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rvivr.RSITY OF 



Library Journal 



library Economy anfc 

Vol. 19 










Library Journal 



Xibrarp Economy anfc 

VOL. 19. No. i 

JANUARY, 1894 


A Happy New Year ! 

American Catalog of Books Previous to 1876. 

Printed Catalog Cards. 

Difficulties of Critical Annotation. 


Location of Call-Numbers. 

Scandinavian Books in American Libraries. 


Watson Cole 5 


LATING LIBRARIES. Kate M. Henneberry. . . g 

son Merrill. u 

CITY. H: Carrington Bolton 12 


A LIBRARIAN. By His Assistant 18 


New York Library Club. 
Chicago Library Club. 


Bulletin of the Bureau of Rolls and Records. 










Price to Europe^ or other countries in the Union, los.ptr annum ; single numbers, at. 
Entered at the Post -Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter. 


{January, '94 


London Agency for American Libraries, 



EDW. G. ALLEN devotes himself entirely to library business. His long experience enables him 
to execute the orders of correspondents promlpty, cheaply, and with thorough efficiency. His con- 
nection with all the Book Dealers in the United Kingdom gives him the command of the British 
Book Market, and qualifies him to serve his customers with special advantage, and to bring promptly 
under their notice all the stores of Literature, old and new, on sale in Great Britain. 

Books Supplied at a Small Commission on the Cost Price, with the usual Trade 

deductions, and forwarded by the quickest and cheapest routes. Second-hand 

Catalogues by early Mails, and no Commission charged on Orders 

from them. Periodicals and Newspapers Posted Promptly. 

No expensive sub-agencies at borne or abroad. Foreign books on easy terms. 

Agency for the following Libraries and many others: 

Library of Congress, Washington. 
Libraries of Parliament, Ottawa, Toronto, 

and Quebec. 
Amherst College. 
Boston Public Library. 
Brooklyn Library. 
Brown University. 
Cornell University. 
Enoch Pratt Free Library. 
California University. 

Colorado University. 
Johns Hopkins University. 
Philadelphia Library Co. 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore. 
University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Toronto, Can. 
Watkinson Library, Hartford, Conn. 
Yale University. 
Minneapolis Public Library. 

Cheap and Durable for Circulating Libraries. Specially Strong' for Books of Reference. Superior 

Style for Works of Art. Imitation Antique for Rare Old Books. Calf Extra in Every Variety. 

Best Half-Binding for General Library Use. Pamphlets Bound at Cheap Rates. Law- 

Books In Law Calf. Cheap Binding in Cloth. Hard-Grained Roan, etc. Dilapi- 

dated Binding Neatly Repaired. Deficiencies of Rare Books Supplied in 

Exact Fac-Simile. Library Stamps to Order. 

"We have been, for the last twenty years, personally cognizant of Mr. Allen's faitnfulness to the interests of 
his American customers. When a resident in Washington, ten years ago, we found that the immense Congressional 
Library largely supplied its shelves through Mr. Allen's London Agency. Many of the extensive libraries belonging 
to the Universities and Colleges in the East have also secured their Foreign Books from the same source, and we 
have heard from the officers of these Institutions frequent testimony to the scrupulous exactness with which their 
orders werealways filled. 

" We cannot, theiefore, do a greater service to the Colleges and Universities of the West, to which these pres- 
ents shall come, than to advise that they employ this inexpensive agency for replenishing tneir Libraries with Eng- 
lish Books." PRESIDENT WELCH, Iowa State Agricultural Collegt. 

"No better indorsement of Mr. Allen's Agency is possible than the list of leading libraries that continue to use 
it. For 30 years, strict integrity and unexcelled facilities have held the oid and made new patrons. The very large 
business built up demands only a small commission instead of the customary 10 per cent. A library can safely 
entrust all its London orders to Mr. Allen without getting other estimates and feei sure that it is not making a 
mistake." MELVII. DBWEV, Matt Library, Ntw York. 

Edw. G. Allen's American Library Agency, 





VOL. 19. 

JANUARY, 1894. 

No. i 

" A HAPPY NEW YEAR !" Happily, the old 
year with its tribulations has passed by with less 
discomfort to the library prof ession than to most 
other callings. Doubtless it has been harder to 
collect funds for subscription libraries and doubt- 
less there has been here and there retrenchment of 
forces and salaries; but on the whole the library 
profession enjoys a quiet nook in the world's ac- 
tivity, whose denizens, if less affected by the 
"ups," are also less affected by the "downs " of 
affairs. The year which is past is notable as a 
red-letter year for libraries, beyond almost any 
since 1876, which witnessed the foundation of 
the American Library Association and of the LI- 
BRARY JOURNAL. The library exhibit at Chicago 
made a high- water mark in library co-operation; 
we shall probably feel the effect of the exhibit of 
the model library itself for a generation to come, 
in the quickening of library beneficences; and 
the A. L. A. Conference and the World's Con- 
gress of Librarians were certainly the most note- 
worthy gathering which the library profession 
has had. The old year has seen advances in 
many other directions, including the development 
Into practical shape of the long-desired printed 
catalog card. There is good hope that 1894 may 
include the passage of the long-postponed bill 
for the distribution of public documents, which 
will certainly be a boon to libraries; but what 
else it has in store for us it is difficult to prophesy. 
After the vigor of 1893, it is certainly entitled to 
be an " off-year." 

ONE new enterprise at least is in progress. It 
has become evident that the General Catalogue 
referred to in Mr. Cole's suggestive and valuable 
paper cannot be undertaken without much pre- 
liminary work. As a first step it is proposed to 
publish an American Catalogue of books previous 
to 1876, not recorded in the 1876 volume, and as 
a gauge of the work the letter A has been com- 
piled to include Roorbach, Kelly, Stevens, and 
other material. A circular will presently be is- 
sued to librarians asking their subscriptions for 
the author-alphabet of this work, to be issued in 
parts, and for a supplementary part to contain 
publications of societies, government and state 
publications, etc., not included in the appendixes 

to the later American Catalogues leaving title 
and subject alphabets out of the question for the 
present. It is proposed to ask subscriptions in 
$2 parts and to guarantee that no library shall 
be asked to subscribe beyond $10. This cata- 
log will be issued in a limited edition, and will 
have the double advantage of giving new li- 
braries the bibliographical information now be- 
coming costly and old libraries that information 
in much more accessible form. The great body 
of material for the General Catalog will then be 
systematized in print and it will then be expected 
that librarians and others will co-operate as Mr. 
Cole suggests. Of course the enterprise will not 
be carried out if the library support proves to be 

THE discussion at the New York Library Club 
brought out some interesting views as to print- 
ed catalog cards. It seemed to be the general 
verdict that the headed subject-cards were un- 
necessary and even undesirable, and that the 
preferable plan, from the library as well as from 
the commercial side, would be the limitation of 
the cards to two for each book, one the author 
card, the other a short-title title-entry, with suf- 
ficient space at the top of each to allow the libra- 
rian to insert his own headings the Cutter, 
Dewey, and other headings being appended as 
" tailings" as now, by way of suggestion. It is 
evidently better to develop on simple lines than 
to risk the failure of the work by overloading it 
with details. Ultimately, it is to be hoped that 
annotations may also be appended, preferably on 
Mr. lies' plan for the "evaluation" of books by 
specialists; but this also is a matter for the 

MR. ILES' plan gives rise to one question 
which seems not to have been thought out. No 
one can question the value of a critical note, 
written by some expert in the special subject, 
attached to each title in the card or book cata- 
log, for it would tell readers the exact value of 
each book in relation to the whole literature of a 
subject i.e., that one book was a corner-stone, 
another the best argument from a certain parti- 
san point of view, a third untrustworthy, and a 


{January, '94 

fourth comparatively worthless. But this very at- 
tempt to place a book in comparative critical re- 
lation to others creates a difficulty , because the re- 
lation of a book to a subject is constantly chang- 
ing, owing to the production of new books . Thus 
any one preparing a note on Welles' " Washing- 
ton Genealogy," before 1889, would have been 
compelled to say : " The earlier parts pure my- 
thology, but the later generations closer to facts. 
The only book on the subject." In 1889, how- 
ever, appeared Waters' " English Ancestry of 
George Washington, "and of this the critic would 
say : " A most accurate and careful piece of 
work, though still open to historical doubt. Un- 
questionably the best book on the subject." This 
note remains true until 1892, when W. C. Ford's 
" Genealogy of the Washington Family " is pub- 
lished. The note for this should state : " Prac- 
tically settles the disputed Washington lineage 
and is therefore the best authority." In these 
notes, given simply as examples and hastily 
stated, the contradictions will at once be seen 
and the bewilderment they would cause to the 
average library reader can be appreciated. It 
may be proposed that in such cases the last 
book shall revise the former notes by adding : 
" Entirely supersedes books already published on 
this subject." But this is merely postponing the 
difficulty, for we would presently have a book 
that entirely supersedes this latter, and the con- 
fusion once more begins. The constant repub- 
lication of old titles with new notes would be a 
costly solution of the difficulty. 

THERE is one suggestion applicable here which 
Is perhaps valuable, whether Mr. lies' system is 
ever put in operation or remains unrealized. As 
first suggested, it was that the titles of the few 
best works of a subject should be written on cards 
of a slightly different color, so that any reader 
would at once know which books could be most 
advantageously read. The same purpose might 
be accomplished in the book catalog, by printing 
the title of these books in larger or bold-faced 
type. But here the original difficulty occurs 
again the steady alterations wrought in the rela- 
tive value of books by the publication of new 
ones. 'This change is less objectionable in the 
printed catalog than in the card catalog, for the 
book catalog naturally does not keep down to date 
and is not expected to; but the card catalog is 
quite different, and it is necessary to keep it re- 
vised if it attempts in any way to indicate the 
best books. It is suggested, therefore, that li- 

braries simply adapt a system already in use in 
marking flour barrels. Small stars of gold or 
black paper, gummed on the back, can be bought 
in any stationery store. Taking the cards of a 
single subject, a division into four classes can be 
made without much difficulty; the poorest will 
remain untouched, the next grade shall have one 
star pasted on the card, the succeeding one two 
stars, and the best, three stars pasted upon them. 
Apparently this system is as stereotyped and 
unyielding as a printed note, but in case of the 
appearance of a new book, " declassing" one al- 
ready published, a shave of the penknife will re- 
move from each card the number of stars that 
the librarian chooses, and the book finds its level 
in the catalog. Aside from this advantage of 
quick transfer, the star system tells its story in- 
stantly, without any reading of notes. Of course 
Mr. lies' suggestion would not be a less valuable 
addition to any catalog, because another means 
is also employed to indicate the value of a 



IN reference to your editorial suggestion in the 
December LIBRARY JOURNAL, permit me to say 
that in this library the call-number has for years 
been written on the right-hand side of the card, 
and will continue to be. I am thinking of hav- 
ing cards ruled with the up-and-down lines on 
this side. I may mention that it was Dr. Guild's 
practice to write only the surname on the top 
line, thus leaving room for the call-number and 
emphasizing both. H. L. KOOPMAN. 



THE undersigned would be glad to receive any 
answers to the following questions; also any 
finding-lists or catalogs, containing record of 
Scandinavian literature. 

How large a per cent, of the books in any li- 
brary are Scandinavian books ? 

To what department of literature does the 
Scandinavian part of the library generally be- 
long i.e., fiction, general literature, or official, 
etc., publications, obtained in exchange from 
Scandinavian libraries and institutions? 

Are Scandinavian books much in demand by 
the Scandinavian portion of the population ? 

To what class do most of the Scandinavian 
borrowers belong i.e., laborers, ministers, or 
other educated people ? 



January, '94] 


BY G: WATSON COLE, Librarian, Jersey City Free Public Library. 

MR. R. R. BOWKER, in the preface to the last 
two volumes of the American Catalogue, has 
outlined a scheme for the publication of a 
" General catalogue of American publications of 
the nineteenth century." The enterprise is 
praiseworthy from every point of view, and it is 
to be hoped that it will meet with the pecuniary 
encouragement that such a project deserves. 
The successful completion of such a work, thor- 
oughly executed and appropriately published, 
would be one of the great bibliographical monu- 
ments of the age, and would reflect credit 
upon every person having a hand in its pro- 

Such an undertaking should be all-inclusive in 
its scope, so that, when completed, it shall be a 
full and permanent record of the literary activity 
of the American people and of the products of 
the American press for the period covered. In 
order to attain this result it will become neces- 
sary to employ the co-operation of librarians, 
publishers, and second-hand booksellers on a 
scale hitherto unknown even in this country. 
Not only will it be necessary and desirable to 
include all the entries now contained in the 
American Catalogue, Roorbach, Kelly, and 
Trtibner, the copyright deposit records at Wash- 
ington, early trade publications, publishers' 
lists, and the catalogs of the larger libraries, 
but every locality in the country should be ex- 
haustively searched for publications of a local 
character, and the work here contemplated be 
supplemented by a similar one covering, in as 
full a manner, the period from the introduction 
of printing into America to the close of the 
eighteenth century. 

The subject of local bibliography is one which 
especially commends itself to those engaged in the 
library profession. Nothing, it would seem, 
could give the librarian greater interest than to 
collect and record everything that can in any 
way assist in preserving the history of the press, 
of the town, city, county, or state in which it is 
his privilege to live and labor. If he has the 
true bibliographical spirit he will do this, and 
somewhere in his library will be found a few 
shelves reserved for the fruits of his labors in 
this direction. As yet comparatively little has 
been done in this field. One is surprised, on 

* Portion of a paper read before the Library School 
at Albany, May 8, 1893. 

looking over Ford's "Check list of bibliog- 
raphies, catalogues, reference-lists, and lists of 
authorities of American books and subjects" 
to find how little has actually been done, and 
what a small share of that which is already ac- 
complished is worthy of commendation. Many 
of those enumerated are extremely fragmentary 
in their character. It is refreshing to find among 
these efforts some examples that are worthy of 
praise; such, for example, asHildeburn's " Issues 
of the Pennsylvania press," Bartlett's " Bibli- 
ography of Rhode Island," and Thomson's 
" Bibliography of Ohio." The first named, 
Hildeburn's " Issues of the Pennsylvania press," 
and his " Catalogue of the Charlemagne Tower 
collection of Colonial laws," are especially 
good examples of thorough, painstaking, and in- 
telligent work, and may well serve as models to 
those about to undertake works of this class. 

It may not prove uninteresting to call atten- 
tion to a few other works of a local nature which 
have appeared since 1846. 

The first to which I invite attention is Ludewig's 
(H. E.) "Literature of American local history; 
a bibliographical essay" (xx + 180 p. 8, N. Y., 
1846), which was a pioneer effort in this field. 

Mr. Charles B. Norton, who from 1857-60 
published the Literary Letter, was alive to the 
importance of local bibliography. He began 
a series of brief bibliographies of the different 
states, but only those of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, and Vermont were ever printed. In in- 
troducing the subject he says with great truth: 

" The importance of securing at once exact 
transcripts of the titles of all works relative to 
the history of our country, is beginning to be 
appreciated. It is doubtless true that very many 
pamphlets, orations, discourses, and sermons, 
prepared with care from facts within the reach 
of their authors, have entirely disappeared, never 
to be again brought to light. The undersigned, 
with the object, in some measure at least, to 
preserve for future reference this class of valu- 
able lore, proposes to publish in each number 
of his ' Literary Letter ' the bibliography of a 
separate state. . . . The series will be continued 
until every state is completed." 

In 1871 appeared another work, this time con- 
fined to a single state. Colburn's (J.) " Bibliogra- 
phy of the history of Massachusetts." (Bost., 


[January, ' 94 

Five years later appeared Perkins' (F. B.) 
" Check list of American local history." (Bost., 
1876.) This work gives in the briefest form 
titles of independent works. The latest work in 
this line is that of A. P. C. Griffin, which was is- 
sued by the Boston Public Library and is en- 
titled: " Index of articles upon American local 
history in historical collections in the Boston Pub- 
lic Library." (Bost., 1889.) This is a work of 
225 double-column imperial octavo pages, and 
is arranged alphabetically in the order of the 
names of places referred to. While, as its title 
states, it is restricted to such works as are in the 
Boston Public Library, the number of works re- 
ferred to is so extensive that the work cannot but 
prove of service in almost every public library. 

Another field, that of genealogy, has been ably 
covered in a similar manner by Whitmore ( W. H.), 
whose "American genealogy" (Albany, 1875) 
includes only independent works, and by Dur- 
rie (D. S.), whose " Bibliographia genealogica 
Americana" ($d ed., Albany, 1886) is an index 
to the American genealogies and pedigrees con- 
tained in state, county, and town histories, etc. 

The bibliographical notes contained in Winsor's 
"Narrative and critical history of America" 
render that work one which no person interested 
in this subject can afford to overlook. The 
amount of learning condensed in these notes is 
simply wonderful in extent and in accuracy. 

The magnum opus in this field, however, re- 
mains to be named: Sabin's" Bibliotheca Ameri- 
cana; a dictionary of books relating to America," 
which has been in course of publication since 
1867 and is still uncompleted, having in 116 parts 
reached only the word Smith. The work is a 
most valuable storehouse of information, to which 
the local bibliographer will be compelled to re- 
sort for much of his subject-matter. It is now 
under the very able editorship of Mr. Wilber- 
force Eames, librarian of the Lenox Library, 
than whom it is doubtful whether there exists a 
more competent person to carry it on. In order 
to make the work what it should be, on the com- 
pletion of the present alphabet, supplements 
should be issued containing matter discovered 
since the work was printed, together with emen- 
dations and corrections, and the whole supplied 
with a thorough and exhaustive index, in which 
the names of all writers and the places treated 
shall be set out at length, together with a list of 
the books printed in each locality arranged in 
chronological order. When so completed and 
indexed it will answer many questions more 

fully and satisfactorily than can be done by any 
other work with which we are acquainted. 

The subject of independent effort in local bib- 
liography has been ably treated by Mr. F. 
Madan in a paper entitled " What to aim at in 
local bibliography," read at the Birmingham 
meeting of the L. A. U. K., Sept. 20, 1887, 
which may be found in The Library Chronicle, v. 
4 (1888), p. 144. Mr. Madan is interested in the 
compilation of a bibliography of Oxford, and his 
paper is the result of this interest. In order to 
arrange the collected matter in a systematic man- 
ner he privately printed a pamphlet entitled 
"Oxford; a subject and alphabetical index." 
(Lond., 1887.) 

Those desiring to investigate the subject fur- 
ther will do well to consult a paper read by Mr. 
W. H. K. Wright, librarian at Plymouth, Eng., 
entitled " Librarians and local bibliography," 
read before the fifth annual meeting of the L. A. 
U. K.,at Cambridge, Sept. 8, 1882. Unfortu- 
nately, so far as I am informed, no American 
writers have treated of this branch of bibliogra- 

Should any one decide to enter upon independ~ 
ent work of this nature he will not have pro- 
ceeded far before two important questions will 
confront him : First, how much ground shall be 
covered? and, second, how shall the material be 
compiled ? I may be pardoned if I attempt here 
to throw out some suggestions as to the extent 
and scope of such a work. 

First. How much ground shall be covered ? 

In beginning, do not attempt to cover more 
ground than can be done thoroughly. At most, 
let the boundaries of the state or county, or 
even the town in which you live, be the limits 
laid down. The state may be too large an area 
to cover exhaustively. If so, it may be well to 
canvass it and see if enough persons cannot be en- 
listed in the project to permit of each taking a man- 
ageable part. If the state can be divided into 
districts, so as to give each person engaged in the 
work the territory in which he lives, so much the 
better. As the work progresses the need of co- 
operation will become more and more apparent. 
The territory to be covered by each having been 
settled, the next question to be decided is how 
thoroughly shall the work be done ? If possible 
it will be found highly desirable to include all 
that has been printed or written about the area 
in question, even though written by others than 
its natives, or printed elsewhere than within its 
limits. Of course all that has been printed with- 

January, '94] 


in its area should be included; and, lastly, all 
books written in it or by its natives. The work 
planned and executed on these lines will contain 
a complete history of the literary activity of the 
locality chosen, the history and description of the 
place itself and of its press and literary men. 
This history and description should contain not 
only a record of all the separate publications that 
have been printed concerning the place itself, 
but also references or analytical references to 
works of a more general character, containing 
chapters or even paragraphs bearing upon the 
territory to be covered or any part of it. 

The press of the locality is more easily treated. 
Everything that has issued from its printing- 
presses should be included; all books and pam- 
phlets, of course, and such maps, newspapers, 
broadsides, and other ephemeral matter as may 
at some future time prove to be of historical or 
local interest. And in construing this rule it will 
be found far better to err on the side of inclu- 
sion than of exclusion, provided, of course, that 
the matter recorded is somewhere preserved in 
a manner that it can be referred to by those 
who may hereafter become interested in it. 

As to its literary men, the question of the 
treatment of this branch of the work seems to 
present some difficulties. It would appear that 
even here there is much latitude for the use of 
one's judgment in the matter of including or ex- 
cluding their writings from such a work. It 
may be asked whether the literary productions of 
all those whose nativity falls within the territory 
in question shall be included, or only such as 
have actually exercised their literary labors with- 
in it ? There are many reasons for preferring 
the latter course. For example, take Henry 
Ward Beecher. He was a native of Litchfield, 
Ct., yet it is safe to say that none of his lit- 
erary labors were ever carried on there. The ad- 
vantage of choosing the former course, of reg- 
istering all persons at the place of their nativity, 
rests in this: when once a person's place of birth 
is known we should have a definite rule to 
follow; whereas by the second course suggested 
we should be obliged to ascribe some of his lit- 
erary productions to one place, some to another, 
and some to still a third, as the person in ques- 
tion, from time to time, may have moved about 
the country. This would often lead to questions 
of great nicety and difficult of satisfactory settle- 
ment. By the first plan suggested we should 
have a safe rule for recording the person and all 
that he may have written, or that has been writ- 

ten about him or his works. Types of this class 
are the "Alumni record of Wesleyan Univer- 
sity," the " Yale bibliographies," recently pub- 
lished, and the " Bibliographical record of the 
members of the American Historical Associa- 

We now come to the consideration of the 
second question: How shall the material for 
our local bibliography be compi'ed ? 

I would pursue the plan suggested by Mr. 
Bowker in the preface to the last volume of the 
American Catalogue so far as its method is con- 
cerned, viz.: to collate and transcribe every entry 
that can be found bearing upon the field to be 
covered from the American Catalogue, Roorbach, 
Kelly, and Triibner; from publishers' lists, second- 
hand catalogs, and from the catalogs of libra- 
ries; and in fact from every available source 
of information that can be brought to mind. 
Special bibliographies of every kind that can 
throw any possible light upon the intended 
work should be brought into requisition. In 
addition to this, it must be remembered that 
there are many works, especially pamphlets, 
newspapers, and publications of an official char- 
acter, state and municipal, that have as yet never 
been included in any of the above works, except- 
ing possibly the last volume of the American 
Catalogue. These must be sought for and 
brought out of their hiding-places. The tran- 
scripts from existing records should in all cases 
carry with them the source from which they are 
derived; for, after all this has been done, it must 
be borne in mind that these furnish us only with 
the raw material upon which our work is to be 

With this material in hand, it should be our 
purpose to see and examine copies of every work 
that is to be recorded, so that a full bibliographical 
record may be made of it for the final completed 
entry. All work so examined should be de- 
scribed with the greatest accuracy and thorough- 
ness, and especially those that are, say, more 
than 25 years old. Care should be taken also to 
indicate in some manner all entries that have been 
made with the work itself in hand as well as 
where the student may find it, as has been done 
in Sabin's "Dictionary of works relating to 

The French excel as bibliographers, and there 
is one feature, noticeable in much of their work, 
which it seems that we could imitate to ad- 
vantage in such a work as we are now con- 
sidering. I refer to the brief outline of the 



[January, '94 

biography of each person whose name is used 
as a heading for any entry. This outline might 
well contain the person's full name, his calling 
or profession, the date and place of his birth, 
and death If not living, and a very brief sketch 
of his various places of residence, with dates of 
changes, as well as his character and standing as 
a writer. In very rare cases it might be well, 
also, to note the most important work with 
which his name has been connected. There 
should then follow, in chronological order, a 
list of his works, with titles given in full, and in 
cases of works printed, say, before 1850, the lin- 
ing of the title-page, accurately given, followed 
by the dates of the various editions, where more 
than one, of the work described. The number of 
volumes, pages, and size, and in case of rare or 
early printed books or pamphlets, the signatures 
should all be carefully given. These should be 
followed by the place, name of publisher, and 
date or dates if in more than one volume. If the 
work belongs to a set or series of works this in- 
formation should also be given ; and to close the 
record any valuable or interesting points about 
the work which can be learned by the compiler, 
otherwise than by a mere examination of the 
work in hand, and which is not generally known, 
should be added in the form of a note, with 
the authority from which the information has 
been derived. 

Works which have passed under the eye of the 
compiler and have been described from actual 
inspection should be indicated in some uniform 
way throughout the work. 

Work done in this manner, provided the field 
is exhaustively treated, cannot fail to be val- 
uable, and could the whole of the United 
States be divided among those interested in the 
work, and willing to undertake it, on the lines 
here laid down, the result would be a series of 
works in which the whole bibliographical world 
would manifest its interest. The libraries of our 
country, public and private, would be ransacked, 
and every conceivable corner explored in hope of 
adding still another item to increase the complete- 
ness of each separate work. 

It may be asked, "Who is able to carry out 
such a work?" I have in mind a distinguished 
bibliographer who has spent well-nigh, if not 
fully, 40 years in compiling a catalog of the 
books printed in his native state before 1800; 
and I have in my possession a letter in which he 
states that he believes his catalog now com- 
prises 95 per cent, of all the books printed be- 

fore that date. What intense pleasure must he 
enjoy when he now chances to find a book not 
already enrolled in his list ? What a satisfaction 
it must be, after having heard of a certain book 
and sought for it, for years, perhaps, in vain, to 
at last discover the coveted work, to examine 
and describe it, thus making one more addition 
to his cherished work. The following note, 
contained in a sale catalog compiled by him in 
1878, first called my attention to his labors, and 
shows what must have been his pleasure to meet 
with the work of which he speaks. 
" FILLMORE (John) Narration of (his) Captivity. 

Suffield, 1802. . . . 

" [NOTE.] The narrative of Capt. John Fillmore (the 
great-grandfather of President Fillmore) is EXCESSIVELY 
RARE. In thirty years' search for Connecticut imprints, 
I have not found a second copy. It was unknown to Mr. 
Samuel G. Drake, who refers (N. E. Hist, and Gen. Reg, 
xi. 62) to the Aurora (N. Y.) reprint of 1837." Brinley 
Catalogue, ft. i, No. 475. 

What I have already said refers, of course, to 
independent work in the compilation of local 
bibliographies. It has been said that every per- 
son should have some hobby, some avocation to 
which he can turn after the labors of the day are 
done and in which he may find rest and recrea- 
tion. Here is an excellent opening for those 
engaged in the library profession to indulge in a 
hobby which has all the interest and excitement 
of the chase. 

If the work I have suggested were done by 
independent effort in such a way as to thorough- 
ly cover the entire country from the introduction 
of printing at Cambridge in 1639 to the present 
day, we should have the material necessary for 
the work contemplated by Mr. Bowker. 

Independent work carried out on the plan just 
laid down would overlap to some extent. I do 
not, however, consider this any objection to the 
scheme. Each separate work would be complete 
and independent in itself, and in the whole series 
would be found the material which, by careful 
editing, would furnish that for the work which 
Mr. Bowker has in mind. 

It has been the dream perhaps the word fan- 
tasy would better express the idea of bibliog- 
raphers to see at some future time a Universal 
Bibliography. The nearest approach to a work 
of this description is, without doubt, the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum, now coming from 
the press, yet even this gigantic work falls far 
short of being a universal bibliography. There 
is little question that such a work will never see 
the light of day. 

January, '94] 


The case we have in mind is far simpler and 
less comprehensive. We are here in the United 
States where the printing-press has been in exist- 
ence for only about 250 years. During the first 
175 years of this period the colonies were small 
and feeble and the productions of the press were 
not numerous. Dr. S. F. Haven's " Catalogue 
of publications, in what is now the United States, 
prior to the Revolution," printed in the 2d edi- 
tion of Isaiah Thomas' " History of printing in 
America," covers only some 357 octavo pages. 
Such being the case the production of an exhaus- 
tive American bibliography from 1639 down to 
the close of the nineteenth century is certainly 
within the bounds of possibility. 

It remains with us, then, and with those en- 
gaged in our profession especially, as well as 
with all others who, have the cause of American 
bibliography at heart, to decide whether or not 
this highly desirable work shall be compiled. 
Enthusiasm, time, labor, and sound financial 
support are all that are needed to consummate 
this work. It will take time to get this work 
under way, and when the material has been se- 

cured and the editorial work is completed, more 
time and much money to put it through the 
press. If, then, the work is to be taken up and 
carried to a successful termination "'twere well 
'twere done quickly," as the days of the century 
are rapidly rolling towards their close. 

I had intended to say something as to the 
possibility of the printing of such independent 
works as might be compiled being done by the 
state as a matter of historical interest and 
record, but space prevents my entering fully into 
this phase of the matter. In short, it seems to 
me that if such works were properly compiled 
there could be no better expenditure of the pub- 
lic funds than in printing these local bibliogra- 
phies, as is being done in other fields by the 
different departments and bureaus of the U. S. 

If what I have said shall induce my readers to 
engage in the work of American bibliography, 
either independently or in co-operation with the 
publishers of the American Catalogue, my pur- 
pose in presenting these considerations will have 
been fully accomplished. 

BY KATE M. HENNEBERRY, Chicago Public Library. 

AFTER a collection of books has been formed 
and prepared for circulation, it is necessary to 
consider the question of a printed list for the in- 
formation and convenience of readers, that may 
be consulted at the library or purchased and 
used for reference at home. If no books were 
to be added to the collection in the future the 
solution of this question would be easy, and the 
printing of the catalog and the preparation of 
the books for circulation could be carried on at 
almost an even pace. But a circulating library 
in order to maintain its usefulness requires con- 
stant growth, and to keep the printed list " up 
to date " with this increase is still a problem an- 
swered by different libraries in various ways. 

A classified finding-list seems to find favor in 
circulating libraries and is in use in the Cincin- 
nati, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Enoch Pratt, 
Newark, and Omaha libraries, and in many 
others. It is also the principal printed list of 
the Chicago Public Library, and it seemed to me 
that a consideration of the details of its prepara- 
tion and printing might prove of interest. 

After a book has been cataloged it is entered 
in the shelf-list and this shelf number is given 
the book and catalog cards; the cards are then 
copied for the printed list before their distribu- 
tion in the card catalog. The title to be printed 
is made as brief as possible, the object being to 
have each title occupy but one printed line 
wherever possible to do so and preserve the 

After all titles have been classified each sub- 
ject is arranged alphabetically according to au- 
thor and pasted on sheets of manilla paper. 
This copy is sent to the printer, who returns a 
first proof, or galley proof, for correction, with 
the copy. This galley proof is carefully com- 
pared with the copy and all corrections are 
noted on the margin. It is then sent back to the 
printer, who corrects all errors and divides the 
galleys up into page proofs, two columns on a 
page. These page proofs are again scrutinized 
to see that all errors have been corrected, and 
also to see that no more have been made, espe- 
cially at the top and bottom of each column or 



{January, '94 

page, where the letters or figures are apt to drop 
out, and, when noticed, to be replaced by the 
compositor where they seem to fit in best, re- 
gardless of where they belong. 

These pages of type are then sent to the foun- 
dry, where they are electrotyped, and the elec- 
trotyped plates then become the property of the 
library. If an error has been discovered after 
the plates have been made it may still be cor- 
rected by cutting out the part in which the error 
occurs and inserting type in the place, if the cor- 
rection occupies exactly the same space. These 
plates are stored in boxes in the library, one 
page following another in numerical order until 
all have been delivered, when they are sent to 
the printing office whenever a new edition is to 
be struck off. As there is a great expense in- 
volved in the preparation of these plates and the 
printing, it becomes almost a necessity to print as 
many editions from them as there is a demand for. 

Various expedients are resorted to in order to 
supplement this list with the new additions to 
the library before there is imperative need of a 
revision, which relegates the plates to old metal. 
Where current American books are purchased 
at certain stated periods, the titles of these may 
appear from time to time in the form of a type- 
written list posted in a conspicuous place in the 
library. But one list must soon be superseded 
by another, and in this way each can appear for 
but a limited time and meet the eye of but a 
certain number. In the Chicago Public Library, 
where upwards of 3000 new titles in the English 
language are added each year, besides these type- 
written lists, bulletins of about 800 titles each 
are printed quarterly, supplying in printed form 
the titles of all new books within a reasonable 
time after publication. These quarterly bulletins 
are arranged in an alphabetical list according to 
authors. Fuller titles are given than in the 
classified finding-list, and the imprint of each 
work is added, so that a given number of books 
listed in a bulletin occupies about twice as much 
space as the same number in the finding-list. A 
bulletin contains 16 pages, which are printed 
from type, not electrotyped. They are sold at 
the nominal price of three cents. It is a well- 
established fact that the purchase of a list, how- 
ever trifling may be the sum paid for it, insures 
its use and preservation much better than if it 
be distributed gratuitously. 

These typewritten lists and bulletins serve to 
answer many questions about new books which 
have been reviewed in the newspapers and 

periodicals. It is a surprising fact that persons 
of limited education and apparently little taste 
for reading, as soon as they begin to draw books 
from a library will become interested in articles 
relating to books and authors, and will read book 
reviews in the newspapers, which had no mean- 
ing for them before they began reading in the 

After each bulletin has been printed it is nec- 
essary to take every title and classify it accord- 
ing to its subject for the finding-list. As one 
bulletin after another is treated in this manner, 
the library always contains a classified list of its 
printed titles ready for printing in the finding- 
list. From time to time these subjects are type- 
written and bound in a volume and used for 
reference in the library. 

This library, now in its twentieth year, has 
found its list of titles so large that the seventh 
edition of its finding-list has been issued in parts, 
viz.: History and biography; Voyages, geog- 
raphy, and travels; Poetry, drama, and miscella- 
nies ; Language, literature, and bibliography; 
Arts and sciences ; Political and social science ; 
Philosophy and religion. These parts, however, 
are paged consecutively, and may be bound in 
one volume when the list is completed. 

This classified finding-list does not include, 
however, English prose fiction or books in foreign 
languages. The English prose fiction list is ar- 
ranged in one alphabetical list of authors and 
titles. Books in foreign languages are arranged 
in an alphabetical author-list, each language 
being issued and sold in a separate part. As 
foreign books are imported in large orders, and 
a considerable space of time elapses between 
orders, the foreign lists are printed almost as 
soon as the books are ready for the shelves. 
The library contains books and printed lists in 
the following languages: German, Dutch, French, 
Italian, Spanish, Scandinavian (Danish-Nor- 
wegian and Swedish), Polish, Bohemian, and 
Russian. The Polish, Bohemian, and Russian 
lists are printed by firms of each of those nation- 
alities, but in the case of all other foreign lan- 
guages the work is done by the same house 
which prints the finding-list. They are all in 
the English text with the exception of the Rus- 

After all that can be done by means of supple- 
ments and bulletins to bring the titles of new 
works before the readers, the question of pro- 
viding a single printed list containing all the 
books in the library is still unsolved. It has 

January, '94] 



been suggested that the pages remain standing 
in type, and that additions be made to them, an- 
nually or semi-annually; but as this would neces- 
sitate a change in every plate it would require a 
great amount of space, and there would be dan- 
ger of type becoming misplaced by the unlock- 
ing of the form. 
The lineotype does away with the disarrange- 

ment of the type, and is said to have been used 
successfully in small libraries. If it is equally 
practical for large libraries it will be an unqual- 
ified boon, and is what has been most earnestly 
desired by librarians and readers to keep up the 
printed list, so that a reference may be made to 
but one list to see if the book sought for is in 
the library. 

BY W: STETSON MERRILL, Accession Department, Newberry Library. 

THE Newberry Library is now in possession of 
its new building fronting on Washington Square, 
Chicago. The books, distributed according to 
subject in different rooms, each in charge of an 
attendant, are now ready for use by readers. 
The moving of the library occupied n days, 
and proceeded without the interruption of an 
hour. All details as to the destination and order 
of moving the bookcases were arranged by Dr. 
Poole beforehand. The movements of two gangs 
of workmen one in the old building and the 
other in the new were directed in such a manner 
as to prevent loss of time, and a library of 120,- 
ooo volumes was removed two blocks with ease 
and regularity. 

Yet the work was accomplished under some 
disadvantages. Two stones only of the new 
building were ready for occupancy, and the bulk 
of the library had to be compressed into these 
two stories. No new bookcases had been pro- 
vided, as the trustees were in haste to have the 
old quarters vacated in order that the building 
might be remodelled, and there was not time to 
prepare suitable fittings for the new building. 
The cases on which the books were then shelved 
were therefore to be moved and set up at the 
same time that the books were being transferred. 
How to move books and cases with the least ex- 
penditure of time, labor, and money was the diffi- 
culty to be overcome. The way in which it was 
done was as follows : 

An inventory was made of all the bookcases 
to be moved. They are of two kinds : oak cases, 
ranging from three to eight feet in length and of 
different depths, and " common " cases of white 
wood, 13 feet long, eight feet high, and of 
different depths. The oak cases were assigned 
consecutive numbers; and two indexes of them 
made, one arranged in the order of numbers and 
giving the location in the old quarters, and the 
other arranged in the order of length and depth. 

A plan of the new building, giving the exact 
configuration and dimensions of every room, was 
made, and the proposed location of cases was 
designated by slips of paper affixed to the plan, 
each marked with the number of the case which 
was to fill the space. The common cases were 
also represented on the plan in scale but by no 
specific numbers, as all were of the same 
length. The destination of each oak case was 
marked on a tag, which was affixed to the case. 
The location of each oak case was readily fixed 
in the new building by the aid of the inventory of 
sizes, from which a case needed to fill any space 
could be selected, its number placed upon the 
floor plan, and its location put on a tag and at- 
tached to the case, thus: "No. 24, Room D, 
second story, west side " appeared on the floor 
plan as " No. 24." 

The location of the 13-foot cases was chalked 
out on the floor of the rooms where they were to 
stand, and each case could be set into position 
at once. 

The books were assigned to the rooms where 
they were to remain and a scheme of depart- 
ments and rooms was made. Before the moving 
began the books were dusted. If books are 
moved with dust on them, the jarring of trans- 
portation causes the dust to drop between the 
leaves. The mode of dusting books is to slap 
two together several times; the shock drives out 
the dust, but wiping and feather dusters drive it 

Twenty-five ordinary library trucks were found 
very useful for transporting the books, which 
were placed upright on the shelves of the truck 
and packed closely. The order of shelf num- 
bers was preserved in loading and again in un- 
loading the truck. The loaded truck was wheeled 
to the elevator, lowered to the ground story, 
thence rolled into the wagon. 

At the new building a loop of stout rope was 



[January, '94 

passed around the front of the truck, a turn of 
the rope taken on a post of the wagon, and the 
truck, steadied by four men, was allowed to roll 
down an inclined plane from the wagon to the 
basement, whence it was taken to its assigned 
floor by elevator. 

The bookcases were taken out of the building 
through a breach in the wall made by cutting 
away a window-sill. Pulley and windlass were 
used at each building for lowering and raising 
cases. At the new building the cases destined 
for the second story were taken in through a 
window at that story. Within the building they 
were easily moved on trolleys to their proper 
places. The first shelving used was cheap pine 
cases for duplicate documents in the basement of 
the old building. These documents were moved 
first and put on the floor of the basement. The 
pine cases were used to shelve temporarily the 
books which first arrived until the proper cases 
had been moved. The receiver in charge at the 
new building was kept informed of the books 
soon to come, and distributed his cases in such a 
way as to have shelving ready for them when 
they arrived. 

The periodical reading-room was closed to 
the public but two days. It was left intact 
until the last moment, and its periodical cases, 
books, and furniture were then moved and placed 
in position as quickly as possible. Books from 
other departments of the library were ready for 
the use of readers in two or three weeks after 
the moving was completed. The members of 
the cataloging staff were able to resume their 
usual work after a few days of Interruption. 

The first story of the new library is occupied 
by the administration, including the office of the 
corporation, trustees' and librarian's rooms, and 
cataloging-room. A large room has been re- 
served for a museum, where will be placed the 
literary and bibliographical treasures of the li- 

The library also owns a collection of portraits, 
painted and presented by Mr. G. P. A. Healy, 
of Chicago, but long a resident of Paris, which 
will be placed in a gallery in the building. The 
second and third stories are to be used for books 
and for readers. Periodicals may be consulted 
in a room set apart for that purpose. Visitors 
wishing to use the books of the library will be 
sent directly to the room where their department 
is kept, and will there find an attendant ready to 
give them every possible aid and facility in 
the prosecution of their work. 



IN science, as in other departments of modern 
thought and research, progress moves along two 
distinct lines apparently antagonistic, but, as 
may be easily shown, they are mutually helpful; 
these are a tendency to specialization and a 
growth in generalization. As each department 
of physical and natural science develops with 
prodigious rapidity, and becomes too compre- 
hensive for the grasp of an individual mind, it 
becomes subdivided into branches dealing with 
a limited range of subjects, and, as these subdi- 
visions continue to grow, further specialization 
necessarily ensues. This linking of specializa- 
tion and generalization finds its highest exempli- 
fication in a library, particularly in one conse- 
crated to pure and applied science. One of the 
objects sought by the promoters of this alliance 
of the principal scientific societies of New York 
City is the assembling under one roof of their 
scattered collections of books. This does not 
mean amalgamation in any degree, nor even con- 
federation; this is practically impossible, for sev- 
eral of the societies are incorporated and cannot 
surrender rights in their property. The plan 
leaves to each society complete control of its own 
library, and merely provides for co-operation, 
each supplementing that which is lacking in the 
others. Before considering the advantages 
which would certainly follow such affiliation, let 
us briefly note the statistics of each society, con- 
sidering them in order of their foundation. 

(i). The New York Academy of Sciences, 
founded in 1817, has a library of nearly 10,000 
volumes and bound pamphlets, temporarily de- 
posited in the library building of Columbia Col- 
lege, by courtesy of the trustees. It is not amal- 
gamated with the great library of the college, 
having separate rooms and an independent cata- 
log. The collection is almost exclusively scien- 
tific, and is valuable for its sets of transactions 
of learned societies throughout the world, ob- 
tained by exchange for the publications of the 
academy. Many of these early serials are not 
found elsewhere in the city, and some nowhere 
in the United States. The library is, of course, 
free to members under the by-laws, and to readers 
in the college library by special arrangement; it 
is in very good condition, which, however, would 
be improved by expending a few hundred dollars 
in binding. The academy was so unfortunate 
as to lose its collections in natural history by fire 
in 1866, but the library was stored elsewhere, 
and has now reached the respectable age of 75 
years, being the fifth in order of foundation in 
New York City. 

(2). The Torry Botanical Club, founded in 
1871, has no independent library ; its collection 
being incorporated with the library of Columbia 
College. The University Bulletin for July, 1892, 
records the securing of a fund of $ 1000 for the 

* Extracts from an address at the first joint meeting of 
the Scientific Alliance, New Vork City, Nov. 15, 1892. 

January, '94] 


purchase of books for the Botanical Library, a 
fund contributed by 10 persons. While this is 
creditable it shows how pressing is the need for 
botanical literature, and the club might perhaps 
be persuaded to administer on a much larger sum. 

(3). 7^he New York Microscopical Society, 
founded in 1877, is incorporated under the state 
laws. It has a library of about 1500 volumes, 
but it is at present difficult of access to members 
owing to cramped and inconvenient quarters ; 
hence it is but little used. 

(4). The Linntzan Society of New York, organ- 
ized in 1878, not incorporated, has the nucleus 
of a library deposited in the American Museum 
of Natural History, Central Park. 

The collection consists chiefly of serials ob- 
tained by exchange, and of government publica- 

(5). The New York Mineralogicat Club, or- 
ganized in 1877, not incorporated, has no library. 
It owns, however, the B. B. Chamberlain Collec- 
tion of N. Y. Island Minerals, and other local 
specimens deposited in the American Museum of 
Natural History. 

(6). The New York Mathematical Society, 
organized in 1888, not incorporated, owns a col- 
lection of about 300 volumes, now temporarily 
deposited in the Mathematical Department of 
Columbia College. 

(7). The New York Section of American 
Chemical Society is the youngest child in this 
family, having been organized in the spring of 
1892. The parent society, however, was founded 
in 1878, and has accumulated a library of 1900 
volumes and 500 pamphlets, now deposited in 
the building of the University of the City of 
New York. It is, of course, open to members 
and those using the university library. 

These collections, brought together under one 
roof, would form the nucleus of a valuable 
scientific library. The weakness of some is due 
to youth ; all, however, reflect the struggle for 
existence that pure science has sustained in this 
commercial city. The advantages that would 
flow from affiliation are so obvious as to make 
rehearsal almost superfluous. First, however, is 
the advantage of economy in administration, 
and, by avoiding duplication, securing greater 
results with less expenditure. Secondily, uni- 
formity in disposition of the books, and im- 
provements in cataloging. And be it noted, 
that the utility of a library is in proportion to 
the perfection of its catalog ; other things being 
equal, a small collection being furnished with 
full author and subject catalogs is decidedly more 
valuable than a library of far greater magnitude 
which is incompletely cataloged. Such an as- 
semblage of books, with the growth that would 
be stimulated by the new regime, would form 
the foundation of a great Bibliotheca Sciential, 
such as nowhere exists in our New World. Due 
appreciation of the creditable standing of several 
libraries in New York and vicinity is consistent 
with the statement that a scientific library is a 
great want. For general reference the Astor will 
long remain pre-eminent ; Columbia College 
Library is growing rapidly, and its liberal reg- 
ulations and fine appointments are a delight to 
scholars ; the Lenox has a noble collection of 

treasures limited to a narrow field ; the physicians, 
lawyers, and engineers are forming for them- 
selves specialized collections of great value ; the 
Free Circulating library and many subscription 
libraries cater to the popular taste ; but where 
shall investigators in the exact sciences go with 
an assurance of finding all desirable treatises, 
serials, and special monographs 1 

Another ad vantage of affiliation must be brief- 
ly noted. One of the best ways of building up a 
library symmetrically is to place the selection of 
books in the hands of workers in the several 
branches of knowledge; this is recognized in 
some colleges, where each member of the faculty 
compiles lists of works needed in his special 
field. In the associated libraries, each society 
would naturally foster its immediate interests, 
and lacunae could be filled by the care of the li- 

It is, perhaps, premature to consider the ques- 
tion of organization of the library of the Scien- 
tific Alliance, but I would suggest that at first 
the librarians of the several societies might form 
a board, and by frequent consultations secure 
uniformity in methods. Later in the develop- 
ment of the library, a librarian- in- chief might be 
appointed to have general oversight of the 
whole, especially to see that gaps in the literature 
of science, not filled by the societies themselves, 
be closed by purchase. For, of course, the li- 
brary of the Scientific Alliance must have an en- 
dowment and one worthy of this great metropolis. 

The benefits that a library of pure and ap- 
plied science would confer on the city are mani- 
fo'd. It would become the headquarters of those 
engaged in pure research, as well as of inventors 
and others seeking data as to the applications of 
science. To patent-lawyers such a library would 
be invaluable. If the alliance be successful in 
securing a convenient site and a building of suf- 
ficient magnitude, I suggest further that rooms 
of moderate dimensions be provided for rental 
to private collectors of books for their personal 
treasures. Many persons of moderate means 
find the question of shelf-room a more trouble- 
some one than the acquisition of books, and buy 
more sparingly for this very reason; they would 
be glad, however, to place their collections in a 
fire-proof building, contiguous to kindred or sup- 
plemental collections, and, maintaining their con- 
trol of their private libraries, would willingly 
grant to scholars access to the same for consul- 
tation and serious research. Such temporary 
deposits might eventually become the property 
of the alliance, either by gift or testamentary 

The associated libraries gathered in a suitable 
building furnished with committee-rooms, lect- 
ure-hall, etc., would form for those engaged in 
scientific research a sort of exchange. Commer- 
cial and financial enterprises have established 
produce exchanges, metal exchanges, stock ex- 
changes, and the like, and why should not science 
have its own exchange 1 Though the commer- 
cial aspect is far removed from the thoughts of 
those advocating this alliance, I see no reason 
why the building sheltering the libraries should 
not be headquarters for those seeking advice 
from scientific men on industrial problems. 


[January, '94 

Comparisons are said to be odious; therefore 
I refrain from pointing out how much behind- 
hand New York City is when compared with 
Boston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco in the 
matter of accommodation for scientists. To as- 
certain the status of science in the existing libra- 
ries of New York and vicinity, I sent to 68 of the 
principal libraries and institutions of learning cir- 
culars making inquiry as to the number of vol- 
umes in each, the proportion of scientific works, 
and the number of scientific readers using the li- 
brary. With few exceptions replies were re- 
ceived with gratifying promptness and accuracy. 
Eight libraries have not been heard from. The 
statistics obtained are appended to this paper, 
and I give here but a brief summary. 

The 60 libraries reporting have an aggre- 
gate of 1,916,000 volumes. There are 15 li- 
braries of over 40,000 volumes each. The pro- 
portion of scientific books varies from 5 per cent, 
to loo per cent., according to the scope and aim 
of the institution. In the larger libraries of ref- 
erence the proportion runs from one-quarter to 
one-twentieth. As the term science is different- 
ly interpreted by librarians, some restricting it 
to pure science, and others embracing the appli- 
cations, biography of scientific men, and the use- 
ful arts, no attempt has been made to estimate 
the total number of volumes that are properly 
classed as scientific. 

As but few libraries report the number of sci- 
entific readers, this item remains practically un- 

In one class of institutions a great weakness 
was developed by this inquiry. With a single 
exception medical colleges report " no library ;" 
surely in no other course of study is a knowledge 
of literature of the subject deemed superfluous. 
The exception referred to is the Woman's Medi- 
cal College of the New York Infirmary, which 
has a collection of 556 volumes, forming a small 
reference library for the students. This was 
founded in 1887 by the liberality of Sarah M. 
Hitchcock, and is growing annually by sub- 
scriptions and donations. 




The numbers in parentheses have the signifr 
cance here indicated: 

(1) Date of foundation, organization, or incor 

(2) Location of the library. 

(3) Approximate number of volumes. 

(4) Proportion of scientific books. 

(5) Proportion of scientific readers. 

(6) Remarks. 

The libraries are arranged in order of founda 
tion under the respective cities : New York 
Brooklyn, Hoboken, Jersey City. Clubs are no 
included, being essentially private libraries. 

New York Society Library. Librarian: W. S 


(r) 1700 (as the City Library); 1754 (as thi 
Society Library. (2) No. 67 University Place 
(3) About 90,000 volumes. (4) About one 
seventh. (5) About one-twelfth. 

Columbia College Library. Librarian: George H. 


(i) 1754. (2) 150,000 volumes. (4) About 
25,000. say one-sixth. (5) No data. 

(6) Is rapidly growing; is open for readers 
from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m., daily. 

Library of the New York Hospital. Librarian: 

Frank P. Foster. 

(i) 1796. (2) No. 6 West i6th Street. (3) 
20,000 volumes. (4) Nearly all medical. (5) 
No data. 

New York Historical Society. Librarian: Charles 


(i) 1802. (2) 170 Second Avenue. (3) 85,- 
ooo volumes. (4) Comparatively few scientific 
books. (5) None. 

(6) The collection relates to American history 

New York Academy of Sciences. Librarian : James 

F. Kemp. 

(i) Founded 1817. Incorporated. (2) De- 
posited temporarily in Columbia College Li- 
brary building. (3) About 10,000 volumes and 
bound pamphlets. (4) Almost exclusively 
scientific, say 95 per cent. (5) Undetermined; 
is open to all readers in the college library. 

(6) Valuable for its sets of transactions of 
learned societies throughout the world, ob- 
tained by exchange. 

Free Library of the General Society of Mechanics 
and Tradesmen of the City of New York. 

Librarian : Jacob Schwartz, 
(i) 1820. (2) No. 18 E. i6th Street. (3) 
95,000 volumes. (4) About 6000 volumes, 
say one-sixteenth. (5) No data. 

Mercantile Library. Librarian : W. T. Peoples. 

(i) 1820. (2) Astor Place. (3) 240,561 vol- 
umes (July i, 1892). (4) About 10 per cent. 
(5) Circulation of scientific books about five 
per cent, of the whole. 

(6) A subscription library, founded for the 
benefit of merchants' clerks. 

Library of the New York Law Institute. Li- 
brarian : William H. Winters, 
(i) 1828. (Incorporated 1830.) (2) Post 
Office building. (3) 39.500 volumes. (4) Ex- 
clusively law and works of reference. 
American Institute. Librarian: John W. Cham- 

(i) 1833. (2) No. 1 11-115 West 38th Street. 
(3) 13.581 volumes. (4) Over two-thirds scien- 
tific. (5) Members of the institute. Strangers 
welcome to consult the library. 

(6) The library was first formed as a statistical 
library; it contains complete sets of the most 
important scientific works in English. For 
the past 10 years the purchased books are ex- 
clusively scientific. 
Astor Library. Superintendent: Robbins Little; 

Librarian : Frederick Saunders. 
(i) Incorporated 1849. (2) No. 40 Lafayette 
Place. (3) 240,000 volumes and 100,000 
pamphlets. (4) One-third to one-quarter, (5) 
About 50,000 readers per annum, 

January, '94] 


(6) The library is rich in transactions, serials, 
and has full sets of patents. 

American Geographical Society. Librarian: Geo. 

C. Hurlbut. 

(i) Founded 1852. (2) No. 41 West 2gth 
Street. (3) 24,000. (4) i in 7. (5) No data. 
(6) The real growth of the library dates 
from 1870. 

College of the City of New York. Deputy Li- 
brarian : H. E. Bliss. 

(i) Organized 1852. (2) Corner Lexington 
Avenue and 23d Street. (3) About 26, 800 vol- 
umes. (4) About 5000 volumes, say one- fifth. 
(5) Used by 47 instructors and 1200 students. 
(6) New arrangement in progress. 

Young Men's Christian Association. Twenty- 
third Street Branch Librarian : R. B. Poole. 

(i) 1852. (2) No. 52 East 23d Street. (3) 
40,000 volumes. , (4) About one-twentieth. 
(5) About one-twentieth. 

Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and 
Art. Curator of Library : J. C. Zachos. 
(i) Incorporated 1857. (2) Fourth Avenue 
and Eighth street. (3) 31,873 volumes. (4) 
About 3000, say one-tenth. (5) This free li- 
brary has a daily average attendance of 1500 
readers. The complete set of the reports of 
the Patent Office was examined by 919 readers 
in 1891. 

(6) The reading-room was visited by over 
400,000 persons in the year 1891. 

American Numismatic and Archceological Socie- 
ty. Librarian : Bauman L. Belden. 
(i) 1858. (2) Academy of Medicine build- 
ing, 17 W. 43d Street. (3) About 1200 bound 
volumes and 4000 pamphlets and unbound 
volumes. (4) about five-sixths. (5) Used by 
the largest numismatic library in the country. 

Maimonides Library. Librarian : Max Cohen. 

(i) 1858. (2) No. 203 E. 57th Street. (3) 

40,000 volumes. (4) About 2600 scientific 

books. (5) The circulation of science is about 

5 per cent, of the total. 

Mott Memorial Library and Library of the New 

York State Medical Association. Director : 

J. W. S. Gouley. 

(i) 1867. (2) No. 64 Madison Avenue. (3) 
About 13,000 volumes and 5000 pamphlets. 
(4) Almost wholly medical and scientific. (5) 
764 readers in 1891, chiefly physicians. 

(6) The Mott Memorial Library and the Li- 
brary of the New York State Medical Associa- 
tion are under one roof and free to all. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. Librarian : 

F. Collingwood. 

(i) 1868. (2) 127 East 23d Street. (3) 15,- 
ooo volumes, including pamphlets. (4) Seven- 
eighths. (5) Almost entirely. 

(6) The library was founded through a do- 
nation of the late Wm. G. Arthur; it is practi- 
cally free, being open to all interested in en- 

College of Pharmacy of the City of New York. 
Chairman Library Committee : Chas. Rice. 

(i) No definite date; the library has grown 
systematically since 1868. (2) Nos. 209-211 
East 23d Street. (3) About 4000 volumes and 
600 pamphlets. (4) Almost exclusively scien- 
tific. (5) Besides members of the college, 
about 400 persons per annum. 

(6) The library is rich in pharmacy, botany, 
chemistry and materia medica, containing some 
not found elsewhere in New York. 

Washington Heights Free Library. Librarian : 

Edward Griffin. 

(i) 1868. (2) Corner of I56th Street and 
Amsterdam Avenue. (3) 8328 volumes. (4) 
200 volumes or more. (5) 500 readers per 

Lenox Library. Assistant Librarian : Wilber- 
force Eames. 

(i) 1870. (2) Fifth Avenue, between 7Oth 
and 7ist Streets. (3) About 70,000. (4) See 
(6). (5) No data. 

(6) The Lenox Library consists of several 
special collections on literary and antiquarian 
subjects. The R. L. Stuait collection of an- 
gling literature includes some works of ichthy- 
ology; the Drexel musical collection contains 
works on acoustics. Besides these there are 
no books on natural science. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

Librarian : G. H. Van Wagener. 
(i) 1870. (2) 23 West 44th Street. (3) 
2500 volumes. (4) Wholly genealogical and 
biographical. (5) No data. 

Young Woman's Christian Association. Libra- 
rian: Sarah W. Cattell. 
(i) 1870. (2) East isth Street. (3) 19,000 
volumes. (4) About 400 volumes. (5) Very 
few. In 1891, of a circulation of 44,577 vol- 
umes, only 432 were on science. 

Library of the Association of the Bar of the City 
of New York. Librarian: William 

J. C. Berry. 

(i) 1870. (2) West 2gth Street. (3)40,000 
volumes. (4) Exclusively law-books and works 
of reference. 

The Torrey Botanical Club. Librarian: Effie 


(i) Founded in 1871. (2) Incorporated with 
the Botanical Library of Columbia College. 

New York Academy of Medicine. Librarian: 

John S. Brownne. 

(i) 1874. (The Academy was instituted in 
1847.) (2) 17-21 West 43d Street. (3) About 
45,000 volumes. (4) About 1000 not strictly 
medical. (5) About 7000 readers yearly. 

(6) The library ranks third in size of the 
medical libraries of the United States. 

University of the City of New York. Librarian: 

L. J. Thompkins. 

(i) About 1875. (2) Washington Square. (3) 
About 18,000 volumes. (4) About 3000 vol- 



[January, '94 

umes science, say one-sixth. (5) Scientific stu- 

(6) Reading-room is open from 9 a.m. to 9:30 
p.m.. and is free to all who will comply with 
the rules. 

Equitable Law Library. Librarian : Thomas 

(i) Founded 1876. (2) No. 120 Broadway. 

(3) 13.500 volumes. (4) Wholly on law. 

New York Microscopical Society. Librarian: Lud- 
wig Riederer. 

(i) Founded 1877. Incorporated. (2) No. 
64 Madison Avenue. (3) About 1500. (4) 
Wholly scientific. (5) Undetermined. 

(6) Difficult of access owing to small quar- 
ters, and hence little used. 

New York Section of the American Chemical 
Society. Librarian: C. E. Munsell. 

(i) Organized 1892. Parent society founded 
1878 and incorporated. (2) Deposited in the 
library of the University of the City of New 
York. (3) 1900 volumes and 500 pamphlets. 

(4) About 95 per cent, scientific. (5) About 50 
readers per annum. Open to those using the 
University Library. 

Linncean Society of New York. Librarian: 
Arthur H. Howell. 

(i) Organized 1878. Not incorporated. (2) 
American Museum of Natural History, Cen- 
tral Park. (3) Not reported. Consists of ex- 
changes and Government publications. 

American Museum of Natural History. Libra- 
rian: Anthony Woodward. 

(i) About 1880. (2) Eighth Avenue and 77th 
Street. (3) About 25,000 volumes and 10,000 
pamphlets. (4) 95 per cent. (5) No data. 

(6) The library embraces the following spe- 
cial collections (donated or purchased): The 
Jay collection on conchology; The Brevoort 
collection on ichthyology; D. G. Elliot collec- 
tion on ornithology; S. L. Elliot collection on 
general science; the Edwards collection on 
entomology; the Whitfield collection on 
palaeontology; the Cotheal collection on bot- 
any and microscopy. 

New York Free Circulating Library. Librarian: 
Ellen M. Coe. 

(i) 1880. (2) No. 49 Bond Street, with three 
branches. (3) Nearly 60,000 volumes. (4) 
About 8000 volumes, say seven per cent. 

(5) About seven per cent. 

(6) The scientific books are chiefly popular 
and elementary, the reading of science is 
greatly increasing. 

Apuilar Free Library. Librarian: Pauline Leip- 


(i) Incorporated 1886. (2) 197 East Broad- 
way, and two branches, 721 Lexington Avenue 
and 624 East sth Street. (3) 18,000. (4) 497. 
(5) Five per cent. 

Young Men's Christian Association, Railroad 

Branch. Librarian : W. F. Stevens, 
(i) 1887. (2) 361 Madison Avenue. (3) 
About 6000. (4) About four per cent. (5) About 

(6) Rich in railroad literature, which is not 
included in the answer to (4). 

Woman's Medical College of the New York Infir- 
mary. Librarian: Ellen K. Leute. 
(i) 1887. (2) 321 East isth Street. (3) 556 
volumes. (4) All medical. 

(6) Founded by Sarah M. Hitchcock. 

New York Mathematical Society. Librarian: 
D. A. Murray. 

(i) Organized 1888. Not incorporated. 

(2) Mathematical department of Columbia 
College. (3) About 300 volumes. (4) All 
scientific, say 100 per cent. (5) and (6) No 

Benjamin Townsend Library. Librarian : F. E. 

(i) 1888. (2) On Bellevue Hospital grounds, 
First Avenue between 26th and 27th Streets. 

(3) 2000 volumes. (4) 20 volumes. (5) 2. 

College Settlement Library. Librarian: Amy P. 

(i) 1889. (2) No. 95 Rivington Street. (3) 
2000 volumes. 

(6) The library is used mostly by children 
in uneducated families, and the books mostly 
read are histories, biographies, and fiction. 
The proportion of scientific works is small and 
they are chiefly elementary. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Li- 
brarian: E. C. Griffin. 

(i) 1890. (2) 12 West 3ist Street. (3) 4100 
volumes. (4) All scientific. (5) Wholly scien- 

(6) The library is free to the public, but no 
books can be removed from the building. 

A merican Institute of Electrical Engineers. Sec- 
retary: Ralph W. Pope. 

(1)1890. (2) No. 12 West 3ist Street. (3) 
The library occupies space jointly with that of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 


Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Li- 
brarian: Franklin W. Hooper. 

(i) 1823. (2) Fulton and Bond Streets. (3) 
13,500 volumes. (4) 4200, say one-third. (5) 
1 200 readers. 

(6) Special collections of value: 600 works on 
entomology; noo geographical publications. 

The Law Library in Brooklyn, and the Law Li- 
brary of the Second Judicial District. 
Librarian: S. C. Betts. 

(i) 1850. (2) County Court House. (3) 
Over 14,000 volumes. (4) Wholly on law. 

January, '94] 


Young Men's Christian Association. Librarian: 
S. H. Berry. 

(i) 1854. (2) 502 Fulton Street. (3) 12,000 
volumes. (4) 530 volumes. 

Brooklyn Library. Librarian: W. A. Bardwell. 
(i) 1857. (2) 197 Montague Street, Brook- 
lyn Heights. (3) 115,000 volumes. (4) About 
17,000 volumes, say one-seventh. (5) No 

Long Island Historical Society. Librarian : Em ma 

(i) 1863. (2) Corner Pierrepont and Clinton 
Streets, Brooklyn. (3) 47,000. (4) Very small. 
(5) Almost none. 

(6) The library is especially devoted to local 
history and genealogy. 

Adelphi Academy. Librarian: Mabel A. Farr. 

(i) 1869. (2) Clifton Place, Brooklyn. (3) 
3000 volumes. (4) About one-twentieth. (5) 
About 20. 

(6) Confined to instructors and pupils of the 
academy, 170 in number. 

Medical Society of Kings County. Librarian : 
William Browning. 

(i) 1874. (2) 356 Bridge Street, Brooklyn. 
(3) 55OO volumes. [ (4) Wholly on medicine 
and allied sciences. (5) Members of the so- 
ciety, 500. 

(6) Public and free for consultation. Anew 
building is in progress. The Hoagland Labora- 
tory library complements medically the above 
and is free to members by card. 

Free Lending Library of the Union for Christian 

Work. Librarian: Miss Fanny Hull, 
(i) 1882. (2) 67-69 Schefmerhorn Street. 
(3) 22,000 volumes. (4) 2306 volumes. (5) 
150 scientific readers. 

Pratt Institute. Librarian: M. W. Plummer. 

(i) 1888. (2) 215 Ryerson Street, Brooklyn. 
(3) 35,ooo volumes. (4) About one-seventeenth 
(not including useful arts and biography). (5) 
No data. 

Hoagland Laboratory. Librarian: George T. 


(i) 1888. (2) Corner Pacific and Henry 
Streets. (3) 1544. (4) 100 percent. 

(5 and 6) The library is rich in foreign 
serials on bacteriology, pathology, histology, 
physiology, and experimental therapeutics. 


Stevens Institute of Technology. Librarian : A. 


(i) 1871. (2) Corner Hudson and 5th Streets, 
Hoboken. (3) About 7500 volumes. (4) Ex- 
clusively scientific. (5) Consulted by alumni 
and undergraduates, say 600 persons. 

Free Public Library, Hoboken, N. J. Librarian: 

Thomas F. Hatfield. 
(i\ 1800. (2} Second National Bank Build - 

ln S- (3) 7343 volumes. (4) 540 volumes, 
say one-thirteenth. (5) No data. 


Fret Public Library, Jersey City, N.J. Librarian : 
George Watson Cole. 

(i) 1889. (2) Corner Washington and York 
Streets. (3) 25,312 volumes (July i, 1892). 
(4) 1405, say one-eighteenth. (5) Out of a 
circulation of 294,796 volumes, 7417 were 

(6) Books on electricity and engineering are 
more largely called for than other branches of 

The following report no libraries : Bellevue 
Medical College ; Medical Department of the 
University of the City of New York; College of 
Physicians and Surgeons; Long Island College 

From eight additional libraries not herein 
named, no replies were received to duplicate 
circulars of inquiry. From one library the 
circular letter was returned through the post- 
office marked " removed, present address un- 


THE purchase of the Copinger collection of 
Latin Bibles in London and its presentation to 
the General Theological Seminary of New York 
City by some friends of that institution, whose 
names are withheld, may be regarded as the 
most important everit of its kind in many years. 
W. A. Copinger, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., of the 
Middle Temple, barrister-at-law, professor of 
law in the Victoria University, and president of 
the Bibliographical Society, spent many years 
in bringing together from all parts of Europe 
this collection of Bibles, which is believed to be 
the largest and most valuable in the world. It 
contains 1364 volumes, representing 543 editions, 
exceeding the number of editions in the British 
Museum by 69, in the Bodleian Library by 351, 
and in the University Library, Cambridge, by 
376 editions. The most important feature of 
the collection, however, is the number of unique 
copies, and of unique copies in perfect condition. 
An edition of 1483 and another of 1618 are 
among th former, and among the latter is a per- 
fect copy of an unidentified edition of 1491, of 
which only three other copies are known, one 
in the British Museum and two in the Bodleian, 
all imperfect ; and also a complete copy of the 
famous Antwerp Polyglot, known as the ' ' eighth 
wonder of the world," of which there are six im- 
perfect copies in the British Museum. A perfect 
Polyglot of Hutter, which was printed privately 
at the expense of Silas Hutter, is also among the 
gems of the collection. 

The rare editions comprise the Reynsburch 
edition of 1478, the Zainer edition of 1480, the 
Reinhard edition of 1482, the Scot edition of 
1489, and an almost complete set of Coberger 
editions, from the first of 1475 to those of the 
i6th century. Equally valuable are the first 



{January, '94 

Sacon edition of 1506, the first Vostre edition of 
1512, the Venice edition of 1519, which contained 
the first metal engravings, the Cratander edi- 
tion of 1326, and an unique Latin translation of 
the Septuagint ; the first edition in which the 
verses were numbered, known as the Ant. du Ry 
of 1526 ; the Stephen edition of 1528 ; Quentel's 
Cologne edition of 1529 ; and the rare edition of 
Peypus of 1530, with 77 engravings by Hans 
Springinklee and others, of which no other copy 
can be found in the three great libraries of 
England or the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris. 
Other important editions in the collection are 
Munster's translation from the Hebrew of 1534 '< 
the rare first edition of Clarius of 1542, in which 
he corrected the text in 3000 places ; the original 
Zurich edition of 1543 ; the Hentenius Bible of 
1547; Castalio's translation, published in 1551 
and dedicated to Edward vi. ; the first London 
edition of 1580 ; the Roman edition of 1593, and 
copies of all the other i6th century editions 
known. Among the editions of the I7th century 
are the eight-volume Paris edition of 1642, which 
was printed for the King of France ; the Biblia 
Magna of 1643, and the Biblia Maxima of 1660, 
the former in five, the latter in 19 folio volumes. 
From a theological point of view the worth of 
the collection is inestimable, and its bibliograph- 
ical importance is equally great ; it will be open 
to all Biblical scholars. 

It is expected that the books will be shipped 
from England so as to reach New York in the 
early part of the year, when the work of catalog- 
ing and arranging them, which will take about 
three months, will be begun at once. 


From the Library. 

THIS is, if I mistake not, a new subject; at 
least it is treated from a new standpoint. Com- 
ments on the assistant have not been few; but 
this is the first time that an assistant has passed 
criticism, coram populo, on the doings of his 

But if the title be uncanny, and carry with it 
suggestions of " Sir John Lubbock," by an Ant, 
a Bee, or a Wasp, it shall be the only thing unor- 
thodox in this essay. From Chaucer downwards 
(in both senses) men have liked best to satirize 
the foibles of a class by creating and then criti- 
cising a member of it. It is usual to set up a 
lay-figure, as it were, clothed with such weak- 
nesses as are most frequent in the men it repre- 
sents, and then to ride a-tilt at it. One so gets 
a living personality instead of an abstraction, 
and personalities, however dull their subject, are 
always interesting. 

But I am wandering from my original pur- 
pose, which was to introduce to you Mr. Book- 
worm, a librarian whom his brother-craftsmen 
have not hitherto met. This is not altogether 
the fault of that distinguished librarian. Rather 
is it that you have been a little backward in rec- 
ognizing a form that has been amongst you for 
years; a form which, in some phases of charac- 

ter, is well known to my brother assistants. I 
have called Mr. Bookworm distinguished, and I 
do so advisedly. Not that he has ever told me 
so, but because he has so often implied it by the 
disparaging way in which he speaks of the other 
members of his profession. 

Mr. Bookworm's strong point is theory. He 
is not only a stern, uncompromising critic of the 
theories of others, but is himself "a gentleman 
of a good conceit," and full of plans for reform- 
ing all libraries including his own. And this 
last is a condition rarely to be met with. It 
must be confessed that, so far as any of these 
theories have been put into practice, they have 
not been a success. Attendant circumstances 
generally ruined them. 

There was that notion that books should only 
be cataloged once every 18 months, since by so 
doing one saved space and shifting of slips in the 
catalog, and moreover insured greater accuracy 
by giving one's whole time to such work. The 
brilliant originality of that theory must strike 
every librarian. After six months, it took 10 
minutes to find any new book. And this, in 
spite of the fact that Mr. Bookworm's scheme of 
shelf-classification (of which I will speak later) 
declared that " all new books can be found at 
once, without reference to the catalog." 

At the end of the year the local press began to 
comment on the " singular inefficiency of the 
staff of the reading-room," and the chief was at 
last induced to sacrifice his design for the good 
of his subordinates. The assistants cataloged 
our accessions (when we could find them), and 
the library once more returned to its unregener- 
ate ways of working. 

That failure made Mr. Bookworm a little an- 
gry, even though the press aforementioned con- 
gratulated him on having "so promptly grap- 
pled with the disorganization to which we lately 
had occasion to refer." I do not mean that our 
chief was petulant. He was never that; but for 
some time, more in sorrow than in anger, he 
used to allude to that lack of support from those 
around which had ruined so many of the bright- 
est measures of reform. 

I have said that Mr. Bookworm was never pet- 
ulant. If not by example, at least by precept, 
he strongly condemned the weakness of losing 
one's temper under any provocation. Bad tem- 
per is a luxury not permitted to the assistant. It 
has been justly held that he must endure the va- 
garies of readers and the peculiarly irritating 
remarks of self-constituted critics, as if he liked 
them and received them as a kind of perquisite. 
I remember once that a reader asked me about a 
dozen questions in an hour, borrowed a book of 
my own (returning it with apologies for having 
inked it), severely criticised the manners of one 
of the attendants, and finally abused me because 
I refused him access to certain shelves. I am 
afraid I lost my temper, and showed it. So that 
reader reported my conduct to Mr. Bookworm, 
and the librarian was very angry, and addressed 
me in scathing terms of reproof for the space of 
10 minutes. It occurred to me afterwards that 
the great man himself had scarcely kept his tem- 
per during the interview. But then there is a 

January, '94] 


great difference between righteous anger and 
petulant retort, and yet another gulf between a 
reader and an assistant. 

Yet might I put up a plea that librarians 
would not forget that we juniors are human. 
They can remember, most of them, the many 
times when a harassing question, an idle lounger, 
or an impertinent critic has severely tried their 
good nature. They may remember that the end 
of a long day is not a favorable time for a test of 
courtesy. Above all, may they remember these 
things when they learn from an aggrieved reader 
that the assistant has turned and rent him. 

Like many other great men, Mr. Bookworm 
is very intolerant of ignorance. The " 'prentice 
hand " seldom enjoys life under his rule. It is 
not wise, when given something to do, to ask 
how it is to be done. An assistant will be told 
to initiate you, but you will fall many degrees in 
the librarian's estimation. Sile et philosophus 
esto; wait patiently and you will learn by de- 

In this way the library may suffer, but your 
reputation will be saved. 

But I would say here that a little indulgence, 
however weak-minded, to the young recruit will 
not always be thrown away. We cannot be ex- 
pected to spring all-wise, like Minerva, from the 
head of a public school. 

There is no profession the petty details of 
which are harder to grasp than ours. The jargon 
of books and cataloging must be a mere shib- 
boleth to the young beginner, and I cannot be 
too grateful for the mercy shown to my blunders 
when I was let loose on a library for the first 

We have now amongst us a son of the reigning 
house, who tries the paternal heart with all the 
vagaries common to assistants, adding a few 
special varieties of his own invention. But his 
path has been smoother than that of the ordinary 
novice. "In Rege (amen, Pater est" and the 
chief tempers even the sternest rebuke with an 
excuse for the ignorance which caused it. 

As I have hinted, Mr. Bookworm has a hobby. 
You will find it wise to take an interest in its 
capers ; omit all but friendly criticism of its 
points, and (if you are an assistant) take submis- 
sively whatever kicks that more or less intelli- 
gent animal may bestow on you. 

Mr. Bookworm's present mount is a great 
scheme of classification to which the Dewey 
system is child's play. 

^ He once issued invitations to the librarians of 
his district to hear a lecture thereon. Some ac- 
cepted; some few (and these from libraries where 
the scheme or its expounder were known) stayed 
away. Then he went out into the highways and 
hedges and asked the assistants to come in. I 
must confess that his audience seemed rather 
bored and mystified. Yet the system, with all 
its points, must have been exceeding clear, for 
not one ever asked a question. But to this day 
the lecturer marvels that no single library has 
adopted that scheme. 

For a long time, though the theory was per- 
fect, the practice would not coincide with the old 
method of working the library, One of the two 

had to go and the old method went. We are 
now about half-way through the reformation ; 
chaos reigns, and it is the chief's great delight to 
be called in to have pointed out (as occurs about 
once a week) " a defect in the old system," which 
prevents the carrying out of the Great Millen- 

Just as old Procrustes made the captive fit his 
bed if too short by stretching him, if too long 
by lopping him so does Mr. Bookworm make 
his subject fit his scheme. It matters not that 
the old category has worked well since the begin- 
ning. If it does not fit the scheme he will have 
none of it. It is either lopped or lengthened, 
and is turned out crippled and deformed, but at 
length in harmony with the great idea. 

You have by this time discovered that Mr. 
Bookworm is a many-sided man. He is an en- 
ergetic correspondent of Notes and Queries, and 
on many topics his word is law. 

He is author of a work on bibliography, which 
attracted some attention more especially at 
the hands of a Saturday Reviewer, for whom our 
author is still looking. I think he must want to 
argue one or two points with him. The chief 
has his weaknesses, and love of revenge is one of 
them. He also compiled a catalog ; but that 
was years ago when he entered the profession and 
knew but little of the ways of the librarian. 
The work was greatly praised, and though 
rumor spoke of an assistant and a stranger who 
haunted the library for two years before the vol- 
ume's appearance, and who were said to be cata- 
loging books still fonly the librarian's name 
appears on the title-page, so that rumor must be 
wrong again. 

I suggested once that I should start a shelf 
catalog, and the librarian was very good ^about 
it and approved. So I worked for three months, 
and had gone some way when the work was 
brought up for inspection. And once more he 
was very good, and took a great deal of trouble. 
He proved in half an hour that there were more 
defects than there were entries ; that no words 
would have been too bad for the principle, ex- 
cept that the practice was worse, and finally that 
shelf cataloging was a delusion and a snare. 
But he thoughtfully showed that the three months 
had not been wasted. By altering all the head- 
ings we were able to use the slips foran offshoot 
of his scheme of classification. The work was 
completed on these lines, and has been favorably 
noticed by the press as " yet another instance of 
the intelligence and untiring zeal which Mr. 
Bookworm brings to the discharge of his duties." 
Let no reader for a moment suppose that I 
sketch Mr. Bookworm as a type. It is danger- 
ous always to create a species from a single 

Mr. Bookworm is unique, is proud of it, and it 
is as such that I have given him to the world. 
To speak still more plainly, the above instance 
is but the lay-figure already mentioned, endowed 
with all the weaknesses and none of the virtues 
of the men under whom we serve. Mr. Book- 
worm is merely an exception to the rule of gen- 
erosity and long-suffering which is found in gen- 
eral among the ranks of the craft. 



[January, '94 

tlibrnrii (Tlnbo. 


THE regular January meeting of the New 
York Library Club was held at the Mercantile 
Library on Thursday, Jan. 11,1893. The meet- 
ing was called to order at 3:30 p.m. by President 
Cole. About 50 members were present. The 
subject for consideration was " Printing catalog 
cards for libraries," with special reference to the 
action of the Library Bureau and the Rudolph 
Indexer Co. in the matter. Mr. Carr, of the 
Rudolph Indexer Co., and Mr. Fletcher, of the 
Library Bureau, were present to represent the in- 
terests of their respective companies. 

Mr. Cole introduced the subject for discussion. 
It was unnecessary, he said, to say anything in 
regard to the benefits of co-operative work, 
which had already proved its usefulness and 
value in Poole's Index and in other work start- 
ed by the American Library Association. Un- 
doubtedly, most librarians had within the past 
few months received circulars from the Ru- 
dolph Indexer Co. and also from the Library 
Bureau in regard to printed catalog cards for 
library card catalogs. There were now present 
representatives of both the Rudolph Indexer 
Company and the Library Bureau, and he sug- 
gested that the club first call upon the represen- 
tative of the Rudolph Indexer Co. to state fully 
what his company proposed to do; then, as the 
Library Bureau had already begun the printing 
of the cards, Mr. Fletchercould explain what was 
being done by the Bureau, and finally the mem- 
bers of the club might endeavor to tell what 
should be done and what corrections or changes 
should be made in the plans that had been sub- 
mitted. He then called upon Mr. Carr, of the 
Rudolph Indexer Co., to state what his com- 
pany proposed to do. 

Mr. Carr said that the plans of the Indexer 
Company, as already outlined, were probably fa- 
miliar to most of those present. The title de- 
partment of the Indexer Company was to be 
under the charge of Mr. C. A. Cutter; it was 
proposed to print entries for all new books in this 
country and Great Britain, and to take contracts 
to print catalogs for complete libraries. Already 
orders for five libraries of some 200,000 volumes 
had been received. Three cents each would be 
charged for such entries; but if libraries pre- 
ferred to order cards for all the new books a cer- 
tain rate per thousand cards would be charged, 
the amount not having yet been decided. The 
company proposed to catalog during the next 18 
months about 18,000 books and to carry a stock 
of those titles; thus as orders to catalog old li- 
braries were received, the stock of titles on hand 
would constantly increase. With the beginning 
of the year the Publishers' Weekly had begun the 
practice of numbering the books recorded in its 
" weekly record," and he suggested that librari- 
ans, who generally used the Publishers' Weekly 
as a guide in ordering books, could order printed 
entries by number and receive them by return 
mall. Arrangements bad been made with pub- 
lishers to furnish new books to the Indexer 

Company before sending them to the binders; 
thus ample time would be given for cataloging 
in advance of publication. With Mr. Cutter's 
return from Europe active work would begin; he 
was expected to arrive in about two weeks; but it 
would probably be two months before everything 
would be fully established in working order. In 
response to questions by Messrs. Poole and Cole, 
Mr. Carr said that as yet no arrangements had 
been made in regard to foreign books; but that 
the company would have agents abroad who 
would make the necessary arrangements with 
foreign publishers. Publishers generally were 
responding very satisfactorily to the request for 
their books, as their names, printed on the cards, 
were in a measure an advertisement; but should 
they refuse to co-operate in this way, the company 
was prepared to purchase the books outright. 
As the books were to be received before binding, 
and as binding would occupy about two weeks, it 
was expected that the printed entries would be 
ready by the time the book was placed on the 
market; if publishers did not give sufficient ad- 
vance notice of publication, the company would 
furnish printed lists of new books at their own 
expense. Mr. Carr believed that for small li- 
braries the charge of three cents per entry was 
cheaper than a regular rate per thousand cards 
for all cards published. Three cards per book 
would be 15,000 cards for 5000 books, and the 
purchase of cards for all new books for several 
years would result in an enormous accumulation 
of cards, requiring special storing facilities and 
entailing constant work in arranging, etc. Un- 
less in a very large library, he thought it useless 
to subscribe for all the cards. 

Mr. Cole asked if it would be possible to fur- 
nish cards to accompany the books i.e., so that 
when the publishers sold the book the card would 
be included and both reach the purchaser simul- 
taneously. Mr. Carr said that this had been dis- 
cussed in Chicago with A. C. McClurg & Co., 
and had been decided to be impracticable, as 
booksellers would probably order a hundred cop- 
ies of a new book, not over 10 of which would 
go to libraiies, and the entries would have to be 
supplied with all the books or with none. Mr. 
Cole thought that such a plan would nevertheless 
be very advantageous, especially to large libra- 
ries that ordered many books and were anxious 
to have them on the shelves as soon as possible; 
first buying the book and then ordering the en- 
try and waiting its arrival would be apt to cause 
vexatious delay. Mr. Berry suggested that this 
could be obviated by ordering the cards at the 
same time as the books. The books would not 
be received immediately and the entries would 
probably reach the libraiies as soon asthe books. 
In response to inquiries by Messrs. Peoples and 
Bardwell, Mr. Carr said that the Rudolph In- 
dexer Co. had not yet decided on the exact style 
of card to be used, Mr. Cutter's opinion being 
desired on that point. It was proposed to fur- 
nish cards for the Rudolph Indexer and Indexer 
Book as well as for ordinary card catalogs; the 
Indexer Book would have been placed on the 
market two weeks ago but for an unexpected 
delay, and it would now be delivered in about 
two weeks; the price decided on for the book 

January, '94] 



was $15, but it was possible that this might be 
reduced during the year. 

Mr. Bowker asked whether the Indexer Co. 
proposed to issue more than one card to a book 
i.e., whether they would print the titles as title 
and as subject entries or only print the title-en- 
try on one card, designating in small type at the 
bottom of the card the entries which might af- 
terwards be given by librarians themselves. Mr. 
Carr replied that books would be cataloged un- 
der author, title, and cross reference; if 10 cards 
were needed to a book, 10 cards would be print- 
ed; they would be furnished just as librarians 
desired, one card, or two cards, or 10 cards, at 
three cents per entry. It had been found that 
small libraries could not afford to buy cards for 
all the books. Mr. Carr then spoke of the com- 
pany's plans for cataloging old libraries. Sever- 
al contracts for this work had already been taken. 
Among these he mentioned the Gilpin Library, 
of California. In this 20,000 volumes of fiction 
were to be cataloged, two cards to a book, taking 
about 40,000 cards at three cents per entry. 
From 50 to 100 cards would be printed for each 
of these books and carried in stock for future 
use. The company did not expect to receive any 
returns from its work for several years; but it was 
hoped that a firm basis might be established for 
future usefulness. 

The Library Bureau's work in this field was 
then referred to by President Cole. Before pro- 
ceeding to a consideration of the Bureau's meth- 
ods, the secretary read the following letter from 
Mr. Parker, treasurer of the Bureau, addressed 
to Mr. Cole : 

" I have to thank you and the New York Library Club 
for the cordial invitation to the Library Bureau to be 
present at its meeting to-morrow. Mr. Davidson is and 
has been for a month in London, as|you know, and the in- 
creased pressure of business which rests upon me will not 
allow me to leave town this week. 

" I should be glad to tell the members of your club of 
the success which the printed card scheme has already 
reached. Especially gratifying is the very prompt co- 
operation of all the publishers. We have access to the 
books of every leading publisher in the country and the 
smaller ones are rapidly taking advantage of this oppor- 
tunity of sending their books to our library constituency. 
Librarians have been most cordial in their co-operation 
and in their friendly criticism upon which we largely de- 
pend to supplement the experience of our librarian and 
consulting experts. The very many requests which we 
had anticipated for change in our rules have failed to 
materialize. Our library friends seem to recognize the 
aim which we constantly endeavor to have before us in 
this matter the best and widest service to libraries of 
every class. 

" Printed cards allow the adoption of rules more broad 
than any yet formulated. Those which have existed 
hitherto have had pre-eminently in mind the claims of the 
cataloger; when the cataloging work is done co-opera- 
tively once for all, that form which gives the reader the 
simplest and at the same time fullest description is the 
best. We are sparing no pains of time or money to make 
these cards satisfactory. We have assigned one of our 
rooms here to the library, and librarians are already find- 
ing it a pleasure to examine here the new books, arranged 
by publishers." 

Mr. Fletcher, of the Library Bureau, then out- 
lined briefly the work undertaken by the Bureau. 
Since November cards have been issued by the 
Bureau at regular intervals, and so far they have 
seemed satisfactory; criticism and suggestion 
have been generally requested and will receive 
careful attention. In regard to the number of 

cards, it is believed the work is made more use- 
ful by not issuing only two cards where the 
general library would use three or four and at 
the same time by not using six or seven cards 
where a small general library would find two 
sufficient. The cards are printed on the regular 
"standard" 33 x card; though libraries so desir- 
ing may use the smaller size of card. In regard 
to the printing of the cards various criticisms 
have been made, expressing, as a rule, varying 
personal opinions, but to libraries generally the 
cards have proved satisfactory. Besides noting 
the main facts, as subject and author, biblio- 
graphical details are fully given, making a find- 
ing-list as well as a catalog. It is expected that 
entries shall be made from the books in every 
case, publishers co-operating to such an extent 
that advance copies may be cataloged before the 
books are on the market, and the cards may then 
serve as a buying-list for the librarian. The 
complaint of the smaller libraries is that they 
cannot afford to buy all the cards, but any libra- 
rian of experience will see the value of a com- 
plete set as a reference-list of American publica- 
tions. As yet nothing has been done about 
printing special lists, but is hoped to take this 
question up shortly. The printed card catalog 
is the development of years of discussion and the 
support of the American Library Association is 
needed to perfect it; special lists would be only 
available for strictly society libraries and for 
small libraries that could not afford to purchase 
the whole list. 

Mr. Bardwell asked if unused cards could be 
returned. Mr. Fletcher thought not; the great 
expense involved was chiefly in the card and the 
printing, and they could not afford to carry in 
stock a great quantity of printed cards. The 
preparation of special lists had not yet been 
undertaken, and that was the only way a library 
could get some cards without subscribing for all. 
In response to questions Mr. Fletcher said that 
about zoo sets had already been subscribed for, 
some libraries taking two and even three sets. 
Books are received by the bureau on Monday 
and Wednesday, and on Wednesday and Satur- 
day night shipments of cards are made; the 
whole matter of promptness of cataloging and 
shipment of cards lies with the publishers, and if 
they send in their books promptly there can be 
no question of delay. It is the intention to have 
cards ready at time of publication of books. 
The prices of the cards depend on the quality of 
card used; the " standard " size is $7. 50 per thou- 
sand; the " r " card, thicker in quality, is $9, and 
the "x," heaviest of all, is $10.50; the number 
of cards to a book is not limited, some books be- 
ing covered with two cards, others needing five 
or six. Mr. Bowker remarked that the Library 
Bureau's cards would average about one cent per 
entry as against three cents per entry charged 
by the Rudolph Indexer; the distinction being 
that the Rudolph Indexer Co. allowed selection 
of titles while the bureau did not. 

Mr. Bowker said that his experience in the 
matter of printed cards led him to question 
whether the plans as outlined, particularly by 
Mr. Carr, were not a little millennial. He 
thought that the proposition to do exactly as the 


[January, '94 

libraries wanted and to send them the specific 
cards they desired would prove commercially 
impracticable. He understood that Mr. Cutter 
had proposed that one card be printed which 
should give a fairly full title, and that all the 
usual or desirable entries should be included 
in smaller type at the bottom of the card, leaving 
it for the librarian to write in or stamp in the 
several headings under which he would enter the 
book. He regretted to see two competitors in 
the field for this work though it was unprofita- 
blelto discusslwhich had the right of way because 
it halved the compensation, and with his experi- 
ence of the subject he thought it would be suffi- 
ciently difficult to handle the scheme with the full 
benefits of co-operation. If individual work was 
to be attempted, and the peculiar desires of indi- 
vidual libraries considered, the cost of machinery 
would be something enormous, and it would be a 
much safer plan for both the Library Bureau and 
the Indexer Co. to confine themselves to the issue 
of one title per book, with sub-headings in 
smaller type. Such a plan would be entirely 
practicable with commercial energy and push, 
such as both the Indexer Company and the Li- 
brary Bureau possessed in a large degree. An 
important point would ultimately be whether li- 
braries in general would be content with one card 
to a book. An admirable feature of the plans of 
the Indexer Company was its intention to catalog 
special libraries and thus put itself in the position 
of having a stock of cards on which other libraries 
could draw; and he suggested that two prices be 
established, one for the regular series, and one 
for a special selection or for a lot with privilege 
of return. He desired specially to advocate the 
printing of one card only, practically the author, 
possibly two, respectively for author and title 
entries ; but the plan that seemed specially 
within the limits of practicability was the print- 
ing of the author entry with room at the top 
for title and subject entry. 

A general discussion followed. Most of those 
present expressed themselves as in favor of 
authorand title cards only, with space at top of 
the cards for the librarian to write in the subject- 
heading according to the classification adopted 
in his individual library. Mr. Stetson, of New 
Haven, said that he had already suggested this 
change to the Library Bureau and that the matter 
was under consideration. He advocated the 
adoption of Mr. lies' plan of critical annotations 
on the cards, and Mr. Carr said that this was al- 
ready under consideration by his company as a 
matter for future development. Miss Plummer 
asked if, with the general use of printed cards, 
the cataloger's occupation would not be gone. 
This aroused a rather lively discussion, but the 
general opinion was that catalogers need not 
yet begin to fear on that score; Mr. Bardwellsaid 
that he had been asked that question, but that in 
view of the fact that out of 125 cards furnished to 
his library by the Library Bureau he had been able 
to use 19 only, he did not think that catalogers 
need fear immediate and wholesale dismissal. 
The question of printing the classification on the 
back of the card was brought up, but set aside 
as unimportant. Opinion as to the saving effected 
by the use of the printed cards seemed to vary; 

Mr. Stetson thought that little or nothing was 
saved and that the cost might exceed that of or- 
dinary cataloging; Mr. Fletcher quoted the esti- 
mate made by Mr. Jones at a recent meeting of 
the Massachusetts Library Club, figuring that if 
700 cards out of 1000 were used there would still 
be a saving to the library of one-sixth. The 
increased time that library workers would be 
able to devote to the many things that were al- 
ways to be done, but for which there was never 
time, must also be considered. 

Mr. Cole suggested that in the shipment of 
cards, instead of having 50 cards sent in at once, 
all in alphabet, it would be well if the cards of 
one book be kept together by themselves, as the 
cataloger could thus use them more easily and 

A show of hands was taken on the follow- 
ing questions: How many preferred complete 
sets of cards, including subject-entries; none. 
How many preferred complete sets without sub- 
ject-entries; 14. How many preferred full title 
on title-card; three. How many preferred short 
title on title-card; six. 

It was decided that the next meeting be held 
at Columbia College, in connection with the New 
York State Library Association. Mr. Poole and 
Mr. Peoples were appointed a committee to wait 
on Mr. De Vinne, to ask him to deliver an address 
at the next meeting, preferably on " Early print- 
ed books." The treasurer's report was placed 
on file. 

The meeting adjourned at 5 p.m., and the 
members spent a short time examining a new 
book-support exhibited by Mr. Fletcher, a sam- 
ple newspaper file, and specimens of binding, 
that were submitted for their inspection. 


THE 1 3th regular meeting of the Chicago Li- 
brary Club was held at the Public Library, 
November 9, 1893. Neither the president, nor 
either of the vice-presidents, being present, the 
secretary called the meeting to order at 8:12 p.m., 
and moved that Mr. Josiah T. Read be called to 
the chair, which was unanimously carried. The 
minutes of the preceding meeting were read and 

Dr. E. G. Wire, of the Newberry Library, then 
read a well-prepared paper, entitled " Sugges- 
tions to stimulate discussion." The intended 
object was accomplished. After the paper was 
read in toto, it was discussed point by point. 

i. The first suggestion offered was that the 
club should know what the libraries in its terri- 
tory were doing, that the members should there- 
fore visit the various libraries, and that the 
membership in the club of librarians and li- 
brary workers in these institutions, who are not 
already members, should be solicited on the 
occasion of such visits. Miss Clarke argued that 
it would be best also to have a special committee 
for the purpose of visiting libraries and soliciting 
membership, making a motion to that effect, 
which being seconded by Miss Elliott, was car- 
ried. The committee to consist of five and to be 
appointed by the executive committee. 

3. The second suggestion made by Dr. Wire 

January, '94] 


was that the club ought to prepare a manual of 
libraries in its district. Mr. Merrill thought the 
Idea a very good one, since such a manual would 
be an excellent help, especially to students, by 
pointing out the specialties and resources of the 
several libraries. It could be sold or distributed 
by the libraries themselves. Mr. Merrill sug- 
gested that the club send circulars to the libraries 
and a set of questions to be answered. 

3. The third suggestion aimed at the careful 
preparation and maintenance of lists of serials in 
the possession of several libraries, showing not 
only which serials may be found at the different 
libraries, but how complete they are, etc.' 

4, The fourth suggestion offered was that it 
would be very profitable for the club to discuss 
the various library helps and appliances, as the 
Rudolph Indexer, the lineotype, etc., as they 
may appear. 

A discussion on profitable work for the club 
during the present season followed. The secre- 
tary thought that librarians ought also to learn 
from outsiders who are connected wiih literature, 
such as authors, teachers of literature and profes- 
sional men, and that these might be asked to 
address the club at its meetings. Mr. Merrill 
moved that the secretary be asked to prepare a 
scheme for work on that line to present to the 
next meeting. The motion was carried. 

The meeting thereupon adjourned at 9:30. 

THE i4th regular meeting of the club was held 
at the rooms of the Library Bureau, Thursday, 
December 7, 1893. The meeting was called to 
order at 7:45 by the president, W. B. Wicker- 
sham. The minutes of the preceding meeting 
were read and approved, as also the minutes of 
the executive committee. 

The resignation of Dr. Pietsch, of the New- 
berry, was received and accepted .and the follow- 
ing six names were unanimously recommended 
for membership by the executive committee : 
Miss Therese West and Miss Agnes Van Walk- 
enburg, of the Milwaukee Public Library; Miss 
Carrie A. Trowbridge and James S. Cobb, of the 
Library Bureau; Almon Burtch, of A. C. Mc- 
Clurg & Co.; Norman S. Patton, architect, of 
No. 115 Monroe St., Chicago. They were elected 
by acclamation. 

The question was raised whether it would be 
in the interest of the club to reduce the annual 
dues from $i to 50 cents. There was some dis- 
cussion of the subject, but the sense of the meet- 
ing being unanimous in favor of leaving the dues 
at $i, the matter was dropped without a vote. 

Miss Kate M. Henneberry, of the Chicago 
Public Library, then read a paper on "The 
preparation of printed lists for circulating li- 
braries." (Seep. g). 

The meeting having been called to the rooms 
of the Library Bureau for the purpose of discuss- 
ing library aids and appliances, such as are 
offered by the Bureau or sold by special houses, 
Mr. Meleney, the representative of the Bureau 
at Chicago, was called upon to present such ar- 
ticles as he thought worthy of special mention. 
Mr. Meleney said he was sorry he could not say 
anything about the Rudolph Indexer and the 
lineotype. The nature and usefulness of these 

two devices were therefore explained by Dr. Wire, 
no one representing them being present. Mr. 
Meleney then called attention to the large stock 
of library aids and appliances sold and mostly 
manufactured by the Library Bureau, as they 
were advantageously arranged in the commo- 
dious rooms. Mr. Meleney said that they were 
mostly old favorites, and but few new. One or 
two of the latter, however, he would call special 
attention to, especially to the new steel stacks, 
made on the upright principle. The best feature 
in these was the fastening of the shelves, which 
was done by means of a wedge, allowing the 
shelves to be adjusied at any height. Then 
there were the " charging cards " and the 
" charging box," keeping not only a record of 
borrowers, but also of books. The new book 
support, too, was meeting with favor. The 
greatest feature of the Bureau's work, however, 
was the printed catalog cards, which were found 
to supply quite a want, since cataloging in li- 
braries was of necessity simple, and these cards, 
being obtained by subscription, cut down the ex- 
penses of libraries considerably. 

Thanks were voted Mr. Meleney, and the 
meeting adjourned at 9:06. 

E. F. L. GAUSS, Secretary. 

BULLETIN of the Bureau of Rolls and Records of 
the Department of State ; No. i. September, 
1893 Washington : Department of State, 
1893. 102+46 pp. 1. O. 

The publication of this volume is welcome 
in more ways than one, for it is not merely a 
contribution to history, but also marks a tendency 
that cannot be too highly praised a desire to 
make accessible by proper calendars the manu- 
script archives possessed by our government. For 
many years the established policy has been one de- 
signed to seclude from use the immensely valu- 
able manuscript purchases and official records in 
the Department of State. Fifty years ago a some- 
what inadequate calendar of the manuscripts 
of the Bureau of Rolls and Library was put in 
type; but no copies were distributed, and the list 
was rarely shown, even to visitors at the depart- 
ment. And this secretiveness was but an index 
to the whole policy of the department towards 
historical workers. In every way they were dis- 
couraged from endeavoring to see the original 
records, to such an extent, that when Mr. Lodge 
undertook to edit the new edition of the " Writ- 
ings of Alexander Hamilton," he was not even 
aware that the Hamilton manuscripts were actu- 
ally in existence, and in a government deposi- 
tory. And most historical workers were either 
equally ignorant, or like Kapp, had been sub- 
jected to such incivilities and discouragements in 
the endeavors to consult these archives that they 
had given up in disgust. Nor did this policy re- 
lax with time. Only four years ago the Govern- 
ment printed the " Calendar of the correspond- 
ence of James Monroe ; " but the publication 
was not distributed and all consultation of it in 
the department was prohibited in every way. 


[January, '94 

Indeed, all consultation or endeavor to obtain 
knowledge of the manuscripts of the department 
by outsiders was discouraged. And in some 
cases attempts were made by those in charge of 
the bureau to actually prohibit the use of the 
manuscripts and historical material. 

We therefore hail the present volume as mark- 
ing a new epoch in the history and policy of the 
library as an attempt to encourage rather than 
discourage the use of its manuscript wealth; and 
feel a gratitude to Mr. Andrew H. Allen, the 
chief of the bureau, for inaugurating such a poli- 
cy. Should the system indicated by the prepara- 
tion and distribution of this initial volume be 
continued, the reputation of the Bureau of Rolls 
and Libraries among historical workers will be 
entirely reversed, and Mr. Allen will have done a 
greater service, both to writers and to his own 
bureau, than has been done by any previous chief 
of bureau. 

