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Full text of "Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chamber's encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors"

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LIBKAEY 



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UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE. 



A REPRINT 

OF THE LAST (1880) EDINBUKGH AND LONDON EDITION 
OF CHAMBEKS'S ENCYCLOPEDIA, 



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FIFTEEN VOLUMES, 

VOLUME VIII, 



New Yoke: 
AMERICAN BOOK EXCHANGE, 

Tribune Building, 
1880. 




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Copyright. 1880. 

^JttERICAN BOOK EXCHANGE, 

New York. 



ELECTROTirPED FROM THK 
COMPOSING ROOMS OF 

S. W. GREENS SON, 
New York. 



J. Campbell, 

PRINTER. 

15 Vande water St., N. Y, 



AMERICAN PUBLISHEE'S NOTICE. 



This work, although based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia, whose distinguished 
merit is widely known, differs from it in important respects. It could scarcely be 
expected tliat an Encyclopaedia, edited and published for a foreign market, would give 
as much prominence to American topics as American readers might desire. To supply 
these and other deficiencies the American Editors have inserted about 15,000 titles, 
arranging the whole, including Chambers's Supplement, in a single alphabet. The 
total number of titles is now about 40,000. The additions give gTeater fullness in the 
departments of biography, geography, history, natural history, and general and applied 
science. Scrupulous care has been taken not to mutilate or modify the original text of 
the edition of 1880; no changes have been made except such verbal alterations as are 
required by the omission of the wood-cuts. The titles of articles from Chambers's 
Encj^clopaedia, either from the main work or from the Supplement, are printed in bold- 
faced type — AMERICA. The titles of the American additions, whether of new topics or 
of enlargements of the old, are printed in plain capitals — AMERICA. Should it appear 
that an article from the English work and its American continuation disagree in any 
points, the reader will readily refer the conflicting statements to their proper sources. 

The labor of consultation will be much reduced by the catch-words in bold-faced- 
type at the top of the page, being the first and last titles of the pages which face each 
other; and by the full title-words oa the back of the volume, being the first and last 
titles contained therein. 



The word ante refers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, as represented in this issue. 
"Whenever the word {ante) follows a title in the American additions, it indicates that 
the article is an enlargement of one under the same title in Chambers's Encyclopaedia— 
usually to be found immediately preceding. 



i 



r 



LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE. 



INFANT, in English law, means every male and female under the age of 21. As a 
general rule, an infant cannot enter into contracts; at all events, they are not binding 
except at his or her option. But a contract for necessaries is always binding, and an 
infant may be imprisoned for non-payment of these, like other persons. The father, or, 
after his death, the mother, of an infant can in general only be bound for an infant's 
debts vYhere some express or implied contract to pay for these can be made out; and 
the mere fact of the infant living in the same house is not always sufficient to imply 
liability, though it is generally an element for the jury. If an infant enter into trade, 
he is nevertheless only bound by his contracts at his option. But in all cases, if the 
infant, on coming of age, ratify the contract, then it is binding on him. 

An infant in England generally requires the consent of his parent or guardian to 
marr}^ though it is more correct to say that if he misrepresent in the preliminary for- 
malities that he is of age. he may be indicted for perjury, but nevertheless the marriage 
will be good, and cannot be annulled. An infant cannot make a will either of his real 
or personal estate. He can only sue in a court of law by a near friend ov prochein ami, 
wh'o is his father if alive, or any other friend. 

In Scotland the law differs in many respects from the law of England on this sub- 
ject. The term infant is not used at all in a technical sense. All persons, if male, are 
in legal strictness called pupils till 14, and if female, till 12; and from 14 or 12 to 21, 
tliey are technically called minors. In general, the contracts of a pupil are absolutely void, 
and he is under the care of tutors, who are either his parents, or others appointed by the 
court. A minor, on the other hand, may enter into contracts, but if they are to his 
lesion or prejudice, he can reduce or set them aside any time within four years after 
majority. Moreover, if a minor go into trade his contracts bind him, as the}^ do other 
persons. Further, a minor can make a will or testament, operating on his movable 
estate, though he cannot alienate his heritable estate in like manner. The four years 
which are allowed to him after majority to consider whether he will set aside contracts 
are called quadriennium utile; and if he can prove lesion, he is in that period entitled to 
restitution. In Scotland, also, a minor may marry as freely as if he were a major, and, 
indeed, he is in general his own master, or sui juris, at the age of 14 (as a female is at 
the age of 12); whereas in England he would be liable to have a guardian appointed to 
control his person till he attained 21. 

INFANT {ante), in law, is a person held to be too young to assume the full respon- 
sibilities of a man or a woman. By some systems of law the age of maturity is fixed at 
2") years, but by the English common law the limit is 21 years for both sexes. The 
marriage of a l)oy of 14 years to a girl of 12 is held to be legal, and wills of personal 
property may be made at the same age. A promise to marry is not binding upon the 
promiser unless he or she is of full age. It has long been a rule of law that a minor 
becomes of age on the day next preceding the 2lst anniversary of his birth. In some 
American states women reach the period of legal maturity at 18 years of age. An infant's 
contract will not be enforced by law; he may fulfill ii or not as he p'leases; but if it 
is renewed after maturity it is binding. The renewal may even be inferred from his 
acts, where no specific promise is shown. At his majority he may repudiate it at will; 
but if he be in possession of the property of the other contractor, he will be compelled 
to give it up. He will not be allowed to plead 'infancy" as an excuse for retaining 
property not his own. There is, however, one exception to the voidable nature of an 
mfant's contracts; he may bind himself for "necessaries," such as food, clothinsr, shel- 
ter, medical attendance, and the means of education. The limit of his obligation in 
this respect will be a question for a court and jury to decide in view of his wealth, 
social position, or other circumstances. If he voluntarily do anything which the law 
could compel him to do, the act will be valid and sufficient. In some states of the union 
ho can become an executor at 17 years of age, in others not until 21. He is responsible 
for wrongs of an actionable nature done to others; but the practical application of this 
pri?iciple involves some very nice discriminations for the court. It has been held, for 
example, in some cases, that an infant who fraudulently represents himself to be of full 



Infante. Q 

lufautry. 

age, and thereby obtains property, is estopped from pleading infancy as a bar to an 
action for its recovery; but tlie soundness of this position has been questioned. An 
infant, if sufficiently intelligent, is held responsible for any crime that lie may commit. 
It is a rule of tlie criminal law that this responsibility can never arise before he is 7 
years of age; after that period, until he is 14, the law presumes nothing for or agrdnst 
him; his capacity to understand the nature and consequences of his act is a matter for 
investigation. After he is 14 he is presumed to be capable, and tlie burden of proving 
Ins incapacity rests upon himself. Courts generally incline to sentence juvenile crim- 
inals to reformatory institutions, with a view to the correction or mitigation of their 
evil propensities. Courts of equity guard the rights of infants with a jealous care, 
sometimes, for adequate reasons, taking a child from the custody of the parent and 
placing it in the care of one better qualified to train and educate it. An infant who is 
a property-holder is amenable to the law of taxation, and his land is liable to be taken 
from him under the law of eminent domain as if lie were of age. 

INFANTE (from the Latin infans, an infant), the title given in Spain and Portugal 
to the princes of the royal family, the corresponding title of Infanta being given to 
the princesses. Since the 14th c, however, the heir-apparent to the throne in Spain 
has been styled the prince of Asturias, and the heir-apparent in Portugal, until the sepa- 
ration of Brazil from the mother-country, bore the title of prince of Brazil. The 
personal domain of an infante or infanta is called the infantado, and this has come to 
be the name of a district which was made a dukedom in 1475. 

INFANTE, Jose Miguel, 1778-1844; b. in Santiago de Chili; a leader of the revolu- 
tion of 1810, resulting in the independence of Spanish America; was also a member of 
the "congress of plenipotentiaries " in 1831, and chief-justice in 1843. He took an 
active part in the establishment of the comm-^n-school system. 

INFANTICIDE, the act or practice of murdering infants, which is abhorrent to 
modern civilization, was common in ancient times, and now prevails among many 
barbarous nations. It prevailed in Greece and Rome, and (such is the force of custom) 
found defenders in Plato and Aristotle! The latter, in his Politics, says the law should 
forbid the nurturing of the maimed, and where a check to population is required, 
abortion should be produced before the quickening of the infant. In Sparta, we are 
informed that the law directed, when a child was born, the father was to carry it to an 
appointed place, to be inspected by the elders of the community. If they perceived 
that its limbs were straight, and its look was wholesome, they returned it to its 
parents to be educated; otherwise, it was thrown into a deep cavern, at the foot of the 
mountain Taygetus; and it was said this law^ had a wholesome effect, for it made women 
with child very careful as to their eating, drinking, and exercise, and hence they proved 
excellent nurses. In the other Grecian republics, a similar disregard of the life of 
sickly infants was shown. With regard to the practice among the Romans, little detinite 
information exists, though learned authors discuss it at great length. It seems certain 
that it lay with the Roman father to say whether his child should be permitted to live 
or not. The exposition of infants, indeed, was the rule, rather than the exception, in 
most countries in old times. Among the Norse, the child's life always hung in the 
balance till the father handed it to the nurse to be reared; if, on account of its being 
weak, or a daughter, he disapproved of its living, it was exposed to die by wild beasts 
or the weather. In modern times, the practice is cruelly common among certain peoples. 
Child-murder prevails to a great extent throughout the whole of the South Sea islands. 
Among the Fijians, it is or was a system, A recent authority says that in Vanua Levu, 
in some parts, " the extent of infivnticide reaches nearer two-thirds than a half." Among 
the Hindus, the practice of destroying children, especially females, prevailed frightfully 
till it was checked in the time of the marquis of Welleslej's rule. The Rajputs, it is 
said, destroy all female children but the first-born — a peculiar custom, due to its being a 
point of honor with a Rajput to nearly ruin himself in the marriage feast and portion 
of his daughter, so that he could not afford to have more than one. The Mohammedans 
were inclined to the same practice, but effected their object chiefly by means of abor- 
tion. In New Holland, the native women think nothing of destroying, by compression, 
the infant in the womb, to avoid the trouble of rearing rt alive. In Chfna, infanticide 
is supposed to be common, the chief cause being said to be the right of periodically 
repudiating their wives, which is possessed by Cliinamen. Some statistics, published 
some time ago in a well-known French paper, indicate the fearful extent to which life 
is lost through this practice prevailing in so vast a population as that of China. In all 
the cases above cited, it may be assumed there was no feeling of infanticide being wrong 
or criminal. In some, it was owing to religious feeling of a perverted kind; in some, 
to the diflQculty of living; but in many, as among the Fijians, it would appear that the 
mother killed her child often from whim, anger, or indolence. 

