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and the Clearwater Country 



Le wiston - Clarkston 

and the 

Clearwater Country 

Idaho — Washington 

The Land of Sunny Skies, 
Where Fortune Waits to 
Help the Man Who Tills 
the Soil, Trims the Tree 
and Trains the Vine 



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J/ap of the Clearwater Country 

APR 10 

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HAT would they think, what would they say, those 
old explorers, hunters, and trappers of fifty or a 
hundred years ago, could they now see the old 
Clearwater country in its wonderful transforma- 
tion! What, too, would the old Chopunnish 
Indians, the forbears of the present Nez Perce, 
think and say, could they see their descendants 
living side by side with an alien race, the skin 
and brush tepee practically gone, the hunting 
almost a thing of the past, the Indian pony herds 
vanished, the "quamash" and "cowse" but little 
gathered, and in their stead the Indian grain and 
timothy fields and fruit orchards, the neat and comfortable homes, 
not to forget the churches and school houses, the herds of fine cattle ; 
the thoroughbred draft horses, and potatoes, pumpkins, melons, 
vegetables and fruits in abundance. 

A beautiful and wonderfully rich and fertile region is this old 
Clearwater country, so recognized from the beginning by every man 
who ever traversed it. 

The Nez Perce Indians have always been ranked the highest 
among Indian tribes, in religious fervor, intelligence, honor, man- 
liness, bravery, industry, morality and physical perfection. And one 
is convinced, from what one sees of their country, that their environ- 
ment, the land in which they lived, with its delightful climate, 
fertile soil, magnificent rolling prairies and pastures, pure water, fine 
timber and imposing landscape, had no small part in making these 
people the superior tribe. 

That those scouts of civilization, the explorers, hunters and 
missionaries, could foresee, even remotely, what this land would 
blossom into in the twentieth century, is, of course, almost incon- 
ceivable, considering the startling changes wrought by time in the 
last quarter of a century. Even though Dr. Whitman, at his mission 
at Waiilatpu, near where Walla Walla now stands, as early as 1841 
was raising crops by irrigation, and, presumably, Spalding was doing 
the same at Lapwai on the Clearwater a few miles above Lewiston, 
yet the tremendous possibilities of irrigation in the West were not 
even imagined. It was not until 1847-1849 that the Mormon people, 

A Home on the Nez Perce Prairie 


in Salt Lake valley, driven by necessity, began to demonstrate to any 
considerable degree, the practicability of raising bountiful crops by 
simply turning the waters of streams and lakes upon the parched 
land through small canals. 

The Region Historically 

The first white men in the Clearwater region were Lewis and Clark 
on their memorable exploration of 1804-6. In the early autumn of 
1805, having successfully crossed the Bitter Root mountains and tasted 
the hospitality of the Chopunnish-Nez Perce Indians at Weippe 
Prairie, Idaho, bordering the Clearwater River, these explorers 
camped at the junction of the main stream with the North Fork. 
There they constructed canoes from pine trees and in them floated 
down the Clearwater (Koos-koos-ke) past the sites of the present 
Lewiston and Clarkston, on down the Lewis, or Snake River, and 
the mighty Columbia to the sea. On their return in 1806, leaving 
the Clearwater River near the present stations of Agatha and Lenore, 
on the Clearwater branch of the Northern Pacific Railway, they 
struck fairly across the Nez Perce prairie on an old Indian trail that 
made direct for Kamiah, or Lawyer's Canyon, and passed down that 
canyon to the Clearwater where they remained about a month. 
From this point, their Camp Chopunnish as it is known to historians, 
near the present town of Kamiah, they sent out bartering and 
hunting parties in all directions, even to the Salmon River. 

Again in 1811, one of the unfortunate and wandering Astorian 
parties of William Price Hunt worked its way across the mountains 
from the Snake to the Clearwater River, on foot, and followed the 
Columbia to Astoria. 

The hundreds of trappers in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Co., 
with headquarters at what is now Vancouver, Wash., threaded the 
trails of the region in the early years of the 19th century. 

In the early '30s the well-known movement for establishing 
religious missions in the region west of the Rocky Mountains began. 
The Methodists located on the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, 
the Presbyterians on the Walla Walla and Clearwater rivers and in 
the region north of Spokane, and the Catholics on the Umatilla river. 

Following closely on the installation of these missions came the 
Oregon emigration fever and the gradual settlement of the "Oregon 
Country" by Americans. The name Oregon then comprehended 
all the region west of the Rocky Mountains between the present 
British Columbia and California, Nevada and Utah. 

Oregon became a state in 1859, Washington acquired statehood 
in 1889, Idaho in 1890. 

Inasmuch as we are to describe the Clearwater country as it is 
today, it may be of interest to read what Lewis and Clark, the first 
known white men to see it, said of it a century ago. 

Page Five 


In crossing the prairie from the Clearwater south to Lawyer's 
Canyon in the spring of 1806, they wrote as follows: 

"This country would form an extensive settlement; the climate 
appears quite as mild as that of similar latitude on the Atlantic 
coast, if not more so, and it cannot be otherwise than healthy; it 
possesses a fine, dry, pure air. The grass and many plants are now 
upwards of knee high. I have no doubt but this tract of country if 
cultivated would produce in great abundance every article essen- 
tially necessary to the comfort and subsistence of civilized men. To 
its present inhabitants nature seems to have dealt with a liberal 
hand, for she has distributed a great variety of esculent plants over 
the face of the country which furnish them a plentiful store of pro- 
vision. " 

We shall see whether this judgment of Lewis and Clark was an 
accurate one or not. 

The Geography and Topography of the Country 

The name "Inland Empire" has been given to the wide extent of 
country lying west of the westernmost range of the Rockies, east of 
the Cascade Mountains, south of the British Columbian boundary, 
and north of the Blue Mountains and the elevated region east of 
them which forms the divide between the Clearwater and the Sal- 
mon rivers. 

This area comprises parts of Eastern Washington, Idaho and 
Oregon, and is subdivided into several well defined basins, or sections, 
with, originally, local designations, now become general and well 
known. The region is drained by one great river system — that of 
the Columbia, the old "Oregon" of Jonathan Carver which Bryant 
has immortalized. The prominent streams to be noted, aside from 
the trunk stream, are the Snake, Walla Walla, Yakima, Palouse, 
Clearwater, Spokane, Wenatchee, and Pend d'Oreille rivers. Those 
to be particularly considered here are the Clearwater and Snake. 

The principal divisional names of the important parts of the 
Inland Empire are the Yakima, Wenatchee, Big Bend, Okanogan, 
Colville, Spokane, Palouse, Clearwater, and Walla Walla regions, or 
valleys. Generally speaking, there are but slight differences between 
these various sub-divisions of the Inland Empire in soil, climate, 
physical characteristics, products, markets, etc. Irrigation is more 
or less necessary to successful intensive agriculture in some of these 
sections and is not practiced in others, and one's choice of general 
location depends more upon personal preference rather than upon 
any marked advantages in climate or agricultural conditions. 

Of this region Spokane is the chief city. It is one of the most 
delightful residence cities in the United States, wealthy, a great rail- 
way center, has 104,402 population (1910 census) and is growing 
very rapidly. 

Page Six 



As the Inland Empire itself is thus sectionally divided, so are 
these different sections themselves further subdivided, locally. The 
name Clearwater country applies to the region west of the Bitter Root 
range, in Idaho and Washington, at and contiguous to the junction 
of the Snake and Clearwater rivers and it is drained almost entirely 
by the latter stream and its many and far-reaching tributaries. 
Immediately north of it lies the rich and rolling Palouse and Pot- 
latch country, to the west that of the extensive and fertile Walla 
Walla region, and to the south the rough tributary mountain region 
drained by the Snake and Salmon rivers. 

There are several well-defined local designations for the various 
parts of the Clearwater country. These are the Lewiston-Clarkston 
region, the Clearwater valley, Nez Perce prairie, Cam;^> prairie, 
Weippe prairie. 

The topography of the region is simply stated. From the junc- 
tion of the Snake and Clearwater rivers at Lewiston-Clarkston, 
each stream runs in a deep canyon. The Snake comes in from the 
south and the Clearwater from the east and south. These canyons 
range from 1,200 to 2,000 or more feet in depth and are cut through 
a great lava flow that forms the surface of the whole region. Rising 
from both these streams, on each side, and sloping upward to the 
more or less distant and diverse mountain rai ges are wide, rolling 
plateaus that form the prairies before named. 

Cutting into these plateaus are many lateral canyons from the 
main Clearwater and Snake canyons. Aside from the numerous 
forks of the Clearwater — the North, Middle, South Fork, etc., 
which flow for most of the way among the heavily timbered Bitter 
Root mountains, the principal streams with their canyons that thus 
penetrate the high prairies are the Asotin, flowing from the west 
into the Snake river, and Lawyer's creek, running from the west 
into the Clearwater. The canyon of the latter, a deep, narrow, 
precipitous, and very picturesque lava gorge, acquires importance 
from the fact that as it bisects the great prairie and plateau between 
the Snake and Clearwater 
rivers it has become i n 
arbitrary line of division; 
the prairie to the north 
being called Nez Perce 
prairie, and the one to 
the south, Camas prairie. 
Except for the names 
there is little or no differ- 
ence between them. The 
windings of the canyon 
also constitute a part of 
the boundary line be- 
tween Nez Perce and 
Idaho counties, in Idaho. 
Lapwai and Big canyons 

Page Seven 

Wheat Warehous 
at Waha Landin 

Steamboat at 



Craig Mountain are two of several other 

Forest SL 'rl i f'l '±. J J 

quite deep canyons de- 
bouching into the Clear- 

Trending in a general 
northeasterly direction 
from the angle formed 
by the junction of the 
Snake and Salmon rivers, 
is a low range of moun- 
tains called Craig moun- 
tains. This hill country 
is a very conspicuous and 
attractive feature of the 
Clearwater landscape, 
and the head-streams and 
canyons that debouch into and are the origin of Lawyer's and other 
streams and canyons, have their sources there. 

The plateau country between the Clearwater and Snake rivers — 
Nez Perce and Camas prairies, etc. — is largely undulating, thus 
forming not only a pleasing landscape but a well-drained farming region. 
Along the bottoms, or floors, of the stream valleys, both main 
and lateral, there are moderate areas of very rich land, and the 
terraced slopes of the canyons are equally available and valuable for 
agriculture and horticulture, and are thus used. 

The Craig mountains are well clothed with yellow pine, red fir 
and tamarack, and the cut-over timber lands produce the finest 
quality of timothy that can be grown. 

Wieppe prairie lies on the eastern side of the Clearwater river 
and extends eastward to the foot-hills of the Bitter Root range. It 
is limited on the north by Oro Fino creek and on the south by Lolo 
creek — the Collins creek of Lewis and Clark — and is thus compara- 
tively restricted in area. 

It was on the Weippe prairie that Lewis and Clark first met the 
Chopunnish, or Nez Perce, Indians in 1805, and it was the hunting 
ground of the explorers in 1806 before recrossing the mountains. 

In general, it is much like the prairie country on the west side of 
the Clearwater and it is as yet thinly populated. The Indians still 
gather a few "quamash" or camas roots there, and the old Indian 
trail, the Lolo trail, across the Bitter Root range into Montana, has 
its western terminus on the Weippe prairie at the Clearwater river. 

General Advantages 

It may be well to here epitomize the general advantages of the 
Clearwater region as a whole before referring to each district in detail. 

The country is, in common phrase, new. It is as yet sparsely 
settled and, in consequence, land is easily obtained and at compara- 

Page Eight 






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State Normal School at Lewiston, Idaho 

tively low prices. This is particularly true as regards general upland 
farming lands. 

Transportation facilities are now good and are constantly being 
improved. The Northern Pacific Railway has a direct line from 
Spokane to Lewiston, and branch lines up the Clearwater valley to 
Kamiah and Stites, and up Lapwai creek and across Nez Perce 
prairie to Grangeville at the southern edge of Camas prairie. A 
line following down the north bank of the Snake river from Lewiston 
gives direct connection with Portland, Tacoma and Seattle. 

Good markets, locally, are found in the mining camps of Idaho, 
Washington and Montana, while the coast cities and Spokane take 
much of the general farm produce, and large quantities of the various 
products are shipped to Alaska and the eastern markets. 

Educational facilities are of the best. Besides the common 
schools, which are found everywhere, there are, at Lewiston, Idaho, 
a State Normal school; at Moscow, Idaho, the University of Idaho; 
and at Pullman, Washington, the Washington State College. These 
institutions probably have no superiors of their kind anywhere in 
the United States. They have ample lands, fine buildings, good 
faculties and are thoroughly equipped with expensive and up-to-date 
apparatus and educational facilities. 

While, as has been stated, the country is not yet thickly settled, 
this should be understood as in a relative sense. There are settlers 
everywhere and more are constantly going in. They represent all 
parts of the Union and form a good and desirable class of citizens, 
progressive, moral, industrious. 

Page Nine 



With the development that is sure to come to this region in the 
next few years and with the splendid opportunities at hand, no one 
having an intention of moving into the West should fail to visit and 
investigate the Clearwater country. 


The most important and advanced portion of the Clearwater 
country is that part at and near the junction of the Clearwater and 
Snake rivers generally known as the Lewiston-Clarkston region. 

Lewiston, in Idaho, lies in the angle formed by the above named 
streams, was founded in 1861, and was named for Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis, of Lewis and Clark. Clarkston, in Washington, on 
the west bank of the Snake river opposite Lewiston, was established 
in 189G, and was so called in honor of Captain W T m. Clark, of the 
same exploring expedition. On October 10, 1805, Lewis and Clark 
camped on the north bank of the Snake river where [it turns from 
the north to the west and just below the mouth of the Clearwater, or 
Koos-koos-ke, river, as they called it, so that the naming of these 
cities most appropriately perpetuates an historical fact. 

What may properly be called the Lewiston-Clarkston region lies 
south of the Clearwater, and east of the Snake, river, west of Lapwai 
and Sweetwater creeks, and north of the Craig Mountain foothills, 
in Idaho, with a more limited area in Washington in the angle formed 
by the bend of the Snake river and extending to and about the 
headwaters of Asotin creek. 

In the river bottoms of these streams there are considerable 
areas of tillable land noted for their productivity. These are 
irrigated from the streams themselves or from springs in the hills 
bordering them. Where the bottom lands and the hill slopes are 
easi'y irrigated, that is, can be irrigated by individual owners without 


Steel bridge across Snake River between] Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Wash. 

Page Ten 



too heavy expense for irrigation works, they have been under culti- 
vation for years and, in the Clearwater valley above Lewiston 
especially, there are some very noted old orchards and vineyards. 

Large areas of the bench, or plateau, lands about Lewiston- 
Clarkston have been devoted to grain culture; these lands have been 
taken over by syndicates, or companies, platted into orchard tracts 
of various and convenient sizes, extensive irrigation works con- 
structed under competent engineers and at heavy expense, and the 
tracts are being sold out in small intensive holdings to purchasers, 
at fair prices and on convenient terms. 

St Stanislaus 






The fact of previous cultivation should carefully be borne in mind 
in connection with these uplands as this obviates, entirely, the 
necessity of the purchaser , clearing the land, as he usually must, 
before planting his orchard, vegetables, or berries. These lands are 
clear of sage brush, chapparal, or timber and need a little leveling 
here and there only, to make them ready for planting and irrigation. 

Lewiston was originally built on a fairly wide piece of bottom 
land at the junction of the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and here the 
business section of the city is still found. This locality is the lowest 
in elevation of any point in Idaho, being 738 feet above sea-level. 
Back from the streams a bench with a vei deal bluff rises 100 to 200 
feet above the river, and this has become the residence part of the 
city. This bench is about a mile wide, generally level, and commands 
a fine view of the surrounding region. Well back of this rises another 
and very much larger terrace which forms a part of the undulating 
plateau that slopes upward to the Craig mountains, some 20 miles 

Page EUten 


distant. This second terrace lies beautifully at an elevation above 
sea-level, near Lewiston, of 1,400 feet, approximately, increasing in 
altitude as the mountains are approached. It is well drained, and 
is rapidly being transformed from wheat fields into magnificent 

Clarkston is directly opposite Lewiston in the midst of a wide 
bottom-land plain and well above the river. It is connected with 
Lewiston by a high, steel, cantilever bridge across the Snake river, 
and also by wire ferry. This bridge is 1,485 feet long and cost over 

Two miles back from Clarkston, as on the Lewiston side, there 
is found a bench, or terrace, of large area which is being divided into 
small orchard tracts. These Clarkston lands are in all respects 
similar to those around Lewiston. The land in the valley below the 
higher terrace is known as Vineland, and Clarkston is the town and 
postoffice of the district. The high terrace is called Clarkston 
Heights. The lower lands lie from 50 to 300 feet above the river; 
Clarkston Heights is considerably higher, lying, generally, from 
1,000 to 1,250 feet above the *ea. 

The towns and contiguous country recognize the fact that their 
aims and interests are identical and they work harmoniously to- 
gether toward a common end. Some who live in Clarkston do 
business in Lewiston, and vice versa. The combined population of 
the two places is about 10,000. 

These towns occupy a position of strategic importance socially 
and commercially. They are the social center and the natural 
depot of trade for a large and very rich section of territory. The 
places themselves are advanced and modern in every particular. 
Fine store buildings, residences, school houses and churches are 
found. The hotels are good, there are parks and public libraries, 
a Commercial Club, several strong banks and trust companies, 
department stores, wholesale establishments, water works and 
sewage systems, several fruit canneries, a 250 barrel flour mill, etc. 
JThe State Normal School at Lewiston, with ample grounds and 
imposing buildings, imparts an educational flavor of decided advan- 
tage to the community and the moral tone of the locality is of the best. 

Automobiles are common and 
auto trips into the outlying plateau 
and mountain towns are of daily 

The Northern Pacific and 
Oregon Railroad and Navigation 
companies have recently com- 
pleted a Union Station at a cost 
of $75,000, and a new steel rail- 
way bridge used jointly by both 
railways spans the Clearwater 
river at Lewiston. 