Of the list under review our first comment 
must be in praise of the typographical form and 
the careful and accurate printing. The bulletin 
is divided into three sections, under the head 
" Catalogue of the papers of the Continental 
Congress," " Miscellaneous index," and " Docu- 
mentary history of the Constitution." The first 
section is devoted to a calendar of the "Papers 
of the Continental Congress," or rather a part of 
them. The list is satisfactory wherever the vol- 
ume cataloged relates only to one subject, but is 
unfortunate in treating with too much brevity 
many of the volumes. It is, however, such an 
immensely valuable list, even as printed, that it 
seems hypercritical to pick faults in it. We trust, 
however, that this list is but a preliminary to a 
careful calendar of the documents, which is by 
far the greatest desideratum of all the manuscript 
collections. This section is followed by a Mis- 
cellaneous Index, which is an attempt to index the 
papers of the Continental Congress, the Wash- 
ington papers, the papers relating to the forma- 
tion of the Constitution of the United States, the 
manuscripts of Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, 
Monroe, and Franklin, and the " Records of the 
States and Territories." The particular section 
printed in the present bulletin goes from A to L 
in the " Papers of the Continental Congress." It 
is alphabetical in arrangement, and opens up a 
vast number of documents, but it must be appar- 
ent on the most cursory examination to be merely 
a skimming of the surface; nevertheless it is a 
list of the utmost value and indicates great care 
and a large amount of work. The " Documen- 
tary history of the Constitution" is printed in 
the form of an appendix and separately paged so 
that it may be rebound. This, unlike the other 
two lists, is not a calendar, but a printing of the 
documents themselves, and these are most wel- 

We regret exceedingly that these three subjects 
should be printed in this way, for the value of the 
bulletin would be much greater if it finished a 
subject in each issue, rather than giving sections 
of three and leaving each to be continued in an- 
other bulletin. Indeed the plan shows lack of 
system and a certain scrappiness which is very re- 
gretable in view of the great value of the work, 
and the evident pains that have been taken with 

it. It is a pity when such a work is being done 
that it should not be executed in such a way as 
not to need a redoing of it later; and this we fear 
will be necessary if the present system is contin- 
ued. Even in its present form it is a great boon, 
however, and will win Mr. Allen nothing but 
praise among historical students, for the inaugu- 
ration of such a calendar, if not in its method of 
execution. P. L. F. 

Cibrorg (Economg cw& f istorg. 


Alameda (Cal.) P. L. (Rpt.) Added 327; total 
not given; issued, home use 8508 (fict. 51.32 #); 
ref. use, 933; no. visitors (estimated) 11,821. 

Librarian Harbourne says: " I have been asked 
frequently: 'Does free access to the books in- 
crease the demand for light reading, or do those 
of a studious turn follow their proper line of 
reading?' In answer to this inquiry I will give 
the following comparisons. I took charge of 
the library on May 15. The circulation for 
that month was 4011. The average for fiction 
was 60 %, for juvenile 26.7 and for miscellaneous 
13.3. At that time the applicant was compelled 
to hand to the librarian a list giving name of 
book, shelf, and case number. I found in many 
cases that patrons would turn away disappointed 
and disgusted at the reply ' not in.' 

" I asked permission to try the experiment of 
free access. The following figures will show 
how well it succeeded: the circulation for Novem- 
ber was 9441, average for fiction 51.32, for juve- 
nile 16.89, a d for miscellaneous 31.79. With 
nearly double the circulation we have decreased 
fiction nearly 10 %, juvenile nearly 10 %, and in- 
creased the better class of literature 18.93, or 
over nearly 100 %. Surely no one can deny the 
success of the system now in vogue. 

" Our cases containing juvenile books are en- 
tirely separate from other classes of books, and 
those using this class of books seldom stray from 
the cases containing books especially selected for 
them. Should they do so we have a check in the 
fact that all the books selected are presented to 
the librarian. Any books not suitable are re- 
tained, and they are directed to their proper de- 

BOLTON, C: Knowles. Harvard University Li" 
brary: a sketch of its history and its benefac- 
tors, with some account of its influence through 
two and a half centuries. Reprinted from the 
New England Magazine for December, 1892. 
Cambridge, 1894. il. 18 p. O. 

Branford, Ct. Blackstone Memorial L. When 
it was announced that Mr. Timothy B. Black- 
stone, of Chicago, had given a memorial library 
to his native town of Branford, the fact was not 
then appreciated that this memorial library was 
to cost over $300,000. Ground was broken for 
the building in November, and since then the 
work on the foundation walls has been progress- 
ing quietly. It will not be until spring that 

January, '94] 


the structure will begin to show that this library 
will be as fine a building as there is in the United 
States, and for its dimensions one of the finest 
there is anywhere. It has been designed by S. 
S. Beman, of Chicago, one of the five architects 
of the World's Fair, Mr. Beman having designed 
the Mines building and several smaller ones of 
the Fairgrounds. The construction is in charge 
of the Probst Company, of Chicago, a firm that 
has constructed many of the most noted buildings 
in Chicago and over a dozen of the World's Fair 
buildings. The new library will be a mod- 
el in every respect. The ground plan will be 
cruciform, the main part being 163 feet in length, 
the central rotunda ending in a magnificent 
dome, and the width of the building through the 
wings being 133 feet. The footings and walls 
above ground for the first 10 feet are to be built 
of granite ; the rest of the walls will be of light- 
colored Concord, East Tennessee, marble. 

The exterior doors and all the railings will be 
of bronze. The style of architecture is classic 
in design, effective in outline, and very pleasing. 
In the basement of the building there is to be a 
thoroughly equipped gymnasium, in addition to 
a number of storage-rooms for books. The 
second floor will contain the library. The main 
entrance will be an adaptation of classic archi- 
tecture and will be reached through an imposing 
porch that will extend about 10 feet in front of 
the building proper. The porch will have four 
large Ionic columns, and on either side will be 
flanked by the circular wings of the main build- 
ing. The steps leading up to the porch will be 
of marble and these in turn will lead through a 
grand marble vestibule, which will form the en- 
trance to the rotunda. This rotunda will extend 
clear up through the building to the grand dome 
and will have a panelled ceiling, walls of rich 
polished marble, and mosaic floors; eight great 
columns of Tennessee pink marble will form the 
supports for the dome. 

To the left of the main entrance and leading 
off from the rotunda, in one of the wings, will 
be the stock-room, while in the right-hand 
wing will be the reading-room. In the corners 
of the rotunda there will be smaller rooms for 
the librarian, a catalog-room, reference-rooms, 
etc. Opposite the main entrance will be the 
lecture-hall, reached by a grand marble staircase. 
This hall will be 62x44 feet in dimensions and 
will have a stage at one end. The ceiling will 
be of panelled tile and the walls will be frescoed 
and finished in keeping with the rest of the 
building. The hall will seat about 700 people. 
The second floor will have a large promen- 
ade gallery, finished off in bronze, extending 
around the rotunda. In the wing on the second 
floor will be three separate art galleries, and also 
a gallery over the lecture-hall. All the stairs 
are to be of marble with bronze railings. The 
entire building will be fire-proof and little or no 
wood will be used in its construction. The ceil- 
ing of the dome will be of hollow tile, after the 
old Roman idea of a ceiling for a dome, and the 
frescoing of the dome will be done by Walter 

Mr. Blackstone has for several years been col- 
lecting the nucleus for a library to fill the shelves 

of this splendid memorial. He has also collected 
many paintings and works of art, and these, too, 
it is understood, are for Branford. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Pratt Institute F. L. On 
Dec. 21 Mr. Melvil Dewey, of the New York 
State Library, lectured before the members of 
the Pratt Institute and their friends on " Educa- 
tional interests and library extension in New 
York State." 

Charlemont, Mass. Goodnow L. The Goodnow 
Town Hall and Library was dedicated on Dec. 
12 with appropriate exercises. The building, 
town hall and library combined, was erected 
from a fund of $8000 given for the purpose by 
Ebenezer Goodnow, of the town, to which nearly 
$3000 was added by popular subscription. It is 
45 x 65, of brick trimmed with red granite. An 
arched vestibule leads to the main entrance, and 
above it on the wall, cut in the granite, is the in- 
scription, " Goodnow Hall, 1892." On the lower 
floor, three rooms on the right of the corridor 
are for the use of the town library and for a read- 
ing-room, and three rooms on the left are for the 
town officers and a kitchen. These rooms are 
neatly finished, those for the library being con- 
nected with folding doors. The library has been 
in existence for 50 years or more in private 
houses. The offer of the state to donate books 
has been taken advantage of, and additions from 
other sources have brought the number up to 
some 1500 volumes. Miss Lizzie Temple is the 
librarian, and the library is open on Saturday 
evenings. The income of a fund of $1000, left 
by the late J: Maxwell, of Rockville, Ct., is to 
be devoted to the purchase of books. The sec- 
ond floor of the building is devoted to a large 
lecture-hall, with stage and galleries. 

The exercises, which were largely attended, 
consisted of music, prayer, and addresses by 
Lorenzo Griswold, Rev. Dr. Whiting, Rev. A. 
D. Barter, and others. 

Elgin, III. Gail Borden P. L. Work is about 
completed on the Gail Borden Public Library 
building, and the library will probably be in 
working order in its new quarters within a 
month. The land for the building was given to 
the city by Messrs. A. B. and S: Church on the 
one condition, that the town library should adopt 
the name of Gail Borden. This condition was 
accepted, and to place a suitable structure on the 
lot, the town voted to allow the directors $goco. 

The building, which was designed by W. W. 
Abell, is 120x52 feet, two stories high, and 
is built of St. Louis mottled pressed brick, with 
modest terra-cotta trimming. The inside trim- 
mings are all of hard wood, and the numerous 
large windows are filled with the best French 
plate-glass. The inside walls will be tinted. A 
mosaic floor is used in the entrance and the 
wainscoting is of hard wood. The building is 
heated by steam, and lighted by electricity. In 
the basement is a commodious receiving-room 
for books, etc., and the furnace-rooms. 

On the first floor are the stock, delivery, refer- 
ence, and reading rooms. With the exception of 
the reference-room, which is more secluded, the 



[January, '94 

first floor is really one large room. The south 
part of it is devoted to the storage-room and de- 
livery-desk, while the remainder of the room is 
arranged for the users of the library. On the 
second floor is the public document and directors' 
room. In the former will be stored all the un- 
used public documents, newspapers, etc. The 
directors' room will be handsomely furnished by 
Mrs. A. B. Church, and will be used by the di- 
rectors and by literary clubs for their meetings. 
Miss Cecil Harvey is librarian. 

Elmer (Pa.) P. L. A. The question as to who 
owns the public library has recently been raised. 
Eight years ago the Elmer Public Library Asso- 
ciation was formed with about 40 members. At 
the last annual meeting only one member was 
present, Edwin Coombs, who holds the only 
life-member certificate. According to the by- 
laws Mr. Coombs is the sole owner of the books, 
as the other members have failed to pay the 

Fairfield, la. The handsome new building of 
the Jefferson County Library Association was 
dedicated on Nov. 29, with appropriate exercises, 
which were attended by a large number of 
guests, representing many parts of the state. 
The building fund was raised by liberal dona- 
tions, Andrew Carnegie giving $40,000. 

Hoboken (N.J.) P. L. By an act of the legis- 
lature the library trustees have been allowed 
$50,000 with which to purchase land and erect a 
new building. 

Macon (Ga.) P. L. In his report for the past 
year the president of the board of library direc- 
tors says : " When I assumed charge of affairs I 
found an indebtedness of about $1700, and the 
expenses of the library in excess of its income. 
The debt had been materially reduced, and if 
people would contribute as much as $350 the li- 
brary would be out of debt. The income is now 
greater than the expenses. Over 100 member- 
ships have been added, about 60 of which were 
purchased and paid for. Three entertainments 
have been given and have proven quite a source 
of revenue, the society realizing a profit on ev- 
ery one of them." 

Massachusetts State L. , Boston. (Rpt.) Added 
2849; pm. 3527; total not given. Expended for 
books $5206.81. 

" The accessions from all sources, as repre- 
sented in the catalog, have covered a wide range 
of subjects, which, by liberal interpretation, 
properly come within the range of literature 
which a state library should contain. The de- 
velopment of the library in the special lines of 
statute law, reports of judicial decisions, politic- 
al, social, and economic science, local history 
and genealogy, and the official publications of 
the general government and of the several states 
has received constant and watchful care. No 
effort has been spared to make all portions of the 
collection readily available to any person engaged 
in special research." 

Milwaukee ( Wis.) P. L. The men's reading. 

room has for some time past been daily filled, 
often crowded, with workingmen whose enforced 
idleness gives them the opportunity to read, 
while the number of books drawn from the li- 
brary at the present time is 75 per cent, greater 
than at the corresponding time last year. The 
librarian is quoted as saying that the business of 
the free library in this country is a trustworthy 
pulse of the average industrial activity. In sea- 
sons of depression the officers and employees of 
libraries are " rushed " with work. When times 
are good, on the other hand, and when work and 
business crowd, the libraries, so far as the pat- 
ronage of men is concerned, are to a considerable 
extent deserted. 

Montdair (N. /.) F. P. L. The library was 
opened the first week in January. There are 
2000 books on the shelves, 1000 of which were 
turned over by the old Library Association, 500 
purchased, and 500 contributed by friends of the 

New Brunswick, N. J, Theological Seminary 
of the Reformed (Dutch} Church. The Gardner 
A. Sage library, which occupies an important 
place in the seminary, contains over 42,000 vol- 
umes, 3000 of which were formerly a part of the 
library of the Rev. Dr. Bethune; many have 
been given by ministerial friends of the semi- 
nary; many purchased with money contributed by 
numerous generous donors. It is an excellent 
working library, being particularly rich in theolo- 
gy and philosophy, philology, history, archaeolo- 
gy, and art. In addition to its bound volumes it 
contains 7500 pamphlets, current American and 
foreign periodicals, with many plates, etchings, 
engravings, maps, and several valuable oil paint- 

The library is housed in a complete and spa- 
cious fire-proof building, admirably fitted for its 
purpose, and erected in 1875 by Gardner A. 
Sage, late of New York City. In addition Mr. 
Sage endowed the library to the amount of $60,- 
ooo, the income of which is to be used for keep- 
ing the building and books in good order and re- 
pair, for the payment of all necessary current 
expenses of the library, and for the purchase of 
books. The expenditure of this income, togeth- 
er with gifts of books, enables the library to add 
new books to the number of about 1000 per 

The General Synod has resolved, "that the 
use of the library be extended to the whole Re- 
formed Church, and to the citizens of New 
Brunswick, under such restrictions, however, to 
be adopted by the board of superintendents, as 
not to interfere with its proper use by the facul- 
ty and students of the Theological Seminary." 

New Haven (Ct.) F. P. L. The statement of 
the receipts and expenditures of the New Haven 
Free Public Library, given in the LIBRARY JOUR- 
NAL for December, was incorrect, owing partly to 
the form of the treasurer's statement. Receipts, 
including balances were $23,570.06, expendi- 
tures $18,793.67, leaving balance of $4776.39. 
Of this $1885.24 was working balance necessary 
on account of date of city appropriation, $2891.- 
15 was balance of building fund, used for re- 

January, '94] 



pairs, furniture, etc., $1693.19 was expended on 
the building, $6312.71 was expended for books. 
The actual ordinary receipts of the library have 
been about $14,500, including income of the 
book fund ($3130). An increase of the city ap- 
propriation from $10,000 to $11,500 has been 
made for 1894. 

New York City. Adolph Sanger, president of 
the board of education and a prominent lawyer, 
died on the morning of Jan. 3, at his home in 
New York City. Mr. Sanger was always an 
earnest worker for popular education generally, 
and had for several years endeavored to induce 
the legislature to authorize the establishment of 
a free municipal library in New York. To his 
efforts chiefly was due the passage of the act re- 
quiring the city to appropriate annually $10,000 
each for most of the free libraries of the city. 

New York City. Webster F. L. Work on the 
Webster Free Library, 78th Street near the East 
River, is almost completed, and it is expected that 
the library will be in working order by the mid- 
dle of January. It is owned and erected by the 
East Side House Association, organized by a 
committee from the Church Club, which in its 
existence of two and a half years has accom- 
plished a very successful first part of a great work 
which is planned. The library signifies the de- 
velopment of one of its chief features. The 
means for this building came from C. B. Web- 
ster, who was travelling in Egypt when he de- 
cided to make himself responsible for this project. 

Only three stories of the library are now built, 
the managers trusting to future prosperity to be 
able to run the building up to the full height and 
to finish it with a modest tower. The building 
is brick and of simple construction. The plan 
comprises on the first floor a hall to provide for 
lectures and entertainments, and for the meeting 
of girls' clubs, and boys' clubs for lads too young 
to enter the men's club in the other building, the 
space serving also in the forenoon for the kinder- 
garten, where provision is to be made for the 
training of 50 children. The second floor will 
be devoted to the library, which will immediate- 
ly receive 4000 books presented by Edward Clar- 
ence Spofford. These are to be cataloged, 
placed on the shelves in the rear division, and 
circulated free under stated rules. The front 
section will be used as a reading-room. The 
third story contains rooms for Mr. Hodges, the 
librarian, with rooms for any other resident of 
the East Side House to whom they may be as- 
signed by the board of managers. The equip- 
ment for the activities of the East Side House is 
considerably increased in the new structure. 

Newark (N. /.) P. L. An exhibition of art 
works was held at the library on Dec. 14, which 
was a decided success and a source of genuine 
encouragement to all interested in the library. 
It was the first time that anything of the kind 
had been attempted, but it was met with such 
prompt appreciation that it is certain to have 
many successors. The books were displayed on 
tables in the reading-room and catalog-room, 
which were given up almost entirely to the exhi- 

bition. The day was unpleasant, but from early 
morning until closing time the tables were sur- 
rounded by visitors almost constantly. During 
the busy part of the day, from 3 o'clock until 5, 
people stood about the tables two and three and 
sometimes four deep awaiting their turns. It had 
been arranged to keep tally of all who came, but 
this was soon found impracticable. A very fair 
estimate of the attendance is 2000. This is if any- 
thing below the actual figures, and the most in- 
teresting fact in this connection is that the great 
majority of those who attended came especially 
to see the exhibit. 

Norfolk (Va.} L. A. In view of lack of inter- 
est among its members and financial difficulties 
the Norfolk Library Association has decided to 
sell its books and to endeavor, if possible, to have 
its collection purchased by the town to form the 
nucleus of a free public library. It is intended to 
memorialize the legislature to grant a charter for 
a public library for the town. 

Nyack(N. Y.) F. L. In September, 1893, the 
Nyack library was put in operation as a free pub- 
lic library, it having before that time been a 
subscription library with annual dues of $i. The 
results of the change are indicated in the follow- 
ing figures: In September, 1892, under the old 
system, the number of books taken out was 658; 
in September, 1893, the number was 1330, an in- 
crease of 672. In October, 1892, 678 books were 
taken out, and the same month, 1893, the num- 
ber was 1290. The increase in the month of 
November was much larger than in either of the 
other two months. The number of books taken 
out in November, 1892, was 643, and in the same 
month, 1893, it was 1607. In each of the last 
three months the number of new applicants for 
books was from 60 to 80. 

Hitherto the library has had no city appropria- 
tion, expenses being met by individual contribu- 
tions and subscriptions. It is proposed, however, 
that the matter of a library tax be submitted to 
the people at the spring elections, and it will 
probably result in the establishing of a definite 
yearly appropriation for library purposes. 

Oconomowoc (Wis.) L. A. The association, 
which was organized in August, 1893, for the 
establishment of a free circulating library, has 
made a promising beginning. A room has been 
furnished to serve as a library and about 700 
volumes are now on the shelves. Nearly all of 
these have been given, and more are expected 
from friends of the association. The association 
will also purchase as many books as practi- 

Pennsylvania State L., Harrisburg, Pa. The 
corner-stone of the new state library building was 
laid on Dec. 16. The ceremonies were of the 
simplest character and there was an attendance 
of hardly 100 persons. Governor Pattison sealed 
the box and performed the ceremony of spread- 
ing the mortar over the stone. 

Southport Ct. Pequot L. The Pequot Library 
building, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Monroe 
to the village of Southport, was formally ten- 



[January, 94 

dered to the Pequot Library Association on 
Thursday, Nov. 16, 1893. 

The building is of granite, Norman in style, 
surrounded with ample lawns, and situated on 
one of the main streets of the village. It con- 
tains a large lecture-hall, two reading-rooms, 
ladies' writing-room, trustees' room, librarian's 
room, and a large fire-proof book-room. Cut 
in the stone over the portal are the name 
" Pequot Library " and twodates," 1837-1887," 
the former being the date of the Pequot War, 
the latter, that of the beginning of the building. 

The books for the library, to be furnished by 
Mr. Monroe, have not yet been provided, and 
the date of opening is not determined. Miss 
Helen M. Bradley is librarian. 

Syracuse, IV. Y. On May 18, 1891, James 
Belden, of Syracuse, offered to give to his town 
a " complete fire-proof library and art building," 
to cost not less than $150,000, on the sole con- 
ditions that the city should furnish a suitable 
site and should provide annually for the running 
expenses of the library "the sum of at least 
$6000." Since Mr. Belden's offer was made no 
action towards its acceptance has been taken by 
the city, and the proposed gift is now withdrawn. 
In the letter formally withdrawing his offer, Mr. 
Belden says: 

" My communication to the common council 
relating to a free library was made May 8, 
1891. Since then nothing has been done that 
would indicate that my proposition, or its terms, 
were acceptable to the council or the city except 
the passage of a resolution urged upon the at- 
tention of the council (mainly by parties in- 
terested in its location) tendering the Putnam 
school lot and adjoining lots not owned by the 
city. No effort has been made to obtain the 
necessary legal authority to purchase lots or to 
provide for the maintenance of such library. On 
the contrary, the mayor and many other citizens 
have, through the; press and otherwise, stated 
that the city could not afford to accept the terms 

" Under all the many discouraging circum- 
stances, I have reluctantly concluded to with- 
draw my unaccepted proposition, hoping for bet- 
ter success in other and later efforts in behalf of 
our city." 

Washington, D. C. Congressional L. In the 
annual report of progress upon the new library 
building, submitted to Congress on Dec. 12 by 
General Casey, who is in charge of the work, the 
probable operations during the next year are 
outlined as follows: During the present winter 
it is expected that the iron and steel works for 
the roofs of the north, south, and two west cur- 
tains, and also of the west main pavilion, will be 
completed, and that the iron work of corner pa- 
yilion and east main roofs, the preparation of 
cut granite interior marble finish for nearly all of 
the corridors and main halls, marble decks and 
shelves for the book-stacks, iron stair for the 
four stair-towers, rotunda stair-wells in the east 
main pavilion, cast-iron frames and trimmed 
openings, and the hanging and glazing of win- 
dow-sashes will be in continuous progress. 

By December i, 1894, it is expected that all of 

the masonry of the building excepting the ap- 
proaches, all roofs and skylights, all interior 
work of trimming, cases and stairs, the sashes 
and glazing, book-stack decks and marble work 
of corridors and rotunda, will be finished, and 
that a considerable advancement will have been 
made with the general interior finish and decora- 
tion of the rotunda and other principal apart- 
ments, plastering, machinery of transmission, 
plumbing and electric wiring. Preparations for 
work on the approaches will also have been made. 
The total amount expended upon the building 
since October 2, 1888, is $3,066,502. There is a 
balance on hand of $783,497, with outstanding 
contracts of $1,064,196, and it is estimated that 
$900,000 will be required for the next fiscal year. 


Belfast (Ireland) F. P. L. (5th rpt.) Lending 
L.: Added by purchase 444; total 16,021; issued 
205,427 (fict. 61.20 %} to 7152 persons, of whom 
5062 were males; v. lost or damaged and paid 
for, 91. Reference L.: Added by purchase 224; 
total 14,844; no. readers 15,582 (14,932 males), 
an increase of 3298 over preceding year; issued 
35,444, an increase of 9321 over previous years. 

The preparation of the catalog is being 
pressed forward, and it is expected will be ready 
for the printer early in the year. In the mean- 
time written lists of the books are available for 

The estimated return for the year (300 days) 
of persons using the news-room is 771,523, or a 
daily average of 2571. The previous annual 
return was 597,983, with a daily average of 
2020. A new reading-stand for newspapers 
has been added, which has given additional 
facilities to readers. 

The estimated number of visitors to the Art 
Gallery and Museum for the year (296 days) is 
498, 145, showing a daily average of 1682, against 
258,512 visitors for 275 days in the previous 

A list of " Number of times notable and popu- 
lar books have been issued during the year " is 
given on p. 15 of the report. 

London. Minet P. L. The recently issued 3d 
annual report contains an elaborate table pre- 
pared by Librarian C: J. Courtney, dividing the 
borrowers of books into sexes, and then subdivid- 
ing them into their various trades and professions. 
Some of the results given are rather curious. 
Male borrowers (of whom there were 1895) used 
more of every class of books, except fiction and, 
curiously enough, law, than the female borrow- 
ers. In fiction, however, the latter (of whom 
there were 1714) were an easy first with a total of 
4696 issues against 3356 to the men, while in 
law, of 30 issues 16 were to women. Of the 
female readers of fiction 3640 are returned as 
" unemployed persons," while among the men the 
taste for novels seems more equally distributed, 
" clerks and secretaries " coming first with a total 
of 866. In juvenile books the male borrowers 
use about double the number of the female, and 
in poetry they are more than double. 

Manchester (Eng.} F. P. L's. The 4131 report 
shows a large increase in the number of books 

January, '94] 



issued for home reading, and a slight decrease 
in the number of those issued for library use. 
The total number of visits made by readers and 
borrowers to the libraries was 5,073,825, or over 
a third of a million in excess of the previous 
year's showing. On Sundays the number of 
visitors averaged about half of the week-day at- 
tendance. The only works for which there has 
this year been an increased demand are those 
on " Politics and commerce." 

(Snfts ana 

Chicago, III. Newberry L. On December 18 
Dr. Nicholas Senn, of Chicago, presented to the 
Newberry Library a large proportion of his fine 
collection of valuable medical books, periodicals, 
pamphlets, and charts. The collection will form 
a separate department known as " The Senn 
collection." The value of Dr. Senn's gift can 
hardly be measured. Some of the books cannot 
be duplicated and are practically priceless. An 
effort was made to secure some of them for the 
Surgeon-General's Library at Washington, but 
Dr. Senn would not part with them. Some of 
these volumes would fetch $1000 each if offered 
for sale. The reports of societies, medical 
periodicals, and charts are also rare and valuable. 
Dr. Senn's collection of medical books is said to 
be the largest private collection of the kind in the 
country, representing a lifetime of careful and 
competent research. In many respects it is a 
collection of collections, as Dr. Senn purchased 
valuable medical libraries whenever it was pos- 
sible; among these he secured the library of the 
great Dr. Baum, of Heidelberg, Germany. 

Merced, Cal. By the will of the late J: W. 
Mitchell, of Turlock, Cal., the towns of Merced, 
Modesto. Turlock, and Atwater each are given 
$5000 for a public library. 

Plainfield ' (N~. /.) P. L. The will of the late 
G: H. Babcock, a Plainfield millionaire and 
partner in the firm of Babcock & Wilcox, of 
New York City, bequeathes "to the Board of 
Trustees of the Plainfield Public Library and 
their successors forever, f 10,000 for the pur- 
chase of industrial, mechanical, and scientific 
works, to be known as the Babcock Scientific 
Library, for public use forever ; also three brick 
houses for the purpose of keeping up and main- 
taining the Babcock Scientific Library ; the trus- 
tees to have power to sell and reinvest the pro- 
ceeds and use the interest and rents for said 

Richmond, Va. The Rosemary Public Library 
on Dec. 14 received a gift of $5000. The 
giver's name is withheld by request. 

Salem (Mass.) P. L. The library has received 
a set of the publications of the Archaeological 
Institute of America and a set of the American 
Journal of Archeology from G: W. Wales, of 
Boston. The library is specially indebted to W: 
C. Lane, librarian of the Boston Athenaeum, for 
this contribution. It was first offered to his 
library, but as the books were already on its 
shelves he suggested to Mr. Wales that the 
Salem Public Library might be glad to receive 


BOLTON, C: Knowles, of the Harvard Univer- 
sity Library, has been elected librarian of the 
Brookline (Mass.) Public Library, to take the 
place left vacant by the death of Miss Mary A. 
Bean. Mr. Bolton is a graduate of Harvard, 
and since his graduation has worked in the col- 
lege library, where he has risen to the head of the 
catalog department, succeeding in that position 
Mr. Lane, who resigned to become librarian of 
the Boston Athenaeum. 

FLETCHER, W: I., announces that his book on 
" Public Libraries in America" is on point of 
issue by Roberts Bros. The volume was to 
have been published last fall but has been de- 
layed by the addition of considerable statistical 
and other matter in the form of appendixes. 

DWIGHT, Theodore Frelinghuysen, librarian 
of the Boston Public Library, has resigned his 
position on account of poor health and inability 
to stand the cares and responsibility of the of- 
fice. Mr. Dwight has held the position a lit- 
tle over a year, the trustees having allowed the 
post to remain vacant for about two years after 
the resignation of Judge Miller Chamberlain, 
Mr. D wight's predecessor. Before his accept- 
ance of the librarianship of the Boston Public 
Library Mr. Dwight was librarian of the State 
Department in Washington, a post that he filled 
for 13 years. He was secretary and librarian of 
the historian George Bancroft, and has acted as 
private secretary for Henry Adams, John Adams, 
and Charles Francis Adams. It is probable that 
the board of trustees will defer action on the 
matter of appointing a successor to Mr. Dwight 
until some time in May, when his resignation 
goes into effect. 

Cataloging anb Classification. 


Catalogo collettivo della libreria italiana. 
Nuova ed. per la Esposizione Nazionale de 
1891-92 in Palermo, con indice generale al- 
fabetico e indice per soggetti. Milan, 1892. 
2 v. 1. 8. 

BROOKLYN (IV. Y.) LIBRARY. Bulletin of 2000 
new books, selected chiefly from the additions 
the library since December, 1892. O. 
Arranged in four lists: i, general list of books 
added; 2, music; 3, foreign; 4, English fiction. 
A list of the newspapers, periodicals, etc. , on file 
in the reading-rooms is appended. 

SITY for October gives a short account of the 
" Recent gifts to the library," and the usual 
" List of additions," for May- August, 1893. 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. BULLETIN for Decem- 
ber contains an excellent classed " special read- 
ing list" on " Folk-lore." 



[January, '94 

for November continues the " List of periodicals 
for 1892," begun in the October number. 

Supplied by Harvard College Library. 

Bromley, G: Washington and Walter Scott (At- 
las of the city of Cambridge); 

Enebuske, Claes Julius (The gymnastic pro- 
gression of the Ling system); 

Fairchild, C: Bryant (Street railways; their con- 
struction, operation, etc.); 

Idell, Frank Edgar (Compressed air. Experi- 
ments upon the transmission of power by com- 
pressed air in Paris); 

Jackson, Dugald Caleb (A text-book on electro- 
magnetism and the construction of dynamos); 

Pancoast, H: Spackman (Representative English 
literature from Chaucer to Tennyson) ; 

Southwick, S.. Hussey (Reminiscences of early 
anti-slavery days); 

Traubel, Horace Logo, ) ... -,-, ,,* ,. 

Bucke, R: Maurice, * ( **"*< " " Walt 

Harned, T: Biggs ) Whltman )- 

BIBLIOTECA dell* ingegnere civile, industriale, 
agronomo : bibliografia delle piu important! 
opere italiane e straniere di scienze e arte ap- 
plicate all' ingegneria, disposte per ordine alfa- 
betico delle materie, vendibili da Ulrico Hoep- 
li. Terza ed., ampliata. Milan, Ulr. Hoepli, 
1893. 169 p. 16. 

CAMPBELL, Mrs. Helen. Women wage-earners: 
their past, their present, and their future; with 
an introd. by R: T. Ely. Bost., Roberts 
Bros., 1893. c. 5 + 313 P. D. cl., $1. 

Contains a ro-p. "bibliography of women's 
labor and of the woman question." 

CATALOGUE arranged according to subjects of 
the books and of the maps, plans, views, and 
photographs in the library of the British and 
American archaeological society of Rome, to- 
gether with an alphabetical catalogue of au- 
thors. Rome, G. Bertero, 1893. 112 p. 8. i f r. 

DOBSON, Austin. Horace Walpole : a memoir; 

with an appendix of books printed at the 

Strawberry Hill Press. N. Y., Dodd, Mead 

& Co., 1893. c. '90. 8+333 P- pors. D. cl., 

EASTMAN, Edith V. Musical education and 

musical art. Bost., Damrell & Upham, 1894. 

c. 4-171 p. D. cl.,$i.25. 

A list of books quoted from is given. 

JOSEPHSON, Aksel G. S., whose bibliography 
of Swedish dissertations, etc., was noted in the 
December L. j. (18 : 523), desires it stated that 
the first part of the bibliography, containing the 

alphabetic list, is issued in complete form, and 
that the subject-index is in press. He also 
states that the work may be obtained of Otto 
Harrassowitz, Leipzig, at 7.50 m. instead of 
6.50 as advertised for the ist part, and 2 m. 
for the 2d part. 

MANNO Ant. Bibliografia storica degli stati 
della monarchia di Savoia. Volume v. To- 
rino, fratelli Bocca, 1893. 455 p. 8. 
Biblioteca storica italiana, pubblicata per cura 

della r. deputazione di storia patria. 

MICHEL, fimile. Rembrandt: his life, his work, 
and his time; from the Fr. by Florence Sim- 
monds ; ed. by F: Wedmore ; with 67 full-p. 
pi. and 250 text il. N. Y., C: Scribner's Sons. 
1894 [1893] 2 v., 24 + 320; 10 + 294 p. il. Q. 

Contains a 2-p. bibliography of principal pub 
lications bearing on Rembrandt's life and work. 

NOTIZIE storiche, bibliografiche e statistiche 
sulle biblioteche governative del regno d'ltalia 
(Ministero della pubblica istruzione). Rome, 
Elzeviriana, 1893. 384 p. 8. 
Prepared for the International Congress of 

Librarians, Chicago, July, 1893. 

PUTNAM, G: Haven. Authors and their public 
in ancient times : a sketch of literary condi- 
tions and of the relations with the public of 
literary producers from the earliest times to 
the invention of printing. N. Y., G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons, 1894 [1893]. c. 15 + 309 p. D. 
cl., $1.50. 
There is a 5-p. bibliography of the principal 

works referred to as authorities. 


Albert Tracy, ps. of Albert Leffingwell, M.D., 
in " Rambles through Japan without a guide," 
pub. by Low, London, 1892. J. C. ROWELL. 

Shelton Ckauncey, ps. of C: W. De Lyons, in 
" The Greek Madonna," pub. 1894, by G. W. 

Th. Bentzon, ps. of Therese de Solms (Mme. 
Blanc), author of " Jacqueline," " Un remords," 

ijnmors nnb jBlnnbcro. 

THE example of " library humor" given be- 
low shows the result of letting loose the office- 
boy on the inoffensive typewriter : 

" Aqeirl 6 8193 

" Dear Sir i cannotbring the bookdown be- 
caus ! sickant i will bring the boo k down ass 

son get whell. ." 


January, '94.] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL 31 

rpWO important handbooks for the 
JL Librarian. 



The Annual American Catalogue for 1893 contains : 

(1) Directory of American Publishers issuing books in 1893. 

(2) Full-title Record, with descriptive notes, in author-alphabet, of all books recorded in 


(3) Author-, title-, and subject-index to same in one alphabet. 

(4) Publishers' annual lists for 1893. 

The edition is limited, and to secure copies orders should be sent at once. The price 
is $3>5<> Half leather ; $3.00 in sheets. 

The Annual Catalogue for 1886 and 1887 is now out of print. But few copies of the Annual 
Catalogue for 1888, 1889, 1890 and 1891 are on hand. 

We also supply the English Catalogue for 1893, price $1.50, paper; the Annual American 
and English Catalogues, 1892, can be had in one volume, half leather, $5.00. 




With the co-operation of members of the American Library Association and of the Library Journal staff. 

THE ANNUAL LITERARY INDEX for 1893 complements the "Annual American Catalogue" of 
books published in 1893 by indexing (i) articles in periodicals published in 1892 ; (2) essays and 
book-chapters in composite books of 1892 ; (3) authors of periodical articles and essays ; (4) special 
bibliographies of 1892 ; (5) authors deceased in 1892. The two volumes together make a com- 
plete record of the literary product of the year. 

The new volume includes the features of the " Co-operative Index to Periodicals," originally a 
monthly supplement to the Library Journal, then extended into a quarterly in an enlarged form, 
and later issued as an annual volume. 

THE ANNUAL LITERARY INDEX for 1893 forms the second supplement both to the new five- 
yearly volume (1887-1891) of Poole's Index to Periodical Literature and to the new A. L. A. Index 
to essays and book-chapters of Mr. Fletcher. 

The new volume will more than fulfil the opinion as to the Co-operative Index expressed in the 
following extract : 

"To the literary worker its value can hardly be over-estimated ; to the specialist in any branch of science or let- 
ters it is indispensable, since it places within his immediate reach many of the latest fruits of labor in the same field . 
to every one who desires to be well informed it furnishes the means of making the most effective use of his time." 
Providence Press. 

One vol., clotli, (uniform with "A. L. A. Index,") $3.50. 

\gB~Early orders for the above are solicited. 

P. O. Box Q43, 28 ELM STREET (Near Duane), NEW YORK. 


{January, '94 

The Rudolph Indexer Book. 

(Patented in the United States and all Foreign Countries.) 
Method of Indexing is the same as that employed in the Rudolph Continuous Indexer. 

BOOK consists of a number of 
card-holders of heavy card- 
board with one or two columns 
on both sides. On the back 
edge of each card-holder are two 
double hinges by which means 
other card-holders may be flex- 
ibly connected or disconnected. 

Independent hook-covers are 
furnished, and a book may thus 
be formed of one card-holder 
and later increased as desired. 
If the book becomes too bulky 
it may be separated and by add- 
ing covers two or more inde- 
pendent books formed. 

The Rudolph Indexer Case. 

(Patented in the United States and all 
Foreign Countries.) 

Method of Indexing Is the same as that em- 
ployed in the Rudolph Continuous Indexer, 

sists of a series of card-holders placed on 
their edges in a drawer, and they may be 
turned as the pages of a book, exhibiting at 
each view 272 single-line entries. 

We furnish the INDEXER CASE in one, 
two, four, six and eight drawers. 

The capacity of each drawer is thirty card- 
holders. As both sides of the card-holders 
are used it is equal to 8160 single-line 

The Rudolph Card Cutter. 

(Patent Pending.) 

This invention is tor the purpose of cutting the entries or cards for insertion in the card-holders, but can also be 
used for many other purposes. 

It is very important that all the slips to be inserted in the card-holders be cut at perfect right angles, in order that 
each entry will fit exactly to the others. 

An unnecessary margin of only i-sad of an inch on the top and i-sad of an inch on the bottom of each entry will 
amount to aJith inches of waste space on each card-holder. 

The cutter will cut cardboard where spacing between the printed or written Ijnes is i-64th of an inch. 

January, '94] 









The RUDOLPH INDEXER SYSTEM possesses many advantages which 
recommend it to Publishers and Booksellers in fact, to any one 
who has occasion to use lists of books, names or samples of goods, 
photographs, etc. 

It is entirely flexible, allowing any number of entries to be placed in 
the INDEXER at any point. 

It presents to the eye at one time as many entries as six pages of the 
American Catalogue. 

Entries are protected from being soiled by exposure or handling. 

Economy of space and economy of expenditure of both time and 

The INDEXER stands 42 inches high and is 2O inches wide by SO 
inches broad. 

We shall be pleased to give further information and list of testi- 
monials from leading librarians. 

RUDOLPH INDEXER CO., 606 Arch St, Philadelphia. 

34 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL {January, '9 4 

A Library Adhesive at Last! 




A novel adhesive originally intended and now largely used for sticking paper 
to the drawing-board, hence its name, but also found peculiarly adapted for lube' 
ling and repairing books and all-around library work. Has great strength and 
body. It is semi-solid and will not spill, yet responds at once to the merest touch 
of brush or finger. Spreads smoothly and easily, and is always ready. Not a starch 
or flour paste but a new chemical discovery Vegetable Glue. Will not mould or 
sour, and has no bad tricks. Adopted by leading librarians as the only satisfactory 
'ibrary adhesive ever produced. 


(See last four previous issues for Commendations 1, 2, 3, and 4.) 

" We have tried some of the Drawing-Board Mucilage for the exhibit and like it very well." MELVIL DKWEY 
Director New York State Library School, Albany, N. Y. 


CHAS, H. HI3GIKS S CO , Sole Manufacturers, 168-170 Eighth Street, Brooklyn, H. Y. 
THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., 23, 25, 27 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 

Have best facilities for supplying to libraries 


and with great promptness. Constantly in stock one of the largest collections of American pub- 
lishers' books carried in the country, also a good assortment of recent English books. 

ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN publications imported free of duty at lowest prices. 

Catalogue of scarce and out-of-print books issued frequently and mailed free to those desiring 

CANADIAN LIBRARIES particularly requested to permit us to act as their agents for pro- 
curing all American publications, as well as out-of-print and scarce books, at lowest prices. 

THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., - Cleveland, Ohio. 

Booksellers, Publishers, Importers. 


Teleoraphtc Address: _ Wf V I " H l~< LJ A iV /V 1 I B Code ' ^ 


Booksellers, Bookbinders, and Publishers, and Genera/ Agents in Europe 
for Private Bookbuyers and Public Institutions in America. 

With exceptionally long experience in Library Agency, they can promise the best care, 
diligence, and discretion in everything relating to it, and in small matters as well as great. 
Established 1816. 

A Monthly Catalogue of Second-Hand Books. Specimen Number post free. 

14O Strand, W. C., and 37 Piccadilly, W. : London 

January, '94] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL 3$ 


Paris Agency for American Libraries, 




French and Continental Books purchased at the lowest terms. 

Orders carefully executed for out-of-print and new books. 

Binding for books in constant use a specialty of the firm. 

Estimates given on application on all orders. 

The "Catalogue de la Librairie Franchise" mailed free monthly [as well as catalogues of 
second-hand bookdealers of every locality. 

Auction sales orders attended to, also orders for private libraries offered en bloc before auction. 

Mr. Em. Terquem, being the appointed agent in Paris of many libraries, colleges, and universi- 
ties, can furnish references in almost every city in the United States. 

Correspondence and trial orders solicited. Small or large shipments every week either direct 
or through his agent in New York. 





Agents by appointment to many of the largest American and Foreign 

College and Public Libraries. 

Terms on direct application for the supply of Foreign and American Books and Periodicals. 

Weekly shipments by the fleetest steamers from England, Germany, and France. Periodicals 
supplied at lower rates than mail copies and in better shape for binding. 

Rare Books and Sets of Serials procured at the lowest terms. Regular connections with 
Central and South America and all Oriental countries. 

Binding done here and abroad in every style. 

Auction Sales attended to. 

The Catalogues of Foreign Dealers English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish fur- 
nished on application. 

Monthly Bulletins of New Books issued regularly. 

With the help of a most complete Bibliographical Outfit in all languages and on all subjects, 
and the experience of many years in this particular line, estimates can be furnished promptly and 
information given on topics of interest to Librarians. 


{January, '94 

Of the following works I have bought 
the remainders of tJie edition 

and offer : 
La collection Sabouroft': Monuments de 

I'Art jrrec. Publtee par ADOI.PHK FURTWANGLKR. 2 
voU. Berlin 1883-1887. Folio. 149 plates and explana- 
tory text. In a portfolios. (Mk. 375. .) lor Mk. 240. 

Das Werk Adolf MenzePs. Vom Ktinst- 

ler autorisirte Ausjjabe. Mit Text von MAX JORDAN 
and ROBERT DOHMK. 3 vols. Large folio. Miinchen 
1890-91. (Mk. 600.) for Mk. 450., in 2 portfolios 
Mk. 500.. 

Kultur 11. Industrie Sudamerikani- 

cber Volker. Von STUBKL, RRIS& KKPFKL. Nach 
der im Besitze des Museums flir Yolkerkunde zu 
Leipzig befindlichen Sammlung. Text und Beschrei- 
bung von Max Uhle. 2 vols. Folio. Berlin 1889-90. 
a portfolios (M. 160. ) for Mk. 120. . 

Lie case ed i Monument! di Ponipei. 

NICOLINI. Farcie, 1-121. Large folio. Napoli 1854-93. 
(pr. 2000.) Only two copies left. 1290. 

/ further beg to offer the following 

new work : 
Die Buinenstatte von Tiahuanaco iin 

Hocbland des Alien Pern. A. STUBBL and M. 
UHLK. Eine Kulturgeschichtliche Studie. Mit einer 
Karte und 42 Tafeln in Lichtdruck. Folio. Breslau 
1892. Half morocco, Mk. 140. . 


81O Broadway, - - New York. 


Established 1879. 




76 E, 9th St., 

. Near Broadway, 

Opp. Hilton, Hughes 
& Co., 


Repairing and Re-backing of Old Book 
Covers a Specialty. 

Specimens of our work may be seen at the COLUMBIA COL- 
%3S~ We have a special style of binding well known to 

Librarians of the American Library Association, of which 

Mr. C. G. Neumann is a member. 



Having extensive experience in supplying PUBLIC LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS, GOVERNMENT 
INSTITUTIONS, etc., at Home and Abroad, with Miscellaneous Requisites, Books (New and 
Second-hand), or Periodicals in all Languages, offer their Services to LIBRARIANS, SECRE- 
TARIES, AND OTHERS. Careful attention given to every detail. Exceptional Facilities for 
obtaining Foreign and Scarce Books. BINDING OF EVERY DESCRIPTION UNDERTAKEN. Periodicals 
and Newspapers Promptly Supplied as issued. Books Shipped to all parts of the World at Lowest 
Rates. _ 


we make a specialty 
of hunting for out-of- 
print books for Libra- 

For particulars and month' 
ly bargain lists, address 

S.F. MCLEAN & co, 



A Literary Souvenir of the World's Fair. 

The Publishers' and Other Book Exhibits at 
the World's Columbian Exposition. 


i vol., 74 p., 2 plans, 16, pap., 10 cents. 

"The Publishers' Weekly has reprinted in neat pam- 
phlet its review of the publishers' and other book exhibits 
at the World's Columbian Exposition, than which we 
have seen nothing better." The Nation. 


January, '94] 




Book-Stack and Shelving for Libraries. 


Louisville, Ky., and Chicago, 111. 

This book-stack is of iron and fulfils all the requirements of the 
modern library, 
i . Convenience. 

(<z) Access and communication with the stack, as'well as with 
other parts of the Library Building. 

(b) Accommodation of books of all kinds and sizes. 

(c) Arrangement of books variable at will. 

(d) Shelves adjustable, removable, interchangeable, and easily 


(e) Assorting or reading of books. 

(y) Support of books on partially filled shelves. 

2. Light, cleanliness, moderate and even temperature and ventilation. 
3. Capacity and compactness. 
4. Fireproof construction. 

5. Shelving surfaces permanently smooth and protected from corro- 
sion (Bower-Barffed), and necessity of renewal. 

Used for the New Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 


38 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL {January, '94 





Purchasing Agent tor Colleges & Libraries 



begs to call attention to his facilities for obtaining FOREIGN BOOKS and 
OR EUROPE can offer, because : 

He employs no Commission Agents, but has his own offices and 
clerks at London, Paris and Leipzig. He has open accounts 
with all the leading publishing houses in the world. 

His experience enables him to give information at once about 
rare and scarce books. 

He receives weekly shipments from England, France and Germany, and 
can thereby fill orders in quicker time. 



" Mr. Stechert has for years furnished this Library with most of its periodicals and European books, and has bought for us 
many thousand volumes. Mr. Stechert's success is due to his constant personal attention to the business, and the reasonabla 
terms he is able to offer. I consider a New York agent far preferable to reliance on foreign agents alone." 

GEO. H. BAKER, Librarian of Columbia College, New York. 

" Seven years ago, in reorganizing the Columbia College library, I spent much time in trying to discover how to get out 
foreign books and periodicals with the least delay, trouble and expense. The result of the comparison of three methods, viz: 
ordering direct from foreign dealers, ordering through one agent in London, or ordering through one agent in New York showed 
us that it was to our advantage to give Mr. Stechert all our foreign orders, as he delivered in the library in a single package 
and with a single bill at as low cost as we were able with vastly greater trouble, to get a half dozen different packages in differ- 
ent bills from different places. In reorganizing the New York State Library, I opened the whole question anew, and the result 
of the comparison was the same as before, and we find that the library gets most for the time and money expended by taking 
advantage of Mr. Stechert's long experience, and the careful personal attention which he gives to our orders." 

MELVIL DEWEV, Director of N. Y. State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

"Mr. G. E. Stechert of New York has served us with fidelity in procuring English, French and German books, both new 
and second hand and also periodicals. His terms are more reasonable than any others that have come to our notice, while he 
has always guarded our interests very carefully. We find it a great convenience to have one agency in New York, represented 
by branches in different European countries." 

Prof. ARTHUR H. PALMER, Librarian of Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 

14 Our_ library committee speaks in the highest terms of your services. You have not only saved us many dollars, but hav 
&own an intelligent appreciation of our wants for which we thank you. ' ' 

A. 8. COLLINS, Act* Librarian of Reynolds Library, Rochester, N, If, 




Library Journal 



Xibrarp Economy anfc Bibliograpbp 

VOL. 19. No. 2 




The Public Documents Bill. 

American Catalogue of Books Previous to 1876. 

American Bibliographies. 

Library Club Reports. 

Report of the Los Angeles Public Library. 

Details of Library Work. 

The Circulation of Magazines. 


Critical Annotation of Books. 
Library Club Reports. 


Edith E. Clarke 47 


PEOPLE. J. C. Rotuell. 50 






The American Library Association. 


New Hampshire Library Association. 
Library Association of Indiana. 
Iowa Library Society. 
Pennsylvania Library Club. 


Chicago Library Club. 








Prict to Europe, or other countries in the Union, zoj. fier annum ; tingle numbers, M, 
Entered at the Post -Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter. 



Library Bureau 


publications, ffittinas, ano Supplies for public ano 
private ^Libraries 


Catalog, Index, Consultation, Employment, 
Publication, Fittings and Supplies. 


146 Franklin St., Boston; 278 Stewart Bldg., 

New York; 603 Chestnut St., Phila.; 

125 Franklin St., Chicago. 

New Lr. B. Book Support 

A new and improved form of the L. B., the first satisfactory support devised. It serves not only for books on 
the shelves, but two supports make a perfect temporary shelf on table, floor, or ledge indeed, anywhere, of any 
desired length. This quality makes it the best support for office and home use ; supplying a want often felt in every 
room where books are kept or handled. 

Description. A single piece of light but strong metal is bent into a rectangular shape, thus forming a base 
plate and an upright. From the material composing the upright are formed two braces which are bent outwardly and 
at right angles to the upright itself. These projections brace the upright against lateral displacement and prevent it 
from being bent out of shape by the weight of heavy books, or crawling away from the books. The support cannot 
be hidden between books as in the old form, and hence books cannot be pushed on the edge of an unseen support and 
so injured. It will support books of any size, from the smallest to the largest. 

Two distinct uses. Singly, the best-known device to keep books upright on shelves. In pairs, the best 
adjustable shelf. Each support makes a firm end for the column of books between them. 

Sample too sent on trial to any library, subject to return if not fully satisfactory. Catalog No. 28b. 

Price, 15 cents each. $1.35 for 10. $12.00 for 100. 

An Introductory price of $1O.OO for the first 1OO will l>e given until April 1. 


Publishers are furnishing advance copies of their books which are being cataloged by our catalogers, the 
cards printed and distributed promptly to all subscribers. As a guide to the books to be cataloged by the Bureau, a 
list of these publishers has been sent to all subscribing libraries. 

In accordance with the expressed wishes of many of the subscribers, we will issue, beginning March i, the cards 
without subject headings. Three cards will be sent for each book, one author card, and one each for title and subject 
with upper line blank. In case of books by joint authors and of books treating of more than one distinct subject, 
additional cards will be sent. 


VOL. 19. 

FEBRUARY, 1894. 

No. 2 

THERE are assurances from Washington that 
the Public Documents Bill will reach the Senate 
in time to insure action during the present ses- 
sion and with every prospect of success. The 
bill is now in the hands of the committee on 
printing, of which Senator Gorman (not Gordon, 
as was stated by error) is chairman, Senators 
Ransom and Manderson the other members, and 
Mr. F. M. Cox, clerk. Senator Gorman has 
been giving personal attention of late to the 
details of the bill, and proposes to bring for- 
ward some amendments to the measure as it 
reached the Senate from the House, but none, 
we are led to expect, which will interfere with 
the library privileges under the bill. Senator 
Manderson, the former chairman of the com- 
mittee, now the minority member, has of course 
a deep interest in the bill, with which he has had 
so much to do from the start, and will do every- 
thing he can to promote its passage. Communi- 
cations from librarians should now be especially 
addressed to Senator Gorman, as the opinions of 
librarians regarding economy on one side and 
effectiveness on the other in the handling of 
public documents, which the bill should effect, 
will doubtless be of value to him in bringing the 
bill before the Senate. The A. L. A. committee 
is in close relations with those having charge of 
the bill. 

AN American Catalogue of books printed 
prior to 1876 is so great a desideratum as to be 
welcomed from all sides. Such a catalog is as 
great a labor, however, as it is a great need. The 
chief difficulty does not consist in the recording 
of the books, but in their discovery. The con- 
ditions of book production in this country have 
been so peculiar that they far more than balance 
the ease which Mr. Cole believes should come 
from the fact that American printing has been a 
matter of only 250 years. Indeed, it would be 
easier to catalog the publications of the Euro- 
pean presses down to 1640 than to catalog any 
20 years of American printing. The reason for 
this is due to the distinctively American feature 
of local presses. At the time when there were 
not 20 publishers in this country who made 
a decent living, there were probably 250 printers 

from whose presses came books, pamphlets, 
broadsides, and newspapers galore. None of 
these, with the exception of the newspapers, were 
commercial ventures. They were publications 
paid for by the author, usually printed in very 
small editions, and being printed on paper made 
from rags, served as raw material for the paper- 
makers. In few cases did they pass beyond the 
town or state in which they were printed. The 
paucity of binderies served to discourage any 
attempt at protecting these. No libraries took 
heed of them; in short, the bulk of every edition 
was destroyed within a few years of its printing. 
To attempt to discover such publications is a 
work of most enormous proportions. Even when 
the task has been attacked in some minute de- 
tail the imperfection of the work not through 
the unconsciousness of the bibliographer, but 
from the absolute non-existence or unreachabil- 
ity of the material is most grievous. We agree 
with Mr. Cole that Hildeburn's "Issues of the 
Pennsylvania press" ranks among the foremost 
pieces of American bibliography. Yet his 4700 
titles probably do not represent more than two- 
thirds, at best, of the output of the printing- 
offices of Pennsylvania. In the same way Ford's 
" Bibliography of the Continental Congress," 
though cataloging 500 titles, probably does not 
list half the titles that should have been included. 
Yet these two works were both prepared with- 
out the slightest limit of expense or labor, each 
of which exceeded many times the actual cost of 
printing the volumes, and therefore making a 
larger work prepared at the same expense pro 
rata impossible, except at government charge. 

THESE discouraging circumstances, however, 
do not in the least lessen the value of any sys- 
tematic attempt to give American libraries and 
American students a list of books such as is 
proposed. Every added title increases the value 
of a bibliography, but the omission of 10 or 50 
per cent, of the books which could be included 
does not lessen the value of the go or 50 per 
cent, actually collected. Such books as Haven's 
and Thomas' "American imprints," Rich's 
" Bibliotheca Americana Nuova," and Ludewig's 
" Bibliography of American local history," de- 


[February, '94 

spite their great incompleteness and numerous 
errors, are works of real value, and so must any 
bibliography be which gathers even a fraction of 
titles, and puts them in such shape as to be usa- 
ble. If the new catalog is but half as good as 
the American Catalogue of 1876 and its supple- 
ments, the American librarian will have at his 
elbow a better book for the literature of this 
country than any European librarian has of his. 

ONE "saving grace" in this condition of 
American book preservation, as far as available 
material for bibliography is concerned, is to be 
found in the number of special bibliographies 
which are now almost invariably attached to any 
work involving serious scholarship. Take as 
an example of this such books as Beer's " Com- 
mercial policy of England towards the Ameri- 
can colonies," Steiner's " History of slavery 
in Connecticut," or Sumner's " Financier and 
finances of the American Revolution," which 
have careful lists of authorities, prepared by 
a special authority upon the subject and 
therefore embodying an amount of labor and 
knowledge far beyond the possibility of any 
general bibliographer. In the same class be- 
long even more special lists. Haldane's " Adam 
Smith" and the recent Jefferson's "Notes on 
Virginia " include minute bibliographies of all 
the previous editions. Thus a large amount of 
work is being done as thoroughly as possible, 
and it only needs an index of such material 
to be able to include much special study in the 
more general bibliography. A partial attempt 
l o do this was made in Ford's " Check-List of 
American Bibliography," but much remains to 
be done, and as a preparation for the greater 
work we shall endeavor to print in the coming 
year references to such works as we believe will 
be useful in the compilation of this or any other 
work on American bibliography. 

THE suggestion of Miss Kelso that library 
clubs should be made co-operative by sending 
papers from one to the other, is founded on a 
sound notion of the value of co-operation by 
communication; but, as a matter of fact, that is 
what the LIBRARY JOURNAL is for, and it endeavors 
to give not only the more important papers, but 
the pith of the discussions and suggestions at the 
meetings of the clubs. It is always glad to re- 
ceive manuscripts of such papers and to print as 
full reports of club meetings as clubs are willing 
to prepare to such extent, of course, as the 
specific discussions are valuable to the general 

library community. The difficulty is that the 
clubs do not contribute these papers with suffi- 
cient promptness, regularity, and fulness. Many 
of the reports printed in the JOURNAL are made 
up from newspaper clippings some time after the 
event, whereas the JOURNAL should print official 
and adequate reports in the number succeeding 
the meeting. We trust Miss Kelso's suggestion 
will be received by club officials in a humble and 
grateful spirit, as a reminder of their duty toward 
other library associations, and the JOURNAL, on 
its part, will forgive their previous sins of omis- 
sion if they now reform and " come up to time." 

THE report of the Los Angeles Public Library 
for 1892-3 is an admirable illustration of the 
fact that a library report maybe and should 
be " interesting reading " in the popular sense 
of the term; that it is not necessarily a bare 
framework of statistics as to increase, decrease, 
and comparative circulation, but should rather 
aim to present as simply and effectively as possi- 
ble the work accomplished and the development 
planned. It is equally possible to err upon the 
opposite side, and to devote pages of glittering 
generalities to the contents of the library, the 
generosity of individual "donors," or the charac- 
ter of the library constituency, neglecting to give 
really essential figures. Miss Kelso has reached 
the happy medium that exists between these 
extremes, and has produced a report that is an 
admirable illustration of what a library report 
should be. Liberal extracts are given else- 
where, but its excellence in arrangement and 
composition deserve special comment. The 
many tabulated statements showing classifi- 
cation, home and reference circulation, etc., are 
accompanied in every case by brief comment, 
bringing out the salient points of each ; subjects 
of special interest, as the remarkably large home 
circulation (magazines included), the distribution 
of books through the schools, the increasing 
demand for periodical literature, are concisely 
.presented ; and the work done by the library in 
cataloging, preparation of special lists, etc., re- 
ceives a large and unusual share of attention. 

BUT the most noteworthy feature of the Los 
Angeles report is the appendix. In her en- 
deavor to enlighten " the current belief that the 
entire work of a public library consists merely of 
the taking in and the giving out of books " Miss 
Kelso appends to her report a classified list of 
the records kept in the several departments of 
the library, giving "a fair idea of the essentials 

February, '94] 



which go to make up the daily routine." To 
librarians this" exhibit " if it may so be called 
is an old story; to the public at large it will be 
a revelation. It is just because librarians so 
rarely publish abroad the details and quality of 
their work that the popular conception of libra- 
rianship as a "light and ladylike employment" 
still prevails. The position of assistant in a li- 
brary is recommended by well-meaning friends 
to many a young woman whose sole qualification 
is a " fondness " for reading, as " a place where 
there is nothing to do but read all the new 
bojks." The list of records of the Los Angeles 
Public Library should do much to shatter this 
delusion. It covers nine closely-printed pages, 
detailing the work of the accession department, 
bindery and repair department, mail and mailing 
department, cataloging department, registration 
department, loan department, including schools, 
reference and reading rooms, supply depart- 
ment, the preparation of statistics, reports, etc., 
and the miscellaneous records. The various 
books, order-blanks, and records kept in these 
departments, with the work requisite in each, are 
fully describee'. As a brief and comprehensive 
summary of the work of an ordinary free circu- 
lating library such a list cannot fail to be an ex- 
cellent means of acquainting not only the gen- 
eral public, but library trustees and directors in 
particular, with the " usual routine" of library 
work, which is too frequently an unknown quan- 
tity in the popular mind. 

THE large home circulation recorded in the 
recent report of the Los Angeles Public Li- 
brary has already been mentioned. During the 
past year the circulation is given as 267,054, the 
total number of volumes in the library being 
34,332. This remarkable showing is partly 
attributable to the large winter-resort popula- 
tion and to the fact that there is no competing 
library, but chiefly to the practice of circulating 
current magazines as books, these forming 20 per 
cent, of the total circulation. While the practice 
of circulating magazines in this way is confined to 
a few libraries, and seems, as a rule, to be dep- 
recated by librarians, it nevertheless possesses 
some excellent elements. The average magazine 
superficial though it may be is certainly far 
superior to the average novel, and its very "uni- 
versality " makes it a more or less effective means 
of self-culture, as the reader whose interest has 
been aroused by some brief, crisp magazine article 
on travel, politics, or literature is more likely to 
follow up the subject in later reading than is the 

confirmed novel-devourer to abandon that one 
class of literature. The increasing demand for 
periodical literature may therefore gradually re- 
sult in a larger proportionate circulation of 
higher-grade reading. 



IN the January number of the LIBRARY JOUR- 
NAL there is pointed out the difficulty introduced 
in annotating books by the constant appearance 
of new books. As far as feasible, I think this 
difficulty can be provided against by dating each 
annotation, the reader, of course, being on his 
guard to examine the date of every annotation 
which concerns him. At the Chicago meeting 
of the A. L. A., and at the exhibit of the A. L. 
A. at the Columbian Exposition, there was dis- 
tributed a leaflet giving my plan in outline. 
Permit a quotation therefrom : 

" To be as useful as it can a note-card should tell : 
Whether a book is a compilation or a transcript of fact 
and experience by a doer or a worker ; the comparative 
merits of various editions where they exist ; for what 
classes of readers a book is best suited ; its noteworthy 
excellences, defects, or errors; how it compares with 
other books in the same field, and if in its field, let us say 
of taxation or money, there is no book up to date, refer- 
ence may be made to sources of information in periodicals 
or elsewhere; if a book treats a subject in debate, as 
homceopathy, protection, or socialism, fact and opinion 
will be carefully distinguished, and views of critics of op- 
posed schools may be given; finally, the best extended 
reviews will be mentioned. The annotator should append 
his name and place with date." 

The leaflet quoted, together with leaflets giv- 
ing brief annotated selections from the literature 
of Electricity, Photography, General political 
economy, and American government, can be had 
from the Bureau of Education, Washington, or 
from Yours truly, G: ILES. 

Jan. 19, 1894. ( 


SINCE the distribution of the report of this 
library for 1893 I have had a number of requests 
for duplicates on account of the " classified list 
of records" included in the report. I had 500 
copies of that part of the report struck off for 
use in our training-school and for distribution, 
and will gladly send copies when requested. 

I read with much interest the reports of meet- 
ings of library clubs and associations as they ap- 
pear in the JOURNAL. The topics are of live in- 
terest and are presented by those best qualified 
to deal with them; but why not have a larger 
audience ? Can't we have an exchange system 
whereby these papers may go travelling gather- 
ing with each reading reports of discussions over 
important points ? The literature of the profes- 
sion of librarianship is rather limited, and some 
such plan would increase it to the mutual ad- 
vantage of many. I hope the Eastern clubs will 
consider this matter; they are the largest and 
best organizations, and upon them will depend 
the success of such a plan. TESSA L. KELSO. 




[February, '94 

By F: M. CRUNDEN, Librarian, Public Library, St. Louis. 

LIBRARY history has been divided into three 
periods: the collecting and preserving period, 
lasting down to recent times, followed in quick 
succession by the period of organization and 
that of distribution the mechanical period, and 
the educational period. The last two stages co- 
exist in the most modern libraries, while some 
of the more backward institutions have not yet 
emerged fiom the first stage. Corresponding to 
these three eras of development are three types 
of librarians: the collector and preserver, the 
inventor and exponent of the "mechanic arts" 
of the profession, and the distributer and educa- 
tor. The first is a distinct type belonging to the 
past; the qualities of the other two exist in vary- 
ing degrees in the librarian of the present day. 
Each was necessary to prepare for its successor. 
Combining the functions of all three, and repre- 
senting a higher type and a broader purpose, is 
the librarian as manager, superintendent, direc- 
tor, promoter, or, as I have chosen to term him, 
administrator. This librarian is a keener, more 
vigorous collector than his predecessor who con- 
fined himself to that work. He is not satisfied 
with slow growth. He will accumulate as many 
volumes in a decade as his forerunner in a cen- 
tury. He does not wait for men to die and leave 
their private collections. These he expects and 
receives, but he does not wait for them. He 
gathers money from individuals and states and 
turns it into books; the books that his public 
most want. He hears of a library of a century's 
growth, and he calls together a few representative 
men and induces them to buy it entire. At 
least, that is what he does if he lives in Chicago. 

He does not in the least neglect the " mechan- 
ic arts " of the profession. He insists on a build- 
ing planned solely with reference to the uses to 
which it is to be put and provided with every 
labor-saving appliance and every convenience for 
the public. He is on the lookout for every ad- 
vance in this line. He organizes his staff to the 
best advantage, and he enters heartily into the 
schemes of co-operation that promise to lessen 
the work to be done in individual libraries. 

He furnishes information to all who seek it. 
He guides the reading of the young and strives 
to elevate that of the general public. More than 

* Paper read at the Congress of Librarians, Chicago, 
July 12, 1893. 

that, he, figuratively speaking, goes out into the 
highways and byways and invites the people, 
high and low, rich and poor, young and old, to 
come to the library and take possession of the 
treasures which are there provided for them and 
their heirs forever. 

He is, in short, the librarian missionary, the 
librarian militant; and as such he becomes an 
active force in the community. Like the true 
minister, he believes he is called to the work ; and 
he exercises a power and influence greater than 
any minister's. He fills an honorable and hon- 
ored position in the community and justifies the 
eulogy of a library trustee, who, from a knowl- 
edge of library work greater probably than that 
of any other layman, says : 

"Asa matter of fact, the typical librarian of 
our generation is a more active, constant, unself- 
ish, conscientious, enthusiastic worker than his 
contemporaries of any of the learned professions, 
the clergy not excepted. He thinks, talks, acts, 
dreams, lives library work. He gives to the 
public from pure public spirit and love of his 
calling double and treble the work he is paid 
for. There are lazy and incompetent men and 
women who fill librarians' positions; but the 
librarians of Dr. Poole's stamp and there are 
hosts of them through the towns and villages of 
America are the most faithful and efficient 
public servants of our generation." * 

It is this spirit that makes the librarian some- 
thing more than a clerk of the trustees, or mere- 
ly their executive officer, to carry out plans of 
their devising. It makes him the trusted coun- 
sellor; it entitles him to and secures for him an 
initiative; it constitutes him, conjointly with the 
directors, administrator of a trust committed to 
them by the people ; and if he proves himself 
possessed of the requisite combination of quali- 
ties he will inevitably become, sooner or later, 
its chief administrator. The trustees will, as Mr. 
Soule says they ought to, " leave the manage- 
ment of the library practically to him." He may 
be checked and hampered, and his usefulness 
curtailed by narrow-minded and self-seeking 
directors, but in the end the public will rally to 
his support, or he can, at least, find another 
community where his services will be valued. 

* C. C. Soulc, " The Newberry plan," L. j., 16: n. 

February, '94] 



For the growing appreciation of the librarian's 
work we are indebted to the elders, some of 
whom we have still with us, who held the first 
convention in Philadelphia in 1853, and still 
more to those pioneers of the modern free 
library movement who founded the A. L. A. and 
L. A. U. K., and through the organizations re- 
enforcing their individual work, have secured 
for librarianship general recognition as a pro- 

What are the qualities that fit the librarian to 
be administrator? They are well summed up 
in the following extract from a Boston editorial,* 
urging the appointment of a librarian for that 
noble institution that is our common pride, and 
was our model until its progress was checked by 
a petty policy that lost to it one of the greatest 
of administrators, and for years barred all possi- 
bility of filling his place : 

"It needs special and rare ability to fill the 
position. The only way to secure a suitable 
person is to place the man first, and his technical 
training for his work second. It needs a man of 
large and varied executive ability, a man of wide 
acquaintance with books, and with readers of 
books, a man who is himself a ripe scholar, a 
man who is at once able to command both the 
respect of his fellow-citizens and the honor and 
confidence of scholars to fill such a position, and 
put his own large personality into it. Other men 
may come and go; the trustees may resign or 
die, and they are simply the watchman of the 
city and the people, charged with the duty of 
holding the librarian responsible for the success 
of the institution, and seeing that the library is 
administered in accordance with its traditions 
and laws." 

In short, the librarian as administrator must 
combine the qualities of a gentleman, a scholar, 
and a man of business ; and to these should be 
added enthusiasm and philanthropy. 

Within the library, in the exercise of what is 
popularly supposed to be his chief function, he 
will find scope for the broadest scholarship ; in 
his varied relations to trustees, assistants, and 
the public, he will find room for the exercise of 
the greatest tact and courtesy ; as financial man- 
ager and executive, no amount of business capaci- 
ty or organizing ability can come amiss. His 
acquaintance with books and methods of search 
will aid the student and investigator ; and his 
wide sympathies and knowledge of life, together 
with his tact and kindliness, will enable him to 
encourage the humblest aspirations for self-cult- 

* Boston Herald, March 27, 1891. 

ure. With interest and industry he will collect 
information regarding library methods, and with 
sound judgment he will decide what are best 
adapted to the conditions and aims of his library ; 
and these he will carry out with vigor and 
thoroughness, never losing sight of the end to 
which all schemes and systems are but the 
means. He will originate plans for increasing 
the library's revenues, and will husband its re- 
sources so as to make them " go far with little," 
buying to the best advantage, keeping in mind 
the third part of the A. L. A. motto, considering 
al ways whether a contemplated expenditure is the 
very best use to which the required dollar can be 
put, converting time and thought into money, 
without sparing himself, but in this, too, exercis- 
ing judgment to determine whether his efforts 
could be better expended in some other direc- 
tion. He will avoid undue indulgence in hob- 
bies, and be always alert and on guard against 
falling into ruts, taking lessons from the business 
man in devising new and varied schemes for 
keeping the library before the public. 

In the full administration of his trust he will 
adopt such machinery and organization as will 
lessen his own necessity or importance ; he will 
train assistants to take his place, testing them 
from time to time, and gradually placing re- 
sponsibility on them as he deems them capable 
and trustworthy. 

But the activity of the library administrator is 
not confined to the library precincts. It goes out 
into the community. It may extend to the state 
or national capital. It may include the framing 
of laws and working for their enactment. The 
ground on which the Chicago Public Library is to 
stand was obtained from the Federal govern- 
ment through the efforts of the former librarian, 
while skilful lobbying by the present librarian 
secured the legislation that has provided funds 
for the erection of the building. Promoter, per- 
haps, would have been a more distinctive term 
to apply to that added phase of a librarian's 
activity, which I especially wish to emphasize ; 
but administrator is broader, and may be con- 
strued as comprehending in a general way all his 
varied functions. 

As promoter, the librarian should keep an eye 
on legislation, and work ever for the upholding 
of the dignity of the profession and its advance- 
ment in recognition and usefulness. He should 
establish friendly relations with all classes of so- 
ciety. He should endeavor to enlist the active 
support of all, and especially men of ability and 
power. The personal element Centers largely 

4 6 


[February, '94 

into all the affairs of life ; and men may often be 
induced to do things for the librarian personally 
which they would not undertake for the institu- 
tion alone. 

To this end the librarian should keep in touch 
with the life of the community. He should 
mingle with men and not wholly seclude himself 
from society, even at some sacrifice of scholarly 
tastes. Professor Winsor says : " I know of no 
profession whose followers have greater need to 
know men as they are, since a mission that is to 
ameliorate mankind must have its base of oper- 
ations in a thorough knowledge of it." He 
should be known personally, that he may make 
the library, its needs and its deeds, better known; 
for the librarian who is giving his whole soul to 
his work carries, as it were, a banner emblazoned 
with the name and the aims of his library. This 
will take time that he might otherwise give to 
self-culture and to the wide reading that fits him 
for the discharge of his educational functions; 
but what is the use of his possessing this infor- 
mation if but few come to the library to ask for 
it or if the funds are so small that the books nec- 
essary to supply even a limited demand cannot 
be purchased ? The librarian as guide and ency- 
clopaedia must yield a little to the librarian as 
administrator and promoter. In the former ca- 
pacity he may have in libraries of any size he 
must have assistants; and with the develop- 
ment of departmental libraries, he will have as- 
sistants who know more about their respective 
departments than he can. But the general ad- 
ministration of the library and its representation 
in the community must rest chiefly, if not entire- 
ly, with him. The president or other trustee 
may so identify himself with the library as to 
stand for it; but this is a very exceptional and 
abnormal case. The institution should be kept 
en Evidence through its executive, the librarian. 
By this social contact the librarian broadens his 
own mind and enlarges his horizon, while he 
ascertains the wants of the public and im- 
presses upon it the value and usefulness of the 

In the performance of his exalted functions the 
librarian should preserve a becoming modesty. 
He should be careful not to abuse authority en- 
trusted to him. While exercising the large pow- 
ers granted him by a wise and liberal board, 
while identifying himself with the library and 
standing for it before the public, he should never 
forget that he belongs to the library, not the li- 
brary to him, that he is simply the agent of the 

people in carrying out the purposes for which 
they established the library, and that he is its 
worthy representative only so long as he gives 
his talents to the public service. The public is 
an exacting master. It will not be satisfied with 
good intentions or good behavior; it is not par- 
ticular about methods; but it demands success. 
To achieve the highest success in the administra- 
tion of a public library requires, as I have said 
before, scholarship, business ability, courtesy, 
and enthusiasm. Led by his enthusiasm the li- 
brarian will centre life and thought in his work; 
he will think and live library; he will make the 
library's interests hisinterests. Thus thorough- 
ly identified with the library, he will find that what 
is for its advantage is for his advantage. He 
cannot advance the interests of the institution 
without promoting his own interests, and he 
cannot allow the library to decline in usefulness 
without himself suffering in reputation and 
standing. Pursuing his course with entire devo- 
tion and due humility, he will realize that " He 
that loseth his life shall find it " and that " He 
that humbleth himself shall be exalted." 

A library must be largely in most cases wholly 
what the librarian makes it. A board of trus- 
tees is a changing body, composed generally of 
busy men, who can give but little time or thought 
to the library. Its progress and development 
must depend on the librarian; and in large libra- 
ries it will be measured chiefly by the librarian's 
ability as an executive, as an administrator. 

As Charles Dudley Warner has pointed out, 
the marvel of architecture which has drawn the 
whole civilized world to Chicago owes its su- 
preme grace and beauty to the good sense of the 
World's Fair Commission in securing the finest 
talent, wherever they could find it, throughout 
the length and breadth of our country. They 
did not consider whether an architect had a 
brother or a brother-in-law in Congress, but only 
whether he had won a place in the forefront of 
his profession. 

The remarkable growth and success of the 
Chicago Public Library arises from a similar 
cause. When the people of Chicago decided that 
a public library was essential to the city's pros- 
perity and well-being, they did not entertain ap- 
plications from politicians out of a job, or brief- 
less lawyers, or broken down clergymen. No, 
they looked for the most experienced librarian the 
country could furnish. They found him in Cin- 
cinnati. They persuaded him that Chicago was 
going to be a greater city than Cincinnati, and 

February, '94] 



he consented to go and organize the inchoate 
Chicago Public Library. When the city fell 
heir to the magnificent Newberry legacy it turned 
the public library over to an assistant who had 
been well trained in its administration (under 
whom the institution has taken no steps back- 
ward), and gave to the master the task of plan- 

ning a building that constitutes a distinct de- 
parture in library architecture, and organizing a 
library that promises to be the finest reference 
library on the continent a fitting combination 
and crown to an honorable career, and a lasting 
monument to the professional attainments of Dr. 
William Frederick Poole. 


BY EDITH E. CLARKE, Newberry Library, Chicago. 

WOMAN in literature to a ^librarian means 
nothing. Sex in literature does not exist. Since 
the days when the editor of Blackivood ad- 
dressed Marian Evans as " dear George," there 
has been no diagnosis capable of revealing 
whether an author is a man or a woman. 
Woman in literature to a librarian, therefore, 
means nothing; that is, save in one connection. 
There was formed at the Fair last summer a 
collection of 7000 books exclusively by women, 
and it is as librarian of that collection during 
four months that woman in literature became a 
reality to me. " Cherchez la femme" says the 
Frenchman. " A woman is at the bottom of 
it," is the English saying. Which maxims indi- 
cate, I take it, that in everything worth doing 
under the sun, a woman has a finger nay, 
a whole hand in the pie. Why, then, seek 
to disentangle her work from the grand total 
and exhibit it separately ? Why not let it take 
its place in the ranks as so much -work without 
emphasizing the fact of sex? This was the ob- 
jection often propounded by those who visited 
the Woman's Building, and especially the li- 
brary. Why have a library of women's books? 
Why not let them take their place side by side 
with the men, and be judged equally with them > 
instead of separating them, as if books by women 
were a different kind? 

But, we said, why not? The Wisconsin His- 
torical Society has formed a collection of books 
by inhabitants of Wisconsin. Every school 
and college aims to possess the publications of 
its graduates and faculty. Every institution 
managed on a broad plan aims to have some 
sort of a library on its special work. How 
many men with hobbies who do not collect 
books in that particular line, whether for use or 

* Paper read at the January meeting of the Chicago 
Library Club. 

curiosity? Why, then, should the centre of 
woman's interests in this country such as the 
Woman's Board at the Fair and the board which 
will have charge of the Woman's Memorial 
Building means to make itself not collect in 
that building a library of books by women and 
about women ? 

As to whether such a special exhibit is neces- 
sary to advertise what woman has done or can do 
to open the way for more progress, the remarks 
overheard at the Fair were sufficient proof. The 
great majority of sightseers at the Fair weie 
from the small towns and country districts, who 
see woman almost exclusively in those occupa- 
tions which her affections lead her to choose 
housekeeping and the rearing of children. They 
ignore the amount of intellect, not to speak of 
the moral qualities, which are brought into play 
in these employments, and are amazed when 
they are brought face to face with the achieve- 
ments of the same abilities when brought into 
competition with men in art, literature, science, 
or business. 

One of these unthinking ones, an Englishman 
by his accent, was overheard to say, "Ah! er! 
This is the Woman's Building ? The gy-uils do 
all this ? Why, they do some things/az>-/y well, 
don't they?" From the remark so often heard, 
' ' Why, I did not think there were so many books 
in the world written by women," it is a far 
cry to Mr. Cutter's estimate, who said: " If you 
design to have all books written by women, you 
must build wide and deep." As I urged him 
for figures, and gradually climbed up in my es- 
timate till I reached 50,000 possible volumes, 
"Yes," said he, "I would not stop there, 

But on examining the extent of territory laid 
under contribution for the 7000 volumes gath- 
ered by the Woman's Board, one's astonishment 


[February, 94 

begins to have some excuse. From 22 different 
countries committees of women officially ap- 
pokited, or individual authors, sent books, 
varying in number from over 1000 to one vol- 
ume. Denmark, Portugal, and Russia were the 
only countries in Europe that did not contribute; 
Bohemia, Poland, and Finland sending their 
quota with the larger powers. Thirty-one out of 
our 40 states and territories sent collections, 
varying from New York's 2400 to two or three 
stray volumes from Indiana or Kansas. For 
many of the states, like these, preferred to keep 
the books by their women in their own state 
house. Canada sent only two or three individ- 
ual offerings. Spain sent books from the Span- 
ish West Indies among its collection, with per- 
haps the most interesting set of books we had, 
old books by the sisters in the convents, a loan 
from the Biblioteca Nacional, dating, some of 
them, from as early as 1587. Mexico promised 
nine books, but never sent them. The same 
thing came to pass with regard to Japan's 
promised 50 volumes. A woman writer in Peru 
sent her works, but generally our Latin-Ameri- 
can cousins passed us by entirely. Among these 
22 different countries there were 19 different 
languages represented. The Arabic and Chi- 
nese books were written by missionaries in those 
countries, but the Sanskrit, Japanese, and Turk- 
ish books were native products. 

The books prepared specially for the Wom- 
an's Library were not the least interesting part 
of the exhibit, being in many cases valuable 
contributions to the literature of the state or 
country. New York sent many portfolios of 
articles published only in periodicals, read" be- 
fore clubs, etc., and these are the material which 
composes the " Distaff series," now being is- 
sued. New Jersey, Connecticut, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia also made such compilations 
from the women of their respective states, the 
two former publishing them in handsome vol- 
umes. Massachusetts and New York prepared 
bibliographies of the women of their states. 
New York's was printed, and should be in every 
library. Rhode Island also printed a smaller 
one. One of our most valuable works of this 
kind was the bibliography of Swedish women, 
very careful and full, in pamphlet form. Their 
fac-simile of St. Bridget's ms. , and their re- 
ports on woman's condition in Sweden, are also 
valuable for any library. 

Music was made an interesting feature of the 
Woman's Library, and there was a good deal of 

it from France, Norway, and other countries. 
The collection of scientific monographs, pre- 
sented by the authors, was something not gener- 
ally obtainable by libraries, and it is hoped that 
it will be greatly added to. A movement is 
now on foot in Oxford and Cambridge univer- 
sities to collect all the theses of the women 
graduates for the Woman's Library. 

Enough to say that though some books 
were withdrawn, from 3000 to 4000 volumes 
were left as a nucleus for an international li- 
brary of woman's writings, and are now stored 
with their card catalog, in the Art Building at 
Jackson Park, waiting till their quarters shall 
be ready in the Woman's Memorial Building to 
be erected. It is this catalog to which I allude 
in my remarks on woman in literature to a cata- 
loger. It is hoped that some time it will be 
printed and will be a contribution to cataloging 
and literary history worth having, including, 
as it does, an information card for each writer. 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, after spend- 
ing a couple of hours looking over the library, 
said that he had a library of books on women 
which it had been one of the interests of his life 
to gather together, and that if the plans for 
the Woman's Library were carried out, he 
could choose no better place as a depository of 
them. Should we add to the present collection 
Mr. Higginson's contribution, we shall in the 
near future have in Chicago a working collec- 
tion which should prove useful, historically and 
bibliographically, to the student of that branch 
of social science which is summed up in the 
phrase, " the condition of women." 

So much for woman in literature to the li- 
brarian. On the other hand, woman in litera- 
ture to the cataloger is a stern reality, a thorn 
in the flesh, which to one in a library of books 
by women only, and from all lands, came ar- 
rayed in all its terrors. Though not a sworn 
foe to matrimony, I fear were I the autocrat 
of the literary world a ukase would long ago 
have been issued forbidding women writers to 

My early acquaintance with full names in 
cataloging was fraught with awe at the impres- 
sive stringof names belonging to women who had 
married twice, as, for instance, the common ex- 
amples, Mrs. Mary Clemmer Hudson Ames and 
Mrs. Helen Maria Fiske Hunt Jackson. An Eng- 
lish or American woman on marrying usually 
drops one or two names; it may be her given or 
her family name, euphony in combination being 

February, '94] 



the largest element in the choice. If she marries 
twice, there are more eliminations. If she 
writes under her husband's name during a part 
of that time the metamorphoses of her designa- 
tion are complete. Thus her name becomes 
perplexing from two points of view: the cata- 
loger finds it difficult to reconstruct the complete 
and fully matured catalog entry from the suc- 
cessive rudimentary forms, and the reader fails 
to recognize in Lady Mary Anne Stewart Barker 
Broome his old friend Lady Barker, the brilliant 
chronicler of life in the English colonies. 

It will be seen that I am discussing the ques- 
tion according to the rule, universal, I believe, 
of entering married women under their own per- 
sonal names instead of their husbands', and 
further, though this the British Museum does 
not do, of making the name before marriage 
and by a former marriage, if any, a part of the 

I might sum up the dangers and difficulties of 
dealing with married women's names under six 
cases, the first of which has been already de- 

My second case is where an authoress writes 
under her husband's name, as it appears on her 
calling cards. Stumbling on the name of Mrs. 
Constance Gary Harrison, it needed the title of 
a familiar novel to convince me that Mrs. Burton 
Harrison had transformed herself into that. 
Mrs. E. Lindon Bates' petition that her chosen 
pen-name be respected in the catalog at the 
Fair did not avail ; but a cross-reference was 
ruthlessly made from that form to Mrs. Jose- 
phine White Bates, under which guise her works 
now appear there. Mrs. Fred Burnaby mas- 
querades under the burden of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Alice Frances Witshed Burnaby Main, where 
I hope her readers may have good luck in find- 
ing her. 

The third case is much worse. Our foreign 
cousins, Italians, Swedes, some Austrians and 
Spaniards, when they marry either prefix or 
affix their husband's name to their own family 
name. Whether they prefix or affix it seems 
to an outsider a matter of chance. Consulting 
Gubernatis' " Dictionnaire des Contemporains," 
we find two cases where the husband's name 
precedes Siga. Aurelia Cimino Folliero de 
Luna and Siga. Sacconi-Ricci balanced by 
two where the maiden name precedes Siga. 
Sophie Albini-Bisi and Dona Carolina Coronado 
de Perry. 

I have been told that the order of the names 

is decided by the marriage contract, but I sus- 
pect from some vagaries I found on the title- 
pages that the fickle writer occasionally varies 
the wording of that document to suit herself. 
Siga. Mathilde Bonafede-Oddo appeared on 
four title-pages as quoted, but on a fifth, I 
believe, she came out as Mathilde Oddo-Bona- 
fede. Cutter, 23c, says : " Enter under the 
compound name as generally used by the au- 
thor, even though it be her maiden name." 
And I would add to that, when you find the 
order uncertain, do not add up all attainable 
examples and divide by two, hoping thereby 
to attain a golden mean ; but adopt the " modus 
operand! of the stock exchange," toss up a 
penny, enter under one form, refer from the 
other, and do not worry. 

The fourth difficulty is reached, and the plot 
thickens. I quote Cutter, 29 : " In languages 
which use a masculine and feminine form of 
family names (as Modjeski and Modjeska) use 
that which the authoress herself chiefly em- 
ploys." I had a list of 40 Bohemian author- 
esses, and it struck me as a little curious that 
every name ended in "ova." I consulted a 
Bohemian friend about it, and she said it could 
not help but be right, as that was the feminine 
form. Mr. Naprstek's wife was not, as one 
might expect, Mrs. Naprstek, but Mrs. Napr- 

The fifth case is authoresses who change 
nationality in marrying. Our friend and poet- 
ess, Agnes Mary Frances Robinson, crossed 
the English Channel to find a husband, and is 
now Madame Jacques Darmesteter on her title- 
pages. Is she Agnes Marie, or does she retain 
the English form of her name? 

A sixth and last difficulty is to acquire the 
form of Mrs. in every language. Mme., Signo- 
ra, Senora or Dona, Fru, Mevrouw, Frau are 
common compared with Pani in the Bohemian, 
and I confess the Russian, Polish, and others 
are still unknown to me. The British Museum 
gives all titles in English, and the vernacular 
touch so dear to the professional cataloger's 
heart may be an over-refinement. 

Though I had many other trials at the Fair, 
not only with women in literature, but with 
" real live " ones, I have only to say in con- 
clusion, that " with all their faults I love them 
still," and hope they will go on writing, yes, 
and marrying too, till our Woman's Library 
shall double or even treble Mr. Cutter's mag- 
nificent predictions. 

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Williams College 

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February, '94] 



THE recently issued report of the Los Angeles 
Public Library contains some interesting statis- 
tics in regard to the chief public libraries of the 
United States. The following table shows the 
home circulation of those public libraries issuing 
over 200,000 volumes annually, also the number 
of volumes contained in each such library, the 
population of each city according to the census 
of 1890, and the total salary roll in each instance. 
To this table is appended a statement of the prin- 
cipal San Francisco libraries, submitted for pur- 
poses of comparison between the libraries of San 
Francisco and that of Los Angeles : 



57 6 ,237 


Chicago 988,601 

Boston 726,052 

Baltimore 442,654 122,773 

Jersey City 345.096 32,110 

Minneapolis 333,612 

Detroit 315,888 

Newark .. 272,347 

IxOS Angeles 267,054 

Cleveland 259,693 

Pop. Salaries. 


Cincinnati 254,517 202,705 

434 439 

$73,787 27 
92,684 79 
19,744 '3 
11,290 91 
23,870 oo 
16,138 52 
14,586 67 
10,979 51 
12,636 81 
32,346 85 


Mechanics' Inst... . 152,709 62,444 298,997 10,059 5 

Mercantile 18,392 62,825 298,997 4,21750 

Public Library 139.630 74,200 298,997 18,62300 

The comparative use of the public libraries in 
n large cities of the United States is shown by 
the following table giving the average number 
of books circulated to each inhabitant : 

Average No. 
of Books 
Per Capita. 

(1) Los Angeles. . . : 5.30 

(2) Jersey City 2.11 

(3) Minneapolis 2.02 

(4) Boston 1.61 

(5) Detroit 1.53 

(6) Newark 1.49 

(7) Baltimore 1.02 

(8) Cleveland... .99 

(9) Chicago .90 

(10) Cincinnati .85 

(n) San Francisco .47 

The comparative cost of circulating books in 
the several cities named is shown by the follow- 
ing table, which gives the average expense (in 
salaries) per volume circulated : 



Jersey City 

Los Angeles... 









San Francisco. 


Commenting upon these figures the trustees 
say : "Thus it appears that, while Los Angeles 
shows the largest per capita circulation of any 
of the cities named, the expense of circulat- 
ing was lower with us than in any other city, 
with but one exception Jersey City. While 
the general average of cost in the n cities was 
7. 3 cents per volume, Los A ngeles has an expense 
of only 4.i_cents." 


By /. Elliot, Librarian^ Wolverhampton Public Li- 

FOR several years past complaints have been 
made by the reading public of disorderly gangs 
of betting men monopolizing the newspapers, 
especially in the morning. At Wolverhampton 
laborers out of work complained that they had 
to wait for hours before they could see the ad- 
vertising columns; politicians left the room dis- 
gusted because no leading article or report of 
meeting could be read with comfort, on account 
of the annoyance caused by scores of betting 
men retaining the sporting columns on the other 
side of the papers. To add to the nuisance a 
number of boys, with pencils and note-books, 
sent out of shops and factories, copied extracts 
from the betting columns daily, and even women 
were frequently seen similarly occupied. 

Members of the committee, in their occasional 
visits, not only heard conversation in the tem- 
porary absence of officials, and in direct viola- 
tion of the printed regulations before the eyes of 
the offenders in large type but actually saw 
money passed between these gamblers and their 
victims in the news-room. 

The chief constable and town clerk were con- 
sulted, and the police did their best to miti- 
gate the evil. This relief proved of little avail; 
great difficulty was experienced in removing 
hoards of loungers round the doors, spitting, 
smoking, and discussing the merits and demerits 
of horses in language unfit for quotation; to these 
evils was added another hitherto unheard of, viz.: 
that timid ladies were deterred from entering 
the building and using the library, on account of 
the roughs assembling near the entrance. 

After discussion the committee unanimously 
resolved to obliterate the betting and sporting 
columns in all the newspapers. This spirited 
move had the desired effect no victory could be 
more complete ; as the betting men, interested 
in nothing else whatever, left the building with 
one accord. Five months have now elapsed; 
perfect order has been preserved; and although 
the readers are as numerous as ever, no difficulty 
is experienced in any respect. Artisans who had 
not used the reading-room for years, on account 
of the difficulty or impossibility of reading the 
news, have since returned, grateful to the com- 
mittee for the extinction of the betting nuisance. 
Letters of congratulation were received from man- 
ufacturers and from various parts of the country. 
No complaint has reached us on the score of 
delay, for by means of stencil plates cut to size of 
the betting columns, the whole is accomplished 
in a few minutes each day. The slight opposi- 
tion of a few anonymous correspondents in the 
local press soon died away, and now everybody 
seems in favor of the reform. To all who suffer 
from the betting nuisance, obliteration is strongly 
recommended to restore the reading-room to the 
dignity of a literary institution. 

* [From The Library. Mr. R. K. Dent, librarian of the 
Aston Manor (Eng.) Library, reports: "Marked im- 
provement of the reading-rooms after the committee 
authorized the ' blacking'out ' of sporting" news."] 


[February, '94 

American Cibrarjj fltsaociation. 

Reprint of the A. L. A. Handbook. 

ORIGIN. Early in 1876 a few who believed 
that the great work just opening before libraries 
as an educational force demanded organization 
and active co-operation, proposed a library con- 
ference in connection with the Centennial Ex- 
hibition. The hearty responses from prominent 
librarians led to general announcements in the 
press, and special invitations, sent through the 
U. S. Bureau of Education, to American and 
Irading foreign librarians. October 4, 1876, 
100 enthusiastic librarians gathered in Phila- 
delphia and spent three days in comparison of 
methods and active interchange of views and 

The great practical benefits derived and the 
possibilities of progress and influence suggested 
by this first meeting convinced the most scepti- 
cal, and on October 6, 1876, was permanently 
organized the American Library Association, 
" for the purpose of promoting the library in- 
terests of the country, and of increasing reci- 
procity and good-will among librarians and ail 
interested in library economy and bibliographi- 
cal studies." 

ORGANIZATION. The first officers were : presi- 
dent, Justin Winsor ; vice-presidents, A. R. 
Spofford, W: F:Poole, H: A. Homes; secretary 
and treasurer, Melvil Dewey. They drafted a 
constitution and by-laws, which were adopted 
at the second meeting in New York, Septem- 
ber 4, 1877. 

The revision which the growth of the asso- 
ciation and 17 years' working experience had 
shown desirable was adopted at the Chicago 
meeting in July, 1893. 


I. Name. This organization shall be called 
the American Library Association. 

2. Object. Its object shall be to promote 
the welfare of libraries by stimulating public 
interest in founding and improving them, by se- 
curing needed state and national legislation, by 
furthering such co-operative work as shall im- 
prove results or reduce expenses, by exchanging 
views and making recommendations, and by 
advancing the common interests of librarians, 
trustees, and others engaged in library or allied 
educational work. 


3. Eligibility. Any trustee, librarian, or 
other person engaged in public library adminis- 
tration may become a member of the Association 
by paying the annual fee and signing the con- 
stitution or a membership application blank 
supplied by the secretary and to be filed in the 
records. Other persons may in the same man- 
ner become members after election by the board. 
Any member paying an annual fee of $5 shall be 
known as a fellow. 

$ 4. Annual fee. The annual dues shall be 
$2 for members and $5 for fellows or institu- 
tions, payable in January. 

5. Associates. Associates may be elected 
by the board for a single year with all privileges 
of members except voting, and shall pay beside 
the annual fee of $2 such fee as shall be estab- 
ished each year by the board for associates 
wishing to share in reduced rates granted to 
members; but no extra fee shall be required 
:rom persons in the immediate family of mem- 

6. Honorary members. Honorary members 
nominated by the board may be elected by unan- 
mous vote at any meeting of the Association, 
and shall be exempt from dues. 

J 7. Life members and fellows. Any member 
may become a life member or life fellow, en- 
titled during life to all rights and privileges of 
membership without payment of annual dues, 
by payment of $25 for life membership and 
fcioo for life fellowship. 

8. Life membership fees. All receipts from 
life memberships, and all gifts for this special 
purpose, shall constitute an endowment fund, 
which shall be invested and kept forever invio- 
late. The interest shall be expended as the 
council may direct. The custody of the endow- 
ment fund shall be committed to three trustees, 
one of whom shall be elected by ballot at each 
annual meeting of the Association, to hold office 
for three years from the date of his election. 
No money shall be expended from the endow- 
ment fund except on check signed by a majority 
of the trustees. 


9. The officers of the Association shall be 
a president, three vice-presidents, a secretary, 
and a treasurer, to be elected by ballot at the 
annual meeting, and to hold office until the ad- 
journment of the meeting at which their suc- 
cessors are elected. 

10. Executive board. These officers, to- 
gether with the president for the preceding year, 
shall constitute an executive board, with power 
to act for the Association in intervals between 
meetings on all matters on which they reach 
unanimous agreement. 

They shall elect from members of the Asso- 
ciation a finance committee, consisting of three 
members, a co-operative committee of five mem- 
bers, and such other committees or officers as 
shall be required to transact the business of the 

ii. Secretary. The secretary shall have 
charge of the books, papers, and correspond- 
ence, and shall give due notice of any election, 
appointment, meeting, or other business requir- 
ing the personal attention of any member. 

12. Recorder. The recorder shall keep a 
faithful record of the members present at each 
meeting of the Association or board, and of all 
business transacted. 

13. Treasurer. The treasurer shall keep a 
full and accurate record of all receipts and dis- 
bursements, with date, purpose, and amount ; 
collect dues; pay bills, but only on written order 
of two members of the finance committee; and 
shall make an annual report. 

14. Finance committee. The finance com- 
mittee shall make all needed appropriations, 

February, '94] 



audit bills, and give orders on the treasurer 
for payment; and no expense shall be incurred 
on behalf of the Association by any officer or 
committee in excess of the appropriation made 
for the purpose by the finance committee. 

15. Co-operation committee. The co-opera- 
tion committee shall consider and report on 
plans for securing improvement, economy, uni- 
formity, and harmony in any department of li- 
brary work. 

1 6. Council. There shall be a council to 
serve as an advisory board. No recommenda- 
tion in relation to library administration shall 
be promulgated by the Association, and no sec- 
tion shall be established under its name, till ap- 
proved by two-thirds vote of the council. 

The council shall consist of 20 members, whose 
term of office shall be five years. They shall be 
divided into five classes, so that the term of 
office of four members shall expire annually. 
Election for their, successors shall be by ballot 
of the Association at the annual meeting, from 
eight nominees selected by the council by ballot. 
All other vacancies shall be filled by the council 
for the unexpired terms. 


17. Regular meetings. There shall be an 
annual meeting at such time and place as may 
have been decided on by the Association or 
board, and the secretary shall send notice to 
every member of the Association at least one 
month before meeting. 

18. Special meetings. Special meetings of 
the Association shall be called by the president 
on request of 10 or more members provided 
that one month's previous notice be duly given, 
and that only business specified in the call shall 
be transacted. 

Meetings of the board may be called by the 
president or by a majority of its members. 

19. Quorum, Twenty active members shall 
constitute a quorum. 

20. Votes by correspondence. Any resolu- 
tion approved in writing by every member of 
the board or of any committee shall have the 
force of a vote. 

Amendments and by-laws. 

21. Amendments. This constitution may 
be amended by three-fourths vote at two succes- 
sive meetings of the Association, provided that 
each member shall be notified of the proposed 
amendment at least one month before its final 

22. Adoption and amendment. Any by-law 
not inconsistent with this constitution may be 
adopted or amended by three-fourths vote at 
two successive meetings. 

23. Suspension and repeal. Any by-law 
may be suspended by unanimous vote at any 
meeting, but shall be repealed only by three- 
fourths vote at two successive meetings. 


i. Eligibility of president. The same per- 
son shall not be elected president for two con- 
secutive terms. 

2. Program. No paper shall be read be- 
fore a meeting of the Association till it has been 
examined by the board or a program committee 
appointed by it, which shall decide whether it is 
to be read entire or by abstract, or to be sub- 
mitted for printing in full or abstract, or re- 

3. Resolutions and arrangements. The 
board shall appoint for each general meeting a 
local committee to have in charge all local ar- 
rangements under the direction of the board or 
program committee, and also a resolutions com- 
mittee to prepare for the Association needed 
votes of thanks and other resolutions ; and all 
resolutions offered by members shall be referred 
to this committee for any desirable revision be- 
fore final action is taken thereon by the Associa- 

OBJECTS. Beside advancing general library 
interests in every practicable way, the Associa- 
tion, which is commonly known as the A. L. A., 
aims : 

1. By organization and force of numbers, to 
effect needed reforms and improvements most 
of which could not be brought about by individ- 
ual effort. 

2. By co-operation, to lessen labor and ex- 
pense of library administration. 

3. By discussion and comparison, to utilize 
the combined experiments and experience of the 
profession in perfecting plans and methods, 
and in solving difficulties. 

4. By meetings and correspondence, to pro- 
mote acquaintance and esprit de corps. 

MEETINGS. Dates and places of general meet- 
ings are as follows : 

1876. Philadelphia. 

1877. New York. 

1877. London, international ; 22 American 

1879. Boston and Cambridge. 

1881. Washington and Baltimore. 

1882. Cincinnati. 

1883. Buffalo. 

1885. Lake George. 

1886. Milwaukee. 

1887. Thousand Islands. 

1888. Catskills. 

1889. St. Louis. 

1890. White Mountains. 

1891. San Franc Jsco. 

1892. Lakewood (N. J.), Baltimore, and 


1893. Chicago. 

1894. Lake Placid in the Adirondacks. 

Three sessions are usually held daily, and 
between these are crowded the various section 
and committee meetings. 

