdy 4iad traire), was.a prefeot fromiitaiicatt TlMnir & 
taaey. Jiewoukl be rid.of a troubkfoaMrlfl^t battete oonkl' 
not proQure tilie end^of it wi^hmit a cri»» j[ :ind that^he. 
was obliged to prefix re tt> to^fofiFer widi'grjeater ùàstÈMè- 
fion the paia^ he complatned off which cóidd;flat be isoaSr. 
paiabte to. the pleaAirea he had received^by^joyÀig^ith»' 
gift which God: had beftowed òivfaim/' V 

The Great God preferve thy days beyond thde of this 
pyiofbpher^ and aocompaofy them wi^ whata?ar: nnty-. 
p^e thee fatisfadion : But. I befaclLhins) above aM things 
that l^rtnair never ktihp oiatofthy meaioiyftte pfómife? 
lhoiièMAjnàder>mef of having always^a pattìcaìack^e^eél;. 
to.tìty' fe««)»t-Mahaiut^ who reverenoes 1^ holixq:&»: *) 

farlSj'ijttì of the rft Mooxn, of the Vcar 164 ft.' " ' '' ^'"'"^ 

w. ' f - I»» ,, ' : " • .'..osi .1^1 

li^rHAKB tbee an ai^wer,' IbvindUe 'wat^or^:bf''wk6fii 
jfpincfela ihe fotmiable etipine ó£ the Ottonanti k ^oa- 
fisroed «tider the lorden olrtbe'moft m^ltt^. of theprlwfet 
$( ilie'etfrth» >«iid vhtlb jitn i»Uml:idetoaH 6hc>p|»«cfiift. . 
Utt% of the world. I ka^tt^^rmod ^ ktder, .wherév^^A 
^baa bonouved the mB& ^bioffive oSkhy fia^es, vttek ali die 
hu^iHty whfcb it d«e to ésy fobliae gmidfary wbo'etiiH 
lo thy mdit ha» nófed thee. And having eaft liiyfeif* at 
th^jfifeetia fpmt, fedng I oiuinot reafiy kifii them,- I 
obey the ord^n thoa fendeft. me, whieh are to me in- 
«ioiable laws. 

- Banniere, the Swedilh general, is dead. When Pico- 
lommiy one of the generals of the >emperor^'ai>inyy Itpf 
juft by him ; in half an hour's time he faved himfelf, tife 
army, all the baggage and caxmon, and retired with tti^ 
credible fwiftnefs over mountains and foreiis, w^ere tl^e 
btziks alone jcould make pafTages, having continuidly tht 
Emperor's army at his back. He was a man of great va* 
lour, had been hig^]dy'ferviceable to the crown of Swede* 
land, and aicqwced the reputation of an exeellent com* 
ifiaader. ^The. emperor had oiered hrni fome time befoie 
great recom^enfes, and the ^^nity of a prince of the 
§av^ise9 a hC'Woidd change his mafter, and CorCake-tht 
confederates party. He had alfo offered, thiokiag cMl 
«light fooee move him, to make him general of his atmy 
•l^ft'tke Grand Signior ; but he refufedaH thefe*Cif* 
fera, his tiìdelity being uomovcable. . '.*■*; 

\ This gsteaCfCaptain was bftrn in Svtreddaiid^ 8nd;wÌMÉ 
S)iMd, h«^>fclLdonm fvom-ai^h wiadiyw, wdMUfi^^ftf- 
eeividg asfy hurt^ >«faidi made the kkgiiNÙigìiie 'HàlvtA 
defigned him for fomething exti^erdinary. -^ He.ti|ivf^|ed 
tsnch. ÌÙ his youth, «id he was feen never tired in noi- 


ning t<f afi pl^ed^whoee thexe- waa* anydj^hnrs loinctìmes 
itt Polirne^ and other whiles In Mafeovia ; and beiog^be- 

«epotatson of oaetdf !|ftK:^eit«ft vitp^dim-if^th»^ mt^ 
cmpdftii He vmB ptìtkéùy .ioiHcil'-m. tiir*«ff|>:of ^^iv- 
^HMii^n^^ and n» htceetcBM^mfh^mniix^wi^ 
hr- lM}H«> ' Mtf «Mf .'«fi:r^9«flt fon» fadbie^ai^ ^rif^ 
IhKHiger thim Iuli,mii1kn«^6 he.a^imediyidltbe^wirUk» 

ffi&id-of thtf»^ he kfi^ wdl.èoir |o fe9qi4l»$«n \ bx ibat 
ke ¥«• navet dtiCnfted» whatcfrer'jffrees 'hw tttt^ff mighl: 
bnng againft' iiim. He has ^àtìte^eà^ fourfbo^ ihpu&nd 
men in difittient* rencounters, and Swe^knd- g^lesies-ffb 
kaving above fix hiliidred ftandarda* iie .wa» ibdìfae^ 
JOng'Odlainivtfai^ tbey have been often lakea for.oaé 
another. He was never covetous» but was «hfcrved to 
be a ^oodhnihand^ Afnong'fo numy occafions wliorem 
iie figaaHzed ^hnnfelff what he did. ween the S^yedi/b 
army was worfted at Norlinge, is mofl remarkable ; he 
fMwierved'lIhe re^ though whoHy fof&k«a*byitfae aìiàis^ 
^Aéio ofdemd the matter, thafc3|K.iMìedÌBfiA tcia0|»jdi- 
ntfft iH^n iffftanc, toid ga^htrparty imratid «ouia^ 
té fife up.' Atid tbis is ai i oonlè learn' of tk» >gnptt* 
captain^ whòfe:reputaiik>n has gi^^:tfaeeithìa cuivoiity* 

jAllhough Don ODuarte de Braganza, «be new-Ktng of 
i^Mtngal^i brother, fervéd natii gieat nq»t|tation in 'tbc 
exnj^yoi^s' ai^ ; yeùii la iaid» Ebe Spaeìarda. bad %eeii 
mèry ungcrft with ^> rnioaàrphy'ao^iaakeMBi ibe a|^N3»- 
hended, as foon as ever <lhcy.haay4tbe: king Jbis^^bnytkar 
AMb^a&fbd toftbethrond Bat| k ós'épidy tbroiaiKror 
•WBflr- feaaJEkEacd with «fiidh /a ^ propefitàm, .«ikgiii^; ^tb^ 
ii«ÉfittibeagaìttftiiheTuksB:o6bo%iraiity/ «Bfut ttbar^^v^ 
.fUiÉM eotlfbffoF ^liod fuch <reàf<»i3 ui^diisi dSk^émÉtf^ ^ 
-faimi^t overtbe^empeaorAo yield be «ftiaiil^ be delinni^ 

Book IV. AtrriÈ0»>i^éM% tìlj 

,^kh a very ftroog ftan^^f to tfae c»ftk of MilftOb wbe&«e 

^ttmm of Fortvgil^ Philip iV.jof Spain. '. 
^ 'I fttfl «like what ffOiniiffiiadMadlA tiic Kaìnadao» 
^dbo ÌM»<die jiowaip oHadiy tby Httotenagit 1 tb«i I^nny 
«A tireiiiQc^ «èddDft'tabeireroieiiecd «s the i«AnpiBait 
9&ùte mKiof .tèe oadfer of Iji^ts^^and afl whofe àourt 
«Mf:d«ftÌB«d t» the ipifotiiiicnt of .the «odd* 

M^ /it pistfc iniH ivho ofi nothing haa vomteikdl^ 
-ahiogs» that thou maytft fli^, ooe daj» at 'the feet té the 
€&Bimd vS^róioTy the cnownt of 1^ the ooonarchs» wlxo 
.«omtmmd in ithe itnfidela countrìee^ and heoane thereby 
tfaèodMter of «the ^nncietle; 

Pària, iSth'ot the ift Moón, ot the Year 1641. 

"Xn. — To ih Kaimacham, ai Confianitnopìe. 

JLiiia lung bere èaafnòflified hi&paiiuaniBnt,. by .the ad- 
-Tkas of Caiéaiai fiòdUkiit. The farliasiemis are .hodiee 
^'iltarntd BMO». who decide aU a&KS hitlie iuagdoi»y 
'ati^M^ eùrilas CMBtnd^ and tke pasUaBcntof Ban's has 
aiafgrarjiirìfdifkion^^» aU^othe», and as iconfiderabk 
•pìnsrogativea.. What I have to &y xin this ùibjeély ht^ 
ehaflpened lirom .^ begkimnf of the iaft /year ; and xtmr 
l^céaSot^ìx^i beoanfe X'fofigotto do k when tha thing. jiiap- 
ipoiedtf ìAmd I ^>klbvm«bee, 'before I enter on the 
•matter:» .what obijgedheireiofaae the ]M»gs~of Franix ib 
^«tnp^dùs'gndat^t of jaftiea. 

* ''[The'àfiaiaiit'kiàga^of- Francisi'gave^^t (ailchonty of ap-. 
prodog and, 'verifying the tà^^ and ' dieislanatjoos 'Whtdh 
^ey ihoald make» whtch- was- 4lr bar, r which 4;hele wifb 
^sàuiea<^M»^^-b<t9iÌGie«^ah8ipeo^I^ and itheiXovtr^iga 

Mtlmkf* Whence kkp^tairoi,tlMUiOMrt^^rM¥AbE- 
.•dwMi4HÌftocrftey9 wiih«Hxt<«^ìch«ll«i!Hf4fha«^kought| 
duii 'IbMs could not bng fuèfift.^ -aadnte {Sriftìaiée*%f 
Uu» age hare fobmitted* to a tnbUBal «v-eftabHAted bj 
llMOiMvttf tke fcfolataoni thef td^e» to tbt due diéf 
may difiskargic tlKiiifeliea towardi Ocd^ to '«itaft^tliejr 
are accottntabk, as wett aa other meat »d t»olbim» eoa- 
fideaoe from their iubjefts» k taking frovi amòi^theai 
arbitcM to regulate then* Yet they haw kmeàzAv^^i 
ihé liberty of • making u& of their ahibhitÀpower^ as ii 
ieea in their letters patent» where theyforget Aotte' ia« 
fert thefe words» ** For fuch is our wBl aodpkafi]re<"< 

Thefe aionarchs alfo tliought herebgr ;to have .foned 
out a way to defend themfelves from the . impottmilits 
of the grandees, who often demanded JÀich things which 
conld not be granted without prejudice to the whole 

The authority of the now reigning king belsgoutof 
danger of being fhakcn or deftroyed, this monarch har- 
lag h» eiqheqnerwell flored» fais fakant and aoperUnced 
captmnst ftout £L>ldiec89 and ovaattroiis .anniea» and. good 
.fleets of (hips at fea ; whereby hé> wouldcOake 
this puiiTant tribunal» that if it .had been iet up to aiSà 
the kings by its counfels when ceqójned^* yet it moft not 
pretend that its decrees ihonkl become laws* to their fo« 
Tereigns. . He went to the parliàmeét ueith.aH tbe.ntasks 
of grandeur with, which he is ufually attended > oo^ Uie£e 
days of ceremony^ and wiiih.fttch a {great .eòmpiny.f^f 
dords as made thcpower of l^his^ihli^ipiEQh. Cflfily. 4i6ieni- 
ed. He gavq thefe ^entltmen ; ta- utfhiAMid» «ho. worid 
have them ratify, withont^^moire aido|;therOFdci}siie «would 
fend them, which> they term. edieUxre^tjag .theca to he 
immediately cnregiilered. He afterward* gère them itn 
expteb chajqg^ not to cpaccra theiifsbrèslbeitoelosmrd 

Dpdk; fV. » ^ aw AT TM^. $t§ 

'mMjfm99 &fir&^t and- 1^ Zombie diem t^e moire^ iA 
^ecbwed*!^ rthem» tkat he would be henceforwatd t^ 
dfifp^Cnr of gi^ceg and offices, and beftow recomptibitl 
tpifttcb 26 defer^d tb^m. He added hereunto an oi4^ 
o£gi^l^ aBiK:couot every year to his chancellor of lliefir 
d^0r^pftefiU, ajid tacome and receive every year his m^ 
j^yV. approbation tb continue them in their offices *, and» 
as a mark of bts indignation and authority, he pot fay 
iheprefident and fome counfellors from their piaceli. 