Page Twelve 

Carnegie Library, Lewiston 


While Lewiston had been a trading post and base of supplies for 
trappers and miners wandering over a wide territory for many 
years, the real commercial history of the region began with the 
advent of the Northern Pacific Railway a brief ten years ago. Whole- 
sale houses quickly followed, and today there are over thirty traveling 
salesmen who make Lewiston their headquarters. They radiate in 
all directions: to the Nez Perce country, Clearwater, and Bitter 
Root points; the Elk City, Buffalo Hump, and Thunder mountain 
mining regions; the Salmon river country, Asotin country and other 
points in Washington, and regular trips are also made to the Paradise 
country, and other Oregon points more conveniently reached from 
Lewiston than from Oregon jobbing centers. The Lewiston- 
Clarkston merchants also secure a share of the business from the 
Palouse country. 

Since Lewiston-Clarkston became an active commercial center, 
with houses devoted exclusively to wholesale business, the obstacles 
incident to such a position have been met and conquered. Keen 
competition from other wholesale markets, including Pacific Coast 
merchants, has been survived; whether crops have been large or 
small the community has gone right ahead; the recent panic of 1907 
did not disturb it, the banks issued no cashier's scrip in the time of 
financial stringency, nor did a jobber or merchant retire or fail. 
On the contrary the business for 1908 was larger than ever before 
and a feeling of prosperity today permeates all branches of com- 
mercial activity. There are new industries in prospect and with 
the recent completion of the Camas Prairie Railroad down the 
Snake river, giving quick connection with tide water for the products 
of the territory, a new expansion of trade is imminent and the sub- 
stantial and immediate growth of Lewiston-Clarkston as the com- 
mercial metropolis of a region of much magnitude, may be anticipated. 

There are now located here two large wholesale grocery and 
three fruit commission houses, four canneries, a fruit preserving 
plant, one wholesale liquor and one wholesale cigar house. The 
large retail houses also do more or less wholesaling. Lewiston 
also profitably supports the only wholesale drug house in Idaho. 
The bank clearings aggregate about $9,000,000 a year. The bank 
deposits exceeded $3,000,000, on an average, for 1910. 

Aside from the fruit center that Lewiston-Clarkston is bound to 
become, the place offers good promise for the future to the manu- 
facturer or man looking for a location in a coming commercial city. 
The production of grain in the surrounding country and the opening 
of a water-grade route to the Coast leaves no doubt, apparently, of 
its future as a coming grain and flour milling point. New grain 
firms are making headquarters here, and it is estimated that grain in 
excess of 10,000 cars annually will soon pass through Lewiston- 
Clarkston down the new line, this being the natural point for assemb- 
ling shipments from the contiguous territory. 

Page Thirteen 


With a quality of oats superior to those of South Dakota, which 
have ranked highest for cereal mill uses, possibly the manufacture 
of rolled oats and other cereal products will enter into the future 
activity of Lewiston-Clarkston. It is certain that with milling 
rates in effect, flour milling offers inducements to men of experience, 
and in a manufacturing way there will gradually open up fields for 
many other enterprises. These opportunities await men with 
energy and capital. 

Lewiston-Clarkston is also the base of operations for a wide 
region in mining and in lumber. 

Large deposits of minerals are known to exist in the mountains 
and in case of certain new districts are believed to be rich beyond 
conception, and mining activity is increasing. 

Lumbering is on the increase and the demand for the yellow and 
white pine of the Craig and Bitter Root mountains is making this 
an important industry, although as yet almost in its infancy. 

There is a large area of fine timber tributary to Lewiston-Clarks- 
ton in the mountains adjacent. A lumber railroad from Craig 
junction to Winchester opens up a valuable timber zone in the 
Craig mountains. All the timber lands are very valuable and in 

The water power of the various streams is an asset that will 
eventually prove one of very great value This is estimated at 
200,000 horse power, only a trifling part of which is as yet utilized. 

A few miles above Clarkston on the Snake river at the mouth of 
Asotin creek, is the town of Asotin, the county seat of Asotin county, 
Washington. It is one of the older towns of the region and is con- 
nected with Lewiston-Clarkston by good roads and by river 
navigation. Snuggled among the bluffs of the Snake river and 
Asotin creek, with its wide shaded streets, amph lawns and yards 
ornamented with large cherry, mulberry and numerous other beauti- 
ful trees, the creek r'ppling merrily through the town, it is one of 
the most delightful, refreshing and attractive towns in that part of 
the country. It has schools, churches, business houses, flour and 
sawmills, grain warehouses, a free library, electric lighting, water 
supply, etc. It is a good business point, having tributary to it an 
extended and fertile agricultural territory which is now principally 
devoted to grain farming, but the Cloverland country, on the north- 
ern slopes of the Blue mountains, has proved to be well adapted to 
the growing of late fruits, particularly, and is now rapidly developing 
into a horticultural region. The Anatone country, farther south 
between the Grande Ronde river and Asotin creek, is a good farming, 
stock-raising and lumbering section. 

Besides the three important towns of Lewiston, Clarkston and 
Asotin, there are, here and there, at opportune and favorable locali- 
ties, smaller towns and hamlets, the embryo cities of the future. 
The towns and country are reciprocal factors in the evolution of a 
region that, ten years ago, was scarcely known to the outside world 

Page Fourteen 


A four-Year Old Apple Orchard, Burrell Avenue, Lewiston 

and, ten years hence, will be known wherever fine fruits and their 
products are eaten and good wines are drunk. 

That the Lewiston-Clarkston region is specially adapted to 
intensive irrigation farming has been well proved. 

Fruits and most vegetables are less hardy than grain and grasses, 
and far mor particular as to their requirements of soil, climate 
and culture. We have always known that soil drainage was im- 
portant; in these latter days, and especially in connection with 
horticultural irrigation enterprises in the West, we have learned 
that air drainage, frost areas and dates, altitude and wind currents are 
to be carefully reckoned with in fruit culture. Obviously, it requires 
a little time to become acquainted with these conditions, — for any 
given locality to "find itself." This precise ascertainment of local 
conditions and how to handle them has now largely been attained 
in Lewiston-Clarkston, and the newcomer may thus learn by the 
experience of a neighbor familiar with conditions, not to set out 
peach trees where winter apple trees should be placed; not to plant 
early strawberries or lettuce where poor air drainage will allow a 
possible late frost to nip them and where potatoes or alfalfa should 
be planted. 

Some of the more detailed problems at Lewiston-Clarkston will 
be more fully worked out in the future, but, in general, the proper 
zones for apples, pears, apricots, peaches, grapes, berries and the 
delicate vegetables and the proper methods of handling them have 
now been well determined and those who now invest here may do so 
confidently and intelligently. 

The Lewiston-Clarkston region, with its long, dry, warm summers 
and short and mild winters; its varied altitudes — between 700 and 
2,500 feet above sea level; its deep, rich volcanic soil; its 14 inches, 
approximately, of annual rainfall and its ample supply of water for 
irrigation, is an ideal region for fruits and vegetables. These soil 
products do exceedingly well here. 

Page Fifteen 



Apple Orchard, Showing System of Irrigation and Cultivation 

The general conditions are practically the same around both 
Lewiston and Clarkston. The surface soil is a rich dark loam, 
underlaid with a lighter colored warm sandy loam many feet deep. 
There is an absence of hard pan as a rule, there is good underdrainage 
and water storage capacity; there is no alkali and no sagebrush, 
and the land is easily worked. According to the authority of Prof. 
Severance, Professor of Agronomy, Washington State College, 
Pullman, Washington, the soil is first class fruit land, especially well 
adapted to apples, plums, peaches, pears, grapes and various berries. 

The mean annual temperature for this locality is a little under 
54 degrees Fahrenheit; the mean temperature for July and August 
is about 74 degrees, the mean temperature for the months of Decem- 
ber, January and February, is 37 degrees. There have been three 
winters in the last ten years when the mercury dropped to zero or 
below, but it remained there but a short time. Frost rarely comes 
early enough in the fall to do any damage. The average latest date 
of killing frosts in the spring is April 8th. These frosts, however, 
are apt to affect vegetation only on the lowest lying lands and even 
here experiment has proved that, by being prepared and by promptly 
and unitedly setting smudges of wet straw and similar materials 
more or less saturated with coal tar and thereby filling the valley 
with a dense smoke cloud, all damage to vegetation may be avoided 
and the crops saved. This smudging experience and remedy has 
been used successfully in other irrigation valleys, for all of them 
must be prepared to expect and fight an occasional late frost. Or- 
chard heaters made of metal and specially for this purpose are rapidly 
coming into general use in western orchards. 

The diseases and insects common to deciduous fruits and which 
it seems must be met with sooner or later in all orchards, are to be 
found here, but by systematic use of the various scientific methods 
of spraying and the other well known means of protection, they 
are successfully combatted and controlled. 

Page Sixteen 


The Lewiston-Clarkston region is fortunate in having located 
so near it the University of Idaho and the State College of Washing- 
ton at Moscow and Pullman, respectively. The Agricultural 
Departments are important parts of both colleges. 

It may be stated here that this region is, practically, free from 
mosquitoes, reptiles, and similar pests that so often afflict commu- 
nities and make life a burden. It is also free from malaria. 

Irrigation Projects 
The Lewiston-Clarkston Company 

The oldest orchards and vineyards of this section are found 
along the Clearwater river above Lewiston. These are mostly 
private enterprises, many of them begun much more than a score of 
years ago. It is only within the last ten or twelve years that efforts 
have been made to establish irrigation works on a large and system- 
atic scale. The first attempt to bring wide areas under irrigation* 
cultivation and induce extensive settlement on small orchard and 
vegetable tracts was in Vineland, Wash., across the Snake river 
from Lewiston. 

The Lewiston-Clarkston Company, that began this work, was 
organized in 1896. It was composed largely of eastern men. The 
holdings of this company were taken over recently by the Lewiston- 
Clarkston Improvement Co., headed by E. H. Libby, president, the 
founder of Clarkston- Vineland. 

The company's lands, both those sold and those still held by 
them, are thus classified: 

Clarkston 640 acres 

Vineland 1800 " 

Clarkston Heights 3000 " 

Miscellaneous acreage 350 " 

Total 5790 acres 

The company began selling its lands in Vineland in 1897 at $100 
an acre. At that time Vineland was a vast sagebrush patch with 
hardly a house to break the monotony. Now it is widely covered 
with orchards, vineyards and gardens with comfortable and, in 
many cases, expensive houses scattered among them. The indi- 
vidual holdings range from one acre to five, ten, fifteen acres, and 
in some few instances there are larger holdings. Although the farm 
units are small, the cultivated areas are well massed, and the rustic 
picture as now seen from an elevated spot overlooking the wide 
expanse of orchards is a most beautiful one. These small orchard 
holdings mean, necessarily, contiguous neighbors; in effect a rural 
town, or urban community, with telephone lines, rural free delivery, 
and all such modern conveniences. The average size of these ranch 
homes, outside of the townsite of Clarkston, is less than three and 
one-half acres. 

Page Seventeen 




The present population of Clarkston-Vineland is estimated at 
3,000. Unimproved lands now range in price, according to location, 
from $275 to $500 per acre, terms of payment being, for five acres or 
more, one-fifth cash down and one fifth payable at the close of the 
second, third, fourth and fifth years with interest at 7 per cent. 
The price includes a perpetual water right with service under pressure. 

The lands thus far sold have been largely in Vineland, those on 
Clarkston Heights having been but recently placed on the market. 
The lands farthest away are about three and a quarter miles distant 
from the Clarkston postoffice. 

The gravity system of irrigation is employed, and originally 
comprehended the use of the usual open main surface canals and 
lateral ditches. These open canals are gradually being superseded 
by a gravity system of closed pipe lines supplying the water to each 
land owner cool and under pressure. This method saves the loss by 
seepage and evaporation consequent upon the open canal system 
and, where it is also employed by the individual irrigator as it now 
increasingly is in Lewiston-Clarkston, it greatly simplifies and 
lessens the work of irrigation. 

The source of water supply for the Vineland-Clarkston lands is 
Asotin creek, a pure mountain stream rising in the Blue mountains. 
At a point some twelve miles distant from Clarkston the Company 
has constructed a concrete dam to bedrock at sides and bottom, 
forming a balancing reservoir with a capacity of 20 million gallons. 
The minimum flow of Asotin creek, government measurement, is 40 
cubic feet per second, an amount claimed to be more than ample 
for the lands owned by the company. The company has the right 
to the entire flow of the stream less two cubic feet per second owned 
by prior users. 




Peach and Cherry Orchard of R. U. Barr — 5 Acre*, 16 MonUu Jrom Planting — July, 1908 

Page Eighteen 


Demonstration of Force of Water Brought from Craig Mountain! 

The water is conveyed to the lands in large wooden steel bound 
pipes. The first seven miles of pipe, from the dam, are 48 inches in 
interior diameter. A portion of the water is then diverted to an 
electrical power house and after using is returned to the creek. 

Page Nineteen 


Below the power house the pipe is 40 inches in diameter to the point 
of distribution over the lands where it again changes to a 32 inch 
pipe. Another power house and balancing, or pressure reservoir, 
are found at this point. The general system of distributing pipes to 
the many ranch homes, including mains and laterals, varies in size 
from 20 inches to 4 inches. The cost of these reservoirs, dam, water 
rights and conduits, all told, was $575,000. 

As has been indicated the Company has in connection with its 
irrigation rights and plant a valuable and extensive electric plant. 
There are two water and one steam electric plants, with a combined 
capacity of 4,000 horse power. There are five substations and 50 
miles of high tension transmission line serving eight towns. These 
combined electric plants cost $350,000 in round numbers. The total 
investment of the Lewiston-Clarkston company, therefore, in irri- 
gation and electric plants and the Snake river bridge considerably 
exceeds one million dollars. 

In the deeds given by the company the purchaser obtains the 
right to an amount of water, annually, equal to one foot of water in 
depth over each acre purchased, or, as it is commonly stated, one 
acre foot of water. With an average annual rainfall, mostly from 
November to April or May, of nearly 14 inches, this acre foot of 
water has proved to be more than sufficient, and therefore the annual 
maintenance charge for water — common to nearly all irrigation 
enterprises — is based on two-fifths of an acre foot, this charge being 
$2.00, and for each additional one-fifth acre foot the charge is $1.00, 
an entire acre foot costing, if used, $5.00. 

The Lewiston Land & Water Company (Limited) 

The success of the Lewiston-Clarkston Company at Vineland, and 
the extension of the Palouse branch of the Northern Pacific Railway 
into Lewiston in 1898, thus giving that locality for the first time 
direct railway connection with the rest of the world — via Spokane- 
drew especial attention to the entire Clearwater country. A company 
of Portland, Oregon, gentlemen saw the tremendous possibilities of the 
wheat growing plateau above Lewiston, for fruit culture particularly, 
if water for irrigating it could be obtained. A year's careful study 
and investigation proved that the water supply was available and 
that it could be easily conveyed to the lands. 

The Lewiston Lan 1 & Water Company, Limited, was organized 
in 1905. They own 8,000 acres of land on the broad, high bench above 
Lewiston and to this they have given the name of "Lewiston 
Orchards," and there are now under irrigation, 4,000 acres. The land 
is gently rolling, faces north, is clean and clear of obstacles to culti- 
vation, is convenient to Lewiston, and is a most sightly and valuable 
property in every way. Prof. Severance, who made a very thorough 
investigation of the soil of Lewiston Orchards and submitted a most 
commendatory report thereon, closes his remarks thus: — 

fage Twenty 


"The reputation of the Lewiston-Clarkston valley is well estab- 
lished and the writer can say with a clear conscience that the Lewiston 
Land & Water Company, Limited, is offering for sale some of the 
very best land in the valley." 

The water rights of the company comprise four creeks having 
their sources in the Craig mountains to the south. Twelve miles 
of open main canal and flume were constructed, some of it through 
rock and costing $20,000 a mile. The canal varies in size from 9 feet 
in width at the bottom and 10 feet wide at three feet depth to 10 feet 
wide on the bottom and 20 feet wide at a depth of three feet, and it 
will eventually be enlarged as necessity requires. The canal termi- 
nates at a natural depression 10 miles distant from, and 1,000 feet 
above, Lewiston. Here an enormous and solid earthen dam has been 
constructed forming an immense reservoir and impounding the 
mountain waters brought down by the canal. The dam and reservoir 
have been built under the superintendence of expert engineers. The 
former, when entirely completed, will be 98 feet high, — 60 feet being 
its present height — 4,025 feet in length, and 500 feet thick at its 
widest point. 

The drainage area tributary to this plant is about 100 square 
miles and the reservoir will store more than 6,000 acre feet of water. 
The outlet pipes are of concrete and the water is distributed to the 
irrigators in large 48 inch underground pipes, under a minimum head 
pressure of 50 feet. The lands of the company are arranged in units 
of five acres and are sold in tracts of 2^, 5 and 10 acres, and multiples 
thereof. These tracts are nicely arranged with 60 foot streets and 
20 foot alleys. The water distributing pipes are carried through the 
alleys and water is delivered to each tract through a tap under pres- 
sure, as before stated. 

The aims and plans of the company are high and far reaching 
and they are making of Lewiston Orchards a beautiful and model 
suburban community. The appearance of things, even to the casual 
visitor, betokens the intelligence of these plans and the faithful 
carrying out of them. The company itself has set out ornamental 
trees along the streets and, in line with a reasonable insistence that 
tends toward a pleasing though moderate beautifying of the entire 
plot, requires each purchaser to maintain around his holdings a fence, 
inexpensive in cost but well constructed, of a uniform design and 
painted white. The happy effect of such a simple requirement has 
but to be seen to be appreciated. Other improvements planned are a 
fine park, a modern automobile road system, a country club, etc. 

The company's investment in these lands and works aggregates 

The Lewiston Land & Water Company, Limited, charges for its 
lands from $400 to $1500 an acre according to location, age of trees, 
etc. This includes the usual water right. An annual maintenance 
charge for water of $5 an acre is also required according to the 
usual terms. 