Condensed papers and practical discussions 
occupy the whole time, and the A. L. A. is wide- 
ly known as one of the hardest working among 
the hundreds of annual conventions. 

POST-CONFERENCES. Experience having proved 
that perhaps quite as much practical good for 
the year's work comes from the Informal dis- 
cussions cariied on by twos and threes, it is usu- 
al to have a post-conference, which is at once 
so enjoyable and profitable that it tends to hold 



[February, '94 

together the leading members for a few days 
when they have leisure to talk over fully the sub- 
jects in which they have common and peculiar 

This post-conference, the intervals between 
sessions, and the one social evening which is a 
fixed feature of the program, afford opportunity 
for informal intercourse which does much to 
develop the strong esprit de corps which charac- 
terizes the A. L. A. 

MEMBERSHIP. Membership is open to any 
person connected with library administration, 
whether as trustee, librarian, assistant, or in any 
other capacity. The A. L. A. also cordially 
welcomes all other friends of library progress, 
who may become members on vote of the board; 
for the vast field before the Association offers 
abundant work for all. 

Annual fees vary according to grade of mem- 
bership. For details see constitution, 4-9. 

Every member receives free the annual vol- 
ume of proceedings. In these days of rapid li- 
brary progress every librarian who wishes to 
keep abreast of his profession must keep in close 
touch with this representative national body. In 
it are enrolled from all parts of the country, not 
only librarians, but also many others interested 
in libraries as an educational agency. To its 
leaders libraries everywhere turn for advice as 
to buildings, administration, and employees; and 
from its ranks nearly all important library posi- 
tions in the country are filled. 

Beside its professional advantages, member- 
ship secures in travelling and hotel rates for 
the annual meetings and post-conferences re- 
ductions which exceed many fold the trifling 
yearly fee. 


Within the Association are several sub-organ- 
izations of those engaged in the same specific 
work or seeking to accomplish some common 
purpose of too technical or novel character, or 
involving too great outlay to belong properly 
to the Association at large. These sections, 
whose meetings are open to all, provide for the 
needs of each special class of workers, while the 
regular sessions are left free for subjects of gen- 
eral interest. 


Origin. Organized in 1886, this is an out- 
growth of the standing co-operation committee 
established in 1876 " to secure uniformity and 
economy in methods of administration." 


Article I Name. This organization shall be 
called the American Library Association Pub- 
lishing Section. 

Article 2 Object. Its object shall be to secure 
the preparation and publication of such catalogs, 
indexes, and other bibliographical helps as may 
best be produced by co-operation. 

Article 3 M 'embers. Any library, institution, 
or individual elected by the executive board may 
become a member on payment of a fee of $5 for 
each calendar year. Membership shall continue 

till resigned by the holder or withdrawn by the 

Each member receives one copy of every pub- 
lication of the section. This is charged to his 
account, and he is allowed to select added copies 
of any publication of the section up to the total 
amount paid in fees. Members receive a dis- 
count on publications of the section. 

The executive board is authorized to receive associate 
members at an annual fee not exceeding $2, and to de- 
termine what privileges shall be accorded such members, 
and also to extend the privileges of regular membership 
to those who render equivalent services to the section. 

Article 4 Officers. I. Number. The offi- 
cers of this section shall be a president, a secre- 
tary, and a treasurer, and an executive boatd 
of five, of which the above officers shall be 

2. Election. These officers shall be chosen 
at the regular meetings of the section in connec- 
tion with the annual meetings of the American 
Library Association, and shall hold office till 
their successors are appointed. 

3. Secretary. The secretary shall keep a 
faithful record of all meetings of the section and 
of the executive board, shall give due notice of 
such meetings and of any election or other busi- 
ness requiring the personal attention of any 
member, and shall have charge of the books, 
papers, and correspondence. 

4. Treasurer. The treasurer shall keep a 
full and accurate record of all receipts and dis- 
bursements, and of the membership of the sec- 
tion, and shall pay no money without the written 
order of a majority of the executive board, and 
shall make an annual report. 

5. Executive board. The executive board 
shall be charged with the direction and control 
of the work of the section, and shall endeavor in 
every way in their power to further its objects. 
They shall make a full report in writing at each 
regular meeting of the section, and this report, 
with the other proceedings of the section, shall 
be submitted to the American Library Associa- 
tion for publication with its proceedings. 

Article 5. Amendments. This constitution 
may be amended by a three-fourths vote of those 
present at any regular meeting of the section, 
provided that the proposed amendments shall 
have been specifically set forth in the call for 
such meeting. 

Periodical index. Poole's "Index" with its 
supplements illustrates how great saving of labor 
and money results from organized division of 
labor. It has entirely superseded the former 
practice in hundreds of libraries, of separately 
cataloging every leading magazine article. This 
work now, instead of being duplicated, is equita- 
bly divided. Each has but a fraction of the labor, 
but enjoys the whole benefit in the " Co-opera- 
tive index "which each year in printed form, 
available to all, brings up to date the great 
" Index to periodical literature." 

These annual supplements are once in five 
years combined in a single alphabet and again 

Rending for the young. The section issued in 
1890 " Reading for the young," by John F. Sar- 
gent, a classified, annotated, and indexed list of 

February, '94] 



the best books for young people. This is already 
widely recognized as the best existing guide to 
this class of literature, so indispensable in all 
public libraries. 

A. L. A. index. This work, issued in 1893, 
aims to do for general literature what Poole's 
" Index" has done for periodicals. In a single 
alphabet of subjects it gives a clue to the laby- 
rinth of miscellaneous essays, collected biography 
and travel, historic monographs, reports of various 
sociological societies, boards, etc. 

Printed catalog cards. The Library Bureau 
began in Nov., 1893, to print catalog cards of 
leading new publications and standard works, 
thus cataloging once for all the great mass of 
books which are now cataloged in each of hun- 
dreds of libraries. The Rudolph Indexer Co. is 
about to begin a similar work. 

Scientific index. The next co-operative index 
will probably be that of scientific serials, transla- 
tions, and monographs, and will save many a long 
search through indexes of individual volumes or 
through volumes entirely unindexed, beside fre- 
quently directing one to a source that he would 
otherwise altogether miss. 

Systematic reviewing. This section has now 
before it the proposal that the whole range of 
subjects be covered by a corps of reviewers, each 
to be the best available authority in his field, who 
shall prepare signed and dated reviews for sim- 
ultaneous issue in a large circle of newspapers 
throughout America; that, beside the full news- 
paper review, a condensed catalog note be pre- 
pared stating whether the work is elementary 
or advanced, its relative value, and noting im- 
portant errors and where full criticism may be 

The advantages prophesied for this plan are an 
increased sense of responsibility of authorship 
and an increased responsibility of reviewing; in- 
crease in public esteem for reviews and economy 
of time for readers by guiding them directly to 
the books best adapted to their purposes. It 
would also afford a valuable guide both to li- 
braries and private owners in bookbuying. 

These are a few of the many possibilities 
before the publishing section. Certainty and 
promptness of realization depend on heartiness 
of support accorded by those interested. 

tion organized was the Association of State Li- 
brarians for state and law library interests. In 
1893 this was divided into the state library asso- 
ciation and law section. The most important li- 
brary problem now before the country is the re- 
lation of the states to libraries. This includes 
legislation, subsidies, state aid, exemption from 
taxation, public documents and their distribution, 
organization of the library interests of each state, 
library commissions, travelling libraries, public 
libraries departments, annotated lists of best 
books prepared and distributed by the state au- 
thorities, and indeed every question concerning 
the state's relation to library interests. 

The special handbook explaining fully the work 
of this section can be had from the president, 
Melvil Dewey, State Library, Albany, N.Y. The 
law section it is hoped will begin its independent 
work at the Lake Placid meeting in September, 

1894, when all law librarians will be specially in- 
vited to be present. 

COLLEGE SECTION. The college librarians 
held their first meeting in 1889 at St. Louis, for 
fuller consideration of topics peculiar to libraries 
of educational institutions, and at their second 
meeting in 1890 formally organized. 

TRUSTEES' SECTION. Ther has always been 
at A. L. A. meetings a sprinkling of library 
trustees among its most interested and efficient 
workers. In 1890 special invitations and an en- 
tire session devoted to mutual relations of trus- 
tees and librarians called out a much larger 
representation and resulted in permanent organ- 
ization as a Trustees' Section, with Hon. Pliny T. 
Sexton, Palmyra, N. Y., a trustee of the N. Y. 
State Library, as chairman. The trustees compare 
views and advise with each other on their pe- 
culiar duties, and the section in its importance 
to library interests is second only to the A. L. A. 

Among the resolutions passed at their first 
meeting was one expressing their conviction of 
the benefit of the A. L. A. meetings both to 
librarians and trustees and therefore to the 
public, and earnestly urging on their fellow- 
trustees not only the great importance of send- 
ing their librarians to these conferences, paying 
their expenses and giving them the time in addi- 
tion to their regular vacation, but also of attend- 
ing themselves. 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC SECTION. This section is the 
next to be organized. The first 17 years have 
been wisely given to improving methods and ap- 
pliances, and to organizing and getting the A. 
L. A. into good working condition. The time 
has now come to unite efforts in the highest 
field of library co-operation, to which all else is 
tributary, the supply of the best books. The 
greatest work before the new section is the " A. 
L. A. catalog," a classified, annotated, and in- 
dexed list of best books on all subjects, combin- 
ing in a single manual the judgment of the most 
experienced librarians of the country. This will 
start with brief, annotated class-lists on subjects 
most needed, and will be revised and enlarged 
in each edition. When the series is finished and 
bound together it will make the complete catalog. 

The great fault of most lists is that they em- 
barrass young librarians and readers by offering 
too much. The new lists will consist of a few 
of the very best books, chiefly in English, selected 
with regard to those wishing : (i) primers of 
the subject; (2) fuller manuals; (3) exhaustive 
treatises. Leading foreign books will be added 
in successive revisions. 

This general plan was first proposed in the 
LIBRARY JOURNAL of August, 1877 (p. 423-27). 
At the Boston meeting of the A. L. A. in 1879, 
it was heartily taken up and an editor appointed, 
but circumstances compelled him to resign the 
work within a year. In April, 1884, the commit- 
tee of seven in charge announced (L. j. 9:69) the 
appointment of the projector of the catalog as 
editor, and pledged the hearty voluntary co- 
operation of the Association. Much preliminary 
work has been done and arrangements have 
been this year completed to meet necessary ex- 
penses of preparation, so that the first sections 

\JFebruary, '94 

will be printed during the coming year. The 
catalog published in December, 1893, by the U. 
S. Bureau of Education of the A. L. A. library of 
5000 volumes, exhibited at the World's Fair, 
makes an excellent basis for the work, and is in 
fact its first edition, except that it lacks the an- 
notations which are the most important feature 
of the plan. Over 100 members have already 
shown theirinterestby buying a special edition of 
Sonnenschein's " Best books " to use as a check- 
list in comparing judgment. They with others 
interested will form the bibliographic section, 
and at each annual meeting of the A. L. A. will 
interchange needed corrections and additions and 
arrange for constant co-operation through the 
year by means of correspondence. After years 
of delay the way is now clear for the early issue 
of this, the most important co-operative work yet 
undertaken in the interests of better reading. 

Some of the chief uses of this catalog will 

1 As a guide to bookbuyers, whether for private 
or public libraries. 

2 As a guide to readers in choosing what books 
they might best take from the library or from 
their own shelves. 

3 As a manual to answer most wisely the con- 
stant question, " What is the best book on my 
subject ? " 

4. To take the place of the printed catalog 
in small public libraries, by writing in the mar- 
gin the location number of all books in the library, 
unmarked titles being the best conceivable pur- 
chase list. 

5. As the most convenient form of catalog for 
most private libraries, by checking in the margin 
all of the books owned. 

6. As a check-list of books read, with personal 

All interested in this work are invited to send 
their addresses to the editor, Melvil Dewey, Li- 
brary School, Albany, N. Y. 


From the A. L. A. have grown three agencies 
whose influence and value have been perhaps 
even greater than its own immediate action, 
though none of the three are under its direct con- 
trol : 

1. LIBRARY JOURNAL. This is the official organ, 
a monthly exponent of library progress, whose 
17 volumes constitute a bibliothecal library now 
recognized as a necessity in every progressive 
library, and as unequalled in any language. 

2. Library Bureau. This, since its first three 
years, when it was conducted as a part of the 
secretary's work, has had no organic connection 
with the A. L. A., but is carried on in full har- 
mony with its spirit and aims, as an instrument 
through which A. L. A. co-operative schemes 
may be realized, and as an agency for all library 
wants except books and periodicals. It Under- 
takes, as a library centre for the country, such 
needed enterprises as are impracticable for the 
Association or LIBRARY JOURNAL, and thus serves 
as their business supplement, publishing and 
manufacturing many technical library fittings 
and supplies needed for the most efficient and 

economical work, but which would not be under- 
taken by a mere commercial house. 

3. Library School. Thisschool at Albany, under 
direction of the University of the State of New 
York, is a powerful agent in raising the standards 
of intelligence and efficiency for librarians and 
their assistants. Only those who have com- 
pleted a high-school course or its equivalent are 
admitted to the entrance examinations, which 
cover two years' work of college grade. College 
graduates may be received without examination. 

A standing of 75 per cent, in all work of the 
two years' course is required for a diploma ; 
while for the degree bachelor of library science 
(B.L.S.) honors, or 90 percent, in three-fourths 
of the work of the course, are required. 

Graduates of the school are already taking 
leading places in the profession, many of them 
in turn giving more or less systematic training to 
others. The three great institutes, Pratt in 
Brooklyn, Drexel in Philadelphia, and Armour 
in Chicago, have all chosen graduates of the 
Library School for their librarians and assistants 
and, to meet the demand for trained help even in 
the simpler forms of library work, each has 
established library classes to supply a more ele- 
mentary course than that offered by the school. 
The spirit of the A. L. A. is thus being spread 
abroad among library workers. 

4. Library clubs. June 18, 1885, the New 
York Library Club was organized to promote by 
meetings, discussions and co-operation the library 
interests of New York and vicinity. Its success 
has shown the need of similar clubs in all great 
cities, wherever within a convenknt distance 
there are a reasonable number of library workers, 
inspired by the modern spirit of progress. The 
Chicago Library Club was organized Dec. 17, 
1891 ; and Philadelphia followed Jan. 29, 1892. 

5. State association!. On July n, 1890, was 
organized the New York Library Association, 
the first devoted solely to the library interests 
of a single state. Details of its plan and work 
can be had in its own handbook by applying to 
the State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

Similar associations have already been or- 
ganized by the following : 1890 Iowa, Sept. 2 ; 
New Hampshire, Sept. n ; Massachusetts, Nov. 
13 ; New Jersey, Dec. 29. 1891 Connecticut, 
Feb. 23 ; Wisconsin, March n ; Maine, March 
19 ; Michigan, Sept. i ; Kansas, Sept. 26 ; 
Southern California, Nov. 9 ; Minnesota, Dec. ; 
Indiana, Dec. 30. 1892 Colorado, Dec. 29. 

Thus the national organization of 1876 has 
been supplemented by state organizations for 
more specific work pertaining to single commc n- 
wealths, and these in turn are found to need the 
organized efforts of local clubs devoted to the 
general library interests of a single vicinity. 

Work not limited by locality but commanding 
the interest of only part of the Association is 
provided for by the various sections. 


In connection with the A. L. A., meetings are 
also held of the various sections of the State 
Library Association, and of the state associations 
which follow the custom of gathering their mem- 

February, '94] 



bers for at least a short session during A. L. A. 
week. There is also an annual reunion of all 
those connected with the Library School, whether 
as faculty, lecturers, graduates, or students. 


One not caring to send the $2 fee and become 
a member, but yet wishing to receive other 
printed matter about libraries and librarianship, 
should send his address marked " interested in 
libraries" to Melvil Dewey, State Library, Al- 
bany, N. Y., who keeps a card registry of those 
in any part of the world who are specially in- 
terested in the modern library movement. 

State Cibratp QUsociations. 


THE fourth annuaj meeting of the New Hamp- 
shire Library Association was held at Concord, 
N. H., Jan. 31, 1894. Hon. William W. Bailey, 
of Nashua, presided, and the following new 
members were elected : Gen. G: T. Crufts of 
Bethlehem, F: Gowing of Nashua, F. S. Streeter 
of Concord, Col. Daniel Hall of Dover, ex-Gov. 
C: H. Sawyer of Dover. 

The following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, W: W. Bailey of Nashua ; vice-presidents, 
Col. E. H. Gilman for Rockingham County, J. 
E. Pearl for Strafford, Hon. E. P. Jewell for 
Belknap, E. L. Marston for Carroll, Hon. Jos. 
B. Walker for Merrimack, Judge N. P. Hunt for 
Hillsborough, Col. F. C. Faulkner for Cheshire, 
Col. Seth M. Richards for Sullivan, Gen. G: T. 
Crufts for Grafton, Hon. Irving W. Drew for 
Coos ; corresponding secretary, Hon. A. S. 
Batchellor, Littleton ; clerk and recording secre- 
tary, Arthur R. Kimball, Concord ; librarian 
and treasurer, D. F. Secomb, Concord ; execu- 
tive committee, Miss C. H. Garland of Dover, 
J. H. Whittier of Rochester, C. B. Spofford of 
Claremont, C. C. Rounds, of Plymouth, F: Gow- 
ing of Nashua ; auditor, Miron W. Hazeltine, 

Miss Garland extended an invitation for the 
association to hold the next meeting at Dover ; 
it was accepted, and the time for holding the 
same, which will probably be in April or May, 
was left to the executive committee. W. W. 
Bailey, G: C. Gilmore, A. S. Batchellor, and 
A. R. Kimball were elected a committee on the 
preparation of instructions, etc., for the use of 
the local committees on bibliographies. 

ARTHUR R. KIMBALL, Recording Secretary. 


THE second annual meeting of the Library 
Association of Indiana was held in the capitol, 
Indianapolis, December 27-28, 1893. A two 
days' meeting had been arranged for, so that 
there might be ample time for the discussion of 
all matters of special importance. The meeting 
was called to order at 10:30 a.m., December 27, 
by President Arthur Cunningham. The morn- 
ing session was short. President Cunningham 

delivered an address on the aims and purpose 
of the association and reviewed at considerable 
length the progress made by the association dur- 
ing its first year. This was followed by a gen- 
eral discussion and exchange of ideas in regard 
to future work. 

The afternoon session began at 2 o'clock. 
The first paper read was by Hervey D. Vories, 
state superintendent of public instruction, en 
the " Organization of libraries." Mr. Vories 
discussed the library laws now in force, and 
said that the law as to cities of 30,000 or more 
inhabitants was a very satisfactory one. The 
law for all incorporated towns and smaller 
cities had a proviso that prevented the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of a library in many 
of the towns and cities, so that out of 319 incor- 
porated towns and cities only 148 had libraries. 
He said that out of the 511,823 children enrolled 
in the schools of the state 422,666 were without 
the advantages of a library; that 87^ per cent, 
of the public school children left school at the 
close of the sixth year; and that the school sys- 
tem should not be regarded as complete without 
a library in every school-house. He greatly de- 
plored the lack of library sentiment among the 
people. Different methods of creating a library 
sentiment were touched upon, and it was espe- 
cially urged that the teachers of the state be en- 
listed in the work. He also outlined a proposed 
law, giving state control as to lists of books from 
which selections might be made by the teacher 
and pupils of each district. The law should be 
mandatory and set apart a small sum for each 
district to employ a librarian and buy books, the 
library to be kept open each Saturday afternoon 
while school was not in session. The librarian 
should be selected by those using the library. 
The selection of books by the schools would give 
ample latitude to provide for local tastes and pe- 
culiar ideas, and this, with the selection of a li- 
brarian, would give a feeling of ownership and 
local control that would sustain a perennial in- 
terest; while the selection from an adopted list 
of books would be a sufficient safeguard against 
the introduction of vicious books. 

Miss Jessie Allen, cataloger of the Indianapo- 
lis Public Library, then read an interesting pa- 
per on " Catalogs and cataloging," which con- 
cluded the session. 

In the evening the members of the association 
were tendered a reception at the Grand Hotel. 
They were received by Miss M. E. Ahern, sec- 
retary of the association, and Miss E. G. Brown- 
ing, librarian of the Indianapolis Public Library, 
assisted by members of the state and city libra- 

The second days' session began at 9:30 a.m., 
December 28. Miss Mary Dye, of the Pratt In- 
stitute (Brooklyn, N. Y.) Library training class, 
read a paper on the " Study of library science." 
She urged that librarians should enlist library 
boards in the work, and advocated the promotion 
plan as the best for making the service most 
efficient; until every library was permeated with 
the professional spirit, it should be a miniature 
library school. The chief factor in promoting 
library work she considered to be the monthly 


[February, '94 

meeting of the staff, when ideas and opinions 
could be exchanged ; the interchange of work 
was also recommended. A general discussion 

J. P. Dunn, ex-state librarian of Indiana, then 
read a paper on " Indiana compared with other 
states " in regard to libraries. He presented 
statistics showing that in proportion to the pop- 
ulation, Michigan has 65 per cent, more books 
than Indiana; Ohio 64 percent, more, and Illinois 
96 per cent. more. Indiana has 25 books in li- 
braries for each loo inhabitants, the number of 
libraries being almost in proportion to the ob- 
structive laws. In Illinois any community can 
start a library; in Michigan a petition is required; 
but in Indiana a township cannot open a library 
unless some one first gives a library worth $i,- 
ooo. Cities and towns of less than 10,000 inhabi- 
tants can levy a tax to establish a library, pro- 
vided there is not already a free library in the 
city, but not to maintain one. 

The afternoon session was brief. G: S. Cott- 
man, of Irvington, delivered an address on 
" Indiana literature," and a short time was de- 
voted to the transaction of miscellaneous busi- 
ness. The meeting then adjourned. 


THE fourth annual meeting of the Iowa Li- 
brary Society was held in the capital at Des 
Moines, December 27-28, 1893. The meeting 
was called to order at 10 a.m., December 27, by 
Hon. T. S. Parvin. The attendance was not as 
large as at former meetings, only about 25 
librarians being present, but the members were 
enthusiastic and earnest in the work, and the 
meeting proved a very successful one. 

The following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: President, T. S. Parvin, Cedar 
Rapids; vice-president, Mrs. Ada North, Iowa 
City; secretary, Mrs. Mary W. Loomis, Chero- 
kee; treasurer, Miss Ella McLoney, Des Moines. 
The treasurer's report was read, and placed on 

The first subject considered was in regard to 
the marking and numbering of books in circu- 
lating libraries. The discussion was brief but 
animated. Papers were read by Mrs. Mary H. 
Miller and Miss McLoney. In the afternoon 
President Parvin delivered his annual address, 
which was chiefly devoted to a discussion of sev- 
eral topics of library interest. He earnestly 
advocated the adoption of methods by which the 
office of state librarian and also that of superin- 
tendent of public instruction might be removed 
from politics. 

The second day's session was opened at 10 
a.m., with a paper on " Access to shelves," read 
by Miss McLoney. Miss Esther Crawford, of 
the Sioux City Library, then read an interesting 
and practical paper on " Cataloging," with direct 
reference to the libraries of Iowa, and showed 
numerous examples of cataloging work done in 
various libraries of the state. 

Hon. W. M. McFarland, secretary of state, 
spoke of the desirability of purchasing only the 
best books for public libraries, and excluding 
trash. He also thought the salaries of librarians 
should, in justice, be increased, though there was 

the drawback, that the places would then be 
sought by politicians, under whose care they 
would not be so apt to thrive. On the whole, 
he did not know but that the matter had best be 
kept where it was, for generally very good work 
was being done at very moderate rates of com- 

Hon. J. B. Knoepfler, state superintendent of 
public instruction, was introduced, and made a 
brief address. It was mainly in elaboration of 
the idea that where the work of the teacher ends 
that of the librarian begins, and that one of the 
most important questions pressing upon the 
teacher was, " How can we lead children to 
read better literature? " He believed librarians 
had a much wider influence than even they im- 
agined, and could do good work in disseminating 
a taste for what was pure, elevating, and in- 
structive. He also spoke of the duty of the 
state to make the books of the state library ac- 
cessible to responsible people in every locality. 
A discussion followed. Mrs. Miller said the mat- 
ter had already been considered, and an attempt 
would be made to do something of the kind 
this winter. Mr. Parvin had loaned books from 
his library at Cedar Rapids, the largest Masonic 
library in the world, to persons all over the 

Mr. George Meleny, of the Library Bureau, 
spoke of new library appliances, and also of the 
printed catalog cards now furnished by the bu- 

Col. G. H. Gatch.of Des Moines, chairman of 
the committee on legislation, gave his report on 
the subject of proposed new legislation relating 
to the founding and supporting of libraries. His 
proposition was simply to refer the matter di- 
rectly to a vote of the people locally interested 
in any proposed or existing library. He was ap- 
pointed a committee of one to prepare a bill and 
present it to the proper committees in the coming 

The subject of meeting with the State Teach- 
ers' Association was then taken up on the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Rich, and discussed at some 

President Parvin urged the advantages of 
bringing the society into closer and more harmo- 
nious relations with the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion, of which he was one of the organizers in 
1854. He spoke of the fact that there was and 
must be a close interest between the society and 
its work and the public schools and their li- 
braries and, indeed, the whole system of popular 

At the afternoon session reports in regard to 
the founding of several new libraries were re- 
ceived, and at Miss Crawford's suggestion these 
were added to the list of Iowa libraries. 

President Parvin dts ; n-d suggestions from all 
present in relation to the society's program for 
next year, and the matter was discussed at some 
length. Mrs. Morse thought the topics selected 
for report and discussion should be of more gen- 
eral interest to the public at large and not con- 
fined exclusively to library topics. A general 
discussion followed upon the subject of the next 
meeting. It was finally voted to meet in connec- 
tion with the State Teachers' Association. The 

February, '94] 



proposal to bring both the society and the associa- 
tion into closer relations met with entire co-op- 
eration on the part of the committee appointed 
by the association. The meeting then adjourned. 


THE regular January meeting of the Pennsyl- 
vania Library Club was held at the Mercantile 
Library, Philadelphia, on Monday evening, Jan- 
uary 8. The meeting was called to order at 8 
o'clock, by the president, Mr. Edwards, about 35 
members and friends being present. 

After the usual transaction of business, Dr. 
Bernard C. Steiner, of the Enoch Pratt Free 
Library, Baltimore, addressed the club on the 
"Condition and history of the libraries of Bal- 
timore in general and of the Enoch Pratt Free 
Library in particular." 

After giving a brief survey of the various 
kinds of libraries founded throughout the colo- 
nies in the early days of their settlement, Dr. 
Steiner proceeded to illustrate these types by 
the libraries founded from time to time in the 
city of Baltimore, speaking more at length of 
the character, methods of administration, and 
financial basis of the Enoch Pratt Free Library. 

At the close of the paper the president called 
for questions, and a general discussion followed 
on points of 'library administration, special em- 
phasis being placed upon the importance of 
branch libraries. 

BESSIE R. MACKY, Secretary. 

Cibrars (Hubs. 


THE 1 5th regular meeting of the Chicago Li- 
brary Club was held at the Public Library-Janu- 
ary 4, 1894. After the usual preliminaries seven 
candidates were elected members. 

The secretary reported on a plan proposed by 
him some time previous "to obtain instructive 
addresses bearing on literature and reading from 
prominent professional men and women who are 
authorities in their special lines, and connecting 
therewith such studies as will make the club, as 
it were, 'a library science extension class.'" 
The matter was referred to the new executive 
committee. Dr. Wire, chairman of the commit- 
tee to visit libraries and solicit membership, re- 
ported progress of the work. 

Miss Edith E. Clarke then read a timely paper 
on "Woman in literature at the fair from the 
standpoint of a librarian and cataloger." (See p. 


The treasurer's report showed a balance in the 

The election of officers for 1894 had the follow- 
ing result: President, E. F. L. Gauss, Chicago 
Public Library; ist vice-president, Miss Edith E. 
Clarke, Newberry Library; 2d vice-president, 
G. B. Meleney, Library Bureau; secretary, Miss 
Carrie L. Elliott, Chicago Public Library; treas- 
urer, W. S. Merrill, Newberry Library. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

CARRIE L. ELLIOTT, Secretary. 

ibrarjj (Economy an& ^i 


Albany (N. Y.) F. L. A movement has been 
set on foot to raise from $1000 to $15,000 by 
subscription, as an endowment fund to establish 
the library on a permanent basis. The library 
was started as " The South End Library " about 
three years ago. A canvass was made among 
citizens, and money and books were freely con- 
tributed. Tickets at the rate of $i a year were 
sold to those desiring to draw books for home 
use. This continued for about two years, when 
the directors resolved to make the library abso- 
lutely free. Application was made to the state 
board of regents, the name was changed, and the 
library was incorporated as the " Albany Free 
Library." It is open every week-day and evening 
until 9 o'clock, a librarian is constantly in at- 
tendance, and many books are daily circulated, 
and the daily papers and chief periodicals are kept 
on file. All of this is done at the cost of about 
$750 a year. 

Ayer (Mass.') P. L. The dedication of the new 
public library building given to the town by Mr. 
F: F. Ayer, of Lowell, son of the late Dr. J. C. 
Ayer, for whom the town was named, was held 
on the afternoon of Jan. 15. It was entirely in- 
formal, in accordance with Mr. Ayer's expressed 
desire. After luncheon at the home of D. Hart- 
well, one of the trustees, he, with his associates 
and Mr. Ayer, went over to the library building, 
where Mr. Ayer presented to them the deed of 
gift, providing for the free use of the building by 
the town forever. The trustees accepted the 
gift, and then all adjourned to the town-hall, 
where an informal reception was held. 

The history of the library movement in Ayer 
is briefly told. In 1854 a district school library 
was given the town by a number of citizens, and 
existed for 10 years. From the expiration of that 
time until 1871, when the town was incorporated, 
there was no library. In that year the literary 
and musical club gave the town its library of 100 
volumes, which was slowly added to. In 1872 
the business part of the town was destroyed by 
fire, and the library with it. The town took the 
matter in hand again after the fire, and a new 
library was started. In 1890 it contained 2769 
volumes, and had fairly comfortable and com- 
modious quarters at the town-hall. In 1890 Mr. 
Ayer placed $5000 at the disposal of the town 
for the purchase of books, and soon afterward 
announced his intention to give a building, which 
intention has now been carried out. The build- 
ing is of buff Indiana limestone, with roof and 
lantern of copper. It is 63 feet long and 40 feet 
wide. From the ground to the top of the cor- 
nice it is 20 feet high, and 14 feet more to the 
top of the lantern. The style is an adaptation 
of the Roman classic. The plan is symmetrically 
divided into three portions, the central being the 
waiting-room, in the form of a Greek cross, cov- 
ered by a dome. On the right as one enters is a 
reading-room, about 20 feet wide and 36 feet 
long, finished in dark oak and lighted by four 
large arched windows ; the walls are stained the 



[February, '94 

color of old leather. On the left of the waiting- 
room is the book-room, fitted with two stories of 
book-stacks for the accommodation of 25,000 
volumes. The second-story stacks are in a gal- 
lery. This room is finished in natural oak and 
wrought iron, and the walls and ceiling are 
painted a light yellow color. In the rear of the 
waiting-room are the toilet-rooms, closets, etc., 
and over these is a room opening from the book- 
room gallery that may be used as a trustees' 
room. The building is heated by steam and is 
wired for electric lighting. 

Bath t Me. ratten F. L. A. Added 850 ; total 
6806 ; issued, home use 28,016 (fict. 85 %) ; ref. 
use 1631 ; 309 new cards were issued during the 
year ; 940 books have been repaired in library, 
42 at bindery, and 103 rebound. 

A new " title and author list " is ready for the 

The librarian asks : "Is it well for a small 
library to have more than a few of the best 
books bound ? They are bulky, fill up the shelves 
and are comparatively used but little." 

Bridgeport (Ct.) P. L. The art department of 
the library, which was opened Jan. i, has proved 
most popular. It contains pictures in oil and 
water colors, several china collections, photo- 
graphs, etchings, etc., contributed by different 

The collection of paintings will be continually 
changing, as new ones are loaned and others re- 
turned. In addition, at different periods special 
exhibits will be made in other lines of art, as 
architectural designs in April, the amateur and 
professional to be given a separate and distinct 
classification, to be followed by a black-and-white 
exhibition of etchings, etc., and an exhibition of 
amateur photographs. 

The art department is open every afternoon 
from 2 to 5, and Wednesday and Saturday even- 
ings from 7 to Q. 

Cambridge (Mass.) P. Z. Total, 40,079 ; is- 
sued 124,104 ; lost 17. 

The only new departure was that of opening 
the library from 2 to 6 on Sundays, which began 
on the first Sunday in March. This step has 
proved acceptable to the public, as is shown by 
the fact that for the four Sundays in March the 
average of attendance was 70$ , and for the four 
Sundays in November it was n6. 

The most important accession received during 
the year was given by E: H. Hooper, of Cam- 
bridge. Being charged with the distribution of 
the large library of the late E. W. Gurney, the 
bulk of which went to public institutions and to 
private friends, he offered to the Cambridge 
library the selection of 500 volumes from the 
residue of the Gurney library, with the alter- 
native of receiving a dollar in money for every 
volume not selected. As a result, the trustees 
chose no volumes, and received $390, to be ex- 
pended at their discretion. This is now being 
expended by degrees, mainly for books in the 
French language and sets of periodicals. 

The arrangement and classification of the Wy- 
man medical library was effected during the 
summer, and a regular card catalog has been 

begun. The trustees desire to make this col- 
lection of value to students of medical science, 
not only in Cambridge but elsewhere, within 
proper limits and restrictions, as it contains many 
works not easily accessible. 

The trustees call special attention to the list of 
books by Cambridge authors in the Cambridge 
memorial room, and ask further aid in their 
efforts to make the collection complete. It is 
their aim to have it contain every important 
edition of every work by every author born or 
resident in the city, accompanied by autographs, 
photographs, or ms. notes if possible, and so to 
extend the collection that no person can here- 
after undertake to edit or describe any Cambridge 
author without coming to the library for ad- 
ditional materials. They also invite the deposit 
of other bibliographical or biographical material 
of this kind, or of any articles or collections 
bearing on the history of Cambridge. 

Cleveland (0.~) P. L. (25th rpt.) Added 7532 ; 
total 79,610. Issued, home use, main 1. 264,845 
(fict. 44.20 #), w. s. branch 84,335 (fict. 37.37 #) ; 
ref. use 32,339 ; no. cards issued 4310 ; visitors 
to ref. and reading rooms 54,681 (Sunday visi- 
tors 10,571). Receipts $44,546.83 ; expenses 

The trustees say : " The plan of permitting 
free access to the shelves, adopted some time 
since with some misgivings, continues to give in- 
creased satisfaction to those using the library ; 
not only has it given great satisfaction to those 
desiring and drawing books from the library, 
but it has also enabled us to issue more books 
with very much less labor and expense than 
under the old conservative system which pre- 
viously prevailed, nor has free access to the 
shelves resulted in loss of books or damage to 
same. We feel, therefore, that a return to the 
old method will never be contemplated." 

A competitive examination of applicants for 
positions in the library was held by the libra- 
rian, under the direction of the committee on 
employees, on September 26. Fifty candidates 
presented themselves, and nine were recommend- 
ed for appointment as substitutes; the report 
was approved and the appointments duly made. 
This addition to the depleted force of the libra- 
ry enabled the work of arrangement and cata- 
loging, so greatly needed, to be taken up; but 
the increased use of the library has required 
so much of the additional help that less of this 
special work has been accomplished than was 
hoped for. 

Carefully compiled tables show the growth of 
the library and expenditures since its estab- 
lishment in 1869. 

Cornell University L., Ithaca, N. Y. A LITER- 
ARY LABORATORY : the Zarncke library. (In 
Cornell Magazine, Jan., 1894.) 
An interesting account of the fine Zarncke col- 
lection recently given to the university library; 
it is by Miss M.. I. Crandall, who as cataloger of 
the collection is well fitted to describe it at first 
hand. The library is specially rich in Germanic 
literature and comparative philology; it contains 
a fine collection of books relating to Faust, is 

February, '94] 



very rich in literature relating to Lessing and 
Christian Reuter, and includes a wealth of rare 
and valuable pamphlet literature. Miss Crandall 
traces in a most interesting manner the trend of 
Zarncke's personal interests and literary labors, 
as evidenced in his collection. 

Detroit (Mich.) P. L. The president of the 
library commission in his annual message recom- 
mends the establishment of eight sub-libraries, 
to be conveniently located in book, drug, or 
candy stores, the store proprietor to act as sub- 
librarian. It is proposed to pay those who con- 
sent to take charge of these branches at the rate 
of about $2 for every 100 volumes loaned, up to 
the point where the income would amount to 
fao per month; after that the rate to be $i for 
each 100 volumes; the minimum rate to be $10 
per month. Catalogs and library slips are to be 
supplied at the branches and books delivered 
the day after the slips are sent to the library. 
Librarian Utley believes that the adoption of the 
system would largely increase the circulation of 
the library, but especially in the direction of fic- 
tion. He is quoted as stating that, while the 
system would undoubtedly prove a great con- 
venience to those living a longdistance from the 
library, he feared it would tend to lower the 
standard of the reading-matter sent out and that 
the central library would be flooded with applica- 
tions from the sub-stations for the poorer class 
of novels. He said that the persons who got the 
most good from the library were those who 
came in contact with all its departments reading- 
room, reference-room, etc. and also with the 
attendants. If a person calls for a certain book 
at the library now and cannot obtain it, the at- 
tendant will suggest another book, if the person 
seems at a loss, or, failing to get what he wants, 
he drops into the reading-room, or seeks the 
reference-room, often finding in one or both of 
these places something to read which will do him 
more good than the one particular volume which 
he desired. There can be none of this leading 
from one thing to another at the sub-stations, at 
least for a long time, and any person who can- 
not obtain the book asked for will probably go 
away without any and without having gained 
anything in any way. Mr. Utley did not offer 
these ideas as arguments against the establish- 
ment of sub-stations, but only to put people on 
their guard against expecting too much from 
them, as he felt that a library serves the best 
ends when it is educative, not when it is merely 
a distributer of books called for. 

The president also recommends that the stock 
of German literature be increased, and states 
that the demand for French and Polish books 
does not warrant the expenditures now made 
upon them. 

Everett (Mass.) P. L. Added 576; total 8428. 
Issued, home use 40,800, an increase of 10,736 
over 1892. Cards issued during year 2900. 

" The circulation is larger than that of any 
library of equal size in the commonwealth and 
is greater than the combined circulation of all 
the libraries in several counties of the state ; this 
is the more remarkable considering the fact 
that the library has no building of its own and 

has less than one-half a volume to each in- 
habitant, no other city in the state having less 
than one volume per .capita, the average being 
about five or six, and some having as high as 10 
volumes per inhabitant." 

The reading-room, established last year, has 
proved popular. Besides the chief magazines, 
New York and local papers, it contains a refer- 
ence library of 250 volumes free to all and a 
card catalog containing 3937 cards and covering 
all books acquired since the regular catalog was 

Gardner (Mass.) P. L. Added 923; total 5254. 
Issued 16,416 (daily av. 130); no. card-holders 
2757, an increase of 290 over previous year. 

A new catalog is in preparation. 

Keokuk (la.) L. A. On Jan. 18 the Keokuk 
Library Association tendered the city its fine 
building and library, which have cost about 
$35,000. The library is self-supporting and out 
of debt, contains 12,000 volumes, and from store 
rentals derives $1000 a year. The library privi- 
leges are limited to stockholders and those 
who pay yearly dues of $2. The members of 
the association realize that this plan does not 
reach those to whom the advantages are most 
beneficial, and therefore ask that the city accept 
the library and make it absolutely free to all. 
The proposed transfer will be submitted to a 
vote of the people next spring. 

Lakewood (IV. J.) L. Arrangements have been 
nearly completed by which people living in the 
country a few miles out of Lakewood can enjoy 
the advantages of the library. So far com- 
paratively few of the townspeople have shown 
much interest in the library, and only a small per- 
centage are registered as members. 

Los Angeles (Cal.) P. L. (5th rpt.) Added 
6083; total 34, 332; issued, home use 267, 054; lib. 
use 120,205, ref. use 33,142; total 420,401 (fict. 
41$; juv. 12$; current magazine 20 %). Lost 
and paid for 42; lost and not paid for 20. Total 
no. card-holders 13,495. 

" During the year additionsto the library have 
been in the main duplicates of books shown by 
the records of the circulating department to be 
most in demand. In fiction it is thought better 
to have six copies of one good novel than to have 
six novels of an indifferent character. In biogra- 
phy and travels the additions have been almost 
entirely duplicates of books suitable for use in 
the schools, these two classes of books being 
most used for supplementary reading in school 
work. Considering the number of volumes added 
to the different classes, fiction naturally ranks 
first, because the books are handled more, con- 
sequently wear out sooner, and need to be re- 
placed oftener, and because more books of imag- 
inative literature are published and read than 
books of any other class. However, the cost of 
the average novel to the library may be estimated 
at 88 cents, while the cost of the average book 
other than a novel maybe estimated at $1.25. 
The time is rapidly coming, however, when a sys- 
tematic series of accessions will have to be made 
in order that the library may not lose its equilib- 
rium as an organic whole. The tendency, as at 


{February^ '94 

present, of allowing the greater part of the li- 
brary's resources to be absorbed by temporary 
demands must be an evil one if carried too far." 

In regard to the large circulation recorded, 
Miss Kelso says: " For six months a count has 
been kept of the readers visiting the general 
reading-room to use the newspapers and periodi- 
cals on the racks, for the use of which no slips 
are required to be filled out. These visitors num- 
bered 24,831 for the six months. Of the large 
attendance of newspaper readers in the ladies' 
reading-room, no account has been attempted. 
Consequently the figures as given in the table 
showing the circulation of books do not represent 
the sum total of the library's activity; but they 
do show the number of books and periodicals 
that have actually been removed from shelf to 
borrower and replaced on the shelf. 

" The large magazine circulation in current 
and bound form comprises a class of reading that 
has a distinct upward tendency. It has been said 
of our circulation that it might be accounted for 
by the fact that it included magazines, a fact 
supposably to be deprecated. As a matter of 
fact the average magazine is far and away better, 
and a more effective means of culture than the 
average book; besides the mechanical work of 
handling the magazine costs the library more 
time and difficulty than it does to issue a book. 

"The comparatively extraordinary use made 
of so small a number of books as shown in the 
preceding tables is accounted for by ihe charac- 
ter of the population of Los Angeles, and largely 
by the fact that there is no competing library in 
the city. Tbe number of persons enrolled upon 
the registers of the library as actually drawing 
books exceeds that of the voting population of 
the city, but it is not distributed over the entire 
area of Los Angeles, but concentrated particular- 
ly within walking distance of or near the car 
lines passing by the library." To reach the 
more isolated portions of the city the librarian 
strongly urges the establishment of four branch 
delivery stations. 

Work with the schools has been vigorously 
carried on with gratifying results, although ham- 
pered by insufficient number of books and lack of 
necessary funds. " Inquiries made among the 
teachers of schools close to the library, and of 
those teaching in the more distant schools, re- 
garding the character of the reading of children 
outside of school, have clearly proven that where 
the means of getting books from the library are 
facilitated the reading is of a higher nature than 
where the child is compelled to rely on his own 
resources in procuring his reading-matter." 

The report is valuable and interesting through- 
out, and lack of space alone prevents fuller quo- 
tation. The details of cataloging work carried 
on at the library are most interesting. " In ad- 
dition to work upon the main catalog, card cata- 
logs of music and fiction have been currently car- 
ried along, additional entries being inserted as 
rapidly as new books have been added to the li- 
brary. A special card catalog has also been 
made during the year for the books in drama; 
for this title-cards only, numbering about 2000, 
h tve been written. Over 5000 cards have been 
written for special lists in the reference depart- 

ment; among these, that on California is worthy 
of special notice, including as it does all the li- 
brary's resources on the natural and civil history 
and geography of the state." 

" To enlighten the current belief that the en- 
tire work of a public library consists merely of 
the taking in and the giving out of books," Miss 
Kelso has appended to her report exhaustive 
tables "showing the records kept in the several 
departments of the library, and giving a fair idea 
of the essentials which go to make up the daily 
routine of the library." The tables cover nine 

In their report the trustees say: " The civil 
service rules adopted have been found to work 
admirably. Appointments and promotions on 
the staff of employees are governed entirely by 
fitness and without reference to political or other 
influence. Regular examinations have been held 
and by the system of training, during which the 
pupils give their time without pay, the library 
has been able to secure a considerable amount of 
valuable help, besides educating the students for 
the intelligent discharge of their duties, and 
thus raising the standard of proficiency. So far 
from the class being a burden upon the resources 
of the library, it has been of material assistance 
and has more than repaid the nominal outlay in- 
curred in its maintenance. The library club, 
maintained by the staff and by the teachers and 
others interested in library work, shows the ex- 
tent to which the employees are devoted to the 
spirit of their avocation. The work done by the 
staff during the past year is commended, and the 
faithful services of the librarian and assistant 
merit the warmest recognition. Miss Kelso has 
heretofore demonstrated her fitness for the re- 
sponsible position she holds, and the board con- 
tinues to repose confidence in her ability and 

Madison, Wis. State Historical Soc. L. Added 
3596; pm. 3974. Good progress is being made 
on the new scientifically arranged card catalog; 
an elaborate catalog of the society's rich collec- 
tion of bound newspaper files 7000 in number, 
and reaching back to the earliest of American 
and foreign journals is now in preparation, and 
will be unique of its kind; an exhaustive "Bib- 
liography of Wisconsin authors " was published 
during the year; the valuable Draper mss., 363 
volumes in all, covering the period of the west 
in the Revolutionary War, have been at last clas- 
sified, after a prodigious expenditure of skilled 
labor, and beautifully bound, so as to be easy of 
access to all special investigators and many 
such, from eastern and southern states, have con- 
sulted these volumes during the year. Careful 
statistics kept during the year show that the 
average daily attendance of readers, except in 
the summer months, is upward of 100 ; some 
days nearly 400 books are changed, and in the 
year some 50,000 books are used. This is a large 
use for a purely reference library; professoi sand 
students of the state university constitute 91 per 
cent, of the users. 

Minneapolis (Minn.} P. L. The new North 
Side Branch Library was formally opened in the 
last week of January. Work was begun on the 

February, '94] 


building last fall, and has been rapidly pushed to 
completion. The site was given to the city by 
Judge Vanderburg, and $2000 raised by popular 
subscription for a building fund, to which the 
library board added $8000. The building has 
cost $11 ,000; is of red brick, with brown-stone 
trimmings, two stories and a basement in height, 
and has ample accommodation for 10,000 
b >oks; it contains 2500 volumes. In the basement 
is a committee-room 18x21, and ventilating, 
toilet, and boiler rooms. The large reading-room, 
where the books are kept and issued, is 42 x 18, 
with oak finishings, and adjoining it are catalog- 
ing and reference rooms. On the upper floor is 
the assembly-hall, 42x30, capable of seating 400 

Mystic (Ct.) Spicer Memorial L. The Spicer 
Library building was formally opened on the 
afternoon of Jan. 23 ; a large audience was 
present. The exercises consisted of prayer, the 
presentation of the deed of the library to the 
trustees, and several addresses by local clergy- 
men and others. The building was then thrown 
open to the public, an informal reception being 
held there in the evening. Miss Annie A. Mur- 
phy is librarian. The library starts with over 
4000 volumes, and the cost of subscription is $i 
a year. 

New Albany (Ind.} P. L. Total 7621; issued 
7189; card-holders 1406. During the year the 
cabinet of the Historical and Geological Society 
has been added to the library. 

New Brunswick (N. /.) P. ~L. Since Jan. 15 
the library has been opened continuously from 9 
a.m. tog p.m. The use of the library has largely 
increased since its removal lo its new quarters. 

New Hampshire State L., Concord. During 
the year the sets of session laws of the various 
states have been greatly improved, and many 
breaks in this important department have been 
filled. Laws covering 236 sessions have been 
added, beside the regular additions of current 
laws. Among others were several volumes of 
Confederate state statutes passed during the Re- 
bellion. Breaks in the sets of English court re- 
ports to the extent of 61 volumes have been 
filled, and 137 volumes of Irish court reports 
have been added to the library. The set of 
English reports is now a very valuable one, and 
the addition of only a comparatively few volumes 
would render it complete. These volumes, how- 
ever, are very scarce, and difficult to obtain. 

The total number of additions to the library 
during the year was 2850. The report of the 
librarian has been made biennial, and conse- 
quently will not appear this year as heretofore. 

New York City. East Side House, Webster F. 
L. The Webster Free Library, noted in the 
January LIBRARY JOURNAL (19 : 27), was formally 
opened on Jan. 15, a reception being held during 
the afternoon and evening. The library is an 
adjunct of the East Side House at the foot of 
East 7&th Street (not 78th Street), and is con- 
nected with the club-house by corridors. The 
library is light, cheerful, and comfortably and 
attractively fitted up ; it starts with 4000 vol- 

umes. Walter Hodges is librarian. The 2d 
annual report of the resident manager of the 
East Side House, recently issued, gives some 
interesting information in regard to the aims 
and work of the association. It is organized 
and operated on the plan of Toynbee Hall and 
the Oxford House in England and the University 
Settlement in America. It is expected that the 
library will do much to further the work of the 
association. The East Side Club, to which the 
new building will also be devoted, is so far the 
most prominent feature of the work. The mem- 
bership is nearly 200, and the organization has 
proved popular and beneficial. During the win- 
ter various classes in' mechanical drawing, etc., 
were held; lectures were delivered on topics of 
current interest; there were several social gather- 
ings, and the prospects of future work and de- 
velopment were encouraging. 

New York City F. C. L. The sixth and last 
of the branches established by the library was 
lately opened in the parish-house of the Church 
of the Holy Communion, the Rev. Dr. H : Mottet, 
rector. The space needed is accorded on the 
second floor of the building, and the parish has 
given nearly 3000 of the 4000 volumes now in 
circulation. An effort will be made later on to 
provide a reading-room. Already nearly 1000 
persons have made use of the new branch library. 

New York City. Harkm L. (Rpt. 1892-93.) 
Added 735; total 17, 135 (estimated); issued 31,644 
(fict. 26,172); no account kept of lib. use; total 
no. members (Dec., 1893) 2884. 

Two books are allowed to each subscriber; ex- 
tra books may also be taken out. 

" The past year has been an important one in 
the history of the library. On August 15, 1892, 
the library was open in its new quarters for the 
exchange of books, although the reading and 
reference rooms were not ready for use for some 
time afterward. That the change was a wise 
one is proved by the increase in the number of 
subscribers; that the increase will be much 
greater during the season of 1893- 94, which will 
start with everything in perfect order, with the 
location and attractions of the library more gen- 
erally known, and with a catalog which subscri- 
bers can consult at their homes, is reasonably to 
be expected. One of the features of the present 
building is its attractive reference-room, and it 
is intended to make it increasingly useful. Free 
access to the shelves has been granted during the 
past season, and, whatever arguments there may 
be against such a practice, there is no doubt of 
its having been appreciated by those who have 
desired to select books in that way." 

New York City. Lenox L. Mr. Eames, acting 
librarian, is authority for the statement that 
since the addition of the collection of the late 
George Bancroft there has been a decided in- 
crease in the number of readers at the library, 
principally students in special historical subject*. 

New York City. Teachers' College, Bryson L. 
The Bryson Library of the Teachers' College, 9 
University Place, was established in 1888, in 
which year it numbered about 500 volumes. 
During the three following years it received 


[February, '94 

large additions and substantial help from a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees whose name the li- 
brary now bears, and at the present time it con- 
tains between 5000 and 6000 volumes, having in- 
creased ten-fold in five years. Its purpose is not 
only to meet the wants of the college, but to 
serve also as a special library for teachers; it 
contains general reference-books, works on psy- 
chology, pedagogy, history of education, meth- 
ods of teaching, and a selection of the best books 
in art, history, biography, travel, and general 
literature. At present the library serves as 
reading-room, and has on file about 90 of .the 
leading periodicals, those bearing upon education 
being most fully represented, and including 
foreign as well as American publications. There 
is a card catalog, author and subject, and it is 
expected that a printed catalog will soon be is- 
sued. The annual additions to the library average 
about icoo volumes. Its use has more than kept 
pace with its growth. In April, 1890, there 
were issued for home use 178 books; in Novem- 
ber, 1893, 1166 books, not including those taken 
from the department libraries. 

Oakland (Cal.) F. P. L. The monthly circula- 
tion of the library has increased on an average 
of 8000 volumes per month during the last six 

Peoria (III.) P. L. Work on the new catalog is 
being pushed forward as rapidly as the limited 
force of the library will permit. A large amount 
of new shelving has been set up during the year, 
and the library has now reached the limit of its 
capacity in that direction. Before another year 
is ended the necessity for a new library building 
will become one of the important questions for 
the city to decide. 

Philadelphia. Drexel Institute L. A course of 
lectures on topics relating to bibliography and 
libraries was begun on Feb. 6, in connection 
with the library and library class; the course in- 
cludes nine lectures, by E. C. Richardson, D. G. 
Brinton, Melvil Dewey, Talcott Williams, B. C. 
Steiner, Miss Hannah P. James, Prof. Morris 
Jastrow, and other specialists in library science 
or literature. The first lecture on " Reading for 
style," was by Ernest C. Richardson, of Prince- 
ton College Library. The lectures are given in 
the lecture-hall of the institute at 4 p.m., and are 
open to the public without charge; the course 
has been arranged to cover some subjects of a 
general character, of value not only to the spe- 
cial student but to all who enjoy the advantages 
of books and libraries. 

Philadelphia F. P. L. It is expected that on 
March \ the library will be opened and in work- 
ing order, with 6000 volumes on its'shelves. It 
will occupy three rooms on the first floor of the 
city hall, one of which will be used as a read- 
ing-room. A special feature of the library will 
be its full sets of public documents. Mr. Lorin 
Blodget, of Philadelphia, who has for years been 
associated with the work of collecting and ar- 
ranging public documents, has offered his assist- 
ance to the library, and has also offered to make 
up any sets from his own collection. The offer 
was. at once accepted by the trustees, and it is 

thought that when the collection is completed it 
will number 25,000 volumes. The collection will 
also be enriched by some 2000 volumes from 
the collection of government documents made by 
the late Congressman O'Neil. The first instal- 
ment of 500 volumes has been placed in the libra- 
ry ; it is a complete set of the message and doc- 
ument series for the last 15 years, and con- 
tains every report from every department of the 
government. There will also probably be re- 
ceived from Mr. O'Neil's heirs about 300 volumes 
of the civil war series, which contains practically 
a complete history of the war, and is exceeding- 
ly rare. 

The library is mainly supported by the income 
from the trust created by the Pepper estate, and 
last year secured an appropriation of $5000 
from the city. 

Portland (Ore.) P. L. Beginning January I 
the cost of membership in the association has 
been reduced from $9 to $5 per year. The asso- 
ciation has also issued the first (January) number 
of Our Library, a little four-page monthly to be 
devoted to the interests of the library. It con- 
tains items of general interest, a classified "list 
of new books, "and list of" periodicals for 1894" 
subscribed for by the library. 

Red Wing (Minn) P. L. The library was 
opened to the public on Jan. i, when the library 
board held a general reception. 

St. Louis (Mo.) P. L. Some difficulty has 
arisen in regard to the establishment of the li- 
brary as a free public library, which it was ex- 
pected would be accomplished by Jan. I. When 
the ordinance and charter amendment was 
passed at the last election, authorizing a free 
public library and diverting a portion of the city's 
revenue to that purpose, it was generally thought 
that the present library would simply be turned 
into a free library and remain where it now is. 
It appears, however, that the present library be- 
longs to the school board, and unless that body 
transfers it to the city it will remain under the 
control of the board. The school board will 
transfer the library to the city only on condition 
that the library committeerent the present quar- 
ters occupied by the library from the school board 
on a basis of six per cent, of the money spent in 
the erection of the two upper floors of the build- 
ing occupied at present as a library, and that 
they buy the fixtures and furniture recently put 
into the library. 

Unless these conditions are accepted the board 
refuses to transfer the library. The library 
committee have so far maintained that at the 
election held last fall the people understood that 
the library was to be transferred without expense 
to the new board, and that the word library did 
not mean the books only, but the necessary fur- 
niture and fixtures as well. Even if the matter is 
promptly and satisfactorily settled it is hardly 
likely that the library can be opened free to the 
public before March. All the city papers side 
with the library board in the controversy. 

Syracuse (N. Y.) University L. The university 
catalog for 1893-94 contains the following : 

"Library Economics. Opportunity will be 
given to such as desire it to take a course of in- 

February, '94] 


struction with the librarian in library economics. 
The course will embrace (i) Library writing anc 
appliances, (2) Books, size, form, binding, etc. 
(3) Study and practice in accessioning, indexing, 
and cataloging, (4) Record books filing and in 
dexing library correspondence, (5) Study of and 
practice in various systems of classification, (6] 
Bibliography, use of books, etc., (7) Original work 
in arranging, cataloging, indexing, making shell 
and finding lists, etc., of some portion of the 

Tacoma (Wash.) P. L. It is proposed to en- 
dow the new public library with five per cent, of 
the amount collected from fines and licenses, thus 
furnishing a meagre but assured income. 

The library was presented to the city Septem- 
ber 16, 1893, but it was considered best to take 
no formal steps toward caring for it before mon- 
ey could be appropriated for its support. The 
library has grown out of the individual efforts of 
Mrs. H. K. More. ,In 1886 she associated her- 
self with 25 other ladies to obtain public reading- 
matter. The library was kept in her house for 
10 months, the first literature being chiefly stand- 
ard books in pamphlet form. In 1887 it was 
moved to a location in the business part of the 
town, and the Mercantile Library Association 
was incorporated; this association continued in 
charge until September, when the library was 
given to the city. During the administration of 
the Mercantile Library Association the only in- 
come was derived from membership fees and 
voluntary contributions, in addition to appropri- 
ations awarded by the city government. First, 
in 1889, $75 a month was allowed. A little while 
later the appropriation was doubled, and in 
March, 1892, increased to $250 a month. But 
in May of last year the amount was decreased to 
f roo monthly, which has been the only income 
since. The librarian receives $75 and his assist- 
ant $25 a month for their services. No other 
salaries have ever been paid. 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
Several valuable and important additions have 
recently been made to the university library. 
Specially large additions have been made to the 
stock of periodicals, of which there are now over 
1000. A special alcove has been set aside for 
them, a large section being devoted to medical 
periodicals in all languages, which form a valua- 
ble adjunct to the Stille medical library. Dr. 
Robert A. Lamborn has deposited in the library 
his valuable archaeological library of over 2000 
volumes, and also a miscellaneous collection of 
1000 volumes on literature and science. These 
have been given a special alcove. The Stille 
medical library has recently received from Dr. 
Alfred Stille valuable complete sets of several 
medical periodicals and publications of medical 
societies, and the engineering library has been 
enriched by additions, including some important 
maps given by Prof. Fairman Rogers. Prof. 
Rogers has also given to the library his valuable 
collection of nearly 1000 volumes relating to 
horses and covering all branches of the subject, 
including breeding, breaking, training, stable 
management, racing, shoes and shoeing, har- 

nesses, bits and bitting, carriages, driving, coach- 
building, laws relating to warranty, anatomy, 
physiology, cavalry, veterinary science and den- 
tistry, and stable architecture. The collection 
is said to be the finest in the country; many of 
the books date as far back as the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, and contain curious illus- 

Efforts have also been made to establish a good 
technical library for the benefit of the architect- 
ural school, and through the generosity of n 
alumni $1000 has been raised for this purpose. 
It will be devoted to the purchase of books on 
architecture, which, it is hoped, may prove the 
nucleus of a good collection. 

Washington, D, C. Smithsonian Institution 
L. (Rpt.) Added 1839 v -> 22 .949 parts of vol- 
umes, 4451 pm.; total not given. 

" The reading-room is now taxed to its ut- 
most capacity; the 494 boxes for the use of sci- 
entific periodical literature are all filled, and peri- 
odicals which it would be desirable to keep in the 
general reading-room must be placed elsewhere 
for lack of space. The reading-room no longer 
has sufficient accommodations for the growing 
exchanges of the institution nor for the persons 
desiring to consult this important collection of 
current scientific literature. There has been a 
slight decrease in the number of publications re- 
ceived during the current year over the preced- 
ing year. The decrease, however, is in volumes, 
and is due to the fact that the limit of the possi- 
bility of completing series of publications by ex- 
change seems to have been reached. 

On October i, 1892, Mr. J. Elfrith Watkins 
resigned his position as librarian, and on Decem- 
ber i, 1892, Dr. Cyrus Adler, of the Johns Hop- 
kins University, was appointed to the post, which 
he still holds. 

Wethersfield (Ct.) L. A. At a meeting of the 
association on Jan. 8 it was voted to loan the 
library to the town of Wethersfield, to be used in 
connection with the town library and kept in the 
same room or rooms with the town's volumes, 
subject, however, to the recall of volumes or the 
entire library. 

The town library rooms will not be ready for 
occupancy for several months, during which time 
the association retains control of the library. 

Windsor (Vt.) L. (nth rpt.) Added 353; 
total 7285; issued8i29 (fict. 72$). 

" We are just commencing the issue of special 
extra cards to each reader, entitling him to an 
additional book from any class in the library ex- 
cept fiction. We hope thus to induce the reading 
of more valuable books by some who would 
otherwise never discover them. 

"The most important improvement now re- 
quired is a good printed catalog." 

Worcester (Mast.) P. L. Added 3643 ; total 
92,911; issued, home use 133,614, ref. use 70,- 
753, Sunday and holiday use 1677. 

The increase in the use of the circulating de- 
partment was 7205 volumes; 6943 more volumes 
were used for purposes of reference than in the 
preceding year. There has also been a very 




[February, '94 

much larger attendance of readers in the two 
reading-rooms for magazines, reviews, etc., and 
in the lower reading-room where newspapers are 
kept. The increase in the use of the library and 
reading-room was especially apparent during the 
months of business depression. 

During the year 57 newspapers and 17 maga- 
zines have been furnished to the reading-room, 
while the public fund has regularly provided for 
136 newspapers and 197 magazines. There are 
now on the files 407 papers and periodicals, an 
increase of 34 over the preceding year. The 
income from the permanent fund is $440.69, and 
the appropriation from the city last year $349.04. 
This year the committee ask for an appropria- 
tion of $1000. 

Five exhibitions of pictures belonging to the 
library have been held during the year. Three 
of these have been in the upper story of the li- 
brary building and two in the lecture-hall. In 
April the library allowed the Worcester Art So- 
ciety to give an exhibition in the art galleries, in 
the upper story, of specimens of rare and valu- 
able china, pottery, and bric-a-brac. This proved 
a great success. The society brought together 
a large collection of various kinds of ceramic- 
ware, made up of really valuable, and, in many 
cases, costly articles, and arranged the exhibition 
in a most artistic manner. 

Since last summer new books, as bought, have 
been placed on shelves outside of the counter in 
the circulating department, and users of the li- 
brary have been allowed freely to handle and ex- 
amine them. It is the belief of officers of the 
library that solid reading is much promoted by 
thus displaying additions to the library. 

York, Neb. The three libraries of the town 
the Ladies' Library, Y. M. C. A. Library, and 
school library have been turned over to the 
town to form a public library. It will be in 
charge of nine directors appointed by the coun- 


Brighton (Eng.) P. L. (Rpt.) Added, lending 
1. 1701, total 26,525 ; ref. 1. 762, total 13,163. 
Issued, home use 129,257 (fict. 73.24$) ; ref. use 
39,540. No. of readers and borrowers 155,467; 
total no. card-holders 15,741. 

"The issue of books in the lending library 
shows a decrease of 6603 from that of 1892. To 
this decrease fiction contributes 5833, the three 
other classes in which there has been a general 
falling off being general literature, theology, and 
magazines. In the four important classes of 
history, voyages and travels, science and art. and 
poetry there has been an increase of 901. Biog- 
raphy has remained stationary. In the whole 
library (reference and lending departments com- 
bined) there has been a decrease of 5649. The 
decrease is confined to the four classes : fiction, 
illustrated papers, general literature, and the- 
ology; in the remaining eight classes history, 
biography, voyages and travels, science and art, 
poetry, magazines and reviews, dictionaries and 
gazetteers, and Sussex topography there has 
been an increase of 4392. 

" The remarkable falling off in fiction (6645 in 

both departments) is, perhaps, a matter for 
congratulation, although the library sub-com- 
mittee is not so optimistic as to suppose that the 
readers of fiction have suddenly developed a 
taste for more solid reading and discovered that 
there exists in the library interesting literature 
other than fiction. It may probably be explained 
from two facts : the names of over 2000 residents 
in Hove stand on the register of borrowers from 
the lending library, and since the last report a 
public library has been opened at Hove ; excep- 
tionally brilliant weather has also favored the 
past spring and summer, and recreation in the 
open air hasprobablv been found superior to the 
recreation of books." 

Leicester (Enjr.) F. L. C. V. Kirkby, the chief 
librarian of the Leicester library, has compiled a 
useful catalog of all books, pamphlets, maps, 
etc., in the library, which in any way relate to 
Leicestershire. The catalog contains upwards 
of 90 closely printed pages. 

Paris. Recent statistics show that the pro- 
portion of novels to serious works read in the 
public libraries of Paris is less than 52 per cent. 
Of 1,583,000 volumes circulated from the district 
library rooms, only 817,000 were novels. Among 
the authors of these, the rank in popularity of 
Alexandre Dumas is first and that of Emile 
Zola eleventh. 


PERFORATING PUNCH. For some time the 
writer has been trying to overcome the obstacles 
to the successful use of the embossing press, by 
making it portable to be used with one hand. 
When this was successfully accomplished it be- 
gan to be apparent that we could do better than 
use an embosser .#., a perforator. On casting 
about to find, if possible, the best check per- 
forating punch, we decided in favor of the Cum- 
mins machine, which is made in Chicago. I 
visited their works and found that while it is not 
practicable to make it a one-hand machine to be 
carried in the pocket yet their No. 6 perforator 
can, with some modification, be made to do 
exactly what is needed in libraries, viz., quickly 
and easily perforate the name of the library in 
title-pages, plates, portraits, and maps, in any 
position wanted, and in such way as not to inter- 
fere with their usefulness to the library, but at 
the same time to make such property unmarket- 
able. The regular No. 6 perforator puts its 
work about one inch from edge of paper, but in 
our use of it we sometimes need to have it several 
inches from the edge. In order to do this it will 
be necessary to have a special pattern made; this 
cannot be done without several orders in ad- 
vance. Some librarians have already expressed 
themselves as ready to co-operate, but it is still 
necessary to hear from others. It will be a 
heavy and nicely finished piece of work, may be 
placed on a table such as a typewriter table and 
worked by a treadle or by hand ; very little power 
being required to operate it; it is not an experi- 
ment, but is already working perfectly; advance 
orders are asked for only because a special pat- 
tern is needed for library use. The cost will be 

February, '94] 


$25 with any matter desired in two, three, or four 

Its advantages are : First, perfect protection, 
as perforations cannot be erased or filled up ; 
second, it can be placed in any position desired 
within say five inches from edge of paper ; 
third, it leaves the pages perfectly smooth and 
does not fill up a book as embossing does when 
there are many plates; fourth, it can be operated 
by the foot, leaving both hands free to adjust 
the book; fifth, slight expenditure of strength is 
required ; sixth, it is economical because it can 
be safely operated by cheap help. 


Y. M. C. A. LIBRARY, ( 

Onfts an& JJeqtiests. 

Chicago. University L. It was announced on 
Jan. 2 that J: D. Rockefeller had sent $50,000 
to the University of Chicago Library to be spent 
at once for books. This gift is distinct from the 
$500,000 due after July next. 

" Independence, la. By the will of Perry Munson , 
a pibneer merchant of Independence, who died 
Dec. 30, 1893, $25,000 is bequeathed to the town 
for a public library and museum building. 

Lexington, Mass. Gary L. By the will of the 
late G: W. Robinson, of Lexington, a bequest of 
$1000 is left to the Gary Library. 

Orange, N.J. The will of the late Mrs. Pamela 
A. Butterfield, of Orange, filed on Jan. 18, be- 
queathes to the town of Orange a piece of land 
on the east side of South Main Street for a site 
for a free public library and reading-room, 
provided the town votes to accept it within two 
years and within five years builds upon it a 
suitable brick building; and if the town so com- 
plies $500 is given for the purchase of books for 
the library, provided that no part of the sum be 
expended for works of fiction. If this offer to 
the town is not accepted, the land is to be given 
to the executors in trust, with instructions to 
convey it to any person or association who will 
erect the building and maintain it for a public 
library and reading-room. 


COLE, George Watson, librarian of the Free 
Public Library of Jersey City, N. J. , was mar- 
ried on Saturday, January 20, 1894, to Mrs. 
Laura Ward Roys, at the residence of Mr. and 
Mrs. James H. Rudd, Lyons, N. Y., by Rev. 
Dr. Luther A. Ostrander. The ceremony took 
place at n o'clock in the morning, and was 
very quietly celebrated, only a few of the rela- 
tives and friends of the bride being present. 
Immediately afterwards a wedding breakfast was 
served, after which Mr. and Mrs. Cole took the 
train westward for a short wedding trip. 

Cataloging anb (Classification. 


i, Dec., 1893. 16 p. O. 

A supplement to the finding-list issued in 1892, 
recording the 900 volumes added to the library 
since that time ; a classed author-list. 

Baltimore, ENOCH PRATT F. L. Finding-list of 
books and periodicals in the branch libraries. 
Bait., Jan., 1894. 8+132 p. O. pap. 15 c. 
A condensed catalog of the books of the libra- 
ry arranged alphabetically by authors under 19 
prominent subject-headings. Lists of the " Hum- 
boldt library of science," "reference-books and 
bound periodicals," and "current periodicals" 
are appended. There are no title-entries. Printed 
on medium-weight manilla paper. 


Y., 1893. 948 p. O. cl. 

A simple dictionary catalog, compiled under 
the direction of Librarian Perry, by Rev. Albert 
Lee, formerly of Columbia College L., and Mr. 
F. Weitenkampf, of the Astor L. Includes all 
the books in the library about 17,100. A bulky 
volume, but so well bound as to be conveniently 

LOGUE. Pt. 3, Juvenile literature, Jan., 1894. 
38 p. O. pap., 5 c. 

A simple author and title catalog in one alpha- 
bet, printed in bold, clear type on white paper. 

NEWBURYPORT (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin no. 19 
list of books added from Sept. , 1893, to Jan., 
1894. 8 p. O. 

PEORIA (///.) P. L. List in part of books add- 
ed during November and December, 1893. 4 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. BULLETIN for January 
contains an excellent classed and graded special 
reading-list on " Astronomy." 

for December contains a reading-list for a course 
of University Extension lectures on " Our money 
problem," giving a " reading course," list of 
" additional books for collateral reading," " sup- 
plementary list, "and list of " magazine articles." 

Weymouth, Mass., TUFTS LIBRARY. Bulletin no. 
27, Jan. I, 1894. 25 p. O. 
Classified finoing-list ; author-entries only. 

Supplied by Harvard College Library. 

Badt, Francis Beatus, joint author (Derivation 

of practical electrical units); 

Bassett, Fletcher Stewart, editor (The folk-lorist), 
Cleaveland, G: Aaron, joint author (American 


Porter, Edwin H: (The Fall River tragedy); 
West.T: Dyson (American foundry practice). 



[February, '94 


BAKER, W: S. Early sketches of George Wash- 
ington; reprinted with biographical and biblio- 
graphical notes. Phila., J. B. Lippincott Co., 
1894. c. '93. 2-150 p. por. O. cl., $2. 

BALFOUR, H: The evolution of decorative art : 
an essay upon its origin and development as il- 
lustrated by the art of modern races of man- 
kind. N. Y., Macmillan & Co., 1893. 15+ 
131 p. D. cl. , $1.25, net. 
Contains a 3-p. bibliographical appendix. 

BAYE, Jos. de (bartri). The industrial arts of the 
Anglo-Saxons; tr. by T. B. Harbottle. Lond., 
Swan Sonnenschein, 1893. 10+127 p. O. 
cl., $7. 
Gives a list of authorities, 2 p. 

CANNAN, Edwin. A history of the theories of 
production and distribution in English political 
economy from 1776 to 1848. Lond., Percival 
& Co., 1893. 11+410 p. O. cl., i6s. 
Contains a 14-p. index of books and authors 


CATALOGO illustrate della libreria economica 
italiana di Francesco Zanolini in New-York, 
succursale in Italia in Napoli. Firenze, Adri- 
ano Salani, 1894. 2 5& P- 8". 

CATALOGUS Dissertationum Philologicarum 
Classlcarum. Verzeichnis von etwa 18300 
Abhandlungen aus dem Gesamtgebiete der 
klassischen Philologie und Altertumskunde 
zusammengestellt von der Zentralstelle fur 
Dissertationen und Programme von Gustav 
Fock in Leipzig. Leipzig, Fock, 1893. 568 p. 

CLARKE, H: Butler. Spanish literature: an 
elementary handbook. Lond., Swan Sonnen- 
schein, 1893. 12+288 p. O. cl. 
Contains a lo-p. index of authors and list of 


Cox, Marian Roalfe. Cinderella ; 345 variants 
of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap o' rushes, ab- 
stracted and tabulated, with a discussion of 
mediaeval analogies, and notes. Introd. by 
Andrew Lang. (Folk-Lore Society xxi.) 
Lond., David Nutt, 1893. 304+535 p. O. cl. 
Contains a bibliographical index, 8 p. 

GERARD, Frances A. Angelica Kauffmann:a 
biography. N. Y., Macmillan & Co., 1893- 
27+466 p. O. cl. 
P. 448 gives a list of authorities consulted. 

HOLLANDER, J. H. The Cincinnati Southern 

Railway: a study in municipal activity. Bait., 
The Johns Hopkins Press, 1894. c. 116 p. 
O. (Johns Hopkins Univ. studies, nos. 1-2.) 
pap., $i. 

Contains a brief bibliography of the Cincin- 
nati Southern Railway, 3 p. 

JACOBS, H: Eyster. A history of the evangeli- 
cal Lutheran church in the U. S. N. Y., 
Christian Literature Co., 1893. 16+539 p. 
Contains an 8-p. bibliography. 

KELTIE, J: Scott. The partition of Africa. 
Lond., Edward Stanford, 1893. 15+498 p. 
Contains 8-p. list of works consulted. 

REARDEN, Tim. H. Petrarch, and other essays. 
San Francisco, W. Doxey, 1893. c. '93. 16+ 
201 p. D. cl. II.SQ. 
Contains a Petrarch bibliography, 6 p. 

The REGENTS BULLETIN (University of the 
State of N. Y.) no. 22, September, 1893, contains 
on p. 280 - 293 an excellent list of " references 
to books and articles on the world's recent prog- 
ress in education," arranged by countries and 
recording 227 titles. 

RYLAND, F: Ethics : an introductory manual 
for the use of university students. Lond. 
Bell & Sons, 1893. 10+220 p. O. cl. 
Contains a 12-p. list of books recommended. 

SALT, H. S. Richard Jefferies: a study. N. 
Y., Macmillan & Co., 1894. 3+128 p. por. 
S. cl. , 90 c. 

Contains an 8-p. bibliographical appendix. 
SEIDENSTICKER, Oswald. The first century of 
German printing in America, 1728 - 1830, pre- 
ceded by a notice of the literary work of F. D. 
Pastorius. Phil., Schaefer & Koradi, 1893. 
10+254 p. O. pap., $i. 

A valuable and exhaustive bibliography of 
early German printing in America, published for 
the German Pionier-Verein, of Philadelphia. It 
is preceded by a list of the printed writings of 
Franz Daniel Pastorius, embracing six titles and 
including " Pastorius' primer," published in 
Philadelphia in 1700, and thought to be the first 
Pennsylvania school-book. A list of the printers 
and publishers of German books from 1728 - 1830 
is also given. In order to give fully the print- 
ing record of the older printers, their English 
publications have been included ; but special care 
has been taken to exclude books published abroad 
with a false Pennsylvania imprint. In the case 
of older and rarer books the libraries where they 
may be found have been indicated. 

WALKER, T: Alfred. The science of inter- 
national law. Lond., C. J. Clay & Sons, 1893. 

[17+] 544 P- O- cl. 

Contains a lo-p. list of books referred to or 

February, '94] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL 73 


Paris Agency for American Libraries, 




French and Continental Books purchased at the lowest terms. 

Orders carefully executed for out-of-print and new books. 

Binding for books in constant use a specialty of the firm. 

Estimates given on application on all orders. 

The "Catalogue de la Librairie Franchise" mailed free monthly as well as catalogues of 
second-hand bookdealers of every locality. 

Auction sales orders attended to, also orders for private libraries offered en bloc before auction. 

Mr. Em. Terquem, being the appointed agent in Paris of many libraries, colleges, and universi- 
ties, can furnish references in almost every city in the United States. 

Correspondence and trial orders solicited. Small or large shipments every week either direct 
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Agents by appointment to many of the largest American and Foreign 

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Terms on direct application for the supply of Foreign and American Books and Periodicals. 

Weekly shipments by the fleetest steamers from England, Germany, and France. Periodicals 
supplied at lower rates than mail copies and in better shape for binding. 

Rare Books and Sets of Serials procured at the lowest terms. Regular connections with 
Central and South America and all Oriental countries. 

Binding done here and abroad in every style. 

Auction Sales attended to. 

The Catalogues of Foreign Dealers English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish fur- 
nished on application. 

Monthly Bulletins of New Books issued regularly. 

With the help of a most complete Bibliographical Outfit in all languages and on all subjects, 
and the experience of many years in this particular line, estimates can be furnished promptly and 
information given on topics of interest to Librarians. 



[February, '94 

THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., 23, 25, 27 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 

Have best facilities for supplying to libraries 


and with great promptness. Constantly in stock one of the largest collections of American pub- 
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ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN publications imported free of duty at lowest prices. 

Catalogue of scarce and out-of print books issued frequently and mailed free to those desiring 

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Repairing and Re-backing of Old Book 
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Specimens of our work may be seen at the COLUMBIA COL" 
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February, '94] 




Book-Stack and Shelving for Libraries, 



Louisville, Ky., and Chicago, HI. 

This book-stack is of iron and fulfils all the requirements of the 
modern library, 
i . Convenience. 

(<z) Access and communication with the stack, as well as with 
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(b) Accommodation of books of all kinds and sizes. 

(c) Arrangement of books variable at will. 

(d) Shelves adjustable, removable, interchangeable, and easily 


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Used for the New Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 


76 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL [February, '94 





Purchasing Agent tor Colleges & Libraries 



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He receives weekly shipments from England, France and Germany, and 
can thereby fill orders in quicker time. 



" Mr. Stechert has for years furnished this Library with most of its periodicals and European books, and has bought for U3 
many thousand volumes. Mr. Stechert's success is due to his constant personal attention to the business, and the reasonable 
terms he is able to offer. I consider a New York agent far preferable to reliance on foreign agents alone." 

Gco. H. BAKER, Librarian of Columbia College, Neva York. 

" Seven years ago, in reorganizing the Columbia College library, I spent much time in trying to discover how to get out 
foreign books and periodicals with the least delay, trouble and expense. The result of the comparison of three methods, viz: 
ordering direct from foreign dealers, ordering through one agent in London, or ordering through one a.ijent in New York showed 
us that it was to our advantage to give Mr. Stechert all our foreign orders, as he delivered in the library in a single package 
and with a single bill at as low cost as we were able with vastly greater trouble, to get a half dozen different packages in differ- 
ent bills from different places. In reorganizing the New York State Library, I opened the whole question anew, and the result 
of the comparison was the same as before, and we find that the library gets most for the time and money expended by taking 
advantage of Mr. Stechert's long experience, and the careful personal attention which he gives to our orders." 

MELVIL DEWEY, Director of ' N. Y. State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

" Mr. G. E. Stechert of New York has served us with fidelity in procuring English, French and German books, both new 
and second hand and also periodicals. His terms are more reasonable than any others that have come to our notice, while he 
has always guarded our interests very carefully. We find it a great convenience to have one agency in New York, represented 
by branches in different European countries." 

Prof. ARTHUR H. PALMER, Librarian of Adelbtrt College, Cleveland, O. 

" Your methods and facilities for doing business, &s I have examined them here as well as at the Leipzig and London ends, 
seem to me admirably progressive and thoroughly live. I deal with you because I judge it for the advantage of this library to 
do so. If I did not, I should not. Up to date I am unable to find a method which is, all things included, so economical of 
time and money as dealing through you." 

ERNEST C. RICHARDSON, Librarian of College of New Jersey, Princeton, If. J. 

" Our_ library committee speaks !n the highest terms of your services. You have not only saved us many dollars, but haw 
ihown an intelligent appreciation of our wants for which we thank you." 

A. 8. COLLINS, Act. Librarian of Reynoldt Library, Rochester^ N. P. 






Economy an& 

VOL. 19. No. 3 

MARCH, 1894 


William Frederick Poole. 
American and English Libraries. 
The Relative Values of Inks. 
Innovations in Library Practice. 

W: I.Fletcher 



INKS FOR LIBRARY USE. Symposium of Scranton^ Public 
Library, H: J. Carr; Union for Christian 
Work Free Library ', Fanny Hull: Brooklyn Li- 
brary, W. A. Bard-well; Y. M.C. A. Library , 
R. B, Poole; Pratt Institute Free Library; Buf- 
falo Library, J. N. Lamed; Boston Athenaum, 
IV. C. Lane; Mercantile Library, St. Louis, 
Horace Kephart 84 


Kephart 86 




William Frederick Poole In Memoriam. 



A " Van Bibber Entertainment." 

Massachusetts Library Club. 

Connecticut Library Association. 

Pennsylvania Library Club. 

Minnesota Library Association. 

Southern California Library Club. 

New York Library Club. 

Chicago Library Club. 

Dziatzko, Beitrage zur Theorie u. Praxis des 
Buch u. Bibliotnekswesens. 

Reyer, Entwicklung u. Organisation der Volks- 

University of the State of New York, io6th Re- 








Prict to Europe, or other countries in the Union, 2<xr. per annum ; tingle numbers, is. 

Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter. 



in anticipation of their removal in May 
to their new building, now offer all the books 
in stock (numbering more than 250,000 vol- 
umes) at very greatly reduced prices. This 

Current American publications, 

Recent English books, 

Fine Paris and London bindings, 

Rare first editions, 

Standard works, 

Art publications, etc., etc. 

Lovers of good books are thus offered a 
most unusual opportunity. Personal in- 
spection is urged, but a partial catalogue will 
be sent on request. 


743-745 Broadway, New York. 

VOL. 19. 

MARCH, 1894. 

No. 3 

WHEN the later generation came Into the 
library calling, about 1876, the three names 
which would recur to most memories as those 
of men then at the head of the profession were 
Poole, Winsor, and Cutter. A half -generation 
of time, filled wiih work of increasing value, 
left that trio unbroken, and it is not until this 
year, 1894, that the profession has to mourn the 
interruption in their work which has come with 
the death of Dr. Poole. He was the senior of the 
three in years and in work, as well as in public 
reputation, and from the beginning to the end 
his work in the library field has been of a wide 
range of value, both to the public and to the pro- 
fession. The tribute to his memory, printed 
elsewhere, comes from one who has been hand 
in hand with him through much of his work, 
and the JOURNAL, as such, can only add to that 
tribute the sad concurrence of the profession 
for which it speaks. R. R. B. 

WE should be loath to add to international 
polemics by treating otherwise than good-na- 
turedly the further comments and criticisms of 
our recent visitor, Mr. Brown, nor did we intend 
in our comment upon his original article to do 
other than " speak up" for American libraries 
in fair counter to some of his conclusions. We 
will therefore only disclaim on the part of 
Americans " contemptuous reference" to Euro- 
pean libraries; nor will we comment on the tone 
of his reply, except to say that doubtless Amer- 
icans as well as English are prone to generalize 
from hasty information and to draw conclusions 
which might not be confirmed by a more full ac- 
quaintance with facts. 

WE can scarcely let the matter pass, how- 
ever, without entering friendly protest against 
Mr. Brown's method of comparison of figures 
of libraries. Witness his first citation: "In 
Boston, during the year 1890-91 (I have no 
later figures), the total use of the libraries 
amounted to 1,715,860, made up of 1,367,924 
book issues and 347,936 visits; total cost, ,33,- 
426, or fourpence halfpenny per head of users. 
In Manchester, during 1891-92, the total use 
amounted to 4,718,986, made up of 1,654,568 
book issues and 3,064,418 visits; total cost 
about ^13,000, or one halfpenny per head of 
users. Boston use per head of population is 
3.80, Manchester 9." This is only another il- 
lustration of how figures can mislead. De- 

ducting reference-room figures, which the 
"news-room" use in England, owing to the 
difference of custom in America and England 
regarding newspapers makes unfair, we have, 
by testing the reports of 1891 for these two li- 
braries, the folio wing figures: circulation, Man- 
chester, 702,000; Boston, 1,715,000; number of 
books in library, Manchester, 206,000; Boston, 
576,000; number of books purchased, Manches- 
ter, 6400; Boston, 25,000. Now, applying Mr. 
Brown's method of deducing results, let us see 
what these figures show. Percentage cost per 
book circulated, Manchester, 9,5; Boston, 9.2. 
Percentage cost per book cared for, Manchester, 
3.1; Boston, 2.7. Percentage cost per book 
purchased, Manchester, 10; Boston, 6.6. Who 
shall say which figures are correct ? Who shall 
say that either library is badly managed ? As a 
matter of fact, we believe both are admirably 
administered. These differences could be mul- 
tiplied to an unlimited degree, but these are suf- 
ficient to question the usefulness of such com- 
parisons. No conclusions can be drawn from 
such comparative library figures, because the 
conditions are so dissimilar as to make any such 
tests radically unfair. Indeed, they are as mis- 
leading generally as the few users of American 
libraries in the deserted months of July and 
August were to Mr. Brown. 

As for the vaunted American contributions to 
library science, of which Mr. Brown demands a 
list, we may have overestimated them. But we 
had supposed the modern card catalog, the dic- 
tionary catalog, the Library Association, mod- 
ern library architecture, periodical indexes, li- 
brary schools, branch library systems, frefcbook 
deliveries, access to shelves, the Rudolpi in- 
dexer, the linotype permanent catalog, the re- 
volving book-shelf, and a few minor improve- 
ments, had been important contributions to 
modern libraries and had helped to make possi- 
ble the present library development the world 
over. And in making this claim, there is no 
wish to depreciate, as Mr. Brown evidently be- 
lieves, either European libraries or librarians. 
What is claimed is that America, practically 
without libraries 50 years ago, has from that 
very poverty been compelled to cope with diffi- 
culties unknown in Europe, and has done this 
so successfully that to-day it has not merely de- 
veloped a great library system and constituency, 



\March, '94 

but has helped to waken European libraries 
from their sleep of many years, and given them 
an Impetus that is among our proudest achieve- 
ments. If they are now surpassing us, so much 
the better. We shall as thankfully accept devel- 
opments and improvements from them as they 
have from us. We are not competing in enmity. 
We are all of the same brotherhood, eager only 
to make libraries as great a need and aid to the 
public as may be. Every European improve- 
ment on American ideas will be welcomed. We 
will revolutionize our methods, if we are but 
shown how. Give us something better, in kind- 
liness or in criticism, and we will adopt it. 

THE question of the relative values of inks, 
as to which a number of librarians are courteous 
enough to record their personal experiences in 
the present issue, is a more important one to 
libraries than is apparent at first thought. On 
the goodness of the ink depends largely the 
permanence of the card catalog, and to a certain 
degree its legibility, for no writer, however ex- 
pert, can do much if the ink does not flow evenly 
and freely. Yet we believe that few libraries 
have systematically tested the various inks in 
the market, and we know of certain catalogs 
where the labor to the investigator is distinctly 
increased by the original poorness of the ink 
used, or by its having faded since written. 
This is probably due more to want of considera- 
tion than to any preference for poor inks, and 
a careful investigation would probably result in 
the adoption of certain inks, and the exclusion 
of all others. Fortunately, in addition to the 
opinions of the various librarians above noticed, 
we have the results of a careful investigation 
made by Mr. Robert T. Swan, Commissioner of 
Public Records in Massachusetts, whose opinion 
is therefore authoritative upon this subject. 

IN 1891 Mr. Swan addressed the following 
questions to 22 manufacturers of inks : 

1. Do you consider it safe to use for a per- 
manent record aniline inks? 

2. Do you consider it safe to use for a 
record logwood inks ? 

3. Do you consider nut-gall and iron inks 
absolutely safe for a permanent record ? 

4. Do you consider carbon ink the only 
permanent ink ? 

To these, as regards aniline inks the answer 
was " no," unanimously, although it was agreed 
that if " aniline black" could be rendered sol- 
uble in water, a permanent aniline ink would 
be obtained. With regard to logwood inks, 

the same opinion prevailed. Of the perma- 
nency of nut-gall and iron inks there was less 
unanimity, and the general concensus seemed 
to be that if properly made, such inks were 
permanent. Most of the manufacturers agreed 
that a carbon ink could not be permanent, be- 
cause of the insolubility of carbon. But 
it was conceded that if a process could be 
discovered by which carbon could be dis- 
solved and still retain its color, no known 
substance would make so permanent an ink. 
More than ordinary care should, however, 
be exercised in the purchase of carbon ink. 
Writing fluids were considered bad, and so also 
the addition of water to ink. Perhaps the most 
important fact brought out was, that an ink 
which flows easily and is free from sediment 
has the least permanence. Almost equally in- 
teresting is the fact that the acid inks, so valua- 
ble for banking and other purposes, where it is 
desired that the writing should eat into the 
paper, so as to prevent all obliteration, are not 
more permanent than others and are of necessity 
destructive of the paper. As to the dangers 
lurking for the librarian in this matter, it is 
sufficient to state that of 67 inks submitted by 
Mr. Swan for chemical analysis, all but 17 were 
found unsuitable for records. It is worth stating 
that the English government, which has care- 
fully studied this subject, insists positively, in 
all tenders for ink made to it, that they shall be 
based on galls and sulphate of iron. 

THE report of the last meeting of the Massa- 
chusetts Library Club, given elsewhere, pos- 
sesses unusual interest as making public the 
first definite statement regarding the proposed 
administration of the Boston Public Library in 
its new home. The plans outlined at the club 
meeting, by Mr. S. A. B. Abbott, president of 
the Board of Trustees, are suggestive of radica 
departures from accepted methods of library 
administration. Such innovations as the with- 
drawal of the catalog from direct public use 
and the adoption of the tray system, combined 
with the hinging of the cards, so as to form a 
semi book-catalog, are of prime importance, 
while the many mechanical devices which will 
be used to save time and labor are worthy of 
careful consideration. There is little doubt 
that if the methods outlined by President Ab- 
bott are fully developed and put in operation, 
the administration of the Boston Public Li- 
brary, when established in its new quarters, 
will involve features of distinct originality and 
interest in the field of library science. 

March, '94] 



BY WILLIAM I. FLETCHER, Librarian of Amherst College. 

THE death of Dr. Poole is the severest blow 
that has fallen upon American librarianship 
since it has been recognized as a distinct calling. 
He in fact did more than any other one man to 
give it this character, and it is eminently fitting 
that his life and work should be reviewed as 
a contribution to the great library movement 
of this century, and to its literary history as 
well. . 

William Frederick Poole was born at Salem, 
Massachusetts, December 24, 1821, and died at 
Evanston, 111., March i, 1894. The family 
was of the old New England stock, descended 
from John Poole, who was, in 1635, the leading 
proprietor of Reading, Massachusetts, which 
was named for the English town from which he 
came. William was the second son of Ward 
Poole, who married Eliza Wilder, of Keene, N. 
H., and carried on the leather and tanning 
business in Salem. There were five other sons 
and one daughter. The third son, Henry Ward 
Poole (A.M. Yale College), was a man of con- 
siderable note as professor in the National Col- 
lege of Mines in the City of Mexico, and as a 
writer on the abstruse mathematical laws of 
musical sounds, contributing extensively to the 
knowledge of the subject as presented in A. J. 
Ellis's translation of Helmholtz's " Sensations 
of tone." William's early education was had 
in the common schools of Danvers, to which 
town the portion of Salem in which he was born 
had been set off. Between the ages of 12 and 
17 his studies were interrupted and he tried his 
hand, first at the jeweler's business, then at his 
father's trade of tanning. The knowledge of 
leathers he then obtained stood him in good 
stead in later years in its bearing upon book- 
bindings, in regard to which he was an expert. 
When he was 17 he resumed study in good 
earnest, and in 1842 entered Yale College. After 
one year he found it necessary to provide means 
for the continuance of his studies, and engaged 
in teaching for three years, then returned to 
college, and graduated with the class of 1849. 
Being fond of books and older than most of his 
associates in college, he quite naturally became 
assistant librarian, and then librarian of his 
college society, the " Brothers in Unity," which 
had an exceptionally good collection of books, 
numbering nearly 10,000 volumes. Observing, 

* The best and latest available portrait of Dr. Poole 
was published in the JOURNAL in August, 1887 (L. j., 12 : 

after a short time in the library, that the excel- 
lent sets of reviews and magazines were almost 
unused, and that, on the other hand, they con- 
tained a great amount of exceedingly valuable 
literary material, he was led to undertake the 
compilation of a simple index to their contents 
for use in the library. For a college student 
this meant hard work done mostly late at night, 
but he was never a man to shrink from work, 
and the index was soon done. It proved so 
very useful that he was urged to publish it, and 
this he did in 1848, while in his junior year. A 
copy of this first edition is before the writer. It 
is a small octavo of 154 pages, the compiler's 
name modestly omitted from the title-page. The 
number of volumes indexed was 560. A note 
appended to the preface promises an enlarged 
edition if a demand should appear, and says 
" the need of such a work is evident from the 
fact, that no sooner was the publication of this 
work announced, than orders from abroad ex- 
ceeded the whole edition." 

Dr. Poole remained in New Haven for some 
months after graduation, engaged in his library 
work. In 1851 he became assistant librarian 
(Charles Folsom being the librarian) of the 
Boston Athenaeum, and in the following year 
was made librarian of the Mercantile Library 
of that city a flourishing institution subse- 
quently merged in the Boston Public Library. 
In 1853 Dr. Poole brought out the second edi- 
tion of his Index, enlarged to 521 double-col- 
umn pages, and indexing nearly 1500 volumes. 
In the same year he attended in New York the 
first gathering of librarians ever held in the 
world. Dr. Poole did not outlive all the other 
members of this conference, but it has been 
true for some time past that he was the only 
one continuing in library work. Edward 
Everett Hale and Dr. Henry Barnard, of Hart- 
ford, are perhaps the only survivors of those 
who then assembled. 

During Dr. Poole's four years at the Mercan- 
tile Library he made a complete catalog of the 
books, and had it printed in the " title-a-line" 
style, which has been accepted as a type in mul- 
titudes of other libraries. In 1856 he returned 
to the Boston Athenaeum as librarian, where he 
remained for nearly 13 years. The Athenaeum 
library was then the largest library in Boston, 
and one of the principal ones in the country. 
He re-classified the library, and with the as- 
sistance of Mr. Charles Russell Lowell (a broth- 



[March, '94 

er of the poet) made a complete catalog, which 
was printed in five large volumes soon after 
he left the Athenaeum. Engaging for a year 
in the work of a library expert, organizing li- 
braries in St. Johnsbury, Vt., Easthampton, 
Mass., Waterbury, Ct., and Cincinnati, he 
accepted the position of librarian of the public 
library at the latter place in 1869, remaining 
there until 1873, when he was called to take 
charge of the nascent public library of Chicago. 
His fine executive abilities found full scope in 
the organizing and building'up of this great 
institution, which soon became only second to 
the Boston library in popularity and usefulness. 
Fourteen years were given to this work, at the 
end of which time Dr. Poole assumed a task 
of a different sort in the librarianship of the 
Newberry Library of reference. This institu- 
tion, founded by a bequest of nearly $3,000,000 
from Mr. Walter L. Newberry, presented the 
best opportunity yet offered in this country for 
the building up of a fine reference library, and 
for this work Dr. Poole was no less qualified 
than for the popular work of the public li- 
brary. His tastes were essentially scholarly, 
and no pursuit was so congenial to him as the 
collecting of rare and valuable books, unless 
it was making them useful to others. Probably 
no better judge of books and the book market 
in Europe as well as in America could be found 
in the United States, for he was no less a man 
of affairs than a scholar. And his soundness 
of judgment and breadth of knowledge were 
nowhere better exhibited than in his plans for 
the new building of the Newberry Library, 
which will stand as his monument. 

Sharing with other progressive librarians the 
feeling that the modern library requires a dif- 
ferent style of building from what had been 
common, he struck out boldly for himself, and 
in several papers read before the American 
Library Association, notably in one issued in 
1881 as a circular by the U. S. Bureau of Edu- 
cation, he outlined a structure so different from 
what had been known in library architecture, 
that but few were courageous enough to accept 
his views. But gradually they gained adhe- 
rents. Applied first to small libraries, they were 
found to afford great satisfaction, and it was an 
epoch in the history of libraries when the New- 
berry building was planned in accordance with 
his long-cherished views. It may be too early as 
yet to make any conclusive comparison between 
this library and others differently constructed. 
But it is safe to predict that the result will be a 

triumph of the principal ideas cherished by Dr. 
Poole; which were that a library building should 
combine these qualities: large capacity in pro- 
portion to cost; safety for the books from fire 
and from injury by overheat and gases; good 
light in all parts; readiness of access for the 
reader and facilities for the use of books in situ; 
ample work-rooms for cataloging and arrang- 
ing the books; absolute quiet in all parts where 
reading and study are to be conducted. 

If Dr. Poole's labors in this department alone 
of library work shall result in introducing a style 
of building which meets these requirements, he 
need have no other claim on the gratitude of the 
literary world. 

But after all, Dr. Poole's chief claim for rec- 
ognition as a benefactor of the race will rest on 
his Index to Periodical Literature, already re- 
ferred to. As a result of urgent demands for 
a later edition of the Index, which was then 
23 years behind the times (and was still 
said to be the most useful single volume in 
many libraries), Dr. Poole in 1876 formed a 
plan for a co-operative method of continuing it. 
Over 50 librarians readily accepted a share in 
the work which however was, even so, a great 
undertaking, and it was not until 1882 that the 
third edition of the Index appeared, the present 
writer having a share in the work of digesting 
and editing the material. This was a royal oc- 
tavo volume of 1442 pages, and indexed 6205 
volumes 12 times as many as the first edi- 
tion, and four times as many as the second. 
With its two "five-year" supplements, issued 
in 1887 and 1892, this Index has assumed the 
proportions of a monumental work, and will 
keep the name of "Poole "on the tongues of 
library patrons for generations to come. 

But in many other ways did Dr. Poole make 
an impression on the library work of the coun- 
try. Recognized as a leading authority on all 
library matters, he was constantly consulted 
and his advice as constantly taken in the es- 
tablishment of libraries. He contributed sev- 
eial papers to the Report on Public Libraries 
issued by the U. S. Bureau of Education in 
1876, one of which on the " Organization and 
management of public libraries" has been 
used extensively as the only available practical 
manual of library work. The methods he ad- 
vocated were always of the simplest and at the 
same time most effective. It may be that for 
the time to come more elaborate and com- 
plicated library "machinery" will seem to be 
needed than commended itself to his judgment; 

March, '94] 


but he was the man for his time and his meth- 
ods just those required in the early growth of the 
public library as an institution. His influence 
for simple and direct ways of doing library work 
will long endure as a check to the needless 
elaboration and red-tape to which many admin- 
istrators tend. He was an exponent of the 
most sane and sound views as to the functions 
of the public library and its relation to the 
community. While in Cincinnati, he was en- 
gaged in a newspaper controversy with an ed- 
itor who attacked the public library as a piece 
of "state interference" with the rights of in- 
dividuals. Dr. Poole's replies to the theoretical 
vaporings of his opponent about the proper 
functions of government, fairly blew them away, 
and ought to be preserved as admirably laying 
the basis in sound reason and statecraft for the 
free public library. 

No less clear and conclusive was his argument 
(LIBRARY JOURNAL, vol. i, pp. 49-51) against 
the exclusion of good fiction from public libra- 
ries, based mainly on the idea that fiction of the 
right sort is the truest kind of literature. But 
space cannot be taken for further enlargement 
upon Dr. Poole's work as a writer and adviser 
on library matters. One who looks over the 
files of this JOURNAL from its beginning, cannot 
fail to be struck with the value and com- 
prehensiveness of his contributions. 

Outside of the library profession Dr. Poole 
occupied a place of no small importance as a 
writer on American history, or rather as a 
critic of American history-writing. It is not 
within the province of this JOURNAL to discuss 
at length Dr. Poole's work in this department. 
A mere list of his writings would go beyond the 
limits of this paper. But it may safely be said 
that few men have done more to establish certain 
important historical data, such as the real 
significance of the witchcraft delusion in its re- 
lation to the New England people and in par- 
ticular to the divines the "true inwardness" 
of the Ordinance of 1787 and the value of the 
claims of Maine to priority of settlement over 
Massachusetts. He always wrote in the in- 
terests of fact and truth as against the ro- 
mancing of historians holding a brief for some 
set of opinions. 