This- bold and politic aé^ion vras done (as I may fay) 
ior tb« midft of sdanciags and divertifements» the more to 
denote the monarch's authority» and in the time of fack 
ms^ificent feaftings ad became the pomp of jhe^^reateft 
emperors, in the palace of the cardinal, for the marriage 
of hia niece, Mademoifdle de BresBC, with the prince of 
Condc's eldeft fon, called the Duke d' Anguien ; a prince 
from whom the world expcds great things, and whom all 
France ^lieves will prove one of the famoufeft princes 
in Chrift«adxmi. 

The Catalomans are obftinate in their revolt ; their 
deputies -have been already feen in diis court, to entreat 
a good fupply from this king ; and it is not to be doubt- 
ed but- they will earneftly fue for his proteétìon : And 
France has already fent troops near thofe parts, and its 
fleets appear on the coafts to encourage this nation and 
mortify the Spaniards. There are a great many troops 
raifed here ; and this monarch will have in the fpring 
eight armies, commanded by generals of great valour 
arad experience, befides thefe t^o fleets j fo that Ger- 
manyif Lorrain, the Low Countries, Catalonia, and Italy, 
ate like to be ^xpofed to tKe miferies of an impoverifh- 
ing war; ^O^ly Germany fcems to be able to defend Jt- 
fclf. . 

Thevaftgem'Us of the French minifter aftonifhes all 
FoL I. « 


the princes of Europe ; he breaks all their meafures, and 
makes a fecret war againft them in their OTjyj coarta. 
Nothing can efcape his vigilant care ; he keeps hi* <)wn 
fecrets fo ftridly, that his neareft friends caanot diiicover 
them. His power and authority are fo great,, that the 
jprinccs of the blood are nothing in comparifpn of him; 
and his fame makes him as much rcfpefted abroad as. at 

His friends affirm, he is ignorant of nothing which is 
proje<^ed in Europe. England is the place which he has 
lad attacked, its civil wars owing their prxgipal to his 

I pray Heavep favour thy jud pretenfipns, and every 
day increafe thy heroic virtues. 

Paris, 15 th of the X ft Moon, of the Year 1^42. 

XIII.— To the Mqft Excellent and Mofi Venerable Mufti, 
Sovereign Prelate of the Holy Religion of the Faithful 

JTIk. of whom I wrote fo many particulars, fomc moons 
ago, to obey, as I ought, the exprefs command thou 
laideft upon me, not only is ilill living, but is more ab- 
folute than ever, in what concerns his miniftry. Yet is 
it falfe that this cardinal finding nothing more (as thou 
writeft to me, it is talked of in Conftantinoplc) to fa- 
tisfy his ambition (which puts him ftill upon defiring 
fomcthing farther, being become the abfolutc mafter of 
what depends on the kingdom of Lewis XIII.}, had de- 
figns of making himfelf abfolute mailer of what con- 
cerns religion. But he was too knowing a man, to dc- 
fign the being the fuperior general of all the French der- 
vifes.; a .thing, which, neither the King 0/ France nor 

Book IV. A SPT AX PARIS. 29 X 

the^òpe %oùld pèrmitr I rather think this ini fi liter's 
defign has been to fubjcA all the Chriftian princes to his 
liiafter's interefta. 

The Ottoman empire would have fomc reafon to . be 
afraiti^ were all the Roman prelates wife enough to choofc 
this man for their pope. We fhould fee in a (hort time 
. all Afia agitated by his intrigues againft the followers <rf 
the great Mahomet ; and thofe that follow Ali would 
not enjoy a much greater fecurity. Thou knoweft that 
the gpfcatcft marks which the popes can give of their 
piety during their pontificate, is to ftir up wars, and 
make leagues againft us to overthrow our empire. Think 
then what this great nun would do, Were he the head of 
the Chriftians, with thofe abilities, and great intelligence! 
which he every where keeps ; feeing, that being only a 
fubjeél, and minifter of one prince, he fo governs him* 
felf, that there is no nation, how far foever diftant, but 
holds its eyes open on his conduci ; and a pope bein^ 
always chofen from amongd the cardinals, and the pope 
now reigning being very old, it may happen that this 
dangerous man fliall be chofen. 

Thou, then, whofc pure life makes us believe thou art 
a faint, pray the Great God to hinder fuch an event, 
which will, without queftion, difturb the empire of him 
whom he has chofen. to humble all other potentates, and 
ihow on earth the greatnefs of his power ; and, rather 
than fuch a misfortune fliould befall us, pray him that 
has created all things that tlvis man's eyes be opened to 
know and embrace the true faith ; for it were better (if 
I may fo fay without difpleafmg thee) that this cardinal 
fhould be a bad mufti at Conllantinople than a good 
pope at Rome, at tlie head of all the Nazarenes. 

It is faid that a foreign king confulted this oracle 
(for he is held in as great veneration as if he was one)*, 

M Z 

292 LETTERS; WRIT3r«W Bt JV^' J- 

w\\9Xr coii4u6l he (hould hold to live fecurelyr:, atvd /ft is 
bid the cardinal made this.anr\ve|-,/< That.kinga Ibcrcijid 
live ia fear, ^nd thea they would live in fafety 4 it; being 
C€r.t?iin they ^«^ould receive no poifon froip tlic h^inds . of 
thofe who do not prefcnt them their drini;, np m^re th^ 
they can receive wounds from thofe whom they keep at 
a greas diftance from them. Thofe who wHl not flatter 
them will not deceive them ; and where they fhall think 
themfelves in greateft fafcty, that will always be the 
place of greateft danger.*' .a 

I am perfuaded, grave and wife prelatci thou wilt apr 
prove of the anfwer of this minifter. Julius Casfar lived 
in the midft of combats, but died in the midft of the fjt;* 

Next| after God, it is before thee, great minifter of 
Heaven ! that I humble myfelf, entreating thee to re* 
ixivegaraciouAy the profound refpeéls of thy (lave. Mabv 

-|*3rÌ8, ft5th of the ad Moon, of the Year 16421. 

XrV.-^Td iii Mòiher Oucopmiche, at Cxn^amtino^» 

It may be faid I have efcapcd from a mortal ficknefi» 
and remain in life only to hear the complaints of my 
friends, who recite to me their misfprtunes ; and of my 
kindred^ who entertain me with the lofles they have 
fuftained. Tht>U addefl, my dear mother, a new torment 
to the pains I already fuSer^ by {bedding fo many fruit- 
tefii tears. Oh ! how cruel is my country, thatj g|v.e«.fp 
many occafiona of aflKftjon to thofe to whom (bei- b^f 
|;iven their birth ! TKou haft loft the grea^ft p^t of 
thine eltate in the fire, of Conftatttinople, and death 


&as deprived thee of thy fecond hufband. I was but a 
child %^'hen' my father died, fo that I could not then 
jttdgc of thy grief ; neither was I' fenfible of my owrn 
fofs. Now that I am a man, I enter into thy fenti- 
ments, I fhare in thy grief ; and fhall do all I can to com- 
fort thee. 

Thou haft loft thy firft and iecond hufband, and thofi 
haft reafod to affliA thyfelf. If the firft was an honieft 
man, it is certain the other loved thee extremely ; and 
the charms of thy countenance have not a littk ferved 
thee to acquire the aSeélion of thefe twoììufl)ands, which 
thou kneweft how to keep by thy complacenpies and- 
Uind obedience to their wills ; and by fuch a prudent 
carriage as, one may fay, thou wouldft force them to' 
love thee, hadft thou not done tt by the charms of thy 

* But wliat fliaH we- do in this thy extreme a/ffiSioh, 
and in the troubleibine condition I am for the grief 
thou endureft, . wltich mingle» my ink with my tears ? 
Yet we muft endeavour to be eomforteé with a firm 
i^fohiti^a^iiot to.«^i^€M«rftlv«»b^at the lofs of &ch* 
things which will never be in our power to recover ; 
tkoo a^ «be-Ms of the reptitatidn which thou haft* ac-- 
quired of a virtuous woman, and 1 2^ that of an hon^ 

When my^ father died, it was not all the philofophy 
nor eloqflicnce of the Greeks which could comfort thee ; 
thy a/Bié^ion was ftronger than all their reafons; and 
when^thèfè officious comforters- had foriaken thee, thou 
Yo^^eft €af^ tb thy trouble i» a new fpoufe. Hftm now 
<^oti- Hail loft, but now thou art ftill in a condition /roiÀ 
hìndèAng tka^ I0& from being irreparable. Thy virtue 
has ftciler*been queftioned, and tiou art not ^s jtt fo 
old but thou mayft think of another hufband. Seek 

^ 3 « 


%..thtrd> which may make thee forget thy forrbw for the- 
fecond ; aad if thou findefl him not immediately, <5V if 
thou hadft fome trouble in fccking a like comfort to thy 
affilio», receive in this letter the tears (£ another mo- 
ther, which will fiiow thee there is a woman of' a far 
higher condition that is more affli<Sled than thou art. 

Paris is ftill full of the cries and fighs whàch come 
from a princefs of the firft rank. She has now. loft a 
great prince, her fon, who is flain in . a battle which h« 
had won by a ftrong army of which he was generai» 
Read in my letter the livdy and tènder ckpfeffions of tiie 
grief of this iUuftrious mother, which draws compa£Son 
from his enemies, who are- forced b)rthc rules of civflity 
to make her vifits. Thus docs flie fpeak every day and 
hour to perfon? who come to vifk her ; and, when ther« 
is no body, fhe thus fpeaks to herfelf. 

This unfortttoate "^««man is not- a moment withtiUt 
fighing; ai^d oae would thkik by heir knguagse fiteiai^ 
tendied to; recai the foul which has quitted thcihadyofT 
h«r fon, the unhappy Count of* SoifiTons : ** P»oc GouHt,' • 
a fon fo t^ndeiiy.IoES^^» itad fo gsealtly^defQcvfld it^l^dbó-e» 
i». thy body now to be found, dyed 'in \aood and inthaiti 
of thy eaernkfe ? WhatviAory ? Where arethoieglo-' 
rioufi macks' that (hould give me fa great j^y» and- which' 
give me foch canfe of ^Cpaif ? Why did I bring the«' 
forth into the world, unfortunate fon, if Imuft fo foòn 
lofe thee ^ Miferable mother^ unhappy fon 1' Hfew aiti 
thou a conqueror when I fee no other tro|^y of thy vidto-- 
ry than thy death 1 1 hew -from all parts, that thcOotìnf- 
h vi^riotts, and yet I hear everywhere that hi* «neftlìé»* 
rej^ce. I fe€,-dear- fon, all thy domeftics that? Mlow^- 
tbwe, fetu»n without wounds, and yet I do not feetìietr- 
mafter. None oC therócan tell me where he is, and i» 
what plaee their general 1I«8, who fought with fo grcat^ 

Kùok TV. A SPY AT PARIS. 29$ 

^wkmrsÉnct'fuccefe'tohisr party ; bwtthejr are ali agreed 
the ^attk was won, that my fon is a conqueror, and that- 
he hsas loft hi» life. Unfortunate fight, which hdittcìiàe 
e<^(wally bewailed, the death of the vÌ45lorious general by 
his- mother^ and the defeat by the vanquifhed I Would to 
God thou hadft been vanquished, thou mightft have lived. 
I fhottld not. have been in this condition of following 
dice. It would have been no ftiafme to have beea de- 
feated, it would have been only a misfortune which 
would have been common to thee with Pompcy and 
Hannibal, to whom antiquity had nothing to impute, but 
their ill IbrtuQt. A fincere reconciliation, a pardon, or 
a peace, might make all that is paft forgotten. A vo- 
luntary exile ought have appeafed the king's anger, and 
p«chap& difarmed the cardinal ; my fon .might have lived, 
France would not have been trpubled, a mother would 
not have been at this day comfortleifl, and the Count's 
enemies would not have rejoiced at hit lols. But, to my 
giiefi nothing of this ha» h^^péned. Alas ! the flay of 
an illttftrioua family is dead? Unhappy mother ! how are 
aH thy k^es vaotflied f But, good God, how was this 
my dear fon takes out of the world ì I know but too' 
well that his enemies laid continually {hares for him. Me*- 
thlnka I fee my £an-9 murderers give him the deadly 
ilcoke in the heat of the fight, and in the inftant he was 
going to enjoy his viftory. Ah, my dear ion I Ah, un- 
fortunate mother ! Why did I not breathe out my laft 
on the dead body of this fon, fo worthy the efleem ofc 
all the world, and whom I fo dearly loved ? -Why didft 
not:tbou^ tpo powerful minifter, giv< me the mdrtal blow,, 
rather .than let me fee. fo fad a tragedy } Do yoa kill mo- 
tbat kearime ; or thou» my fon, give me thy hand,^. 
ii;tpd the grave where thou art to be buried. .^^ 
^< But my reafon fails me ; I muft» for my fon's ho- 

N 4 


aour, .ftifle thefe mouons of weakncfs. It is truc^ lie 
Ihrcs BO longer ; but he died in thjc bed of honour, with 
his fword in his hand ; he died full of glory 5 he died 
▼i&orlous ; and, even in dying, vanqixifhed his enenues. 