Modern civilization deals very differently^with the subject of infanticide, for one of 
its maxims is that human life, from its first to its last hour, is sacred, and wlioever 
willfully puts an end to it is a murderer, or a criminal of the same category. Instead 
of encouraging the destruction of life, modern civilization abounds in every kind of 
inachiaGry for preserving it, however unsuccessful the attempt. The chief cause which 
now leads to infanticide is that of shame, which, however, operates only in the case 



H Infante. 

* Iiilantry. 

of the chilli being illegitimate. The parents often incur the risk of commilting the 
crime of murder, to avoid social disgrace. In order, therefore, to appreciate the 
force of the cliecks put by tiie law on tlie tendency to infanticide, the law of bastardy 
(q.v.), the practice of instituting foundling hospitals (q.v.), and tlie kind and degree of 
punishments attending any attempt, more or less direct, to destroy the child either before 
or after birtii, require to be taken into account. 

The criminal law deals with the cognate offenses which make up infanticide in the 
following manner, whether the child is legitimate or illegitimate: As regards the pro- 
curing of abortion, every woman wiio takes poison or other noxious thing or uses instru- 
ments or other means to procure her miscarriage, is guilt}'^ of felony, and liable to penal 
servitude for life, or not less than three years; and so is any person wdio administers 
poison or uses instruments upon the woman with such intent. Whoever supplies drugs, 
poison, or instruments for the same purpose is guilty of a misdemeanor, and liable to 
penal servitude for three years. The concealment of birth is also made a criminal 
offense. Whoever, after a child is born, by any secret disposition of the body, endeavors 
to conceal its birth, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and liable to imprisonment for two years. 
This is the offense which, perhaps, is most frequently committed, or at least made the 
subject of prosecution in such cavses, as the attempt to establish the larger crime of murder 
to the satisfaction of a jury, is frequently foiled by the secret sympathy shown towards 
the mother, who is presumed to have been the victim of seduction, or otherwise wronged. 
The existence of this offense shows the necessity which every woman likely to become a 
mother labors under of making public her situation to some extent. As the destruction 
of children may be effected by the negative fact of not supplying food and clothing, as 
Avell as by the positive act of wounding or ill-treating, the refusal or neglect of a parent 
or other person who is bound by law to supply food and clothing to the child, and neg- 
lects to do so, thereby causing its death, amounts either to murder or manslaughter, 
according to the circumstances. Moreover, the unlaw^ful abandoning or exposure of any 
child under the age of two years, whereby the life and health of the child are endangered, 
is a misdemeanor punishable with three j^ears' penal servitude. AYliere a person is 
charged with the murder of a very young child, it is essential to prove that the child was 
in life. The test of this is not that it breathed, or had an independent circulation after it 
w^as separated from the mother, but it is enough that the child was fully born ; hence, if 
a man strike a woman with child, so as to cause the death of the child, he is neither 
guilty of murder nor of manslaughter of the child. The judges of England, in 1848, had 
to deliberately consider whether though a child was still attached to the navel-string, the 
killing of it was murder, and they held that it was. In all cases of the murder of infants, 
the question whether the child was fully born, and so the subject of murder, is generally 
one of medical jurisprudence, upon M^hich medical skill is needed to throw light, and 
medical men have certain well-known tests for ascertaining this important fact. The 
above offenses in reference to infanticide are punished in a similar manner in Scotland. 

It has been stated that an inquest is held daily upon the bodies of children destroyed 
through the design, the neglect, the ignorance, or the mental infirmitj^ of the mothers. 
Even when the act may fairly be regarded as a crime, its enormity is generally greatly 
lessened in the eye of the law by the consideration of the physical condition and moral 
disturbance of the parent. 

A further protection was given to infant life by an act of 1872, which obliges those 
wiio undertake for hire to nurse infants under the age of one year, to have their house 
registered, and to keep records of the children they take charge of. They must also 
give notice to the coroner or procurator-fiscal of such infants' deaths. 

INFANTRY, the foot-soldiers of an army. Among semibni-bnrous nations, fighting 
on foot has always been considered less advantageous than fighting on horseback or in 
chariots; but as w^ar has become a science, the principal strength of armies is found to 
lie in their infantry. See Armies, Tactics, War, etc. 

INFANTRY (ante). The term infantry was originally applied to a body of men 
collected by the infante of Spain, for the purpose of rescuing his father from the Moors. 
The attempt being successful, the term was afterwards applied to foot-soldiers in gen- 
eral, as opposed to cavalry. Among the ancient nations of Europe the foot-soldiers 
constituted the chief strength of the armies. In the best days of the Grecian and Roman 
states, battles w'ere won mainly by the force and discipline of the phalanges and legions, 
and the number of the infantry in the field far exceeded that of the cavalry. The cav- 
alry were then, as at present, employed chiefly in protecting the wings of the army and 
in completing a victory gained by the infantry. The ancient Franks, when they left 
the forests of Germany, were accustomed to march and fight on foot; and they per- 
severed in this practice even after they had obtained possession of the countr}^ of the 
Gauls, which al3ounded with horses. But soon after the time of Charlemagne the insti- 
tutions of chivalry began to be generally adopted in the kingdoms of Europe. These 
led to frequent exhibitions of martial exercises or horseback in presence of the sov- 
ereigns and assembled nobles; and the interest inspired by the achievements of the 
knights on those occasions was naturally followed by a high regard for that order of 
men. By degrees the cavalry, which was composed of persons possessing rank and 
property, and completely armed, acquircl the reputation of being the principal arm in 



Infant. g 

Infeftment. 

war; and the foot-soldiers, badly armed and disciplined, were held in comparatively 
small estimation. This continued 400 years, and although war was tlie principal occu- 
pation of mankind, military science fell inlo neglect. But rulers were forced by the 
power of feudalism to make an alliance with the despised class of foot-soldiers, and in 
1214 we find that some of the German infantry was recognized to be "very good, and 
trained to tight on the level even against cavalry." The chivalry of France was routed 
at Courtrai by the infantry during the next century, and the Austrians suffered defeat 
by the effl(;ient work of the Swiss pike at Morgarten (1315), Sempach (1386), and Nafels 
(1388). At Cressy and Poictiers (1346-56) the knights of England dismounted to fight 
beside the successful infantry. The principal weapons of the infantry before the inven- 
tion of gunpowder were long-bows, halberds, cross-bows, spiked clubs, axes, pikes, 
straight swords, shields, corselets, mail- jackets, helmets, and partisans. In the 16th 
c. however, these weapons were replaced by fire-arms, and in the 18th c. the musket 
w^as in general use. It became customary durii^g the thirty years' war to form battalions 
of infantry composed of 500 men, which were massed into dense columns during battle, 
in spite of the deadly effect of the enemy's artillery and lire-arms. The absurdity of 
this formation was first exposed by Gustav Adolpli, who, recognizing the destructiveness 
of tire-arms, arranged his battalions with a view to increasing the effectiveness of the fire 
of his own troops, wiiile avoiding exposure to that from the enemy. His tactics were so 
successful at Breitenfeld and Lutzen (1631-32) that they w^ere soon afterwards universally 
adopted. The bayonet came into use in 1670, and the socket-bayonet about 1699. Fred- 
erick the great made many improvements till then comparatively unknown. The 
rapiiiity with which his infantry troops performed their evolutions durmg battle con- 
tributed largely toward his famous victories in the seven years' war. In fact the Prussian 
infantry have ever since his time served as models for other European countries. The 
superiority of this arm consists in the troops bemg able to act on ground where cavalry 
cannot, and it is obvious that the latter must be nearly useless in the attack of fortified 
towns. During the war of the rebellion in this country skirmishing was in vogue in the 
northern and southern armies. It had been in use during the revolutionary war, and was 
well suited to the American character. Skirmishing has since been adopted in Prussia, 
and the skirmish line is recognized as the proper formation in battle to avoid the destruc- 
tive effect of breech-loaders. The co-operation, however, of cavalry and infantry troops 
was neglected by American generals. Artillery fire usually opened the battle, and was 
followecl by the advance of the whole line on the run in a final charge. The infantry 
tactics in general use were those of Casey, founded on those of Scott. Casey's tactics, 
however, were abandoned for those of Hardee, and in 1867 those of Upton were finally 
adopted. 

Pursuant to the act of congress of Aug. 15, 1876, the army of the United States 
was reduced to a maximum of 25,000 men, and by general orders issued May 19, 1877, 
the maximum strength of the infantry was fixed at 9,375. This included 37 enlisted 
men per company for 250 companies of infantry, and 5 for nou-commissioued staff at 
each of 25 regimental head-quarters of infantry. 

The arm that has been adopted for the infantry is the Springfield breech-loading 
rifle, and the uniform for privates is a single-breasted dark blue basque coat, sky-blue 
trousers, blue clotii cap with a white pompon; for officers, a double-breasted frock-coat 
of dark blue cloth, and light blue trousers with black stripes. The overcoat is a dark 
blue double-breasted surtout. The equipments are a knapsack with great-coat straps, a 
haversack, a canteen, a cartridge box, and a bayonet scabbard. The pay of the United 
States infantry is as fbllows: Col, $3,500 per annum; lieut.col., $3,000; maj., $2,500; 
capt., $1,800; adj., $1,800; regimental quartermaster, $1,800; first lieut., $1,500; 
second lieut., $1,400; chaplain, $1,500; first serg., $22 per month; serg., $17; Corp., 
$15; private, $13. An increase of 10 per cent is allowed for every five years' service, 
provided the total amount of increase does not exceed 40 per cent of the whole pay. 

INFANT SCHOOLS. Oberlin (q.v.), the pastor of Waldbach, in France, may be 
regarded as the founder of infant schools. Pie appointed females in his own parish to 
assemble the little children between the ages of two and six, his object being to interest 
them by conversation, pictures, and maps, and to teach them to read and to sew. The 
first infant school attempted in this country was in connection with Robert Owen's 
socialistic establishment in Scotland; it was taught by James Buchanan. In 1819, 
through the efforts of lord Brougham and lord Lansdowne, an infant school was set on 
foot in London. One of the first teachers was Wilderspin, who.se labors in connection 
with the extension of infant schools are well known. His methods, based on the Pesta- 
lozzian system, were further matured by the home and colonial infant school society, 
founded in 1836. This society, by training teachers and instituting model infant and 
juvenile schools, has done more than any other to propagate the infant-school system. 

