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Full text of "Lexicon cornu-britannicum : a dictionary of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall ..."

KM 







A 

DICTIONARY OF THE ANCIENT CELTIC LANGUAGE 



OF 



CORNWALL, 

IN WHICH THE WORDS AEE ELUCIDATED BY 

Copious tframpleg from tfje Cornel) OTorfcS noto remaining; 



HJith ^tfliBhta in 

c 




THE SYNONYMS ARE ALSO GIVEN IN THE COGNATE DIALECTS 

OF 

WELSH, ARMORIC, IRISH, GAELIC, AND MANX; 

SHEWING AT ONE VIEW THE CONNEXION BETWEEN THEM. 

BY 

THE REV. ROBERT WILLIAMS, M.A. 

Ch. Ch. Oxford. P.C. of Llangadwaladr, and Rhydycroesau, Denbighshire. 



LLANDOVEKY, KODEEIC. LONDON, TRUBNER & Co. 



MDCCCLXV. 




5 



Some Observations on the Rev. I?. Williams' Preface to his " Lexicon 

Cornu-Britannicum. ' ' 



The Rev. ROBERT WILLIAMS, author of the learned Lexicon Cornu- 
Britannicum, just published at Llandovery, states in his preface that 
PRYCE'S Cornish Vocabulary, printed in 1770, was so full of errors that 
he (Mr. WILLIAMS) soon felt satisfied that the author was entirely ignorant 
of the Cornish language, and had no acquaintance whatever with the Welsh. 
Mr. WILLIAMS adds, " The discovery of the original manuscript, now in the 
possession of PRINCE Louis-LuciEN BONAPARTE, shows the work to have 
been compiled in 1730, by TONKIN or GWAVAS, and disingenuously published 
by PRYCE as his own." 

As I placed on evidence, for the first time, in a letter published in Tlte 
Cambrian Journal for 1861, the plagiarism of PRYCE, and described the 
volume as the joint production of TONKIN and GWAVAS, it seems proper 
to propose the substitution of the following sentence for that cited above : 
" The discovery of the original manuscript, made by PRINCE Louis-LuciEN 
BONAPARTE, has enabled him to show that the work was compiled in 1730 
by TONKIN and GWAVAS, and disingenuously published by PRYCE as his 



own." 



Such being the fact, it follows that if the work displays an ignorance of 
Cornish and Welsh, such ignorance is to be ascribed to the original authors, 
and not to PRYCE, who was only the transcriber of their manuscript. I admit 
that neither of these two Cornish gentlemen had any pretensions to a know- 
ledge of Welsh, but for the Cornish of the 18th century, I am satisfied that 
they were the very best authorities of their time, and ought not to be 



despised by Welsh linguists, over whom they had certainly the immense 
advantage of a practical knowledge of their mother-tongue, although they 
may have been inferior in general linguistic attainments. 

I conclude these observations with the following letter from GWAVAS 
to TONKIN, from which it will appear that Cornish men then considered 
themselves as much entitled to judge of what was really Cornish, as Welsh- 
men now do to determine what is good Welsh. 

L. L. B. 

London, May 1865. 



From the inedited Correspondence prefaced to the Manuscript Cornish Vocabulary of 

Tonkin and Gwaws. 
SIB, 

I have, what you mention, in ye Cornish Language, with severall other 
varietys, but have not time to transcribe them fair. Mr. G-EOBGE BOBIASE (being near 
me) will endeavour to have it done, in all its parts, throughout, who shall have it of me 
for that purpose, and what you write for to be sent you speedily will lye on his dispatch. 

As to ye translation of Mr. LHTJYD'S preface, it is difficult to performe by any here, 
without ye help of a learned "Welsh Man, being nearer to it, than ye moderne Cornish in 
use here. 

I remaine, 

Sir, 

Tour most humble Servant, 
Penzance, 25th Jan. 1732. WM. GWAVAS. 

To 
Thomas Tonkin, Esq., 

at Pol Q-orran, near 

Qrandpont, 

Cornwall. 



PREFACE. 



THE eject of the Editor in the compilation of this work was to collect and explain all the 
remains of the ancient British language of Cornwall, and by comparing the words with the 
synonyms in the cognate dialects to supply an acknowledged want in Celtic literature. The 
sources for the supply of material are very few, and may be briefly enumerated. The 
learned philologist Edward Llwyd, in his Archseologia Britannica, (fol. Oxford, 1709 ;) first 
published a Grammar of the Cornish language, as spoken in his time, being then in a state 
of corruption and decay. He also gave a promise of a Cornish Vocabulary, which he did 
not live to accomplish. In 1769, Dr. Borlase published a Cornish-English Vocabulary, in 
his Antiquities of CornAvall, which is chiefly derived from Llwyd. The next, work published 
was the Vocabulary by Dr. Pryce, in 1790, 4to. This is so full of errors that the Editor 
soon felt satisfied that Pryce was entirely ignorant of the Cornish Language, and had no ac- 
quaintance whatever with the Welsh. The discovery of the original manuscript, now in 
the possession of Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, shews the work to have been compiled in 
1730, by Tonkin or Gwavas, and disingenuously published by Pryce as his own. These 
printed works relate to late Cornish, but more important documents existed, which would 
furnish examples of the language, when spoken in a state of purity, and which it was 
desirable should be properly elucidated. The earliest is a Vocabulary of Latin words with 
Cornish explanations, preserved in the Cottonian Library, in the British Museum, and there 
entitled " Vocabularium Wallicum," (Bibl. Cot. Vespas. A. 14.) This was first noticed by 
Llwyd in the Cornish Preface to the Archa:ologia, (p. 222,) and proved by him to be not 
Welsh but Cornish. It has been printed in the same order as it is written, and elucidated 
by Zeuss, in his Grammatica Celtica, (2 vols. 8vo. Leipsic, 1 853.) It has since been printed 
alphabetically by Mr. Norris in his " Cornish Drama," with additional illustrations from the 
cognate dialects. This Vocabulary is of great philological importance. The manuscript was 
written in the thirteenth century, and may have been a copy of an older original, even of 
the ninth century, as it closely agrees with the Welsh of that age, and it contains important 
proofs than the Welsh then more closely approximated to the Cornish than in later ages. 
The next important document is a Poem, entitled Mount Calvary; a manuscript of the 
fifteenth century ; it contains 259 stanzas of 8 lines each in heptasyllabic metre with alter- 
nate rhymes. The subject of this Poem is the Trial and Crucifixion of Christ. There are 
four copies of this manuscript, the oldest being in the British Museum, and the other three 
appear to be copies taken from it. Two of them are in the Bodleian Library, and in these 
a translation by John Keigwyn is written on the opposite page. This Poem was published 
by Mr. Davies Gilbert, in 1826. The typographical errors are so numerous, that Zeuss 
observes that it does not seem to have been corrected after leaving the hands of the com- 
positor, and eight errors in every stanza are below the average. The Editor had carefully 
collated the manuscript in the British Museum, with the intention of adding a corrected 
copy ns an appendix to this Dictionary, but the necessity no longer remains, as an excellent 
edition has lately been printed for the Philological Society under the care of a most able 
Celtic Scholar, Mr. Whitley Stokes, of Lincoln's Inn, (8vo. 1862.) The text now given is 
very accurate, and the numerous errors in the translation have been rectified. The only 
other work accessible was a Drama, called "The Creation of the World with Noah's Flood," 
which was written, as stated upon the manuscript containing it, on the 12th of August, 
1611, by William Jordan. Of this Drama the oldest manuscript is in the Bodleian Library, 
and there is another in the British Museum, with a translation by John Keigwyn, in 1693. 
This was also printed by Mr. Davies Gilbert, in 1827, and is equally remarkable for its typo- 
graphical errors. A new and corrected edition, by Mr. Whitley Stokes, was printed for the 
Philological Society in 1864. This Drama, being of much later date, shews the Cornish 
language to have become greatly corrupted, and it is full of English words. The above 
mentioned works comprised all the accessible material for the Dictionary when the Editor 



drew out the plan some thirty years ago. Llwyd had mentioned that there were three 
Dramas preserved in the Bodleian Library, of which he gave the first lines, and the Editor, 
finding that his Dictionary would be a meagre performance without obtaining a copy of 
them, in vain endeavoured to meet with a transcriber t. supply him. Several commenced, but 
after a short attempt they gave up the task in despair. This circumstance has delayed the 
Dictionary for many years, and it would never have been completed, but for the publication 
of these Dramas in 1859. They turn out to be of much greater importance than could have 
been supposed; they are of greater amount than all the other remains of the Cornish langu- 
age taken together, and are most invaluable specimens of it when spoken in great purity. 
The three are of the same antiquity as the Poem of Mount Calvary. The series represents 
Scriptural subjects frr.m the Creation to the Death of Pilate, the first being entitled Ordinale 
de Origine Mundi. 2, Pussio Domini Nostri Ihesu Christi. 3, Ordinale de Resurrectione 
Domini ; and they are of the same kind as the old Mysteries, or Miracle-plays, so common 
in the middle ages. They were published by the University of Oxford, in 2 vols. 8vo. being 
most ably edited by Mr. Edwin Norris, who has added a literal translation on the opposite 
page. lie has also added a Sketch of Cornish Grammar, and the early Cornish Vocabulary, 
with a valuable appendix. By the appearance of these volumes the Editor's difficulties were 
overcome, and he hastened to complete his cherished work. The whole of the Dramas and 
other documents are now incorporated in the Dictionary, and copious examples are given for 
the illustration of the words. 

To complete the subject the Editor intends publishing in due time a copious Grammar of 
the Cornish, compared with the cognate dialects, and an essay on the characteristics of the 
six Celtic Languages, together with alphabetical tables of words, common to two or more of 
them. A list of words will also be given of words borrowed from Latin by the Welsh during 
the stay of the Romans in Britain, which will be found much more extensive than is gene- 
rally imagined. The whole it is presumed will be found of service, in arriving at the history 
of the population of the British Isles. 

ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED. 



a. 

adj. 

adv. 

ceol. 

Any. Sax. 

Arm. 

art. 

Card. 

C. Corn. 

comp. 

comp. 

ecmj. 

D.Du. 

dim, 

Eng. 

Gael. 

Gaul. 

Gr. 

ibid. 

i. e. 

id. qd. 

imp. 

impcrf. 

ind. 

inf. 

intens, 

interj. 

Jr. 

irr. 

Lat. 

m. 

med. 

n. , 



Active. 

Adjective. 

Adverb. 

2Eolic dialect of the Greek. 

Anglo Saxon. 

Armoric or Breton. 

Article. 

Cardinal. 

Cornish. 

Compounded. 

Comparative. 

Conjunction. 

Dutch. 

Diminutive. 

English. 

Feminine. 

Gaelic. 

Gaulish. 

Greek. 

ibidem, in the same place. 

Id est, that is. 

Idem quod, the same as. 

Imperative. 

Imperfect. 

Indicative. 

Infinitive. 

Intensive. 

Interjection. 

Irish. 

Irregular. 

Latin. 

Masculine. 

Medieval. 

Neuter. 



num. 

obs. 

opt. 

part. 

pass. 

pers. 

pi. 

pluperf. 



prep. 

pres. 

pret. 

priv. 

pron. 

qd. v. 

rel. 

e. 

Sansc. 

sing. 

subj. 

superl. 

Teat. 

v. 

Voc. 

W. 

t 



c.w. 

M.C. 
O.M. 
P.O. 
R.D. 



Negative. 

Number. 

Observe. 

Optative. 

Participle. 

Passive. 

Person. 

Plural. 

Pluperfect. 

Possessive. 

Preposition. 

Present. 

Preterite. 

Privative. 

Pronoun. 

quod viile, which see. 

Relative. 

Substantive. 

Sanscrit. 

Singular. 

Subjunctive. 

Superlative. 

Teutonic. 

Verb. 

Vocabulary. 
\\Msh. 

. . Old and obsolete forms. 

Late and corrupted forms. 

Not silent. 

Creation of the World. 

Mount Calvary. 

Origo Mundi. 

. . Piissio Christi. 

Resurrectio Domini. 



GEKLYVYE CERNEWEC. 



A THE first letter of the Cornish alphabet, had the 
, same sound as in Welsh and Armoric. When short 
as in the English words bar, can, dart ; and when long 
as in father, hard, warm. In this work the long vowelJB 
are distinguished by a circumflex. 

A, an auxiliary particle used in most tenses before the 
verb. It softens the initial of the following word, but 
the rule is not always followed in Cornish. Mi a w6r, 
I know. Mi a dhanvon, I will send. Y a colmas y 
dhefreeh, they bound his arms. M.C. 76. Mi a wort, 
1 will stay. M.C. 49. Efa wodhya, he knew. M.C. 54. 
It is similarly used in Welsh, Armoric, Irish, and 
Gaelic In Welsh, as pa beth bynag a wnel, whatever he 
shall do ; mi a welais dhyn, I saw a man. In Armoric, 
Doue a zo mad, God is good ; Ho choar a garann, I love 
your sister. In Irish, a deir me, I say ; A dubhairt se, 
he said ; An ait as a ttiocfadh, the place from which 
he shall come. Gaelic, Nuatr a thuirt e rium, when he 
said to me. When thus employed the relative is often 
understood, as in Cornish, Mi a w6r a whelettch why, I 
know (whom) ye seek. R.D. 781. Yw gwir dhym a 
leverylh, is it true (that which) thou tellest me ? P.O. 
1941. ' So also in Welsh, as y dyn a welais, the man 
(whom) i saw. In Gaelic, An dvine a bhuail mi, the 
man (whom) I struck. 

A. conj. If. A pe yn della ve, neffre ne vean fdhyx, if it 
were so, I should never have been taken. M.C. 73. A 
pe, out thus dhewy ny'm delyrsensyn delma, if it were, my 
people to you would not have delivered me thus. M.C. 
102. A menne gclwel gyvyans, if he would call for 
forgiveness. P.C. 1816. A nynsose pryeryn, if thou wert 
not a stranger. R.D. 1ML It strictly hardens the 
following initial as a caUen (gallen) dos, if I could 
oome. C.W. 44. Welsh o. 

A, poss. pron. His, her, its, their. A dhillas, his clothes. 
Yn a anow, in his mouth. Llwyd, 231. This is a 
late form of y, qd v. 

A, poss. pron. My. t A breihow, my arms. ZDhoabredar 
vi, my brother. Llwyd. 253. jEt a phoccat, in my 
pocket. 253. A late form of aw, qd. v. 

A, prep. From, out of, of, by, with, to, for, on. A pup 
sqvythens y sawyt, from all weariness cure him. P.C. 



477. Gyllyi a. lema, gone from hence. C.W. 140 A 
dhont Dew y festa gwrys, by the hand of God that thou 
wert made. C.W. 24 Wy a bys a lenn golon, ye shall 
pray with faithful heart. M.C. 1. Mear a beyn, much 
of pain. 54. M.C. Curyn a spern, crown of thorns. 
R.D. 2554. Re Ityrchys dhywhy a dh6s, he hath com- 
manded you to come. P.C. 1648. Ysedheuch a termyn 
ver, sit ye for a short time. R.D. 1312. A hi/s, at 
length. O.M 2759. A barth, on the side. Welsh a, 
with ; o, of, from. Armoric a, of, as Eunn aval lean a 
zour, (Welsh, aval llawn o dhtor,) an apple full of water. 
Irish, a, in, out of, from. Gaelic, a, in, to, out of. 
Latin, a, from. 

A, the sign of the present participle, which is formed by 
placing it before the infinitive mood, as cv$ga, to sleep, 
a cwtga, sleeping ; mOs, to go, a mos, going. It also 
changes the initials, when sonants into surds, thus, 
Ma'n dhavas a prtvta (brivia,J the sheep bleats. Llwyd, 
230. A is a late torm, oto being always used in the 
Ordiualia. In Irish and Gaelic, a is used, as a dusgadh, 
awakening. In Welsh yn, as yn cysgu, sleeping ; yn. 
canu, singing. In Armoric, 6, as 6 cana, singing. Com- 
pare also the English forms, / was a walking. A hunting 
Chloe went. They go a begging to a banlcrupt's door. 

A, a particle, used before adjectives to form them into 
adverbs, when the initial assumes the soft sound, as 
dexympy:. immediate, a dhesympys, immediately. Yn is 
similarly used, as lowen, joyful, yn lowen, joyfully. In 
Welsh yn only is thus used, as llawen, yn llawen ; di- 
symmwth, yn dhisymmwtk. In Irish go, as maith, good ; 
go maith, well. In Gaelic gu, as maith, gu maith. In 
Manx, dy, as mie, good-; dy mie, well. Compare also 
the English words, along, abroad, anew. 

A, adv. Used as the sign of the vocative case, as A venen, 
woman. A dds, father A gowethe, O companions. 
P.C. 1883. It softens the following initial, and the 
same rule is followed in the other Celtic languages, 
as Welsh,. dhyn, man. ddd, O father. Armoric 
Ha,ai. Irish, A dhuine, man. Gaelic, A ghrian, 
sun. Manx, Y, or voddee, dog. 

A, interrogative, used in asking a question. A na wylta, 
dost thou not see ? M.C. 120. A ny wodhas, knowest 



ABER 

thou not ? M.O 144. A gletcsyuch why cowethS, did you 
hear comrades ? O.M. 2727. 80 also in Welsh, A 
wydhost ti, dost thou know 1 A glyvcsoch chwi, did ye 
hear? Armoric, ha; Ha choui a iel6, will ye go? Irish, 
A bhfuil se ann, is he there 1 Gaelic, A bheil Dia ann, 
is there a God? 

A, adverb. Part, forming an absolute sentence. A Grist 
ow colhaff mernans, anken y a wodhevys, Christ suffering 
death, they endured trouble. M.C. 211. So also in 
Welsh, A'r Cymry yn cysgu, rhuthrodh y gelyn am eu 
penau, the Cymry being asleep, the enemy fell upon 
them. 

A, conj. And. More commonly written Ha, which see. 

A, v. n. He will go. 3rd pers. s. fut. of irr. v. mds. Mi a 
genes, I will go with thee. P.O. 461. Nyns & den vyth 
dhe'n ti)r sans, not any man shall go to the holy land. 
O.M. 1878. So also in Welsh, Nid a dyn vyth i'r tir 
sanctaidh. Ev a a gyda thydi, he will go with thee. 

ABAL, adj. Full. Crist, arluth merci abal, Christ, Lord 
of mercy full. Pryce. 

ABAN, adv. Above, up, upright. Compounded of a, on, 
and ban, high. As the a softens the initial, avan is 
more correct. Map Dew an nef aban, Sou of God of 
heaven above. P.O. 3080. (Welsh, * vyny.) Yn ban is 
another form. 

ABAN, adv. Since, insomuch, when. Aban no, vynta cresy, 
since thou wilt not believe. M. 241. Bythqueth aban 
vefgenys, ever since I was born. O.M. 1731. Abanyw 
e yn delta, since it is so. R.D. 1874. This is compounded 
of a, from, and ban, a mutation of pan, when. Welsh, 
o ban, er pan, since. Armoric, aba. 

ABARH, adv. On the side, or part. This is a late form of 
abarth, as spoken in LI wyd's time. J Gwraz cona abarh 
an ni, do sup with us. Archceologia Brit. 252. Though 
the more correct form abarth only occurs in all the 
Dramas, in the earliest document of the Language, the 
Cornish Vocabulary, abarh is found, as Eviter abarh 
mam, an uncle on the side of the mother. Modereb 
abarh tat, an aurit on the side of the father. 

ABARTH, adv. On the part, or side ; in the name of. 
Abarth dichow ylhese, on the right side there was. M.C. 
198. Abarth an ids veneges, in the name of the blessed 
Father. O.M. 1792. Mars yw abarth Dew an nef, if he 
be on the part of the God of heaven. R.D. 2103. Com- 
pounded of a, on, and barth, a mut. of parlh, part or side. 
Welsh, o barth. Armoric, a barz, e-barz. 

ABAT, s. m. An abbot. Cornish Vocabulary, Abbas. 
Welsh, abad. Armoric, abad, From the Latin, abbate. 
Irish, ab. Gaelic, ah. 

ABBLL, adv. Afar off. Pedyr a holyas obeli, Peter fol- 
lowed afar off. M.C. 77. Prest abell dheworth an gwir, 
very far off from the truth. M.C. 203. Y fy an deves 
abell, the sheep will flee far. P.O. 894. Compounded 
of a, from, and bell, a mutation of pell. Welsh, o bell. 

ABEM, s. m. A kiss. Pryce's Vocabulary. 

ABBR, s. m. A confluence of waters ; the junction of 
rivers ; the fall of a less river into a greater, or into 
the sea. In the Cornish Vocabulary, it is translated 
"Gurges," a gulf or whirlpool, and in Welsh besides its 
primitive meaning, it signifies a port or harbour. 
Welsh aber, in old Welsh aper, and more correctly atber. 
being derived from at, to, and beru, to follow. Armoric, 
aber. The form more peculiar to the Erse dialects is 



ACHESON 

inbhear. Scot, inver. Aber enters into the compo sition 
of numerous names of places, originally inhabited by 
the Cymry, as Aberconwy, Abergele, Aberystwyth, Sfc., in 
Wales ; Aberdeen, Aberdour, Aberfeldy, Aberbrothic, SfC., 
in Scotland. Note also Havre, in France. 

ABER, s. m. A servant, an assistant. My bel aber, dm 
dhymmo Jcetoth an ger, rag colenwel vodh orv brys, my fair 
servant, come to me as soon as the word to fulfil the 
wish of my mind. O.M. 2271. 

ABER, prep. In, within. An abbreviated form of aberlh. 
Dh'y worre aber an bedh, to place him within the grave. 
R.D. 2108. 

ABERTH, prep. In, within, on, upon. Rag y v6s war 
bronteryon mester bras aberth an wlds, because he was a 
great master over the priests within the kingdom. M.C. 
89. Pan o dampnys aberlh an crown mayfenue, when he 
was condemned on the cross that he should die. M.C. 
151. Cres Dew aberth an chymma, the peace of God 
within this house. P.C. 667, 705. Aberth yn bedh, 
within the tomb. R.D. 311, 614. Aberth anpow, in the 
land. R.D. 609. 

ABERVEDH, adv. In, within, on, upon. Dun abervedh 
desympys, let us come in immediately. O.M. 1062. 
Di-euch an profits abervedh, bring the prophet in. P.C. 
1465. Abervedh yn crows cregy, on the cross to hang. 
M.C. 146. Wheih myr arte abervedh, yet look again 
within. O.M. 789. Written also aperfeth. It is com- 
pounded of a, in, and bervedh, a mutation of Welsh per- 
vedh, the centre, or inward part. 

ABESTELY, s. m. Apostles. The plural of abostol. Pan 
ese yn mysc y abestely, when he was in the midst of his 
apostles. M.C. 26. Du a sonas an bara dhe rag y abes- 
tely, God blessed the bread in the presence of his 
apostles. M.C. 44. Another plural is abesteleth, as Lem- 
myn, a Abesteleth, lavarav dheuch newodhew, now, 
Apostles, I speak to ye nev,: R.D. 893. Ty a alse 
sitr crygy dhe'n Abesteleth, thou mightest surely believe 
the apostles. R.D. 1469. 

ABLE, adv. Whence. Compounded of a, from, ba, a 
mutation of pa, what, and le, a place. Orth Crist ef a 
vjovynnys, te clhcn. able ota gy, of Christ he asked, thou 
man, whence art thou ? M.C. 144. Welsh, o ble, i. e. o 
ba le. 

ABOSTOL, s. m. An apostle. Plural, abesteleth, abestely, 
qd. v. This word is borrowed from the Latin apostolus, 
and is adopted by all the Celtic Languages. Welsh, 
apostol, plural, apostolion and ebeatyl. Armoric, apostol, 
plural, abostoled, ebestel. Irish, absdal. Gaelic, absdol. 
Manx, ostyl. 

ABRANS, s. m. Eyebrow. Cornish Vocabulary super- 
cilium. Welsh, amrant, eyelid, eyelash. Armoric, ab- 
rant. Irish, abhradh, abhraid. Gaelic, abhradh. Manx. 
firroogh. Sansc. bhrus. Greek, 00/aus. Latin, frons. 

ACH, s. f. Offspring, progeny. Cornish Vocabulary, so- 
boles. Stock, or kindred, Llwyd. 155. Plural, achow, 
(v oho.) Welsh, ach. 

ACHESON, a. m. Accusation, fault, guilt. Me ny wour 
bonus kefys yn den-ma byth acheson, I know not that 
there was found in this man any guilt. M.C. 141. Pilat 
a vynnas screfe a vewnas Crist acheson, Pilate would 
write of the life of Christ an accusation. M.C. 187. Na 
allons caffus acheson, let them not be able to find cause. 
O.M. 1835. This is probably a plural form of a singu- 



ADRO 

lar achos. Welsh, achos, plural achosion. Irish, cos, 
cos, cuis. Gaelic, ens, mis. Latin, causa, castm. 

AD, oomp. pron. Of, or concerning thee ; of thy. Com- 
pounded of a, and the characteristic of the 2nd pers. 
pronoun. The a is sometimes the aux. particle ; and 
sometimes the preposition. My a'd peys, I pray thee. 
O.M, 375. Ha me a'd wra Arluth bras, and I will make 
of thee a great lord. M.C. 16. Preder a'd enef, think of 
thy soul. O.M. 479. Yn amendys a'dpehosow, in atone- 
ment of thy sins. O.M. 2259. Denfiira'dcu>;ullyou',a, 
wise man of thy counsels. O.M. 26U. A'th is similar- 
ly used in Cornish. So also in Welsh, mi a'th wnilv, I 
will make thee. Mi a'th welais, I saw thee. 

ADAL, adv. Although. Pryce. 

ADEN, s. f. The leaf of a book. Cornish Vocabulary, 
folium. If not a wrong reading of delen in the MS. it 
may be used metaphorically from the Welsh, aden, a 
wing. 

ADLA, s. m. A knave, an outlaw ; from which latter word 
it is formed. A dhew adla, O two knaves. O.M. 1499. 
Teweuch rak mtlh dew adla, be silent for shame, two 
knaves. R.D. 1495. Me a gelm scon lovan dha worth 
conna-brech an adla, 1 will forthwith bind a good rope 
around the wrist of the knave. P.C. 2762. 

ADOF, s m. Recollection. Yn oys me yw yn vrma, tri 
cans, tri ugans, ha whath pymp mwy, pan es dhym adof, 
yn gedh hydhew, in age I arn in this hour, three hundred, 
three score, and yet five more, when I call it to mind, 
on this very day. C.W. 152. Pan es dhym adof, lit. 
when there is to me recollection. Adof is compounded 
of ad re, and cof memory, and ought correctly to be 
written adgof, as in Welsh, adgov. 

ADOR, prep. From, out of. Pryce. 

ADOTH, s. in. A vow. Cans bras adoth eth yn dhe chy, 
with a great vow went into the house. Pryce. 

ADRB, adv. Homewards. Llwyd. 248. See dre. Welsh, 
adrev, adre. Armoric, adre. 

ADRBS, adv. Across, abroad. Adres pow sur palmoryon 
y a fydh mur gmvygyon, hag a lever dhe tus gow, about 
the country palmers surely are great story tellers, and 
tell people lies. R.D. 1477. Compounded of a on; and 
dres, a mutation of tres, across. Welsh, ar draws. 

ADRIFF, adv. Purposely, on purpose, to the end that. 
Ny gowsynyn tewolgow adryfftusy'm cavas, I spake not 
in the dark, on purpose that men might find me. M.C. 79. 

ADRO, adv. about, around. Lays esynpow adro, the law 
is in the country about. M.C. 121. My a's gor adro 
dhodho, I will put it round it. O.M. -2101, 2500. Yn 
crys an dre, adro dlie'n temple, in the middle of the 
town, about the temple. O.M. Adro dhum bryangen, 
around my throat. P.C. 1527. Dhywortheuch mennaf 
mones adro yn pow, from you I will go about in the 
country. R.D. 1135. Adro is sometimes divided, and 
dhe. dre or der inserted between, as ow doon an pren a 
dhe dro, carrying the tree about. O.M. 2820. Hag a'th 
whyp war an wolok, may whylly gurychon ha mole dhe 
dhewktgas a dre dro, and whip thee on thy face, that 
thou mayest see sparks and smoke round about thy 
eyes. P.O. 2102. Golsowoch a der dr6 orthafve, myns es 
omma, hearken round about unto me, all that are here. 
C.W. 104. Gwins adro, a whirlwind. In later Cornish 
occur the phrases % an heves adro y gein, the shirt on his 
back : J An lydrow adro'z garro, the stockings on your 



AFLYDHYS 

legs : \An esgisow adro'z treiz, the shoes on your feet : 
J An manac adro'z dorn, the glove on your hand. Llwyd, 
250. Compounded of a on, and dro a mutation of tro. 
Welsh, ar dro. Armoric, tro. 

ADRUS, adv. Across. Tresters dredho ly a pyn adrus, rag 
na vo deyees, beams through it thou shall nail, that it 
may not be opened. O.M. 964. Compounded of a on, 
and drus, a mutation of trus, across. It is the same as 
adres. 

AB HAN, comp. prep. From under. Llwyd, 249. 

ADHELHAR, comp. prep. After, behind. This is a corrupt 
form of the Armoric a dilerch, and occurs only in late 
Cornish, as t adhelhur dhyn remenat, behind the rest. 
Llwyd, 123, 249. 

ADHE WORTH, comp. prep. From by, from. Llwyd, 249. 
Welsh, odhiwrth, Armoric, diwar. Irish, ua. Gaelic, ua. 
Manx, veifi. 

ADHORT, comp. prep. From by, from. %Adhort an dre, 
from the town. Llwyd, 249. This is only a more recent 
form of adheworth. 

ADHYRAGOF, pron. prep. Before me. Myrewelasym 
hunrus adhyragof el dyblans, I have seen in my dream 
before me a bright angel. O.M. 1955. Compounded of 
a, and dyragof, qd. v. 

ADHYRAGON, pron. prep. Before us. A Us ol y wolyow 
adhyragon pan guylsyn, all his wounds disclosed when 
we saw before us. R.D. 1332. An arluth adhyragon 
lorth i-ara efa torras, the Lord before us a loaf of bread 
he broke. R.D. 1490. Compounded of a, and dyra- 
gon, qd. v. 

ADHYRAGOS, pron. prep. Before thee. Me a's doro pur 
anwhek adhyrayos, I will bring them very roughly before 
thee. P.C. 2333. Compounded of a, and dyragos, qd. v. 

ADHYRAGOUCH, pron. prep. Before ye. Adhyragouch 
me a pys, before you I pray. P.C. 1414. Ysedheuch a 
termyn ver, adhyrageuch me a ter forth a vara, sit ye for 
a short time, before you will break a loaf of bread. R.D. 
1313. Compounded of a, and dyragouch, qd. v. 

ADZHAF, subs. lam. Written also adzhav, by Llwyd. 
This is the most recent and corrupt form of ythof, of 
ossof, 1st pers. sing. pres. tense, of the verb substantive 
b6s. Welsh, ydwyv. 

ADZHAN, v. irr. I know, perceive, recognize, or am ac- 
quainted with. + My tyadzhan, I know thee. Thisand 
azwen, are late corruptions of aswon, qd. v. 

ADZHYI, adv. Within. Llwyd, 249. A late corruption 
of yn chy, in the house. 

AERAN, s. m. Plums, prunes. This is a plural aggregate. 
Welsh, aeron, eirin. Armoric, irin. Irish, \airune, 

AF, v. subs. I am. 1st pers. pres. of bos. Welsh, wyii. 
More commonly written o/J qd. v. 

A F, v. n . I shall go. 1 pers. f. s. fut. of irr. v. m6s. Nejfre 
dhe dre nyns of, ever to the town I will not go. R.D. 
811. Pie tofnapleyth of, ny won, where I shall come, 
or where I shall go, I know not. R D. 1665. Dhe'n 
kethplas-na dhyuch yth of, to that same place to yon I 
will go. R.D. 2400. Welsh, dv. 

AFFO, v. a. He may pardon. A mutation of gaffo, 3 pers. 
s. subj. of gafe, qd. v. Mersy war Detv aga/n Ids may 
affo anpechosow, mercy of God our Father that he may 
pardon our sins. O.M. 1866. 

AFLYDHYS, adj. Unfortunate, miserable, wretched. 
Del leveryth a vydh gwrys dhe'n plosek gwds afydhys, as 



AGES 

thou sayest, it shall be done to the foul wretched fellow. 
P.O. 451. Welsh, avlwydh, misfortune, whence avhvydh- 
og, unfortunate. 

AFLYDHYGYON, adj. Wretches. Powesouch afiydhygyon 
rdg marotv yw an voron, rest ye, wretches, for dead is 
the maid. O.M. 2746. This is a corruption of aflydh- 
ysyon, the plural ofaflydhys. 

AG, conj. And. More frequently written hag, qd. v. 

AGA, pron. poss. Their. Nyns yw at/a Dew pleysys genes 
gy, their God is not pleased with thee. O.M. 1562. Dhe 
wethyl aga mynnas yn della efa vynne, to do their pur- 
pose, go he would have it. M.C. 70. It aspirates the 
following initial. Ganse y an hombronJcyas, yn prys 
hanter n6s, bys yn agafryns Annas, with them they him 
led, at the time of midnight, even to their prince 
Annas. M.C. 76. Avel olow aga ihreys, like the prints 
of their feet. O.M. 760. Aga hynwyn, their names. O.M. 
35. Aga Mn, their song. O.M. 310. Aga sona ny a wra, 
bless them we will. O.M. 143. May hyllyf aga hedh.es, 
that I may reach them. O.M. 202. Welsh, eu. Gael- 
ic, oca, 

AGAN, pron. poss. Our. Gwyn agon bys, happy our lot. 
O.M. 411. (W. gwyn ein byd.) Lemyn efyiv agan gwas, 
now he is our fellow. O.M. 910. Agan gorhyl a wartha 
gans glow efa vydh cudttys our ark, from above, with 
rain it will be covered. O.M. 1063. An re-ma yw oberys 
del vynsyn agan honan, these are wrought as we our- 
selves would wish. O.M. 16. Gans y gyg aganperna 
gwyn agan bys, with his flesh to redeem us, happy our 
lot. M.C. 4. Hen o dhodko calys feyn, agan peek ny ow 
prene", this was to him grevious pain, atoning for our 
sin. M.C. 196. Lemyn agan sona gwra, now do bless 
us. O.M. 1721. An kern map ol agan gruk, the same son 
(who) made us. R.D. 1975. Welsh, ein, (eidho-nij 
Gaelic, again, Manx, ain. Compounded of aig, with, 
and sinn, us. 

AGARY, s. m. An enemy. Dhe Cesar toagary,io Caesar 
is an enemy. Pryce's Vocabulary. Compounded of a, 
neg, and cary, to love. 

AGA8, pron. poss. Your. Written indiscriminately also 
ages, agis, agos, agys. Mesk ow pobel ny vynnaf na fella 
agos godhnf, among my people I will not any longer 
endure you. M. 1595. An tas an nefa danvon dheuch 
agos whans, the Father of Heaven will send you your 
desire. O.M. 1806. Gwir yw agas cows, true is your 
speech. P.O. 1345. Olouch rag agis flechys ha ragouch 
ages honon, weep ye for your children and yourselves. 
M.C. 169. My agaspfo, I pray you. O.M. 2346. Welsh, 
eich. Armaric, och, ho. Manx, eu. 

AGE, v. a. To leave. A mutation of gage, a corrupt form 
of gase, qd. v. Anodho dycheth vye y wokyneth na age 
hay muscochneth, of him it were a pity his folly not to 
leave, and his madness. P.C. 1989. 

AGENSOW, adv. A while since, lately. A wylsta ken yn 
forma ys del ege agensow, dost thou see more now than 
what there was just now. O.M. 796. Agensow my a'n 
gwelas, lately I saw him, R.D. 911. Written also 
agyusow. 

AGBRY, v. a. To open. Part, agerys ; preterite agores, 
qd. v. More generally written egery, qd. v. Welsh, 
agori, egori. Armoric, egori. 

AGES, conj. Than. Me a'n dreha arte kyns pen trydydh 
tcke ayes kyns y van, I will build it again, before the 



AHANAN 

end of three days, fairer than it stood before. P.C. 347. 
Gwel yw un den dhe verwel ages ol an bobyl lei dhe v6s 
kyllys, better it is that one man die than all the faithful 
people to be lost. P.C. 447. Ythese gynefmoy ages myl 
vyl enef, there are with me more than a million souls. 
R.D. 141. Written also agis. Gweth agis cronek, worse 
than a toad. M.C. 47. Moy agis gatvel tredden, more 
than the hold of three men. M.C. 237. Ys is another 
mode of expressing than, of which agis is an amplified 
form. 

AGESOS, comp. pron. Than thou. Arlulh, kepar del 
wrusys pup tra, nag its ken Dew agesos, Lord, like as 
thou hast made every thing, there is not another God 
than thou. R.D. 2477. Compounded of ages and ti. 

AGESOUCH, comp. pron. Than ye. A pc vodh Dew yn 
della, ken agesouch vcnytha ny zcnzcn, if the will of God 
were so, otherwise than you ever we do not consider. 
O.M. 2367. Yn certan gonesugy ken agesouch why ny's 
ty, rdg sold ouch ynpup creft, certainly, workmen, others 
than ye shall not cover it, for subtle ye are in every 
craff. O.M. 2 190. Compounded of ages, and chivi. 

AGESSO, comp. pron. Than he. Ken Arlulh agesso ef 
ny'n gordhyaf bys venary, other Lord than him I will 
not worship for ever. O.M. 1789. Compounded of ages 
and o. 

AGOLAN, s. f. A whetstone, a hone. Llwyd, 16. Welsh, 
agalen, calen, and hogalen, from hogi to whet. Armoric, 
igolen. 

AGORES, v. a. He opened. An scryplor dhyn agores pur 
wyr a dhalleih, Moyses ha lyes profus aral, the scripture 
he opened to us truly from the beginning, Moses and 
many other prophets. R.D. 1483. This is the pre- 
terite of agery, qd. v. Welsh, agores, agorodh. 

AGOS, adj. Near. En agos, near, Llwyd, 248, More 
frequently written ogas, qd. v. Welsh, agos. Armoric, 
egos. Irish, agus, t acus t ocus, fogus. Gaelic, fogus. 
Manx, aggys.faggys. 

AGY, adv. Within. Agy dhv'n yet gor dhe ben, within the 
gate put thy head. O.M. 743. Aves hag agy yn ta gans 
pek bedhens stanchurys, without and within, well with 
pitch let it be staunched. O.M. 953. F tits us trygys agy 
dheth wlds, his people which are dwelling within thy 
country. O.M. 1483. My a fystyu agy, I will hasten 
within. O.M. 2319. Agy dhe etuhe an geydh, within the 
evening of the day. R.D. 275. Compounded of a in, and 
chy a house. Welsh, yn ly. Armoric, e-ti. 

AGYNSOW, adv. A while since, lately. Jhesu dasserchys 
a'nbedh, mea'ngivelas agyntow, Jesus is risen from the 
grave, I saw him lately. R.D. 896. Written also 
agensow. 

AH. interj. Ah, alas. Welsh, A 1 

AHANAF, pron. prep. From me, on me. Ahanaf kymer 
mercy, on me have mercy. P.C. 306. Yn gylwys map 
Dew yn prof, ahanaf may perlho cof pan deffe dh'y wlas- 
cor ef, I called him the Sou of God, in proof that he 
would keep remembrance of me when he should come 
to his kingdom. R.D. 272. Arlulh pan dyffys dhetpow 
predery ahanaff gwra, Lord, when thou comest to thy 
country, do think of me. M.C. 193. Welsh, ohonov. 
Armoric, ahanojf. Compounded of ahan and mi. 

AHANAN, pron. prep. From us; of us. Ty re'n ladhes, 
hag efahanan mar ger, thou hast killed him, and he so 
beloved of us. O.M. 612. My o'* dyllo ahanan, ny dhue 



AIEOS 

ttrU my a greys, I will send it from us, it will not come 
again I believe. O.M. 1101. Euch alemma ahanan, go 
hence from us. P.O. 151. It is also used adverbially, 
like Arm. ahanen, to signify hence only. Awos Dew dun 
ahanan dh'y gerhas dhe dre, for God's sake let us come 
away to bring it to the town. O.M. 2564. Sevyn yn 
ban, dun ahanan scon alemma, let us stand up, and go 
away soon from hence. P.O. 1029. Compounded of ahan 
and ni. Welsh, ohonom, ohonam. Armoric, achanomp. 

AHANAS, pron. prep. From thee, of thee. Marth ahan- 
as a'n gffes, he wonders at thee. O.M. 1484. Yma 
marlh dnyn ahanas, there is to me wonder at thee. P.O. 
2415. Ahanas marih yw gene, I have wonder of thee. 
R.D. 2565. Written also ahancs; Dfiysoefaveythbesy, 
hag ahanes a dhfffo, to thee it shall be indeed, and that 
which shall come out of thee. O.M. 406. Compound- 
ed of ahan and ti. Welsh, ohonot. Armoric, achanot. 

AHAJNE, pron. prep. From me, of me. Used for ahanaf, 
metri causa. Arluth Cryst me aih pysse aprydery ahane 
pan vyseyn dhe wlascor, Lord Christ, I would pray thee to 
think of me, when thoushaltbe in thy kingdom. P.C. 2907. 

AHANOUCH, pron. prep. From ye, of ye. Onan ahan- 
o/iich haneth rum gtvertkas rikom yskerens, oue of you this 
night has sold me to my enemies. P.C. 736. Ahanouch 
nib yw mochya, he who is greatest of you. P.O. 792. 
Kyn leverry gwyrf den fyih ahanouch ny vyn cregy, 
though I speak truly, any man of you will not believe. 
P.C. 1482. Yma dhymmo gorgys bras ahanouch yn pur 
deffry, there is to me a great distrust of you in pure 
earnest. R.D. 1500. Compounded of ahan and chwi. 
Welsh, ohonoch, t ohonawch. Armoric, achanoch. 

AH AS, adj. Hateful, detestable, dreadful. Ote cowes pur 
ahas, see a shower very dreadful. O.M. 1081. A Pedar 
ty a'n nahas rdk bos y peyn mar ahas, Peter thou 
deniedst him, because his pain was so dreadful. R.I). 
1352. An laddron an dyalas dre lyes torment ahas, the 
thieves mocked him, by many hateful torments. R.D. 
1427. Ma'n geffb peyn mar oAo*,that he may have such 
dreadful pain. R.D. 2049. Compounded of a intens. 
and cas, hatred. Welsh, achas. 

AHO, s. m. Pedigrees. Pryce. More correctly ahoto, i.e. 
achow, plur. of ach. 

AHOZON, s. m. Occasion, opportunity. Pryce. Plural 
ahozonou.', from the English occasion. 

AHUCH, adv. Above. My a set ahuch an gweydh yn creys 
an ebren avan, I place them over the trees in the midst 
of the sky above. O.M. 37. Compounded of a on, and 
itch high. 

AHDEL, s. m. A key. A late form of alwedh. qd. T. 

AI, comp. pron. Miai didhiwys dhodho, I promised it to 
him. Llwyd, 242. (Welsh, mi at adhewais idtu>.) Ev 
ai dyg dhym, he brought it to me. Llwyd, ibid. M* 
ai gwerha, I will sell it. Llwyd, 246. Though agreeing 
vrith the Welsh, this form is only found in late Cornish. 
The more classical being a'n and as. 

AIDHLEN, s. f. A fir tree. Written in the Cornish 
Vocabulary, aidlen, abies. This word is doubtful in 
reading, and of uncertain derivation. The Welsh hfaw- 
ydhen, of which it is possibly a corruption. 

AIL, s. m. An angel. This is the form in the Cornish 
Vocabulary, angelus. In later writings el, which see. 

AIROS, s. m. The poop or stern of a ship. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, pitppis. Armoric, aros. Irish, t cross. 



ALLOS 

ALEMMA, adv. Hence, from this place. Yn mes alemrna 
ty a, out of this place thou shalt go. O.M. 83. Fystyn 
alemma duwhans, hasten thou hence quickly. O.M. 169. 
Dun alemma, let us come hence. O.M. 446. My a vyn 
m6s alemma, I will go hence. 1003. Alemma bys gorfen 
bys, henceforth to the end of the world. P.C. 1704. 
Compounded of a from, le. a place, ma here. 

ALENA, adv. Thence, from that place. Ha ny ow (6s 
alena, and we coming from thence. O.M. 714. Kyns 
ys dones alena, before coming from thence. O.M. 791. 
Ty a wra gorre an tus alena, thou shalt bring the people 
thence. O.M. 1428. Compounded of a from, le place, 
na there. 

ALES, adv. Abroad, An dour a uger ales, the water will 
open widely. O.M. 1666. Compounded of a on, and 
les breadth. Welsh, ar led. 

ALLA, v. n. He will be able. A mutation of galla, 3 pars, 
s. fut.,of gaily, qd. v. My a wra y ascttsie mar ver del 
alia den vyth, I will excuse him as .soon as any man 
can. P.C. 2212. Rak mar claf yw ow dule, my alia 
handle toul vyth, for my hands are so sore, I cannot 
handle any tool. P.C. 2678. Mara keller y wythe a 
chy, na alia yntre dhe'n darasow, if he can be kept from 
the house, that he may not enter the doors. P.C. 3059. 

ALLAF, v. n. I shall be able. A mutation of gallaf, 1 
pers. s. fut. of gaily, qd. v. Dal 6f, ny allaf awelcs, I 
am blind, I cannot see. O.M. 2007. Ny allaf pella, 
trega, I cannot longer stay. O.M. 2190. Pandra allaf 
dhe wruthyl, what can I do. O.M. 194. My ny allaf gul 
kenter dhywhy, I cannot make a nail for you. P.C. 2676. 

ALLAN, v. n. I may be able. A mutation of gallon, 
1 pers. s. subj. of gaily, qd. v. Ow dywlucf colm hdm 
garrow gans louanfast colmennow na allan scvel a'm-sqf, 
my hands bind and my legs with a rope fast knots, 
that I may not stand up. O.M. 1348. 

ALLAS, v. n. He was able. A mutation ofgallas, 3 pers. 
s. pret. of golly, qd. v. Rak ny alias den yn beys anodho 
gill defnyth van, for no man in the world has been able 
to make a good use of it. P.C. 2547. Efa alias dymi- 
gel sawye bewnens tus erel, he could indeed save the life 
of other men. P.C. 2873. 

ALLO, v. n. He may be able. A mutation ofgallo, 3 pel's, 
s. subj. of gaily. (Welsh, allo, gallo.) Prederys fettyl 
gorfenne, thinking how it can end. 0-M. 228. Pup 
den 61 degyns ganso y pyth, an mens a allo, let every man 
take with him his things, all that he can. O.M. 1592. 
Kelmeuch uiarbarth y dhywvrech na allo dyank, bind ye 
his arms together that he may not escape. P,C. 1180. 

ALLONS, v. n. They may be able. A mutation of gallons, 
3 pers. pi. subj. of gaily. (Welsh, allont, gallant. J May 
rollo dour dhe eve dhedhe y, na allons cafus ken dhe 
dhyscrysy, that he may give water to drink to them, 
that they may not find cause to disbelieve. M.C. 1825. 
Gurreuch y pur fast ma na allons yn pryveth y laddra a'n 
bedh, make ye them very fast, that they may not privily 
steal him out of the tomb. R.D. 34. 

ALLOS, s. m. Power. A mutation of gallos, qd. v. Dew 
a allos, God of power. R.D. 331. Rak linen 6s a hunel- 
der hag a hallus kekeffrys, for thou art full of greatness, 
and of power likewise. R.D. 425. Ef yw arluth a alias, 
hag aprynas gans y wos pobel an beys, He is the Lord 
of power, and he has purchased with his blood the 
people of the world. R.D. 1183. 



ALWEDH 

ALLOSTI, corap. v. Art thou able. J Pan na hwel allosti 
gull, what work canst thou do. Llwyd, 251. This form 
is only found in late Cornish. It is compounded of 
olios, a mutation of gallon, 3 pers. pret of gaily, and the 
pron. ti. The characteristic of the 2 pers. s. pret. st 
may be contained in it. 

ALLOYS, s. m. Power. A mutation of galleys. Mearo 
an peyn dar ken vdb Duw, mear y alloys, much was the 
pain inflicted on the son of God, much his power. M.C. 
135. 

ALLYP, v. n. I may be able. A mutation of gallyf, 1 
pers. s. snbj. of gaily, qd. v. Mars 6s Dew a nef golow, 
dysyua lemman marthusow may allyf vy y weles, if thou 
art the God of bright heaven, show now miracles that 
I may see them. P.O. 83. Welsh, gallwyv, a allwyv. 

ALS, s. f. A cliff, an ascent, the seashore. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, litits. Welsh, allt, to#, a cliff, a hill. Irish, 
aill. Gaelic, all. Manx. alt. Sanscrit, alitas, increased ; 
from al to fill. Latin altus. 

AL8B, r. n. He had been able. A mutation of galse, 3 
pers. s. plup. of gaily. Tekke alter yn nep pow ny alse 
den aspye, a fairer alter in any country, a man could 
not see. O.M. 1178. Ef a alse 16s yn to, hanter den ha 
hanter Dew, he might have been well, half man and 
half God. P.O. 1740. An pren yw terrys da, ny alse 
vyth bones gwell, the tree is well cut, it could never be 
better. P.O. 2669. Welsh, gallasai, allasai, all'sai, all'sc. 

ALSBN, v. n. I had been able. A mutation of galsen, 
1 pers. s. plup. of gaily. La/ca mester ny alsen y dhyer- 
byn, a worse master I should not be able to meet. P.C. 
2276. Welsh, gallaswn, allasivn, all'swn. 

ALSENS, v. n. They had been able. A mutation of gal- 
sens, 3 pers. pi. plup. of gaily. Y a alsens, they might. 
Llwyd, 247. Welsh, gallasent, allasent, all' sent. 

ALSEST, v. D. Thou hadst been able. A mutation of 
galsest, 2 pers. pi. plup. of gaily. Ti a alsesl, thou 
mightest. Llwyd, 247. An amplified form of this 
occurs in alsesta. A'n guelesta adhyragos, a alsesia y as- 
wonfos ? If thou shouldst see him, couldest thou know 
him. R.D. 862. 

ALTER, s. f. An altar. Yn onour Dew guren un alter tek 
ha da, in the honour of God, let us make an altar fair 
and good. O.M. 1170. Tekke alter yn nep pow ny alse 
den aspye, a fairer altar in any country a man could 
not see. O.M. 1177. Buck offrynne my a vyn whare 
war an alter-na, a cow I will offer forthwith upon that 
altar. O.M. 1146. This is written in the Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, altor. Welsh, allor. Armoric, altor, aoter. 
Irish, altoir. Gaelic, altoir. Manx, altar. All from 
the Latin altare. 

ALTROU, s. m. A stepfather. So defined in the Cornish 
Vocabulary, victricus. In later Cornish aultra meant a 
godfather, Llwyd, 159, which. agrees with Welsh all- 
traw. In -the British dialects the. etymology is not 
obvious, but in Irish altrannus signifies nursing. Athair 
allrannus, a foster-father. Irish, ultra, foster-father. 
Gaelic, altrach. 

ALTRUAX, s. f. A stepmother. Cornish Vocabulary 
noverca. In later Cornish altruan meant a godmother, 
Llwyd, 159. So Welsh, elldrewen. 

ALWEDH, s. m. A key. Written also a Iwhedh ; pi. al- 
wedhow, alwhedhow, alwheow. Yn dan naw alwedh gur- 
euchy pur fast, under nine keys make you them very 



6 AMBOS 

fast. R.D. 31. Naw alwedh agas pryson, the nine keys 
of your prison. R.D. 89. Ro dhym dhe alwhedhow, give 
me thy keys. R.U. 84. Yn mes duech why, hep terry 
chy, ha, hep alwhedh, come ye out, without breaking 
house, and without a key. R.D. 324. (Me omma alwedh- 
ow, see here the keys. R.D. 631. A nyngese alwheow 
warbarth yn ages guyth why 1 were not the keys together 
in your keeping. R.D. 650. Welsh, allwedJi. Armoric, 
alchouez, alhues. 

AM, pron. poss. My, mine. Yn nef y fethaff Iregis an 
barth dychow gans am car, in heaven I shall dwell, on 
the right side with my father. M.C. 93. A Dhew gor- 
vyth am ene, God, keep my soul. O.M. 1356. Welsh, 
ym, as yn ym ty, in my house. Gaelic, am, as ann am thigh. 

AM, prep. pron. With my, of my. A das, ty re dhros 
dhymmo ascorn a'm k$k ha corf, O father, thou hast 
brought to me bone of my flesh and body. O.M. 112. 
Guldn ef re gollas an plas a'm luf dhychyow a wrus.ten, 
clean he has lost the place, which with my right hand 
I had made. O.M. 921. Out warnas harlot pen cok scon 
yn mes quyk a'm golok, out upon thee, rogue, blockhead, 
immediately out of my sight. O.M. 1530. Gordhyans 
dhe'n td/s, arlttth nef, a'm luen golon my a bys, worship 
to the father, Lord of heaven, of my full heart I pray. 
O.M. 2088. A'm leff dychow pan wrussen, with my right 
hand when I had made. C.W. 160. Compounded of a 
of, and am. Welsh, am. 

AM, (a and me,) Govyn orto mar a'm bydh, ask him if 
there will be to me. O.M. 693. Dew a'm danfunas dhyso 
d/ie wofyn, God has sent me to thee to ask. O.M. 1480. 
Yn wedh dewdhek warnugans a virhas my a'm be, like- 
wise thirty two daughters I have. C.W. 144. An kynsa 
benfys a'm been, the first benefice I have. O.M. 2613. 
Te a'm ywel ve devethys, thou seest me come. C.W. 141. 
Am with the verb substantive is frequently used to 
denote possession. Marth a'm hues a'th lavarotv, wonder 
is to me of thy words. P.C. 2392. Mur varth a'm bus 
dyogel, a great wonder is surely come to me. O.M. 371. 
Own a'm bus vy, fear is on me. O.M. 1452. Ha'n 
maystri bras 61 a'm bo, and all the great power that was 
mine. P.C. 148. So also in Welsh, gwedy y parch a'm 
buat, after the respect I experienced. Llywarch Hen, 
78. Brodyr a'm bwyad a dhug Duiv rhagov, brethren I 
have had whom God hath taken from me. LI. Hen 96. 
Brodyr a'm bwyad innau, brothers also I have had. LI. 
Hen, 100. Pedwar pwn brodera'm buant, four brothers 
of a fruitful stock to me there were. LI. Hen, 103. Aur 
mal a'm bu, the pnre gold was my recompense. See also 
bus, nymbus. 

AM, s. m. A kiss. Pryce's Vocabulary. 

A MAN, adv. Up, up wards. ^ Dho dereual aman, to raise 
up. Lhvyd, 69. ^ Sdv aman, kebmer dha li, ha ker dha'n 
hal, get up, take thy breakfast, and go to the moor. 
Pryce. This is late Cornish, and incorrectly used for awn. 

AMBOS, s. m. A contract, covenant, promise. PI. am- 
bosow. My a wra dhys ambos da, I will make a good 
promise to thee. O.M. 1232. Yn dan ambos ytheses, 
under agreement thou wert. P.C. 2259. Ambosow orth 
tryher gureys annedhi nynses laha, promises made by 
the mighty, of them there is not law. O.M. 1235. Lell 
6s ha trest, ha stedfast y'th ambosow, faithful thou art and 
trusty, and steadfast in thy agreements. P.C. 949. 
Welsh, ammod. 



AN 

AMBOSE, v. a. To promise. Pret. ambosas. Ha gynef 
y tanfonas, y te dkeuch, pare veuch war, kepar ha del am- 
bosas, and by me he sent, that he would come to you, 
as ye may be aware like as he promised. R.D. 915. 
Welsh, ammodi. 

AME, v. a. To kiss. Written also ama, amma, amme. j 
Pret. amas. Governing the dative. Enef Judas ny 
alias dos y mes mar y annow, rag y annow a amas dhe 
Jhesus, the soul of Judas could not come out from his 
mouth, for his month kissed Jesus. M.C. 106. Am lemyn \ 
dhe'n gwellynny a barth an ids veneges, hag y a wra eredy 
a pup clevts dhysjehes, kiss now the rods on the part of 
the blessed father, and they will cause surely from 
every disease to thee a cure. O.M. 1794. Me a ra dhe 
Christ ame may hallouch y aswonvos, I will kiss Jesus, 
that you may know him. M.C. 63. My a vyn dyso 
amma, I will kiss thee. O.M. 2191. Me a vyn dheth 
treys amme, I will kiss thy feet. P.O. 480. Dhym ny 
dhogouth amme dheth pen, it becomes me not to kiss thy 
head. R.D. 872. 

AMENEN, s. m. Butter. This and emenin, are the old 
forms preserved in the Cornish Vocabulary. In late 
Cornish amman. Welsh, ymenyn, \emmenin. Armoric, 
aman, amanen. Irish, im. Gaelic, im. Manx. eeym. 

AMES, adv. Without, out of doors, in the field. See ves, 
and mes. 

AMOUNT, v. irreg. It concerns. Pandra amount dhyn 
gonys, what avails it to cultivate. O.M. 1223. Ny 
amount man, it avails nothing. O.M. 2791. This is a 
foreign word borrowed from the 'English. 

AMPYDGNYAN, s. m. The brains. Ragtha te a vydh 
ledhys, afals lader casadow squattiys yw dhe ampydgnyan, 
for this thou shalt be slain, thou false foul thief, struck 
out are thy brains. C.W. 124. This is a corruption of 
empynyon. 

AMSER, s. m. Time. It occurs in the Cornish Vocabulary, 
corruptly written anser. Welsh, amser. Armoric, am- 
zer. Irish, aimsir, + aimser. Gaelic, aimsir. Manx, em- 
shir. Sanscrit, amasa. 

AMSEVY, v. a. To raise up, to excite. En marrek-na 
amsevys ol yn ban y gowethe, ha dhedhe a leverys a Jesus 
fatell vye, that soldier stirred up all his companions, and 
to them said of Jesus how it was. M.C. 245. Com- 
pounded of am, id. qd., em and om, reflective particle, 
and sevel, to raise. 

AN, definite article. The. When the substantive is femin- 
ine the initial assumes the secondary or soft sound. 
Den a man, an den the man. Tre, f. a town, an dre, 
the town. Tra, f. a thing, an dra, the thing. Del ve 
helheys war an bys avel carow, so was hunted on the 
world like a deer. M.C. 2. Cusil an Ids, the counsel of 
the father. O.M. 188. Written also en, qd. v. In Welsh 
yr, and y, are now used but anciently ir. In Armoric, 
ann before vowels, and words beginning with d, n, t. 
Before other consonants ar is used, and al before I. The 
Irish use an, na. Old Irish in, inna, na. Gaelic, an, na. 
Manx, y, yn. 

AN, (a prep, an art.) From the, out of the, on the. A'n 
uchelder may 'these dhe'n bys pan deyskynnas, from the 
height that he was to the world when he descended. 
M.C. 4. Hag a' n grows, del o pry's, corf Jesus a gerner- 
as, and from the cross, as it was time, the body of Jesus 
they took. M.C. 230. A'n neffyfe danvenys dheworth 



ANCENSY 

an tds eleth dy, from heaven there were sent from the 
father angels to him. M.C. 18. Ty a saw a"n tr6s dhe'n 
pen, thou shalt be healed from the foot to the head. 
O.M. 1762. A'n lost fcemer dhedhy yn ban, by the tail 
take it up. O.M. 1454. An barth cledh neb o cregis, on 
the left side, he that was hanged. M.C. 191. Ladh e, 
ladh e, mernens an grows desympys, kill him, kill him, 
the death of the cross immediately. M.C. 142. 

AN, (a aux. 'n him.) Him, it, them. Nepa'ngordhye,gwyn 
y veys, who worships him, happy his lot. O.M. 1938. 
Hay dhyscyplys a'n seivyas, and his disciples followed 
him. M.C. 52. Why a'n clewas, ye have heard him. 
M.C. 95. A dorras an aval tek, hag a'n dug dhym, who 
plucked the fair apple, and brought it to me. O.M. 268. 
Nya'n kyrch dhys, we will bring him to thee. O.M. 548. 
Me a'n gor, I will put him. O.M. 1289. Kemmys a'n 
gwrello, as many as do them. O.M. 605. Me a'n te dhys, 
I swear it to thee. O.M. 2124. 

AN, pron. poss. Our. An bewnans ny regattas, we have 
lost our life. M.C. 246. Nans 6n lafuryys ganso, hag an 
yssylypur squyth, now we are oppressed with it, and our 
limbs are very weary. O.M. 2824. An Tds ny Us yn 
nef, our Father which is in heaven. Pryce. The more 
common form is agan. Welsh, ein. 

AN, (a aux., an our.) Us. Rag efo telel edhen, neb a 
glewsys ow cane, hag a'n doro dhe anken, for he was an 
evil bird, whom thou didst hear singing, and will bring 
us to sorrow. O.M. 225. (So also in Welsh, ag a'n dygo 
i angen.) CM, gweles y dhewedh, fe namna'n dallas, a 
grief to see his end it was, it almost blinded us. R.D. 42. 

ANAF, s. m. . An e vet, or newt. Cornish Vocabulary, 
stellio. Armoric, anv, a blind worm. 

ANAL, s. f. The breath. Ber anal, short breath. Welsh, 
anal, anadl. Armoric, anal. Irish, anal. Gaelic, anail. 
Manx, ennal. Sanscrit, anila, from an to breathe. 

ANCAR, s. m. An anchorite, or hermit. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, anachorita. From the Latin. 

ANCAR, s. m. An anchor. Cornish Vocabulary, anchora. 
Welsh, angor, and hear. Armoric, hear. Irish, angcaire, 
anncoire, \ingor. Gaelic, acair. Manx. aker. 

ANCEN, s. m. Grief, sorrow, trouble, pain. Hag a'n doro 
dhe anken, and will bring us to sorroy. O.M. 225. Dhe 
v6s denladhyw anken, to be a mankiller is grevious. O.M. 
2335. Mara quelyn dhys anken, if we see grief to thee, 
P.O. 733. Ma an glows dre ow colon rdk galarow hag 
anken, there is a pang through my heart for sorrow and 
grief. P.C. 1148. Ty a fyth cowal anken, thou shalt 
have full pain. P.C. 2530. Nyn sparyafawos anken, I 
will not spare it because of trouble. P.C. 2566. Anken 
ha tristys, grief and sorrow. R.D. 204. Whys hag anken, 
sweat and sorrow. R.D. 245. Welsh, angen. Armoric, 
ancen. Irish, gann, eigean. t Gaelic, eigin, \gann. 

ANCENEC, s. in. An elegy, a penitential hymn. Ow 
conselar whek yth pesaf, dysk dhymmo itn ankeneJc rdgow 
fehas, my sweet adviser, I pray thee, teach- me a pen- 
itential hymn for my sins. O.M. 2256. From anken, grief. 

ANCENSY, s. m. Vexation, trouble. Pur ankensy gans 
dornow dhodho war an scovornow reuch boxsesow treuiysy, 
very vexation, with fists to him on the ears give sad 
blows. P.C. 1360. Written also ankynsy. Mear an- 
kynsy dhe Christ may fe crehyllys oil y gorf hay esely, 
much vexation to Christ, that was crushed all his body 
and limbs. M.C. 184. 



ANEDHE 

ANCEVY, v. a. To forget. Part, ancevys. Cans y ny vydh 
ankevys an murder bys Denary, by them will not be for- 
gotten the murder for ever. C.W. 98. Gans peb me yw 
ankevys, nyn aswon, na me. re adues, by every one I am 
forgotten, I neither know them, nor they me. C.W. 108. 
Pup tra oil yn bys-ma screphys y ma yn ryma, dovt na 
vonsy ankevys, every thing all in this world is written in 
these, lest they should be forgotten. C.W. 158. Com- 
pounded of an neg. and cof memory. Welsh, anghovio, 
to forget. 

ANCLBDHY, v. a. To bury, inter. Imp. ancladh. Part. 
anclydhys, anclydhyys, ancledhys. Ancledhyas is also 
used for the infiu. May hallo b6s ancledhys yn bedh men, 
that ho may be buried in a stone tomb. P.O. 3115. 
Hay yn bedh men ancladh e, y cafus aban vynnyth, and 
in a stone tomb bury him, since thou wilt have him. 
P.O. 3131. Jhesu afue ancledhys, Jesus who was buried. 
K.D. 1. Written also anckdhyes. Me a wruky ancledh- 
yes, I did bury him. R.D. 439. Wage y vos gurys 
maroiv, tus yn bedh a'n ancledhyas, after he was put to 
death, people buried him in a tomb. O.M. 1269. Droga 
galar ew dhymmo y ancledhyas mar uskys, worst sorrow 
it is to me, his being buried so immediately. O.M. 869. 
Encledhyes is another form, qd. Y. Welsh, anghladhu, 
to bury. 

ANCLEDHYAS, s. m. A burial, funeral. Written 
also anclydhyas. An kcth oynement a scollyas warnaf 
rak ova anclydhyas, that same ointment she poured on 
me for my burial. P.O. 548. 

ANCOW, s. m. Death. Also sorrow, or grief. Namoyscony 
ny vynnas, rag own caffbs y ancow, no more would he 
not shun, for fear of finding his death. M.C. 174. Mar 
dha yw genefa vrys merwd kyns dos dr&k ancow, as well 
it is in my opinion to die before evil sorrow comes. 
O.M. 1230. Awos godhevel ancow ny nahas hy lavarow, 
though suffering death, she retracted not her words. 
O.M. 2760. Rdk y-ma yn ow enef trystys fast b$s yn 
ancow, for there is in my soul great sadness even unto 
death. P.O. 1023. Pdr oges yw dhe ancow, very near is 
thy death. P.O. 2660. Why a's bydh ayes ancow, you 
shall have your death. R.D. 612. Vfe\sh,anyau, \angheu, 
tancow.. Armoric, aneou,ankeu. Irish, eag,gus. Gaelic, 
aog, eug. Sanscrit, qhus, to kill. 

ANCREDOUR, s. m. A pirate, or robber on the sea. This 
word occurs in the Cornish Vocabulary, ancredvur m6r, 
pirata. It must be the Welsh anrheUhiwr, a spoiler or 
robber, from anrhaith, pillage. Cf. also Irish, ancride, 
wrong. 

ANCRES, s. m. Disquiet, grief. Woge b&s yn lowene" (y 
dhe dds, drok yw gyne, dhe vur ancres, after being in joy, 
I am sorry that thou shouldst come to great disquiet. 
R.D. 208. Compounded of an neg. and ores quiet. 

ANDELLA, adv. So, thus. Andella re bo, so be it. Written 
also yn delta, which see. 

ANDYLLAS, v. a. To forgive. Pryce. Properly, a'n 
dyllas. Gwren grass6 dh'agen maker, agan lavyr yn 
bysma ny a'n dyllas, ha moy, let us give thanks to our 
maker, our labour in this world that he remit to us and 
more. C.AV. 94. See Dylly. 

ANEDHE, prep. Of them, from them. Written also 
anethe, annethe. Hag anedhe na wra vry, and of them 
that he made not account. M.C. 26. Y wreg dhe re 
anedhe' mos dhe'n dre, he caused gome of them to go to 



8 ANHEDHY 

the town. M.C. 27. Anedhe ty a wylfyth tyr gwedhen 
tevys whare, from them thou wilt see three trees grow 
presently. O.M. 827. Huga fiechys vynytha a dhejfo 
anedh^ y, and their children afterwards who should 
come" from them. O.M. 2835. Na'n Edhewon ny wodhye 
an prennyer py fens keffis dhe wuthyU crows anedhe, nor 
did the Jews know the sticks where they could be found 
to make a cross thereof. M.C. 151. Welsh, ohonynt, 
t onadunt. Armoric, anezo. 

ANEDHY, prep. pron. Of, or from her, or it. Written 
also anethy, annethy. May rollo bres anedhy, that he 
might give judgment of her. M.C. 32. Gwerthens y 
hugk dhe brenne anedhy dhodho cledhS, let him sell his 
cloak to buy with it for him a sword. P.O. 923. Ef a 
tnriik ow husullyefrut annedhy may torren, he did advise 
me that I should gather fruit from it. O.M. 218. Me a 
ysten an scoran, cymmar an f rut annedhy, I will reach 
the bough, take the fruit from it. C.W. 50. Welsh, ohoni, 
"tohonei. Armoric, anezi, anezy. 

ANETH, adv. To-night. Saw bytygyns cresouch why an 
corf-na dhe dhasserchy kyns yw aneth, but nevertheless 
believe ye, that body to rise again before it is to night. 
R.D. 1302. More correctly haneth, qd. v. 

ANFUGY, s. m. Correction, punishment, harm, mischief. 
Y a's tevyt anfugy, punishment shall come upon them. 
O.M. 2328. Dus yn rak dheth anfugy, come forth to 
thy punishment. P.O. 1472. Scon ty a fydh anfugy, 
soon thou shalt have punishment. P.C. 2044. Pur 
vrds a anfugy, maragwres ow dyskyvera, very great harm 
(will be to thee) if thou wilt discover me. C.W. 42. 
Written also enfugy, qd. v. 

ANFUGYK, adj. Hypocritical, mischievous. My a $1 bos 
cnthygyk ow bones mar anfugyk dreys pup dfn 61 us yn 
beys, I may be ashamed being so wicked above all men 
that are in the world. P.C. 1424. Another form of 
anfusyg, (g for s.) 

ANFUR, adj. Imprudent, unwise. Cornish Vocabulary, 
imprudens. Compounded of an neg., and fur wise. 
Welsh, anfur. 

ANFTJS, s. m. Wickedness, punishment. Dungansoery 
anfus, dhe Pilot agan Justis, let us come with him for 
his wickedness to Pilate our Justice. P.C. 1501. Es 
bijdh deydh brues mur a anfues, neb a'n gwerthas, ho shall 
have on the day of judgment much punishment, who 
sold him. P.C. 2940. Arlvth, yn Irak a horn crff, yn 
dour tyber efa sefer y anfeus, Lord, in a box of strong 
iron, in the water of Tiber he shall stay for his wicked- 
ness. R.D. 2137. Welsh, anvoes, wickedness ; anfawd, 
misfortune. 

ANFUSYK, adj. Wicked, hypocritical. Thomas, ty yw 
dyscrygyk, pur w$r, ha mur anfugyk, thou art unbeliev- 
ing, and very wicked. R.D. 1520. Plur. anfusyoyon. 
A (reytors, anfesugyon, euch abervedh kmmyn scon, O 
traitors, hypocrites, go in now immediately. R.D. 85. 

ANGHESPAR, adj. Unequal, unlike. Llwyd, 55. Welsh, 
anghymhar. See Cespar. 

ANHEDHY, v. a. To inhabit, to dwell in. Part, anhedh- 
ys. Awot omma onan da, ragon ordenys parus, lemyn 
agan sone gura kyns ys bones anhedhys, behold here a 
good one (tent) intended for us ready ; now bless us 
before it is inhabited. O.M. 1722. From annedh, a 
habitation. Welsh, annedhu. Armoric, anneza. 



ANTELL 9 

ANTACH, adj. Infirm, unhealthy, unveil. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, infirmus. Compounded of an, neg., and iach, 
healthy. W. aviach. 

AJJNEDH, a. f. A habitation, house, dwelling. Cres Dew 
aberlh yn annedh, ham benneth rat/as bo wheth, the peace 
of God be in the house, and my blessing also be upon 
yon. P.C. 705. W. annedh. Arm. owner, which now 
means the furniture of a house. 

ANNES, adj. Wearied, ill at ease. Lavar annes ow vos 
vy am bewnens, my dh'y bysy a leverel gwyronedh, say, 
being wearied of my life, that I pray him to say the 
truth. O.M. 700. I consider this word to be the same 
as the Armoric anez, id. qd. diez, uneasy. 

ANNETHE, prep. pron. Of them. See Anedhe. 

ANNEYLY, v. n. To go apart, to retire. Pryce's Voca- 
bulary. 

ANNEZ, s. m. A cold. Llwyd, 28. A corruption of an- 
wos, qd. v. 

ANODHO, prep. pron. Of or from him, or it. f Anodho, 
Llivyd. 244.) Written also annotho. AnodJio mar 'thes 
preder, worth y wythyes govynne, of him if there is to 
thee a care, ask him of his keeper. O.M. 608. Anodho 
tfgrens del vyn, pan gleufo y lavarow, with him let him 
do as he will, when he hears his words. P.C. 371. An 
bara-ma kymereuch, hag anodho ol dybreuch, this bread 
take, and of it all eat. P.C. 763. Kymereuch, eveuch an 
gwyn, rag ny evafbys dedhfyn geneuch annodhn na moy, 
take, drink the wine, for I will not drink till the last 
day with you of it any more. P.C. 725. Lavar dhymmo 
pandra yw 61 an gwyryonedh pan geusyth mur annodho, 
tell me, what all is the truth, since thou speakest much 
of it. P.C. 2030. W. ohono, t ohonaw. Arm. anezeff, 
anezhann. 

ANOTHANS, prep. pron. Of them. This form occurs in 
the later Drama by Jordan, anedhe only being found in 
the Ordinalia, it must not however be considered a cor- 
ruption, but a colloquial form of great antiquity, as it 
agrees with the Welsh ohonynt, \onadunt. Atvos henna ny 
wraf vry, na anothans y byth voye me ny settyaf gwail 
gala, of that I will not make account, nor (of) them 
will I value the stalk of a straw. C.W. 98. Ny sparyaf 
anothans y, malbew onyn a vo teg, I do not spare of them 
in any wise one that is handsome. C.W. 106. Hag a 
vyn gans ow setkow ladha part anothans y, and I will 
with mine arrows kill some of them. C.W. 108. 

ANOW, s. m. The mouth. A mut. ofganow. An try sprus 
yn y anmv, my a's gor, hep falladow, the three grains 
into his mouth, I will put them without fail. O.M. 870. 
Yn y anow bos gorrys, in his mouth be put. O.M. 876. 
Dhe cnefplott casadow ny vyn d6s dre dhe anow, thy soul, 
dirty villain, will not come through thy mouth. P.C. 
1535. W. cnau, genau; yn ei enau, in his mouth. 

ANOW, s. m. A name, appellation. Den vyth ny yl leverel 
war anow fill mfins peynys a'n geve kyns ys y vonas mar- 
row, no man can tell by name all the pains he had 
before that he was dead. M.C. 59. Kepar del ve dhe'n 
Justis dim leveryn war anow, as it was to the Justice let 
us come and tell by name. M.C. 247. In the other 
Dramas it is written hanow, qd. v. W. enw and henvi. 
Arm. hand. IT, ainim, ainm. Gael. ainm. Manx, en- 
nyni. Sanscrit, naman. Or .ovofna. Lat. nomen. Pera. 
nam. Mocso-Gothic, namo. 

ANTELL, s. m. A hazarding, venture a bold attempt, 

c 



APERT 

danger. Ha satnas ganx y an/eU, hay scherewneth, Crist, 
y demtyt pan prederyg, and Satan with his bold attempt 
and his pride, Christ, to tempt him when he thought. 
M.C. 19. Na hombrenc ny en ante!, mes ywyth ny dhe- 
worth dnk, lead us not into temptation, but deliver us 
from evil. Pryce. W. antur. 

ANTERHUCH, s. m. A flitch of bacon. Llwyd, 5. Liter- 
ally half a hog, being compounded of anter, for hunter, 
half, and huch a hog. So Welsh, hannerob, from hanner 
half, and ftob a pig. 

ANTROMET, s. m. The sex. It only occurs in the Cornish 
Vocabulary, and its etymology is unknown. It is pro- 
bably corrupt. 

ANTYMAN, adv. On this side. Compounded of an on, ty 
or tu side, and man, or ma here. 

ANVAB, adj. Childless, barren. Llwyd, 154. Compounded 
of an neg. and mdb a son. W. anvab. 

ANVABAT, s. m. Sterility, barrenness. Cornish Vocabu- 
lary, sterilitas. From anvab. 

ANVODH, s. m. A displeasure, a displeasing, a disliking. 
Efa dhuk. an grows ganse, pur wyr henno a y anvodh ; 
ny wrens y na hen seyle, lymmyn sawye aga b6dh, he 
carried the cross with them ; very truly that was 
against his will, they gave no other reason but followed 
their will. M.C. 175. Compounded of an neg. and b6dh 
the will. W. anvodh. 

ANUAN, s. f. An anvil. Written anwan by Llwyd, 15, 69. 
W. eingion, einion, i eingon, -fennian. Arm. annean. 
Ir. inneoin, t indein. Gael, innean, innein. Manx, ingan. 

ANUEIN, adj. Weak. Cornish Vocabulary, invahdus. 
Compounded of an neg. and guein. AV. givain, lively. 
Arm. gwen ; or W. en intens. and gwan, weak; like 
Gael, anfhann, (an intens, and^ann weak.) 

ANDES EC, adj. Particular. En anuesek in particular. 
Pryce. W. enwedig, yn enwedig. 

ANWHEC, adj. Unswcet, unpleasant, rough. Cachaf 
yben pur anwhek, I will seize the other very sharp. O.M. 
2816. Me a's doro pur anwhek adhyragos, I will bring 
them very roughly before thee. P.C. 2332. My a yl b6s 
morethek, gwelas ow map mor anwhek dychfys del yw, I 
may be mournful, seeing my son so roughly treated as 
he is. P.C. 3188. Compounded of an neg., and vihek 
sweet. 

ANWOS, s. m. A cold, a chill. Rag font gwesc hagoscot- 
ter namna vyrwyn rag anwos, for want of clothes and 
shelter I am almost dying from cold. O.M. 362. Rag, 
rum fey, rdk ewen anwos ny gleviaf yender dhum troys, 
for by my faith, from very chilliness, I do not feel the 
cold to my feet. P.C. 222. W. anwyd. Arm. anoued. 

ANYDHA, prep. pron. Of or from them, thence. Llwyd, 
244, 248, writes annydha. id. qd. anedhe. qd. v. 

ANYSYA, v. a. To preserve, secure. An bedh me re 
a-nysyas, warnodho y ma men bras dros ol an myn, I have 
secured the tomb, upon it there is a great stone, above 
all the stones. R.D. 399. 

AO, adj. Ripe, mature. W. bow. Arm. ad, ha6. 

AOR, s. f. The earth. An abbreviated form of daor, as 
an daor, an naor, an 'aor. See Doar. 

APELEH, adv. Whence, from what place. Llwyd, 258. 
(A from, pa what, le place.) 

APERPETH, adj. Within. Another form of abervedh. qd. v. 

APERT, adj. Open, unconcealed, perfect. Pur apcrt hag 
yn golow y leverys ow dyskas, very open and in light 



ARCHA 10 

I spake my doctrine. M.C. 79- An bedhow yn lower 
le apert a ve egerys, the graves in many places abroad 
were opened. M.C. 210. Den apert ha wear y ras, golow 
cleyr ow tewene, a Man perfect and much his grace, a 
light clear shining. M.C. 243. Apert vyihqueth y tyskys 
ow dyskes dhe'n Yedhetvon, openly I ever taught my 
doctrine to the Jews. P.O. 1252. From the Latin 
apcrtus. 

APOSTOL, s. m. An apostle. This is the form given in 
the Cornish Vocabulary, and is also used in Welsh. 
The/) should strictly have been softened into b, that is 
abostol, from which the plurals abestely, abestelvth, are 
formed ; which see. 

AH, prep. Upon, on. More commonly written war, qd. v. 
W. ar. Arm. ar and war. 

AR, s. f. Slaughter, battle. Written also Mr. Lhvyd, 45. 
W. aer, Mr, \air, "thair. Ir. aer, tar, tur. Gael, ar, 
tiwr. Gr. afnjy. Cantabrian, hara. Dan. ar, a wound. 

ABADAR, s. m. A plough. Cornish Vocabulary, aratrum. 
Den aradar, a ploughman. Written also ardar ; dorn 
ardar, the plough-tail or handle. Llwyd, 155. J Gora 
an ohan en ardtr, put the oxen in the plough. Pryce. 
W. aradr, arad. Arm. arar. Lat. aratrum. 

ARADERUUR, s. m. A ploughman. Araderuur arator, 
Cornish Vocabulary. Compounded of aradar, a plough, 
and gour, a man. W. aradivr. Arm. arer. Gael. 
aradair, aoirain, arear. Manx, erroo. 

ARADOW, s. m. Commandments. An dek aradow, the 
ten commandments. Pryce. This is an abbreviated 
form of arhadow, plur. of arhad. 

ARAG, adv. Forward, in front, before. Dus ariig, come 
forth. Kemer dhe welen a-rag an debel bobyl, take thy 
rod in presence of the wicked people. O.M. 1843. Aspy 
ahas ha glu a-rag hag a denewen, watch continually and 
listen, forwards and sideways. O.M. 2063. (A on, rag 
before.) 

ARALL, adj. Other, another. Plur. erell. Taw, gams 
Christ ma a'd welaa, gurec arall a leverys, be silent, with 
Christ I thee saw, another woman said. M.C. 84. Dke'n 
Iryff arall pan dothyans war an grows rag yfante, to the 
other hand when they came on the cross to fasten it. 
M.C. 180. En Edhewon betegyns gul toll arall ny vynne, 
the Jews nevertheless make another hole would not. 
M.C. 180. An barth arall, on the other side. M.C. 198. 
Pan dethens y bys an bedh, yth etk on marrek dh'y ben 
hag arall dh'y dreys, when they came to the grave, there 
went one soldier to his head, and another to his feet. 
M.C. 242. War aga dewlyn ythe perag Christ re erell, on 
their knees there went before Christ some others. M.C. 
195. W. arall, pi. eraitt. Arm. arall. Ir. aroile, \araill. 

ARAS, v. a. To plough, to till. Dho aras tir, to plough 
land. Aras an kensa an ton, plough first the lay. Pryce. 
W. aru. Arm. arat and ara. Ir. ar. Gael. ar. Gr. apota. 
Lat. arc. Goth. aria. Lith. aru. Russ. oria. Sanscrit 
arv, to break or cleave. Teut. aeren. Etrurian arfer and 
ar. Old English, ear. Egyptian, er or ert, ploughing. 

ARBEDNEC, adj. Usual, customary. Pryce. This is a 
later form of arbennec. ~Vf . arbennig. \r.\airchinnech. 

ARCH, s. f. A chest or coffer. PI. archow. qd. v. W. arch. 
Arm. arch,. Ir. arg. Gael. airc. Manx, arg. Lat. area,. 
Sanscrit ark, to enclose. 

ARCHA, v. a. To command, charge, enjoin. 2 pers. s. 
imp. arch; 3 pers. s. fut. yrch, or erch; part, and pret. 



ARCHOW 



erchys, and yrchys, commanded. Me a yrch, me a hyrch, 
I will command. Serafyn, dhe Adam he, hag arch 
dhodho growedhe dre wo gorhemmynadow, Seraph to 
Adam go, and enjoin him to lid down, by my com- 
mands. O.M. 635. Mars 6s map Dew awartha, dysempys 
arch a lavar dhe'n cals meyn-ma bos bara, if thou art the 
son of God above, forthwith command and say to these 
stones that they become bread. P.C. 61. Yn er-na, dTidn 
mynydhyow why a erch wamouch codhe, in that hour to 
the mountains ye shall call on you to fall. M.C. 170. 
Dhys y'th archaf, a dyreyih, gds Adam dheth agery, I 
command thee, earth, allow .Adam to open thee. O.M. 
381. W. arch, command thou, erchi, \erchim, to com- 
mand. 

ARCHAD, s.m. A command, commandment. PI. arcJiad- 
ow. The aspirate was softened into arhad and arhas; 
pi. arhadow, and aradow. Arludh cuf dhe archadow y 
wruthyl res ew dhymmo, dear Lord, thy injunctions need 
is to me to do them. O.M. 998. A das benyges del 6s, dhe 
aradow me a wra, O Father, blessed as thou art, thy 
commands I will do. O.M. 1034. Me a genes yn lowen 
ha'm dyscyblyon kettep pen dheth arhadow, I will go with 
thee joyfully, and m}' disciples every head at thy com- 
mands. P.C. 463. Y a ruge a dhesympys ol war lyrch y 
arhadow, they did immediately all after his commands. 
M.C. 247. W. arch, a command, a request. Ir. iarraiqh, 
artha, t ortha. Gael. iarr. Manx, aghin. Sanscrit artfia, 
a prayer, from arth to ask. 

ARCHAIL, s. m. An archangel. Cornish Vocabulary, 
archangelus. Compounded of arcA, chief, and ail, an 
angel. 

ARCHANS, s. m. Silver. A lena yn hombronkyas uchel 
war ben un menedh, ha dhodho y tyse/uedhas owr hag arch- 
ans, gwels, ha gwedh, from thence he led him high on 
the top of a mountain, and to him he shewed gold and 
silver, grass and trees. M.C. 16. Ena Judas, pan welas 
Christ an bewnans na sawyt, an archans a gemeras, rag 
corf Jesus dhe rysseve, ef a's tewlas dre sor bras dhe'n 
Edhewon yntredhe, then Judas, when he saw Christ his 
life should not save, the silver he took, (which) for the 
body of Christ he received, he cast it with great wrath 
to the Jews among them. M.C. 103. This is also the 
form preserved in the Cornish Vocabulary. It is also 
written arhans, or arrans, the h taking the place of the 
guttural. Avel arhans, like silver. O.M. 771<- My a 
vyn vos gnrlont gureys a arhans adre dhedhe, I will that 
a garland be made of silver around it. O.M. 2097. Awos 
cost arhans nag our gureuch y tenne mts a'n dour, for the 
cost of silver and gold drag him out of the water. R.D. 
2231. 'W.ariant,arian,'targant. Arm.archant,'targani, 
Ir. airgid. Gael, airgiod. Manx, argid. All from the 
Lat. argentum, and that from the Greek apryevvot candi- 
dus, from the root o/xyos white ; aprjvpos silver. Sans- 
crit, rajatan, from raj, or ranj to shine. 

ARCHESCOP, s. m. An archbishop. Cornish Vocabulary, 
archiepiscopus. W. archesgob. Arm. archescop. Ir. ar- 
deaspog, \ardepseop. Gael, ard^asbuig. Manx, ardaspicfc. 
Lat. archiepiscopus. 

ARCHOW, s. m. A treasury. En arhans me a gymer, futg 
a's gwyth kettep dyner rdk an termyn ; ny goth aga bos 
gorrys yn archow rak bos prennys c/anse mernans dyn 
bryntyn, the money I will take, and keep it every penny 
for the time; they ought not to be put into the treasury 



ARLUIDH 



because that there was bought with them the death of 
a noble man. P.O. 1541. Archaw must be the plural of 
arch. W. arch, a chest or coffer. 

ARD, adj. lligh, lofty. Pryce. W. hardh. Jr. ^ard. Gael. 
ard. Manx,rrf. Lat. arduus. Gr. dpoijv. Sanscrit, ardh 
to rise. 

ARD AC, s. m. A choking, strangling. Ol dheth v6dh mv 
arludh ker t dynythys 6n hep danger bys dys omma hep 
ardak, all to thy wish, dear Lord, come we are without 
delay, to thee here without demur. P.C. 1870. From ar 
on, and taga to ch'oke. 

ARDAR, s. m. A plough. This is a late form of aradar, 
qd. v-. Den ardar, a ploughman. Llwyd, 43. 

AREDY, adv. Immediately, forthwith. Me a vyn un den 
formya rag colcnwcl aredy an le may toth anetha, I will 
form a man to fill up immediately the place that he 
went from. C. W. 26. Written also eredy and yredy. qd. v. 

ARETH, s. f. A speech, oration. Hey? i-olanelh volaneth, 
vthyk mur yw dhe areth leman worth agan qylwel, hail, 
high priest, high priest, very loud is thy speech now 
calling to us. P.C. 954. W. araeth. Ir. araid, oraid. 
Gael, oraid. a Lat. oratio. 

ARFETH, s. m. Wages, hire. Pryce. Ow arfeth byth na 
whyla, akanas gy un demma my ny senxaf yn forma, my 
hire I have never seen, of thee one halfpenny I do not 
hold at this time. P.C. 2262. As W. arvaeth means a 
purpose, or design, the above will bear the following 
interpretation, "My attention do tbou never seek, I do 
not value thee a halfpenny at this time." 

ARGILA, v. n. To recoil. Llwyd, 245. Vf.argilio. Arm. 
argila. From ar on, and cil a retreat. 

ARGRAPHY, v. a. To print, impress. Dho argraphy. 
Pryce. Part, argraphys. W. argraphu. Gr. <y/>a0o>. 

ARGRAPHYS, s. m. An impression. Pryce. W. ar- 
graphiad. 

ARHAD, s. m. A command. PI. arhadow, aradow ; a 
later form of archad. qd. v. 

ARHO, s. m. A goad, a prick. Llwyd, 154. This may 
be a corruption of garilwn. qd. v. W. ierthi. 

ARLOTT ES, s. m. A lordship, manor, jurisdiction. Le- 
vereuch dhymmo whar mars yw den a Galyle, hag a gallos 
Erodes, me a wra sur y dhanfon dhe'n turont Erod yn 
scon mars yw e a'y arlolles, tell me directly, if he is a 
man of Galilee, and of the dominion of Herod, I will 
surely sand him to the tyrant soon, if he is of his juris- 
diction. P.C. 1604. From arloth, a lord. W. arlwydh- 
iaeih. 

ARLUDHE8, s. f. A lady. This is occasionally written 
arlodhes, arluthes ; and in the Cornish Vocabulary ar- 
ludes. Arlodhes ker, me a wra agas nygys fystyne, dear 
lady, I will hasten your errand. P.C. 1965. Ow arlodhes 
gync agas pygys na wrellauch cammen ladhe an profits, 
my lady by me prayed you, that ye do not unjustly slay 
the prophet. P.C. 2194. Ty a vydh rewardys hag ar- 
ludhes a vydh gurys war mur a tyr, thou shalt be reward- 
ed, and shalt be made lady overmuch land. R.D. 1701. 
W. argltvydhes, arlwydhes. 

ARLUIDH, s. m. A lord, a ruler. This is variously 
written arludh, or arlulh, and sometimes arloth ; in the 
Cornish Vocabulary, arluit. PI. arludhi, Llwyd, 128, 
and arlydhy, or arlythy. An (as Dew Arluth a-van re'm 
gorre dhe gosoleth, the Father God, Lord above, may he 
put me to rest. O.M. 867. Dhe volungeth yn pup le Ar- 



il ARUROU 

luth uhel my a wra, thy will in every place, high Lord, 
I will do. O.M. 1166. Arloth Deiv an nef, an tas, Lord 
God of Heaven, the Father. O.M. 105. J Padar an 
Arluydh, the Lord's prayer. Pryce. Pa na vynne gor- 
thyby a dhyrak an arlythy, when he would not answer 
before the lords. P.C. 1821. Arlythy caradmvyon, 
drench dhym ow map, cuf colon, dear lords, bring to me 
my son, wise of heart. P.C. 3163. Gylwys o why, pen 
arlythy, gortheueh an bedh, ye are called, chief lords, 
honour the tomb. R.D. 325. W. arglwydh, and arlwydh. 
The etymolgy is not very obvious, but perhaps it is 
compounded of arch chief, (Ir. arg noble, airech first.) 
and llywydh a ruler. Ir. iarfhlath, -\-ardlath (ardflath.) 
Gael, iarfhlath. 

ARMAS, v. a. He cried. A mut. of gamuts, 3 pers. s. 
preterite ofgarma. qd. v. Arludh Du, y a armas, pu a 
yl henna bonas, Lord God, they cried out, who can that 
be. M.C. 42. 

ARMOR, s. m. A surge, or wave of the sea. Llwyd, 176. 
W. arvor, the sea-side, maritime. Arm. armor, and 
arvor. From ar upon, and mdr sea ; hence the name of 
Armorica. 

ARNA, adv. Until. % Ty a dhelbar yn dJia wheys dheth 
varapur wyr nefra, arna veys arta treyles an keth doer, 
kyns a tvrugaf, thou shalt eat in thy sweat thy bread in 
very truth for eves, until thou art again turned to the 
same earth, when first I made thee. C.W. 70. This is a 
late form of erna. qd. v. 

ARROW, s. m. Legs. A mut. ofc/arrow, pi. of gar, qd. v. 
Josep dhe Gryst a ewnnas y arrow, hay dheffrech wMk, 
yn vanner del yn whas, hag a's ystynnas par dek, Joseph 
to Christ disposed of his legs, and arms sweet, in the 
manner as they used, and extended them very 'fairly. 
M.C. 232. 

ARSE, v. a. He had commanded. An abbreviated form of 
archse, 3 pers. s. pluperf. of arcJia, qd. v. War lyrch 
Christ enef dhe ry pub onan ol dhe gele, Jmvan y vam a 
sensy Marya*, Christ del arse, after that Christ his soul 
yielded every one to one another, John for his mother 
accounted Mary, as Christ had commanded. M.C. 199. 

ARTE, adv. Once more, again. Te a yl swell artf, thou 
mayest rise again. M.C. 22. Christ a wovynnys arte orth 
an Edhewon woky, Christ asked again of the churlish 
Jews. M.C. 69. Ha?n bewnanspan yn kylly, dhe'n dor 
ty a dreyl arte, and the life when thou losest it, to the 
earth thou shalt turn again. O.M. 54. It is written as 
often arta,. Ena Christ a's gasas, hag eth arta dhe besy, 
there Christ left them, and went again to pray. M.C. 56. 
Cayphas arta a gewsys,yn hanow Dew te lavar, Calaphas 
again said, in the name of God do thou speak. M.C. 93. 
W. etto, etwa. 

ARTH, adj. High, lofty. The same word as ard, qd. v. 

ARTHELATH, a. m. Lordship. A'n Iressa degree a wolas, 
me a wra try order may ; Arthelaih, order pur vras deuch 
a-rag omma dhe vee, of the third degree below I will 
make three orders more, Lordship, an order very great, 
come forth here to me. C.W. 6. If not a corruption of 
W. arlvjydhiaeth, it may be connected with W. ardhel- 
wad an averment, or drdhyled incumbency. Cf. also 
W. ardalacth, a marquisate. 

ARUROU, adv. Now and then, sometimes. Llwyd, 72. 
Compounded of ar on, and urow, pi. of ur an hour. 



AS 

ARV, s. f. A weapon, dart. PI. arvow, arms, armour. 
Jesus a getvsys arte, why a dhetk dhym yn arvow, gans 
boclers ha cledhyow, Jesus said again, you came to me 
in arms, with bucklers aud swords. M.C. 74. An prin- 
cis esa yn pow gans Judas a dhanvonas tus ven gtveskis yn 
arvow, the princes that were in the country with Judas 
sent trusty men, clad in armour. M.C. 64. Why re 
dhueih dhym gans arvow, gansfustow ha dedkydhyow, ye 
have conic to me with arms, with staves and swords. 
P.O. 1171. Arvow lour dhynny yma, hagivesyon stout yn 
torma, arms enough to us there are, and stout fallows at 
this time. P.O. 614. W. arv, pi. arvau, -\-arm. Arm. 
armel. IT. arm, armail. Gael. arm. a Lat. arma. 

ARVETH, v. a. To plan, design, to plot against. Arludh, 
ny a dhy wharre, rak nyyllyn yn nfp tre tryge dres nos, 
del us an Yedhewon whein pup ur worth, agan arveth hag 
aw koddros, Lord, we will go to it directly, for we can- 
not in any town dwell over night, as the Jews are still 
always plotting against us, and annoying us. R.D. 2497. 
W. arvaethu. 

ARVEZ, adj. Ripe, mellow. Llwyd. W. adhved. Ir. 
abaidh. Gael, dbiuch. Manx, appee. Gr. uipaiov, 

ARVIS, adj. Early, in the morning. Llwyd, 87. 

AS, pron. poss. Your. An abbreviated form of agas. 
Rag as lafur why a's bedh Behethlan ha Bosaneth, for 
your labour ye shall have Bohellan and Bosaneth. O.M. 
2766. Az, is similary used in Armoric. Red eo rei 
kelen d'az mipkn, it is necessary to give instruction to 
thy children. 

AS, pron. pers. Him, her, it, you, them. This is com- 
pounded of the auxiliary particle a, and ', which is 
used when the personal pronoun is the object of a verb, 
in which case it precedes it. The s denotes three differ- 
ent persons. Ha'n wolok a's kemeras mar dyn may 
clamderas hy arte, and the sight took her so sharp that 
she fainted again. M.C. 171, Mya'shenowVyrago, 
I name her Virago. O.M. 114. An Tds Dew gorthyys re 
bo, a's ordnys dhym rag ow l(S, the Father God be 
worshipped who has appointed her to me for my ad- 
vantage. O.M. 116. My a's dyllo ahanan, I will send 
it from us. O.M. 1101. My as gweres pup huny, mar 
mynnyuch perfyth cresy, I will cure you, every one, if 
you will believe perfectly. O.M. 207. Mar a's ladtre 
dheworto, if he steal it from him. O.M. 2232. Rag mar 
a's gwel, efa two m6s dhe cudhe, for if he sees you, he 
will go to hide. P.O. 1003. An try sprus yn y anow 
my a'sgor hepfalladow, the three grains in his mouth I 
will place without fail. O.M. 870. Pyw ytho a's hem- 
bronk dhy, who then will lead them to it. O.M. 1874. 
As for agas is also in frequent use with the verb sub- 
stantive to denote possession. Mar nyfystynpup huny 
why a's bydh dr6g vommennow, unless every one hastens, 
ye shall have bad blows. O.M. 2324. An teklcr a's bedh- 
euch why, the enjoyment you will have. P.O. 33. 
Pahan cheyson a's bues why erbyn Jhesu, what accusa- 
tion have ye against Jesus. P.O. 1971. Ken dhe ole why 
a's bydh, cause to weep ye shall have. P.O. 2644. Why 
a's bydh ages ancow, ye shall have your death. R.D. 612, 
As was formerly used in Welsh in the same manner, as 
t Gwedi as caffo ef en llegredic, when he shall have 
found her polluted. Welsh Laws, t Yr nas gwelsei 
eiryoet, although he had never seen her. Mabinogion 



12 ASE 

ij. 277. + 2V a allut dywedul pel as mynhut, thou couldst 
have said, if thou hadst wished it. j. 249. 

AS, comp. pron. (If-it.) Arludh, lemmyn a's dysken, dyra- 
gouch noth yfyen, Lord, now if I take it off', before you 
naked I should be. R.I). 1911. In tliis case as is com- 
pounded of a if, and 's, it. 

AS, a. He will leave. A mutation of gas, 3 pers. s. fut. of 
gase, qd. v. War paradys my a'th as, over paradise I 
leave thee. O.M. 65. Rag sythyn wose hemma dew ugens 
dydh my a as glow dhe godhe awartha, for a week after 
this, forty days I will allow rain to fall from above. 
O.M. 1027. Me a adhyow dhum tds,yn confortdhyuch my 
a as an Spyrys Sans, I go to the right of my Father, in 
comfort to you I will leave the Holy Ghost. R.D. 2371. 

ASAS, v. a. He left. A mutation of gasas, pret. of gase, 
qd. v. Nagonan efny asas hep ur6 a'y esely, not one he 
left, without perfuming of his limbs. M.C. 235. 

ASCALL, s. m. A wing. PI. asgelli, escelly. Rum fay, lem- 
myn a'n cajfcn, cr an ascal yn towlsen yn creys an tan, 
by my faith, now if I caught him, by the wing I would 
cast him into the midst of the fire. R.D. 290. J Ken- 
efra edhan gen ascall tvorler e kenda, every bird with a 
wing after its kind. M.C. 94. W. asgell, pi. esgyll. Arm. 
ascal, pi. escel, and asceUou. In the three British 
languages asgell means a wing, but Pryce also gives it 
the meaning of armpit, (see cesal,) which alone is held 
by the Erse dialects, as Ir. asgal. Gael, asgall. Lat. axilla. 
Gr. n-aa\a\-i), Fr. aisselle. Germ, achsel. A bat was 
called in Cornish asgelli grohen, lit. wings of skin, so 
also in Arm. askel-grochen, and the bat is now called 
in Devonshire a leather-wing. So also in Irish, ialtog 
lealhair. 

ASC ALLEN, s. f. A thistle. PI. ascall. Llwyd, 46. Cornish 
Vocabulary, askdlen oardus. W. ysgaUen, pi. ysgall. 
Arm. ascolen, pi. ascol. Dr. Owen Pughe derives this 
word from W. call, that which is knotty, or of irregular 
growth, whence callawdyr, rough stalks of plants ; called, 
stalks of thistles. Legonidec erroneously derives ascol, 
from as, for azen, an ass, and cool cabbage, or nerb in 
general. 

ASCEN, v. a. To ascend, to go up. A Jhesu, mychtern a 
nef, ty re glewas agan lefyr ascen dhys, O Jesus, king of 
heaven, thou hast heard our voice ascending to thee. 
R.D. 175. This is borrowed from the Latin ascendo. So 
also W. esgyn. Ir. ascnaim, easgnaim. Gael, ascnadh. 

ASCOR, s. f. Offspring. Pryce's Voc. W. esgor. 

ASCORN, s. m. A bone. PI. escarn, yscarn, qd. v. A das, 
ty re dhros dhymmo ascorn am kyk, ha corf, o par may fo 
ow Jutwdhes, O Father thou hast brought to me bone of 
my flesh and body, it was meet that he should be 
my companion. O.M. 112. Panfuepurpur war skuych 
kychys dhe ves gan dyw dhorn, worto y glynes hard/ych 
ran an kyc bys yn ascorn, when the purple was on a 
sudden snatched away with hands, to it stuck closely 
a piece of the flesh even to the bone. R.D. 2598. Ascorn 
an hein, the backbone. Llwyd, 53. TV. asgwrn, tascurn, 
pi. esgyrn. Arm. askourn, and askorn, pi. eskern. 
Sansc. asthi. 

ASE, v. a. To leave. A mutation of gase, qd. v, Byih- 
queth re bue us geneuch war pask my dhe a&e dheuch un 
prysner, ha'y dhelyffre, there has always been a custom 
with you, on the passover, that I should leave to you a 
prisoner, and liberate him. P.O. 2035. 



ASPEE 

ASEDH, s. f. A seat, a habitation. Gofyouch ha pesouch 
mo thas, may hallouch mos dh'y asedh; ha na vcdliouch 
lemptyys dye/nan gans govi ha gans scherewneth, watch ye 
and pray my Father, that ye may go to his habitation ; 
be not tempted to aggrieve with a lie and wickedness. 
M.C. 52. (The verbal forms are esedhe, and ysedhe, qd. 
v. W. ehtedh, ^estid, sedile. Oxf. Gloss.) 

ASEDHVA, s. f. A sitting place, a seat. Own a gachyas 
an Juytis pan glewas cows yn dclla, rag hena a dhesym- 
pys y trylyas dh'y ased/tva, fear seized the justice when 
he heard a speech of that sort, therefore he turned im- 
mediately to his seat. M.C. 143. Compounded of asedh 
a seat, and ma a place. W. eistedhva. 

ASELY, s. m. Limbs. This is the plural form of asel, 
which is written in the Cornish Vocabulary cfel, qd. v. 
Cor fj' Jesus hay asely y dhe denna mar velcn, neb a vynne 
a ylly nevera oil y yscre n, the body of Jesus, and his 
limbs they drew so brutally, who wished might count 
all his bones. M.C. 183. 

ASEN, s. f. A rib. PI. asow. It is written asen in the 
Cornish Vocabulary, and by Llwyd and Keiguyn, as vul- 
garly pronounced in their days, asan. Adam, cilsk dha 
ge lemyn, ahanas tenafasan, me a vyn a'th tcnewan, Adam 
sleep thou now, from thee I will draw a rib, I will 
from thy side. C.W. 30. Dha henna yma gureicty benyn, 
yui henwys Eva, gwryes ay asan yfe hy, to him there is a 
wife, a woman, is named Eve, fashioned from his rib 
was she. C.W. 34. Yn corf Jesus caradow en gcw lym a 
bechye, pur ewn yn dan an asow, dre an golon may 'th ese, 
into the body of Jesus beloved the sharp spear he 
thrust very right under the ribs, through the heart that 
it went. M.C. 218. Scon a onan a'lh asow my a wra 
dhyso parow, forthwith with one of thy ribs, I will 
make to thee an equal. O.M. 99. W. asen, pi. asenau, 
and asau. IT. asna. Gael, aisinn, aisne. Manx, asney. 

ASEJf, s. m. An ass. Asen yuill, a wild ass. Cornish 
Vocabulary, onager. Ens Dew tfm dyscyblyon dhe'n 
castel us a rayon, ena why a gyfasen hag cbel yn un gol- 
men, let two of my disciples go to the village which is 
before us, there ye will find an ass and foal in a halter. 
P.C. 176. My a genes yn Imccn hag a dhoro an asen 
genen, han ebel kejj'rys, I will go with thee gladly, and 
bring the ass with us, and the foal likewise. P.C. 192. 
Otte an asen omma, behold the ass here. P.C. 200. W. 
asyn, -^assfn, m ; asen, f. Arm. azen. Ir. asal. Gael. 
asal. M*anx. essyl. Anglo-Sax, asal. Germ. esel. Belg. 
esal. Dan. aesel. Croat, ossal. Dal. oszal. Pol. osiel. 
Boh. ossel, wosscl. Lus. woscl. Goth, asilus. 0. H. G. 
esil. Lith. asilas. Gr. oVos for oavos. Lat. acinus. It. 
asino. Sp. asna. Fr. -tasne. 

ASENS, v. subs. They are. A reduplicate form of ens, 
3 pers. pi. pros, of bod. 

ASGORNEC, adj. Bony. Llwyd, 110. From ascorn, or 
asgorn a bone. W. asgyrnog. Arm. ascournec. 

ASO, v. subs. Ye are. An abbreviated form of asouch, a 
reduplicate form of ouch, 2 pers. pi. pres. of bos-. A Dhu 
aso why bylen, aw ladhe gvyryon hep ken, God ye are 
wretches, killing the innocent without cause. P.C. 2624. 
A anfesugyon, euch abervedh, lemmyn scon, a Dhew aso 
why gocky, O hypocrites, go in now immediately, O God, 
ye are fools. R.D. 87. 

ASPER, adj. Bold. Ty inwedh my a'dpys mayfy asper, 
avel marrefcfyn yrvys, thou also, I pray thee to be bold, 



13 ASSOS 

like a horseman well armed. O.M. 2203. 

ASPYE, v. a. To spy, look out, watch, examine. Imp. 
aspy, look thou ; aspyouch, look ye. Hag yn nos oil 
aspyc, ha gwythe tarn na gusfcens, and by night all to 
look out, and guard that they slept not a jot. M.C. 241. 
Aspy yn ta pup echen, examine well every particular. 
O.M. 747. Hy a wra aspye mars us dor seek yn nep 
pou; she will look if there be dry land in any country. 
O.M. 1115. Ha why aspyeuch yn ow cossow pren dhe 
gyst, and do ye seek in my forests a tree for a beam. 
O.M. 2558. Ens pup dhe ire hag aspyouch yn pup le mar 
cews den vyth er owfyn, let all go to the town, and see 
ye in every place if any man speak against me. R.D. 
1918. Cowyth, groivedh an n$l tu hag aspy ahas, Jut glu, 
comrade, lie on one side, and look out continually and 
listen. O.M. 2062. W. yspio. Arm. spia. Ir. ^spioth. 
Gael, spioih. Manx, speeik. Sans, spasa, a spy ; from 
pas, to spy. 

A8SAF, v. a. I will leave. A mutation of gassaf, 1 pers. 
s. rut. otgase, qd. v. Popel Ysral ny assaf nas gorren y 
dhy u'hyl cref, the people of Israel I will not allow that 
I put them not to hard work. O.M. 1489. 

ASSE, v. a. He may leave. A mutation of gasse, 3 pers. 
s. subj. of gase. Jhesu asse yllyn ny letnmyn kymeras mur 
joy, may Jesus permit that we may now receive great 
joy. R.D. 1201. 

ASSEVYE, v. subs. It would be. A reduplicate form of 
vye. Oiv arludh her caradow, mychtern 6s war ol an bys, 
assevye plygadow genef grulhyl bodh dhe vrys, my dear 
beloved Lord, king thou art ovetall the world, it would 
be a pleasure to me, to do the will of thy mind. O.M. 2115. 

ASSO, adv. Then, though. Arludh, assyiv varthusek, pan 
dhueth dKagan myras, ha leverel dhynny cres, asso fast 
ytho dyges agon daras, Lord it is wonderful, when thou, 
comest to look at us, and to speak peace to us, though 
fast our door was shut. R.D. 1181. 

ASSO, v. subs. He was. A reduplicate form of o, 3 pers. 
s. pret. of bos. Asso mur tyn ow passyon, pan eth dreyn 
yn empynnyon, a pup par A dre an grogen, very sharp 
was my suffering, when the thorns went into the brain, 
on all parts through the skull. R.D. 2556. 

ASSOGE, v. subs. Thou art. A reduplicate form of oge, 
qd. v. 2 pers. s. pres. of b6s. Taw, assoge aocky, be 
silent, thou art foolish. R.D. 2897. A asoge mus ha golcy, 
thou art mad and foolish. R.D. 971. Hessoge (ha assoge ) 
goky, mar asosfur ty a tew, and thou art foolish, if thou 
art wise thou wilt be sileut. R.D. 983. 

ASSOMA, v. subs. I am. A reduplicate form of oma, 1 
pers. s. pres. of 16s. A Dew ker assoma squyth, pryn- 
nyer derow ow trehy, dear God, I am weary, cutting 
oak sticks. O.M. 684, 1009. 

ASSON, v. subs. "We are. A reduplicate form of 6n, 1 
pers. pi. pres. of Jos. Asson whansek 61 dhe pysy, lettrys 
ha lek, war Dhu mersy, we are desirous all to pray, 
lettered and lay, to God for mercy. P.C. 37. 

ASSOS, v. subs. Thou art. A reduplicate form of 6s, 2 
pers. s. pres. of b6s. A venen assos goky, woman thou 
art foolish. O.M. 173. A Urry assos genlyl, Uriah 
thou art excellent. O.M. 2153. Mar asosfur ty a tew, 
if thou art wise thou wilt be silent. R.D. 981. War- 
lerch Cryst mar asos trest, lemmyn pur lowenekfest b6s ty 
a $1, after Christ if thou art grieved, now very joyful 
indeed thou mayest be. R.D. 1417. W. ydwyt. 



ATAL 



14 



AUCH 



ASSOSA, v. subs. Thou art. A reduplicate form of osa, 2 
pers. s. pres. of b6s. A Thomas assosa fol, Thomas 
thou art foolish. R.D. 953. W. ydwyt ti. 

ASSOTA, v. subs. Thou art. The same as assosa, of 
which it is an earlier form. Asota gokky, an voran re 
gewsys gow, na preder ken, thou art foolish, the girl has 
told a lie, do not think otherwise. R.D. 1043. W. 
ydwyt ti. 

ASSYW, T. subs. He is. "A reduplicate form of yw, 3 pers. 
s. pres. of b6s. Assyw whek an hun myttyn, sweet is the 
morning sleep. O.M. 2074. Mar asyw dhynny eun hys, 
if it is to us a just length. O.M. 2563. Du asyw emskem- 
unye, black is he accursed. P.O. 3091. Assyw varthusek, 
it is wonderful. R.D. 1177. Asyw joy gynef godhfos, it is 
a joy with me to know. R.D. 2608. W. ydyw. 

ASTBL, s. f. A board, a plank. A stage of boards in a 
mine is still called astull. W. asdell. Ir. sdiall, postal. 
Gael, sdiall. 

ASTEL, v. a. To attempt, endeavour, begin. An mychtem 
a worhemmyn mayfdnsy ganso myttyn, omma dhe wul an 
temple a ruk y das dhe, astel, the king commands that 
they be with him m the morning, here to build the 
temple which his father attempted. O M. 2426. Dun 
alemma cowethe, y weles me a garse oivlh astel ymdhre- 
hevel, let us go hence comrades, I should like to see him 
endeavouring to raise himself. R.D. 395. W. ystelio. 

ASUGY, v. subs. He is. A reduplicate form of ugy, qd v. 
Rak mar asugy yn ivlds, me a vyn m6s dhe vyras ow hon- 
an, for if he is in the country, I will go to see mysell. 
R.D. 1368. Mar asugy yn bys-tna pur u-yr dhe'n mcrn- 
ans efd, if he is in this world, very truly to death he 
shall go. R.D. 1758. 

ASWON, v. a. To know, recognize, be acquainted with. 
Preter. aswonys. Yn pur wtjr Dew a aswon volungeth ol 
dhe colon, very truly God knows all the wish of thy heart. 
C.M. 1375. A pyih yw an kelh Dew-na, y aswon ny uirdf, 
what is that same God, I will not acknowledge him. 
O.M. 1488. Pedyr arta a gowsas bythaueth me ny'n as- 
wonys, Peter again said, I never knew him. M.G. 84. 
Kcttel tersys an bara, aswonys Cryst a gara, as thou 
breakest the bread, I knew Christ whom I loved. R.D. 
1319. Rag ganso y ma mur a'y tus dhodho haval na as- 
wonyn anprofus, for with him there are many of his 
people like to him so that we cannot know the prophet 
P.C 970. W. adwaen, + atwen. Arm. temeo. Ir. aithnim 
Saddam. Gael, aithnich. Manx, enney. Sails, dtman, 
the soul. 

ASWONVOS, v. a. To know, recognize, be acquainted 
with. Me a ra dhe Christ ame may hallouch y a-swonvosj 
I will kiss Christ that you may know him. M C. 63. 
Lavarcowylh del os, fatel yllyn aswonvosen harlot yn mysk 
y fas, say good fellow as thou art, how we may know the 
knave among his people. P.C. 966. Naf ervys na nyn 
aswnnfys ynfas, I have not served nor have I known 
him indeed. P.C. 1412. Why a wray aswonvos, ye will 
acknowledge it. P.C. 1495. A alsesta y aswonfos, couldst 
thou know him ? R.D. 862. This is compounded of as- 
won, and bds. W. adnabod, -\-amgnaubot, in Oxf. Gloss. 
Arm. anaout. Sansc. anabhuti. 

ATAL, s. m. Refuse, waste. Adam, a 61 dhe drevas an 
degves ran dhymmo gas wheth in atal dhe kesky, Adam, of 
all thy tillage leave the tenth part to me, still to remain 
waste. O.M. 427. W. adhail, refuse. Vid. Davies's Welsh 



Dictionary. 1632.) By this name, vulgo, attle, the tin- 
ners call the doads or castaways, raised out of the 
mines. Atal Sarazin, the offcasts of the Saracens, old 
works supposed to have been wrought by them. (Kei- 
gwyn, quoted by Pryce, in his Cornish-English Vo- 
cabulary.) 

ATH, com. pron. (a aux. and ty, thine.) A Das Dew Ar~ 
ludh huhel, my ath wordh gans i>l ow nel, Father God, 
high Lord, I worship thee with all my strength. O.M. 
510. My a'th whores orlh y dhon, I will help thee to 
bring him. O.M. 893. Yn hanow Dew, ty mor glan, me 
a'th wysk gans ow gwelan, in the name of God, thou 
fair sea, I Strike thee with my rod. O.M. 1676. Dhelh 
bobil, ha'n epscobow kekyffrys, a'th dros bys dhymmo omma, 
thy people, and the bishops also, have brought thee 
even to me here. P.C. 2006. A'd is similarly used in 
Cornish ; and a'th in Welsh, as mi a'th welais, I saw thee. 
In Arm. az, as me az gwel, I see thee. 

ATH, comp. pron. (a prep, and ty thine.) Of thy, from thy. 
Scon a onan a'th asow my a wra dhyso parow, forthwith, 
from one of thy ribs, I will make to thee an equal. 
O.M. 99. Noe my a worhemmyn dhys, fee yn mes a'th 
qorhel SCOT*, Noah I command thee, go out of thy ark 
immediately. O.M. 1158. Er-dhe-byn cousaf cowal, 
tnarth a'm bues a'th laimrov), I speak against thee en- 
tirely ; wonder is to me of thy words. P.C. 2392. My 
ny wodhycn a'th vernans, na v$ih may a'th daserchyans, 
pan y'th whylsyn devethys, I knew not of thy death, nor 
ever of thy resurrection, when I saw thee come. R.D. 
2545. W. o'th, as un o'th asau, one of thy ribs. 

ATH, pron. adj. Thy, thine. O me, dha v6n ledhys en ath 
dowU ena, lemyn, O me, to be killed in thy hands here 
now. C.W. 120. Vf.yth, used after vowels, as bum gyda 
'th dad, I have been with thy father. 

ATHYRAGOF, prep. pron. Before me. See adhyragof. 

ATTAMYE, v. a. To redeem. Ha war an pren fruit degis 
mayfe, dhagan sawye, may teth fruit may sen kellys rag 
Adam dhe attamye, and on the tree a fruit borne that he 
might be, to save us, that he became a fruit where we 
were lost for Adam to redeem. M.C. 153. The first part 
ad is the Cornish particle equivalent to re, and famye 
seems formed from deem, in redeem. 

ATTEBRES, a compound of a, if, and tebres, thou atest. 
Attebres ty ha'th worty a'n wedhen ha'y avalow y fyeuch 
yn surredy yn urna avel dewow, if thou atest, thou and 
thy husband, of the tree and its fruits, ye would be of 
a surety, in that hour like Gods. O.M. 175. 

ATTOCK, s. m. A shock, or sheaf of corn. Pryce. Ir. adag. 
Gael. adag. 

ATTOMA, adv. See here, behold. Compounded of att for 
atte, behold, and omma here. Attoma hagar vyadge, may 
hallafkyny ellas, lo here is a foul voyage, that 1 may 
sing alas. C.W. 66. Attoma tayr sprusan dryes mes a 
Baradis dhe why, behold here three kernels brought out 
of Paradise for you. C.W. 140. It is also written attom- 
ma. Adam, attomma dyllas, hag Eva, dh'ages yuetha, 
Adam, here are clothes, and Eve, to cover you. C.W. 72. 
Meyr, attoma fair sprusan, a dheth mes an aval-ma, see 
here are three kernels (that) came out of this apple. 
C.W. 134. 

AUCH, adv. Above, over, on high. Colom u~hek, glds hy 
logos, ke nyg a-uch lues vow, sweet blue-eyed dove, go 



AVAS 



15 



AVY 



fly over much country. O.M. 1136. Compounded of a on 
and uch high. 

AULTBA, s. m. A godfather. A late form ofaltrou, qd. v. 

AULTRUAN, s.f. A godmother. Alate form of oilman, qd.v. 

AUR, s. m. Gold. More frequently written our, qd. v. 
W. aur. 

AT, v. n. I will go. 1 pers. s. fut. of m6s. Though this 
form is given by Lhvyd, 247, it is always written in the 
Ordinalia af '; it was pronounced probably as in W. av. 

AVA, v. a. To forgive. A mutation of gava, qd. v. May 
eu> owfehasow es tell ew dha nercy, Dew, dhym ava, more 
are my sins than so is thy mercy, God, to forgive me. 
C.W. 86. 

A VAIN, s. m. An image. Imago vel agalma, Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, where only it is found. It is regularly formed 
from the Lat. imagine, by the mutation of m into v, and 
g into gh, which is mute, and disappears. Ir. imhaigh. 
Gael, tomhaigh. 

AVAL, s. m. An apple. It also signifies all manner of 
tree fruit of a similar kind, as pomum was used by the 
Romans. Aval saban, a pine cone. PI. avalmv. An ioul 
tike Adam Icewsis a'n aval te kemer tarn, the devil to Adam 
said, of the apple take thou a bit. M.C. 6. Honnayw 61 
dhe vlamye, a dorras an aval tek, she is all to blame, 
who plucked the fair apple. O.M. 267. Kemmer (yyr 
sprus a'n aval, a dybrys Adam dhe das, take three ker- 
nels of the apple which Adam thy father ate. O.M. 823. 
Pan dorrasa an aval, an arludh afue serrys. when he 
had plucked the apple, the Lord was angry. O.M. 879. 
Attebres (y ha'th worty a'n wedhen ha'y avalow, if thou 
didst eat, thou and thy husband, of the tree and its 
fruits. O.M. 176. W. aval. Arm. aval. Ir. abhall, ubh- 
all. Gael, abhal, ubhal. Manx. ooyl. Lat. malum. 0. 
Germ, effel. M. Germ, apfel. Lith. apfal. Senr. iablo. 
Styria and Corinthia, iablan. Bohem. gabion. Isl. eple. 
Runic eple. Little Tartary apel. 

AVALLEN, s. f. An apple tree. Cornish Vocabulary, 
makis. Nans avallen, the Talley of appletrees: nomen 
loci. W. avallen -^aballen. Arm. avalen. Cf. nom. loci 
in Gaul, Aballone. 

AVAN, adv. Up, above, on high. Compounded of a on, 
and ban high. Ago, hynwyn y a vydh an houl ha'n lor 
ha'n stcryan, my a set ahuch an gwedh yn creys an ebron 
avan, their names shall be the sun, and the moon, and 
the stars ; I place them over the trees in the midst of 
the sky above'. O.M. 38. An Tas Dew, Arludh avan, 
re'm gorre dhe gosoleth, the Father God, Lord above, 
may he put me to rest. O.M. 857. Written also less 
correctly aban. 

AVAR, adv. Early. Yn keth dydh-na, par avar, ha'n haul 
notvydh drehevys, Mare a dheth dhe'n vedh leverys, in 
that very day, very early, and the sun newly risen, 
Mary came to the grave mentioned.' M.C. 252. Kemys 
druk us ow codhe, ha dewedhes hag avar, so much evil is 
falling toth late and early. O.M. 629. An gutary yw 
dywydhys, ha deuch avar avorow, my agaspljs, the play 
is ended, and come ye earjy tomorrow, I pray you. P.O. 
3239. This is compounded of a in, and bar. W. bore, 
morning, (yn vore, early.) Or mar, Arm. mare, season. 

AVAS, v. a. He forgave. A mutation of gavas, preter. of 
gava, qd. v. Eddrec mear a'n kemeras ray an ober re 
wresxe, Jesut dhodho a, avas pan welaa y edrege, sorrow 
much seized him for the work he wrought, Jesus for- 



gave him, when he saw his sorrows. M.C. 220. 

AVEL, adv. Like to, similar, as. Del ve helheys war an 
beys avel carow, so was hunted on the world like a deer. 
M.C. 2. Yfyeuch yn surredy yn ur-na avel dewow, ye 
would be of a surety in that hour like gods. O.M. 178. 
My a'd p$s may fy asper avel marrek fyn yrvys, I pray 
thee to be bold, like a horseman well armed. O.M. 2204. 
B$th nyns yw ragos, dhe arludh avel 6s ay, never is it for 
thec, for a lord as thou art. R.D. 1931. Kynfo mar pos 
avel win, though it be so heavy as stone. R.D. 2274. An 
eledh omma yw gwyn, avel an houl pan dhywhyn, the 
angels, here are white, like the sun when it shines. ' 
R.D. 2533. This the is same word as "W. mal, val, vel. 
Arm. ma, evel. Ir. mar, amhail, f amal. See also Haval. 

AVERTU, adv. On either side. Lavar lemyn pa'n drok vo 
yn avertu a dhysquydhysta dhynny, pan wreta mar coynt 
fara, tell now what evil is there on either side, which- 
thou shewest us, when thou actest so rudely. P.O. 338. 

AVES, adv. Without, out, abroad. Raghenna fystyn fee 
gura gorhel a blankos playnyys ; hag agy yn-ta gans pek 
bedhens stanchurys, therefore hasten, go, make a ship of 
planed planks ; without and within, let it be well 
staunched with pitch. O.M. 953. Oil monas y a vyne 
bys yn Mount a Calvary, aves dhen dre ylhes& menedh 
uchel yredy, all would go even to the Mount of Calvary, 
without the town it was a mountain high indeed. M.O. 
162. Compounded of a in, and ves, a mutation of mes, 
qd. v. W. ymaes, i-vaes. Arm. e-meaz. Ir. a-magh. 
Gael, muigh, a-muigh. Manx, cheu-mooie. 

AVLAVAR, adj. Speechless, dumb, mute. Written in 
Cornish Vocabulary, afavar, mutus, mab ajlavar, iufans, 
a child that does not speak, ibid. Compounded of an 
neg. which changes into av or af, before /, and lavar 
speech. W. avlavar. Arm. dilavar. Ir. amhlabhar, 
^amlabar. 

AVLETHYS, adj. Facetious, witty. Pryce. Coath yw ev 
hag avlethys, pan na ylla omweras, complaisant he is and 
witty, when I could not prevent him. C.W. 84. It must 
be connected etymologically with ajlythys, qd. v. 

AVON, s. f. A river. Written in Cornish Vocabulary 
auon, am n is. W. avon, i-amon. Arm avon. Ir. abhan, 
amhan. Gael, abhuinn, amhainn. Manx, atvin. Sansc. 
apnas, liquid, from ab to go, or move. (W. au.) Lat. amnis. 
Swed. aen, au. Germ. am. Eng. \afene. 

AVOROW, adv. Tomorrow. Me a wra dhe worhemmyn, 
hag a warn dhe vysterdens avorow dhys may teffens yn 
ketep pen, I will do thy command, and will warn the 
architects, that they come to thee tomorrow, every one 
of them. O.M. 2417. Ow kelwel dhe vyslerdens dhys a 
dhe avorow pur dyogtl, calling to thy architects that 
they come to thee tomorrow, very surely. O.M. 2432. 
Gwetyeuch bones avorow ow conys yn cry's an dre, take 
care to be tomorrow working in the middle of the town. 
O.M. 2300. Kyns avorow harder dedh, before tomorrow 
mid-day. P.O. 722. Ha deuch avar avorow, and come 
ye early tomorrow. P.C. 3240. W. yvory, -\-avoru. 

AVY, s. m. The liver, ill-will, spite, enmity. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, aui, jecur. Pan welas an Edhewon bos Christ 
ow cuthyl mestry, ow car6 edhomogyon, hag anedhe na wre 
vry, rag henna an vusgogyon orto a borthas avy, when 
the Jews saw that Christ was doing his mastery ; 
loving the beggars, and of them made no account, for 
that cause the fools against him bore malice. M.C. 26. 



AWHER 



16 



B 



Ytho bedhyth mylyges,pur wyr drys 61 an bestes, a gerdho 
war an nor veis, ha nefre yfydh avcy yntre dhe lynneth 
dhesy, ha lynneth benen pup preys, now be thou accursed, 
very truly above all the beasts which walk on the face 
of the earth ; and ever shall there be enmity between 
thy offspring, and the offspring of woman always. O.M. 
314. W. avu, nv,. Arm. ami, au, eu, Ir. aodh, ao, toa, too. 
Gaol, adha, atha. Manx. aane. 

AW AN, s. m. A river, torrent, landflood. Llwyd, 22. 
Ternewan an awan, bank of a river, ibid. A late form 
of arnn, qd. v. 

A WARTHA, adv. Above. Dhyso qy y levaraf, mars 6s 
map Dew awartha, dysempys arch ha lavar dhen cals 
meyn-ma bos bara, to thee I say, if thou be the Son of 
God above, forthwith command, and say to these hard 
stones to become bread. P.O. 60. An meyn esa awartha 
hy a'n yivelas drehevys, the stones that were above she 
saw them raised. M.C. 253. (a on, and warthav. W. 
warthav, gwarthav, the top or summit.) 

AWATTA, interj. Behold, lo. Aivatta, efagowsas, agis 
miqtern pie meve, ol warbarth y a'n nachas, hag a yrchys 
y ladhe, behold, he said, your king where he is, altogeth- 
er they denied him, and charged him to kill him. M.C. 
147- This is also written awetta, and awette. Heil vol- 
aneth, a wetta ny dcvedhys warbarth ha'n kcnsa c/aloiv, 
hail, priest, behold us come together with the first call. 
P.O. 2050. Aivette vy dheuch dyvythys, see me come to 
you. R.D. 1612. It is a contracted form of a-wel-di, 
dost thou see, behold thou. W. a well di. Manx, -^aivatta, 
ho brave ! 

AWAYL, s. m. A tragedy. Pupprnak mafo redys an 
awayl-ma tavelhlys hy a vydh pur wyr nejfre, wherever 
may be read this tragedy, much talked of she shall be, 
very truly, ever. P.O. 550. Reysyw vos gwyr an awayl, 
need is that the tragedy be true. P.O. 924. 

AWBDH, adv. In like manner, also. Llwyd, 249. id. qd. 
yn wedh W. un wedh, gwedh, a manner, or fashion. 

AWEL, s. f. A breeze, wind, weather. Written in Cornish 
Vocabulary auhel, aura : an, auhel, procelta. Awel vas, 
(eg awel, good weather, a calm ; hagar awel, bad weather, 
a storm. Llwyd, 84, 161. Bo's sech ha teg an awel, dhe 
Deiv y coth dhyn grasse, that the weather is dry and 
fair, it is incumbent on us to thank God. O.M. 1147. 
A dhesympys gwreuch tan da, rdk yeyn fest yw an awel, 
make immediately a good fire, for very cold is the 
weather. P.O. 1209. W. awel. Arm. awel, ^a/itd. 
Gael. aile. Gr. aeXXo. Lat. ceolus. 

AWBYL, adv. In the sight of, openly. Aweyl 61 dhe'n 
arlythy, mea's pe yn surredy dhyso whare, in the sight 
of all the Lords I will pay it surely to thee forthwith. 
P.C. 1558. Hag yn wedh why dew ha dew apregothyn 
aweyl grew yn ol an beys, and also you, two and two, 
preach openly in all the world. R.D. 2464. Aweyl 
dheuch yth yskennaf a dhesempys yn pur wyr yn ban 
dhen nef, in your sight I shall ascend immediately, very 
truly, up to heaven. R.D. 2482. Arm. a-wel. The 
radical form \sgwel, a view, qd. v. 

AWHER, s. m Sorrow. Ow mam ichek ha'm kereng, me 
re dhulh dheth confortye, nak no, vy gy yn awher, my 
sweet mother and my love, I am come to comfort thee, 
that thou be not in sorrow. R.D 474. Na gows un ger, 
navyth navyth yn awher, ny sevys nes, do not speak, a 
word, never uever unhappily, he has not risen again. 
R.D. 1020. See Wher. 



AWHESYTH, adj. Tender. Dhe'n tds Dew yn mur enor 
war y alter my a ivor grugyer iek hag awhesyth, to the 
Father God in great honour, upon his altar I will put a 
partridge fair and tender. O.M. 1203. 

AWOS, adv. Because of, on account of, for, notwithstand- 
ing, for fear of. Awoi b6s cldfy dhewtt, toche vyth gonys 
efna yll, because his hands are sore, he cannot work 
ever a stroke. M.C 158. Awos an Tas Dew an nef, 
gura y worhemmynnadow, because of the Father God of 
heaven, do his commands. O.M. 480. Ty a dryg nefrt, 
awos ol dhe wyr dhege, yn tewolgow bras, thou shalt dwell 
ever, notwithstanding all thy true tithe, in great dark- 
ness. O.M. 637. Awos me dhe gows dhedhe, notwith- 
standing that I spake to them. O.M. 1437. Ny vynnyth 
dhepobel Dew gase cres dhyn yn nep tu, awos tryga yn 
pow-ma, thou wilt not to the people of God allow peace 
to us on any side, for the purpose of dwelling in this 
country. O.M. 1599. Awos Dew dun ahanan, for God's 
sake, let us come away. M. 2564. Awos own bones 
ledhys, for fear of being killed. P.C. 886. This is the 
same word as W. achos, o achos. 

AWOT, interj. Lo ! behold ! Ainot omma onan da ragon 
ordenys parya, behold here a good one, intended for us 
ready. O.M. 1719. This is an abbreviated form of awatta. 

AYR, s. m. Air, sky. Written by Llwyd, 41, awyr. 
Cornish Vocabulary, amtit, aer, (cf. W. chwylh, a gale, 
and Arm. aezen, a gentle breeze.) Hag a lever y vones 
map De^v, neb a dhue dh'agan bntgy yn ayr dedh lirus 
pub kuny, and says that he is the Son of God, who will 
come to judge us in the sky at the judgment day, every 
one. P.C. 1669. Yta an puskas, edhen yn ayr, ha bcstas, 
kekejfrys yn tyr ha m6r, behold the fishes, birds in air, 
and beasts, both in land and sea. C.W. 30. W. awyr, 
(wy-e.) Arm. ear, er. Ir. aidheoir, ^aer. Gael, atkar. 
Manx. acr. Gr. ai)p,ai6ijp. Lat. aer, aether, aura. Sansc. 
aghira, from ag to go.) 

AYUH, adv. Above, over. Lheyd, 249. Ayuh y ben, over 
his head. id. qd. auch, qd. v. 



B. 



B, has the same sound in the Celtic languages as in English. 
It is both a radical or primary consonant, and a second- 
ary. When radical it changes into , as bara, bread ; 
y vara, his bread. W. bara, ei vara. Arm. bara, he 
vara. In common with Armoric, the Cornish also 
changes the sonant b into the surd form p, as bewe to 
live, ow pewe, living ; be he was, a pe, if he were. 
Arm. breur, a brother, ho preur, your brother ; bioch, a 
cow, pemp pioch, five cows. This mutation does not 
occur in Welsh initials, but is found in other positions, 
as gwypo, he may know, from guybod ; cyfelyb like, 
cyfelypach, more like. The nasal mutation of b into m 
is only known to the Welsh, Irish, and Manx dialects : 
thus, W. bara, bread, vy mara, my bread. Ir. bron, 
sorrow, ar mron, our sorrow. Manx, bea, life, nyn mea, 
our life. (Cf. also Gael, lean, a woman, gen. mna of a 
woman.) In the Erse dialects the mutation is the same, 
for though written bh, it is pronounced as v. Thus Irish 



BAL 



and Gaelic brathair, a brother, a bhrathair, his brother. 
In Manx, v is used as in Welsh, thus, braar, a brother, 
e vraar, his brother. When secondary b is a mutation of 
p, as pen, a head, y ben, his head. So also in Welsh, as 
pen, ei ben. And Arraoric, as penn, he benn. Irish, 
pian, pain, ar bian, our pain ; peacaighe, muna bcacaighe 
se, if he does not sin. Manx, padjer, a prayer, nyn 
badjer, our prayer; pian pain, nyn bian, our pain. 

BA, pron. adj. Which, what. A mutation of pa. 
Lhiyd, 134. Ba dhen, what man ? The light sound 
being used in asking a question. 

BAAL, s. m A spado, or shovel. This word, more cor- 
rectly written Ml, is a mutation of pal, qd. v. Adam, 
cummyas scon a fyttt, hys dhe baal hien dhe drehy, Adam, 
permission forthwith shall be, to cut full the length of 
thy spade. O.M. 380. 

BABAN, s. m. A babe, a child. W. baban. This is a mu- 
tation of maban, diminutive of mab, a son; but used 
primarily in Cornish and Welsh, as is the case in other 
instances. Ir. baban. Gael. bab. Manx, bob, babnn. 
Eng. babe. 

BACHE, v. a. To deceive, lay snares. Luen treyereth me 
a pys, del us Yethewon pup pri/s omma worth agan bache, 
abundant mercy I pray, as the Jews are always here 
laying snares for us. R.D. 1150. AV. bachu, from 
bach, a hook. 

BAD, adj. Foolish, stupid, insane. Euch whyleuch dhymmo 
Pilat, godhfedheuch ma na veuck bad, tus och a brjjs, go 
seek Pilate for me, see that ye be not foolish, ye are men 
of account. R.D. 1774. Whet, cerchouch dhymmo Pilat, 
ynygever del fuef bad, y fuf tollys, again bring Pilate 
to me, in respect of him as I was foolish, I was deceived. 
R.D. 1886. This word is not extant in this sense in 
Welsh, but is preserved in the Armoric, lad, stupidity. 

BADN A, s. m. A drop. A late corruption of banna, qd. v. 

BADUS, s. m. A lunatic. Cornish Vocabulary, lunaiicus. 

BAEDH, s. m. A boar, a male pig. This is written in the 
Cornish Vocabulary bahet, aper, vel verres. W. baedh. 
This word is preserved only in Cornish and Welsh. 
Houch-tourch, (W. hwch-twrch,) being the term used in 
Armoric, and in Irish and Gaelic, tore. (W. tu-rch.) Sansc. 
bahusu, a sow ; vardhas, a boar. 

BAGAS, s. m. A bush, a cluster. Bagas eithin, a furze 
bush. Pryce. This is the same word as bagat, with a 
later termination. 

BAGAT, s. m. A multitude, an assembly, council, con- 
sultation. Llwyd, 50. W. bagad. Arm. bagal. Gael. 
bagaid. 

BAH, s. m. A hook, a hinge. PI. bahow. Bahow an darras, 
the hinges of the door. Llwyd, 46. The final h here 
represents the earlier guttural ch, as in Welsh, bach. 
Arm. bach. Ir. bacan, tiacc. Gaelic, bacan. 

BAIOL, s. m. Elecampane. Cornish Vocabulary, enula. 
Unknown to the other dialects. 

BAL, s. f. A plague, or pestilence, an val, the plague. 
Lhvyd, 119. Cornish Vocabulary, pestis. Welsh, ball, 
y vail, eruption, plague. (Irish, battach, freckled ; from 
ball, a spot. Gael, ballach, id.) Aug. Sax. bealu, Eng. 
tiafe. 

BAL, s. m. A spade, or shovel. Cafes moy dhys aban res, 

try keys dhe bdl kemery, since it is necessary for thee to 

have more, take three lengths of thy spade. O.M. 392. 

This is a mutation of pal, qd. v. A parcel of Tin works 

D 



17 BANEU 

in Cornwall is now called a Bal, and Bal du, black 
mine, is the name of a village. 

BALAS, v. a. To dig, to delve. Adam ke yn mes a'n wlds, 
Iroha ken pow dhe vewe, ty dhe honyn dhe balas, dhe wrek 
genes dhe nedhe, Adam go out of the country, towards 
another land to live ; thou thyself to dig, thy wife with 
thee to spin. O.M. 345. M6s dhe balas my a vyn rag 
sustem; veivnans dhyn, I will go to dig to sustain life to 
us. O.M. 681. Balas is a mutation of palas, qd. v. 

BALLIAR, s. m. A hogshead, tun, barrel. Llwyd, 65. 
W. baril. Arm. baraxik. Gael, baraill. Manx, barrel. 
Fr. laril. Eng. barrel. 

BALY s. m. Satin. Hedhouch ccrcol a baly, dhodho me 
a vyn y ry, rag ef dhym dhe lafurye, reach a surcoat 
of satin, to him I will give it, for he did deceive me. 
P.C. 1784. A mutation of paly, qd. v. 

BAN, s. m. That which is high, a height, mountain, sum- 
mit. It is also used as an adjective. Cans henna, a'n 
Erl/tewon onan yn ban a sevys, thereupon one of the 
Jews stood up. M.C. 81. Ena pan sevys yn ban hy a 
geu'syfi del ylh/, there when she stood up she spake as 
she could. M.C. 166. Oiv gwarak a fydh scltyys yn 
ban yn creys an ebren, my bow shall be set up in the 
midst of the sky. O.M. 1245. W. ban. It enters into 
the names of many mountains in Wales. Banuchdcni 
in Breconshire. Tal y-van in Glamorganshire, and 
Arvon. Ir. beann. Gael, beann. Manx, beinn. Gr. 
jSovvd-i. Sanscrit, pinda. Germ, bann, pinn. Latin, 
pinna, pinnacula. 

BAN, adv. When. A mutation of pan. Ny strechyajf 
pell a ban nag es a wodhfe dheuch parys a's gurelle gwell, 
I will not tarry long, insomuch that there is not ready 
for you one that knows to do them better. M.C. 158. 

BAN, s. m. A drop. I.lwyd, 154. An abbreviated form 
of banna, qd. v. 

BANAL, s. m. Broom. This is a late form. In the 
Cornish Vocabulary it is written banathel genista. It 
enters into the names of many places in Cornwall, as 
Bannel, Banathlek, Bennathlick, Bannalack. W. bana- 
dyl, banal. Arm. banal, balan. Gael, bealaidh. Fr. balai. 

BANG, s. m. A blow. Pryce. This is the same word as 
bynk, qd. v. 

BANCAN, s, m. A bank, a dyke, a dam. W. bane, bone. 
Gael. bank. Eng. bank. It. banca. 

BANEN, s. f. A woman, female. Lhvyd, 95. More fre- 
quently written benen, qd. v. 

BANER, s. m. A banner, or ensign. My a'd pys dog 
manerlich ow baner, del vynny bos reivardyys, I pray thee, 
carry valiantly my banner, as thou wishest to be re- 
warded. O.M. 2200. Dyspleytys ywy vaner, ha kelmys 
ivorth an grows pren, displayed is his banner, and bound 
to the cross tree. P.C. 3044. Ganso crows worth y baner 
u'harreefa dhyspleytyas, with him a cross on his banner 
soon he displayed. R.D. 527. Ganso del fethas yw cds 
worth crows baner, by him thus the cause is gained 
through the banner of the cross. R.D. 580. W. baner, 
baniar. Arm. bannier. Fr. banniera. It. bandiera. 
Span, bandera. Germ, fahne, punier. Dutch, vaan, 
vaandel. If a Celtic term, the root must be ban, high ; 
but if foreign, cf. Goth, fana, cloth. Sax./a. Lat. 
pannus. Ir. fuan, id. 

BANEU, s. f. A sow. Cornish Vocabulary, sus. ~W.banu>, 
m. a barrow pig, banwes, f. a barrow sow. Arm, band, 



BARA 

lanv. f. Ir. banabh, banbh. Gaelic, buinbh. Manx, 
bainniu, a pig. 

BANNA, s. m. A jot, the smallest portion of any thing, a 
drop of liquid. Gans queth y ben y quedkens, gwelas 
banna naylly,vr\th a cloth his head they covered, so 
that h could not see a jot. M.C. 96. Dal o, ny tvely 
banna, ef rebea den a brtjs, he was blind, he saw not a 
glimpse, he was a man of account. M.C. 217. It is 
written also indiscriminately bannt. Ni wylys ganse 
banni, I have not seen a drop with them. P.O. 398. 
(This is the same idiom as the French ne voir goutte.) Ny 
g6sk vn banne, he does not sleep a bit. P.O. 1078. 
Ny clew banne, he does not hear a bit. P.O. 2321. 
Arm. bannefi bannech. Ir. bain. Gael, bainne. Manx, 
bine. 

BANNBTH, s. f. A blessing. PI. bannethow. Ow banncth, 
my blessing. Dhe vanneth, thy blessing. Dhe vanneth 
dhym mur a blek, ha banneth ow mam inwedh, thy bless- 
ing to me is most delightful, and the blessing of my 
mother likewise. O.M. 455. Ny lellys saw un lam, ow 
cafus banneth ow mam, ha banneth ow thds kefrys, I stop- 
ped only a space, getting the blessing of my mother, 
and the blessing of my father likewise. O.M. 471. Ow 
banneth dheuchwy, my blessing on ye. O.M. 911. Ban- I 
nelh an Tds ragas bo, the blessing of the father be upon 
thee. O.M. 1723. Otu banneth dhyuch why kyfrys ; ry 
dhym ayas bannethow, my blessing on you also ; give me 
your blessings. O.M. 464. Written also benneth, and 
bannath. W. bendith. Arm. bennaz, \bennoez. Ir. bean- 
nacht. Gael, beannachd. Manx, bannachl. These are 
all derived from the Lat. benedictio. 

BANNOLAN, s. f. A broom, a besom. Lhvyd, 240. This 
is the singular form of the plural aggregate banal. W. 
banadlcn. Arm. banalcn. 

BAR, s. m. The top or summit, a branch. Bar an pen, 
the crown of the head. Llwyd, 172. Bargus, the top 
of the wood, in Gwennap. Kdsbargus, in Gorran. It 
enters into the names of several mountains in Wales, as 
Bryn Barlwm, the bare-topped hill, in Glamorgan. 
Mynydh Beru'yn, the white-topped mountain in Mer- 
ioneth. W. bar. Arm. bar. Ir. barr. Gael. barr. 
Manx, baare. 

BAR, s. m. A beard. Llvyd, 44. An abbreviated form 
of barf, qd. v. 

BARA, v. a. To bolt, or bar. Me a bar daras an yet, na 
gercho alemma chet, I will bar the door of the gate, that 
he may not carry a friend hence. P.O. 3049. W. bario, 
to bar, from bar, -\-barr, a bolt or bar. Arm. barren. 
Ir. barra. Manx, barrey. 

BARA, s. m. Bread. Bara can, bara gwyn, white bread. 
Bara gwaneth, wheaten bread. Bara haiz, barley bread . 
Bara kerh, oaten bread. Mars 6s mob Du, a'n veyn- 
ma, gura bara dhys, if thou arc the son of God, of these 
stones make bread for thee. M.C. 11. Arch lia Invar 
dhe'n cals meyn-ma, bos bara, command and say to 
these hard stones to become bread. P.C. 62. Hep ken 
ys bara, -without other than bread. P.O.. 65. Anbara- 

. ma kymereuch dheuch yn kettep pen, this bread take to 
you every head. P.C. 761. Mara euch Icmyn mesa 
dre, nefre ny dhebraf tara, if you go now from home, 
never will I eat bread. O.M. 2186. W. bara. Arm. 
bara. Ir. aran, ^bairgcn. Gael. aran. Manx, arran. Gr. 
popa. Of. also Heb. bar, bara, corn, food. Basque, bar. 



18 EARTH 

Goth. bari. Old Sax. bere. Scotch, bear, barley. Tsl. 
burl. Germ. brot. Belg. brool. Eng. bread. 

BARDH, s. m. A bard, poet, player, mimic, buffoon. In 
Corn. Voc. written barth, rnimus vel scurra. Barth 
hirgorn, Corn. Voc. tubicen, a trumpeter a player on 
the long horn. W. bardh. Arm. barz. Irish, bard. 
Gaelic, bard. Manx, bardngh. Gr. fiapSos. Lat. bardus. 

BAREN, s. f. A branch, or bough of a tree. PI. barennow. 
The root is bar. Ha hy varbarth dyruskys, kefrys ben 
ha barennow, and it was altogether without bark, both 
the stem and the boughs. O.M. 788. Hyrgans mur a 
scorennou; hag yn creys hy varennow un floch maylys 
gan lysten, tall with many boughs, and in the middle of 
its branches a child swathed with napkins. O.M. 838. 
W. baren. 

BARF, s. f. A beard. Written in Cornish Vocabulary, 
barf, barcf. W. barv, -\rbaryf. Arm. barf, barv. Lat. 
barba, Ir. bearbh, and Gael, bearr, to shave. 

BARFUS, s. m. A cod-fish. PI. barfusy. Y rofhynwyn 
dhe'n pushes, syllyes, lenesoii; ha barfusy, I give names 
to the fishes, congers, ling, and cod. O.M. 138. Another 
form is barvas. qd. v. 

BARGES, s. m. A kite, or puttock. Llwyd, 241. Written 
also bargos. Hos. payon, colorn, grugyer, bargos, bryny, 
ha'n er, moy dredhof a vydh hynwys, duck, peacock, 
pigeon, partridge, kite, crows, and the_ eagle, further by 
me are named. O.M. 133. W. barcucl. Arm. barced, 
barged. 

BARH, prep. "On the side of, on. This is another form of 
barth, qd. v. It occurs in the earliest Cornish docu- 
ment, the Cornish Vocabulary, as -Euiter a bark mam, 
an uncle on the mother's side. Modercb a barh mam, 
aunt on the mother's side. Modereb a barh tat, aunt on 
the father's side. Barh was also the form in the latest 
Cornish, as diz bark a ni, come with us ; eus bark a ni, 
go with us. Llwyd, 252. 

BARLYS, s. m. Barley. J Da chardge ge a vydh war 
kercfi, barlys, ha gwaneth, dha wethyl dega leal, thy 
charge shall be over oats, barley, wheat, to make true 
tithe. C.W. 78. This seems to be a pure Welsh term, 
and derivable from bara, bread, and llys, a plant. Cf. 
also Aug. Sax. bere. L&t.far. Gr. irupos. But the com- 
mon name of barley in Welsh, is haidh, in Cornish 
haidh. qd. v. 

BARNE,v.a. To judge. Dhubarne."W.barnu. Arra.barna. 

EARNER, s. m. A judge. W; barnwr. Arm. barner, and 
barnonr. Ir. \\>arn. Pryce gives also the form barnyz, 
a judge. W. barnydh. 

BARRI, v. a. To part, or divide.. Another form of barhy, 
a mutation ofparhy. qd. v. 

BARTH, s. f. A side, a part. This is a mutation of parth, 
qd. v. Yn nef y fedhaftregis an barth dychow gans am 
car, in heaven 1 shall dwell on the right side with my 
father. M.O. 93. A barth an Tas pebouch whare, in the 
name of the Father, pipe ye immediately. O.M. 2845. 
Pepenag vo a'n barth wyr, whoever is of the true side. 
P.C. 2025. Pyw a'n guyskys an barth cledh, who struck 
him on the left side. P.C. 1380. A barth dyow dhf'n 
Ids, on the right side of the father. P.C. 1487. Y ma ef 
a dhyuw barth, he is on the right side. R.D. 928. Me 
re cleivas His ow COIKS mur a barth bras, I have heard 
people speaking in great part. R.D. 1232. B6s Ira an 
par-na gwelys yvi dhymmo v mur a barth, that a thing 



BAY 



19 



BECHAN 



like that should be seen is to me of much value. R.D. 
1725. 

BARTHESEC, adj. Wonderful. Arluth cref ha gollosek, 
hag yn battyl barthesck, Lord, strong and powerful, and 
in battle wonderful. R.D. 109. Written also bnrthusec, 
an irregular mutation of marthusck, id. qd. marthys, 
qd. v. 

BARVAS, s. m. A cod-fish, fen tanas, a cod's head. 
This is the same word as barfus, and derived from barf, 
or barv, a .beard. Barvog, and barvogyn, are names 
given to fish in Welsh from the same root, viz., to the 
finfish, and barbel. 

BAS, adj. Shallow. Bds-dhour, a ford. Llwyd, 169. Lit. 
shallow water, (W. bas-dhu-r.) W. Ms. . Arm. bax. Fr. 
bos, low. It. basso. Sp. baxo. Eng. base. 

BASCED, s. f. A basket. Basced dorn, a hand basket. 
Llwyd, 51. W. basged, basyod, -\-bascaut, from basq, 
plaiting of splinters, basket-work. Ir. basceid. Gael, bas- 
caid. Manx, baskaid. Fr. \bascod. Lat. bascauda. 
Barbara de Pictis venit bascauda Britnnnis. Martial. 

BASNET, s. m: Shame, disgrace. This word is thus given 
only in Pryce, probably incorrectly. It occurs for a 
helmet in R.D. 2581. Yn le basnet war oivfen curyn a 
spern lym a (/lew, instead of- a helmet on my head a 
crown of thorns sharp and stiff. 

BASSE, T. D. To.fall, lower, abate. Part, basseys. Gallas 
an glow dhe ves gulan, ha'n dour, my a greys, basseys, 
the rain is clean gone away, and the water, I believe, 
abated. O.M. 1098. Nans yie an lyfow basseys ; pan us 
grveydh ow teseht, yn rues whcth dylleuch trysse, now the 
floods are abated ; when the trees are drying, send out- 
side yet a third. O.M. 1127. Bassf is also written bashe. 
Ro dhodhans nga henwyn, y a dheth gorhemmyn, saw no. 
bashe, give to them their names, they will come to thy 
command, rise, do not fall. C.W. 30. W. basu, from the 
root bds shallow. 

BASTARDH/s. m. A bastard. Lhoyd, 100. W.bastanffi. 
Arm. bastard. Ir. basdard. Gael, basdard. Fr. bdtard, 
^bastard. Span, and Port, baslardo. Dutch, bastaard. 
The Welsh alone furnishes the etymology, bds low or 
base, and tardh issue. 

BAT, s. m. A dormouse. Pryce. W. baihawr. 

BATH, s. m. A coin, money. Cornish Vocabulary, bat, 
nnmisma. W. bath. Th being a secondary letter, the 
original root was bat, and is preserved in the mediaeval 
Latin battare, baltere, battire. (See Du Cange.) Fr. 
battre, to beat, to coin. Cf. also Arm. baz, a stick. W. 
pastwn ; and Arm. bazata, to beat. 

BATHOR, s. m. A banker, an exchanger of money, a 
coiner. Cornish Vocabulary, trapezeta, vel nummvlarius. 
Guas bathorfur, sellers, id. Fur-alone means tollers, 
guas being a servant. W.' bathwr, derived from bath 
a coin. 

HATTYS, 8. pi. Staves. Gueytyeuch b6s tus parys gans 
battys ha clydhydhyme, take care that the men be ready 
with staves and swords. P.O. 269. This is the plural of 
bat, borrowed from'the English. 

BAW, s. m. A foot, a paw. A mutation of paw. qd. v. 
Kymercuch er an dhyw ban; ha gorreuch ef yn dor down, 
take ye (him) by the two feet, and put him in deep 
ground. R.D. 2078. 

BAY, s. m. A kiss. PI. bayow. Llwyd, 110. Bythqueth 
bay dhym ny ryssys, ha hamma vyih ny sestyas, never a 



kiss to me didst thou give, and she has never ceased. 
P.O. 622. Jesus a qeivsys par defc, Judas, otv ry te a vyn, 
dre dhe vay a reylh mar whek dhe nfb am tarmont mar 
dyn, Jesus spake very mildly, Judas, thou wilt give me, 
by the kiss thou gavest so sweet, to those who will tor- 
ment me so sharply, M V C. 66. Cf. Lat. basium. Fr. baiter. 

BAYE, v. a. To kiss. KeUyly'ngeffoa'nbay,'w'he'a he 
finds him, he shall kiss him. P.O. 986. Kensa bledhan 
byzla ha baye, the first year hug and kiss. Prycc's 
Vocabulary. Lat. basio, Fr. baiser. 

BE, v. subs. He was. 3 pers. s. pret. of bos. It changes 
in construction to ve, fe, and pe. qd. v. Warnedhy 
pren ve tewlys, oil anpowspyw a'n gyjfc, on it a lot was 
cast, all the coat who should have it. M.C. 190. Deeps 
no, ve, was not taken. M.C. 23. Ty a ve, thou wast. 
C.W. 18. An prennyer a ve kerhys^ en grows scon dyth- 
gtis inayfe, the sticks were fetched, that the cross might 
be formed immediately. M.C. 153. It is also written 
bue. qd. v. W. bu. 

BE, v. subs. He may be. 3 pers. s. subj. of bds. Tryhesow 

fal mar am be, three lengths of my spade if there should 

be to me. O.M. 396. Hag a pe yn della ve neffn'ne 

vean fethys, and if it were so I should never be taken. 

M.C. 73. W. bai Arm. be. 

BE, s. m. A burden, a load. Y ma gene vn be da, gorra 
hag eys kcmuskys, I have a good load, bay and corn 
mixed. O.M. 1057. Be cunys, a load of fuel. The final 
guttural is here lost, having first been changed into J>. 
W. batch. Arm. beach. 

BEA, v. subs. He would be. 3 pers. s. snbj. of bos. In 
construction it changes into vea. Yn urna mestry vyth te 
ny vea, then power thon shouldst not have. M.C. 145. 
Mage fur te a vea avel Dew & awartha, as wise thou 
wouldst be, like God that is on high. C.W. 44. Henna 
vea hager dra, that would be an ugly thing, ibid. Pur 
Imven nie a vea, very glad I should be. ibid. 186. 

BEAN, v. subs. I should be. 1 pers. s. subj. of b6s. In 
construction vean. Ny vean fethys, I should not be 
taken. M.C. V3. 