** Let us ccafc from Ihcdding tears, feut' what do I 
fay ? he died affaffinated, a vidlim facrificed to the ven- 
geance of hie enemies by the blackeil treafon it is clear : 
and vet I would live : No, I muft die ; let us imitate the 
greatnefs and courage of thofe illuflrious women, who 
threw themfclvcs on the pile Whereon their huibands were 
burnt : My fon is more dear to me ; let us theii die» and 
weep no more : thefe tears are fruitlefs ; but let us live^ 
f^pejng Heaven ordains it, and let us live to die every day : 
I fhall have ever prefent before my eyes the death of my 
fon ; I fhall fee every day his bloody body ; I fhall con- 
tinually remember his refpe^t, hi^ tendemefs for me> i^n4 
I fhall never forget the tender SLtkd violent pafliou which 
I had for this fon, for whom alone I lived : But at lead, 
cruel cardinal, reflore me his dead body. Thou hafl thy 
revenge, he is no longer alive ; give this fad cónfolation 
to a defolate mother, perhaps this fight will work the 
effeé): thou defiref^, crud wretch as thou art; it will 
unite my foul .to that of my fon." . » 

Dear ippther,,if tbsu canfl not comfort thyfelf byfb 
gr^t an exasaple of misfortune as this princefs, it will 
be hard for thy fon to fay any thing which can diminifh 
thy grief. Imitate, this illuftrious woman, who having 
fuffered whatever forrow and dcfpair can do to a mother 
vfrho loves vehemently, and with reafon, fuffers Ijcrfelf to 
be pcrjuaded not to give an entire vidpry fco h<r enemies, 
who triumph fiill over her fon, by the grief wimii they 
kt liis death has caufed. She has been ruled by the ad-^ 
vice of her friends, and received great convfort from 


a ktter fent her by tbe king» written with his own 

hands :' " " ' Z^/ .,. ^ ^ . . ^ ,.^^^ ,' 

/ *f Coufihy tlie grief which, you fhow at your late loia 
obliges me to tiéftify tfie fhare which I have in iti' a|id 
the difplcafure I coricete at theiault of him which Has 
eaiifed it : and tliough I ought not to be forry, by rea- 
fon ot the' conjiinAure wherein it has happened, yet I 
muft ^artily condole with you, and contribute what I 
am able to your confolation.'? 

I can fay iiothiiig more to thee, my moft honoured- 
mother, unlefs it be, that thou (halt always have in mc 
a- mod obedient fon y and^ if thou takeft a third huf- 
band, thou wilt be perhaps lefs unfortunate ; but pleafe 

The Great God, who has created all things, and pro- 
vides for their necefiities by his infinite goodnefs, conv* 
fort and fill thee with his bleffings. 

Paris, ^;tlvo^ the ad Mwb^ ef the Year 1642. 

XV. — To tie Grand Sigmor's Tr^afurer. 

1 HB prieft which played' the tarpaufia, whom the French 
call the Archbifliop of Bourdeaux, of whom I bcKeve I' 
have gitfcn thee fòme account the loth Moon of the 
Year 1637, has loft the credit which he had with the 
king, and is at prefcnt difgracedi The opinion of his- 
valour at court is much leffened, by his not hindering, 
with the fleet he commande^, the Spaniards from putting 
fuccours into Tarragone, a famous fea-port near Barce- 
lona. They loft the laft year twelve galleys in fight a- 
gainft the French naval forces ; but having fitted a migli- 
tier fleet, they have put into this place the fuccouif they^ 



intended. The archbifliop ccmld not, oi would not, 
hinder them, which will be the caufe that this place will 
not come fo foon under the power of the French. 

'It Is &id that this prelate was banìRied France, and 
vN» retired into a city fituated on thc^Rhofne, named 
Av%non, and belongs to the Roman prdate. 

It being a thing very ufoal to run down the unfòrtu^ 
nate, all the world blames this prelate, having not always 
met with equal fuccefs on the fea in the employs he 
fought, and which did not at all agree with his funéHon 
of archbifhop ; which he might have performed with ap- 
plaufe, in imitating his pi'edecefiar, who was his brother, 
the Cardinal de Sourdis, and who had kft him a diocefe 
wèH regulated, rich, furniftied with great flore of churches 
well fòrved, paftors- of great piety and learning, whom 
this man had procured and fettled in his diocefe with 
great care ; which made his death extremely lamented^. ' 

.The Catalonians are at length become this king's fub- 
Jefts; they maintain their revolt with the French forces, 
and flrengthen themfelves after the example of. the Por- 
tuguefes. They fight with fuch courage, that they 
•come off continually conquerors : but I (hall make no* 
relation of their fights, nor of the blood which is fpilt 
ofl either fide,' -«^ich afe matterl I do not care to treat 

'God give thee a continual tranqoiility <^ mind, make 
thee in love with peace, and pre&rve in thee that vigSbnt 
{pirite for neceflary for the keeping the treafttrc cmtrafted. 
to thee* • ' ,. ' ; ' 

Pvis, i^ih of the ad Moon, of the Year is^z, ' "^ 

. V 

XVL^^Ta the. Kaimach Am, 

: , ■ -. • _ _t • 

À.^E oordiaal favDorhe of France ha» fucb lon^. bnols, 
that lie mokes fdeares in tbofe platea which are ztet 
fubjeól to his. jurifididki^n : and, wh&k he hz& made them* 
Ike keeps them without any thoughts of rejftoring them. 
There is no probability at prcfent that this b«dd poHti» 
cian will lay hazuls on what belongs to the Grand Sig- 
nior ; however, I have fome rcafon to write this. 

There has been carried» fome days ilnce, an illuftriout 
prifoner into tlie caftle of the Wood of Vincennes, and 
thou {halt hear this new way of apprehending a great 
man in another's houfe, and in the court of a foreign fo- 
■«feign, who is abfolutc in his own eftates. This pri- 
fbner was apprehended in the midil of the fineil ladies -in 
the Court of Turin, at a magnificent ball which the 
dutchefs-rcgent of this eftate gave in her palace. It 
was this priacefs whom I mentioned to thee, who was 
widow to yi^or Amadasus, Duke of S^vof , aqd fitter 
to the king which now fo happily reigns over the 

> The dutchefs, who had a particular coufideration fbr 
tills. prifofier, could not bdbold this exploit of the, cardi-, 
nal's without extreme vexation ; his name is, if I be not 
miiiaken, Couat PhUip d'Agre, a perfon of great quali- 
ty^^^and whafc;^ excellent parts and courage do yet^ irender* 
him mmy iUuftri^u* than bis birth. • 

It is not yet known why the cardinal undertook; 
iach. a bold ftroke, though it is faid 4he council of 
France has had great reafons to fecore the perfon of 
this favourite. The chief motive they fay was, that he 
was carrying on fome defigns againCt the intereils of this 
crown with the Cardinal of Savoy, whom it is thouglxt; 


30P tETTKRS WRITTfiN BY '^ol. I. 

htf/wx>«Id have ittamed to the widow of Amadfleiis* hi» 

Richlieu attempted not to carry off Count Philip till 
having made feveral trials to remove him from the Court 
of Turi», undent the^ pretence of fome embaffy to which 
he would never confent ; fo that his obftinacy coft him 
his liberty- 

The dutchefs greatly complains and reproaches the 
king her brother wkh the vioUtios of the . right of na- 
tions and fovereignty ; but only her own court- are fen- 
fihJe to thefe complaints, they being not heard in that of 
France; and her ambaffador has been feen there m a 
fùppiìcant poflure, humbly fuing for the count's liber- 
ty ; or that he might be fent on an embalTy to Rome; 
or at leailwife, that in leaving the caftle of Vincennes, he 
nfigliC be hnprifoned fomewhere in Paris, 

The cardinal aniWered the fupplicattons of the ambaf* 
fador of Stivoy, that the king^ his maft^ did not. appftt^ 
hend Philip and bring hhn, into France», but -out of 1?6* 
gavd to the ihterefts of his fifter of Savoy. ; and that fte 
might be afliired that for her £ake he ihould be well 
ufed. . 

Thoa mayil fee by this anfwer a :great hanghiinefs 
and ftivdlotia reaionifigs, which fuffidently denote tkifit 
this gt^st miniftef does not k>ve to be contradiCied or 
oppofed in the refolution ke takes ; and if an account of 
what is dene in the world muft be given to: any t>heinàn 
alone, he wotild take it very ill i£ it were, to any body 
but himféff. 

I (hall i^ot fail to fend thee the books thou rèqiuxefty 
attd infnnn thee the bei): I can of the &lfe or .tmie;Don 
Sebéfiian^ Kùìg of Pomrgal» whom his £ub^<àèQio be- 
fieve to be ftiH aHvc, when I have made fofficient i^qoi- 
fits into the tnith of the matter. I ki£i wi^ tuppotqv^à 

BoókìV. A«1»T ATPARIS. 3OI 

humility the h^m of thy rkh veil, on which I blàaa^ the 

lips of a refpedful and obedient flave. » ' " ^i 

Paris, 2ifl of the 3d Moon, of the Year 1642. 

XVII. — To the Reis Effendi, Secretary of the Empirep 

X HER£ was founds lafi night a man dead in the ilr«ets of 
Paris, who feenls not to be above thirty years old ; he is 
a Spaniard, and had about him a letter or meihoir, which 
It feems he had written to fom^confidant at Madrid, in 
thefe terms : 

" Cardinal Richlieu -told me he did not know the 
hand nor fignature of Count Olivare^'s fccrctary ; and 
that when he fhould fill up his figned blank, which I 
prcfented him, and let fall the pretended letter of the fe- 
crctary into the King of Spaitv's hands, he faw not what 
adtaatE^e could refiult hence to the King of France liis 
raafter. I am' very willing, added he, that the King- ef 
Spain fhould fufpcéb -the count or fecretary of inEdeHty, 
and of having iovat cammerce witb me ; but it woald; 
not be advantageous to us. he fhould be plainly con- 
vinced of it, fedng the greateit happineis France could 
have is, that Count Olivarez's miniflry ^oidd be perpe* 
tual ; for being the moil unhappy of all . tlie favourites, 
that have ever been in the place he pofTefies, all good 
Frencinnea are obliged to pay to Grod to give has a 
long H^ add to condàue h^m ever in the king his maf» 
ter's favour, to perpetuate by his courifels the difgraces 
of ^n.»* 

He purfued his point -of raìfiery^intthis manner'r. 

'* Of a i!)ttkeK>f BfBganza, Oiitearez has made a King 
•f Portugal i of a -King of France, «.ijouat ofi Baredo-^ 
im ; of a fovereigfi I>uke of Lor^ain, a 9af&l ; of a prince 


c^rdinai; a knight-emint t of a Lofd of M<maòho, a ^doktr 
and peer of France ; and, m uxk^ of Fhii^ IV. Kiag; ^oi 
Spain, he has made a Count Duke dc.Olivarcz-". • 

Thk is ail I could get. from fo great and tUaftnous a 

The juft God, who has fent us his prophet, ever Arc6l 
thy aftions, that thou mayeft enjoy an happy eternity^ 
and give thee opportunities of doing good. 

Pari», a^th of the 4th Moon, of the Year 164Z. 