Infant schools are not yet very numerous either n. or s. of the Tweed; but they have 
certainly been more extensively encouraged in the southern than in the northern half of 
the kingdom. Two causes have operated to prevent their more rapid increase — the want 
of means, it being necessary to devote to juvenile .schools the money which can be col- 
lected for educational objects; and the defect.^, which have hung about the system, and 
brought it into disrepute. Too nmch has frecpicntljboen attempted in the way of direct 



Q Infant. 

V lufeftinent. 

instruction. In Germany, under the name of Kleiiikinderschuleii and Kindergarten, 
infant schools are numerous. In France, under the name of " Asylums," they are very 
widespread. See Kikdekgarten. 

Infant schools, like oilier seminaries which are not purely professional in their aims, 
ought to keep in view the threefold nature of the child's mind, and appeal to its different 
faculties in turn. But while the intellect, the moral nature, and the imagination ought 
to receive their proper food, it has to be borne in mind that we contradict the laws of 
nature when we omit an element more powerful and exacting than any of these; we 
mean the physical, and that love of play, fun, and nonsense which is connected with it, 
and which is peculiar to infancy, and not unbecomitig even the gravity of manhood. 
By marching, exercises, 1038, and, above all, by the judicious use of a large open play- 
ground, full provision should be made for the muscular restlessness of children, and 
for their love of play. The room in which they are collected should be little more than 
a well-ordered, covered playground. In the playground, whether open or covered, order, 
obedience, kindness, consideration, civility, cleanliness, good-temper, are to be taught, 
and tlKJ moral objects of the infant school attained. Play, and the moral training which 
may be connected with it, should be the leading ideas of the 'place, and to these every- 
thing else should be subordinated. Next to this, the intellectual nature of the infant has 
to be considered, its future anticipated, and the elements of reading taught, but with the 
help of such methods and books as call for the minimum of mental exertion. An infant 
school which has cultivated the moral nature of its children through games and exer- 
cises, and has taught them to read easy monosyllabic sentences by the time they reach 
the age of six, has accomplished its work well. At the same time, other means of 
awakening interest and intelligence may be resorted to with advantage, but under this 
restriction, that if they fail to call forth spontaneous and unconscious attention, either 
through the want of skill on the part of the mistress to present them in an attractive 
form, or through some defect in the p.pparatus at the command of the mistress, they 
should at once be given up. We refer to songs of a moral or narrative kind — rhymes 
and nursery jingles — descriptions of objects and pictures b}' the children under the 
teacher's guidance (object-lessons) — the concealed purpose being to cultivate the percep- 
tive faculties of form, color, number, size, etc. — and lessons in arithmetic on a ball- 
frame. Then, again, the teacher may collect the children around her and read to them 
fairy tales and simple stories of incident and the affections. All this may be and actually 
is attained: but the qualifications in the teacher for the attainment of them are rarely to 
be met with. So far as these qualifications are of a moral or imaginative kind, they are 
natural endowments; but they may receive enlightenment and direction by a judicious 
system of training. In the first report of the home and colonial school society, it is truly 
said, "that few situations in life require so much discretion, so much energy, so much 
tenderness, so much self-control and love, as that of a teacher of babes." Without a 
consciousness that she possesses these qualifications, especially the last-named, no woman 
should for a mom.ent contemplate the career of an infant-school mistress. 

The question still remains to be considered — whether infant schools are desirable at. 
all, and whether the family hearth, and the fields, or the streets, do not constitute the- 
best, because nature's infant school. The answer given by many would be that, were- 
society in a healthy and normal condition, infant schools are hurtful even at the best, audi 
that, when we bear in mind the chances of their being badly conducted, they may be 
generally denounced as a public nuisance. But we are not in a normal state; and while- 
infant schools proper are, perhaps, superfluous in rural parishes, they are in populous 
places a boon and a blessing, if not a necessity. 

INFANZONA'DO, the name of a district in the Spanish province of Biscay, con- 
taining 72 villages. It is divided into the five merindades of Arralia, Bedia, Busturia^ 
Marquina, and Uribe. 

INFECTION is distinguished from contagion (q.v.) by some medical writers, who 
would restrict the latter word to the cases in which there must be contact of the healthy 
person with a patient, while they apply the term infectious to diseases which can be can^ 
veyed by the atmosphere. 

INFECTIOUS DISORDERS in cattle have been made the subject of special enactment, 
in order to protect the public from the calamities arising from the spread of disease iri 
so important an article of food. The contagious diseases (animals) act 32 and 33 Vict. 
c. 70, authorizes inspectors to be appointed, who have power to enter cow-sheds and 
stables, and report if disease exists. Sometimes sound cattle require to be slaughtered, 
in which case half or three-fourths of the value are allowed by the county or borough 
rate to the owner. Penalties are imposed for turning out diseased cattle on uninclosed 
lands or in markets, for not purifying sheds, for not disinfecting railway cattle-trucks, 
and steamboats. The owner is bound to give notice to the inspector of any symptoms 
of disease appearing; and the hay, straw, litter, or dung of infected animals cannot be 
lawfully removed except for the purpose of being destroyed, and with an inspector's- 
license. The inspectors are appointed by the local authorities, and are removable bythC' 
privy council. 

INFEFTMENT, or Sasine, a Scotch law-term, used to denote the symbolical giving- 
possession of land, which was the completion of the title, the mere conveyaace not 



Infi<l«»l. IQ 

Inflaumiation. 

beins: enough. The instrument of sasine was the notarial instrument embodying the 
fact of infeftment. But now the necessity of .a separate formality is unnecessary, it 
being sufficient to register a conveyance in the register of sasines in Scothmd. In 
Enghmd tliere is no similar register for deeds, and the title is complete when the con- 
veyance is executed and delivered to tlie purchaser. In Scotland an infeftment in 
secarity is a temporary iufeflment to secure payment of some debt; and an iifefiment of 
relief is a similar security to relieve a cautioner. 

INFIDEL, a name generally applied to one w no disbelieves the Bible as a divine 
revelation, but sometimes used also for a skeptic or doubter, and for kim who calls him- 
self a freethinker. 

INFINITE. This word is the source of much controversy and difference of opinion. 
Some hold that there corresponds to intinity a distinct notion, which we are entitled to 
entertain and reason about, with the same confidence that we discuss measured inter- 
vals, as a yard or mile; while others maintain that the word is a name for a mere 
negativ^e. Sir W. Hamilton goes so far as to say that " the infinite and the absolute are 
only the names for two counter-imbecilities of the human mind, transmitted into prop- 
erties of the nature of things — of two subjective negatives converted into objective 
affirmatives" {Discussions, p.' 21). And Mr J. S. Mill holds a similar view. It had 
also been maintained by Locke that we have no positive idea of the infinite, that it 
was only the negative of an end or termination {Essay on the Understanding, book ii. 
chap. 11). 

The notion of the infinite has, indeed, been admitted into mathematical reasoning, 
a circumstance that would seem to imply that we could use it with exactness, and, 
consequently, it could not be altogether an incompetence or imbecility of the under- 
standing. It appears, however, that mathematicians use the Mord under peculiar 
restrictions. They employ it in the two extremes of the infinitely great and the infi- 
nitely little. " If we see a conclusion, which we can nearly attain by the use of a large 
magnitude, more nearly by the use of a larger, and so on without limit, that is to say, 
as nearly as we please, if we may use a magnitude as large as we please, but which is 
never absolutely attained by any magnitude however great, then such conclusion may 
be said, for abbreviation, to be absolutely true when the magnitude is infinite " {Penny 
Cyc, SiYt. "Infinite"). The very same statement might be made regarding the infi- 
nitely small, which is represented in mathematics by the symbol for nothing, although it 
is not the same as nothing in the strictest sense, namely, the nothing caused by sub- 
tracting a quant:ty from itself, as two from two. It is nothing in this sense, that if 
added to a finite quantity, as 10, it produces no augmentation that can be made use_ of; 
the quantity for all purposes remains the same. The machinery of infinite quantities 
plays a large part in the operations of the higher mathematics, and is introduced in 
order to compare two things naturally incommensurate. Thus, in estimating the area 
of a curved surface, such as a circle, 'in straight-lined spaces, such as square inches, the 
difficulty was got over by a sort of fiction, namely, by supposing the circle to be 
inscribed by a right-lined figure or polygon, of such a very great number of sides that 
they coincide to all intents and pui-poses with the curved circumference. The coin- 
cidence can never be perfect; but by imagining the sides to be smaller and smaller, 
and, consequently, more and more numerous, the difference between the polygon and 
the circle may become less than any assignable quantity, or, as it may be said, infinitely 
little, in fact, as good as nothing, so that the estimate of the area of the one Mill stand 
for the estimate of the area of the other. This device for overcoming the natural 
incommensurability of straight and curved, and of number and motion, is the real occa- 
sion of the mathematical use of the term in question. Nor does it give any foundation 
for the view that would regard the infinite as a positive conception of the mind 
which we may ai>ply to objects with a conscious meaning. 

This will be more apparent when we attend to the difference bctw^een two classes of 
negative notions. The first class includes those whose negative brings something 
positive; thus, not hot, brings before us a positive experience, namely, cold; not white, 
according to what is intended, turns up either black or all other colors, which are to us 
as much a positive, or real, conception as white. Unjust, or not just, is the name for a 
distinct class of really existing actions, in contrast to the class named just actions^ 
All notions, such as these, wliich have for opposites really existing things, are real 
and genuine notions of the mind; they are conceivable by us to the full extent that we 
are capable of conceiving anything whatsoever. In fact, the highest test of genuine- 
ness, reality, and conceivability, is the existence of a negative, which is also real and 
positive. Bod}' or matter is a real conception by being opposed to space; the one 
resists our movements, and the other permits them. Body and space together make 
the extended universe, the world of externality, or objective existence; which has a 
distinct meaning by contrast to the inextended mind, or the subject universe. But 
existence, as a whole, is not a real conception, because we have nothing to oppose it 
to; non-existence is not a real opposite, like space to body, or mind to extension; it 
is only a formal or verbal opposite, made up by using the word for negation to a 
case that does not admit of the operation. Non-existence is total annihilation, which. 
of course, we cannot conceive, as we do cold or black, in their o])posilion to hot and 



1 i Infidel. 

white. This being so, we have nothing to affirm respecting existence as expressing 
the absolute totality of things. See Extension. 