BEAN, adj. Little, small. Bean lia bras, small and great. 
C.W. 10, 180. This is another form of bian, or bihan. 
See Bechan. 

BEARN, s. m. Sorrow, regret, concern. Me a guntell 
dreyn ha spcrn, ha g!6s, dhe lesky hep beam, I will 
gather briars and thorns, and dried cowdung, to burn 
without regret. C.W. 80. This a later form of bern. qd. v. 

BEASE, v. subs. He had been. 3 pers. s. preterplup. of 
bos. Lhvyd, 245. W. buasai. 

BEASEH, v. subs. Ye had been. 2 pers. pi. preterplup. 
of bos. Llnyd, 245. W. buasech. 

BEASEN, v. subs. We had been. 1 pers. pi. preterplup. 
of bos. Llwyd, 245. W. buasem. 

BEASENS, v. subs. They had been. 3 pers. pi. preterplup 
of b6s. Llwyd, 245. W. buasent. 

BEASES, v. subs. Thou hadst been. 2 pers. s. preterplup. 
of bos. Llwyd, 245. W. buasit. 

BECH, s. m. sin. A mutation ofpech. qd. v. A'nladhas 
mur yiv y bech, who killed him, great is his sin. P.O. 
3162. 

BECHAN, adj. Little, small. Dheworte un lambechan 
yth eth,pesy may halle dh'y das, from them a little space 
he went, that 'he might' pray to his father. M.C. 53. 
Nyng-yw ow faynys beckon v<i lemyn war ow sensy, my 



BEDH 

pains are not small, that are now holding me. M.C. 166. 
Written also bichan, bihan, byhan, bian, byan, and in 
the Cornish Vocabulary, bochan, parvus. W. bychan, 
\-bichan, and in Flintshire bwchan, m. bechan. f. Arm. 
bichan, bihan, bian. The root is W. bach, little. Ir. 
beag, -[bee, fieec, and beagan, \becan. Gael, beag and 
beagan. Manx, beg and beggan. Old Fr. bechan, and in 
Franche Comte, pechon. 

BECHAS, v. a. He sinned. A mutation ofpechas, 3 pers. 
s. preterite ofpechy, qd. v. My re bechas, I have sinned. 
O.M. 1862. 

BECHYE, v. a. To thrust. Yn corf Jesus caradow an gcw 
lym ef a bechye, into the body of Jesus beloved, the 
spear sharp he thrust. M.C. 218. This is not a Celtic 
word, being, I think, a mutation ofpechye, which is the 
English word to pitch. 

BEDEROW, s. m. Beads. A mutation ofpederoiv, pi. of 
pader, qd. v. Pub ledh oil neb a vynne leverel pymthek 
pater, a ten golon rag gar&hye pascon aqan Arludh ker ; 
yn blydhen y a vye ha bederow kenever, hag a owleow ese 
yn corf Jesus worth never, every day whoever will say 
fifteen paters, with faithful heart, to honour the passion 
of our dear Lord, in a year there would be as many 
beads as there were marks in the body of Jesus, ac- 
cording to number. M.C. 228. 

BEDEWEN, s. f. A birch tree. Llnyd, 241. In the 
Cornish Vocabulary it is interpreted populus, the pop- 
lar, or aspen tree. In late Cornish, bezo and bedho. In 
all the Celtic languages it means the birch. Old Gaulish 
belulla. "Gallica hsec arbor mirabili candore atque tenu- 
itate." Pliny, 16, 18. W. bedw ; bedwen, a single 
birchtree. Arm. bezo ; bezven. Ir. beithe, bethe. Gael. 
beithe. 

BEDGETH, s. m. A face. $Ha 'thera an noar heb roath, 
ha gwag, ha vedh an tewlder war bedgnth an downdcr ; 
ha speres Dew rig gwayath war bedgeth an dowrmv, and 
the earth was without form, and void, and darkness 
was on the face of the deep ; and the spirit of God 
moved on the face of the waters. Keiguyn, 189. This 
word occurs only in late Cornish. 

BEDIDHIA, v. a. To baptize. Llwyd, 13 ; who gives the 
late corrupt pronunciation as bedzhidhia. Another form 
was bysydha, qd. v. This is one of the few words from the 
ancient language preserved in Cornwall at the present 
day. See Polwhele's Vocabulary. W. bedydhio. Arm. 
badeza. Ir. baisdeadh. Gael, baisteadh. Manx, bashley. 
All borrowed from the Lat. baptizo. 
BEDIDHIANS, s. m. A baptism, christening. Llwyd, 44. 
BEDNATH, s. f. A blessing. This is a late and corrupt 
form of bennath, or banneth, qd. v. $En metten pan a 
why sevel, why rex cawse dha 'vus tas, ha 'gus damma war 
agus pedndowlin, Bednath Deiv, ha an bednath war a 
vee, me pidge dhu Dew, in the morning when you rise, 
you must say to your father and your mother on your 
knees, The blessing of God, and the blessing upon me, 
I pray to God. Pryce. 

BEDH, s. m. A grave. PI. bedhow, bedhyow. Pan dethens 
y bys an bedh, yth elh on marrek dKy ben, has] arall dh'y 
dreys ynwedh, when they came to the grave, one soldier 
went to his head, and another to his feet also. M.C. 242. 
Try dcdh woge mos yn bedh, three days after going into 
the grave. P.C. 1746. Aberth an bedh, within the 
grave. R.D 311. Bedh a v en, tomb of stone. R.D. 2. 



20 BEDHOUCH 

Agy dhe'n bedh men, within the tomb of stone. R.D. 389. 
In construction it changes into vedh, as yn y vedh, in 
his grave. Ha'n bedhow otvth egery, me a's givel, war ow 
ene, and the graves opening, I see them, on my soul. 
P.C. 2999. W. bedh. Arm. bez. 
BEDH, v. subs. Be thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of bod. Written 

also bez. Llwyd, 245. W. bydh, ibedh. Arm. bez. 
BEDH, v. subs. He shall or will be. 3 pers. s. fat. of bod. 
Mar a'm bedh, if there will be to me. O.M. 2015. Wliy 
a vedh, ye shall be. O.M. 2396. JVhy a's bedh, ye shall 
have. O.M. 2766. Written also bydh. qd. v. 
BEDHAF, v. subs. I shall or will be. 1 pers. s. fut. of 
bds. Rofdhys ow thour, vedhaf dhe wour, I give thee 
my tower, I will be thy husband. O.M. 2111. Written 
also bydhaf. qd. v. W. bydhav and bedhav. 
BEDHAN, v. subs. I should be. 1 pers. s. subj. of bos. 
In construction the initial 5 changes into v, which after 
y is again hardened intoy. An serpent a'n temptyas dhr 
wruthyl henna, hag y promysyas dhe vee, y fedhan dht 
well neffra, the serpent tempted me to do this, and 
promised to nie, that I should be the better for ever. 
C.W. 64. Tier henna me a dhowtyas, gans peb y fedhan 
ledhys, for this I doubted, by every one that I should 
be slain, ibid, 118. Other forms are bedhon and bein. 
Lhvyd, 245. W. bydhwn. 

BEDHE, v. subs. He would be. 3 pers. s. subj. of bos. 
Dysqtiedhyens war lyrch an bedh bedhe mygtern yn 
dewedh, a shewing after the grave he would be king at 
last. M.C. 236. In construction it changes into vedhe 
andfedhe. qd. v. 

BEDHENS, v. subs. Let them be. 3 pers. pi. imp. of bos. 
Y lavaraf, nef ha lyr, bedhens formyys orth lodh ow 
brys, I say, Heaven and Earth, let them be formed 
by my judgment. O. M. 8. Bedhens kyrhys masons 
plente, let there be brought masons plenty. O.M. 2262. 
Written also bedhans. Adam attoma dyllas, hag Eva, dK 
ages quedha,fystenouch bedhans gweskes, Adam, here are 
clothes, and Eve, to cover you, make haste, let them be 
worn. C.W. 72. Gor sprusan yn y anow, ha'n dhew 
arall kekeffrys, bedhans gorrys yn y dhewfrieg, put one 
kernel in his mouth, and the two others likewise, let 
them be put in his two nostrils. Hid, 134. Bedhens is 
very frequently used for the 3rd. person singular, bedhes. 
Kymer dhymmo ve hunys, gans louan bedhens sirolhys, 
ha war dhe keyn doga cf, take for me fuel, with a rope 
let it be bound, and on thy back carry it. O.M. 1297. 
Yn pren crows bedhens gorrys, ha treys ha dyulef kelmys, 
ha gwenys dre an golon, on the cross tree let him be put, 
and feet and hands bound, and pierced through the 
heart P.C 2374. W. bydhantj bint. 
BEDHES, v. subs. Let him be. 3 pers. s. imp. of bos. 

Lhvyd, 245. W. bydhed. 

BEDHON, v. subs. Let us be. 1 pers. pi. imp. of bos. 
Llwyd, 245. It is also of the future tense. W. bydhivn. 
BEDHOUCH, v. subs. Be ye. 2 pers. pi. imp. of bos. In 
construction it changes into vedhouch, and pethough. 
Ha bedhouch war colonow, and be ye of cautious hearts. 
P.C. 879. Cowetha, bedhouch parys, an dhewullow pub 
onyn, e ma Adam tremenys, companions, be ye ready, 
ye devils every one, Adam is dead. C W. 146. Na 
vedhouch dyscomfortys, be ye not discomforted. M.C. 255. 
Yn ur-na, mar a pedhouch repenlys, an kelh plag a u-ra 
voydya, in that hour, if ye will repent, this same plague 



BEGEL 

shall be made void. C.W. 170. In later Cornish the 
guttural ch, was changed into h. ^Bedhowh u'dr na bo 
ledhys nuib den gena why neb pryes, be ye ware that a 
son of man be not killed by you at any time, ibid, 182. 
Bedhoh ten a has, be ye full of seed*, ibid, 191. (W. 
bydhwch.) It is also written bedtteuch, and bydheuch. 
Bedheuch why fur, be ye careful. R.D. 2276. See 
Bydheuch. 

BEDHY, v. a. To drown. Part, bedhys. Why a vel agy 
dha space, der lyvyow a dhmvcr an brassa oil an bys a 
vf/dft bedhys, ye shall see within a space, by floods of 
the greatest water all the world shall be drowned. 
C.W. 168. Ogas an noer y>n cudhya der an glow ex a 
tvartha ; te benyn, abervath des, MV der ledhy a vynta, the 
earth is near covered by the rain from above ; thou 
woman come in, wouldst thou by it be drowned, ibid, 
176. Rag Dew a vyn, agen Tds, danvon lyw a dhower, 
pur leal, dha vedhy an bys, for God will, our Father, 
send a deluge of water, very faithfully to drown the 
world, ibid, 171. Written also budhy. W. bodhi. Arm. 
beuzi. Ir. baidheadh, ^bathaig. Gael. bath. Manx, baih. 

BEDHY, v. a. To bury. Part, bedhys. From bedh, a 
grave. Me a vyn may foes uskys bedhys yn corf ling ena, 
bydhparys yn termyn-ma, I will that thou be forthwith 
buried in body and soul, be thou ready this instant. 
C.W. 154. 

BEDHYN, v. subs. We shall be. 1 pers. pi. fat. of bos. 
In construction vedhyn. qd. v. 

BEDHYTH, v. subs. Thou shalt be. 2 pers. s. fnt. of bos. 
In construction vedhyth. Yn lowen dhys kemer e, rag 
nechys by ny bedhyth, gladly take him to thee, for thou 
shalt never be denied. P.O. 3130. Hedre vo yn dhe 
henvydh,fylhys nefre ny vedhyth gans tebeles war an beys, 
as long as it is in thy power, thou shalt never be over- 
come by evil men in the world. O.M. 1465. It is written 
equally common bydhyth, qd. v. 

BEEN, v. subs. We should be. 1 pers. pi. subj. of Jo*. Yrverys 
ew ru'm leute sol-a-lhyth dhe avonsye an kynse benfys a'm 
been, it has been intended, on my truth, for a long time 
to advance thee to the first benefice we may have. O.M. 
2613. In construction feen. qd. v. Written also bein 
and ben. 

BEF, v. subs. I should be. 1 pers. s. subj. of bos. In con- 
struction vef. qd. v. 

BEFER, s. m. A beaver. Cornish Vocabulary^/Jen This 
word is unknown to Welsh and Armoric, though it is 
supposed to have existed in ancient Gaulish, from a 
comparison of the name Bibrax, a town of the jdui, 
mentioned by Caesar, with befer= beber, biber. The bea- 
ver is called by the Welsh, llostlydan, i. e. broad-tail, 
adhrinc and avanc; and by the Armoric Bretons, avanJc. 
Gael, -tleas-lcathann. Germ, biber. Ang. Sax. beofor. 
Eng. beaver. Fr. bievre. Scand. bifr. Slav, bober. Litb. 
bebrus. Lat. Jiber. 

BEGEL, s. m. The navel. Llwyd, 17. J Flo rye gennes en 
mis Merh, ni trehes e begel en mis East, E a ros total dho 
proanler Fowl, mis du ken Nadelik, a child was born in 
the month of March, We cut his navel in the month of 
August, and he gave a fall to the parson of Paul, the 
black month before the Nativity. Cornish Riddle, in 
Pryces Vocabulary. Welsh, bogel, from bog a swelling 
or rising up. Ann. begel. Ir. boilsgean. Gael, buillsgean. 
Manx, imleig. Cf. Lat. wnbilicus. 



21 BELL 

BEGEL, s. m. A herdsman, a shepherd. Rag an termyn 
re dcve may fydh an begel kyllys, ha chechys ynlre dewle, 
ha'n deves dhe ves fyyn, for the time has come that 
the shepherd will be lost, and taken between hands, 
and the sheep fled away. M.C. 48. Written also bugel. 
qd. v. 

BEGY, v. n. To bray. W. beichio. Arm. begia. Ir. beiceadh. 
Gael, beucaidh. Sansc. vach. 

BEGY AS, v. a. He ceased. A mutation ofpegyas, preter- 
ite of pegya. qd. v. Yn ddla hy a begyas bi/s hanter dfidh, 
yredy, yn er-na Christ a vynnns lever el, Ely, Ely, so it 
ceased till midday, surely, in that hour Christ would 
say, Eli, Eli. M.C. 201. 

BEHAN, adj. Little, small. Another form of bechan, h 
being substituted for the guttural ch, Compar. behan- 
nah, less, which was corrupted in late Cornish to be- 
hadnah, behatnah. J Ha Dew wrds dew golow bras; an 
brossah golow dha roulia dedh, ha an behatnah golow dha 
roulia an nog, e wrds an sterres a welh, and God made 
two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and 
the lesser light to rule the night, he made the stars also. 
Keiguyn, 190. 

BEHAS, v. a. He sinned. A mutation ofpehas, preterite 
of pche. qd. v. Och I Iru 1 tru ! my re bchas, ha re 
dorras an dyfen, Oh, woe, woe, I have sinned, and have 
broken the prohibition. O.M. 249. 

BEHE, v. n. To sin. A mutation of pehe, qd. v. Rag 
henna my a's temptyas dhe behe may fe ellas ago hart 
kepar ha my, for that I tempted them to sin, so that 
"alas" may be their song like as mine. O.M. 309. 

BEIN, v. subs. I would be. 1 pers. s. subj. of bos. Llwyd, 
245. This is a contracted form of bedhan. Another form 
is by en, qd. v. W. bawn. 

BEIS, v. subs. Thou wouldst be. 2 pers. s. subj. of b6s. 
Llivyd, 245. Id. qd. byes. 

BEISDER, s. f. A window. Llwyd, 12. Der an veisder, 
through the window. Llwyd, 249. Written also besidar, 
Pryce. The Cornish had alsofenester and prenest, qd. v. 
W.fenestyr. Arm. preneslr, ^fenestr, fanost. Ir. -\-sein- 
istir. All from the La.i.feneslra. 

BEL, adj. Fair. Pryce. Messyger, my bel aber, dus dhym- 
mo ketoth an ger, rag colenwel vodh mu brys, messenger, 
my fair servant, come to me soon as the word, to fulfil 
the wish of my mind. O.M. 2271. This is not a Celtic 
word, but is probably formed from the French fern. 
belle. 

BELENDER, s. m. A miller. From belin, a mill. Llwyd, 
240. W. melinydh. Arm. meliner, miliner. Ir. mutileoir. 
Gael, muilnear. Manx, beihllinder. 

BELER, s. m. Water-cress. Cornish Vocabulary, carista, 
vel kerso. W. berur, beriv, berwy. Arm. beler. Ir. biolar, 
\ibirur. Gael, biolar, biorar. Manx, burley. 

BELIN, s. f. A mill. Llwyd, 92. This is a later form of 
melin, qd. v. by the substitution of b for its cognate m, of 
which there are frequent examples. 

BELL, adj. Far, distant. A mutation of pell, qd. v. Pe 
feste mar bell, ny gothe dhys bones hel ow mones dhe'n 
sacrefyn, where hast thou been so long ? thou oughtest 
not to be slow, going to the sacrifice. O.M. 467. Pan 
vo guyskys an bugel, yfy an deves a bell, hag ol an Jlok a 
dftybarth, when the shepherd is smitten, the sheep will 
flee far, and all the flock will separate. P.C. 894. So 
Welsh mar bell, 'so far; o bell, from far. 



BENEN 5 

BELYNY, s m. Shame, disgrace, reproach, villainy, 
malice, abuse. In construction velyny. It is also written 
belynny, and bylynny. Mes mara kewsys yn la, han gvrir- 
ioncdh y synsys, prag om girysketh yn delma, nyng-yw 
mernas belyny, but if I have spoken well, and the truth 
held fast, why dost thou strike me thus, it is not but 
abuse. M.C, 82. Yn delma heb velyny orto Jesus a gow- 
sas, in this manner, without railing, to him Jesus spake. 
M.C. 80. Ena mur a vylyny Pedyr dhe Gryst a ivelas, 
there muc' abuse Peter to Christ saw. M.C. 83. This 
word may be derived either from the English villainy, 
from villain; Lat. vtflanus; Fr. vilain ; or it may be a 
mutation of the W. milain, that which is of the nature 
of a brute, fr6na mil, a brute. 

BEN, s. m. A stem, or base ; the trunk or butt end. 
Adr6 dhedhy rus/cen nyns es, a'n blyn dhe'n ben, noth yw 
ol hy scorennotv, about it there was no bark, from 
the point to the stem, bare are all its boughs. O.M. 779. 
Ha hy warbarth dyrusfcys, kefrys ben ha barennoiv, and 
it (was) altogether without bark, both the stem and the 
boughs. O.M. 788. W. b6n. Arm.bonn,bun. lr.bon,bun. 
Gael. bonn. Manx, boyn, bun. Sansc. budkna. La.t.fundus. 

BEN, s. m. A head. A mutation of pen, qd. v. Agy dhe'n 
yet gor dhe ben, within the gate put thy head. O.M. 743. 
War ben ow dewlyn, upon my knees. O.M. 1196. Bras 
ha crom y ben goles, large and rounded its lower end. 
O.M. 2444. Tackeuch e a hugh y ben, tack it above his 
head. P.C. 2793. 

BEN, v. subs. We may be. 1 pers. pi. subj. of bos. Me 
a'th pys, Arluth a ras, a dhanfon dhynny cannon, may 
ben nepith aswonfus falel yw dhys, I pray thee, Lord of 
grace, to send a messenger to us, that something we may 
be knowing how it is with thee. R.D. 789. In con- 
struction ven, fen, qd. v. It is also written been, beyn, 
feyn. 

SENARY, adv. Continually, for ever, hourly. In con- 
struction venary, qd. v. Ha'n ster ynwedh kekejfrys, rag 
guyl golow benary, and the stars too likewise, to yield 
light for ever. C.W. 8. Mar gwreth henna honorys ty a 
vydh bys venary, if thou doest that, honoured thou shalt 
be for ever. ibid. 38. Written also bynary. As boynedh, 
W. beunydh, is compounded of bob every, and dydh a 
day ; so benary must be formed from bob, and ur (W. 
awr) an hour. 

BEN AW, s. f. A female. Written also benow, qd. v. 

BENC, s. f. A bench. Llwyd, 23, 145. W. mainc. Arm, 
mcnk. Gael, being. Manx, beck, benk. 

BENEGES, part Blessed. Written also indiscriminately 
benegas, bcnyges, bynyges, being the participle ofbenigia. 
Benegas yiv neb a gare Du drispub Ira us yn bys, blessed 
is he that loves God above every thing that is in the 
world. M.C. 24. Yn hanow Du yntrethoiv benegas yw 
neb a dhe, in the name of God among you blessed is he 
who comes. M.C. 30. Beneges re bo an Tds, a vynnas 
dywuedhes dhyn gwclynny a gemmys ras, blessed be the 
Father, who willed to shew us rods of so much grace. 
M. 1745. Benygcs nefre re by, blessed ever be he. 
O.M. 819. Bynyges re by pub tydh, blessed be thon every 
day. O.M. 831. Benigas bedh do hanmv, hallowed be 
thy name. Pryce. 

BENEN, s. f. A w oman, female. PI. benenes. It is also 
written bennen and benyn. Cornish Vocabulary, sponsa; 
benen rid, femina, an unmarried woman, one that is at 



2 BENOW 

liberty. Bennen vat, matrona, lit. a good woman,= 
Scottish, qudewife. Drefcn ow bones benen, though I am 
a woman. O.M. 161. Dew an Tds re sorras drewylh 
benen, God the Father a wretched woman hath angered. 
O.M. 256. Keffrys gorryth ha benen, flocholeth, an qiuary 
yw due lymmyn, men and women likewise, children, 
the play is now ended. O.M. 2837. Dredho efprynnys 
bydheuch oil ow tus gour ha benen, through him ye are 
redeemed, all my people, male and female. P.C. 768. 
Rag cole orth im venen, gulan cf re gollas an ptas, for 
listening to a woman he has clean lost the place. O.M. 
919. Ha,dhyso gy yth ese benenes lour, and to thea there 
were wives enough. O.M. 2247. Mur a diis ha ben- 
enes a Jerusalem yn dre erbyn Cryst rag y ivelas y eth 
ha rag y wordhye, many men and women from Jerusa- 
lem in the town towards Christ for him to see the.y 
went, and to worship him. M.C. 29. W. bun and ben. 
benen, benyw. Ir. bainion, bean, ben, t ban. Gael, bain- 
nion, bean. Manx, ben, y ven. Gr. ftava, <yt>i/i}. Lat. 
venus. Sansc. vanila. The Armoric term is givamm,= 
Fr. femme. Lat. femina. Sansc. vama. 

BENES, s. f. A blessing. This is another form otbennet/i. 
Benes v6s dheuch, powesouch lymmyn un cars, me agas 
p{/s, a blessing be on you, rest now a while, I pray yon. 
P.C. 2145. From this was formed in late Cornish, the 
term bene-tu-gana, fare well, fare thou well ; from benes 
a blessing, tu for li, thee, and gan with. Pryce. 

BENEWES, s. m. An awl, a cobbler's awl. Llwyd, 157. 
W. menawyd, benawyd. Arm. menaoued. IT. meanadh. 
Gael, minidh. Manx, mennee. 

BENIGIA, v. a. To bless, to hallow. Llwyd, 44. Part. 
benigas, written also indiscriminately beniges, benyges, 
bynyges. See beneges. Rak y lue dydhyoui mayfenygouch 
an lorrmv nas teve vythqucth flehes, for the days shall 
come, that ye -will bless the wombs that have never 
borne children. P.C. 3646. W. bendigo, bendithio. Ann. 
benniga. Ir. beannaigh. Gael, beannaich. Manx, bannet 
All from the Lat. benedico. 

BENNAG, adv. Soever. A mutation ofpennag, which it 
also written pynag, qd. v. It answers to cwtque in 
Latin, and as in English is joined to nouns, pronouns, 
and adverbs. Pa bennag, whatsoever. Pa le bennag. 
wheresoever : pandra bennac, whatever thing. Pimi 

bennac. whosoever. Llwud, 244. W. pynnaq. pa bynnaq, 
j > . j-j .? f j j' 

pa le bynnag. Arm. bennag, piou bennag, whosoever. 

BENNATH, s. f. A blessing. Written also benneth, and 
banneth. Ow bennalh yth chy re bo, my blessing be on 
thy house. P.C. 1803. Ow bwneth dhys vynylha, my 
blessing to thee for ever. P.C. 2567. Gosloweuch oil a. 
tus vas, bennath Jhesu luen a ras dheuch keffrys gor ha 
benen r hear all, good people, the blessing of Jesus, 
full of grace, upon you male aud female also. P.C. 3218. 
Dhe kekemmys na'm gwello, hag vn perfyth a'n crcsso, or 
len benneth me a pys, to as many as shall not see me, 
and shall perfectly believe it, my full blessing I pray. 
P.C. 1556. Ow bennath genoch re to, my blessing be 
upon you. R.D. 1579. See Banneth. 

BENOW, s. f. A female. A lub echen a Jcunda, gormu ha 
benow ynwedh, aga gora ty a wra yn dhe gorhel abervedh, 
of every sort and kind, male and female likewise, them 
thou shalt place in thy ark within. O.M. 990. A pup 
best kemmyr whore gorow ha benow defry, oil a'n edhyn 
<nv nyge guet copel may kemery, of all boasts take foith- 



BERN 



23 



BES 



with males and females really, of all the birds flying bo 
careful to take a couple. O.M. 1022. Drewhy dhym orlh 
cojiplaw, cattell, edhyn kekejfrys, dew ha dew, benow ho 
gorrow, bring to me by couples, cattle, fowls also, two 
and two, female and male. C.W. 174. It is also written 
benaw. W. benyw. See Bcnen. 

BENS, v. subs. They should be. 3 pers. pi. subj. of ids. 
A contracted form of bedhens. Llwyd, 245. In con- 
struction vens. Me an ty dhys, renothas, Jcyn na vens 
neffre golhys, ly nys golhyth yn nep cos, I swear it to 
thee, by my father, though they be never washed, thou 
Shalt not wash them in any case. P.D. 852. W. baent. 
BENYTHA, adv. Ever. Na heb mur lavur defry benytha 
nys tevyth floch, nor without great labour indeed shall 
ever children be to her. O.M. 300. In construction it 
changes regularly into venytha, qd. v. Moy ys Dew ny 
a vye, bys venytha na sorren, greater than God we 
should be, nor be troubled for ever. O.M. 220. 
BEPPRES, adv. Always, at all times. Compounded of peb, 
every, and prcs time ; the initial being made light 
when used absolutely. W. lob-pryd. Arm. bepred. 
BER, s. m. A. spit, lance, spear. Cornish Vocabulary 
veru ; kigver, fuscinula ; a flesh-spit. J Ha pa ryg dos 
dhe'n gegen, cnna e welas an osl an ehy, ha den coin o e, 
a gwan, a trailia an ber, and when he was come into the 
kitchen, there he saw the host of the house, and an old 
man he was, and feeble, turning the spit. Lluyd, 252. 
W. ber. Arm. ber. Ir. bior, bear, f6z>. Gael. bior. 
Manx, bher. Lat. veru. Sansc. hvr. Arab, habar, a lance. 
Span, ber, a point. 

BER, adj. Short, diminutive, brief. Cornish Vocabulary 
brevis. In construction it changes into ver, qd. v. Me 
a'th kdmfast a ver termyn, I will bind thee fast in a 
short time. O.M. 1362. Mar ny fyn dre y rasow ow 
gtceres a termyn ver, if he will not, through his graces, 
help me in a short time. R.D. 706. W. byr, m. ber, f. 
Arm. berr. Ir. ^bear, gear, -\-gair. Gael, bearr, gearr. 
BERA, adv. Within. En bera, within. Llwyd, '248. This 

is a contracted form of barh a. 

BERANAL, s. m. Asthma, shortness of breath. Llwyd, 
56. Compounded of ber short, and anal breath. W. ber- 
anadl. Arm. berranal, berralan. 

BERHEN, s. m. An owner, possessor. A mutation of 
perhen, qd. v. An harlot foul y berhen, awos kentmys 
drok a icren, a'n beys nyfyn Iremene, the knave, foul his 
owner, notwithstanding so much harm as we do 3 will 
not pass from the world. P.C. 2112. 
BERN, s. m. A heap, a rick of hay, a stack of corn. Corn- 
ish Vocabulary, acervus. W. bera, a rick ; bryn, a hill. 
Arm. bern, a heap. 

BERN, s. m. Concern, sorrow, grief, regret. Ellas, ellas, 
och tru tru, yn ow colon assyw bern, pan welaf ow map 
Jhesu adro dhy pen curyn spern, alas ! alas ! oh ! sad ! 
sad ! iu my heart is sorrow, when I see my son Jesus, 
about his head a crown of thorns. P.C. 2932. Lavar 
dhymmo vy pyw 6s, rag omma awos dhe vos, genef vy by 
nynsyw bern, tell me who thou art, for because" of thy 
being here, with me there is never concern. R.D. 264. 
Garreuch ef yn schath dhe'n mor, hy frenne byth nyns 
yw bern, an schath a'n dek dhe yfern, take him in a boat 
to the sea, to buy it is never a matter of eoncern, the 
boat shall carry him to hell. R.D 2234. Me a guntell 
dreyn ha spern, ha glos, dha lesky heb bern, I will gather 



briars and thorns, and dry cowdung, to burn without 
regret. C.W. 80. Bern, in construction vern, is used in 
Cornish and Annoric as a verb. Ny vern tra vyth assaye, 
it is not worth while to try. O.M. 2477. See vern. Arm. 
ny vern feed, it is of no consequence. It may possibly 
be a contracted form of W. berlhyn, a berthyn. See 
Llwyd, 197. 

BERN A, v. a. To buy, purchase. A mutation of perna, 
qd. v. Deiv dlien Christ a dhanvcmas dhe berna boys ha, 
dewas, an keth re-na a spedyas, ha'n soper a ve parys, 
two men Christ sent to buy meat and drink, those very 
same did speed, and the supper was ready. M.C. 42. 

BERNIGAN, s. f. A limpet. Llwyd, 114. This is in- 
correctly for brenigen. See Brennic. 

BERRI, s. m. Fatness, grossness. Cornish Vocabulary, 
pinguedo. From bar, fat. 

BERRIC, adj. Fat, gross. Pronter befrio, a gorbellied 
priest. Pryce. 

BERTYL, s. m. Bartholomew. A Bertyl asoge mus ha 
goky dres oil an dus py ylho f6l, Bartholomew, thou 
art mad and stupid beyond all the men -who are fools. 
R.D. 971. 

BERTH, adv. Within, This is an abbreviated form of 
aberlh. Anfer afue dallelhys dre tus vds berth an tempel, 
the market was begun by good men within the temple. 
P.C. 2410. A Maria, del won dhe bos berth an bysma, 
onan a'y was, Mary, as I know thee to be within this 
world, one of his blood. R.D. 860. 

BERTHHUAN, s. f. A screech owl. Cornish Vocabulary, 
parrax. This may be derived from berth, fair ; or berth, 
the feminine form of perth, a bush. The screech owl is 
generally called by the Welsh dalluan wen, or aderyn y 
corph, and in Armor! c, caouan, couchan. 

BERTHY, v. a. To bear^ carry, take. A mutation of 
perthy, qd. v. A das dout na bertheuch why, whare my a 
vyn mones, O father, have no fear, forthwith I will go. 
O.M. 729. My a'n nusur lour yn ta, na bertheuch own a 
henna, I will measure it well enough, do not have fear 
of that. O.M. 2508. Yn bys-ma rag dhe wreans, ly a 
berth gossythyans, ken na broder, in this world for thy 
deed, thou shalt bear punishment, though thou art a 
brother. C.W. 82. Na berth dou-t y fyth gwyskes, do not 
doubt that he will be struck. C.W. 12. 

BES, s. m. A finger. PI. bessi, and bysias. The Cornish 
Vocabulary has bes, and bis, digitus ; and bessi, digiti. 
Bes bras, the thumb. Lluyd, 123. Bes ores, (Arm. lez 
creis] the middle finger. W. bys, ffos / pi. bysedh. 
Arm.biz,bez; pi. biziad and ^bisiat. Old Irish, bos, hand. 
Gael, bas, palm of the hand. 

BES, s. m. The world. Yn medh Pilot, marth an bes, 
kymmys dr6k a wodhevyth ; ha te reson vijth a dres er- 
aga-fyn, na gewsyth, says Pilate, wonder of the world, 
so much evil thou endurcst, and speakest no reason 
against them. M.C. 120. Ha gurens an gy kymer 
gallus dres an puscas an m6r, ha dres an edhen an ebbnrn, 
ha dres an milimv, ha dres utt an bfn, and let them have 
dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowls 
of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth. 
Keigwyn, 192. It is more frequently written bys, qd.v. 
BES, v. sub. Thou shouldst be. 2 pers. s. subj. of bos. 
In construction ves,fes, smdpes, qd. v. It is also used 
as the aorist Te a wodhye dhe honanpe dre gen rev~es 



BESY 



24 



BEUZI 



ytvarnys, thou knewest thyself what by some thou wert 
warned. M.C. 101. 

BBS, conj. But. This is a later form of mes. J An lavar 
goth t'w lavar gwir, ne vedn nevera dtis mis a tavas re hir; 
bes den heb tavas a gollas e dir, the old saying is a true 
saying ; never will good come from a tongue too long ; 
but a man without a tongue lost his land. Cornish 
Proverb, Pryee. 

BES, adv. Even to, though. Hay gureydhow dh'an doer 
ysal, bes yn effarn ow hedhas, and its roots to the earth 
below, even to hell reaching. C.W. 138. This is also 
written bys, qd. v. 

BESADOW, s. m. Prayers. A mutation ofpesadow, pi. of 
pesad. Pan o y besadow gun's, dhe'n dowdhek y leyerys, 
coscouch lemyn mars ew poys, powessouch, when his 
prayers were ended, to the twelve he said, sleep now, 
if ye be heavy, rest ye. M.C. 61. 

BESAW, s. m. A ring. Besaw our, a ring of gold. Llwyd, 
242. A latter form of bisow, qd. v. 

BESE, v. subs. Ye should be. 2 pers. pi. subj. of bos. 
This is a later and corrupted form of beseh, bedhech. 
Llwyd, 245. So 3 pers. besens, for bedhens. 

BESGA, adv. Ever, at any time. Llwyd, 176. A late cor- 
ruption ofbysyweth, qd. v. 

BESGAN, s. m. A thimble, a finger stall. Llwyd, 54. 
W. byswain, comp. of bys, a finger, and gwam, a sheath. 
Arm. besken, derived by Legonidec from bes, a finger, 
and kenn, skin, leather. This word is still in use in 
Cornwall. " Biscan, a finger glove of leather, used by 
the harvest women, particularly in support of a wound- 
ed finger." Polwhele's Vocabulary. 

BESIDAR, s. m. A window. Pryce. Another form of 
beisder, qd. v. 

BESL, s. m. A muscle, shell fish. Beslen is also used for 
a single one. Llwyd, 241. This is a later form of 
mesclen, qd. v. 

BEST, s. m. A beast, an animal. PL bastes. March yw 
best hepparow dhe vaj> den rag ymweres, a horse is a 
beast without equals for the son of man to help him- 
self. O.M. 124. Un sarf yn gwedhcn y ma, best uthek 
hepfalladmo, there is a serpent in the tree, au ugly 
beast without fail. O.M. 789. A Mb echen best yn wlass 
gor genes dew unnedhe, of every sort of beast in the 
land, put two of them with thee. O.M. 977. Yn pymp- 
es dijdh me a vyn may fo formyys dre wi nd bcstes, piisk- 
es, hag edhyn, on the fifth day I will that be made by 
my power beasts, fishes, and birds. O.M. 42. Yt/io 
bedhyth mylyges pur w$r dios oil an bestes a gerdfio war 
nor veis, now thoa shall be accursed very truly above 
all the beasts which walk on the earth of the world. 
O.M. 31 2. This is not a Celtic word, but like Irish, biast, 
and Gaelic biast. Old Fr. fieste, is derived from the 
Latin bestia. English beast. The Celtic equivalent is 
mil, which is also preserved in Cornish. See Mil. 

BESTE, v. subs. Thou hast been. 2 pers. s. pret. of bos. 
In construction veste, as IK a veste. Llwyd, 245. 

BESTYL, s. m. The gall. This is written bistel in the 
Cornish Vocabulary, and bystel, and bystyl in the Ordin- 
alia. Gans an Edhewon dr6k dheivas a ve dythgtis, tebel 
lycour, eysyll bestyl kerne-skis, by the Jews bad drink was 
brought, wicked liquor, hyssop and gall mixed. M.C. 
202. The later forms were besl, bexl. See Bistel. 

BESY, v. a. To pray. A mutation of pesy, qd. v. My a 



lever, aw broder, ny a vyn mos dhe besy, I say, my brother, 
we will go to pray. O.M. 1820. An lader an barth 
dychow a besys yn ketelma, the thief on the right side 
prayed in this manner. M.C. 193. Christ a besys yn del- 
ma yn luas le, Christ prayed in this manner in many a 
place. M.C. 204. 

BESYN, adv. Even to. This a late form, compounded of 
bes even to, and _y the. Tennyyn ban besyn peyll, draw 
it up to the knot. C.W. 112. In one MS. this is written 
bys an. Lead ve quyke besyn dhodha, lead me quickly to 
it. ibid. 114. Me a wel wedhan, ha'y thoppur uchel yn 
ban, besyn nev maow tevy, I see a tree, and its top very 
high above, even to heaven it is growing, ibid. 132. 

BET, prep. Up to, as far as. Bet an urma, hitherto, thus 
far, to this time. Llwyd, 24. Arm. bete, bete urema. 
W. -\-bet, 'fbehet, -\-behit. It is of frequent occurrence in 
the Liber Landavensis, and is a contracted form of pe 
hit, or pa hyd, which are the forms which occur in the 
Mabinogion. -\-Bet nanl ireilin ; bet gebenni; bet rit ir 
main ; bet tal ir brinn ; behet tal ir fos ; behel hirmain ; 
Lib. Land. Pyhyt bynnac y bych yma, as long as thou 
shalt be here. Pa/iyt bynnac y kerdei velly, as long as it 
proceeded so. Hyl y bu dy glot ympedryvol byt bellaf, as 
far as thy glory was extended, even to the greatest 
distance. Mabinogion, ij. 204. quoted by Zeuss. 655. 
Bes and bys are later forms of bet. 

BETEGYNS, adv. Nevertheless. Gans quedh y ben y 
qued/tens, gwelas banna na ylly, dhe Jesus Christ betegyns 
ow kuthyl drdk ha belyny, with a cloth his head they 
covered, see a jot he could not, to Jesus Christ never- 
theless doing hurt and abuse. M.C. 96. Y a wiskis 
Christ gans gwyn, avel f6ly an scornye, hag an gweskas 
fest yn tyn, betegyns ger ny gewsy, they clad Christ with 
white ; like a fool they him scorned, and struck him in 
sharp measure, nevertheless a word he spake not. M.C. 
114. It is also written bytegyns and bytygyns. 

BETH, adv. Ever, at all. Joined to a substantive it sig- 
nifies any, as traveth, any thing. Tra velh oil a rdla 
leas, ny guvafomma neb tew, any thing at all that will 
give enough, I shall not find here on any side. C.W. 
76. With a negative it signifies none. Ni or den veth, 
no man at all knows. -{Nag es triwath veth dho vi, I do 
not at all pity. Llwyd, 274. In the Ordinalia it is 
always written as in Welsh, byth, qd. v. 

BETH, v. subs. He shall be. 3 pers. s. fut of bos. More 
correctly written bedh, qd. v. 

BEUCH, s. f. A cow. YA henwafbeuch, ha larow, oil an callel 
debarow aga henwyn kemerans, I will name them cow, 
and bull ; all the cattle feeding, their names let them 
take. C.W. 30. In the Cornish Vocabulary and the 
Ordinalia it is written buch, qd v. In the last age of 
the Cornish the guttural was softened into h, as bcuh, 
and finally omitted altogether. j Es leath luck gen veu, 
is there milk enough with the cow ; i. e. has the cow 
milk enough 1 Pryce, 234. W. bu, bumh, -\-bou, 
\-bucfi. The Welsh plural buchod, now in common use, 
is formed from the old term buch. Arm. bu, buoch, 
^bioch, ^buch. Ir. bo ; pi. ^bobes. Gael. bo. Manx, bua, 
booa. Gr. /3oS<?. Lat bos, vacca. 

BEUCH, v. subs. Ye should be. 2 pers. pi. subj. of Jos. 
Llwyd, 245. 

BEUZI, v. a. To immerge, drown. This is a later form of 
bedfiy, or budhy, qd. v. 



BEWNANS 



25 



BIDHEN 



BEVA, v. subs. Be he. 3 pers. s. subj. of b6s. Pub tr te 
dhen ywra lewte, beva den yank lo den edth, coatinnally 
do thou loyalty to man, be li a young man or an 
eld man. M.C. 175. Pub er te dhen gwra lewte, beva den 
yonh bo den eoth, orlhaff mar mynnyth oole, neffre gans 
anfais na so/A, continually do thou loyalty to man, be 
he' a young man or an old man, if thou wouldst listen 
to me, never flatter with the false. M.C. 175. 

BEW, v. a. To possess. A mutation of pete, qd. v. Noe 
dre dhe dhadder bras, ty a beiv ow gratfi neffrf; Noah, for 
thy great goodness, thou shalt ever possess my favour. 
O.M. 974. YSSK yn dhe see, a betve dhe ids Daveth, sit in 
the seat which thy father David possessed. O.M. 2392. 
Lemmyn dyskudh ha lavar, jyw an prfn a bew hep mar 
pous Jhesv an Nazare, now shew and say, which is the 
lot that shall obtain the coat of Jeans of Nazareth. P.O. 
2853. Ro dhym cv.<yl dysempys may bew vy cres, give me 
counsel immediately, that I may obtain peace. R.I). 2224. 

BEW, adj. Alive, living, quick, active. It changes in 
construction into veto, qd. v. OH del vynny, arluth her, 
my a wra yn pup tyller hedre veyn bew yn bys-ma, all as 
thou wishest, dear Lord, I will do in every place, as 
long as we are living in this world. P.O. 115. Me a 
wra prest hep ynny hedre ti&yf bew yn bys-ma, I will do 
ever without denial, so long as I am living in this world. 
P.O. 1020. 3/ara pedhuf bew vied/ten, my an talvylh 
d/iyuch, if I shall be alive a year, I will pay it to you. 
O.M. 2387. Written also Uu, and byw, qd. v. W. byw, 
+biu. Arm. bed. Ir. beo,"tbiu. Gael. beo. Manx, bio. 
Sansc. bdva, existence. Gr. /3/os. 

BEW, s. m. Life, the living principle. Ynprysm mos ny 
treynyn agan bew, kyn kenlrynnyn ol agan kyc, to go to 
prison we torment not our lives, though we should 
pierce all our flesh. R.D. 74. An houl ny golse y lyto, 
awos mclp den dhe verwel, na corf dasserhy dhe vete, the 
sun would not have lost its colour because of a son of 
man to die, nor a body rise again to life. R.D. 3085. 
Written in the Cornish Vocabulary biu, qd. v. W. byw, 
sobs. Gr. f3los. 

BEW, v. n. To live, exist In construction it changes into 
vew, and pew, qd. v. It was also written beu-e and beiva. 
Yn bys-ma rak dry ascor ty a vevi bys mayfy lays, in this 
world to bring offspring, thou shalt live till thou be grey. 
O.M. 72. Ny a whyth yn dhy vody aperys, may hylly 
bewe, we breathe into thy body a spirit, that thou mayest 
live. O.M. 62. Mur a wokyneth yiu manes dhe lesky 
peylh ayl den orto bewe, a great folly it is to go to burn 
a thing which a man can live upon. O.M. 475. Pup 
oil a gar betve, every one loves to live. R.D. 600. Ny 
yl an corf-na bewe, na sevel yn ban arte, that body can- 
not live, nor rise up again. R.I). 1121. Oil an beys a 
r6s dliedke, may hallons ynno bewa, all the world he 
gave to them, that they might in it live. O.M. 2832. 
Ny vynnaf gas6 onan vyth-ol dhe vewe, I will not leave 
any one of them to live. O.M. 1697. Kynyver den us 
ynwlds-na traynbys ow peuie, as many men as are in 
the land, or thing in the world living. O.M. 1030. 
W. byw. Arm. beva, da veva. 

BEWENS, v. n. Let them live. 3rd pers. pi. imp. of bewe. 
Dhedhe me a worhemmyn, encressyens ha bewens pell, to 
them I command,let them increase and live long. O.M. 48. 

BEWNANS, s. m. Life, existence. It changes in con- 
struction into vewnans, qd. v. Ha'n bcwnans pan y'n 

E 



kylly, dhe'n dor ty a dreyl arte, and the life when thou 
losest it, to the earth thou shalt turn again. O.M. 63. Ray 
hyr lour etv ow bt-wnans, kymmer dyno wo enef, for long 
enough is my life, take my soul to thee. O.M. 848. 
Dynythys yw ow thermyn am bewnans yn bys-ma, arrived 
is the term of my life in this world. O.M. 1886. Spyrys 
a vewnans, the spirit of life. O.M. 1090. Anwedhana 
vewnans, the tree of life. C.W. 131. In latest Cornish 
it was written bewnas. W. bytcyd, buchfdh. Arm. bitez. 
Ir. beadhas, beatha, bioth, -\rbeothu. Gael, beath. Manx, 
ben, bioid. Gr. /}<O'TOS, pio-rrj. Lat. vita. 

BEYDH, s. m. A grave. Another form of bedh, qd. v. 
Ha mar ny ivrer y wythe, y dhyskyblon a'n lader yn mes 
an beydh, and if it is not guarded, his disciples will 
steal him out of the tomb. R.D. 343. 

BEYF, v. subs. I may be. 1 pers. s. subj. of Jos. In con- 
struction veyfandfcyf, qd. v. 

BEYN, s. f. Pain. A mutation of peyn, qd. v. Gwy- 
theuch why y, ma na v6ns remuvys dhe gen lyller, war 
beyn tennu ha cregy, watch ye them, that they be not 
removed to another place, on pain cf drawing and hang- 
ing. O.M. 2064. 

.BEYN, v. subs. We should be. 1 pers. pi. subj. of Ms. 
Ha saw ny gynes ynioedh, na'n beyn mar hager dhywedh 
nu mar garow, and save us with thee also, that we may 
not have so cruel an end, nor so sharp. P.O. 2895. 
Another form oibyen. 

BEYS) s. m. The world. Yn peswere gwreys perfyth dhe'n 
beyn ol golowys g/dn, on the fourth be made perfect to 
the world all bright lights. O.M. 34. Bys gorfen beys, 
to the end of the world. O.M. 584. Another form of 
lys, qd. v. 

BEYS, v. a. He will pray. Another form of bys, a mutation 
ofpys, qd. v. Banneth dhe vam kekyfrys nefre dhyso, my 
a bey*, the blessing of thy mother likewise be ever on 
thee, I pray. O.M. 461. 

BEZO, s. m. A little hoop, a small wheel. Llnyd, 109. 
This is a late form of bisow, qd. v. 

BIAIL, s. f. An axe, hatchet, bill. Pryce. Boell is 
another form, qd. v. W. bivyell, from pwyo, to smite, 
or strike. Ann. bouchnl. Ir. i-biail. Gael, ^biail. Germ. 
biel. Eng. bill, 

BIAN, adj. Little, small. Den bian, a little man. Marh 
bian, a colt, i. e. a little horse. Llivyd, 57. This is a 
later form ofbiohan; the guttural ch being first changed 
into h, and finally omitted. See Bechan. 

BIBAN, s. f. A pipe. A mutation of piban, qd. v. as an 
biban, the pipe. Llioyd, 231. 

BIDN, s. m. The head. This is a late corruption of byn, 
a mutation of pyn, used in the formation of the prepo- 
sition war byn, against. J Ha ryney vedn dirra bidn 
mor ha gwens, and they will last against sea and wind. 
Pryce. J Ha gava do ny agan cabmmv, pokara ny gava an 
gy leb es camma warbidn ny, and forgive us our trespass- 
es, as we forgive* them that trespass against us. ibid. 

BIDNETHEIN, s. m. A hawk. Cornish Vocabulary acci- 
piter. This word should perhaps be read bid, an edhyn, 
i. e. bid, the bird. Bid must be connected with W. bod, 
a buzzard. Lat. buteo. 

BIDHEN, s. m. A meadow. Llwyd, 33. This is not a 
Celtie word, being unknown to the Welsh and Armorio, 
and is formed from the English mead, by the change of 
the initial into its cognate b. So Gael, miadan. 



BLEC 

BIDHY, v. a. To drown. Part, lidfits. Llwyd, 250. 
Anotlier form of budhy, qd. v. 

BIDHYZI, v. a. To dip, baptize. Pryce. A late fonn of 
bedidhia, qd. v. 

BIGAL, s. m. A shepherd. Llwyd, 114. The same as 
bugel, qd. v. 

BI'GEL, s. m. The navel. The same as begi'l, qd. v. 

BIHAN, adj. Little, small. Llwyd, 113. A later form of 
bichan. See bian, and bechan. 

BIXDORN, s. m. A hall. Cornish Vocabulary, refcctorium, 
where only it is found. Supposed to be corrupted in 
the MS. and to be read buidorn, from buid meat. See 
Norris's Cornish Drama, ij. 327. 

BIS, v. subs. Let him be. 3 pers. s. imp. of 16s. Llwyd, 245. 
W. bid. It is also used as the 3 pers. of the fut. J Bis 
rei-s dhodho, he will be obliged, i. e. there will be 
need to him. Llwyd, 247. In this case it is a late form 
of byd't. 

BIS, s. m. A finger. This form as well as bes, is given in 
the Cornish Vocabulary, which also furnishes bis truit, 
allax, the toe ; literally, the finger of the foot, as in 
W. bys trocd. Arm. biz-troad. For the Celtic synonyms 
see Bcs. 

B1SGWETH, adv. Ever, continually This word, written 
also bisqueth, is a later form of bylhgweth, qd. v. Rag 
gans te yw an michternelh, ha'n crevder, ha'n worryans, 
rag bisgwcth ha bisgvieth, for thine is the kingdom, and 
the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Pryce s 
Vocabulary. 

BISOU, s. f. A ring. This is the fonn preserved in the 
Cornish Vocabulary ; in later Cornish it was written 
besaw. W. byson, from bys, a finger. Arm. bizou. 

BISTEL, s. m. The gall. This is the form preserved in 
the Cornish Vocabulary, fel. In the Ordinalia it is 
generally written bystel, bystyl, and bestel. Oilensc gynef 
parys, bystel eysyl kymyskys, wassel, mars us sechcs Iras, 
behold them with me ready, gall and hyssop mixed, 
wassail, if there is great thirst. P.C. 2977. Dywcs a 
yrhys dedhe, dhym rosons bystyl wfierow, byth ny fynnys 
y eve, drink I asked of them, to me they gave bitter 
gall, never would I drink it R.D. 2601. W. bush/I. 
Arm. bestl. 

BIT, s. m. The world. En bit, Cornish Vocabulary, mundus, 
the world. En being the definite article. This is the 
old orthography of W. byd, and Cornish bj)s, qd. v. 

B1TH, adv. Ever. More generally written byth, qd. v., 
as in Welsh. 

BITUGUETH, adv. Ever. Ni wel bithgweth, he will never 
see. Llwyd. 248. The same as bythquclh, qd. v. 

BIU, s. m. Life. This the old orthography preserved in 
the Cornish Vocabulary, where also we have biu en lac/at, 
papilla, the pupil of the eye, lit. the life of the eye. 
The orthography followed in the Ordinalia is bew, qd. v. 

BIUH, s. f. A cow. This is the late form of buck. J Man 
viuh yen leauh, the cow is in calf. Llwyd, 230. J Ma 
hueh biuh dkodho, he has six cows. ibid. 224. 

BLANSB, v. a. To plant. A mutation of planse, qd. v. 
Mos dhe blanse my a yn dor an dyr gwelen-ma, I will go 
to plant these three rods in the ground. O.M. 18S7. 
Mos dhe blanse my a vyn en gweel yn ncp plath tek hag 
ylyn, I will go to plant the rods in some fair and 
pleasant place. O.M. 2080. 

BLEO, v. n. He will please. A mutation of plek, qd. v. 



26 BLENYDNYOW 

Dhe vannct/i dhym mur a blek, ha banneth ow mam yn- 
wedh, thy blessing is most delightful to me, and the 
blessing of my mother likewise. O.M. 415. Dhe wheyl 
yn ta dhym a blek, dew vody dha ouch yn gwyr, thy work 
delights me well, two good bodies ye are truly. O.M. 
2460. Yn ur-na mar a gewsys falsury, ha na blek genus 
henna hafals, te dote dustunny, in that hour, if I have 
spoken falsehood, .and that is not pleasing to thee and 
false, do thou bear witness. M.C. 82. 

BLEC, s. m. A fold, turn, course. A mutation of plec, 
qd. v. Ha pup ur chatd Abel, y a soioyn myl bUk gwel, 
Abel a'npren rag henna, and always the cattle of Abel, 
they thrive a thousand times better, Abel shall pay for 
that. O.M. 523. 

BLEDHEN, s.-f. A year. In the Cornish 'Vocabulary, it 
is written blidhen, and in the Ordinalia bledhen, lledhyn, 
blydhen, pi. bledhynnow. By Llwyd, it is written blcdh- 
an, which is the late form given by Jordan also, the 
plural being corrupted in late Cornish into blcdhydnyow, 
bledhednyow. May haller govos dhe ivyr ha gweles yn 
bledhen hyr, py gymrnys hijs may ieffo, that it may be 
known truly, and seen in a year long, to how great a 
length it may grow. O.M. 2103. Ray yfue kyns y vos 
gurys dew ugens blydhen ha whf, for there were, before it 
was done, forty years and six. P.C. 351. Yawythy 
vody napotre bys vynary, kyn fa yn bcdh my'l vlydhen, 
they will preserve his body, that it never decays, though 
it be in the grave a thousand years. P.C. 3201. Nans 
yw lemmyn tremenes ncp dew cans a vledhynnmi, now 
there are gone by some two hundred years. O.M. 6-57. 
W. blwydh, blieydhyn. Arm. bloaz, blixen, ^blizien. Ir. 
bliaghain, ^bliadan. Gael, bliadna. Manx, blein. 

BLEDZHIAN, s. m. A flower. This form as well as 
bkdzhan, given by Lhvyd, 240, are late corruptions of 
blodon, qd. v. W. blodeuyn. 

BLEGADOW, s. m. Wishes. A mutation of plegadcrw, 
qd. v. En Edhewon yntredhe a ivhelas du.stunneou; rag 
peyne Christ ha syndye, ny gewsys dhe blcgadoiv, the Jews 
between them sought witnesses to punish Christ and 
keep him fast, they spake not to (their) wishes. M.C. 90. 

BLEGYOW, s. m. Blossoms, flowers. This word is a cor- 
ruption of a plural, answering to the Welsh blodau, the 
g having the same sound as in English regent, which is 
a frequent corruption of d in Cornish. The singular is 
blodon, which Was also corrupted into bledzhan, bledzhi- 
an, = blegyan, o'blejyan. Diu-ayl blegyow, Palm Sunday, 
which is also called in Welsh, Dyw sul y blodau, Sunday 
of the blossoms, and in Arm. Disul-bleuniou. Dewsul- 
blegyow, pan ese yn mysk y abestely, y wrug dhe re anedhe 
mos dhe'n dre, ha dtgylmy an asen, ha dry gansc, Palm 
Sunday, when he was among his apostles, he caused 
some of them to go to the town, and to untie the ass, 
and bring it with them. M.C. 27. 

BLEIDH, s. m. A wolf. Cornish Vocabulary, bleit, lupus. 
The same authority explains Linx, by commisc bleit 
hahcln', for which a more recent hand has substituted 
kymmysk bifid a chi, which is pure Welsh. It means the 
mixture of a wolf and dog. W. blaidh, ^bleid. Arm. 
bleiz, tiled. Ir. t bled, fad. Gael./oo/. 

BLENYDNYOW, s. m. Years. This is a late corruption 
of bledhynyow, but there is a similar form in the Welsh 
blynydhoedd. Bs vf/dh mar was, nangew termyn trem- 
enys a vlenydhyow inoy es naw cans, though it be so great, 



BLONOGATH 



27 



BO 



not is the time passed over of years more than nine 
hundred. C.W. 138. 

BLES, s. m. Flour, meal. Bles fin, fine flour. Llwyd, 123. 
This is a later form of blot, qd. v. 

BLEW, s. m. Hair. Written in Cornish Vocabulary bleu. 
Bleu yn pen, capillus, hair of the head ; blew en lagat, 
palpebrae. eye-lash. Blew melyn, yellow hair ; blew glds, 
gray hairs. Ymn daqgrow me clybye dke dreys, rak eivn 
karenge, saw me a's sech gans ow bleu}, there are tears 
wetting thy feet, for true love, but I will dry them with 
my hair. P.O. 484. Homma gans daggrow kejfrys re's 
holhas, gans y blew y fons syhys, this one with wars 
also hath washed them, with her hair they were dried. 
P.C. 521. Why a'm gwel overdevys ythoma tvarbarth gans 
b/etc, you see me overgrown that I am altogether with 
hair. C.W. 110. W. blew, -\bleu. Arm. bleo. Of. also 
Ir. -\-clumh. Gael, cluimh. Manx, clooie. Lat. pluma. W. 
plw. Eng. flue, fluff. $a,nsc.pal, to grow. Observe in 
Welsh, Uetu means hair in general, but the hair of the 
head is called gwallt, which is preserved in the old 
Cornish gols, and Ir.fatl, Gael./o/ft, Manx,/oft. But a 
single hair of the head is called in Welsh oleviyn. The 
long hair of the tails and manes of animals is called 
7-hau-n. in Welsh, and in Cornish ren, qd. v. 

BLEWAC, adj. Hairy, full of hair, shaggy. Llwyd, 120. 
Blen-ac, coynt yui, ha hager, ny toon pana vest ylla bos, 
hairy, rough it is, and ugly, I know not what beast it is. 
C.W. 114. W. blewog. Arm. bleouec, blevec. 

BLEWEN, s. f. A hair, a single hair. Blew is the plural 
aggregate, from which the singular blewen is formed, 
and from blewen again, the plural blewennow. (Com- 
pare Welsh gwlan, wool, sing, gwlanen, flannel, pi. 
givlaneni.) Del wascaf y peydrennow, may fo gos y 
vletvennmv, ha' y corf oil kyns ys helhy, as I strike behind, 
that his hairs may be bloody, and all his body, before 
leaving off. P.C. 2095. W. blewyn. Arm. bleven. 

BLIDHEN, s. f. A year. This is the older form preserved 
in the Cornish Vocabulary. See Bledhan. 

BLODON, s. m. A flower, a blossom. Cornish Vocabulary, 
flos. W. blodon, blodyn, bloden, blaivd, and t bio', pi. 
blodau, whence s. blodeuyn. Arm. bleun. Ir. bladh, 
bktidhin. Gael, blath, llaithin. Manx, 6/00. N. H. Ger. 
bliile. Germ, lluthe. Lat. flos. Sansc. phul, to flourish. 

BLODH, s. m. A year. Me a servyas pell an beys, aban 
vema kynsformys, naiv cans bl6dh of, me agryes, ha dek 
warncgans, I have served long the world, since I was 
first formed, I am nine hundred years, I believe, and 
thirty. C.W. 142. This form answers to the Welsh 
bhvydh. Arm. lloaz 

BLONEC, s. m. Fat, lard, grease. Cornish Vocabulary, 
adeps. W. bloneg. Arm. blonec. Ir. blunag, -^blonac. 
Gael, blonag. Manx, blennick. 

BLOXOGATH, s. m. The will. Ow blonogath yw henna ; 
may toccans ommapur splanfrutes, dhomb6dhrdgmaga, 
my will is this ; that they bear here very bright fruits, 
to feed the appetite. C.W. 8. Arlitth, benegas reby, 
ortfi w: givarnya yn della ; dheth vlonogath pur dheffry 
rebu collenwys neflra, Lord, blessed be thon, to warn me 
in this manner ; thy will very truly be fulfilled for ever. 
ibid. 96. Gordhys rebo Deiv an Tds, dha vlonogath rebo 
gwrys, worshipped be God the Father, thy will be done. 
ibid. 154. Parys 6v, Arluth Brentyn, dha vlonogath 
Invar dhaf, ready I am, Lord King, thy will speak to 



me. ibid. 162. This is a later form of bolungeth, qd. v. 

BLOT, s. m. Flour, meal. Cornish Vocabulary, farina. 
This is the older form of the word, which was changed 
in recent times into bles, W. blawd, + blot. Arm. blevd, 
bled. Gael, lleith, to grind. Fr. bled, Me, corn. 

BLU, s. m. A parish. A mutation of flu, qd. v. H'a 
nynsyw efaparth Dew, bysy vye oil an blu rag y tvytfa, 
dh'y worre aber yn bedh, and if be not on the side of 
God, hard would it be for all the parish to keep him, to 
lay him in the grave. R.D. 2106. 

BLUTHYE, v. a. To wound. Peder, Andrew, ha Jowanj 
yn mcdh Christ, deuth holymtch ve, bys yn menedh^ ha me 
gimn, trystys us ivorth ow bluthye, Peter, Andrew, and 
John, said Christ, come follow me, even to the mountain, 
and I being weak, sadness is me wounding. M.C. 53. 

BLYGYE, v. a. To bend, to bow down, to pray. A muta- 
tion of plygye, qd. v. Ha y gras dheuchivy re wrontyo, 
ncfre dke blegye dhodho, yn dalleth hag yn dywedh, and 
his grace may he grant to you, ever to bow down before 
him, at the beginning and at the end. O.M. 1727. 

BLYN, s. m. The point. Warnedhy yma moedhen uhelgans 
lues scoren; saw n6th oil yns hep dylyow, hag adr6 
dhedhy rusken nyns ese an blyn dhe'n ben, n6th yw oil 
hy scorennow, in it there is a tree high with many 
boughs; but they are all bare, without leaves, and 
around it, bark there was not from the top to the stem, 
all its boughs are bare. O.M. 779. I consider ben to be 
the samo word as W. b6n. 

BLYTHEN, s. f. A year. Syth cans blythen, seven hundred 
years. R.D. 2494. This is to be read blydhen. See 
Bledhen. 

BLYVEN, s. f. A feather, a pen. An blyven-ma, this pen. 
Llwyd, 244. A mutation of plyvcn, qd. v. 

BO, v. subs. He may be. 3pers. s. subj. of bos. In construc- 
tion it changes into vo, and fo. Amen, yn delta re bo, 
Amen, so be it. O.M. 462. Banneth an Tns r'agas bo, 
the blessing of the Father be yours. O.M. 1723. Beneqes 
re bo an Tds, blessed be the Father. O.M. 1745. flak 
lowene ny 'gen bo yn le may fuen, for joy may not be 
ours in the place where we have been. R.D. 168. Ragas 
bo ores, peace be to you. R.D. 1285. Agan guryans na'm 
bo nieth, let not our work be a shame to me. R.D. 1878. 
In mdh Pedyr, dhym na as troys na leyf na vo go/hys, 
says Peter, to me omit not foot or hand, that it be not 
washed. M.C. 46. Y elh, ha Jesus ganse bys yn Pilat o 
Justis, anodho bres may rotte, dre y vres mayfo ledhys, 
they went, and Jesus with them, even to Pilate who 
was justice, of him judgment that he might give, by his 
judgment that he might be killed. M.C. 98. W. bo. 

BO, conj. Either, or. Benegas yw neb a gare Du dris pub 
Ira us yn bys, hag a wodheffb yn wlmrc dhodho kymmys 
us ordnys, bo clevas bo peth kescar bo dre preson presonys, 
oil en da ha drok kepare, dhe Jesus bedhens yrassys, 
blessed is he that loves God above every thing that is 
in the world, and beareth patiently as much as is de- 
creed to him, be it sickness, or poverty, or by prison 
imprisoned, all the good and evil alike, to Jesus be 
thanks. M.C. 24. Pub er te dhen gura lewte, leva den 
yontc bo den c6th, always to man do loyalty whether 
he be a young man or an old man. M. C. 
175. Me a grys ynno y sef, mars yw a barth Dew a n'f, 
bo ken deaul yw, I believe he will stay in it, if he be on 
the part of the God of heaven, or else he is a devil. R.D. 



BOD 

2104. This word as well as its mutation po. which is 
similarly used, is evidently an adaptation of the verb 
bo, be it ; exactly the same as soil in French. 

BOBA, s. m. A blockhead, a booby. Nyns yw lemyn un 
boba, fcynq-ys y vos alemma, yn gwyn ef a fydh gwyskys, 
he is not now a booby, before that he goes hence, in 
white he shall be clad. P.O. 1778. Tewel avel un bobbn 
a wruk, pan fue acussys, hold his tongue like an idiot he 
did, when he was accused. P.O. 2385. MartJi a'm hues 
a'lh lavarow, dhe gewsel mar dal gans an bobba casadow, 
wonder is to me of thy words, to speak so blindly with 
the hateful idiot. P.O. 2394. This word is borrowed 
from the English. The wordio&a is in common use in 
Wales, but with a very different meaning, and applied 
to elderly females, answering exactly to gammer, in 
English. It is borrowed from the child's Vocabulary, 
being its pronunciation of modryb, an aunt. 

BOBYL, s. f. A people. A mutation of pobyl, qd. v. Mar 

Zwrcth, hep falladow, mu,r an bobyl a verow, ha henna 
^ ih vye, if thou dost not, without fail, many of the 
people wiJI die, and that would be a pity. O.M. 1803. 
A Das Dem, y'th wolowys, dew galow an bobyl-ma, O 
Father God, in thy lights, hear the call of this people. 
O.M. 1832. Gwellyw un den dhe verwel ages ott an bo- 
byl lei dhe vos keyllys, better it that one man should die 
than all the faithful people to be lost. P.O. 447. 

BOOH, s. f. The cheek. En voch, Cornish Vocabulary, 
fades. The later form was b6h, qd. v. W. loch. Arm. 
boch. Lat. bucca. Sansc. mukhas. 

BOCH, s. m. A buck, he-goat. Cornish Vocabulary, caper 
Tel hyrcus. W. bwch. Arm. bouch. Ir. boc, and bocc. 
Gael. hoc. Manx, bock. Swed. and Germ. lock. Belg. 
boecke. Ang. Sax. bucca. Eng. luck. Fr. buc. It. becoo. 
Sansc. bucca, (buk, to cry.) 

BOCIIAN, adj. Little. This form is preserved in the 
Cornish Vocabulary, and approaches nearly the Welsh 
bychan, which in parts of Flintshire is pronounced 
bwchan. See Bechan. 

BOCHES. s. m. A little, a small matter. Och, me re hue 
booties coynt, hag eth yn rdk re a poynt pur vyr, pan wrck 
dhe Pylai ladh Cryst, Oh, I have been little cunning, 
and went forward too much point blank truly, when I 
made Pilate kill Christ. P.O. 3031. The guttural was 
sometimes displaced for h, and written bohes, qd. v. 
(W. bychod.) The oldest form must have been bochod, 
whence bochodoc. 

BOCHESOG, adj. Poor. Another later form of bochodog. 
PL boc/tesegyon. Efagalse bos gwyrthys a try cans dyner 
ha may, ha re-na galser dhe rey dlie vochesegyon yn beys, 
it might have been sold for three hundred pence and 
more, and those might have been given to the poor in 
the world. P.O. 638. Other forms are bohosugion, and 
by contraction bohowgyon, bosogyon. W. bychydog, pi. 
bychydogwn. Ir. ibocht, bochta'n. Gael, bochd. Manx, 
bocht. Cf. Sansc. bhiks, to beg. 

BOOHODOC, adj. Poor. This is the oldest form preserved 
in the Cornish Vocabulary, and derived from bochvd, 
W. bychod, which is represented by boches. 

BOD, s. m. A dwelling, house. It enters into the names 
of several parishes and villages in Cornwall, as Bodmin, 
Bodwen, Bodrugnn, <fec. The d is frequently changed 
into *, as Bomnketh, Boskerras, and often omitted, as 
Bohurtha, Bokelly. In Wales also it is of common oc- 



28 BOHOSOG 

currence in the names of mansions, as Bodidlin, Bodys- 
gafkn, Jiodidris, and also of parishes as Bodfdern, and 
Bodwrog, in Anglesey ; Bnlwnog, in Arvon. Teut. bod. 
Old Swed. bwla, a village. Swed. boo, a dwelling. Old 
Sax. boed. Bng. abode,. Germ. bade. Pol. bauda, bvdo. 
Goth, bovden. a temple. Sanac. abad.. 

BODREDHES, s. m. Bruises, sores, ^ythquetli na ve bom 
a won, a rollo w/utfirair gales, del y's brewafyn dan gen; 
kekyfrys kyc ha crohen, del vedh luen n bodredhes, never 
was a stroke that I know of, that could give a blow so 
hard, as I will strike her under the chin ; flesh and 
skin also, that it shall be full of sores. O.M. 2714. This 
is a mutation of potredhes, the plural of potrcdh. qd. v. 

BODH, s. m. The will, good pleasure. DM parathys scon 
yth of, rdggru/hyl 61 bodh dhe ivys, to Paradise soon I 
shall go, to do all the will of thy judgment. O.M. 340. 
Dkynny ny travyth ny gref, aban yw y vodh ef y lesky 
hep failadow, to us there is nothing grievous, since it is 
his will to burn it without fail. O.M. 483. Dens pan 
vo bodh ganse y, aga 16s a vydh parys, let them come 
when they will, their food will be ready. P.C. 694. 
Hag migternes yw yn ncf, d!ie n<5* gordhys liy yw gyw ; 
eletk d/terygtky a s&f, leas m$l y bodh a syw, for queen she 
is in heaven, to be worshipped she is worthy ; angels 
before her shall stand, ma7i3 r thousands her will shall 
follow. M.C. 226. W. bod/i. 

BODHAB, adj. Deaf. Dhe den lodhnr na gleiu veth, mych- 
lern fc&r Are grus an Tils, (in gwenl qweres mar a'm vSdh, 
dhe Dew dim voi/ y whon gras, to a deaf man that hear- 
eth nothing, dear king, by the grace of the Father, if 
the rods shall be help to me, I give the more thanks to 
God. O.M. 2013. Yn paw may 'tfi ?se, efa saiuye an 
glevyon, dall na bodhar ny asc nay omlanax nagonon, iu 
the country that be was, he healed the sick ; blind, nor 
deaf, he left not, nor lame none. M.C. 25. This was at 
last corrupted into bythac. W. bydhar. Arm. bouzar. 
Ir. bodhar. Gael, bodhar. Manx, bouyr. Sansc. bad/lira, 
(badh, to bind.) Eng. bother. 

BOELL, s. f. An axe, a hatchet. Gans ow boell notvydh 
Icmmijs nif a squal pub peis tymber, hag a pleyn oil an 
planckes, hag a sA piib plankyn sure, with mine axe 
newly sharpened, I will hew every piece of timber, and 
will plane all the planks, and will set every plank sure. 
C.W. 166. This is another form of Biail. qd. v. 

BOEN, s. m. Beef. Written also bowen. Pryce. Lat. 
bovina. 

BOBS, v. subs. Let him be. 3 pers. s. imp. of bos. Llwyd, 
245. W. bo&l. 

BOH, s. f. The cheek. In construction voh. PI. bohow. 
|Z3Ao rei sttran war an vdh, to give a slap on the cheek. 
Lltpyd, 117. This is a later form of Boch. qd. v. 

BOHE8, s. m. A little, a small matter. A arluth perfetk, 
liohes ew henna dhynny, myns a defynno an geydh, my 
ha'm gjorek a wra dyhry, Lord perfect, that is a small 
matter for us, all that comes in one day my wife and 
I will cat. O.M. 384. This is a later form of boches, 
qd. v. 

BOHOSOQ, adj. Poor. PL bohosagyon. Why a gyf bohosu- 
gyonpup ur warnoch ow carme ; pan vynnock agas fionon, 
why a gyl gnl da dhedhe, you have the poor always on 
you calling ; when, ye will yourselves, you may do good 
to them. P.O. 543. Why a gyf bo/iosogyon. M.C, 37. 
Lyes to>~n da>yn bys-nui re wruk dhe vohosugyon, many a 



BONES 



29 



BORELES 



good turn in this world he hath done to the poor. P.O. 
3108. This is a later form of Boohodoc, qd. v. 

BOL, s. m. The belly, pannch. Rudh y couOi dhym- 
mo bones o0 hobersvn, a fue gitres tevy dar bol, red 
it behoves my habergeon to be for me, which was made 
to spread round my belly. R.D. 2537. W. bol, bola. 
IT. bolg, f6o/c. Gael. bolg. Manx, bolg. In Welsh and 
Erse, it also means a bag. "Bulgas Galli sacculos scor- 
teos vocant." Festus. Gr. fio\^os, a hide. .iJol. /SoX<yo?. 
Lat. bnlya. Goth, balgs. Belg, holy. Ang. Sax. beige. 
Eng. bilg<\ 

BOL, s.m. A pit. a hole. A mutation ofpoi, qd. v. Y codh- 
astcar boly hyll, she fell on the nape of her neck. M.C.165. 

BOL, s. m. Clay. A das, del whyihres, a bol hag a brys 
fwmyi/s, bydh dynny nerth ha gweres, rag warnas.presl 
ny a bys, O Father, as -we are thy work, made of clay 
and soil, be to us strength and help, for on thee ever 
we pray. O.M. 1070. W. mol, concrete. 

BOLEXEGETH, s. m. The will. Llicyd, 240. It is gen- 
erally written in the Ordinalia Bolungeth, qd. v. 

BOLLA, s. m. A drinking cup, a bowl. Uuyd, 114. Ir. 
bolla. Gael. 161. 

BOLUXGETH, s. m. The will.. Bolungeth Detv yw hem- 
ma, bones gorrys an spus-ma, pan dremenna a'n bys-ma, 
yn y anow, the will of God is this, that these kernels be 
put, when he passes away from this world, in his mouth. 
O.M. 873. Dhe volungeth yn pup le, Arluth vJiel, my a 
wra, thy will in every place, O high Lord, I will do. 
O.M. 1165. Oto bolungefh mar mynnylh y collenwel hep 
lei vj/th, dhe vap Ysac a geryth, y ojjrynne reys yw dkys 
tear venedfi a dhysijuedhaf dhyso gy, del lavaraf, my will 
if thou wilt fulfil it without any hesitation, thy son 
Isaac, whom thou lovest, it is necessary for thee to offer 
him on the mountain which I shall shew to thee, as I 
say. O.M. 1277. Formed from the Latin voluntate, by 
the common change of the first t into , and then into 
g soft. The Welsh equivalent is ewyllys. Arm. ioul. 
Sansc. val, vli, to wish. 

BOM, s. m. A blow, a smith's sledge hammer. PL bom- 
yon, bommyn. Ty a fydh whare drog lam, dhe escarn ol, 
Kelep tarn, gans ow bom a fydh brewys, thou shalt soon 
have a bad chance, thy bones all, every bit, with my 
blow shall be bruised. O.M. 2744. Rag my a vydh an 
kynsu, bom yn vyag a rollo, for I will be the first that 
will give a blow on the journey. O.M. 2163. Awos 
a gat fas ha tros, ny wrn bom y worfene, notwithstanding 
your bragging and noise, a blow will not finish him. 
P.O. 2111. Ow bommyn yn maithys glew, my blows are 
wondrous light. P.O. 2088. Gwask war an min, bommyn 
dreys keyn, strike on the edge, blows over the back. 
P.C. 2729. W. pwmp. 

BOMB, comp. v. There may be to me, I may have. Ro 
dhym an gras, may borne vu,ha gwel a'thfds, give me the 
grace, that I may have a view and sight of thy face. 
R.D. 842. 

BONDHAT, a. m. A round, or circle. Lhoyd, 153. 

BONES, v. subs. To be. This is an enlarged form of Jo*, 
qd. v., and is generally written bonos in M.C. Nyns 
yw da bones un dn y honan heb ooviyth py cowethes, it is 
not good that any man should be by himself without 
a male or female companion. O.M. 94. Pan dra ijl 
henna bones, lavar lihymmo vy u-harre, what thing cau 
that be 1 tell me directly. O.M. 157. Dreftn ow bones 



benen, (y a yl dhym daryvas, though I am a woman, thou 
mayest make it known to me. O.M. 161. Lemyn agan 
sone gwru, kyns ys bones anhedhys, now bless us before 
it is inhabited. O.M. 1722. Me a grys bones an yu'ds vw 
kul maystri bras, I believe that the fellow is making 
great violence. P.O. 358. Pyw a ylta gy bones, who 
canst thou be. R.D. 2511. "Rag bonus agan pech mar 
vear, because our sin was so great. M.C. 8. Ol toar- 
barth y a armas, gweff yw die vonas ledhys, altogether 
they cried out, he is worthy to be killed. M.C. 95. 
Me ny won bonas kefys yn den-ma byVi acheson may 
rys y vonas ledhys, I know not that there is found in 
this man any guilt that it is necessary that he should 
be killed. M.C. 141. 

BONS, v. subs. They should be. 3 pers. pi. subj. of b6s. 
In construction it changes into v6ns, andyww. Rysyw 
porrys dhe onon merwel rag pobyl an tolas, pobyl Jesus y 
honon no, vans tregis gans Satnas, very necessary it is 
that one should die for the people of the country, that 
the people of Jesus themselves should not be dwelling 
with Satan. M.C. 89. Han dhew-na bys pan vdns 
squytfi, war Christ y fans ow cronkye, and those two un- 
til they were weary, Christ were beating. M.C. 132. 
Py le vydh an gweel plynsys, may fans mocha onourys, 
ha'n gtvella may wrons tevy, where shall these rods be 
planted, that they may be most honoured, and may 
grow best. O.M. 2033. See v6ns, and fdns. W. b&nt, 
B6ns also occurs as the 3 pers. pi. of the preterite, 
answering to W. buant. Ow treys homma gans dagrow 
re's fiolhas, gans y blevt y fans syhys, my feet this one 
with tears hath washed, with her hair they were dried. 
P.C. 521. 

BONY, s. m. An axe, a hatchet YntrS dan gwren y 
trehy, rak cafas trus pren dedhy, ha y fastic gans ebyl 
pren ; otle genefvy bony, me a'n trech wharrc gynsy, ny'n 
sparyaf awos anken, in two let us cut it, to have a 
cross piece for it, and fasten it with pegs of wood ; be- 
hold I have an axe, I will cut it soon with it, I will 
not spare it because of trouble. P.C. 2564. Possibly a 
a mutation of pony, which would be connected with 
Welsh ptvynind, any pointed tool. 

BOOL, s. f. An axe, hatchet. "Oo in Cornish is pro- 
nounced as in English, or as a long, for boot is to be 
read bul." Llivyd, 228. It is the same word as boell, or 
biail. Heedh ow bool dhymmo towth la, ow thardar, ha'm 
mortholow, reach me my axe quickly, my auger, and my 
hammers. O.M. 1001. 

BOR, adj. Fat. Cornish Vocabulary, pinguis. This word 
is unknown to the Welsh and Armoric, but the Irish 
and Gaelic have barr, fat, suet. 

BORD, s. f. A board, a table. Llwyd, 88. W. lord, 
bwrdh. Arm. bourz. Ir. bord. Gael. bord. 

BORE, s. m. The morning. The existence of this word 
in the Cornish language is proved by the compound 
boreqwcth, but the word in common use was metin, qd. v. 
W. bore. Arm. bertre. Ir. \bwirach. Gr. icpial. Sansc. 
prac, (pur, to move, advance.) 

BOREGWETH, s. m. The morning time, morning. Llwyd, 
249. Compounded of bare, morning, and givetf*, a time ; 
so Welsh boregwaiih, 

BORELES, s. m. The herb comfrey. Cornish Vocabulary, 
consolda. " Consolida in the dictionaries is variously 
rendered, but always with reference to some herb with 



BOSSE 



30 



BOURN 



a thickening or strengthening quality. Pryce translates 
borelcs, ' the herb comfrey, the incrassating herb,' ta- 
king it from bar, without doubt. Zeuss refers to lore, 
morning, but this is hardly so plausible." Norris's Cor- 
nish Drama, ij. 330. Sec Lcs, a plant. 

BOETH, v. a. Bear thou. This is a mutation of porth, 
2 pers. s. imp. of porthy, qd. v. Frill an wedhen a sky- 
ans, dybbry byth no, bortk danger, the fruit of the tree of 
knowledge, never make delay to eat. O.M. 168. My 
a lever dhys, Urry, na berth dout ahanafvy, rag nyfydh 
ken dhe perthy, I tell thee, Uriah, bear no doubt of me, 
for there is no reason to bear it. O.M. 2206. 

BOS, v. subs. To be, to exist. In construction it changes 
into vos. Saw an wedhen dhym yma hy bos sychys mar- 
thys vras, but the tree it is to me a great wonder that it 
is dry. O.M. 756. B6s sech ha tek an awel, dhe Dew y 
coth dhyn grasse, that the weather is dry and fair it is 
incumbent on us to thank God. O.M. 1147. Yma cas 
bras tvharfelhys ha codhys war dhe pobel, ny yllons ids 
nyfyrys, great misfortunes have occurred and fallen on 
thy people, they cannot be numbered. O.M. 1544. 
Gwell yiu y vos ef marow, ys bos an popel kellys, ha 
dampnys dhe tewolgow, it is better that lie should be 
dead, than that the people should be lost and condemned 
to darkness. P.O. 2464. W. bdd, tbot. A.na.bout. Ir. 
betth. Gael. bi. Mans, be. Sansc. bhu. 

BOS, s. m. Meat, food. Pup mitner bos yn bys-ma us dhe, 
dybry may teleth, rag den ha best magata, yn dhe lester ty 
afedh, all manner of food in this world, which ought to 
be eaten, for man and beast as well, in thy vessel thou 
shalt have. O.M. 993. Arluth me a'th pt.ys a dhybry 
gynef un prys, dre dhe vodh, ha'lh dyakyblon, ray yma 
bos parusys dhyso ha dhcdhe kefrys, Lord I pray thee to 
eat with me a meal, by thy will, and thy disciples, for 
there is food prepared for thee and for them likewise. 
P.O. 458. This is a contracted form of hoys, qd. v. 

BOS, s. m. A dwelling, a house. Govy er bos dywolow, 
woe is me for the abode of devils. R.D. 301. This is a 
later form of bod, qd. v 

BOS, s. m. A bush. A dhysempys whylewhe mar as ethe 
dhe cudhc yn nep b6s, tewl, py yn sorn, immediately 
seek ye, if he be gone to hide in some bush, hole, or 
in a corner. R.D. 539. This is formed from the English j 
lush. 

BOSA, v. subs. To be. This is a poetic form of bos. 
Me a leverys dhywhy ow bosa henna dejffry, I have told 
you that I am he really. P.O. 1120. 

BOSAF, v. subs. I am. This is an anomalous form, 
found only in late Cornish, being the infinitive mood, 
with a personal ending attached. Splanna es an howl 
devery, why a .yll warbarth gwelas, ow bosaf pub preys, 
more resplendent than the sun shining, ye maj together 
see that I am at all times. C.W. 10. 

BOSCA, s. m. A cottage, hut. Pryce. This is a late 
word. 

BOSIAS, s. m. Fingers. This is given by Llwyd, 243, 
as a late plural of bes. 

BOSNOS, s. m. A bush of thorns. Ynui marth dhym a 
un dra an pyth lemmyn a welaf, an bosnos dytcy a wra, 
saw nyns ugy ow lesky, there is a wonder to me of one 
thing which now I see ; the bush is on fire, but is not 
burning. O.M. 1397. 

BOSSE, v. a. He could lean. Rag gwan spyrys, hag ef 



yn ten, caman na ylly gu-ythe, warnans na bosse y ben, 
rag an ariant a usye, mar posse 1 an neyll teneiven rag y 
scodh hy a'n grevye, ha whath qweth a wre an prcn war 
dhellarch mar an gorre, through weak spirit, and strait- 
ened, so that he could not any way keep, nor lean his 
head on them, for the garland he wore, if he leaned on 
the side, for his shoulder it him grieved, and yet worse 
did the wood backward if he laid it. M.C. 205. A mu- 
tation of posse, qd. v. 

BOST, s. m. A boast, bragging, or boasting. Pan delhens 
y bys an bedh, yth th on nmrrec dhy ben, hag arall dhy 
dreys a-wedh, yrvys fast by? yn dhewen, hay a dhychou:, 
hay a gledh, onon pub tenewen, b6si y wrens tyn, yn gwy- 
thens worth y ehen, when they came to flie grave, there 
went one soldier to the head, and another to his feet 
also, armed quite to the jaws, and on the right side 
and on the left, one each side, boast they made great, 
that they could keep him against his effort. M.C. 
242. Corf yn bedh a worsevch why, a wre bost a dhas- 
serchy dhe pen try dcydh, the body ye have put in the 
tomb, he boasted it would rise again at the end of three 
days. R.D. 44. W. bost. Gael. bost. 

BOST A, v. subs. Thou art. K/ty y bosta melegas, hag yn 
golon re ot/tyn, because thou art a wicked one, and in 
thy heart too proud. C.W. 24. Gas ve dha entra agye, 
rug 1y ny vedhys dmvtyes, drefan y bosta mar dek, let me 
enter into thee, for thou wilt not be mistrusted because 
thou art so fair. ibid. 40. This word is a combination 
of bos, inf. to be, and te, thou. 

BOST YE, v. a. To boast, brag. Pret lostyns. Ef ny wra 
lemyn l<js>yc; he will not boast now. P.O. 385. Me tin 
clewas ow tyffen na vo reys, awos hechen, trubil vyth dhe 
Syr Cesar, hnq ow bo/tlye y bos cf Gryst gwyr un vap Deu: 
a nef, I heard him forbidding that there be given, for 
any consideration, any tribute to the Lord Caesar, boast- 
ing that he is Christ, the tree only son of the God of 
heaven. P.O. 1576. Lyes gveyth y wruk bostye, many 
times he boasted. P.C. 2439. Gweyteuch oil er agas 
f/}dh, pan y bos'yas, dhe pen try deydh, y tasserchy dhe 
veicnan.?, all take care on your faith, since he boasted, 
at the end of three days, he would rise again to life. 
R.D. 374. W. boslio. Cf. Germ, pausten, to blow, swell, 
bounce. Russ. chvastayu, to boast. Lat. fastuf. 

BOTH, s. m. The will. See Bodh. 

BOTHOC, s. m. A hut, a cottage. Pryce. This is a di- 
munitive of bdth, a hut or booth. W. livtfi, bythyn. 
Arm. bolhon. Ir. both, bothan. Gael. both. Manx, 
btvaane. Sansc. vdti, a house. Hebr. beth. Arab, beith. 
Pers. bat, abad. 

BODDI, s. m. A cowhouse, a fold for cattle, or sheep. 
(Boudzhi deves, a sheep fold. Llwyd, 110.) This is the 
same "as the Welsh bevdy, or boydy, which is the modern 
form of the word +bouti, from the old form bou, a cow, 
and li, or ty, a house. 

BOUNDER, s. f. Feeding ground, a pasture. Cornish 
Vocabulary, pascua. Pryce translates it, a common, a 
lane. Bounder tre, a village. Llwyd, 173. Chy Foun- 
der, the house in the lane, in St. Agnes. Founder vor, 
is the name of a lane in Penzance, and pedny founder, 
the head of the lane, near the Logan Stone. 

BOURX, s. m. A heap, a hill. This is also written burn, 
and is found in the names of places, as Burnuhal, in 
St. Burian. It is the same as Bern, qd. v. 



BRAG 

BOWES, v. n. He will rest. A mutation ofpowes, 3 pers. 
a. fut. ofpotvesy, qd. v. Hen yw d$dh a bowesva dhe pup 
den a vo syluys, yn dygyuydhyens a henna, ny a bowes 
desempys, this is a day of rest to every man that may 
be saved, in declaration of that we will rest forthwith. 
O.M. 148. 

BOWES AS, v. n. He rested. A mutation of pmvesas, 
3 pers. s. preterite of powesy, qd. v. Cosd my re bmv- 
esas, assyiv whek an him myttyn, I have rested softly, 
sweet is the morning sleep. O.M. 2073. 

BOWESVA, s. f. A resting place, rest. Hen ytv dydh a 
bowesva, dhe pup den a vo sylwys, this is a day of rest, to 
every man that may be saved. O.M. 148. A mutation 
of Powesva, qd. v. 

BOWIN, s. m. Beef. Llwyd, 33. This is also written 
bowen, and boen, and is derived from the Latin, bovina. 

BOWNAS, s. m. A living, life, livelihood. Lhvyd, 251. 
A late form ofbewnans, qd. v. 

BOWS s. f. A coat. A mutation otpows, qd. v. Honna 
yw y bows nessa, that is his nearest garment. R.D. 1867. 
Cafas an bows-na hep gwry, us y'lh kerchyn, me a vyn, 
take that robe without seam, which is about thee, I 
will. R.D. 1921. Arluth why yw a dhy gre an bows, 
ha my dhyguysk e, Lord, to your liking is the robe, and 
thatl should take it off? R.D. 1924. 

BOX, s. m. The box tree. PI. byxyn. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, b'jrns, whence is dt rived also the English box. 
Palm ha bayys, byxyn erbys gynef yma, palm and bays, 
herbs of box there are with me. P.O. 261. W. boccys, 
pronounced box. Arm. beuz. Ir. bucsa. 

BOXSES, s. m. A blow with the fist, a box. PI. boxsesow. 
Pur anken.'iy guns dornow dhodhowar an scovornow reuch 
boxscsovi trncysy, very painful with fists to him on the 
ears give sad blows. P.O. 1362. Ty a fydh boxsesow 
tyn war an dywen, thou shalt have sharp blows on the 
chops. P.C. 1368. From the English box. 

BOYNA, adv. Unless. Cool ge dhym mar mynta bds ex- 
altys, po ken venary why a vjjdh avel Jlehys, boyna as- 
sentys, hearken to me, if thou wilt be exaltad, otherwise 
for ever you will be like children, unless you assent. 
C.W. 48. 

BOYNEDH, adv. Daily, every day. Llwyd, 249. This 
is a mutation of poynedh, and used as the Welsh beun- 
ydh. The component parts are p6b, every, and dedh, a 
day. 

BOYS, s. m. Meat, food. Dew dhen Christ a dhanvonas 
dhe berna boys ha dewas, an Jceth re-na a spedyas, ha'n 
soper a ve parys, two men Christ sent to buy meat and 
'drink, those very same did speed, and the supper was 
prepared. M.C. 42. My re dhysyryas fest mer dybry 
genoch ivky haneth boys pask Icyns ow bos marow, I have 
desired very greatly to eat with you this night the pas- 
chal food before I am dead. P.O. 720. It is also writ- 
ten bos. The oldest form was buit, qd. v. W. bwyd. 

BOYS, adj. Heavy, weighty. A mutation of Pays, qd. v. 

BOZZORES, v. a. " To sing after others. Lluyd, 157. 

BRAP, adj. More. Pryce. ~W.praf, large, ample. Arm. 
brao. 

BRAG, s. m. Malt. Cornish Vocabulary, bratium. Bys 
may codhe hy dhe'n dor, ha y brcwy mar venys avel sky I 
brag, until that she fall upon the earth, and bruise her 
as small as malt dust. O.M. 2720. J Why el eva cor 
gwella, mars ees dhyuh brag, you may drink best beer if 



BRAS 

you have malt. Pryce' s Voc. W. brag. Arm. 
(brctgezi, to sprout.) Ir. braich. Gael, braich. Mai>x, 
bragh. The old Gauls, according to Pliny, prepared a 
sort of fine grain, of which they made beer, and this 
grain they called brace. " Genus farris quod illi vocant 
bracem." 

BRAGOT, s. m. Sweet drink. It was a liquor made of 
the wort of ale, and mead fermented together, called 
by the English, bragget. It is still made in some parts 
of Wales, and within my recollection it was usual for 
the inhabitants of Aberconwy to attend the one annual 
afternoon service in Gyffm church on Easter Sunday, 
and then go to drink bragawd, which was made for that 
special occasion, in the village. Llwyd writes the word 
also bracat, but in the Cornish Vocabulary it is bregaud, 
qd. v. W. bragawd, \bracaut. 

BRAM, s. m. A fart. PI. bremmyn. P.C. 2104. A y 
vestry ny rtn bram, of his power I value not a puff. 
O.M. 2739. Me a grys ny ddl vyth bram, I think it will 
not be of the least value. P.C. 3078. W. bram. Arm. 
bramm. Ir. bram. Gael, braim. Manx, breim. Gr. 
ftpofios, a noise, ftpe/tia, to make a noise. Ang. Sax. 
breman. Germ, brummen. 

BRAMME, v. a. To fart. Pret. brammas, in construction 
vrammas. Rdk pur own me re vrammas, for very fear I 
exploded. R.D. 2091. Y fyys yn un vramme, thou 
fleest in a tremor. R.D. 2094. W. brammu. Ann, 
bramma. 

BRAN, s. f. A crow. PI. bryny. Bran was, a raven, 
i.e. a great crow, called also marchvran. Bran dre, a 
town crow. Gallas an glaw dhe ves gwldn, ha'n dour 
my a gres basseys ; da yw yn mes dyllo bran, mars es dor 
sech war an beys, the rain is clean gone away, and the 
water, I believe, abated ; it is well to send out a crow, 
if it be dry ground over the world. O. M. 1099. Does 
ny vynnas an vrdn vrds, neb carryn hya gafas, the raven 
would not return, some carrion she has found. C.W. 
178. Hos, payon, colom, grugyer, bargos, bryny, ha'n er, 
moy dredhofa vydh hymvys, duck, peacock, pigeon, par- 
tridge, kite, crows, and the eagle further by me are 
named. O.M. 133. W. bran, pi. brain. Arm. bran, 
pi. brini. Ir. bran. Gael. bran. Slav, vran, wran. 

BRANGIAN, s. m. -The throat, or gullet. This word, 
written by Llwyd, 64, brandzhian, is a corruption of 
briangen, and this is a later form than that preserved 
in the Cornish Vocabulary, briansen, qd. v. 

BRAS, adj. Great, gross, big, large, coarse. Noe, dre 
dhe dhadder bras, ty a beiv ow grdth nefre, Noah, for thy 
great goodness, thou shalt ever possess my favour. O.M. 
973. Rag lyf bras my a dhoro, a gudho oil an nor beys, 
for I will bring a great flood, that will hide all the land 
of the world. O.M. 982. Lavaraf dheuch, a dus vas, 
kekyfrys byan ha bras, lemmyn gureuch oil ow sywf, I 
say to you, good people, as well little and great, now 
do ye all follow me. O.M. 1673. Rag caffbs ran vrds 
a'n pencon, mar a calle, to have a great share of the 
pay, if he could. M.C. 38. Pen bras, a jolt head. 
C.W. 96. Logosan vras, a rat, i. e. a great mouse. 
Benen was, a big woman. Den bras, a great man. 
Menedh bias, a great mountain. Llwyd. It is also 
used adverbially, as Del yw ef gallosek bras, as he is 
very powerful. O.M. 1494. Dhe colon yw cales bras, 
thy heart is very hard. O.M. 1525. Comp. brassah. 



BRECH 32 

Super, brassa. W. bras. Arm. bras. IT. ^breas. Gael. 



BREFSYS 



BRASDER, 3. m. Greatness, largeness, bigness, pride. 
Rag henna an vuscogyon orto a borlhas avy, dre vrasder 
bras yn golon y dhugtyons y dhestreuy, for that reason, 
the fools to him bore spite, through great pride in the 
heart they thought to destroy him. M.C. 26. W. bras- 
tier. Arm. broader, 

BRASLAVAR, adj. Grandiloquent. Den braslavar, a 
grandiloquent man. Llwyd, 84. Coinp. of bras, great, 
and lavar, speech. 

BRASOBERY8, adj. Magnificent. Llwyd, 84. Compound- 
ed of bras, great, and ober, work. 

BRASSA, adj. Greatest. The superlative of bras. Neb 
a vo yn mockya gre, a vydh an brassa henwys, he who is 
in the highest degree shall be called the greatest. P.O. 
778. Pechadares e heb gow,.an brassa ege ynpow, thou 
art a sinner without a lie, the greatest that was in the 
country. R.D. 1095. Written also brasa, and brasse. 
Ahanoiick neb yw tnochya, ha'n brasa qattos dodfio, he 
who is the greatest of you, and has the greatest power. 
P.O. 793. Pyw an brasse den senges, who is esteemed 
the greatest man. P.O. 773. W. brasav. Arm. brasa. 

BRASS AH, adj. Greater. The comparative of bras. Ha 
Dew tvras dew golow bras, an brassah rag an dedh, ha an 
behannah rag an nos, ev a wrds an slerres yn wedh, and 
God made two great lights, the greater for the day, and 
the less for the night, he made the stars also. M.C. p. 
94. The comparative was distinguished, as in Welsh 
and Armoric, by the final guttural, ck. This was soften- 
ed into k, and in the Ordinalia, omitted altogether. W. 
brasach.. Arm brasoch. 

BRATHCY, s. m, A mastiff, or hound. Literally a biting, 
or savage, dog, being compounded of W. brathit, to bite, 
and ki, a dog. PL brathken. Me a'th iveres ortk if dhon 
dhe yffarn kepar hag on, war geyn lowarn py brathky, I 
will help thee to bring him to hell like as we are, on 
the back of a fox or mastiff. O.M. 895. Ty vul bralhky, 
thou vile hound. P.O. 2087. Pan dolhyans bys yn tyl- 
ler, may 'these Christ out vesy, lowenny dhys, ma vester, 
yn medh Judas, an brathky, when they came to the 
place where Christ was praying, Joy to thee, my mas- 
ter, said Judas the mastive dog. M.C. 65. Avel brathken 
aga dens orto y a dheskerny, like mastive dogs their teeth 
ou him they did grin. M.C. 96. Pryce gives a corrupted 
form of this word in brakgye, which is translated a 
badger, or gray, probably in connection with broch. It 
is found also in the Ordinalia, in a doubtful place, Na 
brakgye rag ef a sur, no mastiff surely he goes forth. 
R.D. 2018. 

BRAUD, s. m. A brother. Cornish Vocabulary, frater. 
This is the oldest form, agreeing exactly with the W. 
brawd. The common form was broder, qd. v. W. 
brawd, ^braut, pi. brodyr. Arm. breur, brer, pi. bred- 
eur, breder, ^breuder. Ir. brathair, ^brathir. Gael. 
brathair. Manx, braar. Goth, br6thar. Sansc. brdtd, 
bratar. Gr. Qpyryp. Lat. frater. 

ERE, s. f. A mountain, a hill. Of frequent occurrence 
in the names of places in Cornwall, as Bray, in St. Just, 
and Llogan. Goonvra, the hill downs, in- St. Agnes. 
Cam brea. So also in Wales, as Moelvre, Pembre. W. 
bre. Oldlr. fJrt. Gael, braigh. Sansc. vara. 

BRECH, s. fc The arm, Cornish Vocabulary, brachium. 



Instead of a plural, the Celtic dual is here as in other 
instances generally made use of, dywvreeh, (dyw, femi- 
nine.) Pyw a dhysquedhes dhyso dhe vus novih curf, tros, 
ha brech, who disclosed to thee that thy body, feet, and 
arms are naked ? O.M. 262. Ty losel, foul y perhen, 
yslyn dhevrfch war an pren, thou knave, foul bis owner, 
stretch out thy arm on the wood. O.M. 2753. Me a 
gekn scon lovan dha worth conna brech an adla, ha why 
tynneuch agas try, I will forthwith bind a good rope 
around the wrist (neck of the arm) of the kuave, and 
you pull, you three. P.O. 2762. Crefyv: gwrydhow an 
spedhes, may 'thyw aw dyw-vreeh terrys, strong are the 
roots of the briars, so that my arms are broken. O.M. 
688. See Dyuvrech. W. braich, \breich, dual, dwyvraich, 
plur. breichiav. Arm. breach, brech, dual, diorech. Ir. 
\brac, raigh. Gael, ffcroe. Manx, ri, roih. Gr. ppa-x- 
ia>v. Lat. brachium. 

BRECHOL, s. m. A sleeve. Cornish Vocabulary, ma- 
nica. Prom brech, the arm. By the time of Llwyd, it 
had been corrupted into brehal, and broltal. W. breichell. 

BRBDAR, s. m. A brother. A later form of broder, qd. 
v. Govynna worth e vredar, ask his brother. Llwyd, 
242. 

BREDER, s. m. Brothers, brethren. The plural of bro- 
der, qd. v. Par del y'th prynnys yn ker, ha fasta gy 
dhe vreder yn luen grygyans, like as I redeemed thee 
dearly, strengthen also thy brethren in full belief. 
R.D. 1163. See Braud, and Broder. 

BREDER, s. m. Shortness, briefnesi Festyn leman me a'th 
pys mayfo dychiys a vreder, hasten now, I pray thee, that 
it may be dressed speedily. P.C. 276. Breder is for 
berder, being derived from ber short. W. byrder. 

BREDER, s. m. Thought. A mutation of preder, qd. v. 
Ha Pylat dlie war breder a leverys dhe Jesus, and Pilate 
after thinking said to Jesus. M.C. 129. 

BREDERETI1, s. m. Brothers, brethren. One of the 
plurals of broder, qd. v. An Tas Dew roy dhym bos 
gwyw dhe v6s len servysy dhys, ha'm brederedh ynwedh, 
God the Father grant us to be worthy to be faithful 
servants to thee, and my brethren also. P.C. 714. This 
is also written bruderedh. P.C. 1430. 

BREDERYS, adj. Studious, thoughtful, diligent. A 
mutation ofprederys, qd. v. Gwree brederys, a diligent 
wife. Llwyd, 243. 

BREDERYS, v. a. Thought A mutation of prederys, 
preterite of predery. Written also predyrys. My re 
bredyrys gul prat rag y wythe erbyn haf, I have thought 
of doing a thing to keep it against summer. O.M. 
487. 

BREDION, v. a. To boil. Cornish Vocabulary, coctio. 
This was finally corrupted into bridzhan, to boil, brid- 
shias, boiled. W. brydian, to boil, from brwd, hot. 

BREF, v. a. He will prove. A mutation of pref, 3 pers. 
s. fut of prevy, qd. v. RaJc dhe gows a bref neffre dhe 
v6s den a Galile, for thy speech proves ever that thou 
art a man of Galilee. P.C. 1408. Me a bref b6s now 
henna, I will prove that that is false. P.C. 1729. 'Me 
ny wodhyan gvryll dodlia, kemys gyrryow tek dm bref, I 
knew not what do to it, so many fair words it told me. 
C.W. 74. 

BREFSYS, v. a. Thou hast proved. A mutation otpref- 
sys, 2 pers. s. preterite of prevy, Yn beys awos godhaf 
cr&k, ny brefsys anken na dr6k, Dew! gwyn dhe vys, 



BRENNIO 

notwithstanding suffering hanging, thou hast not felt 
grief nor evil. God ! happy thy lot. R.D. 278. 

BREFYAS, v. a. Proved. A mutation of prevyas, pre- 
terite of prevy. Ef a brefyas lawr gow dhys, he told 
thee many lies. C.W. 60. 

BREGAUD, s. m. Sweet drink, bragget Cornish Voca- 
bulary, idromelhim vel mulsvm. This is the older form 
of bragot, qd. v. W. bracawd, -\-bracaut. In Bailey's 
Dictionary, bragget is explained to be " a drink made 
of honey and spiee." Ancient Receipts for making 
bragget are given in Wright's Dictionary of Obsolete and 
Provincial English, 1857. 

BREGEWTHY.v.a. To preach. A mutation of pregedthy, 
qd. v. Taw, an el a bregewthys a'n vtedhe.n hag ay verlu, 
a'yfriit a wrello dybry, y fedhe kepar ha dew, be silent, 
the angel preached, of the tree and its virtue, of its fruit 
he who would eat would be like a god. O.M. 229. 

BREH, s. f. The arm. This is a later form of brech, qd. v. 
PI. breihow. Lhuyd, 244. J E ryg hedlias rag e vreh, he 
stretched forth his arm ibid, 250. Dibreh, the arms. 

BREILU, s. m. A rose. Cornish Vocabulary, rosa. Though 
Dr. Owen Pughe gives breilw, and breila, as the synon- 
yms in Welsh, I am doubtful of these being really found 
in Welsh. Dr. Davies quotes as his authority the 
Liber Landavensis, but I believe the word with some 
others, coth for instance, must have been transferred 
from a copy of the Cornish Vocabulary, which was at- 
tached to a copy of the Liber Landaveusis. 

BREITHIL, s. m. A mackerel. Cornish Vocabulary, 
mugilus\c\ imigil. This is an old form ofbrilhel, qd. v. 

BREMAN, adv. Now, at this time, at present. Lhvyd,G6. 
Perhaps from an-pred-ma. Arm. brema, bremann, a- 
vrema. 

BREMMYN, s. m. Puffs. PI. of bram, qd. v. Ty a twr 
gwell bremmyn bras dyllo, thou knowcst better to make 
a smell. P.O. 2104. 

BREN, s. m. A tree. A mutation of pi-en, qd. v. Fie bren, 
Cornish Vocabulary,,/^!**. Dew tckka brew rag styllyow, 
bring the fairest tree for lafters. O.M. 2441. 

BREN, T. a. He will buy. A mutation ofpren, 3 pers. s. 
rat. of prenna, qd. v. Efa bren Adam, dhe das, gansy 
gyk hay w6s kefrys, pan vo lermyn denythys, ha'lh vam, 
hag ol an dus vds, he will redeem Adam, thy father, 
with his flesh and blood also, when the time is come, 
and thy mother, and all the good people. O.M. 811. 

BRENNAS, v. a. Bought A mutation ofprennas, 3 pers. 
s. preterite of prenna, qd. v. Prag ythela er^y-pyn, rak 
Crysl, a brennas yn tyn, ommn a'lh dr6s, why goest thou 
against him, for Christ, who painfully redeemed, hath 
brought thee here. R.D. 242. 

BRENNE, v. a. To buy. A mutation ffiprenne, or prenna, 
qd. v. Ha nep nan gejfo na nyl gwerthens y hugk dhe 
brenne anedhy dhodho cledhe, and he who has not one, 
let him sell his cloak to buy with it for him a sword. 
P.C. 922. 

BRENNIAT, s. m. He that sits in the prow of a ship to 
guide the same, a boatswain. Cornish Vocabulary, pro- 
reta. The steersman, gnbernator, sits at the stern. In 
Irish braine, i-bruine, is the fore part or beginning ; the 
prow of a ship; and in Gaelic, -[brain; whence the 
obsolete \braine, -^braineach, the captain of a ship, nau- 
clerus. The root is brent, W. braint, prerogative. 

BRENNIC, s. m. Limpets. Llwyd, 114. This is an ag- 



33 BREUTH 

gregate plural, from which was formed the singular 
brennigcn. Lhuyd, 241. The corrupted form bernigan 
was also in use in his time. W. brennig, sing, brennigen* 
Arm. brennic, brinnic, sing brennigcn. Gael, bairneach. 
Manx, barnagh. Cf. also English barnacle, bernicle. 
It is regularly formed from Iron, a breast, which it re- 
sembles in form. 

BREXTYX, adj. Privileged, sovereign, noble, excellent. 
Parys 6v, Arluth Brentyn, dha volonogath lavar dhaf, 
ready I am, sovereign Lord, thy will speak to me. C.W. 
162. Written also brynlyn, qd. v. The root is brent. 
W. braint, prerogative, whence W. brennhin, a king. 

BRES, s. m. Judgment, understanding. In construction 
vres. Y eth, ha Jesus ganse bys yn Pilot o Justis, anodho 
bres may rolle, dre y vres may fo ledhys, they went, and 
Jesus with them, even to Pilate (who) was Justice, of 
him judgment that he might give, by his judgment 
that he might be killed. M.C. 98. Mayfo crowsys aw 
bres yw, my judgment is that he be crucified. P.C. 
2504. An bres, the understanding. Llwyd, 88. Der 
tacklow minnis ew bres tus gonvethes, avel an tacklow bras, 
by small things are the minds of men discovered, as 
well as by great matters. Pryce. Written also breus, 
breys, brus, and brys. See Breus. 

BRESEC, s. m. A judge. Pryce. From bres, judgment. 

BRESEL, s. m. War, contest, strife, dispute, argument. 
Bresell crcf a ve sordyis, en grows pyw elle dhy don, dre 
vear slryffy fe jugqiys ys degy Christ y honon, great dis- 
pute was raised, the cross who could carry it, through 
much strife it was judged, that Christ should carry it 
himself. M.C. 160. Ternoys y sordyas bresell gans an 
Edhewon goky, lavarow tyn hag uchelfr.st yn fol y a gew- 
sys, over night there was a strife among the churlish 
Jews, speeches sharp and high very foolishly they spake. 
M.C. 238. It is also written bresul, and bresyl. Pyth a 
cusyl a rcth dhym orth am vresyl, what counsel givest 
thou me in my dispute. O.M. 1814. Hag a wra dhyn 
drok bresul, and he will do us an evil war. P.C. 1918. 
W. ^bresel. Though now obsolete in Welsh, it is pre- 
served in the proper names, Cenbresel, Conbresel, Com- 
bresel, and Cilbrcsel. See Liber Landavensis, quoted by 
Zeuss, 156. Arm. -\-bresel. ibid. 

BRESELER, adj. Warlike, valiant. Lhtiyd, 86. 

BREST, s. m. Brass, copper. Llwyd, 109. This is a muta- 
tion ofprest. W. prcs. Ir. prais. Gael, prais. Manx, 
prash. Ang. Sax. brccs. 

BRETHIL, s. m. A mackerel. Llwyd, 243. Written also 
brethal, other forms of brithrj. qd. v. 

BRETHON, s. m. Britons. Llwyd, 242. W. biython. 
Arm. breton. Ir. breathnach. Gael, breatannach. Manx, 
bretnagh. 

BRETHONEC, adj. British, the British or Welsh lan- 
guage. Brcthonec Cembrian, Welsh British. Pryce. W. 
brythonaeg. Arm. brezonec. Manx, bretnish, the British, 
or Welsh language. 

BREUS, s. m. Judgment. Hag a le-na bynytha ny dhtte 
yn ban, bys yn dedh brcus, and from that place he will 
never come up, till the day of judgment. R.D. 2140. 
Written also brcuth, breys, brus, bres, and brus. W. 
brawd, \braut, bryd. Arm. breud. Ir. breath, bretJt, 
^ItratJi. i-brat, -^brct. Gael, brelh. Gaulish, bratu. 

BREUTH. s. m. Judgment. Me a grys a lavassen scon 
war ov> brevth yn ladhen, I think we might venture at 



BRITH 3 

once in my judgment to kill him. R.D. 1836. id. qd. 
breus. 

BREW, adj. Broken, bruised. PI. breivyon. In construc- 
tion vrew. Vyiheth powes my ny'm bydh, mar vrew ew 
ow yssyly, there is never rest to me, so bruised are my 
limbs. O.M. 1012. Me an cnouk ef er y wew, otle 
mellow y geyn brew, I will beat him on his lips, see the 
joints of his back broken. P.C. 2060. A gweresouch, 
laddroH, qallas an porthow breivyon, hag ol myns o, Oh ! 
help! thieves! gone are the gates to pieces, and all that 
there was. R.I). 126. Cryst o brew y exyly, ha war y 
gorf mjjl ivoly, Christ was bruised as to his limbs, and 
on his body a thousand wounds. R.D. 998. 

BREW, s. m. ' A bruise, a wound. PL brewyon. Me a vyn 
mos dhe ure mo arluth treys ha dewle, a pup squythens y 
saivye, hag ylye y vrevyon, I will go to anoint my Lord's 
feet and hands, from all weariness cure him, and anoint 
his bruises. P.O. 478. W. briw. Ir. briochd. Gael. 
brioch. Manx, broo. 

BREW Y, v. a. To bruise, to break in pieces. Part, brewys. 
Vythqueth na ve bom a won a, rollo whaf mar gales, del y's 
breivaf yn dan yen, never was a stroke, I know, that 
could give a blow so hard, as I will strike her under 
the chin. O.M. 2712. BQs may codhc hy dhe'n dor, ha 
y brcwy mar venys avel sty? brag, until she fall upon the 
earth, and bruise her as small as malt dust. O.M. 2719. 
Dhe escarn oil ketep tarn gans cnv bom a fydh brewys, thy 
bones all, every bit, with my blows shall be broken. 
P.C. 2744. Yn ur-na yfydh clewys, del any ganse brew- 
ys, in that hour it will be heard, as.we are wounded by 
them. R.D. 573. W. briwo. Arm. breva. Ir. bris. 
Gael, bruth. Manx, brish. 

BREWYONEN, s. f. A fragment, a piece, a crumb. Corn- 
ish Vocabulary, mica. PL breivyon. Me a'n kerch dheuch 
hep ftokue, mar Ifvesyn y knoukye oil dhe breivyon, y 
wren dnodho hep mar, I will bring him to you without 
delay, if I might venture to knock him all to pieces, I 
would do it without doubt. R.D. 1893. W. brimonyn, 
pi. briwion. Arm. brienen, pi. brien. Ir. brvghach. 
Gael, bman, bruanach. 

BREYS, s. m. The mind, understanding, judgment. 
Giorens Dew y v6dh ha' y vynnas, py-penag vo yn y 
vrcys, let God do his will and his pleasure, whatever be 
in his mind. O.M. 1154. This is another form of 
Ares, qd. v. 

BREYSI, v. a. To judge. Another form of brusy, qd. v. 

BRIANSEN, s. f. The throat. Cornish Vocabulary, gut- 
tur. The * indicates an older form brianten, the Welsh 
being breuant. Briansen became again corrupted into 
briangen, which is the form preserved in the Ordinalia. 
Me a vyn setye colm re may fastyo an colm wharre adro 
dhum bryangen, I will put a running noose, that the 
knot may fasten soon about my throat. P.C. 1527. See 
also vryongen. Brangian is another later corruption. 
W. breuant. Arm. brennid. Ir. braighe, ^brage. 

BRIDIAN, v. a. To boil. Id. qd. bredinn, qd. v. Sounded 
in Llwyd's time bridzhiqn, to boil ; bridzhias, boiled. 
Llwyd, 51. 

BRILLI, s. m. Mackerel. A contracted form of briOielli, 
pi. of brithel, qd. v. 

BRITH, adj. Streaked, motley, variegated, parti-coloured, 
pied or speckled, variegated with black and white. 
Llwyd, 169. W. brith. Arm. briz. Ir. bril. Gael, briot. 



BROHALEO 

BRITHEL, s. m. A mackerel. PL brithelli, and by con- 
traction, brilli. Pryce. In the Cornish Vocabulary it 
is written brdthil. It is derived from brith, variegated. 
For the same reason a trout is called in Welsh brithyll, 
and a mackerel, in Armoric, brezel. A trout, in Irish 
and Gaelic, is brcac, which means speckled, and is the 
same word as W. brych, f. brech. In Manx, brack is the 
name given to trout and mackerel. 

BRIVIA, v. a. To bleat. { Ma'n dhavas a privia, tho 
sheep is bleating. Llwyd, 230. W. brew. Ir. buireadh. 
Gael, buireadh. Sansc. bhar, bhran. Gr. tppfia. Lat 
fremo. 

BRO, s. f. A country, region, land, territory, coast In 
construction vro; an vro, the country. Rag hena Pylat 
a ros dhen varogyon aga ro, may leverrans ha dolos y' 
pub tyller dris an vro, therefore Pilate gave to the vil- 
lains their gift, that they should say and publish in 
every place through the country. M.C. 250. W. bro. 
Arm. bro. The Bretons of Armorica frequently use it 
in the names of countries, as Bro-chall, France, lit. the 
land of the Gauls. Bro-zavz, England, lit the land of 
the Saxons. It is evident that the original form of bro, 
in the British dialects, was brog, as may be seen from 
the Erse forms, (Ir. bruaeh, Gael, bruach, Manx, 
broogh,) and the classic term allobroges; but the regular 
mutation of the final g into its secondary form gh, 
which has no sound, led to its disappearance. It may 
also be the prior element in the proper names Brochan, 
or Brychan, and Brochmael. . 

BROCH, s. m. A badger. Cornish Vocabulary, taxo vel 
melus. Benen a welte dhe floch myl wylh dyghtys ages 
broch gan nep mylgy, woman, dost thou see thy son a 
thousand times worse treated than a badger by some 
greyhounds. P.C. 2926. W. broch. Arm. broch. Ir. 
broc. Gael. broc. Manx, broc. Brock is the term used 
in the North of England and in Scotland. There is a 
family in Lancashire of the name of Brockholes, who 
bear a badger for their crest. 

BRODER, s. m. A brother. PL breder, bredereth, qd. v. 
This form as well as brand, is given in the Cornish Vo- 
cabulary. Broder is also written bruder, and by Kei- 
gwyn, brodar. Ow broder, pur loicentfc my a genet dhe'n 
menedh, my brother, very gladly I will go with thee to 
the mountain. O.M. 449. Ow broder whisk, dun dhe dre, 
yma un posygyon bras war ow colon ow codhe, my sweet 
brother, let us come home, there is a great heaviness 
falling on my heart. O.M. 625. Lavar pie ma dhe 
vroder, say where is thy brother. O.M. 572. Rag dha 
wreans, ty a berth gossythyans, ken na brodar, for thy 
deed, thou shalt suffer punishment, though thou art a 
brother. C.W. 82. For the synonyms, see Braud. 

BRODIT, s. m. A judge, a peer, a lord lieutenant. The 
Cornish Vocabulary, by judex, gives the first meaning, 
deriving it from brod, i. e. W. brawd, judgment. Llwyd, 
144, in giving it as equivalent to satrapa, a lord lieuten- 
ant, evidently derived it from bro, a country, making it 
equivalent to the W. ardalydh. The d however proves 
that the meaning given in the Cornish Vocabulary is the 
correct one. 

BROHAL, s. m. A sleeve. Llwyd, 85. This is the late 
corrupted form of brechol, qd. v. 

BROHALEC, adj. Sleeved, having sleeves. Lluyd, 85. 
From brohal. 



BRUDIAS 



35 



BRYES 



BRON, s. f. A round protuberance, a breast, a pap, the 
slope of a hill. PI. bronnow. Govy vijth,pan vefgenys, 
a dor ow mam dynythys, na vythqueth pan de.nys bron, 
woe is me that I was ever born, or from nay mother's 
womb brought, or ever sucked the breast. O.M. 1755. 
Ketep mal iron, every son of the breast. P.O. 892. Ha 
kekyffrya an bronnow, na dhenes jlehesygyow, guyn age, 
beys er bones, and also the breasts, that children have 
not sucked, happy their fate shall be. P.O. 2648. -Brow, 
like the names of other parts of the body, enters into 
the composition of many names of places, as Bronsehan, 
the dry round hill, and Lambron, or Lambourn, the 
round hill inclosure in St. Peran in Sabulo. It is thus 
in very frequent use in Wales, as Bronheulog, Bronlled- 
raith, Tynyvron, &c. W. bron. Arm. bronn. Ir. bruin- 
de, fJronw. Gael, bruinne, ^bronn. 

BRONNEN, s. f. A rush. Del Inarafpcn bronncn, rak 
ny alse ymguen del ol degys, as I say, rush-head, for he 
conld not move himself, as all was brought. R.D. 2096. 
This is the same word as brunnen, qd. v. 

BRONTERYON, s. m. Priests. Rag y vos war Ironteryon 
mester bras aberth an wlas, for he was over priests a 
great master within the country. M.C. 89. This is a 
mutation of pronteryon, pi. ofpronler, qd, v. 

BROS, s. m. A sting, the point of a sharp instrument. 
Cornish Vocabulary, aculeus. W. brv-yd. Arm. broud. 
Ir. brad, brod. Gael. brod. Manx, brod. 

BROS, s. m. A pottage, or broth. Eve, ythese gynef moy 
ages myl vyl enef yn bros pur dck, drink, there were 
with me more than a million of souls in a pottage very 
fair. R.D. 142. W. brywes. Arm. brouet. Manx, 
brouish. 

BROSTER, s. m. Greatness, majesty. This is a late cor- 
ruption of braster, qd. v. Lemyn yn second jorna, gwraf 
broster a dhesympys yn ylron, cs aicartha, now in the 
second day, I will make majesty immediately, in the sky, 
that is above. C.W. 8. 

BROSY, v. a. To destroy. Yn medh Pylat, worth an myns 
an peck, penas rys yw ry, me, ny gajfa may's kyns reson 
gans gwyr dh'y vrosy, says Pilate, on the whole of the 
offence, it is necessary to give judgment, I find not, 
more than before, reason, with truth, to destroy him. M.C. 
117. It may be vrusy to judge, but cf. W. divrodi, a di-brody. 

BROU, s. f. A mill, a hand-mill. Cornish Vocabulary, 
mola. W. breuan, a hand-mill, from bran, brittle. 
Arm. bred, breou. Ir. bro, -\-bron, tftroon Gael. Ira. 
Manx, braain. 

BROWIAN, s. m. Crumbs. Llwyd, 90. The same -word 
as breivyon. See Brewyonen. 

BROWSIAN, s. m. Crumbs. Llwyd, 90. The same word 
as W. briwawn, pi. of briwys, a crumb, a fragment. 

BRUDER, 8. m. A brother. PL brudereth. Dun yn berth, 
aw bruder whek, me a gews dhodho mur dek na sconyer 
pendra wreny, let us come along, my sweet brother, I 
will speak to him very fair, so as not to be refused, 
whatever we do. P.O. 188. My ny fcdhaf rak medh 
dos yn mysk ow brudereth, awos cows gcr vyth game, I 
shall not for shame come among my brethren to speak 
ever a word with them. P.O. 1430. Bruder is only 
another form of broder, qd. v. 

BRUDIAS, part. Boiled. This word, written by Llwyd, 
81, as pronounced in his time, brudzhias, is the same as 
W. Irydias, pret. of brydian, to boil. See Bredion. 



BRUES, s. m. Judgment. Dydh brues y wreck ysedke, oil 
an bys-ma rakjugge, the day of judgment you shall sit 
to judge all this world. P.O. 814. Geseuch vy dhe 
worthyby kyns ry brues dhe v6s dyswrys, allow me to 
reply, before giving sentence to be put to death. P.O. 
2494. This is the same word as brus, brys, or bres, qd. v. 

BRUGY, v. a. To judge, to pass sentence. Part, brw/ys. 
An prysners kettep onan, drewhy yn rak dyssempys, may 
kallons bones brugys, the prisoners every one bring for- 
ward immediately, that they may be judged. P.C. 2234. 
Ke, ty mylyyes, ena yn dour dhe woles iy a, ha genes moll- 
ath pup plu drefenfals brugy map Dew, go, thou cursed, 
there in the water to the bottom thou shalt go; and 
with thee the curse of every parish, because of thy false 
sentencing the Son of God. P.C. 2199. This is another 
form ofbrusy, by the corruption of the * into^ soft, or/. 

BRUHA, s. TO. Victuals. Cornish Vocabulary, victus. 
This is probably a corrupted form of the W. brwcfian, 
pottage. Ir. brochan. Gael, brochan. Gr. /3ptlncu>, sorbeo. 

BRUINIC, adj. Abounding in rushes. Pryce. From bruin, 
id. qd. W. bnvyn. See Brunnen. 

BRUIT, adj. Spotted, of various colours. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, varius. This is an old orthography of brith, qd. v 

BRUNNEN, s. f. A rush, a reed. Cornish Vocabulary, 
jwncus, velscirpus. This word is written bronnen, R.D. 
2096, and the pi. would be bruin, whence bruinic, and the 
sing, more correctly bruinen. W. brwynen, pi. brtcyn. 
Arm. broenen, pi. broenn. Ir. br6n. GaeJ. bron. 

BRUS, s. m. Judgment. Why a wra y aswonvos dedh brus 
hag a'ra kyfyn prof, you will acknowledge it on the day 
of judgment, and have it in proof. P.C. 1496. Dun 
ganso, er y anfus, dhe Pylat agan iuslys, may hallo cafus 
y vruJi, ha kyns d6s Sabot ledhys, let us come with him, 
for his wickedness, to Pilate our magistrate, that he may 
have his judgment, and be put to death before Sabbath 
comes. P.C. 1503. It is the same word as brys, or 
bres, qd. 7. 

BRUSY, v. a. To judge, to pass sentence. From briis. Ha 
Icverouch b6s gevys oil ow sor, bedhens lowen, ham gallys 
y v6s grontis dhodho, dhe vrusy an den, and say, that all 
my wrath is forgiven, let him be merry, and my power 
that it is granted to him, to judge the man. M.C. 113. 

BRY, s. m. Account, value, worth, price. Pan dra ny 
vyn Dew gul vry ahanaf, na sowyny an peyth a wrehaf 
ny wra, why will not God make account of me, nor will 
not thrive the thing which I do. O.M. 519. Kenfe y 
golon terrys,a henna my ny wrafvry, though his heart be 
broken, of that I will not make account. P.C. 2244. 
W. bri. Ir. -\-brig. Gael. Irigh. Manx, bree. Sansc. 
'boras, excellent, (fr. barh, to excel.) Gr, fipi-, Ppiaw, 



BRY, s. m. Mould, or earth ; soil, clay. Mab den a bry 
ynperfyth, me a vyn y vos formyys,-the son of man from 
earth perfectly, I will that he be formed. O.M. 55. 
Ny a'd wra ty dhen a bry, we make thee, man, of earth. 
O.M. 59. This is a mutation of pry, qd. v. 

BRYBOR, s. m. A hypocrite. Pryce. Anfals brybor, the 
false hypocrite. P.O. 375. Dun warbarth dhy examnye, 
an vyl brybor, let us come to examine him, the vile hy- 
pocrite. P.C. 1452. An brybor, the hypocrite. P.C. 1710. 
Tlie only obvious etymology is the English briber. 

BRYES, s. ra. and f. A spouse, husband, or wife. Prag y 
whruste sy tulle dhe bryes hep ken, why didst thon deceive 



BUB 



36 



BUES 



thy husband without mercy. O.M. 278. Rag ty dhe gala 
worty, ha tulle dhe bryes ten, because thou hast harkened 
to her, and deceived thy faithful spouse. O.M. 294. A 
mutation ofpryes, qd. v. 

BRYGE, s. m. Judgment. Ny wodhoch pendra geivseuch, 
no, pandra a bryge wreuch, ye know not what ye say, 
nor what judgment ye make. P.O. 444. Id. qd brys. 

BRYN, s. m. A hill, a mountain. Pryce. W. bryn. 

BRYNNIAN, s. m. Oats cleared of the husks ; groats, 
oatmeal. This is a pi. aggregate. It was lastly corrupted 
into brydnian. W. rhynnion. 

BRYNTYN, adj. Privileged, royal, noble, excellent. Oil 
tus oto chy, deuch genef vy, bryntyn ha kelh, all men of 
my house, come with me, nobles and commons. O.M. 
1962. Ke, gorhemmyn ntay tyffbns umma myttyn, dhe wul 
fos a I'yyn brynlyn, hag a l]jm yn creys an dre, go com- 
mand that they come here in the morning to make a 
wall of noble stones, and of lime, iu the midst of the 
town. O.M. 2281. Ny g6th ago, b6s gorrys yn arclww, 
rag bos prennys garish mernans den bryntyn, they ought 
not to be put into the treasury, because there has been 
bought with them the death of a noble man. P.O. 1542. 
The same word as brentyn, qd. v. 

BRYONGEN, s. f. The throat. In construction vryon- 
gen. Kychonch ef yn vryongen, ha dalynnouch mur coles, 
ma na olio perlheges yn dyspyt oil dh'y echen, catch him 
in the throat, and hold him very hard, that he cannot 
endure it, in spite of all his efforts. R.D. 1007. This is 
a later form of briamen, qd. v. 

BRYNY, s. m. Crows. This is the plural of bran, qd. v. 
H6s, payon, colom, gntgycr, bargos, bryny, lidn er, moy 
dredhofa vi)dh hynwys, duck, peacock, pigeon, partridge, 
kite, crows, and the eagle, further by me are named. 
O.M. 133. 

BRYS, s. m. Judgment, mind, advice, counsel. Y lavar- 
af, nefha tyr bedhens formyys orth mu br{js, I say, Heaven 
and Earth, let them be created by my judgment. O.M. 
8. Rag governye oto bewnans, y ma loer orth bodh ow 
brfjs, to govern my life, there is much according to the 
will of my mind. O.M. 90. Rag colenwel bddh dhe 
Dry's, nyns us parow dhys yn beys, to fulfil the desire of 
thy mind there are not equals to thee in the world. 
O.M. 434. This is the same word as bres, qd. v. W. 
brM, 

BRYS, s. m. The womb, the matrix. Creator a brys ben- 
en, creature from the womb of woman. R.D. 19. Nep 
na grys y bos sylwyas, goef genys y vonas a brys benen, 
who does not believe that he is a Saviour, woe to him, 
that he was born from the womb of woman. R.D. 2420. 
W. bru. IT. bru. Gael. bru. Manx, brey, brein. 

BRYS, s. m. Price, value, worth. A mutation of prys, 
qd. v. Myr lowene oil an bys, trevow a brys, castilly 
bras hag uchel, see the joy of all the world, houses of 
price, castles large and high. P.O. 132. Sevys, gallas 
dhe gen le, den aperl ha near y brys, he is risen and gone 
to another place, a man perfect and much his worth. 
M.C. 255. 

BUB, adj. Every, all. A mutation of pub, qd. v. Pan 
dethens y b$s an bedh, yth-eth on marrek dhy ben, hag a 
dychow hag a gledh, onon a bub tenewen, when they came 
even to the grave, there went one soldier to the head, 
and on the right side and on the left, one on each side. 
M.C. 242, Written also bup. 



BUCOA, s. m. A hobgoblin, bugbear, scare-crow. Me a'n 
syns gweth es bucca, ny wonpy 'theth dha wandra, I hold 
him worse than a hobgoblin, I know, not where he is 
gone to wander. C.W. 86. Blewac, count yw, ha hager, 
ny won pana vest ylla b6s, yth false orth y savour y bosa 
neb bucca nos, hairy, rough it is, and ugly, I know not 
what beast it is ; it seems by its savour that it is some 
hobgoblin of the night, ibid. 114. W. bivg, bwgan. Ir. 
puca, bogain. Gael, bogan. Manx, buggane. 

BUCK, s. f. A cow. Cornish Vocabulary, vaccaidjuccula. 
Ythamoaf biich ha tarow, ha march yw best hep parow dhe 
vab den rag ymweres, I name cow and bull, and horse 
(that) is a beast without equals for the son of man to 
help himself. O.M. 123. Buch offrynne my a vyn 
whare war an alter-na, I will offer a cow forthwith upon 
that altar. O.M. 1185. W. by, bwvch, fJow, tbuch. 
The Welsh plural buchod, now in common use, is form- 
ed from the old form bitch. Arm. iw, buoch, -\-bioch, 
\buch. Ir. bo ; pi. fJoJes. Gael. bo. Manx, bua, booa. 
Gr. fiovs. Lat. bos, vacca. 

BUCHAR, s. m. Bucked milk, sour milk. Pryce. 

BUDIN, s. f. A meadow. Cornish Vocabulary, pratum. 
This is written by Pryce bidhin, ridn, vethan, vythyn, and, 
by Llwyd in his Cornish Preface, bidin, and in p. 127, 
bydhin. See Bidhen. 

BUDHY, v. a. To drown, to be drowned. 3 pers. s. ftrt. 
budh. Part, budhys. Dun oil dhe'n gorhyl toth da, gans 
lyfna wreUen budfty, let us all come to the ark quickly, 
that we be not drowned by the flood. O.M. 1048. 
Gtvythys yns agy dhe clos, nys budh dour nejfre, they are 
kept within the enclosure, water will never drown them. 
O.M. 1692. Ellas 1 govy 1 budhys 6n ny, ny wren scapye, 
alas ! woe is me ! drowned we are, we shall not escape. 
O.M. 1705. Codhys warnan an m6r bras, ny a vydh cow- 
al vudhys, fallen on us is the great sea, we shall be quite 
drowned. O.M. 1701. Gorhel vyth ny tremene anfor-na 
nafe budhys, a ship never passed that way, that was not 
drowned. R.D. 2324. Written also bedhy, qd. v. 

BUE, v. subs. He was. 3 pers. s. preterite of Ms, qd. v. 
With the perfect sense has been, it has the preterper- 
fect particle re, preceding. In construction it changes 
into vue, or vye, and fue. Pan dorrasa an aval, an ar- 
luth a fue serrys, when he plucked the apple, the Lord, 
was angry. O.M. 880. Ow arlulh ker, my re bite yn 
cyte fast ow Jtelwel, my dear lord, I have been in the city 
urgently calling. O.M. 2429. Na fyllys, a arlulh da, na 
font bythqueth nygen bue, it was not wanting, good 
Lord, there never was default to us. P.O. 916 Dhys 
Iwoene, my re bue war mo en6, owth emlodh may 'then pur 
vpiyih, joy to thee ! I have been, on my soul, wrestling 
till I was very much tired. P.C. 2508. En deskyens 
del vye, ha dhodho a leverys, they taught him how it 
was, and to him said. M.C. 248. Another form of bue is 
be, qd. v. W. bu, vu. 

BUEF, v. subs. I was. 3 pers. s. pret. of b6s. It is written 
also buf. In construction it changes \niofuef, qd. v. 

BUEJf, v. subs. We were. 1 pers. pi. preterite of bos. In 
construction it changes into vuen, orfuen, qd. v. My 
ha'm gwrek, rag gul foly, helhys warbarth a fuen ny yn 
mes scon a paradys, I and my wife, for doing folly, 
driven together we were quiekly out of Paradise. O.M. 
710. W. buom. 

BUES, v. impers. There is. It is in frequent use with the 



BY 



37 



BYDHAF 



characteristic of the personal pronouns preceding, to 
denote possession. Pahan cheyson as lues erbyn Jhcsu, 
what accusation have you against Jesus. P.O. 1970. 
N(m bues gu'lds ynnn dejfry, my kingdom is not in it 
really. P.O. 2014. Gallos am hues dhe'th croicsyc, power 
is to me to crucify thee. P.O. 2184. Marth am hues a'th 
lavarow, wonder is to me (I wonder) from thy words. 
P.O. 2392. Ntfm bues mm vyth annodho, there is not to 
me any fear of him. R.D. 385. Written also bus. 

BUGEL, s. m. A herdsman, a shepherd. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, pastor. Pan vo gwys/cys an bugel, y fy an deves 
a bell, hag oil an jlok a dhybarth, when the shepherd is 
smitten, the sheep will flee far, and all the flock will 
separate P.C. 893. ' Written indiscriminately begel, 
bigd, byget. W. lugail, bygcl. Arm. buqel. IT. buchail, 
jbochaill. Gael, buchaill. Manx, bochil. Gr. fteicoXot. 

BUIT, s. m. Meat, food. Cornish Vocabulary, cibus vel 
esca. This is the oldest form, which had changed into 
boys, at the time of the Ordinalia, qd. v. W. bun/d, -\-buit. 
Arm. boued. Ir. biadh, -^biad: buadh, cuadh. Gael. 
biadh, cuid. Manx, bee. Sansc. bhuj, and Md, to eat. 
Gr. (3io7<K. 

BUL, s. f. An axe, or hatchet. Llwyd, 228. This was 
pronounced boot, qd. v. 

BULHORN, s. m. A snail. Llwyd, 48. This word is 
unknown to the other dialects. 

BUM, s. f. A blow. An seth yw rag leverys a's gicyskys 
tyn,gan-s mear angus ; ivaryholon may cronnys dre nerth 
an bum fynteyn woys, the arrow (that) is above men- 
tioned struck her sharply, with much anguish ; in her 
heart, so that there stagnated, by the force of the 
blow, a fountain of blood. M.C. 224. Written also bom, 
qd. v. 

BUP, adj. Every, all. A mutation of pub or pup, qd. v. 
War bupfrut, losow, ha has, a vo ynny hy tevys, over all 
fruit herbs, and seed, that are grown in it. O.M, 77. 

BUR, adj. Very. A mutation at pur, qd. v. A burfah dys- 
cryggyqyon, tebel agas manerow, very false disbelievers, 
evil (are) your ways. O.M. 1855. 

BURM, s. m. Barm,, yeast W. burym. Gael, beirm. 
Germ. bcrm. Ang. Sax. beorm. Dan. baermes. 

BUS, v. impers. There is. The same as bues, qd. v. 
Ny'm bus bywe no, fella, living is no longer for me. 
R.D. 2210. It seems to be formed by borrowing a let- 
ter cognate with the characteristic of the pronoun pre- 
ceding, and putting it before us, there is. Nymb-us. A's 
bues is however an exception. 

BUS, s. m. Meat, food. This is the latest form of bos, or 
boys, qd. v. *Lian buz, a table cloth. Pres buz, a re- 
past, onneal of food. Llwyd.. It is written by Kei- 
gwyri, boos. Pub maner boos yn bys^ma es dlui dhybbry, 
every sort of food in this world that is to eat. 164. 

BUS, s. m. The will. Levereuch dhynny an ken ages bus 
dhe. trul genen, tell us the cause your will to do with us. 
E.D. 2154. This is a corruption of bodh, qd. v. 

BDSL, s. m. Dung, cow dung. \Buzl verh, horse dung. 
Lhvyd, 242. W. biswal. Arm. beuzel. Ir. bualtrach. 
Gael, bualtrach. 

BUTT, e. m. A beehive, a dung cart. This is one of the 
few old Cornish words still in use in Devonshire and 
Cornwall. W. bwt, a dung cart; a sort of basket to 
place in the stream to catch fish. 

BY, v. s. Be thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of bos. Kcpar del 6s 



luen a rds, venytha gordhyys re by, as thou art full of 
grace, for ever be thou worshipped. O.M. 107. Mylle- 
ges nefre re by, cursed ever be thou. O.M. 580. An 
abbreviated form of bydh. 

BY, v. subs. Thou mayest be. 2 pers. s. subj. of bos. 
In construction it changes into vy, a,ndfy, qd. v. 

BY, adv. Ever. Rag nechys by ny bydhylh, for denied 
thou shalt never be. P.C. 3130. By na porth dout, 
never fear. R.D. 381. By ny gewsy ken ys myr, thou 
never sayest other than truth. R.D. 1195. Kynyver 
peyn us yn beys, dhodho by ny vye re, whatever pain is 
in the world, for him would never be too much. R.D. 
2056. An abbreviated form of byth. 

BYAN, adj. Little, small. The same as byhan, qd. v. 
Lavaraf dheuch a tils vas, kekyfrys byan ha bras, I say 
to you, good men, little and great also. O.M. 1673. 
Bras ha byan deuch yn rag ketep onan, great and small, 
come forth every one. O.M. 2683. Reys yw dhys gyne 
pols byan lafurye, need is to thee with \is a little while 
to labour. P.C. 3004. 

BYDH, v. subs. Be thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of M*. Bydh 
dynny nerth ha gweres, rag warnas prest ny abf/s, be to 
us strength and help, for to thee ever we pray. O.M. 
1071. Bydh lemmyn a confarl da, pan yw b6dh Dew yn 
della, be now of good comfort, when the will of God is 
so. O.M. 1341. Del levaraf an gwyr dhys, lemynbydh 
fur, as I tell the truth to you, now be prudent. O.M. 
1639. W. b$dh. 

BYDH, v. subs. He shall, or will be. 3 pers. s. fut. of 
bos. In construction vtjdh, and fydh. Pyw a $1 henna 
bones, ahanan ny vydh onon, who can that be, he will 
not be one of us. P.O. 772. Tra ny vydh yn pow adro 
na wodhfo dhe dharryvas, there will not be a thing in 
the country round which he will not know how to dis- 
cover. O.M. 188. It is used impersonally with all 
persons. Te a vfldh yn keth golow yn paradis genama, 
thou shalt be in the same day in Paradise with me. 
M.C. 193. In the same manner as the present bues, 
bydh is used with the possessive pronoun preceding, to 
depote possession. Govyn orto mar a'm bydh oyl a vercy 
yn dywedh, ask him if there will be to me oil of mercy 
at the last. O.M. 693. Why a's bydh dr6g vommennow, 
ye shall have evil blows. O.M. 2324. Gobar da why 
agas bydh, a good reward ye shall have. R.D. 376. 
ftifm bydh gweres, there will be no help to me. . R.D. 
2221. This idiom was formerly common in Welsh also. 
See Llywarch Hen, 102. Chwiorydh a'm bu didhan, 
sisters I had who made me happy. Chmorydh a'm bu 
hevyd, sisters to me there were besides. So also in 
Armoric, Nem boe quet dram fez, there was not (money) 
to me, by my faith. Buhez Nonn, 158. Gant goas, 
da ober nem boe quet en bet man na nem bezo muy bizui- 
quen, with boys I had nothing to do in this world, nor 
will I have ever more. ibid. 50. And again in An- 
cient Irish, Nimbin fochricc darhesi mo precepie, there 
will not be to me, i.e. I shall not have a reward for my 
doctrine. Zeuss, 617. In Gaelic also, as aig am bi i } 
but he who has her. W. bydh. 

BYDHAF, v. subs. I shall or wUl be. 1 pers. s. of bos. 
Wliarre dhcdhy yn scon me a, bydhaf bysy war an dra, 
anon to her soon I will go, I will be diligent oil the 
business. P.C. 1932. Written also bedhaf, qd. v. W. 
bydhav. 



BYHAN 



38 



BYPPRYS 



BYDHENS, v. subs. They shall or will be. 3 pers. pi. 
fut. of b6s. It is written also bedhens, and bydhons. It 
is also the 3 pers. pi. of the imperative, which in Cor- 
nish is frequently used for the singular. Ahanouch neb 
yn: mocfiya, ka'n brasa gallos dodho, bydhens kcpar an 
It/ha, he who is the greatest of yon, and has the greatest 
power, let him be like the least. P.O. 794. W. bydhant. 

BYDHEUCH, v. subs. Ye shall, or will be. The future 
is often used for the present. Dredho ef prynnys bydh- 
etich, oil ow tits, gour ha benen, through it ye are redeemed, 
all my people, male and female. P.O. 767. Syre Ar- 
luth bydhcuch titles, Sire Lord, be you at ease. R.D. 
1679. Written also bedheuch, or bedhouch, qd. v. W. 
bydhwch. 

BYDHONS, v. subs. They shall, or will be. 3 pers. pi. 
fut. of bos. Pur wyr y fydhons dampnys dhe tan yfarn, 
droka If, very truly, they shall be condemned to the fire 
of hell, worst place. P.O. 3094.. 

BYDHYTH, v. subs. Thou shalt, or wilt be. -2 pers. s. 
fut. of bos. Gynen bydhyth yn dmvses, rak na yl/yn dhe 
weles, cuth ny 'gen gas, with us thou shalt be in the God- 
head, because we shall not be able to sec thee, sorrow 
leaves us not. R.D. 2454. Boken ny fydhyth syluys, 
otherwise thou shalt not be saved. O.M. 1510. Written 
also bedhyth, qd. v. 

BYE, v. subs. He would be. 3 pers. s. subj. of bos. In 
construction vye, and fye. It is used with all the per- 
sons. May es Dew ny a vye, greater than God we should 
be. O.M. 219. y fye mcdh hedre veyfbyw, it would be 
a shame as long as I live. P.O. 846. W. bai. 

BYEN, v. subs. I should be. 1 pers. s. subj. of Ids. Mar 
codhfo an casadow, dystouch y fyen ledhys, if the villain 
knew, immediately I should be killed. O.M. 2120. W. 
lawn. 

BYES, v. subs. Thou wouldst be. 2 pers. s. subj. of bos. 
Gwyw vycs dhe gafus cr6k, me an te re'n yeydh. hydhew, 
thou wert deserving of getting a hanging, I swear it to 
thee by this day. P.O. 2683. W. bait. 

BYEUCH, v. subs. Ye would be. 2 pers. pi. subj. of bos. 
Attebres ly hath worty a'n wedhen fia'y avalow, y fyeuch 
yn ur-na avel dewow, if thou didst eat, and thy husband, 
of the tree and its fruits, ye would be in that hour like 
Gods. O.M. 177. 

BYP, v. subs. I may be. 1 pers. s. subj. of b6s. In 
construction vyf. Pa'n drok-kuleth a wrusta, gorthyp 
vy na vyftdlys, what evil deed hast thou done ? answer 
me, that I be not deceived. P.O. 2008. Written also 
beyf, qd. v. W. bivyv. Arm. lenn. 

BYGEL, s. m. A shepherd. Llwyd, 114. Another form 
ofbugel, qd. v. 

BYGYDHYS, part. Baptized. Kemmys a'n crys, hag a 
vo lei vygydhys, sylwel a wraf, as many as believe it, 
and shall be faithfully baptized, I will save. R.D. 1143. 
A later form of bysydhys, qd. v. 

BYHAN, adj. Little, small. This form prevailed, after 
substituting h, for the original guttural ch. My ha'm 
gwrek, ha'm Jloch byhan, bysy vydh dhe sostene, me and 
my wife, and my little child, it will be hard to support. 
O.M. 397. Mab Dew o neb a welsys, avel Jloch byhan 
maylys, the son of God it was whom thou sawest, like a 
little child swathed. O.M. 810. Reys yw dhyso lafur- 
rya vn jpols byhan alemma, it is necessary for thee to 
labour a little while hence. O.M. 1269. See Bcchan. 



BYLEN, s. m. A villain, a wicked one. Used also ad- 
jectively. Oil ny a pys. yo-tuynk ha hen, may fen guy thy.? 
rak an bylen, we all pray, young and old, that we may 
be preserved from the evil. one. P.O. 41. A Dhu aso 
why bylen, O God ye are wretches. P.O. 2624. Saw 
scryf ynno an bylen dhe leverel y v6s ef mychtern, but 
write on it that the villain said he was a king. P.O. 
2798. Most probably from the English villain. 

BYLYNY, s. m. Villainy, wickedness. En Edheicon 
skyntyll keth restejfo mear vylyny, those same learned 
Jews, much villainy had they. M.C. 216. See Belyny. 

BYMA, comp. verb. Be to me. Herwedh dhegralh, na'm 
byma peyn yn gorfen, according to thy grace, let not 
there be to me punishment to the end. O.M. 2254. 
Compounded of by, and ma for me, me. 

BYN, s. m. The head. This is a mutation of pyn, for 
pen, and used in the phrases er dhe byn, against thee; 
er y byn, against him. Mollath den, gmir ha gwrek, a 
dhe poran erdhebyn, the curse of man, husband and wife, 
will come for this cause against thee. M.C. 66. Ojfens 
vythol er dhe byn, whatever offence against thee. O.M. 
1350. Ena Pilot pan welas kymmys cowsys er y byn, 
then Pilate when he saw so much spoken against him. 
M.C. 100. Er y byn rnennaf mones, me a garse y weles, 
to meet him I will go, I would wish to see him. P.O. 
232. See Erbyn. 

BYNARY, adv. For ever. Hag a'tfi carvyth bynary. and 
will love thee for ever. P.O. 2872. See Benary. 

BYNC, s. m. A blow, a stroke. Llwyd, 67. W. ysponc. 

BYNCIAR, s. m. A cooper. Llwyd, bynkiar. 174. 

BYNEN, s. f. A woman. PI. bynenes. Another form of 

benen, qd. v. 

BYNER, adv. Never. Frut da byner re dhocco, na glase 
bys gorfen beys, may it never produce good fruit, nor 
grow green even to the end of the world. O.M. 583. 
Saw vyner re dhewhylly genes me a wra pysy, but always 
that thou mayest return I will pray with thee. O.M. 
2196. It is the same word as benary, qd. v. 

BYNOLAN, s. f. - A broom, or besom.' Llwyd, 146. Writ- 
ten also banolan, or bannolan, qd. v. 

BYNYGAF, v. a. I bless. 1 pers. s. pres. ind. of byn- 
igia, or benigia, qd. v. Dre ow map, pyth yw ow cher, 
pup ur oil y'n bynygaf, through my son, what is my 
state ? at all times I bless him. P.O. 2596. 

BYNYGES, part. Blessed. Bynyges re bo an prys, may 
fe gwrys angorholelh, blessed be the time, that theagree- 
"ment was made. O.M. 674. It is variously written 
byneges, bynygys, and beneges, qd. v. 

BYNYTHA, adv. Ever. Oil an tekter a wylys, ny yl 
laves den yn bys y leverel bynytha, all the beauty that I 
saw, the tongue of no man in the world can tell it ever. 
O.M. 768. My a cyrch an gwds wharre bynytha rag 
growedhe genen ny yn tewolgow, I will bring the fellow 
soon, ever to lie with us in darkness. O.M. 888. Cans 
Ijjfny wraf bynytha ladhe an dus gtvyls na d6f, by flood 
I will not ever destroy mankind wild nor tame. O.M. 
1253. Hag a le-na bynytha ny dhue yn ban bys yn dedh 
breus, he will never come up, til! the day of judgment. 
R.D. 2139. In construction it changes into vynylha, 
qd. v. 

BYPPRYS, adj. Always. Pryce. Written also beppres, 
and buprys. Compounded of bub, a mutation of pub, 
.every, and prys, time. 



BYS 



39 



BYTH 



BYPUR, adv. Hourly, continually. Lluyd, 249. Com- 
pounded of byp, a mutation of pup, every, and r, hour. 

BYRLA, v. a. To embrace. Lhcyd, 42. 

BYRLUAN, s. m. The morning star. Llwyd, 171. Byr- 
luan. In Armoric, gourleuen ; the words are evidently 
connected, but the etymology is uncertain. The last 
syllable may be lowen, cheerful. 

BYS, s. m. The world, the universe. Written also lei, 
and in the Cornish Vocabulary, bit, qd. v. Ha pan wr- 
yllyf tremene an lys, rum gorre dhy wlas, and when 
I shall pass away from the world, may he place me in 
his land. O.M. 532. Dre y vernans yredy oil an bys a 
fydh sylwys, through his death clearly all the world will 
'be saved. O.M. 818. Kyn fynnyf tuar an bys-ma teulel 
dyal, if I ever should wish upon this world to cast a 
deluge. O.M. 1249. In construction it changes into 
vys, qd. v. ~DJif, nor vys yihaf arte, to the earth world 
I will go again. R.D. 200. Bys has the sense of world 
condition in the following idiom, which is also com- 
mon to Welsh ; qu. d. The world shines upon us. Pub 
ur ol obereth da, guyn lys kymmys an gwrello, always 
good works, happy they as many as do them. O.M. 605. 
Gwyn mo lys (W.gwyn vy mijd) cafus cummyas, happy 
my lot to have permission. O.M. 750. Gtcyn d/if, vys 
{W. gwyn dy vyd) happy thy lot. R.D. 279. Gwyn y 
vys (W. gwyn ei vyd) pan ve genys, happy his lot when 
he was born. O.M. 1476. Guyn agan lys (W. givyn 
ein byd,) happy our lot. M.C. 4. The adjective gwyn- 
tydedig, happy, also occurs in Welsh, and gnynvidik, in 
Armoric. W. byd, \lil, -\-byt. Arm. bed, toei. Ir. lioth, 
lilh, ^lud, rtudh. Gael, tbudh. 

BYS, s. m. A finger. PI. bysias. Lhvyd, 54. Written 
also bes, and bis, qd. v. 

BYS, v. a. He will pray. War an Tas Dew ny a lys, y 
grath dhyn may tanvonno, to the father God we pray 
tbat he send his grace to us. O.M. C68. Dew an nef 
me a lys d'agan gweres, the God of heaven, I pray to 
help us. O.M. 732. This is a mutation of pys, future 
of pysy, qd. v. 

BYS, adv. Ever. This is a later form of bylh. Yntre 
me ha lynneth den Ifis venytha efa veys, between me and 
the race of man, for. ever it shall be. O.M. 1242. Ny 
wreth dhymo chy lys venary, thou shalt never make me 
a house. O.M. 2334. Awos henna ny wraf vry, na 
anod/ians y bys voy me ny settyaf gwail gala, of that I 
will make no account, nor of them ever more will I 
care a straw. C.W. 98. 

BYS, prep. As far as, even to, to, until, till. Y'th whys 
lavur dhe dhylry ty a wra lys y'th worfen, in thy sweat, 
labour to eat thou shalt, even to thy end. O.M. 274. 
Na glase bys gorfen beys, nor flourish to the end of the 
world. O.M. 584. Dun alemma desempys bys an men- 
edh, let us go hence immediately unto the mountain. 
O.M. 1303. Rag ny evafbys dedhfyn, genouch annodho 
na may, bys may 'thyllyfyn ow gwlas, for I will not drink 
till the last day, with you of it any more ; until that I 
enter into my kingdom. O.M. 724. W. med, bet, "tbe- 
heit. Bet is a contracted form of peheil, which may be 
resolved into pa, what, and hyd, length. Bet is of con- 
stant occurrence in the Liber Landavcnsis : but it is 
not in use now in Welsh ; med, which is a mutation of 
it, being used in South Wales, and hyd, the radical form, 
in North Wales. Ann. led, tforf, tfe?. 



BYSMER, s. m. Contumely. Dyeth vye dhe den mds 16s 
gwys mar ver a vystner, it were a pity to a good man so 
much contumely to be made. P.C. 2968. This is not a 
Celtic term, being the Anglo Saxon lismer. 

BYSNE, s. m. A loathing. Me a'n knoukfest dybyte ma'n 
geff'o pup ol bysne ow myres worth y vody, I will beat 
him hard without pity, that all may have shuddering, 
looking at his body. P.C. 2092. 

BYSQUETH, adj. Ever. Llwyd, 231. A later form of 
bythqueth, qd. v. 

BYSTERDEN, s. m. An architect. My a ura dhe wor- 
hemmyn, hag a warn dhe vysterdens, avorow dhys may 
tejfens yn keiep pen, I will do thy command, and will 
warn the architects, that they come to thee to-morrow, 
every one. O.M. 2416. Ow arluth Jeer, my re lite fast 
ow kelwel d/ie vysterdens dhys a dhe avorow pur dyogel, 
my dear Lord, 1 have been urgently calling the archi- 
tects to come to thee to-morrow very surely. O.M. 2431. 
Derived in Pryce's Vocabulary, from beisdar, a window, 
and den, a man. Fysterden may however be a mutation 
of mysterden, and compounded of myster, a master, and 
den, a man, and the first meaning would be a superin- 
tendent. 

BYSY, adj. Diligent, important, weighty, grievous. Pur 
vysy a veydh dhedhe, very grievous it will be for them. 
O.M. 335. Aspy yn la pup echen, whythyr pup tra ol 
lysy, examine -well every particular, search out every 
thing diligently. O.M. 748. Byty yw dheuch bones 
war, coynt mur yw an gwas hep mar, it is important for 
you to be cautious ; the fellow is very sharp, without 
doubt. P.C. 999. H'a nyns yw ef a north Dew lysy 
vye ol an llu rak y wythe, dh'y worre aler yn ledh, and 
if he is not on the side of God, it would be important 
for all the parish to keep him, to place him within the 
grave. R.D. 2106. This word in the first sense is the 
same as the English busy, but in the latter, it would be 
a mutation of pysy, id. qd. W. pwysig, Arm. poezus, 
weighty ; the root being pwys, weight. 

BYSY, v. a. To pray. Lavar, an-nes ow vos vy am bew- 
nens, my dhy lysy a leverel gioyronedh, say, being wea- 
ried of my life, that I pray him to tell the truth. O.M. 
701. A mutation of pysy, qd. v. 

BYSYDHYA, v. a. To baptize. Part, lysydhyys. Pyw 
penag a len grysso, yn wedh bysydhyys a iv\ a vydh syl- 
u-ys, whoever may faithfully believe, and be also bapti- 
zed, he shall be saved. R.D. 2467. This is another form 
of bedidhia, qd. v. 