Page Twenty-one 


The payments for a 5 acre tract run as follows, with interest on 
deferred payments at 7 per cent: — 

Purchase price 5 acre tract at $400 per acre .... $2,000 

Cash, date of purchase, one-fifth $400 

Cash, 1 year from purchase, one-fifth 400 

Cash, 2 years from purchase, one-fifth 400 

Cash, 3 years from purchase, one-fifth 400 

Cash, 4 years from purchase, one-fifth 400 


The purchaser also has the option of paying one-fifth down in 
cash and $6 an acre each month in lieu of the other method. 

For the benefit of non resident purchasers the company sells 
lands on an improvement contract under which they will improve 
the tract and bring the orchard into bearing. This arrangement 
runs for three or four years, usually, or until the orchard reaches 
the bearing period, and all costs of development, including water 
rents, taxes, care of the place, etc., — in addition to the regular 
cost of the land — are charged against the property. The company, 
in effect, acts as financial agent for the purchaser. The terms 
under this Improvement contract are the same as under the regular 
contracts. The purchaser under this contract may, if he chooses, pay 
also, as in regular contracts, the one-fifth down in cash and the 
remainder in monthly installments until the cost of land and 
improvements are fully met. These lands are usually set out to 
standard commercial varieties of winter apples. 

Another form of contract exists by which the purchaser may 
purchase a tract, have it improved, and, upon its reaching maturity, 
have the product regularly marketed for him. Under this contract 
the purchaser is saved all worry and labor of development and 
marketing and the company participates in the net profits of the 
orchard, thus making successful handling of the property a matter of 

mutual interest. 

After the orchard reaches maturity the company will market the 
product, year after year, and pay to the owner the full yearly net 
profits until he has returned to him the full amount of his investment 
with interest. After that profits will be divided equally between the 
owner and the company. 

After five years the purchaser may take over the property and 
manage it himself, if desired, under a reasonable condition of the 
contract for compensating the company for its superintendence and 
services in the development of the orchard. 

These plans offer attractive inducements to clergymen, teachers, 
clerks, and others of moderate incomes, to become the owners of 
2J/2, 5 or 10 acre orchard homes by the convenient and easy install- 
ment method of payment. 

Certainly the sight of the young, deep green, thrifty, growing 
orchards already set out, with the long, healthy rows of beans, onions, 

Page Twenty-two 



Sweetwater Canal — A Small Part of Re 

in Left Background 

potatoes, berries, melons, carrots and other garden products occupy- 
ing and economizing the space between the trees until the latter need 
it, is one to gladden the eyes and a forerunner of a glorious future. 

The Waha-Lewiston Land & Water Company 

A third irrigation enterprise is that of the Waha-Lewiston Land 
& Water Company. 

This project is of quite recent origin and while several hundred 
thousand dollars have been spent and a large amount of work has 
been done, it has been, in the nature of the case, as yet, largely a 
work of thorough preparation preliminary to the actual subdivision 
of the land and the distribution of the water. 

The nucleus of the Waha-Lewiston Company is the use of Lake 
Waha, supplemented by several smaller lakelets in the vicinity, 
as a water supply and storage reservoir. Lake Waha is a beautiful 
natural lake having a water surface of about 80 acres. It lies on 
the northern slope of the Craig mountains 25 miles south from 
Lewiston and is about 2,000 feet higher than the city. The lake, 
at its present water level, is 100 feet deep in its deepest part. By 
means of proper engineering devices it is intended to impound 
the flood waters of as wide an area as possible around the lake, 
each year, until the season of irrigation. The annual precipitation 
in the Craig mountain region considerably exceeds 30 inches. By 
conserving the waters from the 
melting snow and the rains in 
the spring and raising the water 
surface to the lowest point of the 
present lake rim, the depth would 
be increased to 217 feet, the 
surface area to 200 acres, and the 
water content would amount to 
more than 20,000 acre feet. 

The company own in excess 
of 10,000 acres of land, including 

Page T wenly-three 

"Pipe Line" Water Supply for Clarkston 



Field of Potatoes — Lewiston Orchards, Summer of 1907 — Young Orchard in Background 

the shore and other drainage lands about Lake Waha and other 
reservoir lake sites. 

One of the features of the Waha-Lewiston project is the use of 
several large springs that burst out of the mountain below Lake 
Waha. These springs have a combined discharge, approximately, 
of 8,000,000 gallons a day of pure, cold, spring water. 

It is purposed to use this spring water, primarily, for the domestic 
water supply of those owning homes under the company's system 
and for the further purpose of developing electric power for lighting 
and other uses. 

The lands of the company to some extent adjoin those of the 
Lewiston orchards, running back, however, and up the Craig moun- 
tain slopes. They are well drained and possess a wide variety of 
elevations above sea level up to 2,500 feet or more, one being able 
to thus cover a wide range in making choice of a location. The 
prices of these lands will range about as do those of the other com- 
panies mentioned and liberal terms of payment will be offered. 

Vegetables and Berries 

As previously stated, in devel- 
oping an orchard it is customary 
for the owner to raise vegetables 
or small berries between the rows 
of trees until the trees are large 
enough to require the whole nour- 
ishment of the soil. This means 
a period of from three to five 

Onion* Grown in Young Orchard 

Page Timih/-foiir 


years. During this time these crops are relied upon to support the 
family, and until the orchard provides an income this plan is 
generally successful. Indeed, it often aids in making the deferred 
payments on the place and the cultivation benefits the trees without 
in any way being disadvantageous. 

All the ordinary vegetables and small fruits grow luxuriantly. 
All kinds of beans, potatoes, onions, carrots, cucumbers, cabbage, 
cauliflower, tomatoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, dew- 
berries, blackberries, raspberries, etc., are raised. The canneries 
assist materially in the marketing of these products, and a consider- 
able amount of "garden truck" is shipped to the Montana towns 
and cities. 

The experience of Peter Spohn in commercial vegetable produc- 
tion will answer for that of others: — 

"Clarkston, June 6, 1910. 

"I went from Northern Ohio to Colorado in 1882. Followed 
market gardening at Denver and Fort Collins for about 18 years. 
In 1900 I went to Missoula, Montana, and remained there until 
1905. Since then I have followed market gardening here. I have 
cultivated 7 acres, by hand, and raised a variety of crops. In 1907 
one acre of White Spine cucumbers netted me $750, there being 
750 boxes at $1 per box, containing 5 dozen cucumbers per box. 
I took from % of an acre 4,000 cabbages, mostly Jersey Wakefields. 
Prices were unusually good in 1907 and I got $3.75 per 100 pounds, 
gross, or about $6 per crate of 210 pounds. I had, in all, 57 crates. 

"From 1% acres of Monte Cristo watermelons I took 7,300 
saleable melons of 12 pounds or over in weight each. These netted 
about $700. 

"From the watermelon ground I took 3,500 pounds of Alaska 
early peas which brought, net, $200. 

"I had % an acre of Rocky Ford cantaloupes which netted 
me about $350. With these I did much better in 1906, which was a 
more favorable year for cantaloupes. 

"A quarter of an acre of Grand Rapids lettuce netted me $400. 
There were 260 boxes of 20 pounds to the box. A half acre of White 
Queen (pickle) onions brought in $250. I shipped 50 dozen bunches 
of table onions per day for three weeks. One half acre of carrots 
produced well, realizing about $125. Miscellaneous stuff aggregated 
$100, making $3,000 income from 4M acres. %Y± acres were non- 
productive. Our income clear of all expenses was $1,800. My interest 
in the property is a working interest, being one-half the expense 
and income. The owner's returns were 30 per cent, on the total 
investment of $3,500 in the property." 

(Signed) Peter Spohn. 

Page Twenty-five 


Tomato growing is an attractive branch of gardening and 
Mr. Krandelt has made it a profitable one as well: — 

"Asotin, Wash., May 1, 1910. 

"In regard to tomato growing, I herewith submit the following 
facts and figures: — 

"About two acres of my place are devoted to the growing of 
tomatoes and the first ripe ones are usually obtained about the first 
of July. The first ones produced net me about $2 a box. About 
August 1, when tomatoes are more plentiful, they bring about $1 a 
box, and as the season advances, they are sold as low as 40 cents a box. 

"Twenty one hundred boxes are the usual yield from this acreage 
and about four tons are sold in bulk." 

(Signed) A. J. Krandelt. 

While there undoubtedly is money to be made in raising vegetables 
in this way there is, with many, a decided feeling that the various 
berry crops are more remunerative. Mr. F. B. Laing, an experienced 
grower, has very positive convictions on this subject. In discussing 
the general question of orcharding he said: — 

"I came to Washington and Idaho in 1877 from Pike County, 
Illinois. Have lived in a number of irrigated fruit districts and have 
been at Lewiston-Clarkston since 1897. I have handled orchards 
for many years. I like this country and think it is bound to be a 
great success. The soil, climate, and water are of the best. 

"Apples, cherries, peaches, and berries grow to perfection. 
The most desirable apples to grow here are the Rome Beauty, Yellow 
Newtown Pippin, Spitzenberg, Jonathan and Winesap. The Bing, 
Lambert and Royal Ann are the best cherries and I give the Bing 
the preference. 

"For early peaches the best are the Alexander and Triumph; 
for late peaches the Early Crawford, Elberta and Late Crawford 
are the best. For domestic use the Early Rivers and Hale's Early 
are good peaches. Apricots and plums do well and I am satisfied 
that this is a fine grape country, especially for the European 
varieties — particularly, the Flame Tokay. 

"Dewberries do particularly well commercially and so also do 
red raspberries and strawberries. For a filler crop while the trees are 
growing, the berry crops are far better than vegetable crops. Dew- 
berries should bring $300 and upward per acre; strawberries will do 
the same year in and year out and often will do much better; rasp- 
berries will produce about the same results. Clark's seedling is the 
strawberry to raise, commercially; for domestic use the Magoon and 
the Crescent are good and are splendid producers. The Lucretia is 
the best dewberry, and the Cuthbert the best shipping raspberry. 

"No one has as yet undertaken to develop the strawberry here 
and I am satisfied there is great money in it. On a limited area 
in Vineland, one year, after raising a good crop of these berries I 
cultivated the bed carefully and to my surprise it bore a second crop 

Page Twenty-six 


yielding at the rate of $230 an acre. The following summer it again 
bore a good crop bringing returns at the rate of $500 an acre. As I 
soon after sold the place I know nothing of that bed since then. I 
am satisfied the strawberry will do as well as here indicated, all over 
this region. In strawberry culture intense cultivation is demanded." 
June 3, 1910. (Signed) F. B. Laing. 

Mr. Laing's opinions regarding berries are confirmed by other 
persons of experience. The dewberry appears to be the preferred 
berry and a dewberry patch is surely a sight to gladden the eye and, 
according to all reports, enrich the purse. Dewberries are calculated 
upon to produce a profit of $1 per bush per season. They are a sure 
crop and find a ready sale at from $1 to $3 per crate of 24 boxes each. 
They will return from $400 to $500 per acre. Raspberries do as well 
and in some cases have done much better. Mr. Laing's ideas anent 
the strawberry afford food for reflection to those who understand the 
cultivation of this delicious fruit. Every home, almost, in the 
Lewiston-Clarkston locality has its own strawberry "patch," but 
there appear to have been but few attempts, as Mr. Laing intimates, 
to raise strawberries, at least on a large scale, for strictly commercial 
purposes. Such efforts as have been made have demonstrated that 
strawberries will return to the grower from $300 to $500 or $600 
per acre. 

Gooseberries and currants do well and the general situation as to 
small berries has been well stated by Mr. Laing and it is confirmed 
by others. 

If there can be a sufficiency of help obtained at picking time 
to harvest the crops, this region should become famous for its straw- 
berries and other small fruits. If the effort were made the Nez 
Perce Indians might become available for extensive fruit harvesting 
here even as the Yakima 
and other Indians now 
are in the Yakima valley 
at hop and fruit gather- 
ing time. The experi- 
ment would seem to be 
worth trying. 

There are several can- 
ning companies here : the 
Snake River Canning Co. , 
the Clarkston Fruit and 
Canning Co., both of 
Clarkston, and the Lewis- 
ton - Clarkston Canning 
Co. and Sprague Sanitary 
Preserving Co. in Lewis- 
ton. With these can- 
neries in full and con- 
tinuous operation, the 

Page Twenty-seven Apples Grow in Abundance 



growing of those vegetables most in demand and of the small fruits 
should become very profitable, especially during the early years of 
the orchard. 

The financial flurry of 1907 seriously affected the general fruit 
market in 1908. For this reason the prices paid for fresh, and received 
for canned, fruit at the canneries in 1908 were very low. The 
canneries at Lewiston-Clarkston canned, during this, their first 
year, 675 tons of fruit of which about one-half were peaches and 
one-third cherries. The prices paid to the growers averaged about 
one cent per pound for peaches and apricots and three cents for 
cherries. The pack was curtailed as much as possible, owing to the 
depression before noted, and the output of canned goods amounted 
to about 60 cars which were shipped to many cities, extending from 
Spokane, Helena and Butte to Chicago, Indianapolis, Philadelphia, etc. 

This fruit equalled that packed in California and held its own 
in competition with it. The canned fruit product has since continued 
to find favor and the output is gradually increasing. 


There is money to be made in poultry raising in the Lewiston- 
Clarkston country, particularly when combined with fruit raising. 
The two form an admirable combination in this land of long warm 
summers and mild winters. And there is always a market for fresh 
eggs and chickens in the lumber and mining camps and the Coast 
cities. Nearly every fruit or vegetable ranch house has its proper 
quota of chickens, many are raised entirely from a commercial 
standpoint and they are of pure breeds in most cases. Leghorns, 
Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, Rhode Island Reds and other equally 

well known breeds are 
found. The fruit orchards 
afford the necessary shade 
demanded in successful 
poultry work and the 
chickens by their scratch- 
ing make good cultivators 
of the ground and aid 
also in keeping down 
orchard insect pests. 

There is no excessive 
moisture and the fact 
that poultry can be out 
of doors practically all 
the year, is, undoubtedly, 
largely responsible for the 
success attending this 
branch of farm work here. 
Poultry raising appears 

A Flemish Beauty Pear Tree Page Twenty-eight 


to be confined almost entirely to chickens. In the testimonials 
given on this subject it will be at once noted how closely fruit raising 
and poultry are combined. 

One of the most interesting places visited was the chicken ranch 
of Mr. Fraser, whose account of his experiences, immediately following, 
makes interesting reading: — 

"I came to Clarkston from Carrington, North Dakota, 10 years 
ago. I have 2 3^ acres of land; a half acre of alfalfa, a small garden 
patch, and the remainder of place is set out to trees and used as a 
chicken ranch. I have about 175 fruit trees in bearing, mostly 
peaches. They are principally late varieties — Crawfords, Sal ways, 
Muirs. My trees are well loaded this year and the returns ought 
to be satisfactory. 

"Chicken raising is my principal business. My chickens are 
all Leghorns — buff and white, principally white. I have 700 chickens, 
300 old, and 400 young ones. Last year I had 250 layers which were 
three and four years old and, after running the place, making certain 
improvements, and feeding the young chickens, they gave me a 
profit of $1 per hen. This year I have 300 layers and have been 
getting an average of 12 dozen eggs a day. This is not a very large 
average on account of most of my layers this year being late hatched 
pullets. The yearling and two year old stock is the best for laying. 

"At this time with the small number of hens I have I can dispose 
of all my eggs on the local market. I have regular customers and 
I never get less than 20 cents a dozen; during holiday season eggs 
are worth as high as 45 cents a dozen. I make my deliveries twice 
a week. The eggs are delivered perfectly clean and guaranteed 
fresh. If any bad eggs are found I replace them. 

"So far the local market has absorbed all my young chickens. 
We get from $3.50 to $4 a dozen for four months old chickens alive. 
For dressed chickens I get from 25 to 30 cents a pound. 

"In hatching I use the incubators entirely and the Philo system 
for brooding. This system is simplicity itself and, at least with me, 
is entirely satisfactory. The majority of my chicken houses are 
open front but I have one or two curtained for fancy stock. I do 
not find though that curtains are necessary; only a few times in 
eight years has it been necessary to use them. In that time the 
thermometer has gone to zero only twice. 

"From my experience I am fully satisfied that any man of 
ordinary ability who will use standard bred stock and feed and care 
for the chickens according to latest improved methods can make a 
success of poultry raising in the Lewiston-Clarkston country. With 
proper care and attention there is no reason why flocks should be 
carried off by the ordinary chicken diseases — and mites and lice 
are easily gotten rid of. 

"There are no rats in this country." 

Clarkston, Wash., June 3, 1910. (Signed) G. A. Fraser. 

Page Twenty-nine 


The statements of Mr. Henderson and Mr. Bailey regarding 
poultry will supplement Mr. Fraser's story: — 

"The combination of soil, climate, location and market will, in 
my opinion, make this the largest poultry raising district in the 

"I have been experimenting with poultry for the past five years 
in this locality. Last year (1909) a pen of four hens produced 720 
eggs at an average market price of 30 cents a dozen. This year I 
have 31 hens that have produced since January 1, 1910, to April 
30, 1910, nineteen hundred and thirty -five eggs. The cost of feeding 
one chicken in this locality is estimated at 9 cents a month." 

(Signed) L. C. Henderson, U. S. Veterinary Inspector. 

"While fruit raising and gardening are the chief occupations 
of the people of Clarkston and Vineland, they are turning their 
attention more and more to poultry. The climate here is ideal for 
that purpose, and people are rapidly learning that poultry pays. 

" The writer having lived for the past ten years engaged in handling 
poultry supplies and shipping eggs, can safely say that the poultry 
industry has brought in more clear money than any other, with eggs 
averaging the producer about 35 cents a dozen the year around, and 
poultry always bringing a high price, the market growing steadily better. 

"This place offers the best of opportunities to the wide-awake 
poultry man." 

Clarkston, Wash., June 6, 1910. (Signed) E. J. Bailey. 