Now, to which class of notions does infinite belong? Is it a real opposite to the 
finite, like cold to heat, or a verbal and formal opposite, like non-existence? Finite 
menns what has a boundary or termination, and applies strictly to body, which is 
always conceived by us as bounded and terminating in space. The bounded is, in fact. 
body (or some analogy of body, as when we fancy an inclosure which we do not actually 
construct); the absence of bounds is free space, which is a real conception. It means 
scope for movement, freedom from obstruction, and its opposite is some inert matter. 
standing in our way, to prevent further movement. The unbounded is thus another 
name for space ; and when we arrive at a space with no further prospect of obstruclio:i, 
we may call that a boundless space, but the only meaning we have thereby is a space 
which no longer contains material obstruction. And we can conceive of no other end 
of space. Our whole experience furnishes no other contrast except these two, space 
and body, and where the one ends, the mind must conceive the other. We may con- 
ceive the not-extended, it is true, by passing to the subject mind, with its feelings and 
volitions; but within the sphere of the extended we have no choice but between 
space and body. We cannot conceive the end of space otherwise than by the beginning 
of resistance; anything else (not being the subject mind) would be non-existence, or 
annihilation. 

The infinite may thus be the name for an abbreviation in mathematics, but as a real 
notion of the mind, it merely expresses our inability to pass beyond the region of our 
experience of matter and space. 

INFINITES IMAL CALCULUS. See Calculus. 
INFINITIVE. See Verb. 

INFLAMMATION is the most important of all the morbid processes that fall under 
the notice of the physician or surgeon. The most obvious symptoms or phenomena of 
inflammation, wdien it attacks an external or visible part, are pain, redness, heat, and 
swelling, or, in the words of Celsus, ''rubor et tumor cum calore et dolore.'' Tiie 
general characters of the process will be best understood by an assumed case. If a 
healthy man gets a splinter of wood or any other foreign body imbedded in any fiishy 
part, he begins to experience pain at the part, and this is soon succeeded by redness of 
the skin, a firm and extremely tender swelling at and around ths spot, and a sense of 
abnormal heat. These purely local symptoms are succeeded, if the inflammation reach 
a certain degree of intensity, by a general derangement of the vascular and nervous 
systems, to which various names, such as constitutional disturbance, symptomatic or 
inflammatory fever, pyrexia, etc., have been applied. If the foreign body is extracted, 
the probability is that all these symptoms will gradually abate until the part at leiigrii 
regains its natural appearance and sensations. In this case the inflammation is said to 
terminate by resolation, and this is the most favorable mode of termination. If, liow- 
ever, the cause of irritation" is not removed, or if the intensity of the morbid process 
exceed a certain point, the following phenomena occur: the swelling assumes a more 
projecting or pointed form, the part becomes softer, and the skin at its center, which is 
usually the most projecting part, becomes whiter. There is a sensation of throbbing 
pain, and if the skin be not divided by the knife, it finally breaks, and a yellow, cream- 
like fluid, known as pus (q.v.), escapes, after which the symptoms readily abate. This 
termination is known as suppuration. 

If the original injury was very severe, and the inflammation intense, there may be 
actual death of the part affected. In that case, the red color of the skin becomes 
purple or greenish black, the pain ceases, and the part becomes dead and putrid. This 
is mortification. Under favorable circumstances, this dead part, which is called a slough, 
spontaneously separates from the adjacent living parts by a vital process known' as 
ulceration (q.v.), and the cavity which is thus formed gradually fills up and heals. 

Tim pain may vary from mere discomfort to intense agony. There is usually most 
pain in those parts in which the tension produced by the swelling is the greatest, as in 
bone, serous and fibrous membranes; etc. The pain occurring in inflammation is always 
aggravated by pressure, and by this means the physician can often distinguish between 
inflammatory and non-inflammatory disorders. The heat is seldom so much increased 
as the sensations of the patient would lead him to believe; it does not rise, above the 
maximum heat of the blood in the interior of the body. This increase of heat depends 
upon the increased floAV of arterial (or highly oxidized) blood to the part. The redness 
depends upon there being more blood than usual in those vessels in the affected part 
which usually carry red blood; upon the blood containing an increased number of red 
corpuscles; and upon red blood entering into vessels which, in the normal state, convey, 
colorless fluids only, or which naturally admit so few red corpuscles that they cannot 
usually be observed. The swelling depends in part upon the distension of the blood- 
vessels, but mainly upon the effusion of various fluids, such as blood, serum, coagulable 
lymph (or fibrine), and pus into the tissue of the affected part. These fluids are termed 
the products of inflammation. This coagulable lymph frequently becomes organized, 
and many changes, some of a reparative nature (to which a reference will be presently 
made), and others of a morbid nature, depend upon its effusion. 



Inflammation. 1 f) 

Intlection. "^ 

Numerous observers liave nttempted to trace the exact phenomena of inflammation, 
by microscopic examination of the transparent parts of animals in whicli tlie process 
has been artificially excited. From observation made on the web of tlie frog's foot and 
other transparent parts of animals by Wharton Jones, Paget, and others, the following 
general conclusions may be drawn. 

1. The primary effect of a sliglit stimulus applied to tl)e blood-vessels is a slight 
and gradual contraction, with a retardation of the current through them. 

2. During this contraction, the blood is impeded, or altogether stops. But the 
vessels soon dilate to a size larger than they originally possessed, and the blood now 
moves through them more rapidly than in the normal state. The slight stimulus that 
previously caused the vessels to contract, has now, if re-applied, little or no effect; but 
on applying a more powerful irritant, such as a minute drop of tincture of capsicum, 
the phenomena of active congestion or determination of blood become almost instan- 
taneously developed. The vessels become lengthened, dilated, and tortuous, and are 
distended with blood which contains a great excess of red corpuscles, and is circulated 
with far more than the normal velocity. 

3. But if the injury be stili more severe — if, for example, a red-hot needle be inserted 
— then, in addition to the active congestion described in the preceding paragraph, there 
is a retardation, and finally a complete stagnation of the blood m the capillaries of the 
injured spot, while around it the blood moves rapidly through turgid but less full 
vessels. 

The blood obtained by bleeding a patient suffering from inflammation of any impor- 
tant organ, usually presents a peculiar appearance after coagulation. In healthy blood, 
the clot consists of a uniform admixture of blood corpuscles and coagulated fibrine, and 
is of a deep red color; but in inflammation, the upper part of the clot consists of a layer 
of a yellowish or whitish color, to which the term hvffy coat is applied. This buffy 
coat is often concave, or hollowed out into a cup-like form, in which case the blood is 
said to be both buffed and cupped. The cause of this buffy coat is still to some extent 
an open question; but the phenomenon is clearly due to a subsidence of the blood cor- 
puscles, b}^ which a layer of flbrine, forming the bufty coat, is left at the surface. 
Another and a more important change in the blood in inflammation is the augmentation 
of the fibrine, which often rises to two, three, or more times its normal quantity. 

Reference has already been made to coagulable lymph or fibrine as one of the prod- 
ucts of inflammation. This effusion of coagulable lymph is so important a process 
both for good and for evil, that a few lines must be devoted to its special consideration. 

When coagulable lymph is effused between membranes that are normally in contact 
(or nearly so) with one another, it often causes them to cohere. In this way we often 
have adhesions of the adjacent surfaces of serous membranes, such as the pleurae, the 
pericardium, and the peritoneum, which materially interfere with the natural free motion 
of the parts, and occasion various persistent morbid s3nnptoms. In inflammation of the 
iris, the pupil may be rendered irregular or immovable, or may even be closed up by 
the effusion of coagulable lymph. In endocarditis, or inflammation of the lining mem- 
brane of the heart, coagulable lymph may be deposited in w^art-like masses on the 
valves, and may thus occasion some of the worst forms of cardiac disease. On the other 
hand, in many cases, the effusion of coagulable lymph has a reparative and conservative 
influence. It is by the organization of this fluid that the lips of recent wounds are 
glued together, and that parts recently severed from the body may be sometimes 
replaced and still live. The success of the Talicotian operation, by which a new nose 
is engrafted in the position of that which had been lost — of the operation of injecting 
a stimulating fluid into cystic tumors, etc., with the view of setting up adhesive 
inflammation — and of various other surgical operations, essentially depends upon the 
property of organization possessed by this fluid. It is thus, too, that ulcers are grad- 
ually filled up till the breach of texture is repaired. 

The inflammatory diseases of the most important organs arc described under their 
specific names, and, as a general rule, the termination itis is employed to indicate an 
inflammation. Thus, pleuritis signifies inflammation of the pleura; peritonitis, inflam- 
mation of the peritoneum; iritis, inflammation of the iris; etc. Inflammation of the 
lungs, however, is usually known as pneumonia instead of pneumonitis. 

It is unnecessary to enter into the consideration of the treatment of inflammation 
further than to remark (1) that if possible we must remove its exciting cause, which can 
seldom be done except when the inflammation is external; and (2) that the patient should 
be placed on a strictly antiphlogistic regimen (which implies a total abstinence from 
solid animal food and stimulating drinks,"due attention to ventilation, temperature, etc.). 
Of the direct remedies, the most important (except in persons of weak or brpken-down 
constitutions) is blood-letting, although at present it is somewhat out of fasliion. The 
medicines chiefly employed are purgatives, preparations of mercury, tartar emetic, and 
opium; while, as external applications, hot fomentations (occasionally cold lotions), and 
counter- irritation by means of blisters, sinapisms, selons, etc., are often of service, 

INFLAMMATION {ante). It is held by some authorities that during the first stage, 
when tlie capillaries are contracted, the circulation is increased in rapiditv, and dimin- 
ished during dilatation; while others hold that it is slower in the first stage anil more 



1 Q Inflainnintion. 

^^ Intlectiuu. 

rapid in the second. This difference of opinion arises in consequence of making the 
obsevvations under different circumstances. If a capillary be enlarged Ihiougli iis 
whole lengtli the blood will pass through it, for a short time, more rapidly than is nat- 
ural, and when constricted it will be slower; but if contracted in some phices and dilated 
in others, the blood will necessarily move more slowly in the dilated places and more 
rapidly in the contracted places, according to physical laws. But after awhile an oscil- 
lation will take place, and at last there will be stagnation, and distension with colored 
corpuscles. Liquor saiiguiuis then exudes througli the walls of the vessels, which are 
sometimes ruptured, allowing the blood corpuscles to escape. The contraction of the 
capillaries in the first stage and their dilatation in the second is in consequence of the 
action of involuntary muscular fibers which are placed around the vessels in a transverse 
direction, hke the involuntary muscular fibers of the intestinal canal. This fact explains 
the power of the emotions over the capillary system in producing pallor and blushing. 
Sometimes all the symptoms cf inflammatiou are not present, and sometimes they may 
all be absent, as in the latent pneumonia of the aged. It is necessary, therefore, for the 
physician to be very guarded in his diagnosis, particularly if the patient be feeble or 
old. As to the result of an inflammation, it will depend upon whether the exudation 
live or die. If it live, it undergoes transformations which depend upon the condition 
of the sj^stem. If the system be healthy, the exudation, if it take place upon a serous 
membrane, will have a tendency to form fibrous tissue, but on mucous membranes or 
in areolar tissue the tendency is to the formation of pus corpuscles. When the exuda- 
tion accompanies inflammation produced by wounds the superficial portion is trans- 
formed into pus, while the deeper portion is converted into nucleated fibers, which even- 
tually form a cicatrix or scar. Severe inflammation, such as that which takes place 
after a compound fracture, is attended by several very decided symptoms, such as 
marked alternation of heat and chilliness; the pulse is very rapid, the skin and mouth 
are dry, the urine scanty and high-colored. There is great thirst, -and unless relief be 
procured delirium will soon supervene. Constipation is the rule, but, when the bowels 
are moved, the discharges are very offensive. 