BYTEGYNS, adv. Nevertheless, notwithstanding. Saw 
bytegyns pan y'th welaf, bos hep hyreth my ny allaf, but, 
nevertheless when I see thee, be without regret I can- 
not. P.C. 3175. Bytegyns reys yw crygy, nevertheless 
it is necessary to believe. R.D. 1016. Written indis- 
criminately lelegyns, and bytygyns. 

BYTH, adv. Ever, for ever, always. Yn della byth ny 
vennaf, I never will do so. O.M. 486. Na byth moy ef 
ny gaffas prag may fe rys y dampnye, nor evermore he 
found not why there should be need to condemn him. 
M.C. 116. Ny yl den vyth amontyt m^ns a gollas yn 
chyjfTar, not any man can reckon all that he lost in the 
baijgain. M.C. 40. Daver vyth wy ny dhecsyuch dhe 
wofre trevythynno, convenience none ye brought not, to 
put anything in it. M.C, 50. Byth was often changed 







40 



CADLYS 



into bys, qd. v. W. byth. Arm. bi, bis. IT. bioth, \bith, 
ibid. Gael. bith. 

BYTHAC, adj. Deaf. Llwyd, 13. A late corruption of 
bndhftr, qd. V. 

BYTIIOL, adj. Constant, continual, everlasting. Mar 
pethaf kelmys lemmyn, ojfens vythol er dhe byn,pan cleivyf 
vy an tan tyn, parhap y wrussenfye, if I be not bound 
now, an everlasting offence against thee, when I should 
feel the fire smart, perhaps I should flee. O.M. 1350. 
Nynges den vythol yn bys dha wyihyll an keth-na, there 
is no man in the world to commit that same. C.W. 90, 
W. bythnl. 

BYTHQUETH, adv. Ever. Pedyr arta a gowsas, byth- 
ffwth me ny'n asvxmys, Peter again said, I never knew 
him. M.C. 84. by wclys tekke bythqueth aban vef 
gcnys, 1 have not seen a fairer, ever since I was born. 
O.M. 1731. Guns y blew y fans syhys, bythqueth bay 
dhym, ny ryssys, with her hair they were dried, never a 
kiss to me didst thou give. P.O. 522. Omma abcrlh yn pen 
wl-as, Ic nafue, denscs bytitqncth, here within at the head 
of the country, where mankind never was. R.D. 2532. 
Composed of by Ik, ever, and queth, a mutation of gwelh, 
a time, or turn. It was frequently changed into bys- 
queth, qd. v. 

BYTYGYNS, adv. Nevertheless. Saw letygyns cresouch 
why an coif-na dhe dhasserchy fcyns yw aneth, but never- 
theless believe that body to rise again before it is to- 
night. R.D. 1301. Written also betegyns, and bytegyns. 

BYUH, s. f. A cow. Lln-yd, 168. This is a late form of 
biuch, or buch, qd. v. 

BYVE, v. subs. I shall be. Byve is a contracted form of 
bydh, the future sing, of ISs, and the pronoun ve. Gen- 
och na'm byve tryge, with you I shall not stay. P.O. 264. 

BYW, adj. Alive. Ow map coroneuch, h'agas mychlern 
ff synseuch, hedre vyuch byio yn bys-ma, crown ye my 
son, and for your king hold him, while you are alive in 
this world. O.M. 2349. D/tym y fye medh, hedre veyf 
byw, it would be a shame to me as long as I may be 
alive. P.O. 847. Cryst a fue lydhys garmv, y vos byw 
my ny gresaf, Christ was cruelly slain, his being alive 
I will not believe. R.D. 904. Written also beta, qd. v. 

BYWFY, v. a. To possess, to be owner of. Myllegcs ne- 
fre re by, hag oil an tyr a byvfy yw mylleges y'ik ober, 
cursed ever be thou, and all the earth thou possessest is 
cursed in thy deed. O.M. 581. This is the second 
person fut. of a verb, which would be bywfos, com- 
pounded of byw, or bew, to possess, and the verb bos, 
and equivalent to the W. pieuvod. " Pieuvo y vuwch, 
aed yn ei llosgwrn, he that owns the cow, let him go at 
her tail." Welsh Adage. 



c. 



THIS letter in all the Celtic languages has exactly the 
sound of the English k, or that of c before o and , or a 
consonant, and to express this sound c is used in the 
Ordinalia before consonants, and k before the vowels. 
In Cornish, C is both a primary and secondary letter ; 
when primary it changes in construction into g and ch, 
which is generally represented by h, as colon, a heart ; 



y golon, his heart ; y holon, her heart. In Welsh it 
changes in the same way, as colon, ei galon, his heart ; 
ei chalon, her heart. In Welsh only it has a further 
mutation into the nasal letter ngh, as vy nghalon, my 
heart. In Armoric it changes also into g, and ch, as 
caloun, he galoun, liis heart ; lie clialoun, her heart. In 
Irish and Gaelic, c also changes into g and ch, as cail, 
loss ; ar gail, our loss ; mo chail, my loss : ceann, a 
head ; mo cheann, my head : cailin, a maid ; do'n gai- 
lin, to the maid. In Manx, into g, and ch, as carrey, a 
friend ; nyn garrey, our friend ; e charrey, his friend. 
When secondary, c, in Cornish, is a mutation of g, as 
gallaf, I shall be able ; mar a callaf, if I shall be able. 
So also in Armoric, galvo, will call ; me a'z calvo, I will 
call you. This mutation is unknown to Welsh initials. 

CABEL, s. m. Cavil, detraction, calumny ; an exami- 
nation, a trial. My a'th cusyl hep cabel, mar mynnyth 
hy dystretuy, orden dhe'ih tus hy cnoukye gans meyn, na 
hedhens nefre er na varwa ercdy, I counsel thee without 
a trial, if thou wishest to destroy her, order thy people 
to beat her stones, nor ever stop until she be dead quite. 
O.M. 2673. W. cabyl. 

CABLY, v. a. To cavil, calumniate, try, or examine- 
Part, cablys. Corf Jesus rag comfortye gures par sur o 
yredy, Judas Scary oth as cable, ha gans mear a falsury, 
the body of Jesus to comfort, made very sure it was 
already, Judas Iscariot calumniated her, and with much 
falsehood. M.C. 35. Concicns da na syw ladhe den nag 
yw cablys, ny glmvys dr6k nag onan ef dhe wul bythqueth 
yn beys, it is not good conscience to kill a man who is 
not tried ; no one has heard any evil that he has done 
in the world. P.O. 2434. W. cablu. Ann. cabluz, 
blameable. 

CAC, s. m. Ordnre, excrement, dang. W. each. Arm. 
each. IT. cac. Gael. cac. Manx, cttch. Sansc. cakan. 
Gr. KM/CV?}. Lith. szekv. Du. kak. Span. <fe Port. caca. 

CACA, v. a. To void, or evacuate ordure, to go to stool. 

W. cachu. Arm. cacha. Ir. cac. Gael. cac. Manx, 

keck. Lat. coco. 
CACAN, s. f. A cake. PI. caces. Llu-yd, 121. This is 

from the English, the Welsh term being teisen. 

CAD, s. f. Battle, war. The later form of this -word was 
cas, qd. v. W. cad, -[cat. Arm. cad. Jr. cath. Gael. 
cath. Manx, caggey. Basque, cuda. Old Gaulish, catu. 
Sansc. cath, to hurt, or wound. It enters into the com- 
position of many names among the Ancient Britons, 
or Welsh, as Cadvarch, Cadvrawd, Cadwaladr, &c. 
Compare also W. Cadvnr, anciently written Catinor, 
with the Gaulish Catumaros, and the old German name 
Hadumar. The same root is also evident in the clas- 
sic names, Caturiges, Catuslogi, &c. 

CAUAR, s. f. A chair. W. coder. Arm. cador. Ir. 
calhaoir, cathair. Gael, cathair. Manx, cathair. All 
from the Latin cathedra. " The word cader is still used 
in Cornwall, for a small frame of wood, on which the 
fisherman keeps his line." Polwhele's Vocabulary. 

CADARN, adj. Strong, stout, valiant. Pryce's Focab. 
From cad, battle. W. cadarn. Arm. cadarn. Ir. 
^cadranta. Gael, -\-cadranta. Basque, cadarn. 

CADLYS, a. m. A camp, -or intrenchment. This word, 
compounded of cad, battle, and llys, a court, is preserved 
in the name Gadles, a place in Gluvias parish. W. 
cadlys. 



CAFAS 



41 



CAIRDER 



CADWUR, s. m. A warrior, soldier, a champion. Cor- 
nish Vocabulary, miles vel adletha. Compounded of 
cad, battle, and gur, a man. W. oadur, 

GAEL, v. a. To find, get, have, or obtain. Inf. dho gael, 
to have. Llwyd, 72. The inflected tenses are derived 
from cafos, qd. v. W. cael. 

CAER, a. f. A town, city, a fortified place, a castle. It 
is often contracted into car, as Caresk, Exeter. This 
word enters into the names of a host of places, once 
inhabited by the Cymry, as Carbean, Carcarick, Car- 
deie, Carhalloctc, &c., in Cornwall. Caernarvon, Caer- 
diff, Caermarthen, &c., in Wales. Cahir, Carbury, 
Carlow, in Ireland. Caerlaveroch, in North Britain. 
As Caer is the exact equivalent of Castrum, it has been 
derived by writers not well versed in the laws of 
philology from the Latin, but it is impossible that 
such should be the case, as the st would not have been 
elided in the process. Compare the W. cebystr, from 
the L. capistrum. W. distrywio, from the L. destruo. 
W. estron, from L. extraneus. W. fenestr, from L.fenes- 
tra. As castrum is not reducible to any Latin roots, the 
probability is that it is derived from the Celtic Caer, 
which is regularly formed from the W. cae, an inclosure, 
a fence. The suffix r must be a portion of a predicate, 
such as er, intensive. That Caer was not borrowed 
by the Welsh from castrum, is farther proved by its 
occurrence in the proper names of Caeraesi mentioned 
by Caesar, and Caeracates by Tacitus. W. caer, ^cair. 
Arm. cear, ker, -\-cear. IT. cathair, ^cathir, (pronounced 
caer.) Gael, cathair. Pers. car. Phenic. kartha. Pun. 
karta, cartha, cirtha. Syr. karac, an enclosure, herac, a 
fortress. Chald. <fc Syr. kartha, a town. Arab, carac, a 
fortress. Basq. caria. Chin, cara, dwell. Jap. kar, a 
house. Troj. cair. Scyth. car. Hindoo, gurh, a citadel, 
or fort. 

CAER, adj. Fair, beautiful. Pryce. W. cadr. Arm. caer, 
i'caezr. Sansc. caru. 

CAETH, adj. Captive. Gur caeih, a prisoner. Llwyd, 85. 
Written in the Cornish Vocabulary, caid, qd. v. W. 
caeth. Arm. \lcez, \keaz. Though Llwyd derives this 
word from the L. captus, it is regularly derivable from 
the W. cae, shut up, or bound. The th is a later form 
of d, which denotes a sufferer, and is the characteristic 
of the passive participle, as cauwyd. 

CAFAF, v. a. I shall have. 1 pers. s. fut. of cafos. Dai- 
hen mar cafaf ynno, pur wyr ny scap, kyn fynno, na'n 
ffejffo clout, if I shall have hold in him, very truly he 
shall not escape, though he may wish, so that he gets 
not a beating. R.D. 382. Mar ny's cafaf scon ahum 
dues, ty afydh drok, if I shall not find them soon come 
to me, thou shalt have harm. R.D. 847. W. cafav. 

CAFAX, v. a. We shall find. 1 pers. pi. fut. of cafos. 
An re-na a uiorthebys Jesus yw an caffan ny, those 
answered, Jesus it is that we would find. M.C. 67. 
Mars mara pedha degis gans y dus, nan caffan ny, yn 
urna bydh leverys ef dhe seveU dre vestry, but if he be 
carried away by his people, that we shall not find him, 
in that hour it will be said that he rose through his 
power. M.C. 240. Written also cefyn. 

CAFAS, T. a. He had. 3 pers. s. pret. of cafos. Christ 

a gafas gockorion yn templys aberth yn dre, Christ found 

traders in the temples within the town. M.C. 30. Ju>.!as 

eth a dhesympys a neyl tu dhe omgregy, cafas daffar pur 

G 



parrys, lovan cryf rag y synsy, Judas went immediately 
on the one side to hang himself, he found convenience 
very ready, a rope strong to hold him. M.C. 105. Me 
re'n cafas ow treylye agan tils yn lyes Ic, I have found him 
turning our people in many places. P.C. 1570. Written 
also cafes, as hy re gafen, she has found. O.M. 1143. 
W. cavodh, caves. 

CAFAT, s. m. A vessel. Cornish Vocabulary, vas. W. 
cafad, from caf, what grasps, or holds. 

CAFEL, v. a. To find, or have. Lhcyd, 250. The com- 
mon form is cafos. W. cafael. 

CAFEN, v. a. I may have. 1 pers. s. subj. of cafos. 
Ru'm fay, lemmyn a'n cajfen, er an ascal y'n toulsenyn 
creys an tan, by my faith, now if I conld catch him, I 
would cast him in the midst of the fire. R.D. 289. Pie 
ma haneth a war din vyth may cajfen whelh cryst len a 
ivryth, where is there to-night any man who knows where 
I may yet find Christ full of sorrow. R.D. 850. W. 
cafwyv. 

CAFONS, v. a. They may have. 3 pers. pi. subj. of 
cafos. Whath kentrow dhedhe nyngo, Jesus yn crows 
rag synsy, y hwalsons oil a-dro, mar caffbns gqff yredy, 
yet nails to them there were not, Jesus on the cross to 
hold, they searched all about, if they could find a smith 
ready. M.C. 154. Written also cefons, qd. v. 

CAFOB, s. m. A locust, a caterpillar. Cornish Vocabu- 
lary, brucus. This is unknown to the other dialects, 
and is not Celtic, being the Ang. Sax. ceafor. Eng. 
chafer. Germ, kafer. D. kever, a beetle. 

CAFOS, v. a. To have, find, obtain. Written indiscri- 
minately cafes, and cafus. Part, cefys. 3 pers. s. fut. 
cyff. Lemen rag caffos ran was a'n pencon mara calle, 
but to have a large share of the pay if he could. M.C. 
38. Yn oil an bys ny ylly den cafos kymmys anfuelh, 
in all the world a man could not find so much misery. 
M.C. 225. Rag dhym yma govynek cafes dhe geus treger- 
eth, for my request is, to have thee to speak love. O.M. 
454. Ny lettys saw un lam, ow cafus banneth ow mam, I 
stopped only a space, receiving the blessing of my mo- 
ther. O.M. 471. Pyth ow an odhom dynny cafus lafur 
an par-na, what is the need for us to have such labour 
as that. O.M. 968. 

CAFSONS, v. a. They have found. 3 pers. pi. pret. of 
cafos. Pan yn cafsons yntreihe ol warbarth y a ylwys, 
te Pylat ladh e, ladh e, mernans an grams desympys, 
when they found him, among them altogether they 
cried, thou Pilate, kill him, kill him, the death of the 
cross immediately. M.C. 142. 

CAIIENRYD, s. m. A landflood, a torrent. This word 
is only found in the Cornish Vocabulary, where it is 
written chaken rit, ton-ens. Its etymology is obscure, 
and the only word approximate is the Arm. gwaz-red, 
or gwech-rid, gwech being a stream, and rid, flowing. 

CAIAUC, s. m. A volume, a book. Pryce. W. caeawg, 
what closes up. 

CAID, s. m. A slave, or bondman. Cornish Vocabulary, 
servus. This is the old orthography of caeth, qd. v. 
Caidprinid, emptius, a bought slave, ibid. 

CAILLAR, s. m. Dirt, mire. Pryce. 

CAIRDER, s. m. Beauty, comeliness. Llivyd, 152. From 
cair, i.e. caer, comely, and der, the suffix of derivative 
substantives. In the Cornish Vocabulary, it is written 
carder, and wrongly translated speciosvs vel dcc-yrvt. 



CALL A F 



42 



CAM 



CAITES, s. f, A bondwoman, a servant maid. Cornish 
Vocabulary, ancilla, vel ffira, vel serva. W, caethes. 
Ann. keazez. 

CAL, s. m. The penis. W. col. Arm. cal. Sansc. col, 
(penetrare.) Gr. cavXo*. 

CAL, adj. Cunning, sly, Cornish Vocabulary, astutus. 
W. call. Gael, callaidh. 

GALA, s. m. Straw. Co/at ^ueZii stramentum, Cornish 
Vocabulary, a straw bed, or mattress. Maran cola, a 
strawberry. Llwyd, 44. Otte omma skyber dek, ha cola 
lour war hy luer, behold here a fair room, and straw 
enough on its floor. P.C. 680. W. cala, calav. Arm. 
c6l6. Ir. colbh. Gael, calbh, colbh. Lat. calamus. Sansc. 
cala, a lance, (a rad. cal, to penetrate.) 

CALAN, s. m. The Calends, or first day of the month. 
Deu halan guav. All Saints' day, q.d. the Calends of 
winter. Llwyd, 45. We use Calan similarly in Wales, 
as Dydh Calan, New Year's day ; Calan Mai, the first 
day of May ; Calan gauav, the first of November. So 
also in Britanny, as Cala' Meurs, the first of March ; 
Calamae, the first of May. W. colon. Arm. cala. Ir. 
callain. Gael, calluinn. All from the Latin cakndce. 

CALANBDH, s. f. Carnage, murder, manslaughter. W. 
celanedh, from celan, a dead body, Ir. colon, fco/zVm. 
Gael, calain, flesh, 

CALASSA, adj. Hardest. This is a later form of calessa, 
the superlative of coles, qd. v. After changing the ori- 
ginal ch into h, at the. end, there was no difference in 
sound between the comparative and superlative, nor 
even in orthography. Me a tora dhen horsen cam bo? 
calassa presonys, I will cause the crooked whoreson to 
be more hardly imprisoned. C.W. 148. By the time 
of Llwyd, 243, it had been further corrupted into cala- 
isha. 

CALATTER, s. m. Hardness. Llwyd, 240. A later form 
of caletter, qd. v. 

OALCH, s. m. Lime. Llwyd, 45. W. ealch. Ir. cole. 
Gael, cailc. Manx, kelk. Lat. calx. Swed. kalk. Germ. 
calk. Du. kalk. Eng. chalk. 

GALES, adj. Hard, difficult. Written also indiscrimi- 
nately colas, and calys. Comp. calessah, sup. calessa. 
Y a vydh gwythys calas hedre vyns y yn ow gwlds, they 
shall be kept hard, as long as they are in my kingdom. 
O.M. 1502. Vythqueth no, vi lorn a won a rollo whafmar 
gales, never was a stroke, that I know of, that could 
give a blow so hard. O.M. 2711. Yma omma dew 
cledht parys gans ow cowethe, coles ha, scherp kekejfrys, 
here are two swords ready with my companions, hard 
and sharp also. P.C. 927. Dalynnouch mur coles ma 
na olio pertheges, hold ye very hard, so that he cannot 
endure it. P.C. 1008. An beys yw coles kylden, the 
world is a hard lodging. R.D. 244. Calas ran ef a 
whylas, a hard portion he has sought. R.D. 2260. Hen 
o dhodho calys feyn, ngan peek ny owprene, this was to 
him grievous pain, our sins atoning for. M.C. 196. W. 
rated, -tcalet, ^calut. Arm. caled. Ir. cala, -\-caladh. 
Gael, \caladh. Gr. xaXen-os. 

CALETTER, s. m. Hardness, difficulty. Ny vynnyth 
clewas Dew ker, lemyn mos dhe'n caletter ; dhe colon yw 
coles bras, thou wilt not hear the dear God, but go to 
hardness ; thy heart is very hard. O.M. 1524. Derived 
from caled, the original form of coles, hard, qd. Y. 

CALLAF, v. n. I shall be able. A mutation of gallafj 



1 pers. s. fut. of gaily. My a dhe n yet desempys, may 
callaf gweles ken ta, I will go the gate immediately, that 
I may see further good. O.M. 794. My a vyn mfo dhy 
temptye, mar a callaf y tenne dhe wuel glotny war nep tu, 
I will go to tempt him, if I can draw him to do gluttony 
on any side. P.C. 52. Lemyn dus alena, dhe dhylyfryc 
me a wra, mar a callaf yredy, now come away, I will 
deliver thee, if I can, really. P.C. 2153. Mar y callaf 
y wythe, pur wfir ledhys byth ny vydh, if I can preserve 
him, very truly, he shall never be slain. P.C. 2209. 

CALLAMINGI, s. m. Tranquillity, stillness, quietness. 
Llwyd, 166. 

CALLE, v. n. He might be able. A mutation of gallc, 
3 pers. s. subj. of golly. Mar calle bos yn della, if it 
can be so. P.C. 1034. Arluth mar calle wharfos gynen 
1y dfte vynnes bos omma pup ur, Lord if it could be, with 
us that thou wouldest be here always. R.D. 2439. 

CALLEN, v. n. I might be able. A mutation of (/alien, 
1 pers. s. Bubj. of gaily. Assevye plygadow genef gruthyl 
bodh dhe try*, a callen hep kelladow, it would be a plea- 
sure with me, to do the will of thy mind if I can without 
losses. O.M. 2177. Me a geneuch yn lowen, mar callen 
guthyl hehen, I will go with you gladly, if I can make 
any effort. P.C. 3007. Lemmyn a'n cajfen, er an ascal 
yn toulsen yn creys an tan, now if I should catch him, 
by the arm I would cast him in the midst of the fire. 
R.D. 289. 

CALLEUCH, v. n. Ye might be able. A mutation of 
golleuch, 3 pers. s. subj. of gaily. Why a dhyndhylse 
onor, mar calleuch dry dhe cen crygyans, you would de- 
serve honour, if ye could bring to another belief. 
P.C. 1993. 

CALLO, v. n. He could. A mutation of ga/lo, 3 pers. s. 
subj. of gaily. Ganso mar callo cltwas whelth notvydh a 
vo coyntis, mar callo trylye dhe hes lavar Christ pan vo 
clewys, with him if he might hear a new story that was 
recounted, if he might turn at length the word of Christ 
when it was heard. M.C. 109. 

CALONEC, adj. Hearty, valiant, stout, courageous. 
Llwyd, 84. Derived from colon, the heart, which is 
generally written in Cornish, colon, qd. v. W. calonog. 
Arm. calonec. 

CALK, adj. Hard. A contracted form of cala. Ha dho- 
dho y tysquedhas cals meyn ha leverys, mars os mab Du, 
leun a ras, an meyn-ma gwra bara dhys, and to him he 
shewed hard stones, and said, if thou art the son of 
God full of grace, these stones make bread for thee. 
M.C. 11. Mars os map Dew awarlha, dys&r.pys arch ha 
lavar dhe'n cals meyn-ma bos bara, if thou be the son of 
God above, forthwith command and say to these hard 
stones to become bread. P.C. 62, This word is still in 
use among the Cornish miners to signify their castaways, 
or killas. 

CALTOR, s. m. A kettle. Cornish Vocabulary, cacabus. 
W. callawr, tcallaur. Arm. kaoter. From the Latin, 
caldarium. 

CALYS, adj. Hard, grievous. This is another form of 
cales, qd. v. In Llwyd's time it had been corrupted 
into calish, or cattish. 28, 54. 

CAM, s. m. Wrong, injury, a crime, trespass. PI. cam- 
mow. Pag ef gans cam a gerch dhyicorthyn Adam hag 
Eva ha lyes smat, for he with wrong will fetch from us 
Adam and Eve, and many friends. P.C. 3034. Ha, 



CAMHINSIC 



43 



CAN 






fahlych yn iuggyas gang cam pur bras, and falsely sen- 
tenced him with very great wrong. R.D. 2264. Gava 
dhyn agan commote, forgive us our trespasses. Pryce's 
Vocabulary. 

CAM, adj. Crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, 
wrong, wicked. It changes in construction into gam, 
and ham for cham. Ty re gam wruk eredy. ha re'n dros 
dhe vur anken, thou hast done evil verily, and hast 
brought him to much sorrow. O.M. 281. May whrus- 
sons cam dremene y vyllyk an pry's, that they committed 
the evil transgression, they will curse the time. O.M. 
336. Ny vyn an vyl harlot cam aioos an lys dyicedhe, 
the vile evil knave will not end for the world. P.O. 
2914. Ow ham wyth bras, gafdhym a tas, my great evil 
deed forgive me, O Father. P.O. 3029. Cam is also 
used as a substantive. Settyouch dalhennow yn cam a 
lever y v6s map Dew, set ye hands on the rogue who 
says that he is the son of God. P.C. 1126. Ma stryf 
yntre an dhew cam, there is a strife between tho two 
rogues. P.C. 2248. Why kelmoch an dew gam yn dyw 
crows kyns bos prys bos, ye bind the two rogues on two 
crosses before it be meal time. P.C, 2783. Cam is given 
in the Cornish Vocabulary, as the translation of the 
Lat. strabo, squint-eyed, which meaning is still preserved 
in Welsh, and the other dialects. Sir David Gam, the 
famous opponent of Owen Glyndwrdu, was so called 
from this peculiarity. W. cam, fcamm. Arm. camm. 
IT. cam, tcamm. Gael. cam. Manx, cam. Gaulish, 
combo. Germ. cam. Old Eng. /cam. Lith. kumpas. 
Lat. camus, camurus. Sansc. kamar, to be crooked. Gr. 
KaftTTij, Ka/nrtw, to bend, icafiapa, an arch. Pers. cumu, 
bending. Chald. kamar, to make a vaulted roof. Obs. 
that a final b has been absorbed in its cognate m, as is 
evident from the proper names Cambodunum, Mori- 
cambe, which latter name is still preserved in More- 
cambe Bay, in Lancashire, befog compounded of mor, 
the sea, and camb = camm, curved. It is singular that 
in late Cornish the mm was resolved into bm, as cabm, 
pi. cabmow, for camm, cammow. 

CAM, s. m. A step, or stride ; a pace in going. Hem- 
brynkeuch an harlot gwas, ha gans ow whyp me a'n cheus, 
ma kerdho garow y cam, bring the knave fellow, and 
with my whip I will drive him, that he go at a rough 
pace. PC. 1197. W. cam. Arm. camm, cammed. Ir. 
ceim. Gael. ceum. Manx, kem. 

CAMAN, conj. So that, that, so, as. Y beyn o mar cref 
ha tyn caman na ylly bewe, his pain was so strong and 
sharp that ha oould not live. M.C. 204. Written also 
camen, and cammen. Camen Pilot pan welas na ylly 
Christ ddyffre, so Pilate when he saw that he could not 
deliver Christ. M.C. 150. Ellas dhe v6s mdr wokky cam- 
men na vynnyih crygy pen vycterneth, alas that thou art 
so foolish, that thou wilt not believe the head sover- 
eignty. R.D. 990. 

CAMDYBIANS, s. m. Suspicion, evil thought. Com- 
pounded of cam, wrong, and tybyans, opinion. 

CAMDHAVAS, s. m. A rainbow. Lhtyd, 73. JCam- 
dhavas en mettyn, glow bos etlen, a rainbow in the morn- 
ing, rain is in it. Cornish Proverb. Pryce. Compounded 
of cam, curved, and davas, for tavas, a tongue. 

CAMGARREC, adj. Bandy-legged. Pryce. Compounded 
of cam, curved, and garr, the shank. 

CAMHINSIC, adj. Injurious, unjust. Cornish Vocabulary, 



injuriosus. injuslm. Compounded of cam, wrong, and 
hins, a way, id. qd. W. hynt. 

CAMLAGADEC, adj. Sqnint-eyed. Corrupted in Llwyd's 
time into cabmlagadzhac, 155. Compounded of cam, 
wry, and lagad, eye. 

GAMMA, v. a. To bend, curve, make crooked ; to tres- 
pass. Hag y 'thens dhe ben dewlyn, hag y kewsens dhe 
scornye, hag a gamma aga meyn pub onon rag y eysye, 
and they went on their knees, and they spake to scorn 
him, and they made wry their mouths every one to 
extol him. M.C. 137. Gava dhynny agan cammow, 
kepar ha gavan ny neb & comma erbyn ny. forgive us 
our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against 
us. Pryce. W. carnmu. Arm. comma. 

CAMMEN, s. f. A way, a path. Dr6k yw gyne na venta 
cammen tryU yn maner tek, I am sorry that thou 
wilt not turn thy way in a fair manner. P.C. 1293. 
Ow arlothes gyne agas pygys na wrellouch cammen ladhe 
an pro/us a Nazare, my lady by me prayed you that 
ye do not in any way kill the prophet of Nazareth. 
P.C. 2196. Me a vynse y wythe, ha ny yttyn cammen 
vt/th, pup oil ese ow crye y ladhf awos travytn, I would 
have preserved him, and I was not able any way ; all 
were crying to kill him notwithstanding every thing. 
P.C. 3126. Den na gresso dyougel an keth den-na dhe 
selwel cammen vylh na Ijl wharfos, the man who does not 
believe really, that same man to save not any way can 
exist. R.D. 2480. My ny won pyw e cammen, I know 
not who- he is at all, or in any way. R.D. 2493. W. 
caman, pi. ^cemmein. Oxford Glosses. Med. Lat. cami- 
nus. Fr. chemin. 

CAMN1VET, s. f. A rainbow. Cornish Vocabulary, yris 
vel arcus. Compounded of cam, a curve, and nivet, 
celestial, the adjective formed from nev, heaven, qd. v. 
In Armoric it is called gwarek-ar-gla6, and also canev- 
eden, which is compounded of the same elements. The 
Welsh names are envys, bum givlaw, pont wlaw. 

CAMPIER, s. m. A champion. Pryce. Written by Llivyd, 
44, campur. W. campiwr, (from camp, a game, the prize 
obtained at the games, the place where games are cele- 
brated. Lat. campus.) Ir. ^fcaimper. Gael, "tcaimfear. 
Germ, kampfer. Dan. kcemper. 

CAMS, s. f. A surplice. Cornish Vocabulary, alba. An- 
other form of the same word is hevis, qd. v. W. cams, 
camse, hevys. Arm. camps, hiviz. Ir. ^caimmse. Gael, 
teazmzs. Lat. camisia. Ital. camicia. Fr. chemise* Arab. 
kemys. Germ. hemd. 

CAMSGUDHEC, adj. Crooked-shouldered. Llwyd, 63, 
$ cabmsgudhac. Compounded of cam, crooked, and 
sgudhec, the adjective derived from sgodh, or tscwtrf, 
the shoulder. 

CAMWUL, v. a. To do wrong. A arluth ker, my a wra 
mar a kyllyn yn della ; ny dhe gamwul y won gu'r, O 
dear Lord, I will do if I can so; that we do wrong I 
know truly. P.C. 1065. Compounded of cam, wrong, 
and gul, to do. 

CAN, s. f. A song. PI. canow. In construction it changes 
into gdn, and hdn for chan. Menestrouthy ha can whek, 
minstrels, and a sweet song. O.M. 770. Rag henna, 
me a's temptyas dhe behe, may fe ellas aga hdn kepar ha 
my, for this I tempted them to sin, that " alas " may be 
their song as well as L O.M. 310. Gorrys dhe nef 
gans can, placed in heaven with a song. OJtf. 6402. 



CANNAS 44 

Me a vyngwethyl canow, I will make songs. C.W. 180. 
"W. can. Arm. can. IT. caint. Gael, cainnt. 

CAN, v. irr. We shall have. 1 pers. pi. fut. of the irr. v. 
cafos. Ni a gan. Llwyd. 247. W. cawn. 

CAN, adj. White. Bara can, panis albus, Cornish Voca- 
bulary. W. can. Arm. cann. Ir. can. Gael. cam. Lat. 
canus, candidus. Sansc. lean, to shine. 

CAN, num. adj. Hundred. Hayl Cayfas syr epscol 
stout, dek can quyth dliys lowene, hail, Caiaphas, bold sir 
bishop, ten hundred times joy to thee. P.O. 574. This 
is an abbreviated form of cans, qd. v. Can is similarly 
used in Welsh for cant, as can mil, a hundred thousand. 
Can is also used as a substantive in Cornish. Neb ese 
aberth yn bedh, gans can ha mur a elelh, dhe vewnans y 
tassorchas, he that was within the tomb, with a hundred 
and more of angels to life has risen. R.D. 515. 

CANAS, s. m. A song. PI. canasow. Y a vydh ryal ha 
splan, canasow dhe'm danvenys, they shall be royal and 
resplendent, songs unto me sending. C. W. 4. W. 
caniad. 

CANCER, s. m. A crab fish. Cornish Vocabulary, can- 
cher, cancer. PI. cancres, and cencras. Llwyd, 243. W. 
crane, pi. crancod. Arm. cancr, and crank, pi. cranked. 
Manx, grangan. Lat. cancer. Gi. Kapiavo?* Sansc. 
karkas, karkatas. 

CANE, v. a. To sing, to sing a song, to sing as birds, to 
crow. 2 pers. s. imp. can, sing thou. 1 pers. s.. fut. 
canaf. 3 pers. s. fut. can. Part, kenys. Un el ow tal- 
leth cane, a uchafwar an wedhen, an angel beginning to 
sing above me on the tree. O.M. 215. Ray ef o tebel 
edhen, neb a glewsys ow cane, for he was an evil bird, 
whom thou didst hear singing. O.M. 224. Servys dhe 
Dew dhe gone, y sacra scon my a icra, to sing the service 
to God, consecrate him forthwith I will. O.M. 2603. 
An maystri bras oil a'm bo, my re'n collas dredho, may 
canaf trew, all the great power that was mine, I have lost 
through him, that I may sing "alas !" P.C. 150. Peb 
ol war pen y dew glyn a gan yn gardhyans dodho, every 
one upon his knees will sing in worship to him. P.C. 
248. Ow lywedh na ganno tru, at last that he maynot 
sing "alas!" P.C. 1810. Kyns ys bos cullyek kenys, 
before the cock has crowed. P.C. 903. Kenouch why 
faborden bras, ha my a can trebyl fyn, sing ye a great 
bass, and I will sing a fine treble. R.D. 2359. In 
Keigwyn and Llwyd's time, it was written cana. Fir 
ow cana, singing wisely. C.W. 56. Ddo gana, to sing. 
Llivyd, 230. W. canu. Arm. cana. Ir. can. Gael. 
can. Lat. cano. Sansc. kan, to utter a sound* 

CANGUER, s. m. A hundred men. Pen canguer, Cor- 
nish Vocabulary, centurio. The captain of a hundred 
men, a centurion. Compounded of can, hundred, and 
guer, the plur. of your, a man. W. canwr. 

CAN.NA, s. m., A flagon, or can. Cornish Vocabulary, 
lagena. From the English. 

CANNAS, s. m. A messenger, apostle. PI. cannasow. 
Ow cannon u'hek, my sweet messenger. P.C. 1041. 
Danfon dhe Pilot cannas, send a messenger to Pilate. 
P.C. 1936. Me a vyn danvon ow cannas rag y warnye, 
I will send my messenger to warn him. P.C. 1955. 
Me a'th pys a dhanfon dhynny cannas, I pray thee to 
send to us a messenger. R.D. 768. Cregyans an Can- 
nasow, the Creed of the Apostles. Pryce. W. cennad. 
Arm. cannad. Ir. cead. Gael. cead. Manx, kied. 



CAR 



CANORES, s. f. A female singer, a songstress, a singing 
woman. Cornish Vocabulary, cantrix. From canor, 
id. qd. W. earner, a singer, with the feminine addition. 
The equivalent terms used in Welsh are canwraig, and 
canlores. Arm. canerex. 

CANQUYTH, adv. A hundred times. Deic canquyth 
dhys Imvene, ten hundred times joy to thee. P.C. 574. 
Llwyd, 248, has another form, canswylh. Compounded 
of can, or cans, a hundred, and gwyth, a time. W. can- 
waith. 

CANS, num. adj., and subs. m. A hundred. Nans yw 
lemrnyn tremenes nep deiv cans a vledhynnow, now there 
are gone by some two hundred years. O.M. 657. Try 
hans keveJyn da, an lester a vydh a hys ; ha hanter cans 
kevelyn yn wedh ty a wra y Ics, three hundred cubits 
good the ship shall be in length ; and half a hundred 
cubits also thou shall make its width. M. 955. Moy 
ys cans vyl, more than a hundred thousand. O.M. 
1614. Cans puns, a hundred pounds. P.C. 3144. Syth 
cans Uydhcn, seven hundred years. R.D. 2494. W. 
cant. Arm. cant Ir. cead, -\-cet. Gael. dad. Manx, 
keead. Sansc. cote. Gr. exa-rov. Lat. centum. Gothic 
and 0. H. German, hunda, hunt/a. 

CANS, prep. By, with. Cornish Vocabulary, Greg cans 
gur, uxor, a wife ; lit. woman with a man. This is the 
original form, which changes regularly into gans, qd. v. 
W. can, gan, \cant. Arm. gant. 

CANS, v. a. They shall have. 3 pers. pi. fut. of irr. v. 
cafos. Y a gans. I.lwyd, 247. W. cant. 

CANTLY, s. m, A lamp. Llwyd, 81. From cantal, a 
candle. 

CANTUIL, s. f. A candle. Cornish Vocabulary, candela. 
The late forms were cantl, and cantal, pi. cyntulv. W. 
canwyll. Arm. cantol. Ir. cainneal, coinnill. Gael. 
coinnr.al. Manx, cainle. All from the Latin candtla. 

CANTULBREN, s. m. A candlestick. Cornish Vocabu- 
lary, candelabrum. Compounded of cantuil, a candle, 
and pren, a stick. W. canwyllbrcn, canwyllyr. Arm. 
cantoler. Ir. caindloir. Gael, coinnleir. Manx, cain- 
leyr. 

CANVAS, v. a. To find. %Dho canvas fowt, to find 
fault. Llwyd, CO. W. canvod. 

CAOL, s. m. Cabbage. Llwyd, 45. Written in Cornish 
Vocabulary, caul, qd. v. 

CAPA, s. m. A cap. Cornish Vocabulary, cappa. Plur. 
copies, and cappios. Llwyd, 243. W. cap, capan. Arm. 
cab, cabcl. Ir. ccap. Gael. ceap. Manx, ceap. The 
original caps and cabins of the Celts were of the same 
shape, being circular at the base, and forming a cone, 
whence the agreement in the appellations, a cabin being 
called in Welsh, cab, caban. Arm. -^caban. Ir. caban. 
Gael, -\-caban. Manx, cabbane. Cf. also the capanna, 
a cottage, of Isidore, the Span, cabanna, Fr. cabane, 
Eng. cabin, and Capellatium, the old Gaulish name of 
the Limes Transrhenanus of Ammianus. 

CAR, s. m. A friend, ally, a dear neighbour, a kinsman, 
a cousin ; also a father, which in Armoric is the most 
common meaning. Cornish Vocabulary, amicus. Car 
ogos, affinis vel consanguineus. Plur. kerans. Llwyd, 
60. Yn nef y fedhnf tregis an barth dychow gans am 
car, in heaven I shall dwell on the right side with my 
father. M.C. 93. Me ny allaf convethas y bosta ge ow 
hendas, na car vi/th dhym yn tejfry, I cannot discover 



CARE 



45 



CAROL 



that thou art "my grandsire, nor any relation to me in 
reality. C.W. 116. W. car, pi. ceraint. Arm. car, pi. 
cerent. Ir. cara. Gael. cara. Manx, carrey. Sansc. 
craiyas, dear. Gr. x<V" s . Lai. carus. 

CAR, v. a. Will love. 3 pars. s. fut. of the verb care. 
My a'd car mur, I love thee much. O.M. 2154. Mur 
me a'n car, much I love him. R.D. 1802. Me a'lh car, 
I love thee. R.D. 1812. Saw nep a'n givello a'n car 
yn y colon, but whoever sees him will love him in his 
heart. R.D. 1895. Dew na stjns ny'n car, God or 
saints love him not. R.D. 2114. Pup oil a gar bewe", 
every one loves to live. P.O. 600. W. car, a gar. 
Arm. car, a gar. 

CAR, conj. Like as, as. Llwyd, 134. It mostly occurs 
in the composite formpocar, qd. v. 

CARA, conj. Like as, so as, as, as it were. Llwyd, ISO. 
It is the same word as car, and is generally joined to 
po. See Pocara. 

CARA, v. a. To correct, to chastise. Yn agis mysk pan 
esen, lays Du dheuch ow tysky, gallus nyng-ese kemmcn 
dhom cara na dhom sensy, when I was amongst you, 
teaching the laws of God, there was not power at all to 
chastise me, nor to sieze me. M.C. 75. W. cerydhu, 
from cerydh, Beared, nequitix. From Lat. corrcctio. 
Ir. cairf, cairiyim. 

CARADOW, adj. Beloved, loving, dear. PI. caradow- 
yon. An tas an nef caradow, the Father of heaven 
beloved. O.M. 679. A das colon caradow, O father, 
dear heart. O.M. 721. A das whek oil caradow, 
sweet father, all beloved. O.M. 1346. Arlythy carad- 
otcyon, drench dhym ow map cuf colon, dear lords, bring 
to me my son, wise of heart. P.O. 3163. Me an gordh 
omma del reys, rag y bos mar garadow, I will worship 
him here as is necessary, because he is so loving. Kei- 
fficyn, 40. W. caradwy. 

CARCATH, s. f. A thornback, ray, or skate. Com- 
pounded of car, abbreviation of carrec, and ccilh, a cat. 
It is called in W. cath v6r. Arm. kaz-vvr. Written by 
Llwyd, karcalh, 156. 

CARDER, s. m. Beauty. Llwyd, 152. The Cornish 
Vocabulary which furnishes this word translates it 
speciosus vel decorus, but erroneously, as der is the suf- 
fix of derivative substantives. The root is caer, beauti- 
ful, qd. v. 

CARDOWYON, adj. Friends, !,%<*, 242. Tormentours 
cardowyon, hep whethi corn, na gul son, keruch ihe.su 
dhynny ny, executioners, dear fellows, without blowing 
Lorn, or making a noise, bring Jesus to us. P.C. 1357. 
This is a contraction of caradowyon, the plural of car- 
adotv, qd.-v. 

CARE, v. a To love. 1 pers. s. fut. caraf. 3 pers. s. fut. 
cur, a gar. Part, kerys, kerrys, kyrys. An Tas Dew 
re bo gordhyys, synsys mur on dh'y gare, the Father God 
be worshipped, we are much bound to lovo him. O.M. 
1126. An keth den-ma dhe care, this same man to love. 
P.C. 511. Pan welas an Edhewon bos Christ ow cuthyl 
meystry, otv care edhomygyon, hag anedhe na tvre vry, 
when the Jews saw that Christ was doing mastery, 
loving the needy, and of them made no account. M.C. 
26. Ef a, gara Christ gwelas, lie loved to see Christ. 
M.C. 109. Y welas ef ny gara na bos yn y gowethas, he 
loved not to see him, nor to be in his company. M.C. 
110. Del y'lh caraf mur pup prys, as I love thee much 



always. P.C. 710. Synl Jovyn ttihilc re'n carro, sweet 
saint Jove love him. P.C. 1847. Hag a'th carvyth 
bynary, and will love thee for ever. P.C. 2872. Yweles 
me a garse, I would have liked to sec him. R.D. 435. 
Gwelas otv map y carsen, I should have liked to have 
seen my son. R.D. 442. Neb a aeryn an moycha, whom 
I love the most. C.W. 88. Mar dm kerouch, if ye 
love me. ibid. 182. See also Cyrry, cyrreuch, cyrys. 
In Keigwyn and Llwyd's time, the infinitive was writ- 
ten cara. W. caru. Arm. carout. Ir. caram, ^cairim, 
gradhaigh. Gael, gradhaigh. Manx, graih. 

CARENSE, s. f. Love, friendship. More freqnently writ- 
ten cerense, qd. v. Po kelly an garensa, or lose the 
love. C.W. 62. It was corrupted into carenge, or car- 
enga, by substituting^ soft, sounded as/ in English, for 
s. Rag dha garenga lemyn, for tby love now. C.W. 
28. Adam whek, ow harenga, sweet Adam, my love. 
ibid. 56. 

CARBSK, s. f. Exeter. Llwyd, 252. Compounded of 
Car, for Caer, a city, and Esk, the name of the river. 
W. Caermysg. 

CARG, s. m. A load, burden, charge, cargo. Pryce. W. 
carg. Arm. carg. 

CARHAR, s. m. A jail, or prison. Llwyd, 46. W. car- 
char. Ir. carcar, carcair. Gael, carcar. Lat. career. 
Gr. KapKap-os. Germ, kircher. 

CARIA, v. a. To bear, or carry. J Cariah an stuff stena 
dha an stumpes, carry the tin stuff to the stamping mill. 
$ Cariah an stean dha an fog, carry the tin, to the blow- 
ing-house. Pryce. W. cario. Arm. carrea. Manx, 
car. The root is the W. car, a wain, or dray. Fr. 
charrier. Span, acarrear. Dan. kiorer. Sw. kiora. 
Germ, karren. 

CARIOS, s. m. A cart, or carriage. Me a fyn, re dhu 
am r6s, dhe gemeres gans carios, hag ynpryson dhe teulel, 
I will, by him that made me, take thee with a cart, 
and throw thee into prison. P.C. 2266. Carios is pro- 
bably the plural of car. W. car, t carr, Oxford Glosses. 
Arm. carr. Ir. carr. Gael. carr. Manx, cayr. Lat. 
carrus; in Caesar, Gallorum currus, Sansc. car, to 
move, or advance. 

CARME, v. a. To cry out. Why a gyf bohosugyon pup 
ur warnoch ow carme, ye will have the poor always cry- 
ing out to you. P.C. 544. A mutation otgarme, qd. v. 

CARN, s. m. A rock, a rocky place, a high rock, a shelf 
in the sea, a heap of stones ; the hilt, or handle of an 
instrument, as earn colhan, the hilt of a knife, Llwyd, 
86. Also the hoof, as ewincarn, qd. Y. PI. carnow, 
Lemmyn hertheuch hy yn ves, me a glew un hager noyes, 
yn earn yn mor er y byn, now push her out, I hear an 
ugly noise on a rock in the sea meeting him. R.D. 
2297. Dhe un earn yfue tewlys, to a rock he was cast 
R.D. 2333. Tan ha mok ha pocvan bras yn carna ( = 
earn-no) neffre y sef, fire and smoko and great sickness 
in that rock shall ever remain. R.D. 2432. %Mi rig 
gwelas an carnoiu idzha an idhen m6r Ml y ge neiiho, I 
saw the rocks where the sea birds make their nests. 
Llwyd, 245. W. earn, a rock, haft, hoof. Arm. earn, 
rock, hoof. Ir. earn. Gael. earn. Manx, earn. In 
the Erse dialects it means a rock only. 

CAROL, s. m. A choir, a concert. Cornish Vocabulary, 
chorus. In Welsh, carol means a song, or panegyrical 
poem ; caroli, to sing carols ; and cor, a circle, the choir 



CARSESTA 



of a church, whence coroli, to move in a circle, to dance. 
Arm. coroli, a dance ; corolli, to move in cadence, to 
dance. Gael, caruill, to sing. Manx, carval, a carol. 
CAROW, s. m. A deer, stag, or hart. Ythanwafbuch ha 
tarow, ha march yw best hep parow dhe vap den rdq ym- 
weres, gaver yweges carow, daves war ve lavarow hy hanow 
da, Tcemeres, I name cow, and bull, and horse which is a 
beast without equals for the son of man to help himself; 
goat, steer, stag, sheep, according to my words, let her 
take her good name. O.M. 126. Suel a vynno bos sylwys, 
golsowens ow lavarow, a Jesus del ve helheys war an bys 
avel carow, whoever wishes to be saved, let him hearken 
to my words, of Jesus, how he was hunted in the world 
like a deer. M.C. 2. W. carw. Arm. card, carv. Ir. 
cairfhiadh, -^searbos. Gael, cairfhiadh. As the Welsh 
does not give us any radical meaning, it is evident that 
the Britons must have borrowed the term from the Lat. 
cervus, which again was derived from the Gr. icepabs, 
horned, the root being icepai, a horn, one of the chief 
characteristics of a stag. Of. Sansc. carngin, a horned 
beast. The Celtic term for a stag was the W. hydh ; 
Arm. Am; Ir. Jiadh ; Q&e\. .fiadh ; Manx,/eeaiA. In 
the Irish and Gaelic cairfhiadh, the two names are com- 
bined. With the above compare also the Lat. hcedus, a 
kid ; and Sansc. aidhakas, a ram, from aidji, to grow. 
CARRA, v. a. He may love. 3 pers. s. subj. of care. 
Kyn yn carra vyth mar veur, awos y ladhe ny'm duer, 
though he may love him ever so much, for killing him, 
I have no concern. R.D. 1897. This should properly 
be written carro, qd. v. 

CARRAG, s. f. A stone, a rock. An garrac, the stone. 
Llwyd, 241. PI. carrygy, Pylh yw an gordhyans dhe 
Dew, b6s leskys dhe glow lusew war an carrygy dege, what 
is the worship to God, that the tithe should be burnt to 
coal ashes on the stones ? O.M. 478. W. carreg, fcor- 
rec. Arm. carrec. Ir. carraic. Gael, carraig, carragh. 
Manx, carric. Gr. X"/> a F- 

CARRO, v. a. He may love. 3 pers. s. opt. of care. 
Synt Jovyn wMk re'n carro, ha dres pup ol re'n gortho, 
Jcepar del ylly yn ta, may sweet saint Jove love him, and 
honour him above every one, like as he can well. P.O. 
1847. Kenneth sewys, synt Jovyn whekre'th caro, a bles- 
sing follow thee, may sweet saint Jove love thee. P.O. 
3016. W. caro. 

CARSB, v. a. He had loved, or would have loved. 3 pers. 
s. plup. of care. Ny garse pelU bewe, he would not wish 
to live longer. O.M. 738. Me a garse y weles, I would 
wish to see him. P.O. 233. Coivs ganso me a garse, I 
should have liked to speak with him. R.D. 744. W. 
carasai, and by contraction carsai, a garsai. 
CARSEN, v. a. I had loved, or would have loved. 1 pers. 
s. plup. of care. Dhe v6dh mar pe genes, gwelas ow map 
y carsen, thy will if it be with thee, I would like to see 
my son. R.D. 442. Y carsen gwelas anfuu anodho, y v6dh 
mar pe, I would wish to see the form of him, if it be his 
will. R.D. 469. Clew mar a'th dur dhys daryvas del 
garsen mur, hear, if it concerns thee, as I would desire 
much to declare to thee. R.D. 846. W. caraswn, anc 
contractedly carswn, a garswn. 

CARSESTA, v. a. Thou hadst loved, or wouldst have 
loved. 2 pers. s. plup. of care. A garsesta bynene. mar 
mynnyth, war ow ene, me a gerch onan dek dhys, woulds 
thcra love women ? If thou wishest, on my soul, I wil 



46 CASE 

fetch a fair one for thee. P.O. 2838. Carsesta is com- 
pounded of corses, the second person, and the pronoun 
fe, thou. 

CARVYTH, v. a. He will love. 3 pers. s. fut. of care. 
Vynytha dalasias, efa'th carvyth me a gr$s, for ever, in 
requital, he will love thee I believe. P.C. 1846. Me 
an carvyth y'm colon, alemma bys gorfen beys, I will love 
him in my heart henceforth to the end of the world. 
P. C. 1703. Hag yn ur-na martesen dhelh lavarow y 
cresen, hag a'th carvyth bynary, and in that hour per- 
haps I would believe thy words, and will love thee for 
ever. P.C. 2872. 

AS, s. f. A battle, conflict. An Princis esa ynpow gans 
Judas a dhanvonas (us ven gweskis yn arvow kepare ha 
delens dhe'ngds, the Princes (that) were in the country 
with Judas sent men trusty, clad in armour like as they 
go to the battle. M.C. 64. Me yw mychtern re wruk 
cas ol rag dry Adam ha'y has a tebel scuth ; mychtern &f 
a lowene, ha'n victory elh gyne yn arvow rudh, I am the 
king that did battle all to bring Adam and his seed 
from evil plight ; the king I am of joy, and the victory 
went with me in arms red* R.D. 2517. The earliest 
form was cad, qd. v. 

CAS, s. m. Hatred, enmity, trouble, anguish, misfortune. 
Yn Egip whyrfys yw cds, ow popel vy grevyys bras gans 
Pharow, yw mylyges, ymons dhymo ow crye, in Egypt 
trouble has arisen, my people, greatly aggrieved by 
Pharaoh, who is accursed, are to me crying. O.M. 1415. 
Yma cas bras wharfethys'ha codhys war dhepobel, a great 
misfortune has occurred, and fallen on thy people. O.M. 
1542. Mur a gas vye gene trehy henna, much trouble it 
would be to me to cut that. Q.M. 2501. Ha nep win 
gruk war nep tro yn peynys trygens yno, hep ioy prest 
may's tejfo cas, and whoever has not done it on any 
occasion, in pains let him dwell there, without joy 
always, that ho may obtain anguish. R.D. 160. W. 
cds. Arm. cas. Ir. teats. Gael, teats, (cds, misfor- 
tune.) Sansc. hath. Gr. KOTOS ; x '"'? to hate. Fr. hair. 
Goth. hata. Aug. Sax. hasse. Eng. hate. 
CASADOW, adj. Hateful, odious, detestable, villainous, 
worthless, rotten. Often used as a substantive. Fys- 
lyn duwhans gweres vy, ow tdn a' plos casadow, hasten 
quickly to help me, bringing the odious villain. O.M. 
892. Mar cothfo an casadow, dystouch yjyen ledhys, if 
the villain knew, immediately I should be killed. O.M. 
2199. Euch tynneuch an gasadow, usy ow cul fals dew- 
ow, yn mes agan temple ny, go drag the detestable (wo- 
man,) who is making false gods out of our temple. O.M. 
2691. Yn della, a gasadow, y gorthebyth epscobmv, thus, 
detestable one, dost thou reply to bishops 1 P.C. 
1265. Gans an bobba casadow, with the odious idiot. 
P.C. 2394. Del lavare war anow war anpren glays mar 
a te, ynpren seych ha casadow yn er-na fatel ve, as they 
say by mouth ; on the green wood if it come, in wood 
dry and rotten, in that hour how shall it be? M.C. 170. 
W. casadwy. 

CASAL, s. f. The armpit. Written by Llwyd, 44, cazal. 
W.cesail. Arm. cazel. Ir. asgal, oscul. Gael, achlais. 
Manx, achlish. Lat. axilla. See Ascal. 
CASE, v. a. To hate, detest. Rdk ef yw drok was, war 
ow fay, me a'n cds, an plos Jleryys, for he is a wicked 
fellow, on my faith I hate him much, the stinking 
villain. R.D. 1889. W. casdu. Arm. casaat. 



CAUGEON 

CASEC, a. f. A mare. Cornish Vocabulary, cossec, equa. 
Keigwyn and Llwyd write it casac, which was the pro- 
nunciation of their time, anu so it is pronounced rul- 
garly in many parts of Wales at present. PL cassigy. 
Ythfnwaf bcuch ha tarow, oil an cattel dcbarow, ago, hen- 
wyn kemerans ; march, ha casac, ha asan, Icy, ha cdth, 
logosan, deffrans ehan serpcnls, I will name them cow 
and bull, all the cattle feeding, let them take their 
names ; horse and mare, and ass, dog, and cat, mouse, 
different kinds' of serpents. C.W. 32. Casac dhal, a 
blind mare, Llwyd, 243. Casec coid, the green wood- 
pecker. (Arm. cazek coad. W. caseg wanwyn, caseg y 
dry^hin.) W. caseg. Arm. cazek. 

CAST, s. m. A trick. Ty vaw, lemyn syng-e fast, rate ef 
a tvor lyes cast, rak dhe tolle, thou boy, now hold him 
fast, for he knows many tricks to deceive thee. P.O. 
1884. Gwreuch y pur fast, ma na allons yn priveth y 
laddra yn mes an bedh, dre nep fals cast, make them 
very fast, that they may not be able privily to steal him 
out of the tomb, by some false trick. R.D. 36. W. cast. 
Ir. gaslog. Gael, gasdag. 

CASTEL, s. m, A castle, fort, fortress ; also a village. 
PL castilly. My a vyn gruthyl castel, ha drehevel dhym 
ostel, ynno jammes rag tregf, I will make a castle, and 
build for myself a mansion, in it ever to dwell. O.M. 
1709. Myr lowene ol an bys, trevow a try's, castilly bras 
hag huchel, behold the joy of all the world, towns of 
price, castles large and high. P.O. 131. Ens dew am 
dyscyblyon dhen castel its a ragon, let two of my disciples 
go to the village that is before us. P.O. 174. Stout 
awos castel Maudlen, mar querth me a tf.r dhe pen dhys 
awartha, though thou be as strong as Castle Maudlen, if 
thou dost I will break thy head for thee from above. 
R.D. 920. Ny iuggyn mones nep pel, lemmyn bys yn un 
castel hewcys Emmaus, we do not think to go any dis- 
tance, but as far as a village called Emmaus. R.D. 
1295. W. castell. Arm. castel. Ir. caiseal. Gael, cais- 
teal. Manx, coshtal. All from the Lat. castellum. 
CATH, s. f. A cat. Written in the Cornish Vocabulary, 
according to the old orthography, cat, cattus vel muri- 
legns. Aga henwyn kemerans, march ha casac, ky, ha 
cath, logosan, let them take their names, horse and 
in are, dog, and cat, mouse. C.W. 32. Oil dha lavyr 
fiyn diil cdth, all thy labour is not worth a cat ibid. 166. 
Bram an gath, the wind of a cat ibid. 172. Gurcath, 
a he-cat. Coidqath, a wild cat, or cat of the woods. 
Pryce. W. cath. Arm. caz. Ir cat. Gael. cat. Manx, 
cayt. Gr. KO.TTO,, Kcrny?, KOTO. Lat. catus, cattus, catta. 
Fr. chat. It. gatta. Span. goto. Isl. kail. Swed. kail. 
Da. kat. Ang. Sax. cat. Germ. Jcatxe. Sansc. cdvas, a 
young animal, from evi, to grow, propagate. 
CAUCH, s. m. Ordure, manure, dung. Catch. Llwyd, 

154. The same word as cac, qd. v. 

CAUCHWA8, a. m. A filthy fellow, a base fellow, a 
coward. Ty an qwysk avel cauch-was, thou strikest him 
like a coward. P^.C. 2103. Ty a whyth avel cauch gwds, 
whyth tear gam, ny dryk grychonen ynfuk, thou blowest 
like a coward, blow athwart, there remains not a spark 
in the forge. P.O. 2715. Compounded of cauch, dung, 
and gu-as, a fellow. Cdch is similarly used to denote 
baseness in the W. compound cachgi, a coward, from 
each, and ci, a dog. 
CAUGEOIf, s. m. A filthy fellow. Used also as an ad- 



47 CAVOW 

jective. Henna me a wra, rak ny won yn beys gwell 
toul dhyn dhe wrulhyl dhen cauyeon, that I will do, for 
I know not a better trick in the world for us to do to 
the dirty fellow. P.O. 2921. Ha my caugeon lawethan, 
merwel a wren ny ow cul tan yn dan an chek, and my 
dirty fiends, we will die making a fire under the ket- 
tle. R.D. 137. Pie 'thesos cavgyon, ha'th couyth, where 
art thou, dirty fellow, and thy comrade. R.D. 644. 
From cauch. 

CAUL, s. m. Cabbage, colewort, any kind of pottage in 
which there is cabbage, or any sort of potherbs. Cor- 
nish Vocabulary, caula vel magdulans, olera. It is 
written by Llwyd, cool, cawl, cowl. W. cowl. Arm. 
cool, ml. Ir. cal. Gael. cal. Manx, kail. Gr. xovXos. 
Lat. caulis. Lith. kolas. Fr.chou. Germ. kohl. Belg. 
koole. Swede, kvl. Aug. Sax. caul. Eng. cole, kail. 
CAUR, s. m. A giant. It is preserved in the composite 
caurmarch, qd. v. In Welsh, it bears the meaning of a 
mighty man morally as well as physically, a hero, or 
great chief. W. cawr. Ir. cirb, a warrior ; curadh, a 
champion ; -\-gur, valiant. Gael, corr, very great ; cvr- 
aidh, a champion, from cur, power. Manx, foatvr, a 
giant. Sansc. sura, a hero, from sur, to be strong. 
CAURMARCH, s. m. A camel. Cornish Vocabulary, 
camelus. Compounded of caur, gigantic, and march, a 
horse. So also in W. catvrvarch. 

CAUS, s. m. Cheese. Cornish Vocabulary, caseus, where 
also it is written cos. The latest form was ces, qd. v. 
W. caws. Arm. caouz. Ir. cais. Gael, caise. Manx, 
caashey. Lat. caseus. 

CAV, v. a. He will have. 3 pers. s. fut. ofcavas, or cavel, 
qd. v. Mar menla gwelas an ost an chy, Mda'n gegen, hag 
enna tia'n cdv, if tliou wilt see the host of the house, go in- 
to the kitchen, and there thou wilt find him. Llwyd, 252. 
CAVANSCIS, s. m. An excuse, an escape. Cans mear 
a Justice yn wfas, ef a ve veyl rebukis, cavanskis ef a 
whelas, rag own y vonas ledhys, by many a justice in the 
country, he was vilely rebuked, escape he sought for, 
for fear that he should be slain. M.C. 156. 
CAVANSCUSE, v. a. To make excuse. Ny dnl dhys 
cavanscuse, dre dhe wrekyvds terry s, rag arty ty dhe gole, 
myl vap mam a veydh damneys, it will not do for thee to 
make excuse through thy wife that it was broken, be- 
cause thon didst hearken to her, a thousand mother's 
sons shall be damned. O.M. 321. 

CAVAS, v. a. To have. Written also cavos, being an- 
other form of cawas, or cafos, qd. v. Ni allaf c/tvos 
poives, I cannot find rest. C.W. 110. It is also given 
by Llwyd, 247, as the preterite, answering to the W. 
caves. Thus me a gavas, I had ; ev a gavas, he had ; y 
a gavas, they had. 
CAVEL, v. a. To have, or find. Oho gavel, to find. 

This is the same word as cafel, qd. v, W. cafael. 
CAVOW, s. m. Grief, sorrow. Rag cavow sevell a'm saf, 
war doer lemyn omhelaf, ow holan ter dew gallas, for 
sorrow I stand upright, on the ground now I will throw 
myself, my heart is parted in two. C.W. 88. Hag 
henna saf, ha gas cavow dha wandra, me ne brederaf 
gwellfor, therefore stand up, and leave sorrow to wan- 
der, I know no better way. Aid. 90. Kemmys ew gansy 
murnys aga holan ew terrys rag cafow, medhaf y dy, so 
much is it bewailed by them, their hearts are broken 
for grief, I.say to thee. ibid. 98. Cavow is the same as 



CEAN 



48 



CEFONS 



the Old Armorio cafou, (solicitudines.) preserved in i 
Buhez Noun, 200, and is connected with the W. cawdh, 
Arm. keuz, ke; Ir.+eaodh; Gael caoidh; Sansc. kod. to 
be overwhelmed with sorrow. 

CAWAL, a. m. A hamper, a basket. Cawol gwanan, a 
beehive. Lluyd, 42. Cauwal, or cowal, is still m com- 
mon use in Cornwall, for a pannier, or fishwoman s 
basket. Vf.jawell. Arm. cave/. Ir. clwbh, ^clvab. 
Gael. clMh. 

CAWAS, v. a. To have, or find. Me a yll b6s lowenheys, 
kyns es bos dewedh an bys, cawas an oyl a vercy, I may 
be made glad, before it is the end of the world, to have 
the oil of mercy. C.W. 70. Kemmys yw an mollathow, 
dout yw dhym cawas trigva, so many are the curses, 
there is doubt to me to find a dwelling. C.W. 88. Keys 
yw porrys laryrrya, ha gones an lys omma, dha gawas 
dheny susten, needs is that we should labour, and till 
the ground here, to procure for us sustenance. C.W. 80. 
It is also written cawys. Ny whyla dhym na moy cows, 
me a vyn cawys anpows, kyn fy mar pyth, seek not any 
more talking to me, I will have the coat, though it ever 
be so. R.D. 1957. Cawas is only another form of cav- 
as, cavel, and cafas, qd. v. 
CAWS, v. a. To speak, or talk. Llwyd, 245. Generally 

written cows, qd. v. 

CAW8YS, part. Spoken. Hena Pilal pan welas kymmys 
caivsys er y byn, then Pilate when he saw so much spo- 
ken against him. M.C. 100. Generally written cewsys, 
qd. v. 

CAWYS, adj. Dirty. Cawys poms, a dirty gown. Pryce. 
CE, v. n. Go thou. Used as the imperative of the irre- 
gular verb mones, to go. Ke, growct war an dor gulan, 
ha cask, go, lie down on the earth clean, and sleep. 
O.M. 96. Keyn mcs an wlds, troha ken pow dhe vewe, go 
out of the country, towards another land to live. O.M. 
343. Ke yn rak, del ym kyrry, go before, as thou lovest 
me. O.M. 537. Ke yn berth, go away. O.M, 725. Ke 
weth tresse treveth dh'y, go yet the third time to it. O.M. 
799. Kf, yn ban war an cunys, go up upon the wood. 
O.M. 1333. Ke is also written hi, Llwyd, 247, which 
sound is also found in the Ordinalia. Kee kymmer 
myns a vynny an beis oil adro, go take all that thou 
wilt of the world all around. O.M. 403. Arm. ke. 
CE, s. m. A hedge, fence ; inclosure, field. PI. ceow. 
Ce linec, a field of flax. Y fensan y v6s cudhys yn neb 
toll ke, I would he were hid in some hole of the hedge. 
C.W. 82. $Na dalle dees perna kinnis war an saw, na 
m6s cttntell an dreis dro dan keow, men ought not to buy 
fuel by the load, nor go to gather the brambles about 
the hedges. Pryce. In construction it changes into ge, 
as golvan ge, a hedge sparrow. The root is W. caw, to 
inclose. W. cae, \cm. Arm. kae, ke. Ir.fe, tcae, \ce. 
Gael./atc/i. Manx./ome. Cf. 0. H. Germ, hag, N. H. 
G. gehege, Fr. haie, Eng. hedge. 

CE, conj. Though, although. An abbreviated form of 
ken. Me a vyn mfis dha gudha, ce ythew gryjff", I will 
go to hide, though it is grievous. C.W. 112. Whath 
' ke'thyns y mar venys, me a dhdg ran war ow heyn, since 
they are so small, I will carry a portion oO nay back. 
tbfd. 100. 

QEAN, s. m. A supper. Written also c6n, qd. v. W. 
ciniaw, a dinner, cwynos, supper. Arm. coan. 



CEANY, v. a. To sup. Pryce. The same word as cona, 

qd. v. 

GEAR, adj. Dear. Another form of cer, qd. v. 
CEAS, v. a. To shut up, inclose. Llwyd, 104. W. cau. 

Arm. caca. 

CEBER, s. m. The matrix. Cornish Vocabulary, vulva. 
This word is the W. cwybyr, a covering, honeycomb. 
Compare also W. cwthyr, the vagina ; 'and the Old 
Irish caebb, tho liver ; Old Bohemian kepp, (vulva ;) 
and Old German chepis, chebis, chelisa, kebisa, a concu- 
bine. Keb remains in several German words, such as 
kebsehe, kebsfrau, &c. 

CEBER, a. f. A rafter, beam. Cornish Vocabulary, tig- 
num. W. ceber, pi. cebyr, -tcibrion, Oxford Gloss. Arm. 
kebr. Gael, cabar. Fr. chevron. 
CEBMER, Y. a. Take thou. %Cebmer wylh, take care. 

Llwyd, 251. A late corruption of cemer, qd. v. 
CEBMYS, adj. So much. $Kebmys pehas es yn beys, so 
much sin is in the world. C.W. 156. A late corruption 
otcemmys, qd. v. 

CECEFFRYS, adv. Likewise, also, as well, ima ow cut 
sacryfys, hay pobel ef kekeffrys, dhen keth dew-no, gans 
mur tros, he is making a sacrifice, and his people ahio, 
to that same God, with a loud noise. O.M. 1557. Yma 
omma dew cledhe, parys gans ow cowethe, cales ha scherp 
kekeffrys, there are here two swords, ready with my 
companions, hard and sharp also. P.C. ^927. It is 
also written kekyfrys. Lavaraf dheuch a tus vas kekyf- 
rys byan ha bras, lemmyn gwreuch oil ow sywe, I say to 
you, good men, little and great also, now do ye all 
follow me. O.M. 1673. Compounded of ce, id. qd. cev, 
qd. v., and ceffrys. 

CECEMMYS, adj. As much as, as many as. bosteyth, 
dhymo y a vydh, kekemys us ye gureys, obedient to 
me they shall be, as much as is in them made. M. 
54. Ha kekemmys nan cresso, goef termyn a dheffo 
devones a brys benen, and whoever would not believe it, 
woe to him the time that he came nurtured from the 
womb of woman. R.D. 1348. Dhe kekemmys na'm 
gwello, hagynperfyth a!n cresso, ow lenbenneth me apys, 
to as many as shall not see me, and shall perfectly be- 
lieve it, my full blessing I pray. R.D. 1554. Com- 
pounded of ce, id. qd. cev, qd. v.. and cemmys. 
CEDVA, s. f. A synod, or convention. Llwyd, 51. Writ- 
ten in Cornish Vocabulary, chetua, conventus vel con- 
vent! o. W. cydva. Compounded of ced, id. qd. W. 
cyd, together, and ma, a place. 

CEFALS, s. m. A joint, or limb. Cornish Vocabulary, 
chefals, artus. W. cyvall, being joined together ; cyvaillt, 
a friend. Cymmal, a joint, compounded of cym, or cyd, 
together, and mal, a limb, which is now obsolete in 
Welsh, but is preserved in the C. mett ; Arm. mell; Ir. 
ball; Gael. ball. Compare also the Ir. tafr, a limb, 
\-comallte, a companion. 

CEFER, v. pass. Is found. 3 pels, of the pres. and fut. 
tense passive of cafos. Saw levereuch cowctlte, py kefer 
pren dh'y crowsye, but say, companions, where shall *> 
found wood to crucify him. P.C. 2535. Written also 
kefyr. Pie kefyr dyw grows aral rak an dew ladar hep 
fal, levereuch dhym cowethe, where shall be found two 
other crosses for the two thieves without fail, tell me 
comrades. P.C. 2576. W. cefir. 
CEFONS, v. a. They may find. 3 pers. pi. subj. of cafos, 



CEGIN 



49 



CELES 



Danvon tils dk'y aspye, mar an kefims ->m ncp chy, ha'n 
keltnyns treys ha dufe, ha'n hembrynki/s iy,v d/n/nny, send 
men to look for him, if they should find him in any 
hoOse, let them bind him feet and hands, and bring 
him to us. P.O. 582. W. cafnnt. 

CEFOUCH, v. a. Ye shall find, 2 pers. pi. fut. of cafos. 
Ray mar ny'n crf&uc/i, n pli/flfi why an pren, for if ye 
do not find him, a plight ye shall catch it. R.D. 620. 
W. cafoch. 

CEFRYS, adv. Likewise, also, as well. Otte an puskes, 
ydliyn an nif, ha'n be/ties kefrys yn tyr frag yn mor, be- 
hold the fishes, the birds of heaven, and the beasts, as 
well on land as in sea. O.M. 1 19. Ota ctifus bannctii ow 
mam ha bannvth ow thds kefrys, receiviug the- blessing of 
my mother, and the blessing of my father likewise. 
O.M. 472. Written also cyff'rya, and cyfreys. W. cyfred, 
compounded of cyv, together, and rhia, a running. 

CEFU1DOC, adj. 'Almighty. Cornish Vocabulary, omni- 
potent/. W. cyvocthog, adj., from cyvoeth, power. Ir. 
^cwitacfttach, +cumachtig, powerful ; mmharhd, fam- 
acht, \cumacct, power. Gael, evmachd, power. 

CEFYN, v. a. We shall have, or find. 1 pers. pi. fut. of 

. cafos. Saw levereuch dhym dffry pren d/ie gysl pic kefyn 
ny, a vo compea avel shaft, but tell me seriously, wood 
for the beam where shall we find, which may be straight 
like a shaft. Cj.M. 2493. Fystynyn fast alemma, dd gor- 
fiemynys dtffry, mar kefyn den a,'n par-na, ny an $yw 
bys yn y chy, let us hasten quickly, as commanded in- 
deed ; if we shall find a man of that sort, we will 
follow him even to his house. P.O. 647. W. cafem. 

CEKYON, adj. Dear, beloved. PI. of cuf, qd. v. Go- 
dheveuch omma lavur, ha gollyouch gynef, otu kefyon ker 
coionow, endure ye here labour, and watch with me 
my dearly beloved hearts. P.O. 1026. 

CEFY8, part. Found. Part. pass, of cafos. Mars flh 
corf Dew y honan, pyley fydh e. cefl'yx, if the body of 
God himself is gone, where shall it be found. R.D. 702. 
Otlefe lemmyn keffys, dus dhum arluth dyssempys, behold 
him now taken ; come to my lord immediately. R.D. 
]701. Lavarsons y hed pyh' agon traytour yw kefys, 
they said without pity, our traitor is found. M.C. 98. 
In Keigwyn's time it was generally written and pro- 
nounced eevtja, qd. v. 

CEFYTH, v. a. Thou shalt hare. 2 pers. s. fut. of cafos. 
Tyr seek yn guel nag yn pros, mar krfyth yn qwyr liep 
goto, ynno gueet in-in whelas bos dheth ly, ha dheth kyn- 
yow, dry land in field, or in meadow, if thou sbalt find 
truly without deceit, in it take good care to seek food 
for thy breakfast, and for thy dinner. O.M. 1138. AVrit- 
ten later cevyth, qd. v. 

CEGAS, s. m. Hemlock. Llwyd, 47. W. cegid. Arm. 
cegit. Lat. cicuta. 

CEG EL, s. m. A distaff. Cans kegel a dhesempys nedfie 
dyllas my a wra, with a distaff immediately I will spin 
clothes. O.M. 415. Written also cigel, qd."v. 

CEGIN, g. f. A kitchen. Cornish Vocabulary, keghin, 
coquina. Etna Adam tremenys, dun dhe hedlias dha'n 
gcgon, Adam is dead, let us come to fetch him to the 
Wtchen. C.W. 146. Mar menta gwelns an osl an chy, 
hi dan gtgcn, ha enna ti a'n cav, if thou wishest to see 
the host of the house, go into the kitchen, and there 
thou shalt find him. Llioyd, 252. Though cegin might 
be formed from cog, by the regular change of o into e ; 



the final n shews that it is borrowed from the Latin 
coquina. So also W. cegin. Arm. begin. Ir. -\-cHcann. 

CEHAFAL, adj. Equal, like, similar. A bub tort a Itv- 
erow, egivatt v.nnu ew gorrus, pekar yiheiv an sortuw, 
gorrya unna der devyes, in, deffi'ans ha kehavaJ, of every 
sort of books, equally in them are put, as are the sorts 
put in them by pairs, in proportion and equal. C.W. 
160. Compounded of ce, id. qd. cev , qd. v., and haval, 
like. W. cyhnval, cyval. Ir. cosmail. 

CEHEDZHE, s. m. A reaching, or stretching of the body. 
Llwyd, 112. W. cyfydu. 

GE1, s. m. A dog. Llwyd, 241. A later form of <?, qd.v. 

CEIN, s. m. The back, the ridge of a hill. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, chein, dorsum. In construction it changes 
into gein, and kein for chein. My a'th viheres wth y 
dliondlie. i/ffarn, kepar hag on, war geyn lowarnpy bralh- 
ky, I will help thee to bring him to hell, like as we are, 
on the back of a fox, or a mastiff. O.M. 895. Kymer 
dhymmo tie kunys. qan.i lovan bedhens strothys, ha war 
dhe keyn dvga ef, take firewoo'd for me, with a rope let 
it, be bound, and on thy back carry it. O.M. 1298. 
PUp den ol degyns ganso y pyth, an mens a allo iuar aga 
keyn fardellmo, let every man bear with him his things, 
all that he can, burdens on their back. O.M. 1693. 
Pyw henna a dhue dhe'n tre, war keyn asen hag ebel, who 
is that that is come to the town, on the back of an ass 
and foal. P.C. Ha'qan jlehys kekeffrys ; tahath keth- 
ynn y mar vcni/s, nie a dh6g ran war ow heyn usktis lentyn, 
and our children likewise ; yet since they be so small, 
I will carry a portion on my back immediately now. 
C.W. UK). W. cevn, -rcecz'n, Lib. Land. Arm. cevn, 
cein. Fr. and Eng. chine. 

CEINAC, s. m. A shad fish. Llwyd, 240. 

CEIRCH, s. m. Oats. Cornish Vocabulary, avena. Bara 
cfiirch, panis avena, oaten bread. Written also cerch. 
Dda chardge a vydh war kerch, barlys, Jut, gwanetft, dha, 
wethyl an dega leal, thy charge shall be over oats, 
barley, wheat, to make true tithe. C.W. 78. The latest 
form was cerh. W. ceirch, cerch. Arm.cerch. Je.coirce, 
(^curehaf, arundo.) Gael, coirce. Manx, corkey. Obs. 
in Wales, ceirch is the form used colloquially in Angle- 
sey; cerch in Ar von and Denbighshire; and cyrch about 
Oswestry, in Eastern Powys. 

CEISWAS, s. m. A keeper." Pryce. W. ceidwad. 

CELE, s. m. A companion, a fellow, one of two. Il't</ 
yll Ifjf a vc tackia ord an grows fast may 'th ese, hay yll 
tr<ys a ve gorria poran war ben y gele worth an qroivs y 
funs ladhyys (jams kcnte.r grvyskys dredhl, and the one 
hand was nailed on the cross, so that it was fast, and 
one foot was put right over its fellow ; on the cross 
they were laid, with a nail struck through them. M.G. 
179. W. qihfdd, ^rilid. Arm. (ci/e) e gile, Beguile. Ir. 
ceile, da cheUe, \cele. Gael, a chtillfy. Manx, cheilisy. 
Sanso. kit, to bind. 

CELEGEL, s. m. A chalice. Cornish Vocabulary, calia:. 
Derived from the Lat. calicc, with a British termination. 

CELES, v. a. To hide, conceal. Part, celys. A vdp, ny 
dal keles man, an pyih a dhue gtveKs veydh, eon, it 
will not, avail to conceal anything, the thing which is 
coming will be seen. O.M. 863. Adam ny yl v6s kelys, 
an pylf> n dime yn dywedh, yma jloch gcnaf' qenys, dre 
vddh an tan, Dew in wedh, Adam, it cannot be concealed, 
the thiug will come at last, there ia a child born to me, 



CELLY 



50 



CEMEAS 



by the will of the father, God also. O.M. 670. W. 
ccltt. IT. ceil. Gael, ceil, Manx, keil. Lat. celo, culo. 
Sansc. cal, to cover ; hul, to cover. Gr. K\el<a, KO\VU>. 
Goth, hulia. Germ. Wile, hehle. Lith. kaliu. 

CELIJf, s. tn. Holly. Cornish Vocabulary, ulda. TV. 
ceh/n. Arm. kelen. Ir. cuileann. Gael, cuileann. Manx, 
hollyn. 

CELINEN, s. f. A holly tree. Llwyd, 241. "W. celynen. 
Arm. kelennen. 

CELIOC, s. m. A cock. Cornish Vocabulary, chelioc, 
gallus. Written in the Ordinalia, colyek, and kullyek. 
Yn medh Christ, yn nos haneth kyns ys boy colyek clewys, 
te am nach lerguxth, says Christ, in this night, before 
that a cock be heard, thou wilt deny me thrice. M.C. 
49. Cans henna ef a dewas e.n colyek scon aw cane, 
thereupon he heard the cock immediately crow. M.C. 
86. Kyns ys b6s kullyek kenys, ter g'vyth y wreck mo 
nache, before that the cock hath crowed, three times 
thou wilt deny me. P.O. 903. W. ceiling. Arm. cilec, 
cilok. Ir. caileiich. Gael, coileach. Manx, kellach. 
Sansc. kalas. sonorous, fr. teal,' to resound. 

CELTOC-GUIT, s. m. A gander. Cornish Vocabulary, 
anser. Compounded of celioc, a cock, and quit, a goose. 
W. ceiliog tffoydh. This term is unknown to Armoric, 
kilok qivez meaning a pheasant, or heath-cock, from. 
quez, id. qd. W. giuydh, wild. 

CELIOC-REDEN, s. m. A grasshopper. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, locusta. Compounded of celioc, a cock, and 
reden, fern. Literally "the cock of the fern." So 
Welsh ceiliog rhedyn, and Arm. kilek-raden. 

CELIONEN, s. f. A fly. Cornish Vocabulary, mwsca. 
W. cylionen, pi. cylion. Arm. kelienen, pi. kelien. Ir. 
cull, cuileoa, -tcuilenn, -\-culenn. Gael, cuil, cuileag. 
Manx, carchuillag. Lat. cttlex. 

CELLAD, s. f. Loss, damage, hazard. PI. celladmv. 
Assevye plygudow genef gruthyl bodh dhe vrys, a callen 
hep celladow, ha dout ow vos hellyrchys, it would be 
agreeable to me to do the will of thy mind, if I could 
without losses, and fear of my being persecuted.- O.M. 
2117. Derived from celli, to lose. W. colled. Arm. 
collad. Ir. cailleadh. Gael, calldach. 

CELLER, v. pass. It is possible. A mutation of grller, 
3 pers. s. pres. and fut. passive of gaily. Beisebuc whek, 
whyth dhe corn, ha galwy dre a pup sorn an dhrwolow, 
tnara heller y wythe a chy, no, alia yntre dhe'n darasow, 
sweet Beelzebub, blow thy horn, and call home from 
every corner the devils, if it be possible to keep him 
from the house, that he may not enter the doors. P.C. 
3058. W. gellir. 

CELLESTER, s. f. A pebble, or small stone. So inter- 
preted in Pryce's Vocabulary, but it must, originally 
have meant a fiintstone, being the Welsh cailestyri 
Arm. calaatr. Gr. x^'f- !** silex. 

CELLI, s. f. A grove. Cornish Vocabulary, nemu.t. PI. 
kelliow. Ho' kelly, the house of the grove, in St. Kew. 
Pen gelly, the head of the grove, in Breage. The more 
common form is killi. W. celli, y gelli. Ir. coill, ^caiH. 
Gael, coille. Manx, keil. Gr. v\a. Lat. sylva. Sansc. 
guhUa, (guh, to hide.) 

CELLILLIC, s. m. A penknife. Cornish Vocabulary, 
artavuf. The diminutive of collel, a knife, qd. v. 

CELLT, v. a. To lose. Part, kellys. 3 pers. s. fut. ceyl, 
a geyl, qd. v. Pilot a yrchys dhedhe, war beyn kelly an 



bewnans, monas dhe'n corf dli'y wethe, nan kemmr it 
yskerans, Pilate charged them, on pain of losing their 
life, to go to the body to keep it, that his enemies should 
not take it away. M.C. 241. Gwell yiuyvos efmaroiv, ys 
bus an popel kellys, ha dampnys dhe. tewolaow, it is better 
that he should be dead, than that the people be lost, 
and condemned to darkness. P.C. 24fi5. Dygwrys a 
vydh ol iudy, ha. kellys an lacha ny, undone will be all 
Judea, and lost our law. R.D. 11. This is another 
form of colli, qd v. 

CELLYN, v. aux. We shall be able. A mutation of gell- 
yn, 1 pers. pi. fut. of golly. Yn lowen gynouch my a, 
mar a kellyn dheitch gul da, na sevel yn le tyller, yn le 
may fynny a-wytfi, joyfully with you I will go, if we 
can do good to you, nor stay in any place, to the place 
that, thou mayest wish moreover. P.C. 1836. W. 
galhvn. 

CELMY, v. a. To bind, fasten, knot, tie. 3 pers. s. fut. 
helm. Part, kelmys, kylmys. Me nth kelm fast a ver 
termyn. I will bind thee fast in a short time. O.AL 
1361. Otte an aten omma, ha'n ebel kelmys nnta qynsi/, 
behold the ass here, and the foal is tied with her. P.C. 
201. Danvon i.us dh'y aspye, mar a'n kefnng yn nep chy, 
ka'n kelmyns treys ha dttle, send men to look for him, if 
they find him in any house, and let them bind him 
feet and hands. P.C. 583. Kelmeuch warbarth y dhyio- 
vrcch, na allo dyank, bind together his arms, that he 
may not escape. P.C. 1179. Me a'n kelm, I will bind 
him. P.C. 1889. Worth an post y gelmyfa.it why a vrra, 
to the stake you shall bind him fast. P.O. 2059. Ty a 
vydh kelmys, thou shalt be bound. P.C. 2071. Kel- 
mouchfast gans lovonoiv efyn pren crows, bind fast with 
ropes him on the cross tree. P.C. 2520. Celmy is an- 
other form of colma, qd. v., and is also written cylmy. 
W. cylymu. Arm. coulma, clomein. 

CELWEL, v. a. To call. A mutation of gekvel, qd. v. 
Olte voys mernans Abel dhe vroder prest <w> kelwel a'n 
dor ivarnafpvp teller, behold that the death of Abel thy 
brother is always calling from the ground on me every 
where. O.M. 578. My re hue fast ow kelwel, I have 
been urgently calling. O.M. 2430. Yma mo kelwel Eli, 
he is calling Elias. P.C. 2959. 

CELYNNEC, s. f. A holly grove, or place where holly 
trees grow. Pryce. From kelyn, or celin, qd. v. W. 
celynneg. Arm. celennek. 

CEMBRION, s. m. Welshmen, the Welsh. Lltvyd, 242, 
Cembrion. Cymry is the name by which the Welsh 
people have always designated themselves. It is of 
uncertain derivation, but in all probability ideutieal 
with the Gr. icififiepioi. Zeuss derives the word from 
cyrn, or cyd, together, and bro, a country, i.e. a compa- 
triot ; being opposed to allobroges, persons of another 
country. This however is no more certain than Dr. 
Owen Pnghe's analysis, into cyn, first, and bro, a coun- 
try ; signifying aborigines. It is worthy of notice that 
in Irish, Breat/tnach is used on'y for a Welshman, and 
Breattain for Wales. Graig na mbreathnach, sliabh na 
mbrsafhnach, are places in Ireland, so called because 
formerly inhabited by Welshmen. So also in Manx. 
Brelnagh means exclusively a Welshman ; Brelyn, 
Wales; and Bretnish, the Welsh language. 

CEMEA S, s. m. Leave, permission. Erbyn bonas henna 
gvris nanso pry's gwesper yn wlds, yn er-na yn wedh 



CEMYNNY 



kemeas dhe Joseph y a rontyas, by the time that that 
was done, it was now time of even-service in the 
country, in that hour leave to Joseph they granted. 
M.O. 231. Written also cwnmyas, qd. v. 

OEMERES, v. a. To take, accept, receive. Supers, s. 
pret. kemeras. 2 pers. s. imp. Jcemer. Daves war ve 
lavarow hy hanwv da kemeres, sheep from my words, 
her good name let her receive. O.M. 128. Kemmer 
cledhe, fyalyn ttocha parachys, take thou a sword, hasten 
towards Paradise. O.M. 331. Kemer tyyr spun an aval, 
take three kernels of the apple. O.M. 823. Hy cetuergs 
me a wra, aqy dhe'n qorhyl, I will receive her within 
the ark. O.M. 1123." H one cows halafurye, an vaner 
a vye da kemeres crov,sl hag eve, ha powes 'loose henna, 
after talk and labouring, the custom would be good, to 
take food and drink, and rest after that. O.M. 1901. 
Oiv mos mar tu an temple, rue a grys y kernerse weth an 
vyl kyngys marwel, going towards the temple, I believe 
the vile man would take it yet, before that he dies. 
P.O. 323. Reys yw dhych dry gweres, gynef vy dh'y 
gemercs yn n6a pryveth, need is to you to bring help 
with me, to take him at night privately. P.O. 5S~. 
Ytho why Icemereuch e, ha herwydh aqas laha gwrech y 
iuggye dhf'n mernans, mar coth Jienna, now take ye him, 
and according to your law do ye judge him to death, if 
that is right. P.O. 1977. Dok an grows wen- dhe geyn, 
kemerry ( = kemer hy) a dhysempys, bear the cross on 
thy back, take it immediately. P.O. 2620. Yntre Du 
ha pehadur acord del ve kemerys, between God and sinner 
how accord was taken. M.C. 8. Han wolok a's kemeras 
mar dyn may clamderas hy artc, and the sight took her 
so sharp that she fainted again. M.C. 171. Dyskysfa- 
tel dons dhow hemeres, taught how they shall come to 
take me. M.C. 61. Why a dheth dho'm kemens, ye 
came to take me. M.C. 74. Aga hemvynkemerans, their 
names let them take. C.W. 30. Written equally com- 
mon cymeres. Compounded of cyd, together, and bery, 
to carry. W. cymmeryd. Arm. cemeret. 

CEMESCYS, n. s. A mixture. Dmvr IM goys yn kemcs- 
kis teeyn Christ ray dhe gerense', water and blood in a 
mixture sweat did Christ for thy sake. M.C. 58. A'n 
yolon ythelh slrek bras, dour ha goys yn kemeskys, from 
the heart there came a great stream, water and blood 
in a mixture. M.C. 219. See Cemyscy. W. cymmysg- 
iad. 

CEMMYS, adj. So much, so great, so many. Frequently 
written kemys, and kymmys. Kemys druk ds ow codhe, 
so much evil is falling. O.M. 628. Rag dhe Iadh6 den 
mar qura, ef an gevyth seyth kemmys, for if a man do 
kill thee, he shall get it seven times as much, O.M. 
899. Pup ur oil oberet da, gwyn bys kymmys tfn gwrello, 
always good works, happy as many as do them. O.M. 
605. Rag kemmys hy dhom care, for so much she loved 
me. P.O. 530. B6dh dhe vap yw yn della, rale selwel 
kemmys yw da, the will of thy son is so, for to save as 
many as are good. P.C. 2953. Compounded of cym, 
together, and myns, all. W. cymmaint, \vemcint. Arm. 
cement. Jr. cuibheis-, ^cemeit. Gael, cuibheas, 

CEMYNNY, v. a. To bequeath, leave by will. Yaxe yn 
dhe see yn weth, a bewe dhe (as Daveth, rag ef a'n ke- 
mynnys dhys, sit in thy seat also, which the father 
David possessed, for he has left it to thee. O.M. 2394. 
A tas yntre dhe dhule my a gemmyn ow spyrys, Fa- 



51 CEN 

ther, between thy hands I commit my spirit. P.C. 2986. 
Frequently written cymmyny. W. cymmyrm. Arm. ce- 
menna. Manx, chymnee. Though agreeing with Latin 
comtnendo, the W. cymmynu is regularly compounded of 
cy, with, and mynnu, to will, from myn, = Lat. mens, the 
will or iniiid. 

CEMYSCY, v. a. To mingle, mix. Part, kemyskys, which 
is also written cymyscys. Yma gene un be da, gorra hag 
eys leemysfcyi, there is with me a good load, hay and 
corn mixed. O.M. 1058. Drok dhetuas, eysyll bestyl 
kemysMs, bad drink, vinegar and gall mixed. M.C. 202. 
W. cymmysgu, from cyd, with, and myscu, to mix. Arm. 
cemmesci. Ir. comhrneasq, -tcummasc, ^cumasg. Gael. 
coimeasq. Lat. commisceo. 

CEN, s. ni. Anguish, vexation, grief, pity ; a cause, law- 
suit, complaint. Cornish Vocabulary, cften, causa. Ty 
rum tul/as hep ken, thou hast deceived me without pity. 
O.M. 252. linos ken dhym, dhe ole daggrow gois in gvyr 
hep mar, there is cause to me to weep tears of blood 
truly without doubt. O.M. 630. Na allons cafus ken 
dhe dhyscrysy, that they may not find cause to disbe- 
lieve. "O.M. 1826. Rag ny fydh ken dhe perthy, for 
there will be no complaint to bear it. O.M. 2208. My 
ny u'daf ke/i yn bys may ft: a'n keth den-ma yvyw dre 
reson d)if. vos ledhys, I see no cause in the world that 
this man is worthy through reason to be slain. P.C. 
1589. Mychtern an Yedheiuon, ymivyth lemman rag an 
ken, King of the Jews, preserve thyself now from the 
torture. P.C. 214-1. Habuxowleashebken,hatummas- 
oiv kekyjfrys, and buffets many without pity, and heats 
alike. M.C. 138. W. cwyn, whence cwyno, to complain. 
Arm. keina. Ir. caoine. Gael, caoin. Manx, keayn. 
Obs. The long e is often represented in Welsh by wy, 
as may be seen by comparing the W. Irwy, through, 
with C. tre, dre; AV. cwybyr, C. ceber ; W. cvyr, wax, 
with Latin cera ; W. eglivys, Lat. ecclesia, ; W. civynos, 
Lat. ccena; W. plwyv, Lat. plebe ; W. canwyll, Lat. 
candela. 

CEN, s. m. The hide or skin of an animal _: the peel or 
skin of any thing. Tynnouch oil gans mur a gr{js, may 
fo dreyn an gwyn cys yn empynnyon, dre an cen, pull ye 
all with much of force, that the thorns of the crown 
may penetrate to the brains, through the skin. P.C. 
2138. Me a's ten gans oil ow nerth may 'tfi entre an 
spikys serlh dre an cen yn y groqen, ha scullye y ympyn- 
nyon, I will pull it with all my strength, that the stiff 
spines may enter through the skin into his skull, and 
scatter his brains. P.C. 2141. W. cenn, tceen in Oxf. 
Gloss, ysgen. Arm. cenn, ceon, scant. Ir. sgann. Gael. 
sgann, coinnench. Manx, keynnach. Sansc. c'anna, a 
cover, svan, to clothe. 

CEN, adj. Other, different. A wylsta ken yn tor-mays del 
ege agensmv, dost thou see more now than as there was 
just now. O.M. 795. Why a dhyndylse onor, titar call- 
cuch dry dhe cen crygyans, ye would deserve honour, if 
ye can bring to another belief. P.C. 1994. Gwyr a 
leversys dhym a'th ganow dhe honan, py gans ken re yw 
dyscys, the truth thou hast spoken to me of thy own 
mouth, or by other persons that are instructed. P.G. 
2002. Nafon kyn no dhrehedho, ken lol ny vtydh gvnys 
ragdho, no matter though it does not reach, another 
hole shall not be made for him. P.C. 2759. Ef a'th 
saw, hep ken yly, he will heal thee, without other re- 



CENEFRA 



52 



CENSEMMYN 



medy. R.D. 1695. Ynkenlyw, ny's ywylys n-hit/t, in 
other form, I have not yet seen them. R.D. 2534. Used 
also adverbially. Screfys yiv, ha ken me nyn lavarsen, 
it is written, and otherwise I would not have said it. 
M.C. 183. Mars yw a barlh Dew an nff, bo ken dtaid 
yw, if he be on the side of the God of heaven, or else he 
'is a devil. R.D. 2104. 

CEN, conj. Though, although, if, unless. Me a vyn 
dheth treys amme, dre dhe v6dh, ken nay ofgwyw, I will 
kiss thy feet, through thy will, though I am not worthy. 
P.O. 481. On< thas, ken fova serrys, pan glow an now- 
edhys, my father, though he may be angry, when he 
hears the news. C.W. 82. Whalh ken 'thosa ow hendas, 
dha asivon me ny wodhyan, yet although thou art my 
grandfather, I knew not how to recognize thee. 'ibid. 
120. Ow granlya dhymo syhvans wose henna, ken 'thew 
pell, granting to me salvation hereafter, though it is long 
distant, ibid. 140. Ken tcff'o y ges golok, dhodho ny yU- 
Ouch gid dr6k, if ho should come into your sight, to him 
ye cannot do harm. R.D. 1861. Yn ur-na meatry vyth 
te ny vea. uwnaf ve, drok vyt/i no. dti, ken onan thya nan 
roUa, in thai hour povrer thou svouklst never have over 
me, evil nor good, unless one should give it tliee. M.C. 
145. Written also cyn, qd. v. W. cyd. Arm. ken, 

CEN, adv. First, before, before that, \1ies t>vxr menta 
ret dem arta, me a desca dis cen point a skians, bnt if 
thou wilt give them to me again, 1 will teach thee first 
a point of wit. \Bedhea give.ih/s dliiueth, fan giue&al 
onwfl/i rdk henna, yw an qwella point a a/cunts oil, be 
twice struck, before striking once, for that is the best 
point of wit of all. Lhtn/d,25l. This is the later form 
of cyn, qd. v. 

CENCIA, v. a. To contend, strive. Lhoytl, 80, Dfio 
kennkia. Gael, caonnag. 

CENCRAS, s. in. Grabs, crabflshes. Llwyd, 2 13. One 
of tlie plurals of earner, qd. v. 

CENDE, s. m. Kind, nature. Me a IrSf has gow henna, 
rak dew ha. den yw dew dra, pur conlraryvs y Ttendtj I 
wilj prove that to be false, for God and man are two 
things very -contrary in nature. P.O. 1731. Derived 
from the English. 

CENDEL, s. m. Pine linen. Aga malye my a vyn, yn cen- 
del hag yn owlyn, I will irrap them in fine liuen and 
in silk. O.M. 1752. Written also cendal, and pronoun- 
cad as in English, sendal. Llwyd. Joseph whelt, ret/cm 
f dhys, hay yn cendal gliln -maylye, sweet Josepli, receive 
him to thee, and in clean fine linen wrap him. P.O. 
3156. Otl,6 cendal glan a Us, parys rag y enrludhyes, 
behold clean linen spread, ready for burying him. P.C. 
3160. 

CENDONER, s. m. A debtor. Kyns y un teller- yn beys 
dew kendoner yth eye, dhe wi dettor ; me a nrys an nffi 
dhodho a delle pynp cans dyner monyys, ha hanter cans 
y gyle, formerly in a part of the world there were two 
debtors to one creditor ; I-believe tho one to him owed 
five hundred penoe of money, and half a hundred the 
other. P.C. 502 Derived from cendon, id. qd. cyndon, 
qd, r. 

CBNEFBA, adj. So many, every. \Ha Dew rig gtvres 
nnpuska* brds, ijo heiiqfra tra hew es a qwctyah, neb rig 
an dowrmv dry >'&y pur vea r wim-ltr go has, ha kenefra 
cdltan esMly warier go /ia.v, ha, Deiu we/as tro.va da, and 
God created gn>at whales, and every living creature that 



moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, 
after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind, 
and God saw that it was good. (Keigwyn, p. 191.) This 
is a late corruption of cenivcr, qd. v. 

CENKWAL, v. a. To dine. Llwyd, 127 ; who also writes 
it Icyiiewal, p. 245. "W. ciniaiixt. It is the same word 
as cona, qd. v. 

CEN I AT, s. m. A singer. Written in the Cornish Voca- 
bulary vheniat, cantor, and keniat, in Keniat combricam, 
liticen. It is derived from cane, to sing, and the termi- 
nation at, which is the earliest form,. denotes the agent, 
as in Welsh and Armoric ; but iu mediaeval Cornish 
the termination was changed into as, as iu qiuythyas, a 
keeper ; sylwyns, a saviour. W. ceiniad. Arm. kini&d. 

CENIN, s. m. A leek, chive, shalot. Cimin eivinoc, algi- 
um, garlic. Cornish Vocabulary. The literal meaning 
of cenin ewinoc is leeks with claws, or clawed.' It is 
written by Llwyd et'mVz. W. cenin, -tee/win. Arm. 
cinen. Cenin eivinog is also the name of garlic in Wales. 

CENIVBU, adj. So many, every, every one. A vernans 
Christ pan wel.te kenyver tra marthimy, of the death of 
Christ when he had seen so many marvellous things. 
M.C. Yn blydheti y a vye, ha. bederaia keniver hag a fiw- 
laotoesr yn oerfJtHU ivorth neixr, in a year they would 
be, and beads so many as there were marks in the body 
of Jesus in number. M.C. 228. Written indifferently- 
cenifer, cenyver, cenever, and also cyniver, qd. v. 

CENOUCH, v. a. Sing ye. 2 pers. pi. imp. ofeane. Ken- 
ouch why faborden bras, ha me a can trelyl jyn, sing ye 
a great bass, and I will sing a fine treble. R.D. 2359. 
W. cenwch. Arm. -^canouch. 

CENS, adv. Before, formerly, rather. Kens mos eyf ten 
c/w/n pymetfi, ha dhe scufe ytheth yn ow iiygys, before 
going, drink a draught of spiced wine, and thou more 
nimbly wilt go in my errand. O.M. 2294. Kepar hag 
ef on crou'si/e, ha dre vyr vreus tuggys rak agan drok ober 
Kens, like as he, we are crucified, and by true judgment 
scutenced for our evil deed before. P.C. 2902. Nep yw 
toy ow colon, ha'm metder kepar ha kens, who art the joy 
of my heart, and my sweetness as formerly. R.D. 457. 
In construction cent is mutable into gens and hens. 
$ Po ti ha de wreq an 'inoiha luan warbarh, nenne greuh 
lerfti an desan, ha na hens, when thou and thy wife are 
most merry together, then break the cake, and not 
before. Llwyd, 251. The aspirate form is required 
after na, na hens. So also in Welsh, na chynl. Writ- 
ten also cyns, qd. v. W. cynt, -\-cenL Arm. kent. Ir. 
ceid. Gael. ceud. 

CENS, prep. With. Another form of cans. Kens dha 
gledhf, with thy sword. Lliuyd, 230. 

CEN8A, adj. The first, chief. Bedhens nep a ddeppro 
kensa, kepar fta nep a servyo, let him be who eats first, 
as he who serves. P.C. 795. A wetta ny devethys war- 
barih ha'n kensa galow, seest thou us come together 
with the first call. PC. 2051. Galsen yn ta, dhe'n 
kensa fu, I could well, at the first view. R.D. 863. 
Ctnsa is the superlative of the irregular comparative 
cens. Written also i-i/nxa, qd. v. W. cyntav, ^centav, 
^ciitiam. Arm. cenla, ^cenlaf. Ir. ceadna, ^cetne, ceud, 
\citn. Gael. c&id. Manx, chied. 

CENSEMMYN, adv. 'Before now. Llwyd, 249. A cor- 
rupt contraction of cens, before, and lemmyn, now. 



CEPAR 



53 



CERCHES 



CENSENXA, adv. Before that, ere that. Llwyd, 249. 

Compounded of cens, before, and henna, that. 
CENTER, s. f. A nail, a spike. PI. centrow. Don /cen- 
ter, ha me a Ink y luefgledh, bring me a nail, and I will 
fasten his left hand. P.C. 2746. Hag onan, t/wyskyns 
kenter scon ynny, and one, let him drive a uail in it at 
once. P.C. 2766. Treys ha dewlefapup tu fast tackyes 
gans kentrow hern, feet and hands on every side fast 
fixed with iron nails. P.C. 2938. Yw saw oil dhe wol- 
yon; a wriik an gv ha'n kentrow, are all thy wounds 
healed, which the spear and nails made ? R.T). 491. 
J Givisgo MI qenter ma eel eskas vi, knock this nail in my 
shoe. Llwyd, 230. W. cethyr. Arm. fcentr, a spur. Ir. 
tcinteir. Gr. xevrpov. 

CENTREVEC, s. m. A neighbour, one of the same town. 
Den a'n geffe cans davas ha'y centrevek saw onan, mar 
a's ludtre dheworlo, pan pfa a gotho dhodho, a man may 
possess a hundred sheep, and his neighbour only one ; 
if he steal it from him, what punishment is due to 
him ? O.M. 2231. Written also conlrevac, qd. v. Com- 
pounded of cen, with, and trev, a town. W. cyd-drev- 
awg. Arm. ^conlrevtik. But the common term in 
Welsh for a neighbour is cymmydoq, one of the same 
emMMpd^ or wapeiitake ; being a division of the Cant- 
red, or hundred : and in Armoric, amezek. 
CENTRE \'K Y, v. a. To breed maggots, to rot. Yn pri- 
son mos ny trcynyn agan hew, hyn kcnlreynnyn oil ayan 
kjjc, going to prison, we will not torment our lives, 
though we may rot our flesh. R.D. 74.' From contron, 
qd. v. W. cyndhroni. 

CENTROW, s. m. Nails. The plural of center, qd. v. 
CENTRE, v. a. To nail, to fasten with nails. Tynne.uch 
ketiep pen, y vellow keltep onan dyscavylsys i/ns, lemmyn 
kentr'y worth an pren, pull ye every one, his joints, every 
one, are strained, now nail it to the wood. P.C. 2772. 
Prom center, a nail. 

CENTHEW, comp. v. Although he is. Whath kenthvw 
ow hendas pur drok den accomptys, yet although my 
grandsire is accounted a very bad man. C.W. 106. 
Kenlhew is a contraction of cen, although, and ythew, is. 
CENZHOHA, s. m. The morning. J En kenzhoha, in the 
morning. Llwyd, 249. This is a corrupt word of late 
occurrence. The root is cens, first. 

CENYS, part. Sung. Peder, me a lever dhys, Tfyns ys bos 
kullyek kenys, itr gwyth y wrech ow nache, Peter, I say to 
thee, before that the cock has crawed, three times thou 
wilt deny me. P.C. 903. The participle pass, of cane, 
qd. v. 

CEPAR, adv. Equally, in the same manner, alike, like 
to, as. It is generally followed by del, or ha.. Avel 
plow ago Ihreys, sych yns oil kepar ha leys, like the prints 
of their feet, they are all dry, like herbs. O.M. 761. 
Kepar del fuve dremmas, like as he was a just man. 
O.M. 864. Kepar hag on, like as we are. O.M. 894. 
Kepar ha my, ef gordhyeuch, like me, honour ye him. 
O.M. 2350. Kepar del fue dhynyrhys, as it was enjoined 
to us. O.M. 2375. Kepar ka dtl levrrys, just as I said. 
P.C. 2690. Kepar hag of, 6n cratvxys, like as he, we 
are crucified. -P.O. 2900. Dew ha den kepar del of, 
God and man, like as I am. R,l>. 2385. Compounded 
of ce, id. qd. ced, ccv, with, and par, equal. W. cymhar, 
is derived from the same roots. So also the Irish com- 
paraid, \capar. Gael, coimheart. 



CER, adj. Dear, beloved, dearly beloved. In construc- 
tion ger. Superlative, kerra. Dres dyfen ow arluth 
ker, against the prohibition of our dear Lord. O.M. 
172. Rag dhe off'ryn ker, because of thy dear offering. 
O.M. 567. Hay ef ahttnan mar ger, and he so dearly 
beloved of us. O.M. 612. A das ker, O dear Father. 
O.M. 835. Yn gordhyans dhe las Dew ker, in worship 
to the dear God the Father. O.M. 1200. A mester ker 
caradow, dear beloved master. P.C. 73. W. car, car- 
edig. Arm. cer. Lat. chorus. Fr. char. 

CER, v. n. Go thou. \Sav aman, kemer dha li, ha ker 
dha'n hdl, mor-teed a metten travyth ne dal, get up, take 
thy breakfast, and go to the moor, the seatide of the 
morning is nothing worth. Cornish Proverb. Pryce. 
This is an abbreviated form of cerdh, 2 pers. s. imp. of 

cerdkes, to go, qd. v. 

CER, adv. Away. J)Ao kemeras kerr, to take away. 
Llwyd, 44. *Dho punnya kerr, to run away. ibid. 61. 
% Ke yn Jeer, benyn vas, go away, good woman. C.W. 52. 
J Omskemynes del ota, quick yn ker ke alemma, accursed 
as thou art, quickly go away from hence. Hid. 88. 
This is a late abbreviation of cerdh, qd. v. 

CERCOT, s. f. A surcoat, a surplice. Hedhouch cercot a 
baly, dhodho me a vyn y ry, reach ye a surcoat of satin, 
to him I will give it. P.O 1784. Me a'n kelm, hag a 
each, an cercot was dhe ves, ug adro dhndho, I will bind 
him, and snatch the large surcoat away, that is about 
him. P.C. 2074. From the English surcoat. 

CERCH, v. a. He will fetch. 3 pers. s. fut. of cerchy, 
and also 2 pers. s. imp. Kerch dhys ow ene gans el, 
bring to thee my soul by an angel. P.C. 429. Ow map- 
lyen kerch Annas, my clerk fetch Annas. P.C. 553. 
Kerch a'nfenten dhym dour, fetch from the well for me 
water. P.C. 650. Me a gerch dour dhys wharre, I will 
fetch water for thee soon. P.C. 655. Me a'n kerch 
dheucb, I will fetch him to you. R.D. 1891. 

CERCH, s. m. A road, journey. Dun yn kerch, let us 
come away. P.C. 2289. Ke yn kerch dywhans, go thy 
way quickly. R.D. 116. Hag an bedh yn kerch yyllys 
dhe'n nefdeffry, and from the grave forth gone to hea- 
ven really. R.D. 809. W. cyrch. 

CERCH, s. m. Oats. Kerch, barlys, ha gwaneth, oats, bar- 
ley, and wheat. C.W. 78. Written also ceirch, qd. v. 

CERCHEN, adj. Surrounding, about. Dyeth fest vye, y 
vos yn kerchen tnnp gal, great pity it would be, that it 
should be about the son of evil. P.C. 2131. Written 
also kerchyn. Lemmyn jevody, cafus an botvs-na hep 
gwry, us y'th kerchyn, me a vyn, now, I tell you, I will 
have that coat without seam, that is about thee. R.D. 
1922. Gynefnyns yw medh, awos gwyskf an queth a fue 
yn kerchyn Ihesu, with me there is no shame, because 
of wearing the cloth that was about Jesus. R.D. 1937. 
W. cyrchyn. Ir. -\-cercenn. Lat. circinus, a pair of com- 
passes. 

CERCHES, v. a. To fetch, carry, bring. 3 pers. s. fut. 
and 2 pers. s. imp. kerch. Part. pass, kerchys. Me a 
pus ragouch ow thas, may fetich sylwys, hag oil kerchys 
dodho dh'y wlas, and I will pray my fa.tb.eT for you, 
that ye may be saved, arid all brought to him to his 
country. P.C. 29. Cerch a'n fenten dhym dour cler, 
fetch clear water for me from the well. P.C. 650. Me 
a gerch dour dhys viharre, otte ow fycher gyne yn ow 
dorn rak y gerches, I will fetch water for thee soon, 



CERENSE 



54 



CEBNOW 



behold my pitcher with me in my hand to fetch it. 
P.O. 655. Kerchyn Longys, an gicas da/1, let us fetch Lon- 
gius, the blind fellow. P.C. 2916. Whet kerehouch dhymmo 
Pilot, again, fetch Pilate to me. R. D. 1885. Ren 
kercho an dnuolow, may the devils fetch him. R.D. 
2277. Dcuc/i gywf dhe kerchas eorf Pilot, come with 
me to fetch the body of Pilate. R.D. 2309. W. cyrchu, 
\-circhu. Arm. cerchtmt. Lat. circo, circare. It. cercare. 
Fr. chercher. Eng. search. Sansc. char, to go. 

CERDEN, s. f. The quicken tree, or mountain ash. Llnyd, 
109. W. cerdhin. Arm. kerzin. Ir. caorthain. Gael. 
caorthwin. Manx, ceirn. 

CERDYN, s. m. Cords. Yn scorgiys prenyer ese yn. detde 
an dew edhoiv, hag yn fast kelniya dhedhe kerdyn, gwethyn 
yn mesk cronow, may f 6ns hyblyth dhe gronkye, hag a rag 
gwry"s colmenow, gans pup colmen titay 'th die, pun wys- 
kens, yn nis an crow, in the scourges there were rods in 
the hands of the two Jews, and fast bound to them 
cords, weaved among thongs, that they might be pli- 
ant, to beat him, and before (at the ends) knots made, 
with every knot that the blood might corne, when they 
struck him. M.C. 131. It is the plural of cord, qd. v. 

CERDH, s. f. A road, journey. Written in Cornish Vo- 
cabulary kerd, iter. Ke yn kerdh, ow map, go thy way, 
my son. O.M. 725. Dun yn kerdh, ow brudcr ivhek, let 
us come away, my sweet brother. P.O. 188. Me eff- 
redh a'th pijs, awos an tcis lynygeys ro dhym ow kerdh 
dre dhe rds, I maimed pray thee, for the sake of the 
blessed father, give to me my. walking by thy grace. 
P.C. 401. W. cerdh, ^kerd. Arm. kerz. 

CERDHES, v. a. To go, walk, proceed. Galsof ysel na 
allaf kerdhes ynf as, I am become low, so that I cannot 
walk well. O.M. 374. An dour a uger a Us, may hylly 
yn ta kerdhes, ty hath pobel oil drydhy, the water will 
open widely, that thou inayest walk well, thou and all 
thy people through it. O.M. 1677. Yma Moyses pdl 
gyllys yn m&r, del he-aid d/iymmo, a rag dyvhans ow 
kerdhes, an dour ow fysky a let pup oil a dliyragdho, 
Moses is far gone into the sea, as it seems to me, walk- 
ing quickly forward, striking the water wide before 
him. O.M. 1684. Euchyndre, hag ordeneuch bos pask 
dhynny, kerdheuch may fova parys ivharre, go into the 
town, and order the pasohal food for us, go that it may 
be ready soon. P.O. 619. An anteayst, yn lyes plu, a 
treyl pobyl dhyu-orth Dew yn pup le may kerdho ef, the 
antichrist, in many a parish, will turn people from God 
in every place that he may go to. R.D. 249. Preterite 
cyrdhys, qd. v. W. cerdhed. Arm. cerzed, Ir. corruigh. 
Gael, caraich. Sansc. car, khaib, khor, svart. 

CERENGE, s. m. Love, affection. Raykerenge orlhys, my 
ny gemere neffre trom dyal war oil an veys, for love to 
thee, I will never take heavy vengeance on all the 
world. O.M. 1207. Yma daqgrow ow clybbye dhe dreys, 
rak ewn kerenge, tears are wetting thy feet, for true 
love. P.C. 483. Lemmyn gwra, ow karenge, kepar yn 
beys del vynny, do now, my love, as in the world thou 
wouldst. R.D. 453. It is a later form of cerense. 

CERENSE, s. m. Love, affection. En keih oynement a 
scollyas warnaf, rak ow anclydhyas, hy a'n yj-fik dre 
kerense, the same ointment she poured on me, for my 
burial, she did it through love. P.C. 549. Jesus Christ 
mear gerense dhe vdb den a dhyswedhas, Jesus Christ 
much love to mankind shewed. M.C. 6. Taekys fast 



gans kerense, fastened close with love. M.C. 223. It is 
the same word as carens, qd. v., and derived from the 
verb care, to love. W.carennydh, i-carennyd, J fcaren- 
tid. Arm. kere.nliez. Ir. cairdeas. Gael, eairdeas. Manx, 
caardys. Of. also the ancient Gaulic names, Carantonus, 
Carentomagus. 

CERENYS, part. Crowned. Dun dhe gcrhus fialamon, IM 
i/o>yn ef yn i/ dron avel mychtern yn y se, may hallo vos 
kerenys, let us come to fetch Solomon, and let us place 
him on his throne, like a king in his seat, that he may 
be crowned. O.M. 2374. Rag d&u-esys 6s mychtern dhyn, 
ha kerenys a ver dermyn iy a vydh, for chosen thou art a 
king to us, and crowned in a short time thou shalt be. 
O.M. 2381. It is the same word as cc.runys, the part, 
pass, of cernne, qd. v. 

CE11EOR, s. m. A shoemaker, a cordwainer. Cornish 
Vocabulary, sutor. W. crfidh. Arm. here, kereomr. Ir. 
caireamhan, ^cairem. Gael, -tcaireamhait. Manx, yrpa- 
see. I consider the W. crydh to be a contracted for ra 
of carreiydh, Iromcarrai, a thong, = Lat. coniyium, with 
the usual suffix ydh, to denote the agent. 

CERH, s. m. Oats. Llwyd, 26, kerh. This is the latest 
form of cerch, or ceirch, qd. v. Sara kerh, oaten bread. 

CERHES, v. a. To fetch, bring, carry. Awos Dew, diin 
ahanan dh'y gerhas dhe dre, may hallo b6s musurys, for 
God's sake, let us come away to fetch it home, that it 
may be measured. O.M. 2565. Cardowyon, hep wlielhe 
corn, na (fill s6tt, keruch (kerheuch) Jhesu dhynny ny, 
my dear fellows, without blowing horu, or making a 
noise, bring Jesus to us. P.C. 1359. Dywolow yffarn a 
squerdyas corf' Judas oil dhe dharnoiv, hay anrMno a ger- 
has y enefdhe deumlgoii; the devils of hell tore the body 
of Judas all to pieces, and from him carried his soul to 
darkness. M.C. 106. An prennyer a ve kerhys, en grows 
scon dythgtis may fe, the pieces of wood wete brought, 
the cross that it might immediatelv be formed. M.C. 
153. This is another form of cerches, qd. v., the guttu- 
ral ch being softened into h. 

CERHIDH, s. m. A heron. In Cornish Vocabulary 
written cherhit, ardea. Pryce furnishes the later form 
kerhes. W. crychydh, crehyr, cryhyr, creyr, cryr, creyr 
glas. Arm. cercheiz. Ir. corr, corr ghlais. Gael, corr, 
ciirra, c&rra-ghlas. Manx, coayr. 

CERHYN, adj. Surrounding, about. Dhe dhyskyblion yu> 
serrys mur, ha'n Yedhncon gans nerlh pup ur yge kerhyn, 
thy disciples are very sad, and the Jews with violence 
are continually surrounding them. R.D. 886. This is 
another form of cerchen, qd. v., the guttural being soft- 
ened into h. 

CERNA, v. a. To tremble. Dho kerna t to tremble. Llwyd, 
166. A late corruption of crenna, qd. v. 

CERNEWEC, adj. Cornish. Written by Pryce, Kernuak. 
\Metttn da dha why; elo why clapier Kernuak, good 
morning to you ; can you speak Cornish ? 

CERNIAS, s. m. A horn blower, a trumpeter, a piper. 
Llwyd, 241. This is a later form of cerniat, which is 
written in the Cornish Vocabulary, cherniat, comicen. 
Derived from corn, a horn, the o being regularly chan- 
ged into e, as is also the case in Welsh, though now 
written y. W. corn, cyrniad, ^cerniat. 

CERNIC, a,dj. Rocky. Prom earn, a rock. Hence Kern- 
ick, nom. loc. in St. Stephen's. 

CERNOW, s. m. Cornwall. Me a whylh avel gwas dd ^ 



CES I 

w/ns-vs den vf/ih yn pow-ma a why (ho gwell ; ny won g6f 
yn ol Kernow a whylho gana mygenow byth well, I will 
blow like a good fellow ; there is never a man in this 
country, who can blow better ; I know not a smith in 
all Cornwall, who can blow with bellows any better. 
P.C. 2712. \Stean San Agnes an gicella slcan en Ker- 
notv, the tin of St. Agnes (is) the best tin in Cornwall. 
Pryce. W. Cernyw. The root of the word is Corn, a 
horn ; from the shape of the country running like a 
horn into the sea. One of the four cantons of Britanny 
is also called Kerned, in French Cornouaille. 

CEROLN. s. f. A tub, pipe, or tun. Cornish ^ ^ ocabulary, 
keroin, cupa. W. cerutyn. 

CERRA, adj. Dearest, most beloved. The superlative of 
cer, qd. v. Ow cleth, sevcuch yn ban, euch alemma 
ahanan, dhe servya ow map kerra, my angels, stand up, 
go hence from us to serve my most dear son. P.C. 153. 

CERRAS, v. n. To go, to walk. %Dda Adam kerras pur 
gici/f me a vyn, dhe sallugye, ha'n aval y prcsenlya, to 
Adam I will walk very strongly, to salute him, and 
present to him the apple. C.W. 54. A late corruption 
of cerdhes, qd. v. 

CERRY, v. a. Thon shalt love. 2 pers. s. fut. of care, to 
love ; often used as the present tense. I.arar dhymmo 
dyrjwq?!, del ym kerry, me a'dpeys, speak to me clearly, 
as thou lovest me, I pray thee. O.M. 1370. Gor ost 
genes yrvys da dhe omladh, del y'm kerry, take with thee 
a host, well armed, to tight, as thou 'lovest me. O.M. 
2142. Written also eyrry, qd. v. 

CERRYS, part. Carried. Part. pass, of caria, to carry, 
qd. v. j Pan deffa oyle a vercy, te a vf/dh kerrys the'n 
joye, dhe'n nef uchel a uchan, when the oil of mercy 
shall come, thou shalt be carried to joy, to the high 
heaven above. C.W. 150. 

CERT, s. f. A cart. Helyas 6f, me a fue yn fcert a tan, 
dhe'n kelh plas-ma kymerys, Elijah I am, I was in a 
cart of fire, to this same place being brought. R.D. 236. 
W. cart, cert. Ir. cairt. Gael, cairt. Manx, cart. 

CERUNE, v. a. To crown. Ha rag why dhum kerunf, my 
a re dhtiueh Bostoene, and because ye have crowned me, 
I will give you Boswene. O.M. 293. Written also cur- 
uny, qd. v. 

CERYN, v. a. We love, or shall love. 1 pers. pi. fut. of 
care, to love ; often used as the present. Neb a geryn 
an moycha, whom we love the most. C.W. 88. 

CERYS, part. Loved. Part. pass, of care, to love, qd. v. 
Dhe grygy Thomas a dhue, rag gans ow arluth y fue 
kyns letiimyn marthys kerys, to believe Thomas will 
come, for by our lord he was before now greatly loved. 
R.D. 1221. 

CES, adj. Joint, common, united. Dhyuch lavaraf, ow 
dyskyblyon, pyseuch toylh da oil kes-colon Dew dreys pup 
Ira, to you 1 say, my disciples, pray ye forthwith, all 
with one heart. God above all things. P.O. 2. Wh&lt ow 
cufyott dyfunouch, ha kes colon oil pesouch na gyllouch yn 
templacion, again, my dear (companions) awake, and 
with one heart all pray, that ye enter not into tempta- 
tion. P.C. 1076. Ddodho Jesus dhy dhampnye Pijlat 
bys pan danvonas, yn ur-na kes-kowd/iK y a ve, to him 
Jesus to condemn until he sent to Pilate, in that hour 
united companions they became. M.C. 110. It is also 
written cys, qd. v, W. cyd, -^ced, (cyd-yalon.) Arm. 
ked. 



) CESON 

CES, s. m. Cheese. This is a late form of caus, qd. v., 
and is the pronunciation in use in the times of Kei- 
gwyn and Llwyd. ^.Eskesl es poneges ? ma's-es Ices, 
drd kes; po neg es kes, dro peth es, is there cheese ? is 
there, or is there not ? if there is cheese, bring cheese ; 
if there be not cheese, bring what there is. Pryce's 
Vocabulary. 

CESADOW, adj. Hateful, odious, detestable. Ty was 
cesadow, ygor scon an darasow ha kelh an prysnes yn 
mes, thou odious fellow, open immediately the doors, 
and bring the prisoners out. R.D. 631. Another form 
of casadow, qd. v. 

CESAN, s. f. A sod, or turf. Llwyd, 45. Pi. cesow. 
f Whelas tees dha trehe kesow, look for people to cut 
turves. Pryce's Vocabulary. 

CESCAR, v. a. To separate, disperse, wander. Yn mes 
am toy ham whckter, res eiv keskar dre terras, rag foul 
gwesc ha goscotte.r. namna vyrwyn rag anivos, away from 
my joy and my delight, I must wander through lands, for 
want of clothes and shelter, I am almost perishing for 
cold. O.M.360. Gwyragowsafvy,hamea'nprefkynkeii- 
kar, I speak true, and I will prove it before separating. 
R.D. 910. Compare 1 this sentence with the following: 
Me a'n pref ifwyr a gotvsaf, kyns ys dybarlh, I will prove 
that I speak truly, before separating. R.D. 925. In the 
following sentence, peth kescar means the condition of a 
vagrant, whence that of a, beggar, or poverty. Bcnegas 
yw neb a gare Du dris pup tra us yn bys, Jiag a wodhcjfo 
vn whare dhodho kymmys us ordnys ; bo clevas bo peth 
kescar, bo dre prison prcsonys, oil en da ha'n drok kepare, 
dhe Jesus bednens grassys, blessed is he that loves God 
above every thing that is in the world, and cndurcth 
patiently as much as is ordained to him ; be it sickness 
or poverty, or by prison imprisoned, all the good and 
evil alike, to Jesus be thanks. M.C. 24. W. cydysgaru, 
gwasgaru. 

CESCER, adj. Affectionate, loving. Oil elelh nef, golsow- 
ouch dha ve lemyn ; cresouch ow bosaf prince cref, hag 
yn-wedh dhe why cescer, bian ha brds, all angels of hea- 
ven, hearken to me now ; believe ye that I am a strong 
prince, and also to you affectionate, small and great. 
C.W. 10. Compounded of ces, together, and cer, dear. 
W. cydgar. 

CESCY, v. n. To be at rest, to lie quiet, to sleep. Adam, 
a oil dhe dreva.t, an dcgves ran dhymmo gas, wMA yn 
atal dhe kesky, Adam, of all thy tillage, leave the tenth, 
part to me, still to remain waste. O.M. 427. Another 
form of cusce, qd. v. 

CESENYANS, s. m. Agreement, concord, consent. Pryce. 
W. cydxyniant, from cyd, together, & syniani, sentiment. 

CESER, s. m. Hail. Cornish Vocabulary, grando. Writ- 
ten by Keigwyn and Llwyd, kezzar, and kezer. $.Ema 
a kil kezzar, it is hailing, lit. it is making hail. Lluiyd, 
250. J Yein kuer, tarednow, ha golowas, er, reu, gwenz, 
ha clehe, ha kezer, cold weather, thunder, and lightning, 
snow, frost, wind, and ice; and hail. Pryce's Vocab. W. 
cesair. Arm. casarch, ^caserch. Ir.tcosotV, a shower. 

CESOLETH, s. m. Tranquillity, rest, peace. Ysedfiettch, 
yn kesoleth, rak scon why afydh servya, sit down in qui- 
etness, for you shall soon be served. P.C. 715. Written 
by Llwyd, cysnla/h, qd. v. 

CESON, . m. An accusation. More generally written 
ceuson, qd. v. 

J * * 



CETEP 



CESOW, s. m. Turves, sods. The plural of cesan, qd. v. 

CESPAR, s. c. A spouse, a married person. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, conjux. Compounded of ces, together, and/>ar, 
a mate. From the same roots are the W. cymhar, a 
partner. Arm. kever, kenver, comparison. Ir. comhar- 
aid, \ copar. Gael, coimkeart. Lat. compar. 

CESSONYIS, s. m. A consonant. Pryce. W. cydseiniad, 
fr. cyd, together, and seiniad, a sounding. 

CESTEL, s. m. Castles. One of the plurals of castel, qd. v. 

CE8ULYE, v. a. To consult. Me a gesul, I advise. P.O. 
1643. Generally eusulye, qd. v. 

CESVOWA, v. a. To live with. \Rag henna yn chast 
gwren ny kcsvowa, ha carnall joye yn bys-ma ny a vyn 
warbartn nacha, wherefore chastely let us live together, 
and carnal joy in this world we will altogether deny. 
C.W. 90. Comp. of ces, together, and bewa, to live. W. 
cydvyw. 

CET, a prefix in composition. It denotes co-operation, 
conjunction, and equality, and has the power of the 
Latin and English prefixes, co, com, con. It is the older 
form of ces, and was also written ced, and is now writ- 
ten in Welsh cyd, but anciently, tee*, teed, + cyt ; and 
in Ancient Gaulish, cata, cate, as maybe seen in the 
proper names Catamantelides, Catalauni, Catmelus. The 
prefix con, in contrevak, &c., has the same power. Arm. 
ked. Ir. cow, co, coss. Gael, con, co. It is the same 
word as C. cans; W. cant, with/ and the primitive 
form is preserved in the W. composites, canhymdaith, a 
companion ; canlyn, to follow. Lat. con. Gr. avv. 
Sansc. sam. 

CETEL, adv. In the manner that, as, as soon as, when. 
Written also indiscriminately, Jcettel, and kettyl. Rag 
dhym yma tokyn da, rak y gafus, kettyl j/'re geffo a'n bay, 
for there is to me a good token to take him, as soon as 
he finds him, he shall kiss him. P.O. 985. Ketlcl tersys 
an bara, aswonys ^Cryst a qara, mar dha del reus, as thou 
didst break the bread, I knew Christ whom I love, so 
well as there is need. B.D. 1318. JVharre y gun lotoen- 
nas, kettel dhueth er agan pyn, soon he gladdened us, 
when he came to meet us. R.D. 1329. Compounded of 
ceth, the same, and del, manner. 

CETELLA, adv. In such a manner, in that way, so, like- 
wise. Yn pur ny defry nep a rella yn kelella, mernans 
yw gwyw dhy vody, very positively, whoever has acted 
in that way, death is due to his body. O.M. 2241. Yn 
ketella ty re wruk, in that way thou hast acted. O.M. 
2243. Honna yw cusyl da, yn ketella tne a wra, that is 
good advice, so I will do. P.O. 1454. Yn ur-na dhe'n 
menydhyow why a erch tvarnouch codhe, yn ketella an 
nansotv ivy a bljs ragas cudhe, in that hour ye shall call 
to the mountains to fall on you, likewise the cliffs ye 
shall pray you to hide. M.C. 170. 

CETELMA, adv. In this manner, thus. Mes ydhensys o 
mar feyn pub or a'n trylyti dhedha may 'th etn war ben y 
dhewleyn, ha pesy yn ketelma, but his manhood was so 
delicate every hour that he turned himself to it, that he 
went on his knees, and prayed in this manner. M.C. 
64. An lader a'n barth dychow a besys yn kelelma, Arlitih 
pan dyffy dhet pott', prede.ry ahanaf gwra, the thief on 
the right side prayed in this manner, Lord, when thou 
shall come to thy country, do tbpu think of me. M.C. 
193. Compounded of cetel, and ma, here. 
CETEP, adj. Every. Cresseuch, coullenweuch an beys, avel 



56 CETH 

kyns, ketep map bron, increase, fill the earth, as before, 
every son of the breast. O.M. 1162. Oyeth sy, glewyuch 
dhym oil masons an dre ketep pol, hear ye, listen to me 
all masons of the town, every head. O.M. 2298. Ha 
dhym y a worthebys, y fedhow myt/yn parys ketep onan, 
,and to me they have answered, that they will be in the 
morning ready every one. O.M. 2308. Deurh yn ray 
ketep onnn, come forward every one. O.M. 2683. Dhe 
esgarn oil ketep tarn gans ow bom a fydh brewys, thy 
bones all, every bit, with my blows shall be broken. 
O.M. 2744. Me a genes yn lowen, ha'm dyscyblyon kettep 
pen dhe'th arhadoio, I will go with thee joyfully, and my 
disciples, every head, at thy commands. P.C. 462. 
Godhvedhouch ketoponon, know ye every one. M.C. 
141. The same term occurs in Armoric, see gvilibunan, 
in Buhez Nonri, 58, 94. 

CETGORRA, v. a. To compare, to collate. Dhe ge/gora. 
Pryce. Compounded of cet, and gorra, to place. 

CETORVA, s. f. The groin. Llwyd, 70. W. cedor\:a, 
from cedar, t caitoir, Oxf. Gloss., and ma, a place. Arm. 
cezour, caezour. Ir. caethair, 

CETTERMYN, adv. Likewise. Pryce. Compounded of 
cet, together, and termyn, time. 

CETTOTH, adv. As soon as. Dus dlymmo ketolh ha'n 
gfr, riig colenwel bodh ow brys, come to me as soon as 
the word, to fulfil the wish of my mind. O.M. 2272. 
May tanfonno dhyuch yn scon, ketlulh ha'n ger, that he 
send to you forthwith, as soon as the word. R.D. 1598. 
Hfdhettch dfiymmo ow kledhe, rak may hyllyf y ladhe, 
kettoth ha'n ger, reach me my sword, for that I may kill 
him as soon as the word. R.D. 1970. Comp. of cet, 
together, and toih, haste. 

CETVA, s. f. A convention, an assembly. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, chetua, conventus vel conventio. Comp. of 
cet, together, and ma, a place, whence the proper mean- 
ing is the place of meeting. The meeting itself is also 
the meaning of the W. cydva. 

CETH, adj. The same. Ny dyfgivels na flour yn lys yn 
keth fordh-na, may kyrdhys, neither grass nor flower in 
the world grows in that same road, that I went. O.M, 
713. Gwren tin alter tek ha da, may hyllyn sacryfye 
dhodho war an keth honna, let us make an altar fair and 
good, that we may sacrifice to him upon that same. 
O.M. 1172. Nyns a den vyth rynytha a'n keth re-ita 
' dhe'n lyr sans, no man shall go ever of those same to 
the holy land. O.M. 1879. Laha Moyses dhym yma, hag 
yn oil an keth htnna nyns us y Jianow so'yjjys, 1 have 
the law of Moses, and in all that same, his name is not 
written. O.M. 1645. Py nyl o mocha sengys an keth 
den-ma dhe care, which one was most bound this same 
man to love. P.C. 611. W. cyd. 

CETH, adv. Since, whilst, as long as. Whath keth yns y 
mar vtnys, me a dh&g ran war ow heyn vskes lemyn, yet 
since they are so small, I will carry some on my back 
immediately now. C.W. 100. W. cyd. ^ 

CETH, s. m. The common people. Oil tus ow chy, deuch 
qenef' vy, bryntyn ha kcth, all men of my house, come 
with me, nobles and commons. O.M. 1962. Oyeth yn 
wedh sy qlcwyiich brt/ntyn ha keth, an mychtfrn a wor. 
feynmyn, hear likewise ye, listen nobles and commons, 
the king commands. O.M. 2420. Neb o tus keth dhe 
Pylat a Invert/*, some that were common people to 
Pilate said. M.C. 115. 



CEVYS 4 

CETHEL, s. f. A knife. Cornish Vocabulary, fultellus, 
iiiM/im. See also collel. W. ruthcll, cyllell. Arm. 
conlel. Lat. cul/ellus. 

CKV, a prefix in core position. It denotes conjunction, 
and equality, and agrees in meaning with cet, and the 
following are examples where it occurs, kepar, equally ; 
kckejfrys, also ; cefals, a joint ; cemrar, a, spouse ; cei : el- 
yn, a cubit, &c. AVritten also com, cov, co, as in colenwel, 
covlemvel. W. cyv, cy, cym, cyn ; formerly written 
ftt/w, teem. feat', tcet 1 , tern, \c(nn. Arm. ken, ^cem, 
"tcom. Ir. comh, tcon, t-co. Gael, comh, coimh. Lat. 
foi, con. 

CEVARDHIU, s. m. December. Lit. mis kevardhiit 
means the month following the black month, Novem- 
ber. Arm. keverdu, kerdu, kerzu. The Welsh name is 
rhagvyr. 

CEVARVOS, v. a. To recover. Pryce. W. cyvarvod. 

CEVARWOUDH, v. a. Direct thou. Ow cannns ichek, 
dhe'n beys tiwt/t, lowenna tecka godhfy. Ihesu ow map 
keiwvovdh, >tgy Hjarnqf oto pygy, my sweet messenger, 
to the world quick, the fairest joy thou knowest, Jesus 
my son direct thou, who is on me praying. P.C 1043. 
1 take this to be the W. cyvanoydh, 2 pers. s. imp. of 
cyvarwydho, to direct or guide. 

CEVE. v. a. He did have. 3 pers. s. imp. of cafus, qd. v. 
Lavar dhym, ddy'm kerry, pan vernans a'n geve ef, tell 
me, as thon lovest me, what death did he meet with ? 
O.M. 2219. See Geve. 

(JEVELEP. adj. Like, similar. Pryce. The more fre- 
quent form is hevclep, qd. v. W. cyfelyb. Arm. hevelep. 

CEVELYN, s. f. A cubit, the length from the elbow to 
the point of the middle finger, half a yard. Tryhans 
kenelyn da an lester a vy"dh a hys, ha hanter cans kevelyn 
yn wedh iy a *era y les, three hundred cubits good the 
vessel shall be in length, and half a hundred cubits thou 
shall make its breadth. O.M. 955. Ny yl an gyst yn y 
bias, re hyr eio a gevelyn, the beam will not go into its 
place, too long it is by a cubit. O.M. 2529. Lemyn re 
got eu: a gevelyn, now it is too short by a cubit. O.M. 
2541. Compounded of cev, and elyn, or elin, the elbow, 
qd. v. W. cyvelin. Arm. cefelyn, 

CEVIL, s. m. A horse. The word is preserved in the 
names of places, as Nankevti, Penkevil. W. cejyL Ir. 
capafl, a mare, a horse. Gael, capull, a mare. Manx, cab- 
by/. Gr. KaySaXXiyv. a work-horse. Lat. cuballus, a 
horse. It. cavallo. Fr. cheval ,; cavale, a mare. Pol. ko- 
bela. Both, kobyla. Hung, kabalalo. 

CEVER, s. m. A relative position. JVhet kerchoucli dhym- 
ma Pilot, yn y gever y fnf tolly s, again bring ye to me 
Pilate, in relation to him I was deceived. R.D. 1886. 
W. cyver. Arm. cever. Ir. comhair, comhar. Gael, co- 
njiair. 

CEVEREL, s. m. A kid, or young goat Keverel is a 
family name in St. Martin's by Loo, and a cheterel, or 
keverel, a kid, is borne by them on their arms. Pryce. 
The word is not derived from the Cornish gaver, a goat, 
but rather from the French chevreuv, t cheverel. The 
Cornish and Welsh term for a kid is mynnan, qd. v. 

CEVERYS, adv. Likewise, also. \Arluth nef, ha'n byes 
keveryv, Lord of heaven, and earth likewise. C.W. 70. 
A late form of cefrys, qd. v. 

CEVYS, part. Found. JAfe* an for a vydh kevys yn vaner- 
ma der O\K oberow, but the way will be found in this 
I 



CEYSON 

manner by my works. C.W. 126. $Pan dejfa an ler- 
myn a pyif> mil ha pywp cu/ns v/edhan, an oyle a vercy 
yn nena a vydh kevys, when shall come the period of 
five thousand and five hundred years, the oil of mercy 
then will be found. C.W. 138. A later form ofcefys, qd. v. 

CEV YTFI, v. a. Thou shalt find. 3 pers. s. fat. of cafus, 
qd. v. Pur wyr ef a'n gevyth gv pan dyffo yn ow goloc, 
very truly he shall have woe, when he comes into 
my sight. P.C. 963. Byth nyn gevythfout a toy nep a 
$1 gwelas dhe fas, never shall lie have lack of joy, who- 
ever can see thy face. P.C. 1561. Written equally com- 
mon cefyth, 

CEWAR, s. f. Weather, a storm, tempest. Llwyd, 128. 
Cruxir leb, wet weather, id. 243. It is written by Pryce, 
kuer. J Yein kuer, tarednoip, ha goloiras, er, reu, gioena, 
ha chhe, ha kezer, cold weather, thunder, and lightning, 
snow, frost, wind, and ice, and hail. 1 think this word 
must be a corruption of the W. gnrwedh^ roughness, 
from garw, (C. garow,) rough ; so tywydh garw, severe 
weather. 

CEWS, s. m. Speech, discourse. Cafes dhe gev-s tregereth, 
to obtain thy word of love. O.M. 454. Written also 
cows, qd. v. 

CEWSEL, v. a. To speak, say, tell, relate. Fret, and 
part. pass, cewsys. 3 pers. s. fut. ctivs. Pyvo 6s a genes 
mar huhel, who art thou, that speakest so lofty ? O.M. 
1368. Rf/s ew dhym ketvsel defry orih ow gwrek kyns m6s 
a dre, 1 must speak really to my wife before going from 
home. O.M. 2171. Mara kewsys falsury, a henna dofc 
dusluny, mts mara kewsys yn lei, prag y ivreth ow boxusy, 
nyns yw lemmyn vyleny awos gwyryonedh kewsel, if I have 
spoken falsehood, of that bear witness, but if I have spo- 
ken honestly, why dost thou strike me 1 there is not now 
villainy because of speaking truth. P.C. 1271. Kewsewh 
lemman, gwyckoryon, del ouch synsysgwery<m,pendrageiv- 
sys an den-ma, say ye now, traders, as ye are esteemed 
true, what did this man say 1 P.C. 1304. Mar ketcs ken es 
gtvyryonedh, efa'n pren kyns Iremene, if he speak other 
than truth, he shall catch it before passing. P.C. 1468. 
A benen, pendra kewsyth, woman, what sayest thou ? 
R.D. 1688. KewSyns den myns a vynno, let a man say 
all that he will. R.D. 2448. Hag y 'ihens dhe ben deio- 
tyn, hag y Iceivsens dhe scornye, and they went to their 
knees, and they spake to scorn him. M.C. 137. Ena 
Pilat a gewsys yn delma, there Pilate spake in this man- 
ner. M.C. 141. It is also written couisa, qd. v. W. 
conwn, a discourse, whence commio. ymgommio, to dis- 
course. Arm. conz, comps, a discourse ; comza, compsa, 
to discourse. Ir. comhradh. Gael, comhradh. The Cor- 
nish form approaches nearer the French causer. 

CEYL, v. a. He will lose. 3 pers. s. fut. of celly, qd. v. 
In construction it changes into geyl, qd. v. 

CEYSON, g. m. An accusation, cause, reason. J Pa han 
keyson, what charge, or accusation ? Lhvyd, 240. It is 
also written ceson or cheson, the ch before e having the 
power of k. Na attons cajffus cheson dhe wruthyl crolhval 
na son warnas, let them not be able to find cause to 
make a complaint, nor a sound against thee. O.M. 
1835. l^evereuch dhum pahan cheyson a's hues why erbyn 
I/iesu, pan vynnouch y dhystrewy, tell ye me, what ac- 
cusation have ye against Jesus, when ye wish to destroy 
him. P.C. 1970. Me re wruk scrife agas cheson dh'y 
ladhe, I have written your accusation to put him to 



CIGVER 

death. P.O. 2792. Hep guthyl na moy cheyson, without 
suffering any more trouble. R.D. 460. this is an ab- 
breviated form of acheson, qd. v. 

CI, s. m. A dog. Cornish Vocabulary, In, canis. PI. ken, 
kuen. Sdf yn ban, del y'm kerry, rale nans yw Pilot 
ferryc-, mv krye, kepar ha ky, stand up, as thou lovest 
me, for now Pilate is angered, crying out like a dog. 
P.C. 2242. Ty a vtidh mernans cales, yn ta ty an dyn- 
dylas, gweth 6s ys ky, thou shalt have a hard death, 
well thon hast deserved it, thou art worse than a dog. 
R.D. 2026. f Ago, kenwyn kemerans, march ha, casak, hag 
asan, ky, ha cath, logosan, let them take their names, 
horse and inare, and ass, dog, and cat, mouse. O.W. 32. 
In the Cornish Vocabulary, a Linx is called commisc 
bleit hah chi, for which a more recent hand has substi- 
tuted kymmysk bleid a, chi, the literal meaning being, 
"mixture of wolf and dog." This sentence furnishes us 
with a proof of c being changed into the aspirate ch 
after a, and ; which is the rule in Welsh. Ci hir, milgi, 
a greyhound. W. ci, pi. own. Arm. ki, pi. koun. Ir. 
and Gael, cu, pi. coin. Manx, coo. Or. KVUIV, icri/es. 
Lat. canis. Germ. hund. Sansc. svan, sun. 

CIBMIAS, s. m. Leave. %Cibmias teg ev a kymeras, fair 
leave he took. Llwyd, 251. This is a late corruption 
of eummyas, qd. v. 

CIDNIADH, s. m. Autumn. Llwyd, 40. Who also gives 
cidniax, as a modern form, 13. Both being corruptions 
of cyniaf, qd. v. 

CIDNIO, s. m. Dinner. Llwyd, 10. A modern corrup- 
tion of ciniow, qd. v. 

CIDHA, v. a. To hide. Llwyd, 50. More frequently 
written cudha, qd. v. 

GIG, s. m. Flesh, flesh meat. Written in Cornish Voca- 
bulary kig, chic, caro. Na'm buef dhe wruthyl genes, yn 
kyk hag yn kues hep wow, that I have not had to do 
with thee in flesh nor in blood, without falsehood. 
O.M. 659. Efa bren Adam dhe das, gans y gyle ha w6s 
kefrys, he will redeem Adam thy father, with his flesh 
and blood too. O.M. 812. Parysfest yw an spyrys, ha'n 
kljc yw marthys grevyys gans cleves ha govegyon, very 
ready is the spirit, and the flesh is wondrous afflicted 
with sickness and sorrows. P.C. 1061. Kewsyns d$n 
myns a vynno, mo kjjc ham gos bydh ynno, fla ken ny 
dhothye dhe'n nef, let a man say all that he will, my 
flesh and my blood shall be in him, and else he will 
not go to heaven. R.D. 2449. W. cig, tcic. Arm. kig, 
tcj'c. Ir. Vcuach, ^cich. 

CIGEL, s. m. A distaff. Cornish Vocabulary, kigel, coins. 
Eva, kymmer dhe ffyyel, rag nedhe dhynny dyllas, ha my 
a gans oil ow nel, yn dor dhe dhallath palat, Eve, take 
thy distaff to spin clothes for us, and I will go with all 
my strength, to begin to dig in the ground. O.M. 367. 
Written also kegel. Gans kegel a dhesempys nedhe dyllas 
me a wra, with a distaff immediately I will spin clothes. 
O.M. 415. W. cogel. Arm. kegel, kigel. Ir. riogal, coigeal. 
Gael, cuigeal. Manx, quiggal. Germ, kuntkel. 0. High 
German, cuncla. As the word is not derivable from a 
Celtic root, it is evident that all these, like the French 
quenouille, It. conocchia, are adopted from the Latin 
conucula, for colucula, from colus. 

CIGLIU. adj. Flesh-coloured. Llwyd, 63. Compounded 

of cig, flesh, and liiv, 'colour. W. cigliw. Arm. kigliou. 
CIGVER, s. m. A flesh-fork. Cornish Vocabulary, kig- 



58 CLAF 

tier, ficinula. Compounded of cig, flesh, and ber, a spit. 
The equivalent in Welsh is cigtvain, a flesh-fork, com- 
pounded of cig, flesh, and givanu, to pierce. 

CIL, s. f. A recess, a back, the nape of the neck. Cor- 
nish Vocabulary, chil, cervix. Och, tru, tru, shyndyys 
of gans cronek du, ha tvhethys gans y vc,nym, ow coske yn 
nans yn hoi, tyskys (if an kyl dhe'n tal, Oh, sad, sad, spit 
on I am by a black frog, and blown by his venom, sleep- 
ing down in the moor, burned I am from the nape to 
the forehead. O.M. 1781. Pol kil, the hinder part of 
the head. Llwyd, 104. Heb cows ger y clamderys, y 
codhaswar bol y hyll, without saying a word she fainted, 
she fell on her back. M.C. 165. W. ctt. Arm. kil. Ir. 
tew?. Gael. cul. Manx, cooyl. 

CIL, v. a. To make. A mutation of gil, qd. v. %Ema a 
kil err, it snows. Ema a kil cessar, it hails. Llwyd, 
250. 

CILLI, s. f. A grove. PL killiow. It is the same word 
as celli, qd. v. It enters into the names of many places 
in Cornwall, as Killaworgy, Killegorgan, Killigannoon, 
Killigrew, fyc. 

CILYGAN, s. f. The sheath-fish. PL kilyqys. Pryce. 

CINAC, s. m. A worm. PI. kinougas. Pryce. 

CINBYC, s. m. A wether goat. Llwyd, 65. 

CINEDEL, s. f. A generation. Written in Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, kinethcl, generatio. This is read by Llwyd, 
4, kinedhel. On the margin of the MS. is written kin- 
edyl, which is more correct. W. cenedl, cenedyl, cenel, 
^cenetel, ^cenitol, \cendl. Ir. cineal, *ccenel, -\oeneel. 
Gael, cineal. 

CININ, s. m. A leek, chive, shalot. Llwyd, 15. An- 
other form of cenin, qd. v. 

CLOI8, s. m. Fuel. Llwyd, 19. J Na dalle dees perna 
kinnis war an saw, na mds cuntle an dris dro dan keaw, 
men ought not to buy fuel by the load, nor go to gather 
the brambles about the hedges. Pryce's Vocabulary, 
Another form of cunys, qd. v. 

CINS, adv. Before. +Kins es dewath an bys, before the 
end of the world. C.W. 68. Another form of cyns, 
qd. v. 

CIO, s. f. A snipe. Llwyd, 146. W. giach. Arm. kioch, 
eur giach. 

CISTINEN, s. f. A chestnut. Llwyd, 5. W. casfan, cas- 
tanen. Arm. kistin, Mstinen. From the Lat. ca^tanea. 

CITHA, v. a. To hide. Llwyd, 47. More frequently writ- 
ten cudha, qd. v. 

CLABITTER, s. ni. A bittern. The only apparent deri- 
vation is from the English claiuliter. The proper name 
of the bird is in W. aderyn y bwn, or aderyn y bwmp, 
and bwmp y gorn, (bwmp, a hollow sound.) Arm. 60^1- 
gors. Ir. bunnan. Gael, bunnan. 

CLADHVA, s. f. A burying place. Me a gesul bos ganse 
prcnnys da gwon yn nep le rag an cladhva Crystunyon, I 
advise that there be with them bought a good field in 
some place, for the burial of Christians. P.C. 1545. 
W. cladhva, from cladhu, to bury, and ma, a place. 

CLAF, adj. Sick, disordered, sore. PL clefyon, clevyon. 
On colon yiv marthys claf, my heart is wondrous sick. 
O.M. 1337. Ou> colon reseth yn claf, my heart ia gone 
sick. P.C. 1027. Gallas oiv colon pur cldf dre pryderow, 
gone is my heart very sick through cares. P.C. 2610. 
My ny allaf gid kenter dhywhy bythyth rdk mar claf yw 
ou< dule, I cannot make any nails for yon, for my hands 



CLEDH 

are so sore. P.C. 2677. Piip echen clefycn, all sorts of 
sick persons. P.C. 3109. Ellas on- colon yw cliif, alas ! 
my heart is sick. R.D. 724. Rak hyreth galsofpur claf, 
through regret I am become very sick. R.D. 775. It is 
written claf, eger vel egrotus, in the Cornish Vocabu- 
lary, but by Llwyd and Keigwyn, clan, pi. clevion. 
Dens clou, toothache, LI. 105. Den clan, a sick man, 
pi. dynion clevion, 243. J Yma mv givyl ow holan clav, 
it maketh my heart sick. C.W. 86. W. cldv, pi. eleiv- 
ian. Arm. clanv, f claff. Ir. clamh, s orbutic. Gael. 
clamh, id. Sansc. kliv, to be feeble. 

CLAFOREC, adj. Leprous. Cornish Vocabulary, claf- 
horec, leprosus. From a substantive, clafor, leprosy, in 
Welsh clavar, whence the verbs davru, clavriaiv, to 
become leprous. Arm. lovr, -\-loffr, leprous ; lo'vrentez, 
lornez, t lofrnez, leprosy ; lovri, luri to be leprous ; 
lovrez, a hospital for lepers. Le;jonidec derives the 
name of the Louvre in Paris from this word. Ir. 
lubhra, -\-lubra, leprosy. Gael, luibhre. Manx, lourey. 
Gr. \eirpa., Lat. lepra. 

CLAMDER, s. m. A faint; a fainting fit. Ellas, dre 
cueth, yn clamder, dhe'n dor prag no, ymwhelaf, alas ! 
through grief, in a fan t to the ground why do I rot 
throw myself? P.C. 2593. 

CLAMDERE, v. a. To faint ay/ay, to swoon. Part. pass. . 
ciamderys. Mar lue moy nystevyth man, rag nouin y 
urons clamdere, if more come, it will not be enough, 
they will faint with hunger. O.M. 400. Rak ewen an- 
wous ny gleicaf yender dhum troys, ythesaf ow clamdere, 
for very chilliness I do not feel the cold to my feet, I 
am fainting. P.C. 1224. Heb cows ger y ciamderys, 
without speaking a word she fainted. M.C. 165. Han 
uvloc a's kemeras mar dyn, may clamdcras hy arte, and 
the sight her took so sharp, that she fainted again. 
M.C. 171. 

CLAP, s. m. Prating. Sens dhe clap, nafydh bysy, rak 
nyfynnafdhys crygy, hold thy prating, be not busy, for 
I will not believe thee. R.D. 1113. W. clep. Du. 
klappen. Germ, klappen. Ang. Sax. cleopian. Eng. 
clap, -\-yclepe. Scarcely a Celtic word. 

CLAPIER, v. a. To speak. J Metten dah dha why ; do 
why clapier Kernuak, good morning to you, can you 
speak Cornish ? Pryce' s Vocab. 

CLECHIC, s. m. A little bell. Cornish Vocabulary, tin- 
tinnabttlum. This is the diminutive of cloch, a bell ; 
with the regular mutation of o into e, as was formerly 
the case in Welsh, but now into y. Thus the Welsh 
form would be cloch, clychig, t clechic. Arm. klochik. 

CLECHTI, s. m. A belfry. Cornish Vocabulary, cloccar- 
ium vel tucar. Compounded of cloch, a bell, and ti, a 
house. W. clochdy. 

CLEDH, s. m. A dyke, ditch, or trench ; also a fence. 
PI. di'dhiow. J Do en dowla en kledh, to cast him into 
a ditch. Lluyd, 244. J Meruuch pymava lowlys, yn 
cledh, dhe vonas pedrys, see where he is cast into the 
ditch, to be rotten. C.W. 82. W. clawdh, Belaud, t clad. 
Arm. klettz. Ir. cladh. Gael, cladh. Manx, clcigh, cleiy. 

CLEDH, adj. The left ; the north, in the same way as 
dehow signifies the right side and the south. Pyw an 
guyskys an barlh clfdh, who struck him on the left side. 
P.C. 1380. Ha near a bobyl gansc, a dhychow, hag a 
gledh, and many people with him on the right, and on 
the left. M.C. 97. An barth cledh neb o cregis dyvedh o, 



59 CLEVYON 

ha lade.r pur, on the left side lie who was hanged 
shameless was, and a very thief. M.C. 191. J Po res 
deberra an bes, tidn heerath a sew ; po res dal an vor, no, 
oren pan a tu, dhuyran, houlzetlias, po gledh, po dihow, 
when thou comest into the world, sharp sorrow follow- 
eth ; when thou beginnest the way, it is not known 
which side, east, west, or north, or south. Pryce. 
Dorn-hledh, left-handed. Llwyd, 145. W. cledh, go- 
gledh. Arm. cleiz. Ir. clith, fcft, + cle. Gael, clith. 
Goth. hlei. Sansc. kri. Of. also Gr. \aws, Lat. lasvus, 
Sansc. laicas. 

CLEDHE, s. m. A sword. PL cledhyow, and irr. cledhydh- 
yow and clydhydhow, qd. v. Mar pue drok a oberys, troeh 
yhygans dhegledhc, if she was evil of works, kill her with 
thy sword. O.M. 292. Tan ha cledhe, yma gene lemmyn 
parys,re and sword, they are with me ready. O.M. 1305. 
Gam oio cledhe dhe ladlie scon my a vyn, with my sword 
soon I will kill thee. O.M. 1363. Yma omma dew cledhe 
parys gans mv cowethe, coles ha scherp kekcffrys, there 
are here two swords ready with my companions, hard 
and sharp also. P.O. 925. Why a dheth dhym yn arvow, 
gans boclers ha cledhydhyow, ye came to me in arms, with 
bucklers and swords. M. C. 74. In Keigwyn and 
Llwyd's time, it was pronounced cledha, and this is 
the vulgar pronunciation in many parts of Wales. 
Cledha lian, a small sword, or dagger. Llwyd, 63. W. 
cledhyv, + cledif. Arm. clezef, cleze. Ir. cloidheamh, 
t claideb. Gael, claidheamh. Manx, cliwe. Lat. gladius. 