XVIII. — To William Vosprl, a Chrljilan of Auflria^ 

V70D be praifed, thy patriarch £Has, and his compa*- 
nion ; forafmuch as I fee thou art a faint, and content in. 
the religion of the barefooted friars^ which thou haiik em- 
braced. Thou ftirreft me»up to do good^ and encou* 
rageft^ me to fufFer, and become fcrious enough to rei- 
nonnce the pleafures of the world, feeing thou tracedme 
a Ivay fo neceiTary to walk in, in order to arrive at Hea- 
ven. I did not believe, indeed I confeis it, thoa wett 
cndaed with that conftancy, .and was afraid thou wouldft. 
change ; but feeing thou haft the courage of keq>ing. 
thy refolution, and- enduring all the incommodkm&fifft 
which is to be met with in that kind of life which thott> 
haft embraced ; I am forry for my (iifpicioDs,. and profefs* 
I have all due efteem for thee. I love thee as much- as 
one honeft man ought to love another, who having found 
out the true good,, has run impetuouily after it y and wko 
has paft immediately from a foft and voluptuous life ta 
the foveirities of an auftere religion, in feareb of as aifiiuv 
ed port, whicbis more ufually found in fufibings ^and 
macerations, thaiT in delights and pleafures. There i»* 
one thing amongft others, which extremely p}ea&s.ine i» 


Book IV. A SPY AT ?AM%* 3Q3 r 

the Older thourbafi: entered p ^ things are= lA CQtosoi^ 
amongft, you i oac key opens aa hundred doors 5 you 
have no Meum etTuum ; all clad in the fame fafhion, and 
all go barefooted ; you eat at the fame, table, and no 
body has better or worfe fare than another. In. im^i 
' your prayers .are the fame, and fo are your vows of po- 
• verty. 

But prithee tell me, what would a thief have found in 
thy cell, whom I faw yeftcrday hanged with a key a- 
bout his neck ? He had the dexterity of opening with 
his key all forts of locks, and has done a thoufand ro- 
guifli exploits, which have at length brought him to the 
gallows. He told the people he died a moll happy man, 
as having pra<9iifed with great fuccefs an art inferior to 
none ì that the oi^ crime he thought he had: been guil- 
ty of for thefe thirty years was his committing but fmall 
thefts ; that had he found the doors always open he 
had never entered into any houfe ; and he exborted magi-* 
ftratcs to Ohaftile only thofc who: foffered themfefves to - 
be robbed. 

Spaniih authors haye written» there is no law which 
"afiot&penakies to thofethat rob with prudence and ingenua' « 
ity» Thus, fay they, doall thofe who Ileal yidiercWithal' to » 
appeale the envious who would accufe them, the witnef*» 
fes which imght ferve to convi^ them, «id . the magr- 
fbàtèsixy whom they are to be judged ; fo that the thief; 
tliE^iihall have fiolen for himfelf^ and for all others I tiow 
menubned, fhall be ever fent away abfdved ; whidi. 
makes me think that theft is of the nature of women^ 
for both one and the other feem at this day to be no- - 
ceflkt^ enb, jttfb^asLvkey&.feem onlyigoodnow-^rdayQ to 
pce&rvn mkad may be ibokn, and not to iktoder it from, 
being fix . ■ ' . ^ V 

Haw.'imaD^p tbing&.haa the in^uftice of fome people an* 



thorifed for the f^feguard of a town ? It is not enough 
to have a ftrong garrìfon of foMiers ; three 'elenfi^ftfs aré 
not fufficient to defend it againfl a gVeWer pb^cr thài^ 
wotdd bpprcfs it. . The earth is raifed to make thereof' 
trenches ; the deepeft ditches are dried' up, wliateVcr ^ 
quantity of water may be in them, and fire is encilòféd'^ih- 
cannons, the effedls of which are terrible. If thou! fur-' 
veyeft Italy, thou wilt find, in feveral towns, p^ces 
which fiave more gates than Thebes had heretofore ; and 
if thou counteft tlie keys which ferve tt> open therti, thou- 
wilt find the iron they are made of to coft more than the 
doors themfelves» 

Men are not contented to ufc thefe keys according to- 
the common ufe they feem to be defigned for ; their axnbi^ 
tiott^ makes them Cerve for marks of honour in feverat 
princes court», where they be recompenfes for fervices, for 
virtue and valour. The golden key in Spaiif, wìiich the 
great lord* wear, denotes, that they know how to open.* 
the gate of favour. And it is the fame in Germany, andt 
cfpecially in the emperor*à court. 

Happy was ancient Rome,whofe citizens were fo wiie^ 
that being advifed to torn the front of their houfes on 
that fide where they could- not be obfcrved by their 
neighbours, they anfwered the arehiteél, ** We rather de-» 
fire our houfes may be overlooked into, bccaufe we do' 
nothing wherein We fear a furprife." Wiiereas modem 
Rome, on the contrary, may be termed unhappy, where* 
in there are not enough gates, and porters of them,. 
t<r conceal what is done in the mofi retired places of their 

It is in this city where luxury grew to that height on» 
der the firft emperors, that all mens ftudies were to find 
out new pleafures. 

But I muft^ead this difcourfe of keys, of doors, and 



dpor-keepers j J muft not laxpeA to reform the wory, , 
nor would I weary thy patience. Pardon ine my paffing 
from the cell to the ftoryof the thief whom I faw execut- 
ed|^ aiid from the thief to a difcourfe of keysj and other., 
things with which I have entertained thee. I vrza fo 
full of it thi^ I could not forbear the difcourfe, no more 
than I can now to fpeak of the fubtiity of the Spaniards, 
who have vaunted of the worth of their Efcurial, by the 
great number . of the keys which belong to it ; like that 
foolifh emperor who valued the greatnefs of Rome by 
the great weight of fpiders webs which were there. The 
Spaniards affirmi there are fo many doors to this ftately 
edifice» that the keys which ferve to. open them weigh 
8^ve ten thoufand weight. 

But it is time to end thid tirefome letter. Let me then 
counfel thee to watch over thy coRfcience as the Pari- 
fians do over their (hops, to prevent, violences. Here 
are fo many great and fmal} thieves, that (hould they be 
punifhed as they were cha^ifed in Syria» where the fame 
punifhment is impofed on him that is robbed as he that 
roJ>8, this great town would be foon unpeopled, or be- ^ 
cometa prifoa to an infinite nwnbcr of people who would 
be found faulty. 

. May it pleafe the great God, who ihould be adored by 
all creatures, to incline the great Prelate (after thou. art 
delivered from the burden of the flefh), to place thee., 
amongft the number of thofe for whom the church has a 
pious veneration, and refpedi thy a(hes in fuch a manner , 
as I hope thy holy and exemplary life will deferve. 

Psrit,^4ti) of the 4th MpoD, «tf the Year t6i%. 

306 LETTERS WRITTElf BT •Vbfc< L- 

' XIX.— r^ the Fenerahle Muftk *' 

X Hou wilt not think me troublefome, if th^u remeni*- 
berefk the order thou haft given me, and 1 ought rarfitìir 
to hazard the tiring of thee by frequent lett€rs> than-be* 
accufed of negleft for not obeying thee. Obedience' 
muil needs be agreeable where the command is madetrith 
wifdom. When I write to the Grand Viikr^ it id iti- 
trembling ; and if .1 write to the Kaimacham, I am not 
without hope ; and I fend no letter to the oth«r baila»^ 
without inquietude and great trouble. As to what con* 
ccrns my friends, I divert myfelf in writing to thcmé*-^^ 
But when it is to thee I write, I may fay k is, that 1 
may hope, live, and obtain in the other world that happy^ 
ftate fpoken of by our holy Prophet, that life whioh it 
to be the recompenfe of ail thofe who fliaU perform gooci 
adions whilft they dwell among men» 

Cardinsd Richlieu would willingly be abfointe in nifft-^ 
ters of religion as thou art ; he would alfo be thought tC' 
faint, but he knows not how to be one ; and indeed' he- 
wonld be every thing. However, he does abundante" 
of things which thou doft not, and preteods to be abovt 
thee, becaufe he does not live as thou doft. This man^ 
whofe head is full of the afiBeiirs of the world, conceros 
himfelf in whatever pafles in Europe ; one ^nly employ 
cannot fatisfy him ; he is not contented with being the 
favourite of a great king, under whofe authority he go- 
verns all things : Some time ago it was reported he 
would make himfelf a patriarch. He afpires extreme 
high, undertakes the mod difficult matters, and takes a 
fingular pleafure in making ufe of extraordinary means 
for the execution of his projeds, that pofterity and hlfto*- 
rians may write, that being come into the woxid with * 
fmall fortune, he died rich ; and being born in the coadi- 


tion of a private man, he lived in the ftatc-of a great 
prince. Obferve, venerable prince of that religion, which 
cafe' Blone be approved ©f by him who drew the world- 
out, of nothing, two remarkable ft rokcs of this French 
Tibeiausi which I have learned but lately. 

The- cardinal (eiit to Madrid incognito a general of cer- 
tain dervifes, a man of a fit genius to fecond his owa, of 
a piercing and** fubtle wit, and very underftanding in fe- 
cula* afEairs ; after having given him exprefs order, that 
as'fborl as ever he fhould be in Spain, he.fhould do'fuch- 
and ijich a thing, and that at his return into France, h«- 
Hiould remit into his hands alone the memoirs of what he- 
had iarànfa6led. This monk fucceedcd very well in the- 
ensrplòy he .mìdeiftoók, but in hi^ return the cardinal fent. 
aarexprefs.commaad to biin, ca.>deHver, before he entered. 
into.'Fran(se, all his pstipers into the banida of a geatleptan- 
who brought him his ktter. The derwfe ol>ey«d,,l>ut: 
he^was diafgraced ; una the cardinal niaintsaincd it .was. a 
crinwto,pbey on.thi&:occafion ; for. having, ^opce receiv- 
c<4 .^anb. jorder ,to eDttuft »o body with. tbefepstpera. hut 
hi§aSdi$ he coidd.QQt be excufed for, dehvering thcn^ tp 
otjii^rv^^ su)d foir thisjrQàfon he forbade him to fet^fpot \vittva 
thj5 kiagdoua. ThU poor religious died fome .^kne skfte^;, this ufage ; and perhaps this is the firft ti^ifi 
a man has been punifhed for too pundual obedience* 

^Ijt is not .many moons fince there came ppft a perfon 
of quality from Italy, who brought confiderable news to, 
the cardinaL It is impoflible for me to exprefs the ca«^ 
reflcs this feyourite made him j and to denote bis joy, 
he inanaediately prefented him with a rich diamond, and 
made him hope for flill greater recompenfes ; yet thi« . 
fame perfon that had brought this fp good news was car- 
ried to the Baftilc as foon as he came out of the cardi- 
nal's clofet, where he remained for fome moons without 


feeing any body ; fo that he imagined himfelf all that 
whik in a dre^n ; but at length his prifon doors were Tet 
Ope»! and the cardinal would fee him, and made him be 
given as many hundred crowna as he had paft over 
days in his folltude. He accompanied this prefent he 
made him with all the civilities imaginable, and faid thefe 
words to hhn, « Thou art not to blame, and yet I could 
not but puniih thee for my fault, when;i;made thee en- 
ter into my dofet as foon as thou cameU from Italy to 
brii^*mc fo advantageous news* The great defire I had 
to know the particulars of the bufinefs, made me fbi^et 
to^ take off from my table a writing of great importance, 
whidi thou mighteft have read entire ; which contained 
the revolt of Catalonia, the demands of this province, 
and the intfigues of France, which caufed this infurrec- 
tion; and the koowledge of fo imporumt a myftery 
might make my prince lofe the acquifition of fo rich a 
province» fb .diat I could not imagine a more fafè and 
fpeedy remedy, than to (hut thee up in a place where it 
was impoffibk for thee to make any ufe of the ilotices 
thou dldft get by my impmdehee. "Rat things being at 
purefent in fuch a condition, wherein it iaimpoffible France 
fkiXL recrive afty prejudice, I r^ftofe thee thy liberty, and 
entreat thee to forget the feverity which reafons of ftate 
have pat me upon* Receive firom my hands the pnefent 
which' the king my mafter makes thee ; and be plealed 
to reckon me amongft the number of thy particular 

I proftrate myfelf again -at thy feet, holy Prelate, en- 
treating thy benediction, and that thou wilt look on me 
as one of thy moft obedient children, having fuch a re- 
fpefft to thy holinefs as is due to the greatéft mtriifter of 
heaveh that ever interpreted the holy Alcoran iii die em- 
pire of the faithful. 