According to the manner of its action inflammation is called healthy or unhealthy; 
and that which is called healthy is really a natural and not a morbid process, the only 
pathological product being pus, and that of a character called healthy. The color which 
inflammation produces in a part depends upon the kind of tissue invaded, and upon the 
intensity of the action. Ligaments and tendons rarely become red. Fibrous mem- 
branes, like the sclerotic coat of the eye, assume a lilac color; the mucous membranes at 
first become scarlet, then darker, and, if the tissue die, black. Inflammation of serous 
membranes passes from lilac to scarlet, to brown. The kidneys become violet. Inflam- 
mation arrests nutrition and consequently diminishes the amount of tissue in a part, 
which becomes manifest when the swelling subsides. 

The treatment of inflammation has been greatly simplified and improved by the dis- 
coveries of modern histology and therapeutics. It is local and general, the former con- 
sisting in various applications depending on circumstances. Sometimes warm fomen- 
tations are desirable, as affording relief to the nerves of the part, and promoting an 
interchange of material in the stagnated parts. Sometimes the continued application of 
cold is the best remedy to prevent destructive action. Inflammation is sometimes pre- 
vented by bandaging or by the application of adhesive straps, but such an operation 
requires great caution. The study of pathology and experience in practice has shown 
the impropriety of employing depleting measures in most of the inflammatory condi- 
tions, which usually require measures calculated to increase nutrition. Indeed, it is to 
be borne in mind constantly that recovery from inflammation consists mainly in regen- 
eration or reproduction of tissue. The old tissue must mainly pass away, and the newly 
formed can be healthy only when developed under the influence of healthy nervous 
action. Therefore recovery is gradual and requires the repeated renewal of considerable 
of the tissue of diseased parts. Tonics are often of more service than depletants, and 
anodynes are of frequent advantage in allaying irritation. Great attention must be paid 
to the condition of the Wood. This vital fluid is naturally alkaline, but often diminishes 
in this property during inflammation. The alkalinity should be increased by the admiti- 
istration of alkaline medicines, such as the bicarbonates of soda or potash, or both. 
Wine is often of advantage; also, a nutritious but bland diet. There are conditions of 
inflammation, however, when decided antiphlogistic measures are indicated, as in vio- 
lent attacks of pleurisy in robust persons. In such, sometimes the only means of sav 
ing the life of the patient is prompt bleeding, together with the administration of opiates, 
and sometimes mercurials, in no hesitating and doubting manner. Great attention 
should be paid to ventilation. The purer the air the more rapid will be the recovery. 
Frequent bathing, generally with tepid water, and all the well-established hygienic 
measures suitable to the occasion, should not be neglected. 

INTLECTION is a general name used by grammarians for all those changes that 
w^ords undergo wdien placed in relation to one another in a sentence. See Declension, 
Conjugation, Genitive. Most of these changes occur in the end syllable or syllables 
of the w^ord; and with regard to these at least, there is eveiy reason to believe that th(\v 
were origi4ally separate words joined on to the root words (see Language), and that 



Inflection. 1 .{_ 

latlueuza. "^ 

through the natural processes of phonetic change and decay, the compounds thus formed 
gradually assumed the forms now known in grammar as cases, numbers, persons, tenses, 
etc. In some instances the original sufRx can be readily recognized, and, by the help 
of comparative grammar, much has been done in recent times in tracing the more dis- 
guised inflections to their source; so that the greater part may be considered as satisfac- 
torily established. Confining our remarks to llie Indo-European languages, we may 
safely assert that the syllables used in forming tlie cases of nouns and tlie terminations 
of verbs are of pronominal origin. Thus, mt, si, ti, as the endings of the tlii-ee persons 
of the present singular of the verb, are evidently connected with the personal pronouns 
ma, tva (sva), ta; and the plurals mas, tas, nti, contain the; same with an indication of 
the plural number. Tlie nominative singular of masculines and feminines, ending in 
siequu-s, iTino-i, fini-s, Ttidn-S), contains the personal pronoun of the third person, ia 
(ro, nom. sa, 6); the plural, pisces, KopaxF.'^, is p'-obably only a corruption of the same 
pronoun put twice {pisci-sa-sa — i.e., fish that an tlmt), the doubling of the pronominal 
element expressing symbolically a plurality of the same thing. In the oblique cases we 
meet with other pronominal elements, which indicate that a certain thing is placed with 
regard to the predicate in the three fundamental directions of motion — those of whither, 
tchere, and whence. The accusative is the exponent of the direction of an action towards 
some object, and its termination m, in the plural ns (i.e., m with the plural termination 
s), is connected with the pronomen ama, yon. I (comp. Lat. i-s, i-d, i-bi) is the pronom- 
inal syllable employed for signifying that an action has arrived at a certain goal, and is 
continuing there, giving the dative and locative cases; while the starting from a certain 
point is indicated by the pronoun of the third person ta, and its equivalent sa (that), 
corrupted to t and s, the termination of the ablative and genitive cases. The dative and 
^•enitive of the plural express the same relations as the singular, though they are less 
clear as to their origin. If, notwithstanding the identity of terminations, the aggregate 
of nouns must, by a manifest analogy, be classified into several distinct declensions, 
this, in most cases, is to be accounted for by the difference of the formation of stems or 
bases previous to their coming in contact with the affixes. It is natural that the so-called 
crude forms should undergo a different process of contraction according to the nature of 
their final vowel. The dative lupj, from the crude form lupo, is as much a contrac- 
tion of lupo-i. as is the dative ^/i^ from Jiiil-i. Consonantic bases, or of the vocalic, those 
which end in 21 (n), a vowel of a decided consonantic quality, a/e most apt to preserve 
the inflections in tlieir unaltered form, being less liable to change on the (conflict of con- 
giuous or incompatible elements. Accordingly, we find that the third Greek r.nd the 
tiiird and fourth Latin declensions present a much more normal aspect of the original 
inflections than the others. This does not preclude the possibility of a peculiar inflection 
being preserved in one or other declension; for nothing is more certain than that lan- 
guage, at a certain stage of its development, created and applied a great variety of means 
to the same purpose, and that these became limited only when the rising intellect of the 
human tribes, and their distribution into larger or smaller political bodies, taught and 
compelled them to economize their ways of expiession. 

In the formation of certain tenses of the verb we find a process different from the 
combination of a nominal or verbal base with a pnmominal syllable. The Latin sub- 
junctive of the first conjugation, the future in bo, the Greek optative and future, the 
Latin imperfect, and the perfect ending in avi, in, ivi, consist of the verbal root with an 
already inflected form of the verbs ^, to go, as and fu, to be. However strange this may 
appeiir at first sight, it is nevertheless a fact that, e.g., f^n/Vy I would be (for ed-n;y, Scr. 
s-ydiii, Lat. s-iem), originally meant I go (if I mistake not) in being, I am in doubt of tliM 
fact of being; that 7tou}-6Ei<i, thou wilt do, is literally translated, " thou mayst be doing." 
The Latin i-bat for i-fiiat, or i-vit for i-fuit, is still more clearly, "he was in the act of 
going." That auxiliary verbs sometimes assume the function of inflections is proved by 
the French future, whose forms like trouterai, finirai, are easily recognized as composi- 
tions of the infinitive with the verb amir {finir-ai, I have to finish). 

The inflections hitherto described affect the end of words, and possess the character 
of a composition of a significative word or root with a syllable of local import, or an 
inflected form of a verb. But language also employs other'means of a symbolical nature, 
either in the middle or the beginning of verbs, with the object of representing the vari- 
ous aspects in which an action can appear. We find that the present tenses generally 
have longer forms than those of the past. The additions commonly used are long 
vowels or diphthongs, inserted nasals and semi-voweh, or, lastly, repuplication. It 
seems that the weight given to the verbal root b.y these appliances is intended to exhibit 
the continuance of an action in the present tenses, in contrast with the fleeting or 
momentary operation of the past. In a similar manner the long vowels peculiar to the 
subjunctive in Greek {TvTttEroy-TvTtrrjrov , rvnroiuFv-TvTtroDuay) conway Xha idea 
of doubt or uncertainty, by means of the longer interval required for the pronunciation 
of the intermediate long vowel, thus expressing the hesitation of the speak(!r with 
regard to the reality of his judgment. The reduplication in the perfect, being originally 
ft repetition of the root {tu-tudi), is not so mucli the sign of a past time as the symbol 
for an action having passed from the stage of incipience into that of completion. 

The wear and tear of time exercises its influence as well on the radical part of words 
as on their inflections. Grammatical terminations of a totally different formation by 



iX Inflection. 