In the Century Magazine for March, 1908, there was an article 
entitled "One-iVcre Ranch." It was the story of a man formerly 
living at Minneapolis, Minnesota, who for many years had been a 
locomotive engineer. At sixty years of age, his health broken, he 
removed to Lewiston-Clarkston. A much neglected one acre place 
set out to fruit trees and having a six room house, was offered to him 
for $1,400. He bought it and in a leisurely, cautious, but very 
intelligent manner Joseph W. Lipe began irrigation farming, loyally 
aided by his wife. 

The story of Mr. Lipe's experience is not alone the story of one 
man's success in a radical change of vocation, but it is a story as well 
and perhaps even to better purpose, of what intensive farming means 
as opposed to our common extensive farming. His simple, plain 
narrative "points a moral and adorns a tale" much better than 
any outside comment can, and while it does not relate to poultry 
exclusively it does so sufficiently to justify its inclusion at this 
point. Mr. Lipe went to Clarkston in 1902, his health has been re- 
gained, the previous year — 1907 — he had cleared, from chickens and 
eggs, $150, vegetables, $72; fruit, $50 (trees young and few in bearing), 
prizes at the fair, $130, and last but by no means least, from Mrs. 
Lipe's wonderful preserved fruits and vegetables, $150. This makes 
a total of $552 cash returns besides what the family themselves used. 

Page Thirty 



That it required good management and constant labor to exact such 
returns from one acre of land is evident. But it is easy to see that 
Mr. Lipe farms with his brains as well as with his hands, after con- 
versing with him. It was a great treat to be conducted by him 
and his wife over their little domain and see the marvelous way 
in which every inch of ground was economized and hear the story 
of their accomplishments all told in a modest and natural way. 

But here is Mr. Lipe's own story: — ■ 

"I have to work very hard, as any one who is successful with 
fruit and vegetables must. I get up at four in the morning and work 
until about ten A. M., go to work at about three in the afternoon 
and work until dark. During the heat of the day I do not work in 
the garden, but attend to the chickens, the irrigation or any other 
odd jobs that may require attention. A person on a small place 
worked intensively cannot leave the water for more than an hour or 
two at a time at the outside. I have but one acre here and desire 
no more land. We make a good living from it, but as I said before, 
a man has to work hard. In time, when the trees grow large and 
shade the ground, I intend to do away with the vegetable garden and 
put in more chicken pens and give my entire time to raising chickens 
and fruit. You have to keep the coops clean, keep the birds well 
supplied with fresh dirt, and keep the nests well cleaned and sprayed. 
By doing this there is no chance for lice or mites getting into the 
coops. We have 70 old hens and 250 young chickens this year. 

The Lewiston-Clarkslon Display at the National Apple Show, Spokane 

Page Thirty-one 


Idaho Peaches 

As a rule we keep the hens but two 
years, except that the best moth- 
ers are kept three years. We raise 
only Barred Plymouth Rocks, 
Columbia and Black Wyan- 
dottes. We cannot raise chickens 
so well in the Brooders in the hot 
weather. We set the hens all at 
one time and as soon as they 
come off divide the chickens up 
amongst the best mothers and 
turn the other hatching hens 
back into the flock. One of my 
hens mothers 42 chickens hatched 
by herself and other hens. 

"In gardening we always get 

two or three crops of lettuce and 

We now have the third crop of peas. Carrots, 

be left in the ground all winter 

I ship most all of my vegetables 

other vegetables. 

turnips, onions and parsnips can 

and are fresh and nice in the spring. 

and fruit to Butte, Missoula, Helena and other Montana towns 

"I have the following fruit trees: 50 peach, mostly Elbertas and 
Late Crawfords; 3 plum trees, one Tragedy, one Washington, and 
one Peach-Plum; 8 apple trees bearing and 20 young trees. They are 
Rome Beauty, Jonathan, Newtown Pippin, Spitzenberg, Northern 
Spy, Bismarck, Winesap, Wagener, Banana, and Rhode Island 
Greening. I have 28 cherry trees, 4 Bing, 4 Hoskin, 14 Royal Anns, 
1 Centennial, 1 English Morello, 2 Late Dukes, 1 Montmorency and 
1 Early Richmond. Have three Bartlett pear trees, 2 Almond 
and three English Walnut trees. Have currants, raspberries, red 
and black, and dewberries. Have strawberries for family use only. 
The trees are beginning to shade the ground too much for raising 
strawberries. When we were regularly raising them we sold as high 
as forty crates in a season. We have 80 grape vines, being Flame 
Tokays, Rose of Peru, Malaga, Black Hamburg, Black Prince, and 
the Niagara. The grapes are going to yield heavily this year as 
will also all of my other fruits. We keep a book account of our sales 
and take special pains to see that it is properly kept. We do our 
own fruit packing and make special efforts to have it well done. 
All the culled fruit is fed to the chickens. 

"A man of industry and judgment can make a good living on a 
five acre tract. While the orchard is growing he should raise berries 
and vegetables between the trees. Mrs. Lipe's preserves won 45 
prizes at the fair in 1907, 38 first and 7 second prizes." 

Clarkston, Wash., June 4, 1910. (Signed) J. W. Lipe. 

fage Thirly-two 



Fruit in General 

Lewiston-Clarkston Apples and Grapes 

and producing abundantly, are 

Other fruits surpass them as money makers 

to do well are not yet extensively grown. 

All of the temperate zone fruits 
appear to thrive in this locality. 
Those that are most in evidence 
are cherries, peaches, apricots, 
pears, grapes and apples. Plums 
and prunes are not widely grown. 
Each little farm has a supply of 
many kinds of fruit for home con- 
sumption, as is evidenced by Mr. 
Lipe's category of varieties. 
Prominent among those thus 
found are peach-plums and nec- 
tarines, and they certainly are 
delicious fruits to the palate and 
ornamental features of an orchard 
when the fruit is ripening. Apri- 
cots, while growing luxuriantly 
not much raised commercially. 
Pears, while appearing 


While there are numerous varieties of this dainty fruit raised, 
those worthy of special mention may be reduced to three: Bing, 
Lambert and Royal Ann. They all grow to perfection, the locality 
seeming to be specially adapted to this fruit, and there seems to be 
little choice among them except as a matter of personal preference. 
The Royal Ann is esteemed the best for canning purposes. Ine 
Bing is, perhaps, given the preference oyer the Lambert at the present 
time, but whether this will continue is 
a question. A new cherry originated in 
Clarkston, the Mayhow, may prove to 
be the best of all. The Black Repub- 
lican, Black Tartarian and other varie- 
ties of sweet cherries are grown as, also, 
are several varieties of sour cherries. 

The trees are planted about 70 to 
the acre and a well watered cherry tree 
is counted upon for an income of about 
$10 a tree, net, annually. 

The experience of Mr. Kennedy as 
here outlined will give an idea of the 
success attending the growing of cherries 
in Lewiston-Clarkston: — 

Page Thirty-three 

Box of Late Crawford Peaches 



Onions Between Rows of Peach and Cherry Trees, Lewiston Orchards 

"I have five acres of land in Clarkston. Three acres in cherries — 
Bings, Royal Anns and Lamberts — one acre — 100 trees — in Early 
and Late Crawford Peaches. 

"This year I had more than 13 tons of cherries from 400 trees. 
Sold 6 tons delivered in bulk in Clarkston for 4 cents a pound, or 
$80 a ton, cash. The other 7 tons I sent to the Co-Operative Cannery 
and realized from them, net to me, as much more. My crop was a 
good, full crop and I am entirely satisfied with results. My orchard 
is 7 years old and was purchased by me in March, 1908." 
Clarkston, Wash., July 31, 1908. (Signed) J. C. Kennedy. 

Cherries, in 1910, brought five cents a pound at the packing 
houses and canneries. 

Mr. Bethel, a jeweler of Lewiston, has his home in Clarkston 
and raises a good many cherries as evidenced in his memorandum of 
results for 1908. 

It may be remarked here that a cold, wet spring in 1908, materially 
reduced the cherry crop for the year. Mr. Bethel's experience 
shows what may be accomplished by a business man on his home 
place with little effort at commercial fruit raising. 

"I came from Illinois, near Bloomington, where I was born and 
raised. I have four acres in Clarkston which is used purely for a home. 
I have two acres in lawn and vegetable garden and have the remainder 
of the place in orchard. I have 125 cherry trees, consisting of a row 
clear around the four acres, and in the orchard every other row is 
cherries. From my cherry trees this year I sold two tons of cherries 
bringing in $125, selling the Bings to the packers and the Royal Anns 
to the canneries. My peaches are Elbertas and late Crawfords. I 
have my own apples, pears, apricots, berries, etc. My apple trees 
are the Yellow Transparent, Rome Beauty and Spitzenberg. My 
peach trees are well loaded this year, and I will have a large amount 
of fruit for sale. 

Page Thirty-four 


"I have three boys, aged 18, 16, and 10 years, who attend to the 
orchard and garden, taking care of the fruit. I have my own chickens 
and keep a cow and a horse. 

"I have a jewelry business in Lewiston and go back and forth to 
my business each day. Clarkston is an ideal home town and for a 
man with a small family growing up, this is a pleasant way to live. 

"I have been here 12 years and have met with success in my 
business. As the country settles up there will be good business 
openings in this territory." 

Lewiston, Aug. 24, 1910. (Signed) J. H. Bethel. 

Mr. Peaslee's experience ought to encourage some lover of cherries 
to establish an orchard here. 

"I received from the Clarkston Fruit Growers' Association 
$848 for a trifle over 1,200 boxes of cherries last season. The average 
price per pound was just a fraction less than 7 cents. Our crop was 
short last season, but at these prices cherry growing is very profitable 
and will become more so from now on, owing to the age of the trees 
and their ability to carry a heavier crop." 

Clarkston, Wash., May 3, 1910. (Signed) Geo. W. R. Peaslee. 


The Lewiston-Clarkston country seems to be a natural home for 
the peach. The trees grow easily and rapidly, produce abundantly, 
the fruit is fine in appearance and is well flavored. As in all peach 
districts the usual pests must be fought and an occasional late spring 
frost be guarded against by means of smudge pots and smudging. 

Many of the standard varieties of "peaches are raised. With 
two lines of railway, one leading direct to Spokane and the eastern 
markets, the other down the Snake river to the large cities of the 

Lewiston-Clarkston Canning Co.'s Plant, Lewiston, Idaho 

Page Thirty-five 


coast; with three canneries in operation to aid in handling any 
surplus fruit; with a climate that matures a luscious and beautiful 
peach if proper attention be given to gathering, packing and market- 
ing the product, this region should acquire an enviable reputation in 
peach production. The trees begin to bear at two years of age. 
A favorite method of planting them, particularly in late years since 
apple growing has progressed so rapidly in this section, is to set them 
out as "fillers" between the apple trees. As the apple trees are so 
much longer reaching maturity the peach trees produce crops for 
several years before the former require all the ground. Eventually 
the peach trees are dug up leaving the apple trees in full possession. 
It is this temporary service to which the peaches are put that gives 
them the name of "fillers" in this connection. 

_ Mr. F. C. Caswell is one of the older settlers of Clarkston, although 
still a young man. His side hill orchard is an extremely inter- 
esting one to wander through, and while his experience has been one 
not by any means confined to peaches, his statement will fit in here 
as showing well the varieties of peaches that may be found in many 
of the orchards. No one or two varieties, thus far, has been planted 
to the exclusion of many others. They all seem to thrive and produce 
abundantly : — ■ 

"I came to Clarkston 12 years ago from Spokane and had only 
about $15, a team and wagon, and a wife and three children. 
I came originally from the state of Maine. I purchased five acres 
from the Lewiston-Clarkston Co. at $100 an acre, on time, and in 
four years sold the five acres for $4,000. I then purchased 17 acres 
at $175 per acre and afterwards sold 5]4, acres for $2,000. I am now 
living on the remaining 11^ acres which I have improved. 

"On this ground I have 1,200 trees in all. There are 200 cherry 
trees only six years old and not yet come into full bearing. Have 
900 peach trees consisting of Elberta, Globe, Muir, Triumph, Hale's 
Early, and Foster. There are also a number of apple, apricot, etc., 
trees for family use. I consider that the Elberta is the best all 
around peach to raise in this country. 

"I have about 500 grape vines consisting of Black Hamburg, 
Muscat, a few Flame Tokay, Franklin Reisling, Zinfindel, and other 
vines of different varieties — just about one acre of grapes in all. I 
have each year about 4 tons of grapes for sale which bring me 3 or 4 
cents a pound, those being the ruling prices. I have a few Concord, 
Isabella, Moore's Early, Green Mountain, and Delawares, all of 
which do very well here. 

"Have about J^ an acre in strawberries, comprising the Warfield, 
Clyde and Glen Mary varieties, from which we netted this year $175. 
If I were going to start anew with 5 acres I would put all in straw- 
berries — if on a ten acre tract would put one-half in strawberries, 
as there is more money in them than in any other berries or fruit." 
August 6, 1908. (Signed) F. C. Caswell. 

Page Thirty-six 



Mr. Caswell's opinion of the Elberta peach is echoed verbally 
by others. It will be noted that Mr. Caswell strongly corroborates 
the opinion expressed by Mr. Laing regarding strawberry culture. 

The warm, sandy bottom lands and slopes of the Snake river 
below Lewiston-Clarkston are, practically, all in the hands of fruit 
ranchmen. Here, for mile upon mile, as you traverse the big, almost 
spectacular canyon, either by steamer or railway train, orchard after 
orchard passes in review. Some of these are many years old. At 
Wawawai (Rippling Water), some 28 miles below Lewiston, Mr. Wm. 
L. La Follette — now Congressman La Follette — had a large ranch at 
the time of which this publication treats, which has since been sold by 
him, extending from the river to the plateau high above. The eleva- 
tion at the river is 678 feet, at the top of the hill 2,484 feet, above 
sea level, the plateau being, therefore, 1,800 feet above the river 
bottom. On the bottom land there are 275 acres in orchard of which 
100 acres are in peaches. This means that there are from 10,000 to 
12,000 peach trees on the ranch. There are an equal number of 
prune and plum trees and about the same number of pear, apple, 
cherry, nectarines, etc., trees. On the plateau there are 2,000 
apple trees. 

The peach orchard consists principally of the Crawfords, Muir, 
Hale's Early, Triumph, Admiral Dewey, Elberta, and Salway varie- 
ties. The Muir, Mr. La Follette considered the best peach for quality, 
but not commercially, and the Salway he ranked as the best of the 
late peaches. 

The orchard is irrigated principally by water pumped by a steam 
pump from the Snake river. Fifteen hundred gallons of water per 
minute are thus supplied and 500 gallons additional are procured 
from creeks and springs and utilized by gravity. 

As showing what can be done in fruit ranching in this region in a 
year when prices are good, Mr. La Follette realized, net, in 1907, 
$27,000. The financial depression in the fall of that year so affected 
prices for fruit all over the country for 1908 that results that year fell 
far below those for 1907. This was the story heard on all sides — 
1908 was an "off year" for the fruit grower with a possible exception 
to be made in favor of late apples. 

Home of P. H. Mullarkey, Lewiston Orchards 
Page Thirty-seven 

Home of D. R. McDonald, on a Five-Acre Tract 




So firmly convinced were the early fruit men that peaches and 
cherries were beyond any doubt the preferable fruits to raise about 
Lewiston-Clarkston, that slight attention was given to apple culture, 
beyond the attempts to raise the fruit for home and local consumption. 
The success attending these unpretentious efforts together with the 
increasing and more stable market for this particular fruit, coupled 
with the lesser risks of marketing owing to the splendid keeping 
qualities of the apple, gradually turned the attention of practical 

orchardists to growing late or winter 
apples. Within recent years therefore 
much study has been given to this branch 
of horticulture by the growers and they 
have been materially assisted by the 
local Agricultural Colleges. The feeling 
is widespread, all over the Lewiston- 
Clarkston and Clearwater country, that 
the region is going to develop into a fine 
apple growing section. And the people 
have the courage of their convictions. 
Apple orchards are being planted very 
generally and at various altitudes and 
under such conditions as to soon and very 
conclusively determine the question. 
Most of the apple orchards are very 
young, but if the bright, symmetric, 
healthy appearance of the young trees 
seen in Clarkston and Lewiston orchards 
means anything, then there is no doubt 
of the ultimate outcome. 

Well up on the northern slope of the 
•Jp^^j Craig mountains just below Lake 

Waha, on land now owned by the Waha- 
Lewiston Land & Water Co., there is a 
large apple orchard at least a quarter of 
a century old. For several years the orchard had been neglected and 
allowed to deteriorate and run down. The company has recently 
taken hold of it according to modern and scientific methods, 
and has succeeded in largely restoring it to a state of health- 
fulness and productiveness. It now bids fair to become a striking 
example of successful apple culture on the elevated portions of the 
Lewiston-Clarkston plateau. 

Prof. Severance says of the Lewiston orchard lands and their 
adaptability for apple culture: — "The texture of this soil compares 
very favorably with the best apple, pear and plum soils in other sec- 
tions and it is believed that with this elevation, the northern exposure 
and the deep rich loam soil, together with our particular climatic 

Page Thirty-eight 

A Cluster of Apples 



conditions, this will be splendid apple land." What is true of 
Lewiston orchards is equally true of other lands in this locality, 
of corresponding altitudes and situations. 

The apples growing here are stated to be of exceptional quality, 
caused by the great amount of sunshine, the nature of the soil, and 
the temperature during the growing season inducing a greater 
amount than usual of fruit sugar to be developed in the fruit. 

Of varieties grown there are, of course, many, depending upon 
individual caprice and notion. Of summer apples it may almost be 
said that there are none raised for commercial purposes. Among 
summer varieties grown the Red June, Wealthy and Yellow Trans- 
parent are favorites. In the commercial orchards set out to winter 
apples it will be found that the Jonathan, Spitzenberg, Yellow 
Newtown Pippin, Rome Beauty and Winesap predominate. On 5 
and 10 acre orchard tracts from three to five varieties are usually 
set out and on 20 acre tracts from five to eight kinds. 