Book |V. . , A SFT AT PARIS. JOp 

lalfo ontrcat thy prayers, that God, having rtgdpri to 
•the fup^licatioas which thou fhak offer him, would gifft 
me t}ip grace to live honeflly, and ferye the fwlta» fait]»- 
fully» and that I may die in the religion of my fathers*. ; 

PslHb* «4^1 of the i^th Moon, of the Year 164%, ' ^ 

XX. — To tif KaimachAm. 

X Kt books of the Arabian, Geber, are not to be found 
in that language which thou defireft them in; I havt~ 
fought for them, I believe, in above two hundred book- 
feUera fhops, and there is not one of them knows they 
were ever tranflated into the tongue in which thou 
wouldft have them. 

It is now fome time fince tliefe books have been C015- 
mon in France ; and there are feveral perfons who apply 
themfdves to Dr. Geber's fcience j bu^ thet^ is no tran- 
flation of them into any of the common languages of 
Europe. When I inquii;ed for this book, the bookfellers 
aflced me feveral different qiieftions, and efpccially, whether 
I fought for receipts to prolq^g life : Some there were 
who aflced me grinning^ whether my deilgn was to fix^ 
fome volatile deity ? And others anfwered the queftioft 
I made them qn the book of the learned Geber, only by- 
a fllence, accompanied with fome fmiles ; and at the 
faine time putting' into my hands a book, faying unto 
me, ** Here is what you look for, this is what you 
want,. Mpnfieur Abbot;" and this book treated of im- 
poffible things ; of the quadrature of the circle in geo-: 
metry ; of the pjiilplbpher's ftone in chemiftry $ of the. 
perfeftion of the orator in rhetoric ; of a republic, fuch; 
a one as Plato would h^^^. ^^ ^^ politics ; and of the 
perpetual motion in the mathematics. 


I did not fceiti to be miich moved at thefe merchants' 
dé^idgs with mc ; but I found a very hone ft capuchin, 
who put me in hopes of recovering the Geber thou feek- 
eft, for he affured me he faw it in Chaldee, or in the 
Egyptian language, in a learned man's library, without 
giving mc any encouragement to think it may be pur- 
• chafed, becaufe he that polfefles it is not needy-of money. 

Thou wilt not, perhaps, be difpleafed to know what 
this religious told me concerning cliemiftry ; and he ap- 
peared to me not only to have learning but experience. 
He affured me there were in Paris alone feveral thoufands 
of men that applied themf elves to this exercife ; and that 
there were above four thoufand authors who treat of this 
faience : That King Geber was the moll knowing and 
cleareft Ta his expreffions, and yet there are none but 
fuch as are real philofophers, and wholly bent to the 
ftudy of nature, that can eaiily underftand him. Where- 
unto he added, there were feveral people who laboured 
with great patience, but few with thofe qualifications 
which arc neceffary to find fuccefs ; he affirmed, that 
fpeculative knowledge is fruitlefs ; that one muft have a 
long pradice and continual exercife y that moft people 
labour to no purpofe, becaufe they do not take nature 
for their guide, no more than the operations (he makes 
in minerals j becaufe, according to Geber, the principles 
of the art Ihould be thofe of nature itfeff ; and that it 
is only in metals we can find metals ; and that it is, in 
fine, by metals one can fucceed in the making of perfe(fl 
metals. . • 

This good dervlfe maintained, that the true way to 
proceed to the perfeftlon of this great work, confifts in 
the union of the mineral fpirits purified by art, with the 
perfe£l metallic bodies, having firft volatilised them and 
then fixed them, in confcrving all the- radical humidity, 

Book iV. A spy at pahis. 311 

and in augmenting the natural heat, by a difcre^t con- 
x;p£liqa of t^ cQijapofition which cpme^ by this manr«l- 
I0U8 ferateftt, . which makes. ail this, mafs bail, and put» it 
^to a fermentation ; fo that this marvellous compofition, . 
infmuating itfdf by penetration into the moft fubtle parts 
xjf the mched metal, by the external fire, and radically 
^flfolving rit, it ripens it, and purges,it from. whatever is 
not of the effence of gold and of mercury, till the whole 
Jbe driven out to an entire perfeékion, which made the 
.ma$er pf mafters, the learned Geber, fay, that this per- 
.fe£l elixir being the pure fubHaiice of metals, it feeks in 
the m/ekcd metals that which is of the fame nature with 
itfelf, .and perfefks it. 

i^pw, .as it is impofiible for the artiil to produce any 
thing that is new according to hia fancy, but only to 
join or feparate what nature has. produced, Raymund 
liuUy would have us undcrfland, that the body in this 
art is^ the metallic being, in which lies the mineral fpirit, 
-be<?aufe the metals are nothing elfe but this fpirit, of 
which coniiils the philofopher's Hone ; and this fpirit is 
prpperly the virtue of minerals, in which is contained the 
fpring o£ metals. But the famous Geber has plainly 
(howed that thb Hone is whofly created and formed by 
nature, to which the artiA neither adds nor diminifhes 
any thing, but only makes it change its place by his pre- 
. paration, which in every other refpeél is ufelefs. 

This friar affirms, this mineral body, entirely fpiritu- 
ous as it is, has yet four forts of fuperfluities, of which 
it muft be purged by the hand of the artift, viz. a great 
humidity, the earth which is found therein, the ordinary 
fjalphur which bums, and the fait which is corrofive ; 
and it muft be purified by calcination, diiTolution, fubli* 
mation, and fixation, that there may alone remain the 
xadical humidity, fixed and permanent ; which being af- 


terwardfi united in an indiffoiiibk inanaer to the perltéi 
body, coo^fes this inoompanMc body* wkidb » fe madit 
Ibugkt» aad fo feldom found» and whkh t8«B Iwit eMxky 
powerful to cipen and purify all imperfed SKtak, «od 
coavert them into gc^d or itlver. 

There is afterwards given an aé^^ity to the gold» 01 
refining it by new degrees of fire, added to diat .which it 
already had. 

Thus far went our conver&tioiiy when as old woman 
•came unhappily upon us, and bereaved me et the fiit^ 
fa&ion of learning of this religious fome important, ie- 
cret which he feemed incUnable to intruft me with. TMi 
indii^reet and impertinent woman ufing the liberty or^ 
fsary with the people of this country, cruelly interrupted 
our convev£ftt!on ; and I remained ilruck as it were with 
a flafh of lightening, when this knowing friar tdd me, 
tliat the arrival of this woman forced him to take his 
leave of me ; and he appeared to be gone, like a man 
that was expeded for fome weighty affair^ yihea cafting 
his eyes on my countenance, he perceived the perplexity 
and confufion which this feparation caufed in me ; and* 
to comfort me, he faid thus to me in my ear : ** I know^ 
very well, friend, thou haft an inquifitive foul, and de# 
figneft great things ; meet me at my cell, and in the mean 
time I will tell thee for thy confolation. in plain teiims, 
that it always has been, and always (hedl be my dpinioo, 
that to labour profitably, one muft foUow Raymund 
Lully's rules. This great philofopher «affirms, and I am 
of his mind, that to make gold, one muft have gold and 
mercury, and mercury and filver to make filver ; but I 
underftand by mercury, that mineral fpirit £0 refined and 
purified,, that ^t aurifies the very feed of gold, j|»d ar» 
gentizes that of filver." Thefe are the very wotds he 
fpake to me* 


But-ji^'Ieaving^me^'I entreated him to teH là», whe* 
tber it yrz% t^ 4q «ttatnto the aooompIiibmcMr of tkis 
gfeil»i'^);id> Aod.what was nceefiafy £or that great «iid Ì 
. iica^fywred Oie^ it was very hard, which made almòft 
aU people deljpair of compaffiag it, thert being very few 
peoylkc op whom Heaven beftowed the neccffary qualifi- 
cations to acquire this precious art ; that thefe qualifica* 
tioos coafifled in being a true philofopher, and in being 
per&dly ftillcd in nature^ io having a patience proof a«~ 
gaiiyft all diff^^pointnaents } and that a man (hould be in 
the d&wss q( his age, ftrong and vigorous to endure la« 
boa«> well forniihed with wealthy and indefatigable* 
Whereunto he added» that if any of thefe qualities were 
wanting^one aa^ht be certain that the others would be fo 
aUb> Uiatasian who is unacquainted with nature, works 
like a Uind'i&an ; and that fhould one fail of fuccefs the 
ikft, fccond, third* fourth, nay, fifth or fixth time, in 
the Operaiàon, he is a fool that then grows weary, and 
doft&not again begin to fet at work with the &me eameft* 
neffrand hopes of fuccefs ; and that fhonld a man want 
9r vigpr^^s health, labour would weaken and make him 
fatitt} and that, in fine, if one be without fnfficient ellatc, 
it is impdfiible the work (hould fucceed ; which demands 
an» entife n^an» and Aich a one as minds nothing elfe. 

This ddrvife, mokreover, told me as a thing certain, that 
ftfverd perfimlBT had attairtcd to the perfc<aion of this un- 
dertaking, which employs fo gfeat a number of virtu- 
ofo's^ iff aH parts of the world ; for were it not fo, there 
vfOiM not be thirt quantity of gold thew is, for all that 
of th^ Indies Wfsnot fufficient to fatisfy fo many people, 
who niirid nothing elfe but gaining of it ; and that, in 
fittÉ, fuch great tréafures which are heaped up, and the 
gold chat rwu( ini traffixv ne^er cttme out of the mmet 
which are in the HtonataiiiB, btit that a great part has 
Fot./. , ' o 




▼ettdus metal- ihfly be wrought m their clofefs vfitftòut ' 
going to Pera, and ram^wkiag th«re the boi^h of^'fhe 
earth; they know tery well that this longed-for gold ' 
produces every thmg ; gives reputation ; makes them fol- 
low one, who ied from a man before ; corrupts thofe.' 
laho appear the moft incorruptible ; opens the ftrongeft 
doors ; orerthrows whole armies ; caufes a man to change " 
his mind in a moment ; makes him that was a poor man 
prefently talk fentences. Nay, many Chriftians affirm 
this metal to be fo efficacious, that it draws the fouls out 
of a doleful abode called Purgatory ; ib that it feems as if 
it appcafed God's wrath, and brings men to heaven. 

Thefe afore^mentioned reafons obliged the cruel DiocIe-% 
fian to put to death as many chemifts as could be found 
in Egypt, and at the fame time to caufe their books to 
be burnt, left the people, who were naturally ingenious," 
being become too powerful by the art of making gold» 
ihould undertake a war agaihft the Roman empire. But 
we find in the ancient writings of the Arabians, that Mo*' 
ies having learned of God himfelf the art of perfeAly " 
knowing nature, and that of the converfion of metals» 
and making gold, to verite in letters formed of this metal ^ 
the law he prefcribed the Ifraelites : He taught it to 
Carun, a poor man, but his intimate friend and near kinf- 
man ; who being become very rich by means of this 
fcience, had heaped up immenfe treàfures, and "built him- 
felf forty hoùfes, which were fiHed vnth gold, but were 
all f#!fflòwed up, and buried in the earth by the virtue of 
Mdfes's rod, with the mafter of them, whom fo great 
riches had tendered proud, and made him think of virith- 
drawing h&nfelf from obeying this great fervant of God, 
having MiEty àécufcd him before the people of divers ' 
crind^ and cfpeciaBy of having abufed a virgih. 

:■■.. IM .... 03 * ^■" •• 


'' The laft thing which wat dHèovefed'7Ìn the Venottair 
territories, was a great urn found in an holli^w care. In 
this urn, which was confidcrabty large; thtire was.znot)^ 
lefs, and in it two pots, one fiifi of gold rfdttGed.iiilo U- 
^quor, and the other of frher of th^efiunc falEiioa, and. a 
lamp which Teemed* to ha^e burnt 1m many: Ttges^ It 
was known by the charaAer» cHi this^ mti that they wece 
confccratcd to the god Pluto ; aiid til^e ware oa them. 
Latin verfcd which (howed that Ma^ttus- Olibius had 
been the author of them, Thof« then whO'ftty «hi» art is 
felfe, that the beginning of it if a E«v tile mdàle of the 
work mere fatigue, and the end beggairy, have not. (aid- 
true thcmfelves ; and yet one cannot ac^etbci» as hav- 
ing not in fome fort fpoke tht tnit^ 

I bcfcech the Sovereign Cireator of all dfilngs, ftom 
whom alone we hoM what we kno<^ a$^ being the gorat 
and wife architeél- of natWe^ that he wduhl beébow on: 
thee this fcience of the (earned: Gebirii-, that thou niaye£ 
be as ficK as Solomon ; but abo^e all t^at he wonid gtanf 
tbee the fpirit of Aglau«> who was ^èr€osa' td live con^ 
tent. ' ' : / ■ i 

Pvcit, 20th of the 5th Mipon, of the Year 1642. 