*^ Iiifiueuza* 

corruption become obscured, and identical in sliape vvitli others of heterogeneous pur- 
port. The Latin Roniae takes on itself the functions of lloind-i-s (gen.), of Eoind-t (dat.), 
Roind-i (locat.), and lioind-i-es (nom. pi.); or populo tliose of popido-l (dat.), populo-d 
(abl.), and at a very earl}"^ age that of popido-m. The absence of written standard works 
of such a national importance as to penetrate into the masses of a people, and to check 
their iucliualion towards misapplying or neglecting inllections which in progress of 
time have lost their inherent meaning, and therefore appear cumbersome, accelerate the 
change of the iniiective system into the analytical. The demand for a precise and, so 
to speak, material expression of those manifold relations appropriated to inflections in 
ancient languages, is felt more keenly with the waning distinctness of the latter; and 
sudden political revolutions, such as the invasion of Italy by Teutonic tribes, or the 
conquest of England by the Normans, interrupting the influence of the privileged classes 
of a nation, bring the struggle to an issue, and give the ascendency to the popular move- 
ment. Articles, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, take in modern languages the 
place of inflections; and notwithstanding that these are not entirely destroyed, they 
have a precarious existence, and are in danger of being finally supplanted by the ten- 
dency to represent every distinct relation of words to each other by a distinct expres- 
sion. The application of the s as a mark of the possessive case becomes more and more 
limited in modern English, and the mistaken effort to supersede this relic of Saxon 
inflection by the substitution of the pronoun his, has only been defeated because it pro- 
ceeded from learned pedants, and not from the people. The termination nt as a sign of 
the plural in French verbs (ai7nent, aimaienf), may be called almost a dead letter, only 
traditionally preserved in spelling. The loss of inflections has deprived modern lan- 
guages of the wonderful simplicity and power of the ancient tongues, and the periphras- 
tic mode of expression they have adopted prevents them from arranging all the parts of 
a sentence with the same degree of libert3\ On the other hand, they have gained in 
perspicuity. After all they have only reversed the process of the combination of pro- 
nominal and auxiliary words with others; but by placing them in front, the attention of 
the hearer or reader is called at once to the particular modification of every possible 
shade of a given thought. 

INFLECTION, in optics. See Diffraction. 

INFLORESCENCE (Lat. in, audfloi'esco, to begin to flower), in botany, a term employed 
to designate the flowers of a plant considered collectively and with reference to the 
manner in which they are arranged and the succession in which they are developed. 
The flower-bud being a modified leaf-bud, and the parts of the flower modified leaves, 
it might be expected that the inflorescence should exhibit a close correspondence w'ith 
the ramification of the plant, but the modification in the parts immediately concerned 
in the production of flowers is so great, that this is far from being the case, A most 
important classification of kinds of inflorescence is into centrifugal and centripetal (q. v.). 
When the flowering axis produces only a single terminal flower, the inflorescence must be 
regarded as of the centrifugal kind. The terms used to designate more specifically the 
different kinds of inflorescence are numerous. The principal of them are explained 
under separate heads, as Catkin, Cone, Corymb, Cyme, Panicle, Raceme, Spike, 
Umbel, etc. But it is to be regretted that such terras are still used somewhat vaguely 
or carelessly, even by very eminent botanists, or in such various senses, that the inflor- 
escence of the same plant is often described by one term in one botanical work, and by 
another term in another. And hence arise confusion and difliculty, not entirely to be 
ascribed to the endless variety which is exhibited in nature. 

INFLUENZA, one of the class of diseases to which the term zymotic (q.v.) is now 
applied, lias been long recognized b}-" medical writers, although its name, borrowed 
from the Italian, is comparatively modern in this country. Cullen called it catarrhus e 
contaqio, but although, in most cases, it closely resembles ordinary catarrh, it presents 
certain points of difference from that disease. In addition to the ordinary symptoms of 
catarrh, there is a sudden, early, and very striking debility and depression of spirits. 
This early debility is one of the most marked and characteristic signs of influenza. The 
mucous membranes (especially the pulmonary membrane) are much affected. The 
tongue is white and creamy, the sense of taste is lost, there is no appetite, the pulse is 
soft and w^eak, the skin, although at first hot and dry, soon becomes moist, and the 
piitient complain-s of pains and soreness in various parts of the body. 

In simple, uncomplicated cases, convalescence supervenes in the course of a week or 
sooner, but influenza is very frequently conjoined with bronchitis or pneumonia, in 
wliicli case it is much more persistent and dangerous. 

Influenza affords an excellent example of an epidemic disease, a whole community 
being often attacked in the course of a few hours. From this it may be inferred that 
the occurrence of this disease is connected with some particular condition of the atmos- 
phere, but what that condition is, is not known. Not unfreqnently, influenza follows 
close upon a sudden thaw; sometimes it is preceded by thick, ill-smelling fogs. One 
hypothesis refers the complaint to some change in the electrical state of the air; and one 
of the latest and most probable conjectures regarding its exciting cause is that of Schon- 
bein, who refers it to the presence of an exce>;s of ozone (q.v.) in the atmosphere. Like 
cholera, influenza generally follows a westerly direction, or one from the s.e. towards 



Informa. ^ 

Infusoria. 

the n.w., and its course seems to be altogether independent of currents of air, as it fre- 
quently travels against the prevailing wind. 

Tlic most important point in llie treatment of influenza is not to bleed the patient, or 
in any way to depress liis vital powers. He should be Itept in bed; his bowels should 
be ffently opened; his skin slightly acted upon, if dry; and, if the cough be troublesome, 
a niuslard-poullice should be ;Tpplied to the chest, and an expectorant mixture prescribed. 
In per.-ons of weak or broke n-down constitutions, ammonia, beef-tea, and wine and 
water must be given from the outset. The debility that often remains for a consider- 
al)le period after the establishment of convalescence, is best met by the preparations of 
iron and quinine. 

Few diseases increase the death-rate to such an extent as influenza, more, however, 
in consequence of the great number of persons who are attacked in a severe epidemic, 
than in consequence of its danger in individual cases. 

INFORMA PAUPERIS, a term used when a person is allowed to sue as a pauper — i.e., 
by getting leave to dispense with paying the fees of court and other costs. 

INFORMATION, in English law, is used in several senses. In criminal law, an 
information filed by the attorney-general or master of the crown office is a substitute 
for an ordinary indictment, and is" resorted to only in cases of such misdemeanors as 
tend to disturb the peace or the government — for example, as libels on judges, magis- 
trates, or public officers, bribery at elections, etc. This information is usually called a 
criminal or an ex officio information, and the defendant is put on his trial in the same 
way as under an indictment. There are other informations, such as those called quo 
warranto, to test the validity of an election or appointment to a public office, etc. An 
information by the attorney-general in chancery is a suit on behalf of the crown or 
government as to any misapplication of a public charity, or on behalf of an idiot's or 
lunatic's property. The term is also commonly used to denote the written statement 
often but not invariably made on oath before a justice of the peace, previous to the 
issuing of a summons or complaint against a person charged either with a crime or an 
offense punishable summarily. There are also informations in the court of exchequer 
to recover penalties for breach of the revenue laws. The term is not now used techni- 
cally in Scotland, except in cases of difficulty, when the court of justiciary orders infor- 
mations — i.e., written arguments — on both sides. 

INFORMATION {ante), in law. In the U. S. courts actions for minor offenses, 
such as attempts to evade the revenue laAvs, etc., sometimes proceed upon information; 
but no capital or infamous offense can be prosecuted otherwise than by indictment. In 
several of the states all offenses which are misdemeanors may be prosecuted upon infor- 
mation, but in the case of felonies indictment is necessary, In Pennsylvania and some 
other states it is optional to proceed by either method. Information is often the form 
of proceeding in civil cases. By this process a person filling a civil office may be brought 
into court tc^show by what authority he assumes to exercise the functions thereof, with 
a view to his displacement in case it can be shown that his authority is insufficient, and 
that the office belongs to another. If an unincorporated association assumes corporate 
powers, it may be ousted by this process, while a legal corporation may be thus 
arraigned for a violation of its charter or any infraction of law. 

INFORM'ER, in English law% the person who sues for a penalty under some statute. 
In many statutes which define offenses — not criminal but savoring of criminality — 
encouragement is often given to strangers to come forward and prosecute the offense, by 
giving them power to sue for the penalty for their own benefit in whole or in part. This 
practice has been much resorted to in modern statutes on most subjects. In England, 
wdien the informer sues in such an action, it is called a penal or qni tarn action; but, in 
general, the penalty is now recoverable before justices of the peace in a summary way. 
In suits in chancery, which require to proceed in the name of the attorney-general, the 
informer is called a relator. In Scotland, an informer is the party who sets the lord- 
advocate in motion in criminal prosecutions; and tlit; lord-advocate is bound to give up 
the name of the informer, who is liable in case of malicious prosecutions. See Queen's 
Evidence. 

INFUSIONS, or Infusa. These terms are applied in pharmacy to aqueous solutions 
of vegetable substances obtained without the aid of boiling. They are usually prepared 
by digesting in soft water (which may be either hot or cold, according to circumstances) 
the sliced or powdered substance in an earthenware vessel fitted with a cover. Cold 
water is preferable wdien the active principle is very volatile, or when it is expedient to 
avoid the solution of some ingredient in the vegetable which is soluble in hot, but not 
in cold water. For example, "in preparing the infusion of calumba, cold water is pre- 
ferable, because it takes up the bitter principle (which is the essential ingredient), and 
leaves the starch matter undissolved. In most cases, however, boiling Avater is employed. 
Infusions are preferred to decoctions when the active principle volatilizes at a boiling 
heat, as in the case of essential oils; or when ebullition readily induces some chemical 
change, as in the case of senna (q.v.). 

Infusions may also be prepared by percolation (q.v.), a process which is extensively 
employed in the preparation of tinctures. When thus prepared, they are less liable to 
decay than when prepared on the old system. 



17 



Inform a. 
lufusoria. 



INFRALAPSARIANS, or Sublapsarians, in ecclesiastical history are those who 
hold that God, for liis owu glory, permitted the fall of man without positively fore-ordaio- 
ing it. According to this view God determined to create the world, lo permit the fall 
of man, and from'the mass of fallen men elect some lo eternal life and leave the residue 
to suffer the just punishment of their sins. Opposed to these are the Supralapsarians 
who hold that the fall of Adam, with all its evil consequences, was predetermined from 
eternity, that election and reprobation precede the purpose to create and permit the 
fall. According to tliis view, God, to manifest his grace and justice, creates some to 
lie saved and others to be lost. The majority of the members of the synod of Dort, com- 
posed of delegates from all the reformed churches on the continent and in Great 
Britain, and of the Westminster assembly, were Infralapsarians. Such was Augustine, 
and such have been those who adopt his system of doctrine. 