Besides the five varieties mentioned the Black Twig, Gravenstein, 
Wagener, Grimes Golden, Gano and others are found. Here and 
there some one is growing the Mcintosh Red, Winter Banana or 
some other variety in addition to those already named. The Ben 
Davis, usually not ranked as a first class apple, here does extremely 
well. Known principally as a good keeping and shipping apple, 
in this locality it bears well, colors nicely and, as one writer puts it, 
"The sometimes friendless Ben has found new life in this section, and 
responds to irrigation with bounteous production, and with a quality 
that seems to justify a new name in compliment of the achievement." 
The five varieties first named appear to have the preference, however, 
at the present time. 

There is probably no section where there is more methodical 
and scientific handling of 
orchards than in Lewis- 
ton-Clarkston. The 
present tendency in 
planting apple trees is to 
place the trees much far- 
ther apart than formerly. 
Close planting is discour- 
aged. Where, heretofore, 
planting 25 feet apart in 
the rows was a common 
practice, now the more 
advanced orchardists are 
spacing their trees, 32, 
35 and even 40 feet or 
more apart each way. 
This gives each tree when 
fully matured, ample 
ground room and allows 

Page Thirty-nine 

Money Makers in Blu 


the tree to be so pruned and grown as to prevent crowding, makes 
thorough spraying easy, allows the freest circulation of air, and permits 
the sun to thoroughly penetrate to every part of the tree, the latter 
a most important, indeed experience has shown it to be a vital, 
matter in properly coloring the fruit. 

In Lewiston-Clarkston good orchard practice does not usually 
permit crops of berries, vegetables, or grass to be grown after the 
trees reach the bearing period. The ground is kept clean and 
thoroughly cultivated. However, Prof. Nelson, Irrigationist of the 
Idaho Experiment station, seems to approve the growing and plow- 
ing under of green leguminous crops for their enrichment of the 
soil in those elements specially needed for fruit production. 

The orchards are not free from pests, the codling moth, San Jose 
scale, and the aphis family being found. By careful, persistent, 
intelligent spraying and scientific handling of the orchards in general, 
by all orchardists, these pests are kept in subjection, and, appar- 
ently, the damage done by them is not increasing. 

To one at all familiar with the horticultural conditions in the 
West and who has seen the plateau and elevated parts of the Lewiston- 
Clarkston country, it is hard to resist the feeling that within the next 
ten years these hills will be covered with some of the finest and 
handsomest orchards, particularly of the apple kind, to be found 
throughout the United States. 

Mr. A. H. Garlinghouse lives in Clarkston and carries on a 
marble and granite business in Lewiston. He thinks that "there is a 
lot of money to be made here growing apples." One year, recently, 
he sold 400 boxes of apples for $700, receiving from $1.75 to $2.50 
per box, he doing his own picking and packing. His story is well 
worth telling: — 

"I came from Southeastern Kansas and formerly lived in Illinois, 
where I was born and raised. I have an orchard of 2 3^2 acres in 
Vineland, consisting of 98 apple trees, 89 peach trees and 98 cherry 
trees. From the 98 cherry trees, in 1908, I sold 3,000 boxes at four 
cents a pound. This year cherries sold for 5 cents per pound at 
packing nouses, just as they came from the trees. I have the following 
variety of apples: Rome Beauties, Jonathans and Newtown Pippins, 
and they all do well. This year I will have between 700 and 1,000 
boxes of apples and expect to receive $1 per box, clear profit. Besides 
this I will have a large amount of culls for the canneries. My peaches 
are the Late Crawford and Globe. The trees are well loaded this year 
and I expect to get $1,200 net returns for my peach crop this year. 

"In addition to my orchard in Clarkston I am proprietor of the 
Lewiston ^ farble and Granite Works in Lewiston, where I transact 
business during the day and only my evenings and mornings are devoted 
to the care of my orchard in Clarkston, where I make my home." 

Lewiston, Idaho, Aug. 25, 1910. (Signed) A. H. Garlinghouse. 

Page Forty 


The statement of Mr. John Brown is an interesting one covering 
as it does a wide range of products and a fair sized acreage, and it is 
inserted here as being as appropriate a place as any, even though it 
does not relate particularly to apples: — 

"I came from Northern Wisconsin and have been in Clarkston 
nine years. I own 7^ acres of irrigated land and have my home 
on it. I have a family of six children. I have 235 peach trees — ■ 
Triumph, Early Crawford, Foster, Salway, Elberta and Muir and 
a few Orange Cling and Hale's Early. I have also 155 cherry trees, 
principally Bing, Lambert and Royal Ann. I have thirty plum trees, 
twenty of them Bradshaws; twenty pear trees, principally Idahos and 
Winter Nellis, also some apple, apricot and nut trees. Have one- 
sixth acre of strawberries, x /i an acre of blackberries, and have set out 
100 gooseberries this year. Have about 600 grape vines set out 
along the fences. 

"I had 7 tons of cherries this year, being only about one quarter 
of a crop account of late cold spring which was unusual. Sold 4^ 
tons to local fruit buyers for which I got 4 
cents a pound. I consigned one ton which 
brought me 5 cents a pound. I placed about 
\Yi tons in the Co-Operative Cannery which 
will net me as much as those I sold green. 
My cherries this year will bring me about 
$600. I marketed $137 worth of straw- 
berries and am now marketing my peaches. 
Have already sold 450 boxes of Triumphs 
for which I received from 40 to 70 cents a 

box. I have picked SO far only 58 trees. Flame' Tokay' Grapes 

My plums are just coming in. I have 
about one acre of melons. 

"I figure that I can sell $3,500 in produce off my place each 
average year. I will sell only about $1,800 worth this year. This is 
an off year everywhere and prices are low. This is the first year we 
ever received as low as 4 cents for cherries. I have sold as high as 
$900 worth of melons in one season. This is also an off year in melons 
and they will not sell as rapidly as usual. 

"I do mostly all the work myself. I figure a man can take five 
acres and by proper care and management do well on it. 

"In nine years, with the exception of two payments I made on 
my place, I have paid for it, built a nice comfortable house, bought 
two lots in town, and purchased 11% acres at Gardena, Washington, 
at $150 an acre which I have nearly paid for now. When my trees 
were small I gave a good deal of attention to melon and vegetable 

Lewiston, Idaho, Aug. 4, 1908. (Signed) Jno. Brown. 

Page Forty-one 



Grape Exhibit from Lewiston and Clarkston 


Unless all signs fail, the vineyard is going to closely rival the 
orchard in Lewiston-Clarkston. There seems no question but that 
the locality is also the natural home of the grape, especially the 
European varieties, and great success has for years attended grape 

The valley conforms to all the requirements for scientific and 
profitable grape culture and wine and grape juice manufacture, 
according to the careful and intelligent study of grape growing 

Mr. Robert Schleicher of Lewiston has for many years been 
raising grapes and making wine and is a recognized authority on 
these subjects. He has a fine vineyard a short distance above 
Lewiston on the Clearwater river hills. Lewiston-Clarkston grapes 
obtained as high an award at the St. Louis Exposition as did those 
from California. Mr. Schleicher's exhibit of grapes at the Lewis 
and Clark Exposition at Portland in 1905 brought forth a letter 
from Prof. Van Deman, President of the Horticulture Jury, in 
which he said: — "I wish you could have had more than one gold 
medal, for you deserved it. You made the best grape display at the 
Exposition." Mr. Schleicher, from his many years' experience in 

Page Fvriy-two 


this valley, estimates the expense of raising and packing grapes at 
$75 an acre and the profits at about $400 per acre. Prices received 
range from 75 cents to $1.50 a crate. 

Mr. J. Schaefer has a 14 acre vineyard, and an attractive one 
it is, at Clarkston, or more specifically, Vineland, the product of 
which he turns into wine. Experts pronounce the wines made from 
grapes in this valley to be equal to the best California wines. Those 
of the Sauterne and Rheinish types are said to come nearer to the 
European wines than the California wines do. Those who, while 
desiring to pursue grape culture, yet prefer not to raise table grapes 
nor yet engage in wine-making, might profitably manufacture grape 
juice for which there seems to be a growing demand and market. 

The hillsides and bottom lands on both sides of the Clearwater 
are adapted to grape culture and will in time undoubtedly be largely 
devoted to this form of horticulture. 

Mr. Hilbert, in charge of Mr. Schleicher's vineyard, states that 
the varieties now raised by them are the Flame Tokay, White Malaga, 
Rammonia, Muscat, Black Cornichon and Emperor. The first is 
an immense bearer and its splendid appearance and good shipping 
qualities make it a grape very readily marketable at a good price. 
The others, of varying appearance and characteristics, have proved 
to be good table grapes and commercially valuable. The American 
Concord grape does not do well on Mr. Schleicher's ground, but 
others in Lewiston-Clarkston who have raised this variety have affirmed 
that they are well satisfied with its performances. The Black 
Hamburg and Sweetwater grapes are much grown for local consump- 
tion and are fine varieties, but their poor shipping qualities prevent 
them from being commercially profitable. 

Mr. Hilbert stated that good help is not difficult to obtain in 
the running of a vineyard. Day labor costs from $1.25 to $1.50 a 
day and board; by the month it is $30 to $35 a month and board. 

Vineyards here are but little subject to disease, mildew appearing 
now and then but yielding readily to simple remedies. _ 

As one travels about the Lewiston-Clarkston region inspecting the 
orchards and vineyards and talking with their owners, one question 
is ever uppermost in one's mind — can a man make a satisfactory 
living and be successful on a 5 acre or even a 10 acre tract of land? 
This question was put to many of the local people. Naturally, 
there were more or less varied answers. These diversities related 
largely to matters of detail, there being a general agreement as to 
the main proposition. This fact has been more or less emphasized 
in the testimonials here adduced. Among the owners of large 
properties doubt was expressed as to success being attainable on 
a 10 acre farm. Among those who have studied the question and who 
have had practical experience in the matter there is but one opinion, 
and that is that there is no question regarding it — it can and is 
being done. Such experiences as Mr. Lipe's and Mr. Garking- 
house's on areas of less than 5 acres would seem to determine the 

Page Forty-three 






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Packing Cantaloupes in Field 

matter. The personal equation counts for everything here. The 
inert individual and the energetic, brainy man will report radically 
opposite results. 

Here is a statement by Mr. Berry in regard to this which, 
coming from a former grain farmer, should count for something; — 

"I like Lewiston orchards and the climate. Have been a grain 
farmer. Judging from my limited experience here and my observa- 
tions I think a man of ordinary common sense, ability and industry 
can, on a five acre tract, after it has come into bearing, make a good 
living without excessive labor. Would set out such a tract to 
winter apples. Mine is set out to the Yellow Newtown Pippin, 
Rome Beauty and Mcintosh Red Apples." 

August 3, 1908. (Signed) J. S. Berry. 

Another report, by Mr. Mullarkey, an experienced irrigationist 
from the Southwest, also makes good argument in favor of the small 
fruit farm intensively farmed: — 

"I came here from Flora Vista, New Mexico. Am used to 
irrigation farming and consider this region all right. I have 20 
acres, which is too much for one man to easily handle. If one sets 
out that acreage to orchard and does not attempt to farm much 
between the rows he can attend to that much land alone. If he 
cultivates between rows, after his orchard is in bearing 5 acres is 
all that one man can care for without help. A man with a small 
family may, usually, be able to buy from 2J^ to 5 acres and make 
his deferred payments from crops raised between the trees while the 
orchard is coming into bearing. 

"I have 8 acres in Bing cherries and Elberta peaches. The 
peaches are "fillers" and will be dug out, eventually leaving a 

Page Forty-four 


cherry orchard. I have 12 acres in apples — Spitzenberg, Yellow 
Newtown Pippin, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Mcintosh Red, 70 
Winter Banana, and a few early sorts. The cherries, peaches and 
apples are in one body, are all about two years old and are in fine 

"I have also 1600 Dew-, Logan-, Black-, and Rasp-berries that 
will bear next year. 

"I think this is bound to become one of the best strawberry 
regions in the west." 

August 3, 1908. (Signed) P. H. Mullarkey. 


The Vineland Nurseries Co. have a 40 acre tract on Clarkston 
Heights set out to a nursery. The land is well adapted for this 
purpose and is supplied with water on the pressure system. These 
nurserymen are experienced in tree growing in this region, and the 
location of a good nursery here enables orchardists to obtain their 
trees under best possible conditions and after personal inspection. 
All delays and dangers of transportation are avoided and the trees in 
transplanting undergo no radical changes in soil and climate. 

Descriptive literature of a somewhat more detailed sort than 
this publication, dealing in various ways with the Lewiston-Clarkston 
region and its products, prospects, advantages, etc., may be obtained 
by addressing any of the Irrigation & Land Companies here named. 

Page Forty-five 

Asotin, Wash. 



A Prospect Avenue Residence, Lewiston, Idaho 

The Lewiston Commercial Club at Lewiston, or the Clarkston 
Chamber of Commerce, Clarkston, Washington, will gladly respond 
to all calls for information and can be of great service to all desiring 
to learn further concerning this locality. 

At the Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposition held at Seattle in 1909, 
Asotin County, Washington, fruit received the following medals, etc. : 

Seven Gold Medals. 

Three Grand Prizes, one each for cherries, grapes and peaches. 

Three Silk Banners for the best continuous display of fruit at 
the Exposition. 

There were also forty-seven silver and bronze medals of various 
sorts awarded to Asotin County for its excellence in fruit exhibited 
at the air. 

Some sample crop yields are appended of Asotin County products. 
Asotin is the County Seat of Asotin County and Clarkston is in the 
extreme northeastern corner of the county. 

Some Sample Crop Yields for 1909 from 
Asotin County, Washington 

Ray Johnson, Anatone, Wash., 70 acres of No. 63 wheat, yielded 
47 bushels per acre. 

Jas. Sangster, Anatone, Wash., 120 acres 40 Fold wheat, yielded 
47 bushels per acre. 

W. A. Johnson, Anatone, Wash., 100 acres 40 Fold wheat yielded 
55 bushels per acre. 

Wm. Benedict, Anatone, Wash., 60 acres No. 63 wheat, yielded 
47 bushels per care. 

Page Forly-tix 



Threshing an the Nez Perce Prairie, Where the Sack Pile Compare) Favorably with the Straw Pile 

D. E. Newell, Anatone, Wash., 400 acres Turkey Red wheat, 
yielded 47 bushels per acre. 

Virgin Flock, Anatone, Wash., 40 acres winter barley, yielded 80 
bushels per acre. 

Bery M. Clemans, Anatone, Wash., 350 acres 40 Fold and No. 63 
wheat, produced 49 bushels per acre. 

R. Sangster, Anatone, Wash., 20 acres 40 Fold wheat, yielded 65 
bushels per acre. 

Harry Goff, Asotin, Wash., 40 acres of No. 63 wheat, yielded 57 
bushels per acre. 

G. W. R. Peaslee, Clarkston, Wash., 1200 boxes cherries, sold for 
$848 net. 

Weldon Wilson, Silcott, Wash., 2 acres production of water 
melons, sold for $1,000. 

John Brown, Clarkston, Wash., }/£ acre Rockyford cantaloupes, 
sold for $305. 

J. T. Travis, Clarkston, Wash., \ l /2 acres on Clarkston Heights. 
Watermelons sold for $500, being more than cost of the land. 

Lorer & Spohn, Clarkston, Wash., 7 acres of garden truck, sold 
for $3,500 net. 

J. P. Eastwood, Clarkston, Wash., 900 boxes of peaches, sold for 

The Clearwater Valley 

Practically all that has been written here regarding Lewiston- 
Clarkston applies, with certain obvious modifications, to the Clear- 
water valley. The conditions of soil, climate, water, products, are, 
virtually, the same. The topography of the valley determines its 
possibilities for agriculture and horticulture. Here the valley is 
narrow with little or no bottom land; there the hills spread apart 
affording a wide area of splendid soil at their bases; now the hill 
slopes are steep or rocky with no chance for cultivation; again they 

Page Forty-seven 


A Shipment of Horses from Nez Perce, Idaho 

are nicely terraced making ideal slopes and broad benches for vine- 
yards and orchards. 

The elevation at Lewiston is, as heretofore given, 738 feet; at 
Joseph, 11 miles above Lewiston at the mouth of Lapwai creek and 
the junction of the Lewiston line of the Northern Pacific Railway 
with the Camas Prairie branch line of railway to Grangeville, the 
elevation is 811 feet; Agatha, 15 miles above Joseph, is 906 feet above 
sea level; at Oro Fino, just above the mouth of the North fork of the 
Clearwater and 17 miles above Agatha, the elevation is 1,027 feet; at 
Kamiah, 23 miles above Oro Fino, it is 1,196 feet, and Kooskia, 7 
miles beyond Kamiah and at the junction of the main stream and 
the Middle fork, is 1,261 feet above the sea. 

The physical characteristics are in the main similar to those at 
Lewiston-Clarkston. The broad plateau feature is greatly lacking 
except at the extreme tops of the valley, or canyon slopes, where the 
wide prairie grain fields are found. There are also found along the 
bottom lands and on the slopes of the river hills quite extensive areas 
of timber of the coniferous varieties. Beyond Agatha these tim- 
bered zones increase. At many points they, in connection with the 
undulating, grassy, terraced slopes and the springs of water or small 
streams, form most beautiful parks, destined some day to become 
orchard or vineyard homes of extreme attractiveness. 

In the region about Agatha there is a good deal of tillable 
land. On the north side of the river there is a wide bench several 
miles in length, of open land admirably situated for cultivation. 
The old Indian trail that Lewis and Clark followed in 1806 wound 
along this open ground and fragments of it can even now be dis- 
covered here and there. 

Near Oro Fino there is a widening of the valley and a consequent 
increase in area of available ground for horticulture. 

At Kamiah the valley opens out in fine style forming one of the 
most beautiful landscapes to be found anywhere within the mountain 
regions of the West. It is a landscape poem. 