CLEDHEC, adj. Lefthanded. Llwyd, 145. From cledh, 
the left. 

CLEGAR, s. m. A rock, cliff, precipice. It is preserved 
in the names of places ; West Clicker, Low Clicker, 
Cligga, Cleghar. W. clegyr. 

CLEM, s. m. Defence. Me a lever dhys, rak clem, dyswe 
dhynny Nychydem, ha Joseph Baramathya, I say to you, 
for defence, shew to us Nicodemus, and Joseph of Ari- 
mathea. R.D. 625. 

CLEVES, s. m. A disease, malady, sickness. In the Cor- 
nish Vocabulary it is written clevel, morbns, of which 
cleves is a later form. Yawra eredy a pup cleves dhys 
jehes, they will surely make from every disease to thee 
a cure. O.M. 1794. Dhodho yma cleves bras, ny gyf 
medhek an saivya, to him there is a great malady, he 
finds not a leech that can cure him. R.D. 1647. Ha 
mar scon del yn gwylly, ef a'lh saw, hep ken yly, oil 
a'th cleves yn tyen, and as soon as thou shalt see him, he 
will heal thee, without other remedy, of all thy disease 
entirely. R.D. 1696. Yn medh angojf, clevas bras es om 
dewlejf devedhys, says the smith, great disease has hap- 
pened to my hands. M.C. 156. Llwyd, 80, 156, sup- 
plies the following : Clevas y mantedh, the stone in the 
kidneys ; clevas an mytern, the king's evil : this is also 
called in "Welsh clwyv y brenhin, and in Armoric, drok 
ar roue. The root of cleves is claf, qd. v. W. clevyd. 
Arm. clenved, clioued, t cleff'el, t cleuct. 

CLEVET, s. m. The hearing. Llwyd, 18. W. clywed. 
Arm. cleved. Ir. clu. 

CLEVYON, adj. The sick. This is the plural of claf, qd. 
v, and is generally used as a substantive. Alan ethe 
dhe'n teller bos clevyon dredho sawyys, when they went 
to the place, that the sick were healed by it. O.M, 
2796. Lyes torn da yn bys-ma re oiruk dhe voliosugyon, 
sawye pup echen clefyon, a vewhe yn bewnans da, many a 



CLIHI 



60 



CLOWAS 



good turn in this world he hath done to the poor, heal- 
ing all sorts of sick persons, that live in good life. P.O. 
3109. Dynion dcvion, sick men. Llwyd, 243. 

CLEWAS, v. a. To hear, to perceive, to feel, to smell. 
3 jiers. s. fat. and 2 pers. s. imp. clf.w. part. pass, cletvys. 
My pan esen ow qwindrt, cleun/x an nyl tenewen un 1 
ow talleth cant, u ttchif war an tvedhen, when I was 
walking about, I heard on one side an angel beginning 
to sing above me oil a tree. O.M. 214. Pan clewfyf 
vy an tan tyn. jmrhap y wrussen fyii, when I should feel 
the sharp fire, perhaps I should flee. O.M. 1351. A 
Dhew am nef, clem ngan Iff, God of heaven, hear our 
voice. O.M. 1389. Arluth ny vynnons cryay, na cletvaa 
ow voyif a vy, Lord, they will not believe, nor hear my 
Toice. O.M. 143{f. An re-inu ew gwtl a rds, ray ny 
glewsytch yn nep jvlds mtwor an par-ma vylhquelh, these 
are rods of grace, for ye have not stnelt in any place 
savour like this ever. O.M. 1990. GorcUtyans dhe ins 
Dew am nef, lemyn deivas at/an lef, worship to the 
Father God of heaven, now he has heard our voice. 
O.M. 2027. Ow arlttth whek ol, ladh, e, /? ef a wrn ow 
ghyndye, mar cleuvytk agan gv;ary, my all sweec Lord 
kill him, otherwise ho will injure me, if he shall bear 
of our sport. O.M. 2134. Pie elewsta gelivd Dew Crysi, 
gams den yn bys-mrt genys, where hast thou heard God 
called Christ, by a man in this world born ? O.M. 2642. 
Me an clewes oiv lyffen, I heard him forbidding. P.O. 
1 573. Me a dhek dustyny y'n cletvys ow leverel, I will 
bear witness, I heard him saying. P.C, 1314. Pepenay 
vo an lia/rth w$r, a cleivfyth ovi voys yn tyr, whoever is 
of the true side, shall hear my voice in the land. P.C. 
2026. Me a whylh gans mur a grys, kynyver dyaul us 
yn beys yn In may clewfo, I will blow with much force, 
that as many a devil as is in the world may hear well. 
P.C. 3063. I.avar Dti 'tnuga del vira neb a vynno y ylewas, 
word of God how it will feed whoever may be willing 
to hear it. M.C. 12. Orto cf y a sedhas, may cletoo leff 
Je*m whek, by him they sat, that they might hear the 
voice of sweet Jesus. M.C. 77. Ha dew a dhuk dus- 
tunnyifn dewsnnsyn leverel, and two bore witness (that) 
they heard him say. M.C. 91. Ha whath may, wy a 
glnayth a dormant Christ del wha/rfe, and yet more ye 
shall hear of the torment of Christ how it happened. 
M.C. 132. This word in the Cornish, Welsh, and Ar- 
moric, is not confined to the signification of hearing only, 
bat it may be defined to conceive from the impulse of 
any of the senses except the sight. In Welsh, we say. 
dyivfd bids, to taste ; clywtd aroql, to smell ; clyiced llais, 
to hear a voice ; cJywed dolirr. to feel a pain. In Ar- 
moric it signifies to hear, to smell, to perceive. W. 
dywd. Arm. devout. Ir. dttin. Gael, duiim. Manx, 
cvwm. Gr. K\\HU. Sansc. sr'u. 

CLEYR, adj. Bright, clear. Denapert fia weary nis,golow 
deyr ow lewynnye, a man perfect, and much his grace, a 
light clear shining. M.C. 243. Devch war ownwo, my 
ayas pys, dhe welas fetel sevys Cryst mes an bMh, clSr 
IM war, come ye early to-morrow, f pray you, to see how 
Christ rose out of the tomb, bright and gentle. P.C. 
3242. W. daei; disylaer, egtur. Arm. sklear, skier. Ir. 
\glwur. Lat. darus. 

CLIHI, s. f. Ice. Written by Llwyd, 33, gUhi. lYtin 
huer, twediww. ha gotouias, er, rev, gtuens, ha clefie, ha, 
, cold weather, thunder, and lightning snow, frost, 



wind, and ice, and hail. Pryce's Focab. Arm. sklas 
From Lat, glades. 

CLIN, s. in. The knee. Cornish Vocabulary, din, genn, 
yendin. genu. The more common form is glin, qd. v., 
which is common to the other dialects, but this form is 
also found in the Ordinalia. Oil an re-nut ly afyth, otv 
gordliye mara mrnnytfi war pen dhe dhew glyn ysd, all 
these thou shall have, if thou wilt worship me low on 
thy knees. P.C. 136. Glyn, here is a mutation of dyn, 
or clin, the initial beinjj regularly softened after ami 
preceding. 

CLOCK, s. m. A bell. Cornish Vocabulary, dock, clocca ; 
clochm/uer, campana, a great bell, (clock and mue.r great.) 
W. dock. Ir. dog. Gael. clog. Manx, dtgg. Germ. 
qlocke. Fr. dochc. From Med. Lat. docca. 

CLOCHPREDNIER, s. m. A prison. J Enna an dzhei 
a vea kemeryz, ha dlia an docftprednwr dzhyi a ve lediyz, 
then they were taken, and to the prison they were led. 
Llvyd, 252. 

CLOF, adj. Lame. Cornish Vocabulary, claudus. W. 
clof. 

CLOG, s. m. A steep rock. Pryce. W. clog, clogioyn. 
Ir. dock. Gael. dogh. Manx, clagh, dock. 

CLOH, s. m. A bell. Llwyd. 45. This is a late form 
of c/ock, qd. v 

CLOIREC, s. m. A clerk, or clergyman. Cornish Vocab. 
dericus. Arm. cloarec. Ir. deireach. From the Latin. 

CLOMIAR, s. m. A dove-cot, pigeon-house. Llwyd, 49. 
From the Latin columbarium. 

CLOPPEC, adj. Lame, crippled. Llwyd, 48. A late 
form of dof, qd. v. 

CLOR, s. m. Glory, beauty, renown. Adam saf yn ban 
yn dor, ha treyl dhe g$k ha dhe woy.i, Adam, stand op in 
glory, and turn to flesh and blood. O.M. 60. If cor- 
rectly rendered, dor must be borrowed from the Latin, 
but probably the meaning is different. Gordhyans is 
the Cornish term for glory, qd. v., and aog&niant the 
Welsh. But the Arm. has gl6ar. Ir. glotr. GaeL^fotr. 

CLOS, s. m. Glory, happiness, praise. Pan. fy a'n hi)* 
Iremenys, (fans Crist y fydhyili trygys agy dh'y d&s, whea 
thou shalt be passed from the world, with Christ thou 
jshalt be dwelling in his glory. P.C. 3234. Yn paradys 
dtueh dhum d6s. dh agasprenne me a ro* gos ow holon, in 
paradise come ye to my glory, to purchase you I gave 
the blood of my heart. R.D. 164. An corf a tvhyleudi 
dfffry, ganso yth euc/i yredy yn y dos, the body (that) 
you seek really, with it ye shall go into his glory. R.I). 
1290. W. clod, tcfo<. " Ir. fc/orfA, i-clu. iGaei. cliu. 
Slav, xlcnco, slaica. Gr. icXt-Toj. Lat. in-ciytus, lande. 
Sansc. dagha, (cal to proclaim.) Cf. also the Gaulish 
name Clotomdrus,=Vf . dodvawr, (clot-uaawr:) 0. H. 
Germ. Hiodoinar. 

CLOWANS, a. m. The hearing, an echo. Pryce. From 
fiowas, to hear. 

CLOWAS, v. a. To hear. Dho glwvas. Uwyd, 44. Ty 
aglow ken newodhow, thou shalt hear other news. C.W. 
84. Ha me ow gwa-ndra, me a glwvas awarlha, vw at 
wedhan, itn el whek Jir ow cana, and as I was walking, 
I heard from above, on the tree, a sweet angel wisely 
singing. C.W. 56. Drag polai o, neb a glowses ow cana, 
a bad pullet he was, which thon heardest singing. 
C.W. 56 Dhe/A voys, Arluth. glowaf, thy voice. Lord, 
I hear. C.W. 84. Worth aha gloiw* yn lorma, by hear- 



CNYFAN 

ing thee at this time. Ibid. 88. C/ota qe oiv lef* Jiear 
thou my voice. C.W. 104. This is the late form of 
clewea, qd. v. W. clyiued. 

CLUIT, s. f. A hurdle, a wattle, crate, a wattled gate. 
Cornish Vocabulary, duii. clita. W. clwyd, +cfuil. Arm. 
cloued, clad. IT. clictth, Belial. Ath diath. the lord 
of hurdles, the old name of Dublin. Gael, clialh. Manx, 
dm. Mecl. Lat. cleta. Provencal cleda. Tr. ctaie. 
Clivid rttmrron, Cornish Vocabulary, peclns ; lit. the 
wattles or basket of the breast. So W. clwyd y dhwy- 
wan. and clinth in Gaelic has the same meaning. 

CLUN, s. f. The hip, haunch. Cornish Vocabulary, 
cfariis. Penclun, clunis ; dviolun, renes. (In Welsh 
dun also means the thigh, therefore penclun would be 
the hip.) PO-I re leulseuch agas cliin, rag me a'n 
qwelas dvfun, d/reaof ef a lremenas t heavily have ye 
thrown down your haunches, for I saw him wide-awake, 
by me he passed. R.D. 533. W. dun. Arm. klun. 
Ir. +kluan. Lat. clunis. Eng. loin. Sansc. s'runi. 

CLUNK., v. a. To swallow. This word is now in com- 
mon use in Cornwall, and is derived from a Celtic 
term.= W. llyncu, -^luncn. Arm. lonca. Ir. shujadh. 
Gael, slaty. Manx, Ihvggey. 

CLUT, s. m. A clout. Cfutlettri, a dish-clout. Llwyd, 
1)6. W. clwt. Gael. clut. Manx, clooid. Eng. clout. 

CLUYAN, s. in. A disease, sickness. ( GtM&g&tyan, a 
bed siirkness. Pryce. Cluyan is derived from cluy.= 
W. dtvyo, a disease. 

CLYBYE. v. a. To wet, or moisten. Yma dnggrma ow 
klybbyf dhe dreys, rak eim kerenge. saw me as sfch guns 
ow lleia, tears are wetting thy feet for true love, but I 
will dry them with my hair. P.C. 182. This is a regu- 
lar mutation of giybyr, qd. v., the initial being hardened 
after mu. 

CLYDHYDHOW,s. m. Swords. Gweytyeuch bos tils parys 
gans battys ha cl/dhydhou\ take ye care that men be 
ready with staves and swords. P.C. 608. Why re 
dhveth dhytit gam- a^-vow, aan>s fimtoui ha clydhydhou:, fee- 
par ha pan veve vy run pare lader yn pow, ye have come 
to me with arms, with staves and swords, as if I were 
the veriest thief in the land. P.C. J172. This is an ir- 
regular plural o f dedhe, qd. v. 

CLYMIAR, s. m. A dove cot. Llwyd, 49. Who also 
writes it klymniar, 33. See Clomiar. 

CNEU, s. m. A fleece. Cneu aldn, a fleece of wool. 
Llwyd, 170. W. cnu. Ann, cneo. 

CNOUCYE, v. a. To beat, knock, strike. Orden dhe'th 
tus hy knoukye ganx mryn, na htdhens nefre er na varvM 
eredy. order thy people to beat her with stones, nor let 
them ever stop until she be dead quite. O.M. 2676. 
Gans myifn qureuch hy knouki/t er na- wrello tr&nertc, 
with stones do ye beat her until she be dead. O.M. 2694. 
Ltmyn ol byan ha bras, tmoulcyouih ef del ilyndy/as may 
cosso y tynwnnow, now all, little and big, .strike him as 
he deserves, that his sides may itch. P.C. 2084. My 
an knouk ef er y wew, I will strike him on his lips. 
P.C. 2085. Mar dhues own bones knoukyt, if thou hast 
fear of being beaten. P.C. 2245. Powes lemyn, loet was, 
ha kn/juk an horn, stop now, idle fellow, and strike the 
iron. P.C. 2719. The late form as given by Llwyd, 251, 
was cnakio. W.cnociaw. Ir. cnaq. Gael. cnag. 

CNYFAN, s. f. A nut. Gwed/ian "knyfan, a hazel tree. 
l.liuyd. 51. Written also kyityfan, or kynyphan; kyny- 



61 CODHA 

phanfrtnc, a vail out, lit. a French nut. Llwyd, 74. 
(W. cneuen frenqlg. Arm. craoufn Galek. Ir. Gall- 
chnu. cnufhrancach. Gael, cno-fhrancach. ) W. cneuen. 
Ann. cnaifuen, C'aouen. Ir. cn, era. Gael. cn, cro. 
Manx, cro. 

CO, s. m. The meinovy, remembrance. %Ma co dhn vi, I 
remember, lit. there is remembrance to me. Llttyd, 138. 
This is an abbreviated form of cant, or cof, qd. v. 

COAT, s. m. Wood, timber, a wood, a forest. Lheyd, 79. 
Another form of COM?, qd. v. 

COBER, s m. Copper. Cornish Vocabulary, gueidvur 
cober, aerarius, a coppersmith. "W.cobyr,fevydh.) Arm. 
kouevr. Ir. copar. Gael, copar. Lat. cuprum, Fr 
cvivre. Eng. copper. 

COG, s. m. A boat. Plur. kuku, (coocoo.) Llwyd, 53. 
W. <w/<. Tr. atach, tcoea. Gael. much. 

COC, adj. Empty, vain, foolish. 0i warnog harlot pen 
cok scon yn mes a'm golok, out upon thee, rogue, block- 
head, immediately out of my sight. O.M. 1529. Fys- 
tyneucft a dhew pen c6k, make haste, O ye two block- 
heads. P.C. 2328. Na sparyt kyn wrello son, ev yw pen 
c6k, spare not though he make a noise, he is a block- 
head. R.D. 2017. The oldest form was citic, qd. v. 
W. coeq, whence coeqio to make void, to deceive. Eng. 
to cog^i.e. to lie, falsify. " To cog the dice." Dryden. 
Arm. goak,gogta, to deceive. 

OOCH, adj. Red. My a dhybarth ynterthoch hag a wna 
dheuch pennow couch, I will divide between you, and 
will make for you red (bloody) heads. P.C. 2326. W. 
cr/ch. Ir. tcwcc, red, fcoewz'r, murex. Or. KOKKOS. Lat 
coccus. 

CODDROS, v. a. To hinder, disturb, annoy. Del us an 
yedhewon vihethpup ur worth agan arveth, hag we koddros, 
as the Jews are still armed against us, and annoying us. 
R.D. 2480. Coddrm is a regular mutation after <*<>, of 
goddros, id. qd. W. godori, to hinder, or yodrcisio, to bo 
oppressive. 

CODNA, s. f. The neck. J Codna tal, the forehead. 
Lltuyd, 61. J Codna br$h, the wrist, i.e. the neck of the 
arm, id. 46. J Ter i hodna, about her neck, id. 230. 
This is a late form of conna, qd. v. 

CODNAGWYN, s. f. A weasel, a whitethroat. Ltiinid. 
13. Compounded of codna, the neck, and gwyn, white, 
lu Welsh, this animal is similarly called bronwen, i.e. 
whitebreait. Another very expressive AVelsh name is 
gwf.ncl, from ffn'ottc, voracity. 

CODNAHWILAN, s. f. A lapwing. Llwyd, 241. W. 
cotnchwiglen. 

CODHA, v. a. To fall, to happen. Written also codhe. 
Yma itn poitt/gyun bras war ow holon &w codht, there is a 
great heaviness falling on my heart. O.M. 527. Yma 
cas bran wharf edhys ha codhys war dhepobel, a great mis- 
fortune has occurred and befallen thy people. O.M. 1543. 
Me a re Itmyn slrokyas vrds, bjjs may codhe hy dhe'n dor, 
1 will give now great strokes/until she fallen the earth. 
O.M. 2718. Mur dhe voy ef re pechas, ha drok war- 
nodfio a yodh, much the more he hath sinned, and evil 
will falfupou him. P.C. 2192. Mar tue venians vyth 
raffdho, wtrnan- nt/ efre godho, ha ?cr oil agan jlechas, if 
any vengeance should come for him, upon us may it fall, 
and upon all our children. P.C. 2502. Rag gwander 
re. cuci/ta.-t. for weakness he has fallen. P.C. 2618. 
n ur-na whreuch pyiadow, may codhdho an mynydfiyow 



COFOR 



62 



COLA 



warnouch, in that hour ye shall make prayers, that the 
mountains may fall upon ye. P.O. 2652. Arlulh dre- 
mas, mar codhas myr Cryst oiv syhvyas, pie run dhe wyr, 
good lord, if thou hast happened to see Christ my 
Saviour, where is he truly ? R.D. 855. Rag gwander 
yagodhas, for weakness they fell. M.C. 68. Yna hy 
a ve gesys dhe godha, there it was left to fall. M.C. 184, 
W. civydho, fctttifo. Arm. coue.za, \coeza. Ir. cudaini, 
tuit. Gael. tuit. Manx, tuitt. San so. cad. Lat. cedo. 

CODHAF, v. a. To bear, to suffer. Govy vydh oil ow 
pewe aw codhaf lues galar, unhappy will be all living, 
suffering much sorrow. O.M. 633. Dower, ha ler, ha 
tan, ha gwyns, houl ha loar, ha sleyr kyffris, a Grist ow 
codhaff mernatis, anken y a wodkevys. Water and earth , 
and fire, and wind, sun and moon and stars also, from 
Christ suffering death trouble knew. M.C. 211. A 
regular mutation after ow, of godhaf, or godhef, qd. v. 

CODHEVEL, v. a. To bear, to suffer. Henn o payn a 
vear byte ese Crist ow codhevel, this was pain of much 
pity (that) Christ was enduring. M.C. 134. A muta- 
tion of godhevel, qd. v. 

CODHFEN, v. a. I should know. Arlulh ny vyen Ion-en, 
mar fur torment a codhfeny bones dhys, I should not have 
been joyful, if I had known that such fierce torment 
was to thee. R.D. 2542. A mutation of godhfen, 1 
pers. pi. pluperf. of godkfos, qd. v. 

CODHFO, v. a. He should know. Mar codhfo an casa- 
dow, dystouch y fyen ledhys, if the villain knew, im- 
mediately I should be killed. O.M. 2119. A mutation 
of qodhfo, 3 pers. s. subj. of godhfos, qd. v. 

CODHFONS, v. a. Thej should know. A Ids 'uhek, gfif 
dhedhe y, rag ny wodhons yn lefty py nyl a vrons drok 
py da, hag a codhfons yredy, ny wnsssens aw dystrewy, O 
sweet Father, forgive them, for they knew not really 
whether they did good or evil, and if they knew in truth, 
they would not destroy me. P.O. 2776. A mutation 
of godhfons, 3 pers. pi. subj. of godkfos, qd. v. 

CODHOUCH, v. a. Ye know. Levereuch dhymmo wharre 
mar codhouch f pie ma kentrow ynpren crows rag yfaslye, 
tell me directly if ye know where there are nails fop 
fastening him on the cross tree. P.O. 2665. A muta- 
tion of godhouch, 2 pers. pi. pres of godhfos, qd. v. 

GOER, s. m. A court, a choir. W. cor. Arm. cor. Ir. 
cora. Gael, coradh. Gr. xP'" : - Lat chorus. 

COF, s. m Remembrance, recollection, memory. My 
a vyr scon orth Jumna, hag an acmd a vydh c6f, I will 
immediately look at that, and of the covenant there 
shall be remembrance. O.M. 1252. Arlulh porth c6f 
yn deydh dywedh a'm enef vy, Lord bear remembrance 
on the last day of my soul. O.M. 1272. Gwyn y vfjs 
pan ve gynys, a allo gul dhys sevvys, a'y cof ny'n gas, 
happy he when he was born, that is able to do thee ser- 
vice, out of his recollection he will not leave him. O.M. 
1478. Pertheuch cof oil a'n tokyn a leverys kyns lemyn 
dhywy why, a gowctne", all ye bear remembrance of the 
token which I told before now to you, companions. 
P.C, 1081. J Ema c6 dho vi, I remember, lit. there 
is memory to me. Liwyd, 128. This idiom obtains 
als'o in Welsh, y mae genyv gov. W. c6v, tco&. Arm, 
coun. Ir. cuimhne. Gael, cuimhne. Manx, cooinaght. 

COFOR, s. m. A chest, a coffer. Cofor bras, a great chest. 
Llwyd, 43, 48. W. cofawr, from c6f, a hollow trunk. 
Arm. cufer. Ir. oofra. Gael, cobhan. Manx, coir. 



COFUA, v. a. Shall remember. Eveuch lemyn oil an 
qwf/n, rag hemma yw ow qos fun, hag a vtjdh ragouch 

y , J n J 7 77 I J JJ 1 , f. a t 

skullys yn dewyllytns pechusow, luny a m cofua vy hep gmv, 
pysouch mayfeve evys, drink ye now all the wine, for 
this is my perfect blood, and it shall be shed for you, in 
atonement of sins, ye shall remember me, without false- 
hood, pray ye that it be drunk. P.C. 827. This must 
be the 3 pers. s. fut. of the verb, of which we have no 
other example, unless cove, in C.W. 162, is the late form. 
Pryce gives the verb covio, to remember, but that is> 
literally the W. covio. Arm. kouna. Ir. cuimhnighim. 
Gael, cuimhnich. 

COG, s. m. A cook. Cornish Vocabulary, cocm. J Tshi 
cog, a cook shop. Llwyd, 123. W. cog, tcoc. Arm. 
cok. Ir. coca. Gael, coca, Manx, coagyrey. Lat. coquus. 
Sansc. kvath,pac, to cook. Gr. iriima. 

COG, s. f. A cuckoo. An gog, the cuckoo. Llwyd, 52. 
W. cog, y gog. Arm. coueoug. Ir. cuach. Gael, cuach, 
eubhag. Manx, civag, coong. Gr. KOKKV};. Lat. cuculus. 
Russ. kokuszka. Sansc. kau/cilas, from kuc, to cry. 

COICLINHAT, s. m. The herb archangel. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, archangeliea . It is doubtful in the MS. 
whether it is to be read coidinhat, or coidlinfiat. If the 
former it is compounded of cote, or cuic, the old form of 
c6c, which see above, the same as W. coeg, vain, and 
the herb may be the same as the W. llinhad y coed. See 
Norris's Cornish Drama, ij. 341. 

COID, s. m. Wood, timber, trees, a wood, a forest. Koid- 
galh, a wild cat. Llwyd, 241. This word was variously 
written foil, coat, cuil, and in later times cos, coys, cuz. 
It enters into the names of many places in Cornwall, as 
Penquite, (W. pen coed,) the head of the wood 1 . Co/quite, 
Cois pen haile, Cosgarne, &c. W. coed, \coet, \coit. 
Sansc. Icdsta. 

COIF1NEL, s. m. Wild thyme. Cornish Vocabulary, 
serpillum. Probably a contraction of coid-Jinel, wood 
fennel. 

COILEN, s. m. A quill. Pryce. From the English. 

OOIR, s. jn. Wax. Cornish Vocabulary, cera. It is 
written c6r, as the late form, by Llwyd, 18. W. c&yr, 
(wy=c.)^ Arm. coer. Ir. ceir. Gael, ceire. Manx, here. 
Gr. Krfp'oi. Lat cera. 



COL, s. m. Any projecting body, or pointed hill, a peak, 
a promontory. It enters into the names of many places 
in Cornwall. It also meant the awn, or beard of corn, 
as in Welsh and other Celtic dialects. The plural form 
colow, is given by Llwyd, who writes it culu, or culhu, 
qd. v. W. col. Ir. colg. Gael. coly. Manx, caulg. 

COLA, v. a. To hearken, to listen. Written also cole. 
2 pers. s. imp. cool. A out ivarnas drok venen, wortopan 
wntssys cole, rag ef o tebel edhen, neb a gleivsys cnv cane, 
Oh ! out upon thee, wicked woman, when thou lis- 
tenedst to him, for he was an evil bird whom thou didst 
hear singing. O.M. 222. Rag cola icorlh un venes, gulan 
efrcgoUas anplds, for listening to a woman, he has quite 
lost the place. O.M. 419. Ellas vylh pan rufc cole mar 
hogul worth ow eskar, Alas ! when I ever listened so 
readily to my enemy. O.M. 626. Rag tydhegola u-orty, 
ha tolU dhe bryes Zen, because thou hast hearkened to 
her, and deceived thy faithful spouse. O.M. 293. +Me- 
a levardhys, ha cool orthaf, I will tell thee, and listen 
thou to me. C.W. 44. J Cool gethym, mentha gesky ? 



COLLI 



63 



COLOM 



hearken to me, would I flout thee ? C.W. 48. This word 
seems to be formed from clewes. 

COLAN, s. m. A coal. PI. coles, Llwyd, 243. Colon 
lew, a live coal, 131. Colon marow, a firebrand quench- 
ed, 16-t. Colon leskis, a burning firebrand, 165. This 
word is from the Eng., the Celtic termbeing^r/cw, qd. v. 

COLANNAC, adj. Hearty, courageous, valiant. Llwyd, 
43. From colan, or colon, qd. v. 

COLENWEL, v. a. To fulfil, fill up, fill. Part, colenwys. 
Written also collenwel, and covlenwel. Cresseuch collen- 
weuch kefrys an nor veys a das arte, increase ye, fill also 
the land of the world with men again. O.M. 1211. 
Fystyne gura, ha dils dhymmo wharre, ruk collenwd bodh 
ow Ireys, do thou hasten, and come to me immediately, 
to fulfil the wish of my mind. O.M. 1267. Dhe. egipi 
yth of uskys rak colenwel bodh dhe vrys, to Egypt I will 
go immediately to fulfil the will of thy mind. O.M. 
1474. Yn lyfryow scryjys yma, bus collenwys Imoene a 
ganow anjlechys da, ha n munys ow tene, in books it is 
written, that joy is fulfilled out of the mouths of good 
children, and little ones suckling. P.O. 436. Com- 
pounded of com or cov, id. qd. cev, qd. v., and- lenivel 
to fill. W. cyvlawni. Ir. comldionadh, -\-comalnad. Gael. 
coimhlion. Manx, cooilleen. 

COLL, s. m. Loss, damage. Lemyn me agis pys a 'baynys 
Chri.it predery, ha na vo gesys dhe goll an lahys a rug 
dhynny, now I beseech you all of Christ's pains to think, 
and that there be not left'to loss the laws that he made 
for us. M.C. 182. W. coll. Arm. coll. Ir. caill, coll. 
Gael. call. Manx, coayl. 

COLLAN, s. A knife. Jt changes regularly in construc- 
tion into gollan, and hoUan. Worth henna whet/i a myth 
yn leys na allo den vyth giil hager vernans dhymmo ; rag 
uw colon ow honan gans ow hollan me a wan, against that 
I will yet guard, so that never a man in the world may 
do a cruel death to me ; for my own heart witli my 
knife I will pierce. R.D. 2043. Pylat yw maroi':, dre 
payn ha dre galarow, y honan yth ymwanas ; gans y goll- 
an marthys scon yth emwyksys yn golem, Pilate is dead, 
through pain and through sorrows, himself he stabbed ; 
with his knife wondrous soon he struck himself in the 
heart. R.D. 2066. It is the same word as collel, qd. v. 

COLLEL, s. f. A knife. Cornish Vocabulary, cultellus. 
Collel yravio, scalprum vel scalbellum. W. cyllell, from 
the Latin cultellus. Arm. contel.. Gael, golaidh. 

COLLET, s. f. Loss, damage. Cornish Vocabulary, jac- 
tura. W. colled. Arm. collat. Ir. cailleadh. Gael. 
calldach. 

COLLI, v. a. To lose, to spill. Dho qolli, Llwyd, 117. 
3 pers. s. ftit. cyll, part, k&llys. (kolhys, Llwyd, 248.) 
liag cola worth un venen, gulan ef re gollas an plus, for 
listening to a woman, he has quite lost his place. O.M. 
450. Ha'n maystri bras oil a'm bo, my re'n collas dred/io 
may canuf treiv, and all the great power that was mine, 
I have lost it through him, that I may sing "alas!" 
P.C. 149. An haul yilyw re gollas, the sun its brightness 
has lost. P.C. 2992. Dre owfech ty a'm collas, through 
my sin thou didst lose me. R.D. 104. Y rane dhe 
vohosogyon yn bys gicell vye ys y scolye, it were better to 
share it to the poor in the world than to spill it. M.C. 
36. Po ow Itarcnga ty a ijyll, or m)' love thou shall lose. 
C.W. 60. Nangew mear. a,for pur wyr a ban gylsen an 
tyr, it is now much way very truly, since we lost the 



land, ibid. 178. Colli is another form of celly, qd. v- 
W. colli. Ir. caill. Gael, caill. Manx, caill. 

COLLOWY, v. n. To shine. %Me ew landhorn nef aiiel 
tan mv collowy, may splanna es an Drengys, I am the lan- 
tern of heaven, like fire shining, more resplendent than 
the Trinity. C.W. 10. A regular mutation of gollowy, 
or qolowa, qd. v. 

COLOIN, s. m. A whelp, a puppy, or young dog. Cornish 
Vocabulary, catulus. W. cohvyn, from col, foetus. Arm. 
colen. Ir. coilean, fcuilen. Gael, cuilean. Manx, qual- 
lian. Scotch, collie. 

COLM, s. m. A knot, a tie ; a bond. Me a vyn setye calm 
re, may fastyo an colm wharre adro dhum bryangen, a 
dhysempys dhum tage, I will put a running noose, that the 
knot may fasten soon around my throat, immediately 
to choke me. P.C. 1525. Na vynnyn, saw Bnrabas ny 
a ptis, ugy yn colm yn pryson, we will not, but Barabbas 
we pray for, that is in bond in prison. P.C. 2042. W. 
ctvlwm. Arm. coulm. 

COLMA, v. a. To bind, to tie. 2 pers. s. imp. colm. A 
ids wh@k oil caradow, ow dywluefcolm ha'm garrow, gans 
lovan fast colmennow, na allan sevel a'm saf, sweet 
father, all beloved, tie my hands and my legs with a 
rope, fast knots, that I may not stand upright. O.M. 

1346. 1 n urna y a colmas y dhrfrech fast gans cronow, 
en yoys yn mes may tardhas, delfastaens an colmennow, in 
that hour they bound his arms fast with thongs, the 
blood out that it burst, so they fastened the knots. M.C. 
76. War post fast an colmas, unwyth na ylly plyge, on 
a post fast they bound him, so that he could not once 
bend. M.C. 130. Enef Christ dhcyffarn elh,hag a dor- 
ras an porthaw dre y nerth bras, hay sleyveth, ena got- 
mas dfwoloio, the soul of Christ to hell went, and broke 
the gates, by his great strength and skill, thore he bound 
devils. M.C. 212. Celmy is another form of colma, qd. v. 
W. o/lifinii. Arm. coulma, clomein. 

COLMEN, s. f. A knot, or tie, bond, halter. PL colmennow. 
A las u-hek oil caradow, ow dyiduef colm ha'm garrow 
gans Im-unfast colmennow, na allan sevel a'm saf, sweet 
father, all beloved, tie my hands and my legs with a 
rope, fast knots, that I may not stand upright. O.M. 

1347. Ena why a gtjfasen, hag cbel yn un goliuen, drew 
y dliymmo vy wharre, there you will find an ass, and 
a foal in a halter, bring them to me presently. P.C. 177. 
Kelmyt yw whath pur fast yn y golmencnv, he is bound 
yet fast in his bonds. M.C. 212. From colma. 

COLMUR, s. m. A binder. PI. colmurion. J Hildas me- 
gowzian, dim medge an ix ; whelas colimtrian dha Mme 
an iz, look reapers, to reap the corn ; look binders, to 
bind the corn. Pryce's Vocab. Compounded of colm, 
a knot, and giir, a man. W. cylymwr. 

COLOM, s. f. A deve, a pigeon. Cornish Vocabulary, col- 
umba. An golom gifts hy lagas, yn mes gwra hy dcliffre, 
Idle edhen ren ow (has, leverel ny won plefe, the dove, 
with blue eyes, do liberate her abroad ; a more faithful 
bird, by my Father, I cannot say where there is. O.M. 
1109. Colom whck, glas hy Ingas, ke nyg a-uch lues poiv, 
tyr sfch yn guel nag yn pras mar kefylh yn gwyr hep -gow, 
sweet blue-eyed dove, go fly over much country, dry land 
in .field or in meadow if truly thou find without deceit. 
O.M. 1135. W. colomen. Arm. coulm colm. Ir. colom, 
colm, fco/um. Gael, cohiman, colmait. Manx, calmane. 
All from the Latin columba. 



COMMiSC 



COLON, s. f. The heart. Cornish Vocabulary, cor. PI. 
colonow. In construction it changes into aolon, and hnl- 
on. A vdp whefc, ifthof cuthys, marlftytt claf, sweet 
son, I am grieved, my heart is wondrous sick. O.M.1337. 
Dke colon yw coles Iras, thy heart is very hard. O.M. 
1 325. Gana nader ythof qtranltet/s, hug oil varbarA ryn- 
ymmeys, a fyne trois dhe'n golon, by an adder I am 
stung, and altogether poisoned from the end of the foot 
to the heart. O.M. 1758. Ha bedhouch war colonow, 
and be ye of cautious hearts. P.O. 879. Gollyouch gynef, 
mv kfffyon her colonow, watch with me my dearly beloved 
hearts. P.C. 1026. Yma dtiys colon- galas, thou hast a 
hard heart. R.D. 1523. Ow halon yn ire myll darn, 
worth yw gene na squardy, my heart into three thousand 
pieces, it is a wonder to me that it hath not broken. 
M.C. 166. Ha'y holon whek a ranne, me a lever, rag trys- 
tans, and her sweet heart would have broken, I say, for 
sorrow. M.C. 222. W. calon. Arm. colon. 
COLON, s. m. A gut, entrail, bowel. Plural, colonewu. 
Pryce. W. coludh, pi. colndhiott. IT. caolain, cadhla. 
Gael, caolan. Manx, ehioly, collana. Gr. x^"*> nui\ov. 
Lat. colon. 

COLTER, s. m. The coulter of a plough. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, culler. W. cwlllyr, fcM/ft'r. Arm. coultr. IT. 
coltar. Gael, collar. Maux, collar. All from the Latin 
culler. 

COLWIDHBN, s. f. A hazel tree. Cornish Vocabulary, 
colwiden, corillus. Compounded of coll, hazel, and 
gtvidhett, a tree. W. colhiydhcn, rotten, coll. Arm. kd- 
vezen, keloueen. Ir. coll. Gael, calltuinn. Manx, coll. 
Cf. also Anc. Gaulish, cosl, in the proper name Coslutn, 
now Kvsd, = Germ, hasul : and Slav, shesl, a rod, (of 
hazel)) whence the names of places Schesla, and Sches- 
litz. (Zeuss. 1118.) 

COLYAS, v. a. To watch. Arlulh agan dew lagan yw mar- 
tftys clafow colyas, golyas o agan dysyr, Lord, our eyes 
are wondrous tired watching, watching was our desire. 
P.C. 1057.. A regular mutation after OIK, of golyas, qd. v. 
COLYEC, s. m. A cock. Yn no* haneth fcyns ys b6s colyek 
cleviys, te a'm ndch tergwyth, this night before the cock 
is heard, thou wilt deny me thrice. M.C. 49. Gans 
henna ef a clewas en colyek scon ow cane, with that he 
heard the cock immediately crow. M.C. 16. This is an- 
other form of celioc, qd. v. 

COLYTH, v. a. Thou wilt listen. 2 pers. s. fut. of cole, 
qd. v. Mar a colyth, ty a tew guns dhe whethlow, if thou 
wilt listen, thou wilt be silent with thy tales. R.D. 1368. 
COMBRYNSY, 5. m. Rightness, exactness. An combryngy 
war dhe ben, mar lei y synsys dhe lyn. kyns ys trchy war 
an pren, re got o a gevelyn, the exactness on thy head, 
so true thou boldest thy line before cutting on the tree, 
too short, it was by a cubit. O.M. 2517. Drehefyn efyn 
ban lemyn, re got ew a gevelyn da yn gwyr, an combrynsy 
yw hemma, let us raise it upright now, it is too short a 
good cubit in truth, the exact measure is this. O.M. 2542. 
W. ofwraint, accurate. 
COMER, s. m. Pride. Pryce. 

COMMENA, v. a. To commend, ffla rag henna, aivraf 
commena dhe leal Drengys ow ena, and therefore 1 do 
commend to the faithful Trinity my soul. C.W. 146. 
Another form of cemynny, qd. v. 

COMMISC, s. m. A mixture. Cornish Vocab. commisc 
bleit ha chi, lynx. Written also cymmysk. See Cemysgy. 



64 CONNA 

W. ci/mmysg. Arm. Cfmmesc. IT. eumaisg, comhnv-aag, 
\rfHmmasc. Gael, coimeasq, -tcui/uiftg. 

COMOLEC, adj. Cloudy, dark. Llwyd, 162. W. cymylog. 
Arm. cfimmovlec. The substantive is in W. civmtvl, a 
cloud, a collection of clouds. Arm. coiunmwl, common!. 
From Lat. cumulus, a "neap. 

COMPOS, adj. Straight, even, right. Dew tfka bren rag 
styllyow, hacompes y drntcennou;, bras ha cromy btngoles, 
lo, the fairest tree for rafters, and straight its sides, 
large and rounded its lower end. O.M. 2442. It is 
written indiscriminately compes, and compys. Couyth 
jjrofyyn an styllyo-w, mars ens compes dhe'n fosow, may 
holler ago. ladhye gans corbies, comrades, let us try the 
rafters, if they are straight to the walls, that they may 
be laid with joists. O.M. 2472. Rag ef a'm hembroncan 
pur cnmpys bys yn lose/, for he conducted me very straight 
to the rogue. P.C. 1206. This is the same- word as the 
W. cummhuys, even, of even weight. Compounded of 
cyd, equally, and pioys, weight. Compos therefore is 
compounded of com, id. qd. cm, equally, audpoys, heavy. 
Arm. compez, compoex. 

COM POSSE, adj. Straighter. Ny gajfen composse pren 
yn nep IK, na ruq an plas-ma vijlh well, we shall not get 
a straighter tree in any place, nor for this place any 
better. O.M. 2577. The comparative of ci'inpoi-. 

COMPOSTER, s. m. Form, order, fitness. \Ha dhera an 
noar heli compoxtei; fia heb Iccnefratra ; ha tulder ioar 
bedgeth an doimder ; ha speres Deiv reeg gwayalh war 
bedyeth an dowrow, and the earth was without form, and 
without any thing , and darkness (was) on the face of 
the deep, and the Spirit of God moved on the face of 
the waters. M.C. p. 93. W. cymmhwysder. 

CON, s. f. A supper. Llwyd, 48, con. This is the con- 
tracted form of coyn, qd. v. 

CON A. v. a. To sup. +Na huat, medh an dzhei, qwraz 
conn abarhan ni, not yet, quoth they, do sup with us. 
Lhcyd, 282. 

CONERIOC, adj. Rabid, mad, frantic. Cornish Voca- 
bulary, rabfdus, vel amens, vel demens. Derived from 
a substantive connar,='W. cyndhar, cyndharedh. Arm. 
kounnar, hydrophobia. The word in Welsh is com- 
pounded of cwn, dogs, which in composition changes 
regularly into cyn, as cynos, little dogs, cynydh, a hun- 
ter with dogs, and dar, a tumult. W. adj. cyndheiriog ; 
ci cyndheiriog, -\-konderawc, a mad dog. 

CONFETHYS, part. Discovered, convicted. +0w voice 
oil yln chanaya avel mayteth yn (every, me ne ved/iaf con- 
fethys om b6s ynaf falsury, my voice is all changed like 
to a maiden in earnest, I shall not be discovered that 
there is in me any falsehood. C.W, 40. Written also 
convethys, qd. v. 

CONNA, a. m. The neck. Cornish Vocabulary, collum. 
Ow arluth, my a der crate ow conna, mars each lemyn mes 
a dre, nefre ny dhebraf vara, my lord, I will shortly 
break my neck, if you go now away from home, never 
will I taste bread. O.M. 2184. Dhe conna a grig, thy 
neck be hanged. P.C. 2813. Conn brech, the wrist, lit. 
the neck of the arm. Me a gelm scon lovan dha worth 
conna brech an adla ha why tynneuch agas try, bys may 
hedho hy dhe'n tol, I will forthwith bind a good rope 
around the wrist of the knave, and do you draw, you 
three, until it reaches to the hole. P.C. 2762. (The 
wrist is called in Manx, mwannal lane. i. e. neck of the 



COOTH 



65 



CORDHYE 



band.) The latest form of this word was codna, qd. v 
It differs much from the equivalents in the sister di- 
alects, which are in W. gwdhwv, gwdhwg. Arm. gouxouc. 
The nearest form is the Gael, cotnne, a meeting, joining. 
W. cyduno. 

CONNES, part. Supped. The part. pass, of cona, qd. v. 
$Ez connez dhiuh, have you supped ? Lluyd, 242. 

CONS, s. f. The vagina. W. cont. Ir. coint, conine. Gael. 
coint, -^coinne, a woman. Lat cunnas. Or. rfwrj. Rnnic, 
quinde, a wife. Da. quinde, a woman. Eng. quean. 
Chaucer, qucint. 

CONTKEVA, v. a. To dwell together. Lhoyd, 49. Com- 
pounded of con, id. qd. ced, together with, and treva, to 
dwell, from tret; a dwelling plape. W. cyd-drevu. 

CONTREVAC, s. m. One living in the same community, 
a neighbour. PI. contrevaqion, or contrevogion. %Naraz 
tiah gow erbyn dke conlrevak, do thou not swear falsely 
against thy neighbour. Pryce. $Na ra chee gawas 
whans n-arlyrch chy de contrevak, na ra gawas whans 
warlyrch gwreg de contrevak, do thou liot entertain a 
desire of the house of thy neighbour, do thou not enter- 
tain a desire of the wife of thy neighbour. Pryce. 
J Owna Dew, parth an mateyrn, ha cara 'gos contrevogion, 
fear God, honour the king, and love your neighbours. 
Pryce. From contreva. This is a later form of centre- 
vec, qd. v. W. cyddrevawg. Arm. \conlrevek. 

CONTREWEYTYS, part. Overcome. Gwell yw dhyn 
don, me agrys, r&k douilos contreweytys, pup y ctedtie, it 
is better for us to bring, I believe for fear of being over- 
come, every one his sword. P.C. 2299. 

CONTRONEN, s. f. A bug. Cornish Vocabulary, cimex. 
The plural would be conlron. It is evidently the same 
word as the W. cyndhron, maggots ; sing, cyndhronyn. 
Arm. contron, sing, conlronen. 

CONVEDHAS, v. a. To understand, discover, find out. 
Part. pass, convedhys. Serra, ny won convedhas ages dew- 
han yn neb for, Sir, 1 do not understand your sorrow in 
any manner. C.W. 90. \ Me ny allaf convedhas, y bosta 
ge ow hendas, no. car yyth dhym..yn teff'ry, I cannot dis- 
cover that thou art my grandsire, nor any relation to 
Die in reality. C.W. 116. %Hvna ythew convedhys, der 
an diskans es dhynt reif gans an Tds es a uchan, that is 
understood, by the science that is to me given by the 
Father, that is on high. C.W. 156. %Der tacklow minniz 
civ brez teez gonvedhes, avel an taclow broaz, by small 
things are the minds of men discovered, as well as by 
great matters. Pryce. W. canvad. 

CON YS, v. a. To work, to labour. Gwetyeuch bones avorow 
aw conys yn crys an dre, war beyn cregy ha- tennf, take 
ye care to be to-morrow working in the middle of the 
town, on pain of hanging and drawing. O.M. 2300. Ar- 
luth ~aohek, yma ow conys dhywwhy chyf gwythoryon oil an 
gwlds, a wodher dhe dysmegy, sweet lord, there are work- 
ing for you all the chief workmen of the land, who can 
be mentioned. O.M. 2330. This is a regular mutation 
after the participial particle mo of gonys, qd. v. 

COOL, v. a. Listen thou, hearken. 2 pers. imp. of cola. 
Me a levar dhyg, eva, ha cool orthav ow chdn, I will 
tell thce, Eve, and listen thou to my song. C.W. 44. 
t Cool gethym, men dha gesky, hearken to me, would I 
flout thee. C.W. 48. 

COOTH, adj. Familiar, complaisant. %Henna vea real 
dra, ha maga fur ncomptys, bos cooth dha Dhew awartha. 



ha yn pub poynt equal qensa, that would be a royal thing, 
and as wise accounted, to be familiar with God above, 
and in every point equal with him. C.W. 44. JCoo<A 
ev> ev hag avlethys, pan na ylla omweras, y vatv ny vennaf 
Ifa, he is complaisant and witty, when I could not 
prevent him, his boy I would not be. C.W. 84. This 
word may be the W. cotth, ardent, but more probably 
couth, as in Eng. unctuth. 

COP, s. ra. The top, or summit; a tuft This term is found 
in the W. cob, cop. Ang. Sax. cop, copp. Du. hop. Germ. 
kopf, the head or top of a thing. Fr. coupeau. Gr. KV^IJ, 
Lat. caput. In English, cob-castle, or cop-castle, means a 
a castle on a hill. I have found no authority for it in 
Cornish, in this sense, and it occurs only in P.C. 931. 

COP, s. f. A cloak, coat, cope. Heyl syr epscop, esos y'th 
c6p owth ysedhe, hail, sir bishop, thou art in thy cope 
sitting. P.C. 931. W. cob. Ang. Sax. cceppe. D, kap. 
Dan. kappe, kaabe. Sw. kappa. Fr. capa. Sp. capa. 
It. cappa. Port. capa. 

COR, s. m. A dwarf. Cornish Vocabulary, nnnus. W. cow. 
Arm. corr, corric, corrrigan. Ir. gor, short, corrigan, 
a sprite. Gael, gearr, goirid. Lat. curtus. Sansc. kar- 
ias, from kart, to cut. 

COR, s. m. Manner, sort, way, woofc, corner. Ytho dre 
henna ythyw, dhe v6s mychtern inxtr nep cor, pan leverta 
dhysogy bones gwlascor, then by that it is, that thou art 
a king in some sort, when tnou sayest that there is to 
thee a kingdom. P.O. 2016. Yn chy Dew nygoth march- 
as termyn vyth oil war nep cor, in the house of God 
there ought not to be a market at any time, on any 
account. P.C. 2420. Me a wysk, ha henna gans mur a 
rdch, may dhys tenno a well cor, I will strike, and that 
with much care that it be drawn out for thee in the best 
way. P.C. 2723. Pendra- wraf orth en ioul, mar ny 
gaffaf toul war nep cor, ef a ladh gans fleyryngy ol ow 
glascor, what shall I do, if I find not for the devil a 
hole in some corner, he will kill with the smell all my 
kingdom. R.D. 2i33. W. cwr. Ir. curr, fcoor, \corr. 
Gael. curr. 

COR, s. m. Wax. Llwyd, 18, cdn A contracted form of 
coir, qd. v. 

COR, s. m. Ale, beer. JVhy el eva cor gwella, mars ees 
dhys brag, you may drink best beer, if you have malt. 
Pryce's Vocabulary. The late form of core/, qd. v. 

COR, v. n. He knows. Me a vyn y examyne, y dhrehevel 
mar a k6r, I will examine him, if he knows how to 
build it. P.C. 390. A mutation of gor, qd. v. 

CORD, s. m. A cord. PI. cerdyn. An scorgys prenyer ese 
yn dewle an dew edhow ; hag ynfast kelmys dh,edhe kerd- 
yn gwedhyn yn niesk cronmv, the scourges of sticks were 
in the hands of the two Jews, and fast bound to them 
cords weaved among thongs. M.C. 131. W. cord. Ir. 
corda. Gael. cord. Gr. xofiy. Lat. chorda. 

CORDEN, s. f. A string. The string of a musical instru- 
ment. Cornish Vocabulary, Jidis. The diminutive of 
cord. "W. corden. Arm. Icorden. 

CORDHYAF, v. a. I shall vvorship. Pyslc ragof ny wra 
skusy, mar cordhyaf Dew yn perfyih a fish from me shall 
not escape, if 1 worship God perfectly. O.M. 140. A 
regular mutation after mar of gordhyaf, 1 pers. s. fut. of 
gordhye, qd. v. 

CORDHYE v. a. To worship. Mogiys cans vyl, y a dre- 
mff tkanger, vgy Dew ker ov> cordhye, more than a 



CORN 



66 



COSCASA 



hundred thousand, they shall pass without delay, who 
are worshipping the dear God. O.M. 1616. A regular 
mutation after ow of gordhye, qd. v. 

COREF, s. m. Ale, beer. Cornish Vocabulary cervisia 
vel celea, where it is also written coruf. W. cwryv, 
cwrw. Ir. coirm, cuirm. Gael, tcowm. Gr. KOVP/J.I 
atfvago/nevov eic TJ/S KpiOrjs, (Potionis genus ex hordeo, 
interdum et ex tritico, Iberis occidentalibus etBritannicis 
usitatum.) Dioscor. Laer. 2, 110, xopfia, Athen. 4, 13. 
Curmen, in Ducange, from a Latin-Greek Glossary, and 
Ulpian. 

CORF, s. m. The body, a body, the human body. PI. 
corfow. In construction it changes into gorf and horf, 
for chorf. A Ms map ha spyrys sans, gordhyans dhe th 
corf whek pup prys, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
worship to thy sweet body always. O.M. 86. A das a 
nef dhe gorf her gordhys re bo, O Father of Heaven, be 
thy dear body worshipped. O.M. 408. Dun goryn y 
gorf yn vedh, let us go and put his body in the grave. 
O.M. 2367. Byth ny wriik tf leverel, corf hag enef y 
syvy, never did he say body and soul that they would 
rise. P.O. 1753. An corf eth hydhew yn pry, the body 
went to day into the earth. R.D. 21. Agan corfow noth 
gallas.gans deyl agan cudhe gwren, our bodies are become 
naked, let us cover ourselves with leaves. O.M. 254. 
Ow horf a ve yw henma ragouch ivy, this is my body 
for you.- M.C. 44. W.corph,corf. Arm. corf. Ir.corp. 
Gael. corp. Manx, corp. Basque, corpulxa. Lat. corpus. 
Fr. corps. Sp. cuerpo. It. corpo. Da. fcrop. Sansc. 
garbhas, embryon, from garh, to enclose. 

CORHLAN, s. f. A churchyard, a burial place. Llwyd, 
149. Probably for corphlan, being compounded of corph, 
or corf, a body, and Ian, an enclosure. W. corphlan, 
cordhlan. 

CORLAN, s. f. A sheep fold, a sheep cote. It is found 
in the names of places, as Boscorla in St. Austle, and 
St. Kevern. W. corlan. It is compounded of cor, a 
sheep, and llan, an enclosure. Cor is now obsolete in 
the British dialects as a simple term for sheep, davad 
being the name employed. It is preserved however 
in the W. compounds, corlan, a sheep fold, and corgi, a 
sheep dog. In the Erse dialects it is the common name 
of a sheep. Ir. caor, fcoar. Gael, caora. Manx.&eyr- 
rey. Sansc. kurari. 

CORN, s. m. What projects out, a horn, a horn to blow in, 
a trumpet, a corner. PI. cernow. Ystyn dhym dhe dhorn, 
tan henna dheworthef vy, dyson hep whethe dhe gorn dy- 
sempys o/wra y dhybry, extend to me thy hand, take that 
from me, quietly without blowing thy horn, immediately 
do thou eat it. O.M 207. Cardowyon, hep whethS corn 
na gul son, kenuch Jhesu dhynny ny, my dear fellows, 
without blowing a horn or making a noise, bring Jesus 
to us. P.O. 1368. Tewleuch ef yn tr6k a h6rn, yn dour 
tyber yn nep corn mayfo budhys, cast ye it, in a box of 
iron, into the river Tiber in some corner, that it may be 
drowned. R.D. 2163. Ot en corf yn trok gorrys, deg- 
euch e a dhesympyt, dhe corn an dour, behold the body 
placed in the box ; carry it immediately to the corner 
of the water. R.D. 2185. W. corn. Arm. corn. Ir. 
tcorn. Gael, \corn. Manx, cayrn. Lat. cornu. Sp. 
cuerno. Fr. corne. Sansc. carnis. Heb. kern, karn. 
Syr. karen, karn. Eth. karan, karn. Gr. icapvov T^V 
Ta\aT<u, Hesyoh. 2, 151, on account of the 



curve. It is the root of the names Cornubia, Carniv, 
Kernyw, Kernow, Cornwall, in Britain, and Cornouaille, 
in Britanny. 

CORN AT, s. f. A corner. Llwyd, 13. W. cornel. 

CORNEL, s. f. An angle, a corner. Llwyd, 43, who 
writes it carnal. W. cornel. Arm. corn. Ir. cearna, 
coirneul. Gael, cearn. Manx, corneil. 

CORNIWILLEN, s. f. A lapwing. This word is now in 
common use in Cornwall. W. cornchwiglen. It has also 
other names in Welsh, corn y wich, and cornicell. Arm. 
cornigel. 

COROLLI, v. a. To dance. Pryce. W. coroli, to dance, 
or move in a circle. The root is cor, a circle, thence 
corawl, circling. Arm. corotti. 

CO RONE, v. a. To crown. Arlylhy, my agas pys, Salmon 
ow map coroneuch, h'agas mychtern ef synseuch, hedre 
lynch bywyn bys-ma, Lords, I pray you, crown ye Solo- 
mon my son, and for your king hold him, while ye are 
alive in this world. O.M. 2347. From coron, or curun, 
a crown, qd. v. 

CORRE, v. a, To place, or put. Ny vern tra vyth assaye, 
h'otv gwereseuch cowetM ow corre tumbyr yn ban, may 
holler aga lathye, it is not of the least consequence to 
try, and help me, comrades, putting the timber up, that 
they may be adjusted. O.M. 2479. A regular mutation 
after ow, of gorre, qd. v. 

COR8, s. m. A while. Benes vos dheitch, powesouch lym- 
myn un cors, me agas pys, hag euch dhe dre dhe coskf, 
blessing to you, rest now a while I pray you, and go 
home to sleep. P.C. 2146. W. cors. 

CORS, s. f. A moor, a bog, a fen. It enters into the 
names of places in Cornwall, as in Wales. Thus Pen- 
corse, the head of the moor, in St. Enoder. Pengersic 
in Breage. W. cors. Arm. cors. Ir. currach, fcureAos. 
Manx, curragh. Lat. carer. 

CORSEN, s. f. A reed, a bog plant. Cornish Vocabulary, 
ealamus. W. corsen. Arm. corsen. Ir. -\-ctirchuslach. 

CORTES, v. a. To stay, or tarry. Ny a dreha ragon chy 
pols dhe vionys, rag ny a yl gul scovva, ow cortcs vos gos- 
kesys, we will raise for us a house, a while to labour, for 
we may make a tent, waiting to be sheltered. O.M. 1717. 
A regular mutation after ow of gortes, qd. v. 

CORWEDHA, v. n. To lie down. \A corwedha, lying 
down. Llwyd, 648. A mutation after the adverbial 
particle a, id. qd. ow, of gorwedha, qd. v. 

COS, s. m. A wood, a forest. PI. cosow, or eossow. Ny 
wodhen rag ponvotter py 'th een yn gwetl py yit cos, ow 
holon gwak dyvotter rum kymmer -hag awel Ms, I know 
not for trouble, whether I am in a field or in a wood, a 
vain appetite has seized my heart, and a desire of food. 
O.M.364. Yn oil dhegosow nyns utgyst vylhol,hep wow, vas 
dhe dra vyth ragdho, in all thy woods, there is not a 
beam, without falsehood, good for any thing for it. O.M. 
2495. Why aspyeuch yn ow eossow pren dhe gyst hep toll 
na gyl, seek ye in my forests a tree for a beam without 
hole or fault O.M. 2558. This is a later form of 
coid, qd. v. 

COS, s. m. Cheese. Cornish Vocabulary, caseus, where 
it is also written cans, qd. v. 

COSCASA, v. a. To shade, defend, shelter. Part. pass. 
coskesys. Ny a dreha ragon chy, pols dhe wonys, rag ny 
a yl yul scowa, ma cartes vos goskesys, we will raise a 
house for us, a while to labour, for we may make a tent, 



COST 



67 



COTHMAN 



waiting to be sheltered. O.M. 1718. Written by Llwyd, 
248, kosgaxa, kosgesys. W. cysgodi, gwascodi. Arm. 
ywaskedi. The substantive is ctwcys, a shelter, qd. v. 

COSCE, v. it. To sleep. Ke, growet war an dor gulan, ha 
c6sk, byih na safyn ban, go, lie down on the earth clean, 
and sleep thou, nor ever stand up. O. M. 97. Rys yiu 
dhymporrys coskg, possygyon yn pen yma, it is necessary 
for me to sleep, drowsiness is in my head. O.M. 1905. 
Ow cufyon leman coskeuch, hay olwarbarth potvcseuch, my 
dear (companions) now sleep, and rest ye all together. 
P.O. 1093. Euch dhe dre dhe coske, go ye home to sleep. 
P.O. 2148. Coskyn ny gans dyaha, kyn dasvetco ny'n 
drecha dhyuxtr y geyn, let us sleep with security, though 
he should re-rive, he will not raise it from off his back. 
R.D. 402. Me re goskes pos, I have slept heavily. R.B. 
611. Koscouch lemyn mars ew prys, powesouch, wy yw 
grevys, sleep ye now, as it is time, rest yourselves, ye 
are grieved. M.C. 61. W. cysgu, -\cescu. Arm. cousga. 
Ir. ceisffim. Gael, coisq. Lat. quiesco. Sansc. '. 

COSE, v. n. To itch. Me agelm fast an losel, may hallo 
pup oil dhe wel dodho ef ry strekesow ; lemyn oil byan ha 
bras, knoukyouch ef del dyndylas may cosso y tynwennow, 
I will bind the villain fast, that all may be able to see 
to give him strokes ; now all, little and great, strike him 
as he has deserved, that his sides may itch. P.O. 2084. 
W. cost. 

COSEL, adj. Soft, quiet, slow, sluggish. Cosel my re 
bawesas, assyw wMk an hun myttyn, I have rested quietly, 
sweet is the morning sleep. O.M. 2074. It is written 
by Llwyd, 120, koxal, as the late form. 

COSGOR, s. m. A retinue, a guard, clients, dependents, 
a tribe, a family, servants, children, boys, lads. Cornish 
Vocabulary, den cosgor, cliens vel clientnlus. It is 
written by Llwyd, 243, as pronounced in his time, kos- 
gar. %Gen kosgar, our boys, 245. W. cosgordh, gosgordh. 
Arm. cozgor. Ir. cosgar. Gael, coisridh. 

COSOLETH, s. m. Quiet, rest. Ef an grfyth yn dywedh 
an toy na dhyfyk nefre, yn owgivlas, ha cosolelh, he shall 
obtain in the end the joy that will never fail, in my 
land, and rest. O.M. 518. An tas Dew Arluth a-van 
re'm gorre dhe gosoleth, the Father God, Lord above, may 
he put me to rest. O.M. 858. Banneih an Ids ragas bo, 
hag efprest ragas gwythy venyliia. yn cosoleth, the blessing 
of the Father be on you, and may it always preserve you 
for ever at rest. O.M. 1725. From the adj. cosel, qaiet. 

COSOWA, v. n. To ease, lighten, lessen. Dho cosowa, 
Llwyd, 78. 

COSSO, v. a. He may itch. 3 pers. s. subj. of cose, 
qd. v. 

COSSYLYA, v. a. To counsel, advise. J Dr6k polat o, 
neb a glowses ow cana, ha a'th cossylyes dha derry an aval- 
na, a bad pullet he was, whom thou heardest singing, and 
counselled thee to break off that apple. C.W. 56. 

CYSSYTHY, v. a. To punish. Pryce. W. cystudhio, cys- 
tuyo. Arm. castiza. Manx, custnee. Lat. casttgo. 

C08SYTH YANS, s. m. Punishment. Yn bys-ma, rag dha 
tureans ty a berth gossytkyans, ken na brodar, in this world, 
for thy deed, thon shalt bear punishment, though thou 
art a brother. C.W. 82. W. cystttdhiant, cystwyaeth. 

COST, s. f. Charge, expense, cost. Awos cost arhans nag 
or, gwreuch y tenne mes an dour, gorreuch ef yn schalh 
dhe'n mar, notwithstanding the cost of silver and gold, 
draw him out of the water, place him in a boat to the 



sea. R.D. 2231. W. cost. Arm. coust, Ir. wsdas. Gael. 
cosd. Manx, cost. 

COSTAN, s. f. A buckler, shield, target. Llwyd, 48. 

COT, adj. Short, sudden, hasty, quick. Comp. cottah, cotta, 
shorter. Mar qura, godhvedhys mar p$th, yn scon dys- 
ivreys ef a vydh, ha dhe'n mernans col gorrys, if he does, 
if it shall be discovered, soon destroyed he shall be, and 
to death quickly put. O.M. 1522. My an mesur lour 
yn ta, na vo hyrre esumsyn, na vyth cotta war nep cor, I 
will measure it well enough, that it be not longer, I 
undertake, nor shorter in any way. O.M. 2512. Yn bys- 
ma na tryst na moy, cot yw dhe dhydhyow dhe gy, nahen 
nagrijs, in this world trust thou no more, short are thy 
days to thee, believe not otherwise. BJ). 2037. Writ- 
ten also cut, qd. v. W. cot, cote, cwt, cwta. Ir. cutach. 
Gael, culach. 

COTA, s. m. A coat Llwyd, 33. W. c6d, a wrapper. 
Ir. cote. Fr. code. It. cotta. 

COTELLE, s. m. A wood, a forest, a plantation of wood. 
Pryce. Comp. of coid, wood, and le, a place. W. coedle. 

GOTH, adj. Old, ancient. Cornish Vocabulary, senex. 
Comp. cothah, superl. cotha. A el, me a levar dhys, ow 
thds ew coOi, ha squytheys, ny garse pelle bewe, angel, I 
tell thee, my father is old, and weary, he would not wish 
to live longer. O.M. 737. Hemma yw an c6th was gdf, 
this is the old smith fellow. P.O. 1695. Pub er te dften 
gwra levile, leva den yonk bo den coth, orthajf mar myn- 
nyth cole, neffre gans anfals na soth, continually, do thou 
right to man, be he a young man or old man, if thou 
wilt hearken to me, with the false do not follow. M.C. 
175. Nyng es den vyth ol yn biJ3, mes te, ha'w mob cotha 
Cayn, there is never a man in the world, but thou and 
my eldest son Cain. C.W. 90. An lavar gdth ew lavar 
gwir, the old saying is a true saying. Pryce's Vocab'. 
Arm. koz. Dr. Davies quotes the Liber Landavensis, as 
authority for colh being a Welsh word, but I believe er- 
roneously, as I have not yet found it in any Welsh docu- 
ment. His mistake must have arisen from a copy of 
the Cornish Vocabulary being- attached to a MS. copy 
of the Liber Landavensis. 

COTH, v. imp. It behoveth, it is incumbent, it is .due. A 
mutation of gijth, qd. v. Bos sech ha tek an awel, dhe 
Dew y c6th dhyn grasse, that the weather is dry aud fair, 
it is incumbent on us to thank God. O.M. 1148. Y c6lh 
dhyn oil y wordhye, kefrys yn tyr, hag yn m6r, it behoves 
us all to honour him, as well on land as in sea. P.O. 391. 
Kyn nagowso, dre lahay cdth dodho dr6k dywedhe, though 
he may not speak, by law there is due to him an evil 
ending. P. C. 1827. Hcrwydhagas laha gwrech y juggye 
dhe'n mernans, mar coth henna; according to your law 
judge ye him to death, if that is due. P.O. 1980. 

COTHFO, v. imp. It should behove. A mutation of gotfifo. 
3 pers. s. subj. of goth. Euch ganso kettep pen, my ny 
9 a ff a f y^ ten, may cothfo dhym y ladhe, go with him 
every head, I do not find in him a cause, that it should 
behove me to kill him. P.C. 1798. 

COTHMAN, s. m. A companion, a friend. A gothman 
da, prdk y wreta dhymmo amme, good friend, why 
dost thou kiss me. P.C. 1106. Mar an dyllyjjyth, hep 
mar, nyns 6s cothman dhe Cesar yw agan arluth mycUern, 
if thou wilt liberate him, doubtless, thou art" not a 
friend to Cesar, (that) is our lord king. P.C. 2220. 
Dhodho ef nyns fa cothman, del hevel dhymmo yn wyr, 



COVLENWEL 

to him thou art not a friend, as it seems to me in truth. 
P.O. 2431. JOw hothman, no, gymmar tnarlh, ty an ool, 
ha lyas mi/I, my friend take not wonder, thou shalt weep, 
and many thousands. C.W. 1 68. W. rydymmaith, cym- 
daith, cyvaeth, cyveithydh. Ir. comhthach, ^coimtliecht. 

COTHYS, s. m. Grief, sorrow. Yma dkymmo mur duon 
ha cothys war ow colon, ny won vy/kol pendra wraf, there 
is to me much grief, and sorrow on my heart, I know 
not at all what I shall do. R.D.1765. Id. qd. cuth, qd. v. 

COUL, s. m. Brotb, porridge. Dws yn men, vynytha ny 
efylh coul, marrow cowal ty a tiydh, come out, thou shalt 
never drink broth, tbou shalt be quite dead. O.M. 2701. 
Mar ny'n qorraf, an myl dyaul re dorro mellow y gyn, 
vynytha no. eft'o coul, if I take him not, may a thousand 
devils break the joints of his back, so that he may 
never drink broth. P.O.- 1620. Another form of caul, 
qd. v. 

COUTH, v. imp. It behoveth. Rtidh y couth dhymmo 
bones, red it behoves me to be. R.D. 2535. The same 
word as colh, qd. v. 

COV, a prefix in composition, denoting equality, and co- 
operation, and written also cev, qd. v. It answers to 
cyv in Welsh ; Corn, covlenwel, to fulfil, is in Welsh cyv- 
lawni. The final v is a mutation of TO, which shows the 
relationship to the Latin com, which form is also pre- 
served in Old Irish, as comalnad, to fulfil. Lat compleo. 
Tn modern Irish, the final m has changed into the se- 
condary form nth, which is pronounced as it is written 
inWelsh,v. Compare Ir. comhlionadh. Gael, coimhlion. 
Manx, cooilleen. 

COV, s. m. The memory, remembrance. Noy raab Lamec 
gylwys 6v, arluth bras, oil perthow c6v, ythof omma yn 
bys-ma, Noah the son of Lamech called I am, a great 
lord, bear ye all remembrance, I am in this world. C.W. 
162. Pertii c6v dke gwithe sans an dydh Sabboth, remem- 
ber to keep holy the Sabbath day. Pryce. In the Or- 
dinalia, it is more generally written c6f, qd. v. W. c6v. 

COVAITH, s. m. Riches, wealth. Pryce. W. cyvoeth. 
Ir. comhachd, ^cumacct. Gael, cumhachd. 

COVAITHAK, adj. Rich, wealthy. Pryce. The oldest 
form in Cornish was cefuidoc, qd. v. W. cyvoethog. Jr. 
cwnachtach, tcumachlig. 

COVATH, s. m. Remembrance, recollection. Dhe vap 
Ysac a geryth, y ojfrynne reys yw dhys, war venedh a 
dhysquedhaf dhyso gy, del lavaraf, a'n cavatli by/Jt ny 
hassaf, mar qureth dkym an sacryfys, thy son Isaac 
(whom) thou lovest, it is necessary for thee to offer him 
upon a mountain (that) I shall shew thee, as I say, I 
will never leave thee from remembrance, if thou wilt 
make to me the sacrifice. O.M. 1283. Napartha, wher, 
Deiv a' th weres, ef Dew a ras a'n covalh ny has, do not 
complain, God will help thee, he is a God of grace, he 
will not leave thee from remembrance. O.M. 1358. 
W. coviad. 

COVENEC, adj. Remembered. Yma govenec dhym, it is 
in remembrance to me, i.e. I remember. Llwyd, 242. 
It appears more correct to derive govenec from govyn, to 
ask. See Govenec. 

COVIO, v. a. To remember, recollect, call to mind. Pryce. 
Saw gwra wn dm an govys, but do thou remember one 
thing. O.M. 76. W. covio. See Cofua. 

COVLENWEL, v. a. To fulfil, to fill. Llwyd, 228. In 
the Ordinalia it is generally -written, coullenwel. Yn 



68 COWETH 

pympes dj/dh me a vyn, nuiy fo formyys dre oiv nel, besle.i, 
pushes, hag cdhyn, iyr ha m6r dhe goullenwel, on the fifth 
day I will that there be made by my power, beasts, 
fishes, and birds, earth and sea to fill. O.M. 44. Gor- 
hemmyn Dew dres pup tra res yv: y vos coullenwys, the 
command of God, above all things, need is that it be 
fulfilled. O.M. 655. Cresseuch, coullenweuch an beys, 
avel kyns, ketep mappron, increase, fill the earth, as be- 
fore, every son of the breast. O.M. 1 162. Comp. of 
the prefix cov, and lenwel, to fill. W. cyvlnwni. Ir. 
comhlionadh, f comalnad. Manx, coo?7leen. Lat. compleo. 

COVYNNAF, v. a. I shall ask. Kyn Icverryf gtvyr, den 
ahanouch ny vyn crygy, mar a cq/ynnaf trafytk ny wodh- 
ouch ow gorthyby, though I speak truly, not any man of 
you will believe, if I ask any thing, ye know not how 
to answer me. P.C, 1483. A regular mutation after 
tnara, of govynnaf, 1 pers. s. fut. of govynne, qd. v. 

COVYS, adj. Mindful, remembering. Llwyd, 88. From 
c6v, remembrance. W. covus. 

COWAL, adj. Full, complete, entire, perfect. Often used 
adverbially, fully, quite. Codhys warnan an m6r bras, 
ny a vydh cowal vudhys, fallen on us (is) the great sea, 
we shall be quite drowned. O.M. 1701. Marrow cowal 
ty a vydh, quite dead thou shalt be. O.M. 2702. A pur 
vorenplos, myrch gal, ty a verow sur coival, very dirty 
jade, daughter of evil; thou shalt die quite surely. O.M. 
2737. Ha tewleuch e, dral ha dral, yn Bessede pur gow- 
al, and cast ye it, piece by piece, in Bethsaida very 
completely. O.M. 2783. Erdhepyn cowsaf cowal, against 
thee, I speak entirely. P.O. 2391. Ty a fydh cowal 
anh'n, thou shalt have full pain. P.C. 2530. Written 
also coul, qd. v. W. cwbyl. 

CO WAS, v. a. To have, obtain, procure. Dho gowas, 
Llwyd, 125. ^Gwrens gmoas poher dres an puskas en 
m6r, ha dres an edhen en ebarn, and let them have 
power over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the 
air. M.C. p. 94. J Hy oar gwilepadn dah gen hy glawn, 
ha el hy ollaz, hy delveath gowas tan, she knows to make 
good cloth with her wool, and on her hearth, she ought 
to have fire. Pryce' s Vocab, This is a late form of 
cafos, qd. v. 

COW AT, s. f. A shower. Cornish Vocabulary, oouat, 
nimbus. This is the oldest form of cowes, qd, v. W. 
cawod, \cauat. Arm. caouad. Ir. cealha, caoffi, cith, 
coth. Gael. cith. 

COWEIDLIVER, s. m. A manual, hand-book. Cornish 
Vocabulary, manuale. Read by Llwyd, 36, cowaiihliver. 
This word appears to me to be compounded of the W. 
cywailh, cowaith, t coweit, co-operating, auxiliary, what 
is at hand to help, and C. liver, a book. 

COWER AS, s. m. Perfection, the fulfilment of a promise, 
accomplishment. Henna o poynl.afalswry dedheicysheb 
coweras, that was a point of falsehood, promised with- 
out fulfilment. M.C. 83. W. cywiriad. 

COWES, s. f. A shower. Yma o\v legensywe hager gowes, 
war ow fedh : ota cowes pur ahas, nys pyrth den, marar 
peys pel, here there is coming a shower very dreadful, 
man cannot bear it, if it drops long. O.M. 1083. A 
later form of cowat, qd. v. 

COWETH, s. m. A companion, fellow, mate, comrade. 
PI. cowelM. It is written equally often cowyth. Nyns 
yw da bones un deny honon hep cowyth py coioethes, it is 
not well that a man should be by himself without a 



COWL 



69 



COYNT 



male or female compani on. O.M. 95. Cowyth, growedh 
an n$l tu, comrade., lie on one side. O.M. 2061. If am 
gwereseuch, cowejhe, ow corre tumbyr yn ban, and help 
me, comrades , putting the timber up. O.M. 2478. A 
gleujsyuch -why, cowcthc, did ye hear, comrades? O.M. 
2727. Dun alemma cowytke', let us come hence, comrades. 
P.C. 107. Tyhag oil dhe gowethe, thou and all thy com- 
panions. P.C. 1580. 'W.cyweithydh,fTomcywaith,co-o'per- 
a tion. comp. of cy, id. qd. cyv, together, and muaith, work. 

COWETHAS, s. f. Company, society. Dhe Herodes 
ythesa pur wyr worth Pilat sor Iras, y welas ef ny Ararat, 
na bos yn y gowethas, to Herod there was very truly 
against Pilate a great grudge, he loved not to see him, nor 
to be in his company. M.C. 110. Ha Christ yn cres, 
leun a ras, leun y golon a voreth, gans laddron y cowethas, 
del yw scryfys a'y dhewedh, and Christ in the midst, full 
of grace, full his heart of sorrow, with thieves his com- 
panions, so it is written of his end. M.C. 186. W. 
cyweithas. 

COWETHE, s. f. Company, society. Camen Pilai pan 
welas na ylly Christ deh/jffre, ma nan gejjo ef snr ortis 
dheworlh oil an gowethf, so Pilate when he saw that he 
could not deliver Christ, so that he should not meet 
with great discontent from all the society. M.C. 150. 
Ytho levereuch wart, kepar del ouch fur syngi/s, yn mi/sk 
oil an gowethe, pyw henna, my agas pys, now say present- 
ly, like as you are accounted wise, among all the com- 
pany, who is it I pray you. P.C. 783. W. cyweithi. 

COWETHES, 8. f. A female companion, a help-mate. 
Nyns yw da bones vn deny honan., heb cvnyth py cowethes, 
ke growedh war an dor gwlan, ha cask, byth na saf yn 
Ian, ernafo cowethes gwres, it is not good that a man 
should be by himself, -without a male or female com- 
panion ; go, lie down, and sleep ; never stand up until 
a help-mate be made. O.M. 95. Dues, ow howethes Eva, 
groweth yn gwyly a hys, come, my companion Eve, lie in 
the bed at length. O.M. 652. 

COWETHYANS, s. m. Communion, fellowship. Me a 
credy yn Speris sans, an egles sans dres an bes, an coweth- 
yans an sansotu, an dewhyllyans pehasow, an dedkoryans 
an corf, ha bewnans heb dywedh, I believe in the Holy 
Ghost, the holy church throughout the world, the com- 
munion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrec- 
tion of the body, and the life without end. Pryce's 
Vocabulary. W. cyweithianl. 

COWETHYS, part. Acquainted. Gans Judas del o tew- 
lys, drty Jesus sur del vynne, gans Christ ytho coweOiya, 
byth nyng ens y cowethf, by Judas so it was designed, 
bring Jesus surely he would, with Christ he was ac- 
quainted, never were they companions. M.C. 41. This 
is strictly the participle of a verb, cywethc, id. qd. W, 
cyweiihio, to co-operate. 

C'OWG, adj. Empty, vain. J Y lesky ny vanaf ve, an 
eys nan frutes deffry ; law, Abel, dJiymo pcdn cowga, 
burn I will not the corn nor the fruits really, be silent, 
Abel, for me dolt head. C.W. 80. In the MS. in the 
British Museum, this word is written cooge. It is a 
later form of cdc, qd. v. 

COWL, s. m. Broth. See Coul. 

COWL, adv. Fully, quite. Arluth ytho pyw a wra cowl 
drehevel oil dhe chy. Salomon, dhe vdp Kerra a'n cowl 
dhreha eredy, Lord, now who shall fully build all thy 
house! Solomon, thy son most dear shall build it verily. 



O.M. 2340. An temple may ft cowl wreys, that the 
temple may be fully made. O.M. 2412 Ha pan vo hy 
cowl devys, hy a vydh pub er parys, and when it is full 
grown, it will be every hour ready. C.W. 134. This is 
a contracted form of cowal, qd. v. 

COWLENWEL, v. a. To fulfil. Pur wyr leskys ef a vydh, 
rag coulenwel bodh dhe vrys, very truly it shall be burnt, 
to fulfil the desire of thy mind. O.M. 434. Lemyn na 
fo oil ow bodh cwvlymuys dhymmo lemyn, but be not 
all my will fulfilled to me now. P.C. 1038. This is 
another form of covlenwel, qd. v. 

COWMS, s. m. Discourse, talk. Llwyd, 48. An older 
form of cows. W. comm. Arm. comps. 

COWS, s. m. Speech, discourse. Ma ow wolon ow ranne, 
pan ijlewaf cows an par-no., my heart is parting when I 
hear'talk of that kind. O.M. 2182. Ty.ayly atendye 
bus gwyr ow cows kettep ger, thou mayest attend to it, 
that my speech is true every word. R.D. 478. Dre 
dhe gmvs ylhew previs. by thy speech it is proved. M.C. 
85. Dh'y gows ny worthebys, to his speech he answered 
not. M.C. 144. A later form of cowms, qd. v. 

COWS, v. a. To speak, say, tell. Prag na dheute nes ray 
cows orthyf, why dost thou not come nearer to speak with 
me. O.M. 150. Mars ellen hep cows orty, if I should 
go without speaking to her. O.M.2173. Kyn na gowso dre 
laha y c6th dotho dr6k dywedh, though he may not speak, 
by law there is due to him an evil end. P.C. 1826. Ma 
na yaffo gorthyp vyth, er agan pyn dhe cows ger, that he 
may not find an answer, against us to say a word. P.C. 
1840. Ny attaf gwelas anfu anodho ef yn nep tu, cows 
ganso me a game, I cannot see the form of him in any 
side, I would have liked to speak with him. R.D. 744. 
Arluth, gwyr a leversouch, y a gowsys yntrethe, Lord, 
truth you said, they spake among them. M.C. 50. 
Pandra gowsow' dhym lemyn, what say ye to me now. 
C.W. 12. Yn cult termyn agas negys cowsow', in a short 
time your errand tell me. C.W. 44. Ceuisel, is another 
form of this word, qd. v. 

COWSES, s. m. A speech, discourse. PI. cotosesow. The 
singular is generally written covisys. Ha, whdlh an Jowl 
a dewlys towl ken maner mar calle, dre nep fordh a gov- 
aytis, gudhil dh'y gowsys Iryle, and yet the devil desired 
a way some other manner if be could, through some 
way of covetonsness, make him to his speech turn. M.C. 
15. Christ a worthebys y gowsys ef a wodhye. Christ an- 
swered his speech he knew. M.C. 36. Lyes gwyth me. 
re bysys, na dreyle y gowsesow, awos own bones ledhys, 
many a time I have prayed, that he turn not his 
speeches, for fear of being killed. P.C. 885. 

COYN, s. f. A supper. Crist worth an goyn a warnyas, 
dre (man bos treson gwrys, Arluth Du y a armas, pit a {jl 
henna bonas, Christ at the supper gave notice, by one 
that treason was made, Lord God, they cried out, who 
can that one be. M.C. 42. In Llwyd's time, it was 
contracted into con, qd. v. W. cwynos. Arm. coon. 
Ir. cuid, ^sene. Lat. coyna. Gr. Koivrf. 

COYNT, adj. Rough, rude, sharp, cunning. Pan wreta 
mar coyntfara, ow scollye agan givara, ha'n fer orth y 
dhystrewy, when thou actest so rudely, scattering our 
wares, and destroying the fair. P.C. 340. Coynt mur 
yw an gwds, hep mar, hag a aswon lyes wrynch, the fellow 
is very sharp, without doubt, and he knows many a trick. 
P.C. 1000. Qtte ha coynt o an gwds, see how cunning 



GREATER 



70 



CREGY 



the fellow was. P.O. 1819. My re bue boches coynt, I 
have been little cunning. P.O. 3031. Par delomagwic- 
ker coynt, as I am a rough dealer. C.W 84. Bletvak 
coynt yw, ha hager, ny w6n pana vest ylla 16s, hairy, 
rough it is, and ugly, I know not what beast it can be. 
C.W. 114. 

COYNTIS, 8. m. Cunning, artifice. Ha satnas gans y 
aniell, hay scherewneth hay goyntis, Crist mab an Arluth 
itchelly demptye pan prederis. and Satan with his dan- 
ger and his wickedness and his cunning, when he 
thought to tempt Christ, the Son of the High Lord. 
M.C. 19. Pyiat a vynsst gwythe betvnans Jesus dre goyn- 
tis, Pilate would preserve the life of Christ through 
cunning. M.C. 125. 

COYS, s. m. A wood, forest. WarbarQi oil awed Beheth- 
len, ha coys Penryn, yn tyen, my a's re lemyn dheuch 
why, together all the field of Bohellan, and the wood 
of Penryn, entirely, I give them now to you. O.M. 2589. 
This is a later form of coyd, or coid, qd. v. 

COYTH, adj. Old, ancient. Galsofcoyth ha marthysgwan, 
dyvylhys ew ow dewedh, I am become old and wondrous 
weak, my end is arrived. O.M. 85. This is another 
form of coth, qd. v. 

CRA, conj. If, although. Llwyd, 150. 

CRA, v. a. He will do. A mutation of gra, for gwra, 3 
pers. s. fut. of gwrey, qd. v. 

CRABALIAS, s. m. Worms creeping like crabs. Pryce. 

CRAG, s. m. A clap. Ellas na dhelleys dhy lesky un lu- 
husen, ha crack taran, Alas ! that I did not send forth 
a thunderbolt to burn him, and a clap of thunder. 
R.D. 294. W. crech, a shriek. 

CRAC, adv. Shortly. My a der crak ow conna, mars each 
vies adre, nefre ny dhebraf vara, I will break shortly 
my neck, if you will go from home, never will I eat 
bread. O.M. 2184. Mar remufe y pen crak me a torse, 
kyn cause vyth mar huhel, if he moved, his head shortly 
I would break, though he should talk ever so high. 
R.D. 397. W. crig, a crack. Arm. crak, short. 

CRAP, adj. Covetous. Cornish Vocabulary, avarits. W. 
craf. Arm. craf. 

CRAMPEDHAN, s. f. A pancake, a fritter. PI. crampedh. 
Llwyd, 75. It was also written crampodhan, and cram- 
pessan. W. crammwyth, crempogen, pi. crempog. Arm-. 
crampoezen, pi. crampoez, crampoech. 

CRAMYAS, v. a. To creep. JHa Dew wras bestas an 
'oar warier 'go has, ha 'n ludnu warier 'go has, ha cene- 
fratra es a cramyas war an 'oar, warier go has, ha Dew a 
welas Iro va da, and God made the beasts of the earth 
after their seed, and the cattle after their seed, and 
every thing that creepeth on the earth after their seed ; 
and God saw that it was good. M.C. p. 94. 

CRANAG, s. m. A frog. PI.' \cranovgaz. Cranacmelyn, 
a yellow frog ; cranag diu, a black frog or toad. Pryce. 
Llwyd derives this word from the Latin rana, but er- 
roneously, as it is only a corruption of croinec, qd. v. 

CRANAGAS, adj. Crawling like a frog. Pryce. 

CREADOR, s. m. A creator. Cornish Vocabulary, creator. 
Borrowed from the Latin, as is also W. creaivdwr. Arm. 
crouer. Ir. cruthaightheoir. Gael, cntiihfhear. Manx, 
fer-croo. 

GREATER, s. m. A creature. Pan o Jesus Christ damp- 
nys aberth an crows may fartee, hacra mernans vyth ord- 
nys dhe Greater ny rye, when Jesus Christ .was condemned 



on the cross that he should die, a more horrid death was 
never ordained for a creature. M.C. 151. Ty creator 
oynyges fattel dhuttM gy dhe'n cres, na fues gynen yn 
yfarn, thou blessed creature how earnest thou to peace ? 
'thou wast not with us in hell. R.D. 259. Written in 
the Cornish Vocabulary, croadttr. W. creadur. Ann. 
crouadur. Ir. creatur. Gael, crevlair. All from the 
Latin creatura. 

CRED, s. f. Belief, faith. This early form is only found in 
the name of a parish, San Cred, or Creed, Holy Faith. 
See the corrupted form cres. W. cred, credhyv. Arm. 
cred, creden. Ir. ere, \credem, fcrefem. Gael, creud, 
fere. Manx, crea. 

CREDY, v. a. To believe. JAfe a gredyyn Dew an Tds 
ollgal luster, gwrear an nef, hag an 'oar, I believe in God 
the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth. C.W. 
p. 200. The more common form in the Ordinal ia, is 
cresy, by the corrupt change of d, into s, and then into 
g, as cregy, which sound prevailed at the last, being 
written by Keigwyn and Llwyd, credgy, credxhi. W. 
credu. Ann. credi. Ir. creid. Gael, creid. Manx, creid. 
Lat. credo. 

CREDGY ANS, s. m. The Creed, or Belief. %Credgyans 
an Abesteleih, the Apostles' Creed. Pryee's Vocabulary. 
Written by Llwyd, credzhans, 132. Id. qd. cregyans, qd.v. 

CREEG, s. f. A heap, mound, hillock ; a barrow. PL 
cregow. This word is a later form of cruc, qd. v., and 
is preserved in the names of many places in Cornwall, 
as Creegebroaz, Creegcarroto, Creeglaze, Creegvose, and 
the plural form in Creggo, and Cregoe. 

CREF, arlj. Strong, mighty, vigorous, hardy. Dre v6dh 
an Tds caradow, yma gorhyl cref ordnys, by the will of 
the beloved Father, there is a strong ship ordained. 
O.M. 1040. Popel Ysral ny assaf, nas gorren y dhy 
whyl cref, the people of Israel, I will not leave, that I 
put them not to their hard work. O.M. 1490. Mychtern 
Israel, Arluth cref, king of Israel, mighty Lord. P.C. 
276. Oil his a'n beys, cref ha gwan, all men in the 
world, strong and weak. P.C. 1334. Arluth cref ha 
gallosek. Lord, strong and powerful. R.D. 108. Yn cref 
bras me repechas, very grossly I have sinned. R.D. 1569. 
Ena yn wedh y torran an veyn o cref ha calys, there also 
broke the stones (that) were strong and hard. M.C. 
209. Written also cryf, qd. v. In the Cornish Voca- 
bulary, it is written crif, and by Llwyd, crev, qd. v. 
W. cryv, cr$, m. crev, ere, f. Arm. ere, cren,. Ir. cro- 
dha. Gael, crodha, Manx, creoidey. Sansc. krudh, to 
be in a passion. 

CREFNYE, adj. Greedy, grasping. In construction it 
changes into grefnye, qd. v. W. crafatn. 

CREPT, s. f. An art, or craft. Cornish Vocabulary, ars. 

Gonesugy ken agesouch why ny's ty, rag sotel ouch yn 

pup creft, workmen others than ye shall not cover it, for 

subtle -ye are in every art. O.M. 2491. W. creft. From 

the English. 

CREFTOR; s. m. An artificer, craftsman. Cornish Vo- 
cabulary, artifex. W. creftwr. 

GREG, adj. Hanging. J Ma agen ost net destriez nahuer, 
ha nei ddl creg ragta, our host was murdered last night, 
and we must needs be hanged for it. Llwyd, 252. 
W. cr6g. 

CREGY, v. a. To hang, suspend, to be hanging, to be 
hanged. Part. pass, cregys. Givy/heuch why y, ma na 



CREIA 

v6ns remuvys dhe gen tyller, war beyn tennf ha cregy, 
watch ye them, that they be cot removed to another 
place, on pain of drawing and hanging. O.M. 2046. 
My an bydh rak ow wage ha ty agrek, I will have it 
for my wage, and thou shalt be hanged. P.O. 1188. 
Me a lever dheuch, gwell yw cregy Baraban, ha dyllyfre 
an prof os, I tell you, it is better to hang Barabbas, and 
liberate the prophet. P.O. 2366. Oil an dus-ma a lever, 
dhe vos cregis te yw gyw, all these men say to be hanged 
thou art deserving. M.C. 129. Ha'n Edhewon a grogas 
lader dhe Christ a barth cledh, hag a dhychow lader bras 
cregy a russons yn wedh, and the Jews hanged a thief 
to Christ on the left side, and on the right a great thief 
they did hang. M.C. 186. Rag genen cregis neb es, 
denglanyw a bech, ynno ef dyfout nyng-es, at/an cregy ny 
yw mall, for with us he that is hanged, is a man clear of 
sin, our hanging is not wrong, there is no fault in him. 
M.C. 192. Cregy is the same word as crogy, qd. v., which 
was generally used in the preterite tense, as crogas, a 
grogas. 

CREGY, v. a. To believe. An gwyryonedh Jcyn clewyth, 
awos tra vyth ny'n cregyth ; marth ijw henna, though 
thou hearest the truth, for any thing thou dost not 
believe it, that is a wonder. R.D. 1385. Ef a prova-t 
lowr gow dheis, ha genas ymons cregys, he told thee abun- 
dant lies, and by thee they are believed. C.W. 60. 
Ny allaf cregy henna, I cannot believe that. C.W. 116. 
Rag henna dheth cregy me ny vannaftnoy es ky, therefore 
I will not believe thee more than a dog. C.W. 173. 
This word is a corruption of cresy, qd. v., the g being 
sounded soft, asj in English. 

CREGY ANS, s. m. Belief, faith, creed. An deppro gans 
cregyans da, gober tek ef an gevyth, that eateth with 
good faith, he shall receive a fair reward. M.C. 44. 
Ragy dhe vynnas gordhyefah duwow erbyn cregyans, for 
they worshipped false gods against belief. O.M. 1882. 
%Mar tregow' why yn gregyans-na, moreth why as bydh 
ragdha, if ye abide in that faith, sorrow ye shall have 
for it. C.W. 14. Cregyans an Canasow Christ, the 
Creed of Christ's Apostles. Pryce's Vocabulary. Deri- 
ved from cregy, to believe, the 5? being sounded soft, as 
j in English. 

CREH AN, s. m. A skin. %Sgelli grehan, a bat, lit. leather 
wing. Llwyd, 173. This is a late corruption of cro- 
hen, qd. v. 

CREHEN, s. m. Skins. The plural of crohen, qd. v. 

CREHYLLY, v. a. To crush, squeeze, rattle, shatter. 
Ena hy a ve gesys dhe godha mar ankynsy, dhe Christ 
rriayfe crehyllys oil y gorf hay esely, there it was left to 
fall so grievously, that to Christ were shattered all his 
body and limbs. M.C. 184. Marthya yeyn yw an givyns, 
ma 'thew crehyllys ow dyns, wondrous cold" is the wind, 
that my teeth are chattering. P.C. 1218. Hemmayw 
iag an pla ; y gorf yw crehyllys da ganso, this is a 
cure of the plague ; his body is shattered well by it 
P.C. 2818. 

CREI, s. m. A call, a cry. J Ha an dzhyi a dalladhas 
dha nil krei; ha gem an krei a ryg an vartshants guil, 
Dzhuan a greiaz auet, leddarn, leddarn, and they began 
to cry ; and with the cry that the merchants made, 
John cried out too, thieves, thieves ! Llwyd, 252. This 
is the latest orthography of cry, or cri, qd. v. 

CREIA, v. a. To call, cry, name. Pret. and pt. pass, creies. 



71 CEESY 

%En termen ex passiez tera trigas en St. Levan, den ha, 
bennen en teller creiez Tshei an hur, in time past there 
were dwelling in St. Levan, a man and woman in a 
place called Chy an hur, (the Ram's house.) Llwyd, 252. 
The late form of cria, qd. v. 

CREIS, s. m. A shirt, a smock. Cornish Vocabulary, 
camisia. It is written by Llwyd, 45, cr{/s. W. cry's. 
Arm. ores. 

CREN, adj. Round, circular. Llvyd, 141. "W. crwn, 
tcrott, m. cron, f. Arm. crenn. Ir. cruin, \crmnd, 
gerund. Gael, cruin. Manx, cruin. Sansc. brunch, 
curved. 

CRENNE, v. n. To tremble, quake. Serponnt yw hy, 
euih hy gwelas, own a'm bus vy, crenne a wraf, it is a ser- 
pent, horrid to see it, I am afraid, I do tremble. O.M. 
1453. Yma an dor ow crenn6, sevel un wyth ny yllyn, 
the earth is trembling, I am not able to stand once. 
P.C. 2995. Lemmyn worth agan gelwel, rak own desefsen 
menvel me a crennu-s, now calling for us, from fear I 
would have desired to die, I trembled. R.D. 177-2. 
Hag ef rag own ow crenne, and he for fear trembling. 
M.C. 63. Tresse gwyth hag ef yn cren y pesys Du, the 
third time he trembling prayed to God. M.C. 57. W. 
crynnu. Arm. crena. Ir. croithnuigh. Gael, croithnaich. 
Manx, ereanagh. Sansc. hri, to bo moved, or troubled. 
Gr. Kijpt6ii>. Lat. horreo. 

CRES, s. f. Belief, faith. A Jude, gas dhe gres, y golon 
squyrdys ales me a welas, O Judah, leave thou thy be- 
lief ; his heart torn in pieces I saw. R.D. 1031. Llwyd, 
230, writes it krex. See the older form cred. 

CRES, s. m. The middle, the centre, the midst, the heart. 
Yn cren an chy res vye cafus gyst cref, na vo gwan, in the 
midst of the house, it would be necessary to have a 
strong beam, that it be not weak. O.M. 2481. Me a'n 
kelm yn cres an wast may pysso ef gefyeny war pen y 
dhewlyn, I will bind him in the middle of the waist, 
that he may pray for pardon on his knees. P.C. 1889. 
Yth egen yn cres Almayn, orth un prys-ly, yn pur w$r, 
panfuf gyhvys, I was in the middle of Germany, at a 
breakfast meal, when I was called. R.D. 2148.. Bes 
cres, the middle finger. Llwyd, 172. Written also creys, 
qd. T. W. craidh, crai. Arm. creiz. Ir. crioidhe, Deride. 
Gael, cridhe. Manx, tree. Gr. iceap, icapSia, Lat. cor. 
Sansc. hard, from An', to be moved. Goth, hairto. Lith. 
sxirdis. Ang. Sax. heart. Eng. heart. Germ. herz. Du. 
hart. Sw. hierta. Dan. hierte. 

CRES, s. m. Peace, tranquillity, quiet. Ny vynnyth dhe 
pobel Dew gas6 cres dhyn yn nep tu, awos tryga yn pow~ 
ma, thou wilt not to the people of God allow peace to 
us on any side, for to dwell in this land. O.M. 1598. 
Abanyw mychtern Faro budhys, ha'y ost oil ganso, ny a'm 
bydh cres dhe vewe, since king Pharaoh is drowned, and 
all his host with him, we shall have peace to live. O.M. 
1714. Cres Dew aberth yn chymma, the peace of God 
within this house! P.C. 667. Cres Dew aberth yn annedh, 
the peace of God be in the house ! P.C. 705. Cres oil 
dhywhy why, peace to you all. R.D. 1361. 

CRESY, v. a. To believe ; to have faith in. 2 pers. s. 
imp., and 3 pers. s. f. cres, crtis a grys, or creys, a greys. 
Dhysso ny vennaf cresy, na dheth fykyl lavarmv, I will 
not believe thee, nor thy vain words. O.M. 233. An 
sarf re ruk ow tholle, dh'yfalsury y cresy s, pythweth re 
rug ow syndye, the serpent did deceive me, her false- 



CREYS 



72 



CRISTYON 



hood I believed, ever she hath injured me. O.M. 288. 
Vylh ny'n cresons ef neffre, they wil! never believe it. 
O.M. 1440. Mar vynnyth cresy, nag us Dew lemyn onan, 
a gotho ynno cresy, if thou wilt believe that there is 
not a God but one, in whom it is incumbent to believe. 
O.M. 1765. Hag yn ur-na martesen, dhe'lh lavarow y 
cresen, hag a'th carvyth bynary, and in that hour perhaps, 
I might believe thy words, and love thee for ever. P.O. 
2871. My Cryst dhe sevel an bedh, cresseuch yn ta ; rdk 
kemmys a n crys, /lag a vo lei vygydhys, sylwel a wraf, 
that I Christ have risen from the grave, believe ye well; 
for as many as believe it, and shall be faithfully bap- 
tized, I will save. R.D. 1141. .Saw bylygyns cresouch 
why an corf-na dhe dhasserchy kynsyw aneth, but never- 
theless believe ye, that body to rise again before it is 
night. R.D. 1300. Ha kekemmys nan cresso goef ter- 
myn a dhejfo devones a brys benen, and whoever will not 
believe it, unhappy the time that he came nurtured 
from the womb of woman. R.D. 1348. My ny gresaf 
dheso whalh, I will not believe thee yet. C.W. 172. 
Marya, me agrys,pur ylwys, an gweresas, Mary, I believe, 
being called helped him. M.C. 230. Hag a vydh dhynny 
neffre, mar a cresyn, ha bos vds, and will be to us ever, 
if we will believe and be good. M.C. 258. J Cres 
dhebm, believe me. Ragfraga na gresyth dhym lavarow, 
why dost thou not believe my words. Llwyd,22. Though 
this is the more general form in the Ordinalia, it is 
later than credy, qd. v., by the corruption of the d; the 
s was again corrupted into g, whence cregy, and crygy, 
qd. v. 

GREY, adj. Strong, mighty, hardy. Llwyd, 61, gives as 
the late form krev. In the Ordinalia it is always writ- 
ten cref, qd. v. 

CREVAN, s. f. A crust ; the scab of a sore, Llwyd, 52. 
W. crawen, craven. Arm. creue.n, cretin. IT. carra, car- 
ruidhe. Gael. carr, criomkan. Manx, cron. 

CREVDER, s. m. Strength, vigour, power, security ; a 
stay or ground. Llwyd, 60, 141, 240. Rag gans te yw 
michterneth, an crevder, ha'n worryans, rag oisqueth ha 
bisqueth, for thine is 'the kingdom, the power, and the 
glory, for ever and ever. Price's Vocabulary. JGuiro, 
maieyrn, an tacklow ma gen an gwella crevder el b6s 
prederys an marthugyon a go termyn, ha'n tacklow a ven 
givaynia clos dhees rag nevra, do, King, these things 
which with the best strength may be thought the won- 
ders of their time, and the things will gain glory to 
thee, for ever. ibid. W. cryvder. Arm. crevder. 

CREYS, s. m. Strength, vigour, force, vehemency. Cow- 
ethe, hedheuch kynys, ha me a whjjth gans mur greys, may 
tewe an tan wharre, comrades, reach ye fuel, and I will 
blow with.much force, that the fire may kindle soon. 
P.C. 1220. Drou' e dhymmo dhe tachyf a uch y pen gans 
mur greys, bring it to me to fasten above his head with 
much strength. P.C. 2808. W. craid. 

CREYS, s. m. The middle, centre ; the midst, the heart. 
Ow gwarrak a vydh settyys yn ban yn creys an ebren, my 
bow shall be set up in the midst of the sky. O.M. 1245. 
Dhe wulfos a vyyn bryntyn, yn creys an dre, to make a 
wall of noble stones, in the centre of the town. O.M. 
2282. Another form of cres, qd. v. 

CREYS, s. m. Peace, tranquillity, quiet. Tru ! y disky 
aban reys, alemma rag ny'm b$dh creys, yon Me wyr lour, 
alas ! since it is necessary to take it off, henceforth there 



will be no peace for me ; I know true enongh. R.D. 
1860. Another form of cres, qd. v. 

CREYS, v. a. Believe thou, he will believe. 2 pers. g. 
imp., and 3 pers. s. fut. of cresy, qd. v. Nyns-us den 
orth. mu servye, len ha gwyryon, me a greys, there is not a 
man serving me, trusty and true, I believe. O.M. 930. 
Mar kyf tyr sijch, me a greys, dynny ny dhewhel arle, if 
it shall find dry ground, I believe, that it will not re- 
turn to us again. O.M. 1131. Nep na orys ny fy dh syl- 
ivys, na gans Dew ny vydh trygys, ha rak henna*, me ath 
pys, creys a termyn, whoever believes not shall not be 
saved, nor with God shall he dwell, and therefore I pray 
thee, believe in time. R.D. 1112. Written also cres, 
and cry's. 

CRT, s. m. A call, cry, clamour, noise. Orth Pylal oil y 
setsans, ha ivarnodho a rug cry, on Pilate all pressed, 
and on him made a cry. M.C..117. War ty ha'y vam 
an pewo, y ben a vynnas synsy, hay enef eth anodho, 
gans garm eyn, hag uchel gry, on the side his mother was, 
his head he would hold, and his soul went from him 
with cold cry and loud noise. M.C. 207. Ha'n enef 
del dascorst erbyn noter gans un cry, and his soul how 
he yielded it against nature with a cry. M.C. 208. A 
pur harloth,plefuch why,pAr ulh o cleit:as an cry genej 
orth agas gylixel, O very rascals, where have yon been, 
very horrid it was to hear the cry by me in callingyou. 
R.D. 2244. W. cri Arm. m. Sansc. kur, to resound. 

CRIA, v. a. To call, cry, cry out. J Ha Dew a grins an 
golow dydh, ha an tewlder ev a grias n6i>, ha gurthuher ha, 
metten o an kensa jorna, and God called the light day, 
and the darkness he called night, and the evening and 
the morning were the first day. M.C. p. 93. Llwyd 
gives also as modern forms, kriha, to call, 43, and crio, 
to cry or weep, 75. But in the Ordinalia it is generally 
written cryi, qd. v. W. crio. Arm. cria. 

CRIB, s. f. A comb ; a ridge, the crest or summit of any 
thing. Llwyd, 115. Crib an t$, the ridge of the house, 
53. fW. criby ty.) "Hence the rocks called Crebs in 
many places, for that they appear like the comb of a 
cock at low water." Pryce. W. crib, t crip. Arm. crib. 
IT. dor, tar. Gael. dor. Manx, here. 

CRIBA, v. a. To comb. Dho criba an pen, to comb the 
head. Llwyd, 49. The infinitive was also written cri- 
bas. $Dho cribaz. Llwyd, 119. Vf.cribaw. Arm.cnba. 

CRIBAN, s. f. A comb ; a crest, a tuft or plume. Criban 
kuliog, a cock's comb. Llwyd, 13. Criban mel, a honey 
comb, 59. A bird's crest. 240. W. crib, tribell, a bird's 
comb, or crest ; crib y gwenyn, honey comb. Arm. cri- 
bell, criben. 

CRIBIA, v. a. To card wool. Llwyd, 245. 

CRIF, adj. Strong. Cornish Vocabulary, fortis. See 
Cref. 

CRISTYON, s. m. A Christian. PI. Cristenyon, Cnston- 
nion. Crystunyon. Dyswedhouch b6s pryns mtnper, r&k 
dyswyl an Cnstenyon, shew yourself to be a priade with- 
out equal to destroy the Christians. P.C. 979. Ragon 
y fynnes merwel ha m6s yn bedh, ha sevel, rak dry pup 
Crystyon dhe'n nef for us ho would die, and go to the 
tomb, and rise, to bring every Christian to heaven. P.C. 
970. Me n gesul bos ganse prennys da, gvoon yn nep le, 
rag an cladhva Crystvnyon, I advise that there be with 
them bought a good field in some place, for the burial 
place of Christians. P.C. 1545. Na'n /arfaVo cm Crysten- 



CROGEN 



73 



CRON 






yen, gwytheuch war peyn, that the Christians steal him 
not, guard ye under penalty. R.D. 365. "W. Gristion, 
pi. Cristianogion, Arm. Cristen, pi. Cristenien. 

CRIV, adj. Rude, raw, green or newly made, unripe. 
Llwyd, 52. "W. en. Arm. criz. Lat. crudus, 

CROAD17R, & m. A creature. Cornish Vocabulary, ere- 
aiwa. See Greater. 

CROBMAN, s. m. A reaping-hook. Llwyd, 9. A late 
corruption of Cromman, qd. v. 

CROC, s. f. A hanging, a suspension. A vyl gadlyng, dues 
yn rag, wor tywedh wheth cr6k a'th tag, O vile vagabond, 
come forth, at last hanging will choak thee yet. P.O. 
1818. A vyl loscl, re'thfo crok, vile rogue, hanging 
be to thee. P.O. 2097. Gwyw vyes dhe gafus crok, thou 
wert deserving to get a hanging. P.O. 2683. Yn leys 
awos godhaf crok, ny brefsys anfcen no, drok, notwith- 
standing suffering hanging in the world, thou hast not 
felt grief nor evil. R.D. 277. W. crog. Arm. crony. 
Ir. crock. Gael, croich. Manx, eriy. Lat. cruce. 

CROC, adj. Hanging, suspended, overhanging. Poioes 
lemmyn, losel u;ds, ka knouk an horn tys ha tas, mar ny 
urethj-ty a fydh crok, stop now, idle fellow, and .strike 
the iron tick-a-tack, if thou dost not, thou shalt be hang- 
ed. P.C. 2720. W. cr6g. 

CROCCAN, s. f. A springe, or springle. Pryce. W. crog- 
lath. 

CROCHEN, g. m. A skin. Nyns-us ivarnedhe crochen, 
nag ytv trfah ha dyrvskys, there is no skin upon them, 
that is not broken and peeled. P.C. 2686. F a viyth 
y vody napotre bys vynary kyns fe yn bedh myl vlydhen, 
tta'y grochen unwyth terry, they will preserve his body 
that it do not ever decay, though it be in the grave a 
thousand years, nor shall his skin be once broken. P.C. 
3202. Heys oil >jw crochen scorgyys, all the length of 
my skin scourged. R.D. 2538. By the substitution of 
h for the guttural, the word became crohen, which again 
was softened into croen. This however was not a late 
form, as it is croin in the Cornish Vocabulary. W. 
croen. Arm. crochen. Ir. croicion, -\-crocenn. Gael. 
croicionn. Manx, crackan. Sansc. kartis, ciran, from 
ciri, to cut 

CRODAR, s. m. A sieve, a riddle. Llwyd, 52. This is 
a late form of craider, qd. v. 

CRODDRE,y. a. To sift, riddle, winnow. Bcdhmu-hwar 
colonow, rale Satnas yw yrvyryg, avel ys y'nothlennow 
dh' agas kroddrc, me a grys, be of cautious hearts, for 
Satan is desirous, like corn in winnowing sheets to sift 
you, I believe. P.C. 882. From croder, a sieve. 

CROEN, s. m. A skin. Croen luan, a louse's skin. Pryce. 
See Crochen. 

CROFFOLAS, s. m. Lamentation. Del levaraf vy dhy- 
why, ef a emblodh ragon ny ; gesouch dhe ves croffblas, 
as I say to you, he will fight for us; leave off lamenta- 
tion. O.M. 1662. 

CROG, s. f. A hanging. Crog ro'm bo, er an dhevien, 
may hanging be to me, on the gills. O.M. 2651. This 
is the same word as croc, qd. v. 

CROG EN, s. f. A shell. Cornish Vocabulary, concha. PI. 
creyyn. In Cornish it also means the skull. Me a' s ten 
gaits oil ow nerth, may 'th entre an spikys serth dre an 
cen yn y gtogen, I trlfi pull it with all my strength, that 
the stiff spines may enter through the skin into his 
skull. P.C. 2141. Asso mur tyn ow passyon, pan eth 

L 



dreyn yn empynnyon, a pup parth dre an grogen, very 
sharp was my suffering, when the thorns went into the 
brain, on all parts through the skull. R.D. 2558. It is 
written by Llwyd, 240, crogan. W. eragen, provincially 
crogan, crogen, pi. cregyn, a shell. Arm. crogen, pi. creg- 
'in, a shell. Crogen an penn, the skull. 

CROGI, v. a. To hang, to suspend, to be banged. This is 
the same word as cregy, which is formed from cro^by the 
regular mutation of o into e. The preterite is generally 
crogas. Ha'n Edftewon a grogas lader dhe Christ a barlh, 
cledh, hag a dhychow lader bras cregy a russons yn-wedh, 
and the Jews hung a thief to Christ on the left side, 
and on the right a great thief they also did hang. 
M.C. 186. W. crogi. Arm. cregi, crouga. Ir. croch. 
Gael, crock Manx, croch. 

CROHEIf, s. m. PI. crehen. A vyne gwarthe y ben war y 
yorf, bys yn y droys, squardiys oil o y grohen, hag efcudh- 
ys yn y ivoys, from the top of his head on his body to his 
feet, torn was all his skin, and he covered with his blood. 
M.C. 135. Del y's brewaf yn dan gen, kekyfrys kyc ha, 
crohen, del vedh luen a bodredhes, as I will strike her 
under the chin ; likewise flesh and skin, that it shall be 
full of sores. O.M. 2713. Gans crehen an beslas-na 
me a wra dyllas dhyma,par del writq oiv hendasaw, with 
the skins of those beasts, I will make clothes for me, so 
as my ancestors did. C.W. 108. Keigwyn and Llwyd 
write the word crohan. It is the same as crochen, qd. v. 

CROIDER, s. m. A sieve, or riddle. Cornish Vocabulary, 
cribrum vel cribellum. Written by Llwyd, crodar. In 
Welsh a sieve is now yogor, but it formerly existed 
in the Old Welsh, tcrtz<r, pala, a winnowing shovel ; 
quoted by Stokes, "Irish Glosses," 162. Arm. crouzer, 
crouer, croer. Ir. criathar, creothar. Gael, criathatr. 
Manx, creear. The root is W. crydu, to shake ; crijd, 
^criot,crihot; crydian, "tcrelian, a shaking. Arm. cridten. 
Ir. crathadh. Gael, crathadh. Manx, craa. Gr. KpaSdv. 

CROIN, s. m. The skin. Cornish Vocabulary, pellis. This 
is another form of crochen, qd. v. 

CROINOC, s. m. A toad. Cornish Vocabulary, rubcta. 
Derived from croin, a skin. In the Ordinalia, it is writ- 
ten, cronec, qd. v. 

CROI8, s. m. A cross. Cornish Vocabulary, crux vel 
staurus. In the Ordinalia the common form is crows, 
qd. v. W. croes. Arm. croez. Ir. crois. Gael, croia. 
Manx, crosh. Lat cruce. Eng. 'rood. 

CROM, adj. Bending ; bowed, or bent ; crooked ; con- 
vex ; rounded. Dew tekka bren ray styllyow, ha com- 
pos y denivennow, bras ha crom y ben goles, lo, the fairest 
wood for rafters, and straight its sides, large and round- 
ed its lower end. O.M. 2443. Llwyd, 53, gives crum 
as another form. W. crwm, m., crom, f. Arm. croumm. 
Ir. crom, crum, t(Tzni. Gael. crom. Manx, croym. Dan. 
/crum. Flem. ferom. Germ, krumb. Eng. crump. 

CROMMAN, s. m. A reaping hook, a sickle. In Llwyd's 
time it was corrupted into crobman. From crom, crook- 
ed. W. crymman, ^creman. Ir. cruman, corran. Gael. 
cromag. Manx, corran. 

CRON, s. m. A thong, a lash of skin. PI. cronow. Yn 
ur-na y a coimas y dhffrechfast gans cronow, en gvys yn 
mes may tardhas, del fastaens an colmenow, in that hour 
they bound liis arms fast with thongs, that the blood 
burst ones so they fastened the knots. M.C. 76. In 
scorgiys partner ese yn dewle an dew Edhow, hag yn fast 



CROW 



Jcelmys dhedht, kerdyn gwethyn yn mesk cronow, in the 
scourges of rods that were in the hands of the two Jews, 
and fast bound to them, cords weaved among thongs. 
M.C. 131, Cron is a contracted form of croen, qd. v. 

CRONCYE,T. a. To beat, strike, knock, thump, bang. 
Hag ynjf'ast kelmys dhedhe kerdyn gwethyn yn mesk cro- 
now may f&ns hyblyth dhe gronkye, and fast bound to 
them cords woven among thongs, that they might be 
pliant to beat. M.C. 131. Ha'nEdhewon bys pan vans 
squflth war Christ y fans ow cronkye, and the Jews until 
they were weary on Christ were beating. M.C. 132. 
An keth gwas-ma gans skorgys ha whyppys da gwech y 
cronkye, tor ha. tceyn, this same fellow with scourges and 
good whips, do ye smite him, belly and back. P.O. 2057. 

CRONEC, s. m. A frog. Cronec du, a toad, lit. a black 
frog. Och, tru, tnt, shyndyys of gans cronek du, ha wheOi- 
ys gans y venym, Oh, sad, sad, I am hurt by a toad, and 
blown by his venom. O.M. 1778. Saw kyn fens y 
mortholek, dhe weth vydhons dhe'n cronek, ha garoiv yn y 
dhutt, but though they be hammered, they shall be for 
worse to the toad, and rough in his hands. P.O. 2732. 
An joul ynno redrecse, may 'tho gweth agis cronek, the 
devil in him dwelt, that he was worse than a toad. 
M.C. 47. This is another form of croinoc, qd. v, This 
word is peculiar to Cornish. A frog in Welsh is lly- 
ffant, and a toad, llyffant du, being derived by Llwyd 
from the Latin lymphatica. 

CRONNY, v. n. To stagnate ; to collect together. An 
seth yw rag Icverys a's gwykis tyn, gans mear angus, war 
y holon, may cronnys, are nertn an bum,fynten ways, the 
arrow, is before spoken, struck her sharply with much 
anguish, on her heart so that stagnated, by force of the 
blow, a fountain of blood. M.C. 224. 'W.cronni. Arm. 
creuenna. The root is W. crawn, a collection. Arm. 
cretin. 

CROPPYE, v. n. To enter into ; to penetrate. An ar- 
lont y dhe denne war y benn gan kymmys nell, ma teth an 
dreyn ha croppye dhe'n empynyon dre an tell, the gar- 
land they drew on his head with so much strength, 
that the thorns went and penetrated to the brains 
through the holes. M.O. 134. As there is no synonym 
in the other dialects, it is probably a borrowed word 
from the English grope. 

CROTHAC, adj. Frothy, trifling. J Taw, dhe'lh cregy, 
hemma yw gwell defry, tefool crothak, be silent, be bang- 
ed to thee, this is better truly, thou frothy fool. C.W. 
80. W. crothawg, swelling out. 

CROTHVAL, s. m. A complaint Na allons cajfus che- 
son dhe wruthyl crolhval na son warnas, a das veneges, let 
them not be able to find cause to make a complaint, 
nor a sound against thee, O blessed Father. O.M. 1837. 

CROW, s. m. Gore, blood, death. Dhom kemeres, dhom 
syndye, dhom peynye bys yn crow, to take me, to hurt 
me, to torture me even to death. M.C. 74. Hag a rag 
guns colmennoiv, gans pub colmen may'th e(le,pan wyskens, 
yn mes an crotc,and forward were made knots, with every 
knot that might come, when they struck, out the blood. 
M.C. 131. W. craw. Ir.fero. Gael. tcrw. Slav, krovje. 
Pol. Bohem. krew. Lat. crvor. Sansc. kravya, flesh. 

CROW, s. m. A hovel, hut, sty. Crow mdh, a pigsty. 
Idtwid, 158. At the present day in Cornwall a pigsty 
is called a pig's crow. W. craw. Arm. craou. Ir. cro. 
Gael. cro. Manx, croe. 



74 CEOWST 

CROWD, s. m. A fiddle, or violin. Whelhouch menstrels, 
ha labours, trey-hans harpes ha trompours, cythol, crowd, 
fylh, a sautry, blow ye minstrels, and tabours ; three 
hundred harps and trumpets ; dulcimer, fiddle, viol, and 
psaltery. O.M. 1997. A fiddle is still called a crowd 
in Cornwall. W. cruith, \crot. Gael. emit. Lat. chrot- 
ta, Britanna, in Venant. Fortun. The Ancient British 
cnvlh differed from the modern fiddle, inasmuch as it 
had six strings. A specimen is of very rare occurrence 
at the present day, and to be found only in the collec- 
tion of the curious, but a beautiful engraving of it is 
given in Jones's "Welsh Bards." 

CROWDER, s. m. A fiddler. W. crylhor. 

CROWEDHE, v. n. To lie down. Doll, na bodhar, nyase, 
nag omlanas nag onan, na clnf vyth ow crowedhe, mar 
pesy a leun golon, blind, nor deaf, he left not, uncured, 
not one, nor any sick lying down, if he prayed with 
a full heart. M.C. 25. Otte ve ow crowedhe, my re u-rilg 
y vusure rag an keth wheit-ma dewyth, behold it lying 
down, I have measured it for this same work twice. 
O.M. 2567. A regular mutation after ow of grmvedhe, 
qd. v. 

CROWS, s. f. A cross. Mayfo rys, tin deydh a due, giith- 
yl craws annedhe y, that it is necessary, a day will come, 
to make a cross out of them. O.M. 1952. Gorr e dhe'n 
mernans, gorr e yn pren crows a dhysempys, put him to 
death, put him on the cross tree forthwith. P.O. 2162. 
Kymyr y, ty plos lorden, syns ivar dhe gtyn an grows pren, 
take it thou dirty lurdane, hold the cross tree on thy 
back. P.O. 2586. En grows whath nynj oparys, na'n 
Edhewon ny wodhye an prennyer py fens keffis dhe wuth- 
yll crows anedhe, the cross yet was not ready, and the 
Jews knew not the timbers where they should be found, 
to make a cross out of them. M.C. 151. The older 
form was crois, qd. v. 

CROWSE, v. a. To crucify. Written also crowsye. Part, 
pass, crowsys. Hag anedhe crows y wrer, rag croivse 
Cryst, ow map ker, and of them a cross shall be made, 
to crucify Christ, my dear son. O.M. 1936. Ottense, 
kemereuch e, ha crowsyouch ef, a ver spys, behold him, take 
ye him arid crucify him, in a short time. P.C. 2166. Gall- 
os a'm bites dhe'th, crotvsye, ha gallos dhelth tyllyfre, an n$l 
a vynnaf yn beys, I have power to crucify tliee, and 
power to deliver thee, which ever of the two I please 
in the world. P.C. 2186. Ytho why a vyn porrys bos 
agas mychtern croivsys, then ye wish absolutely your king 
to be crucified. P.C. 2360. Ytho dre pnp reson da, ny 
goth dhodho b6s crowsys, then, by reason good, it does 
not behove him to be crucified. P.O. 2390. Syrjustis, 
dyllyrf dhynny Baraban, ha crows Jhesu, Sir Magistrate, 
deliver to us Barabbas, and crucify thou Jesus. P.C. 2486. 
Derived from crows, a cross. The corresponding word 
in Welsh is croesi, to cross, to put cross-wise, to mako 
the mark of a cross ; to thwart : but not to crucify, 
which is admirably rendered by croeshoelio, compound- 
ed of crocs, a cross, and hoelio, to nail. Arm. croaxa, 
to cross. 

CROWST, s. m. A luncheon. Wos6 cows ha lafurye an 
vaner a vye da, kemeres crowst, hag eve, ha powes wose 
henna, after talk and labouring, the custom would be 
good, to take food and drink, and rest after that. O.M. 
1901. Written by Llwyd, 89, crust. Probably from the 
English, a crust, or Lat. crusta, which seems tobe con- 






CRYGY 75 

nectcd -with W. crest, a crust, from ores, hardened by 
heat. 

CRUC, s. m. A hillock, a mound, a barrow. Corn. Voc. 
cdlis. Giveyteuch oil er agas fydh, gobnr da why aqas 
bydh, gon Dansotha. ha cruk heyth, all take care on your 
faith, a good reward ye shall have, the plain of Danso- 
tha, and Barrow Heath. R.D. 377. It is preserved in 
the names of many places. See Creeg. Lhvyd, 94, 
writes it cryc. W. crug, fcrwc. Arm. crech, crugel. Ir. 
crunch. Gael, crunch. Manx, creaqh. 

CRUGE. v. a To do, or make. Mester genouch ym gyl- 
wyr. hag arhtth, henna yw gwyr, ytho mar kruge qolhy ag- 
as treys, hag a sechc, golhens pup treys y gyle ahanouch, 
kepar ha my, master by you I am called and Lord, that 
is true ; now if I wash your feet, and dry them, let all 
wash the feet of each other of you, like as I. P.O. 875. 
A mutation of gruge, qd. v. 

CRUM, adj. Crooked, bent, curved. Llwyd,53. Another 
form of crom, qd. v. 

CRUPPYA, v. n. To creep. J Ha te prief a wra cruppya* 
ha filcynlcya war doar a heys; ynter y hays hy ha tec, me 
a wra envy neffra. and thou worm, shalt creep, and slide 
on the ground along ; between her seed and thine I will 
put envy for ever. C.W. 66. JMe a vyn dallath crup- 
pya, ha slynkya war doer a heys, I will begin to creep, 
and slide upon the ground along. C.W. 68. W. crepian, 
cropmn. 

CRUST, s. m. A luncheon. Llwyd, 89. The same as 
crmvsl, qd. v. 

CRUSTB, v. a. Thou didst make. Lavar dhym, awos tra- 
vyth, mara crusle Icverfl hen fe an temple dyswrys, kyn 
pen try dydh y wrussys gwell ys fcyns y dhrehevel, tell me 
above any thing, if thou didst say, though the temple 
should be destroyed, before the end of three days thou 
wouldst raise it better than before. P.O. 1758. A mu- 
tation of grusle, compounded of grust, the 2 pers. pret. 
of gtorey, and te,, thou. 

CRY, s. m. A call, a cry. This is the orthography in the 
Ordinalia of crt, qd. v. 

CRYE, v. a. To call, cry, to cry out. Ow popel vy gie- 
vyys bras, gans Pharow yw mylyges, ymons dhymo ow 
crye, rag an lafur us dhedhc, my people greatly aggrieved 
by Pharaoh, (that) is accursed, are to me crying, 
for the labour that is upon them. O.M. 1418. Rak 
nans yw Pi/at serrys, ow cryc kepar ha ky, for now is 
Pilate angered, crying out like a dog. P.O. 2242. Cry- 
euch fast yans mur a arys, cry ye aloud with much ve- 
hemence. P.O. 2477. Me a grycs warnodho, rak pay- 
ny.o pan nun yeft'o lytter dh'y pen, I cried unto him, for 
pains when lie found not a place for his head. R.D. 
268. Me re bite pechadores, apechas marthysyn frds, war 
Jhesu me a cryas ow trexpes dhymmo gafc, I have been a 
sinner (that) hath sinned wondrous much, on Jesus I 
cried, that he would forgive me my trespass. R.D, 
1099. Written also crya, and cria, qd.v. 

CRYP, adj. Strong, mighty, vigorous. Judas eth a dhes- 
ympys n neyl tu dhe omgregy, cafas daffar pur parrys, 
lovun cryff rag y synsy, Judas went immediately on the 
one side to hang himself, he found convenience very 
ready, a strong rope to hold him. M.C. 105. This is 
the same as crcf, qd. v. 

CRYCY, v. a. To believe, to have faith in. Kyn leverryf 
gu'yr, den fyth ahanmirJt / vyn ciygy, though I speak 



OBYSY 

truly, not any man of you will believe. P.O. 1482- 
Mars oge map Dew a ras, dyswe dhym ntp meystry bras, 
may hyllyn dyso crygy, if thou art the son of the God of 
grace, shew me some great power, that we may in thee 
believe. P.O. 1771. Neff're ef dhe dhasserchy, me ny 
vynnaf y grygy, bew hedre ven, that he ever rose again, 
I will not believe it, as long as I may be alive. R.I). 1047. 
Yma marth dhym ahanas, bos dhe golem mar cales nan 
crygy ih ef, there is to me wonder of thee, that thy heart 
is so hard, that thou wilt not believe. R.D. 1088. This 
is another form of crysy, qd. v., g soft, sounded as j in 
English, being a corruption of s. 

CRYGYANS, a. m. Belief, faith, credence. Me re'n cus- 
ullyes myl wyth, saw ny vyn, atvos travyth, gagfc y tebel 
crygyans, I have advised him a thousand times, but he 
will not, for any thing, leave his evil belief. P.O. 1813. 
Dh'agas fasiye yn crygyans, dheuch confort a Spyrys 
Sans a dhanfonaf, to strengthen you in belief, to .you 
the comfort of the Holy Ghost I will send. R.D. 1174. 
Y grygyans pup oil gwythcs, puppenag ol a wharfo, his 
belief let every one keep, whatever may happen. R.D. 
1537. 

CRYHIAS, v. n. To neigh like a horse. ^Cryhvtz, a 
cryhiaz, neighing. Llwyd, 245, 248. W. gweryru,\gvir- 
giriam, I neigh. Oxf. Gloss. Arm. qourisiat. 

CRYLLIAS, adj. Curled. Lhvyd, 52. From the old Eng- 
lish crull. "With locks crull." Chaucer. 

CRYS, s. m. A shirt, a shift, chemise. Llwyd, 45. Writ- 
ten in Cornish Vocabulary, creix. W. crys. Arm. cres. 

CRYS, s. m. The middle, the centre, the midst, or heart 
of any thing. Gwetyeuch bones avorow, ow conysyn crys 
an dre, war beyn cregy ha tenne, take care to be to- 
morrow, working in the middle of the town, on pain of 
hanging and drawing. O.M. 2300. Ny a'n trech del le- 
vereth, hen yw an cry's, dre pup mark oil yn bys-ma, we 
will cut it as thou sayest, this is the middle, by every 
mark in this world. O.M. 2534. Written also cres, and 
creys, qd. v. 

CRYS, v. a. He will believe. 3 pers. s. fut. and 2 pers. 
s. imp. of crysy, qd. V. Me a wdr gwyr, hag a'n crys, y 
v6s yn ban dasserchys yn gedh hydhew, I know truly, and 
I believe it, that he is risen up in this day. R.D. 727. 
Ihesu Cryst dhe dhasserchy, un deydh us aw t6s, goy kem- 
mys nan crys, that Jesus Christ is risen again, a day is 
coming, miserable as many as believe it not. R.D. 1188. 
My a grys yn pyfet ago rds gweel a wir ras, I will be- 
lieve perfectly that they arc rods of great grace. OM. 
2011. Cot yw dhe dhydhyow dhe gy, nahen na grys, 
short are thy days, think not otherwise. R.D. 2038. 

CR YS, v. a. To shake, to quake. An houl ny golse y lyw, 
awox map den dhe verwel, na corf dasserhy dhe vew, na 
dor grys, yn tyougel, the sun would not have lost its 
colour, because of a son of man to die, nor a body rise 
again to life, nor the earth quake, really. P.O. 3086. 
W. crydu, cryd, crydian. Arm. cridien. Ir. crith. Gael. 
critli. Manx, craa. 

CRYSSAT, s. m. A hawk, a kestrel. Lhvyd, 41. 

CRYSY, v. a. To believe, to have faith in. Arluth ny 
vynnons crysy, Lord, they will not believe. O.M. 1435. 
Heys yw dhys ynno crysy, need it is for tbee to believe 
in him. O.M. 1508. Mar a qwcva yn della, crysy dho- 
dlio ny a wra, y vos profus lynyges, if he will do so, we 
will believe in him, that he is a blessed prophet. P.O. 



CUER 

2883. Crys dhym, kyn 6f tos, believe thou me, though 
I am gray. R.D. 965. This is the same word as cresy, 
qd. v. 

CRVWBDHE, a. f. A bed. Llwyd, 77. A corruption of 
qrowedhe, from gorwedhe, to lie down. W. gvrwedhva. 

CUAS, s. f. A shower. Llwyd, 28. This is the same 
word as cowes, qd. v. 

CUBMA, s. n. To fall, to fall down, to be slain. Llwyd, 
104. Though this example is a corruption, it shows the 
existence of a purer form, cumma. W. cwympo. 

CUDIN, s. m. Hair, a lock of hair. Corn. Voc. coma. 
PI. cudinow; kydynow. Llwyd, 49. W. cudyn. Arm. 
citden. Ir. ciaih. Gael. ciabh,fas. Manx< fciotf, casag. 
Sansc. kacha. 

CUDON, s. f. A wood-pigeon. Cornish Vocabulary, pal- 
umba. W. cudkan, from cudh, a covert. Arm. cudon. 
Ir. -\-ciadcholum. Gael, caidhean. 

CUDHB, v. a. To hide, or conceal ; to cover. Bedhens 
ebron dreys pup tra, rafc cudhe myns usformyys, let there 
be a sky above every thing, to cover all that is created. 
O.M. 22. Agan corfmv n6th gallas, gans dfyl agan cudhe 
(/wren, our bodies are become naked, with leaves let us 
cover ourselves. O.M. 264. Kepar del fuve dremmas, 
yn d&r my a vyn palas Id, mayfo ynno cudhys, like as he 
was a just man, in the earth I will dig a hole, that hs 
may be covered in it. O.M. 866. Agan garhyl a war- 
tha, gansglaw ef a vydh cudhys, our ark, from above, 
with rain it will be covered. O.M. 1064. Murywow 
fyenasow, ythof cudhys, great are my anxieties, I am 
overwhelmed. R.D. 2032. Hai y, worth y dormontye, 
y cudhens y ben gans queth, and they when tormenting 
him, covered bis head with a cloth. M.C. 97. Rag lyf 
bras my a dhoro, a gudho oil an n6r beys, for I will bring 
a great flood, that shall cover all the land of the world. 
O.M. 982. Ha dew gweth dothans gwra doen, dh'aga 
hudhapob season, aga noatha na vo givellys, and two gar- 
ments to them do thou bear, to cover them at all seasons, 
their nakedness that it be not seen. C.W. 70. Llwyd, 
50, writes it cidha, which shews that the u had the same 
sound in Cornish as in Welsh. W. cudhio. Arm. cuza. 
Gael, comkdmd. Manx, coodee. Sansc. feud. 

CUDHYGYC, adj. One that conceals himself, bashful, 
ashamed. Me a yl 16s cudhygyk, ow bones mar anfugyk 
drespup den ol us yn beys, I may be ashamed, being so 
wicked, beyond all men that are in the world. P.O. 
1423. Ty yw dyscrygyk pur ivyr, ha mur anfusyk, ty 
a yl bos cudhygyk no, grys y vos dasserchys, thou art unbe- 
lieving very truly, and very wicked ; thou mayest be 
ashamed, that thou wilt not believe that he has risen. 
R,D. 1721. W. cudhiedig. 

CUEF, adj. Dear, kindly. In medh Christ an cueff colon, 
pur uajr te re leverys, te a wodhye dhe honon pe dre gen 
re vex gwarnys, says Christ, the kindly heart, very truly 
thou hast said ; didst thou know it of thyself, or by 
some others wast thou warned 1 M.C. 101. Written 
also cuf, qd. v. 

CUEIA, conj. If, although. Llwyd, 150. 

CUBN, s. m. Dogs. Lemmyn pocvan ha lesky, oiv fiery e, 
ow mowsegy kepar ha kuen, but disease and burning, 
smelling, stinking like dogs. R.D. 172. One of the 
plurals of-ei, qd. v. 

CUER, s. m. Hemp. Llwyd, 46, cuer. W. cywarch. 
Arm. couarch. Gael, corca/ch. 



76 CUHUDHE 

CUER, s. m. A court. A' nefuhel an las mer re'th or- 
dene, ly hath wrek, pan vy marow, yn y cuer, of high 
heaven the great Father, may he ordain thee and thy 
wife, when ye die, into his court. P.O. 686. Written 
also cur, qd. v. 

CUER, s. m. Weather. { Yein kuer, tarednow, ha golowas, 
er, reu, gwenz, ha clehe, ha kezer, cold weather, thunder, 
and lightning, snow, frost, wind, and ice, ud hail. 
Pryce. Written also ceivar, qd. v. 

CUES, s. m. Blood. Nans yw lemmyn tremenes, nep dew 
cans a vledhynnow na'm buef dhe wruthyl genes, yn kyk 
nagyn kues, hep wow, now there are gone some two hun- 
dred years, that I have not had to do with thee, in flesh 
nor in blood, without falsehood. O.M. 659. Es b$dh 
deydh brucs mur a anfus, y kyk ha'y kues, nep a'n gieer- 
Ihas, he shall have on the day of judgment much harm, 
his flesh and his blood, who hath sold him. P.C. 2941. 
This word, appears to be a modification of Coys, qd. v. 

CUETH, s. m. Sorrow, grief. Ellas dre cueth yn clamder, 
dhe'n dor prag na ymu-helaf, alas ! through grief, in a 
faint, to the ground why do I not cast myself? P.C. 
2593. A vab dhe gueth rum ladhas, Oh son, thy suffer- 
ing hath killed me. P.C. 2608. Kueth {is y'm colon, 
eyhan, mars eth corf Dew y honan, pe le yfydh e cejfys, 
sorrow is in my heart, alas ! if the body of God him- 
self is gone, where will it be found ? R.D. 700. A vyn- 
yn ryth,py leytheth, rag cueth pygyih, garme a wreth, O 
woeful woman, where goest thou ? for grief thou pray- 
est, cry out thou dost. R.D. 852. Written also cuth, 
qd. v. ? W. chwith. Y mae yn chwith genyu weled, I 
am sorry to see, is a common Welsh phrase. 

CUP, adj. Dear, amiable, beloved, loving. PI. cufyon, 
cefyon. A das cuf y'th wolowys, dear Father in thy 
lights. O.M. 285. A das atfker, my a wra, Arluth nefroy 
dhym gul da yn pup ober a wrellyn, O Father, dearly be- 
loved, I will do, Lord of heaven, grant to me to do well in 
every work that I do. O.M.443. Arluth cuf, dhe archadow, 
y wruthyl res em dhymmo, dear Lord, thy injunctions, 
need is to me to do them. O.M. 997. Ow Arluth ker 
cuf colon, pyiv ytho a's hembronk dh'y, my dear Lord of 
loving heart, who then will lead them to it. O.M. 1873. 
Wheth, ow cufyon, dyfunouch, ha ces colon ol pesouch na 
gyllouch yn temptacion, again, my dear (companions) 
awake ye, and with one heart all pray, that ye enter not 
into temptation. P.C. 1075. Oiv cufyon leman coskeuch, 
hag ol warbarth poweseuch, my dear (friends) now sleep 
ye, and rest altogether. P.C. 1093. W. cw. Arm. cuf. 
Ir. caomh, t coin. Gael, caomh. 

CUGOL, s. m. A monk's hood, a cowl. Corn. Voc. cv- 
cullus. W. cwcwll, cmnjll. Arm. cougoul. Ir. i-cocall. 
Eng. cowl. From the Celtic the word passed into the 
Latin. " Gallia Santonico vestit te bardo-cucullo, Cir- 
copithecorum penula nuper erat." Martial. 

CUHUDHA8, s. m. A judgment. Pryce. Vf.cyhudhed. 

CUHUDHE, v. a. To accuse ; impeach ; indict. Cuhudh- 
ai is another form. Eva, ny allaf medhes, rag own ty 
dhom cuhudhe, Eve, I cannot speak, for fear thon 
shouldst accuse me. O.M. 160. Awos travyth ny lirruts- 
sen venytha dhe guhudhas, because of any thing I would 
not ever accuse thee. O.M. 164. Dhe'n tyller Crygt re 
dethye, ha'n Edhewon o dygnas, ythese an venyn yanse, 
parys ens dh'y huhudhas, to the place came Christ, 
and the Jews (that) were opposed, the woman was 



CULIN 



77 



CUNTELL 






with them; they were ready to accuse her. H.C. 33. 
Pe ma,, yn medh Christ dhydhy, neb a vyn dhe guhudha, 
where is, says Christ to her, he who will accuse thee. 
M.C. 34. Mur a dies o cunlyllys er y byn dh'y guhudhas, 
much people were gathered together against him to ac- 
cuse him. M.C. 88. W. cyhudho. Ir. casaoid, an accu- 
sation ; casaoidim, to accuse. Gael, casaid ; casaidich. 
Manx, casid, casseydach. 

CUHUDHUDIOC, s. m. An accuser. Corn. Vocab. ac- 
cusator. It would have been more correct, as Zeuss has 
observed, 396, to have been written cuhudhadioc, from 
the substantive cuhuthat, the old form of cuhudhas. W. 
cyhudhed. 

CUIC, adj. Blind of one eye. Corn. Voc. luscus vel 
monoptalmus. W. coeg, vain, empty; coegdhall, pur- 
blind. Lat. ccecus, blind. 

CUILCEN, a. f. A frog. Written by Llwyd, kwilken, and 
in the Cornish Vocabulary, gwttscin, qd. v. 

CUILLIOC, s. m. A soothsayer. Cor. Voc. augur. W. 
coiliog, from coel, an omen. " Elncoilhaam is an ancient 
Welsh Gloss on the word aspicio, quasi avispicio, where the 
writer obviously understood eln, to be edn." Zeuss. 1079. 

CUILLIOGBS, s. f. A female diviner. Corn. Voc. pkito- 
nissa. Dr. Owen Pughe has wrongly introduced these 
two words into the Welsh Dictionary. His authority 
being only the Cornish Vocabulary, attached to a copy 
of the Liber Landavensis. 

CUIT, a. m. A wood, or forest. Corn. Voc. silva. An- 
other form of coid, qd. T. 

CTJITHA, v. a. To keep, to preserve. Llwyd, 53. Dho 
cwitha. A mutation of gwythe, qd. v. 

CUITHIAS, s. m. A guardian. Llwyd, 240. A mutation 
of gwythias, qd. T. PI. ^kuithixi. Llwyd, 242. 

CUL, v. a. To make, to do. Yma ow ail sacryfys, ha'y 
pobel ef kekeffrys, dhe'n keth Dew-na, gans mi.r tros, he 
is making a sacrifice, and his people likewise, to that 
same God, with a loud noise. O.M. 1556. Euch tyn- 
neuch an gasadmv, vsy ow cul fals dewow, yn meg agan 
temple ny, go ye, drag the hateful woman, who is mak- 
ing false Gods, out of our temple. O.M. 2692. Govy 
ragos, mar tebel dychtys dhe v6s, ha ty ow cul kemmys da, 
woe is me for thee, to be so evil entreated, and thou 
doing so much good. P.O. 2635. A regular mutation 
of gul, qd. v. 

CUL, adj. Narrow; strait, or confined; slender, lank, 
lean. Corn. Voc. macer vel macilentus. W. cul. IT. 
cool, tc7. Gael. cool. Manx, kiyl. In Armoric cul 
has quite the contrary meaning, being plump otfal. 

CULETH, s. m. An act, or deed. Lavar mars 6f vy 
Yedhow, dhe bobil hepfalladow, ha'n spscobow kekyffrys, 
a'th dros bys dhymmo omma, pa'n drok kuleth a wrusta ? 
say if I am a Jew 1 thy people, without falsehood, and 
the bishops likewise, have brought thee even to me 
here ; what evil deed hast thou done 1 P.C. 2007. Cu- 
leih is a mutation of guleth, from gul, to do. It is only 
found in conjunction with drdk, and generally written 
Drocoleth, qd. v. 

CULHU, s. m. Chaff, beards of corn. Llwyd, 13, 43. 
This word is a late corruption of colow, the plural of 
col, ,qd. T. 

COLIN, s. m. Chaff, corn-straw, Corn. Vocab. palea, 
which also gives as a synonym, usion, qd. v. Culin 
must be another plural of col, as in Welsh, colion. 



CULLYEC, s. m. A cock, the male of birds. Peder, m e 
a lever dhys, kyns ys bos kullyck kenys, ter 'gwyth y wreck 
ow nache, Peter, I tell thee, before that the cock hath 
crowed, three times thou shalt deny me. P.C. 903. 
Another form of celioc, qd. v. Llwyd writes as the pro- 
nunciation of his time, kuliog, kuliak, kulliag. Kuliag 
gini, a guinea hen ; kiHagaws, a drake, 88, 241. Kullia- 
ges. Pryce. Kulliag godho, a gander. 

CULSTE, v. a. Thou couldst. Mar culste, if thou couldst. 
Llwyd, 247. A mutation of gulste, for galste. 2 pers. 
s. subj. of gaily, to be able. 

CULURIONEIN, s. f. The bowel. Corn. Voc. viscus. 
Pryce's Vocabulary gives as a plural coloneion, both evi- 
dently corruptions, if not mis-printed. Llwyd, 175, 
writes kylyrion, as a plural, evidently considering the 
singular to be culurionen. W. coludh, sing, coludhen. 
Ir. caolain, cadhla. Gael, caolan. Manx, collane, chiolg. 
Gr. x^" s , 'x.oXaSos, Kw\of. Lat. colon. 



CUM, s. m. A valley, or dingle ; more correctly, a valley 
opening downwards, from a narrow point, which in 
Wales is called Blaen y cu'/n. It is preserved in many 
places in Cornwall and Devon, as Coom) Coome, Coombe. 
Arm. coum, in coumbant. ' Ir. cumar. Gael, -fcumar. 

CUMMYAS, s. m. Leave, license, permission. Written 
also indiscriminately cummyes, and cummeas. Eva war 
an beyt meyslry, luen gummyas yma dhymmo, Eve, power 
over the world, full permission there is to me. O.M. 
410. (jwyn agan beys, ow fryes, bos granntyes dhynny 
cummyas, happy our lot, my spouse, that leave is granted 
to us. O.M. 412. Fest yn lowen me a vrra, gwyn ow bys 
kafus cummyas, very joyfully I will do it, I am glad to 
have permission. O.M. 750. Ro dhym cummeas me a'th 
pys, give me leave I pray thee. P.C. 3112. Us dhyso 
cummyas an corf ker dhe ancledhyas, is there permission 
to thee to bury the dear body ? P.C. 3139. 

CUNDA, s. m. Nature, kind. A arluth ker, me a'n ky- 
mer yn ban wharre, an welen-ma yn hy kunda treylys 
arte, O dear Lord, I will take it up immediately, this 
rod into its natural form is turned again. O.M. 1459. 
Rag henna warbyn cundaytho, dhys mdsyladha, therefore 
against nature it was, for thee to go to kill him. C.W. 94. 
A bub echen a kunda, gorow ha benow yn wedh, of every 
sort of species, male and female also. O.M. 989. %A 
bub echan a kunda, gorow ha benow yn wedh. C.W. 164. 
From the English kind. 

CUNDUEU, s m. A door post. Llwyd, 124. This is a 
modern term, and a corrupt one, being possibly com- 
pounded of cyn, chief, and duru for doroiv, plural of d6r, 
a door. 

CUNTELL, s. m. A gathering together; a collection. 
Written also contell. $Ha Dew a grias an tir seh an 
'oar, ha'n contell warbarth an dowrow ev a grias mor, ha 
Dew a welas Iro va da, and God called the dry land earth, 
and the gathering together of the waters he called sea, 
and God saw that it was good. M.C. p. 93. W. cynnull, 
comp. of cyd, together, and dull, form. Arm. culul. 

CUNTELL, v. a. To gather together, to collect. Part. 
pass, cuntellys, written also cunlullys, cunlyllys, and con- 
iellyes. Me a guntell dreyn ha spurn, ha glos, d?/'y It'sky 
heb bern, I will gather briars and thorns, and dry cow- 
dung, to burn without regret. C.W. 80. Cunlell war- 
barth otv fegans, my a vyn m6s pur uskys, gather together 



CURUN 

my necessaries, I will go very hastily. C.W. 94. Mur 
a dus o curitullys er y byn dli'y guhudhas,m\ic\i folk were 
gathered against him to accuse him. M.C. 88. Ha Dew 
leveras gwrens an doicrow yn dan tin n&f bos cuntellys 
warbarth dha tin teller, ha gwrens an tir sch disquedhas ; 
ha an tellna ctho, and God said, let the waters under the 
heaven be gathered together to one place, and let the 
dry land appear, and it was so. C.W. p. 190. W. cyn- 
null. A.rto.cul.ul,^cuntil. Ir. comhdhail, connall. Gael. 
coimh-ihionail. 

CUNTELLET, s. f. A congregation. Cornish Vocabulary, 
congregatio vel concio. W. cynnulliad, -^cuntellet, -\-cun- 
tulli'l. Lux. Glosses, Zeuss, 873. 

CUNTELLYANS, s. m. A gathering together, a collec- 
tion. J Ha Dew a grias an iir sell an noar, contellyans 
icarbarh an dou-row e crtas m6r ; ha Dew a icelas tro va 
da, and God called the dry land the earth, the gathering 
together of the waters he called sea ; and God saw that 
it was good. C.W. p. 190. 

GUNTS, s. ra. Fuel ; firewood. Otte omma ve kunys, ha 
fast ef gynef kelmys, behold here a load of firewood, 
and fast it is bound by me. O.M. 1299. Ke yn ban war 
an kunys, hag ena- gorwedh a heys, go thou up upon the 
fuel, and there lie down at length. O.M. 1333. Cowe- 
the, hedheuch kunys, ha me a whyth gans mur greys, may 
tewc an tan ivhatrre, comrades, fetch ye firewood, and I 
will blow with much force, that the fire may kindle 
soon. P.C. 1219. Ote lour kunys gyne, whythyns lemmyn 
yCvp frcth, behold fuel plenty with me, let all blow now 
vigorously. P.C. 1241. W. cynnud, from cynneu, to kin- 
dle. Arm. ceuneud, cened. Ir. connadh. Gael, connadh. 

CUR, s. m. The coast, or border of a country ; the ut- 
most part or end of a thing. Llwyd, 108. Gicasg war 
an mf/n, bommyn dreys keyn, mar pedh c yeyn, ny d/iuc 
dhe gur, strike thou on the edge, blows over the back, if 
it be cold, it will not come to the end. P.C. 2730. W. 
CUT. Arm. eer. Ir. curr, corr, fcoor. Gael. tcn\ 

CUR, s. m. A court. Out warnas, harlot, pen cuk, scon 
yn mes am golok, na tryk y'm cur, out upon thee, rogue, 
blockhead, immediately out of my sight, stay not in my 
court. O.M. 1531. A Dhew an nef, clew agan lef,gu~yth 
ny y'lh cur, O "God of heaven, hear our voice, keep us in 
thy court. O.M. 1620. Kyn y'n carra vyth mar veur, 
owes y latlhS ny'm duer, nejfre ny gan efyn cur, gans y 
ganow, though he may love him ever so much, for killing 
him, I have no concern, he shall never sing in the court 
with his mouth. R.D. 1899. Fr. cour. 

CURUIST, p. f. A crown, a diadem. Corn. Voc. curun 
ruy, corona regis, a king's crown. In the Ordinalia it 
is written curyn. Y curyn afydh syllyys avel mychtern 
war y pen, tynnouch oil gans mur a gr(/s, mayfo dreyn an 
guryn cys yn empynyon dre an cen, his crown shall be 
set, like a king upon his head : drag ye all with much of 
force, that the thorns of the crown mav be together in 
the brains through the skin. P.O. 2138. Namna fue 
ow colon track, pan wylys gorre an gu yn golon dre'n 
tencwen, ha'n guryn spern war y pen, my heart was 
almost broken, when I saw the lance put into the heart 
through the side, and the crown of thorns on his head. 
R.D. 1247. W. coron. Ann. curun. Ir. coroin. Gael. 
coron. Manx, crown. From Lat. corona. Gr. icopuvri. As 
neither the Greek nor Latin preserves the root, it may 
be the W. cor, a circle. 



78 CUSUL 

CURUNE, v. a. To crown, to put on a crown. Part, pass 
curunys. Cans spern ffirrech y curene, rah an harlot dhe 
facie y v6s mychtern Yedhfwon, with thorns do ye crown 
him, for the knave pretended that he was king of the 
Jews. P.O. 2064. Aban na fyn dewedhe, me a vyn y 
curune avel mychtern Yedhewon,s'mcc he will not end, I 
will crown him as king of the Jews. P.O. 2116. Afo 
nourydh curuny.i, myc/tlern Yedkewon, heil dhys, rak dhe 
sallugy ny vern, that is newly crowned king of the Jews, 
hail to thee, for to salute thee, there is no concern. P.O. 
2124. Pan welas y mill dyqtis gans an Ed/iewon mar 
veyll, ha'y vos gnns spern curunys, when she saw her son 
treated by the Jews so vilely, and that he was crowned 
with thorns. M.C. 165. W. caroni. Arm. curunni. Lat. 
corona. 

CUS, s. m. A wood, a forest. Written also citz and coox. 
J ciiz-na, in that wood. Llwyd, 244. %tfa ra henz 
moaz dan cooz, do kunlle go looz, they should not go 
to the wood to gather their meat. Pryce. This is the 
latest form of coid, qd. v. 

CUSAL, adj. Serene, quiet. Written by Llwyd, 149, 
kuzal ; and by Pryce also, cusal. Cusal ha. tfg sirra 
whey m6s pell, soft and fair, sweet sir. goes far. This is 
a later form of easel, qd. v. 

CUSC, s. m. Sleep ; a state of quietude. Llvyd, 152, 
kusg. W. cjvsg. Arm. cause. 

CDSCE, v. i). To be at rest; to sleep. Pag my a vyn 
poh cuske venytha kyns ys dybry, squylh of dre ver la- 
ftirye, pon-fs my a vyn dffry, I will sleep a little ever 
before eating; tired I am through much labouring, I will 
rest really. O.M. 2047. Hag yn nos oil aspye, hagwythe' 
tarn na guskens, and in the night all to look about, and to 
take care that they slept not a jot. M.C. 241. En varo- 
gyon a guskas myliyn ha'n gydh ow tardhe, the soldiers 
slept in the morning, the day breaking. M.C. 243. 
This is another form of cosce, qd. v. Llwyd. 55, 245, 
gives cusga and cysga as recent forms. 

CUSCADUR, s. m. A sleeper. Cuscadur dasimpit, letar- 
gus, Corn. Voc. Desimpit is the old form of desyrnpys, 
immediate. Cuscadur desimpil, therefore, is one that 
falls asleep immediately. W. cysgadur. Arm. cousktr. 

CUSCTI, s. m. A sleeping room. Corn. Voc. dormilo- 
rium. Comp. of cusc, sleep, and ti. a house. 

CUSSIN, s. m. A kiss. Corn. Voc. OSCU/KOT. Llwyd. 110, 
fcysi/n. W. cusan. from citso, to kiss. Sansc. kus. Cf. 
also Gr. icvveu.', xvaat. 

CUSUL, s. f. Counsel, advice. Corn. Voc. consiliwn. PI. 
cvsullyow. In construction it changes regularly into 
gusul, and husit'. A'y fruf, hy ncp a dheppro a. vxwyth 
cusyl an las, of its fruit whoever eats, will know the 
counsel of the Father. O.M. 187. Conseler guntyl y'th 
pysaf a ry dftymmo cusyl dha* gentle counsellor, I pray 
thee to give me good advice. O.M. 15G7. Honyw cusyl 
fyn, this is fine advice. O.M. 2267. Oil warlerch dhe 
gussullyow bys venylha my a wra, every thing after thy 
counsels ever in future I will do. O.M. 2269. Den fur 
a'd cusullyow, a prudent man of thy counsels. O.M-. 2681. 
Ow map (yen, kerch Annas, may hyllyf cleiras pyth yw 
an gvsyl wella, my clerk, fetch Annas, that I may hear 
what is the best counsel. P.C.555. Ha dre ago, husyl oil 
wary ben a ve gorris, and by their counsel all on his 
hend was put. M.C. 133. Ow husyl mar gwreth naha, 
my counsel if thou wilt deny. C.W. 50. W. cyssyl, 



CWETH 



\-aisil. Arm. cuzul. Ir. constal. All from the Latin 
concilium. 

CUSULIODER, s. m. A counsellor. Corn. Voc. consilia- 
rius ; where only it occurs. Derived from cusul. The 
equivalent in Welsh would be cyssyliadur. 

CUSULYB, v. a. To counsel, advise. Ha bys dhodho 
wharc a, dhe'n bys, rag y cusyllye, and will soon go even 
to him, to the world, to advise him. O.M. 643. Me a'th 
cusyl hfj> cabel, I counsel thee without cavil. O.M. 2673. 
A dhus dhodho bys yn tre, dre dhe vddh dh'y cussyllye, to 
come to him into the town, by thy will to advise him. 
P.C. 567. Cassyllyouch menouch a gase y wokynelh, ad- 
vise ye frequently that he leave his folly. P.C. '1807. 
Me re'n cussulyes mjjl wyth, saw ny vyn awos travylh gage 
y ttbel crygyans, I have advised him a thousand times, 
but he will not for any thing leave his evil belief. P.C. 
1811. Me a'th cusulse ordyne tils dhe rvythe bedh an trey- 
tor yw marow, I would advise thee to order men to guard 
the grave of the traitor that is dead. R.D. 335. Y cus- 
syiyuf leverel dus nerth warnan, ha'y dhon dhe ves, I 
advise saying that a force came upon us, and bore him 
away. R.D. 569. Hag tfeth dh'y gusulyc muyfeledh- 
ys, and he went to advise him that he should be killed. 
M.C. 119. W. cyssyliaw. Arm. kuzulia. 