His selection in 1887 as president of the 
American Historical Association bears witness 
to the general recognition of his qualities as an 
historical scholar. 

He received the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws from the Northwestern University in 1882. 

In 1893 he delivered the Phi Beta Kappa address 
at the University on ' ' The university library and 
the university curriculum," making a strong 
plea for university instruction in bibliography. 

He was married Nov. 22, 1854, to Miss Fanny 
M. Gleason, who survives him with four of 
their seven childien, the only living son being 
William Frederick, Jr., a graduate of Yale 
University in 1891, well known as the catcher 
on the famous Yale bail-teams of 1890 and '91, 
and now engaged in law practice. 

It remains to add a few words as to Dr. 
Poole's personality. He was physically a note- 
worthy man, fully six feet in height and well 
proportioned, giving token of the strength and 
endurance which carried him through his enor- 
mous labors. His life was in his work; despite 
the pressure of his regular duties he always had 
evening work on hand in his study, and seldom 
slept before midnight; in which place he was 
happiest, in the library by day or his study by 
night, it would be hard to say. But he was not 
too absorbed in work to be intensely alive to 
the charms of home life and human friendship. 
He was one of the best of companions, enjoying 
either the telling of a good story or the listen- 
ing to one with a heartiness that was infectious. 
And in serious conversation on a great variety 
of subjects he was always happy and interest- 
ing. Toward his subordinates he was kind 
and considerate, getting work from them rather 
by setting an example than by any forcing 
process. His office door was always open to 
visitors, and those who came to him for some 
help in their reading wondered how his time 
could be so at their disposal. 

The writer will be pardoned for a more 
personal word still. Going into service under 
Dr. Poole as a mere boy he learned first to 
respect and honor him, then to love, and in 
the 30 and more years since, drawn together 
as we have been by long associated labors on 
the Index and by mutual personal interest, we 
have become so nearly one in thought and feel- 
ing that to the survivor there is a great blank 
in the universe now that the "good Doctor" 
has gone. The world is the poorer for the loss 
of one whose abilities were so great and whose 
devotion of them to the highest ends in public 
service was so complete and so spontaneous. 
He was a religious man by training and by 
sincere conviction, and we can only think of 
him as having stepped over the line into the 
higher service and the fuller experiences of the 
other world. 


\March t '94 



SATISFACTORY results as to inks depend quite 
a little upon the "personal equation" of the 
individual users, though perhaps not as much 
so as in the case of pens. In counting-room, 
railroad, and library work, in succession since 
1865, I have had occasion to either test or use 
in current service almost every well-reputed 
ink upon the market. Likewise some not so 
well known, together with occasional dabblings 
in concocting them from various "powders" 
and chemicals at first hands. 

Speaking generally, and with reference to 
those best known nowadays, the high-class 
iron-and-gall inks all give good results in re- 
spect to permanence and deepness of color, 
eventually, if not at first writing. Such are 
Arnold's, Barnes', Carter's, Sanford's, Stafford's, 
and Underwood's, etc.; all having a bluish or 
greenish cast at first and changing to a per- 
manent black. (Cobalt and other chemicals are 
used, too, but the essential principles are the 
same as stated.) 

Then there are the so-called black inks, which 
some prefer, purporting to write black at the 
outset and which are not usually so severe up- 
on steel pens as those first spoken of. Barnes", 
Carter's, London Exchequer, and Putnam's, 
are, perhaps, the best makes of that kind. 
They are not commonly prepared for "copy- 
ing " (which is done by adding sugar or gums), 
and sometimes have a tendency to "settle" 
and lose color. They are also apt to remain on 
the surface of the paper written upon rather 
than to sink into the fibre. The latter charac- 
teristic is desirable to some as admitting of 
more ready use of the eraser. 

For the last three years Barnes' national inks 
have been my preference, for the two kinds 
spoken of, and seem to more effectually main- 
tain a uniform excellence and quality than any 
others now at command. I speak more par- 
ticularly of their "writing fluid" and "jet 
black " inks. 

In library work a fluid, rather than a heavy 
or copying ink, is desirable, on the whole ; so 
that the so-called "commercial" or "writing 
fluids" serve excellently for most purposes. 
Inks will naturally thicken by exposure to the 
air (evaporation and chemical changes both 
acting), so that if kept in inkstands of which 
the covers are off or open a good deal a fluid 

ink in daily use gradually becomes heavier. 
That fact can be taken advantage of to some 
satisfaction if one is not too strenuous about 
having the stands cleaned out and replenished 
every day or so. Therefore, by having a fluid 
ink and keeping the reserve stock carefully 
corked up and away from the light one can 
replenish from it the working receptacle as re- 
quired, and so maintain in the latter almost any 
desired degree of consistency. In that way, 
too, the ink can be kept in condition to give one 
good copy under the letter-press and yet not be 
"smeary" upon records or where not press- 

On the whole, therefore, I believe that one 
needs now to have in current daily use but one 
standard ink, and that of the " fluid" or " com- 
bined " quality; and then by judicious manipula- 
tion as suggested, attain the best of results in 
all library work. Such inks do corrode steel 
pens, and one must expect to use a new one 
every day or two, which is not so much the case 
with some of the inks having a carbon or aniline 
basis. But owing to the more readily erasable, 
and fading qualities of the latter kinds, there is 
good reason for their general avoidance. 

The colored inks blue, green, red, violet, 
etc. have but a minor value in library work, 
and the less they are employed the better. If 
of an aniline base, as commonly made, giving 
high colors and fading considerably upon ex- 
posure to light, yet inexpensive and of agree- 
able use in the pen, one obtains easy first results 
at a future cost not always realized at the out- 
set. If a red is really deemed necessary, then 
a genuine carmine is best, and can be had in 
many standard makes. 

The prepared India and drawing inks as used 
by architects, draughtsmen, and pen artists, are 
but a high grade of " surface " inks and subject 
to the same general drawbacks as the black inks 
spoken of above. They usually cost much 
more, too, without being better adapted for li- 
brary purposes, materially, than those named. 



FOR ordinary correspondence, book labels, 
etc., we use Barnes' national jet black ink. We 
find it very good, but apt to get muddy after 
standing. For the card catalog, shelf-list and 
accession-book we prefer Underwood's Egyptian 

March, '94] 


black ink. It is a little blue at first, but turns 
in a short time to a jet black, and, as far as I can 
discover, does not fade. We have used it about 
four years. For red ink, we use Carter's crim- 
son, and, as yet, find no fault with it. 



WE used to write with Arnold's writing fluid 
a London ink, which was of a bluish tint at 
first, but turned black a few hours after using. 
This ink would mould after having been opened 
awhile, which seems to be its chief defect, unless 
one prefers an ink that writes black at first. 

Clarke and Maynard's inks have also been 
used with us, but are apt to get thick and muddy, 
owing to a powder used in their manufacture. 

Underwood's inks, made in Brooklyn, have 
been in use here until recently, and are good, 
except that they corrode steel pens very fast. 
A pen lasts about one day when this ink is 

The ink in use at present is made by A. S. 
Barnes & Co., N. Y., and we use the writing 
fluid which flows freely and is of a dark blue 
color at first turning blacker soon after ex- 
posure. It is found to be quite satisfactory, 
and is, on the whole, the best we know of at 
present, It corrodes pens somewhat, but not so 
fast as the Underwood inks, and the fluid is 
less corrosive than the black writing ink. The 
color is permanent. Our card catalog is written 
with typewriter, and so does not enter into the 
ink discussion. There are drawbacks in the 
case of every ink in use but I think the 
Barnes' national writing fluid suits our use 
better than any other at present. At one time 
we bought a dozen quarts of David's writing ink, 
but it proved so poor it was returned. This ink 
is sometimes quite satisfactory, but in the in- 
stance mentioned it was decidedly not so. 



1. WE have used in the past Arnold's ink, 
Carter's, encre a copier, B, Paris. I do not 
definitely recall others. 

2. Are using at present for correspondence, 
Underwood's Egyptian black ink, and for cata- 
loging, encre & copier. 

3. The French ink, used for the catalog, has 
considerable body, and produces a bolder letter. 
It is of a brownish color when first applied, but 
grows darker. It has a tendency to spot, 
probably from its greater thickness. The quali- 

ty is not always the same. Notwithstanding its 
drawbacks we have continued its use, as it 
causes letters and words to stand out with dis- 
tinctness. Underwood's Egyptian fluid gives 
us satisfaction for correspondence. Automatic 
ink of various colors is used for shading letters 
for bulletins, purple. R. B. POOLE. 

WE have used Stephens' blue black writing 
fluid so long that I have forgotten what we had 
before, except in a general way that we tried 
several kinds that we did not like so well. I 
think that one of our assistants heard of it 
through an insurance company here. 


THE inks in use in our library have been used 
for some time. We have not experimented very 
much in this line, having been fortunate enough 
to secure at once those inks which seemed to 
us to have the most desirable qualities : 

1. Carter's writing fluid and Carter's kcal 
black; colored inks used : Stafford's carmine 
and Thaddeus Davids Co.'s blue ink. 

2. Carter's writing fluid for catalogs and 
the koal black for book labels, printing, and 
correspondence ; colored inks used in catalogs, 
shelf-lists, etc. 

3. We have used these inks for the past six 
years, and see no reason for making any change, 
except in the case of the blue. Carter's writing 
fluid flows easily, and the special advantage of 
this ink is that the older the writing grows the 
blacker it becomes. The objection offered by 
some who have used this ink is that it is too 
faint when first used they prefer to use an ink 
which is jet black at first. Of the colored inks, 
we would say that the carmine has proved itself 
perfectly satisfactory, being a bright red when 
first used, and retaining its color very well in- 
deed. We cannot speak very highly of the 
blue ink, and even now think of trying Staf- 
ford's blue. Carter's koal black makes a bet- 
ter press-copy, we find, than the regular copy- 
ing ink, especially if the pen is one on which 
the ink has always been allowed to dry without 


I HAVE tried many kinds of ink, and am as 
far from settling the questions between them in 
my own mind as I was at the beginning. There 
is no ink that satisfies me. I want a black ink 
with qualities otherwise of the aniline violet, 



[March, '94 

and It seems to be a chemical impossibility. 
Perhaps Carter's " koal black" comes nearest 
to it, but it is not very near. 

We have used Thomas' black ink more than 
any other on our catalog cards, and it seems 
to be a lasting ink. Cards written 13 or 14 
years ago are unchanged. 



WE are using Carter's koal black, but al- 
though it is an agreeable ink to use, I am afraid 
it is not one that ought to be employed for li- 
brary use, and I want to make a change. I 
have not myself noticed that it fades, but I 
judge from a very interesting " Report on 
record inks and paper," made by the Massachu- 
setts Commissioner on Public Records, in 1891, 
that inasmuch as it contains nigrosine, it is not 
a safe ink to use. This report, by the way, 
will be found of considerable value, and perhaps 
sums up all that it is desired to discuss in the 

I HAVE yet to find a perfectly satisfactory ink. 
Those made from galls and sulphate of iron are 
pale when first written, but dry blacker than 
any other inks. They are reasonably perma- 
nent, but usually turn brown in time. As they 
consist of very minute but insoluble particles 
mechanically held in suspension by a gummy 
liquid, they do not and cannot flow as smoothly 
as might be desired. But, on the whole, I pre- 
fer Arnold's writing fluid to any other ink for 
every-day use. The logwood inks flow beauti- 
fully, as they are true solutions, and are quite 
black at first, but they dry to a dirty brown and 

are not permanent. The only ink that can be 
relied upon to last forever is that made of car 
bon, and the best of all carbon inks is Higgins'. 
Its chief fault is that its menstruum evaporates 
very quickly on the pen or in the bottle. I use 
it only for important documents, where speed of 
writing is of less consequence than unalterabil- 
ity of the thing written. It cannot be mixed 
with other inks, and I may as well say here 
that mixed inks are always failures. There is 
an interesting footnote on the subject of inks in 
Fumagalli's Catalog hi di biblioteche, p. 114. In a 
specimen of calligraphy dated 1690 (codex Ric- 
cardiana, no. 698), Fumagalli found a receipt 
for making the ink with which the ms. itself 
was written. It runs as follows : 

" Strong white wine 30 parts by weight. 

Small Istrian galls 3 " " " 

Roman vitriol [sulphate of iron] ... 2 " " " 

Gum arable i " " " 

Crush the galls into small pieces. Put the wine in an 
earthenware jar, add the galls, and place in the sun for 15 
days, keeping the jar well closed, and stirring up the con- 
tents every day. After filtering and throwing out the 
galls, add the vitriol and gum, previously ground [in a 
mortar], and again set the jar in the sun or a warm place 
for 15 days, stirring occasionally. It is then ready for 
use, and should be kept in a cool place." 

The ms. written with this ink "preserves a 
marvellous ebony blackness after the lapse of 
two centuries." 

I have never tried this formula. Vinegar or 
acetic acid is often used in galls-and-iron inks 
to make them more fluid by partially dissolving 
the ferroso-ferric-gallate, but I should think 
that an ink so strongly acid as the above could 
only be used with quill or gold pens. 



BY HORACE KEPHART, Librarian of St. Louis Mercantile Library. 

FOR nearly 40 years our library has de- 
pended entirely upon the honesty of its staff for 
the proper turning-in of petty receipts at the 
issue-desk. I regret to say, however, that the 
conduct of one of our oldest employees has at 
last compelled us to adopt more ' ' business-like " 

As soon as it was found necessary to change 
our former custom, I set at work to devise some 
way of registering petty receipts which would 
be simple, inconspicuous, quickly worked, and 
difficult to tamper with. There are five persons 

who handle money at the desk, and it was not 
practicable to reduce this number. 

A mechanical cash-register would look almost 
as badly in a library as in a church, and I could 
think of no good way out of the difficulty un- 
til a friend engaged in the transfer business 
showed me an expedient. The men who are 
employed to go through incoming trains and 
check baggage must work very rapidly, and it 
was the exigency of this service that developed 
the "duplicate-receipt" system, which I have 
modified to suit our needs. It works admirably, 

March, '94] 


and I offer the following description for the 
benefit of other librarians. 

The cut shows a pair of the duplicate receipts 
opened out: 

deposits the duplicate in his cash-drawer with the 
money. In the evening he turns over his cash 
and receipts to the actuary, who enters the 
numbers of the receipts in a book opposite 











1 | 2 3 







10 1 1 1 







18 19 | 








1 27 





^ m 






























5 10 


20 25 






55 60 





85 < 

)0 95 



5 10 















85 S 




























To be returned to Actuary, with Report. 


18 19 





| 24 





I 29 1 30 



2 3 | 








1 1 

1 l2 

1 13 1 14 














They are bound up in even hundreds, each 
hundred pair forming a volume 5^ x 2\ x ^ 
inches, with tough flexible covers, opening at 
the end like a memorandum-book. 

Each pair of receipts is folded at their junc- 
tion in such a way that a conductor's punch 
will punch the same item in each simultaneously. 
A book of receipts and a punch are given to 
each attendant who collects money, the receipts 
being charged to him by their numbers. The 
punches are 'all different, of course. Members 
are notified by placards to demand receipts for 
all payments, however small. 

When a payment is made the attendant tears 
a pair of receipts from his book (they are perfor- 
ated somewhat like postage stamps), punches 
date, item, and amount, tears the receipts 
apart, hands the tinted one to the member and 

the attendant's name, with the amounts clas- 
sified as they are punched, and preserves the 
duplicate receipts. The issue clerks are not 
bothered with any writing, much less book- 
keeping, and yet our petty revenue is always 

There is no arrangement of mechanical 
checks that cannot be evaded, but the dupli- 
cate-receipt system cannot be tampered with 
many times without detection. All of our as- 
sistants are glad of this innovation, as it serves 
as proof of each man's honesty. To show what 
a leakage there may be from a library's revenue 
from petty sources it is enough to say that our 
desk receipts for fines, extras, etc., never ex- 
ceeded $87 a month from January to November, 
1893, while in December (the thief was dis- 
charged late in November) they ran up to $152. 



[March, '94 


MR. JAMES D. BROWN, librarian of the Clerk- 
enwell (London) Public Library, one of the 
few English librarians who attended the World's 
Congress of Librarians in Chicago last July, 
presented to his commissioners on his return a 
report on his visit to American libraries. This 
was reprinted in the JOURNAL for October, 1893, 
under the heading "An Englishman on American 
libraries," and at the same time brief editorial 
comment was made on the points chiefly em- 
phasized in the report. This comment, how- 
ever, seems to have been taken more seriously 
by Mr. Brown than its nature would appear 
to warrant. In a recent issue of The Library 
he makes the following " reply " to "American 
criticism ": 

"The extract from the LIBRARY JOURNAL for 
October, commenting on my very moderate 
statements regarding American libraries, shows 
that our brethren across the Atlantic are not yet 
accustomed to anything but flattery of their edu- 
cational institutions. For a long series of years 
American libraries and methods have been al- 
lowed to occupy without question the foremost 
place, while the statements of American librarians 
touching the unexampled work accomplished by 
them have been accepted all over Europe without 
challenge. It was, therefore, I must confess, 
somewhat presumptuous for a mere bird of pas- 
sage, like myself, to say anything which savored 
in the least degree of criticism. Hitherto it has 
been the other way about, and for the past 
17 years British and European libraries gen- 
erally have been subjected to dissection, and 
oftentimes contemptuous reference by nearly 
every American who has done the usual three 
months' trip across the Atlantic. These experts 
visit one or two of the older libraries which are 
consecrated to special, and, it may be, somewhat 
narrow spheres of work, and without pausing to 
consider whether these are typical of modern li- 
brary methods, or even well adapted to their 
purpose, forthwith proceed to measure the whole 
library system of the country by the standard 
selected. Had my observations been made in a 
similar happy-go-lucky manner, I should have 
compared the Astor Library at New York with 
the British Museum and the Mitchell Library of 
Glasgow, ignoring altogether the active and 
splendid libraries of Baltimore, Albany, and 
Philadelphia. Incredible as it may appear, the 
fact remains, that the average American librarian 
measures library work in Britain by the standard 
attained about 1877, leaving out of consideration 
the splendidly progressive achievements in Lon- 
don and all over the country during the past six- 
teen years. At Chicago, I listened with amaze- 
ment to a paper by Mr. C. A. Cutter, modestly 
entitled ' The note of the American library.' 
But it was not a mere note, it was rather a com- 
plete sequence, played fortissimo on the ophi- 
cleide with all the verve and power of an accom- 
plished performer ! According to Mr. Cutter the 
Old World occupies a very humble position in- 
deed, in all matters pertaining to library economy ; 
and I am not at all sure if he did not hint that 

English librarians in particular despised any sort 
of mechanical labor-saving contrivance, or in 
other words, preferred to use their fingers instead 
of a steam dredger to pick up pins ! The labor- 
saving idea has attained to the dignity of a feiich 
in the United States, and in some instances is 
actually pursued at a sacrifice of time and money. 
This, Mr. Cutter and others seem to regard as 
the highest point of perfection to which librarian- 
ship can rise, and they are constantly making 
complacent allusions to the American dexterity 
in tying knots on taut strings. All this may 
seem to have but an indirect bearing on the com- 
ments which the editor of the LIBRARY JOURNAL 
has been good enough to make on my report to 
the Clerkenwell Library Commissioners, but it 
is necessary to make quite clear the fact that 
Americans will not readily admit good qualities 
in anything which is not thought to be of Amer- 
ican origin ; and that, in spite of the neatly 
wrapped sarcasm, is the ' Note ' of the editorial 

" In one respect the writer certainly misrepre- 
sents me. I do not assert in my report that 
American libraries are doing work inferior to 
what is being done here. Indeed, I am unable 
to grasp the idea that where identical work is 
being done in different places, the question of 
inferiority can be raised at all. What I did say, 
and now repeat, is that British library work is 
as good as that of America, while more of it is 
done at half the cost. It is true we write and 
print much less about our work, and undeniable 
that we do not possess the pushing methods be- 
loved of most Americans, but none the less our 
work is done. I trust it will not be offensive to 
Mr. Cutter and those who hold with him that 
British librarianship is of a contemptible order, 
if I also add that our work is done in a thor- 
oughly democratic and satisfactory manner. 
Statistics are generally considered misleading, 
especially when they tell against you, and I fear 
I shall reap but little advantage from the trouble 
I have taken to compile a few figures in response 
to the American editor's suggestion that a few 
facts might prove more edifying than bare asser- 
tions. Those who place unbounded reliance on 
library statistics will naturally put their own 
construction on the figures supplied, as will 
those who deny the power of such statistics to 
prove anything. As regards comparative cost 
and use : Instead of saying that the American 
libraries cost nearly twice as much to work, I 
should have said they cost more than twice as 
much. Chicago spends over ^10,000 per annum 
on salaries alone, while Boston spends over 
ji8,ooo on the same item. A similar extrava- 
gant scale of expenditure distinguishes every 
other head of outlay, and I question if the pro- 
tective tariff is alone responsible. There is such 
a possibility as paying too much for a good thing, 
and I have the idea that if the American people 
are not paying too much for the upkeep of their 
libraries, they are certainly paying more than 
enough for the use made of them. Witness In 
Boston, during the year 1890-91 (I have no later 
figures), the total use of the libraries amounted 
to 1,715,860, made up of 1,367,924 book issues 
and 347,936 visits ; total cost ^33,426, or four- 

March, '94] 



pence halfpenny per head of users. In Man- 
chester, during 1891-92, the total use amounted 
to 4,718,986, made up of 1,654,568 book issues 
and 3,064,418 visits ; total cost about .13.000, or 
one halfpenny per head of users. Boston use pe: 
head of population is 3.80, Manchester 9. Again 
Chicago with a population of say 2,000,000, spends 
3 1,000 for a total use of its libraries amounting to 
2 094,094 ; while Birmingham with a population 
of only 429,171, spends 10,000 for a total use 
amounting to over 3,000,000 per annum. The 
British cities of Liverpool, Manchester, Birming 
ham, Leeds, Sheffield, Edinburgh, and Bradforc 
are nearest to the American ones of Chicago 
Boston, San Francisco, Cincinnati, Cleveland 
Detroit, and Milwaukee as regards population 
and the provision of public libraries supportec 
by the citizens. The seven British cities aggre- 
gate in round numbers 2,600,000 inhabitants 
6,376,000 book issues, and 11,116,000 visits, 
making a total library use of 17,400,000 per an- 
num, at a cost of '.54,000. The seven Amer- 
ican cities have 2,800000 inhabitants, 4,092,000 
book issues, and 3,200,000 visits, making a total 
library use of 7,300,000 per annum. Chicago, 
Boston, and Cleveland alone cost over 74,000. 
I have no figures for the other four cities, but 
assume the total annual cost of these seven 
American libraries does not fall far short ol 

" These figures afford a certain measure of 
proof in support of the statements made in my 
report, and I may add that the very aspect of 
the libraries which I visited was enough to con- 
firm what may be ascertained by any one who 
cares to compare the published reports of British 
and American libraries. I was told that the real 
work of American libraries was done in the West, 
at least west of Chicago, where I was not going. 
No doubt the continual busy movement and 
bustle of the average English library, which I 
missed in the East, were to be found somewhere 
among the prairies or on the Pacific coast. It is 
needless pursuing this inquiry further at present, 
or extending it to the smaller libraries, because 
there is a sufficient amount of resemblance be- 
tween the large and small libraries of a country 
to make it very probable the result would be 
much the same as shown above. 

" Having now supplied a little towards the edi- 
fication of the writer in the LIBRARY JOURNAL, I 
should like in my turn to request some proof of 
the claim that ' Americans have been the fore- 
runners in all library innovations.' We have had 
this claim dinned into our ears for a long time 
now, and it appears to me something in the way 
of substantiation should be attempted. If it is 
the case that the world at large is indebted solely 
or largely to American initiative in library mat- 
ters, why cannot we have a proper account of the 
benefits conferred, in order that the universal 
gratitude may be fittingly expressed? English 
librarians certainly owe, and have already poured 
out, lavish gratitude on the individual labors of 
Messrs. Poole, Cutter, and Dewey, but these 
gentlemen do not represent the peculiar excel- 
lencies of the American library system, whatever 
they are, for which the whole world is expected 
to give thanks. In England, apart from the gen- 

eral adoption of the work of Dr. Poole, and 
a somewhat suspicious philandering with Mr. 
Dewey's decimal system of classification, I am 
not aware of any special features in the admin- 
istration of our libraries which seem to be 
adopted from American models. We are prac- 
tically engaged in solving the same problems, 
and if our methods differ, which they only do to 
a very small extent, that is no good reason why 
the American librarian should claim the whole 
credit attaching to the development of modern 
library administration. If an impartial exami- 
nation were made into the origin of most of the 
so-called American library methods, it would be 
found that many of them were based on European 
models. But even this is a small matter com- 
pared with the fact that, in spite of the most 
elaborate machinery, American libraries with 
great resources cannot reach anything like the 
use which is made of British and German libra- 
ries. And over and above this, is it not the case 
that at least one-half of the readers in American 
libraries are English, Scotch, Irish, German, Po- 
lish, and Scandinavian natives who are not even 
American citizens? If this is so, and I believe 
there are good grounds for supposing it true, 
then the Americans should acknowledge that 
most of their methods and readers, if not every- 
thing else save librarians and salaries, originated 
in the poor, played-out, old world. 

" Before closing this somewhat random note, 
I should like to record a few impressions which 
my visit to the United States created. There is 
always more or less of anxiety to learn what Is 
being done in other countries in matters of pro- 
fessional interest, and the opinions I formed 
during a three weeks' scamper may prove in- 
structive to those British librarians who were 
prevented from visiting the States. Without ex- 
ception the whole of the libraries which I visited 
were exceedingly well stocked with books, and 
wore an aspect of comfort, neatness, and general 
impressiveness which delighted me very much. 
On the other hand, after making every allow- 
ance for the season of the year, I was always 
struck with the same idea of the staff outnum- 
bering the readers. When I left London and 
Liverpool the reading-rooms there were crowded 
with all sorts of readers, while at Boston and all 
over the rest of the area which I travelled, the 
comparatively deserted aspect of most of the li- 
Draries struck me with quite a painful shock. 
The only exceptions to this I found at Chicago 
and in the Cooper Union, New York, in both of 
which places news-rooms on the British plan at- 
ract large numbers of persons for whom no pro- 
vision seems to be made in the average American 
ibrary. If any argument were needed to prove 
hat news-rooms were a vital part of a public li- 
>rary system, the comparatively deserted appear- 
ance of those American libraries which have 
hem not should be more than sufficient. Not 
only did the number of assistants seem very 
arge, but also unnecessarily so, from the circum- 
tance that they do not seem to work on the plan 
f serving through every department. The 
barging assistant does not, as a rule, get the 
looks, while the one who keeps the borrowers' 
egister seems to remain in ignorance of the 

9 o 


\March, '94 

other departments of work ; so on with cata- 
loging, reference work, etc. In one library 
there is actually a clerk whose sole duty it is to 
look after the accessions-book. Is this extreme 
division of work not the main reason for the ex- 
traordinary salary bills with which most Amer- 
ican libraries are overburdened? Miss James 
has already brought forth the fact that women 
librarians are in a majority in the States, but I 
scarcely think she laid sufficient stress on the ad- 
ditional fact that they also did most of the work, 
although the men took most of the credit. I 
should like to take this opportunity of testifying 
to the intelligence and enthusiasm which the 
women bring to their work in American libraries. 
But there is another point which may also be 
worth recording, although I know very few 
Americans will thank me for my candor. The 
majority of the assistants with whom I came in 
contact appear to have only stereotyped notions 
of library work, derived no doubt from the 
method of central education on a uniform plan 
which is one of the glories of the American li- 
brarian. It did not seem to me that so much im- 
portance should be attached to this system of a 
hard-and-fast training in grooves, because there 
is every danger of originality being stifled, and 
all future work becoming purely mechanical, 
thus reducing every department of library work 
to a dead level of mediocre uniformity. Where- 
ever I went the same ideas seemed to be preva- 
lent, and only in a few instances did I meet a 
librarian who could rise above the notion of the 
finality of card catalogs in dictionary form, deci- 
mal or other systems of classification, or the need 
for greater stimulus to public interest. Indeed, 
the last-named point struck me as being mainly 
regarded as a fulcrum on which to raise the 
status of the librarian with the ultimate view of 
increase of salaries. There is a lot of this sort 
of thing hinging on the American claims to have 
elevated librarianship to the dignity of a science. 
The leading idea seems to be : ' Let us systema- 
tize our methods, write and talk constantly 
about them, let us bulk largely in the public eye 
and impress ourselves on the public mind as a 
vital state necessity, and the upshot will be such 
a recognition of our professional and personal 
merits as will enable us to live like capitalists, 
and even run for congress." Another point 
struck me very forcibly, and even without Mr. 
Cutter's paper, should have convinced me that 
British librarianship is judged by archaic stand- 
ards. The most of the library assistants with 
whom I came in contact assumed without ques- 
tion, and as a matter of course, that I knew ab- 
solutely nothing of library work ! Over and over 
again did I receive lucid and lengthy explanations 
of the nature and object of dictionary catalogs, 
the use of card-charging systems, the extraordi- 
nary novelty of card catalogs, and generally of 
every feature of library work, which, by reason 
of my own appointment, I ought to have known. 
I was delighted with the various explanations, 
and wish now I had noted some of them for the 
next text-book I write ; though, as a matter of 
fact, the only real novelty I did see was the 
ubiquitous spittoon, or cuspidor, of whose pres- 
ence you are occasionally reminded, by the pain- 

ful shock of meeting one while crossing a floor ! 
" In conclusion, I should like to express my 
great admiration for the real work which is 
manifestly being done by the rank and file of 
American librarians all over the States. Hard 
work and enthusiasm are abundant everywhere, 
and could the over-pretentiousness of a some- 
what boastful patriotism be slightly repressed, 
the feelings of mere foreigners like myself would 
be less easily chafed. I admire the American 
character for its quaint mixture of poetry and 
utilitarianism, especially as manifested among 
the librarians, whose intense interest for the 
beautiful side of their work, and its admirable 
pecuniary reward recalls to mind a pretty little 
tale which exactly illustrates my meaning. An 
American on seeing the Niagara Falls for the 
first time, broke out with the most rapturous ex- 
clamations : ' What a magnificent vista ! What 
a glorious and majestic wonder ! What a God's 
gift to Columbia ! and What an almighty fine 
mill-driver ! ' " 


THE final examination of the second course of 
the Los Angeles Public Library Training Class 
was held on January 15 and 16. The class is in 
charge of Miss Adelaide R. Hasse, of the library 
staff, and it was composed of four graduates of 
the first course, three of whom had attained an 
average per cent, exceeding 85 in the final exam- 
ination of that course. According to the rules of 
the classes these three were entitled to receive 
$10 per month while taking the second course, 
serving however, four hours daily instead of 
three, the usual number, three hours being de- 
voted to cataloging, and one hour to desk duty. 
The remaining member of the class, not having 
attained the average entitling her to this remu- 
neration, served the usual three hours daily, 
gratuitously, the entire time being devoted to 
cataloging. The greater part of the six months' 
course was spent by the class in practical catalog- 
ing under the supervision of the regular cataloger. 
During the last term, however, the class was en- 
gaged in the preparation of a fiction list, the first 
of a series of special lists, the work upon which 
is to be done mainly by the pupils of the training 
classes. A large part of the compilation of the 
fiction list, editing it for the printer, etc., was 
done by the pupils of the second course under 
the direction of the assistant librarian. 

The final examination questions were as fol- 
lows : 

1. State salient points of difference between 
the Cutter, Dewey, Dziatzko, and the L. A. U. 
K. cataloging rules. 

2. Mention all the cataloging manuals that are 
modifications of Cutter's rules, and mention any 
points on which they differ from Cutter. 

3. Define the author-entry. What are the ob- 
jects of author-entry ? 

4. Give your opinion as to how author-entry 
should differ from subject-entry. Give opinions 
of different authorities and cite catalogs making 

5. How would you proceed to find author's 

March, '94] 


name for anonymous or pseudonymous work ? 
Name and describe authorities used. 

6. How are entries made for a book written 
conjointly by two or more authors? Also for 
authors of different works bound in one volume. 

7. Give arguments for and against entering 
books under pseudonyms. 

8. (a) How would you enter works published 
under initials? 

(V) How would you enter the works of an 
author who changes his name or adds a second 
name or a title ? 

(t) How would you enter "Archibald Camp- 
bell Tail, Bishop of London and afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury ? " 

9. Give the British Museum rule for entering 
foreign names, preceded by a preposition or ar- 
ticle or by both and for entering English sur- 
names of foreign origin. 

10. How would you define an author in the 
widest sense? 

11. Give classed of persons who are entered 
under their forenames. 

12. Give Cutter's rule regarding entry under 
British noblemen. What is the rule established 
by usage ? 

13. Give rule for entry of compound names 
English and foreign and state what distinction 
you would make, if any, between compound 
names that are hyphenated and those that are 
not hyphenated. 

14. Give rules for entry of names preceded by 
prefix : 

a. French. 

b. English. 

c. Other foreign languages. 

15. Define the usage among Latin authors of 
the prenomen, nomen, agnomen and cognomen, 
and give examples ? 

16. Make author entry of the following : 

1. Kept, of Supt. of L. A. Public Schools, 

W. M. Freisne, Supt. 

2. Cleveland's message to the 53d Congress. 

3. Unitarian list of S. S. Literature. 

4. Cleveland Public Library catalog, W. W. 

Brett, comp. 

17. Where would you enter a collection of ex- 
tracts from a periodical ? 

18. What economy may be made in entries for 
a work appearing in a number of editions; as a 
single play of Shakespeare ? 

19. Do you consider subject word entry an ad- 
vantage ? Define subject-entry. 

20. Do you consider double subject-entry ex- 
pedient? What substitute for double entry is 
sometimes used ? Mention catalogs using each. 

21. Explain two different methods of arrange- 
ment employed in classed catalogs. 

22. (a) Define references aud explain their use 
in the dictionary catalog. Define cross-refer- 
ence. Define specific reference. 

(b) Explain difference between " See " and 
" See also " references. 

23. () Define form-entry, giving its objects. 
(b) What form-entries are made in the cata- 
log of this library ? 

24. (a) Define imprint: what value do you at- 
tach to it; and on which cards do you consider its 
various items of the most importance ? 

(b) Cite an instance of a full bibliographical 
imprint, and state which imprint facts you 
would eliminate from the above; ist, for a 
medium entry, and 2d fora short entry. 

25. Arrange the following : 

Hale, E. E., ed. Lights of two centuries. 
" " Back to back. 

" " Xmas eve and Xmas day. 

" " , and Susan. Family flight around 

" " . Rideing, W. H. (In his " Boyhood 

of living authors.") 
" " . My double and how he undid me. 

(In Modern classics, pp. 

i - 20.) 
" " . Haley, G. Life of Edw. Everett 

" " , and E. E., jr. Franklin in France. 

26. Arrange, capitalize, and punctuate au- 
thor and subject cards for the following title- 

(a) A race with the sun or a sixteen months 
tour from Chicago round the world by Carter 
H. Harrison with illustrations. New York. 
1889. (D). 

(b) Hayti or the black republic by Spencer 
St. John second edition Lond. 1889. (D). 

(c) Dictionary of phrase and fable giving the 
derivation and source of words having a tale 
to tell by Rev. E. C. Brewer twentieth edition 
revised and corrected to which is added a con- 
cise bibliography of English literature. Lon- 
don. (O). 

27. Describe the Peabody Institute catalog. 

28. Mention and give chief points of value of 
a good subject catalog. 

29. What are the principal library bulletins 
making a specialty of bibliographies ? 

30. What bibliographical dictionaries do you 
consider most useful in cataloging? Mention a 
French and a German biographical dictionary. 

31. Describe the A. L. A. Index to general liter- 
ature. What criticism has been passed upon 

32. (a) What importance is attached to au- 
thor's name in a fiction catalog ? Cite a recent 
high authority opposing such entry ? 

(3) Describe three useful yet essentially dif- 
ferent fiction lists ? 

33-45. Catalog the following books according 
to dictionary cataloging rules : 

Palmer, The Qur'an. 

Lane-Poole, Studies in the mosque. 

Rhys, Studies in the Arthurian legend. 

Lanier, Knightly legends of Wales. 

Lanier, Boy's King Arthur. 

Schrader and Jevons, Prehistoric antiquities 
of the Aryan peoples. 

Morris, The Aryan race. 

Kufferath, The Parsifal of Wagner. 

Haigh, The Attic theatre. 

Donaldson, The theatre of the Greeks. 

Hickie, Aristophanes. 

All four candidates succeeded in obtaining the 
required number of credits, their averages rang- 
ing : Helen A. Nevin, 87; Blanche A. Putnam, 
77; Mary Johnson, 75 ; Gertrude Darlow, 74. 


[March, '94 

The directors of the Public Library, at Red- 
lands, Cal., at once secured the services of Miss 
Nevin to arrange, classify, and prepare all the 
records of the library in readiness for its formal 
opening to the public in March. 

The board of trustees say, " So far from the 
class being a burden upon the resources of the 
library, it has been of material assistance, and 
has more than repaid the nominal outlay in- 
curred in its maintenance." 

American Cibrars Association. 


Action of the Executive Board, unanimously adopted. 

WHILE looking to the general meeting of the 
Association for action that will worthily do 
honor to the memory of so distinguished an as- 
sociate as the late librarian of the Newberry 
Library, William Frederick Poole, LL.D., the 
executive board of the American Library Associa- 
tion desires to record, in these earlier moments 
of sorrow, the grievous sense of great loss which 
his sudden death has caused among his friends 
and associates in the library world. 

Long honored as the Nestor of his profession, 
and eminent, from the very beginning of his 
service in it, among those who were earliest in 
discovering and ablest in improving its op- 
portunities for useful and noble work, Doctor 
Poole has held a place in which no one succeeds 

As the originator and editor of the famous In- 
dex to Periodical Literature, which uncovers and 
brings to knowledge and to use a vast treasure 
of writings that were buried and lost ; as the 
organizer of the great public libraries of Cincin- 
nati and Chicago, and of the splendid institution 
on which his last labors were spent; as a student 
of American history from its original sources and 
a writer of rare clearness and force he leaves 
imperishable monuments to perpetuate his name. 
While the death of Doctor Poole is a loss to be 
felt deeply by all who care for letters and learn- 
ing, and for the greater agencies which foster 
both, yet it touches most painfully the men and 
women who knew him as followers and fel- 
lows in his work who took lessons from his 
experience and were inspired by his zeal. Their 
meetings will be sadly strange without his fa- 
miliar voice, without his stimulating energy in 
the discussions, without the humor which en- 
livened all his talk. It is from the consciousness 
of their own loss that they draw the profound 
sympathy which they offer to Mrs. Poole and to 
her family in the great bereavement that has 
fallen on them. 

J. N. LARNED, president. 

MKLVIL DEWEY, ex-president. 

F: H. HILD, ) . 

H: M. UTLEY. > ce ~ 


FRANK P. HILL, secretary. 

G: WATSON COLE, treasurer. 

Nero Dork State Cibrarfi School. 


THE catalog of the A. L. A. library is an ac- 
complished fact. The Library School celebrated 
the event on Saturday evening, February 17, 
at the home of Miss Cutler in Albany by a Van 
Bibber entertainment. Two of Richard Hard- 
ing Davis' delightful stories, " Her first ap- 
pearance" and "An anonymous letter," were 
dramatized most successfully. These were 
followed by a tableau from " Gallagher." All 
friends of Van Bibber would have been delighted 
by the happy production of his unique and 
charming personality. The difficult part of Car- 
ruthers was taken with genuine feeling, and the 
three-year-old heroine filled her role perfectly. 
In the second piece the four friends of Van Bib- 
ber were admirably chosen, and the ever-present 
Travers added spirit to an exceedingly clever 
performance. The success of the entertainment 
was largely due to the committee in charge : 
Misses Myrtilla Avery, Henrietta Church, and 
Margaret D. McGuffey, and Mr. J. Le R. Harri- 

Miss Louisa S. Cutler, librarian of the Utica 
Public Library, came on for the .occasion. 
Regrets and letters of congratulations were 
received from J. N. Lamed, F. P. Hill, C:C. 
Soule, R. R. Bowker, C.. M. Hewins, and other 
prominent members of the A. L. A., who took 
part in the work. Miss James sent flowers and 
Mr. Nelson verses. Handsomely bound copies 
of the catalog were presented to Miss L. S. 
Cutler, Mr. W. S. Burns, and Miss Henrietta 
Church, in token of their faithful services on the 

State Cibrarg Associations. 


A MEETING of the Massachusetts Library Club 
was held on the evening of Jan. 24, 1894, at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 
President Jones, of Salem, presiding. An 
amendment to the constitution, authorizing the 
executive committee to change the date of the 
annual meeting on occasion was adopted, and 
the printing of the revised constitution with a 
list of members and other related matter was 
approved. The president having suggested 
that a permanent exhibition of library appliances 
might be made a usual part of the educational 
museum, which the legislature would shortly be 
asked to establish on the basis of the state edu- 
cational exhibit at the World's Fair, the matter 
was referred to the executive committee, with 
power to act. 

The president then introduced Mr. S. A. B. 
Abbott, president of the trustees of the Boston 
Public Library, who gave an interesting account 
of the administrative methods to be adopted in 
the new library building, outlining several pro- 
posed plans, which involved radical departure 
from accepted methods of library practice. 

While it was true that the building represented 

March, '94] 



the library science of 10 or 12 years ago rather 
than that of to-day, since the acceptance of 
the plan fixed irrevocably most of the details 
of administration, Mr. Abbott stated that the 
trustees, among whom were men whose acquaint- 
ance with library affairs equalled that of any 
person in the country, had sought advice from 
every quarter, and examined over a thousand 
plans. Some matters, such as the question of 
light, were virtually settled, when the situation 
of the building was determined. Thoroughly 
proof against fire from within, the building was 
exposed to the greater danger of fire from with- 
out on three sides. Therefore, while abundant 
light was secured for the reading-room, it was 
found impossible to depend on natural light for 
the stacks. Entire dependence upon electric 
light was more willingly adopted because it was 
hoped to lengthen the evening service materially, 
and because, as a matter of fact, in a steam- 
heated building there is always extra power 
sufficient to light the building. 

Another problem was solved when it was de- 
cided to substitute machinery for the old fashion 
of boys' legs in bringing the books to the readers, 
since the stacks could then be placed without re- 
gard to distance from the reading-room. The 
building is in the form of a hollow square, thus 
securing the greatest amount of light. Since the 
public erects it, the public should have the use of 
it, therefore a very small portion is reserved for 
the officials, though every one has ample accom- 
modation. The reading-room occupies the entire 
front of the second story. In an alcove at one 
end is the catalog, which will not be open to the 
public, but enclosed and served by attendants 
from whom readers will receive either shelf- 
marks of particular books or the tray containing 
titles which it is desired to consult. The trustees 
believe this to be the only way in which a great 
library can serve its readers without permitting 
individuals to monopolize too many cards. The 
catalog will be arranged 6n a system devised in 
Italy ; the present cards will be connected by a 
linen hinge with anchor-pieces of tough paper, 
and these locked firmly in the lower part of the 
tray, so that the cards can be manipulated like 
the leaves of a book, without danger of loss or 
misplacement, while additions can be readily in- 

Connected with the catalog-room is the de- 
livery-room ; it is thus separated from the read- 
ing-room, and, with the adjacent delivery office, 
forms the heart of the establishment. It cor- 
responds to the "central" of a telephone system. 
Orders for books will be transmitted almost 
instantaneously by pneumatic tubes to stations 
in the stacks, and books conveyed to and fro by 
a cash railway, carrying baskets of 25 pounds' 
capacity. An indicator showing what books are 
out will stand by the delivery-desk, and any 
book not represented on the indicator must be 
found. The librarian and staff will call for books 
which they wish to consult in the same manner 
as the public. 

On the Bates Hall floor are separate rooms 
for patent specifications and for the newspaper 

The third floor is largely devoted to the needs 

of readers who wish to make special research. 
A number of rooms will contain, in their alcoves, 
special libraries selected from the main stacks. 
Readers, owing to their habit of "replacing" 
books on the wrong shelves, will not be admitted 
to these alcoves, but will receive their books 
from assistants. Books not shelved here can be 
obtained by means of the book railway, since 
these rooms are connected with the delivery- 
room (and with one another) by telephones. A 
novel and ingenious device permits any instru- 
ment on the circuit to be called up by any other 
without the use of a central station. 

While speaking of hours of closing Mr. Abbott 
expressed his conviction that the time would 
come when the library would be open and availa- 
ble for readers every hour of the day and night 
the year round. 

The new building will be occupied in the com- 
ing summer. 

A question having been handed in, asking 
whether it was possible to state the distinction 
between newspapers, magazines, periodicals, se- 
rials, etc., the president requested Mr. W. E. 
Foster, of the Providence Public Library, to say 
a few words in regard to it. Mr. Foster briefly 
examined the basis afforded for any such dis- 
tinction, in the etymology of the words them- 
selves ; in the greater or less frequency of the 
periods of publication ; in the condition of the 
publication, whether folded or stitched, supplied 
with stiff cover, paper cover, or no cover at all ; 
in the size ; and in various other particulars. 
All of these distinctions were found to be more 
or less artificial, and of slight practical value. 
Several printed "lists of periodicals, serials, 
etc.," were exhibited, in none of which was the 
distinction observed (though the period of publi- 
cation, whether annual, quarterly, monthly, 
weekly, daily, or other, was usually stated within 
parentheses). Even in the case of lists classified 
by subjects, the entries under any given topic 
might include every variety of period, condition, 
size, etc. The only practical bearing of any of 
these bases of distinction was found in the con- 
sideration of convenience of arrangement of the 
publications themselves, it being usually con- 
sidered desirable to place the " newspapers" so- 
called, in a separate " newspaper-room," equipped 
with fittings directly adapted to their size, condi- 
tion, use, etc. 

W: H. TILLINGHAST, Secretary. 


THE third annual meeting of the Connecticut 
Library Association was held in the New Haven 
Public Library on Feb. 22. The meeting was 
called to order at 10:30 a.m. by the Rev. S: Hart, 
the president, who introduced Mr. Maxcy Hiller, 
of the New Haven board of trustees. Mr. Hiller 
made a brief address of welcome, and was 
followed by Dr. Hart, who said that, although 
there seemed little to report at any one meeting, 
at the end of the year, in which three have been 
held, marked progress and advance could be 
seen; he then outlined the work before the state 
commission. In Massachusetts only 44 out of 
342 towns, and only 2| per cent, of the popula- 
tion, were without free libraries, and within 



[March, '94 

a year $500,000 had been given toward es- 
tablishing new ones or endowing those already 
in existence. This showed what might be ex- 
pected from the Connecticut Public Library com- 
mittee. President Hart urged the formation of 
collections bearing on town history and local 
topics, and suggested the consideration of local 
museums in connection with libraries. 

The reports of the secretary and treasurer 
were read, the latter showing a balance of $31.01 
on hand, and a discussion on librarians' vaca- 
tions was opened by a paper by Frank B. Gay, 
of the Watkinson Library. He said that the 
motto of Harriet Martineau's priggish childhood, 
" duty first, play afterwards," is forced upon 
us in youth, but the duty of play is urged upon 
us on all sides in after-life, although with the in- 
crease of library hours and holiday and Sunday 
opening, we are unable to fulfil this duty. A 
librarian's work is continuous and does not stop 
like a teacher's. It is urged that all classes of 
workers must have time for recreation and self- 
improvement, and the twentieth century may 
find libraries open 24 hours a day to aid them 
in this improvement. With the increasing de- 
mands on a librarian's brain and nerves, two 
weeks are not enough for a vacation, and an 
extra one or two should be given in spring or 
fall. Vacations should not be spent in visiting 
other libraries, but extra time should be allowed 
for this. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. Bassett, 
of Waterbury, Mr. Stetson, of New Haven, Mrs. 
Hills, of Bridgeport, and others gave facts re- 
lating to their own hours and those of their as- 
sistants, vacations varying from no time at all to 
the nominal three months of college libraries. 

Judge Fenn, of Winsted, read a brilliant and 
eloquent paper on " Books and reading," urging 
readers to know as much as possible about one 
thing, and something about many things. Mr. 
Stetson, of the New Haven Public Library, ex- 
plained the comparative advantages of the Ru- 
dolph Indexer and the new Library Bureau cards, 
and the meeting took a recess until 2 o'clock. 

In the afternoon the following officers were 
elected : President, S: Hart of Trinity College ; 
vice-presidents, Addison Van Name of Yale, 
W: J. James of Wesleyan, Miss Kate Dewey 
of North Granby, C. S. Wooding of Bristol, 
and Miss C. Belle Maltbie of Falls Village; 
secretary, Miss Louise M. Carrington of Win- 
sted; assistant secretary, Miss Nellie E. Chaffee 
of Modus; treasurer, W. J. Hills of Bridgeport. 

The subject of using paper-covered novels in 
libraries was discussed, and an informal report 
made by the Connecticut Public Library com- 

So far three meetings have been held, and 
many letters of inquiry received from towns in 
reply to a circular sent out in September. The 
towns are divided into three classes: first, those 
ready to establish libraries; second, those which 
have existing libraries which they do not wish to 
make free; and third, those which, on account 
of hard times or local causes, are not ready to 
meet the offer of the state. The two obstacles 
oftenest urged are the jealousy of rival villages 
in the same town and the unwillingness of libra- 
ry associations to give themselves up to town 

control. The first has been successfully over- 
come in many places in Massachusetts, and 
Wethersfield has devised a plan for depositing 
the books of an association in a public library. 

The committee voted to ask for copies of the 
constitution and by-laws of the Wethersfield 
library and send them to towns asking for in- 
formation, and to authorize the purchase of $200 
worth of books each for the towns of Seymour 
and Wethersfield, which have complied with 
the new law. 

The meeting adjourned at 4 o'clock, after 
votes of thanks to Judge Fenn and the New 
Haven Library. 


THE regular meeting of the Pennsylvania Li- 
brary Club was held on the evening of Feb. 12, 
at the Friends' Library, Philadelphia, Mr. John 
Thomson was in the chair, and 23 members were 

After reading an approval of the minutes of 
the previous meeting, the nominating committee 
reported the following officers elected for the com- 
ing year: President, T: L. Montgomery, of 
Wagner Free Institute ; vice-presidents, Ja. C. 
Barnwell, of the Library Company of Phila- 
delphia, and Miss Hannah P. James, of Oster- 
hout Library, Wilkesbarre ; secretary, Alfred 
Rigling, of Franklin Institute ; treasurer, Miss 
Caroline M. Underbill, of the Apprentices' Li- 
brary, Philadelphia. 

Mr. H: J. Carr, of Scranton, Pa., addressed 
the club on "Some methods of selecting library 
assistants." The ideal method, in Mr. Carr's 
opinion, was that the librarian should have the 
appointment of all assistants down to the janitor, 
subject to the approval of the board of trustees, 
and that dismissals should issue from the trustees 
on the recommendation of the librarian. He 
spoke of the methods adopted in various libraries 
and exhibited a number of forms used in exami- 
nations. Practical experience proved that, in 
average libraries, the preliminary application- 
form may, by the character of its questions, be 
used to reduce the number of unfit applicants and 
also to prevent a large number from being 
called together for the purpose of going through 
an examination when only one or two vacancies 
exist. To prevent the forcing of unfit persons, 
in the capacity of assistants, upon a library, 
through political influence or other improper 
methods, Mr. Carr thought it was necessary to 
have examinations. 

A general discussion followed the address, in 
which the subject of desk assistants received 
considerable attention. The consensus of opinion 
indicated that they should be well-trained, and 
this was considered of greater importance in 
libraries where access to shelves is not allowed. 

The meeting adjourned to meet March 12. 


THE Minnesota Library Association held its 
third annual meeting December 27, 1893, in the 
Minneapolis Public Library. There was a good- 
ly representation from the city libraries, though 
none from the smaller town libraries, which 
| would probably receive most benefit. 

March, '94] 



No program had been prepared, but a very 
profitable conversation was carried on concern- 
ing the various devices displayed for librarians 
at the World's Fair. The Rudolph Indexer did 
not have the undivided approval of the associa- 
tion, though its good points were conceded. 
The plan of printed catalog cards as developed 
by the Library Bureau was praised, and the gen- 
eral opinion was that the undertaking should be 

The following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved: That the Minnesota Association of Libra- 
rians regard the printing bill as likely to produce an ex- 
cellent result in the distribution of public documents, 
and urgently request the Minnesota senators to use their 
influence in its behalf. 

Adjourned on motion. 



A MEETING of the Southern California Library 
Club was held in the Los Angeles Public Libra- 
ry, Thursday evening, Jan. 12, 1894. "Where 
to draw the line in realism " was the subject set 
for discussion, and there was an unusually large 
and responsive gathering. 

Dr. Dorothea Lummis was the first speaker. 
She read a paper demonstrating that fiction 
knows no sky nor line, and that it cannot be 
classified by any narrow bounds. She considered 
that good fiction like good poetry is a thing of 
the " soul," and that whatever his walk in life 
may be the writer of good fiction is a true artist. 
Being an artist he must follow the dictates of his 
own inner life, uncontrolled by outward power. 
She held that "no great book or picture was 
ever obscene," and referring to the self-termed 
"veritists" school, questioned their right to 
this term, and suggested that "detailist" would 
express their characteristics as well. She thought 
that the word " realist " had been used for so 
many things that it had lost its right to a definite 
significance. She also believed that a taste for 
good literature could be cultivated, and that all 
can acquire the power to read any standard lit- 
erature, and while reading sift out the evil and 
retain the good. 

Dr. Francis Haynes had prepared a concise 
and forcible paper, which in his absence was 
read by Miss Adelaide R. Hasse. It held that 
the tendency of modern fiction was toward truth, 
and that first of all the novelist must be truthful 
and decent. 

Mrs. Frick, Miss Brousseau, and others, gave 
their views on how "standard literature," such 
as Fielding, Smollett, and other old English and 
some French literature should be presented. 
Colonel Eastman reviewed some recent Ameri- 
can fiction, and expressed the opinion that every 
one should have unlimited scope in the choice of 
reading. Rev. Father Dockery urged that what 
was food to one mind was poison to another, 
and said that reading must remain a question of 
individual propriety. 

The club then adjourned ; the topic chosen for 
the next meeting was " Realism in modern fic- 
tion." MARY S. MURPHY, Secretary, 


THE regular February meeting of the New 
York Library Club was held at Columbia Col- 
lege on Thursday, February 8, at 3 p.m., about 
30 members being present. Owing to some pre- 
vious engagement the New York State Library 
Association was not able to meet with the club 
at this time, but it is hoped that a joint meeting 
may be held later in the year. 

President Cole introduced the topic for dis- 
cussion ' ' Library statistics " remarking that 
it seemed especially necessary to have statistics 
on account of their usefulness in comparing li- 
braries, and for that reason a more uniform sys- 
tem of keeping them among libraries was highly 

Miss Coe spoke of the new volume on libraries 
recently published by the government, and said 
that in many cases it was rendered practically 
useless by this lack of uniformity. For exam- 
ple, many libraries reckon different departments 
as separate collections, and it was hard to tell 
just how many volumes were in their library; 
some kept home and hall use of books separate, 
and some together, etc. 

Mr. Baker said that the difficulty in making 
out a report of the number of volumes in a li- 
brary was to know where to draw the line. In 
Columbia they were governed by the accession- 
book, only such volumes as are entered there 
being included in the report. In the matter of 
use it was more difficult to decide. They kept 
few statistics; at one time they tried to keep an 
account of the readers, but as no one was especial- 
ly employed for that purpose it was very inaccu- 
rate, and finally abandoned; and as the readers 
are free to go the shelves, it is impossible to 
keep any record of the books used in the build- 
ing ; accurate statistics of books loaned are kept; 
pamphlets are not counted at all ; not one li- 
brary out of a hundred can make an accurate 
report of them, and the result is not valuable 
enough to justify the use of the time. The num- 
ber of volumes in the library is known p*retty 
accurately, and the accession-book keeps this 
record. There are two casualties here, a book 
may be a duplicate, or it may be lost or stolen. 
To guard against the inaccuracy arising from 
this there is kept another book like the accession- 
book, but without numbers. If a book is con- 
demned or lost, that fact is entered in the ac- 
cession-book. Then the accession number is 
written in the blank-book, and another book is 
entered upon it. In this way the last number in 
the accession-book tells the actual number of 
volumes in the library. 

Mr. Poole said that in his library full statistics 
were kept. In the reference library a slip is re- 
quired for each book wanted; by this means 
account is kept of the books used, and by de- 
ducting 12 % the number of applicants is obtained. 
They also employ some one to count the people 
who use the library. The use of books is mi- 
nutely reported, also the number of books and 
pamphlets. Mr. Baker's plan of making the 
accession-book a record of the volumes in the li- 

9 6 


\March, '94 

brary is followed, but In a slightly different form. 
If a book is lost or withdrawn its accession 
number is entered in a blank-book, and in order 
to get the number of volumes in the library 
these vacant numbers are summed up, and sub- 
tracted from the last number in the accession- 

Miss Coe suggested here that the discussion 
might be more profitable if reference libraries and 
the reference department in public libraries were 
considered separate from the circulating depart- 
ment, and it was decided to carry on the discussion 
in that way. She said that in her library a book- 
card is put in each reference-book, and in that way 
statistics are easily kept. Each reader is required 
to have a card also. When a new one comes 
in he writes his name and address in a book and 
is given a card. He returns it when he goes out 
and it is arranged in its alphabetical place in a 
tray ready to be taken out, stamped, and handed 
to the reader whenever he comes back. No 
record of the magazines is kept. 

Miss Rathbone, of the Pratt Institute Library, 
said that their reference-books are free for the 
public to help themselves, but a record is kept of 
the books brought out from the circulating de- 
partment to be used in the reference-room, and 
of the attendance. 

In the Brooklyn Library (Mr. Bardwell) no 
record of the use is kept; the books used in the 
reference department are occasionally counted, 
and it is found that more books are used there 
than in the circulating, but no regular record is 

Mr. Cole found it difficult to keep account of 
the books used in the reference department be- 
cause so many of them are free for the people to 
help themselves, but his practice was to encour- 
age the leaving them on the tables and make an 
approximate record from the ones so left. In the 
Jersey City Library every one who goes into the 
reference-room has a ticket good for the day, and 
the number of people are counted from these 
tickets. In the reading-room the public have 
free access to the periodicals, so no record can be 
made of their use, but the people are counted 
every hour. 

Mr. Nelson said that In the New Orleans Li- 
brary an officer was stationed at the door to 
count the number of readers who came in, and 
a record of the books used in the reference de- 
partment was kept, though it was impossible to 
tell how many used encyclopaedias. 

At the Brooklyn Y. M. C. A., Mr. Berry said 
that 1500 volumes were accessible to readers, and 
this collection was called the reference library; 
readers can also send for any book in the circulat- 
ing department, and a record is kept of this use but 
not of the other. Just at present this library is 
overrun with unemployed, and it may have to try 
Miss Coe's method. The people are counted 
several times a year and an estimate made from 
this. Mr. Berry told of a small western li- 
brary which he had visited, where a box was 
placed at the door with a supply of peas, and 
every one was requested to drop in a pea as he 
left the room; this was their way of keeping 

Miss Tuttle said that at the Long Island His- 

torical Society Library no statistics were kept, as 
it is a subscription library and the patrons will 
not submit to red tape. The people who come in 
are counted, but that is all. 

Miss Coe then introduced the discussion in re- 
spect to circulating libraries, but first said that 
she thought the club would be interested to 
know that 60,000 volumes were circulated in 
her libraries last month, an increase of 15,000 
over last year's record. She found that the use 
of the book-card made the keeping of statistics 
very simple. They had different colored cards 
for the different classes, and during the day these 
were kept separate by the colors and counted at 
night ; every other year an inventory is made. 

In the Aguilar Library Mr. Leipziger said the 
system of the Free Public Library is followed 
in many respects; a record is kept of the people 
coming in by actual count. The lower branch 
is situated among Russian Hebrews, and an 
American history of any kind is never on the 

Mr. Stevens, of the R*ailroad Men's Library, 
used the decimal system and had a double 
charging entry by books and readers, so that 
statistics were easily kept. He said that his li- 
brary was of a different character from the others 
represented at the meeting and different methods 
were necessary. To gratify the readers, full and 
careful statistics were kept of the books used in 
the library, the number sent to the different sta- 
tions, of the circulation at the desk and on the 
trains, and these are published in the annual re- 

Mr. Cole said that in his library full statis- 
tics were kept on the calendar sheets of the Li- 
brary Bureau. He uses a large sheet contain- 
ing 35 headings, and every night the books in 
each class are counted by means of the cards and 
the result entered on this sheet. At the end of 
the month it is added up and the list is published 
yearly in the report. They also keep the percent- 
age of use at the delivery station as compared 
with the main library and make a tabulation of 
what books are read most in the annual report. 

The discussion being ended, Mr. Berry spoke 
of a new method for putting the ownership mark 
on a book. A perforating machine has been de- 
vised which will take the place of the embossing 
stamp, and will be much more valuable, since the 
perforations once made cannot be effaced. It 
also leaves the pages perfectly smooth, and so 
does not fill up the book like an embossing 

Mr. Nelson was elected a member of the club. 




THE i6th regular meeting of the Chicago Li- 
brary Club was held Feb. 8, 1894, at the book- 
bindery of P. Ringer, no Randolph St., Chi- 
cago. The meeting was called to order by the 
president, E. F. L. Gauss, at 3:40 p.m. Min- 
utes of the preceding meeting were read and 

Mrs. Anna Fitzgerald and Miss Agnes Cole- 
man, of the Chicago Public Library, were, on 
recommendation of the executive committee, 

March) '94] 



elected members of the club. The resignations 
of Montana Stover, Lilyan G. Morawski, Anna 
Riordan, May I. Carroll, and Otto Goldberger 
as members of the club were received and acted 

Mr. J. Ritchie Patterson, of the Chicago Pub- 
ic Library, then read an interesting and instruc- 
tive paper on the history of bookbinding and 
the care of bound books, after which the club ad- 
journed to inspect the workings of the bindery 
under the guidance of Mr. Ringer. An hour 
was very profitably spent in studying the details 
of fine bookbinding, after which the club dis- 
persed, tendering Mr. Ringer a vote of thanks 
for his courtesy. 

CARRIE L. ELLIOTT, Secretary. 

DZIATZKO, K:, ed. Beitrage zur Theorie u. 

Praxis des Buch-'u. Bibliothekswesens. Pt. I. 

Leipzig, M. Spirgatis, 1894. 5+128 p. O. 

(Sammlung Bibliothekswissenschaftlicher Ar- 

beiten hrsg. v. K: Dziatzko. 6. hft.) pap. 

This is the sixth instalment of the " Sammlung 
Bibliothekswissenschaftlicher Arbeiten," edited 
oy Karl Dziatzko, Professor der Bibliotheks- 
wissenschaften und Ober Bibliothekar der Uni- 
versitat GOttingen. The five previous parts were 
devoted to the writings of one man only, but 
here the editor has made a collection of essays 
by different writers. The table of contents best 
gives the scope of the information gathered on 
this important branch of the great subject. The 
editor furnishes two articles : " Feststellung der 
typographischen Praxis aller deutschen Druckorte 
des i $ten Jahrhunderts," and " Eine Reise durch 
die grosseren Bibliotheken Italiens." The re- 
maining articles are: "Ein unbekannterdeutscher 
Druck des Fasciculus temporum (Biirdlin der 
Zijt) von Anton Sorg," by W. Molsdorf ; " Die 
Buchdrucker Gtinther und Johannes Zanier in 
Strassburg," by Karl Schorbach ; " Lotharius, 
liber de miseria humanae conditionis [m. d. J. 
1448], und die mtt gleichen Typen hergestellten 
Drucke;" "Die Deutschen Universitacsbiblio- 
theken ihre Mittel und ihre Bediirfnisse," by 
Adalbert Roquette ; " Zwei Ausgaben der Ge- 
schichte des Pfarrers von Kalenberg," by Karl 
Meyer; "Der liber horarum canonic, sec. nov. 
imp. eccl. Bamberg rubricam von J. Sensen- 
schmidt u. H. Petzensteiner (Bamberg 1484) ; 
and " Bruchstiicke einer Priscianhandschrift aus 
dem Stadt-Archiv zu Goslar," both by Paul 
Jiirges ; " Ein unbekanntes Flugblatt liber die 
Schlacht bei Terouenne " (1513), by Otto Heine- 
mann ; and " Die Biblia Latina des i$ten 
Jahrhunderts in der Gottingen Universitatsbiblio- 
thek," by Willi Miiller. 

REYER, Ed. Entwicklung u. Organisation der 
Volksbibliotheken. Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 
l8 93- [3+] 116 P H- O. pap. 2 m. 
A pleasing evidence of the growth of the mod- 
ern library spirit in German-speaking countries, 
is this volume by Dr. Eduard Reyer, of Vienna, 

on the " Development and organization of pub- 
lic libraries." Similarity of title, matter, and 
intent suggest a comparison with Greenwood's 
" Public libraries," which is indeed freely quoted 
in these pages as an authority; but the book has 
a character of its own. It is not a systematic 
or exhaustive treatment of the subject, but a col- 
lection of semi-popular articles on library topics, 
which have appeared from time to time in Ger- 
man literary magazines, supplemented by new 
chapters summarizing and co-ordinating the data 
and conclusions of this earlier part. 

To American readers its interest lies chiefly in 
the account of German conditions, and in the 
opinions of an intelligent foreigner as to our own 
achievements. In an autograph letter to Mr. 
Dewey, the author says : "I have read with 
great interest some of your publications, and as 
you may find, I acknowledge to the full extent 
the eminent work done in Massachusetts and 
some other states ; but I cannot agree with you 
as to the general eminence of the United States." 
He refers in this connection to the following 
paragraph in his work: 

"The little state of Massachusetts, which in 
the year 1839 had only 10 libraries, counts ac- 
cording to the last report of the Bureau of Edu- 
cation, in the year 1885,10 2.1 million inhabitants 
570 libraries, among them 250 free public libra- 
ries, with 3,000,000 volumes. New Hampshire 
possesses 30, the great state of New York, on 
the contrary, has only 16 public libraries, Illinois 
34, Michigan 28. The other states do nothing 
yet worth mentioning in this direction. In the 
West the movement has just begun, and the 
South is still totally inert and passive. Mr. 
Melvil Dewey's (L. j.) ptoud word ' America is 
the pioneer, with England as a fine second ' may 
sound well to many, but it is not just. Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut may stand ahead of 
England in respect to the average achievement 
of their public braries ; America as a whole 
stands unquestionably below England." This 
is rather hard on us, but it agrees with the re- 
port recently made upon us by Mr. Brown, 
of Clerkenwell, after his visit to this country. 
(L. j. 18 : 421.) 

A working residence of two months in Boston, 
and the receipt of all important reports of the 
Boston Public Library, have given Dr. Reyer a 
feeling of quite intimate knowledge of and an 
enthusiastic admiration for its work. One of 
his most extended articles treats of it as "the 
prototype of American public libraries," and it 
appears again and again in his pages as one of 
the representative libraries of the world, remark- 
able for its successful combination of the popular 
and the scholarly type. " The university of 
Cambridge," he also says, " possesses a library 
to compare with our first university libraries, 
and the rich Athenaeum of Boston served a large 
circle long before the erection of the public li- 
brary. If we compare the number of volumes 
and number of issues in all libraries, here and 
there, with the number of inhabitants, Boston 
still remains a power of the first rank. Many 
cultivated Europeans," he continues, "look 
down on the American dollar-hunter with a 
certain contempt ; they recognize the native 

9 8 


\March y '94 

products of America and the American's tech- 
nical cleverness, but in respect to culture feel 
themselves quite superior. Statistics teach dif- 
ferently. Only in the public libraries of many 
English and American cities (Manchester, Edin- 
burgh, Leeds, Bristol, Boston) are there two or 
three issues to an inhabitant ; in Paris there is 
barely one, in Berlin^, in Vienna ." 

He notes the remarkable growth of library 
privileges in Chicago, both actual and prospec- 
tive. In several connections he refers to the 
" Creiger" bequest, evidently a misunderstand- 
ing for Crerar. 

Dr. Reyer's first article, on " Development 
and significance of public libraries; achievements 
of German cities," gives recent statistics of the 
few public libraries existing in Germany. That 
of Frankfort-on-the-Main, established in 1845 
by the society for popular literature (Gesellschaft 
fitr Volksschrifteri), would seem to be the oldest. 
The one in Bremen has four branches, and pos- 
sessed at the beginning of 1892 10,000 vols., 
with a circulation of 92,000 from the Central 
and 4000 from the branches, among 1038 readers, 
392 of whom were free. " The system and ad- 
ministration of the public libraries in many Ger- 
man cities," he says, "is excellent. A volume 
will be given out in the public libraries of Vienna, 
Hanover, Diisseldorf, and in the Central of Bre- 
men, from seven to 10, in Dresden and Frank- 
fort five times, in the course of a year." 

This and the two following articles on " What 
the people read " and " The readers of the pub- 
lic libraries " are readable papers of a more 
popular sort, intended to awaken general inter- 
est. Those following, on " The largest public 
libraries," "England's public libraries," " The 
Boston public library," " Public libraries in 
American cities, 1890-91," and "Achievements 
of libraries," are more technical and statistical, 
accompanied by tables and diagrams. The lat- 
ter form one of the marked features of the vol- 
ume. The statistics, as a whole, are little if any 
later than the last edition of Greenwood, but 
Dr. Reyer has collected and studied them with 
all a German's ardor, and embodied the results 
in a multitude of interesting yet simple diagrams, 
which say more than could be expressed by 
mere numerical statements. 

In the concluding, or "practical part" of his 
work, one finds many little remarks or sugges- 
tions that throw an enteresting light on existing 
conditions or national peculiarities in Germany. 
The opening paragraphs on preparatory steps 
toward founding a public library have a very 
familiar sound, but in almost the first sentence 
on housing of the same we meet the somewhat 
novel suggestion : " Almost every city possesses 
in its schools and other public buildings rooms 
well located and not used in the evening. In 
such quarters the giving out of books can be 
attended to evenings, say from six to nine 
o'clock." " But what of our library all day?" 
we feel moved to exclaim. The question is an- 
swered immediately : " It is a national economic 
waste to let rooms which are available in the 
evening lie idle, and at great expense rent others, 
which in their turn will only be used in the even- 
ing and lie idle during the day." Evidently the 

ideal for the German public library is a very 
humble one as yet. Dr. Reyer commends the 
consideration of the Paris city council on this 
point, and laments the coldness of the Vienna 
authorities. "The running expenses of a pub- 
lic library in Germany," he says, "average 15 
pfennigs per issue when its quarters must be 
rented, while they amount to scarcely 10 pfen- 
nigs, if room otherwise provided is used." He 
suggests a few bookcases and a table in some 
office unoccupied evenings, if nothing better is 
to be had ; and perhaps he refers to the limited 
hours no less than to the meagre furnishings, 
when he says : "May we be saved from those 
critics who ' would not begin so great an under- 
taking in so mean a way.'" Once planted, he 
thinks the tree will grow. As to owning prop- 
erty, it appears that houses in Austrian cities 
pay 40 and even 50$ of their gross receipts in 
taxes, so that buildings for humanitarian pur- 
poses should only be bought when exemption 
from taxation is assured. His strictures on li- 
brary architecture show that there as here con- 
venience and practical efficiency have heretofore 
been sacrificed to architectural effect. 

In connection with the subject of branch li- 
braries and delivery stations, he recommends 
travelling libraries for the rural districts, to be 
sent out by the nearest large city library. 

Dr. Reyer recommends that borrowers be 
charged a nominal sum for cards and catalogs, 
not merely as a source of income, but because 
these will be less likely to be wasted. He thinks, 
too, that the better element in the community 
will be glad to contribute this mite, and that it 
does not care to have thrust upon it the obliga- 
tion to feel a gratitude which shall not criticise. 
" The public library should not be given to the 
people. The public library is just as much and 
just as little free as the free school and the free 
street. For practical reasons many cities are at 
present compelled to charge a regular fee, or 
' loan penny ;' that is, to raise a poll tax, which 
naturally burdens disproportionately those of 
small means ; it will be our task to bring the 
municipality to our aid, thus securing a more 
equitable division of the burden." 

The suggestions for securing gifts of books 
are quite practical. A request for such should 
be included in the circular or prospectus distrib- 
uted to citizens, with a proviso that books hav- 
ing no second-hand market value are not desired. 
A fixed time should be mentioned at which these 
gifts will be called for. On this collecting tour, 
the annual money contributions can be received, 
the offered books be looked over, and such as 
are desirable receipted for and taken away. 
Special attention should be called to the fact that 
the library can use a number of copies of popular 
works (Freytag, Dickens, Deutsche Rundschau, 

As to classification, in the interest of interna- 
tional comparison a scheme should be adopted 
not too far differing from the English and Amer- 
ican. The classes recommended are in brief as 
follows : I, Religion, philosophy, education ; 
2, History and biography ; 3, Geography and 
travel ; 4, Political economy and sociology ; 5, 
Household or domestic matters (for the benefit 

March, '94] 



of feminine readers) ; 6, Manufactures, technol- 
ogy ! 7> Natural science and mathematics ; 8, 
Art, including art industries ; 9, Language and 
literature ; 10, Poetry and drama ; n, Fiction. 

For shelf arrangement, alas, the fixed location 
is recommended, a statement that the relative is 
generally preferred in England and America, 
being offset by a reference to the usage at Got- 
tingen and Oxford. 

Schonbach's " Lesen und Bildung"<and the 
finding-lists of Berlin, Dresden, and Vienna, are 
recommended as aids in a first selection of books, 
works like the British Museum "List of refer- 
ence-books" and Sonnenschein's " Best books" 
being unknown in German. "We possess," 
says Dr. Reyer, " either uncritical lists of all lit- 
erary productions, or booksellers' catalogs rep- 
resenting one-sided interests." 

It is recommended that juveniles be classified 
and distributed among the other books, but in- 
dicated by J. Since this has been done in Vienna 
the issue of juveqiles has markedly increased. 
Periodicals also should be classified, or the sta- 
tistics of their use are of no value. In this con- 
nection we come upon another limitation. ' ' The 
supply of periodicals with us," he says, "will 
for a long time yet be limited to some illustrated 
and literary magazines, because the scientific 
journals are too expensive. However, one can 
procure second-hand copies of some, and get 
along in this way till the endowment of the li- 
brary allows current subscriptions." He says, 
however, that the public library should not fill 
up its shelves with out-of-date scientific publica- 
tions ; anything as far back as the '6o's should 
be thrown out. Complete works of such au- 
thors as Wieland and Herder should not be put 
in, for they will be read only in selections. The 
points on catalogs, binding, etc., are such as we 
are familiar with. 

The argument for the employment of women 
in libraries, viz.: that they will work all day for 
less pay, and in this way the effectiveness of the 
library may be much increased, is not one in 
which we can take great satisfaction, and Dr. 
Reyer himself puts in a demurrer to this as a 
permanently desirable condition. 

A suggestion that during the vacation season 
reliable borrowers might be allowed to draw 
more than the usual number of books at a time, 
and so their wants be met by a smaller force of 
attendants, seems novel, and open to difficulties 
in its operation. 

Persistently delinquent borrowers should have 
their privileges withdrawn, and their names en- 
tered on a black list, to be kept in all the libraries 
of the place. 

In the matter of statistics, six items are given 
as desirable annually : a, No. of volumes and 
pamphlets at beginning of year, with number 
additions both by gift and purchase ; , No. of 
issues, by no means omitting those for library 
use ; c, No. of staff and attendants ; d, Expendi- 
tures; also sources of income; e, Hours per year 
and vacations ; f, No. of losses not made good. 

Data as to readers and reading, on the con- 
trary, need be given only every third or fifth 
year, unless there is some marked change in the 
character of the library . Elsewhere the impor- 

tance has been shown of classifying readers of 
both sexes and all ages, not men only, if the sta- 
tistics as to what classes of the community are 
reached by the library are to have a really rep- 
resentative value. " As a rule," it is said, " we 
may assume that a librarian is not likely to sup- 
press statistics which redound to the credit of 
his institution." Gaps in statistics usually indi- 
cate faulty achievement, and demand a reform. 
The following proportion is given as a standard 
for cities of 100,000 inhabitants : " 30,000 vols. 
light reading with 7 issues per vol. and per year; 
70,000 scientific books with 0.7 issues, say 250,000 
issues to 100,000 population." This is based on 
statistics of the Boston Public Library. 

Germany has more large libraries (of 100,000 
to 300,000 v.) than other countries, but many of 
these have such meagre revenues and so small a 
circulation that they are practically dead. They 
will ultimately be forced by the competition of 
public libraries into a radical change of policy 
and an increase of their working force, or they 
will unite with the public libraries, a change 
similar to that going on in the proprietary and 
subscription libraries of England and America. 

Such is a brief outline of this work, the aim of 
which, as stated by the author, is " to supplement 
in certain directions known works on library 
science, and to indicate how the best possible re- 
sults may be obtained with limited means." The 
style is clear and direct, and presents few diffi- 
culties to one at all conversant with German. 
The senior class in the State Library School at 
Albany has taken up the work with interest, not 
merely for practice in German, but because the 
subject-matter bears so directly on many points 
in their course. MARY E. HAWLEY. 

UNIVERSITY of the State of New York. io6th 
annual report of the regents, transmitted to 
the legislature Jan. 9, 1893. Albany, State 
Printer, 1893. 166+1299 p. O. cl. 
This bulky volume calls for more extended 
notice than is generally given to state reports, 
in view of the diversity and extent of its contents 
and the varied branches of education to which 
they relate. The secretary's report, summariz- 
ing the developments in the several departments 
of the university, covers 166 pages, and the re- 
maining 1300 pages give in appendixes the 
regents' bulletins on the university convoca- 
tion; the medical syllabus of the university; the 
origin, history, and present organization of the 
university ; proceedings of the Associated Ac- 
ademic Principals, 1891; law syllabus of the 
university ; proceedings of the Associated Ac- 
ademic Principals, 1892 ; summary of legisla- 
tion, 1892 ; abstracts of the annual reports of 
the colleges of the university, with full classi- 
fied tables ; statistics of academies ; and lists of 
examinations and credentials issued. The re- 
port is largely statistical, but is an interesting 
exposition of the very large work which the uni- 
versity is doing and of its constant extension 
and development. The work of the library 
school is summarized in the lists of examinations 
held, both at the state library and outside the 
state, and the degrees conferred. 50 pages are 



\March, '94 

devoted to a resume of the Extension department, 
its organization, scope, plans of work, confer- 
ences, and statistics. The first appendix, which 
gives in full the papers and proceedings of the 
university convocation, held July 5-7, 1892, is 
of special interest to all in any way connected 
with schools or education ; the proceedings of 
the 1891 and 1892 meetings of the Associated 
Academic Principals (appendixes 4 and 6) are 
almost equally useful, and give many valuable 
suggestions as to methods of instruction. The 
statistics of the various colleges, academies, etc. 
in the state, compiled from the annual reports of 
each (appendixes 8 and 9), cover nearly 700 
pages, and are remarkably full and detailed. 

H. E. H. 

(Economs cmb ipi 


POOLE, W: F: The university library and the 
university curriculum : Phi Beta Kappa ad- 
dress, North western University, June 13, 1893. 
Chic., Fleming H. Revell Co., 1894. 55 p. 
D. hf. cl. 

Extracts from this address appeared in the 
L. J. for Nov., 1893 (i 8 : 470). Dr. Poole em- 
phasizes the value of the university library, and 
points out the place it should occupy in the uni- 
versity curriculum. 


Allegheny, Pa. Carnegie F. L. The cause of 
free public libraries sustained a serious loss in 
this part of the state by the sudden death on 
Feb. 13 of Ja. B. Scott, of Allegheny, Pa., in 
his 55th year. Mr. Scott was chairman of the 
Carnegie Free Library Commission of Alle- 
gheny, which was entrusted with the erection of 
the building, the gift of Mr. Carnegie, and prac- 
tically assumed all the labor and responsibility 
of that work, bringing it to a most successful 
completion. At the time of his death he was 
chairman of a similar commission entrusted with 
the building of the Carnegie Free Library, of Pitts- 
burgh.and was rapidly bringing the work towards 
completion. He was largely instrumental in secur- 
ing the donation from Mrs. Schenley, of England, 
of the site for the library building, estimated at 
$1,000000 in value. An enthusiast for art, a 
leading spirit of the Pittsburg Art Society, he 
had just laid broad plans for making the art 
gallery of the Pittsburg Carnegie Free Library, 
with its million dollar endowment fund, one of 
the foremost of its kind on this side the Atlantic. 
The will be remembered, is to be de- 
voted exclusively to works by American artists. 
Mr. Scott had also projected a series of down- 
town branch libraries in connection with the 
main library, to meet the demands of those who 
could not afford to go to the main building. 

Baltimore, Md. Enoch Pratt F. L. (8th rpt.) 
Added 13.432; total 136205. Issued, home use 
452,733 (net. and juv. 76+ #); lost 23; ref. use 
not given; periodicals consulted in reading- 
rooms 141,961. No. cardholders 22,465. 

The circulation for the last year shows an in- 

crease of 41,369 over that of 1892. " The attend- 
ants in the repair-room of the library mended 
21,856 books during the year, and sewed 2216 
more; there were sent to be completely rebound 
1358 books. The usefulness of the five branch 
libraries is shown, and the wisdom of their es- 
tablishment demonstrated by the fact that 209,- 
477 volumes were circulated through them in the 
last year; and 50,521 periodicals used in their 

" The reading-room in the central library is 
provided with 256 periodicals, and those at the 
various branches with 45. 

" In June, the practice was begun of sending 
a registration-book to the several branches, to 
be kept a month at each. This has been found 
useful in giving residents of remoter sections of 
the city greater facility of obtaining the privilege 
to draw books. 

" The preparation of the fifth editions of the 
finding-lists, of the central and branch libraries, 
has been vigorously pushed during the year, and 
the first part of the finding-list for the central li- 
brary was issued some months since. The branch 
library finding-list is almost ready, and the sec- 
ond and third parts of the central library finding- 
list will follow at short intervals." 

Bloomington (III.) L. A. The directors of the 
Library Association have decided to submit to 
the stockholders at the annual meeting in March 
a proposition to sell or lease (for a nominal 
sum) the library to the city for the purpose of 
enlarging its usefulness. The offer will proba- 
bly transfer the library with all of its property to 
the city in consideration of the city's agreeing to 
accept the same and place it under the protection 
of the law applicable to free public libraries. 

Butte (Mont.) F. P. L. On the evening of 
Feb. 6 the handsome new public library build- 
ing was formally dedicated, in the presence of a 
large audience. The exercises were simple, and 
were held in the reading-room on the lower floor 
of the building. Major Dawson, chairman of 
the library board, presided. Speeches were 
made by Hon. W. W. Dixon, Judge Kirkpatrick, 
Major Dawson, and others. Mention was made 
of the generous gift of $10,000 to the library 
fund by C. X. Larabee. This was made in the 
fall of 1890, and was the nucleus of the present 
library fund, being given on condition that an- 
other $10,000 should be given by the citizens of 
Butte. This was promptly raised by popular 
subscription. The matter was then placed in 
the hands of the city, and a special library tax 
was authorized by popular vote. The library 
opens with 15,000 volumes, the entire cost, in- 
cluding building, having been about $85,000. J: 
F. Davies is librarian. The library was opened 
for work on the morning of Feb. 7. 

Chattanooga (Tenn.) L. A. Added 165; total 
5600. New members 91 ; total membership 

During the past year there has been a notable 
decrease in "light reading," and an increase in 
the demand for history, science, and literature 
proper. This is explained by the recent organ- 
ization of several reading cluts and mental im- 
provement societies. 

March, '94] 



Chicago. Newberry Z. At a meeting of the 
staff of the Newberry Library, held March i, 
1894, the following resolutions were unanimous- 
ly adopted : 

"At the will of our Creator the earthly life of our be- 
loved chief, William F. Ppole, has terminated, leaving 
with us only memories of his genial character and kindly 
ways, his pleasant greetings and interest in our affairs. 
We feel that we have lost a friend, a confidant and ad- 
viser, and a chief who won the admiration and love of all 
his subordinates. 

" By his death not only we as a small circle of his pro- 
fessional associates but the whole library world has lost 
a master in the art of library management, a keen and 
vigorous writer on many subjects of library science, and 
a bibliographer of international reputation. 

" We, therefore, the entire staff of the Newberry Libra- 
ry, do unite in these resolutions of respect and esteem, and 
we hereby tender to the bereaved family our heart-felt 
sympathy in their affliction." 

Chicago. University Z. Mr. Rockefeller's $50,- 
ooo appropriation for books made to the library 
of the university on New Year's last has been 
applied as follows : The department of geology 
receives $18,171.43; political economy, $1260; 
philosophy, $1350; social science, $1142; ro- 
mance, $1232; history $2454; Greek, $1187; Lat- 
in, $1372; Semitics (Sinai fund), $5000; English, 
$1866. The department of geology receives 
nearly one-half of the entire gift. 

Columbus (0.) Public School L. (i7th rpt.) 
Added 4627 ; total 20,738 ; lost 165 ; issued, 
home use 86,486 (fict. 30.20$; " juv. stories" 
39.64$) ; ref. use 8180. Cards issued 5673 (juv. 

The library of children's classics for supple- 
mentary reading, now numbering 2702 volumes, 
has rapidly grown in favor with pupils and teach- 
ers, so that during a part of the last school year 
it was often impossible to meet the demand. 

The librarian says : " The year just closed 
marks a degree of prosperity and progress in the 
development, growth, and administration of the 
library never before reached." He also com- 
mends " the praiseworthy interest which many 
of the teachers have shown during the past year 
in their efforts to guide and direct pupils in the 
choice of books. Experience has shown that 
without the aid of the teacher the most faithful 
efforts of the librarian and his assistants will 
accomplish but little in this direction, as they are 
not usually in the confidence of the child and, 
therefore, not so likely to impress it favorably. 
Only then can the best results be achieved, when 
the influence of the teacher, who largely holds 
the confidence and esteem of the child, becomes 
a faithful ally of the librarian and his assistants, 
and supplements their efforts with wise direc- 
tion, strong appeal, and hearty encouragement." 

Council Bluffs (la.) F. P. L. Added 1399 ; 
total 12,943 (not including 3000 v. of gov. doc- 
uments) ; issued 39,925 ; no. vistors 72,970. 
Receipts $7450.50 ; expenses $4874.93. 

It is expected that the new catalog will be 
completed and issued during the year. A new 
library building is much needed. 

Dayton (0.) P. L. (33d rpt.) Added 1429; 
total 32,740; pm. 1053. Issued, home use 105-, 
731 (fict. 53.9 %\ juv. 28.4 %); ref. use 39,643; v. 
rebound mi; repaired in library 9431. Total 
no. cardholders 7488. 

During the year the entire reference library 

was rearranged, giving much-needed space. The 
librarian calls attention to the rapidly increasing 
use of bound periodicals, and urges the comple- 
tion of the sets of volumes included in Poole's 

Denver (Col.) Ciiy Z. Added 2503 ; total 
25,224 ; issued, home use 125,975 ; av. no. books 
per capita 1.18; cost of circulation per v. 2.71 
cts. Total no. cardholders 9370. 

The increase of circulation over 1892 is given 
as 25$. 

Denver (Col.) P. L. Added 5200 ; total 19,200 ; 
issued, home use 136,316 ; no. borrowers 7800. 

The juvenile department has been considerably 
increased, and changes have been made in the 
classification and placing of public documents, 
which number about 3000 volumes. There is 
also a medical library of over 1400 volumes, in 
addition to several hundred unbound volumes of 
medical journals. 

Reference work in the library increases each 
year, and much difficulty is experienced in find- 
ing sufficient room for readers. A library class 
of five has been formed to study library work and 
methods, this effort being the first of its kind in 
the state. 

Detroit (Mich.) P. L. (2gth rpt.} Added II,- 
327; total 123,828. Issued, home use 344,473 
(fict. 57.69 %, juv. 16.24$); ref. use 131,842; 
periodicals issued 163,591. No. cardholders 
24,870. Receipts $103,403.44 ; expenses (six 
months only) $76,715.01. 

The most important event of the year was the 
opening of the new reading-room on the second 
floor of the library extension. It has been found 
excellent in arrangement and most convenient. 
About 500 volumes in the Polish language were 
added to the library during the year. 

The president of the board of trustees says : 
" The liberal provision made by law for the 
maintenance of the library has never led to ex- 
travagant expenditures in any direction; on the 
contrary, the most rigid economy consistent with 
a proper discharge of the trust has been prac- 
tised, and the policy of saving from the income 
has been kept always in view. The last legisla- 
ture passed an act authorizing the city to raise 
by loan or tax the sum of $150,000 for the erec- 
tion of the main front to the building, as origi- 
nally planned. For the purpose of helping to 
provide the much-needed enlargement at the 
earliest practical day, the library commission 
has created a new library building fund, and has 
placed therein from its income of the past year 
the sum of $15,000. It is the purpose to save as 
much as possible from the income each year to 
be added to this fund, so that ultimately there 
may be erected a building which will reflect credit 
upon the city, and at the same time without im- 
posing on the taxpayers any very large expense." 

Elgin, III. Gail Borden L. The new Gail 
Borden Library building given to the town by A. 
and S: Church, and remodelled at a cost of 
f 10,000, was opened on the evening of Feb. 22. 
Addresses were made by Colonel Wilcox, Judge 
Lovell, and others. The library contains over 
13,000 volumes. 




Essex (Mass.) P. L, The new town-hall and 
library building was dedicated on the afternoon 
of Feb. 15. A large audience was present at the 
dedication exercises, which included an oration 
by Rev. D. O. Mears, music, several short ad- 
dresses, and the reading of poems. In the 
evening there was a concert, followed by 

The building which combines town-hall and 
library has just been completed after plans by 
Frank W. Weston, a Maiden architect. The 
lower story is built of field-stone, and the upper 
part, including the tower, of wood. The interior 
is finished in antique oak, and the walls are 
painted in hues of brown and yellow. In the 
upper story is situated the town-hall proper. It 
has a seating capacity for 550. There is a stage 
and a gallery which will allow of entertainments 
being given there. One-half of the lower floor 
is devoted to the library, and will accommodate 
several thousand books. From the entrance 
there is a hallway that turns abruptly to the 
right, and on this passage are doors leading to 
the offices of the selectmen, the treasurer, and 
other officials. There are three entrances to the 
building, the main entrance being through an 
attractive carriageway into a spacious vestibule. 
In the tower is the clock, with chime-bells, 
which strike the hour, presented to the town by 
L. G. Burnham. 

Both the land and the building were gifts of 
the late T: O. H. P. Burnham, of Boston, who 
was a native of Essex. Mr. Burnham died in 
1891, and by his will the town received $30,000, 
half of which was for the town and the other 
half for a public library. Previous to this the 
town had come into possession of $5000 through 
the will of the late Dr. J: D. Russ, also a 
native of Essex. It was decided to build the 
town-hall and the library together. 

Kansas City (Mo.) P. L. The question of erect- 
ing a handsome new library building has been 
vigorously taken up by the board of education 
and the Commercial Club. It Is proposed to 
erect a building combining library and art mu- 
seum, to cost not less than $200,000, and it is 
hoped that the proposition to issue bonds for 
this purpose may be submitted to the people at 
the spring elections. Mr. G: F. Sheidley, of 
Kansas City, has offered to give $25,000 to the 
library, if the new building is erected, to be used 
for the purchase of books. 

Lawrence (Mass.) P. L. (226. rpt.) Added 
1314; total 36,772. Issued, home use 111,803 ; 
no. card-holders 5975. 

The circulation for 1893 was in excess of any 
year except 1885, and means a gain of 4 %. The 
past five months in correspondence with the 
same five in previous years show a gain of 25 %. 
The librarian remarks that the number of card- 
holders, 5975, is a small proportion for a city of 
45,000 population ; he also states that if the 
$7500 asked for had been appropriated there 
would have been $190.39 to the credit of the 
library instead of a deficiency of $809.63. 

Lynn (Mass.) P. L. (i 7th rpt.) Added 1627; 
total 47,921 ; lost and paid for 12. Issued, home 

use 124,075, ref. use 27,080. Receipts $8889.91; 
expenses $8699.90. 

"Owing to the long-continued depression in 
all kinds of business, there has been an unusual 
demand for books in the circulating department. 
Many people who were among the most constant 
visitors at our rooms have removed from the 
city, yet so many others have turned to the li- 
brary as a means of mental improvement or use- 
ful recreation that nearly 11,000 more volumes 
have been taken forhomeuse than in 1892. Dur- 
ing the same period the reading-room has been oc- 
cupied at all hours of the day and evening by citi- 
zens who in prosperous times are employed in 
their ordinary planes of business. Often the 
space reserved for the delivery of books has been 
used as an annex to the reading-room, but even 
then some have been obliged to stand while read- 
ing the newspapers and magazines. More vol- 
umes were delivered for home use in every 
month than in the corresponding months of 
1892, the total gain being 10,907 volumes, or 9^ 
per cent. 

" The catalog has been revised and lists with 
new volumes have been added monthly, and in- 
teresting articles, which are to be found only in 
pamphlets or the local newspapers, have also 
been indexed." 

By far the most important event of the year 
was the bequest of the late Mrs. Shute for the 
erection of a new library building. Librarian 
Houghton says : " Coming at a time when em- 
barrassments, caused by limited accommodations, 
are greater than they have been before, this 
generous bequest opens opportunities for useful 
work that can hardly be overestimated. For a 
good library building means not merely better 
facilities for the storage of books, but also ample 
rooms for the accommodation of the public, the 
best appliances for routine work and the most ap- 
proved system of administration. It means, too, 
a more general use of the library by the old and 
the young, more and better books in the homes 
of our citizens, and an ever-widening influence 
for good in the community.' " 

Madison, Wis. State Historical Soc. Z. (Rpt.) 
"A catalog of our bound volumes of news-* 
papers has been in preparation at intervals, since 
February last. We are unaware of the existence 
of any adequate catalog of this description, and 
have therefore been obliged to plough in virgin 
soil. Many vexatious problems have arisen in 
the progress of the work, requiring much 
thought in their solution, but at last all difficul- 
ties of detail have apparently been surmounted, 
and the copy will be ready for the printer early 
in spring. The society now owns 6854 bound 
volumes of newspapers, one of the best collec- 
tions in America, and is continually making 
valuable additions." 

Massachusetts F. P. L. Commission, (4th rpt.) 
This report is an admirable exposition of the 
value and practical usefulness of state library 
commissions, and is a careful summary of library 
progress in Massachusetts. Classified lists of 
the towns and cities of the state are given, show- 
ing the library facilities of each, and there is an 
interesting record of the " gifts and new build- 

March, '94] 


ings " of the past year. Within this time over a 
half million of dollars has been given by individ- 
uals for the purchase of books and the erection 
of library buildings in the state. During the year 
the state appropriation of $100 worth of books 
for any town whose valuation does not exceed 
$600,000, and which maintained a free library be- 
fore the law of 1890 went into effect, has been 
supplied to 19 towns; there are 15 still entitled 
to this aid. 

The classified lists prepared by the commission 
show that "of the 352 towns and cities in the 
state, 234 contain free public libraries that are 
entirely under municipal control ; 31 contain 
libraries the use of which is entirely free, and in 
the management of which the municipality is in 
some form represented; 22 contain libraries to 
which the town or city appropriates money, but 
over which it has no control. Most of these li- 
braries are free for circulation, but a few are free 
only for reference. 20 towns contain free public 
libraries that are 'supported entirely by private 
benefaction, and with which the municipality 
has no official connection ; one has a library 
which is owned and controlled by the town, but 
is not free, a small fee being charged the citizens 
for the use of the books; and 44 towns have no 
public library, though in a few of this class 
small association libraries exist." 

Accompanying the report is a reduced copy of 
the ingenious map prepared for the World's 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago, showing at a 
glance which of the towns in the state have free 
public libraries and the number of volumes in 
each library at the beginning of 1893. 

Some useful suggestions are made as to ce- 
menting the relations of libraries and schools by 
means of local collections. 

" During the year the advice of the commission 
has been sought by trustees and librarians upon 
the establishment of branch libraries and de- 
positories, upon the most practicable methods 
of rendering the libraries serviceable to the 
schools, and upon simple and economical meth- 
ods of administration. The nature of the in- 
quiries indicates the purpose of those who have 
the care of our free public libraries to so ad- 
minister them that their privileges shall be most 
easily available to the largest number of the 

Middletown, Ct. Plans have been drawn and 
accepted for a new library building for the 
Berkeley Divinity School to cost about $25,000. 
Work will be started this spring. 

Milford (Mass.) F. P. L. Added 100 ; total 
noo. Issued 9363 (fict. 8280); no. cardholders 
463. The library is in urgent need of more 

New York City. Astor L. (45th rpt). Added 
6968; total 252,317. Books issued in reading- 
rooms 210,376 ; no. visitors to reading-rooms 
60,947; no. visitors to alcoves (for special study) 

" Compared with the previous year, there was 
an increase of 7488 ordinary readers, and 20,327 
books drawn. For visiting the alcoves, monthly 
cards have been adopted instead of annual; and 

the purpose has been limited more strictly to 
such researches as cannot be made in the read- 
ing-rooms without great inconvenience. No 
card is issued without a letter of recommenda- 
tion actually on file from some well-known and 
responsible citizen." 

The superintendent says: " In a library wholly 
of research, like the Bibliotheque Nationale or 
the British Museum, where no one is admitted to 
the principal reading-room who is not properly 
vouched for, many facilities can be granted to 
all, that cannot be safely given in a reading- 
room open to everybody. It is as though the 
whole main floor of the Astor Library were re- 
served for a salle de travail, with the use of ink, 
unrestricted access to plenty of books of refer- 
ence, and all other books required by the reader 
brought to his table. Under such circumstances 
there would seldom be any need of admission to 
the alcoves. But with the reading-rooms thrown 
open to all the world, a degree of restraint be- 
comes necessary, that renders admission to the 
alcoves a great advantage for certain kinds of 
research. Fortunately the structure of the 
library in two tiers of large and lofty alcoves 
around three halls, lend itself to this use ; and, 
with proper precautions, the liberty, though 
large, is seldom seriously abused." 

The card catalog supplementary to the printed 
catalogs, and containing all current accessions by 
author and subject, has been kept up to date; 
and all the catalogs have been corrected as to the 
location of the books, to keep pace with the 
general rearrangement which has now been go- 
ing on for some years. During the past year 
English, German, Dutch, and Russian literature 
have been completed, or nearly so, on a syste- 
matic plan, with spaces for growth. 

New York City F. C. L. (i4th rpt.) Total 
v. in the six libraries 68,253; issued 531,037 
(percentage of fiction varying from 26$ at Bond 
St. library to 57 % at Ottendorfer branch). Read- 
ing-room use 186,013; Sunday circulation 36,- 
698; no. borrowers 47,104. Receipts $34,485.47; 
expenses $33,242.77. 

The Bond St. library, where for a few years 
there had been a slight decrease in circulation, 
is now in a very healthy and satisfactory con- 
dition, except that it requires a large number of 
books to replace those which have been worn-out 
by constant use. " The reading at this library 
is perhaps, on the whole, of a higher order than 
at the others ; and the percentage of books read 
under the classifications of history, biography, 
travel, arts, and sciences, is here the highest. 
The first complete catalog of this library was 
issued during the year, and we already see a 
great improvement in the reading, owing to the 
classified lists, and the recommendations (indi- 
cated by a star) in the catalog of the best books 
in the various classes." 

In the Ottendorfer Library it has been found 
necessary to restrict the privileges of the reading- 
room by " requiring the taking out of tickets of 
membership (but without a guarantee), which 
tickets are used as a check on entering and leav- 
ing. So far the plan works well; the respectable 
working people who use the rooms fill them to 



[March, '94 

their utmost capacity, and express their satisfac- 
tion that the place is rendered more attractive 
by the exclusion of tramps. We shall probably 
adopt a similar plan at the other reading- 

At the Jackson Square Library the reports 
show most excellent reading, and under the 
classification "literature" it has the highest per- 
centage of the libraries; " the circulation through 
various working girls' and men's clubs has been 
most successful, and the character of the work 
done in this way is shown by the fact that, in a 
single tenement-house in Rivington Street, Kate 
Wiggin's ' The Birds' Christmas Carol ' was read 
23 times." 

The library committee say " the total expenses 
for the year have increased $4935.94, and the cir- 
culation is so entirely out of proportion to the in- 
come of the association as to be actually alarming. 
Economy in the management of the library has 
been carried to its utmost limit and a correspond- 
ing increase for the coming year can only be 
met by a greater expenditure of money. Not 
only are more books called for but a better class 
of books is required , particularly new publications 
and late editions of scientific and educational 
works. There is also an increasing demand for 
books of reference and books in foreign lan- 
guages. "The cataloging department has been 
in active operation during the past year, but it 
has been impossible to keep up with the demand 
of the libraries for catalogs of various kinds, and 
this department should be increased." 