Page Forty-eight 



When the Nez Perce Indian Reservation was opened the Indians 
as individuals became the owners of a large part of the lands border- 
ing the Clearwater. While there are thus many Indian land owners, 
the white ownership is largely predominant. The two races live in 
perfect harmony and the Indians are good farmers, confining them- 
selves principally to livestock, dairy and grain farming. 

The sale of the Indian lands to the Whites is under certain 
restrictive regulations. The lands owned by the Indians, however, 
are now quite rapidly passing into the hands of the Whites. Lands 
not subject to sale may be leased by the Indians, but all sales and 
leases must be made through the Interior Department. 

Mr. Schaeffer, of Lewiston, already referred to, has a fine vine- 
yard of 65 acres at Agatha. It is beautifully located on the north 
side bench before mentioned, about 300 feet above the river. The 
soil is volcanic ash and the surface is gently rolling. The grapes 
grown are wine grapes and comprise Black Hamburg, Rose of Peru, 
Sweetwater, Black Permouse, Riesling and several other varieties. 
There are 10 acres set out to native wild grape vines on which 
domestic vines will be grafted in the hope of securing a more sturdy 
stock, one immune from phyloxera. This disease has not made its 
appearance in this region and it is hoped by watchfulness and care 
to keep it out. A slight touch of mildew in this particular vineyard 
yielded at once to a dusting of sulphur. 

These vines are three years old and are expected to bear 10 tons 
of grapes an acre at four years old and thereafter. There are 600 
vines to the acre. Irrigation is not practiced and it is unnecessary. 

Alfred Day Pardee's Camp on Clearwater at Pardee Station 

Page Forty-nine 


Mr. Haskins says that the soil on the north side of the river is 
preferable for grapes and that on the south side is better for peaches. 

The seasons are earlier in the spring and later in the fall on the 
north side than on the south side of the valley. Frosts come later 
in the fall than about Lewiston-Clarkston. 

In the vicinity of Agatha Mr. Haskins estimates the Indians own 
about one-eighth of the land. There are good farms for sale along 
the river but the Indian farms have been somewhat difficult to buy 
owing to the restrictions heretofore mentioned. The situation in 
this respect will gradually change for the better. 

There is much difference in the character of the land and owing 
to the rough or timbered nature of the ground, in many cases, it is 
often necessary in order to obtain from 25 to 60 acres of tillable 
land to purchase a much larger acreage. Prices range from $20 
to $30 per acre. 

There are many springs of fine water on the slopes of both sides 
of the canyon. 

About two miles from Kamiah lies a most delightfully situated 
ranch. It is on the west side of the wide valley among the foothills, 
is washed by the Clearwater river, slopes gently to the north and 
east, and affords one of the most refreshing panoramic views imag- 
inable. It is just south of the mouth of Lawyer's Canyon and 
the old Indian trail by which Lewis and Clark issued from that 
canyon. It overlooks the distant camp ground of the explorers 
where, for a month in 1806, the smoke from their camp fires ascended 
toward the skies as they waited for the snow in the mountains to 
melt that they might recross them and retrace their homeward steps. 

Mr. Geo. Runkel, a former mining and civil engineer of Wisconsin 
and other states, owns this ranch and was drawn to it by the beauty 
of its location and the mild and healthful climate. Mr. Runkel has 
been here nine years. Land here is worth from $25 to $100 an acre, 
is fine for alfalfa, timothy, clover and grains. Alfalfa yields two 
crops annually amounting to four or five tons an acre worth $10 a 
ton baled. After the second crop the field is also pastured. Timothy 
will run two tons to the acre, worth $15 a ton. Not much clover is 

Wheat yields from 30 to 50 bushels an acre for winter wheat and 
the yield is somewhat less for spring wheat; oats and barley run from 
60 to 80 bushels to the acre. Sweet potatoes yield well and Irish 
potatoes yield 200 bushels to the acre. Corn is not a pre-eminent 
success, but yields fairly well in some places. 

Turkeys and chickens do well here, and it is a good locality for 
grapes. Mr. Runkel grows the Concord, Black Hamburg, Flame 
Tokay, Isabella, Delaware, Niagara and Sweetwater varieties. The 
Concords are as finely flavored as in the East. 

Dewberries and red raspberries grow nicely, better than black- 

Page Fifty 


Mr. Runkel has 40 acres in orchard, principally in apples. He 
has 4,000 trees. The varieties of summer apples grown are Early- 
Harvest, and Red Astrachan; of winter apples he raises Gravenstein, 
Grimes Golden, Baldwin, Spitzenberg and Northern Spy. He has 
also some Newtown Pippins, but cannot yet say what the results with 
them will be. Mr. Runkel says the finest varieties of apples can be 
raised here and that the common grades do better in this part of the 
valley than they do at higher altitudes. The elevation at his ranch 
is about 1,400 feet above sea level. 

Peaches and apricots have not done well in Mr. Runkel's experi- 
ence; the soil he thinks is too heavy and strong. After trying peaches 
for some years he dug up 200 trees that were 7 years old. 

Cherries are a great success. Royal Ann, Bing, Lambert and 
Black Tartarian are the best varieties to plant. 

It is a good pear country. The Bartlett, Keiffer and Anjou all 
yield good crops year after year, as do all the other fruits named 
that are grown successfully. Mr. Runkel has never had any trouble 
from pear blight. 

Almond trees grow well but may or may not be profitable in the 
long run. 

Irrigation is unnecessary except in very hot weather in July and 
August. Mr. Runkel uses a 25 H. P. gasoline engine and a Duplex 
pump that pumps water from the Clearwater river to his orchard 
360 feet above the stream. 

Of ornamental, etc., trees that thrive in this soil and climate, 
the catalpa, silver poplar, the willows, box elder, black walnut and 
elm may be noted. 

The meteorological conditions about Kamiah are not materially 
different from what they are at Lewiston-Clarkston. Frost does not 
appear after the first of May, nor before November first, as a rule, 
and sometimes it is much later than November first, before the fall 
frosts appear. Robins sing in the orchards all winter long. 

Most of Mr. Runkel's immediate neighbors are Nez Perce Indians, 
and from his ranch home the little Indian Presbyterian Church 
embowered among trees across the Clearwater river may plainly be 
seen. Here, Sunday after Sunday, with unfailing regularity, the 
Nez Perces, who are extremely and consistently religious, meet and 
worship. Their religion is of the seven days in the week kind and 
in their daily lives they are moral, honest, upright, sober, practicing 
their religious teachings. 

Kamiah is a thriving town having a Commercial Club, two 
banks, numerous stores, hotels, a newspaper, two churches, good 
schools, several saw mills, a planing mill and box factory, etc. A 
good water system is about being put in and a steel bridge is soon to 
be constructed across the Clearwater river. 

The name Kamiah is from the Indian word Kam-i-yahp, and was 
called Commearp, or Cammeap, by Lewis and Clark. It is the old 

Page Fifty-one 



Indian name of the present Lawyer's Canyon creek. Just what it 
means is not certain, possibly "pretty valley," which would make 
it very fitting. 

The town is well located and growing and is the commercial point 
for a large section of the Nez Perce prairie lying above it. 

The following memorandum of Mr. Waterman, Cashier of the 
State Bank of Kamiah, will show what is thought of the locality from 
a banker's standpoint : — 

"I came here over a year ago from Southern Minnesota, and am 
well pleased with the country and business conditions. The farmers 
are proving up, getting on their feet financially, and getting in a 
position to push right ahead. Our great variety of resources makes 
this a safe country in which to do business. Our climate is excellent 
and permits us to raise almost anything in the fruit line. Dairying 
is destined to be one of our greatest industries. I have seen the best 
crops of small grain here that I have ever seen anywhere. This is a 
country where there is plenty of room for people willing to work and 
get ahead, for the man of limited means as well as the man who is 
well to do. " 

Kamiah, Idaho, Aug. 21, 1908. (Signed) Geo. H. Waterman. 

The dairy interests' to which Mr. Waterman refers seem destined 
to become a very important part of the business of the town and 
country adjoining. The splendid grasses and pasturage of the wide 
plains bordering the Clearwater, with the mild climate and good 
water afford a substantial and enduring foundation for dairying 
that cannot be discontinued. This opinion is also held by the 
agricultural college chiefs. 

Jumbo Mine {Mill), Buffalo Hump 

Paye Fifty-two 


The ranchmen are gradually working into good blooded stock 
and there are now hundreds of cows supplying cream that is shipped 
from Kamiah to Spokane. 

The timber business is also good. There are several sawmills, 
employing from five to twenty-five men each, within a few miles of 

Mr. E. D. Parr's opinion of the valley will be interesting to 
many as those of a man who, having been here for several years, are 
based upon extended experiences: — 

"I have resided here during the eight years last past, and during 
that period there has been no failure or partial failure of any crop. 
The country is adapted to a great variety of products. Wheat, oats, 
barley, timothy, clover and alfalfa do well. All kinds of vegetables 
and melons can be produced in abundance. Wherever corn has 
been properly planted and cultivated, results have been very satis- 
factory. Fruits and berries of all kinds have been a success in the 
past. Besides this the country is adapted to stock raising, especially 
that of the dairy cow. The feeding season is short, seldom extending 
over a period of three months. The climate is all that can be desired 
— summers cool and winters mild. Prices for farm produce have 
been good. 

"Our great variety of staple products is a valuable asset which 
few communities can claim. 

"The continuous development of the adjacent timber and 
mineral resources will increase our already good markets. All are 
reasonably prosperous and full of hope for the future. " 

Kamiah, Idaho, Aug. 20, 1908. (Signed) E. D. Parr. 

The Great Prairie Country 

Enclosed between the Snake river, the Bitter Root mountains, 
and the extreme lower Salmon river lies the great prairie region of the 
Clearwater country, the old roaming ground of the Nez Perce tribe — 
the tribe of Chief Joseph — and their forebears, the Chopunnish. 
As heretofore noted that part of this magnificent prairie lying 
between the Snake and Clearwater rivers is divided by the Kam-i- 
yahp, or Lawyer's Canyon, into two nearly equal sections. The one 
to the north, formerly known as the Cold Spring's, is now called Nez 
Perce, prairie after the Nez Perce Indians, and the prairie lying 
south of the big gulch is called Camas prairie, after the nutritious 
and indigenous root that was such an important article of food in the 
household economy of that tribe. 

The plateau between the Clearwater river and the Bitter Root 
mountains is known as the Weippe prairie. 

In a general sense what is true of one is true of all of these sections. 
The elevation, about;3,000-3,300 feet above seaievel; the rainfall 
about 30 inches; the general character of the soil and country; the 
climate; and the nature of farming followed, are essentially the same 
in each locality. 

Page Fifty-three 


The climate of this prairie region is in many respects ideal. For 
raising small grain it could not be better. The summers are never 
excessively hot nor are the winters at all severe. The thermometer 
seldom reaches zero and when it does it rarely remains there for more 
than a few hours. In the last six years there have been but six 
nights in which the mercury went below zero. In the summer it is 
not often that the mercury goes above 96 degrees and even this heat 
does not last long and the nights are always cool. Hard winds and 
dust storms are unknown here. 

Snow comes about December 1-15. In March there is usually 
a period of fine weather when the spring grain is sown. From April 
15 to July 10 there are periods of rain at varying intervals. In 
winter the snow forms a protective, warm, ground covering so that 
potatoes, which are a fine crop, remain in the ground all winter 
without freezing and then will, if allowed, produce a volunteer crop. 
The prairie tubers are firm, solid and of superb quality. 

Here is a country that is, perhaps, unsurpassed anywhere for 
fertility. The yields of wheat, barley, oats, flax and hay are often 
beyond comprehension to the average Easterner who has not visited 
the Pacific Northwest. On Nez Perce and Camas prairies crop 
failure is almost unknown. It is the land of great harvests and 
tremendous possibilities. 

The proof of the excellence of the prairie soil is the millions of 
bushels of grain produced in this section. The soil is very dark and 
exceedingly fertile, and has a depth of from one to six feet. Some of 
the more careful farmers have tilled this soil from eight to ten years 
without having to summer fallow. With such a soil and aided by 
the abundant rainfall, government bonds are not safer security than 
are the fertile acres of this Idaho prairie country. 

No irrigation is ever necessary here, this being one of the very 
few sections east of the Cascades and west of the Rockies that has 
an abundance of rain for at least eight months of the year. It is a 
country where the grass remains green throughout the summer 

Both spring and fall grain are raised, that planted in the fall 
producing the heavier yield. 

When the claim is made that these prairies constitute the banner 
country for raising small grain the prairie farmer is ready with the 
proof to make it good. With a soil and climate that causes wheat 
to yield from 25 to 60 bushels an acre, oats and barley from 35 to 
100 bushels, and flax from 10 to 30 bushels, the dweller on the Nez 
Perce and Camas prairies feels that he need not hesitate to claim 
that his is the best small grain country on earth. Wheat that went 
62 bushels to the acre, taking a gold medal at the St. Louis Exposition 
and also at the Lewis and Clark Exposition at Portland 
in 1905, speaks for itself as to the merits of this section This 

Page Fifty-four 


Barley, Estimated 65 to 70 Bushels to the Acre 

upland barley is very superior, being nearly all of it purchased by 
Eastern brewers for brewing barley. The oats in this section are 
said to surpass in quality and yield oats raised in almost any other 
part of the United States. 

From this region is supplied the far-famed Craig mountain hay 
that is unexcelled for quality. Breeders of fine horses, after using 
this hay will have no other. Fine, bright, clean and green — -with 
all the qualities of the finest hay ever produced — it goes upon the 
market without meeting a real competitor, selling on an average for 
$4< more a ton than any other hay sold on the Northwest coast. 
The yield of timothy is about V/z tons an acre, and it brings from $10 
to $15 and, occasionally, $20 a ton. 

A timothy field on these j>rairies is a wonderful sight. The 
plant is remarkably strong and ealthy, grows to a great height, is per- 
sistent in overrunning its set bounds and has to be fought like a weed 
to prevent it from monopolizing all creation. Like grain and potatoes 
it is a volunteer crop in this region. 

No section of Idaho, or indeed of the Northwest, furnishes more 
or better cattle, horses and hogs than the Nez Perce and Camas 
prairies and the Craig mountain country. Cattle and horses in many 
instances live on the wild range along the rivers and creeks that 
surround the prairie, and winter well. The raising of good, well 
bred horses has been systematically carried on as may be seen when 
it is stated that good farm horses cost from $200 to $600 a pair. 

There are large numbers of Durham and Hereford cattle raised. 

Sheep do well, but as yet there have been few of them raised. 
Poultry has never received much attention commercially, but all 
kinds thrive and do well. 

Page Fifty-five 


Wheat, Estimated 65 to 70 Bushels to the Acre 

This is an exceptionally fine country for hogs, these animals 
bringing to the stock raiser one of the largest incomes of any line 
of stock. Large numbers of the best breeds are raised at great 
profit to the farmers. They are pastured on timothy and grain 
stubble, at about 250 pounds weight, usually in the Coast cities. 
Prices for several years have averaged from five to eight cents a 
pound on the hoof, and it is figured that in feeding wheat to hogs the 
grain nets the farmer from 75 to 85 cents a bushel. It is a fact that 
diseases of swine are unknown in the prairie country. 

In the rough, mountainous Salmon river country, also, there are 
extensive herds of good cattle and sheep. These, with the wool 
clip, find an outlet through Grangeville and the railway to the out- 
side markets. 

The following letter and statistics are valuable supplementary 
data as to what has been stated regarding the livestock industry: 

"Relative to your inquiry requesting data as to sales of live 
stock on the prairie, I herewith enclose memorandum of railroad 
shipments by us from July 1, 1907 to September 1, 1908; this includes 
shipments from Stites, Kooskia, Kamiah, Greer and other points on 
the Clearwater branch of the Northern Pacific. 

"This does not include 300 head shipped by Robert H. Jones 
from Lewiston on a contract he handled from there, nor does it 
include 1,360 head shipped from Council to Portland, nor 443 head 
of cattle and 861 head of hogs shipped by C. C. Day, acting for 
Bales & Jones, from Lewiston. These are all Bales & Jones deals, 
but were not handled from here. 

"We have also shipped from prairie points to ourselves at Anacon- 
da, Montana, 960 head and from Washington points to same desti- 
nation 300 head, and these shipments are not included in our list 
but were handled by the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Page Fifty-six 



'/'The bulk of this stuff has gone to Spokane and Seattle, although 
a large proportion has gone to various railroad camps handled by 
meat contractors; one large shipment went to Mandan, N. D., on a 
government contract. 

Grangeville, Idaho, Sept. 4, 1908. (Signed) Bales-Jones Co. 

July 1, 1907 to Sept. 1, 1908. 


July 1907 

August 1907 

September 1907 

October 1907 

November 1907 

December 1907 

January 1908 

February 1908 

March 1908 

April 1908 

May 1908 

June 1908 

July 1908 

August 1908 





































While, naturally, owing to the former lack of transportation facili- 
ties, the dairy industry is in its infancy, there is every evidence that 
before many years it will be one of the greatest revenue producers 
that the region possesses. 

Page Fifty-seven 

Yellow Pine, Craig Mountain 



Salmon Fishing, Lewiston, Idaho 

Band oj Cattle on Snake River, at Asotin 

Owing to the fact that the grass remains green throughout the 
entire summer this is an ideal dairy country. Dairy firms in Lewiston 
and Spokane have a fine line of customers through this country even 
now and the receipts from the sale of cream are already large. The 
Commercial Cream Company have a branch in Lewiston and supply 
the local markets with butter and jice cream, shipping annually 
about 250,000 pounds of butter and 350,000 pounds of ice cream. 

The herds of cows are of good quality and are constantly being 
improved by the infusion of fresh and high grade blood. 

On some parts of the prairie a fine milking strain of the Durham, 
or Shorthorn, breed is being raised to advantage. Creamery sta- 
tions are continually being established in the prairie towns where- 
ever conditions justify it. 

Good, pure, soft water is found at depths varying from 50 to 275 
feet, according to location. In the vicinity of Craig, mountain 
springsjire abundant and the wells are of slight depth. 