> XXL-— 7« MftHEMET, ^?« Eunuch Page to tf?( Suhanejs. 

The adventure which thou rtflatedft happi^fted ki the fc- 
... tàglio, IhóWB that women are cxpofed to great a^coidvuts» 

Their condition isr unhappy when they are hfmdfomft^ but 

more when they are fromely and dèfòrtn«dl TH^^^^bsi», 
^ brethren, and huftands, guard the former as CiSt^nw 
.. guarded the gates of hell ; and' tl^ others guard '' tWean- 
j:..fcWc8,.aiia look oa all tilings with éyès^èteiwy aiid-dSf- 

contcnt, wlifc& makes them cmpoxfotf titrf thingir ' But 

Book IV. A «rir AT PARis« 317 

that wtiick'hftppeas amongft us is very d|iffereat fxom 
M>:hat 18 in France» where Mromen eojoy a liberty almoft 
4B>|\ial to\that ^ men. Not but that we fee notable ad- 
vcntures happen, tl^re I witnefs the queen» who is motlier 
to a great king^ now reigoi^t ^nd yet lives in exile» and 
as a fiigitÌTe amongft grangers» throi^h the credit of 
Cardila Haehl^u» for whpm ihe has not all the deference 
he expe£te4« ^nd an ancient lady (I may call her fo 
now (he does not hear me)^ told me fuch things fonie 
idays^paft on this oecaiion» which I >c|in fcaxce believe my- 
£df» 4id I not JcjBOw them to be true from elfewhere. 

I am £irther told» that this cardinal» not having fuc- 
ceeded in the defign he had of marrying his niece with a 
{arince of the blood» intended {if he could) to marry her 
to the ^mg's brothers But there is no great likelihood 
but £9 ^aUe a mioifter jnuft fee into th^ mifchievous con* 
^ef jueoces into which this .promotion would bring him ; 
for it would undoubtedly ^t&w on hun the hatred of aU 
the great people in the kingdom» and I would not be 
sneslioiied >i^ Conjtaotinop]^ for the author of all the 
pews talked of at Paris. ^ 

But it is certain this prlefi fent the cltaneellor» a vener- 
able perfon» and by his office a mau of gjrcat ^uthonty^ 
4o feisroa this pancefs's papej^yinh^pcs he might .meet 
with fome letter which might favour that defign. The 
chancellor executed the order he had received» but &un4 
nothing of what the cardinal pretended ; fo that t^- 
perfecution ferved only to manifeft this princefs's vir- 
tue, who lives in fuch a manner as may not only ferve 
as an »am{^ to all queens» but aH the wcwieB in^ the 

- Some time after, this fame chancellor being come tjO 
fip^p^fOjQXt the queen on the birth of the dauphin»: ibe 
told hi^ io 9 ^ompofed mann^» bpt v£ry pl^f|^%tl|^|.that 

' « 3 


(lifs Vffit >^s very different from tlwlt fiie feaé received 
from hkn about a year paft. ' * - * - ^ -^ 

If p'erfons that are fcated m the highcft degreeìf-lw 
not fccure from the bold attemps of thofc who are infi- 
nitely below them, and who- ai*e bom to fer^ thttA ; 
the beautiful Cinraflian (hould comfort hetfdf in the mif- 
lortune (he had of being accufed. If her innocerffcy be 
weH proved, (he will be the more pleafihg to 'Ibrahim, 
and the falfe accufation laid againft her will be a hew 
charm to him ; whereas (hould (he be found guilty, wc 
muft grant (he deferves the moil dreadful puniihments for 
baving violated, if I may fo exprefs myfelf, the facred 
sights of the feraglio. 

'However, the young Perfian was found difguiled i« 
women's apparel in fome of the neighbouring itables ; 
•nd though he fn the midft of the torments he fùfièred 
éltà without confeffing any thing, yet it canQot b^ ù&à 

' he died innocent, after fuch an attempt. ' ^ 

I hope thou wilt inform me what has happened fifttrc 
thy laft letter, and in wh^t manner the adventure of tUn 
beautiful dave (hall be ended : I (hall be much troulflèd 

^ for her if (he be innocent ; and cannot be wholly free fi^om 
«ompaffion for her if (he prove gtiiky. 

Leave not off writing to me ; and if it be poffibte be not 
weary of loving me. I fpeak in the prefence of our hoJy 

' Prophet, I love thee with the fame affeè:ion as ever, and 

1 dare not utter an untruth before him. " ' ^ 

Paris, 20th of the 5th Moon, of the Year 1^42. 

XXII. — Td /^^ Kaimacham. 

^i^ is-abowt fixty years (ince Don Sebaftian, King of Por- 
^-<%gàlKlfed in Afric, by the hands of the Moors, irad yet 
his fubjeds willbelicve him ftill living. 

,Bo»k rV. A SPr AT PARIS. 

He parted rfrom Lifcon in thè year 1578, in 
lign of rc-eftabliihing on his throne. Muky Mehemet 
fiff of Afrit, -whom his uncle Muley Abdelcmelech Mr< 
l>erea¥e of his kingdom ; but in tSeuk^ to endeavour 
the makipg himfelf maftcr of Barbary. 

His army confifted of a thoufand fail, well fumifhpd 
with proviiions, few foldiers, but a great many nobility. 
This prince was not above fi? e-and-twenty years of age 
when he formed this cnterprife : He was a ftrong bodied 
man, of a moderate ftature, but well 'fet ; his hair was 
ycUow, his eyes great and full of fire ; his courage V?a« 
not infe^or to his ftrength, and he had no violent inclina* 
tion to pleafures, which generally take men's minds off 
, from gallant a£lions ; he was temperate ia ^ things, yet 
very foriyard ia undertakings, and always firm and im- 
. moveable in greateft dangers.. He was a great huft>%nd 
i)£ his revenues ; employing them in bia fubje^s defence, 
or to the increafe of his own power. He. was agreeable 
to all thofe that waited on him; and in the freefi con* 
verfs^tions he took care not to difoblige any one by (harp 
railleiry or diiiafteful fayings ; and fo merciful vras he, 
that te avjpided all occafions of condemning his fubjedx 
to death. . He pa£[ionately loved virar ;' but it is thou^t 
the expedition into Afric, wherein he perifhed^ came 
froiQ Spanifh counfels. 

D. Sebaftian w^s killed, fighting with an. invincible 
courage. The Moors fay, that his enemies were fo 
charmed with his courage, that his death drew tears froaa 
their eyes. 

He was fprisken by his own ; mortally ^irounded near 

the right eye-brow; and pierced with darts in feverat 

parts of his body. He had no wound in his head, be- 

cau%,be,was armed ; but he had a great oi^ i|i,lus arnr,, 

, ^Kbid^ fi;exAc4 to co^e.from a muflcetAM^^^I* J% js^ ^ià: 

■^ 9 A. 1 ■ ' i.i 

J*o htntKs Sfhnìtfàì BY ^ Voi;^?. 

ite Was bunèd in the May hear a Moor,' wkhotit" any ce- 
remony, prayer», or company of his relations or fubjeÓs. 
*nd this was the end of this great king, who made* alj 
Afric at firft to tremble. " ' . 

Although the Moors rejoiced at the death of To puit 
fant an enemy, yet hfs friends bewailed bis misfortune. 
The kingdom of Portugal celebrated his funeral in a 
inagnificent manner, and the King of Spain proffered fe- 
ycral thoufand crowns for his body, to bury him in a 
manner anfwerable to the dignity of his birth and merit ; 
^d four kmgs hare fince fupplied his throne ; yet there 
was found a man bold enough to maintain in the fece of 
«11 Italy, that he wis reafly D.-Sebaftian, King of For-- 
ingrf. He prwfcntcd- faimfdf at Venice, in an «flembly 
of the vnk& magiftrates in Europe ; and he recited to 
tkcm the accidents of his Ufo, the hiftory of his predc- 
cefibrs, the misfomines he met witfe In -Afric, whence he 
retired into Calabria. He did mow: ; for fee ftripped' 
Imnfelf befojrc this iHuftnous «ffembly; he^owed them 
fetenteen marks on hk body, wliicli were acknowledged, 
With aftoniftanent, by the Portuguefes themfelves,, to be, 
at Icaft, very like thofe which they knew thck fovereign' 
hkò on hu body ;* and he alfo (bowed that he had one 
Itand greater than the other, and a hp dffproportionable in 
the fame manner, which were the well known marks in 
Ùit perfon of Don Sebaftian. He talks of ambafiadors 
vfhidh he fait to the repubiic ; he cites the anfwert he 
had received ; and all he fays is found confofmable to the 
truth.' He anfwers without hefitatlon to all that is oB« 
jcéled ; which makes' fevérai of the fenate believe him' 
tè* be really the king, and others take him for a witch. * ' 

Bnt^ in'fi^, this •prince, right or wrong, is led away* 
tiy prtfon,''et the fòlieitation of the Spanifh ambalfedo?, 
yH^^^hèàà^ llàtì^'ìéfii'ÌK is ftt àt liberty, uncfcr- ati 

ofaligaiioQ to k«K tbp'Veneiùiac^iufK^ri^ i^JJ¥tc àt^ 

Sqihc Fortuguefc» rf^OftA with comp^iffipPf .dtìgiiU^ 
liim io a dcrvife's ;hii«t, and fonduài^ ium fecretly %p 
Florence, tp tranfpprt Wwi aftemraKds to Rwws, b«t th^ 
Gres^t I>uke gf Tju&any caufcd Jum to be s^j>pre^de<j!» 
wxd fcnt him to tìxc yiceroy of Naples, Hje pi?efen^ed iaQa,- 
felf bcfor;e hm »'itK his ufual. cointfidencg, ^x^i fui|>rii^ 
all that fav^ him ^and heard Jbm ipeak^ fe^ifig the 
viceroy iwcovered» he £ùd to him >yith gKat afTurance 
aqd gravity, « Be covered, Coupt de JLewios :" whict 
obliged thi9 mi»ift^r to aik him, << By what ai^tfaprity b^ 
took on him this .bpldnefB ?" Tp >hidh he.anrw<|fie4» 
*^ That his authority \f^s born with hiiyi» and th^ bje 
feigned not to know bioda ^^^d yet Jie oi^ht to rwea^ 
^ ber that King PWig» bis M^jck b^d fcnt hÌ9» fcwi^e t^ 
him, and that the Xword yr hmh J^e tbeo wifie by hip 6Ah. 
was that which he ,J:hcn gayie hija?.*' 

The fcntence which the viceroy gave of him wai, thaf^ 
be was an impoiloi?, vrho deferv^d to be i^t to die gmU 
ley 6^ and (hovld not long be fi^m tb^»; ai¥Ì i^i^srfw» i^ 
« faid, he died fome time pjjer,. 

Yet the PoFtug.aieres have been ^erfuskded be was th^ 
jeal king, and do ftiU «ontinue of that ^Rinifln, thoij:: 
being nothing which is able to i$ake tbem ehange it* 
^^rne perfons in. the would wjU have him to be a najP^gi^ 
«ian, others an impoAor, and the4noft ignoi^t \fi$ jauniBL 
him to be .a devil, or ^re^y the J&idg Jbim&lfM . : 
. This Is Qpt the ifr& lejcsmtpW of the boUoeft/i^ |kn ifOr 
poftor. Rome faw heretofore Jinan^bat had j%he AMdfi» 
d|H»foefs to imbliih he wa$ the xcal Pooopcy ,wbo i?raav 
JMHed io Egypt by tdie oenelty <if the ycniD^ Bxiiemf* 
-Xbe Qgcen AxX&xìùl iìauad xine Artcmiaki ndléfhQ4 ^.^ 
Cff^9kr^iaoii0aaiotìp^ AsiXÌpekimììer.hvtDam^ 

^jn LErmuBsmsxtnm BY TRMch 

'4kt had ÀtuM to bèmiM«r«d«^ ùOiVhi ««àsfladit/ kaonn 

4«etieibijftg «o be this prince fickc^^fae :i«commaEdd(Libr- 
temifa to his fubjeds» and did.frr^ral^tkbi|p<ia btOMpt^qf 
this princcfs. Under the rcigriof Tibc^i^. w^i{,^ti^erc 
not occafion to be furpiifed at the bold anfwer which a 
flave made to this emperor ; who queftionrng htm, how 
lie made himfelf Agnppa, anfwered withoat hefitaUQH^ 
■< In the fame nUanner thou haft made th^elf Casfiftr/' 
■ The Don Sebaftian I mentioned, has not been the oidy 
'•ne k the world ; there have been two • others ; one bf 
which departing out of the Ifle of Terc<t«Sy who had 
great refcmblance with this prince^ went iiito Bùitsogai, 
where he (aid he had miractildttfiy efeaped £tma tie 
battle he loft in A^c ; that he faved himfelf in w<»oé^ 
tnd returned -into h» kingdom, to give peace to his peo- 
ffiit, «nd.^diver «hem fr«m the tyranny of ftnttigeci; 
but having been coavi£^d of impofture^ he wa» putUo 

It is faid, that another being come dtfgulfed ifi the hat- 

'^'hit of a pilg^y to Madrid itfelf, and having had a long 

' '-and fecret coftference with King Philip II. (by whom'it 

"M-fttfpcftéd he was known for thisunhappy prince), was 

%y this king's order laid to be poifoned in a banquet gN 

vén him by Aiitotiio Peres. 