CUT, adj. Short, brief. An m6r bras yn cul lermyn adro 
dhom tyr a vydh dreys rag y ivetha pur elyn, the great sea 
in a short time about my land shall be brought, to keep 
it very clean. C.W. 8. Yn cutt termyn ages neges cow- 
sotv', in a short time your errand tell ye me. C.W. 44. 
This is another form of cot, qd. v. 

CUTH, s. m. Sorrow, grief. Nyns yv> marth cuth keny'm 
bo, <nv toon an pren a dhe dro, ha n agan bydh gobyr vyik, 
it is no wonder if sorrow be in me, carrying the tree 
about, and not any wages will be for us. O.M. 2819. 
Cuth gvielcs y dhewedh fe, namna'n dallas, a grief to see 
his end it was, it almost blinded us. R.D. 41. Rale 
an taritu nt an gefe y'm colon yma nejjre ; cuth-ma n<m 
gas, for the torment which he had is always in my 
heart; this sorrow does not leave me. R.D. 696. Mars 
ils cuth tear dhe colon, if there is sorrow on thy heart. 
R.D. 2156. Rah na yllyn dhe wdes, cuth ny gen gas, for 
if we may not see thee, sorrow leaves us not. R.D. 2456. 
This is a contracted form of cueth, qd. v. 

CUTH, s. f. A pod, or husk. The first meaning is, a 
wrapper, a bag, or pouch. PI. cuthow. Llwyd writes 
it cuth, pi. cuthu, ^Cuthufav, bean pods. \Cuthupes, 
pease cods, 150. W. cod. Arm. cos. Ang. Sax. codd. 
Eng. cod. FT. cosse, ecosse. Sansc. kudis, from feud, (W. 
cudft,) to cover, or contain. 

CUTHYL, v. a. To do, or make. Why gwycoryon euchyn 
mes, ythesouch ow kuthyl ges a Dhu, hag e sans eglos, ye 
traders go out, ye are making a jest of God, and his 
holy church. P.O. 332. A mutation of guthyf, qd. v. 

CUTHYS, adj. Grieved, sorrowful. A vap u-fcfc, ythof 
cutftys, ow colon yw marthys claf, sweet son, I am 
grieved, my heart is wondrous sick. O.M. 1336. Gallas 
cf dhe ken tyreth, ha ganso mur a eleth ; ellas lemmyn rak 

moreth ythof cvthys, gone he is to another land, and with 
him many angels ; alas ! now for grief I am sorrowful. 
R.D. 766. From cuth, sorrow. 

CWETH, s.m. A cloth, a garment. Generally written queth, 
pi. quethow, qd. v. J5refen mo b& noeih hep queth, ragos 
ythylh dhe gudhe, because 1 am naked without a cloth, 



79 CYLBAH 

I went to hide from tliee. O.M. 259. Yn wedhen me 
a ivelas yn ban uhel worth scorcnfloch It/an nowydh gynys, 
hag tf yn quethow maylys, in a tree I saw high up on a 
branch, a little child newly born, and he in clothes was 
swathed. R.D.807. Drefanowbos noothhcb gweth, ragas 
yth eth dha gudha yn tellur-ma, because I was naked 
without a cloth, from thee I went to hide in this place. 
C.W. 64. Hellouch Adam gans cledlia dan, ha'y wreg 
mes a Baradys, ha dew gwetli dot/tans givra doen th'aga 
hudha pub season, ago, nootfia na vo gwelys, chase Adam 
with a sword of fire, and his wife from Paradise, and 
two garments to them do thou bear ; to cover them at 
all seasons, that their nakedness may not be seen. C.W. 
70. This is the same word as the W. cudh, what covers, 
whence cudhio, and C. cudhe, to cover. 

CWILCEN, s. f. A frog. Llwyd, 240, hwilken. It is 
written in the Cornish Vocabulary, guilscin, qd. r. 

CY, conj. So, as. Ky mal, fey vel, as, so. J Ky gwer vel 
an gwels, as green as grass. Llwyd, 248. W. cyn. 

CYC, s. m. Flesh. See Cig. 

CYDH A, v. n. To fall. An hivel it cydhas scent, the work 
fell short. Llwyd, 251. Another form of codhe, qd. v. 

CYDHMAN, a. m. A mate or companion. Llwyd, 151. 
Another form of cothman, qd. v. 

CYF, v. a. He shall have, or find. My as dyllo ahanan, ny 
dhue arte, me a greys, mar kfjf carynnyas, warnedhe y 
tryg pup preys, I will send it from us, it will not come 
again, [ believe, if it shall find carrion, it will always 
stay upon it. O.M. 1103. Ena why a gyf asen, there 
ye will find an ass. P.C. 176. Why a wray aswonvos 
dedh brus, hug an kyf yn brof, ye will acknowledge it 
on the day of judgment, and have it in proof. P.C. 
1496. 3 pers. s. fut. of cafos. W. caif. 

CYFFE, v. a. He should have. Y bows ef o mar dek 
guris, y ny vynsans y ranne, warnedhy pren be iewlys, oil 
an bo^us pyw u'n gyjfe, his coat was so fairly made, they 
were not willing to divide it, on it a lot was cast, who 
should have all the coat. M.C. 190. 3 person s. subj. 
of cafos. W. caffai. 

CYFFRYS, adv. Likewise, also. Saw te ha me cyffrys, 
agan bewnans may fen sur, save thee and me alike, of 
our life that we may be sure. M.C. 191. Another form 
of cefrys, qd. v. 

CYFFYF, v. a. I shall find. Drewh e dhymmo, man 
gwyilyf, marow vydh pan y'n kyjjyf a dhesempys, bring 
ye him to me, that I may see him, he shall die, when 
I shall have found him, immediately. R.D. 1776. 1 
pers. s. subj. of cafos, qd. v. W. caffwyv. 

CYFFYN, v. a. We shall find. Yn ketella ny a vyn; 
branchys olyfpan kyjfyn, me a set a dhyragtho, in this way 
we will ; branches of olive when we shall find, I will 
set before him. P.C. 244. Homma yiv cusyl da, my a 
vyn gul yn della,py le penag y's kyjfyn, this is good ad- 
vice, I will do so, wherever we shall find it. P.C. 1551. 
1 pers. pi. subj. of cafos, qd. v. W. caffwn. 

CYGBL, s. m. A distaff. See Ctgel. 

CYHYDHA, v. a. To accuse. Dho gyhydha, Llwyd, 41. 
Another form of cuhudha, qd. v. 

CYL, s. f. A recess. See Cil. 

CYLBAH, s. m. The bottom, the behind. + Rag errya 
war owfyn me a'th wysk may thomelly dheth kylbah, for 
striving against me, I will strike thee that thou fall to 
thy bottom. C.W. 82. 



CYLLYTH 



80 



CYMMYS 



CYLDEN, s. m. A lodging, an inn. An beys yw coles 
icylden, yn lafur, whys, hag ar./cen, ha deydh ha, was, the 
world is a hard lodging, in labour, sweat, and sorrow, 
both day and night. R.D. 244. 

CYLDENE, v. a. To draw backward, to let down. Whyp 
an tyn, kymer an pen, er an treys me an kylden aberth yn 
beydh, Breechwhip, take thou the head, by the feet I 
will let him down within the grave. R.D. 2082. W. 
cildynu. 

CYLEDNAC, adj. Sincere, downright, entire. Llwyd, 150. 
A late form of colenec, or colanec, qd. v. 

CYLIGI, s. m. A cockle. Llwyd, 241. This is the same 
word as cilygan, qd. v. 

CYLL, v. n. He will be able. Ha dfium arluth fystynyn, 
mar a kyl bones yacheys, ly a fydh dhe lyfreson, and to 
my lord let us hasten, if he can be healed, thou shalt 
have thy liberty. R.D. 1675. Del yw screfys, prest yma 
adro dhynny ganso try, mara kyll dheworth an da, dhe 
wethyl drdk, aqan dry, as it is written, ready there are 
about us with him three, if he can from the good bring 
us to do wrong. M.O. 21. A mutation of gyll, 3 pers. 
s. fut. golly, qd. v. 

CYLL, v. a. He will lose. Aban na vynla cresy, ty a kyll 
ow herense, since thou wilt not believe, thou shalt lose 
mv love. O.M. 242. 3 pers. s. fut. of colli, qd. v. W. 
cyll. 

CY.LLE, v . n . He should be able. Rak mara kylle entre 
agy dhe'n yet, ef a wra dhynny dr6k tro, for if he should 
be able to enter within the gate, he will do as an ill 
turn. P.C. 3064. A mutation of gylle, 3 pers. s. subj. 
of gaily, qd. v. 

CYLL Eli, v. n. It is possible. Ellas ! ny won py tyller 
byth may py le y trygaf; eychan rag y fynner, mara 
kyller, gang baynys mer ow dyswvl gldn, alas ! I know 
not in what place, ever more where I shall dwell ; alas ! 
for it is wished, if it could be with great pains to destroy 
me quite. P.C. 2600. A mutation of gyller, (W.geHir,) 
3 pers. s. pres. pass, of gaily, qd. v. 

CYLLY, v. a. Thou shalt lose. Ny a whythyn dhe vody 
sperys may hylly bewe, ha'n bewrtans pan y'n kylly dhe'n 
dor ty a dreyl arte, we breathe in thy body a spirit that 
thou mayest live, and the life when thou shalt lose it 
to the earth thou shalt turn again. O.M. 63. 2 pers. 
s. fut. of colli. W. colli. 

CYLLYN, v. a. We shall be able. A arluth Jeer, my a 
wra, mar a kyllyn yii della, ny dhe yftmmd y won gtvyr, 
dear Lord, I will do, if we shall be able so, that we 
have done wrong, I know truly. P.C. 1064. Mar a 
kyllyn y gafus, vynytha na dheppro bous, me an kelm 
avel pusorn, if we shall be able to find him, may he 
never eat food, I will tie him like a bundle. R.D. 540. 
A mutation ofgyllyti, (W.gallwn^ 1 pers. pi. fut. of gaily, 
qd. v. 

CYLLYS, part. Lost. Ellas vylh, pan yw kyllys Abel 
whek, ow map kerra, alas ever, when is lost sweet Abel, 
my dearest son. O.M. 614. Map den my re wrilk prenne, 
gans g6s ow colon, wife nep a wrussyn ny kyllys, man- 
kind I have redeemed with the blood of my heart, that 
there may not be any, that we have made, lost. R.D. 
2624. Part. pass, of colli. 

OYLLYTH, v. a. Thou wilt be able. A benen, pendra 
kewsyth, lavar dhym mar a kyllylh yn nep point ow lawenhe, 
woman, what sayest thou ? tell me if thou canst in 



any point gladden me. R.D. 1689. A mutation of 
gyllyth, 2 pers. s. fut. of gaily, qd. v. 

CYLLYTH, v. a. Thou shalt lose. Ahanas marth yw 
gyne, mar a kyllyth dhe ene, nyns 6s den fur, of thee a 
wonc'.er is to me ; if thou losest thy soul, thou art not 
a wise man. R.D. 1409. 2 pers. s. fut. of colli, qd. v. 

CYLMY, v. a. To bind. Part, cylmys. Kyn vc dhe dhyu- 
vrech mar bras, my a's kylm warbarth, avel lader pur, 
though thy arms be so large, I will bind them together, 
like a very thief. P.C. 1190. Me a gylm an nyl wharre, 
otte ow lovan, rak ygylmy, I will bind the one soon ; be- 
hold my rope with me to bind him. P.C. 2787. Me a 
welasfloch byan nowydh gynys, hag efyn quethow maylys, 
ha tylmys fast gans lysten, I saw a little child newly 
born, and him in cloths swathed, and bound fast with 
napkins. O.M. 808. Written also celmy, qd. v. 

CYLOBM AN, s. f. A pigeon, a dove. + Cylobman euz, a 
-wood-pigeon. Llwyd, 241. This is a late form, and a 
corruption of colommen, which is also the Welsh term. 
In the Ordinalia we only find colom, qd. v. 

CYLYRION, s. m. Entrails, the bowels. Llwyd, 175, 
who evidently considers the singular to be culurionen, 
qd. v. 

CYLYWI, v. n. To lighten. ^Patlyzhiac-ylymhairenna, 
how it lightens and thunders. Llwyd, 248. This is a 
mutation of gylywi, in -which late form golowa is to be 
understood, qd. v. 

CYMERES, v. a. To take ; take hold of, to seize. Adam 
ottensy umma, ry hanow dhedhy hy (/wra, dhe'th par rak 
hy kymmeres, Adam, behold her here, do thou give her 
a name, for thy equal to take her. O.M. 104. Ke kym- 
mer mn& a vynny tfn beys all adro, go take thou all thou 
wilt of the world all around. O.M. 403, Kymmer 
jso ow enef, take thou to thee my soul. O.M. 849. Kyn 
\n marow yn tor-ma, an mernans me a'n kymmer, if I 
'die at this time, the death I will take it. O.M. 1332. 
Oil dh'y vodh a's kemereas, aban tynne yn della, all to 
his will let him take them, since he wills it so. P.C. 
210. Kymereuch, evettch an gtvyn, take ye, drink ye the 
wine. P.C. 723. Me a's pew, kymerens pup ran a'y tu, 
degens dhe dre, I have it, let every one take a share on 
his side, let him take it home. P.C. 2859. An bara- 
ma kymereuch dheuch lemman yn kettep pen, this bread 
take ye to you now, every head. P.C. 761. Ro dhym 
cummeas, me a'th pys, a kymeres corf Ihesu, give m 
leave, I pray thee, to take tbe body of Jesus. P.C. 3J.13. 
Me afueyn cert a tan dhe'n kith plas-ma kemerys, I was, 
in a chariot of fire, brought to this same place. R.D. 
237. Written also cemeres, qd. v. 

CYMMYAS,s.m. Leave, permission. Warbupfnit,losow, 
fta has, a vo ynny hy tevys, saw anfrut ny vydh kymmyas, 
yw pren a skeyens hynwys, over all fruit, herbs, and 
seed, which are in it grown, but of the fruit there is 
not permission, that is named the tree of knowledge. 
O.M. 79. Written also cummyas, qd. v. 

CYMMYNY, v. a. To commend, entrust, bequeath. A 
das yntre dhe dhewle, me a gymmyn ow ent; ywyth e rag 
tarofvan, Father into thy hands I commend my soul, 
preserve it from terrors. O.M. 2363. Another form of 
cemynny, qd. v. 

CYMMYS, adv. So much, so great, so many. Ny allaf 
gweles yn fas, kymmys daggrow re olys, I -cannot see 
well, so many tears I have shed. P.C. 2608. Why a 






CYNGYS 



81 



CYNSA 



pys an runymo dh'agas gorhery, kymmys vydh anponveler, 
ye shall pray the hills to hide you, so great will be the 
trouble. P.O. 2656. Henna Pylat pan welas, Jcymmys 
cowsys er y byn, when Pilate saw that, so much spoken 
against him. M.C. 100. Cans re a gymmys colon en 
loven a ve tennys, by some with so much heart the rope 
was pulled. M.C. 181. Rag ny wodhons py gymmys y 
monn y aw peche, for they know not how much they 
are sinning. M.C. 185. This is another form of cem- 
mys, qd. v. The last corrupted form was cybmys. 

CYMMYSC, s. m. A mixture. Cymmysc bleid a chi, a 
mixture of wolf and dog. Linx. Corn. foe. Another 
form of commisc, qd. v. W. cymmysg. 

CYMMYSCY, v. a. To. mix, mingle. Part. pass, cym- 
myscys. Ottense gynefparys, bystel eysel kymyskys, mars 
us seches bras, behold them with me ready, gall (and) 
vinegar mixed, if there is great thirst. P.C. 2977. The 
more frequent form in the Ordinalia is cemyscy, qd. v. 

CYMPE8, adj. Right, even, straight. J Ev a dhelledzhaz 
an termen mal dha vaprev erra e wreg guitha kympez et i 
gever, he delayed the time, that he might prove whether 
his wife had kept right in relation to him. Llwyd, 253. 
This is a late form of compos, qd. v. 

CYN, conj. Though, if. Arlutii, dhe vodh a vydh gwrys, 
may kynfennas dhe gafys, pitr wyr leskys efa vydh, Lord, 
thy will shall be done, more if thou wish to take, very 
truly it shall be burnt. O.M. 432. Dre sor kyn fens y ter- 
rys, in anger though they may be broken. O.M. 1237. Me 
an gwyth kyn tassorcho, I will keep him, though he 
should rise again. R.D. 379. Coskyn ny gans dyaha, kyn 
dasvetvo, ny'n drecha dhywar y geyn, let us sleep with 
security, though he should revive, he will not raise it 
from off his back. R.D. 403. Ny scap kynfo vyth mar 
fur, nan gejfb drok, he will not escape though he be 
ever so cunning, that he shall not get harm. R.D. 2019. 
This is the same word as cen, qd. v. W. cyd. Arm. ken. 

CYN, adv. First, before, before that A das ker ol cara- 
dow, ow paynys a vydh garow, kyn v6s leskys dhe lusow, 
O father dear, all beloved, my pains will be cruel, before 
being burnt to ashes. O.M. 1355. Kyn pen vis, before 
the end of a month. Lhvyd, 230. W. cyn. 

CYN, s. m. The back. Ota saw bos war ow kyn, Jafet deg- 
yns saw oral, behold a load of food on my back, let Japhet 
bring another load. O.M. 1053. Pur wyr, me a henros- 
as l ha war ow kyn a'n clewas yn mes a'n bedh ow sevel, 
very truly, I dreamed, and on my back I heard him 
rising out of the tomb. R.D. 518. A contracted form 
of ceyn, or cein, qd> v. 

CYN AC, s. m. A worm. Tinea capitis, Llwyd, 164. The 
same word as cinac. 

CYNDAN, s. m. Debt. Dha bos en cyndan, to be in 
debt. Llwyd, 63. + Ny vedn e nevra dos ves a gyndan, he 
will never get out of debt, 230. Cendoner, a debtor, qd. v. 

CYNGYS, adv. Before that, before. Dun dh'y gerhes, 
cowethe, rag may hyllyn y settyeyn grdws kyngys d6s sabot, 
let us come to fetch it, companions, that we may put 
him on a cross before Sabbath comes. P.C. 2557. Me 
apys an tas a nff, re dhanfono vengeans cref warnouch 
kyngys dybry, I pray the Father of heaven, that he may 
send heavy vengeance on ye all before eating. P.C. 
2632. Gynefhydhow ty a vy^dh, rdk dhe fey, yn Parades 
kyngys harder docha geydh, with me to day thou shall the 
for thy faith, in Paradise, before mid-day arrives, P.C. 

M 



2912. Cyngys is/another form of cyns-ys, the being 
softened into g soft, or English/. 

CYNIAF, s. m. Autumn, harvest time. Com. Vocab. 
autumpnus. Llwyd, 4, reads the old form kyniav, and 
he gives cidniadh, and cidniaz, as recent forms. W. 
cynauav, comp. of cyn, before, and gauav, winter. 

CYNIHAS, s. m. A neighing. Llwyd, 65. Who also 
writes it kynihias, 33. Cryhias, is another term, qd. v. 
Cf. the Lat hinnio. Bng. to neigh, to whinny. The 
Welsh term is gweryru. -\-guirgirio. Arm. gouriziat. IT. 
sithreach. Gael, sttir, sitrich. 

CYNIN, s. f. A rabbit, a coney. Llwyd, 53. W. cwning. 
Arm. counicl, conifl. IT. cuinin. Gael, coinean. Manx, 
conning. Fr. tco. Dan. cainin. Du. conyn. Lat. 
cunicmus. 

CYNINGEN, s. f. A rabbit. Pryce. W.cwningen. 

CYNIVER, adj. So many, as many as, every, every one. 
Cynyver den us yn wlds, na trayn bys owpewe, saw un- 
sol ty ha'thflehas, gans lyf y wrqf dhe ladhe, as many 
men as are in the land, or thing in the world living, 
save only thee and thy children, with a flood I will 
destroy. O.M. 1029. Kynyver best us yn tyr, ydhyn ha 
puskes kefreys, as many beasts as are on the earth, birds 
and fishes also. O.M. 1215. Kynyver peyn us yn beys, 
dhodho by ny vye re, as much pain as is in the world, 
for him would never be too much. R.D. 2055. It is 
variously written cynyfer, cenifer, cenyver, and ceniver, 
qd. v. W. cynniver, comp. of cyd, even, and niver, a 
number. 

CYNIVIAS, v. a. To shear, to clip. Llwyd, 164. W. 
cneiviaw. Arm. crevia. 

CYNS, adv. Before, before hand, rather. Eva kyns del 
vy serrys, my a wra oil del vynny, Eve, rather than thou 
shalt be angry, I will do all as thou wishest. O.M. 245. 
Ma'm gasso kyns ys myrwel ynno b6s dhym dhe welas, 
that it allow me before dying to see food for myself in 
it. O.M. 377. My ddpys ow sona givra kyns ys m6s, I 
pray thee, do thou bless me before going. O.M. 724. 
An lyf woth gwrens ymdenne, dh'y teller kyns ens arte, 
let the fierce flood withdraw, to its former place let it go 
again. O.M. 1093. Mar a'th caffaf, y'th ladkafkynsy's 
vytlyn am dew luef, if I find thee, I will kill thee before 
morning with my hands. O.M. 1533. Lemyn agan sone 
gwra kynsys bones anhedhys, now bless us before that it is 
inhabited. O.M. 1722. Kyns y un teller yn beys, dew ken- 
doneryth ege, once in a part of the world, there were two 
debtors. P.C. 501. Kyns pen sythyn, before the end of a 
week. R.D. 30. F vyrys y wolyow, aga givelas o trueth, 
dhe'n b$s kyns ens ylyou>, I looked on his wounds, it was 
pitiful to behold them, to the world rather they are heal- 
ings. R.D. 900. It is written also cens, qd. v. W. cynt, 
icent. Arm. cent. IT. ceud, \ctt. Gael. ceud. 

CYNSA, adj. First, chief. Rag ythevel dhym bos da, yn 
kynsa dydh mi}ns us gwrijs, for it appears to me to be 
good, on the first day all that is made. O.M. 20.. Rag 
my a vydh an kynsa, bom a rollo, hag a perfo mo meystry, 
for I will be the first, that will give a blow, and perform 
my duty. O.M. 2163. Yrverys ew sola-thyth dhe avon- 
sy an kynse benfys am been, it has beeii thought of a 
long time to advance thee to the first benefice I may 
have. O.M. 2613. Ellas na varwen yn wedh, na fe 
kynse ow dywedh ys dywedh ow mdpyn beys, alas ! that I 
die not also, that my end was not sooner than the end 



CYRREUCH 



82 



CYVUR 



of my son in the world. P.O. 2947. W. cynlav, fcen- 
tav, tci'ntem. Arm. centa, ^centaf. Ir. ceudna, ceud, 
tce7ne, fctfa. Gael. ceud. Manx, chied. 

CYNTIL, v. a. To gather, to collect. Llwyd, 77. An- 
other form of cunlell, qd. v. 

CYNTREVAC, s. m. A neighbour. Llwyd, 173. PI. 
cyntrevagion. Another form of contrevac, qd. v. 

CYNY, v. n. To mourn, to lament, to weep. Attoma 
hagar vyadge, may hallafkyny, ellas ! lo here is a horrid 
voyage, that I may mourn, alas ! C.W. 68. (Cyny may 
also signify here to sing.) Lemyn, Eva, ow fryes, hen- 
na ytho dhe folly gy ; rag henna paynes pur eras yma 
ornes ragon ny, may hellyn kyny dreiha, now, Eve, my. 
wife, this was thy folly ; therefore pains very great are 
ordained for us, that we may lament for it. C.W. 74. 
W. cwyno. Arm. keina. Ir. caoine, t5me. Gael, caoin. 
Manx, keayn. Goth, qvainon. 0. Norse, qveina. Eng. 
whine. 

CYJNYFAN, s. f. A nut. Cynyfan frenc, a walnut. 
Llwyd, 74. Written also cnyfan, qd; v.. 

CYNYOW, s. m. A dinner. Tyr sech yn gwel, nag yn 
prds, mar kefyth yn gwyr hep gow, ynno gweet Jn-la whelas 
bos dheth ly ha dheth kynyow, dry land in field, or in 
meadow, if thou shalt find truly without a lie, in it 
take good care to seek food for thy breakfast, an,d for 
thy dinner. O.M. 1140. W. cinimv. Arm. coan. Ir. 
cuid. Gael, coinne. Lat. ecena. Gr. KOIVIJ. 

CYR, adj. Dear, beloved. Llwyd, 54. Another form of 
cer, qd. v. 

CYRCHES, v. a. To fetch, to carry, to bring. Euch 
alemma pur thoth bras, del y'm kyrreuch, ages dew, ha 
kyrchouch dhe Are an gwas, may hallo cane ellas, nefre yn 
tewolgow tew, go ye hence with very great speed, as ye 
love me, you two, and bring home the youth, that he 
may sing "alas," ever in thick darkness. O.M. 544. 
Agan arluth, ny an kyrch dhjjs hep danger, our Lord, we 
will bring him to thee without delay. O.M. 548. My a 
kyrch an gwas wharre, I will bring the fellow soon. O.M. 
887. Ow messyger, kyrch otv courser dhe varogeth, my 
messenger, bring thou my courser to ride. O.M. 1969. 
This is the same word as cerches, qd. v. 

CYRDHYS, v. m. He went. Sew olmv ow thryys lyskys, 
ny dftf gwels, na flour yn bys, yn keth fordh-na may 
kyrdhys, follow thou the prints of my feet burnt, no 
grass, nor flower in the world grows in that same road, 
where I went. O.M. 713. 3 pers. s. preterite of cerdhes, 
qd. v. 

CYRHES, v. a. To fetch, to carry, to bring. Part. pass. 
cyrhys. Bys dhym umma yn un lam ef a vydh kyrhys, 
even to us here in a trice he shall be brought. O.M. 
886. Ha pesyn rag y en<-, mayfo Dew re'n kyrho dhodho 
dh'y wledh, and let us pray for his soul, that God may 
carry him to him to his kingdom. O.M. 2370. Dun 
dhe gyrhas Salomon, ha goryn ef yn y dron, let ns to 
fetch Solomon, and let us place him in his throne. O.M. 
2371. Pup Crystyon oil yn wedh a vynno pygy gyfyans, 
y's kyrhaf gans ow eleth, and every Christian also, that 
will pray for pardon, I will bring them with my angels. 
R.D. 1577. This is another form of cyrches, the aspirate 
bei ftened into h. 



n. A pimple, or speckle. Llwyd, 78, kuriak. 
CYRREUCH, v. a. Ye shall love. Euch alemma pur 
thoth bras, del y'm kyrreuch, agas deuf, ha kyrchouch dhe 



dre an gwas, go ye hence with great speed, as ye love 
me, ye two, and bring home the youth. O.M. 543. 2 
pers. pi. fut. of care, qd. v. 

CYRRY, v. a. Thou shalt love. Keyn rale, del y'm hurry, 
go thou before, as thou lovest me. O.M. 537. Dits yn 
rah, del y'm kyrry, come thou forth, as thou lovest me. 
O.M. 2403. Drok handle, del om kyry,pan gyffy dalhcn 
ynno, handle him roughly, as thou lovest me, when thou 
gettest hold in him. P.C. 991. Lavar dhym, del y'm 
kyry, tell me as thou lovest me. P.C. 1289. 2 pers. s. 
fut. of care, qd. v. 

CYRTAS, v. n. To tarry behind, to remain. Llwyd, 138. 
Part. pass, cyrtaz, delayed, 248. This is a later form of 
gortas, or gortos, qd. V. 

CYRYN, s. f. A crown. \Tan gyryn, to the crown. 
Lluyd, 249. Another form of curun, qd. v. 

CYRYS, part. Loved, beloved. Forth cof, lavar comfort 
yn ta, dhymmo Pedar mftryw kyrys, bear thou in memory 
to seek comfort well, by me Peter is much beloved. 
R.D. 892. Part. pass, of care, qd. v. 

CYS, adj. United, joint or common, joined together. 
Tynnouch ol gans mur a grj)s, may fo dreyn an guryn 
cys yn empynnyon dre an cen, pull ye all with much 
force, that the thorns of the crown may be together in 
the brain through the skull. P.C. 2137. Written also 
ces, qd. v. 

CYSOLATH, s. m. Peace, rest, peaceableness, tranquil- 
lity, concord. Llwyd, 240. Who also writes it cyzaleth, 
243. It is the same word as cesoleth, qd. v. 

CYSOLATHA, v. a. To make friends, to reconcile. Dho 
kyzalatha, Llwyd, 50. 

CYSSYL, s. f. Counsel. PI. cyssylyow, and corrnptly cys- 
ylgou: Llwyd, 242. See Cusul. 

CYSSYLIER, ; s. m. A counsellor. Llwyd, MO. 

CYSYN, s; m. A kiss. Llwyd, 110. This is the same 
word as cussin, qd. v. 

CYTIORCH, s. m. A wild buck. Corn. Voc. capreolus. 
Comp. of coyt, wood, and yorch, a roe. 

CYVEDHA, adj. So drunken. Llwyd, 125. Compound- 
ed of cy, so, and medha, drunken. 

CYVELAC, s. m. A wood-cock. Llwyd, 62, 156. W. 
cyfylog, from gylv, a bill. Arm. cyfelec, cyvelec. Lat. 
scotopax. The latter term has no meaning in Latin or 
Greek, and must have been derived from the Celtic, as 
Llwyd has well observed. Ysgyvlog means the Bill 
Bird, fromysgwlv,& bill, its most distinguishing quality. 
For the same reason it is called Becasse, by the French, 
and Schnepjf, by the Germans. So again the Welsh 
call a Curlew, gylvinhir, the Long Bill. 

CYVELYN, B. m. A cubit. Written also cevelyn, qd. v. 

CYVETHIDOG, adj. Able, potent, powerful. Llwyd, 125. 
This is the same word as covaithac, derived from covaith, 
wealth, qd. v. W. cyvoethog. Ir. -\-cumachtach, teum- 
achtig. 

CYVUR, s. m. A piece of land. This is the Welsh cyvar, 
compounded of cyv, together, and ar, a ploughing, and 
its first meaning is, ploughing in concert, a days plough- 
ing, hence an acre. " In the four parishes of Redruth, 
Gwennap, Kenwyn, and St. Agnes, where, at a point, 
the four western Hundreds of Cornwall meet or unite, 
is a barren heathy spot denominated Kynur ankou; 
where all self murderers belonging to those parishes 
are deposited by virtue of the coroner's warrant, a cus- 



CHET 



83 



CHYMMA 



torn immemorial, whence the spot takes its name." 
Polwhelt's Cornish Glossary. 

CYWEDH, s. m. A companion, a colleague. Llwyd, 49. 
See Coweth. 

CYWEDHIAD, s. m. A colleague. Llwyd, 49. 

CYWERAS, s. m. Help, succour. Llwyd, 44. Incor- 
rectly for yweres, qd. v. 



CH. 



This is both an immutable radical, and a secondary letter. 
In the first case it is invariably followed by to, or its 
representative, in the three British dialects. Thus W. 
chwerw, bitter ; chwi, ye. 0. chuero, chwy. Arm. chou- 
ero, choui. In Cornish it was afterwards softened into 
k, in the initials of words, and this is the rule in the 
Ordiualia, so chwerow became hwerow ; chwy, why; 
chu-ans, whans, &c. The guttural was however often 
preserved in the middle of words, as archow, chests, 
cerchen, about, cerchys, fetched ; but more generally at 
the end, as collenweuch, fill ye, coslceuch, sleep ye, dyw- 
vrech, the arms, &c. When secondary, ch is the aspi- 
rate mutation of c, in all the Celtic languages. Thus 
W. colon, a heart, ei chalon, her heart. Arm. colon, M 
chalon. C. colon, y holon. W. cyhudhaw, to accuse, fw 
chyhudhaw, to accuse her. C. cuhudhas, dhy huhudJias. 
IT. cri, a heart, a chri, his heart. Gael, cridhe, a chridhe. 
Manx, cree, e chree. 

The proper sound of ch in all Celtic languages is guttural, 
like the x.of the Greeks, x in Spanish, and ch in Ger- 
man. There are a few foreign words in Cornish, where 
ch has the sound of ch in the English word church. 

CHALLA, s. m. The jaw-bone. Written also chal. Ven- 
ytha na sowyny, tan hemma war an challa, that thou 
mayest never thrive, take this on the jaw-bone. O.M. 
540. Efan gevyth war an chal, den vythol na dhoutyans 
peg, he shall catch it on the jaw, let not any man 
do'ubt a bit. P.O. 1181. This is borrowed from the 
English j'ole or jowl. 

CHEC, s. m. A kettle. Ha my caugeon lawethan, menvel 
a wren ova cul tan yn dan an chek, and my dirty fiends, 
we will die making a fire under the kettle. R.D. 139. 

CHET, s. m. A companion, a fellow. PL chettys. Ty- 
orryon yn Jcetep chet, tyeuch an temple hep let, na dheffo 
glaw dhe'n styllyow, tilers, every fellow, cover ye the 
temple without stopping, that the rain may not come 
to the rafters. O.M. 2486. Me a bar daras an yet, na 
gercho alemma chet, I will bar the door that he may not 
carry a friend hence. P.C. 3050. Sytteuch gystys worth 
an yel ; agas dyu-scodh kettep chet herffieuch worty hy yn 
wedh, put ye beams against the gate ; your shoulders, 
every fellow, thrust ye against it also. P.C. 3068. Rag 
mar lite dh'agan porthow, ef a ter an darasow, hag a 
dhylyrf an chettys, for if he comes to our door-ways, he 
will break the doors, and liberate the company. P.C. 
3042. Chet is, I think, allied to the Welsh cyd, and 
is frequently used in the Dramas for 'a companion.' 



! But the ch, almost exclusively limited in the Dramas to 
English words, and the pi. chettys, seem to shew that 
the Celtic origin was forgotten. Perhaps it was con- 
nected, in the opinion of the writer, with chat, gossip." 
Norris's Cornish Drama, ij. 339. 

CHI, s. m. A dog. This is a regular mutation of ', and 
is preserved in the Cornish Vocabulary, where Linx is 
translated commisc bleid ha chi, literally ' a mixture of 
wolf and dog.' W. cymmyxg blaidh a chi. 

CHOARION, s. m. Sports, pastimes, or plays. Llwyd, 
82. This is the plural of choary. W. chwareu. Arm. 
choari. Ir. sgeara, a player. 

CHUERO, adj. Bitter, cruel, hardhearted. Pryce. The 
common form was wherow, qd. v. W. chwerw, prov. 
hwerw. Arm. chouerd. Ir. searbh, -\-serb. Gael, searbh. 
Manx, sharroo. 

CHUI, pron. Ye, or you. Llwyd, 244. Generally writ- 
ten why, qd. v. W. chwi. Arm. choui, t hut, ^huy. Ir. 
sibh, f, t"i. Gael. sibh. Manx, sshiu. Lat. vos, literis 
transpositis. Gr. a<j)tai. Sansc. vas, was. 

CHUYVYAN, v. a. To escape, to flee. W. chwiviaw. 
" From hence the family of Fyvyan is supposed to take 
its name, for fleeing on a white horse from Lioness, 
when it was overflown ; that person being at that time 
governor thereof ; in memory whereof this family gives 
a lion for its arms, and a white horse, ready caparisoned, 
for the crest." Pryce's Arclusologia Cornu-Brilannica. 

CHY, s. m. A house, a dwelling. Ny won vylhpe 'th of 
lemyn ; nymbus gwesc, gusJcys, na chy, I know not where 
I shall go now ; there is not for me clothes, shelter, nor 
house. O.M. 356. Oil tus ow chy, deuch genef vy, all 
men of my house, come ye with me. O.M. 1961. Ar- 
luth, ythopyw a wra coul drehevel oil dhe chy, Lord, now 
who shall fully build thy house. O.M. 2340. Yn ores 
an chy res vye kafus gyst cref, na vo gwan, in the middle 
of the house, it would be necessary to have a strong 
beam, that it be not weak. O.M. 2481. Aban dhuthe 
y'th chy, since I came to thy house. P.C. 617. Aban, 
duthe yn chy dhys, since I came into the house to thee. 
P.C. 524. Pepenagol may 'th ello, yn ketk chy-na euch 
ganso, wherever that he may enter, into that same 
house go ye with him. P.C. 631 . Levereuch dhe gour 
an chy, say to the man of the house. P.C. 633. Ny 
an syw b$s yn y chy, we will follow him even to his 
house. P.C. 648. We have here a solitary instance in 
a Cornish \v ord of the corruption of the proper sound of 
t into that of the English ch, as in church. It never 
occurs in Welsh or Armoric, but in the Erse languages 
it is the common sound of t, before e, and i. Thus tan, 
fire, in Welsh, Cornish, and Armoric, though written 
tetne in Irish and Gaelic, is pronounced as it is phoneti- 
cally written in Manx, chenney. So also W. C. Arm, tes, 
heat ; Ir. and Gael. teas. Manx, chiat. W. C. teyrn, a 
king. Ir. Gael, tighearna. Manx, chiarn. W. C. Arm. 
tir, land ; Ir. Gael. lir. Manx, cheer. 

CHYMMA, s. m. This house. Cres Dew aberth an 
chymma, the peace of God within this house. P.C. 667. 
This word is compounded of chy, a house, and omma, 
here. It is written also chemma. Cryst, yw pen g6r ha 
benen, yn chemma y fue gynen pur wyr hydhyw, Christ, 
(who); is head of man and woman, in this house was 
with us very truly to-day. R.D. 1397. 



DA 84 



DAGEEN 



D. 



THIS letter is both radical and secondary. When radical 
i.t changes in construction into dh, which has the sound 
of th, in the English words, this, than ; as den, a man, 
dew dhen, two men. W. dijn, dau dhyn. In Armoric, 
dh is now represented by z, but the proper sound is 
preserved at the present day in some parts of Britanny. 
Den, daow zen. Ir. duine, da dhuine. Gael, duine, da 
dhuine. Manx, dooinney, daa gkooinney. The Welsh 
has a further nasal mutation into , as vy n$n, my man ; 
this is unknown to Cornish and Armoric, but it prevails 
in the Irish. Again in Cornish and Armoric, d changes 
into t, as dfe, to come, ow t6s, coming. Arm. dont, 6 
font. This mutation occurs also in Welsh, but not in 
initials. Cf. creto, 3 pers. s. subj.of credit. Gato(naatto) 
fromgadu. Caled, hard ; caletach, harder; caletav, hard- 
est. When secondary, d is the soft sound of t, in the Cor- 
nish, Welsh, Armoric, and Irish languages. Thus ids, 
a father, y das, his father. W. tad, ei dad. Arm. tad, 
fie dad. Ir. tart, thirst, ar dart, (tiart,) our thirst 

DA, s. m. A good. Cor. Voc. lonum. Del yw scrifys, 
prest yma adro dhynny ganso try, mar a kyll dheivorlh an 
da dhe wethyll dr6k agan dry, as it is written, ready 
there are about us with him three, if he can bring us 
from the good to do wrong. M.C. 21. Oil en da ha'n 
drokkepar, dhe Jesus bedhens grassy s, all the good and 
hurt alike, to Jesus be thanks. M.C. 24. Pan vynnouch 
agis honon, wy a $11 gull da dhedhe, when ye will your- 
selves, ye can do good to them. M.C. 37. 

DA, adj. Good. In construction it changes into dha, and 
ta. Nyns yw da bones un den y honan hep cotoyth py 
cowethes, it is not good that a man should be alone with- 
out a male or female companion. O.M. 93. Pup ur oil 
obereth da, ffivyn bys kymmys a'n givrello, always good 
works, happy as many as do them. O.M. 604. Ny a 
dhynyth Jl6ch da, we shall produce a good child. 
O.M. 664. Gynef yma fardhel pur dha war ow kcyn, I 
have a burden good on my back. O.M. 1617. Ken na 
fe da genes, gul dhe servys ty a wra, though it may not 
be good with thee, i.e. though thou mayest not like it, 
thou shalt do thy service. P.O. 2260. (This is the Welsh 
idiom, y mae yn dha genyv, I like, or am pleased.) 
Mar dha del reys, as well it behoveth. R.D. 1320. Cans 
colan dha, with good heart. Llwyd, 230. Aspy yn tapup 
echen, examine well every particular. O.M. 747. Dege 
oil agan edhyn, bestes yn wedh maga to, tithe of all our 
birds, beasts also as well. O.M, 1182. W. da. Arm. 
da. Ir. deagh, -\-dagh, t dag. Gael, deagh. Literis 
transpositis, Gr. Vyotfo's. Goth. god. 

DA, s. m. A fallow deer. Cor. Voc. dama vel damula. W. 
danas Arm. dam, demm. Ir. damh. Gael. damh. Lat. 
dama. Fr* daim. 

DA, pr. poss. Thy. Da ynan, thyself. Llwyd, 167. Er 
dha byn, against thee. ibid. 249. J Scon a wonyn dha 
asow me a wra dhedhaparow, immediately of one of thy 
ribs I will make to thee an equal. C.W. 30. J Mester 
da, der dha gymmyas, good master, by your leave. C.W. 
112. This is the latest form; in the Ordinalia it is 
always written de, dhe, qd. v. 



DA, prep. To, unto. In construction dha. Reysywpvr- 
rys lavyrrya, ha gones an l$s omma, dha gawas dheny 
susten, needs we must by force labour, and till the 
ground here, to have to us sustenance. C.W. 80. This 
is a later form of de, dhe, qd. v. 

DADBR, s. m. Goodness, excellence. Noe dre dhe dhad- 
der bras ty a bew ow grath nefre, Noah for thy great 
goodness, thou shalt have my favour ever. O.M. 973. 
Bythqueth me ny viruk foly, leman prest dader dhywhy, 
never have I done folly, but always good to you. P.C. 
1296. Govy y vones ledhys, kemmys dader prest a wre; y 
dhadder yw drdk tylys pan y'n ladhsons dybyte, woe is 
me that he is killed ! so much good he always did ; his 
goodness is ill requited, when they killed him without 
pity. P.C. 3096. This is the abstract substantive of da, 
good. W. daioni. 

DADLOYER, s. m. A speaker, orator. Pryce. Cor. Voc. 
datheluur, concionator. W. dadleuwr, from dadyl, dadl, 
tdatl, concio. Ir. ^dal, curia, forum. 

DADLYNCY, v. a. To swallow. Pryce. Comp. of the 
prefix dad, afterward das, qd. v., and lyncy, or lency, 
to swallow. 

DADN, prep. Below, under, beneath. Ha Dew wrdz 
an ebbarn, ha dheberhaz an dowrow era en dadn an 
ebbarn, dhort an dowrow era euh an ebbarn; ha an 
dellna elho, and God made the firmament, and divided 
the waters that were under the firmament from the 
waters that were above the firmament, and it was so. 
C:W. p. 189. This is a late corruption of dan, qd. v. 

DADNO, pron. prep. Under him. Llwyd, 231. A late 
corruption of dano, qd. v. 

DAFFAR, s. m. .Convenience,- opportunity. Judas eth a 
dhesympys a neyl tu dhe omgregy ; oaf as daffar par par- 
rys, lovan cryf rag y synsy, Judas went immediately on 
one side to hang himself ; he found convenience very 
ready, a rope strong to hold him. M.C. 105. The 
plural is daver, qd. v. W. dajjar, a recompense. 

DAFOLE, v.a. To deform, to deride, to mock. Ha why 
yn wedh cowethe, pup ur gwreuch y dhyspytye, ha daffole 
fast an gwas, and ye also, comrades, do ye continually 
worry him, and mock the fellow much. P.C. 1438. Yw 
saw oil dhe wolyow, a ivylys vy dhe squerdye 't a wruk an 
gu ha'n kenlrow dhe kyc precius dafole, are all thy 
wounds healed, which I saw tearing thee, which the 
spear and the nails made, deforming thy precious 
flesh 1 R.D. 492. W. dyvalu. 

DAGER, s. m. A tear. PI. dagrow, daggrow. Fest yn 
tyn hy a woU, dhe wherthyn nys leva whans, ha'y dagrow 
a dhevere a'y dew lagas pur dliewhans, very sharply she 
wept, to laugh. she had not a desire, and the tears 
dropped from her eyes very copiously. M.C. 222. Yn 
ur-tia rag pur dhwan daggrvw tyn gwafdyvere, in that 
time, for very sorrow, bitter tears I shall shed. O.M. 
402. Yma ken dhym dhe ole daggrow goys yn gwyr hep 
mar, there is cause to me to weep tears of blood really 
without doubt. O.M. 631. W. dagr, dagyr, deigyr, 
\dacr. Arm. -\-daer, pi. dacrou. Ir. dear, deur, -\der. 
Gael. deur. Manx, j'eir. Gr. Sdicpv. Lat. lacryma. 
Goth. lagr. Ang. Sax. tear. Germ, zahre. Sansc. afra. 

DAG REN, s. m. A small drop, a tear. PI. dagrennow. 
A'n goys-na dagrennow try drey dew laga&yth eth, nyng-o 
comfort na yly a wrello y holon hueth, of that blood 
three drops through her eyes went, there was not com- 



DALVYTH 



85 



DALLETHY 



fort nor remedy that would raise her heart. M.C. 225. 
W. deigryn, Gael, devran. 

DAL, v. imp. It behoveth. Mark Dew loarnafew settys, 
te an gwel yn corn mo thdl, yans den pan vo convethys, 
worthaf ve ny dal bos mellyes a us neb tra, the mark of 
God on me is set, thou seest it in the horn of my fore- 
head ; With me ought not any thing whatever be med- 
dled. C.W. 118. \Medh Juan, me dal gwettas an oil a 
chy, saith John, I must see the host of the house. J Ha 
rag na erra den nafioh en chy bex an vartshanls, an dzhei 
dal kreg ragta, and because there was neither man nor 
boy in the house but the merchants, they should surely 
be banged for it. Llwyd. 252. E dal, it ought, 108. 
Why dal, ye ought, 247. W. dylu, dyl. 

DAL, v. a. To pay, to be worth. A mutation of tdl, 3 
pers. s. fut of taly, qd. v. Dew a dal dheuch oil henna, 
God shall pay to you all that. O.M. 1198. Dew a dal 
dheuh, God shall reward you. Llwyd, 242. Ow box men- 
nafdhe terry, a dal mur a vone da, my box I will break, 
which is worth much good money. P.O. 486. Nydaldho- 
dho y nache, it will not do for him to deny it. P.O. 1280. 
(W. ni thai idho ei nagu.) Ni dal dhys scornye gyne, it 
will not do for thee to strive with me. R.D. 105. 
Dhynny gweres ny dal man, nothing avails to help us. 
R.D. 131. 

DALASIAS, s. m. Requital. Mychlern Erod re dhan- 
fonas Jhesu dhys, hag yn gwyn efre'ngwyscas; vynytha 
dalasias ef a'th carvyth, me a grys, King Herod has sent 
Jesus to thee, and in white he has clothed him ; for 
ever in requital, he will love thee, I believe. P.O. 1845. 
This word is probably corrupted, but evidently derived 
from laly, to requite. 

DALHEN, s. m. A holding, a taking hold of, a seizing, 
a capture. Pi. dalhennow. Henna yw ef, syttyouch dal- 
henynno, that is he, lay ye hold on him. P.O. 976. 
Dr6k handle, del om kyry, pan gyffy dalhen ynno, handle 
him roughly, as tbou lovest me, when thou shalt lay 
hold on him. P.O. 992. Syttyouch dalhennow yn cam, 
a lever y vos ef mab Dew, lay ye hold upon the rogue, 
who says that he is the son of God. P.O. 1126. Dalhen 
mar cafaf ynno, pur wyr, ny scap kynfynno, nan gejfo 
clout, if I shall lay hold on him, very truly he shall not 
escape, that he shall not have a blow. R.D. 382. Arm. 
dalch. W. daliad. 

DALHENNE, v. a. To lay hold of, to seize. 3 pers. s. fut. 
dalhen. Me an dalhen fest yn tyn, ha gans ow dornotv 
a'n ffuryn na sowenno, I will seize him very tight, and 
with my hands make him that he thrive not. P.O. 1131. 
Arluth lavar dysscmpys dhynny, marsyw b6dh dhe vreys,ha 
bolenegoth an Ids, my dhe wyskd gans cledhe ntb us worth 
dhe dalhenne, Lord, say immediately, if it is the will of 
thy judgment, and the wish of the Father, that I should 
strike with the sword him that is laying hold of thee. 
P.O. 1141. Tewlyn gralel warnodho scherp, ha dalgenne 
ynno, byth na schapye, let us cast a grappling-iron on 
him sharp, and lay hold on him, that he may never es- 
cape. R.D. 2269. 

DALON8, v. a. They will be worth. A mutation of 
talons, 3 pers. pi. fut. of taly, qd. v. Dhelevarow, kym 
yns stout, ny dalons man, thy words, though they are 
stout are not worth a mite. R.D. 1437. 

DALVYTH, v. a. He will pay. It will be worth. A 
mutation of talvyth, 3 pers. s. fut. of taly, qd. v. Rag 



yma ef deffry ow toen oil agon maystry, me a grfo ny dal- 
vyth bram, for he is bearing away all our power, I think 
it will not be worth a crumb. P.O. 3078. Yn y golon 
fast regeth mur a, gerense ivorthys, hag ef a dalvyth dhys 
wMth, y honort del wrusnys, into his heart there hath 
gone much love towards thee, and he will requite thee 
yet, as thou hast honoured him. M.O. 116. 

DALL, adj. Blind. Corn. Voc. dal, cecus. Te yw dall, 
rag genen creais neb es, den alan yw a beck, thou art 
blind, for he that is hanged with us is a man clear of 
sin. M.O. 192. Dalian, ny welyn yn fd& ow bos mar 
veyl owpeice, blind I was, I saw not well, that I was 
living so vile. M.C. 220. Awos an Tds fystenyn, rag 
own namnag of pnr dhal, because of the Father, let us 
hasten ; for fear I am almost quite blind. O.M. 1056. 
Dal 6f, ny allaf gweles, I am blind, I cannot see. O.M. 
2007. Na gowse may ys march dal, that he speak hot 
more than a blind horse. P.O. 1658. Kerchyn an gwds 
dal, let us fetch the blind fellow. P.O. 2916. Rdk dal 6f, 
ny welafman, for I am blind, I see not at all. P.C. 3,104. 
W.dall. Arm. dall. IT. dall. Gael. dall. Manx, doal. 

DALLA, v. a. To blind, to make blind. A's wrussouch 
cam tremene, cuih gwelesy dhywedhfe, namna'n dallas, ye 
did to him an evil transgression, a grief to see his 
end it was, it almost blinded us. R.D. 42. Namn'agan 
dallas golow,pan dhueth an gwds, light almost blinded 
us, when the fellow came. R.D. 302. W. dallu. Arm. 
dalla. Ir. dall. Gael. dall. 

DALLATHFAS, s. m. A beginning, or commencement. 
Yn wedh dewdhec warnugans a virhas my am be a dhall- 
athfas an bys-ma, likewise two and thirty of daughters 
I have from the beginning of this world. C.W. 144. 
En dallathvas Dew a wras nev ha'n 'oar, in the begin- 
ning God made heaven and earth. C.W. p. 189. 

DALLATHFAS, v. a. To begin, to commence. JAW- 
geiv ogas ha bkdhan aban dallathfas an lyw, it is now 
near a year since the flood began. C.W. 178. The fol- 
lowing are the late corrupted forms, a dhalladhas, hei 
a dhalasvas, she began. Llwyd, 252. 

DALLBTH, s. m. A beginning, or commencement. Ha'y 
grds dheuchwhy re wronntyo, nefre dhe blyoye dhodho, yn 
dalleth hag yn dywedh,aud his grace may he grant to 
yon, ever to bow down to him, at the beginning and 
at the end. O.M. 1728. Del 6s dalleth a pup Ira, y 
reyth kugyl, as thou art the beginning of all things, thou 
givest counsel.. P.C. 471. Yn della mar a whyrfeth, myl 
weth a vydh an dywedh, ha hackre es an dalleth, if it 
shall happen so, a thousand times worse will be the end 
and more odious than the beginning. R.D. 350. An 
scryptor dhyn agorespur wyr a dhalleth, the Scripture he 
opened to us very truly from the beginning. R.D. 1484. 
En dallalh Dew a wras nev ha'n 'oar, in the beginning 
God created the heaven and the earth. M.O. p. 93. 

DALLETHY, v. a. To begin, to commence. Written also 
dalleth, and dallath. Part, dallathys, or dallethys. Hedhytv 
yw an whefes dydh aban dallelheys gonys, this day is the 
sixth day since I began to work. O.M. 50. Ha my d gans 
oil ow nelyn d6r dhe dhallath palas, and I will go with all 
my strength to begin to dig in the ground. O.M. 370. 
Yma ow treyU deffry oil an wlascor a ludi, ow talleth yn 
Galile, he is turning really all the land of Judea, begin- 
ning in Galilee. P.C. 1595. Dalleih cowyth, me a'th 
pjjs, begin thou comrade, I pray thee. P.C. 2382. Anfer 



DANS 



a fue dallethys dre tus vds berth yn tempel, the market was 
begun by good men within the temple. P.O. 2709. Dus 
omma scon dhe whetM, ha me a dhaUeth ago, giU y, come 
here directly to blow, and I will begin presently to make 
them. P.O. 2701. Pyto a dhalleth? dallathans nep a 
fynno, rak coskt reys yw dhymmo, who will begin ? let 
him begin that will, for need is to me to sleep. R.D. 
412. W. dal, to begin. O'r awr y delisai, from the 
hour he began. 

D ALYNNOUCH, v. a. Hold ye. Mds yw dhe cusyl deffry, 
mar scon dhodho delymmy, kychouch ef yn vryongen, ha 
dalynnouch mur coles, ma na allo pertheges yn dyspyt oil 
dh'y echen, good is thy counsel really, as soon as thou 
kissest him, catch him in the throat, and hold him very 
hard, that he cannot escape in spite of all his efforts. 
P.O. 1008. This would have been more correctly writ- 
ten dalhennouch, being the 2 pers. pi. imp. of dalhenne, 
qd. v. 

DAMA, s. f. A dame, a mother. Me ny wraf vry a hen- 
na, me a levar dhys, dama, I will not make account of 
that, I tell thee, mother. C.W. 92. \En metlen pan a 
why sevel, why rex cows dha guz damma tvor aguz pedn 
dowlin, Bednath Deew, ha an bednath war a vee, me a 
pidge dhu Deew, in the morning when you rise, you 
must say to your father and your mother upon your 
knees, The blessing of God, and a blessing upon me, 
I pray to God. Pryce. ^Dama wyn, a grandmother. 
Llwyd, 44. Literally, a white mother. Mam wen, in 
Welsh, means a step-mother, and mam gu, and nain, a 
grandmother. Dama occurs only in late Cornish, and 
is borrowed from the English, or French. 

DAN, B. m. Fire. A mutation of tan, qd. v. \Mehal, 
yskynyow, Eal splan, hellouch Adam gans cledha dan, ha'y 
wreg ntes a Baradys, Michael, descend, angel bright, 
chase Adam with a sword of fire, and his wife, out of 
Paradise. C.W. 70. A dan, of fire. Llwyd. 231. 

DAN, prep. Under, beneath. This is properly a muta- 
tion of tan, qd. v., but it generally is used as if it were 
the primary form, an irregularity of which there are 
also examples in Welsh. In Cornish dan is generally 
preceded by^w. Del y's. brewaf yn dan gen, as I will 
strike her under the chin. O.M. 2712. My a vyn or- 
dene yn scon tits dh'y denne efbys d'y, yn dan dryys may 
fo pottyys, I will at once order men to drag it to that 
place, under feet that it may be placed. O.M. 2807. 
Dyswed h y a dhan dhe gl6k, shew thou them from under 
thy cloak. P.O. 2682. Yn dan naw alwedh gwreitch y 
pur fast, under nine keys make ye them very fast. 
R.D. 31. Yn dan ddr un tuch ny sef, under ground he 
will not stay a moment. R.D. 2112. W. tan, dan. 
Arm. didan, indan. 

DANFENYS, part. Sent. Map Dew o dhyn danfenys, 
the Son of God was sent to us. P.O. 3104. This is 
only another form of danvenys, part, of danvon, qd. v. 

DANIN, v. a. To send. Llwyd, 245. J Rag danyn dheuh, 
to send to you. Llwyd, 242. This is a late corruption 
of danvon, qd. v. 

DANO, pr. prep. Under him, or it. Llwyd, 231. Yma 
gynef Jtowrys tek, yn ottor dhum arluth whek ago ski/Aye 
yndanno, I have fair flowers, in honour to my sweet 
Lord, (I will) scatter them under him. P.O. 260. 
Comp. of dan, under, and o, he, or it. W. dano. 

DANS, s. m. A tooth. Corn. Voc. dens ; pi. dannet, den- 



86 BAR 

tes. Another plural preserved by Llwyd, 243, was 
deins, agreeing with the old Welsh, deint, as found in 
Taliesin's poems. This is the form preserved in the 
Ordinalia; though written dijns, it was sounded a,s'deins, 
exactly as the English word dines. Pan want'o, gorr'y 
hep fal yntre y dhyns ha'y davas, when he dies put them 
without fail between his teeth and his tongue. O.M. 826. 
Avel brathken aga dyns orto y a dhistcerny, like mastiff 
dogs their teeth op him they gnashed. M.C. 96. In 
Llwyd's time, the plural was written dens. Dans rag, 
a fore tooth, (W. rhagdhant.) Dens rag, fore teeth. 
Dens dhelhar, jaw teeth, or grinders. Lliiyd, 13, 27, 54. 
Dans is a later form of dant. W, dant, pF. dannedh, 
\-deint. Arm. dant, pi. dent. Ir. dead. Gael. deud. 
Manx, \jeid. Lat. dens. Gr. oSov-ra. Goth, tunthua. 
Lith. dantis. Sansc. dat, danta. 

DANTA, v. a. To bite. Llwyd, 245. W. deintio. Arm. danta. 

DANVA, s. f. A hiding place, concealment. Pryce. 

DANVON, v. a. To send. It is written indiscriminately 
danfon. Part. pass, danvenys. Ow map my a dhanvon, 
my son I will send. O.M. 690. Y gras re dhanvonno 
dhyn, his grace may he send to us.- O.M. 1187. Dew 
am dhanvonas dhyso, God has sent me to thee. O.M. 
1480. Pan danfensys dhe cannas, when thou hast sent 
thy messenger. O.M. 1670. Danfon j'eches dhymmo vy 
a'm clevas, send health to me from my disease. O.M. 
2630. Levereuch dhe govr an chy, aga-s mesler dhe dhan- 
von, say ye to the man of the house, your master to 
send. P.C. 634. Gwrys da vye, dhodho y v6s danvenys, 
well done it would be, his being sent to him. P.C. 1609. 
Me a'thpys a dhanfon dhynny cannas, I pray thee to 
send a messenger to us. R.D. 768. Dhcuch comfort a 
Spyrys Sans a dhanfonaf, to you the comfort of the 
Holy Ghost I will send. R.D. 1176. Danwneuch why 
dhe Pyladt, send ye to Pilate. R.D. 1594. Pys e 
dhyin man danfonno, pray thou him that he send 
him to me. R.D. 1620. An Tds Dew dre'n Spyrys Sans 
dhe'n leys danvonas syltvyans, God the Father, through 
the Holy Ghost, to the world has sent salvation. R.D. 
2611. A'n nef y fe danvenys $1 dhodho, from heaven 
there was sent an angel to him. M.O. 58. Ray henna 
y ianvonas Christ dhodho ef, for that he sent Christ to 
him. M.C. 108. W. danvon. 

DANVONAD, s. m. A mission, a message, a command, 
or injunction. PI. danvonadow. Dun alemma, covicthe ; 
me an doro dheuch dhe dre, Arluth, dhe'th danvonadow, 
let us come hence, comrades ; I will bring him to you 
home, Lord, according to thy injunctions. P.C. 998. 
W. danvoniad, pi. danvoniadav. 

DAON.'adj. The first. The only authority is Pryce, and 
an evident corruption. 

DAOR, s. f. The earth, the ground. A late form of doar, 
qd. v. $Dho dotvla'n daor, to throw on the ground. 
Lluyd,l54. \Gudh ditaor, a mole, 160. 

DAOTRN, s. m. A hand, a fist. A late form of darn, qd. v. 

DAOS, v. a. To go. %Daoz meaz, to go abroad. Lluyd, 
129. $Dao war dhelhar , to come back, to return, 137. 
A late form of d6s, qd. v. 

DAR, s. m. An oak. Corn. Voc. quercus vel jllex. PI. 
derow, qd. v. It is preserved in the names of many 
places in Cornwall, as Pendarves, the head of the oak 
field. Pcndar, oak head. Darlees, oak green. Tre- 
luddcro, gray oak town, in Newlyn. W. dar, pi. dcri ; 



DARN 



87 



DASSERCHY 



and derw, whence derwen, a, single tree. Arm. dero, derv, 
derf. Ir. dair, darac/i, duir, derg, darog. Gael, dar- 
ach. Goth. triu. Ang. Sax. treov, tryv. Eng. tree. Gr. 
Spvs, Sdpv. Aapovepvov, a town in Britain. Sansc. daru. 

DAR, s. m. Sadness, sorrow, doubt. These are the mean- 
ings given in Pryce's Vocabulary, but the true signifi- 
cation is very obscure. The following are the sentences 
in which it occurs.. Dar marow yw Syr Urry, alas (?) 
Sir Uriah is dead. O.M. 2217. Bys may codhe hy dhe'n 
dor hay brewy gwylsyn dar dor, mar venys avel skyl brag, 
until she fall upon the earth, and break her, (!) in fierce 
pain, as small as malt dust. O.M. 1719. Dar desevos 
a wrench why, na allaf oio thds fygy, do ye raise a 
doubt (?) that I cannot pray to my Father ? P.O. 1161. 
Nagues ioy y ges colon, lemyn dar ncp marthegyon us 
wharfethys, there is tiotjoy in your heart through (?) 
some wonders that have occurred. R.D. 1259. Oivhab- 
ersen afuegures, levy dar bol, my habergeon was made,(?) 
to spread round my body. R.D. 2537. Mur o an pay n 
dar hen dhe vab Du, much was the pain beyond other 
to God's son. M.C. 135. In Welsh, dar means a noise. 

DAR. A prefix in composition. It implies before, upon, 
or about to be. The most analogous to it ispre in Eng- 
lish. Thus darbary, to prepare. 

DARADOR, s. m. A doorkeeper. Corn. Voc. hostiarius. 
Derived from darat, a door. W. drysor. Ir. doirseoir. 
Gael, dorsair. Manx, darreyder. 

DARALLA, s. m. A tale, a relating. J Ha an delta ma 
ditcedh me daralla dodhans, and so is the end of my tale 
of them. Lhvyd, 253. 

DARAS, s. m. A door. PI. darasow. Fystynyuch tr6h 
an daras, hasten ye through the door. O.M. 349. 
Ygor an daras, open thou the door. P.O. ,1985. Rag 
mar tue dh'agan porthow, ef a ter an darasow, hag a 
dliylyrf an chettys, for if he comes to our doorways, 
he will break the door, and liberate the company. 
P.O. 3041. Ygor dhe dharasow, open thy doors. R.D. 
81. Na war dharas ny dhue dhynny, nor through doors 
he comes not to us. R.D. 329. Bys yn daras y chy, 
even to the door of his house. R.D. 1631. Llwyd 
writes the word darras, darras rag, the fore-door, 13. 
(AV. rhi'gdhor.) Bahoto an darras, the hinges of the door, 
4,1. Darras dhelhar, the back door, 124. Daras is a 
later form of darat, qd. v. W. dor, drws. Arm. d6r. 
Ir. dorus, duras. Gael, dorus. Manx, doi-rye. Gr. 
Pupa. Lat. fores. Sansc. dvdr. Goth, dam: Litli. 
flurrys. Slav. dver. Eng. door. 

DARAT, 8. m. A door. Corn. Voc. hostium. This is the 
old form of daras. 

DARBARY, v. a. To prepare, make ready, provide. 2pers., 
s. imp. darbar. Ty vaow, darbar lym ha pry, meyn wheyl, 
slodyys, ha genow, ha me afystyn agy, ow trehevel an fos- 
oio, thou boy, prepare lime and clay, building stones, 
trucks, and wedges ; and I will hasten within, erecting 
the walls. O.M. 2713. Comp. of the prefix dar, and 
pary, id. qd. Lat. paro, to prepare. VT.darparu. Arm. 
darbari. 

DARN, s. m. A fragment, a piece. PI. darnow. Ow 
holon yntre myl darn marth yw gene na squardy, my 
heart into a thousand pieces it is a wonder to me that 
it is not broken. M.C. 166. Dywolow yjfarn a squer- 
dyrts corf Judas oil dhe dharnow, the devils of hell broke 
the body of Judas all to pieces. M.C. 106. W. darn. 



Arm. darn. Hence the English darn, to piece, or mend. 
Sansc. darana. 

DARYVAS, v. a. To declare, to make known, to tell, 
to shew. Drefen ow bones benen, ty a yl dhym daryvas. 
because I am a woman, thou may est make it known tc 
me. O.M. 162. Gwijr dhym ty a dftaryvas, an varch- 
vran-na dh'y ivhelc, truth thou hast told me, to look for 
that raven. O.M. 1105. Ygor an daras, rak me a vyn 
daryvas worth Ihesu wheth, anodho dycheth vye, y wokyn- 
eth na age, ha'y mitscochneth, open thou the door, for I 
will show to Jesus yet, for him it would be a pity, hia 
folly not to leave, and his madness. P.O. 1986. Ufereth 
fol yw na'm gas, lemmyn mos dhe dharyvas tra na wra les, 
foolish vanity it is that he does not leave it, but to go to 
assert a thing that will not benefit. R.D. 951. 

DARYVAS, s. m. A declaration, an information. Yma 
dhymmo, cowyth da, natr a ioy yn torma, a'th daryvas 
there is to me, good friend, much joy from thy infor- 
mation. R.D. 1301. Ioy yw gynef dhe ckivas, mar lek 
yw dhe dheryvas ; dredhos ythof lowenhys, it is a joy tc 
me to hear, so fair is thy declaration ; through thee I 
am made glad. R.D. 2607. Seth, ow mdb, des omma, 
ha golsow ow daryvas, Seth, my son, come here, and 
listen to my declaration. C.W. 124. 

DAS, a prefix in composition. This is a later form of 
dad, of which we have an example in daittyncy. It has 
the force of re in Latin, as dasvewe, to revive ; dassf.r- 
chy, to rise again ; dasprenna, to redeem. W. dad, \dat, 
comp. of do-at. Old Irish, do-ailh, lailh. Arm. das. 

DAS, s. m. A father. A. mutation of tas, qd. v. A das 
ker, O dear father. O.M. 696. Ef a bren Adam, dhe das, 
he will redeem Adam, thy father. O.M. 811. A das 
Dew yn uchelder, Father God on high. O.M. 937. 

DASARGRAPHA, v. a. To re-print. Ptyce. Comp. of 
prefix das, and argraphy, to print. 

DASCEMERAS, v. a. To recover. Pryce. Comp. of 
prefix das, and cemeras, to take. 

DASCEVIAN, v. a. To find. Pryce. Comp. of prefix das, 
and cnfos, to have. 

DASCOR, v. a. To deliver, yield up, resign. Part. pass. 
dascerys. An el dhym a leverys, pan vu tryddydh tre- 
menys, ty a dliaacor dhe enef, the angel told me, when 
three days are passed, thou shaltgive up thy soul. O.M. 
846. Rak henna an gwella us dascor myns mone yiv 
pys, therefore the best is to deliver up all the money 
(that) is paid. P.C. 1508. Nans o marow, ha daskerys 
y s py r y s > now He was dead, and his spirit yielded. P.C. 
3122. / beyn o mar cr'effha tyn, caman na ylly bewe, heb 
dascor, y eneffgwyn, his pain was so strong and sharp 
that he could not live any way without yielding, bis 
pure soul. M.C. 204. Ha'n enef del dascorse erbyn nater 
gans un cry, and. bei he yielded the soul against nature 
with a cry. M.C. 208. Comp. of pref..rfa, and gore, 
to place. Arm. dascor. 

DASPRENA, v. a. To redeem. Lhvyd, 249. More fre- 
quently written dyspreaa, qd. v. W. dadbrynu. Arm. 
dasprena. 

DASSEROHY, v. m. To rise again. Part. pass, dasser- 
chys. 3 pers. s. pret. dassorchas, as if from dassorchy. 
Ef a tasserch dyougel lyes prys wogi merwel, he will 
rise indeed many times after dying. P.C. 1754. Corf 
yn bedh a worseuch why, a wre host a dhassercky dhe pen 
~try deydh, the body ye have put in the tomb, he boasted 



DAVAS 



88 



DE 



at the end of three days. R.D. 358. Pan bostyas dhe 
pen try deydh y tasserchy dhe vewnans, when he boasted, 
at the end of three days he would rise again to life. 
R.D. 376. Me a'n gwyth kyn tassorcho, 1 will keep 
him though he should rise again. R.D. 379. Ef re 
dhassorchas hydhyw yn men an Mdh, rale no, wrello 
dasserchy, nefre ny gen by en ny ioy hep dhywedh, he 
has risen to-day out of the grave ; for if he should 
not rise again, never should we have joy without 
end. R.D. 1026. An keth corf-na gordhewyth ny dhas- 
orchas, that same body very certainly has not risen. 
R.D. 1036. Aban ama dasserchys, dew hugens deydh 
dyvythys bijdh, panfo nos, since I am risen, forty days 
Will be ended when it is night. R.D. 2436. Comp. of 
pref. dad, and serchy, id. qd. Lat. surgo. Arm. dazor- 
chi. IT. aiseirche, etrche, -tesseirge, \seirge. Gael, eirich. 

DASSERCHYANS, s. m. Resurrection. My ny wodhyen 
a'th vernans, ny vyth may a'th dasserchyans, pan y'th 
whylsyn dewedhys, I knew not of thy death, nor any 
more of thy resurrection, when I saw thee ended. R.D. 
2545. A tits vds, why re welas a dhasserchyans Cryst del 
fue, good people, ye have seen of the resurrection of 
Christ how it was. R.D. 2632. 

DASSBRUY, v. n. To rise again. Anhoulny golse y lyw, 
awos map den dhe verwel, na gorf dasserhy dhe vew, the 
sun would not lose its colour, because a son of man to 
die, nor a body rise again to life. P.O. 3085. Ha cows 
ef dhe dhasserhy, and say that he has risen again to life. 
R.D. 24. Corf Cryst dasserhy s marsyut, mos dhe vyras, 
if the body of Christ be risen, go to see. R.D. 692. Del 
yw leverys dhynny, lemmyn ef re dhassorhas, as it is told 
to us, now he has risen again. R.D. 1272. Another 
form of dasserchy, the aspirate being softened into h. 

DASVEWE, v. n. To revive, to come to life again. Men- 
euch fest y wruk boslye, an trege deydh dasvewe, kyn fe 
ledhys mar garow, very often he did boast the third day 
to revive, though he were killed so cruelly. R.D. 339. 
Ydhyskyblon ynpryve a'n lader yn mes a'n beydh, hag a 
lever yn pup fe y vox dasvewys arte, his disciples privily 
will steal him out of the tomb, and will say in every 
place, that he has revived again. R.D. 345. Coskyn 
ny gans dyaha, kyn dasvewo ny'n drecha dhywar y geyn, 
let us sleep with security ; though he rise, he will not 
lift it from off his back. R.D. 403. Den a vo marow 
ny dhasvew nes, a man that is dead does not live again. 
R.D. 049. 

DATHBLUUR, s. m. A speaker, orator. Corn. Voc. con- 
cionator. See Dadloyer. 

DAVA, v. a. To feel, or handle. Corta, gas vy dhe dava, 
drejun gwelas mar nebas, hold, let me feel it, since' I see 
so little. C.W. 116. Tbe word occurs again in a doubt- 
ful passage. P.O. 1002. Scolkyoucti dh'y an dan dava, 
rag mar a's gwel, efa wra m6s dhe kudhe war unplynch, 
lurk after him, (?) under silence, for if he sees you, he 
will go to hide at a start. The sense would allow a 
connection with tewel, to be silent. 

DAVAS, s. f. A sheep. PI. deoes. Gaver, yweges, karow, 
daves, war ve lavarow, hy hanow da kemeres, goat, steer, 
sheep, according to my words, let them take their good 
name. O.M. 127. Den an geffe cans davas, ha'y cen- 
trevak saw onan, mar a's ladtrf dheworto, pa'n pyn a 
godho dhodho, a man may have a hundred sheep, and his 
ueighbour only one ; if he steal it from him, what 



I punishment is due to him 1 O.M. 2230. Panvogwvs- 
kys an bugel, yfy an denes a bel, hag oil an Jlok a dhy- 
barth, when the shepherd is smitten, the sheep will flee 
far, and all the flock separate. P.O. 894. Rag an lermyn 
re deve mayfydh an begel kyllys, ha chechys yntre dewtt 
ha'n deves dhe ves Jij's, for the time is come, that the 
shepherd will be lost, and caught between hands, and 
the sheep driven out to flight. M.C. 48. Llwyd gives 
the following examples ; \davas tanow, a lean sheep ; 
$davas dhiu, a black sheep; \boudzhe devas, a sheep 
fold ; \lodnn davas, a wether sheep, 172. * Trei cans 
lodon davaz, three hundred sheep, 244. We find another 
late plural, devedgyaw, in C.W. 78. Written in Corn. 
Voc. davat. W. davad, pi. devoid. Arm. davad, danvad, 
pi. deved, denved. In the three British dialects only 
does this word mean a sheep ; in the Irish and Gaelic, 
damh, is an ox. The root seems to be dov, \dorn, tame. 
Bansc. dam. 

DAVAS, s. m. A tongue. A mutation of lavas, qd. v. 
Kemer tyyr spus an aval, a dybrys Adam dhe das; pan 
varivo gorr 'y, hep fal, ynire y dhyns hay davas, take 
three kernels of the apple, which Adam thy father ate ; 
when he dies put them, without fail, between his teeth 
and his tongue. O.M. 826. Den heb davas a gollas e dir, 
a man without a tongue lost his land. Llwyd, 251. 

DAVAT, s. f. A sheep. Corn. Voc. ovis. This is the old 
form of davas. 

DAVER, s. m. A convenience, a scrip, pouch, a budget. 
In medh Christ a ban rug dheuch ernoyth fernoyth ow 
holye", daver vyth wy ny dhecsyuch dhe worre trevyth ynne", 
saith Christ, when I cause you naked unclad me to fol- 
low, conveniences ever ye carried not to put anything in 
them. M.C. 50. This is the plural form of daffar, qd. v. 

DAW, v. n. He will come. Llwyd, 247, gives this as the 
3 pers. s. fut. of d6s, but it is literally the Welsh form, 
and is not to be found in the Ordinalia. 

DAYL, v. imp. It behoveth. Mur a dus a leverys, ny 
dayl dhys tarn y nache, many men said, it avails thee 
nothing to deny him. M.C.- 85. Another form of ddl, 
qd. v. 

DE, adj. Yesterday. $De genzhete, the day before yes- 
terday. Llwyd, 249. A late form of day, qd. v. 

DE, s. m. A day. An abbreviated form of dedh, qd. v. 
Drok na yl den vyth dhe wul dhe weyth, na dhe Sul, no 
man is able to do harm to thee, neither work day nor 
Sunday. R.D. 1833. It was always used in the names 
of the days of the week, which were all borrowed from 
the Romans. De Sil, Sunday ; De Lun, Monday ; De 
Merh, Tuesday ; De Marhar, Wednesday ; De Jeu, 
Thursday ; De Gwenar, Friday ; De Sadurn, Saturday. 
So also in Armoric, di is used for dciz, as Distil, Dililn, 
Dimeurs, Dimercher, Diziou, Digwener, Disadorn. In 
Welsh again, though never written, the dydh is gener- 
ally contracted in conversation into dy', or di: thus 
Distil, Dillun, Dimawrlh, Dimercher, Dydh lau, (here 
the final is preserved before the vowel, as occurs in Ar- 
moric,) Digwener, Disadwrn, 

DE, pr. poss. Thy, thine. This is strictly the secondary 
form of te, but it was always used as the primary form, 
and in construction changed into dhe. Dhe lef Arluth 
a glewaf, thy voice, Lord, I hear. O.M. 587. Pandra 
yw dhe nyoys, what is thy errand 1 O.M. 733. Me a wra 
'dhearhadow, I wiH do thy commands. O.M. 1134. An 



DE 



89 



DEBONER 



re-na a $11 dhe dhysky, yn delta y re dhyskas, those may 
teach thee, as they have learned. M.C. 80. Hag all 
rag dhe gerense, and all for thy sake. O.M. 139. $Na 
ra chee qaicas whans warlyrch chy de contrevak, na ra 
gawas chwans warlyrch gwreg de contrevak, do thou not 
entertain a desire of the house of thy neighbour, nor 
do thou entertain a desire of the wife of thy neighbour. 
Pryce. Written also dy, qd. v. W. ty, dy. Arm. la, 
da. IT. do. Gaei. do. Manx, dty. Gr. reo?, <ro. Lat. 
tuus. 

DE, v. n. He will come. 3 pers. s. fut. of dos, qd. v. Yn 
hanow Duyntredhon benegas yw neb a dhe, in the name 
of God amongst us blessed is he that comes. M.C. 30. 
Oiv thermyn a dhe yn scon, genouch me num bydh trege, 
my time will come immediately, with you I shall not 
stay. M.C. 37. Rdk ow thorment a dhe scon, genoch 
na'm byoe tryge, for my suffering will come soon, that 
with you I shall not stay. P.C. 541. Ha, gynef y tan- 
fonasy le dheuch, pare veuch tear, kep&r ha del ambosas, 
and by me he sent that he will come to you, as ye 
are aware, like as he promised. R.D. 916. W. daw. 
Ann. deu. 

DE, v. a. He will swear. A mutation of te, 3 pers. s. 
fut. of tot, qd. v. Rag henna dhys my a de gordhye lovyn 
veneges, therefore I swear to thee to worship Jove the 
blessed. O.M. 1811. 

DB, prep. To, unto. It changes in construction into dhe, 
and softens the initial following. Jesus Christ mur 
gerense dhe vdb den a dhyswedhas, Jesus Christ much 
love to mankind shewed. M.C. 5. Dybbry boys ef ny 
vynnas, lymmirnpup er >ol ole, dhodho byspan danvonas 
Christ y to dhe Galyle, eat meat he would not, but every 
hour weep, until when Christ sent to him that he would 
come to Galilee. M.C. 87. Adam, fee yn mes a'n wlds, 
troha ken pow dhe vewe, ty dhe honan dhe balas, dhe wrek 
genes dhe nedhe, Adam, go thou out of the country, to- 
wards another land to live ; thou thyself to dig, thy 
wife with thee to spin. O.M. 344. Dre mu thrys y tulh 
un smat, gans kentrom d'aga gorre. through my feet a 
fellow came, with nails to put them. R.D. 2588. This 
word was also written do, dho, and da, dha. W. t<# 
trfo. Arm. da. Ir. do, tcfa. Gael. do. Manx, da. 
Slav. do. Germ. du. In Welsh di is now obsolete, t 
being used instead, but it constantly occurs in the ear- 
liest documents ; \hin map di iob (mod. yn vdb i lott) 
a son of Jove: frfz litav (i lydaui) to Latium: di 
aperthou (i aberlhau) to gifts : and with the article 
dir arpeteticion ceintiru (fr arbededigion yevndyrw} to 
the wretched cousins. Oxford Glosses, quoted in Zenss's 
Gramroatica Celtica. It is also of constant occurrence 
in the Liber Landavensis. " Aper Calfrut in guy ar t 
hit diuiiiid bet penn ar cuieir hadrech dindim dir alt 
diuinid di dree dindifn. o dree dindirn diguairel di guy. 
maliduc guy ar i hit bet aper catfrut." 217. The older 
form do, is also found in composition, in the Luxem- 
burg and Oxford Glosses, quoted by Zeuss, 627, as 
tdoguomiwram, I measure; +doguohitilial,&-vra,]ker,&c. 

DE, prep. From, of. In construction it changes into dhe. 
It is used only with worth, and ray, and their derivatives, 
as deworth, dhewortJi, from by, from ; dheiaorto, from him, 
<fec. Dhe rag, from before, before; dherygthy, before 
her. It is also written dy, qd. v. W. trfi. Arm di. 
Ir. di. 



DEALL, s. m. A deluge. Ow b6dh ythew yn delta, gweyll 
deall war oil an bys, mayfydhpup tra consumys, my will 
is thus, to make a deluge over all the world, that every 
thing shall be consumed. C.W. 168. Written also 
dyai, qd. v. 

DEAN, s. m. A man. Determys ove dha vn dra, dha 
wythyll vn dean omma, a dhor, dhom servia, determined 
I am to one thing, to make a man here on earth, to 
serve me. C.W. 18. A late form of den, qd. v. 

DEANC, v. a. To escape. En varogyon pan glewas Pylat 
mv cows yn della, mur a toy a's kemeras y, dhe dheank 
yn della, the soldiers, when they heard Pilate speaking 
thus, much joy took possession of them, to escape so. 
M.C. 251. Written also dyanc, qd. v. W. dianc. Arm. 
dianca. 

DEAU, num. adj. Two. $Deaumarh, two horses. Llwyd, 
244. A late form of dew, qd. v. 

DEAWL, s. m. A devil. PI. dewolow, dywolow, dewlugy* 
qd. v. Ty sathnas deawl mylygys, thou Satan, devil 
accursed. P.C. 137. War ow fay, hemma yw deawl 
ymskemunys, on my faith, this is a devil accursed. R.D. 
2088. Ef yw deawl cref, he is a strong devil. R.D. 
2111. Me a'n nabow dyougeiytho fe deawl kyns merwel, 
I know it certainly, that he was a devil, before dying. 
R.D. 2121. In the Cornish Vocabulary, the form is 
diavol, qd. v. It is also written diawl, where see the 
synonyms. 

DEBARN, s. m. The itch. Llwyd, 146. 

DEBEL, adj. Wicked, evil. A mutation of tebel, qd. v., 
pi. lebeles. A debel venyn, hep rds, ty rum tullas hep 
ken, O wicked graceless woman, thou hast deceived me 
without pity. O.M. 251. A son an debel bobel, at the 
noise of the wicked people. O.M. 1815. May whello 
an debeles ow gweres menouch dhedh, that the wicked 
may see my frequent help to them. O.M. 1849. 

DEBERHY, v. a. To divide, to separate. %Ha Dew 
rig deberrhee an golow dhurt an tewlder, and God did 
divide the light from the darkness. %Hagrens e deberrhe 
an dowrow dhurt an dowrow, and let it divide the waters 
from the waters. J Ha dew wrds an ebbarn ha dheber- 
has an dowrow, and God made the sky, and divided the 
waters. J Gwrens enna b6s golow der an ebbarn nv, dha 
deberhe an dydh dhort an nos, let there be light in the 
sky, to divide the day from the darkness* C.W. p. 189. 
This is a corruption of deberthy, written also dybarthy, 
qd. v. W. dybarthu. 

DEBERTH, s. m. A division, a separation. Pryce. 

Written also dybarfh, qd. v. 

j DT5BERTHVA, s. f. A division, separation, distinction. 
Me a. vyn btis golow gwryes, hag ynivedh lids deberthvti 
inter an gjjdh ha'n nos, 1 will that light be made, and 
likewise that there b& a distinction between the day, 
and the night. C.W. 8. Comp. of dyberth, and ma, a 
place. 

DEBONER, adj. Lowly, humble, meek. Lavar gwyr 
dhymmo v.n gir, marsota mab den ha Du ; Cryst a gew- 
ays dyboner, te a leverys del yw, tell true to me one word, 
if thou art the sou of God ; Christ spake lowly, thou 
hast said s it is. M.C. 129. Te ra deg6 colon debotier 
trog dhy las< ha dhy mam, thou shalt bear a humble 
heart towards thy father, and thy mother. Pryce. 
From the French delonnairc. 



DEDHE 

DBBR, s. m. A saddle. Another form of diber, qd. v. 
' J Debr dour, a hat ; lit. " sella plurialis," which some 
use, seems a late invented word.' Lltuyd, 62. 

'DEBRY, v. a. To eat. Attebres (atebres,) ly ha'ih worly, 
a'n wedhen hay avalow, yfyeuch yn ur-na avel dewow, if 
thou didst eat, thou and thy husband, of the tree and 
its fruits, ye would be in that hour like gorts. O.M. 
175. Hag ynwcdh gwra dke'th worly, may tebro ef an- 
nodho, and also make to thy husband, that he may eat 
of it. O.M. 200. Pyw a synsow why mochya, nep a 
serf, py a dheber ? A nyns yw nep a dheppro ? whom 
think ye the greatest, the one who serves, or who eats ? 
Is it not he that eats ? P.O. 799. Ny dhebbraf bos, 
bones marow an profos a al$6 ow yache, I will not eat 
food, because the prophet is dead, who could cure me. 
R.D. 1685. It is written as often dybry, or dibri, qd. v. 

DEC, num. adj. Ten. Yn uhelder my a vyn dek warnu- 
gans y vos gures, in height I wish it to be made thirty 
(cubits.) O.M. 960. Hayl Cayfas syr epscob stout, dek 
can quyih dhys lowene, hail, Caiaphas, bold sir bishop, 
ten hundred times joy to thee,! P.O. 574. Dek war- 
nugens a mone, me ny vennaf cafus le, yn gwyryoneth, 
thirty of money, I will not take less, in truth. P.O. 
593. Yma goon vrds dhi/mmo vy, me as gwerth dheuch 
yredy, a dhck warnugans sterlyn, I have a large down, 
I will sell it to you now, for thirty sterling. P.C. 1554. 
By Keigwyn, and Llwyd. it was written deg. Degwarn- 
ygans. C.W. 164. %Padzhar igans a deg, ninety. Llwyd, 
100. W. deg, t dec. Arm. deg, ^dec. Ir. deich, deag, 
frfeoc, ideec, -{dec. Gael, deich, deug. Manx,/A. Or. 
Seta.. Lat decem. Chald. deka. Pers. deh. Slav, desiat. 
Goth, taihun. Sansc. dasan. 

DEK, adj. Fair, comely. G6dh dek scon my a offryn dhe 
Dew war ben ow dewlyn, hag a's gor war y alter, a fair 
goose forthwith I will offer to God on my knees, and 
place it on his altar. t O.M. 1195. Ha dhedhe presl 
gorhemmyn gruthyl wheyl dek ha prive, and command 
them quickly, to do fair and secure work. O.M. 2440. 
My a geu-s dkodho nmr dek, I will speak to him very fair. 
P.C. 189. Me a gerch onan dek dhys, I will fetch a fair 
one for thee. P.C. 2840. A mutation of tek, qd. v. 

DEK, v. a. He will bring. 3 pers. s. fut. of degy. Writ- 
ten also deg, qd. v. Ha me a dhek dttstyny, yn clewys 
ow-leverel, treydydh wose y terry y wrefe y dhrehevel, and 
I bear witness, I heard him saying, three days after 
destroying it, that he would re-build it. P.C. 1313. 

DEDH, s. m. A day. PI. dedliymv. Kyns avorow hanter 
dedh, before to-morrow mid'day. P.C. 722. Why a wra 
y aswonvos dedh brus, hag a'n kyf yn prof, ye will ac- 
knowledge it on the day of judgment, and have it in 
proof. P.C. 1496 Cans dhe golon y vtordhye fftcra, dedh 
ha nos, with thy .jeart do thou worship him, dav and 
night. P.C. 3231. An tryge dtdh yw hydhew, dhyworthyf 
aban ethe, the third day it is to day, since he went from 
me. R.D. 465. An dedhyow a vydh gwelys, hag a dhe 
yntrethon, mayfydh torrow benegis bythqueth na alias e 
dh6n, the days shall be seen, and shall come among us, 
that the wombs shall be blessed that could never bear. 
M.C. 169. Written as commonly dydh, qd. v. 

DEDHB, pron. prep. To them. Dewes a yrhys dedhe, 
dhym rosons bystyl wherow, drink I required of them, 
they gave me bitter gall. R.D. 2600. In construction 
it changes into dhedhe. May rolloyn nep teller dour, dhe 



90 DEFEN 

eve" dhedhe y, that he may give in some place, water to 
them to drink. 0. M. 1824. W. idhynl, idhynt hwy. 
Arm. dez6. Ir. ddibh, -\-doib. Manx, daue. 

DEDHEWY, v. a. To promise. Henna o poynt afalsury 
dedtieioys heb koweras, this was a point of falsehood 
promised without fulfilment. M.C. 83. Written also 
dedhywy, and dydhywy, qd. v. 

DEDHORY, v. n. To rise again. En varogyon a guakas 
myftyn, ha'n gydh ow tardhe, ha Jhesus a ahedhoras, hag 
eih yn le mayfynne, the soldiers slept in the morniug, 
while the day was breaking, and Jesus rose up, and 
went whither he would. M.C. 243. An tressa dydh ef 
a dhedhoras dart an marow, the third day he rose again 
from the dead. Pryce. W. dydhwyre. 

DEDHORYAN8, s. m. A rising again, resurrection. 
Cotvelhyans an sansou-, dewhyllyans pehasow, dcdhoryans 
an corf, ha bewnans heb dywedh, the communion of 
saints, forgiveness of sins, resurrection of the body, 
and life without end. Pryce. 

DEDHY, pron. prep. To her. 01 yfechas guldn dedhy hy y 
feydh gefys, rag kemmyshy dhom care", all her sin clean to 
her is forgiven, for so much she loved me. P.C. 529. In 
construction it changes iutodhedhy. Kyns m6salemma, 
ry whaf dedhy my a wra gans myyn grow yn bras garow, 
before going hence, give a blow to her I will with 
gravel stones very sharply. O.M. 2755. W. idhi. Arm. 
dexi. Ir. di, 

DEDHYWY, v. a. Te promise. Hen eiv an oel a verey 
o dedhywys dyso sy, dhetaorth an Tds Dew an nff, this 
is the oil of mercy which was promised to thee by the 
Father God of Heaven. O.M. 842. Out map vihek, my 
a vynse a luen qolon dhe pygy a dhos dhym hafystyne del 
dhedhyivsyti dhymmo vy, my sweet son, I would wish 
with full heart to pray thee, to come to me and hasten, 
as thou promisedst to me. R.D. 450. Dhf'n bedh pan 
y ges gorrys, dhymmo why a dhedhywys, na'n laddro den, 
to the grave when I set you, ye promised that man 
should not steal him. R.D. 624. Written also dydh- 
yvy, qd. v. W. adhaw. 

DEES, s. m. Men, people. Another form of dun, qd. v. 

DBF, v. n. He will grow. A mutation of tef. 3 pers. 
s. fut. of levy, qd. v. Bohes yw henna dhynny, myns a 
dff ynno, un geydh my ha'm qwrek a ivra dybry, little is 
that for us, all that will grow in it. in one day, I and 
my wife will eat. O.M. 385. 

DEF, s. m. A captain. Ha why Annas, ow dffker, dys- 
wedhouch bos pryns somper rak dysityl an Cristenyon, and 
you, Annas, my dear captain, shew yourself to be a 
prince without equal to destroy the Christians. P.C. 
797. Written also duf. 

DEFALEBY, v. a. To disfigure, to deform. Part. pass. 
defalcbys. Defalebys 6s ha cam, orerdenys ottqans henna 
ythos gans blew, deformed thou art and eroofced over- 
grown all with that thou art with hair. C.W. 116. Dha 
aswon me ny wodhyan, drefan bos defalebys. Defalebys 6v 
pur vear, hag overdevys qans blew, to recognize thee I knew 
not, because thou art deformed. Deformed I am very 
much, and overgrown with hair, C.W. 120 Com- 
pounded of de, neg. prefix, and hyrelep, fonn, likeness. 

DEFEN, s. m. A forbidding, a prohibition. Aban golsle 
worly hy, ha gruthyl dres ow defen, mylyge a u-rnf defry 
an nor y'ih whythres hogen, because thou hearkenedst to 
her, and actedst beyond my prohibition, I will assuredly 



DEFNYDH 

curse the earth in thy evil deed. O.M. 270. Gulan ef 
re qolias anplds, a'm lufd/iychyow a tcrussen, pan wruge 
dres ow defen, clean he has lost the place, (that) I had 
made with my right hand, when he acted against my 
prohibition. O.M. 922. Written also dyfen, qd. v., and 
by Keigwyn, deffan. 

DEFENA, v" a. To awake. See Dyfuny. Y lefenas un 
marrek, there awoke a soldier. M.C. 244. 

DEFENNAD, s. m. A prohibition. PI. defennadow. Rag 
neb a'n gruk ny a bry, a rfis dhyn defennadow, frut na 
wellen dhe dhybry an wedhen, for he who made MS of 
clay gave us prohibition, that we should not eat the 
fhlit of the tree. O.M. 238. 

DEFENNY, v. a. To forbid, to prohibit. Written also 
defen. Part. pass, defennys. Evaprdg ywhrvste sy tulle 
dhe bryes hep ken, an avel worth y derry wose iny dhys 
dh'y dhefen, Eve, why didst thou deceive thy husband 
without pity, by plucking the apple after I had forbid- 
den it to thee. O.M. 280. Adam dres pub hunylh me 
a'n car, po Dew deffan, Adam, above every thing, I 
love, or God forbid. C.W. 50. Mar pe hemma terrys, 
mes a'n wedhan defennys, ragdha me a vydh grevys, if 
this should be broken from the forbidden tree, for this 
I shall be grieved. C.W. 56. Rag terry an kethfrutes 
a wrug dffenna dheworthys, spern y teg ahys ha spedhes, 
for breaking that same fruit, which I did forbid from 
thee, thorns it shall bear for thee, and briars. C.W. 70. 
Pewa ! Abel yw ledhys ! Dew defan y vos gwyr I What, 
Abel is killed ! God forbid it should be true. C.W. 90. 
Written also dyfen, qd. v. 

DEFFE, v. n. He should come. 3 pers. s. imp. subj. of 
irr. v. dos. Yngylwys map Dew yn profahanaf maypor- 
tho cof. pan deffe dh'y wlascor ef, I called him the Son of 
God, in proof that he would bear remembrance of me, 
when he came to his kingdom. R.D 273. 

DEFFO, v. n. He shall come. 3 pers. s. 2 fut. of irr. 
V. dos. Kee kymmer mf)ns a vynny, Adam a'n beis 
oil adro, dhyso ef veydh oesy, hag ahanes a dhejjh, go, 
take as much as thou wilt Adam of the world all around, 
it shall be indeed for thee, and what shall come out of 
thee. O.M. 406. Ha kekemmys na'n cresso, goef termyn a 
dheffb, devones a brys benen, and as many as will not 
believe it, woe to him the time that he came, coming from 
the womb of woman. R.D. 1349. Arluth pie yth en 
alemma dhyn dhe gymeres trygfa na dheffb den vyth gynen, 
Lord, where shall we go from hence, for us to take a 
dwelling, that not any man may come with us. R.D. 
2393. 

DEFFRYTH, adj. Deformed. Lemyn dejryth 6v, ha gwdg, 
pur wyr drys oil an" denes an bys, now deformed I am, 
and hungry, very truly, beyond all the men of the 
world. G.W. 86. This is probably the same as the 
W. difruylh, feeble. 

DKFFYN, v. n. We shall' come. 1 pers. pi fut. of d6s. 
Pandra wren, agan peswar, a rak Pilot pan dheffyn ny 
yn teffry, what shah we do, we four, before Pilate, when 
we come, seriously. R.D. 565^ A Ihcsu, luen a vercy, 
ahunan gvrra prydyry, dhe'lh wlascor pan dcffyn ny, 
clew agan lef, Jesus, full of mercy, do think of us, to 
thy kingdom when we shall come, hear our voice. R.D. 
773. 

DEFNYDH, s. m. Use, substance, matter. War Cedron 
ow crovjedhe yma pren da, ha hen yw emskemunys, rak 



91 DEGE 

ny alias den yn beys anodho gul defnydh vas, on Kedron 
there is lying a good tree, and this is accursed; for no 
man in the world has been able to make a good use of 
it. P.O. 2548. W. devnydk. Arm. danvez, ^danuez. 
Ir. damhna. 

DEPRAN, s. m. The bosom. Yn top an wedhan dek, 
ythese un virgyn whefc, hay Jl6eh pur semely maylyes yn 
y defran, in the top of the tree there -was a sweet virgin, 
and her child very seemly swathed in her bosom. C.W. 
138. Another form of duivron, qd. v. 

DEFRECH, s. m. The arms, the two arms. Yn ur-na 
y a colmas y dhefrech fast gans cronow, in that hour they 
bound his arms fast with thongs. M.C. 76. Josep dhe 
Gryst a vynnas y arrow hay dlieffrech whek, yn vanner 
del yn whds, hey a's ystynnas pur dek, Joseph to Christ 
made-white his legs and arms in the manner as they 
used, and extended them very fairly. M.C. 232. Writ- 
ten also dwyvrech, qd. v. 

DEFRY, adj. Without trifling ; earnest, serious, real, 
true ; quick, soon. Fenten bryght and arhans, ha pedyr 
streyth vras dtfry, ow resek a dyworty, a fountain bright 
like silver, and four streams, large indeed, flowing from 
it. O.M. 772. A pup best kemmyr whare, gorow ha 
benow defry, of every best take forthwith a male and 
and female, really. O.M. 1022. Henna my a greys a 
luen golon, pur dhefry, that I believe with full heart, 
very earnestly. O.M. 1264. Ray henna ymden yn scon 
a dhyworto i'f deffry, therefore, withdraw thou immedi- 
ately from him, in earnest. O.M. 1378. Ty a dhedhy 
a dhysempys yn teffry rak y cusyllye, thou shalt go to her, 
really, immediately soon to counsel her. P.O. 1929. 
It was written at a later period demy. W. divriv. Arm. 
devri. Ir. dibhirceach. Gael, dibhearcach. 

DEFYDH, v. a. To quench, to extinguish. Written also 
dufydh, qd. v. 

DEFYTH, s. m. A wilderness, a desert. Ke yn ves, ym- 
skemenys, yn defythyn lewolgow, dhc vestry a vydh leyhys 
neffre war an enevow, go thou away, accursed, into, the 
desert, into darkness; thy power shall be diminished 
ever over the souls. P.Ci 142. Ha'm hendas Cayn 
whathyw lew, yn defythyn mysk bestes yma ef prest ow 
pewa, and my grandsire Cain is yet alive, in the desert 
among beasts he is now living. C.W. 10S. Another 
form of difeid, qd. v. 

DEG, num. adj. Ten. Degwarnygans, thirty ; lit. ten 
upon twenty. C.W. 164. Thus written in Keigwyn, 
and Llwyd's time, but in the Ordinalia, dec, qd. v. 

DEG, v. a. He will bear. 3 pers. s. fut. of degy. Ha 
rag henna, desempys ny a'lh deg, bf}s gorfen vys yn ponow 
dhe wrowedhe, and therefore forthwith we will carry 
thee, till the end of the world in pains to lie. O.M. 
903. Me a'th di>g, I will bring thee. Lltvyd, 331: Writ- 
ten also dec, qd. v. W. dwg. 

DEGE, s. -m. The tenth, tithe. Hag oil aijas gwyr dhege, 
dhodho gwetyeuch offrynnf, ha'y lesky, del yrchys ef, and 
all your true tithe, to him take ye care to offer, 
and burn it, as he hath enjoined. O.M. 440. Ytho 
prag na leves rf Icafus / dhegt hep grcf, hag alati vyn y 
iesky, new, why didst thou not leave him to have his 
tenth without complaint, and burn it since he will. 
O.M. 497. Tan resyf dheworttyf ve ow degg, ha'm qff'ryn 
guldn, take, receive from me my tithe, and my offering 
pure. O.M. 504. Deg oil agan edltyn, btstes yr. ivedh 



DEGY 

maga la, warnydhy my a off'ryn yn gordhyans dhe'n 
Ids gwella, tithe of all our birds, beasts also as well, 
upon it I will offer, in worship to the best Father. 
O.M. 1181. W. degwm, frfecum, from the Latin decuma>. 
Arm. deog. Ir. deachmhadh, dechmadh. Gael, deachamh. 



DEGENOW, part. Departed. Ellas my ny wodhyen man, 
bones map Dew y honan dagenow yn mes an nef, alas ! 
I knew not at all, that the son of man had departed out 
of heaven. R.D. 2561. This word is of doubtful deri- 
vation, but I am inclined to connect it with descene, to 
descend. 

DEGES, part. Shut, enclosed. Tresters dredho ty a pyn 
adrus rag na vo degees, beams through it thou shalt nail 
across, that it may not be shut. O.M. 964. Ihesu Cryst, 
mdp Dew an nef a dhuethyn chy, ka'n darasow oU deges ; 
whe'tylavarafue,cresolldhywhy, Jesus Christ, Son of 
heaven came into the house, and the doors were all shut ; 
yet his speech was, " Peace to yon all." R.D. 1360. 
Tarosfan a dhve deffry war tus vds, pan v6ns yn chy, 
h'aga darasow degeys, phantoms come indeed upon good 
people, when they are in the house, and all their doors 
shut. R.D. 1452. Deges is the participle of degy, qd.v., 
and is written also dyges. 

DEGHES, v. a. Brought Alan nagus ken maner, an 
arhans kettep dyner me a's deghes war an luer, since there 
is not another wa}', the silver, every penny, I have 
brought upon the floor. P.O. 1514. Deghes is the pre- 
terite of dega or degy, and the h was inserted to shew 
that the g was to be hard. 

DEGL, s. m. A festival, holiday. LItvyd, 59. %Degl 
Stul, Epiphany, 57. This is a contraction of dedh, a 
day, and goil, a holiday, qd. v. 

DEGLENE, v. a. To unloose, to give away. Gwrys da 
vye cafus tan, rag marthys yeyn yw an givyns ; yma ow 
try's ha'm dule dhyworthef ow teglene, ma 'thew krehyllys 
ow dyns, it would be well done to have a fire, for won- 
drous cold is the wind ; my feet and hands are loosen- 
ing, so that my teeth are chattering. P.O. 1217. Mar 
ethuk yw dhe weles, may tyglyn an tybeles, pan y'n gwell- 
ons, fceteppen, go awful is it to see, that the devils will 
wince, when they see it, every head. P.O. 3047. Comp. 
of neg. pref. de, and gleny, to adhere. 

DEGOTH, v. imp. It behoveth, it becometh. Arluth dhe 
vodh my a tora, del degoth dhyrn yn pup le, Lord, I will 
do thy will, as it becomes me in every place. O.M. 
641 . Euch growedJieuch, ow arluth, may hal/er agas cudhe 
gans dylles rych del degolk dhe vychtern a dynyte, go, lie 
down, my lord, that you may be covered with rich 
clothes, as it becomes a king of dignity. O.M. 1925. 
Nep na'n gordhyo del dhegouth, nyns yw den fur, del 
gresaf, he that does not worship him as he ought, is not 
a wise man, as I believe. P.O. 215. Comp. of de, 
id. qd. dy t iutens. prefix, and goth, it behoveth. 

DEGVES, num. adj. .Tenth. Adam, a oil dhe dreves an deg- 
ves ran dhymmo gas, whelh in atal dhe kesky, Adam, of all 
thy sheaves, the tenth leave thou to me, still to remain 
waste. O.M. 426. Comp. of deg, ten, and mes, for fmerf, 
a measure. W. degved. Arm. degved. Ir. deachmhadh. 
Gael, deachamh. Manx, jrigoo. 

DEGWYTII, adv. Ten times. Llwyd, 248. Comp. of 
deg, ten, and gwyth, a time. W. degwaiih, dengtvatth. 

DEGY, v. a. To shut up, t inclose. A'n bedh pan dhueth ha 



92 DEISCYN 

lamme, y fyyg yn un vramme, own fcemerys, del leveraf 
pen bronnen, rak ny alse ymgwen del oil degys, from the 
grave when he came and leaped, thou fleddest in a tre- 
mor, seized by fear, as I say, rush head, for he could 
not move himself as he was entirely shut up. R.D. 2098. 
The participle was also written deges, qd. v. It seems 
to be compounded of intens. prefix de, and cea, W. cau, 
to shut. 

DEGY, v. a. To bear, carry, bring, produce. Otic omma 
prynner genef dhe wul tan, degys a dre, behold here 
wood with me to make a fire, brought from home. 
O.M. 1316. Pup den oil degens ganso ypyth, an mens a 
allo, war aga keyn fardellow, let every man carry with 
him his things, as much as he can, burdens on their 
back. O.M. 1593. Degeuch an pren a dhyhons war 
dhour Cedron may fo pans, carry ye the tree quickly 
over the waters of Cedron, that it may be a bridge. 
O.M. 2810. Na dhegouch sor yn colon, do not ye bear 
anger in heart. P.O. 539. Me a vyn degy adro, ha dhe 
worre gy dhe'n fo a dhesempys, I will carry round, and 
put thee to flight immediately. P.O. 2313. Kymerens 
pup ran a'y tu, degens dhe dre, let every one take a share 
on his side, let him take it home. P.C. 2860. Dover 
vyth wy ny dhecsyuch dhe worre Irevyth ynne, conven- 
iences ye never brought to.put any thing in them. M.C. 
50. Another form of this word is doga, qd. v. W. 
dygu, dyged, -\-doca. Arm. donga. Ir. tug, -\-tuc. Gael. 
toy, tug. Manx, dug. Gr. cep^iu, Se^ofial. Lat. duco. Fr. 
duis. Goth, tiuha. Germ, ziehe. Eng. tug. Sansc. 
duh, tak. 

DEGYLMY, v. a. To untie. Deivsull bleyymupan ese yn 
mysc y abestely, y wrek dhe re anedhe MOS dhe'n dre, ha 
degylmy an asen, ha dryoanse, ha leverel yrcdy mar leffa 
tus, ha giretke, 16s dhe Dhu dhe trull gynxy, Palm Sun- 
day, when he was in the midst of his apostles, he caused 
some of them to go to the town, and untie the she-ass 
and bring (her) with them, and to say readily, if men 
should come and keep (her) that it was for God to do 
with her. M.C. 27. Comp. of neg. prefix de, and cylmy, to 
bind. 

DEHEN, s. m. Cream of milk. Pryce. Arm. dienn. 

DEHESY, v. a. To strike. War, gas vy dhe dhehesy, gans 
morben, lorn trewysy, dhe'n vyl hora war an tdl, mind, let 
me strike, with mallet, a terrible blow to the vile strum- 
pet on the forehead. O.M. 2703. Arm. darchaoui. 

DEHOU, s. m. The right, the south. This word is va- 
riously written, dyhow, dymv, and also in the Ordinalia, 
dychow, qd. v. W. deheu, t dehou. Arm. dehou. 

DEHOULES, s. f. Southernwood. Corn. Voc. aprolanum. 
Comp. of dehou, south, and /<;*, a herb. W. deheulys. 

DEIL, s. m. Leaves. This is a plural aggregate ; for 
the singular, delen is the term, which had another 
plural, delyow, dylyoiv. Agan corfow nolh gallas, gans 
deyl agan cudhe givren, our bodies are become naked, 
with leaves let us cover us. O.M. 254. $Gicetkan 
ny gans deel glds, let us cover with green leaves. C.W-. 
62. W. pi. datt, 8. deilen, dalen. Arm. s. delien, pi. 
deliou. Ir. duille, duile.og, duilein, duillcn. Gael, duille, 
duilleag. Manx, duillag. Anc. Gaulish, dula. Sansc. 
data. 

DEISCYN, v. a. To descend. Llwyd, 44. "Written also 
dyeskenne, qd. v. 






DELHAR t 

DEL, s. m. A semblance, form, or manner. Yn del-ma, 
in this manner, thus. Yn della (del-na) in that manner, 
so. Yn kelel-ma, (keih-del-ma) in this same manner, 
thus. Yn ketella (kelh-del-na) in that same manner, 
so. Fatelfpadelj'W. padhelw) in which manner, as. An 
ioul dhe Gryst- a gewsys yn del-ma rag y demptye, the 
devil to Christ said in this manner to tempt him. M.C. 
14. Yn del-ma heb velyny orto Jesus a yowsas, in this 
manner, without rudeness, Jesus to him spake. M.C. 
80. Yn della re bo, so be it. O.M. 462. Pan vyn an 
Tdsyn della, reys yw y wruthyl porrys, when willeth the 
Father so, very necessary it is to do it. O.M. 648. 
Bodh dhe vap ywyn della, the will of thy son is so. P.O. 
2952. Pray na vydh Adam yn keth della tremowntys, why 
shall not Adam be in the like manner tormented ? C.W. 
148. ^Pandra gowsow dhym lemyn, del nagomapolat brds, 
what say you to me now, as I am not a great pullet. 
C.W. 12. %Ha an dellna elho, and it was so. C.W. p. 190. 
W. delw, dull. Ir. dealbh, -\-delb. Gael, dealbh. Manx,/a#oo. 

DEL, adv. So, as, like as, than. Ny a vyn formye an 
lys, par del 6n try hag onan, we will create the world, 
like as we are three and one. O.M. 12. Arloth Dew, 
a'n nefan Tas, kepar del os luen a rds, venytha gordhyys 
re by, Lord, God, the Father of heaven, as thou art full 
of grace, for eVer be thou worshipped. O.M. IOC. Kyns 
del vy serrys, my a ivra oil del vynny, rather than thou 
shouldst be angry, I will do all as as thou wishest. 
O.M. 245. A wylsta ken yn torma ys del eye ayensow, 
dost thou see more now than as there was just now ? 
O.M. 796. Gor ost genes yrvys da, dhe omladh, del y'm 
Kerry, take a host with thee well armed, to fight as thou 
lovest me. O.M. 2142. Dhymmo vy mar ny gresouch, 
ollengy a wel oil dheuch, kepar ha del levtrys, if ye will 
not believe me, behold them in the sight of you all, 
just as I have said. P.O. 2690. Ha mar scon del y'n 
gwylly, ef a'th saw hep ken yly oil a'th cleves yn tyen, and 
as soon as thou seest it, it will heal thee, without other 
remedy, of all thy malady entirely. R.D. 1694. Gwes- 
kis yn arvoiv, kepare ha del ins dhen gas, clad in arms 
just as if they were going to battle. M.C. 64. Ef a 
days a dhesempys maya town ty del wodhyt, he swore im- 
mediately as deep an oath as he knew. M.C. 85. 

DELC, s. m. A leaf. Llwyd, 13. PI. delciow. ^Delciow 
yiver, green leaves. Llwyd, 61, 243. \Rag delciow sevi 
gura muzi teg, for strawberry leaves make maidens fair. 
Pryce. This is a late corruption of deil. Llwyd gives 
another late singular, Jtat'r delkian, three leaves, 243. 

DELC, s. m. A necklace. Corn. Voc. monile. This word 
is no where else to be found, and has no synonyms 
in, the other dialects. The nearest forms are Ir. dealg, 
trfr/</, a thorn, skewer, or bodkin. Gael, dealg. 

DELE, s. f. The yard of a ship. Corn. Voc. antempna. 
Arm. delex, deU. 

DELEN, s. t The leaf of a tree. Corn. Voc. folium. PI. 
dtilyow, and dylywu, qd. v. See also Deil. W. dalen, 
deden. Ann. delien. In modern Welsh, dalen, pi. dalen- 
au, is the leaf of a book, and dt'ilen, pi. dail, the leaf of 
a tree. 

DELHAR, adv. Back, behind. $Dtns delhar, the back 
teeth, or grinders. t/< dhelhar, behind. \Wardhelhar, 
backwards, behind. Llwyd, 140. $Daos war dhelhar, 
to go back, to return, 137. This is a late form of dell- 
arch, qd. T. 



* DELYOW 

DELLA, adv. In that manner, so. Synays ve dre govaytis, 
yn della yvi leas huny, hurt he was by covetousness, 
so is many a one. M.O. 62. Own a yachyas an Justis, 
pan glewas cows yn della, fear seized the Justice, when 
he heard such a speech. M.C. 143. Comp. of del, man- 
ner, and na, there.- See Del. 

DELL ARCH, adv. Back, behind, backward. Mar posse 
an neyll tenewen, rag y scodh hy a'n yrevye, ha whdth gweth 
a wre anpren, war dhellarch mar an yorre, if he leaned 
on one side, for his shoulder it him grieved, and yet 
worse did the wood, behind if he laid it. M.C. 205. 
Comp. of di, and lerch, a footstep, whence war lerch, be- 
hind. Arm. dilerch. 

DELLE, v. a. To let out, discharge. Me a greys an har- 
lot a dhellos brum, I believe the fellow has let out a puff. 
O.M. 1200. Ellas na dhelleys am gwen dhy lesky un lu- 
hesen, ha crak taran, alas, that I did not send forth to 
burn him a lightning and a clap of thunder. R.D. 
292. Written also dyllo, qd. v. 

DELLO, comp. v. So he was. Un venyn da a welas dello 
Jesus dystryppyys, pytet mur a's kemeras rag y vos mar 
veyll dyytys, a good woman saw how Jesus was stript, 
great pity took her because he was so vilely treated. 
M.C. 177. Comp. of del, as, and o, was. 

DELLY, v. a. To bore a hole. A mutation of telly, qd. v. 
Y delly scon my a wra, rag ebyl parys yma, dh'agafastye 
dyowgel, I will soon bore it, for the pegs are ready, to 
fasten them truly. P.O. 2570. Dew droys Jesus cara- 
dow ha'y dew leyff y a delly, the feet of Jesus beloved 
and his hands they bored. M.C. 159. 

DELMA, adv. In this manner, thus. Anjoul dhe Grist 
a gewsys yn delma, rag y demptye, the devil to Christ 
spoke in this manner, to tempt him. M.C. 14. Comp. 
of del, manner, and ma, here. See Del. 

DELN A, adv. In that manner, go. Ha an delna ytho, and 
so it was. C.W. p. 192. Comp. of del, manner, and na, 
there. It was euphonized into della, qd. v. See also Del. 

DELVETH, v. n. She ought. j.Hye oare gwile padn dahgen 
tye glawne, ha et eye ollaz, hye delveath yowas tane, she 
knows to make good cloth with her wool, and on her 
hearth she ought to have fire. Pryce. This is the 3 
pers. s. fut. of dely. 

DELY, v. a. To owe, to deserve. Llwyd, 247, gives the 
following inflexions of it; delev, dclon, or mi "a dhelon, 
I ought ; deliz, or ti a dheli, thou oughtest ; dele or ev a 
dhyle, he ought. Mai dhyllyn, that I ought or should. 
Kyns y un teller yn beys, dew kendoner yth eg6 dhe un 
dettor j me a grys, an n$l dhodho a dhelle pymp cans dyner 
monyys, ha hanter cans y gyle, once in a part of the world 
there were two debtors to one creditor; I believe the one 
owed to him five hundred pence of money, and half a 
hundred the other. P.O. 504. Written also dylly, qd. v. 
W. dylai, +dyly, ^dele. Ny dele mob uchelwr vod ynpen 
teulu; sefachaus nas dele, a freeholder ought not to be 
the president of the household, for this reason, that 
he ought not. Welsh Laws. 

DELYMMY, v. a. To touch. This word thus explained 
in Pryce's Vocabulary is a blunder. It must be read as 
two words, being del, as, and ymmy, thou shalt kiss, 
qd. v. 

DELYOW, s. m. Pup gwedhen lefyns a'y sdf, ow ton hy 
frul ha'y delyow, ha'n losowys erbyn Jiaf, degyns has yn 
erberow, let every tree grow from its stem, bearing its 






DEN 94 



DENEWEN 



fruit and its leaves, and let the plants against summer 
produce seed in gardens. O.M. 30. One of the plurals 
of deien, qd. v. 

DELYKSENS, v. a. They would have delivered. Yn 
niedh Jesus, nyng-uqy owmichtemes yn bys-ma, hag ape, 
ow thus dhewy nym dulyrsens yn delma, says Jesus, my 
kingdom is not in this world, and if it were, my men 
to you would not have delivered me in this manner. 
M.C. 102. 3 pers. pi. pluperfect subj. of delyfrd. a word 
borrowed from the English. An golom ylas hy lagas 
yn mes gwrahy delyfrt, the dove with blue eyes, ao thou 
liberate her outside. O.M. 1110. 

DEM, pron. prep. To me. Drffen un wyth dhe kennel, 
lydhys of pur dhyogel; gaf dhem ow fech, me rid p$s, 
because I named thee once, I am killed very certainly ; 
forgive me my sins, I pray thee. O.M. 2726. iBez 
mar menta rei dem aria, me a deska diz ken point a shiam, 
but if thou wilt give them to me again, I will teach 
thee another point of wit. Llwyd, 251. Another form 
of dym, qd. v. 

DEMIDHY, v. a. To espouse, to marry. Part. pass. 
dcmidhys. + Kebmer with, na rey ostia en tshei lebma no 
demhoth dewidhys dhe benen iyngtc, take care that thou 
do'not lodge in a house where an old man is married 
to a young woman. Llwyd, 251. W. dywedhio, fr. dy, 
intens. prefix, and gwedh, a yoke. Arm. demezi. IT. 
\-dimhadh, a dowry. 

DEMIG, s. in. A small piece, a particle. A mutation of 
temig, or temmig, qd. v., pi. temigow. En demigow, in 
pieces, piecemeal. Llwyd, 113. 

DEMM A, s. m. A halfpenny. Ow arfeth byth ny whyla, 
ahanas gy un demma my ny sensaf yn torma, my hire I 
never see, of thee one half-penny I do not hold at this 
time. P.C. 2263. W. dimai. From the Lat. dimidium. 

DEN, s. m. A man. Llwyd, 243, gives dynion as the 
plural, but this is exactly the Welsh, plural, and I can 
find no other authority, for this form. In late Cornish 
denes, and dens occur, but in the Ordinalia tus is always 
used for the plural, as yens in French is employed for 
the plural of homme. Map den a bry yn perfyth, me a 
vyn y vosformyys, the son of man of clay perfectly I 
will that he be formed. O.M. 55. My a'd wra ty.dhen 
a bry, we make thee, man, of clay. O.M. 59. Dew dfien 
a gefyih ena, two men thou shalt find there. O.M. 333. 
Denvylh na'th lad/io, that no maa kill thee, O.M. 603. 
Kynyver den us yn wlds, as many men as are in the 
land. O.M. 1020. Rtfprden ol ynno, every man in 
it. O.M. 1043. Drok dhen. 6s~ kepar del ves, a wicked 
man thon art, as thou hast been. M.C. 192. Den 
tune, a young man, a youtn ; din huel, a workman ; 
Jen brus lavar, a great talker, a vaunter; den m6r, a 
mariner ; den Dnv, a godly man ; den coth, an old 
man ; di-n Iras, a great man ; d$n. cldv, a sick man ; 
pi. dynion clevion, Llwyd, 242. Den cosgor, a client ; 
den unchut, a stranger ; den maw, a great man, or 
grandee. Corn. Voc. Lemyn deff'ryth 6v, ha fftciig, pur 
wyr, dref oil denes yn l$s, now deformed I am, and 
hungry, very truly beyond all men in the world. C.W. 
86, Na rnear a dcrn da ny vrraf, ms pup ear oil owptla 
an dens wan mar a cattaf, nor will I more do a good 
turn, but always driving away the weak men if I can. 
C.W. 104.- W. dyn, +den Arm. den. Ir r duine. Gael. 
dvine. Manx, dootnney. Sanse. y'ana. 



DEN, eotnp. prep. To the Compounded of de, to, and 
an, the. In construction it changes into dhen. Ef o 
Christ a dheth dhen levr, mab Dwha den yw kyjfrys, he 
was Christ that came to the earth, the son of God and 
man he is likewise. M.C. 8. Ywreg dhe re anedhe mQs 
dhen dre ha degylmy an asen, he caused some of them 
to go to the town, and untie the ass. M.C. 27. Ha'n 
bewnans pan y'n fcylly, dhe'n dor ty a dreyl arte, and the 
life when thou losest it, to the earth thou shalt turn 
again. O.M. U4. 

DEN, pron. prep. To us. Judas fals a leverys, trehans 
dynar a vone ; nabox oil bedhens gwerthys, ha v6s den 
rag y rannc, false Judas said, three hundred pence of 
money ! let the box all be sold, .and be to us to share it. 
M.C. 36. Comp. of de, to, and yn, us. Written also 
dyn, qd. v. 

DENA, v. a. To suck, to draw, to absorb, to withdraw. 
Llwyd, 158. It was also written dene, and deny. Me 
a vyn mos dhe vyras- hag a wodhfyth, feyns denas a dhy- 
ivorto, oU an cos, I will go to see, and shall know, before 
withdrawing from it, all the case. O.M. 1400. Govy 
vt!i pan vef genys, a dor ow mam dyivylhys, na vylhquem 
pan denys bron, sad, that ever I was born, out of my 
mother's womb brought, or ever sucked the breast. 
O.M. 1755. Rag y tue dydhyow, may fenygouch an torrow, 
nas teve vythyucth flehes, ha kekyjf'rys an bronnow na 
dhenes flehesyggow, for the days will come, that ye will 
bless the wombs that have never borne children, and 
also the breasts that little children have not sucked. 
P.C. 2649. Gans y vam y fye guris, hag ef gensy ow 
tens, by his mother it was made, and he with her suck- 
ing. M.C. 161. W. dyvnu. Arm. dena. IT. dinim, 
dighin, din. Gael. ditk. 

DEN AT AR, adj. Unnatural. Lemmyn gorquyth y gare, ha 
gweyth denatar no, vy, now be thou careful to love him, 
and take care that thou be not unnatural. M.C. 139. 
Comp. of de, negative, and natar from the English. 

DEN DEL, v. a. To earn, get, deserve. %Me a vedn moz 
da huillaz huel da il ; hahuei el dendel 'gys bounaz ybma, 
I will go to look for work to de , and you may get your 
living here. Llwvd, 251. *Nu ra hern moaz dan coos, 
do Jcuntle go booz, \mz gen nebas lavirians, eye venja dendle 
go booz ha dillaz, they shouldsuot go to the wood to 
gather their meat but with littie labour they would get 
their meat and clothes. Pryce. A late form of dyn- 
dyly, qd. v. 

DENETHY, v. n. To give birth 10, to produce Part. pass. 
denethys, born, which is also -written indiscriminately 
denythys, and dynythvs, qd. v. Ty a vydh, ntdb denethys 
a dhe corf, henna a vyah hayal dhys, ny ytt den bos havalla, 
hagenef y fydh kerrys, thou shalt have a son born of 
thy body, he shall bo like to thee no man can be more 
like, and by me he shall be laved C.W, 96. Flehys 
a'm bes denethys a Eva aw freas mer dewdhek warnigans 
genys a vybbyan, heb or taab Cayn hag Abel, children to 
me are born of Eve my wiis many; twelve and twenty 
born of sons, withont my sons Cain and Abel. C.W. 
144. Denethys a n gwerehax Vary, born of the Virgin 
Mary. C.W. p. 200. 

DENETHY ANS. s. m. A generation. Written also den- 
ythyans, qd. v. 

DENEWEN, s. m. A side. A mutation of tenewen, qd. v. 
1 Couyth, growedh an nyl lu, hag aspy ahas, ha gltt, a ray 



DENWENNOW 



95 



DERAFFA 



hag a denewen, comrade, lie on one side, and look out 
continually, and listen, forwards and sideways. O.M. 
2063. 

DENEWOIT, s. m. A steer. Corn. Voc.juvenctu. W. 
diniawed. 

DENEWY, v. a. To pour, shed, or effuse. Ow Jar men- 
naf dhe terry, a ddl mur a vone da, war dhe pen y dhe- 
ncwy, ha war dhe treys magata, my box I -will break, 
which is worth much good money, upon thy head I will 
pour it, and on thy feet likewise. P.O. 487. W. dyneu, 
dyneno. 

DENLADH, s. m. Homicide, murder, manslaughter. 
Onon esa ynpreson, Bardbas yih o gylwys, presonys o ef 
dre dreyson, ha rag denladh kekyffris, there was one in 
prison, Barabbas, he was called, imprisoned he was for 
treason, and for homicide also. M.C. 124. Comp. of 
den, a man, and Iddh, slaughter. W. dynladhiad. 

DENS, s. m. Teeth. The plural of dans, qd. v. J Gora 
an dens harrow dha an gov, dha lebma, put the harrow 
tines to the smith to sharpen. Pryce. Dens-clav, tooth- 
ache. Llwyd, 105. Written also dyns, qd. v. 

DENS, s. m. Men. One of the late plurals of den-, qd. v. 

DENS, T. n. Let them come. 3 pers. pi. imp. of dos, 
qd. v. Olte an tan ow tewy, dens pan vo I6dh ganse y, 
ago bos a vydh parys, behold the fire burning; let them 
come when the will is with them, their food shall be 
ready. P.C. 694. W. deuant. 

DENSES, s. m. Manhood, humanity, men. Pyw a ylta gy 
bones, pan yw mar riidh dhe dhillas yn gwlascor ncf ; rak 
me a wor lour, denses, marnes dre an luen duses, omma ny 
sef, who canst thou be, when thy clothing is so red, in 
the kingdom of heaven 1 for I know certainly that 
men, unless through the full Godhead, remain not here. 
R.D. 2514. Pragyth yw riidh dhe dhyllas, omma aberth 
ynpen wlas, le na fue denses bythquelh ? why are thy 
garments red, here within the head country, where 
humanity never was. R.D. 2531. Arluth ker, bynyges 
6s; asyw toy gynef godhfos, an denses dhe dhos dhe'n nef, 
dear Lord, blessed thou art ; it is a joy with me to 
know that the manhood hath come to heaven. R.D. 
2609. Written also dcnsys. Deuguans dydh ow penys 
y speynas y gyle hay ways, ha wotewedh rag densys ejfa'n 
geve awell boys, forty days in doing penance he wasted 
his flesh and his blood, and at last through (his) man- 
hood he had a desire for food. . M.C. 10. W. dyndawd, 
dyndod. 

DENSETH, s. m. Humanity. Dre y holon yth eth seth ; 
ymab syndis pan welse, moreth an seth ha pytet ; natureth 
o ha densetk, through her heart there went an arrow, 
her son hurt when she saw ; sorrow was the arrow and 
pity ; natural affection and humanity. M.C. 223. An- 
other form of denses. 

DENSHOC, adj. Toothed. Corn. Voc. denshoc dour, 
Inceus, a lucy fish, a hake, (dentatus aquae.) Denshoc 
would have been more correctly written densoc, from 
dens, teeth. W. deintiawg, deintiog. Arm. dantek. Ir. 
f daintech. 

DENUNCIIUT, s. m. A stranger. Corn. Voc. advena; 
where only it is found. Comp. of den, a man ; and 
vnchut, an unknown term, and most probably corrupted. 

DENWENNOW, s. m. Sides. Deu teka bren rag slyllyow, 
ha compos y denwennow, bras ha, crom y ben golcs, lo, the 
fairest trees for rafters, and straight its sides, large and 



rounded its lower end. O.M. 2442. A mutation of 
tenwennow, which is a contracted form of tenewennotv, 
the plural of lenewen, qd. v. 

DENYTHY, v. m. To. give birth to, to produce. Part, 
pass, denythys, and written also denethys, and dynyihys, 
qd. v. Arluth, henyiu re nebes, mar qurenfloch vyth de- 
nythy, Lord, this is too little, if we shall ever produce a 
child. O.M. 390. 

DENYTHYANS, s. m. A generation. Rag me an Arluth 
dhy Dew, yw Dew a sor, ha vyn towle pennsow an tasow 
war an flehes, bys an tressa ha'n peswerra denythyans, 
for I the Lord thy God, am a jealous God, and will visit 
the sins of the fathers upon the children, unto the third 
and fourth generation. Pryce. 

DEPPRO, v. a. He may eat. 3 pers. s. subj. of debbry, 
qd. v. Mara kyllyn y gafus, vynytha na dheppro bous, 
me an Jcelm avel pusorn, if I can find him, that he may 
never eat meat, I will tie him like a bundle. R.D. 541. 

DER, prep. Through, by. This is a late form of dre,, 
qd. v., and was always used in Keigwyn and Llwyd's 
time. Praga na wreta predery, yfestaformyys devery, der 
y wreans ev omma, why dost thou not consider that thou 
wast formed surely by his workmanship here ? C.W. 16. 
Der henna ythof grevys, y wellas ev exallys, ha me dres 
dha yseldar, by that I ain grieved, to see him exalted, 
and myself brought to lowness. C.W. 34. Kellys der 
mernans ow floch, lost through the death of my child. 
C.W. 90. Der an veisder, through the window ; der an 
toll, through the hole. Lbvyd, 249, 252. 

DER, adj. Back. Rag ow keusel y dhe der, aban eth e dhe'n 
teller 16s clevyon dretho sawyys, for they are come back, 
saying, since it went to the place, that the sick are 
healed by it. O.M. 2794. May dhe der, worth dhe vlamye, 
ha henna marthys yn fras, a'n temple ty dh'y denne, ha 
b6s dhodho kymys rds, they are coming back blaming 
thee, and that is very wonderful, from the temple that 
thou drewcst it, and there being to it so much virtue. 
O.M. 2797. Henna ytho gwrys pur dha ; pyma Abel ? 
cows henna, der nag ew e devethys, that was done very 
well ; where is Abel 1 tell that, that he is not come 
back. C.W. 86. Cf. Arm. diadre. Fr. derriere. 

DER, v. a. He will break. A mutation of ler, 3 pers. 
s. fut. of terry, qd. v. Ow Arluth, me a der crak ow 
conna,mars cuch lemyn mes a dre, nefre ny dhebrafvara, 
my lord, I will break shortly my neck, if you go away 
from home, never will I eat bread. O.M. 2184. 

DER, v. n. It concernet.h. Otte omma skyber dek, ha cola 
war hy luer,pynak vo lettrys py tek a weles an chy, ny'm 
der, behold here a fair room, and straw enough on its 
floor, whether he be lettered or lay, that hath seen the 
house, it concerns me not. P.C. 682. Written also dw, 
qd. v. 

DERA, v. n. I do. This word occurs only in the Cornish, 
and is used as an auxiliary with the infinitive mood, as 
%dera vi laviria, I do labour. Llwyd, 246. JDera mittin, 
I carry, 247. He seems to consider it as compounded 
of the intens. prefix rfe, and ra, for wraf, I do. It was 
also written gera and thera. 

DERAPPA, s. m. A rising again, a resurrection. \An 
dehilianz a'n pehazow, an deraffa arta an corf, ha an 
bewnans heb dywadh, the forgiveness of sins, the rising 
again of the body, and the life without end. Pryce. 
This is a late word formed from derevel, to raise. 



DEROW 



96 



DESCA 



DERAGLA, v. a. To chide, to brawl. Llwyd, 74. 

DERAGON, pron. prep. Before us. Dyskynnouch ketep 
map pron, ote an gwcl dheragon glas ow levy, alight ye, 
every son of the breast, behold the rods before us grow- 
ing green. O.M. 1984. Another form of dyragon, qd. v. 

DERAY, s. m. A deed, an exploit. Marmv yw, efa vynse 
gfd deray, hag a r6s strokosow tyn, he is dead, he wished 
to do a deed, and he gave sharp strokes. O.M. 2224. 
Ef re wruk mur. a dheray ; dregoth y wruk leverel, kyn 
fe dyswrys an temple, yn tri dydti yn drehafse bythqueth 
whet nafe ve gwell, he hath made much tumult ; through 
pride he did say, though the temple were destroyed, in 
three days he would re-build it, that never yet it was 
better. P.O. 380. This is not a Celtic word. Mr. 
Norris suggests the Anglo-Saxon dere, an assault, or 
damage. 

DEREVAL, v. a. To raise up, to build, to lift up, to rise. 
Dho dereval aman, to lift up, to incite. Llwyd, 68. Nel 
ef dheravas dhe vewnans dryih an Sperys Sans, whom he 
raised to life through the Holy Ghost. Pryce. %An 
tridga dydh ef daravas arta dort an niarow, the third 
day he rose again from the dead. ibid. %Buz nor 
mennow direval war bidn an pow yein, why dalveya 
gowas an brossa mine, but if you will build up against 
the country cold yon must have the biggest stones. 
ibid. This a later form of drehevel, qd. v. 

DEREVA8, v. a. To declare, to publish. Written also 
deryfas. Tdys hd, mob ha'n Spcris Sans wy a btjs a leun 
golon, re wronte dheuch gras ha skyans dhe dherevas par 
tevarow, mayfo dhe Dhu dhe wordhyarts, ha sylwans dhe'n 
enevow, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ye shall pray with 
faithful heart, that he may grant to yon grace and desire 
to hear his passion, and to me grace and knowledge to 
declare by words, that there be to God the glory and 
salvation to the souls. M.C. 1. Yn le may 'th en yn 
trevow yn splan me a's derevas, in the place that I was 
in towns openly I published them. M.C. 79. Confor- 
tys yw ow colon, pan clewys ow teryfas bones leyhys dhe 
pascyon a fue lyn garow ha bras, my heart is comforted, 
when I have heard (thee) declaring thy passion to be 
alleviated, which was veiy cruel and great. R.D. 504. 
Qu. W. dyrivo, to enumerate. 

DERHI, v. a. To break. Llwyd, 251. A mutation of 
terhy, qd. v. 

DERMYN, s. m. Time, season. A mutation of termyn, 
qd. v. Ty a vydh punsys pur tyn rag dhe dhrdg a ver 
dermyn gans Arluth nefawartha, thou shalt be punished 
very severely, for thy evil, in a short time, by the Lord 
of heaven above. O.M. 1601. Rag dewesys 6s mychtern 
dhyn, ha Icerenys a ver dermyn ly a vydh, for chosen thou 
art a king to us, and crowned in a short time thou shalt 
be. O.M. 2381. Ha dhe welas anpassyon a Jhesus hep 
gorholeth, a wodhevys Cryst rayon, a-vorow deuch a der- 
myn hag ens pup dre, and to see the passion of Jesus 
without delay, which Christ suffered for us, to-morrow 
come ye in time, and let all go home. O.M. 2843. 

DEROW, s. m. Oak, oak trees, an oak tree. Derw is the 
aggregate substantive, but it may also be considered as 
the plural of ddr, qd. v. A Dew leer assoma squyth, 
prynnyer derate ow trehy, vytheth powes my ny'm b$dh, mar 
vrew ew ow yssyly, Oh, dear God, I am weary cutting 
oak sticks ; there is never rest to me, so bruised are 



my limbs. O.M. 1010. W.rferw. Arm. dero. Ir. dar- 
ach, darog. Gael, darach. 

DERRES, pron. prep. By or through your. Llwyd, 244. 
A contracted form of der ages. 

DERRIC, s. m. A grave digger, a sexton. Pryce. From 
dor, earth. 

DERRUS, s. m. Land, territory, country. A mutation 
of terrus, qd. v. Mai yw genen dhe gafus dhe vos, lem- 
yn dhe derrus, ha dhe peyn kepar ha ny, our will is to 
take thee, to go now to (our) country, and to torment 
like us. O.M. 554. 

DERRY, v. a. To break. A mutation of terry, qd. v. 
Eva prag y whruste sy tulle dhe bryes hep ken, an avel 
worth y derry, wose my dhys dh'y dhefen, Eva, why didst 
thou deceive thy husband, without mercy, by plucking 
the apple after I had forbidden it to thee. O.M 279. 
An sarf re ruk ow thotte ; mar derre hy leverys, kepar 
ha dew y fedhe, the serpent hath deceived me ; if I 
plucked it, she said like a god I should be. O.M. 289. 

DERTHEN, s. f. A fever. Llwyd, 87, gives les derthen^ 
feverfew. The only authority is the Cornish Vocabu- 
lary, where it is read by Zeuss and Norris, lesdeith. I 
think Llwyd's reading preferable, as I believe dertfien to 
be the regular mutation after les. fern., of terthen. W. 
tyrton, y dyrton, both adaptations of the Latin tertiana. 

DERYGTHY, pron. prep. Before her. In construction 
dherygthy. Rag mygternas yw yn nef, dhe v6s gordhijs 
hy yw gyiv; eleth dheryglhy a seff's leas myll y bodh- a 
syi.u, for queen she is in heaven, to be worshipped she is 
worthy ; angels before her shall stand, many thousands 
her will shall follow. M.C. 226. Comp. of derag, id. qd. 
dyrag, before, and hy, her. Written also dyragthy. 

DES, v. n. Come thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of dos, qd. v. Re 
dhe Gryst a levery, aberth an grows pan esc, mars oge 
Christ mab Davy, des a'n grows heb pystege, some to 
Christ said, upon the cross when he was, if thou art 
Christ, the son of David, come from the cross without 
sorcery. M.C. 197. Ow servant, des mes omma, ha'w 
gwarac dro hy genas, my servant, come out here, and my 
bow bring it with thee. C.W. 108. Written also dus, 
qd. v. 

DES, v. n. Come. Participle of dos. Heyl Sir Cayfa*, 
epscop stout, may des Ihesu an gwds prout, re wruk. re may- 
stry yn dre, hail, Sir Caiaphas, stout bishop ! here is 
come Jesus, the proud fellow, he has done too much, 
violence in town. P.O. 362. 

DES. v. n. He came. 3 pers. s. pret. of dos. Ti a dhfs, 
thou earnest. Llwyd, 247. 

DES, pron. prep. To thee. J Whey dydhiow ehee wra 
wheel, ha wra mns es dee do geil, six days shalt thou 
labour, and do all that thou hast to do. Pryce. A 
late form of dyt, qd. v. 

DES AN, s. f. A cake. J Ha an dzhei a vyrasan now pen* 
en dezan, and they put the nine pounds in the cake. 
Llwyd, 251. A mutation of tesnn, qd. v. 

DESCA, v. a. To teach, tell, inform ; to learn. Dun ny 
dhe desca in scon d'agan epscop, del yw giureys, let us go 
to declare immediately to our bishop how it is done. 
O.M. 2749. Dun dhe desca dhe Cesar scon, agan dew, let 
us come to tell to Csesar, at once, we two. R.D. 2115. 
It is written also descy, and dyscy, qd. v. A Jerusalem 
dhynny ef a dhueih a Galyle, lays nouydh ow tesky, lens 
ganso ow tryle, to Jerusalem to us he came from Galilee, 



DESEVY 



97 



DETH 



new laws teaching, many with him turning. M.0. 107. 
En deskyens del vyt, ha dhodho a leverys, they taught 
him how it was, and to him said. M.C. 248. 

DESCADER, s. m. A teacher, a doctor. $Desfcadzher, 
Pryce. 

DESCANS, s. m. Skill, cunning, knowledge, skilfulness. 
Llwyd, 118. 

DESCAS, s. m. A teaching, doctrine. Mester leer, re by 
gordhys, del g6th gans tus oil an bys, rag dhe dhescas yw 
pur aha, dear Master, he thou worshipped, as it beho- 
veth, by all meu of the world, for thy doctrine is very 
good. P.O. 121. Mester lynygei re by, rak dhg dhescas 
tek dynny yw parys yn pup termyn, Master, blessed be 
thou, for thy fair doctrine to us is ready at all times. 
P.O. 818. Written also desces. Me a vyn y examne hay 
dus ha'y deskes ivharre, I will examine him and his men, 
and his doctrine soon. P.O. 1211. See also dysces. 

DESCIANS, adj. Without knowledge, foolish. Llvjyd, 
156. Comp. of de, neg., and scions, knowledge. 

DESCRIRYA, v. a. To forsake. Yn erna Christ a vyn- 
nasleverel Ely, Ely, dhescrirya yio a goivsas Arluthpraq 
y hysta vy, in that time Christ would say, Ely, Ely, for- 
saken it is (that) he said why hast thou me. M.C. 201. 

DESCRIS8A, v. a. To distrust. Llwyd, 249. Another 
form of dyscryssy, qd. v. 

DESCYDHYANS, s. m. A demonstration. Pryce. From 
descydhe, id. qd. dyscudhe, to shew, qd. v. 

DESCYN, v. a. To descend, to come down. Part, des- 
cennys. Written also deiscyn, and dyeskenne, qd. v. 

DESEF, v. a. To desire, to wish. Adam plos a dhesefse 
warnan conquerrye neffre ; lemyn ef yw agan gwas, the 
foul Adam would desire over us to be a conqueror al- 
ways ; now he is our servant. O.M. 908. Hy a dhesefse 
scornc gans an epscop, ha'y dolle dhe viordhye dewow 
nouydh, she \voald wish to strive with the bishop, and 
delude him to worship new gods. O.M. 2730. Desefsen 
dodho ry what, dkynny efa wruk an prat, hag afyes dhy- 
worthyn, we wished to give him a blow ; to us he did 
the trick and fled from us. E.D. 604. Lemmyn worth 
agan gelwel, rak own desefsen merwel, me a crennas, now 
calling us for fear I would have desired to die, I trem- 
bled. R.D. 1772. W. deisyv. Ir. \deotlias. 

DESEMPYS, adj ; Sudden, immediate. Henywdydha 
bowesva dhe pup den a vo sylwys ; yn dysquydhyens a 
henna, ny a hotoes desempys, this is a day of rest to every 
man that may be saved ; in declaration of that we will 
rest forthwith. O.M." 148. Dew dhen a gefyth ena, gor 
y yn mes desempys, thou wilt find two 'men there, put 
them out immediately. O.M. 334. Though the adjective 
is constantly used for the adverb, the adverbial particle 
a ought strictly to precede. Am dhedhe a, dhesempys yn 
hanout an tds an nef, kiss them immediately, in the 
name of the Father of heaven. O.M. 1769. The word 
is written indiscriminately desympys, dysempys, and 
dysympys. W. disymmwth. 

DESETHY, v. a. To stir up, to excite. Part. pass, dese- 
thys. Pryce. Onon gans an keth welen yn leyff Christ 
ave gorrin, an gwyskys lasche war an pen, bum pur gewar 
dexethys, one with the same rod in the hand of Christ 
(that) was put, struck him a lash on the head, a blow 
very accurately struck. M.C. 138. Vf.dyseuthu. 

DESEVY, v. a. To throw down. Ihesu Crist mur gerense 
dhe vab den a dhysu-edhas, a'n uchelder may 'ihes6 dhefn 
o 



IQs pan deyskynnas, pehadoryon rag perna o desevys dre 
Satnas, Jesus Christ shewed much love to the son 
of man, when he descended to the world from the 
height that he was, to redeem sinners (that) were thrown 
down by Satan. M.C. 5. Comp. of de, neg., and sevy, 
id. qd. W. sevyd, to stand. 

DESGA, v. a. To learn. Llwyd, 65. Id. qd. desca, qd. v. 

DESGIBL, s. m. A scholar, a disciple. Llwyd, 55. See 
Dyscybel. 

DESIMPIT, adj. Sudden, immediate. Corn. Yoc. cus- 
cadur desimpit, letargus vel letargicus, a lethargic man, 
one who sleeps immediately. Hun desempit, letargia, 
lethargy, immediate sleep. This is the old form of des- 
empys, qd. v. 

DESMOS, s. f. A rite, or custom. Llwyd, 284. W. dedhv, 
dedhvod, -\-dedhmod. Ir. deachdach. Gael, deachdach. 
Gr. 0<rp,os. 

DESMYGY, v. a. To declare, to tell, to make known. Pup 
cowyth oil prydyrys, martesen vy"dh yn y vr$s desmygy 
pren vasptefo, let every comrade consider, perhaps it 
will be in his mind to tell where there is a good tree. 
P.O. 2542. Written also dysmegy, qd. v. 

DESO, pron. prep. To thee. Lavarsons y heb pyte, agan 
' traytour yw kefys, reys yw dheso y dhamnye dhe'n mer- 
nansa dhesympys, they said without pity, our traitor is 
found, necessity is for thee to condemn him to death 
immediately. M.C. 98. Na ve b6s fals an den-ma nyn 
drosen ny bys deso, were not this man false, we should 
not have brought him to thee. M.C. 99. An enlarged 
form of des,- qd. v. 

DESONS, v. n. They came. 3 pers. pi. pret. of d6s, qd. v. 
Lavar dhymmovy yn scon, pie re-seth dhe dhyscyblon,prag 
na dhesons y yn chy, tell me now immediately, where 
are gone thy disciples, why have they not come into the 
house. P.C. 1247. The same word as dethons. 

DESTREWY, v. a. To destroy, ruin, kill. Rag henna an 
vuscogyon orto a borthas avy, dre vrasier bras yn gohn y 
dhugtyons y dhestretvy, for that reason the fools to him 
bore spite, through great pride in heart they bethought 
to destroy, him. M.C. 26. Written also dystrewy, qd. v. 

DESTRIA, v. a. To destroy, ruin, kill. This is the late 
form of destreivy, as used in the time of Jordan and 
Llwyd. May fydh an b$s destryes, der levyow a dhower 
pur was, that the world shall be destroyed by floods of 
water very great. C.W. 156. Destrea an bys-ma, to de- 
stroy this world. C.W. 182. Dho destria an den cdth, to 
kill the old man. JAfa agen ost destriez neheur, our host 
was killed last night. Llwyd, 252. 

DESYMPYS, adj. Immediate. Del yrchys Jesus dhedhe 
y a rug a dhesympys, as Jesus commanded them, they 
did immediately. M.C. 28, id. qd. desempys, qd. v. 

DET, s. m. A day. This is the old orthography, preser- 
ved in the Cornish Vocabulary, of dedh, qd. v. 

DETH, v. m. He came. 3 pers. s. pret. of irr. v. dos. In 
construction it changes into dheth, and teth. Efo Christ 
a dheth dhe'n leur, mdb Du ha denyw kyffris, he was 
Christ (that) came to the earth, the Son of God and man 
he is likewise. M.C. 8. Cryst kymmys payn y'n geve, 
angus tyn ha galarow, ma teth an goys ha dropye war 
yfas, an caradow, Christ so much pain> had, anguish 
sharp, and pangs, that the blood came, and dropped on 
his face, the beloved. M.C. 59. Jesus a gtwsys arte, 
why a d/teth dhym yn'arvow, Jesus said again, ye have 



DEVAE 



98 



DEVONES 



come to me in arms, M.C. 74. Pan deth leyff Christ 
war en toll dre an nerth may tensons hy, when came the 
hand of Christ on the hole by the strength that they 
drew it. M.C. 182. W. daeth. 

DETH, pron. prep. To thy. A Das Dew y'th wolowys, 
grannt dhe'th ivythres, neppeyth aoela vercy, Father God, 
in thy lights, grant to thy workmanship, some portion of 
the oil of mercy. O.M. 326. Ynno gweet yn-ta whelas bos 
dhe'th ly ha dhe'th kynyow, in it take good care to seek 
food for thy breakfast and thy dinner. O.M. 1140. 
Comp. of de, to, and yth, thy. W. i'th. 

DETHENS, v. n. They came. 3 pers. pi. pret. of irr. v. 
dos. Pan dethens y bys yn bedh, yth eth on marrek dh'y 
ben, hag arall dh'y dreys, when they came to the grave, 
there went one soldier to his head, and another to his 
feet. M.C. 242. W. daethant. 

DETHEWY.v. a. To promise. Part pass, detheuys. Hag 
ef rag own ny ylly gatts Jesus kewsel gcr vas, hena o poynt \ 
afafsury dMeuiys 'heb koweras, and he for fear could not 
with Jesus speak a good word, that was a point of false- 
hood promised without fulfilment. M.C. 83. Written 
also didhywy, qd. v. W. adhaw. 

DETHONS, v. n. They came. 3 pers. pi. pret. of'rfo*. 
Dhe joy y lethons gynef, kenunys a wruk bodh oiv thus, 
to joy they are come with me, as many as have done 
the will of my Father. R.D. 2577. Id. qd. dethens. 

DETHORY, v. n. To rise again. See Dedhory. 

DETHY, pron. prep. To her, or it. See Dedhy. 

DETHYE, v. n. He had come. 3 pers. s. pluperf. of irr. 
v. dos. Dhen tyller Crist re dethye, han Edhewon o 
dygnas, yth ese ha n venyn ganse,parys ens dh'y huhudhas, 
to the place Christ had come, and the Jews were oppo- 
sing, and the woman was with them, they were ready to 
accuse her. M.C. 33. W. daethai. 

DEUCH, v. n. Come ye. 2 pers. pi. imp. of irr. v. dos. 
Oil ids ow chy, deuch gunef vy, bryntyn ha keth, all men 
of my house, come ye with me, nobles and commons. 
O.M. 1691. Deuch yn rag ketep onan lemyn yn ow othvm- 
ioM>,come forth everyone now in my necessities. O.M. 
2683. Deuch holyouch vy bys yn menedh, come, follow ye 
me ever to the mountain. M.C. 53. In late times the final 
aspirate was softened into h, and then lost, as dcuh, deu. 
W. deuwch, dowch. 

DEUCH, pron. prep. To ye or you. Re wronte dheuch 
gras ha whans dhe wolsowasy basconn, to grant you grace 
and desire to hear his passion. M.C. 1. My a wolch 
scon ow dulc, a ivel dheuch kettep onan, I will wash im- 
mediately my hands, in the sight of you every one. P.O. 
2500. Ha'y vennath dheuch pup huny, and his blessing 
on you every one. R.D. 2643. This was also written 
dwell, deych, dych, and finally softened into deuh, dheuh, 
dheu. J Dew a dal dheuh, God shall reward you. Lhvyd, 
242. W. iwch. Arm. deach, idich. Ir. dhaoibh, dhibh, 
\-duib, -\-duibsi. Gael, dhuibh. Manx, diu. 

DEUN, v. n. Let us come. 1 pers. pi. imp. of dos. Meer, 
meer, a'n gwelta, Eva, yma ef ow toos omma, rag meth 
deun ny alemma, dhe gudhe yn tellar dos, look, look, dost 
thou see him, Eve, he is coming here ; for shame let us 
go hence, to hide in some close place. C.W. 62. Writ- 
ten also dun, qd. v. 

DEVAR, s. m. Duty. $Ny a vidn gwyll in delta, del ew 
devar, dheny ha theik ivordhya rag nefra, par dell ew 
agcn dewty, we will do so, as it is becoming to us, and 



thee worship for ever, as it is our duty. C.W. 182. 
This is not a Celtic word, being the French devoir. 

DEVE, v. n. He came. 3 pers. s. pret. of devos, qd. v. 
Written also defe. Rag an termyn re deve, mayfydh an 
begel kyllys, for the time is come, that the shepherd 
will be lost M.C. 48. Lemmyn deve ken termyn, ow 
thas rom yronntyas dhe wy, now is come another time,- 
my father hath granted me to you. M.C. 75. A las ben- 
yges y'th se, lemmyn dhys my re deve gans densys yn mes 
an beys, Father, blessed on thy throne, now I am 
come to thee with the manhood out of the world. R.D. 
2620. An grows y a rug gorre war scodh Jesus dh'y don 
dhy, Ihesus Crist may teffe oil an gref ha'n belyny, the 
cross they did put on Jesus to carry it thither, to Jesus 
Christ that might come all the grief and the shame. 
M.C. 162. 

DEVEDHYS, part. Come, arrived. Part. pass, of devos, 
qd. v. Ow arluth lowene dhys, ow olte vy devedhys arte 
dhe dre, my lord joy to thee, behold me come again 
home. O.M. 2212. Lemyn my a war dhe wyr, bosow ther- 
myn devedhys, now I know truly, that my term is arri- 
ved. O.M. 2344. Neungo devedhys anprjjs may 'I/to ogas 
dh'y dhewedh, the time was not come, that he was near 
his end. M.C. 200. Devedhys is the participle of a 
verb, the Welsh equivalent of which is dyvod, and of 
which dos is a contracted form. 

DEVELO, adj. Weak, impotent, infirm. Llwyd, 53. 

DEVERGI, s. ro. An otter. Lluyd, 241. Written also 
dourgi, and dofergi, qd. V. 

DEVERY, v. n. To drop, to trickle down. Ha dhe'n doar 
an gays ha'n lyn annodho dell deveras, and to the earth 
the blood and the humour how it dropped. M.C. 221. 
Feslyn lyn y a wolf, dhe wherthyu nysteva whans; ha'y 
dagroic a dhevere a'y dew lagas pur dhewhans, very grie- 
vously she wept, to laugh she found not desire ; and her 
tears dropped from her eyes very fast. M.C. 222. Mam 
Jesus Crist a ammc corf y mob par drewgsy, ha'y dagrow 
a dhevere anodho pan predery, the mother of Jesus Christ 
kissed the body of her son very dolefully, and the tears 
dropped when she thought of him. M.C. 231. Written 
also dyvery, qd. v. 

DEVES, s. m. Sheep. The plural of davas, qd. v. Pan 
vo gwyskys an bugel, y fy an deves a bell, when the shep- 
herd is smitten the sheep will flee far. P.O. 894. 

DEA r ETH, adj. Shameless, unabashed. Hag a dhychow, 
hag a gledh, onon a bub teneicen, bost a wrens tyn ha 
develh, y'n gwytheru, worth y ehen, and on the right, and 
on the left, one. on each side, boast they made strong 
and shameless, that they would keep him against his 
effort. M.C. 242. Wrkten also dnet/i, qd. v. 

DEVIDGYOW, s. m. Sheep. J War an fastas, ha'n ohan, 
ha'n devidgyau) oil yn giveall, over the beasts, and the 
oxen, and all the sheep in the field. C.W. 78. This is 
a late plural of davas. 

DEVIDHYS, part. Choked.. Pryce. 

DEVINA, v. a. To awake. Pret devinas, Pryce. See 
Dyfuny. 

DEVONES, v. n. To come. Tus us dhym ow tevones yw 
gans ow thraytor dyskis, people are coming to me, by my 
betrayer taught. M.C. 61. Ow tevones wy a'm gwylvylh 
heb neb mar, ye shall see me coming without any doubt. 
M.C. 93. Ha kekemys na'n cresso, gotf termyn a dhejf'o 
devones a brys benen, and as many as shall not believe, 



DEW 1 

woe to him the time that he came coming from the 
womb of woman. R.D. 1350. Fystynyn fast dh'agan 
pow, rak devones devxlow dhe'n teroge, y m6ns mv crye 
huthyk, let us hasten quick to our country, for devils are 
coming to the land ; they are crying horridly. R.D. 
2302. This is an enlarged form of deros, as mones of 

DEVOS, v. n. To come. Arluth ow twos a Spayn, yth egen 
yn ores Almayn, orlh un prys-ly yn pur wyr, pan fuf gyl- 
wys, Lord, coming from Spain, I was in the middle of 
Germany, at a breakfast meal, very truly when I was 
called. R.D. 2147. This is the original form, of which 
dos is a contraction. (W. dyvod.) The participle is 
devedhys, qd. v. 

DEVRA, s. f. The bosom. Hay in top an keth wedhan, 
me a wel un mayteth wheg ow sedha, hagyny devrafioch 
teg, and in the top of the same tree, I see a virgin sit- 
ting, and in her bosom a beautiful child. C.W. 132. A 
late form of duivron, qd. v. 

DEVRAC, adj. Watery. Tir devrak, watery ground, a 
bog, marsh, or fen. Llwyd, 112. Derived from dever, 
id. qd. dour, qd. v. W. dyvrog. Arm. dourek. 

DEVRY, adj. Without trifling, serious, earnest. Yn pur 
dhevry, very earnestly. Henna yw ow thmvl devery, that 
is my design seriously. C.W. 10. Another form of 

DEVYS, part. Grown. Ha pan vo hy coivl devys, hy a 
vydh pub erparys dha dhon an oyl a vercy, and when it 
is full grown, it will always be ready to bear the oil 
of mercy. C.W. 134. A mutation of tevys, qd. v. 

DEVYTH, 8. m. A wilderness, a desert. C.W. 94. A 
later form of defylh, qd. v. 