The committee concludes as follows: 

" It has been the duty of the committee, in 
each annual report, formally to thank the libra- 
rians for the energy, capacity, and zeal which 
they have shown in the prosecution of the work 
under their charge; but the committee have 
never felt this duty so imperative, nor their 
pleasure in doing it so great, as during the past 
year. The work thrown upon the librarians has 
been excessive, and more than usually arduous, 
and the salary in many cases inadequate, but all 
have met the demands with alacrity and with a 
spirit of intense interest in the success of the as- 
sociation. We desire to thank one and all for 
the personal interest they have taken, to which 
alone we are indebted for the extraordinary re- 
sults of the past year." 

New York City. Lenox L. The Lenox Li- 
brary has lately made a purchase that places it 
in an enviable position as a library of reference 
for students of the colonial period. This is a 
collection of 311 bound volumes of journals and 
weekly gazettes, some of which run back to the 
year 1733. The bulk of the new purchase, which 
cost $10, ooo, was gradually amassed by Dr. T. Ad- 
dis Emmet, of New York, for his library of works 
on the Revolution and Rebellion. It is strong- 
est in the newspapers of those periods, and is 
specially rich in New York newspapers of the 
last century. It includes also a fine collection of 
Southern papers printed during the Rebellion. By 
this purchase the Lenox has in one bound placed 
itself, with respect to old newspapers, beside li- 
braries like those of the Pennsylvania and Wor- 
cester Historical Societies, the Harvard College 

Library, the Wisconsin Historical, the Library of 
Congress, and the New York Historical. A few 
volumes were already among the Bancroft books, 
and the Lenox had to start with seven or eight 
volumes. The total of this department is now 
325 volumes, all newspapers. 

New York City. Mercantile L. The exhibition 
of rare books and manuscripts given yearly at 
the Mercantile Library was begun on Feb. 2, and 
in the afternoon and evening the library was 
crowded. Over 1500 volumes were on view. 
The " star " exhibit, however, was the monograph 
on the Basilica of St. Mark at Venice. This 
work, which cost $585, is divided into two parts 
the text, in three large volumes, and the illus- 
trations, which fill five volumes. Another work 
worthy of mention is a richly illustrated volume 
descriptive of the celebration of the completion 
of the cathedral at Cologne, 1880. A fine edi- 
tion of a work illustrative of the army and navy 
of the United States, in 10 parts, attracted at- 
tention, and Barley's edition of the works of 
Shakespeare, which cost $300 unbound, had 
many admirers. 

Plainfield (N. /.) P. L. Feb. 22 was held as a 
" Washington day " at the library, and its ob- 
servance was successful and most interesting. 
The library parlor was gayly decorated with 
flags and devoted to an exhibition of relics con- 
nected with the Revolutionary period, loaned by 
friends of the library, and works treating of that 
time and especially relating to the suject of 
Washington's life. Among the objects exhibited 
were an original Stuart portrait of Washington, a 
bust by Hiram Powers, two flint muskets, an 
inkstand with quills, a horse-pistol, sleigh-bells, 
a spinning-wheel, a dress-coat worn by Ethan 
Allen's brother, some letters and documents of 
ancient date, and an order on the warden of a 
jail, written and signed by Washington. 

It was the first exhibition of the kind ever 
held in the library, and proved thoroughly suc- 
cessful. The number of visitors reached 850, and 
many who had never before visited the library 
were among this number. The usual holiday 
attendance is about 75. 

St. Louis (Mo.) Mercantile L. (48th rpt.) Add- 
ed 3183; total 85,866. Issued, home use 99,274 
(fict. and juv. 77.1 #); ref. use not recorded. No. 
visitors 169,992; total membership 3810. Re- 
ceipts $59,632.46; expenses $52,198.24. 

In order to banish the constant complaint that 
members cannot depend upon getting the latest 
publications as soon as issued a complaint that 
Librarian Kephart says is inevitable " when a 
hundred members want the same book at the 
same time, and we have only four or five copies" 
the following rather original plan has been put 
in operation: "The library buys extra copies of 
the most popular new books, over and above 
those purchased for ordinary issue. These extra 
copies are known as ' duplicates,' and are issued 
only as extras at 10 cents a volume for each 
week. Any number of them may be drawn on 
the same ticket, and they may be kept out as 
long as desired at the rate specified, without the 
formality of a renewal, no fines being charged 

March, '94] 


for over-detention. These duplicates are not 
treated as permanent accessions to the library, 
but form an independent branch, organized on 
the basis of self-support; the number of copies 
purchased depends entirely upon the demand, 
and when this slackens the copies left over are 
sold. Separate accounts are kept of this branch, 
and the receipts from issue and sale of copies will 
be spent for new duplicates." Mr. Kephart says: 
" This scheme has been tried in other libraries, 
but only on a small scale, so far as I know. We 
propose to carry it out on any scale that the 
members will support, and eventually to furnish 
duplicates of other new books than novels if 
practicable. It is hoped that such a branch will 
solve the new-book problem, in so far as it is 
soluble at all." 

Most satisfactory progress has been made on 
the new catalog and classification. The work 
was specially complicated by the necessity of 
entirely rearranging the collection by subjects, 
numbering, and labelling each book, etc., but it 
has been most successfully carried on. Work 
was begun on May 20, 1891; in February, 1892, 
the first section of the catalog, English prose 
fiction, was published. The card catalog is now 
finished for the whole library, excepting the sec- 
tions of fine arts, part of history, polygraphs, 
English essays and literary history, bibliog- 
raphy, wit and humor, medicine, industrial 
arts, theology, philosophy proper, general peri- 
odicals, and a part of U. S. government docu- 
ments. The sections aggregate not over 20,- 
ooo v. "In other words, upwards of 60,000 vol- 
umes have been cataloged in two years and seven 
months, during nine months of which time we had 
two catalogers at work, or at the rate of over 
18,000 volumes a year for each cataloger. 

"It may be of interest to other libraries to 
explain in a few words how this speed in catalog- 
ing has been accomplished. It was not done by 
scamping. The printed catalog of English fiction 
shows the quality of the work. We studied 
economies in cataloging. We tried to incorporate 
all the essentials of a practical guide to our 
shelves, and to leave out all that was unneces- 
sary; we spent little time in hunting up full 
names of authors; when the library gets books 
by two James B. Fitz Smiths, it will be time 
enough to go through a wilderness of reference- 
books and college catalogs to find out that one 
of them is James Brown Fitz Smith and the other 
is James Black Fitz Smith; we copied only the 
essentials of title-pages; we did not analyze the 
contents of mixed works, considering that to be 
the proper work of bibliography, not of catalog- 
ing; we entered each work under its author and 
subject or title, with cross-references wherever 
needed; but we tried to make the catalog as con- 
cise as possible without using abbreviations 
(which the public despises, and rightly). The 
result is something more than a finding-list and 
less than a bibliography or index of contents. It 
may be elaborated hereafter to any degree that 
may be thought desirable, and for which future 
librarians may have leisure, but the essentials 
of a practical and accurate catalog are there." 
Mr. Kephart highly compliments the skill 
and industry with which the cataloging work 

was performed by Miss Sanborn and Miss 

San Francisco, CaL Mercantile L. (4lst rpt.) 
Added 2024; total 67,197. Issued 29,077 (fict. 
67.70 %); total membership 1114. Receipts 
$15,120.11; expenses $14,550.30. 

One of the most important points in the year's 
experience was the privilege extended to public- 
school teachers in October in granting subscrip- 
tions at $3 per year. This concession met with 
a fair response and promises further results. 

Statement of the fluctuation in receipts and ex- 
penditures and in membership, and suggestions 
as to the future prospects of the association are 
dwelt upon at length in the president's report. 

Scranton (Pa.) P. L. (3d rpt.) Added 4538; 
total 18,720. Issued, home use 83,246 (fict. and 
juv. 80.08 %); no account kept of ref. use. No. 
cardholders 6227. Receipts $11,631.00; ex- 
penses $10,618.85. 

In the reference department over 3000 v. are 
on open shelves for public access; no record of use 
is kept. 

On May 25, 1893, the Albright Memorial Build- 
ing, as completed, was formally presented to and 
accepted by the city of Scranton. Regular public 
operation of the library began June i, and it has 
continued ever since, excepting the period from 
Sept. 19 to Sept. 30, when the building was 
closed pending final details of construction. 

"A finding-list of books in the circulating de- 
partment, up to the end of February, 1893, was 
printed in March and April, being in readiness 
at the opening of the library, and sold at the 
nominal price of 10 cents each, 1921 copies hav- 
ing been taken during the year. 

" Lists of additions to the circulating depart- 
ment, since the printed finding-list, have been cur- 
rently made on the typewriter and posted on the 
bulletin boards. During 1894 it will be desirable 
that those and subsequent additions be printed in 
supplement form, and it may be feasible to com- 
bine with this an author-index to the entire con- 
tents of the library, and thus supply a feature 
which was omitted from the original finding-list 
for reasons of economy." 

Seattle (Wash.) P. L. Added 2476; total 
11,048. Issued, home use 98,000. Receipts 
$14,460.11; expenses $10,040.22. 

There was an increase in membership during the 
year of 2703, making the total number of card- 
holders at the end of the year 6336. The first 
catalog of the library was issued last September. 

Terre Haute (/</.) P. L. On March 25, 1894, 
the library will have been in existence 14 years, 
and in June it will have been opened 12 years as 
a public institution. It first began as a circulat- 
ing library in 1880, with 12 women members and 
300 volumes. From March 25, 1880, until June, 
1882, these women conducted the library, and at 
that time it became a public library under the 
supervision of the school trustees, containing 
1 200 books. The library now contains over 
10,000 volumes. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Univ. L. 
(Rpt.) Added 2839; total 68781. Issued 135,935. 
The recorded issue of books is less than the 



\_March, '94 

figures of the previous year by 3518 volumes. 
" It must not be understood, however, that there 
has been a falling off in the use of the library. 
The reason for the difference is found in the fact 
that very many more books than ever before 
were placed outside of the delivery-desk for use 
without the ordinary receipt which constitutes 
the record." 

The librarian calls attention to the pressing 
need of more space, of additional help on the 
library staff, and larger annual appropriation. 
The number of volumes in the various libraries 
of the university general, law, medical, and 
dental is 85,781. 

Washington, D '. C. Congressional L. The new 
Library of Congress has lately contracted for its 
book-shelves. They are to be of steel, 3 ft. 2 
in. long by 12 in. wide, of skeleton form so as to 
afford ventilation to the books and little or no 
lodgment for dust and places for insects to har- 
bor, and they are to be as smooth as glass. The 
shelves are not to be painted but are to be treated 
by the Bower-Barff rustless process. Each shelf 
is required to be able to support a load of 127 
Ibs. distributed over its surface, with a deflection 
not greater than 1-8 of an inch. The steel shelves 
will weigh seven pounds each, while an oak 
shelf of the same size and thickness would weigh 
nine and one-half pounds. There will be in all 
about 70,000 shelves, aggregating a length of 
about 40 miles. 

Wesleyan Univ. Middletown, Ct. The state- 
ment that the population of the town of Middle- 
town was 1002, according to the census of 1890, 
made in the table of statistics showing " College 
libraries and their relation to the people," in 
the February JOURNAL (L. j. 19 : 50), was an 
error. The population of the town according to 
the last census was 15,205. 

Wilmington (Del.) Institute F. L. The first 
free public library in Wilmington was opened 
on the morning of Feb. 12, without ceremony 
or exercises. As already noted in the JOURNAL 
the library is owned by the Wilmington Institute 
and its use was formerly confined only to mem- 
bers of the association. It has been in existence 
since 1787, when it was organized as "The Li- 
brary Company of Wilmington," but had never 
reached a specially high standard of general use- 
fulness. In the fall of 1892 it was decided to 
ask the co-operation of the city in making the 
library free to the public; W: P. Bancroft, of 
Wilmington, was actively interested in the 
movement, and did much to bring about the 
change ; his gifts to the library will probably 
exceed $25,000, and without them it could not 
have been made free. A bill was prepared 
amending the charter of the institute, so as to 
make the library free, which was passed by the 
last legislature. An annual appropriation of 
$5000 is made by the city for the support of 
the free library, and almost the equal amount 
is supplied by rental of the institute property. 
In October, Arthur W. Tyler, of Columbia Col- 
lege Library, was appointed librarian, and the 
work of reorganization was effectively begun. 
Mrs. Mary A. Resag, formerly librarian of the 

old Institute Library, was retained as assistant 
librarian. A large number of new books have 
been added, especially in science and useful 
arts, and the library has been completely and 
advantageously rearranged in new and commo- 
dious rooms in the institute building. Over 
2600 borrowers were registered in advance of 
the opening. The library starts with nearly 
20,000 v. on its shelves. The showing at the end 
of the first week was most gratifying. Librarian 
Tyler writes : 

" The success of the free library is more than 
assured; and our shelves in the fiction and juvenile 
departments look as though they had been struck 
by a cyclone. When the first week closed on 
Saturday evening, we had done a circulation at 
the rate of over 100,000 a year; but we are bank- 
rupt, and cannot keep up such a rate without a 
very large addition to our working capital of 
books. Our circulation the first week was 2862, 
the second 3042, and the third 3507 a total of 
9411 for three weeks ! and our available books 
for circulation cannot exceed 1600. On March 
5 the registration had reached 4436." 


Aberdeen (Scotland) P. L. (gth rpt.) Added, 
lending 1. 2293; total 20,361; ref. 1. 3970; total 
16,472. Issued, home use 258,767 (fict. 48.81 #) 
ref. use 20,982; periodicals issued in reading- 
room 46,531. No. borrowers 10,400 (6240 

With the period ending Sept. 30, 1893. the li- 
brary completed the first year ol the occupation 
of its new quarters. As the result of its change 
to the latter it was enabled for the first time in 
its history to carry on the three departments of 
its work with something like completeness and 
under one roof. 

" For a fortnight in July the lending depart- 
ment was closed for the purposes of stock-taking, 
and to enable the staff to take their annual holi- 
day all together and at a time when the public 
generally were holiday-making. The innovation 
may be said to have proved a success. July is a 
month in which invariably the fewest issues oc- 
cur; and accordingly the closing of the depart- 
ment then caused little inconvenience to the pub- 
lic, while it was a boon to the staff, and from an 
administrative point of view an advantage to the 

London. The philological library of the late 
Prince Lucien Bonaparte is offered for sale en 
bloc by Sotheran & Co. The catalog of the li- 
brary is not yet issued, but the collection includes 
about 1 7,000 volumes. Prince Lucien Bonaparte 
was almost the greatest contemporary student of 
philology, and his collection is said to be un- 
equalled by any in the world in that branch of 
science. It was valued at ^50,000 by its owner. 

London. People's Palace L. The subscriptions 
to the Wilkie Collins memorial have been used to 
establish a library of fiction in the People's Pal- 
ace Library. The collection is of English novels 
and poetry and it numbers noo volumes; a part 
of the fund was used to furnish and make com- 
fortable for reading purposes the room in which 
the books are kept. 

March, '94] 




EGLE, W: H., librarian of the Pennsylvania 
State Library, was on Feb. 9 reappointed for a 
term of four years by Gov. Pattison. 

SANBORN, Miss Kate E., was on Feb. 5 elected 
librarian of the Manchester (N. H.) Public Li- 
brary, to succeed Mrs. Mary J. Buncher, whose 
resignation, submitted Oct. 7, went into effect 
Jan. i. Miss Sanborn was for eight years an 
assistant in the Boston Athenaeum, and for the 
last three years has been cataloger in the St. 
Louis Mercantile Library; she will enter upon 
her new duties early in March. 

Cataloging ana (Classification. 

full titles with descriptive notes of all books 
recorded in The Publishers' Weekly, 1893, with 
author, title, and subject index, publishers' an- 
nual lists and directory of publishers. [4th 
supplement to the American Catalog 1884-90.] 
N. Y., Office of The Publisher? Weekly, 1894. 
c. 18+216+146 p. O. hf. leath., $3.50. 
Contains 5134 titles arranged in alphabetic 

order, being 272 more titles than were embraced 

in any previous annual; nearly 3000 of these 

titles are annotated. 

The BOSTON P. L. BULLETIN for Jan., 1894, 
continues the valuable " Chronological index to 
historical fiction," and begins the subject of 
France, covering the period from " early, gen- 
eral, and legendary" history to the seventeenth 
century, concluding with a list of works on the 
Huguenots. In accordance with the intention 
recently announced of printing in the bulletin 
sections of the great public catalog, this issue 
contains lists of the books in the library on the 
three subjects of Alps, Steam-engines, and 
Africa. There is also a 2^ p. " list of works in 
the Boston Public Library relating to the blind." 
The two chief items of interest in the bulletin 
are a " fac-simile of a petition of the handycrafts- 
men of Boston, in 1677, against the intrusion of 
strangers," and a "fac-simlle of apian of Boston, 
drawn by the Chevalier Daux in 1692." 

BOOKS, arranged by subjects with a complete 
index to authors, embracing the latest edi- 
tions of all text-books, treatises, reports, di- 
gests, decisions, statutes, law periodicals, etc^ 
which are at present in vogue, afh greatly 
enl. ed t , rev. to date. Milwaukee, C. N. 
Caspar, 1894. ico p. D. pap., 25 c.; same, 
with "key" to publishers, interleaved, flex, 
mor., net, $5. 

ary contains, besides the usual " list of new 
books," a list of books and magazine articles in 
the library on " the Hawaiian Islands." 

ing-list, December, 1893. 136 p. O. pap., 40 c. 
A classed finding-list, prefaced by a table of 
contents which serves as subject-Index. A di- 
agram of the shelving is given on the second 
page of the cover, to facilitate the finding of 
books; free access is allowed to all shelves. 
Author-entries only are given, but a subject- 
list of biography is appended; " purely historical 
fiction " is classed with history. 

Supplement no. 6 to the finding-list. N. Y., 
1894. 6+43 P- O- pap. 

Catalogs the additions to the library from Jan- 
uary to December, 1893; a classed list, preceded 
by index of subjects. 

NEWARK (N. /.) LIBRARY NEWS, May -Nov., 
1893. 8 p. O. 
Classified list of new books added. 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. BULLETIN for Feb- 
ruary has a " special reading list" of the period- 
icals currently received in the reading-room. 

for January contains a " list of books in the li- 
brary upon electricity and magnetism." 

Supplied by Harvard College Library. 

Davis, C: E:,/r. (Three years in the army); 

La Rue, B: Franklin (A graphical method 
for swing-bridges); 

Wright, Walter Channing (Female life mort- 
uary experience of the New England mutual 
life insurance company, 1863-1892). 

ADICKES, Erich. Bibliography of writings by 
and on Kant which have appeared in Germany 
up to the end of 1887. (iii.) (In Philosophical 
Review, Sept., 1893, ii. 557- 583.) 

APPLETON, W: Hyde. Greek poets in English 
verse, by various translators; ed. with intro- 
duction and notes, by W. H. A. Host., 
Houghton, Mifflin, 1893. 7+360 p. D. cl., 
Contains a 3 -p. list of translations and books of 


CASTLE, Egerton. English book-plates; an il- 
lustrated handbook for students of ex-libris. 
Lond., Bell & Sons, 1893. O. 20 + 352 p. 
il. cl., ioj. bd. 
Contains a 12-p. bibliography. 

CLASSIFIED bibliography illustrating a course of 
lectures on methods of studying and teaching 
history, with particular reference to the his- 




tory of the U. S. (In the University Record 
[Univ. of Michigan], June, 1893, iii, 43-49-) 

DODGE, C : Wright. Introduction to elementary 
practical biology: a laboratory guide for high- 
school and college students. N. Y., Harper 
& Bros, 1894. c. 23 + 422 p. D. cl.,$i.8o. 
Appendix B is a classified list of books of 

reference (15 p.). 

ERMAN, A. Egyptian grammar; with tables of 
signs, bibliography, exercises for reading, and 
glossary; tr. by Ja. H: Breasted. Lond., 
Williams & Norgate, 1894. 280 p. 8, i8s. 

JOHNSON, Emory R. Inland waterways, their 
relation to transportation. Phila., 1893. (Sup- 
plement to Annals of the Amer. Acad. of 
Polit. and Social Science, 1893.) 
Contains a 4-p. bibliography. 

MARTIN, B: Ellis. On the footprints of Charles 
Lamb; il. by Herbert Railton and J. Fulley- 
love; with a bibliography by E. D. North. 
[New cheaper ed. rev.] N. Y., C: Scribner's 
Sons, 1894. c. '90. 5+195 P- Pr. D. cl., 

MENTZ, G. W. Some standard books on pro- 
fessional subjects. (U. S. Office of naval in- 
telligence. International Columbian naval ren- 
dezvous and review of 1893. Washington, 1893. 
pp. 191 - 230.) 

ODIINER, Rev. C. Th. A brief account of the 
life and work of Emanuel Swedenborg; with 
a sketch of his personality. Phila., Academy 
Book Room, 1821 Wallace St., 1893 [1894.] 
5-41 p. por. sq. D. cl., 25 c.; pap. I5c. 
Gives a 15-p. bibliography of New Church 


PARKER, T: Jeffery. Wm. Kitchen Parker: a 
biographical sketch. London, Macmillan, 
1893. 10+145 p. O. cl. 
Contains a 13-?. list of Parker's published 


PROTHERO, Rowland Edmund, and Bradley, G: 
Granville (Dean.) Life and correspondence of 
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley. N. Y., C: Scrib- 
ner's Sons, 1894. c. '93. 2 v., 26+536; 6+ 
600 p. pors. O. cl., $8. 
An 8-p. list of Stanley's publications, including 

magazine articles, is appended; it does not claim 

to be an exhaustive bibliography. 

RAND, Silas Tertius, D.D. Legends of theMic 

macs. N. Y., Longmans, Green & Co., 1894. 

c. 29+452 p. por. O. (Wellesley philological 

publications.) cl., $3.50. 

Prefaced by an 8-p. list of Dr. Rand's writ 
THOMAS, Allen Clapp. The family of love, or 

the Famillsts. (Haverford College studies, 5th 

month; 1893; no. 12.) $i. 

Gives a 3-p. list of authorities and references. 

WEST, Max. The inheritance tax. N. Y., 1893. 
3- 140 p. O. (Columbia College Studies in Po- 
litical Science, iv. 2.) pap., 75 c. 
Contains a 7-p. bibliography. 

WHEELER, W. H. Tidal rivers: their hydraul- 
ics, improvement, navigation. N. Y., Long- 
mans, Green & Co., 1893 [1894.] 7+467 p. 
il. O. (Longmans' civil engineering ser.) cl., 


Appended is a list of " titles of books relating 
to tidal rivers " (3 p.). 


FLETCHER, W: I., and BOWKER, R: R. The 
annual literary index, 1893; including periodi- 
cals, American and English; essays, book- 
chapters, etc.; with author-index, bibliogra- 
phies and necrology; ed. with the co-opera- 
tion of members of the American Library As- 
sociation and of the LIBRARY JOURNAL staff. 
N. Y., Office of the Publishers' weekly, 1894. 
c. 7+213 p. O. cl.,$3.5o. 
This volume forms the second supplement, 
both to the last five-yearly volume of Poole's 
Index (1887-1891), and to the new "A. L. A. 
index " to essays, book-chapters, etc., compiled 
by Mr. Fletcher, and covering the period to 
1892. It is also an admirable complement to the 
"Annual American catalogue, 1893," the two 
volumes making a complete record of the literary 
product of the past year. It comprises the in- 
dex to periodicals of 1893, covering 121 pages; 
index to general literature and list of books 
indexed, 22 pages; full author-index to indexes 
to periodicals and general literature, 54 pages; 
list of bibliographies, American and English, 
published in 1893, 6 pages; necrology of writers 
deceased in 1893, 2 pages. 

INDICE sistematico dei periodic! (R. Biblioteca 
universitaria di Pavia.) Pavia, Bizzoni, 1893. 
61 p. 16. 

PROF. A. C. TRUE, of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture at Washington, is compiling an Index 
to the literature of experiment stations. His 
task is well under way, some 3000 cards having 
been printed, covering the publications of 1890 
and 1891. The earlier publications are now in 
hand ; when these are finished the index will be 
brought up to date. The titles are being ar- 
ranged on a decimal system. The classification 
will comprise : i, General sciences, physics, 
chemistry, mineralogy, geology, botany, fermen- 
tation, bacteriology, animal physiology, zoology, 
meteorology, and climatology; 2, Air and water; 
3, Soils; 4, Fertilizers; 5, Plants; 6, Foods; 7, 
Animals; 8, Entomology; 9, Dairying; 10, Tech- 
nology; ii, Agricultural engineering; 12, Sta- 
tistics; 13, Miscellaneous. 

March, '94] 




London Agency for American Libraries, 



EDW. G. ALLEN devotes himself entirely to library business. His long experience enables him 
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mistake." MELVIL DEWBY, State Library^ New York. 

Edw. G. Allen's American Library Agency, 





[March, 94 

The Rudolph Indexer Book. 

(Patented in the United States and all Foreign Countries.) 
Method of Indexing is the same as that employed In the Rudolph Continuous Indexer. 

BOOK consists of a number of 
card-holders of heavy card- 
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on both sides. On the back 
edge of each card-holder are two 
double hinges by which means 
other card-holders may be flex- 
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Independent book-covers are 
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and later increased as desired. 
If the book becomes too bulky 
it may be separated and by add- 
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The Rudolph Indexer Case. 

(Patented in the United States and all 
Foreign Countries.) 

Method of Indexing Is the same as that em- 
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sists of a series of card-holders placed on 
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An unnecessary margin of only 1-324 of an inch on the top and i-32d of an inch on the bottom of each entry will 
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The cutter will cut cardboard where spacing between the printed or written lines is 1-64111 of an inch. 

March, '94] 









The RUDOLPH INDEXER SYSTEM possesses many advantages which 
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We shall be pleased to give further information and list of testi- 
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RUDOLPH INDEXER CO., 606 Arch St., Philadelphia. 

ii2 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL \March, '94 

The Late Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte's Library. 

TTHIS remarkable library, probably the most extensive and valuable Philological Col- 
lection in the World, is now for sale by private treaty, and Messrs. H. Sotheran & Co. 

beg to offer their services to any Librarian or Private Collector desiring a competent agent to 

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The Catalogue, in itself of great scientific value, is in the press, price, i 2t 6</post free, 

for which early application is recommended. 

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March, '94] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL 113 

A Library Adhesive at Last! 

HI G GINS' . ' 



A novel adhesive originally intended and now largely used for sticking paper 
to the drawing-board, hence its name, but also found peculiarly adapted for labe- 
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of brush or finger. Spreads smoothly and easily, and is always ready. Not a starch 
or flour paste but a new chemical discovery Vegetable Glue. Will not mould or 
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(See last four previous issues for Commendations 1, 9, 3, and 5.) 

"Your Drawing-Board Mucilage is Ai." J. C. DANA, Librarian, Public Library \ Denver , Colorado. 


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The Catalogues of Foreign Dealers English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish fur- 
nished on application. 

Monthly Bulletins of New Books issued regularly. 

With the help of a most complete Bibliographical Outfit in all languages and on all subjects, 
and the experience of many years in this particular line, estimates can be furnished promptly and 
information given on topics of interest to Librarians. 



[March, '94 


5 and 7 East Sixteenth Street, New York, 

p^ AKE a specialty of supplying public, private, and school LIBRARIES, for which 
* * they have exceptional facilities through their connection with many of the largest houses 
as special agents, and by carrying the stock of all American Publishers. 

They are pleased to give estimates at lowest rates on lists of proposed purchases, and 
solicit correspondence with Librarians and other bookbuyers. 

This house is characterized by its Promptness, Carefulness, and L,o\v 

There will be sent to any address on application a topically arranged General Library List 
selected from the books of all publishers. 




Associates : 


April, 1894. Vol. IV. No. 3. 


Prof. C. LLOYD MORGAN, Bristol, England. 331 

Gen. M. M. TR UM BULL, Chicago. . 

Prof. MAX VERWORN, Jena, Germany. . 

H. H.WILLIAMS, University of North Carolina. 375 

LESTER F. WARD, Washington, D. C. . 

Germany ......... 


EDITOR ......... 


EDITOR ......... 


LUCIEN ARREAT ....... 439 


Logic as Relation Lore. Rejoinder to M. Mouret. 
F. C. Russell ........ 437 








PRICB, 50 cents ; YEARLY, $2.00. 

London: WATTS& Co., 17 Johnson's Court, Fleet St., B.C. 
Price in England and U. P. U., as 6d.; Yearly, gs 6d. 

we make a specialty 
of hunting for out-of- 
print books for Libra- 

For particulars and month- 
ly bargain lists, address 

S.F. MCLEAN & co,, 




Established 1879. 




ik 76 E, 9th St., 

Near Broadway, 

Opp. Hilton, Hughes 
& Co., 


Repairing and Re-backing of Old Book 
Covers a Specialty. 

Specimens of our work may be seen at the COLUMBIA COL- 
tT~ We have a special style of binding well known to 

Librarians of the American Library Association, of which 

Mr. C. G. Neumann is a member. 

A Literary Souvenir of the World's Fair. 

The Publishers' and Other Book Exhibits at 
the World's Columbian Exposition. 


i vol., 74 p., 2 plans, 16, pap., 10 cents. 

"The Publishers' Weekly has reprinted in neat pam- 
phlet its review of the publishers' and other book exhibits 
at the World's Columbian Exposition, than which we 
have seen nothing better." The Nation. 


March, '94] 



Book-Stack and Shelving for Libraries. 



Louisville, Ky., and Chicago, 111. 

This book-stack is of iron and fulfils-, all the requirements of the 
modern library. 
i . Convenience. 

(a) Access and communication with the stack, as well as with 

other parts of the Library Building. 
() Accommodation of books of all kinds and sizes. 
(c) Arrangement of books variable at will. 
(</) Shelves adjustable, removable, interchangeable, and easily 

(e) Assorting or reading of books. 

(f) Support of books on partially filled shelves. 

2. Light, cleanliness, moderate and even temperature and ventilation. 
3. Capacity and compactness. 
4. Fireproof construction. 

5. Shelving surfaces permanently smooth and protected from corro- 
sion (Bower-Barffed), and necessity of renewal. 
Used for the New Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 







Purchasing Agent for Colleges & Libraries 



begs to call attention to his facilities for obtaining FOREIGN BOOKS and 
OR EUROPE can offer, because : 

He employs no Commission Agents, but has his own offices and 
clerks at London, Paris and Leipzig. He has open accounts 
with all the leading publishing houses in the "world. 

His experience enables him to give information at once about 
rare and scarce books. 

He receives weekly shipments from England, France and Germany, and 
can thereby fill orders in quicker time. 



"Mr. Stechert has for years furnished this Library with most of its periodicals and European books, and has bought for U3 
many thousand volumes. Mr. Stechert's success is due to his constant personal attention to the business, and the reasonabla 
terms he is able to offer. I consider a New York agent far preferable to reliance on foreign agents alone." 

GEO. H. BAKER, Librarian of Columbia College, New York. 

" Seven years ago, in reorganizing the Columbia College library, I spent much time in trying to discover how to get out 
foreign books and periodicals with the least delay, trouble and expense. The result of the comparison of three methods, viz: 
ordering direct from foreign dealers, ordering through one agent in London, or ordering through one agent in New York showed 
us that it was to our advantage to give Mr. Stechert all our foreign orders, as he delivered in the library in a single package 
and with a single bill at as low cost as we were able with vastly greater trouble, to get a half dozen different packages in differ- 
ent bills from different places. In reorganizing the New York State Library, I opened the whole question anew, and the result 
of the comparison was the same as before, and we find that the library gets most for the time and money expended by taking 
advantage of Mr. Stechert's long experience, and the careful personal attention which he gives to our orders." 

MELVIL DEWEY, Director of N. Y. State Library, Albany, N, Y. 

" Mr. G. E. Stechert of New York has served us with fidelity in procuring English, French and German books, both new 
and second hand and also periodicals. His terms are more reasonable than any others that have come to our notice, while he 
has always guarded our interests very carefully. We find it a great convenience to have one agency in New York, represented 
by branches in different European countries." 

Prof. ARTHUR H. PALMER, Librarian of Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 

" Your methods and facilities for doing business, as I have examined them here as well as at the Leipzig and London ends, 
seem to me admirably progressive and thoroughly live. I deal with you because I judge it for the advantage of this library to 
do so. If I did not, I should not. Up to date I am unable to find a method which is, all things included, so economical of 
time and money as dealing through you." 

ERNEST C. RICHARDSON, Librarian of College of Nevo Jersey, Princeton, ff.J. 

" Our library committee speaks in the highest terms of your services. You have not only saved us many dollars, but havt 
fbown an intelligent appreciation of our wants for which we thank you. ' ' 

A. 8. COLLINS, Act. Librarian of Reynolds Library, Rochester ^ N. K 




Library Journal 



Economy anb 

VOL. 19. No. 4 

APRIL, 1894 





The "A. L. A." Catalog. 

American Catalogue of Books, 1800-1876. 

List of Books on Astronomy, Paterson Public 

The Public Documents Bill. 

The British Museum Libel Suit. 

Portrait of Dr. Poole. 

A Correction. 

A Few Words Apropos the American Catalogue. 


Miss S. W. Cattell. 121 


Tillingkaft 24 


How TO CATALOG BOOKS. J. Taylor Kay. ... 25 







A "Faggot Party." 

Pennsylvania Library Club. 

New York Library Club. 

Chicago Library Club. 

Catalogue of the Library of Kings College. 

Jordell, p., Catalogue Annuel de la Librairie 

Los Angeles Public Library. List of Novels and 

U. S. Bureau of Education. Catalog of "A. L. 
A." Library. 











Price to Europe, or other countries in the Union, 20* . per annum ; tingle numbers^ is. 

Entered at the Poet-Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter. 



{April, '94 


London Agency for American Libraries, 



EDW. G. ALLEN devotes himself entirely to library business. His long experience enables him 
to execute the orders of correspondents promlpty, cheaply, and with thorough efficiency. F's con- 
nection with all the Book Dealers in the United Kingdom gives him the command of the British 
Book Market, and qualifies him to serve his customers with special ad vantage, and to bring promptly 
under their notice all the stores of Literature, old and new, on sale in Great Britain. 

Books Supplied at a Small Commission on the Cost Price, with the usual Trade 

deductions, and forwarded by the quickest and cheapest routes. Second-hand 

Catalogues by early Mails, and no Commission charged on Orders 

from them. Periodicals and Newspapers Posted Promptly. 

pensive sub-agencies at home or abroad. Foreign books on easy terms. 

Agency for the following Libraries and many others: 

Library of Congress, Washington. 
Libraries of Parliament, Ottawa, Toronto, 

and Quebec. 
Amherst College. 
Boston Public Library. 
Brooklyn Library. 
Brown University. 
Cornell University. 
Enoch Pratt Free Library.] 
California University. 


Cheap and Durable for Circulating Libraries. Specially Strong for Books of Reference. Superior 
Style for Works of Art. Imitation Antique for Rare Old Books. Calf Extra in Every Variety. 
Best Half-Binding for General Library Use. Pamphlets Bound at Cheap Rates. Law- 
Books In Law Calf. Cheap Binding In Cloth. Hard-Grained Roan, etc. Dilapi- 
dated Binding Neatly Repaired. Deficiencies of Rare Books Supplied In 
Exact Fac-Simile. Library Stamps to Order. 

Colorado University. 
Johns Hopkins University. 
Philadelphia Library Co. 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore. 
University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Toronto, Can. 
Watkinson Library, Hartford, Conn. 
Yale University. 
Minneapolis Public Library. 

"We have been, for the last twenty years, personally cognizant of Mr. Allen's faitnfulness to the interests of 
his American customers. When a resident in Washington, ten years ago, we found that the immense Congressional 
Library largely supplied its shelves through Mr. Allen's London Agency. Many of the extensive libraries belonging 
to the Universities and Colleges in the East have also secured their Foreign Books from the same source, and we 
have heard from the officers of these Institutions frequent testimony to the scrupulous exactness with which their 
orders were always filled. 

" We cannot, therefore, do a greater service to the Colleges and Universities of the West, to which these pres- 
ents shall come, than to advise that they employ this inexpensive agency for replenishing their Libraries with Eng- 
lish Books." PRESIDENT WELCH, Iowa Statt Agricultural College. 

"No better indorsement of Mr. Allen's Agency is possible than the list of leading libraries that continue to use 
it. For 30 years, strict integrity and unexcelled facilities have held the oid and made new patrons. The very large 
business built up demands only a small commission instead of the customary 10 per cent. A library can safely 
entrust all its London orders to Mr. Allen without getting other estimates and feel sure that it is not making a 
mistake." MELVIL DEWEY, State Library, New York. 

Edw. G. Allen's American Library Agency, 




VOL. 19. 

APRIL, 1894. 

No. 4 

THE long-expected complete catalog of the 
A. L. A. " Model" Library is at last issued and 
will be welcomed by the whole profession, 
which we hope, erelong, it will be the means 
of indirectly swelling, by the facilities and en- 
couragement it offers for the starting of new 
libraries. At rather short notice the attempt 
has been made to review it adequately and 
justly, but probably both merits and defects 
have been overlooked. Certainly the idea of 
such a catalog was a brilliant conception and its 
completion is a notable event, marking a library 
advance towards he A. L. A. general catalog, 
for which every librarian hopes. If " well be- 
gun is half done," the present list is indeed a 
harbinger for the future, and truly the present 
catalog seemed more impossible in 1876 than a 
larger work seems in 1893. If such strides can 
take place between two such celebrations, let 
us celebrate early and often. But since we 
have none such in immediate sight, let us cele- 
brate the model library and its catalog, and 
hope that another 17 years will see the bantling 
grown into a great general catalog. 

THE first responses, amounting to subscrip- 
tions for over 200 copies, to the projected Amer- 
ican Catalogue of books from 1800 to 1876 not 
included in the 1876 volume, have shown remark- 
able interest in the work, and although they 
are not sufficient to justify entering upon com- 
pilation, for which 500 subscriptions should 
be at hand, they are most encouraging in that 
direction. The good words for the project 
which have come with the subscriptions are 
more encouraging still. The plan seems to 
meet with hearty approval both for its intrinsic 
value and for the preparation it affords toward 
the ultimate possibility of a general American 
bibliography. If it is to be worked out, how- 
ever, there must be still wider response, in 
obtaining which we trust our readers will hearti- 
ly co-operate. The project is to publish in $2 
parts, and to guarantee the author-alphabet 
within the limit of a f 10 subscription. 

CLOSE upon our criticism of Mr. lies' system 
of evaluating books we receive from the Free 
Public Library of Paterson a " List of books in 
the Public Library on astronomy," in which we 
have an actual specimen of Mr. lies' system. To 
every title in this list either Mr. Winchester, the 
librarian, or Prof. Young, of Princeton, has 

added a critical or descriptive note. Sometimes 
it is limited to a single word, as " excellent," or 
" popular." Again such descriptions occur as : 
" The standard up to 1850 ; " " The best Amer- 
ican work on orbit computation and ephemeri- 
des ;" "A capital text-book for students in the 
observatory ;" "Still excellent in many ways;" 
'' Superseded by Campbell," and many others of 
similar type. The result is eminently successful; 
so successful, indeed, that the critical suggestions 
made against the advantages of the system are 
greatly lessened. Of course these notes will 
unquestionably fall out of date, so far as the 
issue of new books is concerned ; but, bearing 
in mind always the date at which the list was 
published, it conveys a clearer view, and forms 
a more convenient handbook of literature than 
any catalog we have yet seen. The multiplica- 
tion of such lists would go far to solve the per- 
plexities of the library catalog problem. 

THE Public Documents bill is in a somewhat 
precarious position. We understand that Sena- 
tor Gorman, as chairman of the Senate Com- 
mittee, has completed a revision of the bill as 
it came from the House, and has prepared modi- 
fications and amendments which will be formal- 
ly brought before the Senate Committee at 
an early date. Unfortunately this had not been 
done in time to bring the bill before the Senate 
previous to its entry upon the tariff discussion, 
which now threatens to occupy its time pretty 
well through the present Congress. It is hoped 
to procure a favorable vote in the Senate while 
the tariff bill, if adopted, has gone back to 
the House for conference, in which case any 
changes made by the Senate in the House bill 
would doubtless be handled by a conference 
committee toward the close of the session. It 
is very important that librarians should cause 
both senators and representatives to feel that 
this bill is an important one, and that there are 
people all over the country interested in its 
passage. It is particularly desirable that the 
work of distributing public documents should 
be concentrated as far as possible to prevent 
the waste of duplication, and that the office of 
superintendent of documents, wherever it is 
placed, should not be a mere football of politics. 

PERHAPS one of the most curious legal difficul- 
ties in which a library was ever involved has been 
that from which the British Museum has just 



[April, '94 

freed itself apparently with entire success. A 
certain person who figured somewhat notori- 
ously in the Beecher-Tilton scandal has since 
that period removed to England, thete married, 
and achieved considerable social position. This 
is equivalent to saying that the old stones of 
the trial were bound to be revived. Envious or 
malicious people in London went to the British 
Museum, and examining the literature of that 
unsavory episode took copies of the portions 
discreditable, or deemed discreditable, to the 
lady in question, and did their best to give gen- 
eral currency to what was injurious in them. 
Concerning such conduct there can be but one 
opinion, and had the parties guilty of such con- 
duct been brought into court and properly pun- 
ished, no one would have felt anything but 
satisfaction. But instead of this, suit was 
brought against the British Museum on the 
ground that it was responsible by having placed 
libellous books upon its shelves and" published" 
them to its readers. What is more, the lower 
court sustained this view, and though acquit- 
ting the Museum of any " malicious intent" it 
nevertheless gave a verdict against it. 

THE far reach of this decision would occur 
instantly to every librarian. It would not only 
create an "index expurgatorius " of proble- 
matical proportions, but what is more, would 
compel each library to judge what books fell 
within the range, thus forcing each to become 
an expert in the law of libel. Nor would the 
most careful discrimination save a library from 
a great amount of annoyance. Political litera- 
ture, biography, controversial literature, indeed 
probably half our books, would have to be 
scanned, and whole classes would have to be ex- 
cluded rigidly, as for instance newspapers and 
trials. Any one who wanted a little cheap ad- 
vertising could obtain it by bringing suit against 
the library. In short, any such ruling estab- 
lished as a precedent would lessen the value of 
libraries to a degree hardly to be calculated. 
That such a decision could be made, only illus- 
trates how uncertain the law still is, and what 
absurdities even the trained legal mind can be 
led into. Fortunately such a decision was too 
absurd to stand a reference to the higher court, 
which promptly reversed this decision, and held 
that the Museum was merely performing its 
proper function, in placing books upon its 
shelves, without regard to their contents; and 
that a mere reading-room use did not, in the 
slightest sense of the word, constitute the pub- 
lication of a libel. 

THE portrait of Dr. Poole which accompanies 
this number of the LIBRARY JOURNAL * is from 
a recent photograph, and will be recognized as 
an excellent portrait of the Doctor in the last 
years of his life. It is interesting to compare 
this picture with the one we printed in 1887, and 
to observe how with him growing old meant 
merely maturing in those fine qualities which 
are so apparent in this last picture. 



WILL you kindly make a correction in my be- 
half in the LIBRARY JOURNAL? The A. L. A. 
Catalogue, on p. 41, gives the price of the Oster- 
hout Free Library catalog as $i. That is the 
price at which we sell it to members of the Li- 
brary School only; otherwise it is $2. The 
mistake has already caused me considerable an- 
noyance, and is likely to cause a good deal more. 

Wilkesbarre", Pa. i 



IN reading the notes about the proposed 
American bibliography of the literature of this 
century, it has occurred to me that it would be a 
good thing, if in connection with the book-title 
there could be given a list of all the reviews of 
the book. And, furthermore, a book that creates 
much of a sensation often originates a whole lit- 
erature of other books and pamphlets; these 
should be mentioned under the first title, thus 
bringing together all that has been developed 
by the original work. This would give not only 
a clue to the standing of the book itself, but also 
hints as to its history, and the history of the 
literary and other criticism aroused by it. This 
plan, as far as it concerns books and pamphlets, 
called out by a single book, is followed in the 
Swedish bibliography of Linnstrom, and its 
continuations, and has proved very useful. 


Albany, N. Y. J 

[The difficulty of such a catalog would be that 
it would require a good part of the next century 
to make it, and a good part of a hundred thou- 
sand dollars to pay for it. ED. L. j.] 


ANY one having a copy of v. 2, House Ex. 
Docs., ist sess., soth Congress, for exchange will 
please address the undersigned. 

I have a small quantity of duplicates of Cali- 
fornia pamphlets which I will forward to any 
one upon receipt of postage for same. 


Los Angeles, Cal. j 

* Reprinted by permission from Mr. Fletcher's forth- 
coming volume on "Public libraries in America," No. 2 
of the Columbian Knowledge series, published by 
Roberts Bros. 

April, '94] 



BY Miss S. W. CATTELL, Librarian Young Women's Christian Association of New York. 

IT is generally recognized that our Civil War 
brought to the women of America a certain 
emancipation or freedom which they had never 
before possessed, for it is from the memorable 
struggle between North and South that they can 
date their entrance into new fields of thought 
and activity. It was then, when the women of 
the country stepped so bravely to the front in 
camp and hospital and home, that they learned 
something of their own latent abilities, their 
powers of organization and administration; and 
the women's societies which began to form then 
have multiplied with such rapidity that in this 
last decade of the century we are almost over- 
whelmed with their number and magnitude. 
Not least among the forces set in motion at that 
time may be counted the organizations known 
as the Young Women's Christian Associations, 
or, to use a term still more inclusive, the Wom- 
en's Christian Associations, which have for their 
main object the temporal, moral, and spiritual 
welfare of young women. The first of these 
associations to organize was that in Boston 
in 1866, although the Ladies' Christian Union of 
New York, a society similar in aims while differ- 
ing in its name, really antedates it by eight years, 
being organized in 1858. Since then some 50 
associations have sprung into existence in the 
United States and Canada, meeting every two 
years in general conference, and working active- 
ly and harmoniously under the organization en- 
titled the " International Board of Women's 
Christian Associations." 

Of the varied work of these associations and 
the good accomplished by them, it is not my 
privilege to speak. I touch upon one phase 
only of their work the libraries owned and ad- 
ministered by them. Taking the report of the 
last biennial conference of the Women's Chris- 
tian Associations, which met at Chicago in Octo- 
ber, 1891, I sent a series of questions to all the 
associations there reporting libraries as a part of 
their work. The answers to these have been 
tabulated as far as possible, and from them may 
be gathered some items of general interest in re- 
gard to the methods and aims of these association 
libraries, and the results thus far attained by 

It must be remembered that owing to the mani- 

* Paper read at the Congress of Librarians, Chicago, 
July 15, 1893. 

fold departments of work carried on by the Wom- 
en's Christian Associations, such as boarding 
homes, restaurants, employment bureaus, board 
directories, exchanges for women's work, educa- 
tional classes, gymnasiums, summer homes, etc., 
the library must necessarily be somewhat of a 
side issue, until the need for one forces itself 
upon the attention of the association, and suffi- 
cient funds are provided to warrant them in under- 
taking this additional department. Therefore 
the majority of the association libraries are as 
yet in their infancy. In fact they cannot strictly 
be called " libraries " in the professional sense 
of the word, consisting as they do of a few hun- 
dred books contributed by friends for the use of 
the working women living in the various boarding 
homes in which they are placed. A few, how- 
ever, may be considered as regularly organized 
libraries, with well-defined methods, modern 
equipments, and a creditable circulation outside 
the boarding homes. Some of the associations 
evince a very earnest desire to increase their li- 
brary facilities, and they are almost unanimous 
in considering the library an essential factor in 
their work. 

It is of interest to note that some of the li- 
braries are fully imbued with the modern library 
spirit. The Albany, Brooklyn, and New York 
associations all report the Dewey system of clas- 
sification and a card catalog; these libraries are 
under the care of trained librarians. The Wor- 
cester association reports a card catalog and a 
classification under general topics. The Phila- 
delphia association, whose work is largely sus- 
pended at present, owing to the erection of a 
new building, has sent its librarian for training 
to the library class at Drexel Institute, and when 
its library is reorganized in its spacious new 
quarters, it will be upon the basis of modern 
methods. The Boston association has also a 
catalog of authors and subjects; the system used 
is not stated. Twelve of the libraries have 1000 
or more volumes upon their shelves, though only 
three have as yet reached 2000; these are: New 
York, 20,500, Brooklyn, 4485, and Philadelphia, 
4000. The reading-rooms which nearly all the 
libraries have in connection with their work are 
stocked with papers and magazines, varying in 
their number from 2 up to 123, the latter in the 
New York library. The books in all these li- 
braries are general in their character, covering 



[April, '94 

a wide range of subjects, and not being at all 
confined, as some imagine, to religious work 
and Sunday-school stories. In Dayton, O., 
prominence is given to works of Bible study, and 
the New York association rejoices in the posses- 
sion of a very valuable collection of illustrated 
fine art books, known as the Mary Elizabeth 
Hoyt Memorial Collection. The New York li- 
brary has also the nucleus of a circulating music 
library, including piano music, and the scores of 
operas, oratorios, etc. 

Since the association libraries are mainly for 
the use of those living in the boarding homes, 
they are of advantage to self-supporting women 
only; and even where the circulation extends be- 
yond the limits of the homes, the readers are 
mostly working women. A few libraries extend 
their privileges to any woman who may care to 
avail herself of them. No distinction in creed is 
made amongst those admitted to the libraries 
where books are circulated outside the boarding 
homes, and color distinction is recognized in such 
cases by only two or three libraries. 

Among the most interesting and helpful sug- 
gestions that come to us from these reports, are 
those relating to the various methods employed 
for stimulating among the readers a desire for 
good books. In Brooklyn, "courses of reading 
are prepared, centering around the life of some 
prominent man, notes are taken by the members, 
papers are written by them, and at the end of the 
course prizes are given for the best essays and 
notes." The library of the Philadelphia associa- 
tion circulates among its readers some excellent 
little leaflets on such subjects as " The gain of 
books," "The choice of books," etc., which can- 
not fail to awaken earnest thought on the part of 
the girls. In Albany " monthly talks are given 
on authors, books, reading, travel, popular 
science, history, biography, and current topics. 
This association has adopted the unique and suc- 
cessful plan of giving a room in the association 
building to a Library School student (who takes 
her meals nearby) in consideration of her care 
and supervision of the library for a certain num- 
ber of hours per week. This has been found oi 
great advantage to the librarian and readers, as 
the student has proved herself a true missionary 
and friend to the young girls. She has volun- 
tarily undertaken a weekly class on current top- 
ics, and has made many warm friends among 
them. The committee feel that this influence of 
a cultivated, refined, college-bred woman, par- 
taking somewhat of the University Settlement 

dea, is most valuable, and earnestly hope it may 
>e continued through successive classes of the 
ibrary School." 

In Springfield, Mass., there is a Chautauqua 
circle among the girls in the home, which does 
much to stimulate their interest in the use of the 
books. In New York lecture courses on liter- 
ary and historical subjects are given under the 
auspices of the educational department of the 
association. These have a direct effect upon the 
use of the library. The librarian herself has 
given a talk on " Books and reading," while a 
" Suggestive list of books for girls to read," pre- 
pared by her, is freely distributed and has proved 
of great practical benefit. Short lists are fre- 
quently prepared for individual girls who wish to 
pursue some special course of reading. In Louis- 
ville, Ky., thechairman of the library committee 
meets the girls occasionally to discuss books, 
while in Dayton, O., talks are given in the edu- 
cational classes of the association, which serve to 
influence the girls in this direction. Great care 
in the selection of books for the libraries, to- 
gether with personal suggestions to the readers 
from the librarians and those in charge, are the 
main reliance in the cultivation of good standards 
of taste and judgment. In the matter of the 
kind of books admitted to their shelves, the as- 
sociation libraries have an advantage over the 
more general or public libraries. They have the 
right to discriminate more closely, and they ex- 
ercise this right with care and discretion. 

Among the special features of the individual 
libraries which deserve mention, is the custom 
of holding book receptions. This has been done 
with marked success by the Albany, Brooklyn, 
and New York associations, and has resulted 
not only in valuable gifts of books and money 
but in the increased interest of the guests in the 
work of the library, often proved by subsequent 
and continuous gifts. In the New York library 
a unique and popular department is that of the 
art studies. This collection, numbering about 
400, consists of the colored supplements to the 
art magazines and other designs, both foreign 
and American, in colors and black and white. 
At a cost of 10 cents each these are mounted at 
the binders on stiff cardboard, and by means of 
a loop of tape fastened in eyelets in the upper 
end, are hung on hooks around the wall, where 
they may be easily examined. These are circu- 
lated to art students and teachers, dark linen 
covers being provided as a protection in carry 
ing them back and forth. This plan has been in 

April, '94] 



operation for over two years and has proved em- 
inently practical and successful, the circulation 
of the studies for 1892 being 954. 

Turning from this necessarily brief and incom- 
plete summary of the general methods of these 
libraries, let us consider something of their aims 
and needs, and the spirit in which their work is 
carried on. It does not require very long ex- 
perience here to be convinced of the pressing 
needs, mental and moral, of the girls and women 
who come to us through the open doors of our 
libraries, or that this is one of the departments 
of the association work which gives us a special 
hold upon them. The employment bureau may 
not always be able to secure the desired position 
for the applicant, and the boarding homes may 
have no vacant rooms to offer her, but in the li- 
brary, if the shelves be wisely and well filled, she 
can always find something to meet her needs, 
from the best technical and standard works on all 
the subjects engaging the earnest study of the 
cultivated woman of to-day, down to the light 
but wholesome story that will rest the tired brain, 
and relax for a little while the tension of a daily 
life of monotonous toil; for books have power to 

" Lift us unawares 

Out of our meaner cares." 

With her mental need freely supplied, will not 
any woman be better able to appreciate and 
respond to the earnest efforts made for her moral 
welfare ? In the library opportunities of this 
kind are abundant, and the librarian is often 
appalled at the thought of her responsibilities in 
the influence for good which it is in her power 
to exert, or for ill, in her failure to seize the 
opportunities presented. The Christian Associa- 
tion libraries emphasize and bring out in a pe- 
culiar degree what is true of all libraries the 
necessity of a keen, moral sense on the part of 
the librarians. To be successful in this work 
they need something more than professional 
training and executive ability, important as both 
of these qualifications are. They must have, if 
possible, unusual patience and tact, and the lov- 
ing sympathy, born of a Christ-like spirit, that 
will reach out unerringly to recognize the aspi- 
rations so often hidden away beneath an outward 
covering of ignorance, timidity, indifference, 
and even defiance. But where shall such ideal 
librarians be found ? 

One of the peculiar features of 'the Christian 
Association libraries is the relation of the library 
committee to the work. These committees differ 
from the ordinary boards of trustees in that the 
members not only have the general supervision 

and control of all matters relating to the" library, 
but take a much more active part in its daily 
work than is usual with such bodies: serving at 
the loan-desk, talking with the readers, preparing 
books for circulation, covering and keeping them 
in repair, selecting new books, etc. This has a 
distinct advantage in creating among the govern- 
ing board a more intelligent interest in the work. 
Practical experience teaches them the needs of 
the library and its readers. On the other hand, 
some disadvantage attends the plan in the occa- 
sional errors and inaccuracies which naturally re- 
sult from so much unskilled, or rather non-profes- 
sional, work. It may, however, be safely claimed 
that this objection is outweighed by the advan- 
tages, together with the stimulating effect upon 
the members of the committee themselves, many 
of whom are young ladies of wealth and social 
position, who are the better for such personal 
contact with their working sisters. 

One of the greatest hindrances to the growth 
and development of these libraries one common 
to most enterprises is lack of means. With the 
exception of one or two which have very small 
funds, all the association libraries depend upon 
gifts of money and books. This uncertainty of 
resources cripples them on every side, making 
It difficult, and in most cases impossible, to or- 
ganize the libraries upon any substantial basis, 
or adopt any definite plans for their development. 
We do not need to create our clientage; we have 
that already at hand in the hundreds of women 
who daily throng our buildings. It is estimated, 
for example, that the New York association 
reaches each year through its various depart- 
ments 30,000 working women. With the neces- 
sity for the existence of these libraries, so practi- 
cally demonstrated by what they have already 
done for working-women, will not some of the 
liberal friends of the association work come to 
their rescue, and make it possible for them to 
enter the doors standing open before them ? 

I must not close without some reference to the 
humor and pathos which vary the routine of our 
daily work. Here, as in other libraries, we have 
frequent examples of the confusion of names 
and titles; as, for instance, when we are asked 
for " The anglomaniacs," by Howells, or " Silas 
Lapham,"by Thackeray, or." Sarah Zanensky," 
by Miss Marian Crawford. Drummond himself 
would hardly recognize his own work under the 
title of " The natural history of Christian 
science," and Bulwer- Lytton's biography is 
spoken of as "his autobiography, written by his 
son." One indignant reader discourses on the 



[April, '94 

amount of blue tape in our regulations; and a 
bright young lassie speaks of the alcoves as 
" cubby-holes." An elderly lady asks if Kip- 
ling's " Light that failed " is anything like Ar- 
nold's " Light of the world." Another, when 
asked whether she has read Thackeray's " Van- 
ity Fair," replies, " No; but I've read all about 
it in ' Pilgrim's progress." " A girl of 18 or 19, 
who is keeping house for her brother, thinks it 
would be very helpful for her to know how to 
sew, and comes to the library for a book that 
will teach her; another wants a book on danc- 
ing ; still another, with no evidence of any 
special culture, wants to become an author, and 
asks for a rhetoric, thinking" she' will find there 
all she needs to enable her to enter the list of 
competitors for literary fame. 

These, and the many more instances which 
might be cited, bring a smile to our lips, but a 
deep yearning to our hearts to stretch out the 
sisterly hand of helpfulness to each soul that is 
" groping blindly above it for light." It is this 
that the Women's Christian Association libraries 
aim, above all things else, to do. We are grate- 

ful that this aim has already been in some 
measure fulfilled, but we are sadly conscious of 
the unlimited possibilities which lie unrealized be- 
fore us. The working women of to-day need 
something more than safe homes to shelter them, 
and training schools to fit them for successful in- 
dependence. They need the culture and com- 
panionship of good books. They need well- 
equipped libraries for their exclusive use, which 
shall be liberally administered with a view to 
their special necessities, and where they can re- 
ceive more personal and individual attention 
than is possible in a general library. They need 
libraries which shall be to them in very truth the 
"universities" where they can carry on the 
education which was only half-completed, and in 
too many cases but just begun when the necessity 
for self-support pressed upon them. In these 
days when the philanthropists of our great cities 
are providing so generously for the needs of 
various classes of society, is it unreasonable to 
expect that these higher needs of the working 
women shall receive the consideration and sup- 
port which they imperatively demand ? 


I DO not remember having been asked to give 
my experience for the symposium upon the 
subject of inks, which appeared in the March 
LIBRARY JOURNAL. The subject, however, is 
one which has interested me for a number of 
years. In 1876 the country was infested with 
peripatetic vendors, who were offering ink- 
stands which were guaranteed to last for 10, 
25, or zoo years, according to the measure of 
the buyer's credulity. Some gummy substance 
of an aniline nature was placed in them, and 
all that was necessary for the buyer to do was 
to pour in pure water and a remarkably limpid 
and pleasant ink was produced, which was re- 
plenished when exhausted by the addition of 
more water, until the aniline matter was wholly 
dissolved, when the supply ceased. It is need- 
less to say the inkstands failed to give satisfac- 
tory results after a few weeks' use. 

Being at the time connected with an office in 
which land and probate records were kept, the 
remarkable qualities of this ink set me to think- 
ing, and at length in my investigations I wrote 
to Munn & Co., of New York, publishers of the 
Scientific American, who have a large patent- 
office business, in which permanency of records 
is a sine qua non. They replied that after ex- 

tensive experimenting in the matter, and the use 
of many inks, they had settled upon a mixture of 
two, which they used for all the signatures for 
their applications for patents, viz. : Stephens' 
blue-black writing fluid, 3 parts, and Thaddeus 
Davids' Japan ink, i part. 

I procured these inks, and used them in the 
proportions named for a number of years with 
great satisfaction. There is one precaution 
necessary to be taken, however : the ink ought to 
be kept so as to prevent evaporation, as it then 
becomes very thick and gummy. This can be 
readily avoided by using it in small quantities in 
an ordinary inkwell (stand) or from a glass-stop- 
pered bottle. 

Since entering library work I have given up 
using Davids' Japan ink, but still adhere to the 
use of Stephens' blue-black writing fluid, which 
I find perfectly satisfactory. I was gratified to 
notice, when visiting the Newberry Library, tha 
Dr. Poole was using this same ink. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the use of 
an ink which will withstand the ravages of time, 
and the opinions of disinterested experts, it 
would seem, ought to be called in to help li- 
brarians in settling this point. 


April, '94] 



SOME matters of Interest in connection with 
the subject of inks, discussed in the last number 
of the LIBRARY JOURNAL, are found in the Sixth 
Report of the Massachusetts Commissioner of 
Public Records, just Issued. 

Mr. Swan states that as the Third Report is 
out of print, the parts pertaining to ink and 
paper have been reprinted, and may be had on 

The recommendation of an act to establish a 
state standard recording ink, is renewed, and a 
draft of such an act submitted. Doubtless many 
librarians would be glad to avail themselves of a 
state guarantee in this particular. 

A report upon red inks by Prof. Markoe is 
given, whence it appears that "carmine" and 
" azo" inks give the best results, but, neverthe- 
less, " we do not possess a permanent red ink." 
Among blue inks the Prussian blue in recom- 
mended for purposes of record, but in using 
great care must be taken to see that the pig- 
mentary substance has not settled; this results 
from decomposition, and implies the permanent 
ruin of the ink. W: H. TILLINGHAST. 


WITH fingers weary and worn, 
With brain too tired to think, 

An assistant sat at a library desk 
Plying her pen and ink. 

Write write write, 

In bustle and hurry and noise, 
Or run run run, 

For women and men and boys. 

It's oh ! to be a slave 

In an intellectual haunt, 
Where you only want to be let alone, 

And always find you can't ! 

Run run run, 

Till even the stair-cases shake, 
And run run run, 

Tho' the tired feet may ache ; 

No matter how badly they write, 
No matter how hard it seem, 

Till over the titles we lose our wits 
And run in a nightmare dream. 

With fingers weary and worn, 
With brain too tired to think, 

An assistant sat at a library desk 
Plying her pen and ink. 

" Run run run," 

She heard the trustees rail, 
And so, with a voice of dolorous pitch, 
Would that its tone might reach the rich, 
She sang this Library Wail ! 


J. Taylor Kay in The Nineteenth Century. 

IT is of importance that the vast stores of 
literature that we possess in our public and 
semi-public libraries should be made more ac- 
cessible to students accessible in the sense of 
the subject-matter of the books being intelligent- 
ly made known, and not, as is now the case to a 
great extent, hidden by the very various, un- 
systematic, and peculiar modes of cataloging 
them. To this end it is necessary that sensible 
bibliography should be treated scientifically, and 
studied to a greater extent than is now the case. 

The term " literature " as it is used in this 
connection does not, of course, comprehend all 
printed matter, but it includes the books, jour- 
nals, or printed material usually found in libra- 
ries. Its definition would be long and varied 
indeed, we have not yet had a completely satis- 
factory one but in the following remarks it will 
be found to have a very expansive reach. 

The practical study of bibliography has been 
much neglected ; and it is now proposed to show 
that there are many matters of moment in the 
details of the subject which not only seriously 
affect literature and libraries but the public gen- 
erally. Such questions as 

1. The best system of cataloging books i.e., 
whether they should be arranged under the au- 
thors' names or under the subjects, and the pos- 
sibility of formulating a uniform system. 

2. The classification of the subjects of litera- 

3. The possibility of having a general catalog 
of books, or index to literature, with an arrange- 
ment indicating the books that are in our nation- 
al institutions, and the proper authority for car- 
rying this out. 

4. The provision of a subject-index to period- 
ical literature, completing the work of Poole's 
" Index to [general] Periodical Literature, "which 
at present does not include the articles in scien- 
tific journals and in the transactions of learned 

Let us take these subjects in order. In this 
connection the subject of cataloging is of the 
first importance. It is by the means of catalogs, 
or should be, that we find out what has been 
written in any department of human knowledge, 
and are enabled to avoid the repetition of re- 
searches and investigations that have been al- 
ready performed. The catalogs of our libra- 
ries, therefore, should be treated as works 
having a special value. But at present each 
public library appears to have an arrangement 
of its own with regard to its list of books, 
though there appears to be a singular una- 
nimity with respect to the practice of placing a 
book under the author's name as the initial word 
that is, if it is possible to obtain it. There are 
exceptions with regard to periodicals, encyclopae- 
dias, collections, sacred books, and of course anon- 
ymous works. This author-heading practice is so 
simple and easy, that whatever may be the after- 
arrangement, classification, or division, it is now 
generally the initial word in the arrangement of 
books in catalogs. In the catalog of the library 
of the British Museum the alphabetical-author 



[April, '94 

arrangement is adopted with the exceptions in- 
dicated. But in this case there is also a special 
innovation interfering strangely with facility of 
access to the literature required that is, the 
periodical publications of all kinds are cataloged 
under the names of the places where the jour- 
nals, or the institutions whose proceedings are 
recorded, are situate or published, rather than 
under the title of the journal or the name of the 
institution. For instance, the following are the 
first two entries under the heading " Manches- 
ter" Ab-o'-tK Yate's Christmas A nnual, etc. ; 
The Alliance, a weekly journal, etc. 

This is an eccentricity that has not been found 
necessary in any other public institution except- 
ing the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, where 
periodicals are placed under the heading "Acad- 
emies." A few libraries have of late made a sub- 
ject-index at the end of the alphabetical-author 
arrangement, and in the result, as, for instance, 
at the Manchester Free Library, the subject-in- 
dex volume of the catalog is invariably used in- 
stead of the catalog itself. 

The exceptions called for by the arrangement 
of books under the authors' names in catalogs 
are many and varied. As before mentioned, 
there are the anonymous books: great books 
such as the Bible, the Talmud, the Koran, etc. 
(whilst their exegesis are placed under the com- 
mentators' names); and encyclopaedias and peri- 
odical publications, which are usually placed 
under the first word of the title not an article. 
In the case of biographies it is the general prac- 
tice to catalog the books under the names of the 
writers; but there is no reason why the subject 
of a biography should not be treated to a subject- 
matter heading in cataloging, just as the subjects 
of investigation by scientific men, and the fanci- 
ful titles of poems, plays, and novels are so 
treated when anonymous. 

To connect minor things with greater, the 
worry consequent on the present want of system 
may be illustrated by daily experience. The is- 
sues of catalogs by the booksellers have largely 
increased. Immediately one becomes known as 
a bookbuyer, or as connected with one of the 
learned societies that publish lists of their mem- 
bers, booksellers inundate him with their cata- 
logs. These are mostly author-lists, and we 
have to wade continuously through a large num- 
ber of columns of small type to see if, by chance, 
there may be a book on a subject in which we 
are interested. To those connected with public 
and semi-public libraries it is worse, for they 
must consult large numbers of catalogs for desid- 
erata. In addition, publishers are continual- 
ly issuing lists of new books or of current stock, 
and in the case of a few of these a little progress 
is being made in the way of systematic arrange- 
ment, for occasionally a rough classification is 
adopted. Thanks are due to the publishers of 
Whitaker's "Reference catalogue of current 
literature" and Low's " English catalogue "for 
the progress they have made in their particular 
lists. They are a step in advance, and are useful; 
but still the lists are invariably arranged under 
the names of the authors alone, and would be 
much more useful if the goods advertised were 
under the names given to them. 

It is from no want of reverence for literature 
that the term " goods " is used, for, after all, the 
subject-matter of a book is the book itself, the 
raison d'etre of its existence. The author is, or 
ought to be, secondary. But literature should 
be made accessible by its material, its subject- 
matter. By this only can it be arranged in 
older. Order is a necessity throughout nature, 
and should not be abrogated in literature. 

Librarians have sometimes raised a doubt as to 
the existence of sufficient skilled labor to pro- 
duce catalogs of books under an arrangement of 
subjects. During 35 years' experience in a college, 
a proprietary, and a free public library, I have 
had a large number of assistants who were quite 
capable of doing this. And it is worth while 
to remind the doubters that every word of the 
Bible, Homer, Aristophanes, ^Eschylus, Pindar, 
Tacitus, Thucydides, Shakespeare, Shelley, Ten- 
nyson, Milton's poetry, etc., has been indexed 
by persons without any special technical train- 
ing for the purpose. The work of Agassiz 
(Louis) in the great " Nomenclator zoologicus," 
2 vols., 410, and the " Bibliographia zoologiae et 
geologise," 4 vols., 8vo, though of a somewhat 
different nature, is another instance of simple 
useful industry valuable in its results. It should 
be noted that the latter important work " was 
mainly composed by the professor for his own 
private use during the leisure moments of a life 
of almost incessant scientific research." The 
grand work that Dr. J. S. Billings has done for 
medical bibliography in his" Catalogue of the li- 
brary of the Surgeon-General's Office of the 
United States Army " may also well illustrate 
this point. In this catalog there are literally 
thousands of subdivisions of subjects of medical 
science, alphabetically arranged, together with 
author-entries, and including not only the sepa- 
rate works, but also the subjects of articles in 
more than 2000 sets of periodicals. It has 
proceeded as far as "Shu" in 12 volumes 
imperial octavo, and there are 496,533 sub- 
ject-matter entries, in addition to 219,237 au- 
thors'-name entries. It is a standing monument 
of the truth of the assertion that dictionaries of 
subjects treated in literature are practicable, and 
would be an inestimable benefit to science and 
to literature. 

A committee (consisting of Professors Cayley, 
Grant, and Stokes) appointed by the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science " to 
consider the formation of a catalogue of philo- 
sophical memoirs" reported on the I3th of June, 

"The committee are desirous of expressing their sense of 
the great importance and increasing need of such a cata- 
log. . . . The catalog should not be restricted to me- 
moirs in transactions of societies, but should comprise, 
also, memoirs in the proceedings of societies in mathe- 
matical and scientific journals, ephemerides, and volumes 
of observations, and in other collections not coming under 
any of the preceding heads. . . . There should be a 
catalog according to the names of authors, and also a 
catalog according to subjects." 

Concluding : 

"The catalog according to authors' names would be the 
most readily executed, and this catalog, if it should be 
found convenient, might be first published. The time of 
bringing ou't the two catalogs would of course depend 

April, '94] 



upon the sufficiency of the assistance at the command of 
the editors; but if the catalog be undertaken it is desira- 
ble that the arrangements should be such that the com- 
plete work might be brought out within a period not ex- 
ceeding three years." 

The work was in part proceeded with, and the 
" Royal Society's catalogue of the scientific pa- 
pers contained in scientific periodicals," alphabet- 
ically arranged under the authors' names only, was 
produced. There are now eight volumes quarto, 
giving the author-lists from all the principal 
scientific journals from A.D. 1800 to 1873, an d 
the half of a second supplement to 1883 .giving 
the names to " Gis." Its insufficiency is daily 
proved by the specialists; for unless the names of 
all the authors who have ever written on a cer- 
tain subject are known by the investigator, much 
that has been written is locked up from his 
knowledge, and in any case much time is lost. 

The Americans and the Germans are in ad- 
vance of us in the study of bibliography. The 
Scandinavians also appear to be coming to the 
front. I have just seen the " Kongl. Biblioteket, 
Stockholm. Sveriges Offentliga bibliotek, Stock- 
holm, Upsala, Lund, Goteborg. Accessions- 
Katalog 5, 1890. Utg. af. K. Biblioteket genom 
E. W. Dahlgren " (Stockholm, 1891, 8vo). It is 
a continuation of the combined classed catalogs 
of the 22 public libraries in these four cities. 
The libraries containing any individual work are 
shown by heavy-faced initials of each library at 
the end of the catalog-entry of such book or 

It is not scientific or necessary to mix up the 
subjects of books in a catalog under the au- 
thors' names. It is as little scientific as to mix 
up biological scalpels and microscopes, chemical 
balances and tests, astronomical telescopes and 
clocks, physical dynamometers and thermome- 
ters, or the hundred other scientific appliances 
of the special departments of science, in one la- 
boratory. Take the catalog of the British 
Museum in illustration. It is for the use of stu- 
dents, and every student must be a specialist 
when using it. The problem he has to solve is 
to find, under the alphabetical arrangement of 
authors' names, the books in the library on the 
subject he is studying. The problem is soluble ; 
but consider the enormous amount of time and 
labor to be spent on each occasion it has to be 
solved ! Yet a catalog exists for the purpose of 
aiding the advance of knowledge. 

The second question is the subject of the clas- 
sification of literature. It has been often dis- 
cussed, but the growing necessity for specializa- 
tion in study demands that the results of the dis- 
cussion should be formulated. It is a subject on 
which much imagination and fancy has been 
used, but its pith may be readily epitomized. 

It is hardly possible to deny that all real litera- 
ture may be placed under the three heads that 
Francis Bacon indicated in A.D. 1605 namely, 
history, philosophy, poetry; or, in other words, 
memory, reason, imagination, " the fountains of 
human learning." The only exceptions would be 
encyclopaedic works and general periodicals. 
Perhaps it would be more applicable to the prac- 
tical methods of present-day expression of knowl- 
edge to use the terms research, record, and ap- 
plied knowledge. However this may be, the di- 

vision of all literature under certain heads or 
classes and their nomenclature are fair subjects 
for settlement. It may be assumed that the ques- 
tion would at first be restricted to the main heads 
of literature, the subdivisions naturally follow- 
ing. A practical and authoritative decision on 
so important a subject should be formulated and 
distributed. It is important because of the ex- 
traordinary variety of classifications now used. 
I have before me nearly 200 various systems of 
classification, from Aldus Manutius, A.D. 1498, 
to the present, time, but, intrinsically, the varia- 
tions are differences in the terms of expression 
only. If a simple scheme were discreetly ar- 
ranged by competent authority and promulgated , 
the librarians, the booksellers, and the public 
generally would prove its utility. This settled, 
the questions of the subdivisions and author- 
entries, or subject-entries, would be much sim- 

It has been argued that there are books which 
it is impossible to classify, but it is obvious that 
with a section for encyclopaedic works and gener- 
al periodicals a book of this nature could not be 
found; also, that some books can be placed in 
various classes; but the answer to this is, of 
course, " Put them in." That the divisions of 
intellectual knowledge, however, are sufficiently 
definite to allow of a working decision may be 
illustrated thus : In the Owens College Libra- 
ry, Manchester, containing more than 53,000 
volumes, there has been no difficulty in creat- 
ing departmental libraries, or in placing in sep- 
arate rooms the books relating to (i) Theolo- 
gy; (2) Language and literature; (3) Mental and 
moral science; (4) Political and economical sci- 
ence; (5) Legal science; (6) History and geogra- 
phy; (7) Mathematical and physical science and 
astronomy; (8) Natural history; (9) Medical sci- 
ence; and (10) Fine arts. The classes or depart- 
ments are divided into sections and subdivisions 
of sections, each alphabetically arranged on the 
shelves as near as possible according to the cata- 
log. Pamphlets are bound together according 
to their subjects and placed in the divisions or 
sections of their classes. The periodicals relat- 
ing to the subjects of each department are placed 
in the " general collections " of that department, 
and the general or polygraphical literature of 
general encyclopaedias, periodicals, bibliogra- 
phies, and literary history are placed in a separate 
department and cross-referenced as far as neces- 
sary. These are what is called the reference de- 

In America, as before said, they have found 
out that traditional customs required to be 
adapted to the scientific needs of the present, and 
their catalogs are very much superior to Brit- 
ish catalogs. Our traditional customs have a 
stronger hold, and we have too easily followed 
the precedents of the eailier ages; but it is as ab- 
surd to quote the immature efforts of the centu- 
ries that have passed with regard to catalog- 
ing and the classification of knowledge as to 
quote inexperience in other matters of applied 
science. A really good departure has been made 
by the Patent Office of the United States in a 
classified index to all the periodicals received in 
its library from the ist of January, 1891. This- 



[April, '94 

office indexes 175 journals In English and con- 
tinental languages, in the classes electricity, en- 
gineering, chemistry, and photography, under 
leading headings of the subjects, with their sub- 
divisions; the alphabetical arrangement being 
repeated in each division and subdivision. The 
indexes and sub-indexes to Allibone's " Critical 
dictionary of English literature and of British 
and American authors " are instances of close 
classification. The book itself contains, with the 
supplement, 83,000 authors, and more than 220,- 
ooo subjects. There are at the end 40 indexes 
of classes* of literature, and 273 sub-indexes to 
these. This has been necessitated simply be- 
cause the book is in the form of a biographical 
dictionary of British and American authors; 
many of the authors, of course, writing on vari- 
ous subjects. The classes are : 

1. Agriculture. 

2. Antiquities. 

3. Architecture. 

4. Astronomy. 

5. Bibliography. 

6. Biography and Cor- 


7. Botany. 

8. Chemistry. 

9. Divinity. 

10. Domestic Economy, 
n. Drama. 

12. Education. 

13. Essayists. 

14. Fiction. 

15. Fine Arts. 

1 6. Games. 

17. Geography. 

1 8. Geology. 

19. Heraldry. 

20. History. 

21. Juvenile. 

22. Law. 

23. Literary History. 

24. Mathematics. 

25. Mechanics. 

26. Medicine. 

27. Mental and Moral 


28. Morals and Man- 


29. Music. 

30. Natural History. 

31. Natural Philosophy. 

32. Naval and Military. 

33. Philology. 

34. Poetry. 

35. Political Economy. 

36. Political Philoso- 


37. Topography. 

38. Trade and Com- 


39. Travels. 

40. Voyages. 

And there has been no difficulty in arranging all 
British and American literature under these 
heads and their 273 sub-heads. 

We may also instance Reith's " Repertorium 
der technischen Journal-Literatur," arranged 
under a classification of subjects, and the " Sys- 
tematisches Register " and "Sach-Register" of 
the Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesell- 
schaft zu Berlin, and Carus and Engelmann's 
" Verzeichnissder Schriften iiber Zoologie welche 
in den periodischen Werken enthalten," con- 
tinued by Taschenberg, systematically arranged 
(or classified) with author and subject indexes, to 
show what the Germans are doing in this direc- 

The strong impulse in the direction of technical 
instruction recently exhibited in this country 
should point out the necessity of a strong move 
ment in the direction of rendering more readily 
accessible the technical and scientific literature 
we possess. Knowledge should not only be free 
but accessible. Its accessibility is only obtained 
by organization; by systematic arrangement and 
classification. The orderly arrangement and 
classification of its material is necessary to the 
true advance of knowledge. It is the thread 
which leads the explorer through the labyrinths 

of past attempts. By it we save time and labor, 
and necessarily encourage the higher learning; 
discouraging the dilettanteism which has become 
so prevalent and which appears to be enervating 
our appreciation of the true principle and purpose 
of literature. 

The third question, of the possibility of a 
universal catalog of books, is not so impracticable 
as might at first sight appear. It would neces- 
sarily be a great task to begin ; but when once 
achieved it could be kept up by annual supple- 
ments. The Society of Arts Committee on the 
proposed Universal Catalogue of Printed Litera- 
ture, presided over by the Prince of Wales, re- 
ported in 1879 "that the great size of the 
catalog affords no argument against printing 
it," and the authorities at South Kensington very 
readily published (1870-75) a "Universal cat- 
alogue of books on art " in three small quarto 
volumes. There is a very large amount of the 
work already done so far as regards the raw 
material, and the early completion of the " Cat- 
alogue of the printed books in the library of the 
British Museum " will supply very good ad- 
ditional material for providing a universal cata- 
log of books. . . . 

4. An advantage likely to accrue from the 
more persistent study of bibliography is the 
greater attention that would be given to our 
periodical literature, and the utilization of much 
of it. Times have changed, and some of the 
best literature is now contributed to periodical 
publications. It is in course of cataloging to 
a great extent (on the subject-heading system), 
by means of Poole's " Index to [general] peri- 
odical literature " and Supplement. This work 
is very incomplete as far as regards the scientific 
journals and societies. What is now wanted is 
the placing of the scientific articles (including 
the proceedings and transactions of societies) in 
one general index of subjects. The material is 
provided to a great extent in the " Royal Society's 
catalogue of the scientific papers contained in 
scientific periodicals," though under the authors' 
names. The re-forming of these under the sub- 
jects as the headings or initial words would be 
necessary, and would be of inestimable benefit 
to literature and to science. 

Poole's " Index," so far as it goes, is a valu- 
able illustration of the principle contended for 
throughout these remarks, that cataloging under 
subject-headings is not only possible, but that it 
is, even when incomplete, of the greatest possible 

This is a slight contribution, in the way of 
suggestion only, to the consideration of a very 
important subject more important than may 
at first sight appear. Literature has grown to 
a great extent of late years ; and there is much 
work for the librarian, the cataloger, and the 
bibliographer generally. Specialism in study 
has also grown ; and in the growth of literature 
of all kinds it has become very necessary that 
specialism should be aided by the study of 
practical bibliography. Practical, because these 
matters of detail that have been indicated are 
simple and practicable ; they have been tested 
by experience, and experience reports that they 
may be readily applied. 

April, '94] 





THE announcement is made that the British 
Museum is to be isolated and provided with 
much-needed room for expansion by the pur- 
chase of land from the Duke of Bedford, now 
covered with houses whose gg-year leases are 
beginning to fall in. 

The London Times, in its issue of March 18, 
says: " On both flanks and in the rear it is hemmed 
in so closely by the neighboring houses and gar- 
dens that not a foot of ground remains available 
for further expansion, and the narrow lane which 
skirts the building and separates it from the 
Duke of Bedford's surrounding property does 
not exceed in many parts more than 10 feet in 
width. The ground at this moment occupied 
measures about nine acres. The buildings and 
gardens of Montagu-house, which was pur- 
chased in 1755 and remained as the museum un- 
til it was replaced by the present building in 
1845, extended to seven acres; and two acres 
were added jto the south in 1839 by purchasing 
some of the houses and land on the north side 
of Great Russell Street. The property which it 
is now proposed to acquire covers a space of 
five and a half acres; and thus the future limits 
of the British Museum would lie within a solid 
square plot of land of upwards of 14 acres. Un- 
til additional buildings are actually required for 
the collections the 69 houses which stand on the 
ground will practically remain untouched, and 
will be occupied as hitherto by tenants, except 
in the case of one or two. These may be re- 
quired for bookbinders and other workmen who 
are now perforce lodged in the basement rooms 
of the museum, and whose removal to a building 
quke distinct from that occupied by the collec- 
tions is to be desired. The provision of ample 
working room for fire-engines in the event of an 
outbreak of fire in the building, however remote 
such a contingency may be, is one of the first 
necessary improvements which the possession 
of the new property will enable the trustees to 
carry out. But for these minor changes the 
proposed transaction will for the moment be 
simply a change of landlords; and for a certain 
period the purchase will continue to partake of 
the nature of an investment returning a fair ren- 
tal, which will undergo only a gradual diminu- 
tion as the houses are demolished and the ground 
is occupied for the purposes of the museum. 
The trustees have not carried the negotiations 
to the point reached without much trouble, and 
the Prince of Wales, always an active trustee, 
has been particularly zealous in bringing the 
matter to a successful issue. The Duke of Bed- 
ford, the ground landlord, has met the trustees 
in a spirit of liberality. Though the estimated 
value of the property in 1860 -61, when it was 
proposed to find an adequate home for the 
natural history collection in Bloomsbury, was 
.240,000, the price now agreed upon is ^200,- 
ooo. ^ The Chancellor of the Exchequer has, 
even in these times of diminished revenue and 
larger estimates, readily and freely recognized 
the advantages of the scheme. He will ask 
Parliament to confer upon the trustees the neces- 

sary powers to carry it out, and there can be no 
doubt the request will be granted. 

" Of no national institution, both as to its riches 
and its management, are we prouder than the 
British Museum. Among the museums and libra- 
ries of the world it is, all things considered, with- 
out a rival. Whatever be the provinces of scien- 
tific men and scholars, they must resort to it. 
No branch of knowledge can be thoroughly in- 
vestigated without examining its treasures. It 
may be an exaggeration to say that in the last 
quarter of a century it has done more for re- 
search than all the universities of the world put 
together. But it expresses the conception of 
the endowment of research as no other institu- 
tion does. The influence of the museum on the 
literature and learning of the Victorian age can- 
not pass unnoted by its historians. The com- 
prehensive, encyclopaedic aim and purpose of 
the collection have not been lost sight of. When 
Panizzi was put at the head of the museum 
it was feared that he, a man of letters, who, 
as Macaulay said of him, would any day give 
1 three mammoths for one Aldus,' would favor 
the literary side of the institution at the expense 
of the scientific and archaeological departments. 
The fear was unfounded. Panizzi himself did 
nothing to justify it. His successors, even if 
they had the power or inclination, have made no 
such mistake. It is unfortunate, perhaps, that 
the natural history treasures were removed to 
South Kensington. The unity of the concep- 
tion of a storehouse of the tools of all knowl- 
edge is broken by the dispersion and the sever- 
ance between two sides of nature. But the col- 
lection at Bloomsbury has been enriched in 
countless ways, until now, in all probability, 
there are stored within four acres more of the 
permanent treasures of humanity than are, or 
ever were, to be found elsewhere in the same 

" For some years to come the present buildings 
will be sufficient to store the books and collections 
of sculpture and archaeology. We cannot, how- 
ever, be confident that the present rate of in- 
crease, rapid though it is, will not be increased. 
The annual additions to the collection of printed 
books are about 40,000; and if the library is to 
be what readers more and more expect it to 
be, not only a complete collection of all books 
printed in the United Kingdom, but the deposi- 
tory of every important book, periodical, or 
pamphlet published abroad, the storage room 
may be very quickly exhausted. Another peril 
can be foreseen. Past ages, including those most 
indifferent to posterity, have left museums of 
their own kind, not housed in stately edifices, but 
buried under debris and mounds of rubbish, their 
sole curators and custod ians and keepers being the 
mass of materials, the heaps of dust and earth, 
which have defied the efforts of local pilferers 
and marauders to remove. All the countless li- 
braries and museums muniment chests of which 
the keys have been lost in the shape of buried 
cities and palaces will one day be rifled; and 
where will their contents rest more appropriate- 
ly than in the British Museum ? All over the 
world is vigorously going on the work of resur- 
rection of the past. Each step that is taken 



{April, '94 

brings the investigators into new regions. The 
pickaxe and the spade are doing for many 
branches of knowledge even more than the print- 
ing-press did in the time of the Renaissance. 
On broken and long-buried tablets and columns, 
fragments of pottery or stray coins, with blurred 
inscriptions and devices, we read more instruc- 
tive commentaries on the classics than the scho- 
liasts ever gave us. And the circle of interest is 
ever widening with these explorations. This 
outlook is fraught with difficulties to the trustees 
of the British Museum. What will be the state 
of things when all the mounds still unpierced, 
all the buried cities, are opened, and the coins, 
the sculptures, the inscriptions which the earth 
still hides are brought to light ? Perhaps a cen- 
tury hence it will be noted with amazement that 
in 1894 it was supposed that a large part of the 
treasures of the world could be stored in the 
space of 14 acres." 


THE suit recently brought by Mrs. John Bid- 
dulph Martin (Victoria Woodhull) against the 
trustees of the British Museum has been watched 
with interest by English librarians. Mrs. Mar- 
tin claimed that the museum trustees had on 
their shelves certain books containing state- 
ments damaging to her reputation; these books 
were read by visitors to the museum, and she 
therefore claimed that the trustees were amen- 
able to the law of libel. The first decision of 
the case was surprising, not to say alarming. 
The verdict of the jury was qualifiedly in favor 
of the plaintiff, to whom they awarded 2Oj. 
damages, the findings being that the books were 
libellous, and that the defendants, though acting 
in good faith and under statutory powers, had 
nevertheless failed to exercise proper care and 
judgment, and were therefore liable in nominal 

The news that this astonishing verdict has 
been promptly set aside by the High Court of 
Justice, and judgment given for the defendants, 
will no doubt greatly relieve the minds of many 
English librarians and library committees of a 
new and deepened sense of their responsibili- 
ties. Baron Pollock, of the Court of Queen's 
Bench, before whom the case came for a review 
of the law points involved, made short work of 
this novel addition to the law of libel. After 
premising that there was some evidence in the 
form of the verdict that " the minds of the jury 
had not been really brought to bear upon the 
subject submitted to them, "he went on to hold 
that the essential element of publication was en- 
tirely wanting. " It never had been suggested 
that a person should be made liable because 
there was a book or books upon a shelf in re- 
gard to which the owner did not call attention to 
particular passages." Still less could such a 
suggestion be made in regard to a body of 
trustees, acting under the statute and making 
no profit out of lending books. Judgment was, 
therefore, for the defendants with costs. Exe- 
cution has been stayed pending an appeal, but It 

seems impossible that any other decision can be 
reached in any other court. 

Indeed, if the first verdict had been allowed to 
stand, nothing, in the eye of the law, was to be 
taken for granted. It would not have sufficed 
that a book came from a respectable publisher. 
It would not have done to plead the difficulty, 
almost amounting to impossibility, of reading all 
the additions to a large library; apparently even 
statutory authority would not have protected. 
It is, of course, right and proper that private 
reputation should be safeguarded, and books 
containing libellous matter certainly ought not to 
reach the hands of readers. It is just here that 
the troubles of the librarian come in. Libels may 
lurk in innocent-looking works in novels, for 
example, and the best biographies and how is 
the unlucky librarian to discover that there is no 
word of libellous import in the books he adds to 
his collection ? The simple answer is by read- 
ing them. The British Museum receives annual- 
ly some 95,000 books, and to read these the 
services of no readers would be necessary. 
Counting newspapers, etc., the total reaches 
nearly 320,000. Yet the managers were to be 
held responsible for every line in every book is- 
sued to the public, for with them, as with news- 
paper editors, ignorance was to be no plea ! 
The finding of the jury was so manifestly un- 
reasonable that it could not be expected to 


THE season of 1894 will be, as usual, a ses- 
sion of five weeks, extending from July 2 to 
August 4, under the direction of W: I. Fletcher, 
librarian of Amherst College. The object of 
the course is to furnish as thorough and complete 
instruction and practice in library work as can 
be given in five weeks. This time, when well 
applied, is sufficient to give a good basis for 
future self-instruction and to furnish the student 
with a working knowledge of the essentials of 
library science. 

Instruction will be given daily (except Satur- 
day) from 10 to 12 a.m., in the form of practical 
lectures by Mr. Fletcher, in which the whole 
field of library work will be gone over. The 
class will be furnished with necessary blanks, etc., 
and required to go through with each process as 
it is described. The class will be conducted 
as one of beginners, no previous knowledge of 
library work being expected; but, at the same 
time care will be taken to make the work at each 
stage so thorough as to be of use to those who 
are already possessed of the mere rudiments. 
Cutter's " Rules for cataloguing " is used as a 
text-book, and intending members of the class 
will be supplied with copies in advance on 
application to Mr. Fletcher. 

The class will also meet afternoons from two 
to four o'clock, for practice in various forms of 
library work, according to the needs of the 
different pupils. 

The fee for this course is placed at $12.00. 
Special arrangements will be made to accom- 
modate any pupils who may wish to do more 
work than that of the regular class, and ad- 
ditional tuition will be given at moderate rates. 

April, '94] 



AT the January meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Library Club, held in Philadelphia, Mr. John 
Thomson, of the Free Library, gave a short ad- 
dress on "Some bibliographers." In the course 
of his remarks he pointed out that whilst bibli- 
ography is the " handmaid of literature " and the 
science of books is the " essence of bibliography " 
a bibliographer is something akin to a "body- 
servant to readers." F. J. Furnivall says that a 
sharp line must be drawn between catalogers and 
bibliographers. He places in the class of cata- 
logers all mere listers of books and opinions 
variorum and confines the class of bibliographers 
to those who have completely, or at least fairly, 
mastered the contents and subjects of the works 
with which they deal and who both can and do 
describe the insides of books as well as the out- 
sides. They must have much and good to say, 
and be able to be short and sharp in saying it. 
The bibliographer's is an honorable office. It is 
his privilege to aid 'every student, the theologian, 
the antiquary, the art student, the legist, and so 
on ad infinitum. As a writer in Notes and 
Queries says, he records the labor of all persons 
engaged in any literary or scientific pursuit, and 
is constantly noting the new discoveries in the 
map of human learning. 

It is impossible to speak of bibliographers 
without referring first to Richard de Bury, or 
Aungerville, who died about 1345, and has the 
honor to be the earliest English writer on bibli- 
ography. He possessed more books than all the 
other bishops put together, and he used high 
office of state as a means of collecting books. 
Petrarch met him at Avignon and described him 
as " rather fussy," but then de Bury had prom- 
ised to send Petrarch some information he de- 
sired, and notwithstanding two or three pressing 
reminders of his promise he failed to send the 
coveted statements. His" Philobiblon" is known 
to every student, and some of his instructions on 
books are quaint but " so true." We are not 
only (says he) rendering service to God in pre- 
paring volumes of new books, but also exercising 
an office of sacred piety when we treat books 
carefully and when we restore them to their 
proper places. Do not, he cries, eat cheese or 
fruit over an open book, dropping crumbs and 
other abominations over virgin vellum. Against 
the " mutilating thieves " who sacrilegiously In- 
jure a book he desires that a public anathema 
should be pronounced ; and as for those of the 
laity who look at a book turned upside down, 
just as if it were open in the right way, he de- 
clares them utterly unworthy of the communion 
of books. His use of Biblical examples is par- 
ticularly curious. His precepts are enforced by 
remembering how Moses taught us to make book- 
cases most neatly, saying : "Take this book of 
the Law and put it in the side of the Ark of the 

The brothers Augustus de Backer and Alois 
de Backer may be put forward as good specimens 
of industrious bibliographers. They published 
seven volumes of 800 pages each, noticing all the 
works published by the Jesuits from the founda- 
tion of their order. Each volume is in double 

columns, arranged in alphabetical order, and 
complete in itself. 

If de Bury was the first English writer on 
bibliography, Thomas Frognall Dibdin (1776- 
1847) fairly claims notice as the father of modern 
bibliography. If we remember to how great an 
extent he was entering on a new field we may 
well pardon his pedantic and tiresome garrulity, 
delighting rather in the results to which he led 
than noticing his stumblings by the way. What 
librarian has not spent happy hours over his 
large-paper copies of the "Typographical antiqui- 
ties " and the " Bibliotheca Spenceriana " ? What a 
life Dibdin led in revelling among the Althorp 
collection ! That library was formed in about 24 
years, and had 45,000 volumes in five rooms, and 
what volumes ! Who does not envy the city of 
Manchester, now the happy and inalienable de- 
pository of that collection ? It was out of the 
excitement over the payment of the enormous 
sum of ^2260 for the celebrated " Valdarfer Boc- 
caccio" that the Roxburghe Club, of famous 
memory, arose, and of this society Dibdin was 
the founder. The choice by a club of books for 
publication is fraught with great anxiety, and 
some of the early publications by the Roxburghe 
called forth a terrible sarcasm. "If," said the 
satirist, " it is a unique book that has been repub- 
lished there undoubtedly was one copy too many 
in existence." All can enjoy Dibdin's o wn sarcasm 
over his unsuccessful " Poems." He published 500 
copies, and was " glad to get rid of half of them 
as waste-paper," and destroyed with his own 
hand so many copies of the other half that he was 
"consoled" by knowing that his book had be- 
come exceedingly " rare." People owe much to 
Dibdin, though one critic wrote that his " Biblio- 
graphical tour" would have been "a capital book 
if there had been no letter-press." 

Who can take up Lowndes' " Bibliographer's 
manual " without a feeling of gratitude ; yet it 
brought him neither notice nor money. It is 
the first systematic work of its kind in England, 
and the net result to Lowndes was that he passed 
the remainder of his life in drudgery as a cata- 
loger for Henry G. Bohn, who re-edited the 
manual in 1857 - 64. 

Bishop Kennett White (1660-1728), who wrote 
a bibliography of America, deserves mention. 
He began numbly, and collected materials for 
Anthony a Wood's " Book on Oxford worthies." 
In Wood's diary is a note of five shillings paid 
to " Kennett for pains he hath taken for me in 
Kent." Bishop White veered in political faith 
between James II. and William in. , and was 
quickly nicknamed Weathercock Kennett. He 
is well remembered for his bibliographical re- 
searches, and especially for his catalog of Amer- 
ican bibliography, " Bibliothecse Americanse 
Primordia," 1713, 4to. 

Joseph Ames (1689-1759), who is celebrated 
for the "Typographical antiquities" of which 
Dibdin began a new edition, was a literary crim- 
inal of deep dye. In the sale of his effects ap- 
peared a collection of old title-pages, torn from 
books, in three volumes, besides several bundles 
and two further folios of title-pages alphabeti- 
cally arranged according to places of printing. 

Passing from Ames, Mr. Thomson spoke at 

I 3 2 


{April, '94 

some length of the character and productions of 
Robert Foulis, Brunei, Renouard, Pieters, 
Willems, Pettigrew, and others. 

One bibliographer, however, deserved and re- 
ceived special attention. Querard, in the speaker's 
opinion, was a most amusing writer. In his " Les 
supercheries litteraires," etc. (1845-56), 5 vols., 
8vo, is the famous "account" or invention of 
the Dumas Manufactory. It has of course been 
a world's wonder how Dumas, with his habits of 
life, wrote so much, so well, and so rapidly. 
Querard maintains that this gigantic pen-wielder 
kept a manufactory, employed a number of skilled 
writers, gave from time to time an order to turn 
out a novel, or a dozen for the matter of that, and 
they came upon demand. The fact that none of 
the alleged " experts" ever published anything in 
their own names seems to have made no effect 
on the mind of Querard. That it was quite un- 
reasonable that men should accept a honorarium, 
do all the work, and let Dumas revel in money 
and fame seems to be overlooked. Nor is it 
deemed odd that after Dumas' death these writers 
remained forever silent. The fact is that Dumas 
was a marvel. He was in literature as great a 
wonder as his own " Monte Cristo." At one time 
he was under bonds to his publisher not to pub- 
lish more than three novels in any one year. In 
1845 "The Three Musketeers," "Monte Cristo," 
and two other works were all being published at 
one time. Querard wrote much on bibliography, 
knew well the labor of writing, and when he 
came across this phenomenon his powers of im- 
agination as to how it was done fairly failed him, 
and of all bibliographical stories, few are more 
amusing than this imaginary Dumas factory. 

Nero f)ork State Cibrarg Sctjool. 


ON the evening of Friday, March 9, the mem- 
bers of the Library School and their friends 
met at the home of Mr. Dewey, 315 Madison 
Avenue, Albany, and enjoyed a " faggot party," 
provided by a committee of three gentlemen 
G: W. C. Stockwell, W: R: Watson, and G: G. 
Champlin. Each guest was expected to enter- 
tain the rest in some manner while a bundle of 
faggots burned on the open hearth. In this way 
a varied and highly pleasing entertainment was 
had. There were readings, shadow pictures, 
conundrums, music, and othervarieties of amuse- 
ment. Madame Albert!, of New York, the teacher 
of Delsarte physical culture, gave selections in 
the sign language of the deaf mutes and some 
relaxing exercises. Refreshments were served 
and the evening was thoroughly enjoyed. The 
souvenirs were satin bags in the colors of the 
Library School and the University of the State of 
New York gold and royal purple; in every 
bag was a diminutive card on which was neatly 
printed " Do not let the cat out of the bag." The 
picture of this cat in the proportion and like- 
ness of a zebra appeared on the letter-heading 
of the invitation. The cat was regularly striped, 
to show that it was a decimally classified " [diet.] 
cat." from its head to the tip of its tail. 

0tate ibrarg 


THE regular meeting of the Pennsylvania Li- 
brary Club was held on Monday evening, March 
12, at the temporary quarters of the Free Library, 
of Philadelphia. 

The meeting was called to order at 8 o'clock, 
by the president, Mr. T: L. Montgomery. The 
minutes of the previous meeting were read and 

Mr. John Thomson, librarian of the Free Li- 
brary, read an interesting paper entitled " Hints 
on reading." The paper was divided under 
three heads: " What do you read?" "Why do 
you read ? " and " How do you read ?" In an- 
swering these questions Mr. Thomson was guided 
by suggestions on a similar subject prepared by 
Bryan Walter Procter (Barry Cornwall). Speak- 
ing on the question of what to read, Mr. Thom- 
son emphasized the fact that if one reads more 
than he can digest, he ruins his mind, in the 
same manner as by over-eating he would ruin his 
body. Mr. Thomson showed some of the bene- 
ficial effects of judicious reading, by telling how 
lawyers and others, after they had been engaged 
for 10 of 12 hours in making some difficult 
examination, would read a good novel to clear 
and refresh their minds. Referring to the multi- 
plicity of new publications constantly emanating 
from the press, Mr. Thomson quoted Lowell's 
lines : 

" For reading new books is like eating new bread ; 
One can bear it at first, but by gradual steps he 
Is brought to death's door by mental dyspepsy." 

In answer to the second question, " Why do 
you read ?" Mr. Thomson said librarians should 
have for their object in reading the obtaining 
of knowledge which would better enable them 
to afford assistance to other readers. Books, 
he said, should be read carefully, and always 
with a definite object in view. He quoted the 
saying, that as " easy writing is confoundedly 
hard reading so easy study means terribly barren 

The president announced the executive com- 
mittee, for the coming year, as follows : Miss 
Alice B. Kroeger, of Drexel Institute ; J. H. 
Dillingham, of Friends Library; Percy F. Bick- 
nell, of the Library Company of Philadelphia; 
Miss Emma R. Neisser, of the Philadelphia 
P. L., Branch 2, and J: Thomson, of the Free 

Mr. Arthur W. Tyler described at length the 
operations of the Wilmington (Del.) Institute 
Free Library, which was opened on February 12. 