INFUSO'BIA, a class of the sub-kingdom of animals called protozoa (q.v.). The 
term, originally almost synonymous with animalcules (q.v.), is now very mucli restricted 
in its signification. It was first used by Otto Friedericii MiiUer, and was adopted by 
Cuvier, who made the infusoria the last class of radiata (q v.). But their radiated 
structure is by no means established. No distinct trace of nervous matter has been 
found. — After Miiller (1773-86). the next to devote himself to the special study of the 
infusoria was Ehrenberg, the publication of whose work on them (1837) was the com- 
mencement of a new era in the history of this branch of zoology, which has since been 
prosecuted with great industry by Dujarcdn, Stein, Lachmann and Claparede, Cohn, 
Lieberklilm, Rymer Jones, and others. Many of the organisms included by Ehrenberg, 
as by previous naturalists, among infusoria, are now generally regarded as vegetable 
(sec Dksmideje and Diatomace^); whilst others, as the cercarica (q.v.), have been dis- 
covered to be immature states of entozoa. The rotifera (q.v.) are now also, by very 
general consent, w^idely separated from the polygastrlca of Ehrenberg, for which alone 
the term infusoria, although not unobjectionable (see Animalcule), is retained; the 
term polygastrica (Gr. many-stomached) being rejected, because it expresses a view of 
the structure of these creatures which is generally deemed erroneous. Agassiz has gone 
the length of proclaiming an opinion, not received by other naturalists, that the infu- 
soria are all immature or larval worms. But of the form's at present known, it is at all 
events probable that many are those of immature creatures; it is certain that some- 
species assume very different forms at different stages of their existence; and the whole; 
life-history of no one species is fully known. 

Some of the infusoria are large enough to be individually visible to the naked eye^ 
but most of them are altogether microscopic. Their bodies are composed of sarcods, a 
glutinous diaphanous substance, of which the outer layer sometimes forms a more or 
less resisting integument. The body has some well-defined form, of which the varieties 
are very great in different species. Many are furnished with cilia, the motion of wJiich. 
carries them with great rapidity through the fluid in which they live, and by means, off 
which also currents are created in the fluid- to bring food to the mouth, Tne mouth; is^ 
very generally surrounded or largely provided with cilia. Whether these organs are 
under the control of will, or maintain their motion without will or even consciousness. 
on the part of the creature, like the cilia of the epithelium in higher animals, is not 
determined. There is an analogy in favor of the latter opinion, and many appearances. 
— which, however, the phenomena of zoospores, etc., teach us to regard as possibly 
deceptive — in favor of the latter. Some infusoria, instead of cilia, have a few. slender 
fllainents, which they agitate with an undulatory movement; others move by contrac- 
tions and extensions of their bodies. Some have stiff bristle-like organs, which they 
u.«e as feet for crawling on the surfaces of other bodies; and some have hooks,. by whicljn 
they attach themselves to foreign bodies. 

All infusoria have a distinct mouth, and many have also an anal opening, sometimes; 
near the mouth, sometimes at the opposite extremity of the body. Between these. 
Ehren])erg imagined that he could trace an intestine, straight in some, variously bent 
in others, with which along its course many small stomachs are connected; whilst in the 
infusoria having only one aperture, he supposed all the stomachs to open inMnediately 
from it. But other ol)servers have failed to And the canal and stomachs, altiiough 
Ehrenberg's experiments, by means of fluids colored with indigo and carmine, have 
been often repeated. And it seems probable that the food taken into the mouth is 
simply conveyed into the midst of the soft gelatinous substance of the body, being 
formed into pellets as it passes from the mouth through a kind of gullet in the firmer- 
integument. The food of infusoria consists of organic particles of various kinds, and 
different species have been remarked to show a preference, like those of higher animals, 
for particular kinds of food. Many of them feed on microscopic plants and on other 
infusoria. Their great use in the economy of nature is probably to consume organic 
particles, the decomposition of which would otherwise be baneful to all life, and the 
return of which by decomposition to their primitive elements would diminish the 
fertility and wealth of the world. The numbers of tlie infusoria are prodigious. They 
are found in all parts of the world, and both in fresh and salt water, in stagnant ponds 
and ditches, in mineral and hot springs, and in moist situations. Any infusion or other 
liquid containing vegetable or animal matter, if left expo.ed lo the atmoisphere, is sure 
U. K. VIII. -2 



Infusoria. .1^ 

Ingersoll. 

to be full of them. Their multitudes are so great that leagues of the ocean are some- 
times tinged by them. Some, which, instead of swimming freely, like most of their 
chxss, become surrounded with a gelatinous substance, are found adhering together in 
masses sometimes 4 or 5 in. in diameter, although the individual animals are so small 
that a cubic inch of the mass may contain 8,000,000 of them. The infusoria, contained 
in a single cup of putrid water ma}^ exceed in number the whole human population of 
the globe 1 

The organization of the infusoria is still very imperfectly known. There appears iu 
many of them a cavity not far from the mouth, the contractile space — variously regarded 
as a cavity without proper walls, or as a vesicle — from which branches sometimes radiate 
tlirougli the substance of the body, and which, being capable of contraction and expan- 
sion, Ts regarded by some as the center of a kind of vascular system. It is with con- 
siderable probability regarded as furnished with proper walls. There is also, probably 
in all the infusoria, another organ, evidently of great importance, although its iisc is 
still uncertain, called the )iucleus, wiiich is usually roundish or a little elongated, some- 
times much elongated and band-like. It is enveloped in a membrane, and is more com- 
pact than the surrounding substance. In the multiplication of these animals by spon- 
taneous division, a fission of the nucleus always takes place. Each of the halves 
becomes furnished with a complete mouth, set of cilia, and other organs. The division. 
iu the same species, is sometimes longitudinal, sometimes transverse, perhaps alteruiitely 
longitudinal and transverse. The multiplication of the infusoria in this way is 
extremely rapid. K Paramecium, well supplied with food, has been observed to undergo 
division every 24 hours, from which would result 10,884 individuals in a fortnight, 
or 268,435,456 in four weeks. Eeproduction also takes place by gemmation; buds or 
gemmules forming on the outer surface of the body, and gradually assuming the shape 
of the parent animal, although they do not attain to their full size till after separation. 
More extraordinary is another mode of reproduction by eiicyding or encapsulation. The 
animal contracts, closes its mouth, becomes surrounded by a viscid secretion, and finally 
by a membrane, becomes atteimated, and dissolves, all but the nucleus, into a mere 
liquid containing granules, wdiicli afterwards form within the cyst a new infusorium, 
dilferent in form and appearance from that by which the cyst w^as produced. The 
metamorphoses of the infusoria have been traced to a certain extent in some kinds, but 
not fully in any. AVhetlier any ti'uly sexual propagation takes place has not been per- 
fectly ascertained, although the observations of Balbiani have made it extremely piob- 
able as to some of them. A reproduction, different from all that has yet been mentioned, 
has been observed to take place in some, b}^ the formation of internal germs, to wliich 
this character has been ascribed, but the subject is still involved in doubt; nor is it 
improbable that there may be amongst these minute creatures a production of real eggs, 
which has hitherto eluded observation. 

In the integument of some infusoria, vary minute fusiform bodies are thickly 
imbedded, called trichocysts, which are capable of throwing out long filaments. Their 
use is unknown, although they are supposed to be urticating organs. The filaments are 
thrown out wdien the animal is subjected to annoyance by tlie drying up of the liquid in 
which it lives, or by the application of some irritating liquid. 

INFUSORIA, Fossil. See Diatomace^. 

INGALLS, RuFUS, b. Maine, 1820; graduated at the U. S. military academy, 1843; 
joined the army. In 1845 he was transferred to the dragoons, and in 1848 to the 
quartermaster department with the rank of capt. In 1854 he became col. and 
assistant quartermaster-general. In 1860 he was ordered from the frontier, where he 
had long served as quartermaster with his regiment, to Washington, where, at the 
beginning of the rebellion, 1861, he was appointed chief quartermaster of the volunteers 
to provide for the supplies of the army of the Potomac and of the army of tlie James. 
He discharged his duties with great ability, fidelity, and promptness. ]Mar. 13, 1865. 
he was made maj.gen. of volunteers for meritorious services in the rebellion ; and in 
1867 became quartermaster of the military division of the Atlantic at New York. 

INGAUNI, a tribe dwelling on the mountains and seacoast of Genoa in the 1st 
and 2d c. B.C. They were active in the wars between the Romans and Ligurians. 
and were allies of the Carthaginians in the second Punic war. They w^ere regarded as 
a distinct tribe in the time of Pliny and Strabo. but after the battle with Emilius Pau!ii<, 
181 B.C., in which they lost 15,000 men, very little was heard of them. The town 
Albenga, then called Albium Ingaurium, was their capital. 

ING'BERT, or Sanct Ingbert, a t. of Geimany, in Bavaria, iu the Palatinate, on 
the Roorbach, noted for its coal, iron, and quicksilver mines, and the manufacture of 
iron, glass, and chemicals. Pop. about 9,000. 

IN'GELOW, Jean, b. England, 1830; published her first volume, Poems,\T\ 1863. 
and gave evidence of original talent. Among the poems in this volume, "Dividid," 
" High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire," and the " Songs of Seven." have been very 
popular. Her subsequent poems have sustained her reputation as a highly gifted ]ioet. 
She has published also several prose works, as Studies for /Storic a; Home 7 liou.ghtx and 
Home Scenes; Oj}' the Skelb'fjs, and others. Her verses are characterized by simplicit}' 



» -| q Infusoria. 

and naturalness. They have had a very large sale in America. She now resides m 
London. 