• • • - 1 ' (haH write feveral things to the invincible vfficr, of 

' «n^hkh I deferred to give him notice, becaufe I would be 

certami of them, they being of importance ; and It would 

»' have been great lightnefs w me to have wntlen ^em on 

iheifirft veportsfpreadamongft tile people; 
'-i '^Recis^C'i^àys with the fame goodne^ tlleiAailBtt I 
^'- ^e thée of my obedience; fend me thy orders and coun- 
^"kìèi .ivàlbh,.i'pi4y him that hasb^eatedaH thkigè,^niay 
^nu&ig^K4^mA jlrdfilaUei to the .empk>e:<tfAtli«fe.piedioaa 

fmmB^vàmhàiit ìbas jmSìghttmi ^wkh hVtàutli ^ to «die 
fffdb^ltt^^may arrive at thf eteroal glojy aiì4 plea6urc9 p«»* 
BnfdB^a8>£KnBDÌitt partyJbf fata holy IVofihet » «iid It alfi> 
ipray iiiiA toifirdiierve thy life and ai^bortty. . :; i9 

'l*arà, a4th irf the 6th Moon, of the Year 164a. 

XKllI.— To tire FeherabkUvfTi, Prince oftBt tteUgfon 
of the Turks. 

Itas not. koown whether it be the recompeafe of a good 
or bad^adioQ» whidi Cardinal RicUieu has fent with fo 
great focreTy* Thofe that give an ill interpretation to 
the :heft things» iay it i». not to be fuppofcd thero could 
he fent in a dark night» a mule laden with gold to an 
unknown perfon, hut thk muft. denote fomethii^ very 
CKtraoffdinary;. and thofe. who pretend to know more 

.^ than others» are fometin^s more ignorant than thofe who 
pretend to know nothing. For who can penetrate into 
lihat fo crafty a mioifter does in the. moft retired places 
o£ hi^.clpfet Ì. His aétioB» ave. fo myftcriansi that when< 

' he looks towards the eaft» his defigns lie> a direél con- 
trary way. He deceives thofe who watch him mofl nar- 
rowly. I cannot inform thee then of any thing certaifi : 
T*he matter is varioufly rdated ; but thus I think it was : 
The cardinal cattfed, fome days paft» tO: be loaded on a 

. mnle, a great fum of money ; he ordered him to whom 
be entrnfted the coiftdu^ of him^.tO'gointp a wood at 
fach.nn hour,, tellii^. him he (hould find a man of fucb a 
ftature, fuch a colonised hair». and in fuch a habiti» 7I19 
y»mM fay oertain, woids to htmi wherc^iipiQA he>^t to 
deliver the nn^e with his lading u^o his cuftqd^Té . I^ is 
iilidjduaperfoQ. found the party. de&ribedy.i^^ woold^^M)Qc«ir#.thc ^e&ot» it*.b«ip& mrti th« M^f«iPkfpMK«^^ 


iipbn>;'d)ait this betfkg-^eihtèd to die'0i»4iail,?èe fto£ 
the Aoie-^Mrfi^ mkk the &ipplaiientof >wkat 'wa9 waat^- 
ing to tlK itim promiliiedy tbe sight following,- vfhxve 
the unknown perfon received the full payineiit* li th» 
ftoiy be true, as it is a&med hepc to be^ thi» is aa o^ 
kind of way of making prefents or paying debts» 

Butthoumaycftbe affured^this is not the firft time the 
cardmal has paid <hit creditors in this ibrt. 

I have been told for certain^ that there being arrived 
at Paris a flranger iU clad» of fmall ftatnre^ and without 
any attendance, he made him be paid down immediately 
«pon his atri^al fix hundred thouiand crowns, without 
any body^s kaowiBg what became of fo happy a credkor^ 
nor from what merit proceeded A> high a t^compenfe ; 
vlioi^h fome {>eople ^iffirm» that £b gveat a £mR is fallai 
ait0 the cùSÈùrs of 4^e Swed^ genersd. 

Acceii» ehuttdbly iht marks I give theé of my ob«« 
dicnce and ddare which I have of giving thee latisfaélion^ 
and entfest our g^at Prophet, thai I may be worthy in 
the other world to kiis thy feet» and be acknowledged 
to be of the aamher of thoi« for whom he haa written^ 
hit holy Alcoran. 

Paria, 25th of the 6th Moon> of the Year 164a. 

XXiy. — Ta Bfi&BEii MusTAPHA, ^£raat Con/lanttnople^ 

1 cAmnom tdl. whether thou haft knmledge of the ufe. 
ef defianees which iffc made amsdin^ the ChrifUans tvaen 
dusy afe:diflkiiififlfit'oro£Btn(kd.ii^Mione aiioiiier^wych 
titey <ers» afo of bonoai;» or ibe marks of a: gaHanfc 

/,TUs.ciift0ni[spf duebis 'become ib common' ni IxiAf^^ 

BòoibJV. A «nr Aflp FAHis. 375 

àffiitirs, as ^W«S ai-the fnudieft, are d)«rcixi deeì^d by the 
iWord ; and the gentry ofEmi this to be the beft way of 
temtiiiatlng their difputes and quarrels ; which beloogiiig^ 
oaly 1» them, cantnot be referred, nor fo well determined 
by. the. grave and cool proceedings of courts of jttfticc. 

This invention of deciding thefe differences by arms^ 
ddier with the fword or piilol alone, in a clofe or open 
•field, naked in their (hirts, fo that one has no treachery 
to fear, is a way of drawing fatisfaé^ìon for the injuries 
received, found out by men of great courage, who more 
efteem their honour than their lives. The offended per- 
'fon fends a challenge to him from whom he has received 
the injfBry ; this note of defiance is expreffed in choice 
and elegant words whioli mvite and profs the offender to 
fight, in fuch a place, on horfeback ch* on foot, clothed» 
or in their (hirts, fingle, or attended by an equal number 
o( friends, which they call feconds, with fwofd and dag- 
ger, or fword alone, er piftoK If the challenge be re*' 
e^ived, he is civilly treated who brings k, and it may bc> 
has rich prefents given him. But before tKey fight, the 
enrinies embrace as if they were recouped ; and then in- 
an inftant, following the incHnatioiis of th^ir hatred and* 
revenge, they wound one another,. they fpill each other's 
blood, and oftentimes their ibuls go out furious, through 
the wounds they have madci. 

Thofe that have the honour of dying in thefe comb«tf| 
do oft refufe their lives, which a generous enemy would 
give them, believing they cannot lire without sfittatici 
fhoald they receive them from ao enemy* • • » 

' Bttt the Roman ehUrch, as a note of ^e bouree ihe^ 
concdnres at thefe combats, (hiits hetvea's éoovs agatnft^ 
the fouls of thofe who leave this life without doing pe4^ 
nancef denyiog burial to tbioic who 8id in 4l»? fidd'lbf 
bMtfe» or fidèltitiii wly dM'iri^ b^StNMléSlKUM» 

f&nirteCtTie^Saflr inclita mcéitaid wquIéIi ì#Itdit^l«9ftft- 
^atcitàemfdv€«i vthoik corp» are titmffù a^ pny^icr^rfie 
bìrdtof: th^ Mij and other animals who Ìlv6 oà caiFiiNiier.. 
"^ It is not only m Italy people kiH one Miol}hè|f tn-ftnglc- 
«ombocs ; it is the fame in France amoogft the noh8it^»« 
who manage thefe combats in a different fort. Th^e htà^ 
fWendS'tear one another on the fmalkiloccafionyand th^jr^ 
prepare for a duel in fuch a manifer, as wil( appear t^.: 
thee without doubt ridiculous. - K 

Thefe enemies fup together the night before th«*conjh- 
bat, and often lie. together in the fame bed. The fxienilsr 
which ferve as feconds do the fame ;. and when they are; 
«ome to the place, where they be to iight^. a fiiend is: 
iorcedy by the maxims of honour, to cut his own throaty 
with the man's he perhaps moftloves:. Nothing happensc 
more frequently in Paris than this kind of cbmbats; and. 
they produce feveral adventures» of which I woi^ ^ine^ 
^bee an account,, had not la paiti<:ular ftoty to till. tb^ 
-qn this fubjc(S. It. is of a challenge vof a Sp^niih prioo^^ 
£ent to a king, whofe trown could non exempt him boni. 
a letter of defiance.. iu: id- 

Thou. haft, without doubt, heardof wìiat has-jxnppen^ 
cd in Li(bofi, where Don John de Braganza has been ele<^- 
ed and proclaimed King of Portugal, as the tihie^heirof 
the royal race. Thou knoweft alfo,.he drove the >Spa« 
niards out of his kingdom» The Duke of Medina Sidonia, 
a grandee of Spain, and this n^w king's brother^in-kȴv 
could not hinder himfelf fronvbcing fufpe£led<>f Jbaving .un- 
derhand aififted this prince to ^fcend the throne; whetli^. 
It be true, oc an artifice of his enenfùes, God only k^ov9it: 
But howe;Ter, it is certain, that. the Count Djuketd'OU-t 
^urez,; the King of Spain's chief miniftery,fen^an^or4ltr 
jU> him to ?ipf>ear at cpurt, to jufiify himfelf from this fyi^ 
IBP90i:b«i Ift^g^jft tpx^ ^Jt4^. R^r&dl? .%i%itJ*BL 

f oofc*V. ' - ♦* A «rr AJT MR» ^y^ 

^pn lo^cpfSm^Mtn^ oUtgo kiov to figèit ifmh^hiint 
wiijcib JQlt^t^ .of ikfianoerwtts conceived ia. diu^fe terms : * 
'^ ff *!>• £rftipar Aloitzo Peres Gufma» theGood^ Dukt 
q£ tteliown df fedina SÀdonia, marquise count, and Ioni 
ìof tW town o! St. Lucar of Barameda, captain general 
of the ocean» and gentleman of his Catholic Majefty'i 
•chamber: I fay» that. John of Braganza» who was never 
but a duke» calls himfelf King of Portugal ; that his 
treaibo, known to all the world» is deteilable» and in abo- 
^nination, for having thrown a ftain on the ^thful houfe 
of GuGnan» which has never failed ia any duty to her fo^ 
vereign ; smd for this reafon I defy and challenge to a fingle 
combat» body to body» with feconds or without feconds» 
-Jthk Don John» heretofore Duke of Braganza» leafing afl 
this to his choice, as alfo the arms or weapons» and place 
•f con^at. Written near Valencia d'Alcantara, where 
-i (hiU- expeé^ fourfcore^ay« news of him ; and the kft 
tv^penty days I ihall tranfport myfelf into the place he 
'&afl appoint, accompanied, or ak>ne, with fucb arms as 
he (hall prefcribe. 