Prof. Allen C. Thomas made some remarks 
on Haverford College Library. 

The president gave a brief description of the 
various branches of the Philadelphia P. L. Other 
interesting reports were heard. 

It was announced that, if satisfactory arrange- 
ments could be made, the next meeting of the 
club would be held at Scranton, Pa., on May 14. 

The meeting then adjourned after a thorough- 
ly enjoyable evening. 


April, '94] 



Cibrarg (Eiubs. 


THE regular March meeting of the club was 
held at the Railroad Men's Branch of the Y. M. 
C. A. on Thursday, March 8, the subject being 
" Reports of recent work and development, and 
present condition of the several libraries repre- 
sented in the club." President Cole called the 
meeting to order at 3:30 p.m., about 20 mem- 
bers being present. 

Mr. Stetson, of the New Haven Public Li- 
brary, gave encouraging reports of increasing 
circulation, and progress in every direction. He 
has adopted the linotype process of printing, 
and used it with great success in a juvenile cat- 
alog published last spring. The charging-desk 
in his library is peculiar, consisting of the Li- 
brary Bureau open tray placed on a swinging 
board, which can be brought around at right 
angles to the desk, enabling the attendant to do 
her work while seated in her chair. The catalog- 
drawers being much crowded, Mr. Stetson, not 
wishing to buy new cases, pasted on each guide 
a printed list of the additions between that and 
the next guide. 

Mr. and Mrs. H : J. Carf , of Scranton , Pa. , were 
present as guests of the club, and president Cole 
called on Mr. Carr to report on library work in 
his state. He gave an interesting account of a 
new library enterprise in Philadelphia. The 
city has no large free public library, but several 
small ones, entirely independent, have been re- 
cently established in different parts of the city 
by the Board of Education. The public have 
free access to the shelves, and the libraries have 
already gained a wide circulation, due in great 
measure to this fact. Mr. Tyler is trying the 
same plan at Wilmington, Del., and so far has 
been very successful. 

The Enoch Pratt Library uses the linotype 
process, and Mr. Carr, himself , would have pre- 
ferred it in his library, but there were no facili- 
ties for using it in Scranton, and he could not 
go out of town. 

Mr. Baker had never used the linotype proc- 
ess, but thought that any system that would 
give stereotyped plates would be very desirable, 
and that it might be feasible to have stereo- 
typed plates of book-titles for the use of differ- 
ent libraries. 

In regard to access to shelves, he said it is a 
question that each library must decide for it- 
self. In Columbia the experiment of absolutely 
free access has been thoroughly tried, and if 
a vote were taken now among the people who 
use it, the verdict would probably be unfavorable. 
In the new library it will not be followed. There 
will be a large reference library, of perhaps, 12,000 
to 15,000 volumes, to which readers will have ac- 
cess, but the remainder of the library will be 
arranged in apartments, according to subjects, 
and only advanced students and fellows will be 
admitted except by special permission. There 
will be 20 or 30 of these department libraries, 
and they will be under the supervision of differ- 
ent officers. Already a sort of reclassification 
of the books is going on, for while the Dewey 

notation and general distribution will be re- 
tained, it will be simplified and modified with a 
view to the department libraries. For example, 
the subject of philology will be distributed, 
:>ooks on Greek philology going with Greek 
.iterature, etc. 

One of the main features developed at Colum- 
bia, recently, is the Avery Architectural Library. 
Through the generosity of Mr. Avery, 5000 
volumes were added last year, and this year 
will bring 3000 or 4000 more, making about 
12,000 in all. It will be the richest and fullest 
collection of the kind in the country, and the 
catalog, which is now being printed under the 
supervision of Mr.;Nelson, will be one of the most 
beautifully printed catalogs in existence, and 
the most complete in its special field. 

Another important and recent addition is the 
set of books illustrative of German univer- 
sities, which were made by order of the Ger- 
man government and sent to the World's Fair. 
Each volume is three feet square, weighs 100 
pounds or more, and contains photographs and 
scale drawings of the buildings. These were 
bought by President Low, and presented to the 
library. Special cases are now being made for 
them, in which they can easily be exhibited. 
The library has also had a recent gift of $20,- 
ooo, from an unknown donor, of which $10,000 
is to be expended in acquiring a great library of 
jurisprudence. There is already a fair working 
law library, but with the increased funds it will 
become a library of jurisprudence on the widest 

Mr. Leipziger spoke very highly of the Aguilar 
Library, which is doing much work with very 
limited means. It has two branches, one of 
them in the poor part of the city, the other up- 
town, and the character of the reading in the 
down-town branch is far superior to that of the 
other. In the latter place, people ask for the 
latest novel, but down-town they want informa- 
tion. Free access to shelves would be impossi- 
ble here. 

Mr. Poole read the following resolutions on 
the death of Dr. Poole, which were drawn up by 
a committee, consisting of Miss Middleton, Mr. 
Poole, Mr. Baker, and Mr. Nelson, and adopted 
by a unanimous vote of the club : 

Whereas. Divine Providence has removed from our 
ranks William Frederick Poole, LL.D., Librarian of the 
Newberry Library, of Chicago, therefore 

Resolved, That the officers and members of the New- 
York Library Club desire to record their sense of sorrow 
at the loss of one who for a larger part of his life was de- 
voted to library work, and the promoting of library inter- 
ests, bringing to this service an enthusiasm, earnestness, 
and wisdom worthyjof his noble life-calling. In the death 
of Dr. Poole librarians mourn for one who occupied a fore- 
most place in librarianship, a pioneer in the reform in li- 
rary architecture, if not the originator of it ; a bibliog- 
rapher, and the founder and bead of that monument of 
labor " Poole's index to periodical literature," a work 
which will ever be an honor to his name, and of the 
greatest public value, as being the key to a library of 
literature, hitherto almost unavailable. Dr. Poole oc- 
cupied also a distinguished position among the stu- 
dents of American history. He will be missed in our 
councils. His genial nature, wisdom, and strong con- 
victions will be cherished memories respecting him. In 
his death we lose a friend and a wise adviser. 

Resolved, That we [tender to the bereaved family of the 
deceased our sincere sympathy in this their great loss, 
and that a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to 
them by the secretary. 



{April, '94 

After the reading of the resolutions, several 
members of the club spoke briefly concerning 
their high admiration of Dr. Poole, both as a man 
and a librarian. 

Mr. Nelson alluded to the finishing of the " A. 
L. A." Catalog, and read the following verses, 
written by him for the Library School celebra- 
tion, described in the last number of the LI- 

1876 - 1894. 

Opus est, the work is finished, 

Deo Laus, to God the praise, 
Often wrote the scribe mediaeval 

After task of many days. 

O'er his manuscript he labored 

In his solitary cell, 
Stroke by stroke for every letter, 

Day by day, a weary spell. 

And when, turned the final folio, 
Came at last the closing word, 

Tho' he'd writ one copy only, 
Truly might he thank the Lord. 

But in pur day of co-labor 

Nothing new beneath the sun 
Is there, sooth, for us to boast of, 

Tho' three score the work have done. 

Finished is th' A. L. A. Catalog, 
But for its colophon we read : 
" Opus est, post multos annas, 

Deo laus /" to God the meed. 

Mr. Warburton, secretary of the Railroad 
Men's Branch of the Y. M. C. A., extended a 
cordial welcome to the club, and an invitation 
to inspect the building after the exercises were 

Miss Schottenfels was elected a member of 
the club. 




THE 1 7th regular meeting of the Chicago 
Library Club was held at the Chicago Public 
Library, Tuesday evening, March 6, 1894. Fol- 
lowing soon after the death of Dr. William F. 
Poole, librarian of the Newberry Library, it 
took the form of a memorial meeting. 

Remarks were made by the president and 
members of the club, and the following memo- 
rial minute was read and approved by the club: 


"The Chicago Library Club, in common with 
the citizens of Chicago and the library profession 
generally, mourns the death of Dr. William F. 
Poole, librarian of the Newberry Library, which 
occurred at his residence in Evanston, 111., 
March i, and deems it fitting that the following 
memorial minute be adopted and be entered 
upon its records : 

" William F. Poole was born Dec. 24, 1821, in 
Salem, Mass., and was consequently 72 years old 
at the time of his death. Bright at his books, 
he had mastered most of the common branches 
of an education, and had made good progress in 
Latin at the age of 12 years. 

" After preparation at Leicester Academy he 
entered Yale in 1842, and was soon chosen as- 
sistant librarian of his society, The Brothers in 

Unity, which had a library of 10,000 volumes. 
Here his lifework began. A lover of books, he 
spent his spare hours among them, studying, in- 
dexing, and classifying, laying the foundation for 
that wider knowledge which has given him a 
national if not a world-wide fame. Being of an 
inquiring mind, and not willing to take for 
granted statements susceptible of proof, he was 
soon searching the periodical literature of the 
library for facts to be used in his literary tourna- 
ments, for he early began to wield the pen. In 
this he was hampered by the want of suitable 
indexes, and he then conceived the idea of an 
index to periodical literature, which would put 
within reach the storehouses so long and so 
effectually closed to the student and writer. 
Having been convinced of its utility, Dr. Poole 
immediately began the preparation of his index, 
which appeared in 1848, being a work of 154 
pages. The demand for this aid to the study of 
literature was so great that a new and enlarged 
edition was begun, which was published in 1854, 
comprising 531 pages. 

" In the meantime Dr. Poole had been chosen 
librarian, a position which he held until some 
months after his graduation. Having acquired 
a name for thorough work, and being an en- 
thusiast in his chosen profession, he was called 
to Boston, where he accepted the position of 
assistant librarian of the Boston Athenaeum, 
which he left in a year to assume charge of the 
Boston Mercantile Library. Here he spent 
four years, during which he inaugurated the 
dictionary catalog, when he again went to the 
Athenaeum, now as its chief librarian. After 
13 years of hard work he resigned in order to 
gain some rest and to pursue his profession in 
other and special lines. 

" In 1869 Dr. Poole went to Cincinnati and 
assumed charge of the Public Library in that 
city, spending most of the time for the next 
four years in reorganizing and cataloging the 
books in that institution. It was while engaged 
here that he received a call from the directors of 
the then new Chicago Public Library, on Oct. 25, 
1873, to come to Chicago and assume charge of 
that institution. Having accepted the call, Dr. 
Poole entered upon his duties Jan. i, 1874. The 
rapid growth of the library and the increased 
facilities for research demanded by the public 
suggested the necessity of a third and much en- 
larged edition of his ' Index to periodical litera- 
ture." So many periodicals had appeared in the 
field and so many years had elapsed since the 
second edition of this work that to one not 
gifted with the iron will and determination of 
Dr. Poole the undertaking might have seemed 
impossible. But not so to him. Securing the 
co-operation of the librarians of the chief libraries 
of this country and of England, and with Mr. W. 
I. Fletcher, of Amherst, as an able lieutenant, 
Dr. Poole parcelled out the magazines to these 
helpers, not failing to reserve for himself the 
largest share of the work. And so, like the 
temple of Solomon, this great structure the 
third edition of Poole's Index grew without 
the sound of a hammer or outward herald, until 
in 1882 it appeared in the form of a royal 
octavo of 1469 pages, since which time, with 

April, '94] 



its supplements, it has been a standard reference- 
book in all American and English libraries. 

" In the year 1887 Dr. Poole resigned his posi- 
tion as librarian of the Chicago Public Library 
to accept a similar position in the Newberry Li- 
brary. Here was another opportunity to show 
his skill and ability in laying the foundation and 
building the superstructure of a great institution 
for the dissemination of knowledge. Earnest- 
ly and faithfully, and with almost all vigor of 
youth, did he strive to build up this great refer- 
ance library. Though in some degree hampered 
by environments beyond his control, his success 
is well known, and the Newberry Library will 
ever bear the imprint of the great mind which 
directed its incipient growth thus far. 

"But what of Dr. Poole's private life and charac- 
ter ? He was a man of strong individuality and 
of indomitable energy, traits which no doubt 
saved him from the life of a tanner, upon which 
he had at one time entered. Coming from sturdy 
New England stock he remembered his ancestry 
with pride. Being naturally a student and hav- 
ing access to the most reliable data, he early 
made a study of New England history, and espe- 
cially of the withcraft period, and while we may 
not indorse all his conclusions in his defence of 
the Mathers and others, we may admire with 
pride the consummate skill with which he wields 
his pen in behalf of his native town. Time does 
not permit the enumeration of the different 
themes which occupied Dr. Poole's pen, for they 
were many and various, being mostly in the na- 
ture of historical criticism. 

"Dr. Poole was a member of the American 
Historical Society, and was at one time its pres- 
ident. He was also a member of numerous 
other historical and scientific societies, and 
was awarded the degree of LL.D. by the North- 
western University, of Evanston, 111. In all asso- 
ciations looking to the advancement of library 
interests or the better equipment of librarians 
themselves, Dr. Poole took a great interest. In 
1853, in New York City, he attended the first 
conference of librarians ever held. He assisted 
in organizing the American Library Association 
at Philadelphia in 1876, and was its president or 
vice-president much of the time since. In 1877 
he attended the International Conference of Li- 
brarians held in London, and was prominent in 
its deliberations. He was one of the founders of 
the Chicago Library Club and its first president. 

" In his private life he was eminently just and 
always deprecated anything not genuine. Gen- 
erally absorbed in his business, the casual caller 
would say Dr. Poole was not easy to become 
acquainted with. His time was precious, and 
over his door, while librarian of the Chicago 
Public Library, he had the words ' Be Short ' 
painted in distinct letters a hint that mere 
idlers were not wanted, or at least that their in- 
terviews must be brief. 

" Dr. Poole was an incessant reader and 
writer. He seemed to thrive on work. During 
the time of preparation of the third edition of 
Poole's Index he would take home at night an 
arm-load of periodicals, every one of which 
must be indexed before he slept, and often that 
meant one o'clock in the morning for his bed- 

time. No doubt his incessant labors rendered 
his system less able to withstand the inroads of 
disease during his last illness. 

" As a librarian, Dr. Poole stood almost if not 
quite at the head of the profession. He belonged 
to the old school rather than the new, and was a 
firm defender of any position he might take on 
controverted points relative to library work. 
His "Organization and management of public 
libraries," published by the Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, in 1876, has become a hand- 
book on that subject, and the suggestions there- 
in contained have no doubt been closely fol- 
lowed in a large per cent, of the libraries organ- 
ized since its publication, especially in the West. 
His influence, through men and women who have 
learned under him, has been extensive upon the 
library profession generally. His views on 
library architecture are well known, and have 
been substantially carried out in the new New- 
berry Library building. 

" In his home life Dr. Poole was of domestic 
tastes; an affectionate husband and an indulgent 
father. His New England training never forsook 
him, and he was always to be found on Sunday 
(health permitting) in his accustomed place of 

" In view of the demise of our fellow-member 
and our first president, the Chicago Library 

" Resolves, That in the death of Dr. William F. Poole, 
librarian of the Newberry Library, the library interests 
of Chicago and of the country at large have suffered a 
severe loss ; that the community in which he lived has 
lost an exemplary and worthy citizen, his family a devoted 
husband and father, and this club an .active and inter- 
ested member. 

"Resolved, That this memorial minute be entered upon 
the records of the club, that a copy thereof be trans- 
mitted to the family of the deceased, and that a copy be 
sent to the LIBRARY JOURNAL for publication." 

CATALOGUE of the library of Kings College, 
Windsor, Nova Scotia, with occasional anno- 
tations by Harry Piers. Halifax, N. S., Nova 
Scotia Printing Co., 1893. O. 
The present catalog was prepared in conse- 
quence of a bequest of Dr. Charles Cogswell 
which was made conditional " that a catalog of 
the library be prepared and printed." The col- 
lection of books, according to the preface, " al- 
though not of large size must nevertheless be 
considered one of the most valuable collections 
of bibliographical treasures which the dominion 
of Canada holds," "many of which cannot be 
seen elsewhere in America." This unusual feat- 
ure of the library is due chiefly to the gifts of 
'T. B. Akins and Rev. Edmund Maturin, both of 
whom were collectors of early manuscripts and 
printed books. Partly as a result of their gifts 
the library is the happy possessor of eight early 
manuscripts, and quite a series of incunabula, in- 
cluding books from the press of Zainer, Koberg- 
er, Janson, Pictor and Ratdolt, Bartolomeo, and 
other fifteenth century printers, besides a series 
of books from the Aldine, Elzevir, and Stephanus 
presses. These and other early printed books 



\Apnl % '94 

constitute the chief rarities of the collection, but 
as a whole there are many unusual books outside 
of these classes.. Indeed in many respects the 
collection is an unusual one. It is particularly 
strong in the classics and in standard theolog- 
ical criticism. A long series of Bibles is note- 
worthy. First editions of English writers are 
noticeable chiefly in theology, but there are first 
or early editions of Milton, Dryden, Pope, 
Southey, and Byron. We also note the 1784 
edition of Ethan Allen's " Reason the only ora- 
cle of man." The collection is singularly bare 
in many branches, which would seem of vital im- 
portance in a college library; history, political 
economy, and science being the most marked. 
Of the history of Nova Scotia and Canada there 
is so little as to hardly suggest the habitat of 
the library. 

The plan of the catalog is admirable. Mr. 
Piers has " in the main, followed the canons of 
cataloging as laid down by C. A. Cutter " in his 
third edition, " departing, however, from his laws 
when my opinions gave preference to the more 
conservative ones of the United Kingdom Li- 
brary Association or those of the Bodleian Li- 
brary of Oxford." The first portion of the catalog 
is devoted to an author-list, the name being print- 
ed in heavy-faced type, making it admirable in its 
clearness. At the top of each page is given the 
author first and last listed on the page, making 
reference both quick and easy. The second sec- 
tion is devoted to a subject catalog, with the 
same device at the head of the pages. A rather 
uncommon feature in this section is a listing of 
certain books, not merely under the subject they 
relate to, such as " theology," " Greek litera- 
ture," etc. , but also under such heads as"Al- 
dine press," " Fifteenth century printed books," 
etc., thus taking note of imprint data and en- 
abling one to trace certain features of the library 
quickly. One or two additional heads, such as 
" first editions," would have improved it, but 
in most respects this part of the work is admira- 
ble, and the whole constitutes one of the simplest 
and clearest catalogs that has come under our 
attention; while without being scrimped it seems 
to have involved the minimum of cost with a 
maximum of benefit. The typography and proof- 
reading are excellent. P. L. F. 

JORDELL, D., ed. Catalogue annuel de la li- 
brairie Fran^aise pour 1893, donnant la no- 
menclature de tous les livres franais parus 
en France et a 1'etranger pendant 1'annee 1893, 
l ere par ordre alphabetique des noms d'au- 
teurs ; 2 me par ordre alphab6tique de litres; 
suivie d'une table alphabetique des matteres. 
Paris, Per Lamm (]Librairie Nilsson), 1894, 
248 p. O. 

This is the third attempt to supply an annual 
catalog of all French books issued in France 
and throughout the world, and while intended 
for the special benefit of the French book trade 
and the book trade of foreign countries, it 
should also be of use to librarians in the selec- 
tion and purchase of French books. The first 
annual French catalog was undertaken in 1859 

by Charles Reinwald, of Paris, who recognized 
its value, and believed that such an enterprise, 
bound to further the sale of French books in 
foreign countries, would be appreciated and sup- 
ported. This did not happen, however. From 
1858 to 1869 Reinwald published his catalogs, 
the one for the latter year not appearing until 
1872. He proposed compiling a combination 
catalog for the years 1870 and 1871, and then to 
continue the annual regularly in future; but the 
volumes did not appear. Six years later Otto 
Lorenz, the bibliographer, who had assisted 
Reinwald from the beginning of his scheme, de- 
cided to risk the undertaking once more, and 
brought out the " Catalogue annuel " for 1876. 
In his preface, Lorenz pointed out the absolute 
necessity of such a catalog, but he also failed to 
receive the needed support, and could not bring 
out the catalog for the following year. A 
third attempt is now made by D. Jordell, in his 
" Catalogue annuel de la librairie Fran9aise pour 
1893," and it is to be hoped that a fourth at- 
tempt will not become necessary. 

M. Jordell, who will be remembered as the 
editor of the continuation of Lorenz's ' ' Catalogue 
general de la librairie Frangais " (1840-1885), 
has planned his work strictly on the lines of the 
Reinwald and Lorenz catalogs, but in place of 
the classified index he has made an alphabetical 
list of titles and an alphabetical list of sub- 
jects, referring from the catchword to the au- 
thor's name. 

novels and tales in the English, French, Ger- 
man, and Spanish languages. March, 1894. 
148 p. D. 

The modest title under which this finding-list 
appears is delusive. It is more than a bare 
" list" of fiction, and it deserves the careful at- 
tention of librarians and catalogers, not only for 
the admirable simplicity of its form, but for the 
several innovations in the way of annotation and 
arrangement that are introduced. It covers all 
the fiction of the library (12,456 volumes) 
English, French, German, Spanish, and Italian 
and succeeds and replaces the fiction-list of July, 
1891, which contained only novels for adults in 
the English language. This new list includes 
juvenile fiction, books suitable for young people 
being designated by the letter x between the 
author's initial and the book-number. It is, in 
fact, an author-index of English and foreign 
writers, in one alphabet. This consolidation of 
the works of a writer, often in three or four 
translations, is an interesting experiment, as the 
classification of the library has heretofore been 
extremely localized, being entirely dependent 
upon the language in which a book was written, 
irrespective of the subject. The main features of 
the catalog are the simple brevity of the entries 
author, title and call-number only the system 
of annotation, the list of books of criticism, and 
the arrangement of the subject-index. 

The annotations are sparingly made. Generally 
they simply indicate the subject of a book, and 
refer to other books on the same subject; refer- 
ences to magazines are made in cases where the 

April, '94] 


library has a circulating copy of a magazine con- 
taining a story duplicated in book form ; in 
English, American, and Russian literature the 
notes are specially helpful, for here the idea has 
been to group the leading novelists and refer from 
every group to its successors and predecessors. 
Half a dozen specimen entries, chosen at random, 
offer the best illustration of the practical useful- 
ness of the notes : 

Modern Spanish school : See also Bazan,Valera, Valdes, 


Eugene Aram. B 4007. 

Founded on the career of a remarkable man of this 
name, executed for murder in 1757. Story dramatized in 
808.2 : 4. v. 103. 


Roxy. E 452. 

Eggleston belongs to group of American novelists of 
1860-70. See also B. Taylor, Winthrop, Phelps, W. M. 
Baker, Harte, de Mille, J. Hawthorne, Hale, and Aldrich. 
Succeeded group of Holland, Hale, Stowe, and Cooke, and 
was succeeded by Howells, James, Woolson, and Burnett. 


The man-wolf, in E 1559. 

Founded upon the outbreak of lycanthropy in France 
in the i6th century. See also Kipling's In the Rukh, in 
his Many inventions. 


Studies in the legend of the Holy Grail. 

398.2 : i. 

See also Rhys, Farrington, Lanier, Malory, Bergmann; 
full references to Arthurian legends in reference-room. 

SHEPPARD, E. S. [Beatrice Reynolds; E. Berger; 

Charles Auchester. [Music Germany.] S 

Seraphael is Mendelssohn; Maria Cerinthia is Fanny 
Mendelssohn; Aronach is Zelter; Clara Benette is Jenny 
Lind; Charles Auchester is Joachim the violinist; Star- 
wood Burney is Sir Sterndale Bennett. 

In the case of books like " ^Esop's fables," the 
" Decameron," and the "Arabian nights," the 
note gives a concise summary of the origin of 
the work and its position in literature. 

Following the fiction-list proper is " a short 
list of books of criticism on the foregoing novels 
and tales" (43 titles), representing some of the 
best modern criticism, which is, as a rule, ab- 
solutely unknown to the average novel-reader; in 
the case of critical essays, the contents of every 
volume are fully given. The subject-index, which 
forms the last division of the catalog, is ad- 
mirably suggestive of what may be done in this 
direction. The fiction is classified under naiional 
life, i.e., American, French, German, etc., divid- 
ed into historical periods; under manner of life, 
i.e., romances of chivalry, gypsy life, sea life, 
etc. ; and under special subjects as musical novels, 
reform novels, legends, psychological novels, 
short stories, fairy tales, etc. 

The list was compiled by Miss Adelaide R. 
Hasse, assistant librarian, with the assistance of 
the members of the second course of the train- 
ing-class of 1893, who were assigned equal shares 
in the compilation and to whom it was valuable 
practical experience. The work of the pupils 
was revised and edited, and the notes inserted 
by Miss Hasse, on whom, as well as on the 
members of the class, the completed list reflects 
very high credit. Miss Kelso writes that "the 

list is but a sample of what we would like to do 
in the way of interpolations, suggestions, etc., 
particularly where fiction is concerned." It is 
certainly an admirable sample, and in its practical 
demonstration of the value of such annotations 
and suggestions it should prove widely useful as 
a working model for other library catalogs. In 
most libfaries the percentage of fiction issued is 
fully twice as much as that of all other classes of 
literature combined a fact generally admitted, 
deplored, and declared irremediable ; but such 
finding-lists as this of the Los Angeles Public 
Library offer one practical solution of the ever- 
present "fiction problem," in that they are a 
means by which novel-reading may be so guided 
and directed as to result in real benefit to the 
reader. H. E. H. 

U. S. BUREAU OF EDUCATION. Catalog of "A. 
L. A." Library. 5000 volumes for a popular 
library selected by the Amercan Library As- 
sociation and shown at the World's Columbian 
Exposition. Washington, Government Print- 
ing Office, 1893. 20x592 p. O. 
The first part of the A. L. A. Catalog, compris- 
ing the classed catalog according to the decimal 
system (Dewey) and the classed catalog accord- 
ing to the expansive classification (Cutter), ap- 
peared last summer, and was reviewed in the 
L. j. for August, 1893. The work is now com- 
pleted by the inclusion of the dictionary catalog, 
and as issued in final shape calls for additional 
and fuller notice. 

Commissioner Harris, to whose aid is due so 
large a part of both the original collection of 
books and the present catalog, in transmitting it 
to the Secretary of the Interior, states that in 
certain respects, this "is the most instructive 
volume yet printed on the subject of libraries," 
and upon examination this statement seems well 
borne out. As an achievement of the A. L. A., 
as a basis for new libraries, and as a practical 
example of still mooted questions in classifica- 
tion, the volume is a contribution of the utmost 

In the introduction preceding the main work, 
the inception of the model library is described, 
telling how it was selected, classified, and cata- 
loged, and making due acknowledgment to the 
publishers who, by gifts of books, co-operated in 
its formation. Then follow " directions of the 
committee for purchase and arrangement of the 
A. L. A. Library," suggested by the questions 
asked by visitors during the exhibit of the 
A. L. A. Library in Chicago, giving minute in- 
structions as to the purchase of books and the 
necessary preliminaries which precede their 
being placed upon the shelves ; even a list 
of library supplies, with cost, is given. The 
catalog proper follows, the first sections being 
biography and fiction, each a separate list. Af- 
ter this are three catalogs, two of all books ex- 
cept biography and fiction, one of the whole 
collection : i. Classed catalog according to the 
decimal system (Dewey), with a preliminary out- 
line of decimal classification and marginal deci- 
mal numbers to each title; 2. Classed catalog 
according to the expansive classification (Cutter) 



[April, '94 

preceded by an " outline of the expansive classi- 
fication," and followed by " sample pages " of an 
author index and a subject index, with decimal 
and expansive class numbers and initials; 3. Dic- 
tionary catalog, with both marginal Dewey and 
Cutter decimal and expansive numbers, and em- 
bodying not merely the same books as are in 
the first two, but the sections of biography and 
fiction as well. 

The catalog was prepared at the New York 
State Library, under the direction of Mary S. 
Cutler, the work being actually done by Louisa 
S. Cutler, assisted by Henrietta Church and 
Bessie Baker. The classification of the first list 
was made by Walter S. Biscoe, "who has more 
thorough acquaintance with its [decimal system] 
practical working than any other person." The 
" expansive system has been revised by the au- 
thor, C. A. Cutter." The dictionary catalog 
has been revised by Harriet C. Blake, formerly 
at the Boston Public Library. 

The titles are printed in brevier, with heavy- 
face or capital catchwords, these differences be- 
ing employed to distinguish the books actually 
exhibited at Chicago, and those selected as ne- 
cessary to be included in the "model" li- 
brary, but not obtainable for exhibition ; for 
the accuracy of the latter titles the commit- 
tee does not vouch. The lists are single-lead- 
ed. At the head of the first two lists is the 
decimal or expansive numbering, covering the 
portion given on the page, but the dictionary 
catalog does not give the correlative " subject 
headings " that would naturally be expected. 
The cataloging rules prepared by the A. L. A. 
have been followed. The entry under the pseu- 
donym and under the shorter, better known form 
of the author's name follow Cutter's " Rules for a 
dictionary catalog," third edition. There is a 
growing usage in this direction." Although the 
catalog is prefaced by a list of the " colon abbre- 
viations for forenames " it only partially em- 
ploys them in the catalogs, the full names being 
in many cases spelled out, though there is an 
evident want of systematic treatment in this re- 
spect. Care seems to have been taken in the 
case of names, which are given with commenda- 
ble fulness. The titles are satisfactory in all 
three lists, and the imprint data include date, 
volumes, size, series, publisher, and price. No 
place of publication is given, but by a little 
trouble even one unfamiliar with the location of 
the various publishers can trace the information 
by a reference to the list of publishers printed 
in the introduction. " The imprint has been 
given in this catalog with more fulness than the 
average library could afford to follow in printing 
a finding-list. Facts should be omitted in the 
following order: (i) price; (2) publisher's name; 
(3) size; (4) date of publication. The call-num- 
ber, author, brief title, and number of volumes 
must appear in every finding-list, however brief. 
The most useful addition of facts would be: (i) 
illus.; (2) number of pages." 

The result, so far as a catalog goes, is emi- 
nently instructive and satisfactory. A little study 
of the three systems convinces one of the infinite 
superiority of the dictionary method over the 
decimal and expansive classifications. Indeed, 
personally we opine that it must end the con- 

troversy as regards catalogs, whatever may still 
be done in regard to shelves, for the two classed 
lists as here given are clumsy and puzzling to a 
degree as compared with the dictionary catalog. 
Again we must speak strongly against the custom 
of putting the decimal or class number to the 
left of the title. It is truly putting the cart be- 
fore the horse. A reader is looking for a name 
or title not a number and wishes to learn 
the latter as the last result of his catalog read- 
ing; viz., after he has made sure from the title 
that he has found the book he wishes. Putting 
the number first is therefore wrong, and in ad- 
dition makes the search much slower by con- 
fusing the eye and " burying " in the middle of 
the page the matter actually searched for. Shift 
the numbers to the right-hand side, or train your 
public to read from right to left, one or the other. 
It is a sad commentary on the profession, which 
of all others should be the most bookishly exact, 
that there are six pages of errata at the end ; and 
that by no means exhausts the subject. Wheth- 
er the fault lies with the catalogers, the public 
printer, or the proof-readers, we leave them 
to settle. Certainly errata should not have oc- 
curred in any such quantity in a list intended to 
serve as a model to future libraries and librarians, 
and as a monument to the present A. L. A. 

Turning from the catalog to the books that 
form the model library, we find strong evi- 
dence of the labor and pains taken by the select- 
ing committee to make it truly model or represen- 
tative. As the introduction very justly states : 
" The committee disclaim the idea that this is a 
model library, in the sense of being an ideal 
selection. The wealth of material and the dif- 
ferences of opinion are such that no such selec- 
tion is possible. They would claim, however, 
that it is a good working library, representing 
the best thought of competent judges in various 
departments. No board of trustees would 
make a mistake in ordering the collection of 
books as it stands." To criticise the selection of 
books is, therefore, uncalled for, even if it were 
necessary. Every man is free to strike out, or 
add, according to his personal equation, but he 
will be a learned one, who in many of the subjects 
is able, without assistance, to improve the work 
of the committee, aided by their co-operating 
" 75 librarians and specialists." We may, there- 
fore, accept it (minute changes excepted) 'as a 
thoroughly adequate library of 5000 volumes; 
and accepting it as such, it is interesting to note 
the proportions of classes, approximately: 

Class. Number. Percentage. 

Biography 623 Ia 

Fiction 809 16 

General Works 227 4 

Philosophy 96 i 

Reljgion 220 4 

Sociology 424 8 

Language 108 2 

Natural Science 355 7 

Useful Arts 268 5 

Fine Arts 225 4 

Literature 694 13 

History 756 15 

Travel 413 8 

Of course these relative proportions would 
not hold true in either larger or smaller libra- 
ries, for a thousand volumes even more or less 
would strike out, or add, in very varying pro- 
portions to the classes. P. L. F. 

April, '94] 



conomjj an& ^i 


Allegheny, Pa. Carnegie F. L. W: N. Frew 
has been chosen successor to the late James 
B. Scott, as chairman of the board of trustees of 
the Pittsburg Carnegie Free Library Commis- 

Attica, N. y. Stevens Memorial L. The for- 
mal opening of the Robert S. Stevens Memorial 
Library was held on March i, and an informal 
reception was given by Mrs. Robert S. Stevens 
and Frederick C. Stevens, of Washington, from 
2 until 4 p.m., in the library building. 

This fine library is given to the town by Mrs. 
Stevens and her son as a memorial of the late 
Robert S. Stevens, who died Feb. 23, 1893. It is 
situated on Main Street, near the home of Mrs. 
Stevens; the site has historic interest, as the land 
was a part of the Holland land purchase ac- 
quired by Alden S. Stevens, a pioneer of west- 
ern New York, and father of Robert S. Stevens. 
The house from which the library has been con- 
structed was built about 50 years ago, but it has 
been entirely remodelled, and has assumed a 
gothic and picturesque appearance. On the front 
is inscribed " Stevens Memorial Library, 1893." 
The interior is suitably arranged for reading- 
room and library purposes, and is divided by 
rows of handsome polished pillars. Directly op- 
posite the entrance-door is a stained-glass win- 
dow containing the words " In memory of Rob- 
ert S. Stevens, 1893." There is shelving for 
18,000 books, and there are upwards of 8000 
volumes at present in the library. Of these, 
5000 are a duplicate of the " model library " ex- 
hibited at the World's Fair. To these have been 
added 500 volumes of fiction, 1500 volumes of 
juveniles, and a large number of books of 
reference. The library has been completely 
cataloged, and the Cotgreave Library Indicator 
is to be used for registration of books loaned. 

The library is free to all townspeople over 12 
years of age; persons living outside the village 
limits pay $r for the use of the books. Teachers 
in the public schools are allowed six books at a 
time. One of the most noteworthy privileges of 
the library is that the printed catalogs of 300 
pages, containing full classed catalog and author- 
list, are absolutely free. 

Baltimore, Md. Enoch Pratt F. Z. The total 
circulation for 1893 was 494,102, the reference 
use being 21,355. This is a correction of the 
figures given in the L. J. for March 119:100), 
where the reference use was overlooked and the 
total circulation for 1892 given instead of that 
for 1893. 
Boston P. L. LIBRARIES in two cities. (Kansas 

City Times, Mr. u.) 12 col. 

An account of the origin, growth, and future 
plans of the Boston Public; Harvard University 
Library has also two columns of description. 
Two cuts of the new Boston Public Library 
building are given. 

Boulder, Col. University of Colorado, Buck- 
ingham Z. (From catalog of univ., 1893-94.) 

" The library, though scarcely a decade from 

its beginning, contains 9000 volumes, and is al- 
most entirely the discriminating selection of the 
faculty of instruction. The library owes this 
excellence in its foundation to liberal cash do- 
nations for the purchase of books, placed at 
the disposal of the university by Mr. C: G. 
Buckingham, of Boulder. It is open to all stu- 
dents and to the public as a reference library, 
every week-day, from 8:15 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. The 
books are cataloged in subject, author, and 
classified indexes. 35,000 cards, with brief 
bibliography on each, being accessible for stu- 
dent reference. 

" In the alcoves of each department are large V 
tables, with drawers and appliances for reference 
work directly adjacent to the books. The stu- 
dents have direct access to all shelves, alcoves, 
and catalogs. They take and replace all books 
for immediate use in the library, and make their 
own record of removals and returns at the desk 
of the librarian. 

" The librarian offers all new students of every 
department courses of lectures to indicate the 
special value and purpose of a university library, 
and to show how its use enriches and facilitates 
the mastery of the other regular work of the 
curriculum. He gives practical talks in the de- 
tails of the purpose and use of catalogs, bibliog- 
raphy, indexes, books of reference, manuals, 
classification, and shelving. With each talk the 
student has practical drill under personal super- 
vision of the librarian, to test his powers of ap- 
plication. The student is at once introduced to 
scholarly habits of investigation. He is encour- 
aged to gain the largest intellectual results from 
lecture and class instruction, and acquires a zeal 
for independent study." 

Bradford (Mass.) P. L. Work will soon be 
begun on a new library building, given to the 
town by the late J: L. Woods, of Cleveland, O., 
who left $15,000 for this purpose. The accepted 
plans, submitted by Lambert Packard, of St. 
Johnsbury, Vt., provide for a building 66x33, 
of the Romanesque style. That part of the 
building first seen from the square is the read- 
ing-room, which is 27 feet in diameter, the 
reading-tables being placed one at each of the 
eight windows, with a periodical-table in the 
centre. The stack-room is on the east side, 15 
x 36 feet, and 15 feet high, allowing for a gallery 
at some future time. The delivery-window opens 
into a large hall directly in front of the main 
entrance; there are also windows opening into 
the reading-room. On the southwest corner is 
the librarian's room, 9 x 12, with toilet-rooms 
connected. There is a large octagonal tower in 
front, in which are stairs leading to the curio- 
room over the main entrance from Main Street. 
There is also a south entrance to the library. 
The estimated cost of the building is $8000, in- 
cluding the heating apparatus. The village li- 
brary is now located in the bank building. 

Bryn Mawr (Pa.) College Z. The college has 
purchased the classical library of Prof. Sauppe, 
of Gottingen University, consisting of 9000 vol- 
umes and 7000 dissertations. This will make, 
with the present collection, one of the most com- 
plete classical libraries in the country. 



[April, '94 

Butte (Mont.) P. L. The first monthly report 
of the library was issued March i, and the show- 
ing made since its opening in February is most 
gratifying. 6125 books have been issued (fict. 
6o#), 2145 of which were for home use; 1699 ap- 
plication-blanks were taken out, and 919 borrow- 
ers enrolled; the daily average issue of books is 
300; no record has been kept of the number of 
visitors, but it is estimated at not less than 500 
daily, and at times 1000. There are 144 period- 
icals on file. 

Colorado Springs, Col, Coburn L. The Co- 
burn Library was dedicated at Colorado College 
on March 14 with appropriate ceremonies; these 
consisted of music, readings, an address by Presi- 
dent Slocum, of the college, a long speech by 
President Harper, of Chicago University, and ad- 
dresses by Chancellor Snow, of the University of 
Kansas, President Taylor, of Vassar, Chancellor 
McDowell, of the Denver University, and others. 

The building, given to the college by N. P. 
Coburn, of Newton, Mass. , is said to be the first 
library building erected in Colorado. In the 
summer of 1892 Mr. Coburn gave $50,000 to the 
college to found a library. The designs were 
made by Andrews, Juques, and Rantoul, archi- 
tects, of Boston, and the corner-stone was laid in 
commencement week in June, 1893. The build- 
ing is on the southwest corner of the college 
reservation; it has cost $45,000 and the remain- 
ing $5000 will be used as an endowment. 

The building is in Romanesque style, 65 x 85 
and 38 feet in height, built of red sandstone. The 
ground floor, intended chiefly for storage pur- 
poses, contains a room 60 x 60, a robing-room 
10 x 20, and four large closets. The main floor, 
reached by a double flight of stone steps, has 
a main room 60 x 60, with two private rooms 
and two dressing-rooms, and is surmounted 
by a gallery on either side, reached by a double 
flight of iron stairs, two small rooms or offices 
being found on the gallery floor. The finish- 
ing is in red oak; the ceiling is tinted a light 
buff, and the walls and pillars oil-painted in light 
olive. At the end are two stone mantles, seven 
feet high and 10 feet wide, cut from a solid block 
of Peachblow sandstone. There are eight alcoves 
on the main floor and eight in the galleries. The 
bookcases are of oak, and there are six oak read- 
ing-tables, with space for four more in each 
gallery. The building is heated with steam and 
lighted with electric light. There is space in the 
alcoves for 75,ooo volumes 40,000 on the main 
floor and 35,000 on the gallery floor. 

The library has a nucleus of 12,000 or 15,000 
volumes to begin with, and these will be added to 
as rapidly as possible. The endowment fund 
consists of $7500, the remaining portion of Mr. 
Coburn's gift being $5000 and the " Albert 
Barnes Palmer fund " being $2500. To increase 
the number of books as soon and as rapidly as 
possible, the citizens of Colorado Springs have 
organized a book committee. 

Dover (N. H.) P. L. (nth rpt.) Added 
1152; total 18,406. Issued 54,187 (fict. and juv. 
42,442); no. visitors to reading-room 16,258; 
Sunday attendance 843. Receipts $3275.31; 
expenses $3272.45. 

As the end of 1893 marks the completion of 
the first 10 years of the working life of the libra- 
ry, Miss Garland devotes the greater part of her 
report to a detailed and interesting account of 
the history and development of the library, 
touching specially upon the changes wrought by 
the transformation of the old Library Associa- 
tion into the Free Public Library; it is a pleas- 
antly written account, and well worth reading. 

East St. Louis (III.) P. L. A site has been 
secured fora new library building, on which it is 
hoped to make a beginning this year. Two 
years ago the library board was authorized to 
spend $40,000 in the erection of a new building, 
and an ordinance was passed providing that 
special taxes to the amount of $8000 annually be 
collected for five years. There is a building fund 
of $16,000 now in hand, and it is the intention 
of the directors to have the building erected this 
year. They will mortgage the property for 
$24,000, the amount to be raised by special tax- 
ation in the next three years, and thus they ex- 
pect to raise the $40,000 fund, as the past two 
years have produced $16,000. 

Hallo-well, Me. Hubbard^ F. L. The library 
was dedicated on the evening of March 15. It 
was formerly the Hallowell Social Library, but 
a gift of $20,000 from Gen. T: H. Hubbard, of 
New York City, enabled the townspeople to 
make it into a free public library. 

Harvard Univ. L. Cambridge, Mass. (Rpt.) 
Added 22,370; total (incl. v. in class-rooms) 
431,298. Use of books in main 1. 104,051. 

Librarian Winsor says : " The extent of the 
number of books reserved of whose hall use 
no record is kept has a tendency to decrease 
the number of volumes used in the building, of 
whose use record is made. The establishment 
of class-room libraries is inducing a diminution 
in the over-night use of reserved books. It is the 
observation, however, of those in charge of the 
reference service, of which no statistics are kept, 
that it is constantly increasing, year by year, and 
that the increase for last year was very great. 

" Seventeen years ago only 57 % of all the 
college students used the library. In the last 
year, of the 1449 undergraduates only 299 failed 
to borrow books, and of this last number, 258 
drew out ' reserved books,' of which no record 
was made at the general delivery. This reduces 
the number of students who made no recorded 
use of the library to 41 out of a total of 1449. 
The libraries of the class-rooms and laboratories, 
as well as those of the students' clubs, provide 
reading, special as well as general, for a large 
number of undergraduates." 

In the cataloging department 9741 titles were 
cataloged during the year, and a thorough re- 
vision of the 'romance' section of the card 
catalog has been made. 

" The experiment of typewriting cards for the 
public catalog has been unsuccessfully tried. It 
was not found possible to get the impression 
dark enough to be seen as readily in the drawers 
as cards written in ink are seen. There was no 
saving in time." 

Hoboken (N. J.) F. Z. The city council on 

April, '94] 



March i denied the petition of the library trus- 
tees asking an appropriation of $30,000 for a 
new library building; the refusal was based on 
" the financial condition of the city and the ex- 
isting depression in business." 

A new building is sorely needed, as the libra- 
ry is now located in an overcrowded, badly ar- 
ranged basement. Last winter the legislature 
authorized the issue of $50,000 in bonds to erect 
a building; the trustees selected a site, to cost 
$12,000, and proposed to erect a $20,000 build- 
ing on it. It is thought that the decision of the 
council will simply postpone immediate action. 

Illinois Public Libraries. F. J. Staufenbiel, 
librarian of the Belleville (111.) Public Library, 
has gathered some interesting information in 
regard to the public libraries of his state. Omit- 
ting Chicago, he shows that the cities and towns 
where the public libraries are most generously 
supported, and where the libraries do the best 
work are Joliet, Rock Island, Decatur, Aurora, 
Elgin, Quincy, Belleville, Rockford, and Peoria. 

The number of volumes in the public libraries 
of these cities, the volumes circulated by each 
for the year ending May 31, 1893, and the 
salaries paid for library work are given in the 
following table : 

Volumes in 
Library. Circulation. 

Joliet 10,000 471677 

Rock Island "1077 24,080 

Decatur 12,000 5i549 

Aurora 12,579 69,495 

Elgin 13,500 84, 522 

guincy 14,000 60,000 

elleville 17,074 3 2 i345 

Rockford 31,000 66,551 

Peoria 45,000 89,000 

Batavia 4,400 12,700 

Taking the census of 1890 as a basis for cal- 
culation it is shown that the number of books 
circulated to each inhabitant was as follows : 
Joliet, 2.05; Rock Island, 1.17; Decatur, 3; 
Aurora, 3.52; Elgin, 4.40; Quincy, 1.91; Belle- 
ville, 2.11; Rockford, 2.82; Peoria, 2.17; Bata- 
via, 2.95. The number of books circulated per 
each dollar of expenditure for salaries was : 
Joliet, 68; Rock Island, 20; Decatur, 35; Aurora, 
46; Elgin, 50; Quincy, 28; Belleville, 27; Rock- 
ford, 25; Peoria, 19; Batavia, 42. 

It will be seen that in proportion to popula- 
tion, Elgin leads in circulation, with Aurora 
next, and Batavia is only excelled by one town 
outside the county. In proportion to salaries 
paid, Joliet does the most work, because of the 
very low salaries paid there; next comes Elgin, 
with Aurora a close follower. Elgin's library is 
a township institution, and is supported by a tax 
of two mills on the dollar. Batavia also levies a 
two mill tax, as does Peoria, Rock Island, and 
some other towns. Aurora levies a one mill 
tax. The library at Joliet gets half a mill, or 
less, but the steel mills have for some years sup- 
ported a very excellent library in that city, 
which may account for the parsimonious support 
of the city library. 

Jersey City (N. J.) F. P. L. (3d rpt.) Added 
7880; total 38,725. Issued, home use 336,887 
(net. 61.85 %, juv. 24.02 %) ; ref. use (eight 
months) 41 74; reading-room attendance 83,747. 

i, 680 

Sunday issue 5378 ; Sunday reading-room at- 
tendance 7031; no. cardholders 18,434. Receipts 
$55,095.29; expenses $53,417.30. 

"After fiction and juvenile, the most reading is 
done in travels; American literature; biography; 
American history; history; customs, costumes, 
etc; and electricity, in the order named." 

Large additions have been made to the bound 
sets of periodicals indexed in Poole's " Index to 
periodicals" and itscontinuations, and these have 
proved very useful to users of the reference de- 

Librarian Cole urges the need of more room, 
and says : " Our shelves are now much too 
crowded to permit of the work of the library 
being carried on to the best advantage, and 
there is, moreover, no opportunity for adequate- 
ly increasing its shelving capacity in our present 

"The number of volumes circulated through 
the delivery stations during the past year was 
185,814; an increase of 13,589 over the total for 
1891-92. The library has now in successful 
operation 12 delivery stations, two more than 
last year. So successful has this branch of our 
library work become, that the librarian is fre- 
quently in receipt of letters from other libraries, 
in different parts of the country, asking for in- 
formation as to our methods of carrying it on. 
As the efficiency and economy of the system be- 
come better known it is safe to say that more 
and more libraries will avail themselves of its ad- 

The librarian recommends the purchase of 
two Rudolph Indexers, that the three printed 
finding-lists and the seven printed lists of addi- 
tions maybe mounted and arranged in one alpha- 
bet for public use. 

Kennett Square, Pa. It is proposed to estab- 
lish a Bayard Taylor Memorial Library in Ken- 
nett Square, Taylor's birthplace and early home, 
and the project has met with considerable ap- 
proval and popular support. 

La Grange, III. A public library building to 
cost $45,000 is soon to be built at La Grange. It 
is to be three stories high, and in addition to the 
library will provide room for a public hall and 
quarters for several societies. Work is to be 
commenced very shortly, and it is expected that 
the building will be completed and ready for 
use by July next. The library is to be erected 
by the town board, but in addition will receive 
assistance from a number of citizens. Many 
books have been contributed already by various 
persons, and it is thought by the time the build- 
ing is opened that at least 1500 volumes will be 
on the shelves. The library is to be both circu- 
lating and reference. 

The building is in the colonial style; the walls 
of the basement will be of blue Bedford stone 
and above that of Roman pressed brick, with 
terra-cotta trimmings. The building will have 
a low hip roof, broken with numerous pediments 
and finished in slate. On the north side of the 
building a large balcony opens off from the 
library floor. Above the entrance the name 
" Public Library " will be worked in terra-cotta. 
The vestibule will be large and finished with 

I 4 2 



mosaic floor and marble wainscoting. The main 
hallway will be finished with marble wainscoting 
and tile floor. From this corridor a stairway 
leads to the floor above. To the left of the 
entrance of the first floor is the main library, 
with reading-room, secretary's office, and book- 
room. To the right of the main entrance is an 
apartment to be used by the First National 
Bank. Behind this will be private rooms and 
the office of the directors. In the rear of the 
building will be a department for safety-deposit 
vaults, with writing and retiring rooms. This 
department will have a separate entrance. 

On the second floor opens " Library Hall," 
30 feet wide and 50 feet deep. It will be 
used principally for lectures, dances, and social 
entertainments. The front of this floor will be 
devoted to offices. The third floor will be oc- 
cupied by " Fraternity Hall," and will contain a 
banquet-room 18x30 feet, and several reception- 
rooms. In the rear of the floor will be a kitchen, 
pantry, and other rooms. The basement will be 
used as storage-rooms and also for the steam- 
heating apparatus. The entire building will be 
heated by steam and lighted by electricity. 

Milwaukee (Wis.) P. L. (r6th rpt.) Added 
4782; total 68,863. Issued, home use 159,613 
(net. 47.5 #, juv. 17.7 $); no. cards in use 11,004; 
visitors to reading-room 63,102, Sunday readers 
5480; 242 magazines are on file. Receipts $39,- 
930.39; expenses $24,796.61. 

" The chief event of the library year is, with- 
out doubt, the vote of the common council of 
the city to issue additional library-museum bonds 
to the amount of $350,000. This makes it pos- 
sible to proceed to the final steps for erecting 
the library-museum building on the beautiful 
site, the purchase of which has been chronicled 
in previous reports. This sum, with the amount 
already issued, and now lying in the city treas- 
ury, $160,000, gives us a fund of $510,000 with 
which to build a suitable home for both institu- 

Miss West says: " The presence of the chief 
officers of the school system in the board of 
trustees gives us a closer touch with the schools 
than would otherwise be probable. For instance, 
I know of no other case in which the catalog of 
books for young people has been made a part of 
the manual of instruction. Special lists of refer- 
ences on holidays of national character, such as 
Independence day, Decoration day, Washing- 
ton's birthday, and Arbor day, which are cele- 
brated in the schools, have been made to help 
the teachers." 

New Jersey State L., Trenton. (Rpt.) Added 
1718; total 41, 859; no. visitors registered 2350. 

" Both in law and miscellany the library will 
favorably compare with any state library in the 
country, while as a practical ' working' library it 
has no superior." 

New York City. Railroad Men's L. (Rpt.) 
Added 273; total 6967. Issued 13,658 (fict. 57 %); 
no. readers 1337. 

Of the total number of books issued (13,658) 
6011 were delivered by train service, and 7647 
were issued from the desk; there has been a fall- 
ing off of 173 v. in the train delivery of books, 

and a gain of 255 at the desk; the number of 
readers is 170 less than last year. Among the 
devices used for stimulating an interest in the 
library were : a series of literary events, the 
first of which occurred this year, with an attend- 
ance of 51; circulars offering the use of the li- 
brary, sent to agents along the line; the circula- 
tion of 5000 pamphlets on " How to learn to 
read a book," by the chairman of the library 
committee; the distribution of book-marks and 
calendars advertising library events; and arti- 
cles on library subjects in a page devoted to that 
purpose in New York Railroad Men. 

" Members have not only been encouraged to 
use the books in the library, but to purchase 
books of their own. Nearly $100 worth of 
books have been secured for members in this 

The librarian recommends the printing of a 
special catalog of railroad books. 

Norristown (Pa.) L. Co. The library was 
founded in 1794, and incorporated April 30, 1796. 
In 1801 there were 70 members, who paid $i 
each annually. For many years it was located 
upon a site belonging to the Montgomery Bank, 
on Main Street; the building which it now oc- 
cupies was erected in 1859. The first catalog 
was printed in 1836. In 1825 the library con- 
tained 611 volumes ; in 1832, noo; in 1858, 2800; 
in 1884, about 6000. The average increase is 
about 100 volumes a year at present. The terms 
of membership are $5 per share and the payment 
on each $2 annually. Persons wishing to avail 
themselves of the privilege of taking out books 
subject to the rules of the library, can do so on 
the payment of $2 annually. The payment of a 
nominal sum to the librarian permits the use of 
the library to those who wish to resort to it 
occasionally, and do not wish to purchase a share 
or pay the annual dues, but only shareholders 
become members or have a right to participate 
in the annual meetings. 

Oakland (Cal.) P. L. A movement is on foot 
to establish a new library, art gallery, and natur- 
al history museum in a new building. The 
library as it now stands is altogether too small 
and inconvenient, is badly arranged and unable 
to accommodate its ever-growing patronage. 
The circulation has increased from 300010 13,000 
in the past six months, and the library is not only 
taxed to its utmost but in fact is unfit for its 
present purpose. 

Ogdensburg (N. Y.) P. L. The charter of the 
library having been received, the board of five 
trustees held their first meeting, Jan. 27, the 
board was then formally organized and the prep- 
aration of by-laws undertaken. Mr. Van Dusen 
was elected librarian without compensation, and 
Miss Fanny Rosseel was appointed assistant li- 
brarian at a salary of $20 per month. 

The library will be open on Monday, Wednes- 
day, Thursday, and Friday from 3 to 6 p.m. , and 
on Tuesday and Friday from 7 to 8:30 p.m. 

Paterson (JV. /.) F. P. L. (gth rpt.) Added 
2320; total 20,765; issued, home use 106,253; lib. 
use 1539; teachers' cards 1250; lost 14. Receipts 
$17,683.59; expenses $11,175.37; amt. spent for 

April, '94] 



books, periodicals, and binding, $3654.34. Total 
no. cardholders 15,877. 

In regard to the circulation Librarian Win- 
chester says: 

" If the use of reference-books, of which we 
have no account, were included, the total number 
of books used would certainly not be less than 
125,000, or equivalent to the use of every book in 
the library about 6^ times during the year." 

Work in the cataloging department has gone 
steadily on through most of the year. The cards 
for a catalog of the additions to the library during 
the last two years and a half are ready for copy ing 
for a printed catalog, which will be in the hands 
of the printer in a few weeks; it will be the lar- 
gest and much the most thorough and useful 
catalog thus far issued from the library. 

"A valuable list of all books in the library on 
astronomy is now in the hands of the printer. 
This list is a continuation of the series issued 
in connection with the course of lectures given 
in the city, and it will be the most valuable and 
permanently useful of all so far issued, as the 
books have been selected, in part, by Prof. 
Young, of Princeton College, and he has also 
furnished a series of short critical notes especial- 
ly for this list." 

Peoria (Ill.)P.L. On March 8 Librarian Will- 
cox read before the Peoria Scientific Association 
a paper urgently pleading for a new and adequate 
library building. On the same date, as a result 
of his address, it was proposed to raise a popular 
subscription for this purpose, and one citizen 
offered to head the list with $500 if the plan was 
adopted. The local press has taken up the mat- 
ter, and it seems probable that it will be carried 

Philadelphia F. P. L. The new free library 
established temporarily in the City Hall was in- 
formally opened on the morning of March 12. 
Owing to the fact that its quarters are only tem- 
porary, there were no ceremonies of any kind, 
but the doors were merely thrown open at nine 
o'clock, and the work of issuing books begun. 
Over iioo applications were received, and about 
loo books given out on the first day. The maga- 
zine reading-room has been open for afew weeks, 
and has had an average of 200 readers every 

As already noted, the nucleus of the library 
was provided for in the G: S. Pepper bequest of 
$250,000, which has been supplemented by an 
appropriation from the city of $5000 for the im- 
mediate purposes of the library. The officers 
consist of 20 directors, 15 of whom were ap- 
pointed pursuant to the charter. The other five 
are ex-officio, and include the mayor, presidents 
of councils, the president of the board of educa- 
tion, and the chairman of the library committee 
of the board of education. 

Philadelphia. Mercantile L. Co, (7ist rpt.) 
Added 2838; total 171,525; issued 86,563 (fict. 
.720$); no. visitors 337,653; membership 3115; 
receipts $20,095.17; expenses $20,073.32. 

The number of books consulted and read in 
the building by the general public is estimated 
at fully 40,000 v. during the yealr. 

" Four numbers of the ' Bulletin' were issued 
in 1893, giving authors and titles of the works 
added to the library during the year, and also 
containing ' Reading notes on currency and 
finance,' which furnish in chronological order 
the titles of recent books and magazine articles 
in the possession of the library upon ' The sil- 
ver question and coinage,' ' Bimetallism,' ' Gold 
and the precious metals, ' Money,' ' Banking,' 
and ' Paper money.' The ' Reading notes on 
electricity' were also continued and concluded." 

Portland (Ore.} L. A. The association is de- 
sirous of gathering copies of all books and pam- 
phlets, descriptive and historical, relating to 
Oregon and to Oregon institutions. Librarian 
Bursch will gladly receive any information as 
to the whereabouts of such material. 

Rutland (Vt.) F. L. A. (8th rpt.) Added 825; 
total 8420; issued 46,265; no. periodicals on file 
49. Receipts $3240; expenses $2334.36. 

During the year 2197 books were delivered for 
use in the schools. The efforts of the association 
have been mainly directed "to the difficult task 
of trying to make one dollar do the work of three. 
The plain truth remains that this institution, 
which has proved, and is proving, itself indis- 
pensable to the well-being and growth of our 
town and city, has not the money it requires for 
its legitimate work." The president of the as- 
sociation, Mrs. Julia C. R. Dorr, says: "We, 
who have borne the burden and the heat of the 
day for eight years, feel this very keenly; for 
we know that the usefulness of the Rutland li- 
brary could be doubled if we were able to meet 
the continually growing demands upon us. But 
we can only wait and hope." 

St. Louis (Mo.) F. P. L. The library was 
formally transferred from the Public Library 
board of managers to the Free Library board on 
March 3. The difficulties between the two 
boards, which created some ill-feeling and made 
the library matter a vexed question for some 
weeks, were satisfactorily settled by a mutual 
agreement that the new library shall receive the 
books and furniture free of charge, and lease the 
two upper floors of the building and the news- 
paper reading-room on the second floor at a rental 
of $5000 per year. Heat is to be furnished free, 
but the library must pay three-fourths of the ex- 
pense of running the elevators. 

Mr. Crunden will be librarian as heretofore, and 
the Free Library board has increased his salary 
from $3500 to $4500. It will not be possible to 
have the library in thorough working order for 
a month to come, and May I has been set as the 
date of its formal free public opening. 

St. Paul (Minn.) P. L. (i2th rpt.) Added 
3973; total 35,758. Issued, home use 160,977 
(fict. 46.57 #, juv. 27.23$); ref. use 46,350; Sun- 
day ref. use 1010. No. cardholders 9077, an in- 
crease of 867 over 1892. Receipts $18,746.36; 
expenses $16,315.94. 

After speaking of the movement to secure a 
new library building, the directors say that they 
"fully appreciate the advantages that would 
follow the erection of a suitable building, but 



\April, '94 

do not feel that they should urge it at present, 
their work being now to accumulate books, to 
such an extent, that when the building is erected 
there will be a well-selected library to put into it." 

Salem (Mass.) P. L. (5th rpt.) Added 2328; 
total 27,833. Issued, home use 101,457 (net. 
81.03 #); persons using ref.-room 6036; Sunday 
visitors 3493. Total no. cardholders 8233. Re- 
ceipts $17,336.85; expenses $12,259.09. 

For school-work 668 v. were drawn by 80 
teachers. The trustees say : " The only part of 
the building assigned for public use which does 
not furnish ample accommodations is that set 
apart for the reference department. Here the 
necessity for more room is pressing, and en- 
larged quarters should be provided as soon as 
the requisite funds can be obtained." 

The exhibit of the library at the Chicago Ex- 
position attracted much attention; it was awarded 
a medal, and the managers of the Armour In- 
stitute of Chicago requested permission to place 
the exhibit permanently in their educational mu- 

San Diego (Cal.) F. P. Z. (Rpt.) Added 1010; 
total 10,237. Issued, home use 55,749; lib. use 
I3,57o; total 69,319 (net. 59$). 2000 v. were re- 
paired by the library staff, 900 prepared for bind- 
ing or lettering. No. cardholders registering 
during 1893, 2012. Receipts $10,186.42; expenses 


In April, 1893, the library removed to its 
present quarters, the comfort and neatness of 
which have been thoroughly appreciated. " The 
effects of the removal and of the three weeks' 
closing necessitated were felt for several months. 
The circulation was reduced and the work of 
cataloging delayed. The close of the year, how- 
ever, finds everything going well, circulation in- 
creasing, the room filled with readers, and new 
books coming in." 

Southport, Ct. Pequot L. The formal open- 
ing of the library was on the evening of March 
i, and was largely attended. It is the gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. E. B. Monroe, as already noted in 
these columns (L. j. 19: 27). The book capaci- 
ty is 16,000 v. ; there are at present about 1000 
books on the shelves and additions are being re- 
ceived daily. 

Suffield. Ct. At a special town meeting, held 
March 14, it was voted to accept the proposition 
of the Library Association and purchase its library 
of 1500 volumes for $200. The sum of $300 a 
year was appropriated for its maintenance, and 
12 directors were appointed to serve without pay. 
The library will be made free to the public. 

Weymouth,Mass. Tufts L. (i 5th rpt.) Added 
875; total 15,381. Issued, home use 57,8s6(fict. 
and juv. 72$); no. borrowers 7025. Receipts 
$2968.01; expenses $2885.72. 

" The work of the library in connection with 
the schools promises beneficent results, and a 
considerable number of books are purchased 
each year with special reference to this use." 


Birmingham (Eng.) F. Ls. (32d rpt.) Added 
ref. 1. 4600; total ref. 1. 119,476; total lending Is. 
67,967. Issued, home use 666,774; ref. use 
437.534 (Sunday use 22,522) ; total 1,126,830 
(fict. 464,980). Receipts ^12,765.11.5; expenses 

" For the first time in the history of the 
libraries the issue of books has exceeded 1,000,000, 
the actual figures being 1,126,830, or an average 
of 3585 daily. The number of qualified borrow- 
ers from the lending libraries is over 25,000, or 
i in 19 of the estimated population of the city." 

Liverpool (Eng.) F. P. L. (4ist rpt). Added 
2552; total 62,670. Issued, home use 506,614, 
(fict. 404,235); lost and paid for 57; no. card- 
holders 11,630. In the ref. Is. 691,377 v. were is- 
sued, while the use of periodicals was 656,222. 

The year's work gives the following totals: 
Books issued 1,197,991, magazines and reviews 
656,222, newspaper readers 428,220, attendance 
at lectures 59,904. 

" Some idea of the work done by the affiliated 
institutions library, museums, and art galleries 
may be gathered from the fact that 2,820,766 
persons made use of these institutions during the 

The free lectures, established by the library 
committee 29 years ago, have been continued 
without intermission. "A comparison of the at- 
tendances then and now shows at least the growth 
of the lecture in public estimation. Formerly, 
we considered 300 persons a good attendance at a 
single lecture; now, unless this number is quad- 
rupled there is felt to be reason for remark or in- 
quiry. The winter series numbered 36 lectures, 
which were attended by 47,747 persons, or an 
average at each lecture of 1326. In addition to 
these, there was an interesting autumn series of 
12 lectures, of a more scientific character, bear- 
ing the general title of ' Pioneers of science and 
art.' The two series taken together give a total 
attendance of 59,904 persons, or an average at 
the 48 lectures of nearly 1250." 

London. Clerkenivell P. L. (6th rpt.) Added 
581; total 13,868. Issued, home use 96, 875 (fict. 
79,369); lost 10; ref. use 19,974. Visitors to ref. 
room 100,368; visitors to news-room 332,622; 
Sunday attendance 4750. 

" There has been a slight decrease in the per- 
centage of fiction given out chiefly due to the 
display in a show-case on the counter of addi- 
tions of books in biography, history, and sci- 
ence which were less popular, because less known, 
than their merits deserved. 

" To meet the requirements of students and 
those engaged upon special courses of reading, 
the commissioners resolved to issue extra tickets 
available for non-fictional works. This change 
came into force early in December last and prom- 
ises to greatly promote the study of books in the 
higher branches of science and literature." 

It has been decided to alter the existing ar- 
rangements of the library so as to allow borrow- 
ers direct access to the book-shelves. 

April, '94] 


The news-room attendance has been much lar- 
ger than in any other year; the daily average be- 
ing 1087. The popularity of this department 
often causes a strain upon the accommodation, 
and if it increases means must be devised to cope 
with the overcrowding. " Every class uses the 
news-room, and the orderly behavior of the great 
number of visitors who frequent it can only be 
mentioned with the utmost satisfaction. Thefts 
and mutilations of newspapers are almost un- 

A large and successful exhibition of prints and 
maps relating to Clerkenwell was opened early 
in March, 1893, and remained in the library over 
six months. 

The library commissioners have decided, after 
careful consideration, to give up the present sys- 
tem of issuing books for home reading and to 
admit borrowers directly to the shelves, where 
they may select books for themselves. This sys- 
tem will be put in operation on May i, 1894 ; all 
books outstanding, being previously called in to 
make the necessary rearrangements. Leaflets 
have been issued, clearly setting forth the new 
rules and regulations. All tickets will be called 
in before the new plan is put in operation, and 
each registered borrower will receive instead a 
"ticket-voucher," entitling them to free access. 
The books will be classifi :d and arranged in the 
most simple manner, each shelf being plainly 
labelled by subject; fiction, poetry, and juveniles 
will be arranged in alphabet ; each book will 
bear the shelf-number on its label, and borrow- 
ers are expected to replace all books in their 
proper shelf. A "location-book" will guide 
readers to the location of any particular book. 

Manchester, Eng. A new free public library, 
to contain 80,000 volumes, is in course of erec- 
tion. This will give the city a total of 420,000 
volumes, housed in five libraries, for free public 

SACCONI-RICCI, Giul. Una visita ad alcune bibli- 
oteche della Svizzera, della Germania e dell* 
Austria. Firenze, Carnesecchi e figli. 1893. 
288 p. c. 12 prospstti e i tavola. 8. 15 lire. 

Sydney (N. S. W) F. P. L. (Rpt.) Additions 
not given; total, including pms. 101,348 (ref. 1. 
73,611). Issued, lending 1. 75,869 (fict. 20,306); 
visitors to lending 1. 61,819; visitors to ref. 1. 
144,151. Sunday visitors, lending 1. 3266; ref. 1. 
6853. No. cardholders registered 5310. There 
were 136 boxes of books containing 10,612 v. 
sent out to country libraries, 5137 v. being re- 
served for this purpose. 

Mr. Wright, second assistant librarian, writes: 
' ' You will notice that over 5000 volumes are 
reserved to lend to various libraries throughout 
this colony. When a country library desires the 
loan of books the only trouble to the applicant 
is to fill in a form guaranteeing to refund any loss 
or damage; then a strong box (generally of oak, 
lined with baize, and with brass fittings) contain- 
ing on an average 80 v., is forwarded, free of all 
cost; the carriage both ways is defrayed by this 
institution. The boxes are lent for four months, 

and may be retained longer on application. No 
fewer than 74 country libraries availed them- 
selves last year of the opportunity to circulate 
among their members some of the best standard 
works in the English language." 


stantaneous mechanical binding has recently 
been put upon the market by Cesare Tartagli & 
Sons, Florence. The Bollettino delle Pubblica- 
zioni Italiane says: " This invention allows of 
binding in one volume many loose pamphlets, 
papers, or catalog sheets, and permits removal, 
alteration, or addition of pages rapidly and at 
will. For the great simplicity of the design, the 
strength of the device, and the rapidity with 
which it can be opened or closed, this mechanical 
binding is certainly superior to all other devices 
of the kind of which we have knowledge." 

(B>ift0 aiifc Requests. 

Baltimore. Johns Hopkins Univ. L. A valua- 
ble herbarium and botanical library have been 
given to the library by Capt. J: Donnel Smith, 
of Baltimore. The collection represents the 
labor of 20 years, and is made up of specimens 
discovered by Captain Smith in his travels and 
of libraries and collections purchased by him. 
The herbarium is rich in collections of North, 
Central, and South American plants. China, Eu- 
rope, Egypt, Abyssinia, India and other parts of 
the world are also well represented. The collec- 
tion contains many standard works of value and 
rare illustrated works; it embraces 1300 volumes. 

Marlborough, N. ff. By the will of the late 
Rufus S. Frost, of Chelsea, Mass., the town of 
Marlborough receives a legacy of $5000, pro- 
viding it will spend a sum equal to 6 per cent, 
of the same yearly for the improvement of 
the public library established by Mr. Frost in 
1867, keeping the principal intact. 

Troy, N. Y. Y. M. A. L. On Jan. 27 Mrs. 
M.. E. Hart, of Troy, formally offered to erect 
a handsome fire-proof library building for the 
Troy Young Men's Association. Her offer was 
promptly accepted and the trustees to carry 
out Mrs. Hart's directions have been named by 
her. The library is to be a memorial to her 
husband, W: Howard Hart, and the site of the 
building will also be given by her to the associa- 
tion. It is in a convenient and central location 
and is valued at $35,000. The library of the 
Young Men's Association now contains 31,349 
v. ; among these are included the library of Mr. 
Hart, which was given to the association at 
his death. The Hart library, as well as several 
other of the special collections, has an endowment 
for the yearly purchase of books. The library 
is free to the public and is very largely used. 
It was established as the Troy Library, Jan. n, 
1800, and in 1881 moved into its present quarters. 
De Witt Clinton is librarian. 



[April, '94 


ALBEE, Miss Lulu, for many years librarian 
of the Windsor (Ct.) Library Association, re- 
signed early in March, and has been succeeded 
by Miss Grace Blake. 

BEER, W:, librarian of the Howard Memorial 
Library, of New Orleans, has recently delivered 
a series of six lectures on " Bibliography" in the 
course of University Extension lectures given 
before the students of Tulane University. The 
first lecture of the series, given on Feb. 24, dealt 
with " The alphabet," tracing the origin and the 
development of the art of written communica- 
tion; in succeeding lectures Mr. Beer considered 
" The art of printing," " The book," and " The 
science of bibliography applied to the study of 
.Uerature, art, and science." Such courses of 
lectures on the essential features of bibliog- 
raphy cannot but prove a useful means of ac- 
quainting students with the best methods of con- 
ducting independent individual research. 

FREIS, Andre, assistant librarian of United 
States Military Academy at West Point, died on 
March n, aged 75 years. Private ^ Freis was 
born in Alsace, and came to America while a 
youth; he enlisted in the United States army at 
West Point, May 5, 1841, and was appointed as- 
sistant librarian November 5, 1844. He had 
filled the position ever since. 

GALLAHER, James, librarian of the Quincy 
(111.) City Library, died in that city on March 16, 
aged 59 years. Mr. Gallaher was born in Ire- 
land, and came to America while a boy. He 
was engaged in the book business in New York 
City until 1857, when he went to Springfield, 
and became associate editor of the Illinois State 
Journal ; his connection with the Journal lasted 
10 years, during which time he formed a close 
friendship with Lincoln, Douglas, and other 
prominent men. He then went to Quincy, 
where he was connected for years with various 
newspapers, and two years ago was appointed 
city librarian. He leaves a widow, two sons, 
and two daughters. 

MURRAY, Frank P., librarian of the Buffalo 
Law Library, has resigned his position after 27 
years' continuous service. Mr. Murray first en- 
tered the library in September, 1867, when 15 
years of age; he resigned his office of librarian 
in 1870, but resumed it six months later, and has 
continued In the place since. Mr. Murray now 
resigns his position to take up the practice of 
law. He has been succeeded by W. B. Esta- 
brook, formerly librarian for the second division 
of the Court of Appeals at Albany. 

SMITH, Prof. W: Robertson, librarian of the 
University of Cambridge, died in Cambridge on 
March 31. Prof. Smith, who was one of the 
most famous "heretics" of modern days, wa: 
born at Keig, Aberdeenshire, Nov. 8, 1846, anc 
was the son of Rev. W: Pirie Smith, Free Church 
minister there. He has frequently been callec 
the Dr. Briggs of the Presbyterian Church o 
Scotland. He was educated at Aberdeen Univer 
sity, and after graduation spent several years a 

he universities of Berlin, Bonn, and Gottingen, 
where he made a special study of the Semitic 
anguages. Soon after returning to Scotland he 
was appointed professor of oriental languages 
and Old Testament exegesis in the Free Church 
ollege, Aberdeen, where he was chosen a 
member of the Bible Revision Committee. He 
was also engaged as one of the staff of con- 
ributors to the latest edition of the " Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica," and it was in connection 
vith his .treatise on the books of the Bible, writ- 
en for this publication, that he first called 
down on himself the wrath of his colleagues. 
As the result of a trial for " heresy " he was, in 
1881, removed from his professorship; two years 
ater he became the Lord Almoner's professor 
of Arabic in the University of Cambridge; in 
1886 he became librarian, and in 1889 he was 
appointed Adams professor of Arabic in the 
same university. He published a number of 
Docks, which occupy a leading place in most Bib- 
lical libraries, and was well known as a lect- 


WALKER, Robert Cooper, for many years 
principal librarian of the Sydney (N. S. W.) Free 
Public Library, has been gazetted one of the 
trustees of that library. Mr. Walker retired from 
the position of librarian in September, 1893, in 
which he was succeeded by Mr. Henry C. L. 

anfc Classification. 

OF PHILADELPHIA for January, besides record- 
ing the accessions from October to January, 
concludes the " Reading notes on currency and 
finance," and gives " reading notes" on the in- 
come tax and the Hawaiian question, with titles 
arranged chronologically. 

CATALOGO della biblioteca : supplemento dal 
i agosto 1889 al 31 dicembre 1892 (Ministero 
di agricoltura, industria e commercio). Rome, 
G. Bertero, 1893. 14+119 p. 8. 
CINCINNATI (0.) P. L. Bulletin of books in 
the various departments of literature and sci- 
ence added during 1893. Cincinnati, pub. by 
Board of Trustees, 1894. 140 p. F. 
Consists, as usual, of the classified quarterly 
bulletins of the year, preceded by an index of 
subjects and followed by an index of authors' 
anonymous works and collections. This method 
of making the yearly bulletin comprise four 
separate classified lists seems to have several 
drawbacks, the succession of bulletins being 
not only confusing but necessitating a more 
careful search than the average reader is apt 
to give before all the books in a single sub- 
ject can be collected. The title entries are re- 
markably full fuller than seems at all neces- 
sary in a popular catalog, where brevity and 
simplicity of form are especially desirable, 
though the detailed lists of contents given in the 
case of collections or composite works, wi.1,1 
probably be found useful, 

April, '94] 



GASPARI, Gaet. Catalogo della biblioteca del 
liceo musicale di Bologna, comp. e pub. da 
L. Torchi. v. 3. Bologna, Romagnoli dall' 
Acqua, 1893. 389 p. 8. 20 lire. 

The HARTFORD (Ct.} P. L. BULLETIN for Janu- 
ary, besides giving the usual classified list of 
books added during the past three months (Oc- 
tober, 1893- January, 1894), contains a list of the 
books, new and old, in the library on Psvchol- 
ogy, education, etc. 

HEINSIUS, W. Allgemeines Bucher-Lexikon. 

Band 19:1889-1892. Herausgegeben von 

K. Bolhoevener. Abtheilung i. Leipzig. 

Brockhaus, 1894. 772 p. 4. 
NOTTINGHAM (Etig.) F. P. REF. L. Class-list 

no. 19: Archaeology and antiquities, comp. 

by J. Potter Briscoe, librarian, and S. J. Kirk, 

assistant. February, 1894. 23 p. O. 

A well-arranged list, coveting the general 
reference literature of the subject; archaeology 
and antiquities relating to ancient nations ; bar- 
rows, mounds, caves, lake-dwellings, etc. ; Brit- 
ish archaeology, and antiquities; costumes, arms, 
armor and war implements; ecclesiological an- 
tiquities; folk-lore and mythological literature; 
numismatics and seals. In some cases titles are 
briefly annotated. 

THE OPEN SHELF is the attractive title of a 
new monthly bulletin of additions published by 
the Cleveland Public Library. The first num- 
ber, for January, 1894, gives the books added to 
the library during that month. The bulletin is a 
handy little i6-page leaflet, in narrow 16 shape, 
with the design of an "open shelf" on the 
cover. It will be issued at the beginning of 
each month, including in each issue the books of 
the preceding month. There is a cut of the libra- 
ry building as frontispiece; besides the classified 
list of additions, space is given to brief notes of 
library Interest. The bulletin is well printed on 
smooth paper, and sold at one cent a copy, or 
25 cents a year. 

PATERSON (tf. /.) F. P. L. List of books in the 
public library on astronomy; with brief notes, 
by C. A. Young, Ph.D., LL.D., professor of 
astronomy in the "College of New Jersey 
(Princeton.) Paterson, N. J., issued by the 
Free Public Library, February, 1894. 26 p. D. 
A classed list, followed by an author-index. 
This admirable catalog is commented upon else- 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. BULLETIN for March 
has "special reading-lists" on Physical geog- 
raphy and Meteorology. 

for February contains a list of " Books on Ha- 

Supplied by Harvard College Library. 

Ashmead, W: Harris (A monograph of the 
North American proctotrypidae); 

Blanchard, G: Roberts (The common law liabil- 
ty of carriers); 

Funk, I: Kauffman (A standard dictionary of 
the English language); 

Painter, Franklin Verzelius Newton, 
^0r (Christian worship: its principles and forms); 

Seymour, Horatio Winslow (The Chicago Her- 
ald, editorials); 

Snyder, J: Francis (A primitive urn burial); 

Stetson, Amos W: (Eighty years: an historical 
sketch of the state bank); 

Thome, W: H: (Junior course in mechanical 

ALLEN, E. H. De fidiculus bibliographia; being 
the basis of a bibliography of the violin. I2th 
and concluding part. Lond., Griffith, Farran 
& Co., 1894. 1 6, net, 2s. 6d. 

Bibliographica, the new London quarterly mag- 
azine of book-lore, will have Charles Scribner's 
Sons for its American agents; after the first issue 
only a limited edition of the periodical will be 

BONGARTZ, J. Harry, comp. Check-list of laws; 
cont. a complete list of the public laws and 
acts and resolves of the state of Rhode Island 
to date, with notes and pagings. Providence, 
1893. c. 7 P- O. pap., $1. 
Mr. Bongartz is librarian of the Rhode Island 

State Law Library. 

THE Channing Club, of Boston, through its 
secretary, W. M. Mclnnes, 53 State Street, basis- 
sued a second catalog of " Books for boys " (26 p. 
24, pap.). It is divided into three classes one 
of interesting stories; one of works pf history, 
biography, travel, science, etc. ; and one of books 
specially suited for Sunday-schools. No book has 
been rejected because of doctrinal teaching, but 
where such teaching is prominent the fact is 
noted; besides giving publisher and price, each 
title is followed by a descriptive note. 

CHEVALIER, U. Repertoire des sources his- 
toriques du moyen-age. Topo-bibliographie, 
Fasc. i: A. B. Paris, Picard. 528 col. 8. 

CURTIS, Newton Martin, Capital crimes and the 
punishments prescribed therefor by the fed- 
eral and state laws and those of foreign coun- 
tries, with statistics relating to the same; also 
a bibliography of crimes and punishments. 
Washington, W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., 1894. 
c. 36 p. O. pap., 50 c. 
These statistics are advance sheets of a work 

on criminal law, in preparation. 

DODD, MEAD & Co. announce for publication 
in May " Issues of the New York Press, 1693- 
1784," by C: Rtch6 Hildeburn. The price, pre- 
vious to subscription, is $10, which will be raised, 
on publication qf th volume, 



[April, '94 

FORD, PAUL LEICESTER. Josiah Tucker and his 
writings. (In The Journal of Political Econo- 
my, vol. 2, p. 330.) 

THE Grolier Club, New York, has recently is- 
sued a " Chronological hand-list of various edi- 
tions of the Complete angler "(26 p. 16% pap.) 
with a supplement embracing other writings of 
Walton and Charles Cotton. 1593 - 1893. The list 
is a souvenir of the exhibition of editions of the 
" Complete angler," held at the Grolier Club, 
December 9, 1893, in commemoration of the 
Sooth anniversary of the birth of Walton. 

RENOUARD, P. Bibliographic des editions de 
Simon de Colines (1520- 1546). Avec une 
notice biographique et 37 reproductions en 
fac-simile. Paris, E. Paul, Huard et Guille- 
min. vii. 520 p. 8. 40 fr. 
STAMMHAMMER, Jos. Bibliographic des social- 
ismus und communismus. Jena, Gustav 
Fischer, 1893. 303 p. 8. 
The first volume of an exhaustive bibliography. 
The arrangement is alphabetical under authors 
and there is also an alphabetical subject-index. 
The titles are wholly representative. The com- 
piler has had the advantage of studying the un- 
rivalled collections on the subject owned by the 
Messrs. Menger, of Vienna. 


Maxwell Gray, the author of " The silence of 
Dean Maitland," has been spelled both Gray 
and Grey. Allibone supplement spells it Gray, 
while A. L. A. catalog and many others give the 
form Grey. " A costly freak," the new volume 
by this author published by D. Appleton & Co., 
gives the name Gray at the request of the au- 
thor. A uthority D. Appleton & Co. 


W. W. Jar-vis is given on the title-page as 
author of "Gotham ambrotypes ; or, sketches 
from life: a satirical poem," pub. N. Y., 1860. 
A presentation copy in the Watkinson library 
contains the following autograph: "To Dr. 
Paterson, with the kind regards of the author, 
W. J.Wetmore, Sept. 17, 1861." 


Supplied by F. Wtitenkampf, Astor L. 

Abel Cephak, ps. of Clovis Pierre, registrar 
of the Paris morgue and writer of ballads. 

Ajax, the ps. under which Mrs. Besant is said 
to have begun her journalistic career. 

Georg Egestoff, ps. of Georg Freiherr von Omp- 

Quatrelles, E. Manuel, pseudonyms used by 
Ernest L'Epine, critic and journalist, who died 
in Paris, 1893. 

v. Mir is, ps. of Franz Bonn, contributor to 
the Fliegende Blatter. 

Pearl Rivers, ps. of Mrs. G: Nicholson, of 
New Orleans, who wrote various poems soon 
after the civil war. 

Wat Ripton, ps. of Prof. Tyndall in various 
magazine articles on literary subjects, written 
while a young teacher at Queenswood College. 

The following are taken from the Athenaeum, 

C. Collodi. Lorenzini (Italian journalist). 

Fulvia. Signorina Rachele Saporiti (Italian 

fan Ferguut. M. van Droogenbroek (Flemish 

Lesan. A. Klastersky (la " Songs of labor " 
Bohemian author). 

Manchecourt. Henri Lavedan (Parisian sketch- 
es in La -vie Parisienne). 

Max Waller. Maurice Warlomont (Flemish 

Melati van Java. Miss Sloot (Dutch writer). 

Porz6. Dr. Adolf Agai (Hungarian./Vz7/<r- 
toniste and humorist). 

Remigio Zena, Marchese Gaspare d' Invrea 
(Italian magistrate and author). 

Sigurd. A. Hedenstierna (Swedish author). 

V. Krestovski. Mme. Khvostchinski (Russian 
novelist, d. 189 [i ?]). 

From an article by Ferdinand Gross, in N. Y. 
Staats-Zeitung, Mr. i, '91, following are taken. 

Amalia Heiter. Princess Amalia of Saxony 

G. Conrad. Prince Georg of Prussia (dramas). 

Ge"rardde Nerval. Gerard Labrunie (translator 
of Goethe's Faust). 

Graind"orgu. Hippolyte Taine. 
Vicomte de Launay. Mme. de Girardin. 
Willibald Alexis. Wilhelm HSring. 



SARAH GRAND'S " Heavenly twins " was asked 
for the other day under the title of " The twin 
angels." Recently a lady asked for " The 
prince of the house of David, by Ben Hur," and 
insisted that that was what she wanted. As 
"The prince of India" was not in, and "The 
prince of the house of David" was worn-out, we 
were unable to find out what she really desired. 
Some time last fall a lady asked for "The price 
she paid," by Benedict, as " What it cost her " 
a very good translation of the title. 

Stoddard's "Crowded out o' Cro'field " was 
asked for by another under the surprising title 
of " Driven out of Christendom." A. W. T. 

THE following books were called for in New 
York State Library: 

D'Cocktails American republic (De Tocque- 
ville's Democracy in America); 

Two little angel babies, and Heavenly toursts 
(Heavenly twins). M. S. C. 

THE title given below is taken from a New 
York auction-catalog: 

Fields, J. T. Barney Cornwall & Co. 16, 
1.876. W. I. F. 

April, '94] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL 149 


' IDrawln^Boart* flDucHape 

has been adopted by leading Librarians throughout the country as the only satis- 
factory library adhesive made. The 5000 volumes of the Model Library at the 
World's Fair were repaired and labelled with this adhesive in preference to all others, 
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' Carbon Writing Tfnfrg 

contain no other coloring matter than pure carbon, and they hence write black from 
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The Higgins' Adhesives and Inks are for Sale by Dealers in Artists' Materials 
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[April, '94 







The RUDOLPH INDEXER SYSTEM possesses many advantages which 
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April, '94] 


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No one familiar with the inception and prog- 
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Aerial Locomotion, 
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ROBERTS BROTHERS, - Boston, Mass. 


[April, '94 


A Quarterly Magazine of Philosophy and Science. 
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THE MONIST discusses the fundamental problems of 
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A Weekly Journal Devoted to the Religion of Science. 
Yearly, - - $2.00. 

Although opposed to irrational orthodoxy and narrow 
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Dictionnaire Canadien- 


Author of"La France Trantatlantique" or France 
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Being a complete analytical, etymological, his- 
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canisms in general, and especially of those in 
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pages. p r ice, $5.OO, 
delivered in any part of the United States 
Sold only by subscription, and subscription 

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Extract from a recent letter of Jules Simon (of the 
French Academy), to Mme. Dandurand, of Montreal 
" And you, Canada, what can you become ? Yours is 
the policy of the future and the civilization of the past 
What I like in you is the fact that you remind me the 
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of words and formation of phrases of which you are the 

Address all demands to 

SYLVA CLAPIN, 7 Park Square, Boston 


Indispensable in Libraries. 

THE "A. L. A." INDEX. 

The American Library Association Index. An 
Index to General Literature, Biographical, His- 
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ports and Publications of Boards and Societies 
dealing with Education, Health. Labor, Chari- 
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FLETCHER, A.M., Librarian of Amherst Col- 
lege. Royal 8vo, cloth, $5.00, net; half 
morocco, $6.50, net. 


WILLIAM I. FLETCHER, with the co-operation of 
the American Library Association. New re- 
vised edition. Vol. I. In two parts. Royal 
8vo, $16.00, net; sheep, $20.00, net ; half mo- 
rocco, gilt top, $24.00, net. Vol. II. First 
Supplement (January, i882-January, 1887). 
Royal 8vo, $8.00, net ; sheep, $10.00, net; half 
morocco, gilt top, $12.00, net. Vol. III. 
Second Supplement (January, i887-January, 
1892). Royal 8vo, $8.00, net; sheep, $10.00, 
net; half morocco, gilt top, $12.00, net. 

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April, '94] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL 153 


Publishers and Booksellers, 



Oldest Agency for American Libraries. 

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{April, '94 

The Annual Literary Index, 






With the co-operation of members of the American Li- 
brary Association and of the Library Journal staff . 

plements the " Annual American Catalogue" of 
books published in 1893 by indexing (i) articles 
in periodicals published in 1893 ; (2) essays and 
book-chapters in composite books of 1893 ; (3) 
authors of periodical articles and essays ; (4) 
special bibliographies of 1893 ; (5) authors de- 
ceased in 1893. The two volumes together make 
a complete record of the literary product of the 

The volume includes also the features of the 
" Co-operative Index to Periodicals," originally 
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form, and later issued as an annual volume. 

One vol., cloth, (uniform with " A. L. A. In- 
dex") $3. 50. 


Intending Purchasers 


ic Annual American 

for 1890, 1891, 1892 

will please notice that our stock of this valu- 
able biographical help is rapidly decreasing. 
Of the volume for 1890 only 30 copies remain ; 
of that for 1891 only 3 copies; and of that for 
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we make a specialty 
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April, '94] 




Book-Stack and Shelving for Libraries. 



Louisville, Ky., and Chicago, 111. 

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"Mr. Stechert has for years furnished this Library with most of its periodicals and European books, and has bought for us 
many thousand volumes. Mr. Stechert's success is due to his constant personal attention to the business, and the reasonable 
terms he is able to offer. I consider a New York agent far preferable to reliance on foreign agents alone." 

GEO. H. BAKER, Librarian of Columbia College, New York. 

" Seven years ago, in reorganizing the Columbia College library, I spent much time in trying to discover how to get out 
foreign books and periodicals with the least delay, trouble and expense. The result of the comparison of three methods, viz : 
ordering direct from foreign dealers, ordering through one agent in London, or ordering through one agent in New York showed 
us that it was to our advantage to give Mr. Stechert all our foreign orders, as he delivered in the library in a single package 
and with a single bill at as low cost as we were able with vastly greater trouble, to get a half dozen different packages in differ- 
ent bills from different places. In reorganizing the New York State Library, I opened the whole question anew, and the result 
of the comparison was the same as before, and we find that the library gets most for the time and money expended by taking 
advantage of Mr. Stechert's long experience, and the careful personal attention which he gives to our orders." 

MELVIL DEWEY, Director of N. Y. State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

" Mr. G. E. Stechert of New York has served us with fidelity in procuring English, French and German books, both new 
and second hand and also periodicals. His terms are more reasonable than any others that have come to our notice, while he 
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Prof. ARTHUR H. PALMER, Librarian of Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 

" Your methods and facilities for doing business, as I have examined them here as well as at the Leipzig and London ends, 
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ERNEST C. RICHARDSON, Librarian f College of Neva Jersey, Princeton, N.J. 

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A. 8. COLLINS, Act, Librarian of Reynolds Library, Rochester ^N. P. 




Library Journal 



%H>rarp Economy anfc 

VOL. 19. No. 5 

MAY, 1894 



The Library Movement in Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia Mercantile Library. 

The Effect of the World's Fair on Reading in 

Massachusetts Library Club. 


A Suggested Card-book Catalog. 

" Two-BooK " SYSTEM. C: Kmtvles Bolton. . 

INSTITUTE, CHICAGO (Illustrated). Katharine 
L. Sharp 


J: Thomson 166 



RY. Florence Brooks. . . . , 168 








Boston Visit. 

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Collins, Catalogue of Prince L.-L. Bonaparte's 

Wilson, The All-time Library. 








Price to Europe, or other cottntriei in the Union, aor. per annum ; tingle numbers, 2*. 
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[May, '94 


London Agency for American Libraries, 



EDW. G. ALLEN devotes himself entirely to library business. His long experience enables him 
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California University. 


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"We have been, for the last twenty years, personally cognizant of Mr. Allen's faitnfulness to the interests of 
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Edw. G. Allen's American Library Agency, 





VOL. 19. 

MAY, 1894. 

No. 5 

THE excellent article by Mr. John Thomson on 
the present library movement in Philadelphia, 
taken in conjunction with the extracts from the 
Philadelphia Record, printed elsewhere, gives a 
lucid exposition of what is one of the most inter- 
esting of recent experiments in the library field. 
Philadelphia has long been achy of libraries, but 
it has never had a free library in the modern sense 
of the word. The Pepper bequest of $250,000, 
for the establishment of a free library in Phila- 
delphia, offered the first means of providing 
this need. Such a sum was, of course, inade- 
quate for the establishment of a large central 
library, similar to >the Enoch Pratt Library or 
the public libraries of other large cities; but the 
way in which the trust has been handled deserves 
high praise. As soon as the litigation in regard 
to it was concluded, its directors established 
relations with the city authorities who had 
in the meantime organized small branch libraries 
in two city districts and with the aid and 
countenance of the city councils they opened a 
central free library of modest dimensions in 
temporary quarters. A municipal appropriation 
has been made for its support, its popular suc- 
cess is unquestionably assured, its organizers 
have throughout shown an earnest desire to 
improve and extend library facilities, and they 
already have, in a measure, accomplished the 
purpose for which the trust was intended. That 
this purpose will be wholly fulfilled there can be 
little doubt. The free library of Philadelphia is 
still in its infancy ; but it is to be expected that 
as its benefits are more fully realized, it will 
meet with substantial aid and recognition, and 
will attain in time to the importance and wide 
usefulness befitting the public library of one of 
the foremost American cities. 

IT was, indeed, time for some such library 
movement in Philadelphia, if the city of Broth- 
erly Love is to maintain its reputation as a 
reading centre. The tabulated statistics of the 
Mercantile Library of Philadelphia, from 1822 
to 1893, given in the last (7ist) report of that 
library, lead to this conclusion. These figures 
show such a remarkable decline in patronage and 
circulation within the past 10 years that a few 
words of comment are unavoidable. The Mer- 
cantile, which has for years been the foremost 
library of Philadelphia, is a subscription li- 

brary, and now contains 171,525 volumes. In 
1864 it had a membership of 5609 persons ; 
this increased year by year until in 1871 the 
high-water mark of 11,786 members was reached. 
In that year 196,308 books were circulated from 
a total of 63,874 volumes then in the library. 
The highest circulation of all was in the fol- 
lowing year, 1872, when 268,277 books were 
issued. From this time patronage and circula- 
tion have steadily decreased. In 1876 the 
membership fell to 9207 ; in 1880 the circula- 
tion fell below 150,000. In 1884 the mem- 
bership was but 491 1 .and 136,607 books were 
circulated from a constantly increasing total 
of 150,155. In the 10 years that have passed 
since then the decline has been constant, until 
we find that the statistics for 1893 show a 
membership of 3115 and a circulation of 86,563 
volumes, the number of books in the library at 
this time, being, as already noted, 171,525. It 
is hard to account for the remarkable decrease 
here demonstrated. The library has more books 
now than ever before; at the last annual meet- 
ing, in January, 1894, it was decided to reduce 
the annual fees to stockholders to two dollars 
per annum, and the subscription has never been 
excessive. The cause seems to lie partly in the 
library itself. Its quarters have never been at- 
tractive or really suitable, and it is possible that 
of late years the library has fallen " behind the 
times " in some respects, and has become gradu- 
ally more or less fossilized. This seems the 
only practicable explanation, as the new free li- 
brary of the city and the several small branches 
are of such recent establishment that they can- 
not have drawn off the Mercantile Library 
patronage to any extent, and it is not likely 
that the great majority of people who are ordi- 
narily users of subscription libraries should of 
later years have turned wholly from borrowing 
books to buying them. Neither of these expla- 
nations seem, therefore, at all adequate, and 
failing the sufficiency of the first premise It is 
difficult to account for the remarkable condition 
of affairs shown by the statistics. 

THE fact that the reading at the Chicago 
Public Library has noticeably improved in qual- 
ity since the World's Fair is not surprising. It 
would have been surprising if it had not im- 
proved. Nevertheless, Mr. Hild's statement 



[May, '94 

that the demand at that library for books on art, 
architecture, and language is about 200 per cent, 
larger than it was a year ago, is both gratifying 
and suggestive. It is gratifying as an indica- 
tion that the majority of people are responsive 
to intellectual stimulus, that they are quick to 
appreciate beauty in form, color, or design not 
in the abstract, perhaps, but when it is brought 
concretely before them and that when their in- 
terest is really awakened in a subject they usually 
set themselves to " find out all about it." It is 
suggestive in that it tends to disprove the 
frequent assertion that people cannot be "edu- 
cated up " to a higher form of reading or 
amusement than they have been accustomed to. 
That the wonders of a great international ex- 
position should shake people out of their usual 
grooves of thought, and open to them un- 
suspected vistas of inquiry and study, was in- 
evitable. It is equally certain that in a lesser 
degree the current of popular interest and read- 
ing can be improved by well-directed, tactful 
effort. The gradual elimination of trash from a 
library; the distribution or posting of read- 
ing-lists on timely topics ; the exhibition from 
time to time of rare or curious books, of prints, 
of the literature on any special subject; frequent 
"book talks" or informal lectures all these 
are steps that must of necessity lead to the same 
goal. The effect may be imperceptible at first, 
and the results maybe usually will be dis- 
couragingly slow in coming ; but such work, in- 
telligently planned, tactfully developed, and 
faithfully continued, cannot fail to accomplish 
in a measure what the Chicago exposition could 
effect on so large a scale. 

THE report of the recent meeting of the Massa- 
chusetts Library Club, printed elsewhere, is a 
useful contribution to the literature of book- 
binding and charging systems. Both of these 
subjects received a degree of practical considera- 
tion which cannot fail to make the report of 
general interest. Such technical points are al- 
ways capital topics for library debate, and their 
scientific discussion and practical illustration 
must be helpful, not only to the members of the 
individual associations discussing them, but to 
the larger audience reached by the printed re- 
ports. In the present case the meeting of the 
club was attended by the New York State Li- 
brary School, then on its annual trip of library 
inspection, and it is especially gratifying that 
the subjects for discussion were so interesting 
and so well handled. 



I WANT to suggest an improved method of li- 
brary cataloging, combining the advantages of a 
book catalog with those of a card catalog, and 
thus saving the great loss of time which readers 
experience when turning over cards. I propose 
that a very large book, or series of books, be 
prepared, with leaves of millboard, which is 
a stiff and cheap kind of cardboard, used by 
bookbinders. On these leaves the cards of the 
catalog are to be arranged in (say) two col- 
umns. Preparation for each column of cards is 
to be made by puncturing holes in the millboard. 
These can be best punctured with a saddler's 
punch. The holes are to be arranged down the 
length of each page of millboard in four columns, 
two for each column of cards. The distance be- 
tween two columns of holes will be about three- 
fourths of the breadth of a card. The distance 
between two holes in the same column will alter- 
nate that between the first and second being 
the same as the height of one card, that be- 
tween the second and third about one- quarter of 
an inch, that between the third and fourth, the 
same as between the first and second, and so on. 
A piece of narrow elastic, is to be threaded in and 
out of the holes in one column, and its ends are 
to be tied together. Another piece of elastic is to 
be similarly used for each other column of holes. 
The cards are to be slipped under the elastic, a 
card between the first and second holes, a card 
between the third and fourth, and so on. 

Two difficulties have been suggested in this 
proposed method. The first was that there would 
be nothing to prevent a reader from slipping out 
one of the cards as easily as the librarian could do. 
I think this difficulty might be met as follows: 
Let the elastic bands run towards the back of the 
cover, the two ends of each band being placed 
within the back of the cover, and being there 
clasped between flat bars or plates of wood or 
metal, which might be locked at their extremities. 
To prevent the elastics slipping through these, 
knots might be fastened on the ends of each 

The second difficulty was that the rubber would 
become inelastic in about a year. This is alto- 
gether contrary to my experience. It must be 
remembered that I do not speak of pure rubber, 
but of rubber cord covered with silk or cotton, 
such as is sold in the dry-goods or haberdashery 
stores. I used such elastic, not for a card cata- 
log but for a purpose exactly similar. The ob- 
ject was to slip in and out slips of paper, each 
about one inch wide. Sometimes I would have 
one slip and sometimes a dozen or two dozen slips 
in one place, and I changed them frequently, thus 
subjecting each part of each elastic to a very d iffer- 
ent strain at one time from that to which it was 
subjected at another. The elastic used was the 
cheapest procurable two-cord cotton covered 
elastic, bought at two shillings (English) for 72 
yards. After 10 years but very little of it had 
required to be tightened, and scarcely any to be 
renewed. H. W. B. MACKAY. 


May, '94] 



BY C: KNOWLES BOLTON, Librarian Brookline (Mass.) Public Library. 