Good farming land within reasonable distances of the railway 
canjbe'bought at prices ranging from $30 to $50 or $60 per acre. 
At more remote distances from the railway it can be purchased at 
lower prices, but these figures will surely be advanced in the near 

For the ordinary ranch hand the wages are $30 per month and 
board during about eight months of the year. For the four months 
during harvest these prices range from $2.50 to $5 a day, according 
to the work done. Mining and skilled labor command higher prices. 

On the western border of the Nez Perce prairie and commencing 
about four miles west of Vollmer, is the Craig mountain timber belt 
extending west and south to the Snake and Salmon rivers. This 
large area comprises a table land that is moderately undulating and is 
covered with the finest of yellow pine, red fir and tamarack. This 
land when cut over and cleared makes the finest timothy land on the 
coast. This section has a number of sawmills that cut for home 
consumption and manufacture shop stuff for the eastern markets. 
As yet hardly a beginning has been made on this large body of 
timber, which will mean so much to the towns in its vicinity. The 

Page Fifty -eigh 



new railway from Craig Junction, on the Camas Prairie line, to Win- 
chester will facilitate the development of this timber belt. 

The proximity of this and other timber belts in the adjacent 
mountain ranges ensures low priced fuel, four foot cordwood in 
Grangeville, for example, costing $5.50 per cord. 

Inasmuch as the Clearwater prairie region in its entirety is 
relatively of recent settlement and development, the exact status of 
horticulture may be said to be somewhat undetermined. That in 
many localities it is a pronounced success is certain. On the Nez 
Perce and Camas prairies, almost every farmer has a fair sized 
orchard. Apples, pears, plums, cherries, prunes, blackberries, 
dewberries, red and black raspberries, strawberries, currants and 
gooseberries are raised. 

In some places early peaches have been grown successfully, but 
the season is too short, apparently, to certainly mature late peaches. 
The Foster and Alexander varieties do well. Bartlett, Winter 
Nellis and Flemish Beauty pears are a success, and Bing, Royal Ann, 
Oxheart, Gov. Wood and other cherries come to splendid maturity. 
For canning cherries the Montmorency, May Duke and Late Duke 
are grown. The varieties of berries attain great perfection and the 
prairie berries should, in the future, become noted for their excellence 
if grown with discrimination and care. 

Certain varieties of apples are, apparently, bound to do well at 
many localities, especially where a little natural protection can be 

Two orchards situated on the hillsides above Grangeville may 
serve as an indication of what the future may bring forth. These 
orchards cover fairly well the entire range of fruits, are somewhat 
higher than Grangeville, the elevation of which is 3,300 feet, and 
they both have a northerly exposure. That of Mr. Trueblood is 

Page Fifty-nine 

Cedar on North Fork 


Some Camat Prairie Big Fellows 

small and devoted principally to 
cherries, and certainly the trees 
were fine specimens of their kind 
and were loaded with delicious 
fruit. Prominent among several 
varieties were the Bing and Royal 
Ann, two of the standard varie- 
ties of sweet cherries raised in 
the West. Mr. Trueblood has a 
good opinion of the prairie 
country for fruit, especially the 
hillsides, which are immune from frost. 

The orchard of Mr. Horning is much larger and the trees and 
berry canes are several years old. Mr. Horning says that while grapes 
do not do well here, as a berry country the region cannot be beat. 
All the varieties, blackberries, dewberries, raspberries and straw- 
berries, do well; the latter, he says, grow "as large as hens' eggs." 
The berry canes bore out his statements. Pears and cherries, he 
states, likewise produce well. 

Mr. Homing's experience with apples indicates that the Newtown 
Pippin, Northern Spy and the Baldwin are not well adapted to this 
particular locality. The Spitzenberg does fairly well but does not 
grow to large size, and the same is true of the Golden Russet and 
Geniton. The Jonathan, Belleflower, Gravenstein, Duchess of 
Oldenberg, Wealthy, Rhode Island Greening and Missouri Pippin 
are good varieties, and for domestic use he suggests also the Rambo 
and the King. The Snow and Early Harvest, summer apples 
grown, are very fine. 

One strong point named for this region as a fruit country is the 
fact that its elevation, practically, at least up to the present time, 
renders it free from pests. There is no trouble from the codling 
moth but there is some with the aphis. 

With some varieties of apples a heavy crop one year may be 
followed by a light crop the succeeding year. 

It is not improbable that a more extended and scientific experi- 
ence in orcharding will prove this region a decidedly good one for 
apple culture. This applies to both the Nez Perce and Camas 

No more healthful country exists than these upland prairies. 
They are free from many of the diseases commonly contracted in 
older settled regions, and the death rate is one of the lowest on record 
according to the population. 

A system of efficient free schools exists all over the region and 
the larger towns have good graded schools. All religious denom. 
nations are represented and many good churches are in evidence. 

Good towns are well scattered over both the Nez Perce and Camas 
prairies. With the lack of transportation facilities heretofore, the 
growth of these towns and the surrounding country has of course 

Page Sixty 


been of the slow, quiet sort. With little blowing of trumpets they 
have slowly but surely forged ahead, the focal points of such immi- 
gration as was attracted to the region by the unpretentious methods 
of publicity used. Many of them, patterning after their larger and 
more ambitious sister cities, have had their Chambers of Commerce 
or similar organizations watching the trend of events, doing what 
they could to build up the country and waiting, more particularly, 
for the psychological moment when they could hopefully "push 

With the completion of the Northern Pacific Camas Prairie 
branch line from Cul de Sac, extending straight across the prairies 
to Grangeville, that moment arrived. With this line supplementing 
the Clearwater branch to Kamiah and Stites, these old Indian 
hunting grounds are now well supplied with the one thing formerly 
lacking — transportation. Now that this is the case the towns are 
awake to the opportunity presented and will, undoubtedly, present 
the claims of their beautiful, historic land to those seeking homes in 
the West, with vigor and intelligence. 

It would seem invidious and of no avail to attempt comparisons 
of these little centers of population. They have been established 
naturally, as the nuclei of the pioneers who have ingathered here. 
They will undoubtedly continue in that relation as the country 
becomes settled. 

Among those towns on Nez Perce prairie, that may be mentioned, 
are Fletcher, Forest, Ilo, Mohler, Nez Perce, Vollmer, Westlake, 
Winchester and Woodside. 

While these are all prospering and all possess the elements of 
successful growth, the two larger and m re pretentious at the present 
time, perhaps, are Vollmer, on the railway, and Nez Perce, 10 miles 
east of it. Schools, churches, hotels, stores, mills, etc., are common 
to most of them. Nez Perce has a system of water works and 
electric lights; Westlake has a creamery and also water works; 
Vollmer, less than two years old, has many business houses, and 
dentists, physicians, lawyers, a bank, etc. A railway has recently 
been completed between Nez Perce and Vollmer that is a great 
convenience to the people in this section. 

Plowing and Seeding on the Nez Perce Prairie 
Page Sixty -one 


On Small's Ranch 

Across the deep Lawyer's Canyon on the Camas prairie the same 
situation obtains. Here are Keuterville, Fenn, Ferdinand, Dryden, 
Winona, Denver, Green Creek, Cottonwood, Grangeville and other 
local centers each with its own bit of territory to sustain it. Over 
on the Salmon river are Whitebird, Freedom, Lucile and other 
towns, business points of importance. 

Of all these places Grangeville, the county seat of Idaho county, 
is the largest and is a pleasant town, attractively located. It 
has a population exceeding 3,000 and all the usual appurtenances, 
commercially and otherwise, of a good progressive county seat town. 
It is the terminus of the Camas Prairie branch line of the Northern 
Pacific and is about ten miles from Stites, the terminus of the 
Clearwater branch. 

South from Grangeville are the mining towns of Mt. Idaho, 
Newsome, Elk City, Raymond, Florence, Dixie, etc. The Buffalo 
Hump region lies still farther to the south. 

Most of these mining towns have interesting histories. They 
stand for a period long gone when placer mining flourished, and they 
have supplied millions upon millions of dollars of silver and gold to 
the channels of trade. It would be difficult to state with accuracy 
how much, but Nez Perce and Idaho counties are today producing 
between $250,000 and $300,000 annually. As transportation lines 
are extended the mining industry will improve. Besides gold and 
silver, copper is beginning to assume an importance in Idaho mining. 

There are many small unpretentious mines found in the Salmon 
river country and these afford good markets for the ranchmen who 
are scattered along the bottom lands and benches. 

As the mining interests grow and the old towns resume their old 
time importance and new ones are established, they will provide 
increasing and stable markets for the produce of the prairies. Each 

Page Sixty-two 


section, therefore, is the complement of the other, and this main- 
tains an equilibrium, both in demand and supply and- in prices, 
that is of great importance in the prosperity of the entire region. 
The appended statements and experience letters from persons 
resident in the prairie country cover both Nez Perce and Camas 
prairies and are from persons some of whom are engaged in com- 
mercial occupations, others in farming. These communications are 
typical of what one hears and sees on all sides, and fairly represent 
the conditions and possibilities of this region. 

The Prairie Country Is Good For 
Diversified Farming 

"As to the advantages of the Camas Prairie district in Idaho 
county to a farmer with limited means, will say: This bank has 
numerous customers who came here a few years ago with small or no 
capital, rented for a year or two, then made a small payment on a 
farm and went ahead to farm their own land. Their success is 
owing to the fact that they had good soil and climate, light expenses 
and sold something the year round. An industrious family with 
three or four cows, a flock of hens, a few sows and a garden, can get 
along under any circumstances. 

"The advantages are: That a farmer can, on 160 acres, sell 
something all the year round; timothy hay of the first quality — 
timothy is a weed here, naturalized — a few cattle, fat hogs, apples, 
plums, prunes, berries of all kinds, potatoes, these with weekly 
shipments of cream, eggs and poultry, pay all the expenses until 
harvest comes, when he generally has a big cleanup. 

"Many of the most successful farmers feed the crops to hogs, 
they claim they realize seventy cents and upwards per bushel for 
wheat when fed to a good hog and save the expense of threshing. 
Disease among hogs is unknown in this district. 

"Timothy hay is as valuable a crop as grain when properly 
managed, the market is very good, the yield per acre good, the 
expense light, and with the advent of railway communication the 
market will be continuous the year round. 

"The diversified farmer and the one who raises and fattens the 
most hogs usually has the best bank account. 

"This is an exceptionally good dairy country, climate, grass and 
water are already here, the cool nights favor the growth of roots, 
also corn for ensilage, a luxuriant growth of clover ensures large 
returns in milk and cream, and with railway communication the 
returns will be immense. " 

(Signed) Bank of Camas Prairie, 

John Norwood, Atiutant Cashier. 

Grangeville, Idaho, July 30, 1908. 

Page Sixty-three 


Farms Pay Big Dividends 

"I came to Grange ville, Idaho, in the year 1892, from Whiteside 
County, Illinois. Since that time I have been engaged in farming 
and stock-raising quite extensively. 

"I can say that the nearest to a failure in grain crop I have ever 
had was in the year 1894, my winter wheat only making an average 
of 30 bushels an acre. 

"We have excellent pasture in this section, and get early beef in 
June, and the prices are usually about equal to Chicago prices for 
the same grade of beef. For hogs we usually get Chicago prices. 

"On my farm the work is carried on in a systematic form. I 
can say that this country will pay greater dividends than Illinois or 
Iowa, having liv ' in both states and drawn my conclusions there- 

"Land values, when I came here, ranged from $7 to $15 an acre. 
During 1894 they were even cheaper than that. Now, I consider 
that my farm consisting of 440 acres is worth at least $60 an acre. 

Grangeville, Idaho, Aug. 7, 1908. (Signed) E. S. Sweet. 

Made Money Growing Grain 

"I was born in the state of Missouri and came to the Nez Perce 
prairie twelve years ago with $1,500. I am now the owner of 420 
acres of good land near Vollmer, Idaho, and have other property 
worth as much as the land I own. Made my money raising grain 
and in the advance of land." 

Vollmer, Idaho, Aug. 14, 1908. (Signed) W. E. Marckel. 

All Are Prospering 

"I came to Idaho County in the year 1879 and to Grangeville 
in 1886. 

"The country at that time was in a crude and raw state, the 
chief industry being stock-raising. Since that time, however, a 
great change has taken place. The prairie has been gradually broken 
up, and is nearly all in a high state of cultivation. I consider Camas 
Prairie one of the best, if not the best, agricultural sections in the 

"I am, at present, Manager of the Alexander-Freidenrich Co., 
Ltd., Department Store, doing a volume of business each year 
which places me in a position to Bay that the people of Idaho County 
are a progressive, prosperous people, meeting their bills very 
promptly. " 

Grangeville, Idaho, Aug. 7, 1908. 

(Signed) Frank McGrane, Mgr., 

Alexander-Freidenrich Co., Ltd. 

Page Sixty-four 


Made Money in Mercantile Business 

"Fourteen years ago I left Scotland and came to America and 
took up a homestead in the vicinity of Vollmer. I have met with 
splendid success. I have engaged in the general mercantile business 
in this section and have an up-to-date stock of goods to the value 
of $45,000. I am also the owner of several pieces of land. My 
success is far above my expectations." 

Vollmer, Idaho, Aug. 14, 1908. (Signed) Alexander Maw. 

The People Pay as They Go 

"One year ago I came here from Missouri and opened a mer- 
chandise store. I can truthfully say that the volume of business 
was about three times more than I had anticipated. The people on 
Camas prairie have money to pay for everything, consequently we 
have no accounts to collect. 

"I consider the climate the best that I have experienced in any 
section, and the water is soft and of the very best quality. This is 
one of the finest agricultural sections in the Northwest." 

Grangeville, Idaho, Aug. 7, 1908. (Signed) S. J. Foster. 

Has Made Money from the Start 

"I am a native of Illinois. I came to Nez Perce prairie four 
years ago with about $1,000 and since that time I have become the 
owner of 463 acres of Nez Perce prairie land, all stocked. I am also 
the owner of several business houses in Vollmer, Idaho, where I 
now hold the position of secretary and treasurer in the Bank and 
Trust Company of Vollmer. " 

Vollmer, Idaho, Aug. 15, 1908. (Signed) W. L. Lyon 

Great Country for Horses and Hogs 

"I came from South Dakota to Camas Prairie six years ago and 
bought 623 acres of land, the price being $10 per acre. My land is 
now worth $60 per acre. 

"I have raised Hereford cattle, Percheron horses and Berkshire 
hogs, and I am well satisfied with the results. Horses grow to 
perfection here, they never have the heaves, nor have I ever seen a 
blind horse, unless where one eye had been lost by an accident. 

"I consider this the best hog country I have ever seen, no cholera, 
no disease of any kind, and the prices are equal, if not in excess, of 
Chicago markets. 

"Thio is a great grass country and pasture is good nearly all the 
year. " 

Grangeville, Idaho, Aug. 11, 1908. (Signed) John Callan. 

Page Sixty-five 



Oxen, Winchester, Idaho' 

Mr. A. C. Eitzen, a pioneer farmer and business man, with a 
faculty for statistics, has tabulated the amount and variety of the 
product of the farm lands tributary to Nez Perce, on the Nez Perce 
prairie, which will be handled by the new Idaho and Nez Perce 
railway line, which is, practically, owned by the farmers, and the 
result shows that there are few agricultural districts of equal extent 
in the United States that can make as creditable a showing. A 
significant feature of the report, and one that promises well for the 
future of the district, is, that of the 100,000 acres of tillable land 
covered by the statistics all but a small fraction are farmed by the 
owners, only a few farms owned by Indians being leased. 

Mr. Eitzen estimates the amount in crop this year at 75,000 
acres, of which 25,000 acres are sown to wheat, which will yield a 
total of 750,000 bushels; 12,000 acres to oats, which will produce 
500,000 bushels; 32,500 acres to barley which will yield 1,300,000 
bushels; and 7,500 acres to hay, which will produce 11,000 tons. 

Figuring this on a basis of 60 cents a bushel for wheat, 35 cents 
for oats, 45 cents for barley and $10.00 a ton for hay, the gross 
income for the year of the farmers in the territory surrounding Nez 
Perce, for grain and hay alone, will be $1,320,000. Added to this 
there will be 10,000 hogs worth $125,000; 1,000 head of cattle worth 
$35,000; 500 head of horses, worth $50,000; 20 cars of apples, worth 
$60,000; and 100,000 sacks of potatoes worth $50,000, besides 
$25,000 worth of cream and $4,000 worth of eggs, which makes the 
grand total of gross value of the produce of the district $1,669,000. 

Mr. Eitzen is one of the best posted men in Nez Perce county on 
matters pertaining to agriculture and in addition to compiling this 
table of general statistics he had, for the last nine years, kept accurate 
account of the value of the product of a 40 acre tract of land on this 
farm V/i miles from Nez Perce, and in a statement sworn to before 
a local notary public he says that this land, which has been devoted 
exclusively to the raising of grain and hay, has produced in the nine 
years $8,756 gross, and netted him a little more than $6,000. 

Nez Perce, Idaho, June 25th, 1910. 

Page Sixty-rix 


A Man from Missouri Has Been Shown 

"I was born in Missouri. We landed in Idaho in the spring of 
1885. Have made stock raising and farming my occupation and 
have made a success of it in a small way, although handicapped by 
not having capital to start with. We now own 400 acres of choice 
prairie land which produces from 40 to 60 bushels of wheat, 35 to 80 
bushels of barley, as high as 110. bushels of oats, and from 1 to 3 tons 
of timothy per acre. Hay land has increased in value from $9 per 
acre to $50 or $60 for choice places. 

"Hog raising is one of the chief farming industries. Hogs are 
very healthy here and bring good prices as a rule. 

"All kinds of hardy fruits and vegetables do well here. I never 
have seen what would be called a crop failure. Rainfall is ample to 
mature all crops and the climate is much better than that in the 
Northwestern states. It is a rare thing for the thermometer to 
register below zero. There is fine water, a healthy climate, and a 
liberal class of people will be found to welcome all new comers to 
Camas prairie, the gem of the mountains. " 

Grangeville, Idaho, Aug. 11, 1908. (Signed) R. M. Bibb. 