DEW, s. m. God. PL dewow, dewyow. Yfyeuchynur- 
na avel dewow, ye would be in that hour like gods. O.M. 
178. F won dhe wyr Dew an ids re sorras dreieyth benen, 
I know truly, God the Father, a sorry woman hath an- 
gered. O.M. 255. A Dhew a nef, God of heaven. 
O.M. 1607. Hag a wordh dewow tebel, and will worship 
evil gods. O.M. 1818. Plema an ojfryn, a das, a vydh les- 
kys dhe Dhew ras, rag y wordhye, where is the offering, 
father, which shall be burnt to the God of grace, to 
worship him. O.M. 1317. Te ny'n vydh dhys Deuyoiv 
eraill rn.es me, thou shalt have none other Gods but 
me. Pryce. Written also Du, and in the Cornish 
Vocabulary, Duy. W. duw, dai, i-diu, ^diuu. Arm. 
dove, t doe. Ir. dia, + de, Gael. dia. Manx,/ee. Gaul. 
devos. Gr. 0tos. Lat. deus. Lith. diewas. O.N. tivi. 
Sansc. daivas, from div, to shine. 

DEW, num. adj. Two. Dew dh$n a gefylh ena, two men 
thou shalt find there. O.M. 333. Nep dew cans vledh- 

Zow, some two hundred years. O.M. 657. Agan dew 
^ is yw martfiys claf ow colyas, our (two) eyes are 
wondrous tired watching. P.C. 1066. A dhew harlot, 
ye two knaves. P.C. 2322. Dew is used with nouns 
masculine, and dui, qd. v., with feminities. The same 
rule holds good in W. dau, +dou, with-nouns masculine, 
and duy, with feminine. Arm. daou, t dou. Ir. da, do, 
t dau, 4 de. Gael. da. Mans, daa. Lith. dwi. Goth. 
twai. Gr. Svo. Lat. duo. Sansc. dvau, from dan, to 
separate, or divide. 

DEW, s. f. Two, a pair, a couple. PL dewyes. Cor an 
d/icv:-ma yn pry son, pan funs fast, ro dhym, hep s6n, dhe 
alwedhow, put thou this pair in prison ; when they are 



) DEWEN 

fast, give me without noise thy keys. R.D. 82. Deuch 
agas dew scon yn rak, come ye forth at once ye two. 
P.C. 1867. +A bub sort a leverow egwal unna ew gorrys, 
pekar ythew an sortow, gorrys unna der dewyes in dlffrans 
ha kehaval, of every sort of books equally in them are 
put, as are the sorts put in them by pairs, in proportion 
and equality. C.W. 160. W. duu, pi. deuoedh. 

DEWCH, v. n. Ye shall come. 2 ners. pi. fut. of d6s. 
Nefra ny dhewch a-lena, never shall ye come from thence. 
C.W. 134. Written also deuch. W. deuwch. 

DEWDHEC, num. adj. Twelve. Oil dhe'n bestes ut omma 
a gef b6s lour dewdhec mys, all the beasts (that) are here 
shall find food enough twelve months. O.M. 1060. 
Dewysys ouch dewdhec lei, ye are chosen twelve faithful. 
P.C. 228. Flehys am bes denethys, a Eva ow freas 
mear, dewdhec warnigans genys a vybbyon, heb ow mab 
Cayn hag Abel, children to me are born, of Eve, my 
wife many, two and thirty (12+20) born of sons without 
Cain and Abel. C.W. 144. Comp. of dew, two, and 
dec, ten. W. deudheg, tdeudeg, idoudec. Arm. douzec. 
Ir. dadheag. Gael, dadheug, Manx, daa-jeig. Gr. 
Lat. duodecim. Sansc. dvddas'an. 



DEWEDH, s. m. End, conclusion. Gans laddron y te~ 
wed/ias, del yw screfys a'y dheivedh, with thieves he end- 
ed, as it is written of his end. M.C. 186. Neungo 
devedhys an prys may 'tho agas dh'y dhewedh, the time 
was not come that he was near his end. M.C. 200. 
Dysquedhyens warlyrch anken bedhe mi/gtern yn dewedh, 
a proof after sorrow that he was a king at last. M.C. 
236. Written also diwedh, or dywedh, qd. v. 

DEWEDHE, v. a. To end, finish, accomplish. Written 
also dewedhy. Part. pass, dewedhys. A Dew her, assoma 
squyth, wyn veys a quellen un wyih an termyn dhe dhewe- 
dne, dear God, I am weary, happy if I should once 
see the time to end. O.M. 686. Aban nafyn dewedhe, 
me a vyn y curune, avel mychtern Yedhewon, since he 
will not end, I will crown him, as king of the Jews. 
P.C. 2115. Rag mar was yju dallethys, neffra ny vijdh 
dewedhys, for so large is it begun, it will never be 
ended. C.W. 174. W. diwedhu. 

DEWEDHES, s. m. The evening. Kemys druk us ow 
codhe, ha deivedhes hag avar, yma ken dhym dhe ole dag- 
grow gois in givyr hep mar, so much evil is falling,oboth 
late and early ; there is cause to me to weep tears of 
blood, without doubt. O.M.629. Trylc gynen a gowyth her, 
rag nammag yw gorlhuer ha dewedhes, stay with us^ 
dear comrade, for it is almost dark and late. R.D. 1305. 
W. diwedydh, from diwedh, end, and dydh, day. 

DEWELLENS, s. m. Remission, forgiveness, atonement. 
Yn dewellens pechadow gul alter da vye, ha dhodho agan 
lodhnow wamedhy sacryfye, in atonement of sins, to 
make an altar would be good, and to him our bullocks 
upon it to sacrifice. O.M. 1173. One of the various 
forms of dewhyttyans, qd. v. 

DEWEN, s. m. The gills. Ha bwemv leas heb ken, ha 
tummasow kekyffrys, dhe Gryst adro dhe dhewen gans 
nerlh bras a ve syttys, and buffets without pity, and 
thumps alike, to Christ about the cheeks with great 
strength were laid. M.C. 138. Pan dethens y b$s yn 
bedh yth eth un marrek dh'y ben, hng araU d/iy dreys yn 
wedh, yrvysfast b!js yn dhewen, when they came to the 
tomb, one soldier went to his head, and another to hi 3 



DEWHELES 



100 



DEWLUGY 



feet also, armed quite to the chaps. M.C. 242. Writ- 
ten also dywen, qd. v. 

DEWES, s. m. Drink, beer. Written also dewas, and 
dywts. Dewes mar nystevyth,y a dreylfjth, hag a wordh 
dewow tebel, for if drink be not found, they wilt turn, 
and worship evil gods. O.M. 1816. Ray gwell dewes 
vythelh vjjn nyn* a yn agas ganow, for better drink of 
wine will never go into your mouth. OM. 1912. An 
dewes yw da ha cler, the drink is good and clear. O.M. 
1 918. Otta dywes dhys omma, prag net wrcta y eft, be- 
hold a drink for thee here ; why dost thou not drink 
it ? P.O. 2980. Deto dhen Crist a dhanvonas dhe berna 
boys ha dewas, two men Christ sent to buy meat and 
drink. M.C. 42. Gans Edhewon dr6k dhewas a, vedythgtis. 
by the Jews bad drink was brought. M.C, 202. I)ev>a$ 
c6th, stale beer ; dewas creev, strong beer. Pryce. This 
is a late form of diot t qd. v. 

DEWESY, v. a. To choose, to elect, to select. Parti pass. 
dcwesys. En gtidh o dcyow hablys may fsnn Jeeus 
sopye, gans an re yn y servys war an bf/s ~e dhewtssi, the 
day was the Thursday of preparation that Jesus would 
sup with those people ia his service in the workUhe 
had chosen. M.C. 41. Lowene" dhys Salamon, dus genen 
ny dhe Iron dhe das David; rag dewesys 6s mychtern 
dhyn ha kerenys a ver dermyn ty a vydh, hail to thee, 
Solomon, come with us to the throne of thy fatherDavid ; 
for chosen thon art a king to us, and crowned in a short 
titne thou shalt be. O.M. 2380. Written also diwys, 
and dywys, qd. v. W. dewis. Arm. diwis. Ir. tocna, 
too, ffo'/M. Gael, tagh, tvghadh. 

DEWETH, adv. Twice. Lbiyd, 232. Comp. of dew, two, 
and giuHh, a time. Written also dewylh, qd. v. W. dwy- 
wailh. 

DEWH AN, s. m. Sorrow, grief, vexatiou Gwyn oto bys, 
b6s dhymfethys lavyr ha dewhan an ijfr, pell me ren 
sewyas omma, happy my lot that the labour and sorrow 
of the world are vanquished for me, too long they have 
followed me here. C.W. 146. Written also dwxm, 
and dmohan, qd. v. 

DEWH ANHE, v. n. To be grieved, to be sorrowful. Pan- 
dra wher dha why, yn delma bonas serrys ? yn <na holan 
par dhefry ythoma pur dewhanhees, orth dhe welas en state- 
ma, what doth ail you, in this manner to be troubled 1 
in my heart very seriously I am much grieved, at see- 
ing thee in this state. C.W. 88. Written also duwhtne, 
qd. v. 

DEWHANS, adv. Eagerly, hastily, quickly, directly, co- 
piously. Ha'y dagrow a dhevere a'y dew logos pur dhetv- 
hans, and her tears dropped from her eyes very copiously. 
M.C. 222. Cuntett warbarth owfegans, me a m6spur us- 
kys, ha wos6 hemma. dewhans, pell yn devyth dha wandra, 
gather together my necessaries, I will go very soon, and 
afterwards speedily, far in the desert to wander. C;W. 
94. Written also duwhans and dytohans, qd. v. 

DEWHELES, v. n. To return, to come back. Gwra dke 
nygys eredy, kyns dewheles, my a'd pfo, do thy errand 
surely, before returning, I pray thee. O.M. 728. Ow 
mebyon my agy peys, yn mes voMth dyUeuch tryssi ; mar 
kyftyr sijch, my a greys, dynny ny dnewel arte, my sons 
I pray you, send outside a third ; if it will find dry 
ground, I believe it will not come back again. O.M. 1132. 
Saw vynerre dhewhylly genes my a wrapysy, but always 



that thou wilt return, with thee I will pray. O.M. 2196. 
W. dychwelyd. 

DEWHYLLYANS, s. m. Remission, forgiveness, atone- 
ment. Yn dewhillyans pekasow gwrethyl altar me a vyn, 
in atonement for sins, I will erect an altar. C.W. 180. 
Cowethyans an sansow, dewhyllyans pekasow, dedhoryans 
an corf, ha'n beuinans heb dywedh, the communion of 
saints, forgiveness of si us, resurrection of the body,' 
and the life without end. Pryce. It is found writ- 
ten also dewellens, and dewyllyens, qd. v. Derived from 
dewheles. 

DEWL/LGAS, s. m. The two eyes, the eyes. This is the 
Celtic dusl and always used when speaking of the eyes 
of one person. Yn dyspyt dh'y dhewlagas my a vifith an 
guieel a ras, in. spite of his eyes, I will keep the rods of 
grace O.M. 2058. Kepar del ost syluyas, me a'thpijs 
a. sawyc' ow dew- lagan bylh queth whet Itbel na mas ny 
wylys ganse banne like as thou art a Saviour, I pray 
thee to cure my eyes ; never yet, bad or good, have I 
seen a drop with them. P.C. 396. My ath wor bysyn 
Cayphas yn dt/spyt dhe'tli deui-lagas. I will bring thee 
even to Caiaphas, in spite of thy eyes. P.C. 1193. 

DEWLE, s. m. The two hands, the hands. A das ynirt 
dhe dhewle my a gymmyn ow ene, O Father, into thy 
hands I commend my soul. O.M. 2362. Me o vyn mos 
dhe we ow arluth treys ha demit gans onemeni ker, I will 
go to anoint my Lord's feet and hands with precious 
ointment. P.C. 475. Gew a ve yn y dewlt gans an 
Edhewon gorris, a spear was in his hands by the Jews 
placed. O.M. 217. This is an abbreviated form of dew- 
lef, the Anal/or often disappearing in Cornish, as is 
also the case in Welsh. Thus tr2 is used for ir&v. and 
the W. dvsyltiw is a corruption of dtuylof 

DEWLEF, s. m. The two hands, the hands. V dhevileff 
Pyla.1. a ivolhas, hag a leveryi dhedhe, his hands Pilate 
washed, and said to them. M.C. 149. Yn m(dh an g6ff 
clevas bras s om deideff dwedhys, says the smith, a great 
sickness is come on my hands. M.C. 156. This is a 
later and less correct form of duilqf, qd. v., where the 
distinction of gender is preserved. Sec also Dywlef. 

DEWLIN s. m. The two knees, the knees. Comp. of 
dew, two, and glin, the knee. G6dh dek scon my a off- 
ryn dhe Dew war ben ow deuiyn, a fair goose forthwith I 
will offer to Got upon my knees. O.M. 1196. Me a'n 
kelm yn kres an wast, maypysso efgefyens war pen y dhetu- 
lyn, I 'will bind him in the middle of the waist, that he 
may pray for pardon on his knees. P.C. 1891, Arluth 
dht/fx gdf del y'lh pysaf, war ben dewfyn, an pfith a \oren, 
Lord, forgive me, I pray thee on my knens, what I did. 
P.C. 3020. War aga dewlyn yth $.pe rag Christ r ereli, on 
their kuees there* went some others that were before 
Christ. M C 195. W. deulin. Arm. daoulin. 

DEWLSEUCH, v. a. Ye threw. A mutation oittwlsewh, 
2 pers. pi. pret. of teioly, qd. v. P6$ re dewlsevch agas 
cKn, rag me a'n gioelas dvfun. dresof ef a tremenas, 
heavily have ye thrown down your haunches, for I saw 
him wide awake, he passed by me. R.D. 523- 

DBWLUGY, s. m. Devils. One of the plurals of drawl, 
qd.w. Yn beydhpan y'ngorsyn ny wharr y hteth deu>- 
lugy, warnan codhas. haq a'n tewl ef seon vn ban, ha'n 
dor warnodhc a ran euth y clewas, in the grave when we 
put him, presently there came devils, they fell upon us, 
and throw him forthwith upwards, and divide theearth 



DE WORTH YN 



101 



DEWYTH 






over him ; it was horrible to hear them. R.D. 2124. 
Yma ganso dewlugy ; tan an joul mur dhy lysky, na dheffo 
no, may yn poi><, devils are with him, the fire of the great 
devil to burn him, that he may come no more into the 
country. R.D. 2174. 

DEWNANS, s. m. Devonshire. W. Dyvnaint; from 
dicvn, deep, and nant, pi. nainl, a ravine. 

DEWN, v. n. Let us come. 1 pers. pi. imp. of dos. Yma 
Cayn adla marow ; dcwn dhe hedhas dhe benow, ha'n 
pagya Lamec ganso, the villain Cain is dead ; let us 
come to fetch him away to pains, and the homicide 
Lamech with him. C.W. 124. Written also deun, and 
contractedly dun. W. demon, down. 

DEWNOS, s. m. Witchery, craft, subtlety. Yowynh ha 
Ions, kyn fo tullys dre y deunof, mercy gylwys, scon y 
gallos a vydh lehys, young and grey, though they may be 
deceived by his witchery, let them call for mercy, soon 
his power will be lessened. P.O. 20. W. dewiniad. 

DEWOLGOW, s. f. Darkness. A mutation of tewolgow, 
qd. v. Gwren yn her dhe hdlye ef dhe effarn dhe 
deivolgow, let us drive him away to hell, to darkness. 
C.W. 24. 

DEWOLOW, s. m. Devils, fiends. One of the plurals of 
deawl, qd. v. Ha dewolow hep nyver pup ur orthys oto 
scrynkye, and devils without number always grinning 
at thee. O.M. 569. Why pryneys an dewolow, scon eger- 
evch an porihmv, ye princes of the devils, immediately 
open the gates. R.D. 97. 

DE-WON, s. m. Grief, sorrow. Oto arluth ker, Salamon, 
awos lavur na demon nefre ny fallaf dhcuchwhy, my dear 
Lord Solomon, because of labour nor sorrow, I will 
never fail you. O.M. 2405. BytJiweth my nyn beys moy 
deivan, never yet is to me more sorrow. C.W. 100. 
Id. qd. dew/tan. 

DEWORTO, pron. prep. Prom him, or it. (Deworth-o.) 
Den a'n geff cans davas, ha'y kentrevek saw onan ; mar 
a's ladtre dheu'orto, panpyn a godho, a man may possess 
a hundred sheep, and his neighbour only one ; if he 
steal it from him, what punishment is due to him? O.M. 
2232. Written also dyivorto, qd. V. 

DEWORTH, prep. From by, from. (De-worth.) Nep 
ma'n resssys dhe wethe, dheworth henna govynne ; py ur 
fuf vy y wythes, he to whom thou gavest him to keep, 
ask that of him ; what time was I his keeper? O.M. 
575. Hen ew an oet a versy a dedhywys dyso sy dheworth 
an Tas Dew an nef, this is the oil of mercy, that was 
promised to thee by the Father God of heaven. O.M. 
843. Written also dyworth, qd. v. 

DEWORTHYF, pron. prep. From me. (Deworth^my.J 
My ny attafdhe nahe lemynpup Ira ol gronntye dheworthyf 
a wovynny, I cannot deny thee, now every thing to grant 
from me what thou askest. O.M. 2131 . Written also 
deicorthef. Na wreuch why, war ow en, dheworthef vy 
vynytha, do not you go, on my soul, from me ever. O.M. 
2180. It is the same as dyworthiff, qd. v. 

DEWORTHYN, pron. prep. From us. (Deworlh-ny.) 
Mar luc ncp gwas ha laddre en gweel dheworthyn pryve, 
meth vijdh of d'agcn ehen, if any one will come and 
steal the rods from us privily, all shame it will be 
to our class. O.M. 2065. Me a lever an cas dhys ; y a 
$1 bunej< kechys gans tus warfordh dheworthyn, I tell the 
case to thee ; they may be seized by people on the road 
from us. P.C. 2294. Rag mar a luefe yn chy, efa's gor 



dheworthyn ny yn ketteppol, for if he comes to the house, 
he will take them from us, every one. P.C. 3053. Writ 
ten also dyworthyn, qd. v. 

DEWORTHY8, pron. prep. From thee. (Deworth-iy.) 
Saf ena, na nes na dhus na fella, rag ny fynnaf; dhew- 
orthys dfisk dhe skyggyow dhe ves, sevel war tyr venegea a 
vireth, stand thou there, not nearer, and come no further, 
for I will not ; from thee take off thy shoes, stand on 
blessed ground thou dost. O.M. 1405. Written also 
dyworthys, qd. v. 

DEWSCOL, adv. All abroad. Hag a gewsy pur debell 
worth Ihesus rag y angre; a wotta omma neb yll tempel Du 
dewscoll squardyl, ha dh'y vodh y dhrehevel, and they 
said very foully to Jesus, to anger him ; seest thou here 
one that can the temple of God all abroad tear, and to 
his will raise it. M.C. 195. Qu. W. disgwall, perfectly, 
without defect. Read by Mr. Stokes dowstoll. 

DEWSUL, s. m. Sunday. Dewsul Uegyow pan eseyn mysk 
y abestely,ywreg dhe re anedhe m6s dhe'n dre, ha degylmy 
an asen,ha dry ganse, Palm Sunday when he was among 
his apostles, he caused some of them to go to the town, 
and untie the ass and bring it with them. M.C. 27. The 
names of all the days of the week were borrowed by tbe 
Ancient Britons from the Romans ; thus Dewsvl is the 
Lat. dies solis. W. dyusul. Arm. dizul. Old Irish, idia 
sul. The term is unknown to the modern Irish, who 
use dia-dom/tna, dies doininica. Gael, di-domhnmch. 
Manx, jedoonee. 

DEWSYS, s. m. Godhead, divinity. Onan yw an Tds a 
neff, arall Crist y un vaaw eff, a vijdh a wyrchas genys, 
ha'n Sperys Sansyw tressa, try hag onan ow trega yn un 
dewsys, me a gr^s, one is the Father of heaven, another 
Christ his one son, who shall be born of a virgin, and 
the Holy Ghost is the third ; three and one dwelling in 
one Godhead, I believe. O.M. 2666. Pyw henna gans 
deways mas, re dhueth mar uskys d/ie'n wMs, gwystys yn 
rudh, who is that with Godhead good, that hath come 
so swiftly to heaven, clothed in red 1 R.D. 2487. Marth 
dhym a'n dewsys yma, mar ysicys del dhueth omma, el 
byth ny neys, wonder to me if this is the Godhead ! so 
swiftly as he came here, an angel never flies. R.D. 
2504. W. dmodawd, duwdod. IT. deacht. Gael, dtadh- 
achd. 

DEWUGENS, num. adj. Two score, forty. Rag sythyn 
viosi hemma, dewugens dydh my a as glaw dhe godhe aw- 
arlha, for a week after this, forty days I will allow rain 
to fall from above. O.M. 1027. Dewugens nos dhym 
dewydhys a wel dhe v6s, forty nights to me completed 
appear to be. P.C. 45. Rag y fu& Jcyns y v6s gwrys 
dew-ugens blydhen ha whe, for there were before it was 
done forty years and six. P.C. 351. 'W.deugain,-\-douceinl. 
Arm. daou-ugent. Ir. da-fhichead. Gael, da-fkichead. 
Manx, daeed. 

DEWVRECH, s. m. The two arms, the arms. Written 
also defrech, and dywvrfch, qd. v. 

DEWYLLYENS, s. m. Remission, forgiveness, atonement. 
Eveuch lemyn oil an gwyn rag henna yw ow g6s f$n, hag 
a vy"dh raqouch skullys yn dewyllyens pechasow, drink ye 
now all the wine, for this is my perfect blood, and it 
shall be shed for you in atonement of sins. P.C. 826. 
Another form of dewhyllyans, qd. v. 

DEWYTH, adv. Twice. Oilevt ow crowedhe ; my re 
tvruic y vusurt rag an keth wheil-tfia dewylh, behold it 



DIAL 



102 



DIBEH 



lying ; I have measured it for this same work twice. 
O.M. 2569. Comp. of deiv, two, and gwyth, a time. 
Dytvyth is a more correct form, qd. v. W. dwywuiih. 

DEYD1I, s. m. A day. Arluth, parth cof yn deydh dywedh 
oV enef vy, Lord, bear remembrance in the last day of 
my soul. O.M. 1272. Yn mesk flechys Israel dysky 
laha Deiv huhel a wra dhedhi, deydh ha n6s, among the 
children of Israel teaching the law of the high God he 
is, day and night. O.M. 1555. Un deydh a dhue yredy, 
man taluedhaf ol dhywhy, kemmys enor dhym yiv gwrys, 
a day will come surely, that 'I will repay it all to you, 
as much honour as to me is done. P.O. 268. Another 
form of dedh, or dydh, qd. V;, shewing the elongation of 
the vowel. 

DEYM, pron. prep. To me. (De-my.) Preder my dhe'th 
whul a dor, haval dheym a'n pen dhe'n troys, think that 
I have wrought thee of earth, like to me from the head 
to the foot. O.M. 68. Another form of dym, qd. v. 

DEYN, pron. prep. (De-ny.) Lowene dhys, te yw dheyn 
mychtern, rys yw dhe wordhye, joy to thee, thou art to 
us a king, need is to honour thee. M.C. 137. Another 
form of dyn, qd. v. 

DEYOW, s. m. Thursday. An gydh o deyaw hablys may 
fenne Jena sopye, gans an re yn y servys war an bys re 
dhewcsse, the day was the Thursday of preparation, 
that Jesus would sup with those people in his service, in 
the world he had chosen. M.C. 41. Written also 
duyow, qd. v. This word is borrowed from the Latin 
dies Jovis. So also W. dydh lau. Arm. dizinu. It is 
unknown to the Erse dialects, which use Ir. diardaoine; 
Gael, dirdaoine ; Manx, jerdein : from Thor, the Teu- 
tonic Jupiter. 

DEYS, pron. prep. To thee. (De-ty.) Adam yn dywedh 
an beys, me a wronnt oel mercy dneys, ha dhe Eva dhe 
wregty, Adam, in the world, I will grant the oil of mercy 
to thee, and to Eve thy wife. O.M. 329. Ywordhye y 
teleth dheys, mar uskys pan glew dhe lef, to worship him 
is incumbent on thee, so quickly when he hears thy 
voice. O.M. 1775. Another form of dys, qd. v. 

DI, pron. pers. Thou, thee. A mutation of ti, qd. v. 

DI, num. adj. Two. An abbreviated form of dew, 
used in composition, as dibreh, the arms ; discodh, the 
shoulders. 

DI, a privative prefix, used in composition, when it 
softens the initial following, ssdibeh, sinless; dibenna, 
to behead. It is thus used in Welsh, Armoric, Irish, 
and Gaelic. Di is sometimes intensive, as it is also in 
Welsh, where it is written dy. 

DIAGON, s. m. A deacon. Corn. Voc. diaconus vel levita. 
From the Latin diaconus. Gr. ttaxovoi. W. diagon. 
Arm. diagon. 

DIAHE, s. m. Safety, security. Pryce. Written also 
dyaha, qd. v. 

DIAL, s. m. Revenge, vengeance, punishment. Noe ray 
kerenge orthys my ny gemere nejfre trom dyal war oil an 
veys, na dre dhyal pup ladhe, Noah for love to thee, I 
will never take vengeance on all the world, nor destroy 
all by flood. O.M. 1209. Pan vo oil dhun lafurryys, 
ugan wheyl a vydh mothmv, dre trom dyhalwar an veys, 
ty a tvrajpep oil maroiv, when all is laboured by us, our 
work will be failing, by heavy vengeance on the world t 
thou wilt make all dead. O.M. 1228. Pilot a'n ladhas, 
hepfdl, warnotho telywch dyal, Pilate killed Mm, with- 



out fail, take ye retribution of him. R.D. 1753. W. 
dial. Ir. dioghaU. Gael, dioghail, diol. 

DIAL, s. m. A deluge, a flood. Written indiscriminately 
diel, and dyal. Pup huny gans pech mar ur ewjterys, na 
allaf sparie na moy hep gul dyel a ver speys war pep oil 
marnas ty, everyone with such great sin is fetid, that I 
cannot spare any longer without bringing a flood over all 
except thee. O.M. 947. Na dre dhyal pup ladhe, nor de- 
stroy all by flood. O.M. 1210. Honna a vydh tokyn da an 
acord us gwreys hepfal, kynfynnyfwar an bys-ma tewlel 
vengeans na dyal, that will be a good sign of the agree- 
ment which is made without fail, if ever I should wish 
upon this world to cast vengeance or flood. O.M. 1250. 
W. diluw, dyliv, comp. of dy, intens. particle, and lliv, a 
flood. Arm. dihis. Ir. dile, tuile. Gael. tuil. Manx, 
tooilley. Lat diluvium. 

DIALHWEDH, s. m. A key. Corn. Voc. didhvxl, clavis. 
Comp. of di, intens. prefix, and alhwedh, or alwedh, 
qd. v. 

DlALWHEDHE,v. a. To unlock, tq open. From dialwhedh, 
or dialhwedh, a key. A creys dhe'n nep a'n gwelas ynfew, 
aban dassorchas yfuegynen: mur fest y gen lowcnhas ; 
dodho ny dhyalumedhas, gour ha benen, Oh! believe those 
that saw him ali vo, since he rose again, that he was 
with us : very much he gladdened us ; to him we un- 
locked, man and woman. R.D. 1445. 

DIAYOL, s. m. A davil. This is the old form preserved 
in the Cornish Vocabulary. See Sach diavol. Other 
forms are diawl, and deawl, qd. v. 

DIAWL, s. m. A devil, a fiend. Written also deawl, 
qd. v. The plural is written in various ways ; deivofaw, 
dywolaw, and deivlugy, qd. v. Mar ny'n gorraf, an my I 
ayawl re. dorrmo mellow y gyn, vynylha na effo cowl, if I 
do not put him, may a thousand devils break the joints 
of his back, so that he may never drink broth. P.O. 
1618. Me a whyth gans mur a grys, kynyver dyawl us 
yn beys yn ta may clewfo, I will blow with much force, 
every devil that is in the world, that he may hear well. 
P.O. 3062. Dhynny gweres ny dal man, myl vyl dyawl 
a vye gwan er y byn ef, nothing avails to help us, a mil- 
lion devils would be weak against him. R.D. 132. 
Lhvyd, 62, diawl. Di before a vowel had often the sound 
of _;' in Cornish, of which there are traces in colloquial 
Welsh, and it is the rule in the Erse dialects. Thus 
diawl was sounded and written a,\$ojawl, or jowl, qd. v. 
This sound is expressed by Llwyd, 54, 55, dzhiavil. W. 
diavol, diawl. Arm. diaoul. Ir. diabhal, (pronounced 
diotvl.) Gael, diabhol. All from the Lat. diabolus. Gr. 



DIBARH, adj. Consisting of two parts, bipartite. } Nen- 
na thera vor dhibarh, ha an varlshants a vendzha arta dho 
Dxhuan m6s dre barh an dzhei, there, there was a road 
dividing into two, and the merchants would have John 
to go home with them. Llwyd, 253. Comp. of di, two, 
and parh, for parth, a part. W. deubarth. 

DIBBLANS, adj. Proportionable, distinct. Me a lavar 
dhys dibblans, /tenna tell ylhew henwys, ew an Wedhan a 
Veivnans, I will tell thee distinctly, this, that is truly 
called, is the Tree of Life. C.W. 134. Yn wedh dew- 
dhec warnugans a virhas yn pur dhibblans me a'm be, 
likewise thirty-two of daughters very proportionably I 
have. C.W. 144. Written also dyblans, qd. v. 

DIBEH, adj.' Without sin, sinless, guiltless. Lhvyd, 249, 



DIFEETH 



103 



DILLAT 



dibfh. Comp. of di, negative prefix, 'and pen, a late 
form of peek, sin. W. dibech. 

DIBENJTA, v. a. To behead, decapitate. Llwyd, 104. 
Comp. of di, neg. pref., and pen, a head. W. dibennv. 
Arm. dibenna. IT. dicheinn. Gael, dicheann. 

DIBER, s. m. A saddle. Corn. Voc. sella. W. dibyr, 
dibr. Arm. dibr. 

DIBERI, v. a. To eat. This is the form preserved in the 
Cornish Vocab. (see Clock diberi,) and is the earliest 
and most correct. It is a compounded word, and agrees 
with W. dybori, to browse. A contracted foim is only 
found in the Ordinalia, and is variously written debry, 
dibry, dibbry, dybry, dybbry : and by Llwyd, 172, dibri. 
Mar a lyobryth a henna yw hynwys pren a skyens, if 
thou wilt eat of that, which is named the tree of know- 
ledge^. OJM. 81. A'y frut dybry ny'm bes whans, of its 
fruit to eat I have not a desire. O.M. 171. Allebres, ty 
ha'th worfy, an wedhcn ka'y avalow, if thou atest, thou 
and thy husband, of the tree and its fruits. O.M. 175. 
A'y frut hy nep a dheppro a wevyth cusyl a'n Tds, of its 
fruit, whoever eats, will know the counsel of the 
Father. O.M. 187. Hag intvedh gwra dhe'tk worty may 
tcbro ef annodho, and also cause to thy husband, that 
he may eat of it O.M. 200. Desempys gwra y dhybry, 
immediately do thou eat it. O.M. 208. An bara-ma 
Icymereuch, hag anodho oil dybreuch t this bread take ye, 
and of it all eat. P.C. 763. Pyw a, synsow why moch- 
ya ? nep a serf, py a dheber, whom think ye greatest ? 
him who serves, or who eats. P.C. 799. Ny dhebbraf 
bos, bones marotu an profits, I will not eat food, because 
that the prophet is dead. R.D. 1685. W. trfSn, -\-dipri. 
Ann. dibri. Dibri has been long lost to the Welsh Vo- 
cabulary, but is restored by Zeuss, 1098, from the Lux- 
emburg Glosses. 

DIBREH, s. m. The two arms, arms. Llwyd, 242. A 
later form of dyn-vrech, qd. v. 

DICREFT, adj. Dull, sluggish. Corn. Voc. iners. Comp. 
of di, neg. pref., and creft, a craft. W. dtgreft. 

DIDHYWY, T. a. To promise. An oyl a versy o dhydh- 
ywys dhymmo vy gans an Tds a'y dregereth, the oil of 
mercy that was promised to me by the Father of his 
pity. O.M. 704. Lavereuchdh'ydhyskyblon,pardeldydh- 
yivys dhedhe, efa dhw dhe Galile, say ye to his disciples, 
like as he promised to them, he will go to Galilee. R.D. 
796. Mi a'i didhiwys dhodho, I have promised it to 
him. Llwyd, 242. W. adhaw. 

DIEL, s. m. A deluge. See Dial. 

DIERBYtf , v. a. To meet See Dyerbyn, 

DIESGIS, adj. Without shoes, unshod. lJuyd,65. W. 
diesgid. 

DIEW, num. adj. An diew, the two, both. Llwyd, 178. 
Id. qd. dew, qd. v. 

DIFEID, adj. Rough, wild, unquiet Com. Voc. mar 
difeid, pelagus, the sea; more correctly, the unquiet 
sea. The same word as diveyth, or dyveylh, a wilderness, 
qd. v. W. difaith; mar difaith, a rough sea, 

DIFFENNOR,s. m. An excuser, a defendant Com. Voc. 
excusatar. W. difynwr. Arm. difenner. W. di/ynnu, 
to defend, from Lat. defendo. 

DIFRETH, adj. Feeble, miserable, wretched. Written 
also dyfrelh, and dyffryA. Lemyn dyfreth 6f ha gwdk, 
pur wyr drcs oil tug a'n beys, now feeble I am and empty, 
very truly above all men in the world. O.M. 693. 



Lemyn deffrylh 6v ha yuo&g. C.W. 86. W. difrwyth, 
comp. of di, neg., and frwyth, (Lat. fructus,) vigour. 

DIFUN, adj. Sleepless, awake. El a'n leverys dedhy 
haneth ha hy yn gwyly pur dhyfun, myns re gewsys, an 
angel said it to her this night, and she in bed quite 
awake ; he said the whole. P.C. 2204. W. dihun, comp. 
of di, neg., and hun, sleep. 

DIFUNE, v. a. To awake. Wheth aw cttfyon dyfunouch, 
ha Ms colon ollpesouch na gyllouch yn temptaaon, again 
my dear (companions) awake, and with one heart all 
pray, that ye enter not into temptation. P.C. 1077. 
Pan opur holerch an gydh y tefenas un marreh, del deth 
a'n nef war y fyth ef a welas gdlow tek, when it was far on 
in the day there awoke a soldier, as it came from heaven 
on his face he beheld a fair light. M.C. 244. W. dihuno. 

DIFYDHY, v. a. To extinguish, to quench. Written^also 
defydhy, and dtifydJiy. Dew an nef dre dhe vertu duf- 
ydh nerth an flam ha"n tan, God of heaven through thy 
virtue, extinguish the power of the flame and the fire. 
O.M. 637. W. difodhi, from difawdh, comp. of di, neg., 
Andfawdh, faw, brightness. = Gr. 0ao. 

DIFYGY. v. a. To fail, to decay. Rag Us Abel gwyr 
dhege, efa'n gevylh yn diwedh an joy na dhyfyh nefre yn 
ow gwlds ha cosoleth, because Abel's tithe is true, he shall 
find in the end unfailing joy ever, in my land and rest. 
O.M. 517. Ha magafuer drok deffry mones hepcor an joy 
lyth na dhyfyk, and as it would be bad indeed to go to 
reject the joy that never fails. R.D. 1434. W. difygio, 
from the Lat. deficio. 

DIGWISCA, v. a. To undress, unrobe, strip off. Arluth, 
why yw a dhy yre an bows, ha my dhygwysk e, yn sur rag- 
ouch hy ny wra, Lord, to your .liking is the robe, and that 
I should take it off t surely for you it will not do. R.D. 
1924. Comp. of di, neg., and gwisca, to dress. W. di- 
ivisgaw. 

DIGWYDHA, v. n. To fall, to happen. Llwyd, 104. 
W. dygwyddaw. Arm. digwezvut. Ir. -\-tectnana. Manx, 
taghyr. 

DIHOG, s. m. A great grandfather. Corn. Voc. proavus. 
This word is doubtful, and may be read diwog. It is 
unknown to all the other dialects. See Norris's Cornish 
Drama, ij. 352. 

DILECHA, v. n. To depart. Llwyd, 65. W. dUeu. Arm. 
dilechi. 

DILLA,y. a. To deceive. Llwyd, 58. This is a muta- 
tion of tilia, id. qd. Idle, qd. v. 

DILLADAS, s. m. Apparel, clothing. Llwyd, 173, dill- 
adzhai. W. dilladiad. 

DILLAS, s. m. Clothes, apparel. Ma ow dyllas ow tetoy, 
dheworth pren Cryst, my clothes are burning from the 
wood of Christ. O.M. 2633. Me a vyn lemmyn ranne 
ynirethon oil y dhyllas, I will now divide between us all 
his clothes. P.C. 2842. Prog yth yw rudh dhe dhyllas, 
omma aberth ynpen wlds, le nafue denses byth queth, why 
are thy garments red, here within the head country, 
where humanity never was 1 R.D. 2529. This is a later 
ibrm of dillad, or dUlat. W. dillad, \diflat. Arm. dUad. 
Ir. \dillait. In modern Irish diallait is a saddle. So also 
Gael, dutllaid, diulluid. Manx, _;:#. 

DILLASY, v. a. To clothe. LLwyd, dho dilladzhi, 173. 
W. dUladu. 

DILLAT, s. m. Clothes. DUlat gueli, bed clothes. Conn 
Voc. This is the oldest form of diHad, or dittos. 



DIOTHENES 



104 



DISCERNY 



DIMEDHA, v. a. To espouse, to many. Llugd, 18. 
Written also demidhy, qd. v. 

DIN,s. f. A heap, a mount, a hill, a fortified hill, a fortress 
This enters into the names of numerous places inhabited 
by the Cymry or Celts, as Dunme&r, in Bodmin ; Dun- 
vedh, in St. Breock ; Denzett, in Mawgan Dinbren, in 
Denbighshire ; Dinorwig, in Arvon ; Tinsylwy,-h& Tin- 
daethwy, in Mon. Hence also the Latin terminations, 
dinium, dinim, and dunum, in the names of so many 
towns in Ancient Gaul. According to Ciitophon, 
AOWOP Ka\ov<ri ifiv i^ej^ovm, W. din. Ami. ttm. Ir. 
dinn, duan, ^dun. Gael. dinn. The word is to be found 
in many other languages. See Armstrong's Gaelic 
Dictionary. 

DINAIR, s. m. A penny. Corn. Voc. nammus. In the 
Ordinalia it is written indiscriminately, dinar, diner, 
dynar, dyner, dynnar. An nyl dhodho a delltpymp cans 
dyner monyys, the one owed to him five hundred pence 
of money. P.O. 605. Ef a galse Ms gwyrthys a try 
cans dyner ha vtoy, it might have been sold for three 
hundred pence and more. P.C. 536. En arhans me a 
gytner, hag as gwyth kettep dyner, the money I will take, 
and keep it every penny. P.C. 1539. Trehans dynar 
a von en box oil bedhensgwerthys, ha v6s den rag y ranne', 
for three hundred pence of money let the box all be 
sold, and be to us to share it. M.C. 36. Hunter diner, 
a halfpenny. Llwyd, 103. Hweh dinar, sixpence. 148. 
Arm. diner, ^dinav. From the Latin denarius. It is 
unknown to the Welsh, who use a pure Celtic term, 
ceiniog, from coin, bright, or can, white. So Arm. gwen- 
nek, from gvxnn, white. Ir. +cionog. Gael, tewmoy. 

DINAS, s. f. A fortress, a fortified town, a city. W. 
dinas. It enters into the names of places in Cornwall, 
and Wales ; as Dinas, in Padstow, and St. Anthony. 
Pendennis Castle, in Falmouth. Bryn Dinas, Dinas 
Cordhin, Dinas Maaxlkwy, Dinas Emrys, in Wales. Ir. 
jDJwfflff, near Killarney. 

DLNERCHY, v. a. To greet, to salute. Pryct. Written 
also Jynercfiy, qd. v. 

DIOC, adj. Slothful, sluggish, idle. Corn. Voc. piger. W. 
diva, \diac. Arm. diek. 

DIOGEL, adj. Unexposed, secure, safe, certain. Corn. Voc. 
sefvrus. In the Ordinalia it is often used adverbially, 
with or without the adverbial particle preceding. It is 
also written dyowgel. Owfryes ttl, rys ywgruthyl dyogel 
v6dh agan arlttth, my faithful wife, it is necessary to do 
immediately the will of our lord. O.M. 2189. My re 
buefftsl ow kelwel dhe w/sterndens dhys a dhe avorow pur 
dyogel, I have been urgently calling to the architects to 
come te thee to-merrow very surely. O.M. 2432. Saw 
me worlttrch drehevel a's dyerbyn dyougcl yn Galitt ol 
warbarth, but I after rising will meet them certainly 
in Galilee altogether. P.C. 897. Rag ebyl parys yma, 
dh'affa, fastye dyowgel, for the pegs are ready, to fasten 
them truly. P.C. 2572. En dhiougcl, en dhiugel, cer- 
tainly, most assuredly. Llwyd, 248. W. diogel, comp. of" i 
di, neg., go, partly, celu, to conceal. Arm. t diouguel. 

DIOT, s. f. Drink, beverage. Corn. Voc, potus. This is ! 
the oldest form of dewes, qd. v. W. diamd, dtod, -\diot. 
lr^dioch,deoch,daif. Q&el.dioeh. Manx,yoMeA. Sansc. 
rf'4 to drink. 

DIOTHENES, s. m. Hurt, loss, damage. Corn. Voc. dis- 
pendium vel dampnum. This is a doubtful word, and 



evidently corrupt. Zenss suggests diormes, id. qd. W. 
dyormes, vexation, trouble. N orris diolheves, id. qd. W. 
dyodhevus, from dyodhev, to suflFer. 

DIOU, v. n. Come ye. J Diou gennan nei, come with us. 
Llwyd, 252. A late form of deuch, qd. v. 

DIOWL, s. m. A deviL Ty dyowl gwra ow gorthyby, prag 
y tobtf sy hep -ken, thou devil, do thou answer me, why 
didst thou deceive her without pity. O.M. 301. An- 
other form of diawl, qd. v. 

DIOWLES, s. f. A she devil, a hag. Llwyd, 62, writes 
it dzhaules. W. diaxaks. Arm. diaoulez. 

DIP, v. a. He will think. Taw, sedhe, vyn ty Phelip, rak 
pur wyr ty a, gam dip warnodho ef, be silent, sit, wilt 
thou Philip, for very truly thon thinkest wrongly re- 
specting him. R.D. 996; A mutation of tip, 3 pers. s. 
fut. of tibiae, qd. v. 

DIPBH, adj. Without sin, sinless. JAfa ra chee Icymerei 
hanow an Arhclh de Dhew hcb otham, rag an Arluth na m/n 
sensy e dipch, neb es kemeras e hanow en c/ivdg, do thon 
not take the name of the Lord thy God without neces- 
sity, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless, that 
taketh his name in vain. Pryce. More correctly writ- 
ten dibeh, being compounded of di, neg., and jA, the 
late form of pech, sin. W. dibech. 

DIRAG, adv. Before, in presence of. Pryce. Written 
also dyrag, qd. v. 

DIS, a prefix in composition. It has sometimes a negative 
power, answering to dis, vn, and im, in English, as dis- 
wrey, to undo ; discrysy, to disbelieve. Sometimes it 
denotes continuation or the iteration of an action, as 
dys, in Welsh ; thus dislyn^y, to swallow ; disprenna, to 
redeem. It is written also dys and des. W. dis, dys. 
Arm. dis, diz. Ir. -tdo-adh, \iatih, -[tain, ^taid. 

DIS, s. f. People. J An diz, the people. Lheyd, 241. 
Id. qd. dus, qd. v. 

DIS, v. n. Come thou. JDu barha nei, come with us. 
Llwyd, 152. Another form of dus, qd. v. 

PISCANS, s. m. A teaching, doctrine. A das k&r, miar rat 
dhe why ha'ges diskans, O dear father, much thanks to 
you- and your doctrine. C.W. 142. Henna, ythew con- 
wthys, der an diskans es dhymmo reys gans an Tas es a 
uckan, this is understood by the doctrine that is given 
to ma by the Father that is on high. C.W. 156. From 
discy, id. qd.-rfyycy. 

DISCAVYLSY, v. a. To stretch cut. Pryce. Written 
also dyscavytsy, qd. v. 

DISCEBEL, s. m. A disciple. Corn. Voc. discipulus. 
Oilier late forms are disqibl, and desgitl. PI. dyscyblon, 
dyscyllyon, Arluth, me a'thpeys a dhybry gynef un prjjs 
dredhf.otdh hath dyskyblon, Lord, I pray thee, to eat 
with me a meal, by thy will, and thy disciples. P.C. 
457. Me a. genes yn lowen ha'm dyscyblyon, ketep pen, 
dhe-'lh arhedow, 1 will go with thee joyfully, and my 
disciples every head, at thy commands. P.C. 462. W. 
disgybl, pi. disgyblion. Arm. diskibl. From the Latin 
Jiseipulus. 

DISCERNY, v. a. To grin, to shew the teeth, to gnash. 
Avel brathhen aga d$ns orioy a dhesherny, er-aga-fyn bete- 
gyns Crist un qer ny lavery, like hounds their teeth upon 
him they gnashed, against them, nevertheless, Christ a 
word would not speak. M.C. 96. W. dysgyrnu, ysgyr- 
nygu. Arm. scrina, griyonsa. Fr. grincer. 



DISCYNNA 



105 



DISWRUTHYL 



DISCIANS, s. m. Madness. Llwyd, 71, gives this as a 
noun substantive, but it is properly an adjective, as he 
has it, p. 156, being a later form of discient. 

DISCIENT, adj. Without sense or judgment, witless, 
insane, foolish. Corn. Voc. diskient, insipiens. Comp. 
of di, neg., and sclent, knowledge, from the Lat. scientia. 
Arm. dis/cient. 

DISCLIEN, g. f. A smoother. Corn. Voc. piano. " The 
word comes between quaternio and diploma, and must 
therefore refer to books; perhaps a folder, or some tool 
for smoothing paper or parchment." Norris's Cornish 
Drama, ij. 353. Dysgloen in Welsh is a splinter, or 
chip. 

DISCODH, s. m. The two shoulders, the shoulders. Llwyd, 
242. Another form of dyvscodh, qd. v. 

DISCORUUNAIT, s. m. Madness. Corn. Voc. rabies. 
" Unknown elsewhere, and uncertain ; perhaps connect- 
ed with the Armoric kitrun, thunder, making thunder- 
struck, as in folterguske, qd. v." Zeuss's Celtica Gram- 
matica. 

DISCRUGYER, s. m. An unbeliever. Pryce. From dis- 
crugy, a later form of dyscrysy. 

DISCKYGYC, adj. Unbelieving. -Pryce. Written also 
dyscrygyc. qd. v. 

DISCUDHE, v. a. To uncover, to discover, to shew. Me 
a vyn y dhyscudhe, hagyn spyt dhodho true war yfds ha'y 
dew lagas, I will uncover him, and in spite to him spit 
on his face and eyes. P.C. 1393. Lemmyn dyscudh, ha 
lavarpyiv an pren a beu- hep marpou's Ihesu an Nazar6, 
now shew and say, which is the die that shall have 
without doubt the coat of Jesus of Nazareth. P.C. 2852. 
It is the same word as discwedha, and dysyuedhas, qd. v. 
W. dadgudhio. 

DISCY, v. a. To strip, undress. Pryce. Written, also 
dyscy, qd. v. 

DISCY, v. a. To learn, to teach. Pryce. Written also 
dyscy, qd. v. 

DISCWEDHA, v. a. To uncover, to discover, to shew. 
Llieyd, 70, 249. J vester a disgwedhas dhodho, his 
master shewed him. 251. See Dysquedhas. 

DISCWEDHYANS, s. m. A discovery, demonstration, 
revelation. Llwyd, 240. Written also dysquedhyens, 
qd. r. 

DISCYNNA, v. n. To descend, to come down. Written 
also dyyscynne 1 . Gans aga garm hag olva Ihesus Crist a 
ve mevijs, mayfynnas diyskynna yn giver has ha bos genys, 
with their cry and lamentation Jesus Christ was moved, 
that he would descend into a virgin, and be born. M.C. 
4. Ihesu Crist mur gerense dhe vdb den a dhysivedhas, 
an uchelde.r may 'these dhe'n b$s pan deyskynnas, Jesus 
Christ much love to mankind shewed, from the height 
that he was, to the world when he descended. M.C. 5. 
Mars 6s mdb Du a vur br1)s dyyskyn ha dhe'n dor Ice, if 
thou art the Son of God of great value, descend and to 
the ground go. M.C. 14 ; P.C. 100. Dyskynnouch ketep 
map Iron, otc an gwel dheragon, glds ma levy, alight ye, 
every son of the breast, see the rods before us, growing 
green. O.M. 1983. Lcmyn pup dyyskynnes, saw kyns 
ys yn tour mones, leverfuch dhym, now let every one 
alight, but before going to the palace, speak to me. Q.M. 
2029. W. disgyit, diagynu. Arm. diskenn, diskenni. 
From the Latin descendo. 



DISCYS, adj. Learned, lettered. Llwyd, 80, diskys. W. 
dysgedig. 

DISEWYTHY, v. a. To dry up. Part. pass, diseicythys. 
Pryce. 

DISIL, v. a. To undo, ruin, destroy, Llwyd, 249. Comp. 
of dis, neg., and gil, to do. 

DISLAIAN, adj. Disloyal, unfaithful. Corn. Voc. infiddis. 
Comp. of dis, neg., and lawn, loyal, from laha, law. 

DISLER, adv. Behind. Llivyd, 248. It is another form 
of delhar, qd. v. 

DISLIU, adj. Deformed, discoloured. Corp. Voc. defar- 
mis, discolor. Comp. of dis, neg., and liw, form, colour. 
W. disliw. Arm. disliv. 

DISLONCA, v. a. To swallow. Llwyd,, 245, dislonka 
Comp. of dis, iter. prefix, and lonca, to swallow. W 
dyslyncu. 

DISMIGO, v. a. To suspect, to mistrust. Llwyd, 159. 
See Dysmegy. 

DISPRENNA, v. a. To redeem. Pryce. Written, also 
dysprenna, qd. v. 

DISPRESY, v. a. To esteem of no value, to despise, to 
misprize. Part. pass, dispresys. Del ve helheys war an 
bys avel carou; ragon menouch rebekit, ha dyspresijs yn 
harow, how he was hunted, on the world like a deer, 
for us he was often reproached, and despised cruelly. 
M.C. 2. Pernys aberth yn bys-ma, dyapresys haneth a 
vydh, bought within this world, despised this night it 
shall be. M.C. 44. May pitch o pan dysprcsyas ys dtl o 
pan y's gwerthe, more sin it was when he despised him 
than so it was when he sold him. M.C. 104. Comp, of 
dis, neg., and/>m, the Eng. price. W. dihrisio. Arm. 
disprizout. 

DISPRYNNIAR, s. m. A redeemer. Pryce. Written also 
dysprynias, qd. v. 

DISTAIN, s. m. An excuse. Pryce. Rag an lam dhyn- 
ny es a vyn y dampnisporres, yn medhens, yfordhnyng es 
may hallo b6s distain guris, for the laws to us are, by 
which she must be condemned ; say they, there is not a 
way that an excuse can be made. M.C. 32. This word 
is read by Mr. Stokes, dejlam. 

DISWREY, v. a. To undo, ruin, destroy. Part. pass, dis- 
wreys, diswrys. Grussons cusyll nag o vas, rag may fo 
Jesus disu-rjjs, they took counsel that was not good, that 
Jesus should be destroyed. M.C. 31. Yn scon dyswreys 
efa vydh, ha dhe'n mernans cot gorrys, soon destroyed he 
shall be, and to death quickly put. O.M. 1521. An 
temple ef a dhyswra, yn trydydh ef a'n drecha gwell agrs 
kyns mur yn pr6f, the temple he will destroy ; in three 
days he will raise it, better much than before in proof. 
P.C. 1696. Comp. of dis, neg., and gwrey, to do. 

DISWRUG, v. a. He destroyed. Used irregularly as the 
preterite to diswrey, and diswul. Comp. of dis, neg., and 
gwrug, or gruc, qd. v. Ty re dhyswrug eredy hevelep 
dhom face vy, thou hast destroyed verily the likeness of 
my face. O.M. 2336. Ef re dhyswrtig (in marhas, he has 
destroyed the market. P.C. 376. Rdk an harlot a d/iys- 
wruk an keth map oil agan grub, for the villain hath de- 
stroyed the same Son who made us aJl. R.D. 1974. 

DISWRUTHYL, v. a. To undo, to ruin, to destroy. Da 
vye kyns dos sabout, dyswruihyl an falsprofus, it would 
be well before Sabbath comes, to destroy the false pro- 
phet P.C. 662. Comp. of dis, neg., and gruthyl, to do, 
qd. v. 



DIWEDHVA 



106 



DOCHAGEYDH 



DISWUL, v.a. To undo, to ruin, to destroy, to spoil. Ow 
kit! maystri bras, dystoel an fer ef a vyn, making great 
violence, he wishes to spoil the fair. P.O. 360. Rag y 
fyrner, mar a kylkr gans paynys mer ow dyswul gldn, for 
it is -wished, if it is possible, to destroy me quite. P.O. 
2602. Ef a galse pup tra y dhysioul arte may ys na fe, he 
might have destroyed every thing again more than it 
was. E.D. 978. Dyswul lyes corf a wra, it will destroy 
many bodies. R.D. 2216. Comp. of dis, neg., and gill, 
to do. 

DIU, adj. Black, dark, sable, gloomy. This is Llwyd's 
orthography of du, qd. v. Den diu, a black man. Mis 
diu, the black month, November. 100. Mola dhiu, a black 
bird, 89. Spernan diu, a black thorn, 131. Davos dhiu, 
.a black sheep, 243. 

DIW, num. adj. Two. Llwyd, 242. Another form of dew, 
qd. v. 

DIVESGERGAM, adj. Bowlegged. Comp. of diw, two, 
esgar, the leg, and cam, crooked. Crooked as to his two 
legs. Lhvyd, 6. 

DIVETH, adj. Shameless, impudent. An larth cleydh neb 
o cregis dyveth o ha lader pur, on the left side he that 
was hanged was shameless, and a thorough thief. M.C. 
191. "Written also deveth. Comp. of di, neg., and melh, 
shame. Arm. divez. 

DI VEES, s. m. An exile. Corn. Voc. exul. Comp. of di, 
neg., and bro, a country. "W.divro. Arm. divro, di- 
vroet. 

DIVULEUUIT, s. m. Crown of the head. Corn. Voc. 
vertex. W. llewydh, a radiating point, with the prefix, 
divu di-guo, anc. Ir. do-fo; modern Welsh, dyo. Zeuss, 
1101. 

DIWEDH, s. m. An end, bound, goal, limit Ny yl vos 
kelys, anpyth a dhue yn dywedh, it cannot be concealed, 
the thing will come at last. O.M. 671. Y grds dheuch- 
why re ivronntyo, nefre dhe blygye dhodho, yn dalleth hag 
yn dywedh, his grace may he grant to you, ever to bow 
to him, at the beginning, and at the end. O.M. 1728. 
Ellas na varwenyn wedh,nafe kynse ow dywedh ys dywedh 
ow mdpyn leys, alas ! that I died not also, that my end 
was not sooner than the end of my Son in the world. P.O. 
2947. M$l teeth a vydh an dywedh, a thousand (times) 
worse will be the end. R.D. 348. Vyngens re'n gejfo, ha 
drdkdywedh, vengeance take him, and a bad end. R.D. 
2086. War an diwedh, finally, at length, at last. Llwyd, 
64. Written also dewedh, qd. v. W. diwedh. Arm. 
divez. Ir. deire, diaigh, ^dead, tdiad, -[degaid, tiudh. 
Gael, deireadh. 

DIWEDH A, adj. Late, utmost. Llwyd,ns. W.dwedhav. 
Ann. diveza. 

DIWEDHAS, adj. Late. Pryce. Arm. divezad. 

DIWEDHE, v. a. To end, finish, accomplish. Ty" afydh 
cowal dr&k lam ; ny vyn an harlot cam, uwos an bys, dy- 
wedhe, thou shalt have a fully bad leap ; the perverse 
knave will not end, for the world. P.O. 2915. Joy dhe 
pup its yn bys-ma yn bewnans gulan dy wedhe, joy to every 
one that is in this world, in pure life to end. P.O. 3216. 
Aban oma dasserchys, dew hugens deydh dywydhys bydh 
panfo nos, since I am risen ? forty days will be, when it 
is night. R.D. 2437. W. diwedhu. Arm. diveza. 

DIWEDHVA, s. f. An ending place, end, conclusion. 
Bys may 'th ytlyfyn ow gwlds, ha why gynef gans ow ids 
hep dywedhva prest yn ioy, until that I enter into my king- 



dom, and yon with me, with my Father, without end, 
ever in joy. P.C. 728. Ego sum Alpha et Omega, heb 
dallath na diwedhva, I am Alpha and Omega, without 
beginning or end. C.W. 1. Comp. of diwedh, end, and 
ma, a place. 

DIWENNYS, part. Descended, come down. Pryce. A 
corruption of diskynnys. 

DIWBS, s. f. Drink, beverage. Woge ow da oberow, dywes 
a yrhys dedhe; dhym rosons bustyl wherow, byth nyfynnys 
y eve, after my good works, drink I asked of them ; 
they gave to me bitter gall, never would I drink it. R.D. 
2600. Another form of dewes, and diot, qd. v. 

DIWLA, s. m. The two hands, the hands. Llwyd, 242. 
A la'te form of dewlef or duilof, qd. v. 

DIWORTO, pron. prep. From him. Llwyd, 244. See 
Dyworto. 

DIWY, v. a. To kindle, set on fire. Pryce. Written 
also dywy, qd. V. 

DO, prep. To. In construction dho. Bo do ny hidhow 
aaan pub dydh bara, give to ns to day our daily bread. 
Pryce. Ha disquedhes truatli do milliow neb es a cara ve, 
ha givytha ow gurhemynadow, and shew mercy unto thou- 
sands of them that love me, and keep my command- 
ments, ibid. Ma tesan rages dho dhon dre, dho da wreg, 
here is a cake for thee to take home to thy wife. Llwyd, 
242. In the earlier Ordinalia, de, dhe, are the forms used, 
and in Jordan's " Creation of the World," da, dha. See 
De. In Old Welsh di was the form, and do, in composi- 
tion, of which Zeuss gives copious examples, but in 
modern W. ,'. Arm. da, t<#, t<&. Ir. do. Gael. do. 
Manx, dy. 

DO, pron. poss. Thy, thine. In construction dho. Agan 
Tds neb es en nev, beniges bedh do hanow, our Father 
which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Rag an 
mychterneth ew chee do honnan, for the kingdom is thine. 
Pryce. The common forms in the Ordinalia are de, dhe, 
and dy, dhy. See De, Dy. 

DOAR, s. m. The earth, soil, land, ground. When pre- 
ceded by the article, an doar, from a greater ease in pro- 
nouncing became an noar, and an 'oar. The same 
change has occurred in Armoric, to the word dor, a 
door, where for ann dor, are substituted ann nor, or ann 
or. Un Edhow a brederys, hag a leverys dhedhe, bonas 
pren yn doar tewlys, a-us yn houl na vye, a Jew be- 
thought, and said to them, that there was a piece of 
wood on the ground thrown, above in the sun that had 
not been. M.C. 152. Ha dhe'ndoar an goys ha'nlyn an- 
nodho del deveras, and to the ground the blood and 
humour from him so dropped. M.C. 221. En dallath Dew 
a wras nev ha noar ; ha thera an noar heb roath, ha gtvdg, 
in the beginning God created heaven and earth ; and the 
earth was without form and void. C.W. p. 189. En dull- 
alh Dew wras nev ha an oar. M.C. p. 93. Written also. 
doer, and contractedly dor, qd. v. W. daear, dayar, \ dair. 
Arm. douar, tcfoar. Ir. uir. Gael, uir, idaor. Manx, 
ooir. Sansc. dhara. 

DOC, v. a. Bear thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of doga, qd. v. 
Mora kewsys falsury, a henna dd/c dustuny, if I have 
spoken falsehood, of that bear witness. P.C. 1271. D6tc 
an grows war dhe geyn, bear thou the cross on thy back. 
P.C. 2617. Written also d6g. 

DOCHAGEYDH, s. m. The afternoon, evening. Pur wyr a 
lavaraf dhys, gynef hydhow ly a vydh rag dhe fey ynpar- 



DOF 



107 



DOLLE 



adys, kyngys hanter dochageydh, very truly I say to thee, 
with me this day thou shalt be, for thy faith in Paradise, 
before half the evening. P.C. 2912. Llwyd gives do- 
hadzhedh, 6 ; dyhodzhydh, 10 ; dyhodzhedh, 248 ; as late 
sounds of this word. It is the same as W. dywedydh, 
i. e. diwedh dydh, the end of the day., 

DODLOS, s. m. Service, office. Pryce. A doubtful and 
probably corrupted word. 

DODHANS, pron. prep. To them, relating to them. Ha 
dew queth dodhans gwra doen dh'aga hudha, ago, nootha 
na vo gwelys, and two garments do thou bear to them, 
to cover them, that their nakedness be not seen. C.W. 
70. Dout sor Dew nyng-ese dhodhans nena, me a w6r 
gwyr, the fear of God's anger was not on them then, I 
know truly. C.W. 176. Ha an della ma diwedh me dar- 
alla dodhans, and so is the end of my tale about them. 
Lhtyd, 253. This is another form of dedhe, qd. v. W. 
idhi/nl. 

DODHO, pron. prep. To him, or it. In construction dho- 
dfto. Mur fast y gen lowenhas, dodho ny dhyalwhedhas, 
gour ha benen, very much he gladdened us, to him we 
unlocked, man and woman. R.D. 1445. Mur afoly ew 
dhodho, an kethfrul-na mar a'n gas, it is a great folly 
in him, if he leaves that same fruit O.M. 191. Saw un 
pren gans garlontow a arhans adro dhodho, but one tree 
with garlands of silver about it. O.M. 2500. Ha kym- 
mys a dheseryas dhodho tff a ve grontis, and as much as 
he desired to him was granted. M.C. 9. Comp. of do, 
to, and o, him, dh being inserted. W. idho. Arm. dezaf. 
Ir. do, t dosom. Gael, da, dha. Manx, da. Goth, thamm. 

DOEN, v. a. To bear, to bring, to produce, to carry. An 
tryssa dydh me a wra dhe'n gwfjdh sevel yn Ian, ha doen 
dellyow lek ha da, the third day I will make the trees 
to stand upright, and bear leaves fair and good. C.W. 8. 
Ha dew \fueth dodhans gwra doen, and two garments to 
them do thou bear. C.W. 70. Mor vyth nyng-ese deffry 
dhe doen yn ker, there was not any sea, to bear it away. 
C W. 176. Written also doyn, and by contraction don, 
qd. v. W. dwyn. Arm. dougen, t doen. Ir. \denom. 

DOENS, v. n. Let them come. Lhvyd, 247. Id. qd. dens, 
qd. v. 

DOER, s. f. Earth, the earth. Corn. Voc. terra. Trevedic 
doer, incola, lit. an inhabitant of the land. ibid. Ha'n 
bewnans pan a'n kelly, dhe'n doer ty a dreyl aria, and the 
life when thou losest it, to the earth thou shalt turn 
again. C.W. 28. Pellys on a Paradice dha'n noer veys 
er agan gew, driven out we are from Paradise to the 
earth of the world for our woe. C.W. 76. War doer 
lemyn umhelaf, on the ground I will cast myself. C.W. 
88. Henna o gwan ober gwrfis, may ma Detv ha'n noer 
keffrys, warnas pub &r ow 'rya, that was a foul act com- 
mitted, so that God and the earth likewise are on thee 
every hour crying. C.W. 72. Written also doar, and by 
contraction dor, qd. v. 

DOES, v. n. Let him come. Llwyd, 247. 3 pera. s. imp. 
of dos, qd. v. 

DOF, s. m. A son-in-law. Corn. Voc. gener. W. daw, 
daiw, idaua. Arm. daf, deuf, dof. Sansc. daivar, a 
brother-in-law. 

DOF, adj. Tame, gentle. Gans lyf ny wrnf bynytha ladhe 
an dus gw$ls na d6f, with flood I will not ever destroy 
mankind, wild or tame. O.M 1254. Written also dov, 
qd. v. W. d6v, t dam. Arm. don. 



DOF, v. n. I will come. 1 pers. s. fut. of irr. v. dfa, qd. v. 
Venytfia ny dh6f a'n plen erna'n prenne an gwan-na, 
never will I come from that place, until I take that 
fellow. O.M. 2151. 

DOFERGI, s. m. An otter. Corn. Voc. doferghi, lutrius. 
Comp. of dofer, an old form of dour, water, and , a 
dog. Written also devergi, and dourgi. W. dyvrgi, dourgi. 
Arm. dourgi, ki-dour. Ir. dobhar-chu. Gael, dobhar-chu. 

DOFYS, part. Chosen. Pryce. Adam, me a lavar dhys, dha 
vdb Seth ew dofys genef prest dhom servya ve, Adam, I tell 
thee, thy son Seth is chosen by me ready to serve me. 
C.W. 102. This is a wrong reading of deivesys, which is 
the orthography in the British Museum MS. 

DOGA, v. n. To bear, bring, produce, carry. 2 pers. s. 
imp. doc, dog, doqa. 3 pers. s. fut. d6c, dog. 3 pers. 
s. pret. due, a dhilc. Ganse y a dhuk golow, nos o, ny 
welons yn fas, with them they carried a light, it was 
night, they saw not well. M.C. 64. Ha na blek genas 
henna ha fals, te dok dustuny, and (if) that does not 
please thee, and false, do thou bear witness. M.C. 82. 
Pan o an kentrow lemmys, hy a's duk dhe'n Edhewon, 
when the nails were sharpened, she brought them to 
the Jews. M.C. 160. Kymer dhymmo ve kunys ; gans 
lovan bedhens strothys, ha war dhe keyn dbga ef, take thou 
firewood for me ; with a rope let it be bound, and on 
thy back carry it. O.M. 1298. Dog alena ti)r gwelen, 
bring thence three rods. O.M. 1945. Anjoul re'n dogo 
dh'yplath, the devil carry him to his place. R.D. 2189. 
Ow blonogath yw henna, may toccans amma pur splan 
frutes, my will is this, that they produce here very bright 
fruits. C.W. 8. Frui da bynnar re dhocca, good fruit 
may it never bear ! C.W. 84. Whalh keth yns y mar 
venys, me a dh6g ran war oiv heyn uskes lemyn, yet since 
they are so small, I will carry some on my back, im- 
mediately now. C.W. 100. Written also degy, qd. v. 
W. dygyd, dygu, (imp., dwg, pret. dug.) \doca. Arm. 
douga. Ir. tug, ^tuc. Gael. tog. Manx, dug. Sansc. tab, 
duh. Gr. ^ex 07 * Sexoftat. Lat. duco. Goth, tiuha. 
Germ, xiehe. Eng. tug. 

DOGOTH, v. n. It behoveth, it becometh. Ny dogotft 
dhynny ladhe den vyth ol yn n&r b$s-ma, it behoveth us 
not to kill any man at all in the earth of this world. 
r.C. 1981. A ker Arlulh, ethyn grows pren, dhym ny 
dhogouth amme dhe'lh pen, dear Lord, that wentest on 
the cross tree, to me it becometh not to kiss thy head. 
R.D. 872. Written also degoth, qd. v. 

DOL, s. f. A valley, a dale, a mead through which a 
river flows. It is preserved in the names of places, iu 
Cornwall, as Dollywhiddens, Godolphin, Sfc., and is of 
very frequent occurrence in Wales, as Blaenydhol, Dol- 
garrog, Dolwydhelen, $-c. W. dol. Arm. dol. Ir. dail. 
Gael. dull. Manx, dayll. Germ, dal, thai, Dan. Swed. 
Du. dal. Eng. dale. Goth, dal, dallei. Runic, Dal. 
Isl. doete. 

DOL, s. m. A share, part, one eighth, a dole. Pryce. 
This is not Celtic, being borrowed from the English. 

DOLL, a. m. A hole. A mutation of toll, qd. v. Worth 
an Ics y a dollas dew dollyn grows heb ken, on the breadth 
they holed two holes in the cross without pity. M.C. 178. 

DOLLAS, v. a. He bored a hole. A mutation of lottos, 
preterite of tolly, qd. v. 

DOLLE, v. a. To deceive, to delude. Hy a d/tesefs^ scorni 
gans an epscop ha'y dolle dhe u-ordhye dewow nowydh, she 



DOR 



108 



DOROY 



would wish to strive with the bishop, and delude him to i 
worship new gods. O.M.2732. A mutation of tolte, qd. v. 

DOLOS, v. a. To proclaim, to publish. Rdg henna Pylat 
a r6s dhe'n varogyon ago, ro, may lavarsans ha dolos y 
pup tytter dris an vro, ahe vos tun yrvys yn nos warnedfte 
kymmys adro, nag ens y hardh dhe ivortos lemmen oil 
ntonasdhe'nfo, therefore Pilate gave to the soldiers their 
gift, that the}' should say and proclaim in every place 
through the country, that armed men in the night were 
upon them, so many about, they were not bold to stay, 
but that all fled away. M.O. 250. Cf. W. dolevain, to 
shout. 

DOLVA, s. f. A breach, a separation. This word furnish- 
ed by Pryce, as existing in the names Pednolva, the 
head of the breach, in Paul, must be a mutation oftolva, 
and comp. of toll, a hole, and ma, a place. 

DOM, pron. prep. To my. (Do-my.) My a vyn alemma 
mds dhom giwek, ha'm Jlehes totta, I will go hence to 
iny wife, and children, in haste. O.M. 1036. Ty re dhys- 
ivrttg eredy hevelep dhom face vy, thou hast destroyed 
verily the likeness to my face. O.M. 2337. Olyfechas 
gulan dedhy hy yfeydh gyfys, rag kemmys hy dhom care, 
all her sin clean to her shall be forgiven, for so much 
she loved me. P.O. 630. Written also dum, qd. v. 

DON, v. a. To bear, to bring, to carry. A contracted form 
of doen, qd. v. It changes in construction into dhdn, 
and ton. Rdg mar ny wreth, my a vyn y dh6n genef 
arte dre, for if thou wilt not, I will take it home with 
me again. O.M. 608. Me a vyn aga threhy, ha'ga don 
genef yn chy, I will cut them, and carry them with me 
into the house. O.M. 1737. Pan veuch agey dhe'n cyte 
why a dhyerbyn wharre den ow t6n pycher dour gldn. 
when ye shall be within the city, ye will meet soon a 
man carrying a pitcher of clean water. P.O. 629. Lemyn 
dreheveuch a n gist,yw gwrfls crows, war duscodh Cryst dh'y 
don dhe dre, now raise ye the beam, is made a cross, upon 
the shoulders of Christ to carry it to the town. P.C. 2584. 

DONES, v. n. To come, to. arrive. Wheth myr arte aber- 
vedh, hag oil ken ty a wel f y(h kyns ys dones a lena, look 
yet again within, and all else thou shalt see before that 
thou come from it. O.M. 792. This is an enlarged form j 
of dos, which does not exist in Welsh, but it does in 
Armoric, donet. 

DONS, v. n. They shall come. 3 pers. pi. fut. of d6s. Tus 
us dhym ow tevones yw gans ow thraytor dyskis,fatel d6ns 
dhow hemeres, ha del vedhaf hombronhis, men are coming 
to me by my traitor taught, how they shall come to 
take me, and how I shall be led. M.C. 61. Ha mur 
a bobyll ganse, a dhychow hag a gledh, dhe Gryst y 
ions dh'y syndye ha ahe dry dne'n dor gans meth, and 
many people with them, on the right, and on the left, to 
Christ they come to hold him, and to bring to the ground 
with shame. M.C. 97. Llwyd, 247. W. deuant, dont. 

DOR, s. f. Earth, the earth, ground, land. ,A contracted 
form of doar, qd. y. Written in the Corn. Voc. doer. 
Ha'n bewnans pan y'n kylly, dhe'n d6r ty a dreyl arte', and 
the life when thou shalt lose it, to the earth thou shalt 
turn again. O.M. 64. Ke growedh war an dor, go lie 
down on the ground. O.M. 370.' Ha my a, gans oil 
oto nel, yn dor dhe dhallath palas, and I will go, with all 
my strength, to begin to dig in the ground. O.M. 370. 
Ha hy a wra aspyt mars us d6r sechyn nep pow, and she 
will look about, if there is dry land in any place. O.M. 



1116. Yma an dfa owkrenne, the earth is trembling- 
P.C. 2995. 

DOR, s. f. A belly. Govy vyihpan v$f genys, u dor ow 
vnc.m, dynythys, na vythquethpan denys prow, sad that ever 
I was^orn, out of my mother's womb brought, or ever 
when I sucked the breast. O.M. 1754. A mutation of 
tor, qd. v. 

DORGRYS, s. m. An earthquake. An houl ny qoUe y 
lyw, awos map den dhe venvel, na corf dasserhy dhe vew, 
na dor-grys yn tyougel, the sun would not have lost its 
colour, because of a son of man to die, nor a body rise 
again to life, nor an earthquake really. P.C. 3086. Comp. 
of dor, earth, and cry's, id. qd. W. rrjjW, a quaking. It is 
also written incorrectly dorgis. Newngo devethys an pry's, 
may 'tho ogas dh'y dhewedh, yn er-na yfe dnrgis, ha dris 
oil an bys ef eth, now the time was come that he was 
near to his end, in that hour there was an earthquake, 
and over all the world it went. M.C. 200. Nango hanter 
d!)dh yn wlds po may del yma scryjts, dorgis esa, ha Ivchatt, 
ha'n tewolgow kekyjfris, it was now mid-day in the coun- 
try, or more as it is written, there was an earthquake, 
and lightning, and darkness likewise. M.C. 209. W. 
daeargryd, daeargryn. Arm. Icren-douar. 

DORN, s. m. A fist, a hand, a handle, a hilt. PL dornow. 
Adam yslyn dhym dhe dhorn ; tan henna dheworthef vy, 
Adam, reach me thy hand ; take that from me. O.M. 205. 
A'n lost kymmer dhedhy yn ban ; y'lh torn hep ger sens dhe 
honan,dhys lavaraf, by the tail take it up ; in thy hand 
without a word, hold it thyself, I tell thee. O.M. 1455. 
Otte ow fycher gyne yn ow dorn rak y gerchas, behold my 
pitcher with me in my hand, to fetch it. . P.C. 657. Me. 
a'n dalhenfest yn tyn, ha gans ow dornow a'n guryn na 
sowenno, I will hold him very tightly, and with my hands 
make him that he thrive not. P.C. 1133. Pur ankensy 
gans dornow dhodho war scovornow reach boxsusow tre- 
wysy, very painful with fists to him on the ears give ye 
sad blows. P.C. 1360. Ren dhodho boxsusow gans dornow 
ha gwelynny war an scovornow bysy, let us give him blows 
with fists and rods on the ears diligently. P.C. 1390. 
Panfue an purpur war skwych kychys dhe ves gans dyw 
dhorn, when the purple on a sudden was snatched away 
with hands. R.D. 2596. The following are from Llwyd: 
Dorn dehow, the right hand ; basced dorn, a hand bas- 
ket, 61 ; dorn gledh, dorn glikin, left handed, 150; dorn 
ardar, a plough tail, 155. An manac adro's dorn, the 
glove on your hand, 250. W. dwrn. Arm. dourn. Ir. 
dorn, durn. Gael. dorn. Manx, doarn, durn. 

DOROY, v. a. To bring. 3 pers. s. fut., and 2 pers. s. 
imp. dbro. Rag ef o tcbel edhen, neb a glewsys ow 
cane, hag a'n doro dhe anken, for he was an evil bird, 
whom thou didst hear singing, and will bring us to 
sorrow. O.M. 225. Boiler fystyn hep lettye, doro dhym 
an gwyn gwella, butler hasten without stopping, bring 
me the best wine. O.M. 1904. My a gynes yn lowen, 
hag a dhoro asen an genen ha'n ebel kejfrys, 1 will gc 
with thee gladly, and will bring the ass with us, and 
the foal likewise. P.C. 192. Doro kenter, bring a 
nail. P.C. 2746. Doro dhe luef yn woly, gwynys may 
fuef dre an golon, put thy hand into the wound, 
where I was pierced through the heart. R.D. 1539. 
$Dowoy an golow dkanna, mcdh Dzhuan, nenna hei 
a dhoroas an golow, come hither with the light, quoth 
John ; then she brought the light. Llwyd, 253. Doroy 



DOTHE 



109 



DOVA 






is comp. of do, id. qd. dy, intens. prefix, and roy, to 
give. Dry is a contracted form, qd v. W. dyroi. 

DORRAF, v. a. I will break. A mutation of torraf, 1 
pers. s. fut. of torry, qd. v. My ny dorraflyx vycken an 
acord us lemyn gwreys, I will not break tor ever the 
agreement that is now made. O.M. 1239. W. mi ni 
dorrav bylh. 

DORRAS, v. a. He broke. A mutation of torras, 3 pers. 
s. pret. of torry, qd. v. Och, (ru, tru, my re bekas, ha re 
dorras an dyfen, Oh, woe, woe, I have sinned, and 
broken the prohibition. O.M. 250. Honna ywolldhevla- 
mye a dorras an aval tek, that one is all to blame, that 
plucked the fair apple. O.M. 265. Y vos map Dew da 
y sy>a,pan dorras queth an tempel, that he was the Son of 
God it follows, when the cloth of the temple tore. P.O. 
3088. 

DORRASA, v. a. He had broken. A mutation of tor- 
rasa, 3 pers. s. pluperf. of torry, qd. v. An Tds an nef 
a'n gruk efdhodho haval; pan dorrasa an aval, an Arluth 
afue serrys, the Father of heaven made him like to him- 
self; when he plucked the apple, the Lord was angry. 
O.M. 879.- 

DORRO, v. a. He may break. A mutation of lorro, 3 
pers. s. snbj. of torry, qd. v. Me a'n gor dhodho, mar 
ny'n gorraf, an myl dyawl re dorro mellmo v gyn, I will 
take him to him, if I do not take him, may a thousand 
devils break the joints of his back. P.O. 1619. 

DORT, prep. From. Ha na deg ny en antail, bus gwitha 
ny dort drog, and lead us not into temptation, but keep 
us from evfl. Pryce. An tresa dydh efa dheravas arta 
dort an marrow, the third day he rose again from the 
dead. ibid. Dho gwitha dhort, to keep from. Llwyd, 
71. Dhort gudra an devas ha'n gowr, from milking the 
sheep and the goats. 240. Dort is another form of de- 
worth, or dyworth, and is compounded of do, from, and 
ort, by. 

DOS, v. m. To come. It changes in construction into 
dhos, and tos. For the various tenses, see the Grammar. 
Ha ny OIK ton alena, and we coming from that place. O.M. 
714. Mar dha yw genef a vrys menvel kyns dos dr6k 
ancow, so well it is, in my opinion, to die before the 
evil sorrow comes. O.M. 1230. Ro dhymmo grath a dh6s 
dhe'th plath gans dhe eleth, give me grace to come to thy 
place, with thy angels. P.O. 291. Ha a'thpys a dhos 
dhodho bfjs yn tre, and prays, thee to come to him into 
the town. P.O. 666. DhJn Edhewon, pan dothye, y lev- 
trys, hag y ow tax, to the Jews when he came, he said, 
and they coming. M.C. 63. Enejf Judas ny alias dos 
yn mes wary anow, the soul of Judas could not come out 
by his mouth. M.C. 106. W. dyvod, and poet. d6d. 
Arm. donet, dond. IT. deanam, tigh. Gael, tainig. Sansc. 
dhi, dhiv, to come ; tag, tig, to go. 

DOTH, s. m. Haste, despatch. A mutation of t6th, qd. v. 
En debell wrek casadow gans mur a doth, eth yn chy, war 
hast dhe wethyll kentrow, may fens creffha trewesy, the 
wicked wife detestable with much hurry, went into the 
house, in haste to make nails, that they might be strong 
and painful. M.C. 159. 

DOTHE, v. n. He would cdme. 3 pers. s. subj. of dos. 
A losowys ol an byg, mar whek smyllyng, my a grys, ny 
dhothe otjs venary, from all the herbs of the world, such 
sweet smelling, I believe, would never come. O.M. 1744. 
W. daethai. 



DOTHYANS, v. n. They had come. 3 pers. pi. pluperf. 
of irr. v. d6s. Pan dothyans fry's yn tyller may 'these 
Crist wo petty, when they had come to the place, where 
Christ was praying. M.C. 65. Pan dothyans dh'y, yn- 
trethe pows Jesus a ve rfysys,when they had come there, 
among them the coat of Jesus was taken off. M.C. 176. 

DOTHYE, v. n. He had come. 3 pers. s. pluperf. of irr. 
v. dos. Dhe'n Edhetoon, pan dolhye, y leveryx, hag y ow 
tos, to the Jews when he had come, he said, and they 
coming. M.C. 63. Keivsyns den myns a vynno, ow kyc 
ha'm gos bi)dh ynno, ha ken ny dhothye dne'n ne.f, let a 
man say all he will, my flesh and my blood shall be in 
him, and else he would not go to heaven. R.D. 2450. 

DOTHYNS, pron. prep. To them. J Ha Dew rig go beni- 
gns an gy, ha Dew lavaras dothyns, and God did bless 
them, and God said to them. C.W. p. 192. JAfo rachee 
plegy a'n dor dothyans, na ge worry, do thou not bow 
down to them, nor worship them. Pryce. This is to be 
read dodhyns, and is the same as dodhans, another form 
of dedhe. 

DOUR, s. m. Water. Corn. Voc. aqua vel amnis ; where 
it is also written douer, and dqfer. PI. dburoiv. Obs. 
that the singular had the sound of the W. dwr, while 
the plural is formed from dower, or doicr, exactly as 
the Welsh for the plural always use dyvroedh, from 
duryr, or dwvr. Dmver is another form found in the 
Ordinalia, qd. v. A'n golonyth elh strft bras, dour ha 
goys yn ketneskys, from the heart there went a great 
stream, water and blood mingled. M.C. 219. Dour, may 
fens y dyseliys, a vewnans ry de.dhc gwra, that they may 
be refreshed, the water of life do thou give them. O.M. 
1833. Nyns its pons war dhour Ccdron, there is no 
bridge over the water of Cedron. O.M. 2804. Den ow 
ton pycher dour gMn, a man carrying a pitcher of clean 
water. P.C. 629. Ha Speres Dew rig gwayath war led- 
geth an doivrow, and the Spirit of God moved on the 
face of the waters. C.W. p. 189. W. dwr, dwvr, 
dwvyr, -\-dubr. Corn, dour, deter, daiver, idur, t douer, 
\dofer. Arm. dour. Ir. dur, dobhar Gael, dur, dobh- 
ar. Manx, doour. Basque, vra. Gr. SSiap. Sansc. var, 
vari. water; dabhra, ocean. From dur comes durum, 
the Latin termination and beginning of so many names 
of towns situated on the seaside, or near rivers ; and 
by transposition of letters, dwbr, or duber, became watar, 
in German, and woda, in Slavonic. 

DOUR, s. m. Care, concern, anxiety. Esc dour, hapon- 
vos bras, wharreygen loivenhas, ketteldhueth eraganpyn, 
there was concern and great trouble ; soon he gladdened 
us, when he came to meet us. R.D. 1327. This is 
variously written der, dur, duer, qd. v. W. dawr. 

DOURGI, s. m. An otter. Llwyd, 241. Written also 
dofergi, qd. v. 

DOURIA, v. a. To water, to irrigate. Llwyd, 83. Writ- 
ten also dourhi, 141. W. dyvrtt. Arm. doura. 

DOV, v. D. I will come. Mi dhov. Llwyd, 247. 1 pers. 

s. fut. of dds. 
DOV, adj. Tame. Written also d6f, qd. v. W. dov, dom. 

Arm. don. Sansc. dam, to tame. 

DOVA, v. a. To make tame, to tame, to subdue. Llwyd, 
55. ~W.di.nii, -^domi. Arm. donva. Sansc. dam. Gr. 
Sffiw, 6a.fi.dw. Lat. domo. Fr. domple. Goth: damia. 
Germ, zahme. Eng. tame. 



DOYN 



110 



DRE 



DOWDHEC, num. adj. Twelve. Pan o y besadow guris, 
dhe'n dowdhek y leverys, when his prayers were ended, 
to the twelve he said. M.C. 61. Dmedhec legyon yn un 
ro vye an nefdanvenys, twelve legions in one gift would 
be from heaven sent. M.C. 72. Written also dewdhec, 
qd. v. 

DOWDHEGVE8, num. adj. Twelfth. Written also dow- 

dhegvas. Pryce. 
DOWEDHYANS, s. m. End, the close, termination. Yn 

dou>edhyans a hena me a bowes desempys, in the latter end 

of that I will rest immediately. C.W. 32. From dowedh, 

id. qd. dewedh, an end. 
DOWER, s. m. Water. Dower ha ler, ha tan, ha gwyns, 

haul, ha lour, ha steyr keffrys, water and earth, and fire, 

and wind, and sun, and moon, and stars likewise. M.C. 

211. Written also dour, qd. v. 

DOWH, v. n. Ye will come. 2 pers. pi. fat. of dfa. Llwyd, 
247. A late form of deuch. W. dowck. 

DOWL, s. m. A fall. A mutation of towl, qd. v. Gallas 
genef hager dowl, dhe pytt ej/farn Jnes an nef, I have had 
a cruel fall to the pit of hell ont of heaven. C.W. 32. 

DOWLA, v. a. To throw, to cast. A mutation of towla, 
qd. v. Do e dowla en cledh, to cast him iuto a ditch. 
Llwyd, 244. 

DOWN, adj. Deep, profonr.d, low. Paynys ad u-ra more- 
t/tek yn yjffarn dmrnpub lermyn, pains shall make thee 
miserable ill hell deep at all times. M.C. 66. Ef a days 
a dhesympys maga town ty del wodhye, he swore immedi- 
ately as deep an oath as he knew. M.C. 85. Yn dor my 
a vyn palas toll, may fo ynno cudhys, hay wul hijr IM 
doun ragdho, in the earth I will dig a hole that he may 
be covered in it, and make it long and deep for him. 
O.M. 867. Down y'm kyc may 'tho tellys lyes myl toll, so 
that deep in my flesh were pierced many thousand holes. 
R.D. 2539. W. dwvn. Arm. doun, -\-don. Ir. doimhin, 
i-domun, Gael, domhain. Manx, dowin ; y diunid, the 
profound. Gr. Svvta, to go down. Bug. down. 

DOWN, v. n. We will come. 1 pers. pi. fut. of dos. Llwyd, 
247. Another form of dun. W. down. 

DOWNDER, s. m. Deepness, depth, profundity, a gulf, a 
bottomless pit. Ha ' thera an noar hep camposter ha gwdg, 
ha tulder war ledgelh an downder, ha Speres Dew rig 
gwayath war bedgeth an dowrow, and the earth was with- 
out form and void, and darkness on the face of the deep; 
and the Spirit of God did move on the face of the waters. 
C.W. p. 189 ; M.C. p. 93. W. dyvnder. Arm. dounder. 

DOWSES, s. m. Godhead, divinity. Pan ylly gy ahanan 
dhe'n nef, dhe'n Tds, gynen bydhyih yn doivses ; rak na 
yllyn dhe weles, cuth ny gen gas, when thou goest from 
us to heaven, to the Father, thou wilt be with us in God- 
head ; because we are not able to see thee, sorrow leaves 
us not R.D. 2455. This is another form of dewsys, 
qd. v. 

DOY, adj. Yesterday. Corn. Voc. ken. The latest form 
was de, qd. v. W. doe. Arm. deach, dtch. Ir. ne, ane ; 
nae,anae^; -\-indhe. Gael, tfe, or* <fe. Manx,/ea. Gr, x^- 
Lat. heri. Fr. hier. Sansc. hyas, from hi, to leave. Cf. 
also xOeaivov. Lat. hesternus. Goth, gistra. Germ, ges- 
tern. Eng. yester. 

DOYN, v. a. To bring, to bear, to carry. An Edhewon a 
gewsys, doyn dhyn dustuny a wra, mychtern yjyn 16s syn- 
sys ha mester bras yn bys-ma, the Jews said, he will bear 



witness to us, that he will be accounted a king, and a 
great master in this world. M.C. 111. Another form 
of doen, qd. v. 

DOYS, v. a. He swore. A mutation of toys, qd. v. Efa 
days a dhesympys maga town ty del wvdhye, gans Christ 
na vye tregis, na bylhqueth ef na'n quelse, he swore im- 
mediately as deep an oath as he knew, with Christ that 
he had not been living, nor ever had seen him. M.C. 85. 

DOYS, v. n. To come. / vam tvheh Marya wyn pub ur fys- 
tene a wre, may haltt days war-y-byn, y mab kemmys a 
gore, his dear mother, blessed Mary, every hour made 
haste, that she might come to meet him. her son she 
loved so much. M.C. 171. Another form of dos, qd. v. 

DRA, s. f. A thing. A mutation of tra, qd. v. Lavar dys- 
empys dymmo an dra us war dhe vreys, speak at once to 
me the thing which is on thy mind. P.O. 499. Dew ha 
den yw deiv dra, God and man are two things. P.O. 1730. 
An dra-na na yl bos gwyr, that thing that cannot 
be true. R.D. 1460. A ny wodhouch why un dra, do ye 
not know one thing ? R.D. 2445. 

DRAEN, s. m. A thorn, a prickle. Corn. Voc. drain, spina, 
pi. drein, sentes. By Llwyd, the singular is written dren. 
Hag ynnofest luhas loll gans an dreyn a ve tellys, and in 
it very many holes by the prickles were holed. M.C. 133. 
Assomur tyn ow passyon, pan e/h dreyn yn empynnyon 
a pup parth dre a' grogen, very sharp was my suffering, 
when the thorns went into the brain, on all parts through 
the skull. R.D. 2557. W. draen, pi. drain. Arm. dram, 
drean, pi. drein. Ir. draighean, draighen, droighin, 
^draigen. Gael, droighionn, (pron. droiun.) Manx, 
drine. Sansc. drunaka. Goth, thaurn. Germ, thorn. 
Du. doren. Du. doren, doernen. Ang. Sax. thyrn. Eng. 
thorn. 

DRAENEN, s. f. A bramble, a brier, a thorabush. Lluyd, 
148. W. draenen. 

DRAGUN, s. m. A dragon. Llwyd, 55. Another term is 
druic, qd. v. W. dragon, draig, ^dreic. Arm. dragon. 
Ir. dragun, dreagan, draig, drig. Gael, drag, dreug. Lat. 
draco, dracone. Eng. dragon. 

DRAITH, s. m.. A sandy beach. Pryce. A mutation of 
traiih, qd. v. 

DRA.L, s. m. A piece, a fragment, a part Dus alena. ty 
Gebal, gor an pren yn mcs gans mal, hath wereses Ama- 
lek, ha teuleuch e dral ha dral yn Bessede pur gowal, come 
away from there, thou Gebal, place the tree outside with 
a will, and let Amalek help thee ; and cast ye it, piece 
by piece, into Bethsaida very completely. O.M. 2782. 
W. dryll. Arm. dral. 

DRE, s. f. A town. A mutation of tre, qd. v. Masons 
an dre keteppol, guetyeuch bones avororv ow conys yn cry a 
an dre, masons of the city, every head, take ye care to 
be to-morrow working in the midst of the city. O.M. 
2298. An gwasprout re wruk re maystry yn dre, the proud 
fellow has done too much violence in town. P.C. 363. 
Oil monas y a vynnc bys yn Mont a Calvary, a ves dhe'n 
dre ythese, all would go even to Mount Calvary, outside 
the town it was. M.C. 162. Dre is often used with or 
without a preposition to express home, at home, home- 
wards. Ow map py 'theth dhe vroder, prag na dheth e 
genes dre, my son, where is thy brother gone, why is 
he not come with thee home ? O.M. 607. Ow arlulh 
Imvene dhya, ow ot^ vy devethys arte dhe dre, my lord, 
hail to thee ! behold me come again home. O.M. 2213. 



DREDHO 



111 



DREHEDHY 






Ellas vythpan dhueyth a dre, alas, that I ever came from 
home. R.D. 1661. 

DRE. prep. Through, by. Rag pup tra oil afydh da, dre 
taeres agan Dew ny, for all things will be good, by the 
heip of our God. O.M. 535. Drevodh an Tascaradow, 
by the will of the Father beloved. O.M. 1039. Hy a"n 
gruk dre kerense, she did it through love. P.O. 549. Yn 
golon, dre'n (enewen, dhe reslye syngys ow gu ; dre ow 
thrys y tilth un smat, gans kenlrow d'aga gorre ; y fue 
ow manegow plat spygys Iras dre ow dyivle, in heart, 
through the side, I felt my spear thrust, through my feet 
a fellow came with nails to put them ; and my smooth 
gloves were great spikes through my hands. R.D. 2585. 
Dre is a mutation of Ire, but it only occurs in the second- 
ary form. Der is another form, qd. v. W. trwy, drwy, 
fire, t troi, \trui. Arm. dre. Ir. tre, t/rt, dor. Gael. 
tre, troimk, trid. Manx, trooid. Sansc. tiritas. Goth. 
thairu. Aug. Sax. thurh. Eng. through. 

DRE, conj. While, whilst. Ha dre von lew, on siir a 
wrapenya ; nymbesjoy a drayn bys, and whilst we are 
alive, he will surely punish us ; there is no joy to me of 
anything in the world. C.W. 90. It occurs more fre- 
quently in the compound form hedre, qd. v. Dre is a 
mutation of tre, id. qd. try, qd. v. W. tra. Arm. andra, 
endra. Ir. troth. Gael, trath. 

DREAFSE, v. a. He would raise. Hag efdhyn releverys, 
fcynfe an temple dyswrys yn tri dydh y'n dreafse, and he 
hath said to us, although the temple were destroyed, in 
three days he would re-build it P.O. 366. This is an 
incorrect form of drehefse, 3 pers. s. plup. and subj. of 
drehcvel, qd. v. 

DREATH, s. m. A sandy shore, a sand. Dreath lenky, a 
quicksand. Lhvyd, 160. A mutation of treath, id. qd. 
traith, qd. v. 

DRECHA, v. a. He will raise. 3 pers. s. fnt. ofdrehevel, 
qd. v. An temple efa dkysura, yn trydydh efa'n drecha 
gwdl ages kyns mur yn prof, the temple he will destroy ; 
in three days he will build it, better much than before 
in proof. P.O. 1697. Coskyn ny gans dyaha ; kyn das- 
vnco ny'n drecha dhywar y geyn, let us sleep with 
security ; though he should revive, he will not lift it 
from off his back. R.D. 403. This form was also soft- 
ened into dreha. (See DreheveL) W. dyrcha. 

DREDH, prep. By, through. Llwyd, 117. 

DREDHE, pron. prep. By or through them. Aban yw 
an pren tellys, bed/tens an ebyl gorrys dredhc rag ago, lade, 
since the wood is bored, let the pegs be put through 
them, to fasten them. P.O. 2575. Hag yll troys a ve 
gorrisporan war ben y gele, worth an grows, yf 6ns lathijs' 
gans (center gwyskis dredhe, and the one foot was put 
straight over the other, on the cross they were laid, 
with a nail struck through them. M.C. 179. (Dre-dh-y.) 
W. trwydhynt, drwydhynt. Arm. drezho. Ir. Iriotha, 
HnVw, ^ftreu, ^treo, ^trempu, \treompa. Gael, trompa. 

DREDHO, pron. prep. By or through him, or it. Yn plath 
may mons y a sef, dredho vf pan yns plynsys, in the place 
that they are they shall stand, through him when they 
are planted. O.M. i!092. Dredho ef prynnys bydheuch, 
oil uw tu$, gour ha. benen, by it ye shall be redeemed, all 
my people male and female. P.O. 767. (Dre-dh-o.) 
W. trviydho, drivydfio, itrwydo, i trio, t trwo. Arm. drez- 
han, idreizif. Ir. trid, tridsean, -\triti ^etrllmtn, \triitsom. 
Gael, troim/ie. Manx, trooidsyn. 



DREDHOF, pron. prep. By or through me. Bargos, bryny, 
ha'n er, moy dredhofa vydh hynwys, kite, crows, and the 
eagle further by me shall be named. O.M. 134. Ha'n 
b$s ythew incressys dredhof ve hag ow Jlechys, heb niver 
dhe vos comptys, and the world is increased by me and 
my children, without number to be counted. C.W. 144. 
(Dre-dh-my). W. trwydhov, drwydhov. Ir. (Horn, -\-truim. 
Gael, tromnam. 

DREDHON, pron. prep. By or through us. (Dre-dh-ni.) 
W. trwydhom, drwydhom. Ir. trinn, -\-triunni. Gael. 
trjomhainn. 

DREDHOS, pron. prep. By or through thee. Hep towl 
pur wyr me a grys dredhos y fydhyn sylwys, without a 
doubt very truly I believe through thee we shall be 
saved. P.O. 287. Dredhos dhe gy yfydh oil ny yn gmjr 
sawys, through thee we shall all be saved truly. P.O. 295. 
loy yw gynefdhe clewas, mar tekytv dhe dheryvas, dredhos 
ythof lowenhys, joy is with me to hear, so fair is thy 
declaration, through thee I am gladdened. R.D. 2618. 
(Dre-dh-iy.) W. trwydhot, drwydhot. Ir. Hot. Gael. 
tromhad. 

DREDHOUCH, pron. prep. By or through you. Pilat a 
gewsys arte, dredhouch why bedhens ledhys, rag ynno me 
ny gaffe scyle vds mayfo dampnys, Pilate said again, by 
you let him be killed, for in him I have not found good 
grounds that he should be condemned. M.C. 142. W. 
Irwydhoch, drwydhoch. Ir. tribh, \triib. Gael, tromhaibh. 

DREDHY, pron. prep. By or through her. Rag an grows 
ytho ordnys, ha'n Hudhewon ny wodhye, hag an aval 
devcthys dredhy Adam may pechst; for the cross it was 
ordained, and the Jews knew it not, and the apple came 
by it that Adam had sinned by. M.C. 152. Written also 
drydhy, qd. v. (Dre-dh-hy.) W^ trwydhi, drivydhi, 
\trwjdi. Arm. f dreizi, Ir. tridhe,'li Uhi, \tree, Gae'. 
troimpe. 

DREFEN, prep. Because, because of. Drefen ow bones 
benen, ty a yl dhym daryvas, awos travyln ny wrussen 
venytha dhe guhudhas, because I am a woman, thou 
mayest declare it to me ; because of any thing, I would 
not ever accuse thee. O.M. 161. Drefen ow bds noeth hep 
queth, ragos ylh-ylh dhegudhe, because I am naked with- 
out a cloth, I went to hide from thee. O.M. 259. Dre- 
fen luen ty dhum servye, ow cres a fedh venary, because 
thou servest me fully, my peace shall be with thee for 
ever. O.M. 1019. -Drefen un wyth dhe henwel, lydhys of 
pur dhyogel, because of once naming thee, I am killed 
very certainly. O.M. 2724. Written also dnvan. Arm. 
dre-ma. 

DREGE, v. a. To stay, wait for, remain, sustain. Ha'n 
bedhow owlh egery me a's gwel, war ow ene ; mar strt chyn 
omma na moy, ny agan by'dh y drege, and the graves open- 
ing, I saw them on my soul ; if we stay here any more, 
we shall not be able to sustain it. P.O. 3001. A muta- 
tion of trfge, qd. v. 

DREGERETH, s. m. Compassion, pity, mercy. An oyl a 
versy, o dydhywys dhymmo vy gans an Tas a'y dregereth 
pan v<f chacys gans an el, the oil of mercy, (that) was 
promised to me by the Father, of his compassion, when 
I was driven by the angel. O.M. 705. A mutation of 
trcgereih, qd. v. 

DREHEDHY, v. a. To reach, to attain to. Nafors kyn 
na dhrehedho, ken toll ny vydh gwrys ragdho ; ny a's ten 



DREMAS 



112 



DRES 



mayf/ins lour hyr, no matter though it may not reach, 
another hole shall not be made for it ; we will stretch 
it, that it may be long enough. P.O. 2758. Comp. of 
prefix drc, thoroughly, and hedhy, to reach. 

DREHEVEL, v. a. To elevate, to raise up, to erect, to 
rise. Part, drchevys. 3 pers. s. fat. drcha, and drecha, 
qd. v., from the earlier form drechevel. My a vyn gruthyl 
castel, ha drehevel dhym oslel ynno rag treg, I will make 
a village, and build for myself a mansion, in it to live. 
O.M. 1710. Moyses whek, ny a dreha rayon chy pols dhe 
wonys, sweet Moses, we will raise for us a house, a while 
to labour. O.M. 1715. My a fystyn agy, ow trdievel an 
fosow, I will hasten within, erecting the walls. O.M. 
'2320. Ha pen cref warnedhe y gwreuch drehevel, and a 
strong top upon them do ye erect. O.M. 2452. Drehevyn 
efyn ban. let us raise it up. O.M. 2339. Drc goth y wruk 
leverel, kynfe dyswys an temple yn tri djjdh y'n drehafse, 
bythquetn whet na fe gwell, through pride he did say, 
though the temple were destroyed, in three days he 
would re-build it, that never yet was better. P.O. 383. 
Kyn pen try dyrlh y vn-ussys gwell ys kyns y drehevel, 
before the end of three days thou wouldst raise it better 
than before. P.O. 1761. Lemyn dreheveuch an gist, now 
lift ye the beam. P.O. 2582. Drelttfouch an grows yn 
ban, lift ye the cross up. P.O. 2812. Sur lour ofvy anno- 
dho, den marow na dhrehavo, bys deydhfyn, sure enengh 
I am of him ; that a dead man will not rise, till the last 
day. R.D. 415. Afyslynyn ny ynfen, rag drehevys yw 
an men dhyiuorth an bedh, Oh ! let us hasten diligently, 
for the stone is raised from the tomb. R.D. 716. W. 
dyrchavael. Ir. driuchadh, circhim, dicreach, Gael, cirich, 
dirich. Manx, Irog, troggal. 

BREHY, v. a. To cut. A mutation of trehy, qd. v. Adam 
cnmmyas scon afydh hijs dhe laal luen dhe drehy, Adam, 
permission shall be forthwith, to cut full the length of 
thy spade. O.M. 380. An gwcl a rfls dhyivorth an lur 
gwraf dhe drehy, the rods from the ground I will them. 
O.M. 19S8. Eitch dh'y drehy hep h'ttye, go ye to cut it 
without stopping. O.M. 2506. 

DREIN, s. m. Thorns, prickles. Corn. Voc. sentes. It is 
the plural of draen, qd. v. 

DREIS, s. m. Brambles, briars. Corn. Voc. vepres. This 
is a plural aggregate, from which was formed the sing. 
drtisen, written by Llwyd, 1 41 , dreisan, a raspberry bush. 
W. dyrysi, sing, dyrysien, ^dryssien. Arm. drez, dreiz, 
sing, drezen, dreizen. Gael, dreas, dris. Ir. rfm, \drtss. 
Manx, dress. The root is W. dyrysii, to be entangled, or 
twisted together. 

DREM, s. m. A complaint, lamentation. Myrches a Jer- 
usalem na olouch na na wre.uch dremwarnnfvy, nag onan 
vyth ; saw warnouch agas honan, ha war 'gasjfahes in/an, 
ken dhe ole ivhy a's bydh, daughters of Jerusalem, weep 
not, no, nor make lamentation on me, not any one; 
but on ye yourselves, and on your little children, cause to 
weep ye shall have. P.O. 2640. 

DREM AS, s. m. One exceedingly good, a good man, a just 
man, a husband. Dremas yw efleun a ras, neb re wer- 
thys, yn mtdh e, he is a just man, full of grace, whom I 
have sold, says he. M.C. 103. Kepar delfwe dremmas, yn 
ii6r my a vyn palas toll, may fo ynno cudfiys, like as he 
was a just man, in the earth I -will dig a hole, that he 
may be covered in it. O.M. 864. Ha mara qureth, ren- 
oihas, me a tyn-s dfievbs dremas, hag uth wordh bys vynary, 



and if thou wilt, by my father, I will hold thee to be a 
good man, and worship thee forever. P.O. 1773. Arlulh 
dremas, mar codhas myr Cryst, ow sylwyas, good lord, 
if thou hast happened to see Christ, my Saviour. R.D. 
855. Comp. of the prefix dre, thoroughly, and mas, 
good. 

DREMENE, v. a. To pass over, to transgress, to depart, 
to die. A mutation of tremene, qd. v. Gamo drys nos 
yth olyas yn y sera's neb o len, with him by night there 
watched in his service one (that) was faithful in his 
service. M.C. 237. May whrussons earn dremene, sur y 
vyllyk an prys, that they did evil transgressions, surely 
they will curse the time. O.M. 337. Bolungeth Dew 
ifui hemma, bones gorrys an spus-ma, pan dremenna a'n 
bysma, yn y anow, the will of God is this, that these 
kernels be put, when he passes from this world, in his 
mouth. O.M. 875. 

DRKMMA, s. f. This town. My a rea dhyuch an dremma, 
hagol Chennnry an Clos, I will give you these places, and 
all Chennary of the Close. O.M. 2771. Dremma is a 
mutation of trnnma, compounded of Ire, a town, and 
omma, here; and it may be of tra, a thing, and omma. 

DREtf, s. m. A thorn. Llwyd, 148, 153. Dren is a 
contracted form of draen, qd. v. 

DRENGES, s. f. Trinity. Written also drengys. It is 
another form of drenses ; g soft, sounded as j, being 
substituted for s. Ihesu map ras, agan syhvyas, dues 
gweres ny, ha Drengys, Tds, a tvruk pup gwlas, ha den a 
pry, Jesus, Son of grace, our Saviour, come help us ; and 
Trinity, Father, who hath made every country, and man 
of earth. R.D. 309. Me ew lantorn nef, avel tan ow coll- 
owy, may splanna es an Drenges, henna degoch why 
destunny, I am the lantern of heaven, like to fire shining, 
more resplendent than the Trinity, of that bear ye wit- 
ness. C.W. 10. Written by Llwyd, drenzhcs, 243. 

DRENIC, adj. Abounding in thorns, thorny. It is pre- 
served in the name of a place, Drinnik Town, in South 
Petherwin. W. dreiniog. Arm. dreinek. 

DRENS, v. a. Let them bring. 3 pers. pi. imp. of dry, 
qd. v. It is also used after a singular nominative. Ef 
a g$f yn Araby, yn Mount Tabor gwelynny a plansas 
Moyfs , a's drens dhe Jerusalem, he will find in 
Arabia, in Mount Tabor, rods which Moses planted ; 
let him bring them to Jerusalem. O.M. 1933. 

DRENSES, s. f. Trinity. Map den hep ken ys bara, buth 
nyn ieves oil beivnes, leman yn levarow da a dhue dhy- 
ivorth Drenses, son of man, without other than bread, 
never found all life, but in good words that come from 
the Trinity. P.C. 68. This is another form of drindas, 
a mutation of trindas, qd. v. 

DRES, prep. Beyond, over, above, against, across. Yn 
trevyth y nyng ens gyw dhe vxthyl dres y vynnas, in any 
thing they were not fit to do beyond his will. M.C. 
68. A'yfrut dybry ny'm bcs whans, dres dyfcn ow Arluth 
ker, of its fruit to eat I have not a desire, against the 
prohibition of our dear Lord. O.M. 172. Arluth del 6s 
dres pup tra, dhe worhemmyn a vydh gwreys, Lord, as 
thou art above every thing, thy command shall be done. 
O.M. 1255. Del osi: pryns, ha fur dres dhe cowethe, as 
thou art prince, and wise beyond thy companions. 
P.C. 1927. Nynsouch lemmyn gmuygyon, ow mos dres pow 
f-afluryon, ow leverel an nedhow, are ye not now liars, 
going across the country, telling the news ! R.D. 1511. 



DREY 



113 



DEWYTH 



Written also dris, drys, dreis, and dreys. W. tros, dros. 
Arm. dreist. IT. tairis. Gael, lhairis. 

PRES, part. Brought. Part, and pret. of drey. Otte an 
Ihesv gyne dres bys dhyso yw kelmys, behold Jesus with 
me is brought to thee bound. P.C. 1569. 7V reson 
vyth a dres er aga fyn, thou hast brought no reason 
against them. M.C. 120. 

DRES, adj. Bold, audacious. Agan cregy ny yto mall, rag 
ny rebe laddron dres, our hanging is not wrong, for we 
have been bold thieves. M.C. 193. Written also drews, 
qd. v. W. drM. 

DRBSOF, pron. prep. Over me, by me. (Dres-my.) Pos 
re (eulsewch agas dun; rag me an guelas dufun, dresofef a 
tremenas, heavily ye have thrown down your haunches ; 
for I saw him wide awake, he passed by me. R.D. 525. 

DRESTO, pron. prep. Over him, or it. (Dres-o.) Nynsus 
Arluth dreslo ef, no, nijl yn nor, nag yn nef, Deto hep 
parow, there is not a Lord over him, nor one on earth, 
or in heaven, God without equals. R.D. 1746. Neffre 
yn dour hedre vo, ny dhue dresto na varwo, gour, qwrek, 
na best, ever in water while he is, no one goes over it 
that does not die, man, woman, or beast. R.D. 2226. 
W. trosto, drosto, -^drosdaw, +trusso, ^trostau, ^trosdau. 

DREUCH, v. a. Bring ye. 2 pers. pi. imp. of drey. 
Drench bys omma dhum lyller an harlot gwas, bring ye 
even here to my place the knave fellow. P.O. 980. 
Dreuch an profits abervedh, bring ye the prophet in. 
P.O. 1465. Drench dhym ow map cuf colon, bring ye to 
me my son, dear of heart. P.O. 3164. The final aspirate 
was often softened into h, or omitted altogether. Drew 
hy yn men, bring them out. R.D. 318. Dreivh e dhymmo 
ma'n gwyllyf, bring him to me that I may see him. R.D. 
1776. 

DREVAL, v. a. To lift up, to erect. Llwyd, 164. A late 
form of drehevel, qd. v. 

DREVAN, prep. Because of. Another form of drefen, 
qd. v. 

DREVAS, s. m. Tillage. Adam, a olldhe drevas, an deg- 
ves ran dhymmo gas, ivhet/t in atal dhe kesky, Adam, of 
all thy tillage, leave tbou the tenth part to me still to 
remain waste. O.M. 426. A mutation of trevas. 

DREWESY, adj. Mournful, doleful, sad. A mutation of 
treweny, qd. v. Mam Ihesus Crist a amme corf y mob 
pur drewesy, the mother of Jesus Christ kissed the body 
of her son very dolefully. M.C. 231. 

DREWS, adj. Bold, froward. Dew lader drews o dampnys 
a ve dydhgtis gans Ihesu, ganso ef may fens cregis, onon 
dhodho a biib tu, two froward robbers, (that) were con- 
demned, were prepared with Jesus, that they might 
be hanged with him, one on each side of him. M.C. 
163. W.drud. Ir.druth. Gaul, drutos. 

DREWYTH. adj. Wretched, lamentable. A mutation 
of treuyth, qd. v. Ywon dhe wyr Dew an Tds re sorras 
drevyth benen, I know truly, God the Father a wretched 
woman has angered. O.M. 25G. 

DREY, Y. a. To bring. Dho drei, Llwyd, 247. Written 
also dry, qd. v. 3 pers. s. pret. droys, dr6s, dres, dris. 
Gans Judas del o lewlys, drey Jesus sur del vynne, with 
Judas so it was arranged that he would surely bring 
Jesus. M.C. 41. Na ve bosfals an den-ma, nyn drosxen 
ny bys deso, were not this man false, we should not have 
brought him to thee. M.C. 99. Cayphas a'n droys arte 
dhe Pylat o pen Ju/ttis, Caiaphas brought him again 



to Pilate, (that) was chief Justice. M.C. 119. Ha te 
reson vjjth a dres er aga fyn, na gewsyth. and thou hast 
brought no reason against them, nor speakest. M.C. 120. 
A Das, ty re dhrfe dhymmo, Father, thou hast brought 
to me. O.M. 111. Pan yllyn ny yntrethon drey dour 
a'n meen fiynt garow, when we can between us bring 
water from the rough flint stone. O.M. 1860. A's drenst 
dhe Jerusalem, let him take them to Jerusalem. O.M. 
1933. Drench an profus abervedh, bring ye the prophet 
in. P.C. 1465. A'n dour y fue drehevys, ha dreys art6 
dhe'n tyr mur, from the water he was raised, and brought 
again to the great land. R.D. 2328. Me a'n drossa dhe 
baynes, I will bring him to pains. C.W. 36. Drewhy 
(drewh-why) dhym orth copplow, bring ye to me by cou- 
ples. C.W. 174. Drey is a contracted form of dyrey, 
and compounded of the prefix dy, and rey, to give. W. 
dyroi. 

DREYL, v. a. He will turn. A mutation oftreyl, 3 pers. s. 
fut. of treyU, qd. v. Ea'n bewnans pan y'nkylly, dhe'n 
dor ty a dreyl arle, and the life when thou losest it, to 
the earth thon shalt turn again. O.M. 64. Rag dewes 
mar nystevyth, y a dreyl fyth, hag a wordh dewow tebel, 
for if a beverage be not found, they will ever turn, and 
worship evil gods. O.M- 1817. Saw rah Peder caradow, 
lyes gwy'th me re bysys, na dreyl e y gowsesorv, atvos mvn 
bones ledhys, but for Peter the beloved, many times I 
have prayed, that he turn not his speeches, for fear of 
being killed. P.C. 885. 

DREYLB, v. a. He turned. A mutation of treyle, 3 pers. 
s. imp. of treyU, qd. v. Why re dhr6s dhym an den-ma 
kepar ha pan drtyle ef en dus dhyworth Dew an nef, ye 
have brought this man to me, as though he turned the 
people from the God of heaven. P.C. 1853. 

DREYN, s. m. Thorns. See Drein. 

DREYNYN, v. a. To torment. Ynpryson m6s ny dreynyn 
agan bew, Jcyn kentreynnyn oil agan kyc, going to prison 
we will not torment our lives, though our flesh may rot. 
R.D. 73. This word is a mutation of treynyn, 1 pers. pi. 
fut. of trcynye, qd. V. 

DREYS, s. m. Feet. A mutation of treys, qd. v. Yma 
daggrow ow Mylye diie dreys, rafc ewn kereng6, taw me a's 
sechgans mi' blew, tears are wetting thy feet, for true 
love, but I will dry them with my hair. P.C- 483. Y 
dreys ha'y dule, yn ten gans kentrow worth an plynken 
bedhens tackys, his feet and his hands, firmly, with nails 
to the planks, let them be fastened. P.C. 2516. 

DREYS, part. Brought. Gwyryoneth a reys b6s dreys aber- 
vedh yn mater-ma^ need is that truth be brought within 
this affair. P.C. 2447. Part, of drey, qd. v. 

DREYS, prep. Over, above, beyond. Bedhens ebron dreys 
pup Ira, rak Tcudhf myns usformyys, let a sky be above 
every thing, to cover all that is formed. O.M. 21. Bom- 
myn dreys keyn, blows over the back. P.C. 2729. An- 
other form of dres, qd. v. 

DRI, num. adj. Three. A mutation of tri, qd. v. E vester 
a dhrfa an dripcns, his master brought the three pounds. 
Llwyd, 251. 

DRIC, v. n. He will remain. 3 pers. s. fnt. of triga, 
qd. v. Lemmyn omma ty a dry\, bi)s pan pottro oil dhe 
gyle, iugyyx may fey, now here thou shalt stay, until 
when all thy flesh may rot, when thou art sentenced. 
R.D. 2021. Ny drfik grychonen yn fok, there remains 
not a spark in the forge. P.C. 2717. 



DEOC 



114 



BROS 



ERICAS, v. a. He stayed, or remained. A mutation of 
trigax, 3 pers. s. preterite of trie/a, qd. v. Yn creys me 
re ysedhas, avel servant ow servye, ha why gynefre dry- 
gas yn temptacyon ynpup le, in the midst I have sat, like 
a servant serving, and ye have dwelt with me in temp- 
tation every where. P.O. 805. 

DRIGVA, s. f. A dwelling place. A mutation of trigva, 
qd. v. Effarn yw y drigva, hell is its dwelling place. 
C.W. 122. 

DRINDAS, s. f. Trinity. Llwyd, 166. An drindas, the 
Trinity. A mutation of trindas, qd. v. 

DRIS, prep. Above, over, beyond. Han slrokosow Irewesy 
war y gorf dris pub manner, and the sad stripes on his 
body above every measure. M.C. 173. Gansodrysnos 
yth olyas yn y servis neb o len, with him through the 
night there watched in his service one that was faithful. 
M.C. 237. May lavarsans yn pub lyller dris an vro, that 
they should say in every place through the country. 
M.C. 250. One of the various forms of dres, qd. v. 

DRISLEMMAL, v. a. To leap over. Comp. of dris, over, 
and lemmel, to leap. In late times it was corrupted into 
dris-lebmal. Pryce. 

DRO, v. a. Bring tbou. 2 pers. s. imp. of drey. Dro ve 
dhymmo dysempys, ha my a ra y dybry, bring it to me 
immediately, and I will eat it. O.M. 247. Dog alena 
tyr gwelen, ha dro y genes dke dre, take thou thence 
three rods, and bring them with thee home. O.M. 1947. 
Dro hy dhymmo war mo scoudh, bring it to me on my 
shoulder. P.O. 2624. 

DRO, adv. About, thereabout, on all sides. Llwyd, 127, 
176. Lays es yn pow a dro, the laws are in the country 
about. M.C. 121. (See Adro.) Nyns yw marth, cuth ken 
y'm bo, ow toon an pren a dhe dro, it is no wonder, if 
sorrow be in me, carrying the tree about. O.M. 2820. 
$Rag hedda vedn bos cowses dro dan pow, for that will 
be spoken about the country. Pryce. Dro is a mutation 
of tro, qd. v. 

DROAGA, v. a. To hurt. Llwyd, 75. A late form of 
droga, qd. v. 

DROC, s. m. Evil, wickedness, harm, injury, wrong. 
Written also drag, as in the Cornish Vocabulary, drog, 
malnm. Mara kyll dheworth an da dhe welhyll drok agan 
dry, if he can from the good bring us to do evil. M.C. 
21. Ef ny ylly dre dhewsys godhaffna nyll drok na da, 
he could not by godhead suffer either evil or good. 
M.C. 60. Den vyth drag dhys ny ivra, no man shall do 
tb.ee harm. O.M. 1462. Me a wra dhys milr a dhrdk, I 
will do thee much evil. P.O. 2098. 

DROC, adj. Bad, evil, wicked, hurtful, mischievous. 
Written also drag. A out warnes, drok venen, worto pan 
wrussys cole, Oh, out upon thee wicked woman, when 
thou didst listen to him. O.M. 221. Dr6g yw genefgru- 
thylden, I am sorry to have made man. O.M. 417. (This 
idiom is the common form in Welsh, drwg yw genyv, y 
mae yn- dhrwg genyv.) Mar dha yw genef a vrys, mer- 
wel kyns d6s drok ancow, so well it is in my opinion, to 
die before the coming of evil sorrow. O.M. 1230. Ty 
fydh wharedrog lam, thou shalt soon have a bad chance. 
O.M. 2742. Dre wyr vreus iuggys rak agan dr6k ober 
kens, by true judgment sentenced for our evil work be- 
fore. P.O. 2902. Tydhedos dr6k yw gyne dhe vur ancres, 
I am sorry that thou shouldest have come to great dis- 
qniet. R.D. 207. W. dnog. Ann. drontg, t drotic. Ir. 



droch, -\-drog. Gael, droch. Manx, drogh. Sansc. druh, 
to seek to hurt. 

DROCA, adj. Worst. Written also droga. Droga galar 
eta dhymmo y ancledhyas mar utlrys, the worst grief is to 
me, the burying him so immediately. O.M. 868. Droka 
ober o henna, ladhe map Dew y honan, the worst deed 
was that, to kill the Son of God himself. P.O. 3081. 
Pur wyr yfydhons dampnys dhe tan yfarn, droka le, very 
truly they will be condemned to the fire of hell, the 
worst place. P.O. 3094. W. drycav. Besides the regular 
comparison, droc, drocah, droca, the Cornish had also the 
irregular comparative gwelh, and superlative, gmetha. 
So in Welsh, drwg, drycach, drycav, and gwaeth, gwaeth- 
av; and in Arm. droug, gicaz, gwasa. 

DROCOLETH, s. m. An evil deed, ill doing, injury, 
damage. Mar a mynnc amendye, gwell vye y dhylyfrye 
hep drocoleth dhyworthyn, if he would amend it would 
be better to liberate him without injury from us. P.C. 
1864. Pan drok-kuleth a tvrusta? gorthyp vy na vyj 
lottys, what evil deed hast thou done ? answer me that 
I be not deceived. P.C. 2008. Mars 6s map Dew 
a ver brys, ymsaw scon a dhrocelelh, if thou art the Son 
of God, of great price, save thyself soon from ill usage. 
P.C. 2866. Comp. of droc, evil, and culeth, a deed, from 
cul, to do. 

DROGA , v. a. To do harm, to hurt, to injure. Written 
by Llwyd, droaga. W. drygu. 

DROGBREDERYS, adj. Evil-minded, malicious, envious. 
Llwyd, 84. Comp. of droy, and prederys, minded, qd. v. 

DROGBRES, s. m. Ill will, spite, grudge. Llwyd, 84. 
Comp. of drag, and bres, mind. W. drygvryd. 

DROGDAVASEC, adj. Ill-tongued, foul-mouthed, back- 
biting, reviling. Llwyd, 84. Comp. of drog, and tavasec, 
tongued. W. drwq-davod, tavod-dhnvg. 

DROGGER, s. m. Til report, infamy, reproach. Corn. Voc. 
drocger, intamia. Comp. of droc, or drog, and ger, a 
word. W. drygair. 

DROGGERI1T, adj. Infamous, reproachful. Corn. Voc. 
drocgeriit, infamis. From drogger, with an adjectival 
termination, as in Geriit da, qd. v. 

DROGGRAS, s. m. Revenge, requital. Agan harluih 
Lucifer, ny an kyrch dhys hep danger, pur lowenek, yn 
drog-gras dh'y das Adam, vcnytha nan geffb tarn a wolow 
tek, our lord Lucifer, we will bring him to thee without 
delay very joyfully ; in requital to his father Adam, that 
he may never have a bit of fair light. O.M. 550. Comp. 
of drog, and gran, a return of favour 

DROGOBER, s. m. An evil deed, a crime. Llwyd, 58. 
Kepar hag ef on crowsys, ha dre wyr vreus juggys rak 
agan drf>k-ober kens, like as he we are crucified, and by 
true judgment sentenced for our evil deed before. P.C. 
2902. Comp. of drog, and ober, a work. Arm. d'roug- 
ober. 

DROGOBEROR, s. m. A worker of eril, a malefactor. 
Llwyd, 88. Corn. Voc. drochoberor, maleficus. 

DROGSAWARX, s. m. A bad smell, a stink. Llwyd, 69. 
Comp. of droy, and sawarn, a mell, qd. v. 

DRON, s. f. A throne. A mutation of iron. qd. v. Dun 
dhe gyrhas Salomon, ha goryn ef yn y dron, avtl mych- 
tern yn y se, let us come to fetch Solomon, and let us 
put him in his throne, like a king in his seat. O.M. 237. 

DROS, v. a. He brought. 3 pers. s. preterite of drey. A 
Das ty re dhros dhymmo ascorn a'm ki)k, (ha'm) corf, 



DRY 



115 



DU 



Father, thou hast brought to me bone of my flesh and 
body. O.M. 111. Ty re gam varuk eredy, ha re'n drfa 
dhe vur anken, thou hast done evil verily, and hast 
brought him to much sorrow. O.M. "282. Why re dhros 
dhym an den-ma, ye have brought to me this man. P.O. 
1852. 

DROSSA, v. a. He will bring. 3 pers. s. 2 fut. of drey. 
Saw mar callafder dhavys ywyl dhe Adam dhym cola, me 
a'n drossa dhe bai/nes na dhefo dhe'n nef nevera, but if 

1 can by device make this Adam to listen to me, I will 
bring him to pains, that he shall never come to heaven. 
C.W. 36. 

DROSSEN, v. a. We had brought. 1 pers. pi. .preterpl. 
and subj. of drey. Yn medh Pilot pan a dm a ynnyouch 
wy iKurnodho ? Na ve bosfals an den-ma ny'n drossen ny 
bys deso, Pilate says, what do ye charge against him 1 
Were not this man false, we would not have brought 
him ever to thee. M.C. 99. Tebel den efmar nyfe, ny 
ny'n drosen dhyso gy, if he were not a wicked man, we 
would not have brought him to thee. P.C. 1976. 

DROU, 7. a. Bring ye. An abbreviated form of drouch, 

2 pers. pi. imp. of drey. Pur lowen, re'n Arlulh Dew, 
ha lowenne a pe bew, -drou e yntre ow dywvrech, very 
gladly, by the Lord God, and more gladly if he were 
alive ; bring him to my arms. P.C. 159. 

DRUIC, s. f. A dragon. Corn. Voc. draco. W. draig, 
\-dreic ; dragon. Arm. dragon. Ir. draig, drig ; dragun, 
dreagan. Gael, drag, dreug. Lat. draco. Gr. Spaxuiv ; 
Stpxiu, to see. 

DRU8, adv. Across, athwart. Written also drues. Cafes 
may dhys aban res, try keys dhe bdl kemery ; a drus mus- 
ury trylles, ha gwet na ivra falsury, to have more since 
there is need to thee, three lengths of thy spade thou 
shall take ; athwart thou shalt measure three breadths, 
and take thou care that thou doest no deceit. O.M. 393. 
A lou'an na gows a drues, rdk ahanas marth am bues, ty 
dhe leverel folncth, O John speak not absurdly, for I am 
surprised at thee, to be speaking folly. R.D. 961. Ty 
Pilat dhum arluth dues, kyn tvhrylly vyth cows a drues 
dhynny lemmyn, gennen ny ty a, thou Pilate come to my 
lord, though tbou shouldst ever speak against it, with 
us then shalt go. R.D. 1792. AV. traws, draws, +trus. 
Arm, treuz. Ir. trasd. Gael, trasd. Lat. trans. Sansc. 
tar, to cross. 

DRUS, s. m. A foot A mutation of trus, a late form of 
troys. A druz, on foot. Lluyd,\\5. 

DRUTH, s. f. A harlot. W. trythyll, drythyll. Ir. drulh, 
dniin,\drun,\tudrachl. Gael, druineal. 

DRUYTH, part. Brought. Part. pass, of drey ; written 
also druth. Dhe Arluth, ntf ythouch druyth, dun alemma 
dhe'n mor ruylh, lus, venenes, ha fiehys, to the Lord of 
heaven ye are brought, let us go hence to the Red Sea ; 
men, women, and children. O.M. 1621. Mur toy us er 
y byn ef; pur dha ytli heuel yn nef y bones druth, great 
joy is meeting him ; very good it seems in heaven that 
he is brought.' R.D. 2492. 

DRY, v. a. To bring. Another form of drey, qd. v. Mar 
a kyll dhvwvrth ah da dhe wethyll drdk agan dry, if he 
can from the good to do evil us bring. M.C. 21. Y wreg 
dhe re anedhe mos dhe'n dre, ha degylmy an asen ha dry 
ganse, he caused some of them to go to the town, and 
untie the asa, and bring (her) with them. M.C. 27. 
Honrta yw y lows nessa. ha wheth gwreuch y dhry omma 



arte dhywhy, ha dyscow y dheworto, that is" his nearest 
garment, and do ye yet bring him here again to you, 
and strip it from him. R.D. 1870. 

DRYDH, prep. Through, or by. Me a credy yn Dew an 
Tds olgallusec, mvrear an nev, ha'n 'oar ; hag yn Jesus 
Christ y mab y honon, neb efdheravas dhe vewnans drydh 
an Speris Sans, I believe in God the Father Almighty, 
maker of heaven and earth ; and in Jesus Christ his 
own Son, whom he raised to life through the Holy 
Ghost. Pryce. This is also written dredh ; and is the 
form of dre, before a vowel. 

DRYDHY, pron. prep. Through or by her, or it. (Drydh- 
hy.) Dew a erchys dhys Moyses dhe welen y kemeres, ha 
gwyskel an mor gynsy, an dour a vgcr a Us, may hylly yn 
ta kerdhes, ty ha'th pobel oil drydhy, God has commanded 
thee, Moses, thy rod to take, and strike the sea with it ; 
the water will pen wide, that thou wilt be able well to 
go, thou and all thy people through it. O.M. 1668. 
Written also dredhy, qd. v. W. trwydhi, drwydhi, ftrwydi. 
Arm. dreizi. Ir. trithe, trithi, ffre'e. Gael, troimpe. 

DRYLLYN, v. a. We will bring back. A mutation of 
trylyn, t pers. pi. fut. of tryle, qd. v. Dhe Pilat na'n dry- 
llyn ny, to Pilate that we bring him not back. R.D. 648. 

DRYNSYS, s. f. Trinity. A mutation of trynsys, which 
is variously written drindas, drynses, drynges. Yn ffwyr- 
der an tyr gwelen yw dysquydhyans lia token an try person 
yn Drynsys, in truth, the three rods are a declaration 
and token of the three persons in the Trinity. O.M. 
1734. Rag an tyyr gweleri defry a vegans Davydplyn- 
sys, hag a tunnyas dhe onan, yn token da an try person 
yn Drynsys, for the three rods really were by David 
planted, and he joined (them) into one as a good type 
of three persons in the Trinity. O.M. 2650. See Trindas. 

DRYNYA, v. a. To grieve. Geneuch why mos ny drynyaf; 
dhum arluth lowen yth of, Tyber Cesar, to go with you 
I shall not grieve ; to my lord gladly I will go, Tiberius 
Csesar. R.D. 1797. This is a mutation of trynya, which 
is also written treynye, qd. v. 

DRYS, prep. Over, above, beyond. Ylho bedhyOi mylyges 
pur wyr drys oil a bestes a gerdho -war an n6r veis, now 
thou shalt be accursed, very truly above all the beasts, 
that walk on the earth of the world. O.M. 312. Ellas 
gweles an termyn, ow Arluth pan wrfik serry, pan luk 
drys y worhemmyn, alas to see the time, when I made 
my Lord angry, when I acted against his command. 
O.M. 353. Yma Dew whdth ow pewe* neb ew Arluth dryg 
pup tra, there is a God yet living, who is Lord above all 
things. O.M. 623. Written also dres, qd. v. 

DU, s. m. God, a god, a divinity. PI. duow. Wy a b$s 
a leun qolon, may fo dhe Dhu dlte wordhyans, ha syl- 
teans dhe'n enevow, ye shall pray with faithful heart, 
that there be to God the glory, and salvation to the 
souls. M.C. 1. A'n aval te kemer tarn, avel Du yfedhylh 
gwrys, of the apple take thou a bit, like a god thou wilt 
be made. M.C. 6. Mes pan vons dysehys guldn, y a dy- 
nach ago duow myleqes, but when they are quite refreshed, 
they will reject their cursed gods. O.M. 1840. This is 
another form of dew, qd. v. 

DU, adj. Black, sable, dark, gloomy. Corn. Voc. duiv, 
niger. PI. duon. Och,tru,tru; shyndyys 6f gans cronek 
du, ha whethys gans y venym, Oh, sad, sad, hurt I am by 
a black toad, and blown by his venom. O.M. 1778. 
Du asyw emskemunys nep re ordenes y ladhe, black ac- 



DUE 



116 



DUEYTH 



cursed is he, who decreed to kill him. P.O. 3091. Pur 
hardh dun dhodho wharre, gorryn ef yn bedh arl ; du 
yw y lyw, very boldly let us go to him soon, let us put 
him into the grave again ; black is his hue. R.D. 2101. 
In late Cornish it was written also diu. Davaz dhiu, 
a black sheep ; hor' diu, a black ram ; hyrroz dyon, 
black rams. Llwyd, 243. W. du. Arm. du. Ir. dubh, 
^dub. Gael. dubh. Manx, doo. 

DU, s. m. A day. An abbreviated form of d$dh, qd. v. 
Du Yaw, Thursday. Du Pose, Easter day. Thomas 
ythos pur woky, drefen na fynnylh crygy, an arluth dhe 
dhasserchy dupask vyttyn, Thomas, thou art very stupid, 
because thou wilt not believe the Lord to have risen 
Easter day morning. R.D. 1108. 

DU, s. m. A side. A mutation of tu, qd. v. A y du, on 
his side. 

DU, num. adj. Two. Another form of dew, qd. v., and 
chiefly used in composites, as duscoudh, the shoulders ; 
dugans, forty. 

DUADH, s. m. End, termination. Llwyd, 251. Another 
form ofdiwedh, qd. v. 

DUAX, s. m. Grief, sorrow. Yn ur-na, rag pur dhuan, 
daggrow tyn givrdf dyvert, in that time, for very sorrow, 
bitter tears I shall shed. O.M. 401. Mar a quellan drok 
dhumjlechys, na duan, ow colon a vydh terry s, if I see 
evil to my children, or sorrow, my heart will be broken. 
P.O. 1945. Another form of duwhan, qd. v. 

DUBM, adj. "Warm. A mutation of tubm, as mar tubm, 
so warm. Lhvyd, 231. 

DUC, v. a. He brought. 3 pers. s. preterite of doga, or 
degy, qd. v. Written also duq. Ef a dhuk an grows 
ganse, pur wyr henn o ay anvodh, he bore the cross with 
them, very truly this was against his will. M.O. 175. 
Honna a dorras an aval tek, hag an dug dhym dhe dastye, 
she plucked the fair apple, and brought it to me to taste. 
O.M. 268. Daiserchy ef a wruk, ha mur a paynys re dhuk 
wary corfker, rise he did, and many pains he bore on his 
dear body. R.D. 1280. Rag dry Adam a yfarn, me a 
dhuk curyn a spern, nep try our adro dhum pen, to take 
Adam out of hell, I wore a crown of thorns some three 
hours around my head. R.D. 2554. W. dug, ^duc, a dhug. 

DUCBAN, s. f. Grief, sorrow, lamentation. Ny amownt 
gwythell duchan lemyn ragdha, it avails not to make 
lamentation now for it. C.W. 124. British Museum MS. 
The more common forms are deuihan, duwhan, duan, 
duon, duwon. See Duwhan. 

DUE, v. m. He will come. 3 pers. s. fut. of d6s. In 
construction it changes into dhue, and tue. An pyth a 
dhue yn dywedh, the thing will come at last. O.M. 671. 
Pan vo gures my a dhue dhys, when it is done I will 
coine to thee. O.M. 988. War agan keyn ef a dhue, on 
our back it will come. O.M. 2570. Bynyges yw neb a, 
dhue yn hanow Detc, blessed is he who comes in the 
name of God. P.O. 274. Ha kemmys an gardhyo tf, 
gans mur toy y tue dhe'n nefdre y dhadder obcrys, and as 
many as worship him, with great joy shall come to 
heaven, by his goodness wrought. R.D. 1223. W. daw, 
a dhaw. Arm. deu. 

DUE, part. Ended. Rijs yw dymmo lafurye dhe un vatel 
yredy, saw dystoch hy a vydh due, I must labour at a 
battle certainly, but very 'soon it will be ended. O.M. 
2178. An gwary yw due lymmyn, the play is now ended. 
2839. Mar ny vydh an whelfuow due yn ages mi/sk, nep 



onon me a wysk, if the tales be not ended amongst you, 
some one I shall strike. R.D. 1400. Ha myl den ef a 
wruk due: yn dour-na rilk uth hag own, and a thousand 
men he caused to be finished in that water, for horror 
and fright. R.D. 2331. An anomalous form from 
diwedhe, qd. v. 

DUECH, v. n. Come ye. Tormentores duech dhym scon, 
executioners, 'come to me forthwith. R.D. 2240. Ow 
dewolow duech gynef warparlh oil me agaspeys, my devils 
come with me together all I pray you. R.D. 2307. This 
is the same word as deuch, qd. v. 

DUELLO, v. a. To let out, to discharge. Ellas, dhynny 
ny ddl man duello luhes na taran dtiy lesky ef, alas, it 
avails us not a bit to discharge lightning nor thunder to 
burn him. R.D. 296. It is the same word as delle, and 
dyllo, qd. v. 

DUER, v. n. It concerneth. Kyn yn carra in/th mar veur, 
aivos y ladhe ny'm duer, though he may love him ever 
so much, for Wiling him, there is no concern to me. 
R.D. 1898. Id. qd. der, and diir, qd. v. 

DUES, v. n. Come thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of dos. Duesow 
howetfies Eva, come thou, my companion Eve. O.M. 652. 
Dues nes hag yse gene, come thou nearer, and sit with 
me. P.O. 576. A vyl gadlyng, dues yn rag, O vile vaga- 
bond, come forth. P.C. 1817. Ihesu map rds, agan syl- 
wyas, dues gweres ny, Jesus, Son of grace, our Saviour, 
come help us. R.D. 308. Written as frequently dus, 
qd. v. Arm. deuz. 

DUES, v. n. Thou earnest 2 pers. s. preterite of dos. 
Kepar yn beys ha dues, dhe'n nef grusses yskcnne, as thou 
earnest into the world, to heaven thou wouldest ascond. 
O.M. 155. Arm. deuez. 

DUES, part. Come. Mar ny's cafaf scon dhum dues, ty 
afydh dr6k orentus, if I do not find them soon come to 
me, thou shall have an evil oremus. R.D. 647. Gul ges 
ahanafa wreth, marth yw gynef na dhues melh ow kewsel 
gow, thou dost make a jest of me ; it is a wonder to me, 
that shames comes not speaking lies. R.D. 1391. Writr 
ten also des. Arm. deuet, deut. 

DUES, s. f. A goddess. Pryve. W. duwies. Arm. doueez, 
tdues. 

DUETH, s. f. Became. 3 pers. s. preterite of dos. Rak 
wheth byth ny dhueth deydJi brues, for yet the day of judg- 
ment has not come. R.D. 234. Namn 'agan dallas golow, 
pan dhueth an gwds, light almost blinded us, when the 
fellow came. R.D. 303. Pyw a dhueth a'n beys yn rudh, 
who is it that has come from the earth in red. R.D. 
2499. Written also duth, qd. v. W. daeth. 

DUETH, v. n. Thou shalt come. 2 pers. s. fut of d6s. 
Arluth assyw varihttsek, pan dhueth, Ihcsu gallosek, dh'a- 
yan myras, ha leverel dhynny crts, asso fast ytho dyges 
agan dorras, Lord it is wonderful, when thou t ^mest, 
Jesus powerful, to see us, and speak peace to us, though 
fast our door was shut. R.D. 1178. Ty geyler, dus yn 
rdk, ha mar ny dhueth, me a'th tfik, hag a ver spys, thou 
gaoler, come forth, and if thou wilt not come, I will 
strangle thee, and in a short time. R.D. 199. Writ- 
ten also duth, qd. v. Arm. deuez. 

DUEYTH, v. n. I came. 1 pers. s. preterite of Jos. Ellas 
vyth pan dhtteyth a dre, an keth corf-na byw a pe, ow 
arluth a vye saw, alas ever when I came from home ! if 
that same body were alive, my lord would be cured. 
R.D. 1661. Written also duyth, qd. v. Arm. deuiz. 



DUM 



117 



DUS 



DUF, s. m. A captain. Fystyn ow duf whek a vy, gweyt 
an harlot na scapyo, hasten my sweet captain of mo ; 
take care that the knave escape not. P.O. 989. Written 
also def, qd. v. 

DUFE, v. n. He will come. Comp. of duf, id. qd. dyf, 
3 pers. s. fut. of dos, and pronoun fe, he. Mar tufe ha 
datherchy mur a dus a wra crygy ynno, if he will come 
and rise, much people will believe in him. R.D. 7. 

DUFUN, adj. Sleepless, awake, wide awake. Pos re tewl- 
seuch agas dun, rag me a'n gwelasdufun, dresof efa lre~ 
menas, heavily have ye thrown down your haunches, 
for I saw him wide awake, he passed over me. R.D. 424. 
This is a less correct form of difun, qd. v. 

DUFYDHY, v. a. To quench, to extinguish. Ow Arluth 
leer, Cryst Ihesu, Dew an nef, dre dhe vertu, dufydh 
nerth an flam ha'n tan, my dear Lord, Christ Jesus, God 
of heaven, through thy virtue, assuage the power of the 
flame and fire. O.M. 2637. W. difodhi, comp. of di, 
neg., zndfawdh, splendour. 

DUG, v. n. He brought. 3 pers. s. preterite of doga, or 
dew, qd. v. Honna a darras an avaltek, hag a'n dug dhym 
dhe dastye, she plucked the fair apple, and brought it to 
me to taste. O.M. 268. More frequently written duc,qd.v. 

DUG ANS, num. adj. Two score, forty. Llwyd, 133. Drg 
ha dugans, ten and two score, fifty. Pryce. This is a 
late form of dewigans, qd. v. 

DUGTYE, v. a. To prepare, to provide. Rag henna an 
vuscogyon orto a borthas avy, dre vraster Iras yn golon y 
dhuytyons y dhestrewy, for that reason the fools against 
him bore spite, through great pride in the heart they 
prepared to destroy him. M.C. 26. It is the same word 
as dychtye, qd. v. 

DUI, num. adj. Used with substantives feminine, as 
dew was with masculines. The same rule obtains in 
Welsh and Armoric. It is also written diw or dyw, qd. v. 
W. dwy, frfttz. Arm. diou. Sansc. dwe. 

DUIGLUN, s. m. The reins. Corn. Voc. renes. Comp. 
of dm, two, and dun, the haunch, qd. v. 

DUILOF, s. m. The hands. This is the Celtic dual. Lien 
duilof, manutergium vel mantile, a towel, a hand cloth. 
Corn. Voc. Comp. of dui, two, and lof, a hand, qd. v. 
In the Ordinalia the word is generally written dewlef, 
dywlef, and dywluef, qd. v. W. dwylaw, t duilof. 

DUIVEON, s. m. The breasts. Civil duivrcm, pectus, the 
breast. Corn. Foe. Another instance of the Celtic dual. 
Comp. of dui, two, and bron, a breast. W. dwyvron. 

DULE, s. m. The hands. An abbreviated form of dyw- 
lef, or duilof. Ha'n kelmyns treys ha dule, ha'n hembryn- 
kys bijs dhynny, let them bind him feet and hands, and 
bring him to us. P.O. 683. Yma ow trys ha'm dule 
dhyworthef ow teylene, my feet and hands are loosening 
from me. P.O. 1216. Dhe welh vydhons dhe'n cronek, 
ha garaw yn y dhule, they shall be worse for the toad, 
and rough in his hands. P.O. 2733. Llwyd writes this 
word dula, gravar dvln, a hand-barrow. 46. J Tre dha 
dhula, betwixt thy hands. 230. 

DUM, pron. prep. To my. (Do-my.) Avenen, assos goky, 
na grenyth dhum lavarow, woman, thou art foolish, that 
then wilt not believe my words. O.M. 174. Adam pan- 
dra wreth, prag na dhelh dhum wolcumme, Adam what 
art thou doing, why earnest thou not to welcome me. 
O.M. 258. Er na gyllyf dhe'n nef dhum Tan, iriay te- 
whyllyfarte dhum guilds, dhe go/ies worthys, until I go to 



heaven to my Father, that I may return again to my 
country to speak to thee. R.D. 878. 

DUN, s. f. A hill. Written also din, qd. v. This form 
is preserved in the names of places ; as Dun mear, the 
great hill, in JBodmin ; Dun vcdh, the hill of the grave, 
in St. Breock. 

DUN, v. n. Let us come. 1 pers. pi. imp. of d6s. Abel 
whek dun alemma, sweet Abel, let us come hence. O.M. 
446. Ow broder whek, dun dhe dre, my sweet brother, 
let us come home. O.M. 525. Dun ol dhe'n gorhyl, toth 
da,gans Ijjtf 'no, wrellen budhy, let us come all to the ark 
quickly, that we may not be drowned by the flood. O.M. 
1047. Dun ganso er y anfus, dhe Pylal agan iustys, let us 
come with him, for his wickedness, to Pilate our justice. 
P.O. 1501. This is the common Welsh idiom for lei us 
briny. W. deuwn, down. Arm. deuomp. 

DUON, s. m. Grief, sorrow. Dre pur anger ha duon, me 
a war lour nep onon me a wysk, for very anger and vex- 
ation, I know very well, some one I shall strike. R.D. 
1402. Duon agas lavarow, ha hyreth bos Cryst marow, 
pur wyr a yl ow gwethe, grief of your words, and regret 
that Christ is dead, very truly may destroy me. R.D. 
1414. Yma dhymmo mur duon, ha cothys war ow colon, 
there is much grief and sorrow on my heart. R.D. 
1764. This is variously written duun, duwhan, and 
duwon. See Duwhan. 

DUR, s. m. Water. Corn. Voc. aquttm. Written also 
dour, qd. v. 

DUR, v. n. It concerns. Cryst ow sylwyas, clew mar a'th 
dur, dhys daryvas del garsen mur, Christ my saviour, 
hear if it concerns thee, disclose to thee as I would 
much desire. R.D. 845. Kyn whrylly flattre mar mur 
ahanas Ira vyth ny'm dur, kyn 'thos bysy, though thou 
dost chatter so much, any thing from thee concerns me 
not, though thou be busy. R.D. 1059. Written also 
der, and duer. W. dawr. (Ni'm dawr, ni'm dawr i, it 
concerns me not ; ni'th dawr, it concerns thee not ; and 
fut. ni'm dorbi. Er gwaith Arderydh ni'm dorbi, for the 
action of Arderydh, I shall not be concerned. Merdhyn.) 
Arm. ^fdeur. (Nem deur, I am unwilling; noz deur, ye 
are unwilling.) 

DURDALA, s. m. Thanks. %Fatla ello whygiel? pofatla 
gan a why ? how do you do, or how is it with you. 
f Dah, durdala dha why, well, thanks to you. This is a 
late and corrupt term of uncertain origin, and is given 
by Pryce. 

DURGY, s. m. A small turf hedge. Pryce. The primary 
meaning was probably a water dyke, being compounded 
of dur, water, and ge, a fence. 

DURN, s. m. A hand. Llwyd, 3. Generally written 
dorn, qd. v. In Cornish and Armoric, it generally 
means a hand, while in Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, and Manx, 
it is applied to a fist. 

DUS, v. n. Come thon. 2 pers. s. imp. of dds. Eva, 
dus nes, kemer y, Eve, come nearer, take it. O.M. 179. 
Abram, fystyne gwra, ha dus dhymmo wftarre, Abraham, 
hasten do thou, and come to me soon. O.M. 1266. 
Moyses, sftf ena, na nes, na dhus na fella, Moses, stand 
there, not nearer come not, no further. O.M. 1404. 
Dos genen ny, come thou with us. O.M. 2378. Dus yn 
mes, come thou out. O.M. 2700. Written also dues, qd. v. 

DUS, s. f. A people, people. A mutation of tus, qd. v. 
Hath vam, hag oil an dus vds, and thy mother, and all 



DUTH 



118 



DUYOVV 



the good people. O.M. 814. Cressevch, cottenweuch Icef- 
rys an nor veys, a dus, arte, increase ye, fill likewise the 
earth of the world, men, again. O.M. 1212. Cans 
lyf ny ixraf bynytha ladhe an dus gu-yls na d6f, by flood 
I will not ever destroy mankind wild nor tame. O.M. 
1245. 

DUSCODH, a. m. The shoulders. This is a Celtic dual, 
being compounded of du, two, and scodh, shoulder. 
Written also duscoudh. Lemyn dreheveuch an gist, yw 
gwrys crows, war duscoudh Cryst dh'y don dhe dre, now 
lift ye up the beam, that is made a cross, on the should- 
ers of Christ, to carry it to town. P.O. 2582. Pyw a 
dhueth an beys yn rudh, avel g6s, pen ha duscoitdh, yarrow 
ha treys, who is it that came from the earth in red, like 
blood, head, and shoulders, legs, and feet. R.D. 2500. 

BUSES, s. m. Godhead, divinity. Rak me a w6r lour, 
denses, marnes dre an luen duses, omma ny sef, for I know 
full well, that men, unless through full Godhead, remain 
not here. R.D. 2515. This is another form of dewsys, 
qd. v. 

DUSHOC, adj. Tufted, spiked. Les dushoc, betonica, be- 
tony. Corn. Voc. Les dushoc, is literally the tufted 
plant, which is characteristic of it. Dushoc is a muta- 
tion of tushoc, id. qd. W. twysog, from twys, a tuft. 

DUSTUN, s. m. A witness. A mutation of tustun, qd. v. 
PI. dustuneow, dustenyow, dustynyoiv. En Edhewon yn- 
trelhe a whvlas dustuneow, the Jews between them sought 
for -witnesses. M.C. 90. Myns a wruk me an avow, hag 
a gyf dustynymv, ty dhe gows erbyn laha, all I did I con- 
fess it, and have witnesses that thou speakest against the 
law. P.O. 13'02. Travyth ny ureth gorlhyby erbyn dus- 
tenyow lei, dost thou not reply any thing against trusty 
witnesses? P.O. 1318. Pyth yw an elhom gortos,na cafus 
dustynyoiv, aban wrethy aswonvos, what is the need to 
stay, or find witnesses, since thou dost acknowledge it ? 
P.O. 1498. 

DUSTUNB, v. a. To bear witness, to witness, to testify. 
A mutation of tustune, qd. v. It is written also dustynye. 
Hag ethporan dhe'n cyte, gan luas y fans gwelys, en gwyr 
dhe dhustunye, bos Mao Du neb o ledhys, and went straight 
to the city, by many they were seen, the truth to witness 
thai it was the Son of God who was killed. M.C. 210. 
Nynsus ethom nag onan dhywhy a dustynye, pan clctvseuch 
gmvs an gewan, there is no need of any one to testify to 
you, when ye have heard him speak the lies. P.O. 1338. 
Siir Maria Jacobs, ha Maria Salome, 'dhym dustyny, 
surely Mary, (mother of) James, and Mary Salome will 
witness to me. R.D. 1075. 

DUSTUlf Y, s. m. A witnessing, witness, testimony. A 
mutation of tustuny, qd. v. It is written also dustyny. 
Ha dew a dhuk dustuny y'n clewsons ow leverel, and two 
bore witness they heard him say. M.C. 91. Mara Iceiv- 
sysfalsury, ha, henna d6k dustuny, if I have spoken 
falsehood, of that bear thou witness. P.C. 1272. Ha 
me a dhek dustyny, y'n clewys ow leverel, and I bear wit- 
ness, I have heard him saying. P.C. 1313. 

DUTH, v. n. He came. 3 pers. s. preterite of dos. Dhym 
dhe amme ty re duth sur, rag ow gwer the. dhe'n tray tors 
pur, to kiss me thou hast surely come, to sell me to very 
traitors. ^ P.C. 1107. Ty creator bynyges,fattel dhuthte gy 
dhe'n cres, thon blessed creature, how earnest thou to 
peace ? R.D. 260. Me re dhuih dhe' A confortye, nak na 
*y 93 y* a wher, I am come to comfort thee, that thou 



be not in sorrow. E.D. 473. Me re dhuth dh'agas myres, 
I am come to see yon. R.D. 1536. Dre ow thrys y tutft 
un smatgans kentrow tfagagorre, through my feet a fel- 
low caine with nails to put them. R.D. 2587. Written 
also dueth, qd. v. W. daelh. 

DUTH, v. n. Thou shalt come. 2 pers. s. fut. of dos. 
Cryst clew mo ttf, lavar an ur may tuth an nef arte dhe'n 
lur, dhe cows worthyn, Christ hear my voice, say the hour 
that thou wilt come from heaven again to the earth to 
speak to us. R.D. 882. Written also diteih, qd. v. 

DUTHE, v. n. I came. 1 pers. s. subj. of dos. Whet 
aban dhuthe y'th chy, golhy ow treys ny hyrsys, yet since I 
came into thy house, to wash my feet thou hast not 
offered. P.C. 517. Ha homma vylh ny seslyas, aban 
duthe yn chy dhys,pup ur oil amme dhum treys, and this 
woman has never ceased, since I came into thy house 
continually to kiss my feet. P.C. 524. * 

DUTHEUCH, v. n. Ye came. 2 pers. pi. preterite of dos. 
Creator a brys benen, yn yfarn na feuch gynen ; fatel 
dhutheuch why omma, creatures from the womb of woman, 
in hell ye were not with us ; how came ye here ? R.D. 
193. W. dHnthoch. 

DUTHYS, v. n. Thou earnest. 2 pers. s. pret. of d6s. 
Hafattel duthys yn ban, dre dhe gallos dhe honan, ha war 
dhe corf mar dr6k scuth, and how earnest thou up, 
through thv own power, and on thy body such evil 
plight ? R'D. 2568. W. daethost 

DUW, adj. Black. Corn. Voc. niger. Id. qd. du, qd. v. 

DUWBDHVA, s. f. An end, termination. Heb dallath na 
duwedhva, without beginning or ending. C.W. 3. Id. qd. 
diwedhva, qd. v. 

DUWENHE, v. a. To vex, to grieve, to afflict. Ow bos 
serrys nyns yw marth, ages bones ol warbarth porrys worth 
ow duwenhe, my being angry is no wonder, all of you 
together being willed to grieve me. R.D. 1413. Written 
also dewhanhe, qd. v. From duwon, sorrow. W.duchamt. 

DUWHAN, s. f. Grief, sorrow, vexation, lamentation. 
Ny amownt gwythell duwhan lemyn ragdha, it avails not to 
make lamentation now for it. C.W. 124. This word is 
variously written duchan, detvhan, duu<on, (Juan, diton. 
Gwyn bys vones dhymfethys lafw ha duwon an b$s, happy 
that for me is vanquished, the labour and sorrow of the 
world. O.M. 851. Dwion yn y gorf a' n meek, ny v$dh 
hutyky golon, sorrow in his body chokes him, nor is his 
heart glad. O.M. 2817. Ken ben vyth mar mur duwon, 
though there be ever so much grief. R.D. 1530. W. 
duchan, dychan. 

DUWHANS, adj. Eagerly, hastily, fast, quickly, directly. 
Fystyn alemma duwlians, worlhyf tui gows na moy ger, 
hasten thou hence quickly ; to me speak not another 
word. O.M. 169. Dely'm kyrry,fyslyn duwhans gweres 
vy, ow ton a plos casadow, as thou lovest me, hasten 
quickly to help me, bringing the foul villain. O.M. 891. 
Written also dewhans, and dywhans, qd. v. 

DUY, s. m. God. Corn. Voc. deus. Written more fre- 
quently Dew, and Du, qd. v. 

DUYOW, s. m. Thursday. Die* Jovis. Ke alemma, ser- 
vant ker, kerch a'nfenten dhym dour cler dhe dhychye bfe 
dhynny ny erbyn soper, kepar del yw an vaner duyow 
hamlos, go hence, dear servant, fetch from the fountain 
for rne clear water, to prepare food for us for supper, 
like as is the custom on Thursday of the preparation. 
P.C. 654. Written also deyow, qd. v. 



DYAL 



119 



DYBLANS 



DUYRAN, s. m. The east. J Po rez deberra an bex, tidn 
heerath a, sew ; po rez dal an vor, na oren pan a tu, duy- 
ran, haul zethas, gogleth,po dihmv, when thou comest in- 
to the world, length of sorrow follows ; when thou 
beginnest the way, 'tis not known, which side, east or 
west, to the north, or south. Pryce. W. dwyrain. Ir. 
soir, oir. Gael. ear. The Armoric equivalent is sevel- 
heol, or sav-heol, sunrising. 