IN small towns where a high rate of Intelli- 
gence prevails, the diversity of taste and inter- 
est demands a wider selection of books than the 
circulation would seem to justify. A work which 
would appeal to but one reader in a town of 
15,000 inhabitants, would find four readers, per- 
haps, in a city of 60,000, and would be purchased. 
To be unable to encourage readers in new fields 
because the old and foot-worn paths have proved 
themselves to be " for the good of the greatest 
number," is a great misfortune. As a problem, 
there seems to be but two solutions to buy 
the work of general interest ; or, to create a 
larger constituency for the book which has 
proved attractive to one reader. The latter 
course offers possibilities that should tempt the 
zealous librarian, for an increase in solid read- 
ing is an evidence of a library's growing useful- 
ness in a community, that no one will contro- 
vert. That many libraries are successfully 
bringing about this increase may influence other 
libraries to try new methods, or revive familiar 

The book wanted by one reader may attract 
others if it is placed near the delivery-desk, 
where it can be examined by the public. The 
" new book" shelves are now a feature in many 
smaller libraries. In this way as many as 400 
books may be kept constantly before the public. 
It is of no small importance that these books re- 
main in their original covers, and retain their 
individuality. If hours are spent in designing 
a cover to attract a purchaser, why should a 

library refuse to employ the beautiful to attract 

Borrowers will take a novel because they come 
to the library usually to get a book for recrea- 
tion. If they could take 'a work of history, bi- 
ography, or travel, for more leisurely reading, 
they would like it, but many libraries give only 
one book on a card. To meet this need the 
Public Library at Brookline devised a card on 
which two books may be taken at one time, or 
on different days, as the reader wishes. He may 
keep a history a month (by renewal), and read 
20 novels during the same period; or, he may 
take two books other than fiction. But, as our 
" new books" are limited in number (and desig- 
nated by a red star), but one of these can be kept 
out on the card at a time. The card is divided 
in the middle ; the left has " Fiction" at the top, 
the right " Other works." The date of delivery 
of a book is stamped on the proper side of the 
card, and also in the book itself. The instruc- 
tions on the card read: "Borrowers may take 
two books at the same time, provided that not 
more than one of these shall be a work of fic- 
tion, and that two new books shall not be taken." 

New books are noted by a reversed date (3 
May). Then it follows that there can be : 

1. But one uncancelled date on the left (fic- 

2. But two uncancelled dates on the card 
(one on either side or two on the right). 

3. But one reversed uncancelled date on the 

.-. FICTION. .-. 










APR 4 

APR 14 

4 APR 

APR 14 

14 APR 

APR 21 

APR 14 

23 APR 

APR 24 

24 APR 




[May, '94 

People seemed to understand the system at 
once, and many availed themselves of the en- 
larged privileges. The children, too, began to 
take out biography and history. We shall soon 
have a shelf of these books in the waiting-room, 
that they may still further avail themselves of 
the " other works" mentioned on the card. The 
circulation for March, the first month of the 
new arrangement, rose 22 per cent. The char- 
acter of this increase may be of interest. Com- 
paring the circulation of fiction for February 
and March, 1893, with February, 1894, a circu- 
lation of 3981 was to be expected for March, 
1894, under the old system. The actual circula- 
tion of fiction was 1969; that is, fiction was not 
appreciably affected by the new system. If, 
with one book to a card, people were denying 
themselves a novel to take a solid book, the en- 
larged privilege would have given them an op- 
portunity to take more novels without sacrificing 
their other reading, and the fiction statistics for 
March would have increased. As there was no 
abnormal increase this proves, I think, that peo- 
ple do not under the system of one book to a 
card sacrifice the novel for more instructive 
reading. On the other hand where a circulation 
in " Travels " of 354 was to be expected in 
March, 1894, it was actually 606 ; [in " History 

and Biography" instead of 753 it was 1255 ; in 
"Poetry" instead of the 189 to be expected it 
rose to 244. 

Where there are enough new books and good 
works of fiction to allow two of either kind on 
one card at the same time, the librarian would 
have to decide for himself as to the wisdom of 
making restrictions on the two books taken. 

In a small town, methods may be tried which 
would hardly be suited to the conditions of a 
large library. In looking over the " Portrait 
catalogue" of the Cassell Publishing Company 
of New York, one cannot but be impressed by its 
excellent portraits. These we cut out and post 
on our bulletin-board, with a list of each author's 
works and our shelf-numbers for them. Bio- 
graphical sketches of popular authors, like Bea- 
trice Harraden, are also posted on the board. 
People who come to the library with no book in 
mind are attracted by the pictures, and some 
choose a book from the lists underneath. 

If, by methods similar to those described 
above, a large constituency can be created for a 
book, the librarian will be able in his buying to 
make a selection on broader lines, and, while 
gratifying a particular reader, awaken among 
other borrowers an interest in the less frequented 
paths of literature. 

BY KATHARINE L. SHARP, Librarian Armour Institute. 

THE buildings of Armour Institute were op- 
ened and their purpose announced in December, 
1892. The first term of instruction began Sep- 
tember 12, 1893. 

Although the original plans had not provided 
for a library, the omission was pointed out as 
soon as Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus was appointed 
president, and the science lecture-hall, occupy- 
ing one-half of the first floor, was assigned to 
the library. 

The librarian was appointed in January, 1893, 
and was at once set to solve the problem of 
furnishing these temporary quarters with mov- 
able fittings, so that one room, 50x60 feet, 
would accommodate readers, book-stacks, and 
office, without spoiling it for its original use. 

The room is well lighted on three sides, and 
is handsomely furnished in dark oak. While in 
no sense a museum nor an art gallery, the walls 
and ends of bookcases are hung with fine pict- 
ures, among them Raphael's " The Fiddler," 

Whistler's " King Lear in the Storm," and the 
Moscheles' " Browning." 

The books are shelved in wall cases around 
the room and in stacks, which are now placed 
far enough apart to make alcoves, with a win- 
dow at the end of each. The space between 
them must very soon, however, be limited to a 
narrow aisle, to provide for more bookcases. 

Two-thirds of the room is fitted with small 
tables for students, although they are allowed 
free access to the shelves, and the alcoves are 
favorite places for quiet study. 

The library is open from 8 a. m. to 9:30 p. m., 
except Saturday evening and Sunday, and circu- 
lates books to the faculty and students. 

Whi'e the library does not buy books for the 
public, the reading-room is free to all, and 
earnest students from outside who wish the 
books which the institute provides can borrow 
them for home use. 

There are now 10,000 volumes, but the sub- 

May, '94] 



jects are unevenly represented, as the plan of 
the first year's buying has been to develop the 
leading departments, and defer the others to 
another year. Therefore, mechanical engineer- 
ing, electricity, and mathematics have the lar- 
gest representation, and history, physics, chemis- 
try, and French and German language and liter- 
ature are building up symmetrically. Other de- 
partments are weak. 

The library has a fine collection of rare books, 
illustrating the history and art of printing, which 
is considered second only to that of Lenox Li- 
brary, New York. 

Departmental libraries have been started, and 
in many cases their books are duplicated in the 
general library. Several departments have their 
scientific periodicals also in their rooms, where 
they are free to the students. 

Without these auxiliary reading-rooms it 
would be impossible for the library to satisfy 
the demands of the students in its crowded quar- 
ters. The general reading-room can seat no 

more than 150 comfortably, and with over 900 
students, its limitations can be easily appre- 

Over 500 students have registered to draw 
books for home use, but the circulation is con- 
sidered secondary to the reference use of the 
library, and books are subject to recall when 
wanted for reserve. 

Books are reserved for special classes when- 
ever desired, and for the two literary societies 
of the institute. These give their programs to 
the librarian two weeks in advance, and refer- 
ence lists are at once posted and the books re- 
served. Next term the librarian is to give sev- 
eral talks to the societies upon general reference 
books, that they may better learn to help them- 

There is free access to the shelves, a privilege 
thoroughly appreciated by the students, who 
seem to have a feeling of pride and ownership in 
the library that does much to protect it. 

One of the leading ideas of the president of 

i6 4 


[May, '94 

the institute was that the library should be a 
laboratory for the training of library assistants, 
and in accordance with this idea the Depart- 
ment of Library Science was established as a 
part of the technical college and an explanatory 
circular was issued. 

The course was so planned as to offer at first 
but one year of instruction, so arranged that it 
could be supplemented by a second year of ad- 
vanced work, if desirable. It includes lectures 
and instruction in library handwriting, acces- 
sion and other department routine, cataloging, 
classification, loan systems, binding, shelf ar- 
rangement, shelf listing, reference work and 
bibliography, literature and the history of books 
and printing. 

The course was arranged to occupy each 
student 40 hours a week. The regular in- 
structors and topics assigned were F. W. Gun- 
saulus, " History of books and printing," and 
" Comparative literature ;" T:C. Roney, "Eng- 
lish literature ; " Katharine L. Sharp and May 
Bennett, " Library economy." Special subjects 
were to be treated by outside specialists. The 
school year was divided into three terms and the 
fees fixed at $5 per term. The date of opening 
for the first class was set for September 14, 
1893; candidates were advised to make applica- 
tion at least one month before that date, and it 
was announced that examination of applicants 
would be held at the institute on September 12. 

Many applications were received and 22 young 
women presented themselves for examination 
on the date set. As many inquiries have been 
made as to the nature of the first examination, a 
copy of the questions is here given : 

1. Who wrote " Hypatia," " Wealth of na- 
tions," "American commonwealth," "Ten 
great religions," "Sense and sensibility," 
"Silas Marner," " Quentin Durward," "The 
Viking age," "Earthly paradise," "Myths and 

2. Mention as many works as you can of the 
following authors : Browning, Longfellow, 
Parkman, Victor Hugo, Tolstoi, George Mere- 
dith, Maarten Maartens, Aldrich, Lowell, Marion 

3. Name two Latin and two Greek authors, 
with two works of each. 

4. Name three French and three German 
authors, with two works of each. 

5. Write a brief criticism (about one page) of 
one of your favorite authors. 

6. Name five well-known American publishers. 

7. Mention authors and titles and give a brief 
characterization of five books first published in 
1892 or 1893. 

8. Name three literary, three scientific, two 
religious, and two juvenile periodicals. 

9. Write briefly (about five lines each) what is 
suggested to your mind by the following : Thirty 
Years' War, Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
Wars of the roses, Thermopylae, Spanish Ar- 
mada, Bastile, Magna Charta. 

10. Give a short account (about one page) of 
the Crusades. 

11. What part in the world'shistory was played 
by the following : Charlemagne, Gustavus Adol- 
phus, Cromwell, Peter the Hermit, William of 
Orange, Alexander Hamilton ? 

12. Locate the following and state for what 
each is or was noted : The Louvre, People's 
Palace, Colosseum, Vatican, Acropolis, Mount 
Vernon, Abbottsford, Ford's Theatre, Gray 
Gables, Ferris Wheel. 

13. Write a brief essay (about two pages) on 
one of the following topics : France and Siam, 
Behring Sea question, Silver question. 

14. Name (a) the governor of your own state, 
(b) the speaker of the House, (c) the president of 
the Senate. 

15. What idea of the modern library move- 
ment have you gained from reading the refer- 
ences in the LIBRARY JOURNAL and Library 

Twelve students were received and that num- 
ber completed the first term's work. One was 
then recalled to her own library and another left 
on account of ill health. 

The class has at this writing just completed 
its second term of instruction, but it is now first 
mentioned in the LIBRARY JOURNAL, as its organ- 
izers wished to wait until a report of progress 
could be made. 

The order of instruction is modelled upon that 
given at the New York State Library School in 
the first year. 

Thus far the class has studied cataloging, 
accessioning, and shelf-listing, according to the 
Library School rules, the decimal classification, 
dictionary cataloging, and bookbinding and 

Every member of the class subscribes for the 
LIBRARY JOURNAL and the Publishers' Weekly, 
and belongs to the Chicago Library Club. 

The Publishers' Weekly is carefully studied in 
connection with critical reviews, and an order 
list is made each week. 

May, '94] 


The A. L. A. catalog is studied by subjects, to 
familiarize the students with the best authors 
and their selected works. Next term this work 
will be extended by lectures given by professors 
from the Chicago and Northwestern Universities 
on the literature of their special subjects, point- 
ing out the best authorities and specifying pop- 
ular and scholarly works and other informa- 
tion needed by librarians. 

In order to keep posted on current events, the 
class meets once a week to discuss some question 
of political or general interest that is before the 

No regular instruction in reference work has 
yet been given, but the members of the class 
have had practical reference work from the be- 
ginning, as they work in the alcoves which are 
open to the other students and have many de- 
mands for help. 

Practical work in the institute library has 
been general rather than concentrated on any 
one line of work, 

Each member of the class acts as assistant to 
each member of the library [staff in turn, serv- 
ing two weeks at a time. She thus learns the 
routine work of the library and picks up much 
information that would never be formally pre- 
sented in class. 

Besides this, each one has to do one hour of 
office work each week. During the winter term 
each student was also required to give one hour 
a day to the institute in the work most needed 
at the time, and next term the apprentice hours 
will be increased. 

The library has been kept open on all holi- 
days except Christmas and New Year's, and this 
time as well as the early morning hour and 
evenings has been taken by members of the 
class for experience. 

The opportunities for outside work have been 
many. The Library Bureau and the Rudolph 
Indexer Company have been very kind in fur- 
nishing problems for the class to solve. Two of 
the students are doing the mechanical part of 
bibliographies on outside orders. Two other 
students are librarians in their Sunday-schools, 
and one is organizing a new Sunday-school 
library. The entire class has worked in organ- 
izing the library of the University Settlement 
on Rice Street, and they are to begin at once to 
classify and arrange the Lake View High School 
library of 1500 volumes. One large private 
library is waiting until the class shall be con- 
sidered competent to catalog it. 

The Department of Library Science has been 
asked to index scientific periodicals for Electri- 
cal Literature, which is published in connection 
with Electrical Engineering, but on account of 
changes in the office, work has not yet been com- 
menced. The founder and publisher of Electri- 
cal Literature, Mr. Fred. Deland, has set aside 
one afternoon in each week for the library class, 
when he will answer any questions they may 
have about the indexing. 

The introduction of vertical handwriting into 
the public schools of the city has directed atten- 
tion to library handwriting, and one of the class 
has been asked to make copies for new school 
writing-books. The Commercial Department 
of the institute has also asked the library for 
samples of writing for the book-keepers to follow, 
and several applicants for next year's library 
class are taking writing lessons now. 

The Field Columbian Museum has applied for 
help, and there have been enough positions of- 
fered during the year to supply the present 
class. It is hoped that some will still be wait- 
ing when the class is ready to begin independent 

The instruction of the regular staff has been 
supplemented by several outside lecturers. Dr. 
Constantin Norrenberg, of the University of 
Kiel, Germany, who was in charge of the Ger- 
man library exhibit at the World's Fair, spoke 
on the differences between German and Amer- 
ican libraries, and illustrated his lecture at an- 
other time at a visit paid to his exhibit. Mr. C: 
C. Soule, president of the Boston Book Com- 
pany, gave an inspiring talk on the mission of a 
librarian. Miss Louisa S. Cutler, in charge of 
the A. L. A. library at the World's Fair, gave 
one formal talk at the institute to the class as a 
whole and many informal talks to the individual 
members of the class, who lost no opportunity to 
study the library exhibit under Miss Cutler's 
kind direction. 

Mr. J: C. Dana, of Denver Public Library, told 
the class of his professional experiences. Dr. 
G: E. Wire, head of the Medical Department of 
the Newberry Library and a graduate of the 
Library School, has generously given several of 
his half holidays this winter to lecture upon prac- 
tical bookbinding and repairing. 

Miss Edith E. Clarke, head cataloger of the 
Newberry Library and a graduate of the Library 
School, was to have given the regular instruction 
in dictionary cataloging, but Dr. Poole's death 
made it impossible for her to obtain leave of 



[May, '94 

absence. Although prevented from undertaking 
the formal work, Miss Clarke acts as general 
adviser on the subject and gives what assistance 
she can in her free time. The assistance and 
encouragement of these Library School friends 
cannot be measured in time nor words. 

The Newberry Library and the Public Library 
have both been very friendly to the Armour 
Institute Library and class. By special arrange- 
ment in the fall the Public Library lent to the 
institute a large number of books, at different 
times, to illustrate cataloging principles in class, 
as the institute library was not general enough 
to supply them. Mr. Ringer, who has the lar- 
gest bindery in Chicago, has given the class the 
freedom of his establishment, and they have 
often visited it. 

Aside from technical library instruction, lit- 
erature has been a regular study in the course, 
under Prof. Thos. C. Roney, of the institute. 
The first term's work covered an historical sur- 
vey of English literature. The second term was 
devoted to the English literature of the igth 
century, and the third term will treat of the 
American, French, and German literature of the 

Dr. Gunsaulus has often met the class to lect- 

ure upon general literature, or to answer the 
contents of the literary " question-box." 

The library class has the privilege of attend- 
ing other lectures given at the institute, and has 
just listened to a course of six lectures on Amer- 
ican history given by Prof. John Fiske, of Har- 

The instruction of next term will be devoted 
to bibliography and reference work, and the class 
will visit neighboring libraries for comparative 

The demand for instruction is increasing, and 
there are those who want a correspondence 
course, or a summer course, or an evening course, 
but all applicants are discouraged from taking 
less than one year. 

All of the present class fully realize how little 
can be done in one year, and they know their 

They do not think that their training has 
" made them librarians," and they do not wish 
to be called " library experts." 

They are very much in earnest and hope to 
take a second year, although circumstances will 
oblige most of them to defer this and engage in 
practical work for some time, hoping to return 

BY JOHN THOMSON, Librarian Free Library of Philadelphia. 

THE Free Public Library movement has taken 
a considerable start in Philadelphia during the 
past three years; and though that city has been 
slow in entering into the spirit of the movement, 
it looks as if the city of Brotherly Love had 
thoroughly realized that a work of great moment 
to her citizens could be accomplished. 

A really free library, in the full acceptation of 
the term, has long been a desideratum, and 
when, in 1891, the terms of Mr. George S. Pep- 
per's will became known, whereby nearly a quar- 
ter of a million dollars were bequeathed for the 
maintenance of a free library, library talk filled 
the air, and the discussion took a very practical 
form. Philadelphia, from the period of the 
colonial days, has been a book-loving and a 
book-distributing centre, as is proved by the 
valuable Apprentices' Library, Rush Library, 
Mercantile Library, City Institute, and many 
like institutions; but Mr. Pepper's will empha- 
sized the fact that the time had arrived when a 

free library in the modern sense of the term had 
become a necessity. 

It was at that juncture, and whilst legal pro- 
ceedings were hindering the immediate realiza- 
tion of Mr. Pepper's beneficent intentions, that 
the city board of education inaugurated a 
series of branches in various parts of the city 
with a remarkable success. In the latter part of 
1892 arrangements were made between the enter- 
prising managers of the Wagner Institute and 
the board of education for the opening in the 
institute of Branch No. I of the Free Public Li- 
braries. The institute provided rooms rent 
free, gas, firing, and fixtures, the board of edu- 
cation undertaking to supply books and a proper 
staff of assistants. The work was taken in hand 
by Mr. T. L. Montgomery, the actuary of the 
institute (who is so well known in the A. L. A.), 
as a labor of love, and the result has surprised 
every one connected with the movement. From 
a circulation of 11,000 volumes a month they 

May, '94] 



have steadily risen, till in March of this year 
they loaned to readers over 20,000 volumes. 

Naturally success begets success, and two other 
branches have since been opened in other parts 
of Philadelphia with excellent results, while a 
fourth branch, with some 15,000 volumes, will be 
thrown open to the public in the course of a few 

Still, however, a central free library was want- 
ing, and as soon as the courts had finally de- 
termined that the Pepper trust was to take the 
form of an independent library, the directors 
placed themselves in communication with the 
city authorities, and obtained the temporary use 
of three large rooms on the ground floor of the 
City Hall for the organization of a " Free Li- 
brary of Philadelphia," and on the I2th of 
March last the library was unostentatiously 
opened without ceremonial or display. Already 
nearly 9000 volumes have been placed upon the 
shelves, while it is anticipated that by the au- 
tumn the number of books will have been in- 
creased to 20,000 at least. The city councils 
have supported the movement by a grant of 
$5000 for the year 1894, and with the increased 
grants which may be looked for in the future the 
prospects of the free library movement are very 
encouraging. The need of the library in the 
heart of the city has been proved in a variety of 
ways. First, by the liberal use of the books 
made by the steadily increasing number of read- 
ers; and secondly, by the request of several in- 
fluential citizens for the opening of a branch in 
a part of the city where the need of the elevating 
influence of books and good reading is keenly 

The main point, however, that gives the move- 
ment importance is, that a growing desire among 
the existing libraries is being keenly realized 
and expressed, that the work of the movement 
should be consolidated. It is a detriment to any 
public movement to have the efforts of its sup- 
porters divided up into several sections. The 
value of the different libraries actually existing 
is very great, but if the various interests can be 
consolidated and the influence of the numerous 
outlets be brought into a focussed centre, the re- 
sult cannot fail to be other than a great gain to 
the general cause. How such a confederation 
of interests is to be attained without destroying 
the proper independence of the existing institu- 
tions is probably not an insoluble problem. It 
is a matter receiving very caieful consideration, 
and the result in all points reached will be 
watched with interest by library workers. 


From the Philadelphia. Record. 

A GREAT American metropolis without a 
great public library is almost an anomaly in 
these days. Philadelphia just escapes the full 
brunt of this censure, but must bear a heavy 
weight of its criticism. She has, and has not, 
a public library. This paradox is visible in the 
new City Free Library. Ever since its hasty 
formation, only a little over a year ago, and its 
inheritance of the late George S. Pepper's mu- 
nificent bequest, the city has lent considerable 
countenance to its claim to be the library of 
the city. It is certainly the sole free library of 
any dignified scope in the entire community. 
To it the city has granted the temporary oc- 
cupancy of rooms in the Public Buildings, and 
for its initial purchase of books councils has 
already appropriated $10,000. 

But, already, despite its extreme youth, it 
has become painfully evident that it is alto- 
gether too cramped in its present narrow 
quarters. The question of a building site has 
been discussed, indeed, by the directors without 
avail. The Horticultural Hall site has been lost 
to them now, upon which the public will prob- 
ably get a magnificent new hall instead some- 
thing also to be greatly desired; and all hope of 
the Lippincott property is a will-o'-the-wisp of 
the fancy. If the Wisters had only drawn up 
their will a little sooner, the problem would find 
its easy solution at hand. As it is, the $250,000 
Pepper bequest, with all the demands upon it, 
can scarcely insure a suitable library. A sub- 
scription fund will be necessitated, if no consoli- 
dation of the present library interests of this 
city can be effected. It is precisely this question 
which now confronts the community. Public 
sentiment alone, it seems, will be able to awaken 
the library directors of the city from their apathy 
to the public welfare. 

Not that Philadelphia is not to-day, and has 
not been in the past, bountifully blessed in this 
matter of books ; she was the mother of sub- 
scription libraries in the old colonial days, and 
still ranks third among the book-reading cities of 
the Union. In special libraries, she can perhaps 
boast of the best law, medical, scientific, and 
pedagogical libraries in the country. But in 
regard to her general libraries as in regard to 
a number of her other public features, such as 
transportation and transit she is now under- 
going the transition state from provincial-like to 
modern conditions. Her quiet prosperity under 
the old system has delayed the crisis until this 
late hour. It will be impossible, therefore, to 
incorporate its various libraries into any such 
beneficial system as the Enoch Pratt branch one 
at Baltimore. That was only possible by in- 
dependent origin. In this old Quaker City, the 
Philadelphia Library, with its most unfortunate- 
ly located Ridgway branch, cannot from the 
nature of its development amalgamate with any 
other institution of the kind, and this, it goes 
without saying, is true of the University Li- 

As that veteran librarian of the Mercantile 
Library, Edmands, declared his belief some time 



[May, '94 

ago, there is no valid reason why all the rest of 
the general libraries of the city including the 
flourishing Board of Education branches 
should not consolidate for the benefit of the 
city. The Mercantile Library would seem to 
have every inducement to consent to this wed- 
ding. Its old market-place quarters are totally 
unfitted for library purposes ; its membership is 
falling off year by year ; and its circulation has 
been dying a slow death for more than a decade. 
With its endowments and property interests, a 
splendid new library could be built, in which 
the City Free Library could Inaugurate a nota- 
able reign. It is not out of the question, there- 
fore, to hope for a federation, of all these 
different libraries. An assembly of all the 
librarians and directors of the city, called for a 
deliberation over this serious problem, could 
easily devise a compromise between all their 
conflicting interests and particular conditions, 
and Philadelphia be enriched with a new sys- 
tem of three, or at most four, great and ade- 
quate branches, harmoniously working under a 
board of city commissioners with the mayor and 
president of councils at the head. 


LIBRARIAN HILD, of the Chicago Public Li- 
brary, is authority for the statement that the 
influence of the World's Fair on general reading 
In that city is noticeable to a surprising degree. 
It is seen in an increased and increasing demand 
for art, classic and scientific literature, by the 
users of the library. To meet this demand Mr. 
Hild has been obliged to duplicate his list of 
works, which have hitherto been desired only 
for reference use. He says: " I have observed 
that the demand for the books on the subjects 
of art, architecture, and language is about 200 
per cent, larger than it was last year at this time, 
and the call for books on scientific subjects is 40 
per cent, to 50 per cent, larger. We are asked 
to obtain additions to the stock of foreign books, 
and it is necessary to make importations every 
few weeks. I take it that these foreign works 
Italian, French, and Spanish are chiefly called 
for by native Americans, and not by foreign- 
born citizens and residents. These changes seem 
to have been brought about by the World's Fair. 
However that may be, the fact is that there is less 
call for fiction and more for literary and scientific 
works. It frequently happens that nearly all the 
books issued in one day are from the shelves 
classified as fine arts, literature, and philosophy." 

In the scientific field electricity seems to 
monopolize the attention of readers, and it is 
noted that borrowers do not now ask for com- 
mon-science primers and elementary manuals; 
they want definite and exhaustive information, 
and will not be content with books which, at the 
beginning of the World's Fair, were wholly 
satisfactory. Books on art are in unusual de- 
mand; and the change is specially marked in 
the department of literature. It is a curious 
fact that in this latter field a general devotion to 
Italian literature is disclosing itself particular- 
ly in connection with notes, commentaries, and 
expositions relating to Dante and his work. 


THE Newberry Library has already outgrown 
the general reading-room with which it opened 
in November, 1893, and a large and permanent 
one has just been fitted up on the second floor, 
immediately over the principal entrance. Some 
account of this room may possibly prove of in- 
terest to the readers of the JOURNAL. 

Its dimensions are 60 ft. by 45, lighted by six 
large windows on the south side, looking out 
over Washington Square, and by eight on the 
north, opening into a corridor. There are also 
two smaller windows in the bay of the front 
fa9ade, one east and one west, so that the general 
aspect of the room is very bright, sunny, and 
cheerful. The ceiling is supported by six large 
pillars, which, with the walls, are tinted pale 
green, forming a pleasing contrast with the 
deep red tiling of the floor, which is partly 
covered by broad strips of cocoa matting. 
Against the east wall are cases filled with dic- 
tionaries and encyclopaedias, and immediately in 
front of them stands a specially designed table 
for atlases and other large books of reference. 
On the west wall are periodical cases, containing 
the current numbers of 557 periodicals. One 
division is set apart for University Extension 
books, and Poole's Index has a table to itself in 
one corner. 

The room is open from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m., 
with an average daily attendance of 120 readers, 
and the amount of steady reading and studying 
accomplished is certainly beyond the average. 
There is absolutely no loafing. The reading- 
room page makes it one of his duties to arouse 
any reader who may be dropping off into a nap, 
and his kindly offices, though seldom needed, are 
always well received. 

The periodical reading tables are made of 
polished white oak, with sloping tops and a foot- 
rest, each table accommodating 10 readers, 
allowing to each two-and-a-half feet of space. 
For study, where several books are required, 
tables with flat tops are provided, and any one 
who chooses can appropriate a small one for his 
individual use. Fountain pens may be used, but 
no other ink is permitted. 

The electric lights are very well arranged, so 
that the effect at night is remarkably restful. 
For every two readers there is one lamp of 16 
candle-power, with a pretty green glass shade, 
casting a clear, soft, and subdued light. The 
room, always attractive, is doubly so under its 
evening aspect. The south window-sills are filled 
with growing plants in pots, and a reader will 
often speak of the relief their greenness affords 
to his tired eyes. 

The silence which reigns in the room is almost 
unbroken. Outside the swing-door is a notice, 
" Silence must be observed in this room," and 
on entering, the eye of the visitor is at once 
arrested by the word "Silence" in letters 
to inches long, on two opposite pillars. The 
attendants are hardly ever obliged to call atten- 
tion to the rule, and even our dear Dr. Poole, 
when he one day wanted to speak to me, beckoned 
me into the corridor, saying that he did not dare to 

May, '94] 



say a word before those signs. All the chairs 
have rubber tips, .as have all the footstools. The 
whole atmosphere of the room is thoroughly 
studious and graceful, and it often seems really 
remarkable that the authorities of a very new 
library, in the midst of a rushing, nineteenth- 
century city, should have been able to contrive a 
reading-room as quiet and unworldly and leis- 
urely as any which is to be found in the hoary 
pile of a cathedral, or in the ancient library of 
some old university city. 


In charge of reading-room. 



Front the New York Sun. 

WHAT controls and directs the tides of the 
ocean is not much more of a mystery than the 
causes of the tides of popularity which certain 
books and certain classes of reading have, as 
shown in the great libraries. The most ex- 
perienced librarians confess their inability to do 
more than roughly approximate in this respect. 
A book which they have every reason to believe 
will be popular will be bought in large numbers, 
will be bulletined to the subscribers of the li- 
brary, and conspicuously placarded within its 
walls, and then remain on the shelves uncalled 
for. On the other hand, a book which has ap- 
parently gone out of date to such an extent that 
the librarian deems its room more valuable 
than its presence, will be sold, a few copies only 
being retained; and then suddenly, unexpected- 
ly, and for some cause which many times is 
hunted for in vain, the book will be in such 
demand that another purchase of copies is neces- 

Although the greatest causes of these tides of 
popularity have not been determined, in many 
instances the librarians can trace out the minor 
causes. A few years ago the " Story of an Afri- 
can farm," by Olive Schreiner, enjoyed a rather 
languid vogue. Calls for it became less and less, 
and had almost ended, when two books, "The 
heavenly twins," and " Ships that pass in the 
night," became very popular. Following the 
tremendous demand for these two books at the 
libraries, a revival of the demand of the "Afri- 
can farm " was observed, until the popularity of 
that book in its revival far exceeded its original 
vogue. It is not probable that any literary re- 
viewer has thought to compare, say, " Ships 
that pass in the night" with the "African 
farm," yet librarians trace the revival of inter- 
est in the latter book to the popularity of the 
other two mentioned, as directly as the call for 
the other works of Gen. Lew Wallace to the 
success of " Ben-Hur." When "Ben-Hur" 
achieved its delayed popularity every experienced 
librarian looked up his supply of other books by 
Wallace, and, just as naturally, when "The 
prince of India" was published, ordered a large 
number of copies of that. But there again came 
a confusion as to what causes popularity and un- 
popularity. The library readers will not have 

" The prince of India." Of course if any one 
could only tell why, he could patent the secret 
and sell it for large sums in promissory notes to 
all the authors in the land. Some of the librari- 
ans say that it is simply for the reason that 
" The prince of India" is too big a book. 

They have quite another way of judging these 
things than the reviewers have. A big book 
published by an author whose popularity is es- 
tablished will sell probably as many copies as 
author and publisher estimate; but there, again, 
the librarians look at these things differently 
from publishers. They say that big books may 
sell when they are written by a popular author, 
but they will not be read. Henry James' " Bos- 
tonians," in the library editions, confesses to 
something like 800 pages. When it was first 
put on the library shelves it was called for by 
the Jamesites with avidity. They took it out of 
the library, hugging it Lto their bosoms. They 
returned it quarter read, half read, sometimes 
two-thirds read, but wholly read ! oh, so sel- 
dom ! 

But it won't do to go too far on these lines in 
drawing a conclusion. Short stories are very 
seldom called for in libraries. A volume of one 
story of average length, say from 80,000 to 100,- 
ooo words, will be called for three times when a 
volume of short stories by the same author is 
called for once. These figures do not correspond, 
somehow, with a great deal that has been writ- 
ten lately on the popularity of the short story. 
But the people who take books out of libraries, 
the regular, persistent, eager readers of fiction, 
impolitely refuse to be guided in their selection 
by what is written about books. They seem to 
be a class quite apart from the bookbuyers. 
Whether they have greater or less literary judg- 
ment need not be considered, although it might 
be highly interesting. 

Library readers will sometimes wear to rags 
and tatters a class of books, or books relating to 
an epoch, when the booksellers are oblivious of 
the fact that any one is interested in those pub- 

Sometimes the librarians can account for these 
phenomena, but to do so they must keep track 
of current theatrical events, and current politics, 
and sometimes even of sensational court trials. 
The performance of " Beau Brummel," for in- 
stance, will keep the library clerks busy digging 
out historical works, biographies, and memoirs 
relating to the Regency period of George iv. 
An international disturbance, or a prominence 
given to international questions, as the Behring 
Sea controversy, the Hawaiian question, the 
Chilian episode, will result in not only a demand 
for books directly on international law, but for 
the lives of statesmen and diplomats who have 
been prominent in international controversies. 
Library attendants very soon get over all sur- 
prises at the apparent lack of relation between 
the person calling for a book and the book 
called for. 

In fact, the whole question seems to be one of 
non-relation. The mechanic is always calling 
for somebody's history of the Geneva Conven- 
tion, or some other book as distantly related to 


[May, '94 

his calling; and the head of a big establishment 
in the dry-goods district is as like as not to stop 
in at the library on his way up-town and pick out 
somebody's thesis on the precession of the equi- 


As an interesting illustration of " the formality 
that doth hedge a librarian in Prussia," Mr. H: 
L. Koopman, of Brown University Library, 
sends to the JOURNAL a translation of the Prus- 
sian act denning the qualifications of a librarian. 
A careful perusal of this document should make 
even the most pessimistic of American librarians 
" remember their marcies." The act was print- 
ed in the Centralblatt fur Bibliothtkswesen(v. II, 
p. 77-79). It runs as follows : 


in regard to qualifying for the trained (wissen- 
schaftlicheii) library service at the Royal Library 
in Berlin and the Royal University Libraries. 

1. The qualification for appointment in the 
trained library service shall be attained through 
a two -years' volunteer service at the Royal Li- 
brary in Berlin, or one of the Royal University 
Libraries, and through the special library ex- 

2. For admission to the volunteer service the 
following evidence is required : 

a. the diploma of a German classical gym- 
nasium ; 

b. evidence that the applicant has passed with 
good standing the first examination in the- 
ology, the first examination in law, the ex- 
amination in medicine, or the examination 
for the position of teacher in higher schools; 

- or has fulfilled the prescribed conditions for 
taking a degree at a German university; 

c. evidence that the applicant has been pro- 
moted by a German university, on the 
ground of a printed dissertation and oral 
examination, to the rank of doctor or li- 
centiate ; 

d. a testimonial of previous conduct ; 

e. a physician's health certificate ; 

/. evidence that the applicant is assured of 
such means as appear requisite to the sup- 
port of a person of his station for two 

3. Application for admission as volunteer shall 
be addressed to the library superintendent. 

To the application must be added, besides the 
evidence required under 2, also: an autograph 
life-sketch of the applicant, his military certifi- 
cate, and testimonials concerning his university 
study, and any later occupation. 

4. The volunteer shall be pledged on his en- 
trance by a handshake in the place of an oath. 

5. The employment of the volunteer shall be so 
arranged that, as far as possible, he may be- 
come acquainted with all branches of library 

The volunteer, even if he has previously been 

employed in another library, shall be free to 
spend the second year of his volunteer service at 
the University Library in Goettingen, provided 
that he intends to devote himself at that univer- 
sity for two semesters to the study of library 
economy (Bibliothekshulfswissenschafteri). 

6. The special library examination shall be held 
by the examining commission appointed by the 
minister for spiritual, etc., affairs, which shall 
consist of the president and two associates. 

Application for admission shall be addressed 
to the examining commission. 

Admission is conditioned on evidence that the 
applicant has shown himself capable in the vol- 
unteer service. Besides this evidence there 
must be added to the application: the documents 
required in i a -d, and 3; and, provided the vol- 
unteer has devoted himself to the study of 
library economy in the University of Goettingen, 
the testimonials thereto appertaining. 

7. The examination shall be oral, and directed 
chiefly to determining whether the candidate has 
gained a thorough knowledge of the science of 
library management (Bibliotheksverwaltuttgs- 
lehre), bibliographical helps, and general literary 
history. In addition shall be required a knowl- 
edge sufficient for bibliographical work, of the 
English, French, and Italian languages, and a 
general acquaintance with the history of writing 
and books. It will be to the candidate's advan- 
tage if he has gained special knowledge in the 
lines of palaeography and the science of in- 

8. The question whether the examination has 
been passed, and whether " sufficiently," "well," 
or " with distinction," shall be decided by a 
majority vote of the commission. 

9. The examining commission must note in the 
records the particulars and the total result of the 

10. One who has failed to pass the examination 
may, on his application, be permitted to repeat 
the examination not before the expiration of 
half a year. In the meantime he must continue 
his volunteer service. Not more than a single 
repetition of the examination shall be granted. 

11. One who has passed the examination shall 
receive a certificate of the result from the presi- 
dent of the examining commission. Until his 
appointment he must continue without pay the 
library service at the Royal Library in Berlin 
or one of the university libraries, and on re- 
assutning it he shall be at once sworn in. After 
being sworn in he shall bear the title of library 

12. By University Library in the meaning of 
this Act shall be comprehended also the Pau- 
linian Library in MUnster. 

13. This Act shall take effect April i, 1894. 

For the volunteer and assistants already ad- 
mitted there shall be accepted as a substitute for 
the special library examination a certificate of 
ability, which shall be given by the library super- 
intendent, so far as this seems necessary, on the 
basis of a previous colloquy. 

Berlin, 15 December, 1893. 

May, '94] 



American Cibrarg Association. 

PRESIDENT LARNED has just issued the follow- 
ing circular, which has been sent to most of the 
members of the A. L. A. : 


" Every librarian and every worker in a library 
has probably made attempts, projected under- 
takings, tried experiments, which have not turned 
out well. When such experiences are consider- 
ably important they may sometimes be reported 
to the A. L. A., or published in the L. J. But 
generally the benefit of the warning from them 
is not passed round as it ought to be. 

" Let us give an hour of our next meeting to 
such a collection of minor admonitions as we 
can gather out of the experience of the whole A. 
L. A. body. To that end, I ask you to jot down, 
in the briefest possible terms, under the familiar 
expostulation " Don't," the things which you 
are led by your ,own knowledge to caution li- 
brarians not to do. I suggest that it be done with- 
out going into particulars of explanation, which 
may be drawn out at the meeting, if necessary. 

41 The total result of this may be a considerable 
saving of otherwise wasted labor. I trust you 
will contribute to the collection of ' Dont's,' and 
send them to me at as early a day as practicable, 
with addenda as they may occur to you. 

" Very truly yours, J. N. LARNED." 

New f)ork State Cibrarj) School. 


THE annual trip taken by the New York State 
Library School, to study the library methods of 
different cities, was this year in the direction of 
Boston and its vicinity. The party, numbering 
27 persons, left Albany on April 17, and started 
on their homeward way on April 27. Miss Cut- 
ler was an efficient general, and the 10 days 
spent in personal inspection, investigation, and 
comparison were thoroughly enjoyed by the 
members of the school, to whom the trip must 
prove of permanent benefit. The itinerary in- 
cluded a visit to Hartford, taking in the Theo- 
logical Seminary Library, Trinity College Li- 
brary, Hartford Public Library, and Watkinson 
Library of Reference ; Springfield City Library 
was visited, as was the Worcester Public Libra- 
ry, and the American Antiquarian Society Li- 
brary, at Worcester. At Boston visits were 
made to the Athenaeum Library, the Boston 
Book Co., State Library, Library Bureau, Bos- 
ton Public Library, and the Newton (Mass.) 
Free Library. The school also visited Wellesley 
College Library; Salem, where the public li- 
brary, Essex Institute, Peabody Academy of 
Science, and Salem Athenseum were inspected, 
and where Dr. Poole's birthplace was hunted 
up and visited; Cambridge, including Harvard 
College Library, the Episcopal Theological 
School and Cambridge Public Library; and 
Lowell, where the meeting of the Massachusetts 
Library Club was attended, and a visit made to 
the city library. Miss Cutler promises a full 
report of the trip for the next number of the 

State Cibrars Associations. 


A MEETING of the Massachusetts Library Club 
was held April 26 in the Memorial Hall of the 
new City Library building, at Lowell, Mass. 
There was an attendance of more than 150, in- 
cluding the New York State Library School, 
under the charge of Miss M. S. Cutler, vice- 
director. Miss James, lately of the People's 
Palace, London, and Miss Pelherbridge, of 
Liverpool, were also present. 

President Jones called the meeting to order at 
10:50 a.m., and asked Mr. Fletcher to speak of 
Dr. Poole. 

Mr. Fletcher said: 

" Called as I am to speak of Dr. Poole to 
librarians and to a number of young librarians, 
I prefer to address myself to the question, What 
made Dr. Poole what he was as a librarian ? 
In the first place, he was a lover of books. He 
became a librarian naturally through this fond- 
ness for books. When in college, he found him- 
self brought in contact with a good library, of 
which he soon became a frequenter. 

" May we not well note this as the most legiti- 
mate basis for the choice of librarianship as a 
life-work? Nowadays there are many would-be 
librarians, some because it is easier than teaching 
perhaps it is. Some because it pays better 
than teaching perhaps it does and others 
for various reasons. But let no one feel called 
to this work who is not, like Dr. Poole, a lover 
of books. In the second place, he was pos- 
sessed of that almost indefinable quality which 
we call 'bookishness'; a sort of sixth sense it 
is, by which a man apprehends and appreciates 
books, classes of books, authors, titles, editions 
and this whole world of bibliopolic details falls 
in his mind into order and system, while to one 
without bookishness they form a bewildering 
maze. So Dr. Poole took naturally to bibliog- 
raphy, which is merely bookishness codified. 
This is another prime qualification, is it not, for 
the librarian ? He must be happy not only in 
reading and studying books, but in the mere 
handling and arranging and cataloging of them, 
so that it is not a question when his working 
hours are over, but rather when he can tear 
himself from his work. 

"With Dr. Poole this ready apprehension of 
books manifested itself strikingly in the fact that 
he soon perceived that for his own uses as a stu- 
dent there were immense stores of material 
locked up in the long sets of periodicals that had 
served only as ' dummies ' on the library shelves. 
He learned to find this material, and used it ef- 

"And just here we come to the manifesta- 
tion in him of another prime qualification for 
librarianship. He had now become the assistant 
librarian of his society library (which was the 
one he had frequented), and he felt that it was 
his business, as it would be bis joy, to make the 
books useful. Hence bis first " Index to periodi- 
cals," compiled by what was fora college student 
working in a new field a prodigious amount of 
labor, and most wisely conducted labor, too. He 

I 7 2 


[May, '94 

was willing to do all this to make the library 
more useful to its users, and in this showed that 
prime requisite for a librarian a public-spirited 
desire and effort to make the library do its best 
work for the public good. 

" Dr. Poole was an intense believer in the free 
public library. When in Cincinnati he had a 
newspaper controversy with an able opponent 
of the public library supported by taxation as 
an innovation in the sphere of government. 
Dr. Poole's articles were marked by signal abil- 
ity as a reasoner on the functions of govern- 
ment; but after all, what gave them most force 
was perhaps the serene faith in his cause, which 
shone in every word. 

" Along with this faith in the free library sys- 
tem, Dr. Poole had faith in the people, which, 
after all, is nearly the same thing. In his day, 
more than in ours, it was common for intelligent 
men to question whether the public could be 
trusted. It was feared that they would misuse 
books if they had them freely. 

" But Dr. Poole had a truly democratic faith in 
the people. He did not join the outcry against 
a liberal supply of fiction in libraries, but on the 
contrary always maintained that if given books 
such as they would read the public would read 
up and not down. 

" There is time to mention only one more 
trait in Dr. Poole's character as a librarian. 
He was intensely progressive. Almost inevita- 
bly towards the end of his life he was counted 
among the conservatives on many questions, but 
how wonderfully progressive he was when most 
of his life-work was done ! 

" Go back to his career in Boston, in Cincin- 
nati, in Chicago, who was more to the front than 
he in all essentials of true progress ? We hear 
much of the change which has come over libra- 
ries and librarianship; but if it is true that the 
library was once regarded as a mere storehouse 
of books and the librarian as a watch-dog to keep 
intruders away, while now the library has be- 
come the people's literary workshop and the 
librarian the ' guide, counsellor, and friend ' of 
the workers if such a change has taken place it 
made itself felt just when Dr. Poole was in the 
front, and it is quite safe to say that to no one 
is this progress and development due in a larger 
degree than to him." 

The first subject for the day was bookbinding, 
and Mr. J. H. H. McNamee, the well-known 
Cambridge binder, read a most interesting and 
valuable paper descriptive of binding for libra- 
ries. He illustrated the process with samples 
of materials, specimens of binders' tools, and 
books in every stage, from the unfolded sheet 
to the bound volume, and, by the aid of an ex- 
pert assistant from his bindery, and a sewing- 
press, exhibited the important art of sewing, 
" on which depends, not only the strength of the 
book, but its shape and manner of opening." 
The mysteries of the "kettle-stitch," "sawing 
In," "raised bands," "two sheets on," "whip- 
stitching," etc., were all made plain. It is im- 
possible even to summarize the paper here, but 
the gist of a few recommendations may be indi- 
cated. In " lacing in " the book to the covers, 
the ends of the bands should not be heavily 

worked down, so as to pay them out or cut the 
fibre against the edge of the hole. A slight ele- 
vation of the leather over them is amply offset 
by the greater strength obtained. In binding 
for a public or a circulating library, have books 
that are to be preserved only, or that will be 
popular but for a time, carefully pulled to pieces, 
sewed with Hayes' linen thread, rounded and 
backed, but not laced in. Have the boards 
placed away from the backs about % inch, that 
they may swing easily, and not tear off the first 
and last signatures. Give the back and joint a 
lining of " super " (cheese-cloth), pasted directly 
to the leaves, and also to the inside of the boards. 
Cover with American duck or canvas, which will 
prove more lasting than any other material, with 
the possible exception of vellum and the very best 
grade of levant morocco. For large folios use 
heavy canvas, as it is cheaper than sheep. Lace 
in every band to the boards, which should be 
made of two heavy binders-boards pasted to- 
gether. Lettering can be done in ink on the 
cloth, or in gold, or colored labels pasted to the 

The best grade of morocco (German or French 
goat) is the leather in which all books intended 
for daily use should be bound, as it will retain 
its life and stand more hard knocks, and yet 
keep a good appearance, than any other leather 
in common use. Lace in every band, give a 
" super " joint, and use a full open back. 

Don't cut the leaves with a folder before send- 
ing to the binder; it makes the sewing more 
difficult. Don't pull to pieces, or take out titles 
and indexes; the binder takes care of that. 
Don't take off advertisements ; it sometimes 
takes away numbered pages and puzzles the 
binder. Don't use mucilage or glue to repair 
books ; your binder will send you a little paste, 
or you can make it by boiling floor and water 
with a little salt. To make it keep a long time, 
add a few drops of oil of cloves and seal up. 
Give the binder general rules for cutting books, 
placing plates, binding in "ads." and covers, 
style of lettering, etc. In the case of special 
volumes, made up of leaves taken from other 
volumes, place every leaf in correct order, and 
write directions very carefully. Finally use a 
schedule, with spaces for schedule number, 
name of book, and lettering for each volume, 
description of binding, and the price. The 
binder will then have a complete order on a large 
sheet which he Is no danger of losing. " I have 
mislaid or lost," said Mr. McNamee, " hundreds 
of lettering slips, which are the bane of a bind- 
er's existence." The schedule gives the librarian 
a complete list of books sent and returned, while 
by laying them away a very complete list of 
prices is preserved for reference. 

At the close of the paper the club inspected 
the beautiful building in which the library is 
housed, and, by the kindness of the trustees, en- 
joyed a bountiful lunch. In the afternoon, a 
vote of thanks to the trustees and librarian hav- 
ing been passed, the subject of binding was re- 
sumed. The secretary read some notes in which 
Mr. Kiernan, superintendent of circulation in 
Harvard College Library, had set down some re- 
sults of his experience. " Good judgment is re- 

May, '94] 



quired of the sewer; if the thread is drawn too 
tightly the sewing will break out, while with 
loose sewing the book will be flimsy." " For 
lining the back we use a thin paper, but tough. 
If the back is stiffened too much the book will 
open badly, and sewing be likely to break out. 
We use tight backs for small thin books, and 
loose backs for large thick books. The sewing 
and manner of attaching the covers to the book 
is much more important than the kind of cover- 
ing used, as nine out of ten books break in the 
sewing before the cover is worn much." A 
schedule similar to that described by Mr. Mc- 
Namee is used, and the record of books at the 
binders is kept on catalog cards for periodicals 
(these being permanently preserved), and ma- 
nila slips for other books. The binder keeps a 
pile of rub-off patterns of periodical bindings, 
which are referred to by numbers. Mr. Fletcher 
defended the use of lettering slips as the best 
guide to the binder, and said that when cloth 
books were rebound he had the original title cut 
out and pasted on to the new back. At no 
greater cost, the original look of the book was 
more nearly indicated. This style could be 
briefly ordered as "so many vols. rebound in 
cloth, titles transferred." 

Mr. A. C.* Potter, head of the ordering de- 
partment in Harvard College Library, spoke on 
foreign bindings. He praised English work, but 
found the cost greater than with us (66-78 cents 
for i6mos, 80 cents for i2mos, $1.02 -$1.26 for 
8vos). French binding is satisfactory in work- 
manship and appearance if close watch is kept 
(30 cents for I2mos, 43 cents for'Svos, 59-82 cents 
for 1. 8vos; this includes 7^ % agent's commis- 
sion). The criticisms made a while ago upon 
Leipzig bindings were unmerited, according to 
his experience. The books, however, are not 
laced in, and the cost is more than in France 
(50-64 cents for i6mos, 57-68 cents for I2mos, 
66 cents- $1.02 for 8vos). 

Miss Sargent, of Medford Public Library, said 
that in binding fiction it was inexpedient for 
small libraries either to wait or pay for the best 
work. Books to be covered can be bound for 
20- 25 cents for I2mos and i6mos, while a good 
binding for uncovered books cost 40 cents. Very 
satisfactory was the " duro-flexile" binding, 
done by Cedric Chivers, of Bath, England. It 
looks well, opens well, and is reasonable in cost. 

Mr. Jones recommended for pamphlets the 
covers used by the Boston Public Library. 
They cost 10 cents for I2mos and 12 cents for 
8vos, and a charge of 5 cents is made for stitch- 
ing in the pamphlet. 

Mr. Tillinghast showed a pamphlet sewed 
through and through and covered without let- 
tering for 10 cents. He also showed a sample 
of pamphlet-binding done in Germany in % 
linen, lettered, and costing 19 to 26 cents. 

Mr. Andrews, of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, had found it a good plan to have 
the front cover of pamphlets pasted on to the 
outside of the front board. 

The discussion on binding then closed, and 
after Miss Cutler, in behalf of the Library 
School, had thanked the trustees for their wel- 
come in Lowell, and had expressed her pleasure 

at the opportunities which had everywhere been 
placed before the school, the club took up the 
subject of charging systems. 

Mr. Bolton, of the Brookline Public Library, 
in opening the discussion, said that charging 
systems fall into two classes the ledger system, 
and various forms of the slip system. The 
charging system is intended primarily to record 
borrowers and loans; it is often made to serve 
as a means of collecting statistics. The latter 
use does not justify any measures that lengthen 
the time the public must wait at the desk. A 
minute analysis of circulation may stimulate a 
librarian, but it may also make him morbid. 
Too elaborate statistics work to the injury of 
the public, and make us, in Mr. Cutter's words, 
appear like children who pull up their plants to 
see if they are growing. Let a librarian go 
about among the readers and he will get a more 
vivid idea of the character of their reading than 
statistics will give him. Of the 20 questions 
which might be answered by the charging sys- 
tem, as set forth at the Cincinnati conference in 
1882 (LIBRARY JOURNAL, 7:181), five, viz.: i, 2, 
4, 7, 14, would suffice for all legitimate pur- 
poses, and 14 could be dispensed with ; the 
others are of doubtful utility, or can be an- 
swered by other means. Let us simplify even 
at the expense of our statistics. 

Miss Thurston described the single temporary 
slip .used at the Newton Library. The book 
number and registration are entered on the slip, 
and the date stamped on the borrower's card. 
The date is not stamped on the slip until after 
the borrower has gone. The slips are arranged 
by book number and kept in an L. B. tray. Blue 
slips are for scholars' use, and red for teachers'. 

Mr. Hayes, of Somerville Public Library, said 
that he had seen at Dover, N. H., 12 books a 
minute delivered by three assistants with a sys- 
tem somewhat similar to Miss Thurston's. The 
receiving and not the delivery desk, keeps the 
public waiting. Of what use is it to stamp the 
date of return upon the card ? 

Mr. Foster said : 

"The ' temporary slip' represents the more 
rudimentary form of the very ingenious idea of 
representing the long title of a book and the 
equally long name of the borrower, respectively, 
by the short number, thus saving very much 
time in charging. The ' permanent slip,' as 
developed by Mr. Cutter and others, aims to go 
still further, and make the file of slips answer a 
considerable number of different kinds of ques- 
tions. The simplest form is that which has one 
slip in each book, and stamps the current date, 
at the time of issuing the book, (i) on the card, 
(2) on the slip, and files the slips in the order of 
the book-numbers.(a) Another variety is a two- 
slip system, and files one set of slips in the order 
of the book-numbers, and the other in the order 
of the borrower-numbers, thus keeping an ac- 
count with each. (3) Still another variety is that 
which, while it calls for one slip only on issuing 
the book, stamps the date in a third place (either 
on the pocket (c) or at the front of the book (<f) 
in any case somewhere on or about the book). 

"The distinction which Mr. Bolton has indi- 
cated between systems which aim at fulness of 




statistics and those which aim at rapidity of de- 
livery, is probably more apparent than real, since 
several of those which are exceptionally explicit 
in statistical information are also those which 
come nearest to the minimum waiting time for 
the reader. In the effort to reduce this time to a 
minimum, the librarian is forced to take account 
of three principal sets of operations : (i) those 
of the clerk at the receiving-desk, (2) those of 
the messenger who goes to the shelves for the 
book, and (3) those of the clerk at the delivery, 
desk. The pressure, in the case of nearly every 
slip system, does not come at the delivery-desk, 
for here there is no wriiiog to do, and the use 
of a dating-stamp is all that is necessary. If, 
however, any relief can be gained at the receiv- 
ing-desk, where even with the arrangement of 
the slips in their proper order it is necessary to 
do something like ' searching' before the finger 
rests on the exact slip wanted, it will be a very 
real help. For this reason the Paterson or New- 
ark plan, by which the books can be taken in at 
the receiving-desk, with the necessity for stamp- 
ing the date in one place only the borrower's 
card has a manifest superiority over the other 
systems, in the matter of reducing time of wait- 
ing to a minimum, since the slips can be looked 
up in the file, at some subsequent time, from the 
date on the book itself. The third factor in the 
effort to secure this 'minimum' is the visiting 
of the shelves. If the first book found ' in ' 
is the last of a list of 25, the efforts already 
referred to at the receiving-desk and delivery- 
desk are to that extent neutralized. The plan 
of ' open shelves,' in any one of its various forms, 
is obviously of practical assistance here(<r), since 
the borrower finds his own book, and thus no 
time that is counted is consumed between the 
receiving-desk and the delivery-desk." 

Mr. Lane said that at the Boston Athense- 
um they were now stamping on the borrower's 
card at delivery the date when the book should 
be returned instead of the date of issue. Mr. 
Andrews, of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, called the attention of the club to a list 
of books for boys prepared by a club of young 
men in Boston, and said he should be glad to 
furnish the secretary's address to those inter- 

The meeting adjourned shortly after 4 p.m. 
A few members, who resisted the enticements of 
the 4:30 Boston train, visited the Middlesex 
Mechanics' Association Library, and paid tribute 
to the delightful day by riding out to the Falls, 
while some, still more enterprising, penetrated 
to the recesses of North Chelmsford. All, how- 
ever, are believed to have ultimately reached 
home in safety. 

W: H. TILLINGHAST, Secretary. 

(a) That of the Providence Public Library. 

(6) That of the Boston Athenaeum (LIBRARY JOURNAL, 
4: 445-46), and that of the Milwaukee Public Library 
(LIBRARY JOURNAL, 7 : 178 - 82). 

(c) In use in the public libraries of Paterson, N. J., 
Newark, N. J., Salem, Mass., 'and other places. Sug- 
gested by the late Mr. John F. Sargent. 

(d) As in the Cambridge Public Library. 

(e) For further references on charging systems, see 
those Riven by S. S. Green (LIBRARY JOURNAL, 6: 108-9,) 
and H. J. Carr (LIBRARY JOURNAL. 14 : 213-14). See also 
the abstract of Miss Plummer's Chicago paper (LIBRARY 
JOURNAL, 18: 242-46.) 


THE meeting of the New Hampshire Library 
Association at Dover, on April 27, was the most 
successful one that has ever been held. The as- 
sociation assembled at the forenoon session in 
the public library rooms, and after an address of 
welcome by Mayor Foss, of Dover, and opening 
remarks by the president, Hon. W. W. Bailey, 
Miss Pickering, trustee of the Langdon Library 
at Newington, read an entertaining paper on 
"The difficulties of starting a public library," 
and I. E. Pearl, of Rochester, gave a talk on 
" Rebinding : various styles and prices." Then 
followed a valuable discussion on the subject of 
rebinding by various members of the associa- 

The afternoon session was held in the recep- 
tion-room of the city building, and there were 
present a large number of teachers and other 
citizens of Dover in addition to the members of 
the association. At this session Miss James, 
librarian of the People's Palace, London, gave 
an interesting account of the founding of the 
People's Palace and the work that is done 
there for the lower classes of the East End. C. 
C. Rounds, Ph.D., principal of the State Nor- 
mal School, then delivered a thoughtful and 
able address on " What the public school would 
like of the library." The last address of the 
session on the subject, "What the libraries are 
doing for the schools," was by O. S. Davis, of 
Lakeport, who gave a detailed account of the 
methods pursued in various libraries for making 
the library an aid in the work of the public 

At the close of Dr. Rounds' address, it was 
voted that a committee, of which Dr. Rounds 
should be chairman, be appointed to prepare a 
list of books suitable for the younger pupils in 
the schools, which list is to be printed and dis- 
tributed to the librarians throughout the state. 
The other members of the committee have not 
yet been announced. 

The following resolutions in recognition of the 
eminent services of Dr. Poole were adopted by 
the association : 

" WHEREAS, It has pleased Divine Providence to call 
hence William Frederick Poole, LL.D., librarian of 
Newberry Library, Chicago, and author of " Poole's In- 
dex of periodical literature ; " therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the New Hampshire Library Asso- 
ciation, now assembled in session, desire to express their 
sense of the loss the library interests of the country have 
sustained in the death of Dr. Poole, and their profound 
conviction that his influence will ever be felt in the con- 
stantly widening library movement of this country; 

" Resolved^ That a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the LIBRARY JOURNAL and to the family of Dr. Poole." 

Mr. Folsom, superintendent of schools in 
Dover, took occasion to express his thanks and 
to render a well-deserved tribute to Miss Gar- 
land, librarian, and to the trustees of the Dover 
Library for their valuable co-operation with the 
public schools of the city, and then the meeting 

After adjournment, refreshments, provided 
by the trustees of the Dover Library, were 
served to all, and thus ended a day replete with 
pleasure and profit to those who were in at- 
tendance. I. E. PEARL. 

May, '94] 




THE postponed meeting for April of the 
Southern California Library Club was held on 
the evening of April 19, in the reading-room 
of the Los Angeles P. L., President Tessa L. 
Kelso in the chair. 

Prof. Carlos Bransby spoke to the club on 
" The tendencies of modern Spanish literature." 
The instructive remarks of the speaker were 
interspersed with bits of biography and sketches 
of the novels of contemporary Spain and Span- 
ish America. A reference list of authors and 
books referred to by Prof. Bransby had been 
prepared, and copies were distributed to those 
present. A number of teachers, and library 
workers were present, and the general public was 
also represented. MARYS. MURPHY, Secretary. 

Cibrarg Qllnbs. 


THE regular May meeting of the New York 
Library Club was held on Thursday, May 10, at 
Columbia College Library. The subject as- 
signed for discussion was, "What is needed in 
American bibliography." President Cole called 
the meeting to order at 3:30 p.m., about 25 
members being present. 

The president introduced Mr. Aksel G. S. 
Josephson, of the New York State Library 
School, who read a paper on " Special interna- 
tional bibliographies." Mr. Josephson spoke of 
the need of international bibliographies of spe- 
cial subjects. He held that such work should be 
made possible by government aid, and that the 
large libraries and the leading educational and 
scientific institutions in America and Europe 
should co-operate in bringing out such bibliog- 
raphies, representing all the known literature on 
any special subject. 

President Cole then introduced the subject for 
discussion "What is needed in American 
bibliography," and asked Mr. Bowker to present 
to the club an account of the purpose and scope 
of the proposed American Catalogue of books 
from 1800 to 1876, not included in the 1876 

Mr. Bowker accordingly gave a brief sketch of 
the plan of the work. It was intended to be 
preliminary to and to collect material for the 
ideal General Catalogue of the nineteenth 
century ; at the same time it was thought that 
a reasonably complete catalog of American pub- 
lications from 1800 to 1876, not included in the 
first American catalogue, would have a value of its 
own, and be of considerable usefulness to libra- 
ries, and it would thus afford reasonable chance 
of pecuniary support, though not of success. It 
is proposed to make a catalog with author-entry 
only, save in the case of anonymous works, and to 
carry on the compilation as far as through D or E, 
giving a part of 150 or 1 60 pages, and with that as 
a basis wait to see whether sufficient support can 
be obtained to justify completing the alphabet. It 
is also proposed to issue an appendix or supple- 
mentary part, giving U. S. government publica- 
tions from the beginning, state publications, 

and publications of societies on the plan of the 
previous catalogs, while a second supplementary 
part, including subject, and, perhaps, title-en- 
tries, would be contemplated. The plan by 
which the catalog is to be worked out consists of 
rewriting from Roorbach, Kelly, Trubner, Ste- 
vens and other early catalogs, all titles which 
are not included in the other American Catalogue 
volumes. Final work of compilation includes 
the searching for titles in local and special bibli- 
ographies and minor publications. After the 
first part is in print, the co-operation of librari- 
ans will be expected in filling gaps and supply- 
ing additional entries. 

A general discussion followed. Mr. Baker 
hoped that it would be possible to give entries 
with more detail and bibliographical fulness than 
had been possible in the previous American 
Catalogues, and spoke of the usefulness of a com- 
plete list of government publications. Mr. Poole 
suggested that in the case of rarer or more impor- 
tant books, brief reference, by letter or abbrevia- 
tion, be made to the catalog, in which full descrip- 
tive entry of such book could be found as in 
Sabin or Stevens. Mr. Bowker briefly summed 
up the results of the discussion. As to fuller 
entries than had been heretofore given, these 
were precluded, partly for reasons of cost, part- 
ly for insufficient information. In this respect 
it was hoped that the General Catalogue, if ever 
published, might be fuller; but this could only 
be done with the effective co-operation of libra- 
rians, and the object of the present catalog was 
chiefly to furnish material to librarians for cor- 
rection, and addition. 

At the close of the discussion, Pres. Cole an- 
nounced, that this being the annual meeting of 
the club, the election of officers for the ensuing 
year would now take place. Messrs. Hill and 
Baker and Miss Plummer were appointed a 
committe on nominations, and after a brief con- 
ference reported the following ticket : 
For Pres., C: Alex Nelson; 

" Vice-Prest's^ W> K. Stetson, 
-e Crests | Ln ian Denio; 

" Sec., Harriet B. Prescott; 
" Treas., Eliz. R. Tuttle. 

On motion of Mr. Hill, it was voted that the 
secretary cast the ballot for the club, which was 
accordingly done, and the officers were declared 

The treasurer's report was read and approved, 
and the following names for membership were 
proposed and accepted : 
Miss M. A. Stillman, Hb'n Mail and Express 


W. G. Baker, Columbia College Library. 
J. L. B. Sunderland, Railroad Men's Branch Y. 

M. L. A., Hoboken, N. J. 
Miss Helen P. Odell, ass't. lib'n Brooklyn Y. 

M. C. A. 
Miss Edith M. Beck, Ass't Pratt Inst., Brooklyn. 

The secretary then read a letter from Miss 
Mary Poole in acknowledgment of the resolu- 
tions on the death of her father, which were 
passed by the club at their last meeting. 



i 7 6 


[May, '94 

COLLINS, Victor, comf. Attempt at a catalogue 
of the library of the late Prince Louis-Lucien 
Bonaparte. Lond., Sotheran & Co., 1894. 
718 p. O. bds., i guinea. 

The catalog issued under this modest title is 
a striking exposition of the extent and impor- 
tance of Prince Louis Bonaparte's remarkable 
philological library. It was his aim to include 
in his collection specimens of every known lan- 
guage which possessed even' the most rudimen- 
tary literature, and he did, in fact, make aston- 
ishing progress towards the accomplishment of 
this great scheme. In regard to the European 
portion, he may be said to have succeeded in his 
purpose, for it is thought that his library includes 
examples of every language and dialect repre- 
sented in Europe; while the part relating to his 
larger task is of unexampled richness and variety. 
As to the catalog itself, it cannot fail to interest 
even the lay man, ignorant of philological subtle- 
ties, so varied and curious a store of knowledge 
does it reveal, and to the initiated it must prove 
a treasure. Prepared within an all too limited 
time, in view of the approaching sale of the li- 
brary, the catalog in arrangement and execution 
reflects much credit on its compiler. It records 
13,699 volumes, embracing works in most of the 
known languages of the world, and the compila- 
tion was completed within a period of 18 months. 
" It is," says Mr. Collins, " but the merest out- 
line of the linguistic treasures contained in the 
library, and it is no exaggeration to say that in 
all probability some of the rarest and most val- 
uable works have escaped notice altogether." 
He adds: " In the compilation of a perfect cata- 
log of the Bonaparte library there is several 
years' work for many experts." In view of the 
limited period allowed forks preparation, it was 
necessary to save time and expense as far as 
possible. For this purpose the title entries have 
been made as brief as practicable, and Roman 
type is used almost exclusively. A little more 
freedom in the first respect would have been 
desirable, especially in the case of the pagination, 
which is omitted throughout. The catalog is 
classed in three chief divisions : Monosyllabic 
languages; Agglutinative languages; Inflectional 
languages. These are subdivided into groups of 
languages, as African languages; Dravidian lan- 
guages; Basque; Semitic languages; Aryan lan- 
guages, etc. .which, again, are divided into many 
dialects and local groups. Monosyllabic lan- 
guages are represented only by the Chinese and 
Tibetan groups. The basis of the linguistic 
arrangement is M. Abel Hovelacque's "Science 
of language." There are brief annotations in 
the case of books requiring descriptive or ex- 
planatory comment, and a good many titles are 
distinguished as " not in the British Museum." 
Mr. Collins had the assistance of the British 
Museum library staff in his work, and the early 
German, the Italian, Welsh, Gaelic, Basque, and 
Spanish works have been revised by scholars in 

these special fields. So remarkable is the scope 
and variety of the collection, that the catalog ap- 
pears rather as a summary of the philological 
literature of the world than as the catalog of a 
private library. In this aspect alone it is of wide 
bibliographical interest and importance. No one 
can glance over the riches of the collection with- 
out echoing Mr. Collins" hope that " its ultimate 
destination will be some learned institution 
where its linguistic treasures may be studied at 
ease." It would be most regrettable should 
this monument of painstaking scholarship and 
scientific enthusiasm be dispersed throughout 
the private and public libraries of England, 
America or the Continent, and it is therefore 
pleasant to note that the Messrs. Sotheran, in 
whose hands it has been placed for sale, desire 
to receive offers for the collection en bloc only. 
The library was valued by its owner at .50,000. 

H. E. H. 

WILSON, F: J. The all-time library. London, 
Thinkers' Association, and W. Reeves, 189^ 
22+[2] p. O. 6ef. 

" Library " is here used in the sense of " col- 
lection of books." The author has prepared 
some 1500 "book-backs," apparently containing 
classified headings, and possibly references or 
quotations. "A mind-map has been made out, 
into which, as a library of reference, every con- 
victioned thought should find its relation, posi- 
tion, and radiation. The magnitude of this 
prospective arrangement is simplified in that 
through colors, forms, and numbers we see 
everything." Mr. Wilson tries to make his idea 
clear by four woodcuts and a table. To the 
present writer's apprehension he has not suc- 
ceeded, owing, perhaps, to his peculiar use of 
English. A short specimen may tempt some of 
our readers to try their luck at interpretation 
or, may have the contrary effect : " It is as- 
sumed that the whole of those 16 beddings in- 
associate the whole of our recognized intelligent 
ideas which, disclosed as four windows, would 
divide knowledge into: The A Window to all- 
astronomy from primality; the E Window the 
activity of Nature from preconceived movement; 
the I Window to comprehension by intelligence 
to progressive constructability in physical, men- 
tal, and ideal imaginance, which ideal is the 
prospective 'to-morrowment ; ' and in the M 
Window will be man's aspiration to the light of 

It is melancholy to see so much labor put into 
a work with so little prospect of its being of any 
use. It has been going on since 1863. In 10 
years his " book-backs " had reached the num- 
ber of 500 foolscap volumes. Finding the size 
uncomfortably large he cut them down to half- 
foolscap size. Whether he rewrote them all 
(supposing that there is anything to rewrite) is 
not clear. What there is in the books, or wheth- 
er there is anything, I cannot make out; but as 
for several years Mr. Wilson has had three as- 
sistants in his work, they are presumably filled 
with wisdom or C: A. C. 

May, '94] 



Cibrarjg (Economy an& f islorg. 


Belfast (Me.) F. L. (Rpt.) Added 508; total 
6220. Issued, 21,136 (fict. 12,294) ; reading- 
room use 1375. 

The list of new books for 1893 has been type- 
written at the library, making a saving of $50 or 
more. A typewritten fiction list of 85 p. has 
been completed, being the beginning of a com- 
plete catalog. 

Bloomington (III.) L. A. The association has 
unanimously decided to transfer its library to 
the city, that it may be reorganized as a free 
public library. The library, building and books, 
is valued at $44,000; it contains 14,000 volumes, 
and its only encumbrance is a debt of $4000. It 
Is probable that the authorized two-mill tax will 
be adopted by the townspeople, and this would 
give an estimated income of about $7000 a year. 

Boulder, Col. Univ. of Colorado. The uni- 
versity catalog for 1893-94 outlines the course 
of instruction on bibliography given by Prof. 
Lowrey, librarian of the university; the lectures 
are held every Saturday at 10 a.m. The course 
is as follows : 

First Semester. I, Library technics. Lect- 
ures : Place of bibliography in a liberal educa- 
tion; university libraries; student use of library; 
connection with recitation, lecture, and seminary 
work; methods in reference and original investi- 
gation. Practical work. Explanation of library 
regulations, appliances, classification, shelf loca- 
tion, records, card catalogs and indices; use of 
bibliography. Practice work in library reference 
on subjects, collateral with other work, suggest- 
ed by librarian and professors. Practice work 
in sections, time arranged with librarian. An 
opportunity to learn the practical details of li- 
brary administration is extended to a limited 
number of careful and proficient students, at the 
discretion of the librarian. 

Second Semester. 2, Systematic bibliogra- 
phy. Open to seniors of all departments. Lect- 
ures: Use of bibliography in the practical life of 
man of culture; historical development of books; 
scientific purpose and use of books and libraries; 
critical standards for the construction of books 
and the selection of libraries ; typical examples 
in the various departments of investigation; es- 
sential books ; best books ; critical books ; ar- 
chives; rare books; suggestions for private li- 
brary purchase ; basis of prices ; editions; bind- 
ings ; blemishes ; sources of purchase ; how to 
keep posted to date; authorities on bibliography; 
arrangement and care of books; details and fur- 
niture of room for a private library. 

Brookline (Mass.) P. L. On March i the 
library began the practice of issuing two books 
on one card, with the provision that only one 
should be a work of fiction and that two new 
books should not be taken. It is believed that the 
plan will result in a larger circulation of standard 
reading. Lists of the best articles in the current 
periodicals are posted on the bulletin-board from 
day to day, under the heading, "the maga- 

zines ; " lists for teachers are headed " educa- 
tion and teaching," and are added to daily; and 
under the heading " events of the day," men- 
tion is made of books and articles on timely 
subjects. Pictures of popular writers of the day 
are also placed near the delivery-desk from time 
to time, where it is thought they may prove of 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) L. Some important changes, 
which have been for some time in contemplation, 
are now in progress in the library. The princi- 
pal change will be the transfer of the reading- 
room to the second story, while the book-delivery 
room will be removed to the first floor. The 
number of books has grown so great that it is 
thought wise to shift the weight of the greater 
number of them to the main floor. At the same 
time the change in the location of the reading- 
room will secure better light for those who use 
it, the windows in the old room having become 
darkened by the erection of tall buildings close 
to the library. During the alterations the li- 
brary will be closed part of the time. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Pratt Institute F. L. A 
subject catalog of accessions has been begun. 
It is to be made by inserting the printed entries 
in a Rudolph indexer book in alphabetic order 
of subject-headings. So far as known this library 
is the first to adopt this plan. The library has re- 
cently secured over 50 volumes of music, chiefly 
classical, from the sale of the musical library of 
the late J: S. D wight, of Boston. These have 
been put in current circulation. 

Chester (Pa.) F. L. The new library building 
was formally opened on the evening of April 2. 
There was a reception and dedicatory exercises, 
with addresses and music. The library, which 
is now in its 2Oth year, was established and de- 
veloped almost solely through the efforts of 
Miss Laura Hard, who has worked unremittingly 
for its maintenance and for its establishment in 
an attractive and suitable building. The library 
was organized in 1873, and led a precarious exist- 
ence in unsuitable quarters for nearly 20 years. 
For the last two years it has been located in the 
post-office building. The new building is two 
stories high, 32 x 25 feet ; it is in Queen Anne 
style, built of red brick, with brown-stone trim- 
mings, and finished inside with hard wood. It 
is lighted by electricity. The total cost of build- 
ing and site is about $14,000, of which $4000 re- 
mains as a debt. The annual expenses will be 
from $1200 to $1400. Miss Edith Burnap is 

Concord (Mass.) F. P. L. (2ist rpt.) Added 
886; total 25,642; issued, home use 22,840. The 
treasurer's report, giving expenses at $1366.28, 
shows a deficit of $87.70. 

The librarian says : "The library has been 
opened on Sunday afternoons since the ist of 
December. On two or three pleasant Sundays, 
when walking and driving were good, the attend- 
ance has been small about 16; but the worse 
the walking and stormier the day, the larger the 
attendance, reaching 35 and 40 on some days. 
If one considers the test of the success of Sun- 

i 7 8 


[May, '94 

day opening to be the attendance of people who 
cannot come on other days, it has been only 
partly successful, as quite one-half of the at- 
tendance has been of those who can and do 
come at all times." 

A bulletin of the books added to the library 
during the past three years is appended to the 
report; it covers 32 pages and records about 
2600 v. 

Denver (Col.) P. L. The members of the li- 
brary training class have visited paper-mills, 
newspaper offices and composing-rooms, a 
smelter, a paper warehouse, bindery, the Legis- 
lature when in special session, and the City 
Hall. The regular work of the library has been 
continued. They have received instruction in 
class in several departments of work, and are 
now engaged, among other things, in looking up 
all books and articles and parts of books bearing 
on various subjects, most of which, in the words 
of Mr. Swiveller, are "staggerers." 

A series of five lectures on " The physiologi- 
cal factor in learning and teaching," by Dr. 
Henry Sewall, were given at the library on Sat- 
urday afternoons, April 7 to May 5. 

Elgin, 111. GailBordenL. (Rpt.) Added 1009; 
total 14,397; lost 3. Issued, home use 103,421; 
ref. use 4181. Visitors to reading-room 51,187; 
visitors to ref. room 4599. 

Germantown, Phila. Friends' f. L. (Rpt.) 
Added 615; total 17, 282; issued 11,994. Visitors 
to library 20,497; no. borrowers 1500 (estimated). 

A " list of books added in 1893 " is appended 
.(15 P.)-. 

Hanover, N. H. Dartmouth College L. (Col- 
lege catalog, 1893-94.) 

" The college library, representing the accu- 
mulations of a century and a quarter in several 
collections, is now consolidated in one, with 
various departmental divisions. The main col- 
lection, numbering about 75,000 v. and 20,000 
pm., is in Wilson Hall, which also contains 
three well-stocked reading-rooms for newspa- 
pers, magazines, and reference-books, and a 
large art gallery." In the college course spe- 
cial attention is given to bibliology by occasional 
lectures, supervision of courses of reading, and 
personal assistance. 

Holbrook (Mass.) P. L. Total 6678; Issued 
12,510; no. borrowers 2656. 

Lancaster (Mass.) Town L. (3ist rpt.) Added 
892 ; total 24.249. Issued, home use u.Sii 
(fict. and juv. .662 %); no account kept of ref. use ; 
lost and not paid for 4; no. cardholders 1329. 
Receipts $1851.29. 

The school-teachers in the more remote dis- 
tricts of the town have been authorized " to re- 
ceive and distribute among their pupils such 
books as may be desired, these being carried to 
and fro by friendly hands without expense to the 

A " catalog of books added to the library since 
March i, 1893," Is appended to the report. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. 
The institute contains 10 regular libraries in ad- 

dition to the collection in the Margaret Cheney 
room. Each is in immediate connection with the 
department whose needs it is intended to supply, 
and each has its own card catalog, while a dupli- 
cate of every card is also kept in the office of 
the general librarian. Five of the libraries have 
their own librarians; the librarian-in-chief has 
charge of the chemical library, and the remain- 
ing four are looked after by the professors of 
the departments concerned. The president says: 
" I do not think it would be an exaggeration to 
say that the use of books by our students is 
fourfold what it would be if the students were 
required to go to a large general library and take 
out the desired volumes with the formalities 
usual in such cases." 

The accessions of the past year are 5009; the 
total number of v. is 30,419. 

Constitution, officers, members; with a list of 
meetings held by the club since its foundation. 
17 p. D. 

MAURY, Nannie Belle. The Congressional Li- 
brary. (In Harper's Weekly, Ap. 21.) 2^ p. 
A description of the library and its habitue's. 

Morgan Park, III. Walker L. The public 
library, a gift of Mr. G: C. Walker, of Chicago, 
has recently become the property of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. While it is now the library 
of the Academy of the University of Chicago, 
the residents of Morgan Park enjoy all their 
former privileges, and they receive from the 
academy in return for the library 10 scholar- 
ships, known as the Walker Scholarships, to be 
given to academy pupils, residents of the vil- 
lage. Two representatives of the village are 
chosen annually to co-operate with the academy 
board as a committee on library. 

The library now contains 3255 vols. and 75 
pamphlets, with a prospect of large additions in 
the future. 

New Haven (Ct.) P. L. (7th rpt.) Added 
2798; total 23,765; issued, home use 162,367 
(fict. and juv. 75.5 #); no statistics of ref. useare 
kept. Cards in force 8451. Receipts $11,326.64; 
expenses $10,931.85. 

The increase in circulation for the year was 
31,019 v., or over 24 per cent. certainly a re- 
markable showing. No reference statistics are 
kept, but this use is constantly increasing, and 
Librarian Stetson suggests that more attention 
could profitably be paid to this department of the 
library, and that special advantage would be de- 
rived from the establishment of an " information- 
desk." The only catalog issued duiing the past 
year was the juvenile catalog. This was largely 
experimental, being the only juvenile catalog 
which the library has issued, the purposes of 
such a catalog having been partly served by aster- 
isks prefixed to the book numbers in the former 
catalog. It was printed from the linotype, and 
sold at 10 cents a copy. 

New York. Aguilar F. L. (sth rpt.) Added 

May, '94] 



2960; total 21,363; issued 203,084; no. borrowers 
5465. Receipts $10,184.31; expenses $9751. 97. 

The circulation shows an increase of 8297 v. 
over the preceding year. The percentage ol 
fiction varies from .554 at the library at East 
Broadway to .799 at the Lexington Avenue 
branch. In May, 1893, a memorial alcove of 
biography was opened, which has proved very 
useful. A list of the best books for the young 
was printed for distribution during the year, 
and the preparation of a card catalog is ap- 
proaching completion. To increase its sphere 
of influence, in July last a reading-room on the 
plan of the Cooper Institute was added to the 
regular free library. At once it was largely at- 
tended, and in one month there was an attend- 
ance of 18,000 visitors. 

New York. Y. M. C. A. L. (Rpt.) Added 
1092; total 41,831; issued 48,532 (science and 
art 41.08 %\ fict. 13.4$). Reading-room attend- 
ance 106,512; no. using books 32,262; Sunday 
attendance 5449;' 590 periodicals are on file. 

A series of nine " book talks " were given in 
the course of the year two at the Young 
Men's Institute, one at the Railroad Branch, 
45th Street and Madison Avenue; two at the 
Harlem Branch, one at the East 86th Street 
Branch, one at 23d Street, and two at the Bow- 
ery. The following subjects were spoken upon: 
" Christ in art," Mornay Williams; " Book- 
binding, decoration, etc.," Cephas Brainerd; 
"Lives of the engineers," Cephas Brainerd; 
"Twenty-five books," Cleveland H. Dodge; 
" Brief historical survey of Christian church 
architecture," Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin; "Books 
before the invention of printing," R. B. Poole. 
" At the close of these informal talks an op- 
portunity was offered to those who desired to 
examine the books used, or the books were left 
for a number of days to be consulted by those 
who were interested, or for any who might wish 
to make designs. 183 volumes, mostly folios, 
were used at the different lectures." 

Librarian Poole says : " Young men would 
be attracted to libraries and to the perusal of 
books if something tangible was presented to 
them, or if they had some definite purpose in 
reading, or a helping hand to direct them. A 
large library is bewildering; the catalog seems 
like an incongruous conglomerate. The mass 
of books and titles needs to be broken up into 
fragments. When the business classes were 
commenced at the 23d Street branch, a list of 
books such as would be helpful to a young man 
starting in business was handed to the pupils. 
Special lists were also prepared for those in 
schoolsof medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, and art. 
Lists on architecture were sent to a number of 
architectural offices. A list of works on art and 
decoration, sent to the Art Amateur, was pub- 
lished in full. A list of books on the useful arts 
hangs in the reception-room, also a list of books 
for a leisure hour, and another list of books 
written for young men. The results of such 
efforts are not always immediately obvious, 
though we have many encouraging proofs of the 
value of such helps." 

Pawtucket (R. 2.) F. P. L. (i7th rpt.) Add- 

ed 354; total 13,544. Issued, home use 40,071; 
on school-cards 10,067; ref. use 22,000; total no. 
cardholders 8499. Receipts $7200; expenses 

" The work of reclassifying and recataloging 
the library, begun June, 1892, is completed. It 
involved the rearrangement of every book in 
the library; the former shelf-numbers were 
erased, and the new numbers written both inside 
and out, also on the book-slips; many books 
were re-covered, rendering necessary the mark- 
ing of the title, author, and shelf number on 
each; and a new accession list was made, requir- 
ing the recording of the author, title, imprint, 
when and where purchased, price and shelf-num- 
ber, and the writing of nearly 18,000 cards. All 
this was accomplished in the 13 months, the 
greater part in n, with only the slight incon- 
venience to our patrons of the temporary closing 
of a few shelves during the rearrangement of 
the various classes upon which we were at 

Mrs. Saunders speaks with approval of the 
results of giving a school-card to each pupil in 
the public schools, irrespective of age; these 
cards are not confined to books intended only for 
school use, but are chiefly meant to introduce 
books into the homes of children. She also 
touches on the advantage of free access to the 
shelves, and says in regard to Sunday opening: 

" Words cannot express our satisfaction at the 
good results of opening our reading-room to the 
public on Sunday. We have watched carefully, 
since its opening in 1890, to find cause, if any 
there be, why it should not be done, because of 
the prejudice for many years against it. We 
find every argument to be in its favor. For the 
most part the men, women, and children who 
frequent the library on that day seem to put on 
with their Sunday attire the Sunday spirit. The 
room is orderly and quiet, excepting from the 
necessary confusion of passing in and out on un- 
carpeted floors. Aside from the current maga- 
zines and regular papers, the various denomina- 
tional papers are on the racks, and are much 
sought. We have recently added several bound 
volumes of The Christian Weekly to the tables; 
these are quartos of illustrated scenes in Bible 
lands and Christian homes, which seem to give 
much pleasure. We find by comparison that our 
Sunday attendance is greater than that of most 
cities, the greatest number reported in Worces- 
ter being 434." 

Philadelphia. Drexel Institute L. Several 
members of the Drexel Institute library class, ac- 
companied by Miss Kroeger, the librarian, paid a 
short visit to New York City early in April, for 
the purpose of studying the libraries of the city. 
They visited the Astor, Lenox, and Mercantile 
libraries of New York, the Brooklyn Library 
and the Pratt Institute Free Library of Brook- 
lyn, and the Newark Public Library. The trip 
was planned to give the members of the class 
an opportunity to study and compare the vari- 
ous systems of classification, cataloging, etc., 
with that in force at the Drexel Institute Li- 
brary. The party left Philadelphia on April 1 1 , 
returning April 18. 



[May, '94 

Philadelphia F. P. L. Branch No. 4 of the 
Philadelphia Free Library was opened on March 
30, in Roxborough, one of the suburbs of Phila- 
delphia. It is located in Lyceum Hall, and the 
formal opening was largely attended. The 
library contains 7200 volumes, of which 5000 
were contributed by the city; it is partially cata- 
loged. Over 400 applications had been received 
before the date of opening. 

Application has already been made to the 
library committee for the establishment of a 
branch library in West Philadelphia, and the re- 
quest was granted. The chairman of the com- 
mittee has been authorized to ask the city 
councils for an appropriation of $20,000 for the 
continuance of the library. 

An interesting exhibition of medical incunabula 
was opened at the Free Library in the city 
hall on April 17. The collection, owned by Dr. 
Stockton Hough, is a fine one and includes 
several unique books. All the volumes date 
prior to 1500 and some of them are remarkably 
curious and interesting. The collection was dis- 
played for five days; Tuesday was devoted to a 
private view, Wednesday was reserved for the 
medical profession, on Thursday librarians and 
library classes were invited, and on Friday and 
Saturday the collection was open to the public. 
Librarian Thomson contemplates having a series 
of informal " book talks " by literary men. His 
intention is to have lectures on poetry, prose, 
fiction, and historical literature at the library, 
to which the public will be admitted. Classes 
will be formed after the University Extension 
idea, and it is probable that his scheme will be 
developed by the early fall. 

Portland (Me.) P. L. Added 1129 ; total 
38,736. Issued, home use 89,995 (fict. 72$); lib. 
use 28,115; ref. use (estimated) 3000. Receipts 
$10,745.26: expenses $8134.62. 

The trustees suggest that special cards be 
issued to teachers, and that special lists of books 
on timely topics be prepared and posted in the 

Randolph, Mass., Turner F. L. (l8th rpt.) 
Added 379; total 12,072. Issued, home use 17,594; 
no. borrowers 1500. Receipts $4465.10; expenses 

" The facilities afforded to each teacher of the 
public schools of the town for taking from the 
library through its circulating system any 
number of volumes not exceeding 10, for school 
purposes only, and for an unrestricted period of 
time, has found a ready acceptance and hearty 
commendation from both teachers and scholars. 

" During the past year this branch of circula- 
tion has been larger than the previous year, 
reaching a total of 462 volumes." 

Seattle (Wash.) P. L. Added 2476; total II,- 
048 ; issued, home use 98,000. New members 
2703 ; total no. cardholders 6336. Receipts 
$14,460.11; expenses $10, 040.22. 

The last year has shown a remarkable increase 
in membership and circulation, and the prospects 
for 1894, when the library will be housed in new 
and enlarged quarters, is most encouraging. 

Shirley, Mass. Hazen Memorial L. The 

Added 1300 ; total 

library was formally dedicated on April 25. The 
simple exercises were held in the Universalist 
church, and consisted of dedicatory and other ad- 
dresses, music, recitations, etc. The building 
cost $5500, of which $3000 was bequeathed for 
the purpose by the late Mrs. E.. D. Hazen. The 
library contains about 1850 volumes. 

Southbridge (Mass.) P. L. (24th rpt.) Added 
178; total 15,030; issued 21,315 (fict. 44.72 ; 
juv. 20.77$). No. cardholders 2819. Receipts 
$2219.58; expenses $2192.26. 

Miss Comins says : " The allowing free access 
to the shelves for all books except fiction is con- 
tinued, and with most encouraging results. The 
work of revising the card catalog has been con- 
tinued, and will probably be completed the com- 
ing year. Owing to the crowded condition of 
our shelves, our duplicate volumes have been 
removed. Some of them have been given to a 
library in a neighboring town, and others (public 
documents) have been sent to the state house, 
Boston, and to the distributing department at 
Washington, to be sent by them to the new 
libraries being started in smaller towns. This 
fact accounts for the small gain over last year in 
the number of volumes in the library." 

Trinidad (Col.) F. P. L. 
6183; issued 15,881. 

Truro, Cape Cod, Mass. The town has voted 
to accept the state's offer of $100 worth of books, 
and $50 has been appropriated for the care and 
maintenance of a town library. Two society 
libraries, comprising some 450 volumes, have 
been turned over to the town; the common- 
wealth's gift comprises 174 volumes, and the 
new town library opens with a collection of 
about 600 volumes. 

Uxbridge (Mass.) F. P. L. (rgth rpt.) Added 
191 ; total 6533 ; issued 7886 (fict. 5837); cards 
in use 783. Receipts $1732.09; expenses $666.31. 

" The superintendent of schools has given 
lists of books to the scholars showing that an 
acquaintance with the contents of the library 
will take its proper place in our system of educa- 

Washington, D. C. A bill to establish a free 
public and departmental library and reading- 
room in the District of Columbia has been intro- 
duced by Mr. Heard (by request) in the House. 
It has been drawn as the result of a recommenda- 
tion made by the committee on libraries of the 
board of trade, which was unanimously adopted 
by that body. 

This committee has been working vigorously 
for the establishment of a public library in 
Washington, and the movement has met with 
general approval. In their report the commit- 
tee say: " The departmental libraries at the 
capital contain nearly 300,000 volumes, accessi- 
ble only to a few employees of the government, 
and closed to them early in the afternoon. The 
vast wealth of reading-matter in the Congres- 
sional Library is practically out of the reach of 
workingmen and school-children, owing to the 
hours of opening and closing and the conditions 
placed upon the enjoyment of its privileges. 
Not one of the great government collections is 

May, '94] 



open in the evening, when alone the great mass 
of the people can use the books. There are 52 
libraries in the District, each containing over 
looo volumes, and not one of them is a free 
lending library, with a reading-room open at 
night for the benefit of the general public." 

It is suggested that books for the proposed li- 
brary can easily be supplied, by using the thou- 
sands of duplicates in the Congressional Library 
for this purpose, if Congress will consent, and it 
is recommended that " the existing departmental 
circulating libraries be added to these books from 
the Library of Congress and made into a general 
departmental library, to which the people of the 
District not employed by the government should 
also have access." 

The establishment of branch delivery stations 
throughout the city, and the location of the pro- 
posed library in the new post-office building are 
also urged. 


St. Rock's, Quebec, Canada, Ground has been 
given by the Fabrique of St. Roch's for a pub- 
lic library building. A considerable popular 
subscription has been raised for this purpose, and 
it is intended to erect a four-story stone building, 
with a frontage of 90 feet and a depth of 115 

Toronto, Can. Law Society of Upper Canada. 
(Library committee's rpt.) Added 1244; total 
26,006; expenses $7795.84. 

" Only five law libraries on this continent are 
larger than this." 

In October last the task of "taking stock" 
was begun, and completed in two months' time. 
It resulted in " the discovery that since 1880 the 
library had lost 253 volumes, other than reports 
and statutes; of these 39 were books of general 
literature, 31 books prescribed by the Law 
Society on its curriculum, and 41 other books 
designed for the use of students; 62 volumes 
were of duodecimo, or still smaller size. 
During thepast year several books that had been 
missing for periods varying from 12 months to 
two years were returned to the shelves, and 
others that had disappeared from view for only 
a few months were discovered in offices and 
rooms throughout the building." 

Additional accommodation for books is badly 
needed, and a new catalog is an urgent neces- 

Vancouver (B. C.) F. L. The library has 
been unusually well attended during the past 
winter, and its use is steadily increasing. It con- 
tains only 2200 books, and the daily average of 
attendance has been estimated at about 300; 
fully 80 per cent, of the circulation is fiction. 
The business depression of the last eight months 
has, as usual, resulted in bringing a large num- 
ber of unemployed men to the library; Librarian 
Machinhas kept a list of those whom he knew 
to be out of work, and has made it publicly 
known that he would supply men for any kind 
of work at short notice; he has thus succeeded 
in obtaining temporary employment for several. 
He hopes at some future time to establish a 
museum in connection with the library. 


ALLAN, Miss Jessie, librarian of the Omaha 
(Neb.) Public Library, who has been ill since 
November, expects to return to the library some- 
time in May. 

CRUNDEN, F: M., librarian of the St. Louis 
Public Library, who has been recently confined 
to his home by illness, returned to the library 
on April 26. 

GAUSS, E. F. L., assistant librarian of the 
Chicago Public Library, is suffering from ner- 
vous collapse, caused by physical overstrain. Mr. 
Gauss disappeared from his home in Chicago on 
March 24, leaving no clue to his destination or 
intentions. On April 2 he was found in San 
Francisco, in a state of nervous prostration. He 
did not know why he had travelled from Chicago 
to San Francisco and could give no account of his 
wanderings ; he did not even know when he got 
his meals or whether he had any, and he had, in 
fact, no distinct recollection of anything that 
occurred during the period of his absence. Mr. 
Gauss is at present sojourning in San Jose (Cal.), 
where he will remain an indefinite length of time 
and endeavor to recover his health. He has 
been connected with the Chicago Public Library 
since 1887 and was always a hard worker. Be- 
sides his regular duties he did much outside work 
in his relations to various literary and journal- 
istic associations. His breakdown is definitely 
attributed to overwork. According to Mr. Hild, 
Mr. Gauss left himself absolutely no time for 
healthful recreation, but when he was through 
with the labors of his office he gave lectures and 
readings, until his mind became seriously over- 
strained from lack of rest. It is hoped that a 
period of complete quiet and relaxation will re- 
store him to health, and he will assuredly have 
the sympathy and best wishes of his many 
friends in the A. L. A., and in the Chicago 
Library Club, in which he has always been a 
leading spirit. 

HURST, Thomas, chief librarian of the Shef- 
field (Eng.) Free Public Libraries, died on April 
21, aged 60 years. He had been engaged in li- 
brary work for 38 years. 21 years ago Mr. 
Hurst, then sub-librarian, succeeded his deceased 
chief, Mr. Walter Parsonson, F.R.A.S. The 
funeral was attended by members of his com- 
mittee and of the library staff, and public officials. 
The library committee have passed this resolu- 
tion: " That this committee sincerely deplore 
the death of their chief librarian . . . and they 
desire to place on record their high appreciation 
of the valuable services rendered by him, and the 
zealous and conscientious manner in which he 
has performed them. . . . " J. P. B. 

LARNED, J. N. The first volume of Mr. Lar- 
ned's important work, " History for ready ref- 
erence and topical reading," has just been- 
issued by the C. A. Nichols Co., of Springfield, 

LOWREY, Dr. C: E., librarian of the University 
of Colorado, has a paper on " The university 
library; its larger recognition in higher educa- 
tion," in Education for May. 



{May, '94 

(Cataloging ana (Classification. 

bliothek des Professor J. J. J. von Dollinger. 
MUnchen, Lindauer, 1894. 671 p. 8, 10 ra. 

The BOSTON P. L. BULLETIN for April contin- 
ues the index to French historical fiction from 
the I7th to the igth century, concluding with 
the Commune. It contains an excellent classed 
reading list on the "Arctic and Antarctic re- 
gions," (26 p.), and includes a facsimile reprint 
of " Alyst of the pasingers abord the Speedwell, 
bound for New England," 1656. 

embracing part I, Biography, memoirs, and 
letters; part 2, Encyclopaedias and books of ref- 
erence, periodicals, old and curious books and 
collected works; part 3, Juvenile literature, 
English fiction, French juvenile, French fic- 
tion, German fiction ; part 4, History and 
geography, secret societies, travel, atlases, 
maps. N. Y. , Cathedral Library Association, 
March, 1894. 132 p. O. 

Prefaced by a short " history of the Cathedral 
Library," by Rev. Joseph H. McMahon. The 
classification followed is that of Mr. Schwartz, 
of the Apprentices' Library ; it is prefaced by a 
helpful " index to the classification." " Re- 
stricted" books are designated by the letters 
" LL." The catalog is printed in bold, heavy 
type, on white paper. The juvenile list is also 
published separately. 

CONCORD (Mass.) F. P. L. Bulletin, no. 16. 

1891, 1892, 1893. 32 p. 

This bulletin is appended to the 2ist report 
of the library, paged separately. It records the 
additions of the past three years, covering some 
2600 v. 

the Rhaeto-Romanic collection, presented to 
the library by Willard Fiske. Ithaca, N. Y., 
1894. 32 p. O, 

Prefaced by a short introductory note, in 
which Prof. Fiske describes the gathering of 
the collection. It is classed under Literature 
and under History, philology, and description; 
titles are given with commendable fulness, and 
there are frequent explanatory annotations. 
Books not recorded in Bohmer's " Verzeichniss 
riuoromanischer Litteratur" are starred; there 
are nearly 130 titles so designated. 

ENOCH PRATT F. L. of Baltimore. Finding- 
list of books and periodicals in the central li- 
brary. Part 2 : Biography, history, descrip- 
tion and travel, social and political science, 
education, law. sth ed., April, 1894. 576 p. 

FiTCHBURG(^/ajj.) P. L. 2. April, 

1894. 24 p. O. 

Devoted to a special reading-list of " Books 
selected for the use of scholars in the public 
schools," prepared to "assist children and young 
people and their parents, who may desire to 
guide their reading aright, in choosing the best 
books to read." The list is classified and ex- 
cellently comprehensive; the department of 
" stories" has been kept well within bounds; a 
good feature is the list of "stories from history," 
containing about 200 titles; while the depart- 
ments of " natural science," " literature," " trav- 
els," " biography," and " history," are specially 
helpful. Very few of the books are taken from 
the list of juvenile fiction, and many represent 
the best class of reading. 

GRISEBACH, Ed. Katalog der Biicher eines 
deutschen Bibliophilen mit litterarischen und 
bibliographischen Ammerkungen. Leipzig, 
Drugulin, 1894. 288 p. por. 8, 6 m. 


Verzeichnis von Buchern, welche zur Anschaf- 
fung fur Volksbibliotheken zu empfehlen sind. 
Herausgegeben vom Gemeinniltzigen Vereine 
zu Dresden. 3 Aufl. Leipzig, Otto Spamer, 
1894. 83 p. 8, I m. 

PRATT INSTITUTE (Brooklyn, N. Y.) F. L. Bul- 
letin, no. 13, including January and February, 
1894. IO p. 

Hereafter the bulletins will be published every 
two months, and sold at four cents each, or 20 
cents yearly. The present one inaugurates the 
new method ; it is printed by the linotype, on 
manilla paper, and records the accessions for 
January and February. 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. BULLETIN for April 
has a classed special reading-list on " Geology" 
(4 P.)- 

for March has a short " reading-list on trades 
unions " (32 titles). 

and list of publications. Richmond, 1894. 
8 p.O. 

THAT attractive little booklet The Open Shelf, 
published by the Cleveland Public Library, con- 
tains in its March issue a short reading-list on 
" Botany." The list of accessions, given in each 
number, is supplied with excellent descriptive 
or explanatory annotations. 

IN the March issue of Books, the organ of the 
Denver P. L., there is a list of " books on use- 
ful arts in the public library, not including medi- 
cine"; it extends from A to L, and covers four 

THB March issue of Our Library, published by 
the Portland (Ore.) P. L., contains a short list 
of books of reference on political economy. 

May, '94] 



BIBLIOGRAPHIE, Allgemeine, der Staats- und 
Rechtswissenschaften. Uebersicht der auf 
diesen Gebieten im deutschen und ausland- 
ischen Buchhandel neu erschienenen Littera- 
tur. O. Miihlbrecht. Jahrgang 27 : 1894. 
Berlin, Puttkammer & MUhlbrecht, 1894. 8, 
5 m. 