Who Can Equal This Record ? 

"A field of wheat on my farm, which is located on Camas prairie, 
between Cottonwood and Grangeville, Idaho, produced between 59 
and 60 bushels per acre. The wheat was sold for $1 per bushel, so 
you will realize that I have been very liberal in my allowance for 
plowing, harrowing, threshing, binding, etc. 

"This field consisted of forty acres. I am the owner of 640 acres, 
my income from which the past year, was about as follows : 

40 acres to wheat, net income, $42 an acre. 

30 acres to oats, yield 86 bushels, price $1.50 per cwt., expense 
$7.10 per acre, gross income $42, net income $34.90 an acre. 

30 acres to barley (rented), my share, $5.50 an acre, besides pasture. 

40 acres to wheat (rented), my share, $8.50 an acre besides the 

150 acres to summer fallow. 40 acres to grain hay for feed. 

15 acres, right of way, Northern Pacific Railway. 

85 acres to pasture. 10 acres orchard, barnlots, etc. 

Hoping that this information will be of service to others, I am 

Thorp, Feb. 5, 1910. (Signed) Herman von Bargen." 

Those who desire additional or more detailed information along 
particular lines than is here given, can address any of the persons 
named herein. Many of the towns have Chambers of Commerce 
that will gladly welcome inquiries and supply information. Others 
who may thus be addressed are: R. H. Wallace, Vollmer, Idaho; 
L. M. Harris & Co., Geo. M. Reed, A. F. Parker, Grangeville, Idaho. 

Page Sixty-term 



Northern Pacific Train Service 
to the Clearwater Country 

TwT daily service of four through electric- 
\f^ lighted transcontinental passenger trains 
between eastern and western terminals. 
Through standard and tourist sleeping cars, 
with dining car service, are operated daily 
from Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
also from St. Louis, Kansas City and St. Joseph to 
Spokane and the North Pacific Coast, over the lines as 
indicated by map of the system contained herein. 
There is convenient connecting service from and to 
Duluth and Superior. 

This service is operated both west and east bound. 
In connection with it, there is operated double daily 
service between Spokane and Lewiston, with daily 
connecting service to and from Genesee and Grange- 
ville and double daily service to and from Stites, on 
those respective branches. A daily train is also oper- 
ated over the "Camas Prairie" line between Lewiston 
and Pasco, Washington, carrying through standard 
sleeping car Lewiston to Seattle and making direct 
connection at Pasco with the Spokane, Portland and 
Seattle Ry., for Portland. Full details of Northern 
Pacific train service will be found in the time table 
folder — the latest issue of which will be provided on 
request by any Northern Pacific representative, as per 
list on another page. 

Northern Pacific tourist sleeping cars are excep- 
tionally clean and comfortable. They are upholstered in 
leather and are electric-lighted. The berths are large 
and ample for the accommodation of two persons. 
The cost of space in the tourist cars is just half that in 
the standard sleeping cars, hence the tourist car is eco- 
nomical. You save money at no sacrifice of comfort. 
Our illustrated booklet, "Over the Scenic Highway in a 
Tourist Sleeping Car, " gives full details of the service. 

Page Sixty-eight 



Northern Pacific Books and Pamphlets 

Apple Growing in the Northwest, No. 88. 
Prof. Shaw on North Dakota, No. 86B. 
Prof. Shaw on Minnesota, No. 86A. 
Gov. Burke on North Dakota, No. 89. 
What Montana Has to Offer, No. 85A. 
Handy pocket size pamphlets offering much val- 
uable Information on their respective subjects. 

U. S. Government Land Pamphlet No. 79. — 
Contains tabulated list of vacant public land tribu- 
tary to the Northern Pacific in the various states. 
Shows number of acres surveyed and unsurveyed, 
aud character of land. 

List of Land Dealers, No. 82. — A pamphlet 
containing a list of land dealers located along the 
line of the Northern Paclflc. 

Instructions in Dry Farming, No. 80. — A 
most valuable pamphlet setting forth complete 
directions for the succssful cultivation of soil by 
the so-called "dry farming" system. Prepared by 
Messrs. Alfred Atkinson, Agronomist, and F. S. 
Cooley, Supt. of Farmers' Institutes, of the Mon- 
tana Agricultural College. 

Watering the Waste Places, No. 83. — A new 
folder, fully Illustrated, giving a description of 
irrigation in the Northwest tributary to the 
Northern Paclflc. 

Opportunities, No. 76. — A book of valuable 
information relative to Business Openings along 
the Northern Paclflc Railway. 

The King of the Land of Fortune. — A beauti- 
ful booklet with handsome cover and well illus- 
trated, telling about the apple industry In the 
Northwest. Worthy a place in any library. 

Western North Dakota, No. 72-A. — A new 
illustrated booklet describing the lands ana con- 
ditions in the counties of Western North Dakota 
where the lands are very fertile, thousands of acres 
are subject to homestead, dry farming is success- 
fully practiced, and the country is being rapidly 
settled up. 

Irrigation in the Yellowstone Valley. — A 
description of the land now being irrigated near 
Billings and offered for sale by the Billings Land & 
Irrigation Company. 

Lower Yellowstone Project Pamphlet. — An 
illustrated folder giving full description of the lands 
under the project and how they may be obtained 
for settlement. 

Shields River Valley, Montana, No. 81. — A 

booklet describing one of the most fertile and 
beautiful valleys in Eastern Montana. Low priced 
lands, flue climate — jus,c the place many a man is 
looking for. 

Yakima Irrigation Project Pamphlet. — An 

illustrated pamphlet descriptive of the irrigated 
lands under this project; how the land may be 
obtained, etc. 

Washington and Lewiston Country In Idaho 

No. 59. — Pamphlet giving a general description of 
Northern Idaho and Eastern, Central and Western 
Washington with special reference to the markets 
in the Orient. 

Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho, 
No. 74A. — A booklet descriptive of the countrv and 
counties of Eastern Washington and the" Pan 
Handle of Idaho. This covers the well known 
irrigation sections of the "Inland Empire," of 
which Spokane is the metropolis. 

Southwestern Washington, No. 90. — Descrip- 
tive booklet, with special reference to Chehalis 
Clarke, Cowlitz, Klickitat, Skamania, Lewis 
Mason, Pacific, Thurston and Wahkiakum coun- 

Through the Fertile Northwest, No. 87. — A 
new descriptive map folder, well illustrated, 
describing the territory tributary to the Northern 
Pacific from St. Paul-Minneapolis, Duluth-Superior 
to the North Pacific Coast. 

Kittitas County, Washington, No. 91. — A 
new descriptive map folder, dealing directly with 
Kittitas County, containing full details as to its 
resources, etc. 

From Office to Orchard, No. 92. — A beautiful 
little souvenir booklet, gotten up in the shape of a 
large red apple, neatly illustrated; contains much 
information about apple culture. 

Special Publications. — Consisting of pamph- 
lets, leaflets, etc., issued by various irrigation and 
land interests, descriptive of the country tributary 
to Spokane, Pasco, Kennewick, Lewiston-Clark- 
ston, North Yakima, Prosser, Walla Walla, Sunny- 
side, Mabton, Toppenish, Ellensburg, White 
Salmon and other towns. (State in what locality 
you are interested.) 

These pamphlets will be sent FREE to any address. Write to 
L. J. Bricker, General Immigration Agent, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Rules Governing Transportation of Settlers' Movables 

.. *■ The rates on Emigrants' Movables apply only on shipments the value of which is declared bv 

K&ffi'W not t0 exceea S10.00 per 100 lbs. (or the proportionate amount thereof if weight is less than 

100 lbs.) in case of loss or damage, and must be so receipted for. 

™ ?' ^ n ? rate s will only apply on second-hand articles of household goods, books of professional 

men, store fixtures of merchants, vehicles (see Note A) and agricultural implements, wagons, tools and 

rarm machinery, when forming the outfit of intending settlers. These rates will not be applied on anv 

new articles, provisions, merchandise or grain, except as provided In Rule 3. 

,. .?• The carload rates will also apply on the following articles forming part of a load of Emigrants' 

.Movables, when for the use of intending settlers: Fifty bushels of grain for seed, and a sufficient amount 

, nAnf anlln als ln transit; common lumber and shingles, not to exceed in the aggregate the equivalent 
or ^,500 feet of lumber; (40 bundles of shingles are equivalent to 1,000 feet of lumber) ; 500 fence posts 
a, small portable house; trees, shrubbery, live fowl and live stock, subject to conditions of live stock eon- 
tract, as follows: Small stock, (hogs, sheep and goats) not to exceed twenty head; or horses, mules and 
cattle, not to exceed ten head; in case car contains mixed stock, an equivalent of ten head will be allowed 
counting two head of small stock (hogs, sheep or goats) the same as one horse or cow. 

. . . 4 - When carload shipments contain live stock, one man will be passed free to take care of the live 
stock ln transit, and in such cases agents will execute the usual form of Live Stock Contract. No return 
pass or reduced fare ticket will be granted account live stock shipped with Emigrants' Movables. 

6. Trunks containing Emigrants' Movables, less carloads, will not be accepted unless boxed. 

, . 5' . Trunks ?r other packages containing watches, jewelry, gold, silver or copper coin, articles manu- 
factured from precious metals, drafts, bank bills, notes, deeds or other valuable papers of any kind will 
not be taken. 

7. Minimum Charge. — No single shipment will be transported for less than 100 lbs. at less than 
carload rate, subject to minimum charge of 25 cents. 

... Note A.— Rates will not apply on boats or on the following vehicles, namely: Ambulances, auto- 
mobiles, barouches, breaks, broughams, cabriolets, coaches, carrettes, coupes, depot wagons (passenger) 
nacKs, hansoms hearses, herdlcs (four wheeled), landaulet". landaus, motor cycles, omnibuses, rockaways' 
stage coaches, victorias or wagonettes. 

Page Sixty-nine 



Page Seventy 


PASSENGER, Immigration and Freight Representatives of the Northern Pacific are located in the 
leading cities of the United States. For any details with reference to fares, train service, connections, 
descriptive literature or information relative to the territory served by its lines, or any facts which will 
aid in planning your trip, call on or write to 

Aberdeen and Hoqulam, Wash., 221 E. Heron St., 

Aberdeen. .E. A. McKenna General Agent 

Atlanta, Ga 16 North Pryor St. A. E. Ryan Traveling Passenger Agent 

Belltngham, Wash 1222 Dock St. .A. N. Bussing City Freight & Passenger Agent 

Billings, Mont Mont. Ave. and 28th St. .J. E. Spurling General Agent 

Geo. F. Knight Traveling Freight Agent 

Boston, Mass 207 Old South Bldg. .C. E. Foster District Passenger Agent 

F. W. Clemson New England Freight Agent 

Buffalo, N. Y 215 Ellicott Square. .Wm. G. Mason District Passenger Agent 

M. O. Barnard General Agent Freight Dept. 

Butte, Mont Park and Main Sts. ,W. H. Merriman .Division Frt. & Pass. Agent 

Chicago 144 S. Clark St . . C. A. Matthews General Agent Passenger Dept. 

J. C. Thompson District Passenger Agent W. L. Wampler Traveling Freight Agent 

C. B. Sexton General Agent Freight Dept. W. T. Kraft Traveling Freight Agent 

J. C. Herman Contracting Freight Agent H. F. Adams Traveling Freight Agent 

J. C. McCutchen Contracting Freight Agent. .W. H. Millard Traveling Freight Agent 

J. L. Daugherty Traveling Immigration Agent 

Cincinnati, Ohio 40 East Fourth St. .M. J. Costello District Passenger Agent 

J. C. Eaton Traveling Immigration Agent A. H. Caffee General Agent Freight Dept. 

Cleveland, Ohio Williamson Bldg. ,B. A. Hamilton General Agent Freight Dept. 

lies Moines, la 212-214 Century Bldg. .E. D. Rockwell District Passenger Agent 

Detroit, Mich 423 Majestic Bldg. . W. H. Whitaker District Passenger Agent 

Geo. Barnes General Agent Freight Dept. 

Duluth, Minn 334 W Superior St. .J. I. Thomas General Agent 

C. P. O'Donnell City Passenger Agent John E. Caine Traveling Freight Agent 

Everett, Wash 2825 Colby Ave ..CO. Martin General Agent 

Helena, Mont Main and Grand Sts. .E. S. Richards General Agent 

Geo. A. Miner City Passenger Agent C. W. Merrilies . . .Trav. Freight & Passenger Agent 

Indianapolis, Ind 42 Jackson Place. .W. E. Smith District Passenger Agent 

Jamestown, N. D J. L. Burnham Traveling Freight Agent 

Kansas City, Mo 823 Main St . . H. B. Bryning Traveling Immigration Agent 

F. A. Acker Traveling Freight Agent 

Lewlston, Idaho 320 Main St. .W. J. Jordan General Agent 

Los Angeles, Cal 531 S. Spring St. .Geo. W. McCaskey General Agent 

Milwaukee, Wis 316-17 Ry. Exchange Bldg. .M. E. Harlan District Passenger Agent 

C. T. Noonan General Agent Freight Dept. W. F. Comerford Soliciting Freight Agent 

Miles City, Mont Station. .J. G. Sanders Traveling Freight Agent 

Minneapolis, Minn 19 Nicollet Blk. .G. F. McNeill City Passenger Agent 

J. C. Simonton General Agent Freight Dept. 

Montreal, Que. . . .Imp. Bank Bldg., St. James St. .G. W. Hardisty . . .Dist. Passenger & Freight Agent 
New York City 319 Broadway. .W. F. Mershon General Agent Passenger Dept. 

C. F. Seeger General Agent Freight Dept. 

North Yakima, Wash Station. .C. C. Burdick General Agent 

Philadelphia, Pa 711 Chestnut St. .P. W. Pummill District Passenger Agent 

B. M. Decker Traveling Freight Agent John S. Donal. ..... .General Agent Freight Dept. 

Pittsburg, Pa 305 Park Bldg. .C. E. Brison District Passenger Agent 

W. W. Scully General Agent Freight Dept. 

Portland, Ore 255 Morrison St. .E. D. Sanders City Pass. Agent 

S. J. Miller Traveling Pass. Agent 

Portland, Ore 407 Worcester Bldg. . F. H. Fogarty Assistant General Freight Agent 

W. H. Ormsby Traveling Freight Agent 

Pt. Townsend, Wash 402 Water St. .W. L. Clark Agent 

San Francisco, Cal 685 Market St. .T. K. Stateler General Agent Passenger Dept. 

E. H. Forester General Agent Freight Dept. 

Seattle, Wash 1st Ave. and Yesler Way. .H. N. Kennedy General Agent 

J. O. McMullen City Passenger Agent C. M. Covell Assistant General Agent 

Spokane, Wash. 701 Sprague Ave General Agent 

W. H. Ude City Passenger Agent Lee M. Conry Traveling Passenger Agent 

M. E. Snyder Traveling Freight Agent G. W. Breckenrldge. . . .Trav. Frt. and Pass. Agent 

St. Louis, Mo 306 Cent. Nat. Bank Bldg. .D. B. Gardner District Passenger Agent 

It. J. Tozer Traveling Freight Agent R. K. Cross General Agent Freight Dept. 

St. Paul, Minn. 5th and Robert Sts. .C. L. Townsend City Passenger Agent 

St. Paul, Minn 4th and Broadway. .J. T. McKenney District Passenger Agent 

L, P. Gellerman District Passenger Agent Jno. C. Poore Assistant General Passenger Agent 

G. A. Mitchell Assistant General Freight Agent W. E. Alair Assistant General Freight Agent 

H. E. Still Assistant General Freight Agent A. Tinling Assistant General Freight Agent 

W. M. Burk Contracting Freight Agent H. K. Cole Contracting Freight Agent 

J. H. Runyon Traveling Freight Agent G. R. Merritt General Agent Refrigerating Ser. 

Superior, Wis 817 Tower Ave. .W. H. Mitchell Agent 

Tacoma, Wash 925 Pacific Ave. .C. B. Foster City Passenger Agent 

Webb F. Sater Traveling Passenger Agent 

Tacoma, Wash 621 Pacific Ave. .Thos. D. Sharp Traveling Freight Agent 

H. J. Walters Traveling Freight Agent 

R. T. Bretz . . . .Asst. Gen. Western Freight Agent C. R. Lonergan General Agent Freight Dept. 

Vancouver, B. C 430 Hastings St. H. Swinford General Agent 

Vancouver, Wash 512 Main St. S. J. Miller Traveling Passenger Agent 

Victoria, B. C Yatea and Government Sts. . E. E. Blackwood General Agent 

Wallace, Idaho Station. CM. Grubbs General Agent 

Walla Walla, Wash 3 E. Main St. .S. B. Calderhead General Agent 

W. B. Heath Traveling Freight Agent 

Winnipeg, Man 268 Portage Ave. . W. C. Hartnett General Agent 

W. H. Wickett Traveling Freight Agent 

A. M. CLELAND, Gen'l Pass. Agt., St. Paul A. D. CHARLTON, Ass't Gen'l Pass. Agt., Portland 

J. B. BAIRD, Gen'l Frt. Agt., St. Paul HENRY BLAKELEY, Gen'l Western Frt. Agt., Tacoma 

L. J. BRICKER, General Immigration Agent, St. Paul 


Traffic Manager ST. PAUL. MINN. Second Vice-President 

Page Seventy-one 


When You Ship 

Household Goods, Farm Implements 
or Merchandise of any kind, either 
carload lots or less than carload 

To Any Point 
In the Northwest 

Route your shipments via the line 
furnishing fast through express 
freight service with through mer- 
chandise package cars daily — the 

Northern Pacific Ry 

to principal points in Minnesota, 

Manitoba, North Dakota, Montana, 

Idaho, Washington, Oregon, British 


For particulars regarding Passenger or Freight Service or 

Hates, address nearest Northern Pacific Representative as 

shown herein, or 


General Passenger Agent, St. Paul General Freight Agent, St. Paul 


Traffic Manager, St. Paul Second Vice President, St. Paul 

I' age Seventy-two 


016 108 066 4