DUYTH, T. n. I came. 1 pers. s. preterite of dos. Mych- 
tern of war velds ha tyr, yn henna yfufgenys, rak henna 
dhe'nby's y tuyth, a king I am over the land and earth ; 
in that I was born, for that I came to the world. P.O. 
2022. Written also dueyth, qd. v. 

DY, pron. prep. To him, or it. Comp. of do, to, and e, 
him. Dhe Ihesu may fans parys dh'y gomfortye, yredy, 
a'n neffyfe danvenys dheworth an Tas eleth dy, to Jesus 
that they might be ready to comfort him surely, from 
heaven there were sent from the Father angels to him. 
M.C. 18. Ihesus Crist a wovynnys worth an bobyl a dheth 
dy, Jesus Christ asked of the people that came to him. 
M.C. 67. A yes dhe'n dre yth ese menedh uchel yredy, an 
grows y a rug gorre vxtr sc6dh Jesus dtiy don dhy, with- 
out the town, there was a high hill indeed, the cross 
they did put on the shoulder of Jesus to carry it there, 
(to it.) M.C. 162. / eth yn unfystene dhe'n tyller ganso 
o ordnys,pan dothyansdhy, yntrellie pous Ihesus ave dy.i- 
kys, they went in a hurry to the place by him (that) 
wasordaitied, when they came there, among them Jesus's 
coat was taken off. M.C. 176. A das ker dhe'th wor- 
hemmyn, my a dhy a dhysempys, O father dear, at thy 
command, I will go to him immediately. O.M. 697. 

DY, prep. From, of. In Cornish it is only found com- 
pounded with worth, and its derivatives, as dyworth, from 
by, from. Written also de, qd. v. In old Welsh it is 
also found in its simple form, as kin map di iob, the son 
of Jupiter. Oxford Glosses. It is now in common use 
in the compounds o dhiierth, and its derivatives. W. 
di. Arm. di. Ir. di. 

DY, a prefix in composition. Its power is privative, and 
answers to less in English, as dybyte, pitiless. Y dhad- 
der yw drok tylys, pan y'n ladhsons dybyte, his goodness 
is ill rewarded, when they have killed him without 
pity. P.O. 3098. Sometimes it has an intensive power, 
as in dybarth, a division. It is also written di, qd. v. 
W. di. 

DYAG, s. m. A husbandman, a farmer. A mutation of 
lyac, qd. v. Ythom brovas gwan dyack, may 'thofpoyntyes 
dha bayn bras, dhapyt efarn, I am proved a weak hus- 
bandman, that I am appointed to great pain, to the pit 
of hell. C.W. 68. 

DYAG, prep. Towards. A mutation of tyag, or tvag, qd. v. 

DYAHA, s. m. Safety, security. Coskyn ny gans dyaha 
hyn dasvewo ny'n dre.cJia dhyivar y geyn, let us sleep with 
security ; though he should revive, he will not lift it 
from off his back. R.D. 402. Comp. of dy, intens., and 
aha, id. qd. W. echw, echwydh, rest. 

DYAL, s. m. Revenge. Pilot a'n ladhas hep fal ; vxtr- 
nodho telywch dyal, rak efo Crist an mychternnef, Pilate 
killed him undoubtedly ; upon him inflict ye vengeance, 
for he was Christ, the king of Heaven. R.D. 1753. 
Written also dial, qd. v. 

DYAL, s. m. A deluge. Noe rag kerenge orthys, my ny 
gemere neffre from dyal war oil an veys, na dre dhyalpup 



ladhe, Noah, for love to thee, I will never take vengeance 
on all the world, nor destroy every one by a flood. O.M. 
1209. Written also dial, qd. v. 

DYALB, v. a. To mock, to deride. An laddron a'n dyalas 
dre lyes torment ahas, ha dre mur a galarow, the thieves 
mocked him, by many torments unceasing, and by many 
sorrows. R.D. 1426. Arluth, ot omme an gwas, del gles- 
euch, a dhyallas an profits, lord, behold here the fellow, 
as you have heard, who mocked the prophet. R.D. 1804. 
Out warnas ty harlot was, Ihesu ty a dhyallas, ow arlulh 
Jeer, out upon thee, thou rascal fellow, thou hast mocked 
Jesus, my dear Lord. R.D. 1966. 

DYALWHEDHE, v. a. To open, to unlock. Dodho ny 
dhyalwhedhas, to him we opened. R.D. 1445. Id. qd. 
dwlwhedhe, qd. v. 

DYANC, v. a. To escape. Part, dyencys. A traytor bras, 
map gal, dhe gefus gynen yw- mat; kelmeuch warbarth y 
dhywvrech, na allo dyanc, O great traitor, son of evil, it 
is our desire to take thee ; bind ye his arms together, 
that he may not escape. P.C. 1180. Mars yw dyenkys, 
ellas ! rak me a wel an men bras war glan an bedhfcst hu- 
hel, if he is escaped, alas ! for I see the large stone on the 
side of the grave very high. R.D. 520. Written also 
deanc, qd. v. W. dianc. Arm. dianca. 

DYANTELL, adj. Hazardous, dangerous. An tebell el a 
vynnas yn ken manner y demplye ; war penakyll y'n 
goras dyantell dhe esedhe, a uch eglos tek yn wlas ait 
ysedhva yth esa, the wicked angel would in another 
manner tempt him ; on a pinnacle he put him ha- 
zardous to sit, above a fair church in the country the 
sitting place was. M.C. 13. Huhel ythos ysedhys, ha dy- 
anlel rom laute ; yn lyvyr yma scryfys bos eleth worth dhe 
wythe, rag mm, dhe vos desesys dhe trds worth men, high 
thou art seated, and dangerously, by my truth ; in a 
book it is written, that there are angels guarding thee, 
for fear that thy foot be hurt against a stone. P.C. 94. 
Comp. of dy, intens., and antell, id. qd. W. antur, hazard. 

DYBARTH, s. m. A division, a separation. Yn tresse 
dydh dybarth gwrafyntre an mor ha'n tyryow, hag yn tyr 
gorhemmennaf may tefo giveydh ha losow, on the third 
day I will make a separation between the sea and the 
lands, and I will command in the land that trees and 
herbs shall grow. O.M. 25. Awos own my ny tauwaf; 
me a'n pref gwyr a gmvsaf kyns ys dybarth, because of 
fear I will not be silent ; I will prove it true that I say, 
before separating. R.D.925. Dus nes dhym, dely m kerry, 
rak keusel moyyn teffry worthys gy kyngys dybarth, come 
nearer to me, as thou lovest me, for speaking more in- 
deed to thee before separating. R.D. 1729. Comp, of 
dy, intens., and parth, a part. W. dybarth. 

DYB ARTHY, v. a. To divide, to separate. Pan vo gwys- 
kys an bugel, yfy an deves a I/ell, hag oil anfok a dhy- 
barth, when the shepherd is smitten, the sheep will flee 
far, and all the flock will separate. P.C. 895. Yma 
dheuch mur a dhylyt a ymknouke ; my a dhybarth ynter- 
thoch, hag a wra dheuch pettnow couch, there is to you 
much delight to beat each other, I will divide between 
you, and will make to you bloody heads. P.C. 2325. 
W. dybarihu. 

DYBLANS, adj. Proportionable, distinct, bright A 
Das, Map, ha Spyrys Sans, gordhyans dhe'th corf tohetc 
puppri/s; ow formye t-ek ha dyblans ty rum gruk pur 
havel dhys, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, worship to 



DYCHTYE 



thy sweet body always ; me creating fair and bright, thou 
hast made me very like to thee. O.M. 87. My re welea 
y'm httnrus a-dhyragof H dyblans, I have seen in my 
dream before me a bright angel. O.M. 1955. / r6f 
henwyn dha'n puskas, dhe wyan, pengames, selyas, me as 
rectcen oil dyblans, I will give names to the fishes, to 
breams, gurnards, congers, I will reckon them distinct. 
C.W. 32. An 1 a ornas dhe wy, gorre sprusan y'th 
ganow, ha'n dhew arall pur dhyblans yn dka dhewfreig, 
the angel commanded to you, to put one kernel in thy 
month, and th two others very distinctly in thy nostrils. 
C.W. 140. 

DYBBRY, v. a. To eat. Frutan wedhen a skyans dybbry, 
bylh na borth danger, the fruit of the tree of knowledge 
cat thou, never make a difficulty. O.M. 168. Ef a ruk 
agan dyfen aval na wrellen dybbry, na mas ogcs dhe'n 
wedhen, he did forbid us -that we should not eat the 
apple, nor go near the tree. O.M. 183. A'yfrut a torello 
dybry, yfedhe kepar ha dew, of its fruit he that would 
eat would be like a god. O.M. 231. Dro ve dhymmo 
dysempys, ha my a ray dybry, bring it to me immediately, 
and I will eat it. O.M. 248. Ellas, pan dhybrys an tarn, 
alas, when I ate the morsel. O.M. 762. Arhcth me 
a'th peys a dhybry gynef un pry's, Lord, I pray thee to 
eat with me a meal. P.O. 456. Ow tylbry gynef yma 
dm lallyour yn keth bfo-ma, be is eating with me of my 
plate in this same food. P.O. 745. The same word as 
diberi, qd. v. 

DYCH, pron. prep. To or for you. (Dy-chui.) Me a van 
lemyn ranne ynlrcthon oil y dhyllas, ha my a's ran dych 
wharre, hepfuutvyth ol, renolhas, I will now divide_be- 
tween us all his clothes, and I will soon divide them for 
you, without any fault, by my father. P.C. 2843. An- 
other form of deuch, qd. v. 

DYCHETH, s. m. Pity. Anodho dychelh vye, y tuofa/neth 
na age, ha'y muscochneth, of hiin it were a pity, his folly 
not to leave, and his madness. P.C. ] 988. By the soft- 
ening and rejection of the guttural, it was also writteu 
dyeth, qd. v. 

DYCHLOS, adj. Without happiness. Aban omma towles 
dychlos, hag a Paradys hellys, me a vyn dallath palas, since 
I am thrown out of happiness, and from Paradise driven, 
I will begin to delve. C.W. 76. Comp. of dy, neg., and 
clfitt, happiness. 

DYCHO W, adj. Right. Ha mtlr a lobytt ganse, a dhychoiv 
flag a gledh, and much people with them, on the right 
and on the left. M.C. 97. Hagynyleff dhychmvyn wedh 
gwelen vyn a vegorris, and in his right hand a white rod 
was put M.C. 136. An Edheivon a grogas lader dhe 
Gryst an barth cledh, hag a dhychow lader bras cregy a 
russons yn wedh, and the Jews hung a thief to Christ 
on the left side, and on the right a great thief they did 
hang likewise. M.C. 186. An lader an barth dychow a 
besys yn ketelma, the thief on the right side prayed in 
this manner. M.C. 193. The aspirate was sometimes 
softened into h, as dyhow, or omitted altogether, as dyow. 
W. dehau, deheu, -\-dehau. Arm. dehmi. Ir. deise, deas, 
\-des, fcfcs. Gael, deise. Manx./istt?. Sansc. daksa. Gr. 
Segia. Lat. dexter. That the guttural existed in early 
Celtic, as in Cornish, seems evident from the term DrtP- 
siva, De-rsivia (dea. ) See Zeuss, 58. 147. 

DYCHTYE, v. a. To prepare, to procure, to treat, to use. 
Written indiscriminately dychye, dychthye, dydhgtye, dyg- 



120 DYEN 

thye, dygtye. / van whegol a weles del esons worth y 
dhygtye', his mother dear saw how they were treating 
him. M.C. 164. Pan welas y mab dygtysgans an Edke- 
won mar veyl, when she saw her son used by the Jews 
so vilely. M.C. 165. Dre vraster bras yn golon y dhug- 
tyons y dheslreicy, through great pride in the heart they 
bethought to destroy him. M.C. 26. Ha hagerfe.it an 
dygtyas, and very foully ttiey used him. M.C. 130. Ha me 
an dygthyredy, and I will provide it at once. P.C. 624. 
Gweyteuch dygtye' bdsynny, lour dKagan soper ragon, take 
ye care to preparefbod in it, enough for our supper before 
us. P.C. 639. Kerch a'nfenten dhym dour cler dhe dhychye 
b6s dhynny ny erbyn soper, fetch thou clear water for 
me from the fountain, to prepare food for us for supper. 
P.C. 651. Fystyn leman mayfo dychtys a vreder, hasten 
now, that it may be prepared speedily. P.C. 692. Myl 
wyth dychtys ages broch gan nep mylgy, a thousand times 
worse treated, than a badger by some hound. P.C. 2926. 
This word is borrowed from the old English dight, Aug. 
Sax. dihtan. to prepare, 

DYDH, s. m. A day. PI. dydhyow, dydhaw. Rag bones 
oil tek ha da, yn whed-dydh myns ywformyys, aga srma 
ny a urra ; may fe seythves dydh hynim/s, hen yw dydh a 
bowesva, for that all is fair and good, in six days all that 
is created, bless them we will ; that it be called the 
seventh day, this is a day of rest. O.M. 142. Dydh brues 
y wreck yuedhe oil, an bys-ma rah iugge, the day of judg- 
ment ye shall sit, all this world to judge. P.C. 814. Rag 
y tue dydhyow mayfenygouch an torrow nas teve vythqtteih 
Jlehes, for the days shall come, that ye will bless the 
wombs that have never borne children. P.C. 2645. 
Dr6k den afue bytkqueth^ a wul dr6k ny'n gefe mtthyn y 
dhydhow, bad man he was ever, to do evil he had no 
shame in his days. R.D. 1784. Cot yw dhe dhydhyow 
dhe gy, nahsn na gr$s, short are thy days to thee, beliere 
thou not otherwise. B.D. 2037. D$dh goil, a holiday. 
Hanter dydh, mid-day. D/rfA Pasch, Easter day. M.C. 
124. Written also dedh, qd. v. W. dydh, dyw, frftrf, 
i'diu, +dieu. Arm. dez, devez. ideiss. Ir. dta, die, de. 
Gael, de, di, dia. Manx^e. Lat dies. Satisc. dyu, di- 
vas, from div, to shine. 

DYDHANE, v. a. To amuse, to make glad, to gladden, 
to comfort. Un dra a won, an godhfea, a russe dhe dhydh- 
anc; beys vynylha y icharthes rag toy ha rag Iowen6 ; one 
thing I know, if thou knewest it, would amuse thee ; 
for ever thou wouldst laugh for joy and mirth. O.M. 
152. loy del $1 ow dydlmnc, ny ny tyuyn ow cane, as joy 
may gladden me, we will not cease from singing. R.D. 
2526. W. dydhanu ; dydkaniad, consolation. Ir. didnad. 

DYE, v. a. To swear. A mutation of tyc, qd. v. Me a 
levar, heb y dye ; genffPeic a ivrug serry, ha'y volkth yn 
pur dhcffry dhym a rfc, I will tell, without swearing it, 
with me God was angry, and his curse in very earnest 
to me did give. C.W. 118. 

DYEL, s. m. A flood, a deluge. Na allaf sparic na may 
hepgfddyela ver speys war pep ollmarnaf ty. I cannot 
spare any longer without bringing a flood of great du- 
ration over all except thee. O.M. 947. Another form 
of ffyal, or dial, qd. v. 

DYEIf , adj. "Whole, entire, perfect. Na blamyouch ny, a 
nyngese altvheow warbarth yn ages gwyth why, ha dyen 
an darasmu, do not blame us, were not the keys in your 
keeping, and the doors whole 1 R.D. 651. Gwyr a gew- 



DYFEN 



121 



DYFLAS 



ayth, ievtxfy ; hem yu> marlh hep falladow, rdk an darasow 
dejjry, dyen all yns, ha'nfosow, truth thou sayest, I tell 
you ; this is a miracle without fail, for the doors indeed 
are all -whole, and the walls. R.D. 656. Crist a settyas 
yn (yen an scovern arte dhe dre, Christ fastened whole 
the ear again close home. M.C. 71. 

DYBNCYS, part. Escaped. Mars yw dyenkys, ellas, if 
he is escaped, alas ! R.D. 620. Part. pass, of dyanc, 
qd. v. 

DYENE, v. n. To be void of soul, to be breathless, to 
pant, to faint. Us fey s nayllyn ponye, del esofow tyene, ha 
whys pup godh ol ha lyth, I could not run immediately, 
as I am out of breath, and sweat all the neck and face. 
P.O. 2511. ' Comp. of dy, neg., and ene, sou). W. dien. 

DYERBYN, v. a. To receive, to come against, to meet. 
Written also dyerbyne. Pan veuch agey dhe'n cyte, why 
a dhyerbyn wharre den aw ton pycher dour gldn, when 
ye are within the city, ye will meet soon a man carry- 
ing a pitcher of clean water. P.O. 628. Saw me war 
lerch drehevel, a's dyerbyn dyougel yn Galile ol warbarth, 
but I, after rising, will meet you certainly in Galilee 
altogether. P.O. 897. Alemmabys ynTryger,lackamester 
ny alsen y dhyerbyn, from hence to Treguer, a worse mas- 
ter I should not be able to meet. P.O. 2276. Y afus- 
tena yn fen arte dh'y dyerbyne, they hastened at once 
again to meet him. M.C. 167. Un den a's dyerbynnas, 
Symon o a'y ewn hanow; y leverys dhodho, gwas, te a dhek i 
an grotvs heb wow, a man met them, Simon he was by j 
his right name ; they said to him, fellow, thou shalt j 
bear the cross without a He. M.C. 174. Comp. of dy, | 
intens., and erbyn, against. W. dyerbyn, dyerbynu. Arm. ; 
diarben. 

DYESCYNNE, v. n. To descend, to come down. Written 
also dyescenne. Me a vyn dyeskenne, ha m6s yn ttmpU 
ware, dhe weles oil anfer-na, I will dismount, and go 
into the temple at once, to see all that fair. P.O. 313. 
Maras ose map Dew mur, dyeskyn a'n vynk dhe'n Mr, ha 
dyswe ran a'th veystry, if thou be Son of the great God, 
descend from the post to the ground, and shew a portion 
of thy power. P.C. 2868. Mars yw mychtern Israel, 
leveryn oil dhodho heil, hag a'n grows dycskennes, if he is 
king of Israel, we will all say hail to him, and let him 
come down from the cross. P.C. 2881. The form given 
by Llwyd, 54, is deiscyn. W. discyn, discynu. Arm. 
diskenn. From the Latin descendo. 

DYETH, s. m. Pity. Mar ny wref, hep falladow, rnilr 
a'n bobyl a verow, ha henna dyeth vye, if thou dost not, 
without fail, many of the people will die, and that 
would be a pity. O.M. 1804. Maga gwyn avel angitrys, 
dyeth vye bone* reyx queth a'n par-ma dhe iaudyn, as white 
as the glass, it were a pity that should be given a cloth 
of this sort to the obstinate man. P.C. 1791. Dyeth 
mur yv; dhym skuerdye, na terry pows an plus was, it is a 
great pity for me to tear, or rend the coat of the dirty 
fellow. P.C. 2845. Another form Of dycheth, qd. v. 

DYF, v. n. He will grow. 3 pers. s. fut. of tyvy, qd. v. 
Sew olow otv thryys lyskys, ny dyfgwels najlour yn bijs yn 
kethfordh-na may kyrdhys, follow thou the prints of my 
feet burnt ; neither grass nor flower in the world will 
grow in that same road that I walked. O.M. 713. 

DYFEN, s. m. A forbidding, a prohibition. A'y frut 
dybry ny'm hex whans dres dyfen ow Arluth ker, of its 
fruit to eat I have no wish against the .prohibition of 
R 



my dear Lord. O.M. 172. Och, tnt, tru, my re behas, ha 
re dorrus an dyfen, Oh, woe, woe, I have sinned, and 
have broken the prohibition. O.M. 250. Prdg y tolste 
sy hep ken, worth hy themple dhe dyrry an frut erbyn 
ow dyfen, why didst thon deceive her pitilessly, by tempt- 
ing her to break off the fruit against my prohibition ? 
O.M. 304. 

DYFEN, v. a. To forbid, to prohibit. Part. pass, dyfynnys. 
Neb a'm gruk vy ha'm gorty, ef a, ruk agan dyfen aval 
na wrellen dybbry, na mos oges dhe'n wedhen, he that 
made me and my husband, he did forbid ns, that we 
should not eat the apple, nor go near to the tree. O.M. 
182. Lavar dhymmo, ty venen, an frut pie russys tyrry? 
marape a'n keth echen o dyfynnys orthyn ny, tell mo, thou 
woman, where didst thou break off the fruit 1 was it of 
that sort, which was forbidden to us ? O.M. 212. Me 
a'n clewas ow tyjffen, na vo reys, awos hechen, trubit vy"tk 
dhe syr Cesar, I heard him forbidding that there be 
given, for any consideration, any tribute to Caesar. P.C. 
1575. Written also defen, and defenny, qd. v. Vf.difyn, 
difynu, difwyn. Arm. difenn, difenni. From the Latin 
defvndo. 

DYFF, v. n. He will come. 3 pers. s. fut. of irr. v. d6s. 
Obereth dr emits a dyjff, yn ih--na rych ef a v$dh, full of 
works the just man shall come, in that hour rich he shall 
be. M.C. 259. Dyff, or deyff, is often used in North 
Wales in common conversation, for daw, and it is an 
older form, preserving the characteristic of the pronoun. 
In the same manner dwylofis an older form than dwy- 
law, hands. Dyvi is also an old Welsh form. 

DYFFO, v. n. He shall have come. 3 pers. s. 2 rat. of dfa. 
Euch alemma dhe gerhas an gwas muscok ; pur wyr efa'n 
gevyth gu, pan dyjffb yn ow goloc, go ye hence to fetch 
the crazed fellow ; very truly he shall have woe, when 
he shall have come into my sight. P.C. 964. This form 
is also found in Welsh ; as, Pan dhyjfont i'r gad nid ym- 
wadanl, when they shall have come to the battle, they 
will not deny themselves. Golydhan. 

DYFFRES, v. a. To relieve, protect, defend. Rag gwan- 
der efre codhat, res yw dhyso y dhyffras, kemerry a dhy- 
sempys, for weakness he has fallen ; need is tot hee to 
relieve him, take it immediately. P.C. 2619. Me a's 
dekfest yn lowen rag y dhyffres a anken ; dro hy dhymmo 
war ow sccrudh. I will bear it very joyfully, to relieve him 
from pain ; bring it to me on my shoulder. P.C. 2622. 
Keys yw dhe onan golyas, war y torn pupy dhyffras y 
gowyth, pyw a dhalleth, need is that one should watch, in 
his turn every one relieving his companion, who will 
begin? R.D. 410. W. difred. 

DYFFRY, adv. Truly, indeed. In ny wreth dyffry dodho 
abervedhyn crows cregy, wilt thou not cause him indeed 
on cross to hang ? M.C. 146. Generally written defry, 
qd. v. 

DYFFY, v. a. Thou shalt have come. 2 pers. s. 2 fut. of 
dos. An lader a'n barth dychoio a besysyn ketelma; Arluth 
pan dyjfy dhet pow, predery ahanajf gwra, the thief on 
the right side prayed in this manner ; Lord when thou 
shalt have come to thy country, do think of me. M.C. 193. 

DYFLAS, adj. Shameful, disgraceful. Tru, govy, ellas, 
ellaf, me dhe nache mar dhyffias, otv arluth nep a'm care, 
Oh, woe is me, alas, alas, I to deny so shamefully my 
Lord who loved me. P.C. 1418. Och, govy, ellas, ellas, 
gwelas ow map mar dyfias $a,ns tebel wesion dychiys, Oh, 






DYHONS 



122 



DYMMO 



woe is me, alas, alas, to see my son so shamefully by 
wicked fellows used. P.O. 2604. "W. divlas, from di, 
neg., and bids, taste. Arm. divlaz. 

DYFLASE, v. a. To disgust, to displease, to grow tired 
of a thing. Ha kyn f6ns y oil sclandrys, nefre awos 
bos ledhys, my wraf dhe dhyflase', and though they all 
be offended, ever for fear of being killed, I will not dis- 
please thee. P.O. 901. W. divlasu. Arm. divlaza. 

DYFEBTH, adj. Wretched, miserable. Written also di- 
freth, qd. v. 

DYPUN, adj. Sleepless, awake. Id. qd. difun, qd. v. 

DYFUNY, Y. a. To waken, to awake. See Difuny. 

DYFYGY, v. n. To fail. Id. qd. difygy, qd. v. 

DYFYNNYS, part. Forbidden. Part. pass, of dyfen, qd. v. 

DYG, v. a. He brought. Ev ai dyg dhym, he brought it 
to me. Llwyd, 242. More frequently written due, qd. v. 

DYGAVELSYS, part. Striptnaked. Pryce. SeeDyscavylsy. 

DYGES, part. Barred, shut, closed. Arluth assyw varth- 
usek, pan dhueth, Ihesu gallosek, dh'agan myras, ha lever el 
dhynny ores, asso fast ytho dyges agan daras, Lord, it is 
wonderful, when thou comest, Jesus powerful, to look at 
us, and to speak peace to us, though fast was shut our 
door. R.D. 1181. A abesteleth, dhyuch ores , lemmyn an 
dpras dyges fast warnouch ivhy sur kyn o, me re dhiith 
dh'agas myres, O apostles, peace unto you, now though 
the door was shut fast upon you, I have come to see 
you. R.D. 1534. Written also deges, qd. v. 

DYGNAS, v. a. To oppose, to trouble, to molest, to ag- 
grieve. Dhe'n tyller Crist re dethye, ha'n Edhewon o 
dygnas, to the place Christ came, and the Jews were 
opposing. M.C. 33. Golyouch ha pesouch ow thds may 
hallouch m6s dh'y aseth, na vedhouch ttmtijs dygnas gans 
gow ha gans scherewnelh, watch ye and pray my father 
that ye may go to his seat; that ye be not tempted to 
molest with falsehood and wickedness. M.C. 52. Ow 
nesse yma an preys, mayfydh map Dew ynno reys dhe'n 
fals Yedhewon dygnas, drawing near is the time, that 
the Son of God shall be given in it to the false Jews 
to be afflicted. P.O. 1098. W. dygnu. Ir. dingim. Gael. 
dinn. Scot. ding. 

DYGWYSCA, v. a. To undress, to strip. See Digwisca. 

DYHODZHYDH, s. m. The afternoon. Llwyd, 10. J Dy- 
hodzhedh, 249. A late and corrupt form of doehageydh, 
qd. v. 

DYHOGBL, adj. Secure, safe, certain. Na nyl oges nag 
yn pell, ny's gwelafow trenyge ; hy re gafes dyhogel dor 
dysechys yn nep le, neither near nor far, I see her not 
flying over ; she has certainly found the ground dried 
in some place. O.M. 1143. Written also diogel, qd. v. 
Keigwin gives it the meaning of reverend. Ny won, 
Arluth dyhogatt, henna te aw&r yn ta, my nyngof warden 
dhodho, I know not, reverend Lord, that thou knowest 
well, I am not his keeper. 84. Cayn ha Abell, te a 
war ornys yns dhe Vownt Tabor, dhe weyl offren dehogatt, 
Cain and Abel, thou knowest, ordered are to Mount 
Tabor, to make a reverend offering. 90. In both in- 
stances it probably means certainly. 
DYHONS, adj. Soon, quick. Degeuch an pren a dhyhons 
war dhour Cedron mayfopons, carry ye the tree quickly, 
over the water of Cedron that it may be a bridge. 
O.M. 2810. A dhydhons for a dhyhuans, for the sake of 
the metre. Written by Llwyd, 249, dyhuanz, as a late 
form. It is the same word as dywhans, qd. v. 



DYHOW, adj. Right. Llwyd, 54, who also writes dy- 
hymv, am lev dhyhyow, with my right hand. 244. It is 
also written dyow, qd. v., and is another form of dychow. 

DYL, v. a. He will bore. A mutation of tyl, 3 pers. s. 
fut. of lolla, qd. v. My a dyl tol rate hybeen, I will 
bore a hole for the other. P.O. 2749. 

DYLARG, adv. Behind. War lu dylarg daras yn ty a 
wra yw port hynwes, on the hinder part a door in it 
thou shalt make, that is called a port. O.M. 961. Id. qd. 
dellarch, qd. v. 

DYLIBS, part. Avenged. Llwyd, 175, 248, dyliez. The 
verb dylie, would be another form of diala, from dial, 
vengeance. 

DYLLA, s. m. A sending out, a letting out. \Dilla gudzh, 
phlebotomy, a letting out of blood. Llwyd, 120. Writ- 
ten also dyllo, qd. v. 

DYLLAS, s. m. Clothes, raiment, apparel. See Dittas. 

DYLLO, v. a. To send forth, to emit, to let out, to liber- 
ate. Bedhens ebron dreys pup ira, rdk kudhe myns us 
formyys, rdk synsy glaw a wartha, dhe'n nor veys may fe 
dyllys, let there be a sky above every thing, to cover all 
that is created, to keep the rain above, that it may be 
sent forth on the earth of the world. O.M. 24. Da yw 
dyllo bran, mars es dor seek war an beys, it is good to send 
out a crow, if there is dry ground in the world. O.M. 1099. 
My a's dyllo ahanan, ny dhue arte, my a greys ; mar kyf 
carynnys, warnedhe y tryg pup preys, I will send it from 
us, it will not come again, I believe ; if it shall find car- 
rion, upon them it will stay at all times. O.M. 1101. Ow 
mebyon, my a gy peys, yn mes wheth dylleuch trysse, mar 
kyftyr sych, my a greys dynny ny dhewhelarle, my sons, 
I pray yon, send outside yet a third ; if it shall find dry 
ground, I believe it will not return to ns again. O.M. 
1130. Belsebuc ha lawethan, dylleuch luhes ha laran quyt 
an losco, Beelzebub and fiends, send forth lightning and 
thunder, that it burn him quite. R.D. 129. W. dyllwng. 
Arm. dilocha. Ir. diolg, -tdtiugud, -tdilgion, idilgiad. 

DYLLY, v. a. To deserve, to owe. Y beynys o cref ha 
bras warnodho heb y dylly, reson o rag oil an wld$ ef 
a wodhyt y verwy, his pains were strong and great 
on him without deserving them, the reason was, for 
all the world he knew that he should die. M.C. 56. 
Colon den a yll crakye a vynha prest predery an paynys 
bras a'n geve, ha'n dyspyth heb y dylly, the heart of man 
may break, that will but consider the great pains he 
had, and the spite without deserving them. M.C. 139. 
The same word as dely, qd. v. W. dylu. Arm. dleout. 
Ir. +dil, ^rdiliu, \dlig, tuill. Gael, dligh. Manx, toill. 

DYLYOW, s. m. Leaves. Warnedhy yma gwedhen, uhel 
gans lues scoren, saw n6th oil yns hep dylyow, in it there 
is a tree, high with many a bough ; but they are all 
bare, without leaves. O.M. 777. One of the plurals of 
delen, qd. v. 

DYM, pron. prep. To me. (Do-my.) Arluth, leverel dym 
gwra, mars ofvyan keth henna, na vo den aral sdandrys, 
Lord, do tell me, if I am that same, that another man 
may not be accused. P.O. 741. Ihesus a gewsys arte, why 
a dheth dhym yn arvow, Jesus said again, ye have come 
to me in arms. M.C. 74. W. i mi, i'm. Arm. d'in, -\-dif, 
tdiff. Ir. damh, ^domsa. Gael, dhom, dhomh. Manx, 
hym. Lat. mihi. Gr. e^o*. 

DYMMO, pron. prep. To me. An enlarged form of dym. 
Sersabe ow whefc e vy, rfjs yw dymmo lafurye dhe un ve-lel 



DYNDYLY 



123 



DYNYTHY 



yredy, Bathsheba, my sweet of me, need is to me to 
labour at a battle certainly. O.M. 2176. Pandra yll 
henna bones, lavar dhymmo vy wharre, what thing can 
that be ? tell me directly. O.M. 158. 
DYMMYN, s. m. Pieces, fragments. A mutation of 
tymmyn, pi. of lam, qd. v. Ny won vylhpe'th dflemyn, 
nymbus gicesc, guskys, na chy ; ow holan oil dhe dymmyn 
rag morelh a wra terry, I know not where I shall go now, 
I have not raiment, shelter, nor house ; my heart all to 
pieces for grief will break. O.M. 357. Saw un marrek 
an ladhas, ha dhe'n dor scon an goras, hag a'n hakyas 
dhe dymmyn, but a soldier killed him, and soon drove 
him to the earth, and hacked him to pieces. O.M. 2228. 
DYX, prou. prep. To us. (Do-ny.) Arluth her, fattd 
vydh dyn, mars elk arte dhyworlhyn, dear Lord, how 
will it be to us, if thou wilt go again from us ? R.D. 
2361. Ose Mdb Du leun a ras, lemyn gtcyr lava'r dhyn, 
art thou the Son of God, full of grace, now truth tell to 
us. M.G. 100. The simple pronoun is often added, and 
sometimes repeated. Bydh dynny nerth ha gwcres, be 
thou to us strength and help. O.M. 1071. Ef dhe 
sevel a'n bedh men, ha'y vos datherys, y gows ny dal 
dhynny ny, that he has risen from the tomb of stone, 
and is ascended, it behoves us not to say. R.D. 568. 
W. ni, i'n, +yni. Arm. deomp. Ir. duinn, dhuinn, 
\-duun, idun, \ duunni, -\- dunm. Gael, dinn, dhuinn, 
dhuinne. Manx, dooin. 

DYN, a prefix in composition. It answers to the con- 
jugate prefix an in Welsh ; thus C. dinerchy, W. anner- 
chy, to salute. Llwyd, 249. Comp. of dy, and yn, 
DYNACHE, v. a. To deuy, to reject, to retract. Mes 
pan vans dysehys guldn, y a dynach aga duow myleges, 
but when they are quite refreshed, they will reject their 
cursed gods. O.M. 1839. Rag map an ph agan temptye 
purfe.yl a n-ra prest ynpup le dhe gul drok tra, ha dynache 
obermu da, for the son of evil us tempt very craftily will, 
always in every place to do evil things, and to reject 
good works. P.C. 13. Gow a lever an iaudyn ; ef a'n 
pren, mar ny dhynach y whelhlow, the wilful man tells a 
lie ; he shall pay for.it, if he will not retract his tales. 
P.C. 369. Y v6s ff re leverys ; lyes trefdh y'n dewys, ma 
na- yll y dhynache, that he is he has said ; 'many times 
I heard him, so that he cannot retract it. P.O. 1725. 
Mar ny fyn dynache y yow, if he will not retract his 
lie. P.C. 2061. Comp. of dy, intens., and nache, to 
deny. Arm. dinacha. 

DYNAS, adj. Obstinate, unyielding. Whore yn mes y 
trylyas, ha'y golan namria dorre, rag y Arluth, leun a ras, 
mar dhynas ef dJi'y nache, anon out he turned, and his 
heart almost broke, for his Lord, full of grace, so obsti- 
nately that he should deny. M.C. 87. This is a doubtful 
word, and until a better explanation is suggested, I 
derive it from tyn, tight. 

DYN DYLY, v. a. To deserve, to owa Ef re dhyndyles 
yn ta godhaf mernens yn by s- nut, mar a pedhe lei iuggys, 
he has deserved well to suffer death in this world, if 
he be fairly judged. P.C. 1342. Efa'n pren, yn ta del 
y'n dyndylas, he shall pay for it, well as he has deserved 
it. P.C. 1347. Yn ta ef re'n dyndylas, well he has de- 
served it. P.C. 1402. Why a dhyndylse onor, mar call- 
euch dry an Ihesu dhe cen crygyans, je would deserve 
honour, if ye can bring Jesus to another belief. P.C. 
1992. Yn ban tynnyn ef a'n dour, ha dyndylyn agan 



our, a coweihe, up let us draw him, and let us deserve 
our gold, comrades. R.D. 2266. Ny dhyndylas lowene, 
lemmyn yn tan bos cudhys, he has not deserved bliss, but 
to be covered in fire. R.D. 2325. Compounded of dyn, 
(dy-yn,) prefix, and dyly, or dylly, to deserve. 
DYNER, s. m. A penny. An nyl dhodho a delle pymp 
cans dyner monyys, ha hunter cans y yyle, the one owed 
to him five hundred pence of money, and half a hun- 
dred the other. P.C. 505. Another form of diiiair, 
qd. v. 

DYNERCHY, v. a. To greet, to salute. Syr Cayfcu 
gynef a'th dynyrchys, hag a'thpys a dkos dhodho bys yn 
tre dre dhe vodh dh'y cusullye worth Ihesu pandra vydh 
gwreys, Sir Caiaphas by me hath greeted thee, and prays 
thee to come to him into the town, by thy will to advise 
him what shall be done regarding Jesus. P.C. 565. Its 
later form was dynerhy. Llwyd, 249. Comp. of dyn, 
prefix, and erchy, to command, from arch, an injunc- 
tion. W. annerchu. 

DYNION, s. m. Men. Plural of den, qd. v. Den cldv, 
a. sick man; dynion clevion, sick me"h. Llwyd, 243. 
W. dyn cldv, pi. dynion cleivion. 

DYNNARCH, s. m. A greeting, a salutation. . Ow arlothes 
gyne dre dhynnarch agaspygys na wrellouch cammen ladhe 
an profus a Nazare, my lady by me through greeting 
prayed you, that you do not unjustly slay the prophet of 
Nazareth. P.C. 2195. Comp. of prefix, dyn, and arch, a 
request, an injunction. W. annerch. 
DYNNY, pron. prep. To' us. An enlarged form of dyn, 
qd. v. Pyth ew an othom dynny cafus lafur a'n par-na, 
what is the need to. us to have labour of that kind ? 
O.M. 967. Dalleth dhynny ny cane, begin to sing to us. 
R.D. 2354i W. yni. Ir. -\-duunni, ^dunni. Gael. 
dhuinne. 

DYNS, s. m. Teeth. One of the plurals of dans, qd. v. 
Kemer tyyr spus an aval, a Sybrys Adam dhe das, pan 
varwo, gorr'y hepfal ynire y dhyns ha'y davas, take thou 
three kernels of the apple, that Adam thy father ate ; 
when he dies, put them without fail between his teeth 
and his tongue. O.M. 826. Yma ow trys ha'm dull dhy- 
worthef ow teglene, ma 'thew kre.hyllys ow dljns, my feet 
and hands are loosening from me, so that my teeth are 
chattering. P.C. 1218. 

DYNWA, v. a. Will produce. 3 pers. s. fut. of doen, or 
doyn, qd. v. Ty a wra wage hemma gorre an tus a lena, 
bys yn lyreth a dhynwa lanwes leyth ha mel kefrys, thou 
shalt after this bring the people thence to a land that 
produces fulness of milk and honey also. O.M. 1429. 
DYNYRCHYS, v. a. Greeted. 3 pers. s. preterite of dyn- 
er chy, qd. v. 

DYNYTHY, v. a. To bear, to bring forth, to produce, to 
beget. Ef a wra dynythy un map da hep falladow, he 
shall beget a good son without fail. O.M. 639. Dre 
grath an Arluth gwella, ny a dhynyth un floch da, dhyn 
a servyo, by the grace of the best Lord, we shall produce 
a good child, that may serve us. O.M. 664. Govy vy[t/i 
pan vef genys, a dor ow mam dynythys, na vythquethpan 
denys bron, woe is me that I ever was born, out of 
my mother's womb brought, or ever sucked the breast. 
O.M. 1754. Map Dew pur, ha den keffrys, a vachtelh 
gulan dynythys, ha henna mur varth vye, Son of very 
God, and man also, of a pure virgin born ; and that 
would be a great wonder. P.C. 1727. 



DYRAGOUCH 



124 



DYSCAS 



DYNYTHYS, part. Come. A Seth osa dynythys agy dhe 
yet paradys, lavar dhym pa'n dra wykta, Seth, thou 
art come within the gate of Paradise ; tell me what 
thou sawest. O.M. 763. Galsofcoyth ha marthys givan, 
dynylhys ew ow deweydh, I am become.old and wondrous 
weak, my end is arrived. O.M. 866. Dynythys yw, hag 
yma yn hy myyn branch olyf glds, she is come, and 
there is in her beak a branch of green olive. O.M. 1121. 
Dynythys 6f dhe'th volungeth, I am come to thy will. 
O.M. 1271. Dynythys 6n hep danger, we are come with- 
out delay. P.O. 1869. Part. pass, of dones, qd. v. 
DYON, adj. Black. The plural of rf, qd. 7. \Hyrroz 
dyon, black rams. Llwyd, 243. W. duon, hyrdhod duon. 
DYOW, adj. Right. Wog hemma why a wcl map Dew 
awysedhe a barth dyov> dyaugel dhe'n Tds Dew ynlowene', 
after this ye shall see the Son of God sitting on the 
right side truly of God the Father in bliss. P.O. 1487. 
Cans an Tds Dew yma ef a dhyow barlh, with God the 
Father he is on the right side. R.D. 928. Ysedke del 
rays dhymmo yn nef a dhyow dhum Tds, to sit as need 
is to me, in heaven at the right .of my Father. R.D. 
1582. Dyotn is the same as dychow, qd. v., formed by 
first softening the guttural ch into h, and then omit- 
ting it. 

DYOWGEL, adj. Certain, sure, safe. Yn triddydh dyowgel 
ef a wra y trehevel, in three days certainly he will 
build it up. P.O. 352. Another form of diogel, qd. v. 
DYP, v. a. Will think. A mutation oflyp, 3 pers. s. fut. 
of tyby, qd. v. Ray mr. a dyp b6s hemma an keth mdp 
eth alemma, yw mychtern a lowene, for I think that this 
is the same sou that went hence, that is the king of joy. 
R.D. 2508. 

DYRAG, prep. Before, in presence of. Otti ha coynt o an 
gwds, pa na vynne gorthyby a dhyrdk an arlythy dhe 
resons art doctors Iras, behold how cunning the fellow 
was ! when he would not answer, before the lords, the 
arguments of the great doctors. P.O. 1821. Dyrdg, 
Llwyd, 51. Comp. of dy, id. qd. de, from, qd. v., and 
roc, before. Arm. diralc. 

DYRAGOF, pron. prep. Before me. (Dyrag-my.) My 
re weles y'm hunrns a dhyragof el dyblans, I saw in my 
dream before me a bright angel. O.M. 1955. Yn hanow 
an Tds huhel, Jce abervedh yn castel a dhyragof, ny a'th 
pys, in the name of the Father high, go within into the 
village before me, I pray thee. P.O. 196. 
DYRAGON, pron. prep. Before us. (Dyrctg-ny.) A les 
oily wolyow a dhyragonpan ywylsyn, all his wounds dis- 
closed when we saw before us. R.D. 1332. An Arluth 
dhyragon torth vara ef a torras, the Lord before us a loaf 
of bread he broke. R.D. 1490. 

DYRAGOS, pron. prep. Before thee. (Dyrag-ty.) A'n 
gwelesta a dhyragos, a alsesta y aswonfos, if thou shouldst 
see him before thee, wouldst thou be able to know him 1 
R.D. 861. Hydhew a tryckes yn tr$, dhyragos ty a'n 
gwdse bywynpoynt da, to day, if thou hadst stayed at 
home, before thee thou wouldst have seen him living in 
good condition. R.D. 1382. 

DYRAGOUOH, pron. prep. Before yon. (Dyrag-chui.) 
Written also dyragoch. Otte dheuch mychtern Ihestt, a 
dhyragouch ow sevel, behold for you king Jesus before you 
standing. P.O. 2355. Me a gryspan y'n yuyllouch dhyr- 
agoch why, dhodho ny ytteuch yul dr6le, htdre tie y 'gys 
golok, I believe, when you see him before yon, you will 



not be able to do him harm, while he is in your sight. 
R.D. 1913. Arluth, lemmyn as dysken, dyragouch n6th 
yfyen, Lord, if I take it off now, before you naked I 
should be. R.D. 1942. 

DYRAGTHO, pron. prep. Before him, or it. (Dyrag-o.) 
A rag dywhans ow kerdhes, an dour ow fysky a les pup 
ur of a dhyragtho, forth quickly going, the water strik- 
ing wide, continually before him. O.M. 1684. Me a 
vyn yn delta dyslcy ow dyllas gwella, ha tywlel a dhyrag- 
&o, I will so take off my best clothes, and cast before 
him. P.O. 267. 

DYREYTH, s. m. Land, earth. A mutation of tyreyth, 
id. qd. lyi-elh, qd. v. Adam, cvmmyas scon a ftydh, Ajfs 
dhe baalluen dhe drehy; dhys yth archaf a dyreyth, gas 
Adam dhe'th egery, Adam, permission shall be forthwith, 
to cut the full length of thy spade ; I command thee, 
earth, allow Adam to open thee. O.M. 381. 

DYRRY, v. a. To break, to break off, to pluck. A muta- 
tion of tyrry, qd. v. A meys of ow predyry, pandra 
allaf dhe wrulhyl, an aval orth y dyrry, rdg own genes 
bones gyl, I am outside (puzzled) thinking, what I may 
do, as to plucking the apple, for fear of there being de- 
ceit with thee. O.M. 195. Pragy tolst^syhep ken, worth 
hy themptS dhe dyrry an frut erbyn ow dyfen, why didst 
thou deceive her pitilessly, by tempting her to pluck the 
fruit against my prohibition ) O.M. 303. 

DYRUSKY, v. a. To strip off the bark, to decorticate. 
Hay branchys yn van tyvyi; bijs yn nef uhel golow ; ha 
hy warbarth dyruskys, kcfrys ben ha oarennow, and its 
branches growing up even to heaven high in light; and 
it was 'unbarked altogether, both the trunk, and the 
boughs. O.M. 785. My as dyswe yn lowen: nfins us 
warnethe crochen, nag yw trfah, ha dyrtiskys, I will shew 
them willingly ; there is no skin upon them that is 
not broken and peeled. P.O. 26,87. Comp. of dy, or di, 
privative, and rusk, bark. W. dirisgo. Arm. diruska. 

DYRYVA8, v. a. To declare, to relate, to make known, 
to shew. Abram, scon goslow lemyn orth ow lavarow a 
fynnaf dyryvas dhys, Abraham, immediately hearken 
now to my words, that I will declare to thee. O.M. 1367. 
Yma dhymmo, cotvylh da, mur a toy yn karma a'lh tyryvas, 
there is to me good comrade, much of joy at this time 
from thy declaration. R.D. 1308. Judas eth yn y negis, 
en iovl yw e'n hombronky ; dhe'n Edhewon dyrryvys del 
o y fynnas synsy, Judas went on his errand, the devil 
it was that guided him ; to the Jews he shewed how 
it was that he wished to seize. M.C. 62. Written also 
daryvas, qd. v. 

DYS, pron. prep. To the*. (Do-iy.) Messyger, ow ban- 
eth dys, my a vyn a dhysempys marogeth ware b$8 ty, 
messenger, my blessing to thee, I will immediately 
ride presently even to it. O.M. 1969. Oil dhe'th v6dh, 
ow arluth her, dynythys on hep danger bys dys omma hep 
ardak, all to thy will, dear Lord, come we are without 
delay, even to thee here without demur. P.O. 1870. 
W. iti, it, ^itli, tytti, t&. Arm. d"id, *dit. Ir. duit, 
\deit, +dit. Gael, dhuit. Manx, hood. Lat twi. Gr. 
tol, got. 

DYS, v. D. Come thou. D$s yn rdg, come forward. 
Llwyd, 250. The same as dus, qd. v. 

DYSCAS, s. f. A teaching, doctrine. Written also dyskes. 
Pur apert /tag yn golow y leverii wo dyskas, very openly 
and in light I spake my doctrine. M.C. 79. Dh> yu> 



DYSCY 



125 



DYSMEGY 



Irestyi yn y gras, do not ye distrust the God of heaven, 
for be will hear your voice ; do ye trust in his grace. 
O.M. 1667. May rollo yn nef teller dour dhe eve dhedhe 
y, na allont kafus ki-n dhe ahyscryny, that be may give 
in some place water to driok to them, that they may not 
find cause to disbelieve. O.M. 1826. Dasserchys yw ; 
yn sur re re dhyscryssys, rah Maria, a gewsys worto hydh- 
yw, he is risen ; surely too much thou hast disbelieved, 
for Mary has spoken to him to day. R.D. 1040, Comp. 
of dys, privative, and crysy, to believe, qd. v. 

DY8CUDHE, v. a. To uncover, to disclose, to shew. Yn 
hanatv an Tas vhel, an gorhel ywren dyscudhe', in the 
name of the Father high, the ark let us uncover. O.M. 
1146. More frequently written dysquedhas, qd. v. 

DYSCY, v. a. To teach, to instruct, to learn. Tta us 
dhym ma tevone.i yw gans ow thraytor dysku, men that are 
coming to roe are by my traitor taught. M.C. 61. Bys 
yn Ihesvs earadaw y eth, del dyskaa Judas, even to Jesus 
the beloved they went, as Judas taught M.O. 64. In 
agis my/sk pan esen layt Dn dheudi cm tysky, among you 



dhe pip dhe weles ; saw y ober hay dhyskes pup 61 a wra I 
trettne, he is a man for all to see ; without his work 
and his teaching every one will die. P.O. 57. Dyswe 
dhym nep reson a'th tyskes omma dyson, may hylJyn yynts 
dysky, shew thou to me some reason of thy teaching 
here quietly, that we may teach with thee. P.O. 1249. 
Apert vythqueth y tyskys ow dyskes dhe'n Yedhewon, 
openly always I have taught my doctrine to the Jews. 
P.O. 1252. W. dysgad. 

DYSCAVYLSY, v. a. To stretch out, to strain. Part, dys- 
cavylsys. Y vellow, kettep onan, dyscavylsys $ns, lemmyn 
kentr'y worth an pren, his joints, every one, are strained, 
now nail it to the wood. P.O. 2771. Ellas bones dhe 
treys squzrdys, oil dhe yscarn dyscavy/sys, tell y'th dywluef, 
alas, that thy feet should be torn, all thy bones stretch- 
ed ; hole? in thy hands, P.O. 3173. Myres y gorf del \ 
yw squerdys, yscarn Map Dew dygavelsys, ha Dew war- 
barth, to see the body how it is torn, the bones of the 
Ron of God strained, and a God at the same time. P.O. 
3179. 

DYSCRYGYANS, s. m. Unbelief. Galsos lemmyn pur 
wnky, rafc na fynnyOi dhyn crygy ; galsos mur yn dys- 
crygyans, thou art become now quite foolish, for thou 
wilt not believe us; thou art gone much in unbelief. 
R.D. 1616. Comp. of dys, privative, and crygynns, be- 
lief, qd. v. 

DY8CRYGYC, adj. Unbelieving. PL dyscrygygycn, and 
contractedly dysgryygyon. Thomas, na vydn dyscrygyk, 
pys gans colon dywysyk war Cryst an nf, Thomas, be 
thon not unbelieving ; pray with nndoubting heart to 
Christ of heaven. R.D. 1369. Ty yw dyscryyyk pur 
M$r, ha mur anfusyk, thou art unbelieving very truly, and 
very mischievous. R.D. 1519. A lmrfa.lt dyscrygygyon, 
tebel aqas manerow, na gresouch a luen golon, b6s an Tas 
Dew h*,p parow, O very false unbelievers, evil are 
your ways ; that ye will not believe with full heart, 
that God" the Eather is without equals. O.M. 1855. Rag 
na worsys ow hynow, a rag an Jlehy.iygow a Israel dy.i- 
cryggym, ny's goryth dhe n t$r, because thou hououredst 
not ray name, before the children of Israel unbelievers, 
thou shall not bring them to the laud. O.M. 1869. 

DYSCRYSY, v. a. To believe, to distrust Na dhyscrys- 
touch Dew a nef, rag ef a glete agas lef, gwrench why 



when I was the laws of God to yon teaching. M.C. 75. 
An re-na a $tt dhe dhysky yn della y re dhytkas, those 
may teach thee in the same manner as they learnt. 
M.C. 80. Gor gwra del dyscaf dhyso, but' do, as I in- 
struct thee. O.M. 987. Owconselar wh$k y'th pesaf, dysk 
dhymmo un ankenek rag ow fehas, my sweet adviser, I 
pray thee, teach me a penitential hymn for my sin. 
O.M. 2256. A mester whek,gardhys re by, pan wreth mar 
tek agan dysky, sweet master, be thou worshipped, 
when thou dost so sweetly teach us. P.O. 36. Me a 
dhysk dheuch tokyn da., I will shew YOU a good token. 
P.O. 971. Pan dyskys yn eglusyow, ny wrug denfylh ow 
sensy, when I taught in the churches, no man did seize 
me. P.O. 1175. Apert vythqueth y tyskys oto dyskes dhe'n 
Yedhewon, openly always 1 taught my doctrine to the 
Jews. P.C. 1261. Y elh ynun jystene dhe Pylat aga 
Juslis, e'n dyskyens del vye, ha dhodho a levcrys, they 
went in a hurry to Pilate their Justice ; him they taught 
how it was, and to him said. M.C. 248. W. dysgv. 
Arm. deski, diski. Ir. ieagasc, teosjr, f cose. Gael, teay- 
aisg. Sansc. die. Gr. ceiKai, SeiKvvia, (^ejfts.) Lat. 
disco, dico, doceo. Goth, teiha. Germ, xeige, Eng. teach. 

DYSCY, v. a. To throw off, or put aside ; to strip, to un- 
dress. 2 pers. s. imp., and 3 pers. s. fut. dysc. My a 
vyn yn della dysky ow dyllas gwella, ha tywlel a dhyrag- 
tho, I will in this- manner take off my best clothes, and 
cast before him. P.C. 266. Dyskyn y van>cl wharre 1 , rag 
yn y dyllas arte an harlot a vydfi gwyskys, let us take off 
his mantle soon, for in his clothes again the knave 
shall be dressed. P.C. 2531. Honna yw y bows neisa, 
ha wheth gwrevcfi y dhry amma-arte dkywhy, ha dyscote y 
dhewor/o, that is the nearest garment, and do ye yet 
bring him here again to you, and strip it from him. 
R.D. 1870. ArluQi lemmyn a's dysken, dyragoueh n6th 
y fyen, Lord, now if I take it off, before yon naked I 
should be. R.D. 1941. Rak hedre vyuch ow pleghye 
dhywhy bylh ny's d$sk neffre, for as long as yon are 
yielding, he will never take it off for you. R.D. 1961. 
Dysk an yueth a dhysempys, take off the cloth immedi- 
ately. R.D. 1953. Pan dothyans dh'y, ynlrethe' pows 
Jesus a ve dyskys, when they came there, among them 
the coat of Jesus was taken off. M.C. 176. "W. dyosg, 
diwutgo. Arm. diuskein, diwiska. 

DYSCY AN8, s. m. Learning. Llwyd, 240. 

DYSCYBBL, s. m. A disciple. See Discybel. 

DYSEHY, v. a. To quench thirst, to refresh. Part. dy- 
ehys. A Das Dew y'th wolowys, dew galow an bobyl-ma ; 
dour, may fens y dysehys, a vevmans ry dedhe gwra, O 
Father God in thy lights, hear the call of this people ; 
that they may be refreshed, the water of life do thou 
give to them. O.M. 1833. Mespan v6ns dysehys gulan, 
y a dynach aga duow myleges, bnt when they are quite 
refreshed, they will reject their cnrsed gods. O.M. 1838. 
Comp. of dy, neg., and sehy, to dry. W. disychedv. 

DY8EMPYS, adj. Sudden, immediate. Dyson hep whethe 
dhe yarn, dytempya gwray dhybry, quietly without blow- 
ing thy horn, eat it immediately. O.M. 208. A das ker, 
dhe'th worhemmyn my a dh'y a dhysempys, O father dear, 
at thy command, I will go to him immediately. O.M. 
697. The same word as desempys, qd. v. 

DYSMEGY, v. a. To utter, to speak, tell, declare. Writ- 
ten also dysmyqy. Yma ow conys dhyttwhy chyf gwyth- 
oryon ol an gwlas a wodher dhe dysmegy, there are work- 



DYSPRYNNYAS 



126 



DYSTREWY 



ing for you all the chief workmen in. the land (that) ] 
can be mentioned. O.M. 2332. Yn ur-na ef dysmegys py 
gansse y foe gwyskys, at that time let him declare by 
whom he was struck. P.O. 1372. Gwyskys lemmyn 
nep cowyth may hallo efflysmygy pyw an gwyskys, let 
some comrade now strike that he may declare who 
struck him. P.C. 1378. Dysmyg lemmyn ty gwas smat, 
pyw a ros dhyso an ivat, declare now, thou brave fellow, 
who gave to thee the blow. P.C. 1382. Kyn na vynno 
dysmtgy, dunyn rdkgans an gwary, though he will not 
tell, let us go forward with the play. P.C. 1387. Writ- 
ten also desmygy, qd. v. W dysmegu. 

DYSO, pron. prep. To thee. An enlarged form of dys. 
Hen yw an oel a versy o dedhywys dyso sy dheworlh an 
Tds Dew an nef, this is the oil of mercy (that) was 
promised to thee by the Father God of heaven. O.M. 
842. Hyr lour ew ow bewnans, kymmer dyso mv enef, 
long enough is my life, take to thee my soul. O.M. 849. 
Ow banneth dhyso Gryjfyn, my blessing on thee Gryffyn. 
O.M. 2433. Dus gene pols dhe wandre, ha dyso my a lever 
yntrethon tacklow pryve, come to walk with me a while, 
and I will tell thee between ourselves private things. 
O.M. 935. Dysrtiyg lemmyn ty gwas smalpyw a ros dhyso 
an wat, tell now, thou brave fellow, who gave to thee 
the blqw. P.O. 1384. Written also deso. Old Irish 
fduitso, -^detsiu, -\-deteo, -tdeitsiu. 

DYSON, adj. Without noise, silent, quiet. Adam, ystyn 
dhym dhe dhorn ; tan henna dheworthef vy, dyson hep 
whethe dhe gorn, dysempys givra y dhybry, Adam, reach 
me thy hand ; take that from me, quietly -without 
blowing thy horn, eat it immediately. O.M. 207. Dyswe 
dhym n&p reson a'th tyskes omma, dyson, may hyllyn 
gynes dysky, shew to me some reason of thy teaching 
here, quietly, that we may teach with thee. P.O. 1249. 
Comp. of dy, neg., and son, a soupd. W. diswn, dison. 

DYSPLEVYAS, v. a. To display. Geseuch y dhe dhys- 
plevyas, heilyouch an mychtern bras a dhysempys, leave 
them to display, and salute the great king immediately. 
P.C. 2832. This must be borrowed from the English. 
We have another form in dyspleytye. Ow arluth ker, 
Lucifer, dyspleytys yw y vaner, ha kelmys worth an grows 
pren, my dear lord Lucifer, displayed is his banner, and 
bound to the cross tree. P.C. 3044. Ganso crows worth 
y baner wharre ef a dhyspleytyas, with him a cross on his 
banner soon ho displayed. R.D. 628. 

DYSPRENE, v. a. To redeem. A's drens dhe Jerusalem, 
9 yftdh map yn Belhlem genys a dhyspreen an bys, let 
him take them to Jerusalem, for there will be a son, 
in Betlilehem born (that) will redeem the world. O.M. 
1935. Qw Arluth Cryst,dr'y vercy, a wruk ow dysprenne 
vy mes a yfarn yn teffry gans y k</ c ha'y w6s keffrys, my 
Lord Christ, by his mercy, did redeem me out of hell, 
really with his flesh and his' l>lbod also. .R.D. 216. 
Comp. of dys, id. qd. das, prefix iter., andjorena, to buy. 
Written also dasprenna. W. dadbrynu. Arm. dasprena. 

BYSPRYNNYAS, s. m. A redeemer. Ha venytha me a 
gryg dhe vos a werches genys, Mai Dew agan dyspryn- 
nyas, and hereafter I will believe that thou art of a vir- 
gin born, Son of God, our Redeemer. P.C. 404. Del 6s 
formyas dhe'n nef ha' n lur, ha dysprynnyas dhynny pup 
ur, Cryst. ow sylwyas, clew mar a'th dur, dhys daryvas d e 1 
garsen mur, as thou art Creator of heaven and eart n; 
and a Redeemer to us always, Christ my Saviour, hea r 



if it concerns thee, disclose to thee as I would much 
desire. R.D. 844. 

DYSPYTYE, v. a. To spite, to insult, to worry. Ha why 
yn wedh cowethe, pup ur gwreuch y dhyspytye, ha dajfole 
fast an gwas, and do ye also, comrades, continually 
worry him, and rnock the fellow much. P.O. 1397. 

DYSPYTH, s. m. Spite, despite, insult. Colon den a yll 
crakye a vynna presl predery an peynys bras a'n geve 
ha'n despyth, heb y dylly, the heart of man may break, 
that will but consider the great pains he had, and the 
spite, without deserving them. M.C. 139. Fr. depit, 
\-despit. Lat. despedus. 

DYSQUEDHAS, v. a. To uncover, to open, to make 
known, to declare, to shew. 2 pers. s. imp. dysque. Ha 
tus vyan, ha tusvrds, ny wruk Dew dhym dysquedhas, vyth 
ny'n cresons ef neffre, and people small, and people 
great (will say,) God has not declared to me ; they will 
never believe it. O.M. 1439. Beneges re bo an Tds, a 
vynnas dysquedhes dhyn gwelynny a gemmys rus, blessed 
be the Father, who would shew to us rods of so much 
grace. O.M. 1746. Dysque dhym a'd kerense, shew me 
of thy love. O.M. 2106. Lavar lemyn pan dr6k vo yn 
a-ver-tu a dhysquydhysta dhynny, tell me now, what evil 
is there on any side, that thou shewest to us. P.C. 339. 
Dysque dhodho kerenge, shew thou love to him. P.C. 3229. 
Pyw a dhysquedhas dhynod ha v6s noth, who has disco- 
vered to thee that thou art naked. C.W. 64. Mer a 
rds dhe why, Eal Dew, ow tysquedhw dhym pup tra, much 
thanks to you, Angel of God, in shewing to me every 
thing. C.W. 136. This word is variously written das- 
citdhe, dyscudhe, disquedha, dyswedha. Comp. of das, or 
dys, neg. prefix, and cudhe, to cover. W. dadgudhio. 

DYSQUYDHYANS, s. m. A declaration, a shewing, a 
discovering. Hen yw dydh a bowesva dhe pup den a vo 
syltvys, yn dysquydnyens a henna ny a bowes desempys, 
this is a day of rest to every man that may be saved, 
in declaration of that we will rest forthwith. O.M. 147. 
Yn gwyrdcr, an thyr gwelen yw dysquydhyans ha token 
an try person yn drynsys, in truth, the three rods are 
a declaration and token of the three persons in the 
Trinity. O.M. 1733. Dysquedhyens war lyrch anken 
bedhe migtern yn dewedh, a shewing after sorrow that he 
was a king at last. M.C. 236. 

DYSTOUCH, adv. Immediately, directly, very soon. Ny 
a yll yn nos haneth fest dystouch bonus kellys, we may 
this night very soon be lost. M.C. 239. Mar codhfo an 
casadow, dystouch y fyen ledhys, if the villain knew^ i m . 
mediately I should be killed. O.M. 2120. R{j s yy, 
dymmo lafurye dhe un vatel yredy, saw dysioch hy a vijdh 
due, need is to me to labour at a battle surely, but very 
soon it will be ended. O.M. 2178. A dystouch mar ty 
a dheg a neyl pen dhe do ur Cedron, if immediately thou 
wilt carry one end t the water of Cedron. O.M. 2814. 
My a vyn mos til^mmapur dhystouch dh'y, I will go hence 
very directly to him. R.D. 1239. Rum leaute, dun a 
dhystouch, by my truth, let us come immediately. R.D. 
1243 



, v. a. To destroy, to ruin, to overthrow. 
Mar mynnyih hy dystmvy, orden dhe' Ik lus hy hnoukye 
gans meyn, if thou wilt put her to death, order thy 
people to beat her with stones. O.M. 2675. Pan wreta 
mar coynt fara, ow Scollye agan gwara, ha'nfer orth y 
tystrywy, when tliou actest so rudely, scattering our 



DYSWUL 



127 



DYVOTTER 



wares, and destroying the fair. P.O. 342. Levereitch 
dhym paham cheyson a's bues why erbyn Ihesu hazard, 
pan vynnouch y dhystreivy, tell me what accusation have 
ye against Jesus of Nazareth, when ye wish to destroy 
him. P.O. 1972. Dredho yfue dystrewys, by him it was 
destroyed. P.O. 2413. Hag a codhfons yredy, ny iwussens 
ow dystrewy, and if they knew truly, they would not de- 
stroy me. P.O. 2777. W. dyslrywio. Both from the 
Latin destruo. 

DYSWEDHY, v. a. To uncover, to open, to discover, to 
shew. 2 pers. s. imp., and 3 pers. s. fut. dysive, an 
abbreviation of dyswedh. Ihesus Crist mur gerense dhe 
vdb den a dhysieedhas, Jesus Clirist much love to man 
shewed. M.C. 5. Hag ef a dhyswe dhywhy un skyber 
efan yn scon, and he will shew to you a large room soon. 
P.O. 637. Deuch gynef, me a dhyswe chy dh'agas mester 
wharre, come ye with me, I will shew (you) a house 
for your master presently. P.O. 673. Ha why Annas, 
ow defker, dyswedhouch bos pryns somper rdk dyswyl an 
Crislenyon, and you, Annas, my dear captain, shew 
yourself to be a prince without equal to destroy the 
Christians. P.O. 978. Pan sefsys hydhew myttyn, yach 
ens aga ie.yw ; dyswedh y a dhan dhe glok, when thou 
gottest up to day in the morning, sound were their 
sinews ; shew them from under thy cloak. P.O. 2682. 
Dyeskyn a n vynk dhe'n lur, ha dyswe ran a'th veystry, 
descend from the post to the ground, and shew a por- 
tion of thy power. P.O. 2869. Dysife dhynny Nycho- 
dem, ha Joseph Baramathya, ha ny a dhyswe yn wedh an 
corf a sytseuch yn bedh yw Ihesu map Maria, shew thou to 
us Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathsea, and we will 
shew also the body you put in the tomb, is Jesus, the 
son of Mary. R.D. 626. Another form of dysqwedhas. 

DYSWREY, v. a. To undo, to spoil, to destroy. Mar 
aura, godhvedhys marpi/dh, yn scon dyswreys ef a vfldh, 
ha dhe'n mernans cot gorrys, if he does, if it be disco- 
vered, soon destroyed he shall be, and to death quickly 
put. O.M. 1521. Ty re dhyswrug eredy hevelep dhom 
face vy, thou hast destroyed verily the likeness to 
my face. O.M. 2336. Ke gorhemmyn dhe'n cyte, may 
ieffons omma wharre, war beyn aga bos dyswrys, go com- 
mand the city, that they come here soon, on pain 
of their being destroyed. O.M. 2409. Ef re dhyswrug 
an marhas, he has destroyed the market. P.C. 376. An 
temple ef a dhyswra, yn Irydydh ef a'n drecha gwell ages 
kyns, the temple he will destroy, in three days he will 
restore it better than before. P.O. 1696. Comp. of dys, 
neg. prefix, and ffwrcy, to do. W. dadwneud. 

DYSWRUTHYL, v. a. To undo, to spoil, to destroy. Da 
vye kyns dos Sabout dyswruthyl an fals profits, it would 
be good before Sabbath comes, to destroy the false 
prophet. P.C. 562. Comp. of dys, neg. prefix, and 
gruthyl, to do. 

DYSWUL, v. a. To undo, to spoil, to destroy. Me a 
grys. bones an gwas ow kul maystri bras, dyswel anfer efa 
vyn, I believe that the fellow is making great violence, 
he will destroy the fair. P.C. 360. Dyswedhouch bos 
pryns somper rdk dyswyl an Cristenyon, shew yourself 
to be a prince without equal to destroy the Christians. 
P.C. 979. Rag y fynner, mara kyller, gans paynys mer 
oto dyswul gtan, for it is wished, if it could be, with 
great sorrows to destroy me quite. P.C. 2602. Hen yw 
gwyr, efa galsi pup tra y dhyswul arte, may ys nafe, this 



is true, he might have destroyed every thing again, more 
than it was. R.D. 978. Comp. of dys, neg. prefix, and 
gill, to do. 

DYSWYTHYL, v. a. To undo, to spoil, to destroy. Me 
a dhodho yn lowen, del yw e ow syre da, rdk dyswythyl an 
bylen, mar kews erbyn a laha, I will go to him joyfully, 
as he is my good sire, to dispatch the villain, if he 
speaks against the law. P.C. 571. Comp. of dys, neg. 
prefix, and guthyl, to do. 

DYSYMPYS, adj. Sudden, immediate. Omma ny wrench 
why tryge, euch yn mes a dhysympys ; why a gey I of 
lowene, a rys dhyuch yn paradhys, here ye will not re- 
main, go out immediately ; ye will lose my joy, which 
I gave to you in Paradise. O.M. 318. Dun ganso a 
dysympys, ha poynyn gans mur a grys, ha yn dour goryn 
anpren, let us come with it immediately, and let us run 
with great strength, and into the water let us put the 
tree. O.M. 2788. This word is variously written des- 
empys, desympys, dysempys. W. disymmwth. 

DYTHGTHTYA, v. a. To prepare, to provide, to fashion, 
to dispose. Rag henna dhe b6b dythgthtya fordh a rug dhe 
v6s sylwys, therefore for every one he provided a way 
to be saved. M.C. 7. Crist a settyas yn tyen an scovern 
arte dhe dre, hag a'n dylhgthtyas pur lowen maga tek del 
rei^e,Christ fastened whole the ear again close home, and 
fastened it very gladly as fair as it had been. M.C. 71. 
Yntrethe avel tus fol garlont spern a ve dylhgthtys, among 
them, like foolish men, a garland of thorns was framed. 
M.C. 133. Nag onon ef ny asas heb ure a'y esely, yn 
delma ef a'n dythgtyas may eyn o y wely, not one he left 
without anointing of his limbs, in this manner he dis- 
posed him that healthy was his bed. M.C. 235. Another 
form of dychlye, qd. v. 

DYTHYWYS, part. Promised. See Didhywy. 

DYUCH, pron. prep. To ye. (Do-chui.) Ha rag why 
dhum kerune, my a re dhyuch Bosvene, Losluthyel, ha 
Lanerchy, and because ye have crowned me, I will give 
you Bosvene, Lostwithiel, and Lanerchy. O.M. 2399. 
A abesle.leth dhyuch ores, apostles, peace unto you. 
R.D. 1633. This word is variously written deych, and 
deuch, qd. v. Dyuwhy is an enlarged form. Arluth 
whek, yma ow conys dhyuwhy chyf gwythoryon ol an 
gwlds a wodher dhe dysmegy, sweet lord, there are work- 
ing for you, all the chief workmen of the land that can 
be mentioned. O.M. 2330. 

DYVERE, v. a. To drop, to trickle, to shed. Mar tue 
moy nys teuyih man, rag nown y wrons clamdere, yn ur-na 
rag pur dhwan daggrow tyn gwrdf dyvere, if more come, 
it will not be enough, for hunger they will faint, at that 
time, for very sorrow, bitter tears I shall shed. O.M. 
402. Written also devery, qd. v. W. dyveru. Comp. 
of dy, prefix intens., and meru, to drop. Arm. divera. 

DYVEAS, adj. Abroad, outside. J Dho towla dyveas, to 
throw out. Llwyd, 51. Comp. of dy, to, and meas, 
id. qd. mes, a field. 

DYVETH, adj. Shameless. See Diveth. 

DYVEYTH, s. m. A wilderness. Ke dheves, omscvmunys, 
dhe dhyteylh vtth yn tewolgow, go thou away, accursed, 
to a wilderness ever into darkness. M.C. 17. Another 
form of difeid, qd. v. 

DYVOTTER, v. pass. Is become. Ny wodhen rag pon- 
votter, py'th een yn gweel py yn cos ; ow holon gwdk 
dyvotter, rum lymmer hag awel b6s, I know not from 



DYWHANS 



128 



DYWORTO 



trouble whether we shall go into a field or wood ; my 
heart is become empty and a desire of food has seized 
me. O.M. 365. This is a very doubtful word, and I can 
suggest nothing better than making it a passive imper- 
sonal from W. dyvod, to come. 

DYVYTHYS, part. Come, arrived. Rag dhe vones dyvythys 
yn hanow Dew bynygys, me a grijs dhe v6s de.ffry, for that 
thou art come in the name of the blessed God, I believe 
thou art really. P.C. 280. Map Dew 6s, ha denyn weydh, 
yn y hanow dyvythys, Son of God thou art, and man like- 
wise, in his name come. P.C. 426. Written also rfevedhys, 
qd. v. It must be formed from "W. dyvod, to come. 

DYW, s. m. God. Bytegynx reys yw crygy Ihesu Cryst 
dhe dhasse.rchy, del yw giojjr Dhyw, nevertheless need is 
to believe that Jesus Christ has risen again, as he is 
true God. R.D. 1018. More frequently written Du, 
and Dew, qd. v. 

DYW, s. f. Two, a pair, a couple. Otte pynsor daparys; 
me as ten a dhysempys, an dhyin yn mes ay dhyivle, hag 
ay dhevj tr6s kekyjjrys, behold a good pincer ready ; 1 
will draw them immediately, the two out of his hands, 
and from his feet also. P.C. 3153. It refers to the 
nails in the preceding sentence, kenter being feminine. 
So Welsh dwy, y dhwy. 

DYW, adj. Two. Used with substantives feminine, as 
drtv is with masculines. Oily pdbel ym6ns y orthy sywe 
pup huny, ha'n m6r a pup tu dhedhi- ow sevel avel dyw 
fos, all his people, they are following him every one ; 
and the sea on every side to them standing like two 
walls. O.M. 1690. Pie gefyr dyw grows arall rak an 
dew ladar, levereuch dhym, cowelhe, where shall be foimd 
two other crosses for the two thieves t tell me, comrades. 
P.C. 2576. Ha why kelmoch an dew gam yn dyw crows 
kyns b6s pri/s b6s, and bind ye the two rogues on two 
crosses, before it is time for food. P.C. 27S4. AVritten 
in the Cornish Vocabulary, dui, qd. v. W. dwy, -\-dui. 
Arm. diou. Sansc. dwe. 

DYWEDH, s. m. An end, or termination. See Diwedh, 
and its derivatives. 

DYWEN, s. m. The gills. Wely met harlot iovdyn, ty a 

fydh loxsesow tyn war an dywen, well met, obstinate 

knave, thou shalt have sharp blows on the gills. P.C. 

13G8. Comp. of dyw, two, and gen, chin. Written also 

dewen. W. dwyen. Arm. diu guen. 

D Y WEN YS, part. Descending. Ha war woles, pan vyrys, 
my a welas hy gwrydhyow b$s yn yffarn dywenys yn 
mysk mur a tewolgow, and at the bottom, when I looked, 
I' saw its roots even to hell descending, in the midst of 
great darkness. O.M. 784. If not formed from dyscynys, 
it may be derived from down, deep. 

DYWBS, s. f. Drink. See Diwes. 

DYWETH, s. m. An end. Rak an porthow hep dyweth a 
vydh ygerys yn wedh may'lh ello dbervedh an mychlern a 
iowene, for the everlasting gates shall be opened also, 
that may enter in the king of joy. R.D. 101. See 
Diwedh. 

DYWETHA, adj. Last, utmost. Llwyd, 175. Written 
also diwedha. W. diwedhav, diwaelha. Arm. diveza. 

DYWETHAS, adv. Late. Llwyd, 149. W. diwedhar. 
Arm. divezad. 

DYWHANS, adv. Eagerly, quickly, fast. A rac dywhans 
ow kerdhes, forth quickly walking. O.M. 1684. Gweres 
dywhans, my a'd pys, ow fysadow dres pvp tra, help 



quickly, I pray thee, my prayers above everj thing. 
O.M. 1829. Judas ny g6sk un banne. lyntmyn dywans 
fystyne dhum ry dhe'n fals Yedhewon, Judas does not 
sleep a bit, but quickly hastens to give me to the false 
Jews. P.C. 1079. Fystyn dywhans gonx en ger a dhes- 
empys, hasten thou swiftly with the word immediately. 
P.O. 1642. Written also dewhans, and duwhans. Comp. 
of dy, prefix intens., and whans, a desire, eagerness. 
W. aqchwa.nl. 

DYW HY, pron. prep. To you. (Do-chuy.) Del levaraf 
vy dhywhy, ?f a emblodh ragon ny, as I say to you, he 
will fight for us. O.M. 1660. Rag mu querthe Crist 
dhywhy, me re bfches marihys mur, for selling Christ to 
you, I have sinned wondrous greatly. P.C. 1517. Me 
a lever dhywhy why, ol warbarth d6n dusluny bos Cryst 
a'n bedh dasnerchyo, 1 say to you, all together to bear 
witness that Christ is risen from the tomb. R.D. 1225. 
Written also dywy. Perthcvch c6f ol an tokyn a leverys 
kyns lemyn dhywy why, a guwelht, bear ye all remem- 
brance of the token, which I told before now to you, 
companions. P.C. 1083. 

DYWHYNY, v. n. To shine. An eledh omina yw gwyn, 
anel an haul pan dhywhyn, yn ken lyw ny's gwylys whcth, 
the angels here are white, like the sun when it shines ; 
in other form I have not seen them. R.D. 2533. W. 
dyvynu, fromdy, intons. prefiT, and gwyn, white, bright. 

DYWLE, s. f. The two hands, the hands. Un profus 
bynyges yn grows, ha dhyw vrech a les, squerdys y treys 
ha'y dfiywlf, a blessed prophet on a cross, and his two 
arms extended, torn his feet and hands. R.D. 1266. 
Doro dhe luef yn woly, gwynys may fuef dre an golon ; 
hug yn freys hag yn dhywlt, put thy hand into the wound 
where I was pierced through the heart ; and in my feet 
and hands. R.D. 1542. Y foe ow manegow plat, sjtygys 
bras dre ov> dywle, and my smooth gloves were great 
spikes through my hands. R.D. 2590. This is an ab- 
breviated form of dywlef. 

DYWLEF, s. f. The two hands, the hands. Written also 
dyii'lutf. A las ivhek ol caradmv, ow dywluef colm ha'm 
garrou; sweet father, all beloved, bind my hands, and 
my legs. O.M. 1346. Yn prert crows bedhens gorrys, ha 
treys ha dywlef kelmys, ha gwenys dre an golon, on the 
cross tree let him be put, and feet and hands bound, 
and pierced through the heart. P.C. 2375. Treys ha 
dywlef a pup tu fast tackyesgans kentrow hern, feet and 
hands fast fixed with iron nails. P.C. 2937. Another 
form of duilof, qd. v. W. dwylaw, \duilof. 

DYWOLOW, s. m. Devils, fiends. One of the plurals of 
diawl, qd. v. Dyvmlow yfarn a squerdyas corf Judas ol 
dhe dharnow, the devils of hell tore the body of Jesus 
all to pieces. M.C. 106. My a grys yfjjdh agan entfow 
dre levarow Dew mygys, hafethys an dywolow, I believe 
that our souls shall be fed by the words of God, and 
the devils overcome. P.C. 77. 

DYWORTO, pron. prep. From him, or it. (Dyworth-o.) 
Dyworto ma'm boma grds, m6s dhe blanse my a vyn en 
gweel gans reonte rras, from him if have grace, I will 
go to plant the rods with great care. O.M. 2077. Lem- 
man lurch nep a'n geffo, gorrens y scryp dyworlo, now 
he who has a staff, let him put his scrip from him. 
P.C. 920. Arluth why a herch d/wdho, an queth dysky 
dhyii'orio, hep na may ger, Lord, do you command him, 
to take the cloth from him without any further word. 



DYWVRECH 



129 



DZHEDH 



R.D. 1948. W. odhiwrtho Arm. dioutaf. Ir. uadh, 
twarf, food, uadhasan. Manx, veihsytt. 

DYWORTY. pron. prep. From her, or it. (Dyworth-hy.) 
Fenten bryqhtavel arhans, hapedyr slreyth vrds defry ow 
resek a dyivorly, worte myres may'th o whans, a fountain 
bright like silver, and four great streams indeed flowing 
from it, that there was a desire to look at them. O.M. 
773. W. odhiwrthi. Arm. diouty. Tr. uaithe, uaithi. 

DYWORTH, prep. From by, from. (Dy-worth.) Gviyn 

Zn beys, ow fryes, bos granntyes dhynny cummyes 
^ >ort an fas Dew gwella, dhe bales, ha dhe wonyy 
happy our lot, my husband, that there is leave granted 
to us from the best Father, God, to dig, and to cultivate. 
O.M. 413. An gwel a ras dhyworth an lur gwraf dhe 
drehy, the rods of grace from the ground I will cut. 
O.M. 1987. Gallos warnaf ny fyes, na fe y vfis granlys 
days dyivorth uhella Arloth, power over me there would 
not be, were it not that it was granted from the most 
high Lord. P.O. 2189. Written also dewarth, qd. v. W. 
odhiwrlh. Arm. -^diouz. Ir. ua. Gael. ua. Manx, veih. 

DYWORTHE, pron. prep. From them. (Dyworth-y.) 
Gwelynny a gymmys rds ; dhyworthe nui 'gan bo grds, 
aga malye me a vyn yn cendel hag yn owlyn, rods of so 
much grace ; from them that ours may be the grace, I 
will wrap them in fine linen, and in silk. O.M. 1749. 
W. odhiwrthynt, ^ywrthynt. Ir. ttatha, -\-uaidib. 

DYWORTHYF, pron. prep. From me. (Dyworlh-my.) 
Mar calle bos yn della, gorri an keth mernans-ma dhy- 
worlhyf, na vfff ledhys, if it can be so, put this same 
death from me, that I be not slain. P.O. 1036. Fystyn 
dywhans gans en ger a dhesempys, ho, rewardys ty a vydh 
a dhyworthyf vy, rum fydh, kyns pen v$s, hasten swiftly 
with the word immediately ; and rewarded thou shalt 
be, on my faith, before the end of a month. P.O. 1645. 
Written also dyworthef. Yma ow try's ka'm dule dhy- 
worthefow teghne, my feet and hands are loosening from 
me. P.O. 1217. W. odhiwrthyv. Ir. uaim, -\itaimsc. 

DYWORTHYN, pron. prep. From us. (Dywortk-ny.) 
Mar a mynne amendye, gwell vye y dhylyfrye hep drocoletk 
dhyworihyn, if he would amend, it would be better to 
liberate him without ill deed from us. P.O. 1864. 
Arluth her, fattel vijdh dyn, mars eth ar>6 dhyworthyn ? 
dear Lord, how will it be to us, if thou wilt go again 
from us ? R.D. 2362. W. odhiwrthym. Ir. uainn, -^huanni, 
tuain, ^uanni. 

DYWORTHYS, pron. prep. From thee. (Dyivorth-ty.) 
Godhfos gwyr olyredy, my a vyn mos dhywormys, know- 
ing the truth all plainly, I will go from thee. O.M. 822. 
My a's pren dhyworihys, otte an mone parys dhyso dhe 
pe, I will buy it from thee ; see the money ready to pay 
thee. P.O. 1555. W. odhiwrthyt. Ir. uait, -\-uaiteiu. 

DYWSCODH, s. f. The two shoulders, the shoulders. 
Sytteuch gystys worth an yet, agas dywscodk Icetttp chet, 
hertheuch worty hy yn wedh, put beams against the gate, 
your shoulders, every fellow, thrust ye against it also. 
P.O. 3068. See Dyw, and Scodh. 

DYWVRECH, s. f. The two arms, the arms. Kref yw 
gwrydhyow an spedhes, may 'thyw ow dywvrech terrys 
worte menouch yn quelhe, strong are the roots of the 
briars, that my arms are broken, working much at them. 
O.M. 688. Kynfe dhe dhytmrech mar bras, my a's kylm 
tvarbarth avel lader pur, though thy arms be so large, I 
will bind them together like a very thief. P.C. 1189. 



Drou e yntre ow dywvrech, bring him into my arm s 
P.C. 3159. W. dicyiraicJi. 

DYWY, v. a. To kindle, to set on fire, to burn. Written 
also dewy. Yma marlh dhym a w dra, an pyth lemmyn 
a wela ; an bosnos dywy a wra, sou- nynsugy mo lesky, 
there is to me a wonder of one thing, "what I now see ; 
the bush is on fire, but is riot burning. O.M. 1397. Otte 
an tan ow tewy, behold the fire burning. P.C. 693. 
Cowethe hedheuch cunys, ha me a whijth gans mur greys, 
may tewe an tan viharre, comrades, fetch firewood, and I 
will blow with much force, that the fire may kindle 
soon. P.C. 1221. W. deivw. Arm. devi. Ir. dagh, 
^doigh, doith. Gael, doth, doth. Manx. daah. Sansc. dah. 

DYWY, pron. prep. To ye, (De, dhe to, why, ye.) 
Pertheuch c6f ol tin totyn a leverys kyns lemyn dhywy 
why, a goweihe, bear ye all remembrance of the (token) 
I told before now to you, O companions. P.O. 1083. 
Honna yw y bows nessa, ha wheth greuch y dhry omma 
arte dhywhy, that is his nearest garment, and do you yet 
bring him here again to you. R.D. 1869. 

DYWYDHYS, part. Ended, finished. Yn nefagas enefow 
neffre a tryg hep ponow yn toy na vfjdh dywydhys, in 
heaven your souls ever shall dwell without pains in joy 
(that) shall not be ended. P.C. 9. Ens pop ol war Ivhe 
dre, an gwary yw dywydhys, ha deuch avar avorow, let all 
go towards home, the play is ended ; and come ye early 
to-morrow. P.C. 3238. Aban oma dasserchys, dew hugens 
deydh dywydhys bijdhpan fo n6s, since I am risen, forty 
days ended will be when it is night. R.D. 2437. Part, 
of diwedhe, qd. v. 

DYWYS, v. a. To choose, to select. Part. pass, dywysys. 
Ma 'gas bo Imvyne nef, pan vyrwyf, dh'agas enef, dywysys 
ouch dewdfidc lei, that yours may be the joy of heaven 
when I die, to your souls, ye are chosen faithful twelve. 
P.C. 228. Ny gewsyth, rak ny wodhas Ms grontys dhym 
gallos brds hydhew may hallaf dywys, thou speakest not, 
for th'ou didst not know, that great power is granted to 
me, this day that I may choose. P.C. 2182. Benetsewys, 
syre Longys, synt lovyn whek re'th caro; henna yw pyth 
a dfiywys, a blessing follow thee, Sir Longius, sweet 
saint Jov.e love thee ; that is what I choose. P.C." 3017. 
Written also dewesy, qd. v. 

DYWYSYC, adj. Desirous, earnest, devout. Thomas, na 
vydh dyscrygyk, p^s gans colon dywysykwar Crystan nef, 
Thomas, be not unbelieving ; pray with devout heart on 
Christ of heaven. R.D. 1370. W. dyhewydus. Gwedhiau 
dyhewydus, devout prayers. 

DYWYT H, adv. Twice. Moyses, kemer dhe wekn, ha ty 
ha'th vroder Aren, a rag an debel bobal, qwask gynsy 
dywyth an men, Moses, take thy rod, and thou and thy 
brother Aaron, in presence of the wicked people, strike 
with it twice the stone. O.M. 1844. Aban res an Jr.>,- 
unwyth, ny fynnafy ry dywyth, since I have given the 
judgment once, I will not give it twice. P.O. 2496. 
Comp of dyw, two, and gwyth, a time. W. dwywaiih. 

DZHARN, s. m. A garden, au orchard. Llwyd, 33, 66. 
This is more immediately derived from the .Fr. jardin. 
W. gardh, -^garih., an inclosure, a garden ; whence garth- 
an, a camp ; buarth, a cow-yard ; lluarth, a camp. Arm. 
garz. Ir. gardha, -tgart. Gael, garadh, gard. Manx, 
garey. Or. j^op^os. Lat. horlus. Goth. gard. Slav. grad. 
Bug. yard. Sansc. garhan, fr. garh, to enclose. 

DZHEDII, s. m. A day. This orthography is used by 



E 



130 



EAST 



Llwyd to denote the sound of the word in his time. 
It is a corruption of dedh, qd. v. J Rag an dzhedh> for 
the day, or the whole day. J Rag dout na vedho no, mui 
gytheffiaz dhyu rag an dzhedhma, lest there be no more 
offered to you this day. Llwyd, 250. 

DZHEI, pers. pron. They. J Ena dzhei a varginiaz rag 
trei penz an vledhan guber, so they bargained for three 
pounds the year wages. Llwyd, 247. It is also writ- 
ten by him dzhyi, as An dzhyi a gdnz, they shall have. 
247. It is a late form of y, qd. v. 

DZHIAWL, s. m. A devil. Llwyd, 55. See Jiawl. 

DZHOWLES, s. f. A female fiend, a she devil, a fury, a 
hag. Pryce. A late form of diowles, qd. v. 

DZHYI, v. adv. In, within. Llwyd, 249. An abbreviated 
form of adzhyi, qd. v. 

DZHYRNA, s. m. A day. $Cynifar dzhyrna, day by 
day, daily. Llwyd, 135. %An dzhyrna-maviar seithan, 
this day seven-night. 249. This is derived from the 
Fr. journee, a word still used in the English journey- 
man. The Welsh equivalent diwrnod seems to be deri- 
ved from the Latin diurnus, or diuturnus. 

DH. 

THIS is a secondary letter, and is the soft mutation of d, 
as davas, a sheep ; an dhavas, the sheep. W. davad, y p 
dhavad. C. deanc, dke dheane, to escape. W. diattc, i j 
dhianc. It is written in Arinoric z, and so pronounced 
generally, but the proper sound is still preserved in 
parts of Britanny. Thus C. debry, dhe dhebry, is in i 
Arm. dibri, da zibri. C. detvdhec, and W. deuiheg (dau- \ 
deg,) twelve ; in Arm. daouzelc. The proper sound of I 
dh is preserved in its purity in Welsh, and it is that of 
th, in the English words, this, that, those. The same mu- 
tation obtains in Irish and Gaelic, thus Ir. dadheag ; 
Gael, dadheug, twelve. The orthography is preserved, 
but the sound is corrupted into those of gh, y, ee, no. The 
Manx again write phonetically, whence^ao-^e^, twelve; 
dooinney, a. man ; e ghooinney, his man. All Cornish 
words beginning with dh, as dhe, to ; dhedhy, to her ; 
dhodho, to him, &c., must be sought for under the pri- 
mary initial, as de, dedhy, dodho, $c. The Cornish dh 
is generally written th in the M8S. 

E. 

THIS letter has only two sounds, in Cornish, Welsh, 
Armorio, and Manx the long and .short. When long 
it has the sound of a, in the English words, lane, 
cane; thus 0. den, a man; nev, heaven, were sounded 
as the Eng. words, done, nave. The long e is distin- 
guished in this work by a circumflex. E short, was 
pronounced as in the English words, fen, hen, pen. In 
Cornish, e is constantly confounded with y, as in dedh, 
dydh, a day ; dehoto, dyhmo, the right, <fec. In Welsh 
again, where y is now written, in early manuscripts, e is 
generally found. E is commutable with o, as corn, a 
horn ; cerniat, a horn blower. So also in Welsh, as corn, 
pi. cyrn; cyrniad, -\-cemiat. And in Armoric, as corn, 
pi. cern, cerniel. 

E, an auxiliary particle, used before verbs, in which 
case it ia the same as a, similarly used. Not unfre- 



quently it is joined to the verb, as Dew etvyr for Detv e 
wyr, God knoweth. It is also used alone with a verb, 
when it is the agent performing the action described 
without discrimination of persons, as edal, or e ddl, it 
behoves. 

E, pron. pers. He, him, it. Agis negis pylhyw e ? pu yw 
neb a weleuch wy ? your business, what is it? who is he 
that ye seek ? M.C. 69. Dremas yw ef, leun a rds, neb 
re werthys, yn rnedh e, supremely good he is, full of grace, 
whom I have sold, says he. M.C. 103. 01 warbarth y 
a yluys, te Pylat, Iddh. e, mernajns an grows desympys, 
altogether they cried, thou Pilate kill him, the death of 
the cross immediately. M C. 142. Syr Juslis, Iddhe, Iddh. 
e, yn pren grows qrettch y worre, del yw e gwyw dyougel, 
T5ir Justice, kill him, kill him, on the cross tree do you 
put him, as he is deserving truly. P.O. 2356. Ha com- 
pys mar ny vedh e, ny won pandra leveryn, and if it be 
not straight, I know not what I may say. O.M. 2531. 
Hedh e dhe'n d6r, reach it to the ground. O.M. 2521. 
Written also ef, ev. W. ef, ev, e, tera. Arm. he. Ir. se, 
e, -\-he. Gael, se, e. Manx, eh. Sansc. t, idam, sva. Gr. 
i. Lat. se. 

E, pron. DOSS. His, its. Why givycoryon, ettch yn mes, ylh- 
esouch ow Jcuthyl ges a Dhu, hag e sans eglos, ye traders,. 
go out; ye are making a jest of God, and his holy 
church. P.O. 333. May fydh lorrow benegis bythqueth 
na alias e, dh6n, that the bellies shall be blessed, that 
could not bear it. M.C. 169. J War e Icr, after him. 
Llwyd, 124. iE vredar, his brother. 24?. E rise, its 
bark. $Et e us ceth, in his old age. 244. JE vreh, his 
arm. 250. In the Ordinal ia it is written y, qd. v. W. 
', te, t*. Arm. e. he. Ir. a. Gael. a. Manx, e. 

E, prep. In. E meas, without. Lhvyd, 58. Lit. in the 
field. E is here the same as y, an abbreviation of yn, 
and the more common form is yn mes, qd. v. 

E, v. n. He went, was going. 3 pers. s. imp. of irr. r. 
mos. War aga dewlyn yth e perag Christ re erell, aga 
fen y a sackye, hag a gewsy, pur debell, on their knees 
there went before Christ some others, their head they 
shook, and spake very foully. M.C. 195. Hagy ee dhe 
pen dewlyn, ha hager mowys a wre, and they went on 
their knees, and made ugly mouths. M.C. 196. W. at. 

EAL, s. m. An angel. An eal esa in wedhun, y cowsys 
gyrryow efan, ha me an creys, the angel (that) was in 
the tree, spoke to me plain words, and I believe him. 
C.W. 60. More frequently written el, qd. v. 

EAR, s. m. An hour. Ha pan TO Ay cowl devys, hy a 
vydhpub earparys dha dhon an oyl a vercy, and when 
it is full grown, it will always (every hour) be ready, 
to bear the oil of mercy. C.W. 134. The same as er, qd. v. 

EARTH, adj. High, lofty. It occurs in the names of 
places, as Earth, in St. Stephens, by Saltash ; and Earth, 
on Carminow, in Mawgan. It is "another form of arth, 
or ard, qd. v. 

EAST, s. m. August. Mis East, the month of August. 
$F16 vye gennes en mil Merh, ni trehes c bigel en mis 
East; e a r6s towl dhoproanltr Poivl, mis du ken AWe- 
lik, a child was born in the month of March, we cut his 
navel in the month of August ; and he gave a fall to 
the parson of Paul, "the black month (November) be- 
fore the Nativity. Cornish Riddle. Pryce. W. av:st. 
Arm. eost. Ir. ogost. Fr. aout, -\-aoust. Prom the Lat. 
augustus. 



EBRON 



131 



EDHANOJl 



EATH, card. num. Eight. Eath degves, eighteenth. Pryce. 
W. wyth. Arm. eve. IT. ochl, tocf. Gael. ochl. Manx, 
hocht. Gr. oK7u>. Lat. octo. Sansc. ashtan. In Welsh, 
tityth preceding requires the change of b into m, as ttyfh 
mlynedh, eight years. The same rule obtains in Irish, as i 
ocht m-bliadna, the b being mute. 

BATH AS, adj. Eighth. Pryce. Written by Llwyd, 105, 
ethos. W. wythved. Arm. eixved. IT. ochtmhadh. Gael. ! 
ochdamh. Manx, hochtoo. 

EBARN.' 8. m. The sky, the firmament. \lta- Devr turds 
an elbarn, ha dheberhm: an dowrow era en dadn an 
ebbam, dhort an dowrmv era eveh an ebbarn; ha an 
dellna etho, and God made the firmament, and divided 
the waters that were under the firmament, from the 
waters above the firmament ; and it was so. C.W. p. 
189 ; M.C. p. 93. A late form of ebron, qd. v. 

EBBROW, adj. Hebrew. Fleches Ebbrow, dun yn un 
reio, scon hep leitye, erbyn Ihesu, neb yw gtupr Dew, ow 
tos dhe'n dre, Hebrew children, let us come in a row, at 
once, without delaying, to meet Jesus, who is true God, 
coming to the town. P.O. 239. W. evrei. Arm. hebre. 
IT. eab/iradhack. Gael, eabhruidheach, eabhracft. Lat. 
hebrasus. 

EBIL, s. m. A peg, or pin. Yntre dew guren y trehy, rak 
cufus truspren dedhy, hay fastye gans ebyl pren, in two 
let us cut it, for to get a cross piece of wood for it, and 
fasten it with pegs of wood. P.O. 2563. Ydelly scon me 
a u-ra, rak ebyl parys yma, dh'aga fastye dyowgel, I will 
soon bore it, for there are pegs ready, to fasten them 
truly. P.O. 2571. Alan yw an pren tellys, bedkens an 
cbyl gorrys dredhe, rag ago lade-, since the wood is bored, 
let the pegs be put through them, to fasten them. P.O. 
2574. W. ebill, \epitl. Arm. cbil. 

EBOL, s. no. A colt, a foal. Corn. Voc. pullus. Written 
in the Ordinalia ebel, and more recently ebal, pi. ebUK. 
Ens dew am dyscyblyon dhe'n castel us a rayon, a dhys- 
enipys, hep letlye ; ena why a gyf asen, hag ebel yn un 
golmen, drew y dhymmo vy wharre, let two of my dis- 
ciples go to the village which is before us, forthwith, 
without delaying ; there ye will find an ass and foal in 
a halter, bring them to me presently. P.O. 177. My a 
gynes yn lowen, hag a dhoro an asen genen, lia'n ebel 
keffrys, I will go with thee gladly, and will bring 
the ass with us, and the foal likewise. P.O. 193. Olte 
an asen ammo, ha'n ebel kelmys yma gynsy, behold 
the ass here, and the foal is tied with her. P.O. 201. 
Pag ythostn dr&k ebal, for thou art a wicked colt. C.W. 
174. Trus ebal, the herb colt's foot. Llwyd, 168. In 
Welsh, earn yr ebol, lit. colt's hoof. W. ebawl, ebol, 
t ebaul, + epatd. Arm. ebeul. The root of W. ebol, is 
fb = Old Irish t ech, id. qd. Lat. equus. IT. peall, feall, 
a horse. Gr. irw\o?. Lat. pullus. Sansc pclin, a horse, 
from pel, to go. 

EBRAL, s. in. April. Mis Ebral, the month of April. 
Llwyd, 43. W. ebrill. Arm. ebrel. Ir. aibrean. Gael, 
t aibreann. From the Latin aprilis. 

EBRON, s. f. The sky, the firmament Yn secund dydh 
yfynna gruthyl ebron, nef hynwys, on the second day I 
will make the sky called heaven. O.M. 18. Ow gwarak 
afyth setlyys yn ban yn creys an ebren na olio bones ter- 
rys, my bow shall be set up in the midst of the sky, that 
it may not be broken. O.M. 1245. Written also ybrrm, 
and ybbern, qd. v., and in Corn. Voc. huibren. W. wybr, 



wybren. Arm. ebr, t coabr, t coalren. (Ir. speir. Gael. 
speur. Manx, speyr.) Sansc. abhra, vdibhra. 

ECHEN, s. f. A tribe, family, kind, sort. iMvar dhymmo, 
ty venen, anfrutple russys tyrry ? marape a'n keth echen, 
o dyfynnys orthyn ny, tell me, thou woman, where didst 
thou break off the fruit? was it of that same sort, (that) 
was forbidden to us ? O.M. 211. Ha mf/r a pup tenewen ; 
aspy yn tapup echen, whythyrpup tra ol byy, and look on 
every side ; examine well every particular ; search out 
every thing diligently. O.M. 747. Kemer dhe wrek ha'th 
flehas, h'aga gwragedh gor ganse ; a. bub echen best yn 
wlas, gor genes dew annedhe, take thou thy wife and thy 
children, and put their wives with them ; of every sort 
of beast in the land, put two of them with thec. O.M. 
977. Lyes torn da yn bys-ma re wrfih dhe vohosugyon ; 
sawye pup echen clefyon a vewh yn beivnans da, many 
a good turn in this world he hath done to the poor ; he 
cured all sorts of sick persons, who lived in good life. 
P.O. 3109. Written also ehen, hechen, hehen, qd. v. W. 
echen, from ach, a stem. 

ECHEN, s. f. Effort, endeavour, rigour. Mar scon dhodho 
del ymmy, kychouch ef yn vryongen, ha dalynnouch mur 
coles, mana allo pertheges yn dyspy/ ol dh'y echen, as soon 
as thou kissest him, catch him in the throat, and hold 
ye very firmly, that he cannot escape in spite of all his 
effort. P.C. 1010. Written also hechen, hehen, qd. v. W. 
egni. Arm. keg, hek. Ir. eigean, ing, + ecne, t tecne, 
^ ailhgne, ^ edqne. Gaeil.eigin. M.&a's., egin, eign, * eignee. 
Sansc. can, to* act. Gr. KOVCIO. Lat. conor. 

ED, prep. In. This is a corruption of en, and is only met 
with in late Cornish. +Gwixgo an genter-ma edeskax vi, 
knock this nail in my shoe. Llwyd, 230. 

EDN, adj. Narrow, slender. Llwyd, 48. This must either 
be a corruption of W. ing ; Arm. enk; Ir. ^ing ; Gael. 
eigin ; or connected with W. edwin, decaying. 

EDN, num. adj. One. A corrupt form of un, qd. v. 
J Edn degvas, eleventh. Pryce. 

EDN AC, card. num. Eleven. A late form of unnek. W. 
unardheg. Arm. unnek. Ir. aon deag. Gael, aon deug. 
Manx, unnanejeig. Gr. evSeica. Lat. itndecim. 

EDN AC, adj. Sole" alone. $En ednaJ:, only. Lluyd, 56. 
A corruption of W. unig, id. 

EDREC, s. m. Repentance, grief, sorrow. PI. edrege. 
Eddrek mur a'n kemeras, rak an ober re wresse ; any 
ben dowlyn y codhas, Arluth gevyans, yn medh e, dall en, 
ny welyn ynfas ow b&s mar veyl ow pevie ; Ihesus dhodho 
a avas, pan welas y edrege, great sorrow seized him, for 
the work he had done ; to his knees he fell, Lord, forgive- 
ness, says he ; blind I was, I saw not well, that I was 
living so vilely ; Jesus forgave him when he saw his 
sorrows. M.C. 220. Codhys 6f yn edrek bras, fallen 1 
am in great sorrow. P.C. 1440. Govyvfjth rak edrege, 
b6s mar hager otv gorfen, woe is me for sorrows, that 
my end is so cruel. P.O. 1629. Yma dhym edrek tyn, 
rak dhe nache gy lemmyn, there is to me sharp repen- 
tance, for denying thee now. R.D. 1155. Peder, gejfyens 
ty afydh, rak dhe eddrek yw pcrfyth, dre'n Spirys Sans, 
Peter, pardon thou shalt have, for thy repentance is per- 
fect; through the Holy Ghost. R.D. 1160. W.ediveir- 
wch. Arm. asrech. Ir. aithreach, -\-aidrech, -\-aithirge. 
Gael, aithreachas. Goth, idreiga. 

EDHANOR, s. in. A fowler. Llwyd, 44. Arm. eznetaer, 
eunetaer. Ir. eanadoir. Gael, eunadair. Ma,nx,eeanleyder. 



EFAN 



132 



EGERY 



EDHEN, s. f. A bird, a fowl. PL edhyn. A out worries, 
drok venen, worto pan vn-ussys cole, rag ef o tebel edhen, 
neb a glevisys ow cane, Oh, out upon thee, wicked woman, 
when thou didst listen to him ; for he was an evil bird, 
whom thou didst hear singing. O.M. 223. Ynpympes 
dydh me a vyn may foformyys dre ow nel bestes, pushes, 
hag edhyn, tjjr ha mor dhe goullenwel, on the fifth day I 
will that be made by my power beasts, fishes, and birds, 
land and sea to fill. O.M. 43. Lemyn hanwafgoydh ha 
yar, a sensaf edhyn hep par dhe vygyens den war an beys, 
now I name goose and hen, (which) I esteem birds with- 
out equal, for food of man on the earth. O.M. 130. A pup 
best kemmyr whare garow ha benotc defry; ol an edhyn 
ow nyge guet copel may kemery, of all beasts take thou 
forthwith a male and a female really ; of all the birds 
flying be oareful that thou take a couple. O.M. 1023. An 
golom glas hy lagns,yn mes'gwra hy delyfre ; lelle edhen, 
ren-ow-thas, leverel ny won pie fe, the dove with blue 
eyes, do thou liberate outside ; a more faithful bird, by 
my father, I cannot say where there is. O.M. 1111. In 
the Cornish Vocabulary, it is written hethen. W. eden, 
pi. ednod ; -\-e1in, -fetm, pi. ^ etinel, ^ cetinet. Arm. ezn, 
evn, ein, eun. Ir. eun, ean, ten. Gael. eun. Manx, eean, 
pi. ein. Sansc. dti. Gr. oiiuvi>*. 

BDHOW, s. m. A Jew. PI. Edhewon. Un Edhow a 
brederys, hag a leverys dhedhe, bonas pren yn doar tewlys 
a us yn haul no, vye ; rag an grows yth o ordnys, ha n 
Edhewon ny wodhye, a Jew bethought, and said to them, 
that there was a piece of wood in the ground cast above 
in the sun that had not been ; for the cross it was or- 
dained, and the Jews knew it not. M.C. 152. Un 
Edhow dhodho ynfreih yn delma a leverys, a Jew to him 
strongly in this manner said. M.C. 239. Ha' n Edhewon 
a gewsys, pandr ew henna dhynny ny, and the Jews said, 
what is that to us. M.C. 10S. Written also Yedhow, 
Yudhow, qd. v. W. ludhew, pi. ludhewon ; t Idhew. 
Arm. Juzeo, Ir. Uil, (for UidhJ Juauighe, -\-Judide. 
Gael. Jttdhach. Manx, Ew. Lat. Judasus. Gr. 'lov Satos 

EF, pron. subs. He, him, it. Neb am gruk vy helm gorty, 
ef a ruk fttjitn dyfen, aval no, wrellen dybbry, he who 
made me and my husband, he did forbid us that we 
should not eat the apple. O.M. 182. Dhynny ny travyth 
ny gref, aban yw y vodh ef y leslcy hep falladow, to us 
there is nothing grievous, since it is his will to burn it 
without fail. O.M. 483. Ytho prag na lenes ef leaf us y 
dhege hep gref, hag aban vyn y tesky, now why not leave 
him to have his tithe, without complaint, and burn it, 
since he will. O.M. 496. Kymmer dhymmo ve kunys, 
gans lovan bedhens strothys, ha war dhe keyn doga ef, 
Uke for me a load of fuel; with rope let it be bound, 
and on thy back carry it. O.M. 1298. Otte omma ve 
kunys, ha fast ef gyntf kelmys, see here a load of fuel, 
and fast it is bound by me. O.M. 1300. Written also 
e, and in Llwyd's time ev. W. ev, e. 

EFAN, adj. Large, plain. Efa dhyswe dhywhy un skyber 
efun yn scon; ywtyteuch dygtye bos ynny lour dh'agan 
soper ragon, he will shew fyou) a large room soon ; take 
ye care to prepare food in it, enough for our supper 
before us. P.O. 63a Deuch gynef, me a dhyswe chy 
dh'agas mester wharre, rak parusy y soper s ejfan, may 
hylpup map Iron, efhag ol y dhyskyblon, cafusy es hep 
danger, come with me, I will shew you a house for 
your master presently, for preparing his supper : large, 



that every son of the breast may, he and his disciples, 
take his ease without delay. P.C. 676. An eal esa 
yn wedhen, y cowsys gyrryow efan, ha me a'n creys, 
the angel (that) was in the tree, spoke to me plain 
words, and I believe him. C.W. 60. Anplanats es a 
wartha, ha'n sler yn wedh maga ta, ow poyntya mons pur 
efan, the planets that are on high, and the stars also as 
well, are pointing all very evidently. C.W. 156. W. 
ehang. 

EPEB, s. m. The loins. Pryce. A doubtful word. 

EFFARN, s. m. Hell. PL ejfarnow. Ow ena ny wonpyth 
a, dha effarn yw y drigva, ena Iregeans gwav, ha hav, 
my soul I know where it shall go, to hell is its dwelling, 
there to inhabit winter and summer. C.W. 122. Dun, 
ny warbarth, a gou-eihe, dha effarnote a lema, dhe'n payns 
a dhewr nefre, let us come together, O comrades, to hell 
from hence, to the pains that shall endure for ever. 
C.W. 150. Written also yffarn, qd. v. 

EFFO, v. a. He may drink. 3 pers. s. subj. of eve. Me 
a'n gor dhodho ; mar ny'n gortaf, an myl dyaul re dorro 
mellow y gyn, vynytha na effo coul, I will take him to 
him ; if I do not take him, may a thousand devils break 
the joints of his back, so that he may never drink broth. 
P.C. 1620. 

EFFREDH, adj. Maimed, disabled, lame. Name effredh 
a'lh p$s, awos an Tds bynygeys, TO dhym ow cerdh dre 
dhe ras, and 1, maimed, pray thee, because of the blessed 
Father, give to me my walking through thy grace. P.C. 
399. Evredhec is another form, qd. v. W. evrydh. 

EFFYE, v. a. To flee, to escape, to flee away. Pryce. 
From the Latin effugio; in the same manner asfye, the 
more common form, is from La.t.fugiv. 

EFIN, s. m. June. Llwyd, 33. Mis Effn, the month of 
June. This may be derived from Lat. Junius, though 
the Welsh equivalent may be formed from hewn, estival, 
from hdv, summer. W. mehevin. Arm. mezeven. Ir. 
mi meodhain. Gael, mios meadhoin. 

EGE, v. subs. He was. 3 pers. s. imperf. of bos. A wyl- 
sta ken yn tor-ma ys del ege agensow? dost thou see more 
now than as it was just now J O.M. 796. Pechadores 
es hep gow; an brassa ege yn pow gans pup nl tyo gylwys, 
a sinner thou art without a lie ; the greatest that was 
in the country by every body thou wast called. K.D. 
1095. This is a corruption of ese, qd. v., by the sub- 
stitution of g soft 

EGEN, v. subs. I was. 1 pers. s. imp. of b6s. Arluth, ow 
tevos a Spayn, yih egen yn ores Almayn, orih un prys-ly, 
yn pur-wyr, pan fuf gylwys, Lord, coming from Spain, I 
was in the midst of Germany, at a breakfast meal, very 
truly, when I was called. R.D. 2148. A corruption of 
esen, qd. v. 

EGERY, v. subs. To open; Dhys yth archaf, a dyreyth, 
gas Adam dhe'th egery, I command thee, O earth, allow 
Adam to open thee. O.M. 382. Syr arluth ker, cuf 
colon, egerys yw an pry son, Sir, dear lord, loving heart, 
opened is the prison. P.C. 1878. Ha'n bedhow owth 
egery, me a'n gwel, war ow ene, and the graves opening, 
1 see them, on my soul. P.C. 2999. Scon egereuch an 
porthow,py mar ny wreuch, y fydh guow, immediately 
open ye the gates, or if ye do -not, there will be woes. 
R.D. 98. A nyns ese ynnon ny agan colon ow lesky,pan 
wruk an bara terry, ha'n scryptor y egyry, Ah, was uot 
within us our heart burning ? when he did break the 



EL 



133 



ELLAS 



bread, and open the Scripture. R.D. 1325. Written 
also ngery. qd. T. The 2 pers. s. imp., and 3 pers. s. fut. 
is generally written uger, and ygor, qd. v. W. egori. 
Ann. egori. 

EGLOS, s. f. A church. Corn. Voc. ecclesia. It is writ- 
ten indiscriminately egles, eglis, fglys; pi. eqlysyotv, eg- 
lusyow. War penakyll y'n goras dyimlell dhe esedhe, a 
vch eglos tek yn wlds an ysedkva ythesa, on a pinnacle he 
put him. hazardous to sit ; above a fair church in the 
country the seat was. M.C. 13. Why gwycwyfm, euch 
yn mes ; ythesouch ow kuthyl ges a Dhu, hag e salts eglos, 
ye traders, go out ; ye are making a jest of God, and 
his holy church. P.O. 333. Pan dyskys yn eglusyow, ny 
wrug den fyth ow sensy, when I taught in the churches, 
no man did seize me. P.O. 1175. W. eglm/s, t eccluis. 
Arm. iliz. Jr. eaglais, +eclais, -^ceclis. Gael, eaglais. 
Manx, agglish. All from Lat. ecclesia. 

EGR, s. m. A daisy. Egr dew, id. Lhvyd, 44. J Egr 
dzhnrn, a garden daisy. Pryce. In Welsh it is called 
llygad y dydh, eye of the day. 

EGRUATH, v. a. To roll, to wallow. Dho egruath. LI. 177. 

EHAL, s. m. An angel. Llwyd, 12. Writ, also cal,qd. v. 

EHAL, s. m. All manner of cattle. Corn. Voc. peats vel 
jumentum. 

EHAZ, s. m. Health. J Ma 'gen ehax nyi dhen, we have 
our health. Llnyd, 242. J Tho ve loan guz givdlaz 
an ehaz dah, I am glad to see you in good health. 
Pryce. A late form of laches, qd. v. 

EH EN, s. f. Kind. sort. Ihesus Christ a leverys, dhe Dhu 
ny goth dhys temptye, yn neb than a servys lemmyn presl 
y honvre, Jesus Christ said, thy God it does not become 
thee to tempt, but in every kind of service to honour 
him. M.C. 16. Ha spycis lean ehen ef a worras yn y 
vedh, and spices many sorts he put in his grave. M.C. 
236. Another form of echen, qd. v. 

EHEN, s. f. Effort. B6st a wrens lyn ha dcvtth, y n giaythens 
worth y ehen, boast they made, great and shameless, that 
they would keep him against his effort. M.C. 242. 
Another form of echen, qd. v. 

EHIDIT, s. m. A lark. Corn. Voc. alauda. Vf.ehedydfi, 
(high-flyer.) Arm. echouedez. 

EHOC, s. m. A salmon. Corn. Voc. isicius vel salmo. 
W. eau-g, eog, t ehaue. Arm. eog, t eatic. Ir. eo, t iach. 
Gael, eo, -ttach. Lat. esox. 

EHUAL, adj. High, lofty. Llwyd,<&. Id. qd. Jiuhel, qd. v. 

El, v. n. Thou shalt go. Llwyd, 247. Ti ei. W. at ei. 

EIL, adj. Second, another. Pryce. It is also used to 
signify one of two. See Eyl. W. ail, + eil. Ir. t ala. 
Gael. eile. Manx, elley. Gr. oXXos. Lat. alius, alter. 

EITAG, num. adj. Eighteen. Llwyd, 105. A corrupt 
form of eythek, feyth, eight, dek, ten.) Eighteen is 
expressed in W. by tri-ar-lymtheg, (3+15,) and deunaw, 
(2x9.) IP A.nnoric, by tri-chotiech, (3x6.) Ir. ocht-deag, 
taocht deae. Gael, ocht-deug. Manx, hoght-jeig. Gr. 
OK7w teal Sexa. Lat. octodecim. 

EITHIN, s. m. Gorse, furze. Corn. Voc. eythinen, ramnus. 
Eithin is a plural aggregate ; and eithmen, a single 
plant. Bagas eithin, a bush of furze. Llwyd, 56. 
Eithinan, id. 240. W. eithin, eithinen. Ir. attin, aileann, 
^aiihinne, t athinne. Manx, aatlin. 

EL, s. m. An angel. PI. eledh. Clewyx an nyl lenewen 
un (I ow talleth cane, I heard on one side an angel be- 
ginning to sing. O.M. 215. My re welesy'mhunrus 



adhyragof el dyblans, I have seen in my dream before 
me a bright angel. O.M. 1955. Rnky uxn-dhye an eledh 
a fue danfenys dhodho, to worship him the angels were 
sent to him. P 0. 3209. Me afyn cafus gynef JceJcejffrys 
eledh ha syns, I will take with me also angels and saints. 
R.D. 190. A eledli splan, with bright angels. Lltvyd, 
249. Written also eal, and eyl. W. el, pi. elod. Arm. 
eal^el. This word has been derived from the Latin 
angelus, but I do not assent to this theory, as I know 
of no instance of ng in a Latin word entirely disappear- 
ing when adopted in Welsh. The Latin words, evan- 
geliurn, angelus, angulvs, unguenlum, are in Welsh, ev- 
engyl, angel, ongyl, ennaint. The ng is also preserved 
in the Ir. aingiot, t aingel. Gael, aingeal. I therefore 
conclude that el is a genuine Celtic term, whence ellyll, 
a demon, goblin, from el, an angel, and hyll, horrid. 
The root is- elu, to proceed, to move on. Ir. aill, t laigh. 
Gael. aill. Bansc. U, lay. Compare also Ang. Sax. ozlf, 
a spirit, with Swedish elf, and Danish etv, (whence 
Elbe,} a river ; and spirit is from blowing, a flowing 
of air. 

ELAR, s. f. A bier. Llwyd, 17, 59. Geler is another 
form, qd. v. W. elawr, elor, gelor. Arm. laowr. Ir. 
eleatrain. 

EL AW, s. f. An elm. Llwyd, 175. W. llwyv, Uwyvan. 
Arm. evlech, uloch. Ir. leamhan, sleamhan, ailm. Gael. 
Iramhan. Manx, llie.uan. Lat. vlmus. 

ELERCH, s. m. A swan. Corn. Voc. olor vel cignua. W. 
alarch, pi. elei/rch. 

ELESCER, s. f. The shank, shin bone. Corn. Voc. elescher, 
tibia. The first syllable is strange, but esker is the W. 
esgair, \esceir, whence Sisillus eaceir hir, Sitsyllt long- 
shanks. Giraldus Itin. Cambr. 2, 2. Arm. esker. Ir. 
eisgir, + aisgeir. Gael, f aisgeir. 

ELESTREN, s. f. A sedc;e, a flag. Corn. Voc. carex. PI. 
elester. Sirail elester, niatta, a mat of sedges. W. elestr, 
pi. elestren, s. Arm. elestr, pi. elesiren, a. Ir. eleostar, 
siolastar, feleastar. Gael, seilisdeir. 

ELGEHT, s. f. The chin. Corn. Voc. mentum. W. elgeth, 
aelgerth. Arm. elget. 

ELIN, s. m. Au angle, an elbow. Corn. Voc. angulus, 
ulna. Bydh war yn ta a'th elyn, y tuche, a ver termyn, 
gans ov< cledhe me a vjra, be well aware of thy elbow, 
touch it in a short time I will with my sword. P.C. 
2310. W. din. Arm. elin, ilin. Ir. uilleann. Gael, uilean. 
Manx, uillin. Gr. tiXeViy. Lat. ulna. Germ, ellen bogen. 
Eng. elbow. 

ELL, v. n. He will be able. $Ne ele ge dibre, he cannot 
eat them. Lltvyd, 244. J N'ell e clewes vyth, he cannot 
hear at all. 249. J Huei el dendel 'gyz bownas ybma, 
yon may earu your living here. 251. Another form of 
yll, qd. v. 

ELLAM, v. n. I am able. %Ello why clapier Kernuak ? 
Me eVam, can you speak Cornish 1 I can. Pryce. Writ- 
ten by Llwyd, 124, ellim. Ni ellim, I cannot. This is 
a lace form of allaf, a mutation of gallaf, 1 pers. s. pres. 
and fat. of gaily, qd. v. 

ELLA, v. n. Went. Bylhqueth.den ny wodhevys payn ella 
dh'y golon nes, never man endured pain that went nearer 
to his heart. M.C. 172. Id. qd. W. elai, 3 pers. s. imp. 
of elu, to go. 

ELLAS, v. n. He went. J Galarowedges yn dan Pontius 
Pilot, gorris war an grows dhe mcrnans, marow, hag yn- 



ELYN 



134 



EMPINION 



dydhys, dhyn tffarn ef a ellas, suffered under Pontius 
Pilate, put' on the cross to death, dead, and buried, be 
went to hell. Pryce. 3 pers. s. pret. of W. elu, to go. 

ELLB, v. n. He might go. Goyl ha gwern dhodho ord- 
nys, may 'th cUc yn ms an wlas, sail and mast (were) 
for him ordained, that he might go out of the country. 
R.D. 2332. Id. qd. W. elai, 3 pers. s. subj. of elu. 

ELLE, v. n. He was able. Bresell creff a ve sordiys, en 
grows pu elli dh'y don ; Are vur slryff y fe juggiys, y's 
deqy Christy honon, a great contention was raised, the 
cross who should bear it ; through much strife it was 
judged that Christ should carry it himself. M.C. 160. 
A mutation of geltt, 3 pers. s. imp. of golly. W. gallai, 
a (Mai. 

ELLEN, v. n. I went. Keys eia dhym kewsel defry arth 
ow gwrek kyns m6s a dr$ ; mars eUen hep cows orty, hy 
holon hy a torse, I must speak really, to my wife before 
going from home ; if I should go without speaking to 
her, her heart would break. O.M. 2173. 1 pers. s. imp. 
of W. eht. 

ELLO, v. n. He may go. Byth nyn geiythfout a ioy, nep 
a yl gwelas dhe fas, pan ello ow corf yn pry, gwyth vy 
rale an iowl, drdk was, never shall he have lack of joy, 
who can see thy face ; when my body goes to the earth, 
preserve me from the devil, evil wight. R.D. 1564. Y 
n dollar dew doll yn grmvs heb ken, may'th ello an kentrow 
Iras drey dhewleff fry's yn pen, they bored two holes in 
the cross, without compassion, so that might pass the 
great nails through his hands up to the head. M.C. 178. 
W. elo, 3 pers. s. subj. of elu. 

ELLOH, v. n. Ye are able. $Hwi elloh, ye can. Llwyd, 
247. Another form of ellouch, a mutation of gellouch. 
2 pers. pi. fut. of golly. W. gallwch, a allwch. 

ELLYS, v. n. I was able. An tryge dedh yw hydhew, 
dhyuiorthyf abnn eth e, whet ny ellys yn nep tu godhfos 
gansofatel fe, the third day is to-day, since he went 
from me, yet I could not on any side know how it was 
with him. R.D. 467. A mutation of gellys, 1 pers. s. 
pret. of golly. W. gallaii, a ollois. 

ELOW, v. a. He will cry. Moyses, me re bechas, hag a 
henna a elow mersy war .Dew agan Tds, may affo an 
pechasow, Moses, I have sinned, and for this I cry mercy 
on God our Father, that he may forgive my sins. O.M. 
1864. A mutation of gelow, 3 pers. s. fut of gelwel. 
W. gettw, a eilw. 

ELS, s. m. A son-in law, a step-son. Corn. Voc.privig- 
nm. Els is probably connected with llys, or lies, in 
the equivalent W. llysval. Arm. lesvab. Ir. Ifasmhac, 
"tlesmac. Gael, leasmhac. Manx, liassvae. 

ELSES, s. f. A danghter-in-law, a step-daughter. Corn. 
Voc. which erroneously interprets it byjlliafter, a step- 
son, as it is evidently the feminine of els. W. llysverch. 
Arm. lesverch. Gael, leaxinghean. Manx, Kavsinneen. 

ELSIH, v. n. Ye were able, tllwi a elsih, ye might. 
Llwyd, 247. A late form of elsich, a mutation of gel- 
sieh, 2 pers. pi. pret. of gaily. W. gallasoch, gtillsoch, 
a allsoch. 

ELSLN, v. n. We were able. Ni a e Isin, we might. Llwyd, 
247. A mutation of gelsin, 1 pers. pi. pret. of gaily. 
W. gallqswn, gdlmvn, <i allswn. 

ELYN, adj. Clean, fair. An mor bras yn cult termyn 
adro dhom tyr a bydh dreys, rag y vxtiia pur elyn orth 
harlulry prest pub preys, the great sea in a short time 



about my earth shall be brought, to keep it very clean 
from corruption at all times. C.W. 8. W. ellain. Ir. 
aluin. Gael, aluinn. Manx, ualin. 

EM, a particle prefixed to verbs, which reflects the action 
on the agent. Thus gwyska, to strike ; emwyska, to 
strike one's self. It chauges the initial into the woft 
sound. It is also written in Cornish om, and ym, qd. v. 
It is also written in Cornish om, and ym, qd. v. In 
Gwasgu,ymwasgu. Arm. em. Ir. \imrn.. Sansc. svayam, 
self. 

EMA, v imp. There is. More generally written yma, 
qd. v. 

EMDHAL, v. a. To strive. Llwyd, 249. Written also 
omdhal. W. ymdhal ; comp. of ym, refl. part., and dal, 
to hold. 

EMBNIN, s. m. Butter. Corn. Voc. butirum; where it is 
also written amenen, qd. v. 

EMES, adv. Abroad, without doors, without. Cornp. of en, 
in, and mes, a field, qd. v. Yn mes, and a mes, are other 
forms. 'Vf.ymaes,ymaith, ^y meiih. Arm. emeaz. Ir. 
a-magh. Gael, mrngh, a-muigh. Manx, cheu-mooie. 

EM ESC, prep. Among; Llwyd, 77. More frequently 
written yn mysk, qd. v. 

EMLADHE, v. a. To kill one's self. Bynyges re by, dhe'n 
harlot pan fynsys ry an hackre mernan* yn beys; rak 
hacre mernans eys emladhe y honan ny gnffe den, me n 
grys, blessed be thou, to the villain when thou wouldest 
give the cruellest death in. the world, for a more cruel 
death than to kill himself, no man may find, I believe. 
R.D. 2073. Comp. of em, refl. part., and ladhe, to kill. 

EMLODH, v. a. To fight, to contend, to wrestle. Del 
levaraf vy dhywhy, ef a cmblodh ragon ny, gesouch dhe 
ves croffolas, as I say to you, he will fight for us ; leave 
off lamentations. O.M. 1661. My re bue,-war ow enf, 
owth emlodh may'th en pur squyth, u.skys no, yllyn ponye-, 
I have been, on my soul, wrestling till I was very tired, 
that I could not run immediately. P.C. 2509. Keys yw 
dhym agy dhe lyst emlodh worth an antecryst, hag ef dhum 
gruthyl marow, need is to me in the lists to fight against 
the antichrist, and he to put me to death. R.D. 224. 
This is compounded from the same roots as emladhe, and 
is written by Llwyd, 249, etn'adh, emlad/ta, as well as 
emlodh, dho "hemlodh. 231. Vi.ymtadh. 

EMPER1Z, s. f. An empress. Corn. Voc. imjnjralruc vel 
Augusta. 

EMPEEUR, s. m. An emperor. Corn. Voc. imperator, 
vel Cesar, vel Augustus. It is written emprow, in O.M. 
2053;. R.D. 1668 ; and emperour, O.M. 2055 ; RJ). 1629. 
Derived from the English. The Welsh form is ymher- 
awdur, -^amherawdwr, from the Latin imperator. Arm. 
impalazr. Ir. impire. 

EMPINION, s. m. The brain. It is variously written 
ympynyon, and in the Cornish Vocabulary, impinion. 
Otte fpern grisyl gyne, ha dreyn lym, ha scharp ynne, a 
grup bys yn empynyon, behold I hav sharp tKorns, and 
prickles keen and sharp in them, ^that) will pierce even 
to the brain. P.C. 2120. Tynnouch ot gans miir a gr$s, 
nnyfo dreyn an guryn cysyn empynnywi dre an ccn, drag 
ye all with much force, that the thorns of the crown 
may be together in the brain, through the skin. P.C. 
2138. Me a's ten gans ol ow nertft, may'th enlre an spiky s 
serth dre an cen yn y grogen, ha fcullye. y ympynnyon, 



EN 



135 



ENE 



I will put it with all my strength, that the stiff spines 
may euter through the skin to his skull, and scatter his 
brains. P.O. 2140. Asso mur tyn wo passyon, pan eih 
dreyn yn empynnyon a pup parlh dre an grogen, Tery 
sharp was my suffering, when the thorns went into the 
brain ou all parts through the skull. R.D. 2557. Em- 
pinnion is a plural form, of which the singular would 
be ernpen, being compounded of en, in, and pen, the 
head. Hence also W. ymenydh, ^emennyd. Arm. cm- 
penn, pi. empennou. IT. inchinn. Gael, eanchainn. Manx, 
inchyn, ennecyn. Of. also Gr. fiy-Ke<pa\os. 

8MSCUMUNY8, participle. Excommunicated, accursed. 
Wkarre an emscumunys yn trok horn a fydh tewlys yn 
tyber yn dour pur down, soon the accursed, in a trunk of 
iron, shall be cast into the Tiber, in water very deep. 
R.l>. 2165. An iowl re'n doqo dh'y plath; en corf em- 
scumunys u-hath ef yw pur wyr, the devil carry him to 
his place ! the body accursed yet it is very truly. R.D. 
2190. An corf yw emscumunys, the body is accursed. 
R.D. 2222. Written also ymscemunys, qd. v. 

EMWYSCA, v. a. To strike one's self. Cans y gottan 
marthys scon yth emuyskys yn golon; hager vernans a 
whylas, with his knife wondrous soon he smote himself 
in the heart; a ruel death he sought. R.D. 2067. 
Comp. of em, red. part., and gwysca, to strike. W. ym- 
wasgu. Ir. umfasgaim. 

EN, a particle used in composition. It gives an intensive 
meaning, as cledhys, endedhys, buried. 

EN, a particle, which placed before an adjective converts 
it into an adverb ; as lowenec, joyful ; en lowenec, joy- 
fully. Gicir, true ; en wir, truly. It is more generally 
written yn, qd. v. W. yn, few.. 

EN, definite article. The. En tebett H a vynnasy demptye", 
the wicked angel would tempt him. M.C. 13. Oil en 
da ha'n drdk kepar, all the good and evil alike. M.C. 24. 
En Tds a nef y'm yylwyr, the Father of heaven I am 
called. O.M. 1. En trege deydh yia hydhew, the third 
day is to-day. R.D. 691. Yn dan en dor, under the 
ground. R.D. 2119. This is another form of an, 
qd. v. 

EN, prep. In. Rag migternas yw en nef, dhe v6s gordhyys 
hy yw gyw, for queen she is in heaven, to be wor- 
shipped She is worthy. M.C. 226. Generally written yn, 
qd. v. W.ynrfen. 

EN, comp. pron. Y eih yn unfystene dhe Pylat, aga Jtutis; 
e'n dyskyens del vye, ha dhodho a leverys, they went in 
haste to Pilate, their Justice; him tttey taught how it 
was, and to him said. M.C. 248. This is more correctly 
written an, qd. v. 

EN, v. subs. I was. 1 pers. s. imp. of b6s. My re 'bue war 
mo ene, mclh emlodh, may'th en pur squylh, I have been on 
my soul wrestling that I was very much tired. P.C. 2509. j 
Ow stont afue crwcg a pren, kyns en mychlern, den, ha 
Dew, my standing was a cross of wood, before I was a 
king, man, and God. R.D. 2580. Dall en, ny ivelyn 
yn fas ow bos mar veyl ou< pewe, I was blind, I saw not 
well that I was living so vile. M.C. 220. 

EN, v. irr. We shall go. 1 pers. pi. rat. of mfo. Nywodhen, 
rag ponvotter, py 'ih en yn gv:eelpyyn cos, we know not, 
for trouble, whether we shall go into the field or wood. 
O.M. 364. Hemma yw tewolgow bras ; fattel en ny war lu 
tre, this is great darkness ; how shall we go towards 



home. P.C. 2991. Yma an dor mv krenne', sevel unwyth 
ny yllyn ; ny wonfaltel en dhe trf, the earth is trem- 
bling, we cannot once stand ; I know not how we shall 
go home. P.C. 2997. Arhttk, pie 'th en akmma, Lord, 
where shall we go from hence. R.D. 2391. W. awn. 

SNA, adv. In that place, there, therein, at that time, 
then. Ena mur a vylyny Pedyr dhe Gryst a, welds, there 
much abuse Peter to Christ saw. M.C. 83. Enn Pylat 
a gewsys yn delma dhe'n Edhewon, then Pilate spake in 
this manner to the Jews. M.C. 141. Me a vyn mos 
dhe'n temple, ha Dew ena-y wordhyi, I will go to the tem- 
ple, and worship God there. O.M. 1260. Abbreviated in- 
to na, it is frequently joined to the substantives, when it 
has the force of the pronoun that ; as yn ur-na, in that 
hour ; an den-na, that mau. En rc-na, those, or more 
literally, those there. It is similarly used in Welsh, as y 
dyn yna, that man ; y rhai yna, those there. See Na. 
W. yna, +ewa, yno. Arm. eno. Ir. ann, -^and. Gael. 
ann, 

ENAG08, adj. Near, nearly, Llwyd, 248. Comp. of 
en, adv. part., and agon, near. W. yn agon. 

ENAP, s. m. The face, countenance. Llwyd, 58, 179. 
J Ha Dew leveras, morro, e ma rez genna ve dha, why 
fceneffra Ittsit an loan haz, leb ex war enap an ol noar, 
ha kenejfra gwedhan, a es an haz an .gwedhan a loan haz, 
dha why ta ra bos rag boos, and God .said, behold, there 
are given by me to yon every herb bearing seed, which 
is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in the 
which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, to . ->u it shall 
be for meat. C.W. p. 192. This is a later foft "f enep, 
qd. v. 

ENAP, prep. Against. Llwyd, 51. Lit. infaciem, = ir. an 
aghatdh. 270. Written also enep. Arm. enep. 

ENBERA, prep. Within, into. Llwyd, 248, 249. 

ENCINEDEL, s. m. A giant. Llwyd, 93, thus reads en- 
chinelhel, Corn. Voc. gigas. Comp. of en, intens. par- 
ticle, and cinedel, id. qd. W. cenedl, a sort, or species ; a 
race, or nation. 

ENCLEDHYES, v.a. To bury, to inter. Josep Baramathia, 
whyla corf mdb Maria dheworth Pylat an iustis ; rdg 
marow yn grows yma, y encledhyes vy6 da, map Dew o 
dhyn daitfenys, Joseph of Arimatlnea, seek the body of 
the son of Mary, from Pilate the magistrate ; for he is 
dead on the cross, it would be good to bury him, the son 
of God that was sent to us. P.C. 3103. Drou e yn- 
tr6 010 dywvrech ; otte cendal gldn a leg, parys rag y en- 
cledhyes, bring ye him into my arms ; behold clean 
linen spread, ready for burying him. P.C. 3161. En- 
dedhys, buried. Lhoyd, 249. Written also andedhyes, 
qd. v. 

EXCOIS, s. m. Frankincense. Corn. Voc. thus. " The 
MS. may be read perhaps entois, from the Latin thus, 
which is tuis in Gaelic; en would be the article." 
Norris's Cornish Drama, ij. 358. 

ENCOISLESTER, s. f. A censer. Corn. Voc. thuribuium. 
Comp. of encois, incense, and tester, a vessel. "With the 
change suggested in cois, we should have toislester, omit- 
ting the article ; very near the old Irish word, i'tusles- 
tar." Norris, ibid. 

ENDHIOWGEL, adv. Certainly. Llwyd, 248. Comp. of 
en, adv. part., and adj. diowgel, qd. v. 

ENE, s. m. The soul. A Dhew, gorwyth am eni, God, 
keep my soul. O.M. 1356. Yn pur wyr, war ow en, 



ENNIS 



136 



ENWETH 



me a vyn ago. sywe, very truly, on my soul, I will follow 
them. O.M. 1629. Me athpys, scryf ow ene, panvyf 
marow, yn dherol, I pray thee write my soul, when I 
am dead, in thy roll. P.O. 421. An abbreviated form 
of enef, qd, v. 

ENEDEREN, s. f. Entrail. Corn. Voc. extern. Zeuss, 
149, furnishes us from the Oxford Glosses with the old 
Welsh word, engued, entrail. Ir. inne, innidhe. Gr. 
eviepov. 

ENEF, s. m. The soul. Corn. Voc. anima. Written by 
Llwyd, 43, enev. PL enefow, enevow. Pan vo tryddydh 
tremenys, ty a d/tascor dhe enef, when three days are 
goue, thou shalt give up thy soul. O.M. 846. Arluth, 
porth c6f yn deydh dywedh am enef vy, Lord bear thou 
remembrance, in the last day of my soul. O.M. 1273. 
Yn nef agas enefow neffre a tryg hep ponow yn toy na 
vydh dywydhys, iu heaven your souls ever shall dwell 
without pains in joy (that) shall not be ended. 1 P.O. 7. 
Dhe vestry a vydh leyhys neffre war an enevow, thy power 
shall be diminished ever over the souls. P.O. 144. A en- 
efow ol warbarth, deuch gynef; ol why a wharth, souls, 
all together, come with me; all ye shall laugh. R.D. 165. 
Christ a besys, mo eneff me a yymyn, Arluth, yntre dhe 
dheivle, Christ prayed, my soul I commend, O Lord, 
into thy hands. M.C. 204. W. en.enydh, enaid, ^eneit. 
Arm. ene, ^enef, p). enow, enevou. Ir. anam, ^anim. 
Gael. anam. Manx, annym. Gr. ctveuot. Lat. animus, 
anima. Sansc. anas, anilas, breath, life, from an, to 
move, to live. 

ENEP, s. m. A face, a countenance, a page of a book. 
Corn. Voc. pagina. Written in Llwyd' s time, enap, 
qd. v. W. gwyneb,wyneb. Arm. enep. 

ENES, s. m. Shrovetide. Llwyd, 48, enez. ~W.ynyd, ^init. 
Arm. ened. Ir. inid. Gael. -inid. Manx, innid. All 
from the Latin imlium, the beginning (of Lent.) 

ENES, s. m. An island. PI. enesow, enesys. Llwyd, 228, 
243. Written also enys, qd. v. 

ENEVAL, s. f. An auimal. PI. enevalles. Cawelhe, dhym 
lavereuch yn scon, prdg yth kembrenkych ow enevalles dhe 
ves, comrades, tell me directly, why are you leading my 
animals away. P.C. 205. W. anival, anivail ; pi. ani- 
veiliaid. Arm. aneval, eneval ; pi. anevaled. From the 
Latin animal. Ir. ainmheach. Gael, ainmhich. 

ENEV ALES, s. f. A female animal, a she beast. Llwyd, 
241. 

ENFUGY, s. m. Mischief. Kyns es d6s a, lena, dha Adam 
ha dha Efa, me a torn neb enfugy, before going hence, 
to Adam, and to Eve, I will do some mischief. C.W. 38. 
Written also anfugy, qd. v. 

ENFUGYC, adj. Mischievous. Pryce. Written also an- 
fugyr, qd. v. 

ENGURBOR, s. m. A patten, or altarplate. Corn. Voc. 
patena. 

ENL1DAN, s. ni. Plantain. Corn. Voc. planiago. (W. 
llyriad, llydan y fordh.) Arm. hedledan, heledan. The 
root is ledan, wide. 

ENNA, adv. There, then. Llwyd, 71. Another form of 
ena, qd. v. 

ENN10U, s. m. A joining, a seam. Corn. Voc. commis- 
sura. Probably connected with W. gwnio, wnio, to sew, 
or stitch ; whence aivniad, a seam. 

ENNIS, s. f. An island. Llwyd, 71. Another form of 
enys, qd. v. 



ENO, adv. There, in that place. Ha nep nan gruk war 
nep tro, yn peynys Irygens eno, hep toy prest may's teffb 
cos, and he who has not done it on any occasion, in 
pains let him dwell there, without joy always that he 
may have anguish. R.D. 159. An carna aygoras, del o 
destnys dhodho ef; eno ny a'n i-ecevas. that rock opened, 
as it was destined for him ; tnere we received him. 
R.D. 2339 W. yito. Arm. eno. 

ENOG08, adv. Near, nigh. Llwyd, 24t. Written also 
f.nagos, qd. v. 

ENRADN, adv. In part, partlv Pryce. This is a late 
corruption of en ran. 

ENS, v s. They are. 3 pers. pi. pres. of Jo*. Welcom 
ens, re'n Arluth Dew, they are welcome by the Lord 
God. P.C. 2353. Yvyrysy wolyow ; aga gwelas o trueth, 
dhe'n bys kyns ens ylyow, I looked on his wounds, to 
see them was a pity ; to the world rather they are 
healings. R.D. 900. Another form of yns, qd. v. 

ENS, v. s. They were. 3 pers. pi. imp. of bos. Gans 
Christ ythu cowelhys, byth nyng ens y cowtthe, with Christ 
he was acquainted, never were they companions. M.C. 
41. Tryuffons. moy qanst, ha pymlhek pur wyr ens y, 
three score more with them, and fifteen very true were 
they. M,C. 227. Yethynunfystene,peswarmarrekyr- 
vys eny, they went in a hurry, four soldiers armed they 
were. M.C 241. Pur gow a lever the vyn ; pan seffsys 
kydheiv myttyn yach ens aga ieyu), a very lie thou wilt 
tell ; when thon gottest up this morning, sound were 
their sinews. P.C. 2631. Yach ens hydhtw, nep hus ef re 
wruk dhodho piir dhywugel, they were sound to day ; 
some jugglery he has done to him very certainly. P.O. 
2694. 

ENS, v. irr. Let them go. 3 pers. pi. imp. of m6s. Av- 
orow deuch a darmyn, hag ens pup Are, to-morrow come 
ye in time, and let all go home. O.M. 2844. Ens deu> 
dm dyscyblyon dhe'n castel us a ragon a dhysempys, hep 
lettye, let two of my disciples go to the village that is 
before us, forthwith without delaying. P.C. 175. Lem- 
myn ens pup war tu tre, now let all go towards home. 
R.D. 2644. W. tint. Arm. aent, eant, e,ynt. 

ENTRE, prep. Between, betwixt. Generally written 
yntre, qd. v. 

ENTREDES, s. m. Swoon, lethargy. Corn. Voc. cauma. 

ENVEN OUCH, adv. Often. Pryce. Properly two words, 
en, adv. part., and venouch, a mutation of menouch, 
frequent. 

ENVOCH, s. m. The face. Corn. Voc. fades. This is 
to be read as two words, en v6ch, en being the article, 
and v6eii, a mutation of bdch, qd. v. 

ENURM A, adv. At this hour, at this time, now. Llwyd, 
249. .Comp. of en, in, and ur-ma, this hour. 

ENWEDEC, adj. Particular, in particular. Pryce, Jn- 
uedzhek. W. enwedig. 

ENWEDH, adv. Also. Llwyd, 249. Generally written 
ynwedh, qd. v. 

ENWEDH AN, s. f. An ash, an ash tree. Llwyd, 17. 
PI. enwydh, or enwydh. W. onwydh. Comp. of on, ash, 
and yioeydh, trees. See Onnen. 

ENWETH, adv. Once. ^.Bedhes gwesgys dhiueth, kengwes- 
kal enueth, rag henna yw an gtvella point a skians oll t 
be twice struck, before striking once, for that is the 
best point of all wit. Llwyd, 251. A late form of un- 
weth, qd. v. 



ER 



137 



ERBYN 



ENY8, s. f. An island. Llwyd, 19. My as re lemyn 
dheuch why, hag ol guerdkowr. an enys hag Arwennek, 
annfdht: qwreuch dheuch chartour, I will give them now to 
you, and all the water courses, the island and Arwin- 
nick, make of them a charter to you. O.M. 2592. This 
word is variously written enes, cnnis, ynes, ym/s, inee. 
W. ynys, hint's. Arm. envz. Ir. inis. Gael. innis, $ ighe, 
+ '. Manx, ellan. Gr- vrjaos. Lat. insula. 

EON, adj. Straight, right, just. Pryce. Generally writ- 
ten (.', qd. v. 

EPSCOP, s. m. A bishop. PI. epscobow, epscobon. Llwyd, 
243. My a vyn lemyn ordne mab-lyen, ow sel pryve, dhe 
vos epacop yn temple, I will now ordain a priest, my 
privy seal, to be bishop in the temple. O.M. 2601. Dhe 
epseop gwraf dhe sacre, kymmer dhe vytour whare, ha 
bydh yn dhe servys len, to a bishop I will consecrate 
thee, take thy mitre forthwith, and be faithful in thy 
service. O.M. 2614. Yn delta, a gasadow, y gorthebyth 
epscobow ? thus, detestable one, repliest thou to bi- 
shops ? P.O. 1266. Dhe bobil hepfalladow, ha'n epscobow 
kekyjj'rys, a'th dr6s b$s dhymmo omma, thy people, with- 
out fail, and the bishops also, have brought thee even 
to me here. P.C. 2005. The form preserved in the 
Cornish Vocab. is escop, and in Llwyd's time, ispak. 
W. esgob, -te-tcop, vulg. esbog, pi. esgobion, ^escip, ^cscyp. 
Arm. escob. Ir. easbog, t epseop. Gael, easbuig. Manx, 
unpick. All from the Lat. episcqpus. 

EPHAJf, s. m. June. Mis ephan, the mouth of June. 
Llwyd, 74. Gor-ephan, July, qd. v. This is another 
form of eftn, qd. v. 

ER, s. m. An eagle. Corn. Voc. aauila. Late plural, 
erieu. Pryce. Lemyn hanwafgoydh ha yar, Ac'.?, payon, 
colom, grugyer, baryo$, bryny, ha'n er, may drcdhof a 
vydh hynwys, now I name goose and hen, duck, peacock, 
pigeon, partridge, kite, crows, and eagle, further by me 
shall be named. O.M. 133. W. eryr. Arm. er, erer. 
Ir. iolar. Gael, iolair. Manx, urley. Goth. ara. Old 
High German, aro. 

ER, s. m. Snow. J Etna a oil err, it snows. Llwyd, 250. 
J Vein kuer, tarednow, hagolowas, er, reu,givenz, tin clehc, 
ha kezer, cold weather, thunders, and lightning, snow, 
frost, wind, and ice, and hail. Pryce. This is a late 
form, the more ancient being irch, qd. v. W. eira, dry. 
Arm. ereh. Ir. crog, oircog, -\-eirr, ^oldhir. Gael, \oidhre. 

ER, s. f. An hour. Why a gfjff bohosogyon pub r war- 
novch ow carme, ye shall have the poor every hour 
on you calling. M.C. 37. Yn er-na dkn mynydhyaw 
tvhy a erch warnouch codhe, in that hour to the moun- 
tains ye shall call on you to fall. M.C. 170. Yn er-na 
y fe dorgis. ha dris ol an fry's ef eth, in that hour there 
was an earthquake, and over all the world it went. 
M.C. 200. This is a various form of r, qd. v. 

ER, adj. Fresh, juicy, full of sap, raw, green. Llwyd, 
136, er. W. tr. Ir. ur. Gael. ur. Manx, oor. 

ER, prep. For, for the sake of, by. Dhe lef Arluth a 
yltwaf, saw dhe face my ny welaf er ow geuiv, thy voice, 
Lord, I hear, but thy face I see not for my woes. O.M. 
589. Dun ganso, er y anj'tts, dhe Pylat agan iustys, let 
us come with him, for his wickedness, to Pilate our Jus- 
tice. P.C. 1501. Ha kekyffi-ys an bronnow nadhenes 
flehesyqgmoi yitiyn aga beys er bones, and also the breasts 
that children have not sucked, happy their fate for 
being. P.C. 2650. Rum fay, lemmyn an cajfen er an 



ascai, y'n loulsen yn creys an tan, by my faith, now if I 
should get hold of him by the wing, I would throw him 
in the midst of the fire. R.D. 290. Arluth dremas, mar 
codhas myr Cryat ow sylwyas, pie ma dhe wyr, er y whylas 
rofdhys ow tyr, good Lord, if thou hast chanced to see 
Christ my Saviour, where is lie truly ? for seeing him 
I will give thee my land. R.D. 857. Ty geyler scon ty 
hath vaio, kymereuch er an dhyw baw, ha gorreuch ef yn 
dor down, thou gaoler, forthwith, thou and thy boy, 
take (him) by the two feet, arid put him in deep ground. 
R.D. 2076. Kymer an pen, er an treys me an kylden 
aberlhyn beydh, take thou the head, by the feet I will 
let him down, within the grave. R.D. 2082. W. er, 
Tyr. Ir. ar. Gael. air. Manx, er. 

ER, prep. On, upon. Py hanow y fydJi gyhvys, lavar 
dhymmo er dhe fedh, what name shall he be called i tell 
me on thy faith. O.M. 677. Crog rom bo, er an dkew- 
en, may hanging be to me, on the gills. O.M. 2651. 
My a'n knouk efery mew, otte~ mellow y geyn brew, I will 
beat him on his lips, see the joints of his back broken. 
P.C. 2085. Levereuch er agasfydh dhymmo pan vernans 
a'm bydh, tell ye on your faith to me what death I 
shall have. R.D. 2027. This is another form of nr, qd. v. 

ERA, v. s. Was. 3 pers. s. imperf. of ids. j Ha Dew 
wrds an ebbarn, ha dheberhas an dowrow era en dadn an 
ebbarn dhorl an dowrow era euh an ebbarn ; ha an dellna 
f.tho, and God made the sky, and divided the waters that 
were under the sky, from the waters that were above the 
sky, and so it was. C.W. p. 189. It is also written erra. 
%Ha rag na erra den nvfoh en tshei bez an verlshants, an 
dzhei dhal kreg ragta, and for that there was neither 
man nor boy in the house, but the merchants, they 
ought to be hanged for it. Llwyd, 252. This form 
occurs only in late Cornish. See fcsa. 

ERAILL, adj. Others. Te nynvydh dhys Dewyow eraill 
mes ve, thou shall have none other Gods but me. Pryce. 
This is the plural of arall, qd. v., and is more generally 
written erell, qd. v. 

ERBER, s. m. A garden. PI. erberow. Ha'n losowys 
erbyn haf degyns has yn erberow, and let the plants 
against summer produce seed in gardens. O.M. 31. 
Erber is unknown to the other dialects, and must be 
derived from the Latin herbarium. 

ERBYN, prep. Against. Ha'n enejf del dascorse erbyn 
natergans un cry, and the soul how he yielded it against 
nature with a cry. M.C. 208. Pray y lokte sy hep ken, 
worth hy themple dhe dyrry an frul erbyn ow dyfin, why 
didst thou deceive her without pity, by temptiug her to 
break off the fruit against my prohibition. O.M. 304. 
My a dhodho yn lowen, ruk dysuythyl an bylen, mar kews 
erbyn a laha, I will go to him joyfully to destroy the vil- 
lain, if he speaks against the law. P.C. 572. Erbyn is 
compounded of er, upon, and byn, a mutation of pyn, 
id. qd.^e, a head. See Pyn. With pronouns it is se- 
parated, and the adjectival form inserted between, thus, 
er ow fyn, against me; er dhe byn, against the ; er y 
byn, against him ; er y fyn, against her; er agan pyn, 
against us ; er agas pyn, against you ; er aga fyn, against 
them. Aspyouch ynpup le, mar kews den vylh cr owfyn, 
see ye in every place if any man speak against me. R.D. 
1919. Mollath den, ha gour hagwrek a dheporan er dhe 
byn, the curse of man, and husband and wife, will come 
straight against thee. M.C. 66. Er y byn mennaf manes, 



ERNA 



138 



me a gorse y weles, to meet him I will go ; I would love 
to see him. P.O. 232. Assyw an den-na goky, mar myn 
er aqan pyn ny cows reson vyth, that man is a fool, if he 
will against us speak any reason. P.O. 1663. Mar a lever 
den vyth er agas pyn vihy Ira vyth, ware gwrech y gorth- 
yiy, if any man say against you any thing, soon do you 
answer him. P.O. 180. Avel bralhken aga djjns orto y 
a dheskerny, er aga fyn belegyns Crist un ger ny levery, 
like hounds their teeth on him they gnashed ; against 
them nevertheless Christ would not say a word. M.C. 
96. In "Welsh, erbyn, against, is never thus separated, 
though other compound prepositions follow the same 
rule, as for instance gerbron, before : thus, ger vy mron, 
before me ; ger dy vron, before thee ; ger ei vron, before 
him ; ger ei Iron, before her; ger ein iron, before us; 
ger eich Iron, before you ; ger eu Iron, before them. 
The Manx furnishes an analogous form in the word 
erskyn, above; comp. of er, upon, and done, head: 
thus, er my skyn, above me ; er dty slcyn, above thee ; er 
e skyn, above him ; er nyn skyn, above us, you, them. 
Again we find in Old Irish, ar chenn, before, lit. to the 
head, whence in front of, or against; ar mo chiunn, before 
me ; ar a chiunn, before him ; ar ar chiunn, before us. 

ERCH, v. a. He shall command, or ask. 3 pers. s. fut. 
of nrcha, qd. v. Yn er-na dhe'n menydhyow why a erch 
warnouch codhe, yn Jcetella an nansow wy a bys ragas 
cudhc, in that hour the mountains ye shall bid on you 
to fall; in the same manner the vallies ye shall pray 
you to hide. M.C. 170. 

ERCHYS, T. a. Commanded, enjoined. Preterite of archa, 
qd. v. Dew dhymmo vy a erchys may fydhe ay ojj'rynnys 
dhodho ef war an alter, God hath commanded me that 
thcu be offered to him upon the altar. O.M. 1326. Dew 
a erchys dhys Moyses dhe welen y ke meres, ha gwyskel an 
mw gynsy, God has commanded thee, Moses, to take thy 
rod, and smite the sea with it. O.M 1663. Gordhyans 
dhys ha louiene, dhe Das Jeer a erchys gwella dhe 'cher, 
glory to thee and joy, thy Father dear has enjoined (me) 
to better thy condition. P.O. 1050. 

EREDY, adv. Surely, verily. An aval worth y derry, 
ivose my dhys dh'y dhefen, ty re. gam ivruk ertdy, by 
plucking the apple, after I had forbidden it to thee, 
thou hast done wrong verily. O.M. 281. Gwra dhe 
nygyi eredy kyns dewheles, my a'd pys, do thy errand 
surely, before coming back, I pray thee. O.M. 727. 
Salomon, dhe vdb kerra, a'n coul dhreha eredy, Solomon, 
thy son most dear, shall fully build it verily. O.M. 
2342. Written also yredy, qd. v. 

ERELL, adj. Others. War aga dewlyn yth e perag Ihesus 
re erell, aga fen y a sackye, hag a geivsy pur debett, on 
their knees there went before Christ some others ; their 
heads they shook, and spake very foully. M.C. 195. En 
dhyvi grows erel yn ban dreheveuch kettep onan, the two 
other crosses up raise ye every one. P.O. 2820. Ef a 
alias dyougel, delgloivys y leverel yn lyes le, savye lewnens 
tils erel, lemmyn y honan ny yl ymsawye, he could indeed, 
as I heard him say in many places, save the life of 
other men, but himself he cannot save. P.O. 2876. 
Plural of arall, qd. v. W. eraill. 

ERIEU, s. m. The temples of the head. Corn. Voc. Urn- 
pus. It may be read erleu. W. arlais. Ir. ^are. 

ERNA, conj. Until, till. Cans myyn gwreuch y knoukye, 
na ivrello tremene, venyOia na wrench, hedhy, with 



stones beat ye her until she does die ; never do ye stop. 
O.M. 2695. Ny dhueth an prjjs erna gyllyf dhe'n nff 
dhum Tas, the time is not como, until I go to heaven to 
my Father. R.D. 878. Vynylhn erna whyllyn, a travyth 
ny gemeryn nep lowene, ever until we see (thee,) from 
any thing we shall not receive any pleasure. R.D. 2364. 