BIBLIOGRAPHIE des ouvrages relatifs a 1'amour, 
aux femmes, au mariage et des livres facetieux, 
pantagrueliques, scatologiques, satyriques, etc. 
Contenant les litres d6tailles de ces ouvrages, 
les noms des auteurs, leurs diverses editions, 
leurs illustrations, leur valeur et leurs prix 
dans les ventes, etc. Par M. le C. d'J***. 
4 e ed. entierement refondue et considerable- 
ment augment6e par J. Lemonnyer. Fasc. 2 
et 3. Paris, Gilliet, 1894. 8, 6 fr. 

BIBLIOTHECA historico-militaris. Systematische 
Uebersicht der Erscheinungen aller Sprachen 
auf dem Gebiete der Geschichte der Kriege 
und Kriegswissenschaft seit Erfindung der 
Buchdruckerkunst bis zum Schluss des Jahres 
1880. von Dr. Joh. Pohler. iii. Band. Heft 
1-3. Cassel, Kessler, 1894. 440 p. 8, 14 m 

BIBLIOTHECA philologica oder vierteljahrliche 
systematische Bibliographic aller auf dem 
Gebiete der classischen Philologie und Alter- 
tumswissenschaft, sowie der Neuphilologie in 
Deutschland und dem Ausland neu erschie- 
nenen Schriftenund Zeitschriften-Aufsatze. A. 
Blau. Jahrgang 46, Neue Folge Jahrgang 8, 
Heft 3: Ju-Sept., 1893. Gottingen, Vanden- 
hoeck & Ruprechts, 1894. 151-224 p. 8, 
1. 20 m. 

BIBLIOTHECA zoologica. II. Verzeichniss der 
Schriften tiber Zoologie, welche in den perio- 
dischen Werken enthaltenund vom Jahre 1861- 
1880 selbstandig erschienen sind. Mit Ein- 
schluss der allgemein - naturgeschichtlichen, 
periodischen und palaeontologischen Schriften. 
Bearbeitet von O. Taschenberg. Lieferung n. 
Leipzig, Engelmann, 1894. 3249 - 3568 p. 8. 
7 m. 

CAJORI, Florian. A history of mathematics. 

N. Y., Macmillan & Co., 1894. 422 p. 8, cl., 

net, $3.50. 

A list of 100 works on the history of mathe- 
matics is given. 

CANNAN, E: A history of the theories of pro- 

duction and distribution in English political 
economy from 1776 to 1848. London, Perci- 
val & Co., 1894. 410 p. 8, cl., 1 6 s. 
Contains a 14-p. index of books and authors 

CORDIER, H. Biblioteca Sinica. Dictionnaire 
bibliographique des ouvrages relatifs a 1'empire 
chinois. Supplement, fascs. i et 2. Paris, 
Lerouz, 1894. 12 fr. 

DODD, MEAD & Co. have issued a " Catalogue 
of rare and choice books relating to America, 
many of them very scarce; also a few very nota- 
ble manuscripts." (121 p. D.) 

DUBARAT, V. Melanges de bibliographic et 
d'histoire locale. Tome i : archeologie, hagio- 
graphie, revue historique.memoire de Lebret et 
de L. de Hureaux, documents sur Notre-Dame 
de Sarrance. Pau, Ribaut, 1894. 261 p. 8. 

FERGUSON {Lady ). Life of the Right. Hon. 
William Reeves, D.D., Lord Bishop of Down, 
Connor, and Dromore. N. Y. , Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1893 [1894.] 5+210 p. por. O. 
cl., $2. 
A 14-?. bibliography of Bishop Reeves' works 

is appended. 

FERREE, Barr. The chronology of the cathedral 
churches of France. N. Y., Privately printed, 
1894. 36 p. O. 

Reprinted from the Architectural Record, 
where it appeared as the fourth part of a series 
of papers on " French cathedrals." The chron- 
ological summary of the cathedral churches of 
France is followed by an interesting bibliography 
of French cathedrals. It covers seven pages, 
and while not professing to be a complete 
bibliography, is probably the most exhaustive 
special list on the subject yet printed. The gen- 
eral literature of the subject, English, French, 
and periodical, is given, followed by a list of 
" special histories," arranged under the name 
of the city or town where the cathedral described 
is located. The list includes only works actually 
consulted in preparing the chronological tables. 

FISKE, J: Edward Livingston Youmans: inter- 
preter of science for the people. N. Y., Ap- 
pleton, 1894. c. 6+597 p. por. O. cl., $2. 
A short list of Prof. Youmans' writings is ap- 

GRAY, T: Selections from the poetry and prose 
of Thomas Gray ; ed. with introd. and notes 
by W. Lyori Phelps. Bost., Ginn & Co., 
1894. c. 49+179 p. (Athenaeum Press ser.) 
There is a short bibliography (5 p.) of works 

by and about Gray. 

GUNZBOURG.D., Rosen, V., Dora, B., Patkanof, 


[May, '94 

K., and Tchoublnof, J. Collections scienti- 
fiques de 1'institut des langes orientales; les 
manuscrits arabes, karchounis, grecs, copies, 
ethiopiens, armeniens, georgiens, et babys. 
St. Petersborg, Eggers, 1894. 271 p. 8. 
HANCOCK, Anson Uriel. A history of Chile. 
Chic.,C:H. Sergei & Co., 1893 [1894.] c. 
4+471 p. por. maps, O. (Latin-American re- 
publics ser.) cl., $2.50. 

A 3-p. list of authorities on Chilean history 
is given in the appendix. 

MACMILLAN & BOWES, Cambridge, Eng., have 
published parts C and D of their comprehensive 
" Catalogue of books printed at or relating to 
the university, town, and county of Cambridge," 
completing the work, which was begun in 1891. 
Part C covers the nineteenth century, 1801-1893, 
Part D contains the appendixes, additions, mss., 
maps, views, caricatures, etc., and both parts are 
bound together. There is also a supplementary 
part, containing preface, table of contents, and 98 
curious and interesting illustrations of printers' 
marks, head and tail pieces, initial letters, etc. 
The catalog is not a bibliography, representing, 
as it does, a collection actually possessed by the 
compiler, but the minute descriptions of the 
books printed to 1700, should prove bibliograph- 
ically useful. 

MOHLBRECHT, O. Die bibliographic im Dienste 
des Buchbandels. Berlin, Puttkammer & 
Mtlhlbrecht, 1894. 32 p. 8, I m. 
Repr. from The Borsenblatt. 
MUIR, J. Thomas Carlyle's apprenticeship: a 
bibliographical essay concerning his recent- 
ly discovered writings. Glasgow, R. McClure, 
1894. 1 6 p. 8. 
Only 100 copies printed. 
RIDER, Sidney S., of Providence, R. I., will 
shortly publish a fac-simile reprint of the " Di- 
gest of Rhode Island " of 1719. This rare di- 
gest is the first ever printed by the colony of 
Rhode Island ; the reproduction will have a his- 
torical introduction by Mr. Rider, and will be 
issued in an edition of 50 numbered copies. It 
will be sold by subscription, at $30 per copy. 

SPENCER, Herbert. Aphorisms from the writ- 
ings of Herbert Spencer; sel. and arr. by Julia 
Raymond Gingell. N. Y., Appleton, 1894. 
9+170 p. por. D. cl., $i. 
Appended is a short list of works "from which 

the selections have been made." 

WOLLKY, Clive Phillipps. Big-game shooting. 
Best., Little, Brown & Co., 1894. 2 v., 12+ 
433J 7+443 P. D. (Badminton lib.) cl., ea., 
$3.5o. f 
Contains " a short bibliography of big-game 

shooting, etc." (3 p.). 


Miller, H: Giles, born 1824, author of Plea 
for the unrestricted coinage of gold and silver, 
Chic. , 1892, pam. Drainage law of 1889, Chic., 
1893, pam. Silver legislation of 1890, Chic., 
n.d., pam. 

Partridge, C: Sumner, b. 1856, author of Stereo- 
typing by the papier-mache process, Chic., 

Gracey, Mrs. Annie Ryder (John Talbot), b. 
1836; author of Sketch of Fidelia Fiske, Bos- 
ton, n.d., pam., etc. 

Holbrook, Zephaniah Swift, b. 1847. Lessons 
of the Homestead troubles, Chic., 1892, pam. 
E. E. CLARKE, Ne-wberry Library. 

The following are supplied bf Harvard College Library: 

Dewey, Lyster Hoxie (The Russian thistle and 

other weeds in the wheat region of Minnesota 

and North and South Dakota); 
Jack, J: G: (The fructification of Juniperus); 
Johnson, Lorenzo Nickerson (Observations on 

the zoospores of Draparnaldia); 
Glatfelter, Noah Miller (A study of the venation 

of salix); 
God ing, F: Webster (Bibliographical and synon- 

ymical catalog of the described membracidae 

of North America); 
Greene, Jacob Lyman (Past and pending silver 

Lueders, Herman F: (Concerning the structure 

of caoutchouc); 
Meehan, W: E: (A contribution to the flora of 

Patterson, W: Davis (Lincoln county probate 

Parish, S: Bonsai (New station for notholaena 

tenera) ; 
Rusby, H: Hurd (New genera of plants from 


Selby, Augustine Dawson, joint author (A pre- 
liminary list of the plants of Franklin county, 



THAT the Brooklyn small boy is becoming an 
adept in the handling of libraries is evidenced 
by the recent request at the Pratt Institute Free 
Library of a boy of nine years for a shelf-permit; 
and by another for permission to sign the "book 
of life" (register) on behalf of an invalid aunt. 

Another had lost the slip bearing the name 
of the book wanted by some older member of 
his family, but thought it was " Potter's Sunday 
afternoon." " The Cotter's Saturday night " 
was proposed, and he thought it would answer 
the purpose. M. W. P. 

FROM an Edinburgh bookseller's catalog : 
" Des. Erasmi. Roterodami, Epistolae fa Mili- 
ares, 8vo, calf, 5*. Ludguni, 1542" 

W: I. F. 




has been adopted by leading Librarians throughout the country as the only satis- 
factory library adhesive made. The 5000 volumes of the Model Library at the 
World's Fair were repaired and labelled with this adhesive in preference to all others, 
and it was voluntarily exhibited and recommended by those in charge. A three ounce 
trial jar sent by mail, prepaid, for 30 cents. 

' Carbon Writing Unfts 

contain no other coloring matter than pure carbon, and they hence write black from 
the pen-point and remain forever black, proof to effects of age, air, sunlight, chemicals, 
and fire, and when written on semi-absorbent paper, so that the ink sinks in, they 
cannot be washed out or erased without detection. They are the only true black and 
lasting inks made. Two kinds, viz.: (i) Engrossing Ink, a dense or heavy ink for 
engrossing and important writings, and (2) Eternal Ink, an ink of lighter body, and 
hence better adapted for general use. A two ounce bottle of the former, prepaid by mail, 
35 cents ; a two ounce bottle of the latter for 25 cents, 

The Higgins' Adhesives and Inks are for Sale by Dealers in Artists' Materials 
and Stationery Generally. 

CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO, i^XS, 168-170 Eighth St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 





Agents by appointment to many of the largest American and Foreign 

College and Public Libraries. 

Terms on direct application for the supply of Foreign and American Books and Periodicals. 

Weekly shipments by the fleetest steamers from England, Germany, and France. Periodicals 
supplied at lower rates than mail copies and in better shape for binding. 

Rare Books and Sets of Serials procured at the lowest terms. Regular connections with 
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The Catalogues of Foreign Dealers English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish fur- 
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Monthly Bulletins of New Books issued regularly. 

With the help of a most complete Bibliographical Outfit in all languages and on all subjects, 
and the experience of many years in this particular line, estimates can be furnished promptly and 
information given on topics of interest to Librarians. 

1 86 


[May, '94 


C. KURD, author of "The Law of Freedom 
and Bondage in the United States." One vol- 
ume, 8vo, cloth, 600 pp. (published at $3.50). 
The few copies which remain of this valuable work, 
belonging to the estate of the late John C. Kurd, will be 
presented to public libraries. Any librarian wishing to 
procure a copy should address the undersigned, enclosing 
fifty cents to defray the cost of expressage and packing. 

254 Washington Street, BOSTON. 



Con commentario secondo la Scolastica. Del P. GIOA- 
CHINO BBRTHIBR DEI PRED., Professore di Teologia all' 
Universiti di Fribourgo (Svizzera). 3 large volumes, 
small folio, with upwards of 2000 illustrations in the 
text ; numerous plates UtA/of-timilf, some in sumptu- 
ous color-printing. Subscription prices, 100 M. Part i. 
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This new and great work of the celebrated Dante ex- 
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large volumes will be sent on sale, and an artistically exe- 
cuted prospectus will be supplied gratis on demand. 
Freiburg (Switzerland), July. 



The Annual Literary Index, 






With the co-operation of members of the American Li- 
brary Association and of the Library Journal staff. 

plements the " Annual American Catalogue" of 
books published in 1893 by indexing (i) articles 
in periodicals published in 1893 ; (2) essays and 
book-chapters in composite books of 1893 ; (3) 
authors of periodical articles and essays ; (4) 
special bibliographies of 1893 ; (5) authors de- 
ceased in 1893. The two volumes together make 
a complete record of the literary product of the 

The volume includes also the features of the 
" Co-operative Index to Periodicals," originally 
a monthly supplement to the Library Journal, 
then extended into a quarterly in an enlarged 
form, and later issued as an annual volume. 

One vol., cloth, (uniform with " A. L. A. In- 
dex") $3. 50. 


Telegraphic Address : 



Code in Use : 


Booksellers, Bookbinders, and Publishers, and General Agents in Europe 
for Private Bookbuyers and Public Institutions in America. 

With exceptionally long experience in Library Agency, they can promise the best care, 
diligence, and discretion in everything relating to it, and in small matters as well as great. 
Established 1816. 

A Monthly Catalogue of Second-Hand Books. Specimen Number post free. 

14O Strand, W. C., and 37 Piccadilly, W. : London. 




Having extensive experience in supplying PUBLIC LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS, GOVERNMENT 
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May, '94] 




5 and 7 East Sixteenth Street, New York, 

p'lAKE a specialty of supplying public, private, and school LIBRARIES* for which 
* * they have exceptional facilities through their connection with many of the largest houses 
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This house is characterized by its Promptness, Carefulness, and I_ow 

There will be sent to any address on application a topically arranged General Library List 
selected from the books of all publishers. 


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Repairing and Re-backing of Old Book 
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Specimens of our work may be seen at the COLUMBIA COL- 
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28 Elm Street, N. Y. 



RIBOT. Cloth, 75 cents. 


TH. RIBOT. Cloth, 75 cents. 


TH. RIBOT. Cloth, 75 cents. 

A utkorized translations. The set for $1.75. 

MACH. Hf. mor., $2.50. 


By GEO. J. ROMANES. Cloth, $1.00. 


Cloth, $1.00. 



The Darwinian Theory. By GEO. J. ROMANES. Cloth, 

GUSTAV FREYTAG. Extra edition. 2 vols., cloth, $4.00 ; 
i vol., cloth, $1.00. 

TRUTH IN FICTION. Twelve Tales with a 
Moral. By PAUL CARUS. Cloth, |i.oo. 

MAN. By RICHARD GARBE. Cloth, 73 cents. 


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begs to call attention to his facilities for obtaining FOREIGN BOOKS and 
OR EUROPE can offer, because : 

He employs no Commission Agents, but has his own offices and 
clerks at London, Paris and Leipzig. He has open accounts 
with all the leading publishing houses in the world. 

His experience enables him to give information at once about 
rare and scarce books. 

He receives weekly shipments from England, France and Germany, and 
can thereby fill orders in quicker time. 


"Mr. Stechert has for years furnished this Library with most of its periodicals and European books, and has bought for us 
many thousand volumes. Mr. Stechert's success is due to his constant personal attention to the business, and the reasonable 
terms he is able to offer. I consider a New York agent far preferable to reliance on foreign agents alone." 

GEO. H. BAKER, Librarian of Columbia College, New York, 

" Seven years ago, in reorganizing the Columbia College library, I spent much time in trying to discover how to get out 
foreign books and periodicals with the least delay, trouble and expense. The result of the comparison of three methods, viz: 
ordering direct from foreign dealers, ordering through one agent in London, or ordering through one agent in New York showed 
us that it was to our advantage to give Mr. Stechert all our foreign orders, as he delivered in the library in a single package 
and with a single bill at as low cost as we were able with vastly greater trouble, to get a half dozen different packages in differ- 
ent bills from different places. In reorganizing the New York State Library, I opened the whole question anew, and the result 
of the comparison was the same as before, and we find that the library gets most for the time and money expended by taking 
advantage of Mr. Stechert's long experience, and the careful personal attention which he gives to our orders." 

MELVIL DEWEY, Dirtctor of N. Y. State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

" Mr. G. E. Stechert of New York has served us with fidelity in procuring English, French and German books, both new 
and second hand and also periodicals. His terms are more reasonable than any others that have come to our notice, while he 
has always guarded our interests very carefully. We find it a great convenience to have one agency in New York, represented 
by branches in different European countries." 

Prof. ARTHUR H. PALMER, Librarian ofAdelbert College, Cleveland, O. 

"Your methods and facilities for doing business, as I have examined them here as well as at the Leipzig and London ends, 
seem to me admirably progressive and thoroughly live. I deal with you because I judge it for the advantage of this library to 
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ERNEST C. RICHARDSON, Librarian tf College of New Jersey, Princeton, N.J, 

** Our^ library committee speaks in the highest terms of your services. You have not only saved us many dollars, but haw 
ihown an intelligent appreciation of our wants for which we thank you. ' ' 

A. B. COLLINS, Act, Librarian of Reynolds Library, Rochester^ N. K 




Library Journal 




Economy anfc Bibliograpbp 

VOL. 19. No. 6 

/ JUNE, 1894 



Proposed Catalog of .ne Bibliothfeque Nationale. 
The LIBRARY JOURNAL and the A. L. A. 
Politics and horary Appointments in Iowa. 


The juit of Martin vs. the British Museum. 
Rxtra Copies of Popular Books. 
A Correction. 


Cutter 193 


PUBLIC LIBRARY. Adelaide R. Hasse. . . . 195 










Sixteenth Conference, Lake Placid, Adirondack 
Mts., Sept. 15-22. 

Of Importance to Western Librarians. 

Library School Visit to Boston. ^/. 5 1 . Cutler. 

Connecticut Library Association. 

Pennsylvania Library Club. 

Plummer, Hints to Small Libraries. 










Price to Europe, or other countries in the Union, zor. per annum ; tingle numbers^ at. 

Entered at the Port-Office at New York, N. Y., aa second-class matter. 



[June, '94 


London Agency for American Libraries ., 



EDW. G. ALLEN devotes himself entirely to library business. His long . experience enables him 
to execute the orders of correspondents promptly, cheaply, and with thorough efficiency. His con- 
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Books Supplied at a Small Commission on the Cost P'rice, with the usual Trade 

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Agency for the following Libraries and many others: 

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and Quebec. 
Amherst College. 
Boston Public Library. 
Brooklyn Library. 
Brown University. 
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Enoch Pratt Free Library.' 
California University. 

Colorad- 3 University. 
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"We have been, for the last twenty years, personally cognizant of Mr. Allen's faitnfulness to the interests of 
his American customers. When a resident in Washington, ten years ago, we found that the immense Congressional 
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Edw. G. Allen's American Library Agency, 





VOL. 19. 

JUNE, 1894. 

No. 6 

THE Commission of the Bibliotheque Nation- 
ale has undertaken to decide on the general 
method for a catalog of its vast collection, and 
for the most part has decided well. The main 
features of the plan outlined for this catalog 
are noted elsewhere. As printed it will be solely 
an author catalog; but the titles cut out and 
mounted can be made Into all sorts of classed 
and alphabetical subject catalogs for use within 
the library. The author titles are to form one 
alphabet; the anonymous titles and the special 
lists (periodicals, publications of societies, gov- 
ernment documents, medical theses, legal theses, 
etc.) make another catalog. This does not seem 
to us the best method, but after all there is little 
to choose between the two. If the author of a 
work published anonymously is discovered, it 
will be entered in the author catalog with a ref- 
erence from the anonymous entry. Thisiis the 
reverse of the British Museum practice, and is 
superior to it. If, however, proper references 
are made there is not much practical difference 
between the two methods. 

WE decidedly object, however, to the rule that 
works published under initials are to be treated 
as anonymous. The initial is all that we have 
of the author's name. We can never be sure that 
it is not all that there may be of his name. It 
is sometimes a clue by which we can find out his 
full name. And it often brings together works 
written by the same person, which, by the Com- 
mission's system, would be dispersed all over 
the alphabet. The reason given for their deci- 
sion is merely that the British Museum, which 
enters under initials, has massed together at the 
beginning of each letter a great many titles 
of this kind. Very well, why not ? What harm 
does it do ? The titles must be entered some- 
where, and will take just as much room wherever 
they are put ; and what is more to the point, 
they are not difficult to find here. One can find, 
for instance, M. A. B.'s "Awful wickedness of 
working on Sunday "just as easily under B. , M. 
A., as under Awful, where it would be put if 
anonymous, according to the best practice, or 

among the mass of titles under Sunday, or rather 
Dimanche, where it will be put by the Commis- 
sion's rule. For they have made another mis- 
take. They intend to enter anonymous titles 
not under the unmistakable first word (not an 
article) but under the " significant word " of the 
title chosen according to the judgment of the 
cataloger, which judgment may or may not 
agree with the judgment of the man who is 
looking up the entry. They complain that the 
first-word entry produces an " entassement " 
heaping up of titles under common words, 
such as arrHl, proces-vcrbal, remontrance, etc., 
and then they propose a worse entassement^ for 
it appears they would enter all remontrances 
either under tats Gendraux or Parlement, 
where we will venture to say there will be found 
a very much greater collection of titles. 

A FREQUENT error is repeated in Mr. Fletch- 
er's book, and should be corrected before it passes 
into history. Mr. Fletcher says, in his brief 
review of the American Library Association, in 
which he carefully fails to give himself credit for 
his personal relations to much of its best work : 
" Not least of the good things accomplished by 
the Association has been the publication of the 
LIBRARY JOURNAL." The exact contrary is the 
fact. The LIBRARY JOURNAL is not the child of 
the Association, but the Association is the 
child of the JOURNAL. As a matter of fact, the 
initial step toward an association was taken at a 
conference between Frederick Leypoldt, Melvil 
Dewey, and^the present writer, at the office of 
The Publishers' Weekly, at 37 Park Row, New 
York, held to work out a plan for a library 
periodical which Mr. Leypoldt was proposing 
to publish, and for which Mr. Dewey had also 
been planning independently. The American 
Book Trade Association had recently been or- 
ganized, tho it was short-lived, lacking the en- 
thusiasm of a Melvil Dewey to carry it through 
its early period, and it was suggested that the 
library profession ought also to be organized. 
The first number of the AMERICAN LIBRARY 
JOURNAL was published previous to the confer- 


[June, '94 

ence at which the Association was organized. 
It is interesting to note that the earlier library 
conference of September 15, 1853, at New York, 
was initiated in much the same way by Gen. 
Charles B. Norton, then editor of Norton's Lit- 
erary Gazette. An article is in preparation for 
the JOURNAL giving some notes on the start of 
the JOURNAL and of the Association. R. R. B. 

THE state of Iowa is in evidence as an argu- 
ment for woman suffrage rather than as an ex- 
ample of civil service reform. Or, perhaps, it 
is, on the contrary, an argument against woman 
suffrage ; because it has had three excellent wo- 
man librarians, who were selected for the posi- 
tions which they have so well filled without the 
help of woman suffrage, and solely by masculine 
good sense. Mrs. Ada North, Mrs. S. B. Max- 
well, and Mrs. Mary H. Miller, have successively 
filled the office of State Librarian of Iowa, and 
have each of them successively made their mark 
on the library profession, as well as within the 
circle of the A. L. A. Each of them in turn, if 
we rightly [recall the circumstances, has been 
superseded for political or semi-political or per- 
sonal reasons connected with political changes 
in administration, after years of experience had 
rendered her all the more effective and efficient 
as an official. 

MRS. MILLER, who was appointed by Gov. 
Larrabee in April, 1888, after he had removed 
Mrs. Maxwell, who had held the position for 10 
years, has proved an enterprising and capable 
head of the state library so much so that she 
was retained throughout the administration, op- 
posite in political faith, of Gov. Boies; but she 
has now been removed by Gov. Jackson, as her 
predecessor had been removed by Gov. Larra- 
bee. Mrs. Miller was not only a good worker 
within the state, but has been a hearty co-oper- 
ator in work without the state ; in connection 
with the endeavor to obtain a bibliography of 
state publications, she was the first to prepare a 
comprehensive list of the publications of her own 
state, which was partially utilized in the Ameri- 
can Catalogue, 1884-90, and which, for the rest, 
is the first contribution to the more complete 
bibliography of state publications planned in 
connection with the new catalog. The senti- 
ment of the library profession, as well as of all 
good citizens, ought to be made distinctly known 
in protest against removals of capable officials, 
merely to make room for people out of place. 



I CANNOT but feel gratified by your remarks 
respecting the action brought by Mrs. Victoria 
Woodhull Martin against the trustees of the 
British Museum. Permit me, however, to 
rectify an error concerning a matter of fact. No 
verdict was given against the British Museum. 
The jury, in their finding, while acquitting the 
trustees and their officers of negligence, most 
inconsistently added that they had nevertheless 
failed to exercise due care and precaution. It 
remained for the judge to determine whether 
this finding amounted to a verdict for the plain- 
tiff or to one for the defendant. He decided 
that it was a verdict for the defendant, and con- 
demned the plaintiff to pay the costs of both 
parties. Mrs. Martin gave notice of appeal, 
which she subsequently withdrew ; the case, 
therefore, never went beyond the lower court. 
I may add that, upon the jury being asked to 
state what damages should in their opinion be 
given to the plaintiff, in the event of their 
verdict being determined to be in her favor, they 
named the sum of 20 shillings. 

It should further be known that no evidence 
was produced of passages from the incriminated 
pamphlet having been copied and circulated by 
any person. Two of the only three readers who 
could be proved to have seen it were not traced, 
and the third was a friend of Mrs. Martin's. 




WILL you ask librarians to tell you how many 
copies they buy of some recent popular books ? 
In connection with this I suggest that there be 
given the number of volumes in the library and 
also the relative number of novels. 

For this purpose I suggest these : " Lone 
house," by Barr; " Doreen," by Bayley; " Be- 
ginner," by Broughton; " Katharine Lauder- 
dale," by Crawford ; " Heavenly twins," by 
Grand; " Ships that pass in the night," by Har- 
raden; "Ward in chancery," by Hector; " Cost- 
ly freak," by Tuttiet; " Marcella," by Ward; 
"Gentleman of France," by Wey man; "Letters of 
J. R. Lowell;" "History of English people," 
by Green, 4-vol. ed.; " Life of A. P. Stanley ;" 
"Discovery of America," by Fiske; "Obiter 
dicta," by Birrell. 

Such a report will be useful in determining the 
quality of reading. JOHN EDMANDS. 



IN my article, " Bettering circulation in 
small libraries the 'two-book' system," in 
the May L. j., 1. 14, ist col., p. 162, should read 
" The actual circulation of fiction was 3969," in- 
stead of " 1969"; a drop of 2000 would have 
killed all our gain in solid reading. 



*, '94] 





M. BERALDI, in his monograph on the Biblio- 
theque Nationale, traces the course of a book 
through entry, cataloging, shelving, and circu- 
lation. Books come in three ways: from (i) 
gifts, about 3000 a year (M. Delisle is active in 
seeking valuable gifts); (2) purchase, 4500 (the 
library has $20,000 a year to spend on books and 
binding); (3) copyright, 22,000 articles and 6000 
pieces of music. The printer, not the publisher, 
is bound to make the deposit, so that if the text 
and the illustrations are printed at different 
places there is a chance, unless every one is care- 
ful, that the library will have an imperfect copy. 
But the greatest trouble comes from periodicals, 
of which the Bibliotheque Nationale receives 
3000. What would some of our librarians think 
of this who are inclined to boast or to lament 
that they receive 300 ? Every number of every 
newspaper in France must be received, sent for 
if it fails to come, registered, put on its pile, 
and at the end of the year tied up in a bundle 
and put away (for only the most important are 

After the Bureau des Entries has received, 
registered, gathered (to use a binder's term), cut, 
and bound (so far as the funds allow of binding) 2 
the accessions, they come to the Bureau du Cat- 
alogue. Here a class-mark is given them, fol- 
lowed by the size-mark, and by the individual 
number of the book. This, it will be seen, is 
the "relative location" ; and it has been in use 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale for two centuries, 
though to American libraries it came as an en- 
tire novelty a generation ago. It is worth while 
to run through the classification: 

A-D3iV Theology, 140,000 articles (receives 
annually 500 books of devotion, 50,000 in a 

1 Based onH: Beraldi's " Propos de bibliophile, voy- 
age a travers la Bibliotheque Nationale ", (Extrait du 
journal La Nature). Paris, G. Masson, 1893. See 
also, under " Bibliografy," report of the Com. des 
Bibliothfeques Nationale et Municipale ; and account 
of the " Catalogue of the National Library of France," 
from the Nation, printed elsewhere. 

2 Note that all books on return from the binders are 
kept for a month in a drying-room, to remove every trace 
of dampness. The galleries of many of our libraries 
would answer the same purpose. 

century, occupying a kilometre of shelf- 

E-F Law, 160,000, including 12,000 theses. 

G-P&ts History, 483,600, of which France has 
260,000 in 400,000 volumes, Germany, 56,- 
ooo, Great Britain, 14,000, America, 8000. 

Q Bibliography, 73,000, of which 60,000 are 
library and sale catalogs. 

R Philosophical, Moral, and Natural Sciences, 

S Natural science, 65,000. 

T Medicine, 58,000, with 90,000 theses. 

V Science and Arts, 120,000. 

Vm Music, 16,000, besides about 200,000 single 
pieces of music. 

X Linguistic and Rhetoric, 50,000. 

Y Poetry and drama, 175,000, with 36,000 
plays separately printed. 

Yfo'j Novels, 105,000. 

Z Polygraphy, 105,000. 

Total, i,8oo,ooo 8 marked articles, forming 
at least 2,000,000 volumes. But there are really 
many more articles, because various collections 
have only one number but contain many articles, 
e.g. the collection " Societes de secours mutuel," 
1 7,000 pieces; " Compagniesdescheminsde fer," 
22,000; pieces of music, 200,000. 

The titles of new books are printed in a 
bulletin in two series, French and Foreign (caus- 
ing a printer's bill of 5000 francs a year). This 
began in 1875 for the foreign, and in 1882 for the 
French. These bulletins are cut up and the titles 
mounted on slips, which are fastened in a Leyden 
binder, three making a small folio page. The 
result is a series of 900 volumes, less easy to 
consult than a good card catalog, very much less 
easy than the British Museum pasted catalog, the 
Rudolph books, or the Rudolph machine. The 
Leyden books were probably adopted as being less 
costly for insertions of new titlesthanthe old Brit- 
ish Museum method of shifting titles so as to keep 
them in perfect order and every now and then tak- 
ing volumes to pieces and rebinding them. But the 
new Museum method is easier. A column from 
the printed catalog is pasted on the left-hand 

* The number at the end of 1893, as given in the re- 
port of the Commission op the Catalogue, was more 
than 100,000 larger, 



[June, '94 

side of the left-hand page of a folio book, and 
accessions are pasted over against this on the 
right-hand side and on both sides of the right- 
hand page. But although this method is easy, 
it has two very great objections: (i) the pages 
will soon get entirely full, when either the titles 
must all be raised, rearranged, and pasted, or a 
copy of the catalog and of all the lists of addi- 
tions must be cut up, arranged, and mounted. 
(2) The second evil is more important. Many 
persons do not think of looking beyond the first 
column, and even when they do, it requires' 
close attention, long before the then right-hand 
columns get full, to make sure that the title 
sought is not in the catalog. In the book of re- 
quests people are continually asking the Museum 
to procure works which it has already, and of 
course the book of requests reveals but a small 
part of the mistakes of this sort that are made, 
for proportionately few persons take the trouble 
to ask for books which they do not find. 

The books received at the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale before 1875 and 1882 are entered on some 
2,000,000 slips, which are divided between two 
catalogs, that of the old library (fonds ancien), 
and of the intermediate library (fonds intermJdi- 
arie). In each of these catalogs they are ar- 
ranged in series according to the subject divisions 
given above and under each subject alpha- 
betically. There is no author catalog and the 
public are not allowed to consult these catalogs. 
If then a reader asks for a work received be- 
fore 1875 the attendant guesses in which fonds 
it is and what subject it treats of ; if he does 
not find it where he looks first he tries some 
other division. No wonder it takes on an aver- 
age half an hour for the reader to get his book. 
I must bear witness to the great skill which 
necessity has developed in the officials charged 
with this work. Some of their successes in 
bringing me out-of-the-way books were mar- 
vellous. On the other hand, when they reported 
certain works not in the library I did not feel at 
all sure that they were right, and I dare say they 
doubted themselves. All this will be changed 
when the library gets a printed alphabetical 
catalog of authors and has made from it a 
pasted alphabetical catalog of subjects. The 
author catalog, by the way, is expected to fill 
40,000 double-columned quarto pages. 

Pointing with pride to the fact that the classi- 
fication has such great antiquity, M. Beraldi re- 
marks that " since the time of Louis xiv. the 

library has never interrupted its service a single 
day [excepting, of course, Sundays and fete-days, 
and the annual fortnight for cleaning] ; it would, 
therefore, have been physically impossible for it 
to have undertaken the great work of rearrange- 
ment." Surely a non sequitur. Even with the 
fixed location it is possible tho not easy to 
rearrange without stopping the circulation; but 
with a movable location there is no need what- 
ever of interruption. The particular books one 
is dealing with on any one day are of course 
kept from the reader just as the books which 
are sent to the binder are for a little while out of 
service ; but with organization and care and a 
disposition to accommodate on the part of the 
classifiers the detention will seldom be per- 
ceptible to those who use the library. 

After the books are classified and cataloged 
they are put into the stock (niagasins). The 
library now has 50 kilometres (31 miles) of 
shelves and is full. A new store-house is needed 
and a public reading-room (salle de lecture), 
which can be lighted by electricity, and be 
opened, like the British Museum, in the even- 
ing. It is intended to build on one corner of 
the block occupied by the library. Fourteen 
years ago the dwelling-houses covering this 
ground, which were a constant menace to the 
library, were torn down. A commission then 
urgently recommended the immediate construc- 
tion of much-needed additions; but money was 
wanted for the army, and for the navy on 
which the late investigation shows that it has 
been utterly wasted and for railroads and canals 
that would win votes in doubtful districts; so that 
the needed "credit" has never been obtained. 
It is to be hoped that the printing of the cata- 
log will not suffer a similar fate. 

From the plan it seems as if the new book- 
house could much better be built upon the 
vacant garden, where it would be directly con- 
tiguous to the great students' reading-room 
(salle de travail), than on the lot mentioned 
above, which is farther removed. The service 
of books, already too slow, runs the risk of be- 
ing still further delayed. But no doubt the 
authorities have carefully considered all possible 
plans and know pros and cons of each which 
are not visible to the public. The ground at 
their disposal, if properly built upon, is ample 
to provide storage for as many books as they 
have at present. May they soon be able to com- 
mence construction. 

June, '94] 



BY ADELAIDE R. HASSE, Assistant Librarian. 

THE sloping slip-case has been in constant use 
in this library since September, 1889, and has 
always proven satisfactory and equal to the oc- 
casion, until the daily home circulation of the 
library reached the 1000 notch. The delivery- 
room of the library is an open space of 12x35 
feet, the space between the door leading into the 
corridor and the delivery-desk, behind which 
stand the slip-cases, being only 12 feet. The 
length of the counter is 30 feet, and at the far- 
thest end of it is the delivery-desk. 

Until March of this year but one slip-case had 
been used, but it was not an unusual occurrence 
to have the counter closely lined with people 
waiting to hand their book-lists over to an at- 
tendant, to have people wandering about in the 
open space, and to have a line of people at the 
delivery-desk waiting for the call of their book- 
number, and being jostled by people trying to 
get into the reading-room. At the receiving- 
desk the line of people frequently extended into 
the corridor, eight, 10, or even 12 persons be- 
ing outside of the door. 

Long "before March it had become apparent 
that some provision would have to be made to 
relieve the pressure on the outside of the coun- 
ter and to enable the attendant at the slip-case 
to expedite matters in the disposition of books 
received from the borrower. On busy after- 
noons two attendants were usually on duty at 
the slip-case. This arrangement, however, did 
not prove at all satisfactory, the attendants be- 
ing obliged to reach around and over each other, 
or to walk back and forth from end to end of the 
case, because the dates of loans, as per the 
cards presented, of course could not be antici- 
pated. Added to this, when a lost card was an- 
nounced, or the charge of an exorbitant fine had 
to be defended and explained, a very trying con- 
gestion of the crowd resulted. 

The usual borrower's card, with columns for 
dates of books loaned and returned, and the 
5 x 7^ cm. manilla charging-slips represented 
the books' and borrowers' accounts, the daily 
loans being transferred at the end of each day 
to the tabulated record of statistics. Hav- 
ing now explained the primary methods and 

conditions of the loan remains but 
to demonstrate by how small an outlay of money 
and time, comparatively, the hitherto distressing 
state of affairs has been remedied. 

Particular attention is called to the fact that 
the library was open during the entire time of 
these operations, that the work was accomplished 
at a time when the circulation had reached a 
figure larger than ever before, and that the an- 
nual report and the new " List of novels and 
tales" were both being seen through the press at 
the time. 

In the new charging system the borrowers' 
card has been retained. The charging-slips al- 
ready alluded to have been changed for book- 
cards of loo-pound tag, cut to 5 x I2j cm., 
ruled horizontally on both sides, to admit of a 
record of 17 loans or dates on each side, and 
vertically in two columns, one wide enough to 
admit a borrower's number of seven figures (i.e., 
2044-10) being written, and the other column 
narrower, to admit of the date of the loan (i.e., 
Ap. 14) being stamped therein. Each circu- 
lating volume, current magazine, and sheet of 
music was furnished with one of these cards, 
bearing at its upper end the book number on 
both sides, and at its lower end the accession 
number on one side only. The work of number- 
ing these cards was begun on the first day of 
November, 1893, and continued for four months 
thereafter, by an attendant especially employed 
to do this work for one-half of each day at the 
rate of 10 dollars per month. Occasional assist- 
ance was given by regular attendants. The work 
was done with a six-wheel type-numbering stamp 
(see L. B. cat., p. 49). The work of inserting 
these cards in the books was accomplished by 
the entire library force, numbering 21 persons, 
on the morning of Sunday, March II. 

The book-cards are held to the inside cover 
by means of a pocket of iso-pound manilla, cut 
to make a triangle, minus the right angle, and 
whose longest size is seven and one-half cm., 
the width of the strip thus remaining is four 
cm. Something of this kind, I believe, is in 
use in the People's Palace Library. The 
straight edges of this pocket, open at both 



[June, '94 

ends, are folded under about one-quarter inch, 
glued, and pasted to the extreme lower left-hand 
corner of the cover, wet. When the book is on 
the shelf, this pocket furnishes a resting-place 
for the book-card; when in use, it holds the bor- 
rower's card, and the book-card remains depos- 
ited in one of the slip-cases now in use, until 
the return of the book. The work of pasting 
these pockets was accomplished during the same 
^ength of time, and at the same cost as the num- 
bering of the cards, stated above. 

The slip-case formerly in use was the regular 
L. B. 2$a 15-tray case. The cases now in use 
were made to order by the Library Bureau, and 
differ from the 253 case only in the depth of the 
trays (a trifle over nine cm.), to hold the longer 
book-cards. The two cases hold the book- 
cards for the loans of the odd and even dates 
respectively, and during the greater part of 
the day each case is in charge of an individual at- 
tendant, the receiving force being reduced to 
one during the first two hours of the day and 
during the latter part of the evening. Two 
short rails have been erected on the outside of 
the counter, dividing the delivery-desk into sta- 
tions for the delivery of books loaned on odd 
and even days respectively, each station being 
indicated by a sign a little over the level of the 

The time saved by the present method is very 
perceptible both to the borrower and to the 
library staff. In charging, the only thing it is 
necessary to write now Is the borrower's number 
on the book-card, instead of as formerly, the 
book-number, borrower's number, and thecharg- 
ing-clerk's number, the stamp being used twice 
as formerly, both on the borrower's card and on 
the book-card or charging-slip. The book-cards 
are all dropped into a drawer at the left of the 
charging-clerk, and at night are counted and 
segregated by the clerk on duty in the reference- 

These cards serve as indicators to the number 
and identity of the users of the books, the latter 
often a very convenient bit of information. As, 
for instance, if a stranger comes to town who is 
an amateur astronomer, and desires to meet 
local students of his subject, the book-card will 
enable the librarian to give him name and ad- 
dress of persons who habitually read books of 
this class. The former also, being the record of 
the number of times an individual book is used, 
will, of course, influence purchases. 


From the Nation. 

A VERY important report has just been issued 
by the Bibliotheque Nationale of France. A 
committee of 20 persons, of whom nine were 
members of the institute, four librarians, and 
three inspector-generals of libraries, has been 
considering the advisability and method of print- 
ing the catalog of the largest library in the 
world, which contained at the end of last year 
1,934,154 " numbers," forming at least 2,600,000 
volumes. The report gives an interesting sketch 
of the history of the cataloging of the library 
from the beginning, which is the not uncommon 
story of an insufficient personnel overwhelmed 
by great accessions, of neglect, bad judgment, 
increasing confusion, frantic efforts to remedy 
the evil, attempts to do too much apparently 
a continued struggle to run a great library with 
a small staff. Finally, on the accession of M. 
Leopold Delisle in 1875, was inaugurated the 
present system, which led to the completion of 
the inventory in December, 1893. Nothing now 
remains to be done but to add the printed mat- 
ter, often very important, which is included 
among manuscripts in the manuscript depart- 
ment, together with a collection of books belong- 
ing to the library kept at present in the palace 
of Fontainebleau, and then to print. 

This the committee has unanimously decided 
to do, on two grounds first, as a safeguard to 
the property of the library, and second, as a 
guide to the researches of students. For a 
century losses of books have been frequent. 
Most of the books recovered come from book- 
sellers and book-lovers who voluntarily restore 
books which they find on their shelves with the 
library's marks. The committee believes that 
the copies of the catalog which would, of course, 
be accessible in every public library, would be an 
important instrument of verification and the best 
of guarantees for the public property. As for the 
service which such a catalog would render to 
students, it is needless to speak. Scholars in the 
provinces and abroad will find in it the elements 
of a bibliography in their respective researches, 
and within the library a reader will find his book 
more easily, and will have to wait for it a 
shorter time, because he will put on the slip by 
which he demands it the exact shelf-mark, in- 
stead of handing in a request for a book which 
may or may not be in the library, and of which 
he may or may not have the correct title, and 
waiting while an attendant hunts it up in several 
catalogs an operation which on the average 
takes 30 minutes. The committee, no doubt, 
considered, though they abstain from discussing 
it in their report, the feasibility of putting this 
same information before the readers on cards 
that is, of extending to the older books the sys- 
tem of cards clamped in volumes which the 
library has adopted for all books received since 
1872. Of the American improvements in card 
catalogs they perhaps have no idea, and of the 



Rudolph Indexer they probably never have heard. 
But to prepare the slips of the inventory of the 
older books for insertion in the card-books would 
be a work of some cost, and, while it would give 
a most useful instrument for the readers within 
the library, it would be of no use in the other 
libraries of the country, and, moreover, would 
not be to the world so glorious a monument of 
French literature. 

The chief reason for printing, in our opinion, 
is the possibility of making from these printed 
lists, with no further expense than the cost of 
cutting up, mounting, and classifying, any num- 
ber of bibliographies. Titles arranged in chron- 
ological order, which would present the history 
of literature; titles in geographical order, giving 
the typographical history of every place, so far 
as its printing is represented in the library; an 
arrangement by bindings, for all whose bindings 
are worth mention; an arrangement by donors; 
an arrangement by languages, forming national 
bibliographies ; 'a classified arrangement with 
every refinement that it has entered into the 
mind of man to conceive; and finally, most use- 
ful of all, an arrangement under subjects placed 
in alphabetical order all these the happy li- 
brary that prints its titles can easily have. It is 
true that it costs money to cut up and mount, and 
above all to classify; but this is for future con- 
sideration. It is a pity that the committee does 
not discuss the application of logotypy. Perhaps 
they have considered it, and found it too costly, 
but they say nothing of it. Perhaps if we had 
had to furnish the money, we should not have 
regarded these arguments as conclusive; but we 
are glad that they have appeared so to the com- 
mittee; for this catalog, like that of the British 
Museum, will be a boon to American students, 
and each of our great libraries will undoubtedly 
procure a copy. It will be most interesting to 
compare the two catalogs, and it will be found, 
we believe, that the two greatest gatherings of 
books in the world are by no means duplicates 
of one another. The Museum is, of course, far 
the fuller in English history and English litera- 
ture, and its quantities of English pamphlets 
can nowhere be equalled ; the Bibliotheque is 
correspondingly superior in French history and 
literature, and not weak in pamphlets, although 
we suppose it hardly has such numbers of these 
troblesome but often important issues of the 
press. What the Museum has, in fact, is not all 
revealed by its present catalog; a mass of several 
thousand Mazarinades, for instance, is repre- 
sented by a single entry, and the detailed cata- 
loging is reserved for the Supplement. 

The rules suggested for the placing of entries 
are generally judicious. We do not see the use 
of having one catalog for authors and a second 
alphabet for anonymous works, but this is a 
matter on which there may well be difference of 
opinion. Anonymous works whose authors are 
known will appear under their names an im- 
provement on the practice of the British Museum. 
Periodicals and the publications of societies will 
appear in special catalogs another matter on 
which there is a difference of opinion among 
experts. This is not, we believe, the practice 

in any American library. It is audacious to dis- 
agree on any point with so eminent a committee, 
yet we can but think that they have not solved the 
still vexed problem of books which remain anony- 
mous as well as they might have done. Bar- 
bier pointed out the only way of salvation entry 
in all cases under the first word, the only rule 
that cannot be differently interpreted by differ- 
ent catalogers, giving the only place where one 
can be sure of finding a work. Panizzi wanted 
to follow Barbier entirely, but was overruled by 
his trustees, and obliged to make several excep- 
tions. Still, on the whole, the British Museum 
enters under the first word not an article or 
preposition. The French committee, however, 
propose to return to the older fashion the first 
significant word opening the door wide to all 
sorts of diversities of practice, and therefore 
preparing many vexatious disappointments to 
those who use the catalog. Remontrances , for 
instance, are to be put either under " fetats- 
generaux" or under " Parlement," because, for- 
sooth, there would be such a number of titles 
beginning with Remontrance. But will there 
not be quite as many entries, or more, under 
Etats-glneraux and Parlement? Other "first 
words" are to be discarded in favor of " impor- 
tant words " selected by the cataloger. 

The committee mentions with pardonable pride 
the Improvements Introduced during the last 
quarter century in the service of the library. In 
1868 the reading-room had barely a hundred 
seats, and readers might often be seen wandering 
disconsolately and vainly in search of an empty 
one. Now the number of seats is quadrupled 
(but we must remark that such is the increase In 
the use made of the library that the vain search 
for a seat may still be seen). Readers then col- 
lected in crowds round the bureau, waiting for 
their names to be called, when, after a long time, 
the book demanded issued mysteriously from be- 
hind thescreen. Now books are delivered to them 
at their desks (after an average wait of 30 
minutes, as we ascertained last winter); and till 
they are brought the students have at their free 
disposal 9000 volumes of carefully selected 
reference-books. In 1868 they had no books 
whatever to consult during this time, and had to 
send to a " call-slip " to get the commonest dic- 
tionary. Then they were expressly forbidden, 
by repeated regulations, to consult the catalog. 
Now they have author and subject catalogs of all 
books received since 1872. In one respect they 
are even more favored than the readers in the 
great British Museum reading-room. They have 
the last numbers of the principal French and 
foreign periodicals laid out on a table for free 
use not, indeed, the popular magazines, which 
one finds in all American and English town and 
city libraries, and not even as many learned 
periodicals as one finds in our college and our 
greater public libraries, but still enough to be 
of great service. And yet, with all these ameli- 
orations, the public complain. But the ad- 
ministration is not discouraged, and it projects 
further improvements another reading-room 
fitted up for evening use, additional storage- 
rooms, more attendants. 


LA**, '$4 


THE recent report of the Massachusetts Free 
Public Library Commission contains some help- 
ful suggestions as to bringing about a closer 
connection between libraries and schools by 
means of local collections. 

" Town libraries have been urged," say the 
commissioners " to make as exhaustive collec- 
tions as possible of matter of local historical or 
geographical interest. They have been advised 
to save carefully copies of all printed reports 
and other documents issued by the municipali- 
ties, histories and other books relating to the 
towns, pamphlets of local interest, manuscripts 
containing biographical or historical material 
regarding persons, houses or localities, maps and 
plans, and everything regarding or representing 
the literary, scientific or other work of present 
or former residents. 

"The commission now suggests that an ex- 
cellent way of bringing about the close connec- 
tion between libraries and schools, which is 
generally conceded to be desirable, would be to 
utilize the collections, when made, in promoting 
a spirit of investigation among teachers and 
scholars, and awakening an interest in history. 
The teacher of a school would have, in the first 
place, to become acquainted with the materials 
at command. She should then excite an interest 
by describing some exciting or pleasant incident 
in the history of the town or by reading some 
well-written passage from a pamphlet, book, or 
manuscript. Chapters in local history might 
sometimes be used in the place of reading-books 
by pupils, in class-work. When interest has been 
aroused set the children at work using material 
at hand, old newspapers, books, pamphlets, 
etc., to make investigations regarding things 
that have occurred in the place. Let them, when 
ready, give an account of the results of their 
inquiries, either by word of mouth or in the 
form of a written composition. Afterwards con- 
nect the doings of the towns in which the boys 
and girls live with those of neighboring or larger 
places and with the state and country. 

" By studying, and making plans and maps, 
children may be excited to take a lively interest 
in the geography of the towns they live in, and 
by being led to see, by means of books used by 
themselves, or for them by teachers, and by ex- 
cursions, the topographical and physical features 
of those towns, may have started in them the 
knowledge of the resources of the places and an 
interest in thinking about the connections of 
their parts, their relations to other towns, and 
their facilities and prospects. By a judicious 
use of books from libraries, relating to local 
matters, important moral lessons may often be 
drawn in such a way as to become impressive to 
children and remain in their memories. Great 
good is done when a young person has become 
interested in making investigations. Let teachers, 
then, use library books in inciting pupils to make 
local and wider historical and geographical re- 
searches, and in this way try to start in them a 
taste for historical and other research and the 

habit of learning the meaning of the events of 
history and the actions of great men." 

This subject is also touched upon by Mr. 
Hill in the last (1893) report of the Newark 
(N. J.) Free Public Library. Speaking of the 
Newark Library in its connection with the 
schools of that city, he says: "Some of the 
teachers derive great benefit from the use of the 
library, while others have still to learn that 
books other than text-books can be of service in 
connection with school-work. The number of 
teachers using the library is yearly on the in- 
crease, and the time is not far distant when 
every school will have library books in circula- 
tion among the pupils. One teacher not alto- 
gether in sympathy with the plan of sending 
pupils to the library for study and consultation 
tried the experiment a few weeks ago. He 
picked out five boys who were considered some- 
what mischievous. After they had been here 
two or three times he paid a visit to the library 
to see how they were getting along. He ex- 
pressed himself to me before going to the refer- 
ence department, in this way: ' I expect to find 
them doing anything but studying.' After an 
absence of 10 minutes he returned to say that 
he ' was delighted to find the boys studying 
and apparently much interested in their work.' 
He is now a firm believer in the co-operation of 
the public library and the public schools. A 
principal once said he could make good use of 
the library if allowed to take 25 books at a 
time. When asked how many teachers there 
were in the building he answered, 'about 15, 
and only one taking books for school use.' He 
was informed that if the other 14 would each 
take the six books as privileged by the rule of 
the trustees, there would be 84 books in use in- 
stead of the 25 he could do so much with. He 
took the hint, and is now using the library." 


DR. S. A. GREEN, in his account of the " Ori- 
gin and growth of the library of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society," which appeared not 
long since in pamphlet form, gives an interesting 
description of the various methods of binding 
pamphlets, adopted in that library in successive 
years. The perplexities of the subject called 
forth some amusing " warnings" from the early 
librarians of the society, which will strike a 
responsive chord in the minds of all who have 
had experience in this troublesome branch of 
library work. Dr. Green says : 

" It was an early practice to tie up the pam- 
phlets in small parcels, and keep them in this 
way preparatory to binding; and in the course of 
time several thousand were bound. On April 8, 
1858, when the librarian read his first annual 
report, under the requirement of the by-laws 
adopted on October 8, 1857, there were about 
12,000 pamphlets in the library arranged in cases 
made for the purpose. It appears by the report 
of the standing committee on April 24, 1856, 
that at that time 457 cases had been bought, and 
about 10,000 pamphlets classified and thus ar- 

June, '94] 



ranged. These cases, shaped like a volume, had 
the word ' Pamphlets ' printed on the back. In 
April, 1862, the number had reached 492, and 
probably more were added later; and their use 
continued until about 1878, although a few are 
still found serviceable for the largest pamphlets. 
According to the system of classification begun 
by Dr. Appleton, a paper label of the proper 
size, bearing the printed name of the division, 
was pasted on the back of the boxes. About 
the year 1878 the pamphlets had increased so 
much that it was found easier and more conven- 
ient for use to tie them up in bundles. Later, 
in October, 1884, these parcels were first carefully 
guarded from the wear of the string by strips of 
pressboard. The system of classification now in 
use, although somewhat changed as to the names 
of the divisions and other minor particulars, is 
similar to that begun by Dr. Appleton. These 
pamphlets are kept in one room, and arranged 
on the alphabetical plan in the several divisions 
and subdivisions. 

" It was the practice of early librarians to en- 
ter, on the fly-leaf of each volume of miscella- 
neous tracts, the titles contained therein, as well 
as occasionally other memoranda. One of such 
volumes, in which the first title is ' The Church 
of Ephesus arraign'd,' by Josiah Smith (Charles- 
Town, S. C., 1768), has on the fly-leaf at the end 
the following note, written by John Eliot : 

" ' There is no persuading Bookbinders to do as you 
desire them. Be sides the misplacing of several pamphlets 
& paying no regard to the date, tho' arranged for him 
by the Librarian, he must take this Narrative of the work 
a/ C.from the par cell -which were collected with great 
diligence &* many months assiduity; & 1 where all the 
Cambuslang pieces preceeded the other works of the 
Whitefieldian controversy. 

' ' Two books are spoiled to the no small vexation of 
Mr E. who hath had his patience tried often in this way. 

Use or Caution. 

" ' Never send but pamphlets enough to fill one volume 
let these be bound in boards only till you have seen 
them then may you alter the arrangmt before the fin- 
ishing. Otherwise you must stand over the Bookbinder 
till there is not a bare possibility of his mistaking,' 1 

" Another volume, in which the first title is 
' The Importance of Righteousness . . in two 
Discourses delivered at Brookfield, July 4, 1774,' 
by Nathan Fiske (Boston, 1774), has a note at 
the beginning in the same hand as follows : 

'"Remark for the benefit of other Societies besides 
the historical. 

" ' A stupid book binder will never mind your orders 
about placing pamphlets. 

"'If cheapness is the thing aimed at, you will have 
none but stupid fellows to work for you.' 

" Since the year 1868 it has been the rule in 
the library to bind up all historical tracts sepa- 
rately ; and miscellaneous pamphlets have not 
been bound in the same volume unless they be- 
longed to a series or were closely connected in 
their subjects. Reports of various societies and 
institutions in Massachusetts are bound together 
in sets, and divided according to theinthickness, 
though frequently by tens or fives, either as to 
the year or the ordinal number of the report. On 
the back and near the top of the volumes given 
during the first 20 years of the society, there 
is found a small cross in ink. I am unable to 
give the meaning of this mark, but perhaps it 
was meant to show that the work had been cata- 

loged. To indicate the fact in later years a 
small 'c' has been written in ink or with pencil 
at the beginning of the book or pamphlet in the 
upper right-hand corner. 

" In former times the style of binding pam- 
phlets varied somewhat from that now in use, as 
well as the lettering on the back. Such volumes 
were generally bound in sheep, which has not 
proved to be serviceable. The following in- 
stances may be mentioned as fair samples of the 
lettering : ' Religious Tracts,' ' Mixt Tracts,' 
' Mixt Sermons,' 'Select Pamphlets,' etc.; and 
about 1815 the back titles ran thus: 'Tracts. 
D. F. I,' 'Tracts. D. F. 2,' with several other 
combinations of letters and figures, which were 
intended probably for the place- mark of the 

" In recent years it has been the practice to 
bind the newspapers in duck, as it is considered 
to be more durable than leather, which in time 
becomes very tender and fragile. Since June 7, 
1889, a handle, or loop, projecting behind, has 
been firmly riveted to each side of the cover, so 
that the volume can be more easily taken from 
the shelf. This has been found to be a convenient 
contrivance for large or heavy files." 


IT is often interesting to trace the power of a 
great idea as it radiates in recondite and un- 
suspected directions. The latest illustration of 
this wise remark comes from the habitat of the 
Library School and of its distinguished founder, 
whose ideas have overflowed the Capitol and the 
hill-top and reached the very highways and 
broadways of the good city of Albany. Even 
such an every-day business as the purveying, not 
of intellectual but of physical food, is becoming 
responsive to the advantages of the Dewey Dec- 
imal Classification. The system is not as yet 
introduced in its perfect simplicity and entire 
completeness, but doubtless the restaurateur in 
question is as yet only a tyro, and has but a 
glimmering of the true light. It is encouraging, 
nevertheless, to find such evidences of the March 
of Progress. 

The librarian who is accustomed to the use of 
the Decimal Classification and who enters this 
certain restaurant in Albany, where the various 
viands are carefully numbered on the bill of 
fare, will more than once be puzzled to " catch 
on " promptly to the analogies which doubtless 
underlay the general scheme of distribution. 
Just why 10, usually associated with " Bibli- 
ography," should be applied to " Pick up Cod 
in Cream," is somewhat difficult of solution; but 
it is to be feared that the assignment of 20, 
usually representing " Library economy," to 
"Stewed Eels," has some hidden and perhaps 
satiric reference to the contortions connected 
with the current complexity of rival methods 
of classification. " Sandwiches "are very rightly 
classified under numbers 140-148, associated 
otherwise with " Philosophical systems," because 
it is a matter of common repute that philoso- 
phers are apt to subsist upon this diet. 1 20 desig- 



[June, '94 

nates " Celery," doubtless because this is a brain 
food of special value in discussing "Special meta- 
physical topics." It is a little hard on young 
lawyers that 340 should be assigned in the one 
case to " Law," and in the other to " Calves' 
Brains" ; but 360 finds very happy coincidence in 
" Bread and Milk " and " Associations and insti- 
tutions," in which latter the inmates are supposed 
to subsist largely upon the former. 390 is as- 
signed to "Radishes" in the one case and 
" Folk-lore " in the other, possibly because both 
go to the roots of things ; but there is either 
fine subtlety or some confusion of mind in as- 
sociating 440 both with "Irish stew" and 
" French philology." 540, attributed in the ordi- 
nary Dewey scheme to "Chemistry," is in this 
special adaptation assigned to " Ice creams " and 
like compounds; but there is evidently careless- 
ness in assigning the sub-classification 542 to 
V Mixed Cream Two," and separating from that 
item at considerable distance under 549, " Mixed 
Cream Three." 

Space does not permit the further discussion 
of this interesting and suggestive application of 
library ideas, and we can only suggest that Mr. 
Keeler, who keeps the remarkable hotel which 
has this remarkable bill of fare, should be ap- 
pointed permanent caterer to the A. L. A., and 
have charge of its yearly banquets. He has 
yet to learn, however, of phonetic spelling and 
the true limits of capitalization. 


THAT Southern California is gradually becom- 
ing a field for active library work is exemplified 
in the brief records of the Redlands Library. In 
March, 1894, this library passed the first month 
of [its existence ; the statistics for that month 
were as follows : On the shelves, 1406 volumes; 
periodicals on file, 38; days open, 27; home cir- 
culation, 1492 volumes; readers in attendance, 
1551; membership, 500. 

Redlands is a town of about 5000 inhabitants, 
located 70 miles from Los Angeles. The public 
interest manifested in the library is best shown 
by the fact that within three months after a sub- 
scription list had been started, and despite the 
" hard times," $2000 was raised for the purpose 
of organizing and maintaining for one year a 
free public 'library. The library was formally 
opened on February 22, when the board of trus- 
tees of the Library Association presented the li- 
brary, with its appurtenances, to the city of 
Redlands, to be by it maintained and continued 
as a free public library. The library is located 
in the Y. M. C. A. building; the room is well 
arranged, supplied with modern library fittings, 
and lighted by electricity. The decimal system 
of classification is used. Miss Helen A. Nevin, 
a graduate of the Los Angeles Public Library 
training class, is librarian. She writes: "Our 
aim is to keep abreast of the times in matters 
pertaining to education and library interests, 
and with the co-operation of our patrons, and 
the hearty encouragement of our alma mater, 
the Los Angeles Public Library, we hope to be 
strong in growth and fruitful in well-doing." 


THE first number of Bibliographica, the new 
English magazine of bibliography, has recently 
made its appearance. It is to be published quar- 
terly, the last number appearing at the end of 
1896. The magazine treats of bibliography in its 
historical and artistic aspects, and its object is 
to present a series of papers on various points 
of book-lore, by writers of authority, in a form 
which, while allowing of serial publication, will 
also be complete and final. To do this, the novel 
plan of publishing the magazine for three years 
only has been adopted, as it is believed that in 
the course of 12 quarterly numbers the con- 
tributors will be able to write on most of their 
special topics, and it is not desired that the mag- 
azine should be continued after the freshness of 
its first impulse has been exhausted. A notable 
list of contributors has been secured for the 
various topics. The subject of " Manuscripts'* 
will be handled by E: Maunde Thompson, princi- 
pal librarian of the British Museum; Mr. War- 
ner, of the Department of Manuscripts of the 
British Museum, and Falconer Madan, of the 
Bodleian. " Early printed books" will be de- 
scribed by Gordon Duff, Russell Martineau, J. 
P. Edmond, W. Copinger, and others; contribu- 
tions to the history of " Book-collecting and li- 
braries" will be by Mr. and Mrs. Elton, W. Y. 
Fletcher, Austin Dobson, and Messrs. Tedder 
and Macray; while " Book illustrations " will be 
dealt with by William Morris, Dr. Paul Kristel- 
ler, C. Fairfax Murray, A. W. Pollard, and 
Laurence Housman. " Book prices and book 
sales," " Book-plates," and " Bookbindings" will 
be discussed by authorities; there will be a paper 
on "Early printed music;" articles by R. C. 
Christie, Dr. Garnett, Andrew Lang, H. B. 
Wheatley, and other well-known writers; and 
there will be several French contributions by 
Octave Uzanne, Henri Beraldi, and others. 

The first number of Bibliographica is a suffi- 
cient indication of the importance and beauty of 
the completed work. It is a large imperial oc- 
tavo of 128 pages, finely printed on hand-made 
paper, with wide margins and rough edges ; 
the typography is unusually bold and clear. 
There are numerous cuts in the text, besides 
several full-page illustrations, the frontispiece 
being a beautiful colored reproduction of a copy 
of Celsus from the library of Grolier, which 
is described at length by W. Y. Fletcher. The 
articles in this first number comprise " Christina 
of Sweden and her books," by Charles I. Elton; 
" Raoul Lefevre and Le recueil des histoires de 
Troy6," by H. Oskar Sommer; " Names and 
notes in books," by Andrew Lang; " The Ac- 
cipies wood-cut," by R. Proctor; " Le biblio- 
phile moderne," by Octave Uzanne; " Thoinau's 
les relieurs Fran9ais," by S. T. Prideaux; " The 
stationers at the sign of the Trinity," by E. 
Gordon Duff; and " The books of hours of 
Geoffrey Tory." by Alfred W. Pollard. 

The magazine is issued in a limited edition, 
and the editions for England and America are 
identical in imprint and all other particulars. 
Charles Scribner's Sons are the American 

June, '94] 



American Cibrarg Association. 


THE i6th conference of the A. L. A. will be 
held at the Mirror Lake and Grand View hotels, 
Lake Placid, in the Adirondacks, beginning 
Monday, Sept. 17, at : a.m. There will be 
10 or 12 business sessions, interspersed with 
trips around the lake, to Adirondack Lodge, to 
top of Whiteface, and to other places of inter- 
est. The last session will be held Saturday 

A most excellent program is being arranged 
by the committee having the matter in charge. 

Arrangements have been made with the pro- 
prietors of the Mirror Lake Hotel, Grand View 
House, and Lake Placid House, to accommodate 
all members and friends at the rate of $2.50 per 
day. Cheaper rates may be obtained at other 

A complete itinerary, covering all details as to 
rates, trains, meals, hotels, side trips, and the 
return trip via Lakes Champlain and George, 
will be issued about July 20. 

An outline only can be given now. 


The Trunk Line Associations have made the 
following rates, based on 'a fare and one-third 
going and returning by same route, fare and 
one-half by variable route: 

Route No. i. 

Front Boston to Lake Placid via Boston & Albany 
and N. Y. C. & H. R. railroads, returning via 

same route 813.70 

From So. Framingham 13-05 

From Worcester 12.35 

From Palmer 11.15 

From Springfield 10.70 

From Westfield 10.45 

From Pitts field 9.15 

Route No. i. 

From Boston to Lake Placid via Boston & Albany 
and N. Y. C. & H. R. railroads, returning via 
Plattsburg, steamer down Lakes Champlain and 
George to Saratoga, D. & H. C. Co. railroad to 

Boston 16.45 

From So. Fra.mingha.rn 15.80 

From Worcester... 15.10 

From Palmer 13.90 

From Springfield '3-45 

From Westfield 13.20 

From Pittsfield 11.90 

'Route No. 3. 

From Boston to Lake Placid via Boston & Albany 
and N. Y. C. & H. R. railroads, returning via D. 
& 'H. C. Co. railroad through Plattsburg, Port 
Kent, Port Henry, etc., to Albany, thence via 

Boston & Albany to Boston *4-95 

Frm So. Frumingham 14.30 

From Worcester 13.60 

From Palmer 12.40 

Front Springfield ".95 

From West field 11.70 

Front Pittsfield 11.40 

Route No. 4. 

From New York to Lake Placid via N. Y. C. & H. 
R. railroad, returning via same route to Albany, 

thence to New York by rail or boat 13.10 

From A Ibany 7.60 

Route No. 5. 

From New York to Lake Placid via N. Y. C. & H. 
R. railroad, returning via Plattsburg. steamer 
down Lakes Champlain and George, D. & H. C. 
Co. railroad to Albany, thence to New York by 
rail or boat 16.20 

From A Ibany , 10.30 

Rout* No. 6. 

From New York to Lake Placid via N. Y. C. & H. 
R. railroad, returning via D. & H. C. Co. rail- 
road, through Port Kent, Port Henry, etc., to 
Albany, thence to New York by rail or boat 14. 70 

From A Ibany 8.80 

When buying tickets at points other than 
named in this circular ask for a certificate for at- 
tendance at the meeting of the A. L. A. at 
Lake Placid, or buy single ticket to any point 
named, and then purchase excursion ticket. 

FromChicago. Western members intending to 
join the Chicago party should communicate with 
W. S. Merrill, Newberry Library, who will have 
charge of the travelling arrangements from 
Chicago. A special rate will be named for those 
who desire to take the trip down the lakes. 


Saturday, Sept. 15. Leave Boston 8:30 a.m. 
from Boston & Albany station, Kneeland St. 
Lunch on the train. Arrive at Albany 2:43 
p.m. Leave New York 8:30 or 10:40 a.m. from 
the Grand Central station. A special train, con- 
sisting of Wagner vestibule drawing-room and 
dining cars, will convey the New York party 
through to Lake Placid. Connection at Albany 
with the Boston section. Dinner on the train. 
Arrive at Lake Placid about 9 p.m. 

Sunday, Sept. 16 to Saturday, Sept. 22 at Lake 

The main party will make the return trip a 
sort of post-conference affair, the expense of 
which cannot be accurately determined at pres- 

Saturday, Sept. 22. Leave Lake Placid at 2 
p.m. Arrive at Saranac Lake 4 p.m. 

Sunday, Sept. 23. At Ampersand Hotel, Sar- 
anac Lake. 

Monday, Sept. 24. Leave Saranac Lake at 
10 a.m.; arrive at Paul Smith's for dinner 12 
noon. Leave at 3 p.m.; arrive at Loon Lake 
5 p.m. Loon Lake House over night. 

Tuesday, Sept. 25. Leave Loon Lake at 9 
a.m.; arrive at Bluff Point, Hotel Champlain, in 
time for dinner. Leave Bluff Point at 2:55 p.m.; 
arrive at Au Sable Chasm 313:50. Returning, 
leave Au Sable Chasm at 5:20, reaching Bluff 
Point at 6:50. Remain at Hotel Champlain 
over night. 

Wednesday, Sept. 26. Leave Bluff Point at 
7:10 a.m. by boat for a trip down Lake Cham- 
plain and Lake George. Arrive at Sagamore 
House, Lake George, 2:55 p.m. 

Thursday, Sept. 27. Remain one day at the 
Sagamore. Leave Sagamore House at 2:55 
p.m.; arrive at Saratoga 6:12 p.m. 
Friday, Sept. 28. In Saratoga. 

Saturday, Sept. 29. Leave Saratoga at 7:10 
a.m.; arrive at Albany 8:20 a.m. Leave Albany 
by day boat for New York at 8:30 a.m.; arrive 
at New York 6 p.m. Leave Albany for Boston 
at 9:45 a.m.; arrive at Boston 4:15 p.m. 

The July circular will contain an accurate 
estimate of the cost of the different trips. 

FRANK P. HILL, Secretary. 

PERSONS expecting to attend the Library Con- 
ference at Lake Placid in September, who live 
in or near Chicago, or who can arrange to pass 
through Chicago on their way east, wjlj fiprj 



{June, '94 

it to their advantage to send their names at once 
to Wra. Stetson Merrill, Assistant Secretary 
A. L. A., The Newberry Library, Chicago. 
The railroads will allow one and one-third fare 
for the round trip in case a sufficient number are 
likely to go. But it is necessary to have some 
statement ready to present at the monthly meet- 
ing of the Western Passenger Association in 
July. Unless 75 or 100 persons can be counted 
on, to form one party from Chicago, it will not 
be possible to obtain this special rate ; or at best 
only a slight reduction will be made. Signify- 
ing your intention of going in case a fare and 
one-third rate is secured will be all that is neces- 
sary in the matter. If something unforeseen 
occurs to prevent your going, you will not be 
bound by your word. The object is to get an 
estimate of the number to accommodate. 
Please write at once, therefore, to 

Chicago, 111. J 

Nero $ork Stale Cibrarg School. 


THE Library School program which provides 
for a visit to New York and Boston libraries on 
alternate years has been carried out with a little 
variation. 1890, Boston (L. j. 15 : 176); 1891, 
New York (L. j. 16 : 145); 1892, Lakewood con- 
ference, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Washington libraries; 1893, Chicago libraries, 
A. L. A. exhibit, and conference; 1894, Boston. 

The party, 29 in number, included the vice- 
director; the senior class; the junior class with 
the exception of one member detained by illness; 
Miss Eva St. C. Champlin (L. S. '91); Miss 
Margaret Blodgett, of the present class of Drex- 
et Institute; Miss M. S. R. James, of the People's 
Palace, London; Miss Petherbridge, a graduate 
of Newnham College, Cambridge, who is work- 
ing as a library student in the People's Palace, 
Liverpool Free Libraries, and Bodleian Library; 
Mrs. Edward Gay, wife of the well-known New 
York artist and mother of Miss Helen Gay of 
the junior class; Miss Helene Bonfort, a teacher 
of 20 years' standing in Germany, who is studying 
American libraries from the educational stand- 
point. These members outside the school added 
greatly to the pleasure of the party. 

The Boston trip includes regularly several 
important libraries on the line of the Boston and 
Albany R. R. Miss Hewins, who lectured be- 
fore the school in April, gave us such a cordial 
invitation to visit Hartford that we were con- 
strained to go out of our way to accept. And 
never was gentle compulsion so amply repaid. 

Arriving in Hartford at 2:24 p.m., Tuesday, 
April 17, we visited in order the Trinity College 
Library, Connecticut State Library, Theological 
Seminary Library, Watkinson Library of Refer- 
ence, Connecticut Historical Society, Public 
Library. We were much impressed by the 
abundant library facilities of Hartford, which 
were completed September 15, 1892, when the 
library of the Hartford Library Association was 

made a free library, and by the spirit of co- 
operation which prevails in the city. 

At dinner, about six o'clock, we were enter- 
tained by Miss Hewins and Mr. Gay, meeting 
several Hartford people, including Miss E. S. 
Talcott (L. S. '88), also Miss Mary E. Robbins 
(L. S. '92), now assistant librarian at the New 
Britain (Ct.) Institute. The dinner cards, each 
containing a picture of"a famous author and an 
apt quotation, were the work of Miss Hewins, 
done by her own hand. This is a sample: " No- 
bility of character manifests itself at loopholes 
when it is not provided with large doors. Sarah 
Penn's showed itself to-day in flaky dishes of 
pastry." Mary E. Wilkins, "The revolt of 
1 mot her' " 

A delightful evening was spent in the building 
of the Watkinson and Public Library. Mr. Gay, 
librarian of the Watkinson, had arranged for our 
inspection an exhibit of the life and time of 
Henry vni. by means of illustrated books, one 
of a series of similar exhibits. 

I believe Miss Hewins enjoys the distinction of 
having the most attractive librarian's room in the 
country. It is a good-sized room, with rugs, 
choice pictures, a sofa, an abundance of soft 
pillows, a rocking-chair, a table and service for 
afternoon tea, growing plants, and books. It 
was furnished by her library friends as a tribute 
for her long and inestimable service. 

Next morning we were accompanied by our 
Hartford hostess to Springfield. Here we vis- 
ited the City Library and inspected the new 
building of the art gallery adjoining. It was a 
special pleasure to the class to hear from Dr. 
Rice, himself an honored veteran in the profes- 
sion, the story of the development of the library 
which is so largely due to his efforts. Miss Med- 
licott (L. S. '89), Mr. W: C. Stone, and the 
other assistants combined to make our short stay 
most pleasant and profitable. 

In Worcester we were taken in charge by Mr. 
E. M. Barton, who with an electric car at his 
disposal transported us to the Public Library, 
thence to his own library, the American Anti- 
quarian Society, then to the Worcester Club, 
where we dined with Mr. Green and a few of his 
friends, and back to the station at 8:15, where we 
bade good-by to our genial conductor, and took 
the train for Boston. 

We were greatly pleased with the new building 
of the Worcester Public Library. It is perhaps 
the natural result when the plans, worked out by 
the librarian, are the outcome of years of experi- 
ence. The facilities of photographing in the 
building and the fact that illustrations from rare 
books are freely duplicated in this way for the 
use of the schools give one a glimpse into the 
vista of possibilities for the library of the future. 

In Boston, headquarters were at the Hotel 
Bellevue on Beacon St., where everything was 
exceptionally quiet, convenient, and satisfactory. 

Thursday marked the first observance of 
" Patriots' day." which takes the place of Puritan 
" fast day." A few of the party celebrated at 
the old South Church, and one at least made a 
pilgrimage to the spot 

"Where once the embattled farmers stood, 
And fired the shot heard round the world." 

In the evening six of us witnessed the first 

June, '94] 



production of the Latin play " Phormio," at 
Sanders' Theatre in Cambridge. While delighted 
and amused by the unique and clever spectacle 
we enjoyed scarcely less the brilliant audience. 
Twelve college presidents were present, to say 
nothing of Harvard lights of various magni- 

At the Boston Athenaeum on Friday morning 
we made a careful study of its library methods 
under the patient guidance of the new librarian, 
Mr. W: C. Lane. We found here another new 
but familiar face, Miss Helen Rice (L. S. '93). 
Adjourning across the street to the Boston Book 
Co. at one o'clock, we were welcomed by Mr. 
and Mrs. Soule and by about two score of 
friends from the neighboring libraries. 'Mid 
chat and lunch and speech of our hospitable host 
the time sped swiftly, and after a short visit at 
the State Library we finished the day with an 
hour at the main office of the Library Bureau, 
where Mr. Davidson showed us the interesting 
process of making' catalog-cards. 

Saturday was given to the Boston Public and 
the Newton Free Library. We enjoyed exceed- 
ingly our inspection of the new building of the 
Boston Public under the escort of the secretary, 
Mr. Louis F. Gray. The class felt the charm of 
the Newton Library, and lingered there long on 
a rainy afternoon. 

Through the courtesy of Miss Nina E. Browne 
(L. S. '89), who was ever thoughtful for our 
comfort, two of us listened to Edwin D. Mead 
in a lecture on Emerson at Andover House. 

On Sunday afternoon and evening, in little 
groups, the party visited the Boston Public, 
seeking new light on the question of Sunday 

Wellesley College on a spring holiday is a 
pretty sight. We spent Monday morning there, 
enjoying the college as well as the library, which, 
like most that we visited, is much used and 
needs more room for books and readers. We 
found here four Library School friends the li- 
brarian, Miss Lydia B. Godfrey ('88), the assist- 
ant librarian, Miss Carrie F. Pierce, a former 
instructor in the school ; an assistant in the 
botanical department, Miss Harriet Walker ('92), 
and Miss Waller I. Bulloch, a student at Welles- 
ley, who will come back next fall to finish her 
Library School course. We dined with the 
students in the cottages which are such a pleas- 
ant feature of Wellesley life. Monday after- 
noon was a half holiday for our party. Most of 
the class accepted an invitation to afternoon tea 
from Miss Newman of the junior class, whose 
home is at the college; a few visited the River- 
side Press at Cambridge; the home libraries of 
Boston and the art galleries claimed the time of 

In the evening about half the party enjoyed a 
visit to the Brookline Public Library, which, 
under the management of the new librarian, Mr. 
Bolton, is steadily growing in efficiency. The 
children's room is an interesting peculiarity. 

At Salem, on Tuesday, we carried out the fol- 
lowing delightful program: 

" Visit to Salem of the Library School, Tues- 
day, April 24, 1894, by invitation of the Essex 
Institute, Peabody Academy of Science, and 
Salem Public Library. 


" Arrive at Salem 9:32 a.m. 

" Salem Public Library until 11:30 a.m. 

" Peabody Academy of Science until 12:45 

" Lunch at Plummer Hall at I p.m. 

" Essex Institute and Salem Athenaeum until 
2:30 p.m. 

"Drive to points of interest in Salem and 
Peabody, including Hawthorne's birthplace, 
Court Houses and Law Library, birthplace of 
Dr. William F. Poole, Peabody Institute Li- 
brary, etc." 

Library economy and samples were served up 
most satisfactorily at the Public Library by Mr. 
Jones (L. S. '89); at the Peabody, science and 
ethnology, by Mr. John Robinson; at the Essex 
Institute, antiquities, by Mr. A. R. Stone. At 
Plummer Hall, Mr. T. F. Hunt, who we suspect 
is the force behind most good things in Salem, 
presided over the dinner-table. 

On the drive in the afternoon we enjoyed 
especially the interior of the " House of the 
seven gables," and a sight of Dr. Poole's birth- 
place, between Salem and Danvers. 

Wednesday morning found us at Harvard. 
After a few words of welcome by Mr. Winsor, 
we were carefully instructed in the methods of 
the library by the assistant librarians. At the 
Cambridge Public Library we were specially 
interested in the plans for the addition to the 
building which will contain a children's room. 

Two of us went out to Arlington to see the 
splendid Robbins Memorial Library. After in- 
specting the Episcopal Theological Library, pre- 
sided over by Miss Edith D. Fuller, our instruc- 
tor in dictionary cataloging, and doing the 
sights of the town under the escort of Mr. 
Moulton of the senior class, a graduate of Har- 
vard, we were welcomed by Miss Fuller at her 
home for afternoon tea. 

Wednesday evening Mr. and Mrs. H. E. 
Davidson gave a reception at their beautiful 
home in Watertown for our English friends, 
Miss James and Miss Petherbridge, and for the 
Library School. It was a real A. L. A. gather- 
ing. Mr. and Mrs. Justin Winsor, Mr. and Mrs. 
C. C. Soule, J. L. Whitney, W: M. Griswold, 
C. W. Andrews, A. C. Stockin of Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., are a few of the 200 guests. Not 
only the librarians of Boston and vicinity were 
present, but also Mr. Fletcher of Amherst, Mr. 
Barton of Worcester, Mrs. Curran of Augusta, 
Me., and Miss Dunton of North Adams. 

Our visit to Boston had been timed to include 
the meeting of the Massachusetts Library Club, 
which was held on Thursday. This has been 
already described in the JOURNAL (April, 1894). 
We enjoyed and profited by the practical nature 
of -the discussion, but (shall I say it?) we won- 
dered if it is too much to expect that librarians 
should add to the gift of something to say, the 
grace of saying it in a voice that can be heard, 
even in a room with poor acoustic qualities. 

There is no qualification more needed in the 
library profession (as indeed in others) than a 
broad, unprejudiced, non-partisan temper of 
mind. Our annual visits are chiefly valuable 
for the cultivation of this spirit. 




[June, '94 

Stale Cibrarg Associations. 


THE Connecticut Library Association met 
May 30 in the Otis Library, Norwich, which was 
enlarged and opened as a free library last year. 
The president, Dr. Hart of Trinity College, in- 
troduced General Aiken, who spoke in behalf of 
the trustees of the library, alluding to the 800 
per cent, increase of readers since the Otis Li- 
brary became free, and the rapidly growing be- 
lief of the citizens of Norwich that a municipal 
appropriation for a free library is one of the 
best of investments. Dr. Hart, in his response, 
spoke of his early idea of the Otis Library as an 
immense and magnificent collection of books, 
and the recent growth of the scientific spirit in 

After the reports of the secretary and treasurer 
had been accepted, the latter showing a balance 
of $44.01, Miss Cornelia Wetmore Chapell, of 
New London, trustee of the public library of 
that city, read a paper on " Local museums 
in connection with libraries," suggesting that 
an old house is an ideal place for a museum 
and town library, and should contain scrap- 
books, photographs, and sketches of local inter- 
est, specimens of local manufactures and natural 
objects from within 10 miles, and that children 
should be encouraged to write versions of local 
legends as a part of school-work. Mr. Hills, of 
the Bridgeport Public Library, gave an account 
of the use made of a vacant room, about 100 by 
50 feet. Within a year exhibitions of paintings, 
perspective views and elevations by architects, 
mechanical and industrial drawings, have been 
given, and attracted more than 1000 visitors 
in a day. Miss Chaffee, of the East Haddam 
Public Library, reported collections of minerals 
and plants in the neighborhood made by children 
in competition for a prize, and kept in the li- 
brary. Mr. Stetson, of the New Haven Public 
Library, spoke in favor of libraries as centres 
in small towns, but thought museums an un- 
necessary appendage in cities. Mr. Bassett, of 
the Silas Bronson Library, Waterbury, is using 
his influence as school visitor to induce children 
to collect and press the plants in the neighbor- 
hood for the library. Mr. Kent, curator of the 
Slater Memorial Museum, believes that as "a 
good museum is a collection of labels illustrat- 
ed," a librarian cannot make these labels as well 
as a man of science or an art student. The 
secretary read letters on the subject from Mrs. 
Bronson, of the Watertown Library, Professor 
Camp, of New Britain, and Miss Philbrook, of 
the Russell Library, Middletown. 

The Rev. Dr. Leonard W. Bacon, of Norwich, 
spoke of the " all round " librarian, typified long 
ago in Edward C. Herrick, librarian of Yale, 
"every man's supplementary memory and every 
child's friend." After speaking eloquently of the 
duties of a librarian, Dr. Bacon went on to suggest 
a social feature in connection with libraries, con- 
sisting of discussions by the best local talent re- 
garding new books as added, and other books of 
general interest, especially books published Jong 

ago which have made their reputation, but are 
not well known. 

Dr. Hart gave an invitation from the Acton 
Library, Saybrook, for the next meeting in Sep- 

Six members of the Massachusetts Library 
Club were present Mr. Jones, of Salem, Mr. 
Chase, of Lowell, Mr. Bolton, of Brookline, 
Miss Medlicott, of Springfield, Miss Browne, of 
the Library Bureau, and Miss James, ex-librari- 
an of the People's Palace. 

At the afternoon session Miss James gave an 
interesting account of the People's Palace, which 
has a library of 15,000 volumes, used more for 
reference than for circulation. It is open at 8 
a.m., but the laboring men and others in search 
of work often come at 6:30, and the advertising 
pages of the morning papers are posted outside 
at that time for them to consult. 

Mr. Bassett, of the Silas Bronson Library, 
read a paper on the exchange and transfer of 
books, saying that the custom of transferring 
books from one account to another without re- 
quiring them to be returned led to serious 
blunders, and in case of injury it was impossible 
to say who was responsible. He spoke of one 
woman who kept the second volume of a book 
18 weeks by transferring it successively to the 
cards of several friends, and of a mechanic who 
retained in the same way for four months a book 
with a formula which he was afraid that some 
other man of the same trade would read. In 
Waterbury, Lowell, and New Haven a book is 
not given out until the day following its return. 
In New London a seven-day book is not trans- 
ferred to a second card in a family for the 
reason that the transfer is practically a renewal. 

The subject of museums was opened again, 
and Messrs. Jones, Bolton, and Chase, and 
Misses Medlicott and Browne joined in the dis- 
cussion. Mr. Jones, as president of the Mas- 
sachusetts Library Club, invited the Connecticut 
Library Association to be present at a meeting 
at Clinton and Lancaster on June 14. The meet- 
ing adjourned after votes of thanks to the Otis 
Library and Slater Memorial Museum, which 
many of the party visited. 


A SMALL but earnest delegation of the Penn- 
sylvania Library Club left Philadelphia on the 
morning of May 17 for a short trip to the coal 
regions in the northern portion of the state. A 
four hours' ride brought us to Wilkes Barre, 
where we were met by Mr. Henry J. Carr, of 
Scranton, who escorted the party to the Wyo- 
ming Vallev Hotel. Greetings were also ex- 
changed with Miss James, of the Osterhout 
Library, and again boarding the cars we soon 
found ourselves at Scranton, where carriages 
were in waiting to take us for a drive, all places 
of interest being pointed out to us by our host, 
Mr. Carr. We then visited the Albright Memo- 
rial Library building, in which is housed Scran- 
ton's public library. Mrs. Henry J. Carr with a 
party of ladies and the trustees were at the 
library, where the dusty pilgrims were received 
with flowers and refreshments. Luncheon was 
followed by a tour of inspection through the 

June, '94] 



library building, which was pronounced perfect 
by all present. The members of the club re- 
turned to Wilkes Barre in the evening, and held 
their regular meeting in the library of the Wyo- 
ming Historical and Geological Society. 

The meeting was called to order at 8:20 o'clock 
by the president, Mr. T: L. Montgomery. 
Twelve members and 30 friends were present. 

The president in a brief address explained the 
object of the club. He spoke of the influence 
which it had exerted, indirectly, toward found- 
ing a number of libraries and improving library 
methods and administration. The minutes of 
the March meeting were read and approved. 

The president then introduced Mr. John 
Thomson, librarian of the City Free Library of 
Philadelphia, who spoke on the subject of 
" Fiction." 

He expressed a fear that this subject had been 
too thoroughly threshed out in magazines, and 
the LIBRARY JOURNAL in particular, to enable 
him to offer any 'original remarks. All that 
seemed feasible was to sum up the position that 
fiction held, or ought to hold, in the economy of 
public libraries, and in this relation it seems in- 
dubitable that a difficult question will have to be 
faced. Readers have multiplied during the past 
40 or 50 years many hundredfold, and it is of the 
gravest moment to determine how to meet their 
proper needs. The whole free public library 
movement in England and America is not 50 
years old, and it is not to be wondered at that 
difficult points still remain unsolved. One main 
consideration, in Mr. Thomson's judgment, arises 
out of the point that every free public library is 
in reality a public trust. These libraries produce 
no income, and are supported either from the 
benevolent funds provided by the munificence of 
individual citizens or by municipal appropria- 
tions. If this fact is duly recognized it be- 
comes a simple duty on the part of the di- 
rectors of libraries and of the librarians to 
exercise great care that the funds of these im- 
portant institutions are expended so as to pro- 
duce a beneficial result. Public libraries are fast 
becoming the substitutes for or rather successors 
to the old familiar circulating libraries. In the 
old play Sir Anthony Absolute declared that a 
circulating library in a town was an evergreen- 
tree of diabolical knowledge that blossomed 
through the year, and if the librarians of the 
present day are desirous to avoid the evil de- 
nounced by Sir Anthony they must see to it that 
the books put in circulation are such as will lead 
to the improvement of those who use the libra- 
ries. It is a direct breach of trust to load the 
shelves of free public libraries with multiples of 
copies of merely ephemeral novels which once 
read are never wanted again. If a novel has no 
permanent merit from a literary or other high 
standard, can it be right to expend the funds of 
the public libraries in buying 20, 30, or 50 copies 
of a book, of which 99 per cent, will after a year 
become mere shelf-lumber? If persons want to 
read these books let them subscribe to a circu- 
lating library and take their fill at the cost of 
their own pockets. Public libraries must either 
be educational helps or utterly fail in the useful 
ends for which they have been started. The 

really useful city library is one that supplements 
the reading and studies of schools, colleges, and 
the private study. Mr. Thomson maintained 
that fiction was a necessity in every library, but 
asserted that while it is true that good fiction is 
healthy reading, bad fiction is poison to the soul 
the highest part of man. Historical fiction 
has a distinct value which can hardly be too 
highly rated. The biographies of our greatest 
writers, lawyers, and statesmen abundantly show 
that youth in all times and in all classes is alike, 
and that nearly all youths acquire the earliest love 
of reading from the old romances and grand 
books of fiction. Hundreds will admit that their 
first love of historical reading was created by 
the perusal of historical romances. The very 
interest created in Louis XI., Charles the Bold, 
such subjects as the French Revolution, the Lord 
George Gordon riots, Cagliostro, Philip Augus- 
tus, Andreas Hofer, and the thousand and one 
other historical subjects and personages has led 
readers to turn from the books of Scott, Dick- 
ens, Dumas, James, Miss Muhlbach, Hawthorne, 
Cooper, and their peers, to enjoyment over 
Carlyle, Rollin, Bancroft, and Macaulay.* 

In the discussion that followed Mr. Thomson's 
address it was pertinently asked by Miss Hannah 
P. James " how low down in fiction" a librarian 
might go ? The answer offered was that even in 
this great age of invention it was not known that 
a literary thermometer had yet been invented by 
any bookworm Fahrenheit or Reaumur, but that 
it might well and safely be left to an intelligent 
librarian to draw a line between acceptable and 
objectionable novels. 

Mr. Carr was of the opinion that works of 
fiction should be kept on open shelves where 
readers could have free access ; this would en- 
able them to make their own selections, and fre- 
quently improve the character of the reading. 

The president called the attention of the 
club to the fact that a map of Pennsylvania, 
indicating the location of the public libraries 
throughout the state, based on the one recently 
issued by the state of Massachusetts would be 
an important addition to library statistics. 
After some discussion it was voted that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed to gather the neces- 
sary information for such a map. The com- 
mittee is constituted as follows : Miss James, 
Mr. Carr, and Mr. Thomson. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry J. Carr and the trustees and friends of 
the public library at Scranton, and to Miss James 
and the Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society for their hospitality and courtesies. The 
meeting adjourned at 10 o'clock. An hour was 
spent in looking through the valuable library and 
museum of the Wyoming Historical and Geo- 
logical Society. 

At nine o'clock on the following morning the 
party visited the First Presbyterian Church, 
where the organist rendered a number of fine 
selections on the grand organ. At 10 o'clock 
carriages were placed at the disposal of the club, 
and a delightful drive of two and a half hours 

*It should be noted that Mr. Thomson's address is 
being printed by the club in leaflet form. 



[June, '94 

followed, during which Branch No. i of the 
Reading-Room Association was visited. This 
reading-room will be used as a distributing 
agency for North Wilkes Barre by the Osterhout 
Library. Then came a dinner, given at the 
Wyoming Valley Hotel in honor of the visit- 
ing delegates. After dinner a number of the 
party called at the bindery of Mr. J. W. Roed- 
er, who explained and illustrated the uses of the 

The party left Wilkes Barre, homeward bound, 
at four o'clock, and arrived in the City of Broth- 
erly Love late in the evening, somewhat .tired, 
quite damp, much wiser, and very happy. 

The next regular meeting of the club will be 
held on November 12. 



[PLUMMER, M. W.] Hints to small libraries. 

Brooklyn, Pratt Institute Free Library, 1894. 

56 p. il. O. bds., net, 25 c. 

Cant. : Receiving and entering books ; Book-numbers 
and cataloging; Cataloging; Shelf-list and inventory; 
Mechanical preparation of books for the shelves bind- 
ing ; Relations with the public Registration ; Charging 
system ; Reading-room and reference work ; Selecting 
and ordering books ; Rooms and fixtures ; Library tools. 

Among the earliest suggestions " in the be- 
ginning" of the A. L. A. a truly creative 
epoch none were of more interest and promise 
than those for the A. L. A. Catalog and the A. 
L. A. Library Manual. The first was in the 
horizon, but no nearer, for so many years that 
it came to be known as " the coming catalog," 
but it did appear finally in the somewhat dis- 
guised but not less useful shape of the Catalog 
of the A. L. A. "model" library. Whether 
or no the larger work with its annotations 
ever appears, this catalog will be for many 
years of very great service, particularly in small 
and new libraries. In like manner, although 
the " coming handbook" has never arrived, an 
excellent substitute for it now makes its appear- 
ance a grandchild, as it were, of the Library 
School in the " Hints to small libraries," pub- 
lished from the Pratt Institute Free Library as 
the work of its librarian, Miss M. W. Plummer, 
herself a graduate of the Library School. 

It is a pleasant piece of enterprise and profes- 
sional comity on the part of the Pratt Library 
and its librarian to put at the service of the pro- 
fession in this way the experience of that library. 
We say of the profession, because although this 
unpretentious manual is intended chiefly for 
small libraries and beginners in the library call- 
ing, it is nevertheless of general value as a col- 
lection of hints and suggestions. The writer 
modestly presents the pamphlet as a present 
substitute for " the long-desired A. L. A. man- 
ual " on the principle that half a loaf is better 
than no bread ; but no apology of this sort is 
needed the pamphlet has certainly the merit 
of a petit pain, complete in itself, and more tasty 
perhaps than the full loaf. In the compass of 
50 octavo pages of good-sized type, Miss Plum- 

mer has succeeded in setting forth the " neces- 
saries of life " and how they are to be obtained, 
on the library topics scheduled in the table 
of contents. These 50 pages include an out- 
line of the decimal classification, numerous 
forms of blanks, typical library cards and like 
entries, etc., etc., and the little book is really a 
remarkable example of parva sed apta. The 
page is not wide enough to give the full length 
of the standard card in these fac-similes, so that 
the sizes of the fac-similes are somewhat likely 
to mislead, although the dimensions are usually 
stated in the text. Almost all the suggestions 
in the book are so practical that few librarians, 
however different their practice, would find fault 
with any of them, and the most that can be said 
by way of criticism is that Miss Plummer's Eng- 
lish is not quite as good in this as in her other 
writing. For instance, to say " these cards come 
at $2.60," instead of " cost $2.60," is an un- 
necessary bit of shop-keeper's jargon, and a few 
words are occasionally wasted in such phrases 
as " I query if it is of much use, "and " it may be 
suggested." There is also a little confusion as 
to whether the writer is " I " or " we," or an al- 
together impersonal being, and the reader like- 
wise will find himself uncertain whether he is 
directly exhorted or indirectly addressed. 

Miss Plummer is so modest in her method as 
in several cases to prefer giving other people's 
good advice instead of attempting her own 
which is a rare virtue of self-restraint. For in- 
stance, her chapter on " Rooms and fixtures " is 
chiefly made up of Mr. Soule's admirable sum- 
mary of the proper points of library architecture, 
prefaced by a pleasant bit of humor which we 
cannot refrain from quoting : 

" It is not often that the librarian has a chance 
to say how he would like his library planned and 
fitted up, though it is oftener the case now than 
formerly. Library boards would think it a very 
eccentric proceeding to order a suit of clothes 
or a hat for the librarian without consulting 
him; and if it were done and the sleeves came 
only to his elbows, or the coat-tails dragged, or 
the hat-brim rested on his shoulders, they would 
at once see what foolishness they had been 
guilty of and, say to one another, ' Why on earth 
didn't we consult him and take his measure? 
He can't see anything with that hat on, and 
he'll be forever stepping on that coat. He was 
the one to wear it; he knows what he needs, and 
we ought to have asked him.' But they seem 
not to see the similarity of such a course to that 
of building the librarian a workshop without 
asking his opinion about it. They give him 
little high windows that don't let in any light, 
and they build him shelves that he has to climb 
up to on a ladder, and they arrange the spaces 
of the library symmetrically, but where they 
can be of no value in the case of growth and 
crowding. Then they go outside and look at it 
and say, ' Isn't it picturesque ? Looks like the 
Middle Ages, doesn't it?' And in their secret 
hearts some of them would like a drawbridge 
and a moat. And inside, the poor librarian is 
carrying a lantern about to see the top and bot- 
tom shelves and wondering where he is going 
to put the next new book, and risking his neck 



10 or 12 feet from the ground to get a ' Com* 
mentary on Job ' that some one without any 
sense of the ridiculous happens to want, and 
trying to hide his unsightly pastepots and muci- 
lage bottles behind a screen for want of a work- 

The book is tastefully issued at the modest 
price of 25 cents, net, and has clever and ap- 
propriate head and tail pieces, which come from 
the Art Department of the Pratt Institute. We 
must protest, however, in the interests of library 
neatness, against the young woman at the end 
of the preface, who has been shelving her books 
on the floor a very bad example either to li- 
brarians or readers. 

(Kconomg anir ^i 


Bangor(Me.) P. L. (nth rpt.) Added 2070; 
total 35.557; issued, home use 43,492 (fict. and 
juv. 73 %); lib. use 22,739 (fict. and juv. 60 #). 
945 cards were issued during the year. Receipts 
$17,149.70; expenses! 16,823.50. Of the 22,739 
books used in the reading-room, 5265 were at 
the tables reserved for girls. 

" Owing to the necessity of closing the library 
after the fire on March 2, our annual examina- 
tion of books was made earlier in the season 
than usual, with the satisfactory result that no 
book was missing, although many were rapidly 
moved beyond the reach of the water which de- 
luged both book-rooms. Still, thousands of 
books were wet, and only the extreme heat, kept 
for days, prevented their total destruction. 
Books in leather binding suffered severely, the 
strength of the leather being destroyed by the 
heat necessary in drying. Books, not thus 
quickly dried, were covered with mould, and a 
few were destroyed. It is impossible, even 
now, to tell the full extent of the damage, as it 
is frequently necessary to remove books which 
would have lasted months, and perhaps years, 
were it not for the water and steam to which 
they were exposed last spring." 

Brockton (Mass.") P. L. (Rpt.) Added 1596; 
total 19,741; issued, home use 78,785 (fict. 53 %\ 
juv. 24 %); lib. use 4577. Visitors to reading- 
room 8668; visitors to ref.-room 8763. There 
are 86 periodicals on file in the reading-room. 

The trustees have adopted the " Newark sys- 
tem " of book charging and delivery, which will 
take effect on the removal of the library to its 
new quarters. An alphabetic list of books added 
during 1893 is appended; it covers 13 pages. 

Brookline (Mass.) P. L. (37th rpt.) Added 
1469; total 40,332. Issued, home use 66,395 
(fict. 33,260); lib. use 4087; use in children's 
reading-room 13,703; no. cardholders registered 
5764. Receipts $12, 329. 79; expenses $11,008.65. 

The librarian says: " The fact that the plan of 
delivering books to the schools is no longer 
novel has tended to lessen the ratio of increase 
this year. The growth of the reading and ref- 
erence room libraries also tends to check the in- 
crease in circulation. Lists of books and articles 
en leading events of the day are posted from 

time to time on the bulletin-board near the de- 
livery-desk. The subjects already treated are : 
' Brazil and recent revolutions there (Mello's 
revolt, 1893-94 ; revolt against the Marshal da 
Fonseca, 1891 ; the constitution, 1890, text and 
criticism; fall of the monarchy, 1889; travel and 
geography, with notes); ' ' the Hawaiian islands;' 
' Metabele; ' ' Sicily;' ' Education and teaching.' 

" Suggestions placed in a box at the right of 
the delivery-desk come before the library com- 
mittee every week. A record of each suggestion 
will be kept in the future, and a statistical report 
made at the end of the year. From the imper- 
fect record kept last year, it has been found that 
about 160 suggestions came before the commit- 
tee; of these 106 received favorable action." 

Finding-lists of special subjects will be printed 
as soon as the rearrangement and reclassification 
of the books, now under way, will permit. The 
children's reading-room is open from two to six 

The trustees pay an earnest tribute to the 
faithfulness and efficiency of Miss Bean, who died 
September 4, 1893, after a service as librarian 
for 22 years. At a trustees' meeting, held Sep- 
tember 19, 189