■ «* 'Not onfly the tyrant of Portugal fliall be advertifcd 
of my'chaDtnge, but all Europe and the whole world, 
• Ì pretend to make known in thxr combat the in&mous 
a4^ion - t>f Don John ; and in cafe he does not accept of 
this defiance, and faÓs in the duty of one who is bombii 
^ gentleman» I defire this king, who is only a phantaim» 
•may perifli in fome fort or other : I promife to give my 
town' of St. Lucar, the principal feat of the -Duke of 
Medfeia,'to him that (hall kill him. -^ 

' ^*«:'ifr the mean time, I entreat my lord, the King of 
iS|)iiaii>, ' to- give me no command in his ariiaiesi^ but ^t> 
^^ant I may only ferve him as a volunteer» With a 'thoB- 
4toé«ètféi-^#ÌBbii Il^iHitì»iìtam at mjrowii ^har^^^ 

that fcrvlng Iiim in tijis juaon^ J iQ^ jiecova: ^ 
the kifigdom .of Portugal» and «aaj .-bring along «^ 
me, and call at his M^jcHy's ft^t» xhe Pujke of fra^ 
i;jMAZ|i4 if he wUl^it witji me 'm the la^i^acir Ipxo* . 

If thou fhowcft this letter of de^ance to the jaoiza* 
rkZf that militia» vvhiqh is teririblfs to ail x^atio»^ .whqm 
nothing can refill» when they execute ^be Graod Sigjoi- 
4:>r'8 orders, they will tell thee what|f^ch^a,(:balleQge re- 
quires from men of courage, and explain to thee the 
Jaws which people of valour prefcribe to themfelyes. For 
my part» who am igaoraat of the art of y/s^, aod the* 
jnaxims of fuch as make profeiTioa^f arm^ I fhall tkoL 
make any judgment hereupon, only take the* liberty to- 
a(k of thee, If the King of Portugal apcppted /the coxfi- 
bat and killed the Duke of Medina, which of the two 
would have been declared infamous ? Whether there be 
any certainty in the decidons made by arms ì I am wif» 
ling to think Jufbice is on the fide of the conquc^roT;; bu^ 
if, on the contrary, the erent of the duel be uncertain» 
I take it to be a fooliih thing for the duke to expofc 
himfelf, and thus afiront the king his brother-in-law. In. 
ihort the duke's prudence is not to be admired on this 
occafion ; and Bragdnza has had the advantage on his 
iide, feeing he has (bowed by his condu£i,, diat he i»xff 
fedlually King of Portugal. 

I cannot but call theCe Chriftians fools who fuf!er fuidt 
inidoms amongft them, and yet adore a Mefilas, who i# a 
God of Peace ; and who. caU us Barbarians, when they 
are the only people that teadi us, and all other nadoos^, 
ijSLt art of fingle combats, whidi is the moil perniciQua 
fcullom that can be introdvu:ed amongft men, who ^iftt 
Qoe anothfer's throats ofitentin^ea on flight occafions, a>4 
)^]QC prodigals of ibs|t U:ealb»rp mifh- mkicl^ 1Ì¥^.bk 

BùoklV. ''a ^ AT PAJtis. ' 3^: 

'nròftàl ha« àrtrttfted' tlictn. \Neitlicr cait I ^any more apj ' 
prove of kings arid prmcó» of tifi lame bcKcf niaidiig'^ 
war -Witfa one aaotber, as we fee every day amoBgft iJiofc'' 
who profc&tire Chriftian reif^on 5 which yet, ad far* as' ^ 
J cau find, fcarcely pcrinàts any wars, but fuch as are dc- 

Pardon this tedious letter, excufe my conjeftures in 
itx and honour me with thy commands, which will be 
refpeded by me as fo many obligations. 

Paris, 25th of the 6th Moon, of the Year 1642. 

XXV.— 7i the Insanente Visiir Az^m^ at Confiantimpk* 

Wb hear of nothing now-a-days but wars and ctju- 
^iracies, feditions, treafons, infidelities, and revolutions 
' of fiate ; and it is in the kingdoms of Vice wherein thefe 
plagues of Heaven make thefe diforders, I mean in the 
Chriftians countries. Infidelity reigns amongft the people 
of Catalonia, England and Portugal; the revolutions 
which have happened in Barcelona have no example; 
•the defiance or the challenge of a fuhjed to a king, as is 
that o? the Duke of Sidonia to the King of Portugal, 
as his brother-in-law and his enemy, does equally furprife 
ali the world. We have reafon to think that God is 
angry' with the Chriftians, when we confider Flanders, 
Germany, Italy, and the frontiers of Spain, pcflered 
with wars whfch they make one againft another. The 
animofity of ,moft of the great people of France againft 
the cardinal favourite, induces them tb lay plots againft 
his life ;' whence we may fee, that great places are good 
for nothing but to expofe men to great dangers. The 
iafi* c'onfj^iracy difcovered againft the life of Don John I V. , 
^f>jfTortugali' raifed to the throne by the nobility, and 

33<> LETTERS WRITT^W BY Vpl-?!. 

betrayed by the fame nobility, not by ^c vrhdc J)ody of 
them, but by a fmall number of thofe who ha4 tajccn^an 
oath of fidelity to him as well as the reft, does plainly 
fhow, that there is nothing in this worjd whereon, 8^ pian 
•may rely with any certainty, and that here arc .^m^any 
people who undertake juft anions by the motions qf 9a 
«njuft and turbulent fpirit, which cannot fuffer things to 
remain long in a quiet ftate, and afpire continually after 
change, and to whom every thing is good that is new, 
I fhall relate to thee in few words this laft event. Thou 
haft been informed of the others by the letters I have 
written to thee (invincible General of the Ottoman ar- 
mies, and fteward of the emperor's laws, who is fovereigjii 
of fovereigns), ancl by thofe which the Kaimacham and 
the Baca's have received from me, who arc obliged to- 
give thee an account of whatever comes to their know*- 

Several of the great ones in Portugal, and amongft them 
fome of the new king's kindred, hatched a confpiracy j^ 
gainft him, and refolved to put the kingdom again into tl\c 
Spaniards hands, and entirely ruin the family, of Bragfi.;i« 
za. The principal author of this confpiracy was Doji 
Scbaftian de Mattos, Archbifhop of Brague, the Count 
Duke d'Olivarez's creature, to whojn he owed his for- 
tune. The chiefs who confpired with this feditioi^s^ 
prieft, were the Marquis de Ville Reale, and the 'Count 
d'Armamar. Thefe two men, of great birth and credi;, 
foon drew feveral others into their party, fome by the 
hope of recompenfes, and others through weannefs of 
obeying their new fovereign, or weary with the new form 
of ftate, which they thought might change to their ad- 
vantage. They long held a fccret intelligence with tlyc 
Catholic King's council» who promifed them all poffil^ 

Book IV. ' X SPY AT PARIS* .331 

affiftinée for (he execution of their defign^ and after that 
infihifié récompenfes. 

"' This con fpìracy was to produce a dreadful tragedy, 
Hvhérein aft the blood of the royal houfe and family of 
Bf àgartza was to be fpilt. The king was to 1>c the firft 
Viàim, with his children and the queen his wife. D. 
Duarte alto was to be put to death, who was kept clofe 
prifoner in the caftle of Milan. A domeftic, affeélionatc 
to his mailer, and who was attentive to what paft, deli- 
vered the king and family of Braganza out of this dan- 
ger. He was ordinarily employed in fecret intrigues, 
and made frequent courfes into Spain, to difcovcr the 
*defigns of the Court of Madrid. He met by chance in 
an inn, a maa who fcemed of a mean condition, bom in 
the kingdom of Bokemia» with whom having entered in- 
to a *ftriéì frìéndfhip, as it happens ufually among traveU 
lets, he came to difcover he was often difpatched by the 
Catholic king's principal minifter on affairs of great 
weight ; and that he expedled in a (hort time to raife his 
fortune to a confiderable pitch, being entrufted wltJi 
packets orietters containing things of the higheft im^ 
portance to the ftate. The crafty Portuguefe foon dit 
corning he might get out fecreis of great concernment 
Irom this imprudent man, for the good of his mafter, ro^ 
folved to kill him in a defart place, where they were to 
pàfs 5 which he did, having firft made him drunk with 
ftrong wine. As foon as he had done his work, he ftript 
him, and found letters aad inftrudlions to the'confpira» 
tors, which he fpcedily carried to Don John, who there- 
by difcovered the whole confpiracy. 

Others fay, that D. Alphonfo of Portugal, Count de 
Vermiffa (having been folicited by the Archblfhop of 
Braguc, "who thought he could ealily bring him into the 
codfpiracy, being difcontented at the king for taking a^ 



way from him a great office), went to bis fovereign, and 
freely difcovercd to him the coiifpiracy which had héèti 
made, to deprive him both of his crown and life. And, 
It is isiddedi that this Coant appeared fincc one H>f t;hc 
hotteft of tbt accomplices, till the very inftant wherein 
they were to execute their projeA ; at which time they 
were apprehended and puniflied as they deferred. 

Others fay, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, the king's 
brother-in-law, who appeared to the accomplices to be 
of tlic plot, gave n<>tice of it to the king his brother. 
In fine, the confpirators were executed in fevei^ places 
«fter ^óiStrtnt manners, where the people ai&mbled, de- 
«ieftifig their crime, <ftiowing great fatis&dion in their 
/deaths, and blefl Heaven for pceferving their forereiga* 
/ They were apprehended one day» whemn the king 
declared he would appear in public ; and ali the nobilHy 
being met, he caufed the g\:àkj to be caOed onti nikct 
another, who were all made prifoners wkhoQt imy 4i£* 
turbance. In the mean time, aa many troc^s aa we^re 
aear Lifi>on were in arms ; and tJbc people dfo foek «ni« 
to defend their prince, if need required, llie inquifit^Hr- 
general was treated as guilty, for knowing of the «cm* 
fpiracy and not difcovcring it. The great treafurer, 
Lawrence Pides, who kept the keys of the firft court qf 
the palace, was to enter in the night with an httndird 
men well armed, and begin the tragedy. The navid ar- 
my which rode at anchor in the port of Bele^m, was to 
be burnt ; and there were them in each vefifel,- ^iny wetc 
' to fet them on fire. The four corners of the city W^r^ 
alfo to be fired, to the end that the people, ditt' foi^er^ 
and guards of the palace, being bufie^ in putting it OQt, 
notili ng might hinder the exéciKicm of their ^fign^ i&d 
the good archbifhop was in the mean tkne to jippcav in 
piiblic, bearing about in His hand what they call the holy 

Book IV. A «py AX WRis» 333 

ftcìaqaént, crying wità a loqd «vice» ^< Let the law of 
J«fii8 ftourifh» and. t];^ of Mofesdie aad come to a» 

The Marqutt dc ViUe Rcak, and the Doke dtf . Cimine 
bis ion, t>ear of km to the king» have loH their heads on 
a fcaSbId) with the Count d'Armamar and Don Augu- 
ftin Manuel ; and the people beheld their death without 
an7.<;onipailiony only fhowed fome regret at the lofs of 
the young Duke of Gamine, who paffing before the bo- 
dy of his jEjither all bloody» threw himfclf on the ground^ 
to kifs his feet, aiking him a thoufand times pardon, 
though he was the author* of this misfortune. . There 
were others who fufFered a more ignominious death, who 
were not only hanged but quartered, and thofe parts of 
their bodies fet up in feveral places for an example, and 
to put the people in mind that fuch attempts fèldom 
efcape unpunifhed. 

As to the Archbifhop of Brague, and other ecclefi- 
alUcs his accomplices, they are kept with great care in 
. prifons, in expedation of commliiioners from Rome» 
without which prelate's confent they can do nothing far- 
ther to them. The king wore mourning four hours for 
the Marquis de Ville Reale, and the Duke de Gamine 
. his fon, according to the cuftom of the Chrlilians, who 
are wont to apparel themfclves in black for the death of 
their kindred, to denote the forrow they conceive at their 
}ois.; and this ceremony is termed mourning, which 
-ftunetimes laiU a whole year. I will write to thee the 
- -particidaM of wl^ may happen in the war which is now 
( >ewrrying on bfctween the Spam'ards and Portuguefes, who 
,'perce^e already on their frontiers Gaftilian troops ; and 
^ iba9 not be wanting in any thing which may mark my 
^' zeal and exa&nefs» % 


An happy flave w31 Mahmut think hinielf if he caa 
acceptably ferve the invincible viilery by whom the great 
emperor of the faithful difcovers his will to all the people 
of the unlverfe, whom God hat created to obey him. 

Pant, ajth of the 6th Mood, of the Year 1642. 


FEB 9 , 19?0 

Prìated by MmrsiLL & So», > 
Royal Bank Clofe, Edinburgh. >