ERNOYTH, adj. Naked. Yn mtdh Christ a ban rug 
dheuch ernoyth fernoyth ow holye, daver vyth wy ny dhec- 
syuch dhe worrf trevyth ynne, says Christ, since I caused 
you naked unclad me to follow, conveniences ever ye 
carried not to put anything in them. M.C. 50. Comp. 
of er, intensive, and noyth, naked. 

ERRYA, v. a. To strive, to contend. Rag e.rrya war mo 
fyn, me a'th wysk harlot jaudyn. may thomelly dhelh k'Ul- 
~ban, for striving against me, I will strike thee rogue, 
rascal, that thou fall backward. C.W. 82. 

ERTECH, s. m. A heritage. O.M. 354. Ellas guxles an 
termyn, ow arluth pan wruk sorry, pan rdk drys y vxrr- 
hemmyn, ow ertech griik dhe qylly, alas, to see the time 
when my lord was angry, when I acted against his com- 
mand, I lost my heritage. O.M. 354. Borrowed from 
the English. 

ERU, s. m. A field, an acre. Corn. Voc. ager. Gunilhial 
ereu, agricola. Erisy, the dry acre, nom. loc. in Grade. 
W. erw. Arm. era, erf, erv. Ir. arbha, tario. Lat. 
arvum. 

ERVYRE, v. a. To consider, to observe. Rag y hyller 
ervyre ha'y welas yn suredy, y vos prest ivorth dhe veiye, 
for it is possible to observe, and to see him certainly, 
that he is near meeting thee. M.C. 20. Lemmyn ny a 
yl gwelas, hag ervyre fest yn ta, Christ dhe wodhaff dre 
dhensys miir a benans yn bys-ma, now we may see, and 
consider very well, that Christ suffered through man- 
hood much penance in this world. M.C. 60. Written 
also yrvyre, qd. v. 

ERV VS, adj. Armed. Lavar lemyn marsywprys danvon 
qenes tus ervys dhe yerches an vyl losel, say now if it is 
time to send armed men with thee to fetch the vile 
knave. P.O. 939. Myl weth a vydh un dytvedh, ha hak- 
ere es an dalleth, rale henna tus ervys freth gor dh'y un/the 
a termyn, a thousand (times) worse will be the eud, and 
more odious than the beginning; therefore men strongly 
armed place thou to guard him in time. R.D. 351. 
Written also yrvys, qd. T. It is strictly the participle 
pass, of arva, to arm. 

ES, v. subs. Thou wast. 2 pers. s. imp. of b6s. Pecha- 
dores es hep gmv, an brassa ege yn pow gans pup ol ty o 
gylwys, a sinner thou wast without a lie ; the greatest 
that was in the country by every body thou wast called. 
R.D. 1094. 

ES, v. imp. There is. Y ftylwi/s en Edhewon, lays es yn 
pow adro,the Jews cried out, there is law in the country 
about. M.C. 121. Yn unfyslene me a's gwra,aban nag 
es a wodhfe dheuch parys a's gwrelle gwell, in a hurry I 
will make them, since there is no one that kqows for 
you ready to make them better. M.C. 158. Den glan yu> a 
bech, heffall, ynno ef dyfoi/t nyng fs, a man clean he is of 
sin, without fail, in him default there is not. M.C. 192. 
A'yfrut dybry nymbes whans, dres dyfen ow arluth ker, of 
its fruit to eat there is not to me a desire, against the 
prohibition of my dear Lord. O.M. 171. %Es connts 
dhiu, is there supper to you, i. e. have you supped. 
Llwyd, 242. W. oes. 



ESCOP 



139 



ESENS 



ES, v. irr. That is. A no, wyltn ol myna es ortk dke vlamye \ 
yn soweth, seest thou not all those that are blaming thee 
sadly 3 M.C. 120. Te yw dull, rag genen cregis neb es, 
den glan a beck yw, thou art blind, for he that is hanged 
with us, is a man clean of sin. M.C. 192. Yn wheh 
dydh mynt> ?'s fvrmys, ago sona me a lira, in six days all 
that are formed, bless them I will. C.W. 32. Written 
also its, qd. v. W-y $y- 

ES, conj. Than. Ef a wruk aw husullye, frut annedhy 
may torren, aioy es Dew ny a i>ye, he did advise me, that 
should I pluck off fruit from it, greater than God we 
should be. O.M. 219. Mar kews ken es g^<yryoneth, ef 
an pren kyns trement; if he will speak other than 
truth, he shall pay for it before dying. P.O. 1468. Myl 
weih a vydh an dyivedh, ha hakcre es an dalleth, a thou- 
sand (times) worse will be the end, and more odious 
than the beginning. R.D. 350. Ys, eyg, ayes, are other 
forms of this word, qd. v. Like the prepositions, es 
and ages take suffixed pronouns, thus esouch, agesouch, 
than you. 

ES.pron. adj. Your. Llu-yd, 244. An abbreviated form 
of ages, qd. v. 

ESA, v. subs. He was. Ha'ngwyn esa war en foys, ef a 
rannas yntrethe, and the wine (that) was on the table, he 
divided among them. M.C. 45. Ha'n dus esa ol yn dre, 
ha pryncis yn pow yn icedh, and the people (that) were 
in the town, and the princes in the country also. M.C. 
97. In the Dramas it is written esc; qd. v. 

ESAL, adj. Low. Comp. csala, lower. More frequently 
isal, qd. v. 

ESCAR, s. rn. An enemy. PI. ysJcerens, qd. v. Ellas vyth 
pan ruk cole mar hogul worth ow eskar, kemys druk us ow 
codhe ha dewcih.es hag avar, alas, that I ever listened so 
readily to my enemy ; so much evil is falling, both late 
and early. O.M. 627. Gor osl genes yrrys da, dhe omladh, 
del y'm kerry ; un eskar Iras dhym yma, icar ow thyr ow 
gul mestry, take with thee a host well armed, to fight, as 
thou lovest me; a great enemy is to me, over my land 
doing violence. O.M. 2143. Onan ahanoiich hanelh 
rum giverlhas dhom yskerens, one of you to night has 
sold me to my enemies. P.C. 737. W. esgar. Ir. eas- 
cara, t i-scara, pi. -\-escarait. Gael, eascaraid. 

ESCARN, s. m. Bones. Ty afydh whare drag lam, dhe 
escarn ol ktti'n tarn gans ow lorn a fjjdh brcu-us, thou shalt 
soon have a bad chance ; thy bones all, every bit, with 
my blows shall be broken. O.M. 2743. The plural of 
ascorn, qd. v. 

ESCELLY, s. m. Wings. J Ha Dew rig gtvres an puskas 
bras, ha kenefra tra bew es a givayah, leb rig an dowrow 
dry rag pur vear uarler go has ; ha kenefra edhan eskelly 
warier go has ; ha Dew welas tro va da, and God made 
the great fishes, and every living thing that moveth, 
which the waters brought forth abundantly after their 
kind, and every winged fowl after his kind ; and God saw 
that it was good. C.W. p. 191. The plural of ascall, qd. v. 

ESCER, s. m. A giant. Esker bras, a great giant. Pryce. 

ESCID, s. m. A shoe. PI. eskidieu. Corn. Voc. solulares. 
In later times it was pronounced eskis, qd. v., and the 
plural eskyggyow.' Dheworthys dysk dhe 'sh/ggyow dhe 
ves, sevt'l tear tyr reneges a wreth, from thee take off 
thy shoes quickly, stand on blessed ground thou dost. 
O.M. 1406. W. esgid, pi. esgidiau. Ir. +asa. 

ESCOP, B. m. A bishop. Corn. Voc. epi-scopus. Ihesus a 



ve danvenys, ha dheworth an prins Annas, gans tus ven a 
dhesympyn lys yn escop Cayphas, Jesus was sent, and 
from the prince Annas, with strong men immediately, 
even to the bishop Caiaphas. M.C. 88. More generally 
written epscop, qd. v. 

ESCOP, s. m. A snuffer pan. Corn. Voc. lefiste. See 
Norm's Note, "Cornish Drama," ij. 350. 

ESCYNYA, v. a. To ascend. J An tridga dydh ef deravas 
arta dorl an marrow, eskynyas do nev, ha sedha war dorn 
dyhmv an Tas Olgallusec, the third day he rose again 
from the dead, and ascended to heaven, and sitteth on 
the right hand of God the Father Almighty. C.W. p. 
203. Another form of asccn, qd. v. W. esgynu. 

ESE, v. s. He was. 3 pers. s. imp. of b6s. Detvsull 
blegyow,pan ese yn mysc y abestely, Palm Sunday, when 
he was in the midst of his apostles. M.C. 27. Marow 
yw pup tra es^ spyrys a vewnans ynno, dead is every 
thing that there was the spirit of life in it. O.M. 1090. 
An prysncrs galsons yn wedh ese yn dan naw alwedh, the 
prisoners are gone also, (that) were under nine keys. 
R.D. 661. 

ESEDHE, v. n. To sit. War penakyll y n goras dyantell 
dhe esedha, on a pinnacle he placed him hazardous to sit. 
M.C. 13. An asen a ve kerchys imrnedhy rag esedhe, 
dyllas pan a ve gorrys, the ass was fetched, ou it to sit, 
cloth clothes were placed. M.C. 28. Written also^s- 
edhe, qd. v. W. eistedhu. Arm. azexa, -\-assedha. Ir. 
suidh, eisidh, seis, deisidh, Gael, suidh. Gr. a?o', efiu, 
"f(D. Lat. sedeo, sedo. Goth, sita, sat'ia. Sansc. as, 
sthas. 

ESEL, s. m. A limb, a member. Corn. Voc. membrum. 
PI. esely, esyly, ysyly. Ena hy a ve g&ys dhe god/ta, may 
fe crehyllys oil y gorf ha'y escly, there it was left to fall, 
so that was shattered his body and his limbs. M.C. 184. 
Nag onan ef ny asas heb ure a'y escly, not one he left 
not without anointing of his limbs. M.C. 235. Crist o 
brew y esyly, ha war y gorf myl woly, Christ's limbs 
were bruised, and on his body a thousand wounds. R.D. 
998. Sav.yys yio ow ysyly, ol a'n venym, ha'm cleves* 
healed are my limbs, all of the poison and my disease. 
O.M. 1798. W. esill. Arm. ezel, izel, pi. ir.il i. Ir.+asil. 

ESEN, v. s. I was. 1 pers. s. imperf. of bos. Yn agis mysk 
pan exen, lays Du dlieuch oxu tysky, among you when I 
was, the laws of God to you teaching. M.C. 75. My pan 
esen ow quandre, cleivys a'n nyl teneiven un el ow talleth 
cane, a uchaf war an icedhen, I, when I was walking 
about, heard on one side an angel beginning to sing 
above me on the tree. O.M. 213. 

ESEN, v. subs. We were. 1 pers. pi. imp. of bos. Henna 
me a lever wheth, yth esen dre pur hyreth u-ar dhe lerch 
owth ymwethe, that I will say likewise, we were through 
real regret, after thee pining. R.D. 1169. Arlulh pie 'th 
en alemma, ha pygyn Deiv grdlosek ; del esen agan unnek, 
ha na moy, gor na lanen, Lord, where shall we go hence, 
and pray to mighty God 1 as we were eleven of us, 
and no more, man nor woman. R.D. 2395. 

ESENS, v. subs. They were. 3 pers. pi. imperf. of 6<w. 
Pylat el/i yn mcs yn un Itnvarth, hag a worras Crinl ganso 
ena orto rag kewsel; prest an Edhewon delidl dhe Jesus 
esens adro, Pilate went out into a garden, and put Christ 
with him there to him for to speak immediately ; the 
wicked Jews to Jesus were round about M.C. 140, 
Written also esons, qd. v, 



ESOUCH 



140 



ETH 



ESES, v. subs. Thou wast. 2 pers. a. imp. of 16s. Adam, 
ty a ve gothys, pan eses yn Paradys, avel harlot, ow lordye, 
Adam, tbou wast proud, when thou wast in Paradise, 
like a rogue, lording it. O.M. 900. Yn dan amlos yth 
eses, ha ken na fe da genes, guldhe servys ty a wra, under 
a bargain thou -wast, and though it be not good with 
thce, thou shall do thy service. P.O. 2259. 

ESGAR, s. m. A shank, a leg. Pryce. W. esgair, t esceir. 
Arm. esker. Ir. t aisgeir. Gael, t aisgeir. 

ESGARA, v. a. To leave, to forsake, to relinquish. 
Llwyd, 138. W. esga.ru. 

ESGIS, s. m. A shoe. PI. esgisow. Uwyd, 28, 45. Writ- 
ten also eskas. J Gwisgo an genter-ma ed eskas vi, knock 
this nail in my shoe. Llwyd, 230. $An esgisow adro 's 
treis, the shoes on your feet. 250. Diesgis, shoeless. 
This is a later form of escid, qd. v. Pryce gives eskitias 
as a late plural. 

ESIS, v. subs. It is. 3 pers. s. pres. of 16s, used imper- 
sonally with a verb of the infin. act. to express a passive 
signification. Esis is a reduplicate form, answering to 
the W. ydys, ys. J Ez eziz a kit hwel ymma, one is doing 
work here ; or, work is being done here. Lhvyd, 246. 

E80F, v. subs. I am. A reduplicate form of of, 1 pers. 
s. pres. of bos. Uskys na yllyn ponye, del esofow tyene, 
ha whys pup godh of ha lyth, 1 could not run immedi- 
ately, as I am panting, and sweat all (my) neck and 
back. P.O. 2511. Tormentors com hyder snel, namnag 
essqfow merwel, orth agas gortos, executioners, come hi- 
ther quick, I am almost dying, by waiting for you. 
R.D. 2145. W. ydwyv. 

ESON, v. subs. We are. A reduplicate form of 6n, 1 pers, 
pi. pres. of bos. Kepar del eson yn wedh keffrys yn kueth 
yn moreth ragdho, ny iuggyn mones nep pel lemmyn bys 
yn castel hentvys Emmaus, as we are also both in 
grief (and) in sorrow for him, we do not think to go 
any distance, but as far as a village called Emmaus. 
R.D. 1298. Asson is another form. 

ESONS, v. subs. They were. 3 pers. pi. impcrf. of bos. 
Y vam whegol a welas del esons worth y dhygtye, pyleth. 
mur a's kemeras* y Itolori, namna grakye, his mother 
dear saw how they were treating him : much pity sei- 
zed her, her heart almost broke. M.C. 164. Written 
also esens, qd. v. 

ESOS, v. subs. Thou art. A reduplicate form of 6s, 2 
pers. s. pres. of bos. Heyl syr epscob, esos y'th cop owth 
ysedhe, hail, sir bishop! thou art in thy cope sitting. 
P.C. 931. Ythos is another form, qd. v. W. ydwyt. 

ESOS, adv. Already. Llwyd, 249. W. eisoes. 

ESOUCH, v. subs. Ye are. A reduplicate form of ouch, 
2 pers. pi. pres. of b6s. Why gwycoryon, eueh yn mes,yth 
esouch ow Icuihyl ges a Dim hag e sans eglos, yn ow thy a 
piyadowpan wreuch agas marhasow, hafoivys dhe laddron 
plos, ye traders, go out, ye are making jest of God and 
his holy church, in my bouse of prayers when ye make 
your markets, and a den for foul thieves. P.C. 332. 
Lemmyn ol cres yntrethouch,omma kepar del esouch worth 
ow gortos, now all peace among you ! here like as ye are 
waiting for me. R.D. 2434. 

ESOUCH, conj. pron. Than ye. Lemmyn me a grys yn ta 
y fynnaf vy m6s pella esouch hanelh, saw bytygyns cres- 
ouch why an corf-na dhe dhasserchy kyns yw aneth, now 
I believe well, I will go further than you to-night ; but 
nevertheless believe ye that body to rise again before it 



is to-night R.D. 1299. Comp. of es, than, and ouch, the 
composite form of chivi. Agesouch, is another form, 
qd. v. 

ESOW, s. m. Corn. Plural of es, which is generally 
written eys, or ys, qd. v. Mur varth ambus dyogel, an 
beys dh'y terry na'm gas rag esow; galnof ysel na allaf 
kerdhes yn fas, great 1 wonder is it to me surely, the 
earth to break it that it will not permit me for corn ; I 
am become low that I cannot walk well. O.M. 373. 

ESTREN, s. f. An oyster. Corn. Voc. ostrea vel ostreum. 
Arm. hislr, histren, t ostren. Ir. ostrin. 

ESTREN, s. m. A stranger. Pryce. W. estron. From 
the Lat. extraneus. 

ESUMSYN, v. a. To undertake. Pryce. My an musur lour 
yn la, na bertheuch own a henna, gans squyr compes ha 
scannt lyn na vo hyrre eswnsyn, na vyth cotta war nep cor, 
I will measure it well enough, do not ye have fear of 
that, with straight square and scant line, that it be not 
longer, I undertake, nor shorter in any way. O.M. 2511. 
A very doubtful word ; the English word assumption 
appears to be the nearest to it. 

ET, prep. In. This is a late corruption of en. $Eteui 
coth, in his old age. Llwyd, 21. } Et aphoccat, in my 
pocket. 253. JZ)a vaprev erra e wreg guita kympez et i 
gever, to try whether his wife had kept alway in her 
duty. 253. 

ETRE, prep. Between. Llwyd, 72. A late corruption 
of entr6, or yntre, qd. T. 

ETTA, pron. prep. In them. A late corruption of ynnl. 
J Ha Dew laveras, gwrens an noar dry rag gwels, ha lusu 
toan has, ha'n gweedh loan lavallo warier go hendah lebgo 
has elta go honnen war a doar ; ha. an dellna etho, and 
God said, let the earth bring forth grass, and herb yield- 
ing seed, and the trees yielding fruit after their kind, 
whose seed is in themselves on the earth; and so it was. 
C.W. p. 190. 

ETTANS, pron. prep. In them. $Rag en wheh dydhyow, 
an Arlulh a wras nef ha'n 'oar, an mor, ha mens tra es 
eUans, ha powesas an seithvas dedh, for in six days the 
Lord made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all that in 
them is, and rested the seventh day. Pryce. This 
form occurs only in late Cornish, the ns however pre- 
serves the characteristic of the third pers. pronoun. So 
Welsh yndhynt, in them, from yn, and hwynt, while etta, 
and the classical form ynne, contain the Cornish y, or 
Welsh hwy. 

ETTEN, pron. prep. -\-Cabm-thavas en metlyn, glaia boz 
etten, a rainbow in the morning, sun is in it. Cornish 
Proverbs Pryce. This form occurs only in late Cornish. 

ETTOGE, v. s. Thou art. % Frank a leal ettoge, frank and 
loyal art thou. Earl of Godolphin's motto. This is a 
corruption of ythoge, and that of ythose, qd. v. 

ETH, v. n. He went. 3 pers. s. pret. of irr. v. mos. 
Mur a dus ha benenas a lerusalem yn dre, erbyn Crist 
rag y welas y eth, ha rag y wordhye, many men and wo- 
men from Jerusalem in the town, to meet Christ for to 
see him they went, and for to worship him. M.C. 29. 

. ludas eth yn y negis, en ioul yw e'n hombronky, Judas 
went on his errand, the devil it is (that) guided him. 
M.C. 62. Och, my re hue baches coynt, hay <:th yn rdk re a 
poynl, Oh, I have been little cunning, and went forward 
too much point blank. P.C. 3032. An corf eth hydhew yn 
pry, the body went to-day into the earth. R.D. 21. Rag 



ETHONS 



141 



EUNOW 



me a dyp b6s hemma an keth map tth alemma, yw mychtern 
a lowene, for I think that this is the same son (that) 
went hence, (that) is the king of joy. R.D. 2509. W.aeth. 
Arm. eaz. Ir. ^eatha, + eit. Sansc. at, ath, ith, to go. 

ETH, v. n. Thou wilt go. -2 pers. s. fut. of irr. v. mo*. 
Kens mos, eyf ten gwyn pymeth, ha dhe scafe yth eth yn ow 
nyoys, my a grys, before going, drink a draught of spiced 
wine, and thou more nimbly wilt go on my errand, I 
believe. O.M. 2205. A vynyn ryth, py ie yth eth ? rak 
kueth pyyylh, gar me a wrath, O woeful woman, where 
wilt thou go ? for grief thou prayest, cry out thou dost. 
R.D. 851. Arluth kei;fattel vydh dyn, mars tth arte dhy- 
worlhyn, dear Lord, how will it be with us, if thou wilt 
go again from us. R.D. 2362. 

ETH, s. m. A putt', blast, breath. An re-ma eio gwel a 
ras,raq ny glewsyuch yn nepplds sawor a' n par-ma vyth- 
qveth ; yma Dew yn tyller-ma, my a war lemynyn ta,pait 
yw mar whfk ago, eth, these are rods of grace, for you 
have not smelt in any place savour like this ever ; God 
is in this place, I know it well, since their breath is so 
sweet. O.M. 1994. Otte lour kunys gyne, whythyns lem- 
myn pup yn freth ; neb na whytho grens fanny e gans y 
lappa worth an etti, see fuel enough with me, let all now 
blow vigorously ; he who does not blow, let him fan 
with his lap to the blast. P.O. 1244. This word seems 
to be Connected with wheth. W. eth, chwylh. 

ETHAS, adj. Eighth. Llwyd-, 105, 243. * Written also 
fathas, qd. v. 

ETHEUCH, v. n. Ye went. 2 pers. pi. preter. of irr. v. 
mos. Yma Ira varth wfiarvethys haneth ; an keth gwt-l-ma, 
yn dor ymons ol gwrydhyys, ha'n thyr dhe onan yw unyys, 
aban etheuch a le-ma, there is a wonderful thing happen- 
ed to-night ; these same rods, iu the earth they are all 
rooted, and the three are joined in one, since ye went 
from hence. O.M. 2086. W. aethoch. 

ETHLAYS, adj. Cursed. Ethlays, givef pan vev yenys ; 
ow terry gormenadow Dew, pellys on a Paradys dha'n 
noer veys er ayan gew, cursed, woe when I was born ; 
breaking the commandments 3f God, we are driven 
from Paradise to the earth worid :or our woe. C.W. 76. 
This may be formed from the Eng. outlawed. 

ETHOM, s. m. Want, need, necessity. Dhe'n Arluth 
ethom yma dhe wruthyl gans an re-na, to the Lord there 
is need to do with those. P.O. 162. Pi/tkyiu an cthmn 
vye an onyment ker y skullye, ej a guise bos gwyrffiys, 
what is the need there was the precious ointment to spill, 
it might have been sold. P.O 533. Neb a vo y gorf 
golhys, nyn j'eves ethom goUiy, saw y treys na cons scchys, 
rag gulan yw ol yredy, he whose body is washed hath 
need to wash only his feet, that the) be not dried, for 
he is all clean surely. P.O. 863. Yn agon etliom pup tra 
pup ilr jjarys dhyn vedhe, in our need every thing always 
would be ready for us. P.C. 917. W eisiau, esiw. Arm. 
tzom. Ir. easlha, easbadh. Gael, easluidh. Sansc. e$ha. 

ETHOMOG, adj. Needy, necessitous. PI. ethomogyon. 
Pan welas an Edhewon bos Crist ow ciUhyl meyslry, ow 
care tthomogyon, hag anedhe na wre vry, when the Jews 
saw that Christ was doing mastery, loving the poor, 
and that of them he made not account. M.C. 2G. 
THONS, v. n. They went. 3 pers. pi. preterite of irr. v. 
m6s. Pan ethons oil dhe wary, ancombrys y rebea, pema, y 
medh Crist dhydky, nei n vyn dhe guhudha, when they 
went all out, not of one mind they were ; where is, says 



Ohrist to her, any one that will accuse thee. M.C. 34. 
W. aethont. Arm. ezont. 

ETHUC, adj. Huge, great, awful, terrific, wonderful. 
Dyspleytys yw y vaner, ha Jcelmys worth an grows pren ; 
mar eihuk yw dhe welts may tyglyn an tybelfs, pan y'n 
gwellons, kettep pen, displayed is hit, banner, and fas- 
tened to the cross tree ; so awful it is to sea, that the 
devils will wince, when they see it, every head. P.C. 
3046. J Ha me rig clawas an poble qalarou, la eth reas 
do chet, ?thic gwreg da, and I did hear t.ho people com- 
plain, that there is to thee an awfully good wife. 
Pryce. It is variously written ethec, ethyc, ithic, ythec, 
uthyc. W. uth, uthyr. Arm. euxie. Ir, wlhmiutr, f uath. 
Gael, uamlmrr, 

ETI1 YM, v. n. I went. 1 pers. s. preterite of irr. v. mos. 
My a ethiim, Llwyd, 247. W. aethum. 

ETHYS, v. n. Thou wentest. 2 pers. s. preterite of irr. 
v. mo*. Yn medh y wrek, mur a varth bras yw henna 
ditym rum le,wte, hedhow pan ethys yn mes cleues vjjth ny'th 
kemerse, says his wife, much of great wonder is that to 
me indeed ; this day when thou wentest out, never a 
sickness had seized thee. M.C. 157. W. aethost. 

EUCH, v. u. Go ye, ye shall go. 2 pers. pi. imp., and 
fut. of irr. v. mos. Euch, yn fe,n dh'y dhyscyblon, ha 
leverouch wy dhedhe, go ye at once to his disciples, and 
say ye to them. M.C. 256. Euch, qrowedheuch, ow ar- 
lulh, may holler agas cudhe gans dyllas, go, lie down, my 
lord, that you may be covered with clothes. O.M. 1923. 
Euch tynneuch an gasadow, usy ow culfals dewmu, yn 
mes agan temple ny, go ye, drag the wretched woman, 
who is making false gods, out of our temple. O.M. 2691. 
Euch ganso yn kettep pen dhe'n iustis Pylut arte, go ye 
with him every head to the magistrate Pilate again. 
P.C. 1796. (Togo with is also the Welsh idiom for to 
briny.) Euch dhe ivovyn hep letlye worth an gof yn 
marches row, go ye to ask, without delaying, of the 
smith in Market Row. P.C. 2667. Mar scop yth euch 
dhe'n mernans, if he escape, ye shall go to death. R.D. 
378. An corf a whyleuch dejfry, ganso yth euch yredy yn 
y clos, the body ye seek really, with it ye shall go in- 
deed into his glory. R.D. 1289. W. much. 

EUH, adv. Above, over. \Ha Dew wrds an ebbarn, ha 
dhfherhas an dowrow, era en dadn an ebbarn, dhort an 
dowrvw era. euh an ebbarn ; ha andellna etho, and God 
made the firmament, and divided the waters (that) were 
under the firmament, from the waters (that) were above 
the firmament ; and so it was. C.W. p. 189. A late 
form of uch, qd. v. 

EUHEL, adj. High, lofty. Sup. euliella. supreme. %Chee 
den Jcrev, leb es war tijr, hidhevi gwra,genikiansfyr, ha'n 
Dew euhella vedn ry, peth yw gwetta o/ rag ivny, thou 
strong man, who art on earth, this day act with wise 
knowledge, and God supreme will give the thing that 
is best for you. Cornish Prwerb. Pryce. More gene- 
rally written huhel, qd. v. 

EUHELLE, v. a. To go up, to ascend. An tridga dijdh 
ef deravas aria dort an marrwj.', ha euhellan do nev, ha 
sfdhas war dorn dyhow an T&s ollqallosek, the third day 
he rose again from the dearl, and ascended to heaven, 
and sat upon the right hand of the Father Almighty. 
C.W. p. 203. 

EUNOW, s. m. Lambs. Pryce, One of the plurals of 
can, qd. v. 



EVE 



142 



EWINCARN 



EUEB, s: m. A goldsmith. Corn. Voc. aurifex. The root 
is eur, gold, the old form of our, and the termination e 
has the force of an appellative, as in idne, qd. v., an- 
swering to the Welsh ai : as ingwestai, a host ; blotai, 
a meal-man ; cnrdotai, a mendicant ; magai, a nurse. 
W. Kurych, a goldsmith. 

EUS, v. n. Go ye. A late corruption of euch. J Ens 
barha nei, go with ns. Llwyd, 252. 

EUS, v. subs. Is. Dhyuch lavaraf, ow dyskyblyon, pys- 
euch toythda ol fees- colon Dew dreys pup Ira, eus a huhon, 
dheych yn bys-ma y grdth danvon, to you I say, my dis- 
ciples, pray ye forthwith, all with one heart, God above 
all things, who is on high, to you in this world his 
grace to send. P.O. 3. Euch, ow dew el, dhum servons 
lei, yn pryson eus, go ye, my two angels, to my faithful 
servants, who are in prison. R.D. 316. Another form 
of us, qd. v. 

EUTH, adj. Fright, horror. A Dhew a rds, serpont yw 
hy, euth hy gwelas, own ambus vy, crenne a wraf, God 
of grace, it is a serpent ; it is a horror to see her, fear 
is upon me, I do tremble. O.M. 1452. Yn leydh pan 
yn gorsyn ny, wharre y tueth deulugy, warnan cothas, 
hag an teul ef scon yn ban, ha'n dor warnodho a ran, 
fittk y clewas, when we put him in the grave: presently 
there came devils, they fell upon us ; and they throw 
him forthwith upwards, and divide the earth over him; 
it was a horror to hear them. R.D. 2128. See Uth. 

EV, pron. subs. He, him, it. A late form of ef, qd. v., 
and it was thus pronounced in Jordan and LI wy d's time. 
Y festaformys devery, der y wreans ev omma, thou wast 
formed surely, by his workmanship here. C.W. 16. 
Der henna ythofgrevys y ii'ellas ev exaltys, ha me dres dka 
yselder, at that I am grieved, to see him exalted, and me 
brought to lowness. C.W. 34. Ev a verwys, he died. 
Llwyd, 230. Ev ew den da, he is a good man. 246. 
Ev ai dhyg dhym, he brought it to me. 242. This is 
also the sound in modern Welsh. 

EVALL, adj. Humble, lowly. Cayn yfhnv ow mab cotha, 
ha Abel yw ow mdb yonka, flehys wall ha gentle, Cain is 
my eldest son, and Abel is my youngest son, children 
humble and gentle. C.W. 78. Me a wtl an eal yn yetow 
sevell, splan dhe welas, me a vyn ntott pur a:n/l en dhodho 
dh'y salugy, I see the angel in the gate standing, bright 
to see, I will go very humbly to him to salute him. 
C.W. 128. A late form of htivel, qd. v. 

EVE, v. a. To drink, to imbibe. Written also rf&. 2 pers. 
s. imp. eyf; part. pass. cvys. Mars 6s profus lei, rys 
yw dhyso dyogel ry dour dltynny dhe eve, if thou art a 
faithful prophet, need is to thee certainly to give ns 
water to drink. O.M. 1801. Kens mos, eyf ten givyn 
pymeth, before going, drink thou a draught of spiced 
wine. O.M. 2294. Wose henna cvyn pep ol adro dracht 
awyn, rag comfortye y golon, after that let us drink every 
one all round a draught of wine, to comfort his heart. 
O.M. 2626. Dus yn rues, vynytha ny efyth coul, marrow 
coival ty afydh, come out, thou shall never drink broth, 
thou shalt be quite dead. O.M. 2701. Yn mcdh Christ, 
hemmayw goys, evouch why par cheryla, says Christ, this 
is blood, drink ye through charity. M.C. 45. Kymer- 
euch, eveuch an gwyn, rag ny eva.-f bys dedhfyn genouch 
annodho no, may, take ye, drink ye the wine, for I will 
not drink until the last day with you of it any more. 
P.C. 724. Eveuch ol an giv$n, drink ye all the wine. 



P.C. 823. Pysouch may feve evys, pray ye that it may 
be drunk. P.C. 828. An myl dyaul re dorro mellow y 
gyn, vynytha na effo coul, may a thousand devils break 
the joints of his back, so that he may never drink 
broth. P.C. 1620. Otla dywes dhys omma, prog na wreta 
y efe,see a drink for thee here, why wilt thoa not' drink 
it. P.C. 2981. W. yved j -tiben, I drank. Arm. eva. 
Ir. M, tz'Jj,- tz'izro, I will drink. Gael. ib/i. Manx, 
iti. Sansc. pi. 

EVERETH, s. m. Vanity, frivolousness, idleness. Peder, 
(aw ha gas dhe ftous, rdk evereth yw dhe qoius, cf dhe 
sevel, Peter, be silent, and leave thy mockery, for idle- 
ness it is to say that he is risen. R.D. 936. Written 
also ufereth, qd. v. W. overedh. 

EVREDHEC, adj. Maimed, disabled, lame. Dhymmo ev- 
redhek yn wfdh, ro nertk dlie gerdhes yn fas, ha my it 
grys yn pyrfeth aga vos guecl a vur ras, to me also the 
maimed, give thou strength to walk well, and I will 
agree perfectly that they are rods of great grace. O.M. 
2009. Written also ejfredh, qd. v. W. cvrydh. 

EVY, pron. subs. Of me, mine. Ke yn cerdh, ow map 
evy, ha nefra ow bannat dhys, go away, my son of me, 
and ever my blessing to thee. O.M. 725. Oiv map evi. 
Llwyd, 245. Evy is used after a substantive preceded 
by ot'j, my, to add emphasis. The equivalent in Welsh 
is vy mdb i. 

EW, v. subs. He is. 3 pers. s. present of bos, to be. 
Mur a foly ew dhodho an fccth frul-na mar a'n gnu, it is 
a great folly in him, if he leaves that same fruit. O.M. 
191. Yn mes a'm ioy ham whekter, res ew fccsfmr dre 
terras, rag fout awesc ha goscutter, nnmna vyrwyii rug an- 
wos, away from my joy and my delight, we must wan- 
dor through lauds, for want of clothes and shelter, we 
are well nigh perishing for cold. O.M. 360. Ow Ihiis 
ew colh ha squytheys, ny (/first- pelle bewe, my father is 
old and wearied, he would not wish to live Jooger. 
O.M. 737. Written indiscriminately ew, or i/u>, qd. v. 

EWHAL, adj. High, lofty. Llwyd, 147. Another form 
of huhel, qd. v. 

EWHE, s. m. Evening. Dhym y leverifs perfeyt/t, agy dhe 
evihe an f/eyclh, yn paradyts ty a sef, to me he said per- 
fectly, within the evening of the day, in paradise thou 
shalt stand. R.D. 275. W. echwydh. Arm. tchoaz, achoe, 
ache. Ir. oidhche, iaidche, ^assuilh. Gael, onlhche. Manx, 
me. 

EWHELDER, s. m. Height. Lluyd, 240. A laic form of 
uchelder, qd. T. 

EWIC, s. m. A hind, a deer. Corn. Voc. euhic, cerva ; 
loch euhic, hinnulus, a hind-calf. Ewig Ivyd, a fallow 
deer. Llwyd, 53. W. civig, legate, ^euyc. Ir. <//'. 
Gael. agh. Sansc. agha, she-goat. 

EWIDIT, s. m. A lark. Corn. Voc. alauda. Llwyd, 43, 
thus reads it, ewidydh. The reading of the Cornish Vo- 
cabulary is doubtful, whether eividit, or ehidit. The for- 
mer may be correct, being compounded of en; id. qd. 
uch, high, and lu-d, flight. W. uchedydk. See Ehidit. 

EWIX, s. m. The nail of the fingers or the toes. Corn. 
Voc. cuin, unguis. PI. ewinas. W. ewin, ^eguin. Arm. 
ivin, ^ytiyn. Ir. ionga, inga, -fin. Gael, ionga, t MI. 
Manx, ingin. Gr. owf. Lat. unguis. Sansc. nakka ; 
from nak/c, to pierce. 

EWINCARN. s. m. A hoof of an animal. Corn. Voc. 






EYL 



143 



EYSEL 






ungula. Comp. of ewvn, a nail, and earn, a hoof. "W. 
earn. 

EWINOC, adj. Having nails or claws. W. ewinog. Corn. 
Voc. kcnin euynoc, garlic. See Cenin. 

EWINREW, s. f. Numbness of the fingers or toes from cold. 
W. ewinreiv. Arm. ivinreo. This word is still in use in 
Cornwall, under the form of Gwenders ; "a disagree- 
able sensation in the fingers and toes, arising from vio- 
lent cold. In some parts of Cornwall it is pronounced 
wonders." Polwhele. Comp. of ewin, and rew, frost. 

BWITER, s. m. An uncle. Corn. Voc. euiler abard tat, 
patruus, an uncle on the father's side; euiter abarh mam, 
avunculus, an uncle on the mother's side. W. ewythr. 
Arm. eontr. Lat. patruus. Sansc. pitarvyas. 

EWN, adj. Kight, straight, just, meet, exact. Seth av$dh 
y ewn hnnow, Seth shall be his right name. O.M. 678. 
Yn ewnfordh dhy mny'th yllyn, may feen hembrynkys, 
pesyn en Tax Deiv, in the right way to it that we may 
go, that we may be led, let us pray the Father God. 
O.M. 1972. Lemyn ythew eivn hys, ewnyn ef yn scon 
d/i'y le, now it is the right length, let us adjust it imme- 
diately to its place. O.M. 2525. Rag cu-en antoos, ny 
gleu-af yender dhum troys, for very chilliness, I do not 
feel the cold, to my feet. P.C. 1222. Mar am eivn 
yeryth, me a'thpys, dhymmo gas cres, if thou lovesfc me 
well, I pray thee, leave peace to me. R.D. 1449. W. 
MK0R, teunl. Arm. nun, eeun. Ir. eigwn, ion. Gael. ion. 

EWXE, v. a. To make right, to rectify, to make straight, 
to adjust. Harlyth my an trehy omma, hag ewnne gans 
ol dhe nel, I will cut it exactly here, and adjust thou it 
with all thy strength. O.M. 2516. Ewnyn efyn scon 
dh'y le, let us adjust it immediately to its place. O.M. 
2626. Anjawl re'th ewno dh'y olds, the devil adjust thee 
to his maw. O.M. 2526. Lemmyn gorryn efyn beydh, 
etvnyn an m$n warnodho, now let us put him in the 
tomb, let us adjust the stone over it. P.C. 3207. Eivne 
an men me a wra ; a wottensc evnuys da, I will adjust the 
stone ; behold it well adjusted. "P.C. 3211. W. iawni. 
Arm. euna. 

EWNHINSIC, adj. Just, upright. Corn. Voc. eunkinsic, 
Justus. Comp. of e*un, right, and AMIS, id. qd. W. hynt, 
a way. Sec Camhinsic. 

EYCHAN, interj. Alas, woe, oh ! Ellas ny won py tyller, 
byth moy py le y trygaf; eyckan, rag y fynner mar a 
kyller, grins paynys mer mil dysivul gldn, alas, I know 
not (in) what place, ever more where I shall dwell : 
Oh woe ! for it is wished, if it could be, to destroy me 
quite. P.C. 2599. Eyhan is another form, the aspirate 
being softened. W. ochan. Arm. aehan. Ir. och hone. 
Gael, ochoin. 

EYF, v. a. Drink thou. 2 pers. s. imp. of ev6, qd. v. 
Kens mos, eyften gwijn pymeth ha dhe scafe yth eth yn ow 
nygys my a grys, before going, drink thou a draught of 
spiced wine, and the more nimbly thou wilt go in my 
errand, I believe. O.M. 2294. 

EYHAN, interj. Alas! woe, oh! Kueth us y'm colon, 
eyhan ! mars eth corf Dewy honan, py le yffjnh e kejfys, 
sorrow is in my heart, alas ! if the body of God him- 
self is gone, where shall it be found ? R.D. 700. An- 
other form of eychan, qd. v. 

EYL, pron.adj. One of two, the one, one or the other. A'n 
golon yth eth stret bras dour ha goys yn kemeskys, ha ryp 
an gyw a resas dhe dhetcle neb a'n qviyskis ; y wholhas y 



dhewlagas gans y eyll leyf o gosys, dre ras an goys y 
whelas Ihesus Crist del o dythgtis, from the heart there 
went a stream great, water and blood mingled, and 
by the spear it ran to the hands of him that struck 
him ; he washed bis eyes with his one hand that was 
bloodied, by virtue of the blood he saw Jesus Christ 
how he was treated. M.C. 219. This is also written 
yll, qd. v. It has exactly the same meaning as neyl, 
qd. v. W. aill, other. 

EYL, s. m. An angel. Worth an pen y a welas dhe'n berth, 
yw levery.? kens, un flock yonfc, ffivyn y dhyllas, eyl o, ha 
y ny wodhyens, at the head they saw of the grave, (that) 
is mentioned before, a young child, white his apparel, 
an angel it was, and they knew it not. M.C. 254. More 
generally written el, qd. v. 

EYN, adj. Icy, very cold, chilling. War (u a y vam a'n 
pewo, y ben a vynnas synsy, ha'y enef eth anodho gans 
garm eyn hag uchel gry, on the side of his mother that 
owned him, his head he would hold, and his soul went 
from him with a chilling wail" and loud cry. M.C. 207. 
Another form of iein, qd. v. 

EYR, s. f. An hour. Rag henna y tanvonas Crist dho- 
dho efmay'n damtpne ; ruth veyr a dus a'n sewyas, pub 
eyr parys dh'y vlamye, therefore he sent Christ to him 
that he might condemn him; a great multitude of people 
followed him, everj r hour ready to accuse him. M.C. 
108. Another form of er, id. qd. ur, qd. v. 

EYRYSDER, s. m. Happiness. Though this word, is 
given by Pryce, there is no authority for it in Cornish. 
It is evidently the Arm. eurusded, from euruz, happy ; 
and this is the French heureux. 

EYS, s. m. Corn. PI. esow. Yma gtne un be da, gorra 
hag eys kemyskys, ol dhe'n bestf.s us omma a gef bos lour 
dmvdhek mys, I have a good bundle of hay and corn 
mixed; all the beasts (that) are here shall find food 
enough twelve months. O.M. 1058. An dour ha'n eys 
ywposnys, may 'lh ens mur a dus dysiwcys, ha bestes yth 
wlas, the water and the corn are poisoned, so that many 
of the people are destroyed, and beasts in thy land. 
O.M. 1569. Another form of ys, qd. v. 

EYS, conj. Than. Bynyges re by, dhe'n harlot pan fynsi/s 
ry nn hakcre memans yn beys ; rale hacre mernans rys 
emladhc y honan, ny gaffe den, my a gr$& blessed be 
thou, to the villain when thou wouldest give the most 
cruel death in the world ; for a more cruel death than 
to kill himself, no man may find, I believe. K.D. 2073. 
Variously written es, and ys, qd. v. 

EYSYE, v. a. To praise, to commend, to extol. IJivyd, 
77. Hag yth em dhe ben dowlyn, hag y keuisens dhe 
scornye, hag a gamma aga meyn,pub onon rag y eysyt ; 
lowene dhys, te ytv diieyn mychtern, rys yw dhe wordhyv, 
and they went on their knees, and they spake to scorn 
(him,) and they made wry their mouths, every one to 
extol him ; joy to thee, thou art to us a king, need is to 
worship thee. M.C. 137. 

EYSEL, s. m. Vinegar. Nyns yw Ely a gylwa ; seches 
dhodho yma, ef a'n geve drok wyras : ottense gynef parys, 
lystt'l eysel kymyskys, wassel mars its seches bras, it is not 
Elias whom he calls ; thirst to him there is, he has 
found it an evil relief: behold them with me ready, 
gall (and) vinegar mixed ; wassail, if there is great 
thirst. P.C. 2977. Gans an Edhewon war hast drok 
dhewas a ve dylhglis, tebell lycour, mury last, eysyll bestyll 



FAL 



144 



FALSLYCH 



kemyslcis, by the Jews in haste bad drink was provided. 

bad liquor, grekt Us mistiness, vinegar (and) gall mixed. 

M.C. 202 
EYTHINEN, s. f. Furze, gorse. Corn. Voc. rhamnus. 

See Eithin. 
EZHOF, v. s. I am. Llwyd, 247. This is a reduplicate 

form of of. ~W.ydwyv. 



THIS letter is a radical and immutable in Welsh and Ar- 
moric. In Cornish it is both a radical and a secondary. 
When radical iu early Cornish it \vas also immutable. 
When secondary it is the aspirate mutation of/), aspm, 
a head, ow fen^ my head ; ago fen, their head. This is 
another form of pk, as written iu Welsh, pen, ei phen: 
her head. In Armoric this mutation is also written f; 
aspenn, hefenn, her head. In Cornish, f is also a re- 
gular mutation of b, and m, by hardening v after certain 
particles ; thus lydh, will be ; ty a, vydh, thou shall be ; 
ifffydh ny, we shall be. Bras, great ; yn frfls, greatly. 
Mas, good ; yn fas, well. In the Ordinalia/" is often 
found after particles which always soften the initials, 
and the following sentence furnishes an instance of this 
confusion. Nep IM crys ny fydh sylivys, iia guns Dew 
ny i>ydh trj/yy^ he that believes not shall not be saved, 
nor with Oocl shall he dwell. B..D. 1109. In these 
cases yhad the sound of t>, as in modern Welsh. (See 
Lltvyd, 227.) In the latest days of the existence of the 
language, /'had a mutation like 4, and w, into v. Llwyd, 
241, gives as an instance fordh, a way; an vordft, the 
way. He also mentions another mutation off into fi, 
SLsJWh, a child ; a'n hloh, of the child ; dhe'n hl6h, to the 
child. This is a regular mutation off, in Irish, and 
Gaelic, but there is not a trace of it in the Ordinalia, or 
tho other British dialects. In Irish, and Gaelic, /"chan- 
ges into fh, which however is sounded as h. Fein, self, 
mi f hem, myself; In Manx, /"changes into//*, as in Ir- 
ish ; but having no sound it ie not written ; it also chan- 
ges to v, as in late Oprnish : thus -foays, advantage ; e 
oays, his advantage , nyn voays, their advantage. 

PABORDKJf, s, m. Thu base iu music. Kenmtch why 
fdborden bras, ha me a can Irebyl fyn, sing ye a great 
base, and I will sing a fine treble. B.D. 2359. 

FAOYE, v. a. To make a face, to pretend. Ny vennaf 
pel ymbreyse, rag nyns yw an vaner van, dfte voy denvyih 
ny'm c/orst, tcyn facvtm mur. renothas, I will no longer 
judge, for tho custom is not good, no man any more 
could place mo, though wo may pretend much. P.O. 
1680. Gttns apeni gwrech y curenf, rdk on harht dhe, 
facity v6s mychtern Yedheioon.vtith thorns do ye orown 
him, fbr the knave pretended that he was king of the 
Jews. P,C. 2065. 

FAPJC, 8. m. A fugitive. Corn. \oc. prafuyus. W./b- 
edig from/oj Corn. fy&, to flee. 

FAIDUS, adj. Beautiful. Cornish Vocab fbrmosus. W. 
gwedhus faedhus, luxuriant ; fawdhus, radiant. Arm. 
faezuz, fet'uz feazuz, surpassing. 

FAL, s. m. A spade, a shovel. The aspirate mutation of 
pal, qd. v. Arlulh c&f ol henna gulan, try Ms ow fSl mar 
am be, my ha'm giofek, ha'm n3ch byhan bysy uifdh dhe 
sostene, all wise Lord, that altogether, if I have three 



lengths of my spado, me, tnd my wife, and my little 
child, it will be hard to support. O.M. 396. 

FAL, s. m. A prince. Pryce. 

FALHUN, s. m. A falcon.' Corn. Voc. falbun, falco vel 
capum. W. gwakh. Arm. falchan, falchun. 

FALL, s. m. A failing, deficiency, fail, fault. Den gldn 
yw a lech, hebfall, ynno ef Jyfoiit nynrj et>, a mail clean 
he is of sin, without doubt, default in. him is .not M.C. 
192. Pan varwo gorry hep fal, yntrt y likens ha'y.davas, 
when he dies, put them, without fail between his teeth 
and his tongue. O.M. 825. ^ff.'-gwali. Arm. ywall, 
fall. 

FALLAF, v. a. I will fail. The asp. mutation of pallaf, 
1 pers s. fut. of pally. Ow arluth krr Xalariwn, awos 
lavur nadewon, nefre ny fallnf ' dhettctiwhy, my dear lord 
Solomon, because of labour nor sorrow, I will never 
fail you. O.M. 2406. Wharrt dhedhy yn scon me a ; 
bydhaf bysy war an dra, hug yn teffry byth ny falla, ma 
nygys vy spedye a wra, anon to her soon I will go ; I 
shall be diligent on the business, and really I will never 
fail, my errand I will expedite. P.O. 1933. W. pallav, 
niphallav. 

FALLAS, s. in. Falseness, deceit, fraud, failing. Llwyd, 
242. A later form offallad, from which was formed 
the plural fallndcnu. JDhynny ny iravyth ny qref, aban 
yw y wodh efy [esky hepfalladou; to us there is nothing 
grievous, since it is his will to burn it without deceit. 
O.M. 484. Un sarf w> gwedhen umi bst uthek hep 
falladow, there is a serpent in the tree, an ugly beast, 
without deceit. O.M. 798. W. gwalliad. 

FALLE, v. n. To fail, to be deficient. Kyn fallens okiae 
a vedh, yn medh Pedyr, y'th servis, though all fail, L will 
be, says Peter, in thy service. M.C. 49. W. guxilttaa, 
pallu. Arm. fallaai. 

FALLIA, v. a. To cleave, to split, to rive. Liunjd, 59, 
\DhofalHapofeldzha: from the English. 

FALS, adj. False, deceitful, treacherous. Na ve btisfals 
an den-ma, nyn drossen ny b$8 deso, were it not that this 
man is false, we should not have brought him to thee. 
M.C. 99. My re gyrhas dhys dhe dre mab Adam, afals 
huder, may hallo genen trege, I have fetched home to thee 
the son of Adam, the false hyprocrite, that he may dwell 
with us. O.M. 505. Ouf-warnouch, fals marregion,p$& 
yv; an whethlow, ha'nsfin <l ijlewaf abtrlh yn pnw, outup- 
ou ye, false soldiers, what are the tales, and the report 
that I hear in the land. R D. 607. Vf.fals. Arm. fals 
Ir.fallsa. Gael.fallsa. la&.fdlsus. Germ, falsch, valsdi. 

FALSE, v. imp. It seems. Blewec, coynt yw, ha hager ; 
ny won pana vest ylla bus ; yth false or A y savour y 
bosa neb bucka nos, hairy, rough it is, and ugly, I know 
not what beast it is; it seems by its savour that it is 
some hobgoblin of the night. C.W. 114. Me a welat 
wedhen noy, ha, sarf yn ban ynny, rnarmv, seich, hy a falsa, 
I saw one tree more, and a serpent on the top of it, 
dead, dry it appeared. C.W. 138. 

FALSLYCH, adv. Falsely. Trueth vye ten yw guldn fals- 
lych y bones dystcrys, it were a pity that a man who is 
pure should be falsely destroyed. P.O. 2438. Miir vent- 
ons ha calas ran ef a whylas, Jhesu Cryst mychlern a nef, 
hafalslychyn iuggyns ef gans cam pur vras, great .ven- 
geance and a hard lot iie sought, Jesus Christ the ' " 
of Heaven, and falsely hath sentenced him with very 
great wrong. R.D. 2263, 



FAST 



145 



FE 



FALSURY, s. tn. Falsehood. ludas Scharyolh as cull/'', 
ha yans miir afuhury, Judas Iscariot cavilled at her, and 
with much falsehood. M.C. 35. Yn ilr-na mar a keivsys 
falntry, ha nit Uek genns henna, hafals, te dok dustuny, 
in that hour if I spoke falsehood, and that does not 
please thee, and false, do thou bear witness. M.C. 82. 
A Das kuf ifth wholovys, an sarf re ruk mu tholle, dlt'ij 
falsury y crcxi/n, O Father dear in thy lights, the serpent 
hath deceived me, her falsehood I believed. O.M. 287. 

FARA, s. m. Regard, notice. Larar lemyn, ty Ihcsu,pa'n 
drok vo yn -iv r-lu a dliynqni/dltysla d'hynny, /KM n-reta 
mar coi/nt f'lra, oiv scol/ye agan guard, ha >ifer orth y 
tyslryn-y, tell now, thou Jesus, what evil is there on any 
side that thou hast shewn to us, when thou makest such 
sharp notice, scattering our wares, and destroying the 
fair. P.O. 340. Me a vyn mos dhotn sera dha welas 
panafara a wra efa'n nou'edhys, I will go to my father, 
to see what regard he will make of the news. C.W. 86. 

FARDEL, s. m. A load, a burden. PL fardelloiv. Gyntf 
ymafard/u I pilr dha icar ow kcyn, I have a very good 
load on my back. O.M. 1617. Pup den ol degyns ganso 
ypijlh, an mfns a allo, war aga keyn fttrdtlloti; let every 
man carry with him his things, all that he can, burdens 
on their back. O.M. 1593. This is not a Celtic term, 
being the old English fardel. Tfr.fardeau. Sp. fardel, 
fardo. It.fardc/to. 

FARIA, s. f. Mary. This is to be read Varia, a muta- 
tion of Maria. Re Faria, by St. Mary. Pryce. 

FARWB, v. n. He may die. A mutation of muring 3 
pers. s. subj. of meiwt. Me ha'm cowylh a dreha Dis- 
>.<, Ita why dreheveitch ybcyn, tuny funee an dhew vylen, 
I and my companion will raise Dismas, and do ye raise 
the other, that the two villains may die. P.C. 2826. 

FAS, s. m. A boasting, a brag, bragging. Fy dheuch, a 
rnli ryon plos, arms ayas fas ha tros, ny wra Lorn y imr- 
leiu; fie on ye, dirty boasters, notwithstanding your brag- 
ging and noise, a blow will not quell him. P.C. 2110. 
Id. qd.ybs. 

FAS, adj. Good. Yn fas, well. The asp. mutation of 
ma*. Gantry n dhiik golow, nos o, ny welons ynfds, with 
them they took a light, it was night, they saw not well. 
M.C. 64. Yn mf'dh an yoff, clrvas Iras es om dewlejf 
devethyn, lovi/l rijtlt ny allnf yn ftin ynnc sensy dhe wonys, 
says the smith, a great disease is come on my hands, 
tool none am I able in them to hold to work. M.C. 156. 
D/iyiiuiio errcilln I; i/n tvvdh, ro nerth dltc gerdhes yn fas, 
to me maimed also, give thou strength to walk well. 
O.M. 2010. 

FASOW, adj. Weak. Ou-l, ellns ! gallaf fasow, ythesnf 
yn tewolgoic, ny allaf dos ancdfta, out, alas, I am gone 
weak, I am in darkness, I am not able to come from 
thence. C.W. 24. 

FAST, adj. Fast, speedy, quick, strict. Yn ur-na y a 
colmas y dhefrech fast gans cronmv, in that hour they 
bound his arms fast with thongs. M.C. 76. Yn y golon 
fast rcgcth miir a gerense worthys, into his heart fast 
there is gone much love towards thee. M.C. 115. Yn 
apong orlh ytcelen fast dlie Grist hy a ve hedhys, gonys oil 
a wrens yn fast rag nag o Crist attendyis, in a sponge 
on a rod quickly to Christ it was reached, all worked in 
haste, because Christ was not attended. M.C. 202. Dre 
vddh an Tiis ruradmv, ymma qorhyl crtfordnys, ffystyn- 
nynfa.il Ly.i dhodho, by' the will of the' Father beloved, 



there is a strong ship ordained, lot us hasten quickly to 
it. O.M. 1041. Yrvysfast bys yn dhewen, armed quite 
to the jaws. M.C. 242. *W.fest. 

FASTB, v. a. To make fast, to fasten. Written also/a.s- 
tye. Dhe'n leyff arall pan dothyans ivorth an grows rag 
y fasti', to the other hand when they came to the cross 
to fasten it. M.C. 180. Ha' n grows a ve drehcvys, ha 
Ihesvs fasteys ynny, and the cross was raised, and Jesus 
fastened on it. M.C. 184. Engoysyn mes may tardhas, 
delfastsens an colmennow, the blood out so that it gush- 
ed, so they fastened the knots. M.C. 76. Yntre dew 
gicn'n y tnhy, rdk crifus triis pren dedhy, ha'yfastie gans 
cliyl pnn, in two let us cut it, for to get a cross piece to 
it, and fasten it with a peg of wood. P.C. 2563. Ha 
fusla sy dhe vrcder yn luen grygyans, and strengthen 
thou thy brethren in' full belief. R.D. 1164. Dh'agas 
faslye yn crygyans, to strengthen yon in belief. R.D. 
1174. Paste dhegy dhe vreder yn lt-l grygyans, strengthen 
thou thy brethren in trusty belief. R.D. 2368. 

FATEL, adv. How, by what means, in what manner. 
Tits fis dhym ow tcvonesyw gans ow thraytor dyskis, fatel 
dons dhotv hemeres, ha del vedhaf honibronkis, men are 
to me coming, (that) are by my traitor taught, how 
they shall come to take me, and how I shall be led. 
M.C. 61. Yn ur-na fatel vyc, am lewnans del yw screfys, 
in that hour how it would be, as it is written of my life. 
M.C. 73. Lavar cowyth da del 6s,faltd yllyn asiconvos en 
harlot, say good fellow as thou art, how we may know 
the knave. P.C. 966. Me a vyn mos dhe vyras fattel 
yw gans Ihesuktr, I will go to see how it is with Jesus 
dear. P.C. 2966. Variously -written faUel,fMel,fe/tyl, 
and in late Cornish fall. It is a mntation ofpatel, and 
compounded of pa, what, and del, form. 

FATLA, adv. How. Me a levar dhys fatla, I will tell 
thee how. C.W. 38. This is a late form of fatel, and is 
a mutation of patla. Llwyd, 248. 

FAV, s. m. Beans. A plural aggregate; favan, a single 
bean. Cuthu fiiv, bean cods. Llwyd, 13, 150. W. fa, 
sing. faen. Arm. fav, fa, sing. faven,faen. Ir. ^ seil. 
Lat. f aba. Fr.feve. 

FAWT, s. m. A deficiency, a lack, or want. J Mafaivt 
dho vi, there is a want to me, i. e. I want. Llwyd, 59. 
$Maga liaz try ez fawt dhiuh, as many as you have oc- 
casion for. 232. This occurs only in recent Cornish, 
and is borrowed from the Eng. fault, in the old sense of 
a defect, as used by Shakspeare. 

FAY, s. f. Faith. An abbreviated form of fedh, qd. v. 
My a ivel tyyr givelen gay, ny vielys tekkc, rum fay, lyth- 
queth aban vff genys, I see three gay rods, I have not 
seen fairer, on my faith, ever since I was born. O.M. 
1730. Dhe fay rewruk dhe sawye; ke yn cres, lavamf 
dhys, thy faith hath made thee whole ; go in peace 
I say to thee. P.C. 531. Agan arluth hep parow, me 
ny'n nachaf, war ow fay, our Lord unequalled, I will 
not deny him, on my faith. P.C. 910. 

FE, pron. s. He. Another form of ef, and used generally 
after the verb. Otle-fe lemmyn kcjf'ys, see him now- 
taken. R.D. 1901. Govynneuch orth an yeiler kyns ol, 
pa'n plcyt y me fe, ask of the gaoler before all, in what 
plight he is. R.D. 2053. Lavar ol an gwyr dhymmo fatel 
me fa (mafe,) tell thou all the truth to me how he is. 
R.D. 2062. Me an nabow dyougel, yth o fe deaul kyns 
merivel, alterth yn nor, I know it certainly, he was a devil 



FEDH 



140 



FEGANS 



before dying, within the earth. R.D. 2121. It is also 
written ve. Kyn ve dyswrys an temple, yn tri dydh yn 
drchafse bylhquelh whet nafe vc gwell, though the temple 
were destroyed, in three days he would raise it, that it 
never yet was better. P.O. 384. W. ve. 

FE, v. s. He was. A mutation of be, 3 pers. s. pretcr. of 
bos. Rcson prag y fe prynnys yw Ihesus Crist dhe ordna 
yn nrff'yvonas tregys,the reason why he was redeemed is 
that Jesus Christ ordained in heaven that he should 
dwell. M.C. 7. A'nneJfyfedanvenysdheworlhanTas 
cledh dy, from heaven there were sent from the Father 
angels to him. M.C. 18. Hagevysmayfedhodhokyffrys 
y lech hn'y fyllye, dcgis na ve dheworto gwlds ntf, and 
that as well his sin and his filth were forgiven to him, 
nor was taken from him the kingdom of heaven. M.C. 
23. Bynyges. re bo an prys, may fe gwrys an gorholeth, 
blessed be the time that the agreement was made. O.M. 
675. Gorhel vyth ny tremene, anfor-na nafe budhys, a 
ship never passed that way, that was not drowned. R.D. 
2324. See Be, Ve. 

FE, v. subs. He may be. A mutation of be, 3 pers. sing, 
subj. of bos. Rag henna my as temptyas dhe behe, muyfe 
ellas aga hdn kepar ha my, for that I tempted them to 
sin, that "alas " may be their song like as mine. O.M. 
309. Lafurye a wra pup prys, rak dry den dhe vos 
dampnys dhe ponow, nafe sylwys, he will labour always 
to bring man to be condemned to pains, that he may not 
be saved. P.O. 17. Yn dan ambos yth eses,ha hen nafe 
da genes, gfd dhe servys ty a wra, under an agreement 
thou wast, and though it be not good with thee, thou 
shalt do thy service. P.C. 2260. Here^e must be read 
vc, after na. 

FEA, v. a. He would sin. A mutation of pea, id. qd. 
peha, 3 pers. s. subj. of pehy. Poken a whressen fyllell, 
liag y fea pech pur vrds, otherwise I should work deceit, 
and should sin a very great sin. C.W. 44. 

FECYL, v. a. To flatter. Worth Ihesu ef a fecle, kepar 
ha pan ve hcgar, yn dewedh ny acordye y golon gans y 
lavar, Jesus he flattered, as when he was amiable, at 
the end his heart accorded not with his words. M.C. 40. 

FECYLTHER, s. m. Flattery. Lotvene dhys, a vester, yn 
medh Judas, an bralhky, dhodho y rug fekylther, hag y 
amme Ireivesy, joy to thee, O master, says Judas, the 
houud, to him he made flattery, and kissed him dole- 
fully. M.C. 65. 

FECH, s. m. Sin. A mutation of pech, qd. v. Ellas 
my a war henna, bones oiv fech may yn-ta es mercy Dew, 
alas, I know that, that my sin is much greater than the 
mercy of God. O.M. 591. Gaf dhem oiv fech, my ad 
pys, forgive me my sin, I pray thee. O.M. 2726. Dre 
mv fech ty a'm collas, through my sin thou lostest me. 
R.D. 146. 

FECHAS, s. m. Sin. A mutation of pcchas, qd. v. Ha 
rak henna warbarth ol y fechas guldn dedhy hy y feydh 
gyfys, and for that, together all her sin clean to her shall 
be forgiven. P.C. 528. So also W. pechod, ei phechod. 

FEDN, s. m. A head. Pryce. A mutation ofpedn, a late 
corruption of pen. 

FEDH, s. f. Truth, belief. Py hanow y fydh gylwys, 
lavar dhymmo, er dhe fedh, what name shall he be called ; 
tell me on thy faith. O.M. 677. Yma ow tegensywe 
hagcr gowes, war ow fedh, there is coming down a fierce 



shower, on my faith. O.M. 1080. Hen yw an crt/a, Ian 
ow fedh, dre pup merk ol yn bys-ma, this is the middle, 
under my faith, by every mark in the world. O.M. 
2534. Written s\sofydh, qd. v. 

FEDH, v. subs. He shall be. A mutation of led/i, id. qd. 
bydh, 3 pers. s. fut. of b6s. A's drens dhe Jerusalem, rag 
yfedh miipyn Bethlem genys, a dhyspreen an bys, let them 
take them to Jerusalem, for there will be a son in Beth- 
lehem born, (that) will redeem the world. O.M. 1934. 
Droy genes dhe Jerusalem yn fen, y fedh othom anncdhe 
dhe gunde mab den defry, bring them with thee home 
to Jerusalem quite ; there will be need of them to put 
to death the Son of man truly. O.M. 1949. Sometimes 
fedh is found irregularly for vedh, and so to be pronoun- 
ced. Ha kymmys yn bf/s fis vtis, yn medh an ion/, te a 
fedh, and as much in the world as is good, says the 
devil, thou shalt have. M.C. 16. 

FEDHAF, v. subs. I shall be. A mutation of bedhaf, 1 
pers. s. fut. of bos. Gon giryr y fedhaf marou; I know 
truly I shall die. R.D. 2030. Yn nef yfedhnff Iregis 
an barlh dychoiv gans am car, in heaven I shall dwell on 
the right side with my father. M.C. 93. In the follow- 
ingjfrdhafumst be read vcdhaf, after ny. My ny fedh- 
af rak meth dos yn mysk ow brudereth, I shall not for 
shame come among my brethren. P.C. 1429. 

FEDHE, v. subs. He would be. The asp. mutation of 
bedhe, 3 pers. s. subj. of bos. Taw, an el a bregewthy 
a'n u-elen hag a'y vcr/u ; a'y frut a wrdlo dyliry i/fr/Iti- 
kcpar litt rli-tv, peace! the angel preached of the tree, 
and of its virtue ; that of its fruit he who should eat 
would be like a god. O.M. 232. Nacldjfvffth, ow crow- 
edht;Tiiar pt'sy a Irun golon, whare sawijfiyfedhe, del i-ynna 
Crixl if hmtun, nor sick any lying, if he prayed with 
true heart, immediately he would be saved, as Christ 
himself wished. M.C. 25. 

FEDIIOXS, v. subs. They shall be. The asp. mutation of 
bedhom, 3 pers. pi. fut. of bus. Ena tus mara kafl'af, 
yn mes yfedhons gorrys, there if I find people, out they 
shall be put. O.M. 342. Y popcl ny v(/dh paryys,y8Mi 
yfedhons gwjffiys, his people shall not be spared, down 
they shall be kept. O.M. 1515. Ha dhym y a u-orthebys 
yfedhons myllyn parys, ketep onen, and to me they an- 
swered, that they will be to-morrow ready, every one. 
O.M. 2307. 

FEDHYTH, v. subs. Thou shalt be. The asp. mutation 
of bedhyth, 2 pers. s. fut. of bos. An ioul dhe Adam 
kewsysa'n aval te kemer tarn, avel Du y fedhytii <JW 
pan y'n provas, nynju mas, the devil to Adam said, of the 
apple take thou a bit, like God thou wilt be made, when 
he proved it, it was not good. M.C. 6. 

FEEN, v. s. We may be. A mutation of been, 1 pers. 
pi. subj. of bos. Yn ewn fordh dhy may 'th yllyn, may 
feen hembrynkys, pesyn en Tas Dew, luin a rercy, in the 
right road to it that we may go, that we may be led, let 
us pray the Father God, full of mercy. O.M. 1973. 

FEER, adj. Prudent, wise. Pryce. More correctly writ- 
ten fir, qd. v. 

FEETH, v. a. He will overcome. 3 pers. s. fut. otf 
qd. v. Dre grdlh an nef, agan Tas ny a'sfeeth kynfo 
mur fel, through the grace of heaven, our Father will 
overcome it, though it be so fierce. O.M. 1086. 

FEGANS, s. m. Necessaries. A mutation of peganx, 
qd. v. Cuntell warbarth ow fegans, me a vyn mos pur 



FEN 



147 



FENSEN 



uskys, fia teosc hcmma dewhans, pell yn devylh dlie wan- 
dra, gather together my necessaries ; I will go very 
quickly, and henceforth speedily far in the desert to 
wander. C.W, 84. 

PEHAS, s. m. Sin. A mutation of pehas, qd. v. Ow 
consclar whek y ih pesaf, dysk dhymmo un ankenek ragow 
fehas, my sweet adviser, I pray thee, teach me a peni- 
tential hymn for my sin. O.M. 2257. 

FEL, adj. Subtle, cunning, wily. Den fel mur yw, hag 
ynyifn : gircyt y wrennye prest yn tyn, byth nascapye, a 
very cunning man he is, and ingenious ; take care to 
iron him very tightly, that he may never escape. P.O. 
1886. W.fel. Ir.feall, trickery. Gael./ea//, id. 

FELDZHA, v. a. To cleave, split, rive. Llwyd, 59. 

FELEN, s. f. Wormwood. Lhvyd, 41. A late form of 
fuclin, qd. v. 

FELEN, adj. Brutal, cruel. Erna 'n prenny yn felen, lia 
nacha ol dhe gous guliin, until thou catchest it cruelly, 
and clean recant all thy talk. O.M. 2G53. A mutatiou 
of me/en, qd. v. 

FELLA, adv. Further. A mutation of pella, qd. v. Saf 
ena, na nes, na dhus, no, fella, rag ny fynnaf, stand thou 
there, nor nearer, come not, nor further, for I will not. 
O.M. 1404. Mesk otv pobel ny vynnaf na fella agas 
godhaf, among my people I will not longer suffer you. 
O.M. 1595. Ancmv yw dynythys scon dhymmo vy, ny'm, 
bus bywe na fella, death is come soon to me, there is no 
longer living for me. B.D. 2210. 

FELLET, adj. Corrupted. Guin fellel, Cornish Vocab. 
acetum, vinegar. Fellel is the participle passive offalle, 
to fail, qd. v. 

FELLORES, s. f. A female fiddler. Corn. Voc.Jidicma. 
W. filorcs ; filar, a fiddler, from the English. 

FELLYON, adj. Foolish, silly. Plural of fol, qd. v. Ys- 
souch gokky ha fellyon, ha teul yn agas colon, rak foul 
crygy, ye are silly and foolish, and deceit in your heart, 
for want of believing. R.D. 1273. 

FEMA, v. subs. I was. Ellas, panfema gynys, ancow yw 
dynythys scon dhymmo iy, alas, when I was born, death 
is come soon to me. R.D. 2207. To be read vema, a 
mutation of bema. This may be considered as com- 
pounded of be, was, and ma, for my, I ; or it may be 
the regular Welsh form of bum i, 1 pcrs. s. preterite of 
bos. 

FEN, s. m. A head, an end. The aspirate mutation of 
pen, qd. v. Yn le basnet war owfen, curyn a spurn lym 
ha cjl/w, instead of a helmet on my head, a crown of 
thorns sharp and stiff. R.D. 2581. Agafeny a sackye, 
hag a geionypur debell, their heads they shook, and spake 
very foully. M.C. 195. 

FEN, adj. Strong, strenuous, eager. Y a fyslena yn fen 
tnir dh'y dyirbme, they hastened eagerly to meet him. 
M.C. 1G7. Dro y genes dhe dre dhe Jerusalem yn fen, 
bring them with thee home to Jerusalem at once. O.M. 
1948. Yn fen kymmcr a nyl pen, firmly take thou the 
one end. O.M. 2787. Afystynyn ny ynfen, Oh, let us 
hasten eagerly. R.D. 715. Hallyens pip den ol ynfen, 
let every man haul strenuously. R.D. 2275. fen is a 
mutation of men, qd. v., by the usual hardening after 
yn, of the soft mutation ven. So mas, vas, yn fas. 

FEN, v. subs. I should be. A mutation of ben, 1 pers. 
s. subj. of bos. Y volungeth mars ywa, y offendye ny 
vynna kyn fen marou' yn lorma, an mernans me a'n kym- 



mer, if it is his will, I will not offend him ; though I 
should die at this time, the death I will take it. O.M. 
1331. Saw levereuch, cowethe, py kefer pren dh'y crow- 
sye, my ny won, kyn fen ledhys, but say, comrades, where 
shall be found wood to crucify him ? I know not, though 
I should be killed. P.C. 2536. My ny'n grussen, kyn 
fen ledhys, I would not have done it, though I should be 
killed. P.C. 3024. 

FEN, v. subs. We should be. A mutation of ben, 1 pers. 
pi. subj. of bos. 01 ny a pys, may fen givylhys rak an 
bylen, all we pray, that we may be preserved from the 
evil one. P.O. 41. Yn della yth il codha, a tus warnan 
yn torma, na fen hardh dh'aga givylhe, so the people 
may fall on us at this time, that we may not be able to 
keep them. P.C. 2297. Na gefyn, tear ow enc, kyn fen 
neffre ow pony 6 yn pup toll worth y whylas, we shall not 
find, upon my soul, though we be ever running in every 
hole seeking him. R.D. 550. 

FENESTER, s. f. A window. Corn. Voc. fenestra. It is 
also called prenest, benidar, and beisder, qd. v. W.fen- 
estyr, fenestr. Arm. prenestr, prenest, ^-fenestr, -^fanesl. 
Ir. \seinistir. All from the Lat. fenestra. It is also 
called in lr.fuindeog,fuinneog. Gael, uinneag. Manx, 
uinnag. O. Norse, vindauga, (windeye.) Eng. window. 

FENNAS, v. n. Thou wouldst. A mutation of mennas, 2 
pers. s. imp. of menny. Moy kynfennas dhe gafys, pur 
wyr, leskys ef a vydh, rak cowlenwel bodh dhe vrys, more 
if thou wish to take, very truly, it shall be burnt, to ful- 
fil the desire of thy mind. O.M. 432. 

FENNE, v. n. He would. A mutation of menne, 3 pers. 
s. imp. of menny. Ha dew a dhiik dusluny yn dew- 
sons ow leverel pur ivyr y fenne terry an tempel cref, hay 
wuthel yn tressa dydh, and two bore witness, (that) 
they heard him say, very truly, (that) he would break 
the temple, and make it on the third day. M.C. 91. 

FENOCHEL, s. m. Fennel. Corn. Voc.feniculum. In 
later Cornish, funil. Llwyd, 16. W. fenigl. Arm. 
fanoiil, fanuil. Ir.feneul. Fr.fenouil. From the Lat. 
feniculum. 

FENS, v. subs. They should be. A mutation of bens, 3 
pers. pi. subj. of bos. An Edhewon ny wodhye an pren- 
nyer py fens keffis dhe wuthyll crows ancdhe, the Jews 
knew not the timbers where they should be found to 
make a cross of them. M.C. 151. En debell ivrek casa- 
dow gans mur a doth eth yn chy, war hast dhe ivelhyll ken- 
trow, may fens creffha trewesy, the wicked wife detest- 
able with much hurry went into the house, in haste to 
make nails, that they might be strong and doleful. M.C. 
159. Saiv kyn fens y morthelek, dhe weth vydhons dhe'n 
cronek, ha garmv y yn dhule, but though they be ham- 
mered, they shall be worse for the toad, and rough in 
his hands. P.C. 2731. 

FENSE, v. n. He would. A mutation of mense, 3 pers. 
s. pluperf. of menny, qd. v. It is used generally as a 
subjunctive or conditional. En Edheivon a gowsys, 
henna yw dhyn bylyny ; bedhens dhe ves defe.ndisy vonas 
mychlern dhynny, ha bedhens ena gorris y fense bos dre 
vestry, the Jews said, this is to us a disgrace; let it be 
put out that he was a king to us, and let there be put 
that he would be by force. M.C. 188. 

FENSEN, v. n. I would. A mutation of mensem, 1 pers. 
s. pluperf. of menny, qd. v. Yw giryr dhym a leveryth ; 
ny fenscn awos travyth yn della bos wharf ethys, is it true 



FERYL 



148 



FETTOW 



(that -which) tliou sayest to me ? I would not for any 
thing so that it should happen. P.C. 1942. Uerefenscn 
must be read vensen, as in the following example also. 
Hemina ywyeyn nawodhow, ow holan ylhciv terrys,fensan 
ow boscif marow, this is cold news, my heart is bro- 
ken, would I were dead. C.W. 92. 

FENTEN, a. f. A well, a fountain. PI. fentiniow. Fentcn 
bryght avel arhans, ha pedyr strcyth vriis defry ow resek a 
dyworty, a fountain bright like silver, and four great 
streams truly, flowing from it. O.M. 771. A dan her, 
my a welas yn paradys finten ras, ha warnydhy tin 
tcedhcn, O father dear, I saw in Paradise the fountain of 
grace, and over it a tree. O.M. 836. Mar ny gevyth 
mfdh py gwyn, fee dhe finten dhe eve, if thou wilt not find 
mead or wine, go to a fountain to drink. O.M. 2436. 
Another form of funten, qd. v. 

FENYGOUCH, v. a. Ye will bless. The aspirate muta- 
tion of benygouch, 2 pers. pi. fut. of benygia, or lemgia, 
qd. v. Rale y tue dydliyow, may fenygouch an torrow na's 
leve vylhqueth flehcs, for the days will come, that ye will 
bless the wombs that have never borne children. P.C. 
2646. 

FER, s. m. The leg. Corn. Voc. crus. The same authority 
gives logodenfer, sura, the calf of the leg. Ber, in con- 
struction vcr, is another form. See Ver. In Welsh, 
ler is a leg, and fir, the ankle. Or. o<f>vpoi>. See 
Logodenfer. 

FER, s. f. A fair, a mart. Me a vyn dyeskenne, ha mos 
yn tcmpil ware dhe weles ol anfer-na, I will dismount, 
and go into the temple at once, to see all that fair. P.C. 
315. Pan wrela mar coynt f nra, ow scollyc agan ginn-n, 
ha' n fir orth y lystri/in/, when thou makest such sharp 
notice, scattering our wares, and destroying the fair. 
P.C. 342. An fir a fuc dallelhys dre tiis vas berth yn 
tempcl, dredho y fue dystrewys, yn mes y wrilg y teu/el, 
the market was begun by good men within the temple ; 
by him it was destroyed, he did cast it out. P.C. 2409. 
W. fair. Arm. four. Ir.faid/iir. Ga,e].faidhir. Fr. 
foire. It.Jiera. Span. /mi. Lat. ferice. 
FERHIAT, s. m. A thief. Corn. Voc! fur. There is no- 
thing similar in the cognate dialects. Probably formed 
from the Latin, with the usual termination that denotes 
an agent. 

FERNOYTH, adj. Unclad. Yn mfdh Christ, a Ian nig 
dlteuch ( rnoyth fernoylh ow holye, says Christ, since I 
caused you naked unclad to follow rne. M.C. 50. This 
is a doubtful word, being written in one MS. sernoth. 
TERROR, s. m.^ A blacksmith, a farrier. Hail, f error, 
lowcne dhys, us teyr spik vriis genes gurys, hail, smith, 
joy to thee ! Are there three great spikes with thee 
made? P.C. 2669. From the Lat. ferrarius. 
FERWE, v. n. He may die. The asp. mutation of mer- 
we, 3 pers. s. subj. ofmenvel, qd. v. Pan o Ihesus Crist 
dampnys aberth yn crows may fence, haccra vernanx vijth 
ordnys dhe creatur ny vye, when Jesus Christ was con- 
demned on the cross that he should die ; an uglier death 
was never decreed for a creature. M.C. 151. Id. qd 
faru'e: 

FERYL, s. m. Peril, danger. The regular aspirate muta- 
tion of peryl, qd. v. Torre yn owfiryl ry, hag ynwedh 
gwra dhe'th u-orty, may tebro ef annodho, pluck it off at 
my risk, and also cause to thy husband that he may eat 
of it. O.M. 197. 



FES, v. s. Thou mayest be. The asp. mut. of lies, 2 pers. 
s. subj. of bos. Huganso Jcynfex lewiys, I/ 1 ayll sevcll arte, 
and with him though thou inayest be cast down, thou 
mayest stand again. M.C. 22. A ny wodhas ow mestry, 
bos dhymmo mayfis ledhys, bo delyffrix d/ie imry, know- 
est thou not my power, that it is to me that thou may- 
est be killed, or delivered to liberty. M.C. 144. 

FEST, adv. Quickly, fast, very. Fest yn creff me re becha-i, 
Ihesus dhe icy ow qucrthe, very strongly I have sinned, 
Jesus to you selling. M.C. 104. Yth o xquardijs adro 
ol, a'y ben y oys o scolijs, hag ynno fist luhas tol gans nn 
dreyn a ve tellys, all was torn about, from his head his 
blood was spilt, and in it quickly many a hole with the 
prickles was holed. M.C. 133. Laninm- tyn hag ucfiel 
fist ynfoll y a gewsy, speeches sharp and high very fool- 
ishly they spake. M.C. 238. Fest yn tyn efrum sorrax. 
very grievously he has provoked me. O.M. 4i>4. My a 
wra fist yn lowcn dhe nygys, I will do very joyfully thy 
errand. O.M. 719. Fest pel //"/ re' n seri-yrts (f, very 
long I have served him. O.M. 852. A Tits Dm; ijiiU- 
osekfest, O Father, God, most powerful. P.C. 157. A 
dhyscmpys gwreuch tan da, riik yeyn fist yiv tin aivel, im- 
mediately make ye a good fire, for very cold is the 
weather. P.C. 1209. W. fist. 

FESTB, v. subs. Thou hast been. A mutation of leste, 2 
pers. s. pret. of bos. Abel, pc feste mar In/. n>/ t/n/I/e dliyx 
bones hel,ow niones dlie'n stierefy*, Abel, where hast thou 
been so long 1 thou oughtest not to be slow, going to the 
sacrifice. O.M. 467. More recently written fvntii. Prnga 
net wrtta jircdirij, y fisln formys deri i-y, <l< r y ii-mui-* (''' 
omma, why dost thou not consider, that thou wast formed 
surely by his workmanship here? C.W. 16. Ty,prag na 
bredersys, a dhorn Dew y fextn i/n'ri/s, why didst thou not 
consider, by the hand of God that thou wert made ? 
C.W. 24. 

FESTYNNA, v. a. To hasten, to make haste. 2 pers. s. 
imp. fi'styn. Written also fi/xteny, and fijxlynni/, qd. v. 
FET, v. subs. He shall or will be. ThiV is to'be read 
vedh, a mutation of ledh, id. qd. bydli, Z pers. s. fut. of 
bos. Pitp iiinner los yn lij.s-iita us d/ti: dybry may /</(/, 
rag den ha best, tiinget tn,yn dhe tester ly nfit, all manner 
of food in this world, that is incumbent to eat, for man 
and beast as well, in thy ship thou shalt have. <>.M. 
996. Drefin hten ty dltum servyc; ow crcs a fit venary, be- 
cause thou hast served me fully, my peace thou shalt 
have for ever. O.M. 1020. 

FETEL, adj. How. Another form of fatel, qd. v., and 
indiscriminately v/rittenfettel,felyl, fi'tlyl. Lavar dln/,u. 
del y'm kerry, pan vernans an gevc <f, hafetel vefi ledh- 
ys, tell thou me, as thou lovest me, what (was) the 
death that he had, and how was he killed ? O.M. 2220. 
A tus ras, why re welas filel formyas J)nc nn Tax nif lia 
nor war Icreh y rrf/s, (J good people, ye have seen how 
God the Father formed heaven and the earth after his 
judgment. O.M. 2826. Fettel allttfry crygy corf Ihesu 
dhe dlinssirch>i, a wylyx a ry ma run; how can I believe 
the body of Jesus to have risen, which I saw dead ? 
R.D. 1423. Prederys peb a'y worfen, flttyl ti/lo <jorj\ nni'\ 
let every one think of his end, how he may end it. 
O.M. 228. 

FETTOW, v. imp. Said he. %Peha cm why mm/:. //,.:, 
fittow, teag, whither are you going, fair maid, he said. 
Pryce. A late corruption of medh e. 



FEY 



149 



FIN 



FETH, s. m. The face, or countenance. Tewolgow Iran 
n vi- guris, an haul a gollas y feth, great darkness was 
made, and the sun lost his face. M.O. 200. Y a inlns 
war yfeth y vos marow yrcdy, tliey saw on his face, that 
he was dead already. M.O. 216. Written also fijlh. 
Borrowed from the English. 

FETHE, v. a. To conquer, overcome, vanquish ; to tire, 
fatigue ; to fetch, take. Gwyn bys vones dhym fethys 
lafur fin dnn'on an bys, joyful that for me is vanquished 
the labour and sorrow of the world. O.M. 850. Re 
fethas an fals ievan hydhew terym/th, he has overcome 
the false demon this day three times. P.O. 154. Gwcres, 
ly harlot iaudyn, ha dok an grows war dhe geyn, rak nans 
yw Ihesu fethys, help, thou obstinate knave, and bear the 
cross on thy back, for Jesus is now fatigued. P.O. 2617. 
Dhe'n leys ny a er-y-byn, hag yn y cows y'nfethyn, dre 
grath a vap Dew an nef, to the world we will go against 
him, and in his talk we will vanquish him, through the 
grace of the Son of God of heaven. R.D. 251. Yth or- 
den agan ladhe, rak na yl aganfcthe dre lavaroiu, he will 
order us to be killed, for he cannot vanquish us by 
words. R.D. 254. Mcrnans irystyns hug anger, me a 
wrfik aga f-the may 'lh yw lemmyn da ow cher, death, 
grief, and anguish, I have overcome them, that my state 
is now good. R.D. 500. Par del o Dew lucn a rds, ganso 
delftlltit* >/>* cfis worth crows baner, like as he was God 
full of grace, by him thus the cause is gained through 
the banner of the cross. R.D. 579. I takefethy to be 
another form of gwethe, from gwfth, worse. Arm.faeza, 
feza. 

FEUCH, v. subs. Ye may be. A mutation of bench, 2 pers. 
pi. subj. of bos. Dhfychyn bys-ma y grdth dam-on, yn 
dywcdtt may feuch st/ln-yn, to you in this world to send 
his grace, in the end that ye may be saved. P.O. 5. Me a 
pys ragouch ow tlids, may fetich sylwys dre y lucn ran, I 
will pray my Father for you, that ye may be saved 
through his full grace. P.O. 28. Rag may feuch why 
sosloneys, ettch dhe wonys guel ha ton, that he may be 
maintained, go ye to cultivate field and plain. O.M. 
1163. 

FEL'CH, v. subs. Ye were. A mutation of beuch, 2 pers. 
pi. preter. of bits. Creator a Itrf/s lencn, yn yfarn na 
feuch gynen,fatel dhuthcuch vilty omma, creatures from 
the womb of woman, in hell ye were not with us ; how 
came ye here ? R.D. 192. Written also/ac/z. 

FEVA, v. subs. I should be. The asp. mutation of leva. 
Another form of lef, 1 pers. s. subj. of IMS. Kyn feva 
ledhgt mormv dre miir peyn ha galarmv, ny'th ty nahnf 
byiinry, though I should be killed dead, by great pain 
and SOITOWS, I will never deny thee. P.O. 905. 

FEW, adj. Alive. A mutation of bew, qd. v. A creys 
dhe'n nep a'n gwelas ynfew, aban dassorchas yfue gynen, 
Oh, believe thou those that saw him alive, since he rose 
again, he was with us. R.D. 1442. 

FKY, s. m. Faith. Rum fey, mur a wokyneth yw moncs 
dhe lesky peyth a yl den orto bewe, by rny faith, a great 
folly it is to go to burn a thing which a man can live 
upon. O.M. 473. Ef re trylyas lyes cans ynmes a'n fey, 
he has turned many hundreds out of the faith. P.C. 
1996. An abbreviated form of fedh, qd. v. 

FEY, v. subs. Thou mayest be. A mutation of bey, 
id. qd. by, 2 pers. s. subj. of 16s. Lemmyn omma ty a 
dryk lf/s pan pottro <>l dhe gyle, iuggys may fey, ly a vydh 



mernans calas, now here thou shall stay until when all 
thy flesh rots, that thou mayest be sentenced, thou shalt 
have a hard death. R.D. 2023. 

FEYDH, s. f. Faith. Another form of fi'flh, or fydh. 
My a'n te dhys, war mo f vydh, I swear it to thee, on my 
faith. P.C. 1469. 

FEYDH, v. subs. He will be. A mutation of Irydh, 
id. qd. bydh, 3 pers. 8. fut. of bos. Ha rak henna war- 
larth ol yfcchas gulan dedhy hy y feydh (/'(fys, and for 
that together all her sins clean to her shall be forgiven. 
P.C. 529. Ow bennefh dhysto pup deydh, a henna crows 
da y feydh, pan yw e ymskemtinys, my blessing on thee 
every day, of that there will be a good cross, when it 
is accursed. P.C. 2550. 

FEYF, v. subs. I may be. A mutation of bryf, 1 pers. 
s. subj. of bos. Arluth Ihesu, ro dhym an grits par may 
f'!lf ( l"'!J w dhe, gf'fo s S P HS gy ncf! hydhew yn nep plus may 
borne vu, ha gwel a'lhfas, Lord Jesus, give me the grace, 
that I may be worthy to find opportunity with thee to- 
day, in some place, that I may have a view, and sight 
of thy face. R.D. 840. See also Veyf. 

FEYL, adj. Crafty. Rag map an pla agan templye pur 
feyl a wra yn pup le dhe gill (Irak tra, for the son of evil 
very craftily will tempt us always in every place to do 
evil things. P.C. 11. W./c/. 

FEYN, adj. Fine, keen. Mab Marya mur a lieyn a 
wodhevy yn iir-na, rag ef a wodhya yn feyn, fia'n kyg ny 
vynna henna; mes y dhensys omar feyn pup fir a'n trylya 
dliedha, may 'th eth war ben y dliewlcyn, hapesy yn ketel- 
ma, the Son of Mary much pain suffered at that time, 
for he knew keenly, and the flesh would not this ; but 
his manhood was so fine every hour that he turned him 
to it, that he went on his knees, and prayed in this 
manner. M.C. 54. 

FEYN, v. subs. We may be. A mutation of beyn, 1 pers. 
pi. subj. of bos. Na hedhyn, rag yma u-ar agan toul 
knoukyefast bi/s may feyn squeyth, wo will not stop, for 
it is on our design to strike hard until we be weary. 
O.M. 2699. 

FEYNTYS, s. m. A feint, fiction, deceit. Lavar dhynny 
gwyryoneth, hepfeyntys nafalsury, tell thou to us truth, 
without deceit or falsehood. P.C. 1478. From the 
English. 

FICBREN, s. m. A fig-tree. Corn. Voc. ficus. Comp. 
of fie, from the Latin, and pren, a tree. So W. figys- 
bren. Arm. fiezen. 

FIGES, 8. m. Figs. Figes ledan, broad figs, or figs pro- 
perly so called. Figes an haul, figs of the sun, raisins. 
Pryce. The word is a plural aggregate, and borrowed 
from Latin ficus. So also W. Jigys. Arm. Jiez. Ir. 
figol. Gael, figis, Manx, fig. 

FILGETH, s. m. Soot. Llu-yd, 21, who also writes it 
flgedh, 62. It is formed from the Latin fuligo. W. 
hudliygl. Arm. huzil. 

FILII, s. f. A hook, sickle, scythe. Lhvyd, 58,filh. Voids 
was another corrupt form. Arm. falch. \'La,i.falx. 

FIN, s. m. An end, limit, boundary. Gans nadcr ythof 
gwanheys, hag ol warbarth vynymmeys a fyne trois dhe'n 
golon, by a snake I am stung, and altogether poisoned 
from the end of my foot to the heart. O.M. 1758. W. 
fin. Ga,e\.Jtnid. Lat. _ finis. Fr. Jin. 

FIN, adj. Provident, wary, circumspect, careful. Llwyd, 
131. 



FLECHES 



150 



FLEYEYNGY 



FINNEY, v. n. To proceed, to forward. Pryce. W. 
fynu, to produce ; fynnu, to prosper. Arm. Jinva, to 
move. 

FINWETH, s. m. An end. Lucyfer kelmys yiv tchath 
pur fast yn y golmennoiv, hag ef a dryk hebfynweth yn 
yffarn yn tewolgow, Lucifer bound is very fast in his 
bonds, and he shall tarry without end in hell in dark- 
ness. M.O. 212. Comp. of Jin, end, an<!i gwedh, form. 
Arm. finuez. 

FIOL, s. f. A cup. Corn. Voc. cijfus. W. fid. Arm. 
Jiol. Gr. fauXy. Lat. phiala. Fr. Jlole. Eng. phial, 
vial. 

FIR, adj. Wise, sage, prudent, cunning, skilful. Llwyd, 
248. Fyrah, wiser. This is the late orthography olfur, 
qd. v. 

FIRMAMENT, s. f. The firmament. Corn. Voc.frma- 
mentum. In the margin fyrvav. Borrowed from the 
Latin. It is also used in Welsh, with the regular change 
of the mutable letters, furvaven. The native Welsh 
equivalent is entrych, or entyrch. Ir. flrmamint. 

FIRWY, v. n. To die. Written nlsofyrwy, qd. v. 

FLAIR, s. m. A smell, a stink. Corn. Voc. odor. ' W. 
flair. A.rro..flear,fler. fr. flair. 

FLAM, s. f. A flame. Corn. Voc. flamma. Ow Arluth 
leer, Dew an nef, dre dhe vertu dufydh nerth anjlam ha'n 
tan, my dear Lord, God of heaven, through thy virtue, 
assuage the power of the flame and fire. O.M. 2637. 
W.frtm. Arm.Jlamm. Lat. flamma. 

FLAMYA, v. a. To defame, to reproach. Neb o mestcr 
ha lustis worth Ihesus ef a gowsas, myns us omma cun-' 
tullys pur apert y re I Jlamyas, he that was master and 
Justice to Jesus spake, all that are here assembled, they 
have defamed thee very openly. M.C. 92. 

FLATTOR, s. m. A chatterer. PI. flatturyon. Nyns 
ouch lemmyn gmcygyon, ow mos dres pow, flatturyon, ow 
leverel an nedhow, are ye not now liars, going through 
the country, chatterers, telling the news ? R.D. 1511. 

FLATTORES, s. f. A female chatterer. Taw, flattores, 
na goivs moy, ny fynnaf dhyso crygy, y vos dhe'n nef an 
corf a vylys marow, be silent, chattering woman, speak 
no more ; I will not believe thee, that is gone to heaven 
the body I saw dead. R.D. 1067. 

FLATTRYE, v. a. To chatter. Written also flattre. Na 
wraflatlrye, na mil ges ; doro anprysncs yn mes, bo ken 
syndys ny a vydh, do not chatter, nor make mockery ; 
bring the prisoners out, or we shall be punished. P.O. 
2277. Kyn whrylly flattre mar mur, ahanas tra vyth ny'm 
dur, Icyn 'thos bysy, though thou dost chatter so much, 
anything from thee concerns me not, though thou be 
busy. R.D. 1058. 

FLECHES, s. m. Children. Plural otfoch, qd. v. Writ- 
ten also flechys. Yn mesk flechys Ysrael, dysky laha 
Dew huhel a wra dhedhe deydh ha nos, among the child- 
ren of Israel, teach the law of God the High he does to 
them day and night. O.M. 1553. Tun, venenes, ha 
flechys, ymons omma dynythys, men, women, and child- 
ren, they are come here. 'O.M. 1611. Flec/tes Ebbrow, 
dun yn un rew, scon nep leltye, erbyn Ihesu, neb yiv gwyr 
Dew ow Ids dhe'n dre, Hebrew children, let us come in 
a row, at once without delaying, to meet Jesus, who is 
true God, coming to the town. P.C. 239. Mar tue vcni- 
iam vyth ragdho, u-arnan ny ef re god/to, ha war ol agan 
flechas, if vengeance shall ever come for him, upon 



us may it fall, and upon all our children. P.C. 2503. 
A, Adam, dhyso cres, yn wedh dhe ol owfleches, myns yiv 
gwyryon, Adam, peace to thee, and to all my children, 
all who are innocent. R.D. 162. 

FLECHET, s. m. Corn. Voc. liberi. The old plural of 
floch, qd. v. In later times it was written flechts, flechys, 
flrhett, qd. v. 

FLEHES, s. m. Children. Plural of floh, qd. v. Noe 
ha'y wrtk,ha'yflehes kefrys, Noah, and his wife, and his 
children also. O.M. 932. Saw warnouch agas honan, ha 
war 'gasfihes vyan, ken dhe ole why a's bydh, but on ye 
yourselves, and on your little children, cause to weep 
ye shall have. P.C. 2643. Flehys mur ha bencna.i, a war 
bos mo feynys bras, ragoff na wheleuch ole, children 
many, and women, who know that my pains are great, 
forme seek not to weep. M.C. 168. 

FLEHESSIG, s. m. A little child. Llwyd, 243. Plural 
flehesyggow, flehysygow. Ha kekyffrys an bronnow na 
dhenes flehesyggow, gwyn ago, beys er bones, and likewise 
the breasts that children have not sucked, happy their 
fate shall be. P.C. 2649. Rag na ivorsys ow hanow, ha 
rag an flehysygoiv a Israel dyscryggyon, ny's goryth dlu'n 
tyr, because thou knewest not my name, and because of 
the children of Israel, unbelievers, thou shalt not bring 
them to the land. O.M. 1868. 

FLERYE, v. a. To make a bad smell, to stink. Written 
also fleyrye. Nejjre na ivrello dybry, lemyn flerye ha 
peddry, kepar ha seym py lyys haul, that she may never 
eat, but stink and rot, like train-oil, or salt-marsh mud. 
O.M. 2707. Lemmyn poevan a lesky, ow flerye, ow mow- 
segy, kepar ha kuen, but disease and burning, smelling, 
stinking, like as dogs. R.D. 171. Hag y gul dhys y qiecr- 
Ihe dhe andrdhyas Cristenyon, na vans yn mysk ledhcwon, 
ow fleyrye re, and will sell it to thee to bury Christians, 
that they may not be among Jews, stinking too much. 
P.C. 1566. 

FLERYS, adj. Fetid, stinking. Noe, mar luen yw an 
beys lemyn a schereivynsy, may 'th ew dhewedh dynythys ; 
ynno a gyk pup huny gans pech mar vr ewflerys, na ulliif 
sparie na moy, Noah, very full is the world now of wick- 
edness, that the end is come, in it of flesh, every one 
with such great sin is fetid, that I cannot spare any 
longer. O.M. 945. 

FLERYYS, s. m. A stinking fellow, a stinkard. Me a 
u-ysk, mars ens garow, dhe voy scham dhe'n fleryys, I will 
strike, if they are rough, the more shame to the stinkard. 
P.C. 2739. Rak efyw drdk was, war ow fay, mur me a'n 
oils, an plos fleryys, for he is a bad fellow, on my faith, 
I hate him much, the dirty stinkard. R.D. 1890. 

FLEYR, s. m. A bad smell, a stink. Me a gc.tul bos 
ganse prennys da gwdn yn nep le rag an cladhva Crys- 
lunyon ; ma na vans y o^v flerye ; aga fleyr a i)l schyndye 
ha ladhe mur Yedhewon, I advise that there be with 
them bought a good field in some place, for the burial- 
place of Christians, that they may not be stinking ; 
their stink may injure and kill many Jews. P.C. 1547. 
Another form of flair, qd. v. 

FLEYRYNGY, s. m. A stink, a stench. Pendra ii-ruf 
orlh en ioul, mar ny gaff'nf tuul war nep cor ; mars Cryst 
a wercs dcffry, ef a ladh yons flffi/ngy ol ow glascor, 
what shall I do, if I find not for the devil a hole in 
some corner ; unless Christ will help indeed, he will kill 
with the stench all my kingdom. R.D. 2133. 



FO 



151 



FONS 



FLOCH, s. m. A child, a boy. Corn. Voc. pucr. PL 
flechet, and later flcchcs. Arluth hen yw re nebcs, mar 
quren floch vi/lh denythy, Lord, this is too little, if we 
do ever a child produce. O.M. 390. My ham gtvrek 
ha'mjloch lyhan. me and my wife and my little child. 
O.M. 397. Ny a d/iynyth tin floch da, dhyn a scrvyo, 
we sliall produce a good child, who may serve us. O.M. 
664. Benen, a ivelte dhe floch, woman, seest thou thy 
son? P.O. 2925. Arm. floch. Gael, fleasgach. Lat. 
filius. 

FLOCHOLETH, s. m. Children. Y vennath dheuch yn 
tyen, kejfrys qorrylh ha benen, jtocholeth, an gicary yw 
due lemmyn,\\\& blessing to you wholly, men and women 
likewise, children, the play is now ended. O.M. 2838. 

FLOH, s. m. A child, a boy. A late form of floch, ' the 
guttural being lost. PI. jftehes, qd. v., and Jlehesow is 
also given by Llwyd, 243. In his time it was changed 
in construction into hloh, as floh, a child ; an hloh, of 
the child ; gen hloh, with child ; an hloh-na, that child. 
230, 242, 243. 

FLOUS, s. m. Excuse, flattery, mockery. Rum, fay, gwyr 
yw agas cous,efa'npren wythout flous, yn ta del y'n dyn- 
dylas, by my faith, true is your speech, he shall pay, 
without excuse, well as he has deserved it. P.O. 1346. 
Ha iesmas a barth aral, kycheuch ef, kerdheuch hep flous, 
and Jesmas on the other side, hold ye him, go without 
excuse. P.C. 2524. Pcder, taw, ha gas dhe flous, rak 
evereth yw dhe gous ef dhe sevel, Peter, be silent, and 
leave thy mockery, for idleness it is to say that he has 
risen. R.D. 935. Arm. floda, to coax, to flatter. 

FLURRAG, s. f. The prow of a ship, forecastle. Corn. 
Voc. prora. Dr. Owen Pughe has inserted Jlureg, in 
his Welsh Dictionary, on the authority of Dr. Davies, 
but as the latter gives the Liber Landavensis as his 
authority, it is evident that he is quoting from a copy 
of the Cornish Vocabulary, as I have noticed in other 
instances. Flurrag is evidently the Eng. floor, and 
Corn, rag, forward. 

FLYRAN, s. f. A lock. Llwyd, 149. 

FO, s. m. A flight, retreat. Nag ens y hardh dhe wortos, 
lemmen oil monas dhe'n fo, they were not bold to stay, 
but all went to flight. M.C. 250. Ny gafaf vy ken 
ynno, na blam dhe vones ledhys ; y gase d/ie vos dhe'n fo, 
nyns us gwcl cusyl yn beys, I find not cause in him, nor 
blame that he should be slain ; to permit him to go 
away, there is not better advice in the world. P.C. 2159. 
Me a vyn dcgy adro, ha dhe worre gy dhe'n fo a dhesem- 
pys, I will bring around, and put him to flight, imme- 
diately. P.C. 2314. Myl vyl dyaul a vye gwan er-y-byn 
ef; yn ncp lol fyen dhf'n fo alemma, a million devils 
would be weak against him ; into some hole let us flee 
away hence. R.D. 134. W. fo, from the verb foi, to 
flee. 

FO, v. subs. He may be. A mutation of bo, 3 pers. s. 
subj. of bos. Ke growedh war an dor guliin, ha, cask, 
byth na siif yn ban, erna fo cowethes gwres, go lie down 
on the earth clean, and sleep, nor ever stand up, until a 
help-mate be formed. O.M. 98. A das, ty re dhros dhym- 
mo ascorn am. kyk (ham) corf, par o may fo ow howethes, 
Father, thou hast brought to me bone of my flesh, and 
my bod3',it was meet that she should be my companion. 
O.M. 113. Ow benneth prest ty a fydh kefrys yn nos hag 
yngcydh, ha myns us yn leys ry'thfo, my blessing shall 



ever be on thee, equally by night and day, and all that 
is in the world be thine. O.M. 469. An nyl torn y 
fydh re hyr, tres aval re got yn gwyr, ken fo mar len 
musurys, at one time it will be too long, at another too 
short in truth, though it be so carefully measured. O.M. 
2550. Sometimes fo must be read vo, as, ny an gwra 
dhys wharre a dhyssempys hep lettye pynag afo, we will 
do it for thee soon, immediately without stopping, what- 
ever it might be. R.D. 2000." Panfo nos, when it is 
night. R.D. 2438. 

FOC, s. f. A hearth, a fire-place, furnace. Ty a whfjth 
avel cauch was, tvhyth war gam, ny dryk grychonen ynfok, 
thou blowest like a dirty fellow, blow athwart, there 
remains not a spark in the forge. P.C. 2717. Bos yn 
yfarn yw drok fok, ow lesky yn tan ha mok, anken pup 
prys, to be in hell is an evil fire-place, burning in fire 
and smoke, sorrow always. R.D. 282. W. foe. Lat. 
focus. 

FODIC, adj. Happy. Corn. Vocab. felix. W. fodiawg, 
fodiog, from subs, fawd, happiness, whence again the 
ndj.fawdus. Lat. fautus. 

FOG, s. f. A blowing house ^Caria an stean dha an fog, 
carry the tin to the blowing house. Pryce. A later 
form of foe. 

FOL, adj. Foolish, silly, simple. Used both as an adjec- 
tive and substantive. PI. fellyon, qd. v. Kayphas pur 
wyr a sorras, hag elh pur f 61 yn ilr-na, Caiaphas very 
truly was angered, and went very foolish at that time. 
M.C. 94. Yntrethe, avel tils fol, garlont spcrn a ve dythg- 
thtys, among them, like foolish men, a garland of thorns 
was framed. M.C. 133. Un Edhow, avel pyth foil, a 
wyskis kenler ynhy, a Jew like a foolish thing, struck a 
nail in it. M.C. 182. Ufereth fol yw nan gas, foolish 
idleness it is not to leave it. R.D. 950. A Thomas 
assosa fol, O Thomas thou art foolish. R.D. 953. W. 
fol. Arm. foil. Fr.fou,folle. Lat. follis, a wind-bag. 

FOLIE, v. a. To play the fool, to brag. Rag an harlot 
dhefolie, for the villain did brag. Pryce. W.foli. 

FOLLAT, s. m. A neckerchief, or neckcloth. Pryce. 
%Ha genz hedna, an gwadngyrti genz e follat a destriaz 
an den koth en ywili, and with that the concubine with 
her cavalier destroyed the old man in bed. Llwyd, 
252, so translates it. 

FOLNETH, s. m. Folly, foolishness. A lowan, na gows 
a drues, rak ahanas marth am lues, ty dhe leverel folneth, 
O John, speak not perversely, for I am surprised at 
thee, to be speaking foolishness. R.D. 961. 

FOLTERGUSCE, adj. Frantic. Corn. Voc. freneticus. 
Compounded of fuller, id. qd. A.rm.foultr,foueltr,foeltr, 
Fr. foudre, Lat. fulgur, fulmcn, a thunderbolt, and 
cuske, to sleep. The literal meaning would be thunder- 
sleeping, or made lethargic by thunder. 

FON, v. subs. I may be. A mutation of I6n,\ pers. s. subj. 
of 16s. Me a beys dhe ivrear neffa, may fun pub er pleg- 
adow dhe vones y servant ef, yn by.i-ma, hclfalladow, ha 
drevon lew, I pray the Creator of heaven, that I may 
be desirous to be his servant in the world without deceit, 
and while I live. C.W. 152. An anomalous form of 

bef, byf, qd- v - 

FONS, v. subs. They may be. A mutation of bans, 3 
pers. pi. subj. of bos. Dhe Ihesu mayfonsparys dh'y gom- 
fortye yrcdy, an ncjf y danvenys dheworth an Tds eledh 
dy, to Jesus that they might be ready to comfort him 



FORMYAS 



152 



FOVA 



surely, from heaven there were sent from the Father 
angels to him. M.C. 18. Hag yn fast kelmys dhedhc 
kerdyn givcthyn yn mesk cronow, may funs hyllyth dhe 
gronkyc, and fast bound to them were cords weaved 
among thongs that they might be pliant to beat (him.) 
M.C. 131. An mychtern a worhemmyn dlie ol an tyorryon 
may funs y ganso mytlyn, the king commands to all the 
tilers that they be with him in the morning. O.M. 2424. 
Ha dhe dhulef claf kyn fans, hep kcntrovi byth ny vedli- 
ons, and though thy hands may be sore, they shall never 
be without nails. P.O. 2697. See Bonn, Vons. 

FOXS, v. subs. They were. A mutation of lions, 3 pers. 
pi. pretcr. of bos. Han dhew-na, bys pan vans squyth, 
war Christ y fans oiv cronkye, and those two, even until 
they were weary, on Christ they were beating. M.C. 
132. Hag yll troys a ve gorrys poran war ben y gele, 
worth an grows y fans ladhyys, gans icenter gwyskis dredhc, 
and the one foot was put straight over the other, on the 
cross they were laid, with a nail struck through them. 
M.C. 178. Ow treys, liomma gans daggrow re's holhas ; 
gans y blew yfons syhys, my feet she with tears has 
washed them ; with her hair they were dried. P.O. 
521. Written also fens, lens, qd. v. 

FOR, s. f. A way, a road, a passage, Pl.filru. Llwyd, 
45. Ty a aswon an scryptor, ly dhe vcnnas sowlhanns luia- 
niyn yn mes a pup for, thou knowest the Scripture, 
that thou shouldst wish Satan now out of every path. 
P.O. 2418. Gorhii vi/th ny tremcne anfor-na na fe ludh- 
ys, a ship never passed that way, that was not drowned. 
R.D. 2324. An abbreviated form of fordh. Vf.for. 

FORDH, s. f. A way, a road, a passage. Corn. Voc. ford. 
Rag henna dhe. bob dydhgtlilya fordh a rug dhe vos sylwys, 
for that to every one a way he did form to bo saved. 
M.C. 7. War an fordh dyllas a les a vegan-is dln-ragdho, 
on the road garments abroad were placed before him. 
M.C. 29. Lemman na veny ledhys nyng es fordh dhe om- 
wethe, now that we be not killed there is not a way to 
keep ourselves. M.C, 245. Ny won na fordh dhum nygys, 
I know not the way to my errand. O.M. 699. Pandra 
yw dhe nygys, mar hf/r fordh dos may fynsys, what is 
thy errand, that thou wouldst come so long a way ? 
O.M. 734. Yn hanow Dew, ly mor glan, me a'th teysk 
gans ow gwelan, uger a les fordh dhynny, may hyttyn nws 
dhe'n tyrelh, in the name of God, thou fair sea, I strike 
thee with my rod ; open wide a path for us, that we 
may go to the land. O.M. 1677. Llwyd, 243, gives 
fyrdhoiv, as a plural ; and in late Com. fordh was chan- 
ged in construction into vordh, as an vordh, the way ; 
'gys fordh, your way. Lhvyd, 230. W. fordh. Ir.for- 
aimh, a journey ; foras, a ford. In the Celtic dialects 
generally ford signifies a way by land, and in the Teu- 
tonic, one by water. The root is preserved in the Germ. 
fahren, to go. 

FORH, s. f. A fork. Llwyd, 24. In late Cornish it chan- 
ged in construction into vorh, as an vorh,ihe fork. Fork 
trivorh, a three-pronged fork. Lhvyd, 166. Fork arhans, 
a silver fork. 242. The older form must have been 
forch. W.forch. A.rm.forch. Ir. t/brc. Gael. fore. 
Lat. furca. Germ, vorcfce. 

FORMYAS, s. m. A former, a creator. Del 6s formyas 
dhe'n nef ha'n lilr, ha, dysprynnyas dhynny pup fir, as 
thou art Creator of heaven, and earth, and a Redeemer 
to us always. R.D. 843. Mychtern nef re by gordhys, del 



6s formyas nef ha'n leys, king of heaven, be thou wor- 
shipped ! as thou art Creator of heaven and earth. 
R.D. 2524. From the verb formye, with the termina- 
tion denoting the agent. 

FORMYE, v. a. To form, to fashion, to create, to make. 
Part. pass, formyys, formys. Ny a vyn formye an bys, 
we will create the world. O.M. 11. Otv formye tek ha 
dyllans, ty rum griik piir havd dhys, creating me fair and 
bright, thou hast made me very like to thee. O.M. 87. 
Rak bones 61 lek ha da in ivheddydh myns yw furmyys, 
aga sona ny a ivra, for that all is fair and good, in six 
days all that is created, bless them we will. OM. 143. 
Ellas i-i/th, pan yw kyllys Aid whek, oiv map kerra, na 
vytliijue'lh pan vef formys, alas ever, when is lost sweet 
Abel, my dearest son, that I had ever been created ! O.M. 
616. A ny vynla oleye dhe Dhew a u-ruk dhe. formye, hag 
a formyas nef ha n veys, wilt thou not obey the God who 
made thee, and made heaven and the world. O.M. 
1500. W. furvio. Arm. -\-furmi. Ir. foirm. Gael. 
ftiirm. *La.i.formo. For the substantive see Furf. 

FORMYER, s. m. A former, maker, contriver, creator. 
En Tas a' nefy'm gylwyr, formyer pup Ira a vyt gwrys, 
the Father of Heaven I am called, Creator of every 
tiling that is made. O.M. 2. W.furviwr. 

FORN, s. m. An oven, a furnace. Corn, \oc.fornax vel 
clilanus. Gora an bara en forn, put the bread in the 
oven. Pryce. In late Cornish it was changed in con- 
struction into vorn, as chy vorn, a bake house. Llwyd, 
121. W. fwrn. Arm. forn, fottrn. Ir. sorn. Gael. 
sorn. Manx, sum. Lat. furnus. 

FORS, s. m. Aid, help, support, suceour. Nyns us furs 
au-os henna; my a u-6r wheth cusyl dha dhym dhe vru- 
thyl, there is no help for that, I know yet a good plan 
for me to do. O.M. 2801. Nafors kyn na dhrehcdho, kin 
tol ny vydh gwrys ragdho ; ny a' is ten may f 6ns lour hyr, 
no matter though it may not reach, another hole shall 
not be made for him ; we will stretch them, that they 
may be long enough. P.O. 2758. W. porth. Arm. pars. 
Ir.ftutachd, beirt. Gael, furtachd, leart, beirt. Sausc. 
bhar, to support. (W. leru,) whence bhartas, supported. 
Gr. $/>TOS. Lat. partus. 

FOS, s. f. A ditch, a moat, a trench ; an intrenchment, a 
wall. PI. foswo,fossow. Ol y pobel ymons y orth y ,\yn-c 
pup huny, ha'n mor a pup tu dhedhe ow sevel avel dywfus, 
all his people they are following every one; and the sea 
on every side to them standing like two walls. O.M. 
1690. Dhe mil fos a vyyn bryntyn, to make a wall of 
noble stones. O.M. 2281. Ty vaow, darlar lym ha pry, 
mcyn whcyl sloddyys ha genow ; ha my a fystyn agy, ow 
trehevel anfosou; thou boy, prepare lime and clay, build- 
ing stones, trucks, and wedges ; and I will hasten 
within, erecting the walls. O.M. 2320. Fossow da 
gans lym ha pry, ha pen cref u-arnedhe y gwreuch drehe- 
vel, good walls with lime and clay, and a strong top 
upon them ye shall erect. O.M. 2450. W.fos. Arm. fos. 
IT. fos. Gael. fos. All from the Latin fossa; afodio, 
to dig. 

FOS, s. m. A bragging. Pryce. A mutation of bos, an 
abbreviated form ofbosl. 

FOULS, adj. False, deceitful, perfidious. Llwyd, 117. 
Id. qd. fals, qd. v. 

FOVA, v. subs. He may be. A mutation of lova, comp. 
of bo, 3 pers. s. subj. of bos, and va for ve, he. Euch yn 



FRAUS" 



153 



FEINCAC 



dre, hag ordenech 16s pdsk dhynny hep lettye, Peder hag 
loii'aii, kerd/tettck, may fova parys wharre, go ye into 
town, and order the paschal food for us without delay- 
ing; Peter and John proceed, that it may be ready 
soon. P.O. 620. Scryjfes yma dliym pub tra a d/iallath- 
fas an byx-mu, may fova lei recordys, a vf/ns Ira es yna 
givrys, written it is for me every thing from the begin- 
ning of this world, that it may be truly recorded, of all 
things that are there done. C.W. 158. 

FOW, s. f. A den, a cave, a lurking place of wild beasts. 
f\.fmvis. Llwyd, 243. Why guycoryon, euch yn tnes ; 
y/hi'souch ow kuthyl ges a Dhu hag e sans eglos, yn ow thy 
a piyadow pan wrcuch agas mnrhasmo, ha fowys dhe lad- 
rlrun plus, ye traders, go out ; ye are making a jest of 
God and his holy church, in my house of prayers when 
ye make your markets, and dens for foul thieves. P.O. 
336. Vf.fau. iT.fuathais. Gael, fuaihais. Lmt.fovea. 

FOWLS, s. f. A reaping hook, a sickle. Another form 
(Afdh, qd. v. 

FOWS, s. f. A coat. \Lli o owfows ha'm Lrustplal purpur 
garow dhum strothe, dre an gos a-riik Pilat ivorto an kyc 
a glene, my coat and my breastplate were hard purple 
to wring me ; through the blood in the presence of 
Pilate the flesh stuck to it. R.D. 2591. The aspirate 
mutation of poivs, qd. v. 

FOWT, s. m. A fault, defect, want. En golyas ha faint 
dyllry a imdhi.vys Ihesus leer, the watching and want of 
eating Jesus dear endured. M.C. 173. Rag cannux ox 
hep danger, nyns fix font ynnos gwclys, for thou art a 
messenger without delay, there is not in thee a fault 
seen. O.M. 2293. $Dho canvas fowl, to find fault. 
Llu-yd, 69. Gorra font, to lay the blame. 252. Bor- 
rowed from the English. 

FOYS, s. f. A table. Ha'n gicyn esa war en foys, cf a 
ranas yntredhe, and the wine (that) was on the table, 
he divided among them. M.C. 45. Foys is to be read 
voys, and is a mutation of mays, qd. v. 

FRA, adv. Why, wherefore. An abbreviated form of 
frfiya. Ragfra, why. Llwyd, 53. J Ro why ran dh'ages 
dremas, po an voyadge ny did fra ; mes y bart ef an 
fji'ffa, give you a share to your husband, or the voyage 
is not worth the while ; but his part he shall have. 
C.W. 50. 

FRAGA,adv. Why, wherefore. Lhcyd,53. Rag fraga 
na gresyth dhum lavarow, why wilt thou not believe my 
words ? 242. An irregular mutation of praga, qd. v., 
and occurs only in late Cornish. 

FRANC, adj. Free, at liberty. $Frank a leal elto ge, free 
and loyal art thou. Lord Godolphin's Motto. W. franc. 
Arm. franc. 

FRA8, adj. Great. Mar te venions ha codhc, war agan 
fiehys yn fras ha ivarnan bcdliuns ncffre, if vengeance 
will come and fall, upon our children heavily, and upon 
us let it be ever. M.C. 149. Me re. Itue pcchadores, a 
pechas marlhys yn fras, I have been a sinner ; that has 
sinned wondrous much. R.D. 1098. The aspirate form, 
after the adverbial particle yn, of vras, a mutation of 
bras, qd. v. 

FRAUS, s. m. Fraud, deceit. Kepar dd eson yn wedh 
fajfry* y n kve& yn ,imni,!i ragdho kep from, ny iuggyn 
mones nrp pel, lemmyn bf/.i yn un atxti;l henwys Emmaus, 
like as we were also both in grief (and) sorrow for him, 



without deceit, we do not think to go any distance, but 
so far as a village called Emmaus. R.D. 1293. 

FRECH, s. m. Fruit. Corn. Voc-.fruclus. Arm.frech. 

FREG, s. f. A wife, a woman. Corn. Voc.freg gans giir, 
uxor, a wife, a married woman ; lit. a woman with a 
husband. This is another form of greg, or gwrcg, qd. v. 
W. gwraig. Arm. greg. Ir. rfrag, -tgruag. Gael, 
t gruag. 

FRENC, adj. French. Cynyphan Frcnc, a walnut. Lhvyd, 
74. Poccys Frenc, lues venerea. 82. 

FRENNE, v. a. To buy. A mutation of prenne, qd. v. 
Awos cost arhans nag our, grcuch y tenne men a'n dour, 
gorreuch ef yn schath dlien mor, hyfrenne lijth nyns yw 
hern, notwithstanding the cost of silver or gold, drag 
ye him out of the water, place him in a boat by the 
sea, to buy it is never a great matter. R.D. 2234. Writ- 
ten alsofrenna. Rag ifrenna, to buy it. Llwyd, 231. 

FRETH, adj. Violent, fierce, strong, fervent, vigorous. 
Lyryreuch whet, pan 'thatch mar frelh, pyw a whyleuch, 
say ye again, when ye are so violent, whom do ye seek. 
P.C. 1 1 14. Otte lour fcunys gyne, whythyns lemmyn pup 
ynfreth, see fuel enough with me, let every one now 
blow vigorously. P.C. 1242. Rys yw dheuch gynen 
Irifurye, rak an harlot a gnus frelh, pur wyr ynno nyns 
iix mf/h, need is to you to labour with us, for the knave 
speaks boldly ; very truly in him there is not shame. 
P.C. 1833. Rak henna tus ervys frfth gor dh'y wythe a 
tcrmyn, therefore men strongly armed, put to guard him 
in time. R.D. 351. W.frawdh,/rwys. Arm.freux. 

FRETHY, v. a. To conquer, to overcome. Pryce. 

FRIA, v. a. To fry. Llwyd, 61. W./Ho. Arm./n'fo. 
Ir. friochtalaim. Gael, frighig. ~L&l.frigo. 

FRIES, s. c. A spouse, a husband, or wife. A mutation 
of pries, qd. v. Gwyn agan beys, ovjfryes, bos granntyes 
dhynny cummyes dywort an 1'us Dew gwella, happy is 
our lot, my husband, that leave is granted to us from 
the best Father God. O.M. 411. Bersabe, owfryes lei, 
ry.iyw gruthyl dyogcl vodh agan arluth scfryn, Bathsheba, 
my faithful wife, it is necessary to do immediately the 
will of our sovereign Lord. O.M. 2187. 

FRIG, s. f. A nostril. PI. frigow. Llwyd, 97. Corn. 
Voc. fruc, naris, a nostril. Frigmv bras, that hath a 
great nose. Lhvyd, 47. Gor spnisan yn y anow ha'n 
dlicw arall kcki'jjrys, bed/tens gorrys yn y dhyw frieg, put 
a kernel in his mouth, and the two others likewise, let 
them be put in his two nostrils. C.W. 134. Gora sprusan 
y'th ganon; ha'n dheiv arall pur dhybblans yn dhe dheiv 
frieg, put a kernel in thy mouth, and the two others very 
distinctly in thy two nostrils. C.W. 140. Ha del ve dhym 
kyns ornys, an fair sprusan yw gorrys yn y anow ha'y 
fregoiu, and as it was to me formerly commanded, the 
three kernels are put in his mouth and his nostrils. 
C.W. 150. 'W.frocn. Arm. froen, (from fri, a nose.) 
Ir. sron. Gael. sron. Manx, slroan, a nostril. Gr. plv, 
(with i long = XP'X $"*'> as p/f* = fractio, fractio.) 
/5t/7Xos. The proper term for a nose in Cornish was 
train, Iron, qd. v. 

FRINC, s. f. France. In late times it was changed in 

construction into Vrinc. "Vf.frainc. Ir.frainc. Gael. 

fraing, anfhraing (an raing.J Manx, rank. 

FRINC, s. m. A Frenchman. Pryce. Nans Frink, Tre 

Frink, the French Valley, and French town, in Gorran. 

FRINCAC, s. f. The French language. Iii late times it 



FUCH 



154 



FUGIO 



was changed in construction into Vrinkak, the French 
language. Pryce. W '. frengaeg. Ga.el.francais. Manx, 
frangish. 

PROS, s. m. Tide. An fros, the tide. Llwyd, 42. A 
later form of frot. 

FROT, s. m. A strait, a channel. Corn. Voc. alveus. W. 
frwd, \frul, a stream. Arm. fraud. Ir. sroth, f smth. 
Gael. smth. Manx, stroo. Sansc. srotas, a river, from 
sru, to flow. Lat. frelum. Cf. the Gaulish name of a 
river in Ptolemy, (fipov-ni, or (fipov&u. Cf. also the Gr. 
root pv ( = W. rhe,) in peu>, peixria, pevfia, pv-ros. Lat. 
ruo, rivus, rumis. Lith. srov-e, srav-a. O. H. Germ. 
stroum. Eng. stream. 

FROTH, s. m. Anger, wrath. J Nenna dzhei a dorhaz 
an dezan, ha thera nau penz en dezan, ha an mono, an 
dzhei a gavaz ; ha'n bara dzhei a dhdbraz ha na ve idn 
froth na mikan na trauaran nor vez, then they hroke the 
cake, and there were nine pounds in the cake, and the 
money they got, and the bread they ate ; and there was 
no anger, nor strife, nor dispute between them. LI. 253. 
W frock. Ir.fraock, \ferc. Gno].fraoch. Manx, ferg. 

FROW, s. m. A flux, or flowing. Llwyd, 60. "W.frau. 

FRUIT, s. m. Fruit. Corn. Voc. fructus. In the Ordi- 
nalia it is generally written friil; pi. frutys. Pup gwcdh- 
en tefyns ay saf, oiv ton hy friit ha y dclyow, let every 
tree grow from its stem, bearing its fruit and its leaves. 
O.M. 30. War blip friit, losow, ha has, a vo ynny hy 
tevys, saiv an friit ny fydh kymmyas ytv pren a skeyens 
hynwys, over every fruit, herbs, and seed, that are grown 
therein, but of the fruit there is no permission that is 
named the tree of knowledge. O.M. 77. Henna lell 
yth ew henwys, ew an wedhan a vewnans, me a hedh ran 
a frutys, hag a dhro part anodha, this truly as it is called, 
is the Tree of Life ; I will reach some of the fruit, and 
will bring part of it. C.W. 134 Vf.frinjth. Arm. 
frouez. Ir. t frith. Gael, \friih. From the Lat. fructus. 

FRUYN, s. f. A bridle. Pryce. W. fneyn, ifruinn, 
\fruyn. Arm. frcn. Ir. -\-srian. Gael, srian. Manx, 
sreean. Lat.frenum. 

FRY, s. m. A nose. Pryce. A late form of frig, qd. v 

FU, s. m. A fetter, a shackle. Heil doctors ha mestryqi, 
marregyon heil dhyiuhy, byan a bras ! otle Barabas ha 
Ihcsu gans mur a grys, Dismas, Jesmas yn unfu dheuch 
dyvythys, hail doctors and masters, soldiers hail to you, 
little and great ! behold Barabbas and Jesus, with much 
force, Dysnias, Jesmas in one chain come to you. P.O. 
2351. An abbreviated form of fual. Llwyd, 230, who 
gives as the secondary form hual. W. hual, -\-fual, in 
Oxford Glosses. Arm. hual. Ir. qeibheal, geimhiol. 
Gael, geimlieal. Manx, geul. Lat. fibula. 

FU, s. f. A form, shape, figure. Ny allaf gu-elas anfu 
anodho ef yn nep tu; cows ganso me a garse, y voliiiiy/'/h 
mar a pe, I cannot see the form of him in any side ; I 
should like to have spoken to him, if it were his will. 
R.D. 741. A'n guielesta a dhyragvs, a alsesta y aswonfos ? 
Galsen yn ta dhe'n kense fu map Maria, henwys fhesu, 
if thou shouldst see him before thee, couldst thou 
know him ? I could well the former shape of the Son of 
Mary, called Jesus. R.D. 863. An abbreviated form 
of furf, qd. v. 

FUCH, v. subs. Ye have been. A mutation of liich, 2 
pers. pi. preter. of bos. A pur harloth, pie fuch why ? 
pur uth o clewas an cry genef orth agas gylwel, very 



rascals, where have ye been ? very terrible it was to 
hear the cry by me calling you. R.D. 2243. Written 
a,\sofeuch, qd. v. 

FUE, v. s. He has been. A mutation of bue, 3 pers. s. 
preter. of bos. Henna yw pur scorn ha geys, rag y fue 
kyns y vos gwrys dew ugens blydhen ha whe, that is a 
very sneer and jest, for there were before it was done 
forty years and six. P.O. 350. Yn ur-na ef dysmegys, 
py gansse y fue givyskys, senseuch ef yn agan mysk, let 
him declare by whom he was struck ; hold ye him in 
our midst. P.C. 1373. In the following examples/we 
must be read rue. Pan dorrasa an aval, an Arluth a 
fue serrys, when he had plucked the apple, the Lord was 
angered. O.M. 880. May hallo vos kerenys, kepar del 
fue dhyn yrhys gans y das kyns tremene, that he may be 
crowned, like as it was to us enjoined by his father 
before departing. O.M. 2375. Pan fue gcnouch acusyyx, 
when he was accused by you. P.C. 1859. Nyfue golhys 
sol-a-lheth, it has not been washed a long time. R.D. 
1929. Ty re fue fest lafur Iras, thou hast had great 
labour. R.D. 2628. 

FUE, v. a. To flee, to escape. Pryce. Generally writ- 
ten fye, qd. v. 

FUEF, v. subs. I have been. A mutation of luef, 1 
pers. s. preter. of Jo*. A Thomas doro dhe luifyn teoly 
i/irynys mayfuef, dre an golon, Thomas put thy hand 
in the wound where I was pierced through the heart. 
R.D. 1540. A Dhew, ysse fuef goky, pana vynnan vy 
crygy a'n bcdh y vos dusserchys, God I was indeed a 
fool, when I would not believe, from the grave that he 
was risen. R.D. 1565. Written alsoftif. 

FUELEIN, s. f. Wormwood. Corn. Voc. absinthium. Arm. 
vuelrn, /UK /en, uchelen, \mlielen, t hvelen, \huzelen. 

FUEN, v. subs. We have been. A mutation of btien, 1 
pers. pi. preter. of bos. A Arluth mur, gras re'thfo, rdk 
Ion-cue ny gen bo yn le may fuen, O Lord, great thanks 
be to thee, for joy may not be ours in the place that 
we have been. R.D. 169. Ytv dhe henna y fuen ny, 
ow kerchas an giras d/iya-fiy u-rtr uskys, is it for that we 
were bringing the fellow to you so quickly? R.D. 1823. 
lu the following examples it is incorrectly written for 
vuen. My ha' m yn-rf'k riiy yiil fblyhelyt warbarth a fuen 
ny yn mes scon aparadys, I and my wife for doing folly 
driven together we were quickly out of Paradise. O.M. 
709. 

FUES, v. subs. Thou hast been. A mutation of lues, 2 
pers. s. preter. of bos. Hag a'th worbysyn Cnyphas yn 
di/spyt dhe'th dewlaqas, rdk na files kyns lymmyn fur, 
and will bring thee even to Caiaphas, in spite of thy 
eyes, for thou hast not been wise hitherto. P.C. 1194. 
Ty creator bynyges, falfel dliulhti' ay dhe'n cres, na fues 
gynen yn yfarn, thou blessed creature, how earnest thou 
to peace ? thou wast not with us in hell. R.D. 261. In 
both these examples fues must be read vues after na. 

FUF, v. subs. I have been. A mutation of biif, 1 pers. 
s. preter. of bos. Me a'th icorthyp hep lettye ; nyfufden 
dhodho bythqueth, I will answer thee without delaying ; 
1 have never been a man to him. P.C. 1238. Yth egen 
yn cres Almayn orth un prys ly yn pur vyr panfiifgyl- 
wys, I was in -the midst of Germany at a breakfast meal 
very truly when I was called. R.D. 2150. 

FUGIO, v. a. To feign, to dissemble. Pryce, who also 
writes it figio. "W.fugio, from fug, a deception. Ir. 



FUW 



155 



FYDHYE 



bog. ~L&i.fucus, a dye, a false appearance, a deception. 
Gr. (frvKos, alga. 

FUNEN, s. f. A band, a ribband, a fillet. Pryce. PL 
funiou, from fun. ~W.fiin,funnen,\>\.^funiou. Oxford 
Glosses. A.rm.fun, pl.funiou. La,t.funis. 

FUNIL, s. f. Fennel. Pryce. A late form of fenochel, 
qd. v. 

FUNTEN, s. f. A fountain. Corn. Voc. fons. IntheOr- 
dinalia it is written fenten, qd. v. Vf.fynnon,fynnawn, 
^finnaun. Arm. feunteun, \fcunten, from the Latin 
fontana, Ir.fionns. 

FDR, adj. Prudent, wise, careful, sage, clever, cunning. 
Corn. Voc. prvdt-ns. Del levaraf an gwyr dhys, lemyn 
liydh fur, as I tell the truth to thee, now be prudent. 
O.M. 1638. Den fur ad cusullyow, a prudent man of 
thy counsels. O.M. 2681. Nep na'n gordhyo del dhegouth, 
nyns yiv den filr, del gresa, he that does not worship him 
as he ought, is not a wise man, as I think. P.O. 216. 
Marasosfur, tyateic, if thou art wise, thou wilt be silent. 
R.D. 984. Mar a kyllyth dke e.ne, nyns 6s den fur, if 
thou wilt lose thy soul, thou art not a wise man. R.D. 
1410. Ny skap, kynfo vyth mar fur, na'ngrffo droJc, he 
shall not escape, though he be ever so cunning, that he 
shall not have harm. R.D. 2019. Bedheuch why fur, 
be ye careful. R.D. 2276. Comparative fura/i, fyrah, 
wiser. Superl. fura, wisest. In late Cornish it was 
often written _fir, feer. W. fur. Arm. fur. 

FUR, adj. Much, great. A mutation of mur-, qd. v. 
Arluth ny vyen lowen, mar fur torment a codhfen y bones 
dhys, Lord I should not have been glad, if I had known 
the great torment that was to thee. R.D. 2542. Fur 
is here to be read viir. 

FDRF, s. f. A form, a shape. Corn. Voc. forma. W. 
furv. Arm. + furm. Ir. foirm. Gael, fuirm. Lat. 
forma. Gr. fiop<f>>). 

FURNES, s. f. Prudence, wisdom. Pryce. A.Tm.furnez. 

FURU, s. m. Ways. J Gwrcuh owna 'gys fiiru, mend 
your ways. Llwyd, 250. Plural of for, qd. v. 

FUS, v. subs. Thou hast 'been. A mutation of bus, 2 
pers. s. preter. of bos. Lavar dhymo vy yn scon, yw ty 
mychtcrn Yedhewon, kepar del fits acusysys, tell me di- 
rectly, art thou the king of the Jews, like as thou hast 
been accused ? P.O. 1999. Fus is here to be read vits. 

FUST, s. f. A staff, a club, a flail. PLftistow. Why re 
dhueth dhym gans arrow, gans fusion- ha clydhydhyow, 
hepar IKI pun veve vy an pure lader yn pout, ye have 
come to me with arms, with staves and swords, as if I 
were the veriest thief in the country. P. C. 1172. In 
late Cornish it was changed in construction into vust. 
Fyst, a flail, an . vyst. Llwyd. W.fust. Arm.fiist. Ir. 
suist. Gael, suist. Manx, soo.it. Lat. fustis. Qu. Eng. 
fist. The common Welsh term for threshing corn is 
dyrnu, from dv:rn, a fist. 

FUST A, v. a. To beat, to thresh. Llwyd, 245, fysta. W. 
fusta. Arm. fimln. 

FL'VE, v. subs. He hath been. Comp. of fu, id. qd.fue, 
a mutation of hue, 3 pers. s. preter.- of bos, and ve, he. 
Krpar delfuve dremmas, yn dor ny a vyn palas tol mayfo 
ynno cudhys, like as he was a just man, in the earth I 
will dig a hole, that he may be covered in it. O.M. 864. 
After del it must be read vu-ve. 

FUW, s. f. A form, a shape. Whet ny ellys yn nep tu 
godhfos ganso fatelfe ; y carsen gwelas anfuw anodho, y 



vodh mar pe, yet I could not on any side know how it 
was with him ; I would have loved to see the form of 
him, if it were his will. R.D. 469. Another form of 
fu, qd. v. 

FY, v. s. Thou shalt or mayst be. A mutation of by, 2 
pers. s. fut. and subj. of bos. Yn bys-ma rah dry ascor 
ty a vew bys may fy loys, in this world to bring offspring, 
thou shalt live till thou be gray. O.M. 72. Ha ty in 
wedh, botteler, my a'd pys mayfy aspcr, avel marrelc fyn 
yrvys, and thou also, butler, I pray tlice to be bold, like 
a horseman well armed. O.M. 2203. Kyn fy mar prout, 
ty a'n prcn, though thou art so proud, thou shalt pay 
for it. O.M. 2669. Pan fy an bys tremenys, gans Cryst 
yfydhyth trygys agy dh'y clos, when thou shalt be from 
the world passed, with Christ thou shalt be dwelling 
within his court. P.O. 3232. Cryst clew ow Icf, pcsaf y 
wtdh may fy gynef, orth ow dywedh, Christ hear my 
voice, I pray also that thou wilt be with me at my end. 
R.D. 838. After kyn, and. pan, fy must be read vy. 

FYDH, s. f. Faith, belief. Y worlhelys, ny vannaff aga 
guthyll, war ow fydh, he answered, I will not make 
them, upon my faith. M.C. 373. A Phelyp, lous 6s 
y'th fydh, ha ly gymf sollathyth, godlifydhy grygy ynfas, 
O Philip, thou art gray in thy faith, and thou with me a 
long time, shouldst know how to believe faithfully. 
R.D. 2379. Written also indiscriminately fedh, qd. v. 
Vf.fydh. Arm.feiz, ifez. Lat. fides. 

FYDH, v. subs. He shall or will be. A mutation of 
bydh, 3 pers. s. fut. of bos. Pag dre gledhe a vcuche, dre 
gledhe yfydh ledhys, for by a sword he that lives, by a 
sword he shall be killed. M.C. 72. Py hanow yfydh 
gyhuys ? Invar dhyrnmo, er dhefedh, what name shall he 
be called 1 tell me on thy faith. O.M. 676. Ow nesse 
yma an preys, may fydh map Dew ynno reys dhe'nfals 
^edhewon dygnas, drawing near is the time in which 
the Son of God shall be given to the false Jews to be 
afflicted. P.O. 1097. In the following and similar 
examples, fydh must be read vydh. (See Llwyd, 227.) 
Cummyas scon a fydh, hijs dhe baal luen dhe drehy, per- 
mission shall be forthwith, to cut full the length of thy 
spade. O.M. 379. Oiv bcnneth prest ty afydh,my Wes- 
sing ever thou shalt have. O.M. 457. Nep na crys ny 
fydh sylwys, na gans Dew ny fydh trygys, he that be- 
lieves not shall not be saved, nor with God shall he 
dwell. R.D. 1109. 

FYDH, v. subs. Be thou. A mutation of bydh, 2 pers. 
s. imp. of bos. Sens dhe clap, nafydh bysy, rd/c ny fynnaf 
dhys crygy, hold thy prate, be not busy, for I will not 
believe thee. R.D. 1113. Here fydh must be read vydh, 
after na. 

FYDIJE, v. subs. Thou shouldst be. A mutation of 
bydhc. 2 pers. s. subj. of bos. Me a lever, ow map, 
dhys, Deiv dhymmo vy a erchys may fydhe gy ojj'rynnys 
dhodho efwar an alter, I tell thee, my son, God hath com- 
manded me that thou shouldst be offered to him upon 
the altar. O.M. 1327. 

FYDHONS, v. subs. They shall be. A mutation of bydft- 
ons, 3 pers. pi. fut. of bos. Du asyiu emsJcemunys, nep 
re ordenes y ladhe, pur wyr y fydhons dampnys dhe tan 
yfarn droka le, black is he accursed, who decreed to kill 
him ; very truly they shall be condemned to the fire of 
hell, the worse place. P.C. 3093. 

FYDHYE, v. a. To believe, to confide in, to trust. Mar 



FYEN 



156 



FYN 



myn Dew, rag an gwella del fydhyaf ff a vifdh gurys, 
if God wills, for the best so I trust it shall be done. 
O.M. 651. Reyx yw dliys ynno crysy, ha luenfydhye yn 
leffry, bo ken ny fydhyth sylwys, need it is to thee in liim 
to believe, and fully trust in earnest, else thou shalt not 
be saved. O.M. 1509. Yn y Dheiv y wruk fi/illn/i-, 
lemmyn givrens y dhyllyffrye mar myn a dhrok, in his 
God he trusted, now let him deliver him from evil if he 
will. P.O. 2885. ~W.fydhio,fydhiatv. 

FYDHYN, v. subs. We shall be. A mutation of bi/dhyn, 
1 pers. pi. fut. of bos. Heb tout pur wfjr me a grys, 
dredhos y fydhyn sylwys, without a doubt very truly I 
believe, through thee we shall be saved. P.O. 287. 
Nyns its tryga na fella, del hevel, dhynnyommtt, nyfydh- 
yn gesys yn ores, there is no staying any longer, as it 
seems, for us here, we shall not be left in peace. O.M. 
1606. Hero fydhyn must be read vydhyn after ny. 

FYDHYTH, v. subs. Thou shalt or wilt 'be. A mutation 
of bydhyth, 2 pers. s. fut. of bos. Pan fy an bys tremen- 
ys, gans Cryst y fydhyth trijgys agy dh'y clos, when thou 
shalt be passed from the world, with Christ thou shalt 
be dwelling within his court. P.O. 3233. Ha ty, corf 
bras myfyges, dhe yfarn gans dhe enefgynenyfydliyth ly li- 
nes, and thou, great cursed body, to hell with thy soul by 
us shalt be dragged. R.D. 2349. In the following exam- 
ple,fyd/iyth must be read vydhy/h after ny. Ret/x I/ID 
dhys ynno crysy, bo ken ny fydhyth syhi-ijs, need is to 
thee in him to believe, else thou wilt not be saved. O.M. 
1510. 

FYB, v. a. To flee, to run away, to retreat, to put to 
flight. Part. pass, fyys. Rag an terrnyn re deve may 
ff/dh an begel kyllys, ha chcchys yntre dewle, ha'n deves 
dhe vesfyys, for the time hath come that the shepherd 
shall be lost, and caught between hands, and the sheep 
fled away. M.C. 48. Tus Christ dhe vesafyaspeb aydu 
pur vorethek, the men of Christ fled away, every one on 
his side, very sorrowful. M.C 77. Trussen an /</*, 
fyan na vcny kefys, let us cross the country, let us flee 
that we may not be found. M.C. 246. Pan vo qwyskys 
an bugel, y fy an dews a bel, hag ol an ftok a wujbarth, 
when the shepherd is smitten, the sheep will flee far, 
and all the flock will separate. P.O. 894. Me a u-ra 
y iempre, byth na allofe, fye, I will tame him that never 
can he flee. P.O. 1893. Ny wreth wheth war ow e.ne guthyl 
dhymmo vy fye, thou wilt not yet on my soul make me 
flee. P.O. 2317. Yn nep tolfyen dhe'n fo alemma, bys 
may 'th ello sfd a dhe'n nef, into some hole let us flee 
away hence, until they go as many as go to heaven. 
E.D. 134. Dhynny ef a wruk an prat, hag a fyes dhy- 
worthyn, to us he did the deed, and fled from us. R.i). 
606. A'n bedh pan dhuelh ha lamme, y fyys yn un vram- 
me, own kemerys, from the grave when he came and 
leapt, thou fleddest in a tremor, seized by fear. R.D. 
2094. VT.foi; a Lat. fugio. Gr. $61)710. 

FYE, v. subs. He would, or should be. A mutation of 
bye, 3 pers. s. subj. of bos. Arlulli golhy mara qureth ow 
treys, dhym y fye medh hedre veyf byw, Lord, if thou 
wilt wash my feet, it would be a shame to me as long 
as I live. P.O. 845. Marregyon, dheuch ny won blam, 
rak dhymmo y fye, scham gfd dr6k dhywhy, soldiers, to 

' you I know not blame, for to me it would be a shame 
to do harm to you. R.D. 658. 

FYEN, v. subs. I would, or should be. A mutation of 



byen, I pers. s. subj. of bos. Mar codhfo an casadow, 
dystouch y fyen ledhys, if the villain knew, immediately 
I should be killed. O.M. 2120. Arluth, lemmyn a's 
dysken, dyragouch noth y fyen, Lord, now if I take it off, 
before you naked I should be. R.D. 1942. 

FYEN AS, s. m. Anxiety, trouble, perplexity. Fl.fyen- 
asow. Gyllys of yn prcdermu, miir yw ow fyenasoiv, lost 
I am in thoughts, great are my anxieties. R.D. 17. Ow 
colon ynnof a ter pur eivn dre fyenasow, my heart in me 
will break very truly through troubles. R.D. 709. A/wr 
yw ow fyenasoio war y lerch ef, great are my anxieties 
after him. R.D. 1071. Mur yw ow fyenasoiv, ythof 
cnd/iys, great are my anxieties, I am overwhelmed. 
R.D'. 2031. 

FYES, v. s. Thou wouldst, or shouldst be. A mutation 
of byes, 2 pers. s. subj. of bos. Gallos warnafnyfyes, na 
fey vos grn nti/s d/iyn dyworth uhella Aiiotli, power over 
me thou wouldst not have had, were it not granted to 
thee from the most high Lord. P.O. 2187. Fyes must 
be read vye.t after ny. 

FYEUCH, v. subs. Ye would, or should be. A mutation 
of byi'uch, 2 pers. pi. subj. of bos. Attebres, ty n'tli imrty, 
an wedhen ha'y avalow, y fyeitch yn itr-na avel deu-mv, 
if thou atest, thou and thy husband, of the tree and its 
fruits, ye would be in that hour like gods. O.M. 177. 

FYLLEL, v. n. To fail, to be wanting. Yn medhens, mar 
omicreyth daft', gortheUytit le a'n prenvyth, awos guthyll 
wheyu mar si-iiff >/n ethom dhyn mar fyl/yt/i, say they, if 
thou feign thyself sick, most certainly thou shalt catch 
it, in respect of doing a work so light in need if thou wilt 
fail us. M.C. 155. Yn medh gwrek an gojf dhidhe, 
kcntroiu d/ien-y ir/iy luj ff/ll, awos bos clrif y dhen-le, says 
the wife of the smith to them, nails to you shall not be 
wanting, because his hands are sore. M.C. 158. Dhe'n 
l' ; y.ft urall jian dn/hyaiix wiirth an grows rag yfaste, yfylly 
moy yx fr/vheys dhe'n toll ijur/'s luj na hi-d/ie, to the other 
hand when they came, on the cross to fasten it, it fail- 
ed more than a foot length, to the hole made that it 
reached not. M.C. 180. Warlyrch henna dre vestry yn 
tresxa df/dh heb fylliil, dre nerth bras yn drchevy, byth- 
ijinlli ef na rye gwell, after that by his power on the 
third day without failing by great strength that he 
would raise it, that it never was better. M.C. 91. Y 
/ii-inj.sefyn wedh da/herc/iy an Iressa dedh y wre piir 
wyr hep fyllel, he said likewise, that rise on the third 
day he would very truly without failing. R.D. 6. 
Leverouch ow dy.ikyblon mar a fyllys dheuch travyth, pan 
wruge ages danvon hep lorch na scryp, nos na deydh, say 
ye, my disciples, if any thing was wanting to you, when 
I sent you without staff or scrip, night or day. P.O. 
912. Ny grysafdhys ; ty a fyl giil dhym cryr/y, I do not 
believe thee ; thou wilt fail to make me believe. R.D. 
1056. Nep a wrello y pygy ny fyl a gras, he that will 
pray to him shall not fail of favour. R.D. 1338. Eva 
ty a fyllyas, ow cola orth an eal-na, Eve, thou didst fail, 
hearkening to that angel. C.W. 56. W. faelu, (mallu, 
pallu.) Arm. fallout, fellel. Irish, failleadh. Gael. 
faillinn. Manx, failleil. Sansc. sphal. Gr. a<t>d\\w. 
07;Xe'(ii, <j)n\oui. Lat. fallo. Fr. faillir. Eng. fail, fall. 

FYN, adj. Fine, perfect. Rum fey hon yw cusyl fyii, on 
my faith, this is fine advice. O.M. 2041. 7/a ty yn 
wedh, botteler, my a'd pys may fy asper awl marrek fijn 
yrvys, and thou also, butler, I pray thee that thou be 



FYNNER 



157 



FYSCY 



bold, like a fine armed horseman. O.M. 2204. Proba- 
bly borrowed from the English. W.fion, ruddy. Gael, 
t/m. Germ. fein. Eng./me. 

FYN, s. m. A head. The regular aspirate mutation of 
pyn,pen. It is used after ow and aga in the separation 
of erbyn, against, qd. v. Thus er owfyn, against me ; 
er aga fyn, against them. Ens pup Me dre, hag aspy- 
ouch yn pup le, mar ceivs den vytft er ow fyn, let every one 
go home, and see ye in every place if any man speak 
against me. R.D. 1919. Myc/i/ern of guyron ha cref, er 
aw fyn Iravylh ny sff, a king I am true aud strong, against 
me nothing will stand. R.D. 2573. Awl brathken aga 
df/na oiio y a dheskerny; er aga fyn betegyns Cnst un 
ger ny [every, like hounds their teeth on him they 
gnashed ; against them nevertheless Christ a word would 
not speak. M.C. 96. Martfi am bes, kymmys drok a 
wodlievyth, ha tevijlheragafyn na gewsyth, it is a marvel 
to me so much hurt thou endurest, and never speakest 
against them. M.C. 120. 

FYN, adj. Last, final. Kymereuch, eveuch an gwyn, rag 
ny evaf bys dedh fyn genuuch annodho na may, take ye, 
drink ye the wine, for I will not drink till the last day 
with you of it any more. P.O. 724. Sur lour of vy 
annodho, den marmv na dhrehavo bys deydh fyn, sure 
enough I am of him, that a dead man will not rise until 
the last day. R.D. 416. The same word as fin, qd. v. 

FYN, v. n. He will. A mutation of myn, 3 pers. s. fut. 
of mynny. Mar ny fyn dynache y gow, gans spern 
gureeh y curene, if he will not retract his lies, with 
thorns do ye crown him. P.O. 2061. Awos kemmys drok 
a wren, an beys ny fyn tremene, in spite of as much 
harm as we do, from the world he will not pass. P.O. 
2114. Ty a fyn y g'tfos ef, del hevel dhymmo, ledhys, 
thou wishest to have him slain, as it seems to me. P.C. 
2455. Fyn must be read vyn, after a and ny. 

FYNNAF, v. n. I will. A mutation of mynnaf, 1 pers. 
s. fut. of mynny. Yn secund dydli y fynnaf grulhyl 
ebron nef hynu-ys, on the second day I will make the 
sky called heaven. O.M. 17. Lemmyn me a grys yn /a, 
yfynnafvy mos pelld, esouch haneth, now I believe well, 
that I will go further than you to-night. R.D. 1298. 
In the following examples, after a and ny, fynnaf must 
be read vynm/f. Abrutu scon goslow lemyn orth ow lavar- 
ow a fynnaf dyryvus dhys, Abraham immediately hear- 
ken now to my words (that) I will declare unto thee. 
O.M. 1367. A dhesempys lemmyn taw, dhys ny fynnaf 
bones maw, immediately now, be silent, I will not be a 
servant to thee. P.C. 2281. 

FYNNAS, v. n. He would. A mutation of mynnas, 3 
pers. s. preter. of mynny. Gans aga gartn hag olva 
Ihesus Crist a ve mcvyys, may fynnas dyyskynna yn 
i/i" rhas ha bos genys, with their cry and lamentation 
Jesus Christ was moved, that he would descend into a 
virgin, and be born. M.C. 4. Wege henna y fynnas 
Adam Em dre y ras, after that he would (create) Adam 
(and) Eve through his grace. O.M. 2828. Ragonyfynnes 
un fir. ( lui mo* yn bedh, ha sevel, for us he would die, and 
go to the tomb and rise. R.D. 968. 

FYNNER, v. pass. It is wished. A mutation of mynner, 
3 pers. s. pres. pass, of mynny. Ellas ny icon py lyller 
bf/th may pi) le y trygaf, eyclian, rilg yfynner, mara kyller 
gans paynys mcr ow dysicul gltin, alas ! I know not (in) 
what place, ever more where I shall dwell, Oh ! woe ! 



for it is wished, if it could be, with great sorrows to de- 
stroy me quite. P.C. 2600. 

FYNNO, v. n. He may wish. A mutation of mynno, 3 
pers. s. subj. of mynny. Cry si yw Arlulh avercy ; kem- 
mys afynno crygy, fta'y pygy ef, hep dout ef a vydh syl- 
wys, Christ is Lord of mercy ; whoever will believe and 
pray to him, without doubt he shall be saved. R.D. 
284. Dalhen mar cafafynno, pur ivyr ny scap, kynfyn- 
no, na'n geff'o clout; if I shall have hold in him, very 
truly he will not escape, however he may wish, that he 
does not get a beating. R.D. 383. Dallathans nep a 
fynno, rah coske reys yw dhymmo, let him begin who will, 
for need is to me to sleep. R.D. 411. In these exam- 
ples fynno must bo read vynno. 

FYNNYS, v. n. I would. A mutation of mynnys, 1 pers. 
s. preter. of mynny. Wage ow da oberotv, dyives a yrhys 
dedhe ; dhym rosons bystyl wlicrow, bijlti nyfynnys y eve, 
after my good works, drink I asked for to them ; to me 
they gave bitter gall, I would never drink it. R.D. 
2602. Fynnys must here be read vynnys after ny. 

FYNNYTH, v. n. Thou wilt. A mutation of mynnyth, 

2 pers. s. fut. of mynny. Thomas yihos pur ivoky, drefen 
nafynnylh crygy an Arluth dhe dhasserchy du pask vyttyn, 
Thomas thou art very stupid, because thou wilt not be- 
lieve the Lord to have risen Easter-day morning. R.D. 
1106. Galsos lemmyn pur woky, rak na fynnyth dhyn 
crygy, thou art become quite foolish, for thou wilt not 
believe us. R.D. 1514. In these examples fynnyth 
must be read vynnyl/i after na. 

FYNSYS, v. n. Thou wouldst. A mutation of mynsys, 2 
pers. s. preter. of mynny. Panclra yw dhe nygys, mar 
hijrfordh dos may fynsys, lavar dymmo vy whart; what 
is thy errand, so long a way that thou wouldst come ? 
tell me directly. O.M. 734. Bynyges re by, dhe'n har- 
lot pan fynsys ry an hackre mernans yn beys, blessed be 
thou, to the villain when thou wouldst give the cruelest 
death in the world. R.D. 2070. After pan, fynsys 
must be read vynsys. 

FYNTEN, s. f. A fountain. An seth yw rag leveris as 
gu:yskis tyn gans milr angus, war y holon may crunys dre 
nerth an bumfynfen woys, the arrow as aforesaid, struck 
her sharp with much anguish, in her heart that there 
stagnated by force of the blow a fountain of blood. 
M.C. 224. Another form of fenten, and/retoj, qd. v. 

FYNWETH, s. m. An end. See Fimvedh. 

FYRWY, v. n. He would die. A imitation of myrwy, 

3 pers. s. subj. of merwel. Dhyn kyns ef a levcrys ol 
annodho del ivhyrys yn nor bi/s-ma, rag an prenna y 

fynvy, hag arte y tasserchy wage henna, to us before he 
told all how done by him, in the earth of this world, to 
redeem us that he would die, and again that he would 
rise up after that. R.D. 1192. 

FYSADOW, s. m. Prayers. The regular aspirate muta- 
tion of pysadow, pi. of pysad, qd. v. Gweres dywhans, 
my a'dpys, ow fysadow drcs pup Ira ; a Das Dew y'th 
woloicys, clew galow an bobyl-ma, help quickly, I pray 
thee, rny prayers above every thing ; Father God in 
thy lights, hear the call of this people. O.M. 1830. 

FYSCY, v. a. To strike. Yma Moyses pel gyllys yn mor, 
del hevel dhymmo, a rag dyu-hans ow kerdhes, an dour ow 
fysky a les, pup ur ol a dhyragdho, Moses is far gone 
into the sea, as it seems to me ; forward quickly walk- 
ing, the water striking wide every moment before him. 



G 



158 



GAFF A F 



O.M. 1685. An anomalous mutation of gwyscy, qd. Y. 

FYSMANT, s. m. Countenance, visage. J Ty ny vedhys 
dowtyes, drefan y bosta mar dek, ha gans Eva cregys, 
dhyih fysmant dhedhy a blelc, thou wilt not be mistrus- 
ted, because thou art so fair, and by Eve believed, thy 
visage to her will please. C.W. 40. To be read vys-