INGEMANN, Bernhard Severin, one of the most distinguished poets and novelists 
of Denmark, was b. May 28, 1789, in the island of Falster. His literary career may he 
divided into three distinct periods. The first of lliese, extending from 1811 to 1814, 
embraces liis best lyrical productions, viz., tlie collection of poems entitled Promc 
(1812). and the allegorical epic of De 8orte IMdere {1814) ; while the second, or dramatic, 
ending in 1822, was marked by the appearance of numerous tragedies, which lia\(; 
nuuiitained their place on the national stage, and among which the best are his 
Masaniello; Blanca Rosten i Oerken (1815); Hyrdeu <if Tolma; lleinald; Underhavixi; 
Loven(Me7-en{lS16); and Tasso's Befriede{\H\%). After this period, Ingemann's Mritiiigsan- 
characterized either by leaning to historical disquisition, or a strongly religious bias. H is 
admirable epic poem of Valdemar den Store og Hans Mdnd (1824) was the pielude to tlie 
various historical novels in which, taking Walter Scott for his model, he endeavored 
to portray the social life -and habits of his own country in the middle ages. Valdenmr 
Seier, the first of the sei'ies (1826), atid Erik Afenved's Barndoin (1828), which are generally 
regarded as the best of these productions, may compete favorably with some of the 
most successful efforts of his great model; while even in the less popular of his his- 
torical novels, Kong Erik oy de Eredlose (18o3), and Prinds Otto og Jlajis Santtid (IS'Sb), 
may justly entitle him to rank among the first novelists of his time. The poems of 
Dr'onning Margrete (1836) and Holger iJanske (1837), which are based, like his novels, on 
incidents of Danish national history and tradition, rank among Ingeniann's most suc- 
cessful efforts. The religious element in this writer's mind has found expression in 
various pi'oductions of considerable merit — as, for instance, in Ins collection cf anthems 
and psalms, IIoejmest:epsalmer (1825), in his rendering of some of the symbolical . or 
traditionary legends of the church in his Blade af Jei'usalcm's Sko7nage7''s Lonnnebog (18^o) : 
JSalomon's liing (IS'dd); and in his allegorical poem, Gnldceblet {ISiiQ). Ingemann held the 
chair of {esthetics and Danish literature at the royal academy of Soroe, near Copenhagc n. 
His collective works have been published in 38 vols., 1857, Copenhagen, and the greater 
number of his prose works and many of his poems, have been translated into various 
languages. lie died 1862. 

IN'GENHOUSZ, Jan, 1730-99; b. in Holland; studied and practiced medicine m 
Holland, but removed to London in 1767. Accident brought him an introduction to the 
Austrian imperial famih", whom he served professionally with such success that he wn-^ 
named by tlie empress Maria Theresa aulic counselor and physicip-i to the imperial 
family, with a pension of £600 per annum. He devoted much time and study to genei al 
scientific research and experiments in electricity, and in regard to the composition arid 
relation of different gases. It is claimed that he made the first niedical use of carbonic 
acid, and that he invented the plate electrical machine. He was greatly esteemed bytiic 
emperor Joseph II., and was consulted b}'^ the most distinguished personages in Vienna. 
Ingenhousz wrote a number of scientific treatises and essays, some of which were pui>- 
lished separately, and others in the Journal de Physique and other periodicals. He ])ra«-- 
ticed inoculation in small-pox with distinguished success, and gained a widespread 
reputation for his skill in this direction. 

INGERMANNLAND, or Ingria. See St. Petersburg, Government of, ante. 

INGERSOLL, a t. of Oxford co., Ontario, Canada, on the Thames river, and on the 
Great Western railroad, 85 m. w.s.w. of Toronto; pop. '71, 4,022. It exports largely 
grain and lumber, and has several manufactories of machinery, woolen goods, agricul- 
tural implements, cheese, and wooden ware; 2 banks, 7 churches, several hotels, and 
2 newspapers. It is a pLice of growing importance. 

INGERSOLL, Charles J., an American statesman, was b. in Philadelphia, Oct. 3, 
1782. His father, Jared Ingersoll, was an active partisan in the American revolution, 
and a member of the convention which adopted the federal constitution. Charles .1. 
Ingersoll received a liberal education, which was completed by European travel. In 1801 
he produced the tragedy of Edwy and Elgira, and in 1808 a strong political pamphlet in 
defense of the democratic policy of Mr. Jefferson, and a satirical review of American 
politics, entitled Inchiquin's Letters (1810). He was elected to congress in 1812; and in 
1814 he advocated the principle that "free ships make free goods," in a powerful speech. 
He was for 14 years United States district attorney for Pennsylvania, and in congress 
from 1839 to 1849. He published two series of Historical Sketches of the War of 1812, in 
1845 and 1852. A speech in opposition to the Lincoln administration caused his arrest 
in 1862; but his popularity made it advisable to release him after a brief detention. He 
died in. May, 1862. 

INGERSOLL, Charles Roberts, ll.d., b Conn., 1821. After graduating nt Yale 
college, 1840, and at the Yale law school. 1844. he practiced law in New Haven. He was 
several times a member of the general assembly, and in 1873, '74, and '75 was elected 
by the democratic party governor of the state. 

INGERSOLL, Jared, ll.d., 1749-1822; b. Conn.; graduated at Yale in 1766, 
studied law for five years in London, and after spending a year and a half in Paris, 
bbUled in Philadelphia, Avhere he became prominent as a lawyer. In 1780 he was a mem 



Inq;ersoll. OA 

Ingres. ^^ 

ber of congress, and in 1787 represented Pennsylvania in the convention "wliich framed 
llie constitution of tlie United iStutes. He was also altorncy-genenil ot the stale, and at 
the time of his death was presiding judge of the district court of Philadelphia county. 

INGERSOLL, Joseph Reed, ll.d., d.c.l. ; 1786-1868; son of Jared; b. Philadelphia; 
graduated at the college of New Jersey in 1804, and for many years practiced law in 
Philadelphia, where h^ became eminent in his profession. He was a member of con- 
gress 1835-37, and again in 1842-49. In 1850-53 he was minister to England. He was 
an excellent public speaker. Of his published pamphlets the most important was Stce&- 
sion a Folly and a Crime, which appeared at the outbreaiv of the rebellion. 

INGERSOLL, Robert G., b. Dresden, N. Y., 1833; the youngest of five children 
of a Congregational minister. The family removed west in 1845, and settled in 
Illinois, and there Robert studied law; was admitted to the bar, and entered into poli- 
tics as a democrat. In 1857 he removed to Peoria, where he soon became recognized 
as an able lawyer, chiefly employed i:i railroad litigation. In 1860 he was nominated 
for congress, but was defeated. In 1863 he entered the war as col. of the 11th Illi- 
nois cavalry, and was taken prisoner, but exchanged. He returned to citizenship 
a republican in politics, and was appointed by gov. Oglesby attorney-general of Illi- 
nois in 1868. In 1876, at the republican presidential convention at Cincumati, he 
electrified the audience, and, through them and by means of the press and tlie telegraph, 
impressed the entire country with his fervid and vigorous speech in favor of James G. 
Blaine. From this time col. Ingei'soU was recognized as one of the foremost natural 
orators of the country. He soon after entered the lecture field, wliere the matter as weil 
as the manner of his discourse excited public attention. He developed the views of a 
pronounced opponent to Christianity as a system; and, adopting religious topics as his 
subjects, attacked the inspired character of the Bible, the personal nature of the Deity, 
the existence of a hell, with all the force of which he was capable, and with the 
advantage of rhetorical powers scarcely equaled. There have been few instances of the 
exei'cise of freedom of speech in religious matters which could be compared to that of 
col. Ingersoll. Yet, despite his recognized ability as a dialectician, and his surprising 
and persuasive gifts of oratory, there has been no evidence that his influence as a contro- 
vertist or a skeptic has extended beyond the immediate period of his address. Col. 
Ing(M-soll married Miss Eva Parker in 1882, and has two daughters. He has been presi- 
dent of several railroad companies; but, since devoting himself to public lecturing, has 
resided in Washington. 

INGHAM, a co. of Michigan; 576 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 25,268. The surface is nearly 
level; the soil fertile, and coal and iron ore are found. The staple products are grain, 
maize, oats, wool, hay, and cattle. The chief articles of manufacture in numerous fac- 
tories are carriages, machinery, brick, saddlery, doors, sash and blinds, furniture, and 
woolen goods. There are also flour and saw mills and tanneries. Several railroads 
traverse the co. and center at Lansing. Cap., Mason. 

INGHAM, Benjamin; 1712-72; b. England. In 1733 he M^as associated with the 
two Wesleys, the founders of Methodism, and in 1735 accompanied John Wesley to 
Georgia. Returning, he visited tlie Moravians in Germany, and founded in Yorksliire 
congregations of Moravian Methodists, wdiich in a few years increased to 84. He was 
afterwards elected a bishop of that church; but linally, with most of the societies which 
he had formed, joined the Sandemanians. 

INGHAM, Charles C; 1796-1863; b. Ireland; distinguished himself as a painter, 
gaining at the early age of 21 from the Dublin academy the prize for the " Death of 
Cleopatra." In 1817 he settled in New York, where he excelled as a portrait-painter, 
and w^as one of the founders of the national academy of design, of which he was vice- 
president 1845-50. Among his admired paintiiiirs, besides his portraits, are "The 
Flower Girl," " Day Dream," " The Laughing Girl," and " White Plume." 

IN'GOLSTADT, or Ingoldestadt (anciently Aureatvm, and by the Latin writers of the 
16th c. C'a\\c<\. AurijwUs and C/nysopolis — i. e^., "the golden city"), at. and fortress of 
Upper Bavaria; is situated in a fertile district on the left bank of the Danube, which is 
here crossed by a stone bridge; 46 m. n n.w. of Munich. It contains three parish 
ciiurclies (two Catholic and one Protestant), a hospital, and a castle. Cloth, playing- 
cards, and leather are manufactured, and breweries and a trade in corn are carried on; 
pop. '75. 14,4^4. 

Ingolstadt is an ancient, melancholy-looking town, too large for the number»of its 
inhabitants. A university was founded here in 1472, which reckoned Reuchlin, Aven- 
tin, and other eminent scholars among its professors; it was removed, however, to Land- 
siuit in 180U. and to Munich about six years after. At tliis university, in the 16tlic., 
Urb. Rhegius, tlie poet, known by the. name of Dr. Faustus, studied, "^ Ingolstadt was 
the first German town at wliich the Jesuits were permitted to establish them.selves, and to 
teach publicly from the university chairs. Loyola gave it the fond title of " his little 
Benjamin." After the suppression of the order in 1773, Adam Weissiiaupt established 
here the order of the illuminati (q. v.). In 1827 the fortifications of Ingolstadt, which hud 



C) 1 Ingersoll. 

been destroyed by the French in 1800, were restored upon a large scale, the two forts 
ou the left bank of the river being especially distinguished for their elegance and 
strength. 

IXGRAIIAM, DuNCAX Nathaniel; b. South Carolina, 1803. Entering the U. S. navy 
as niidsliipnmn in 1812, he became capt. in 18o5. C\)niinandiug the sloop of war *Sy. Lou.h 
in the Mediterranean in 1853, he interfered with the arrest, by the Austrian consul at 
Smyrna, of Martin Koszta, a Hungarian, who had declared in New York his intentioii 
of becoming an American citizen. The government approved the course of capt. Ingra 
liam, and congress requested the president to present him a medal. He was made in 
i\Iarch. 1856, chief of the bureau of ordnance and hydrography, and held the j)ositio;i 
until Feb. 4, 18G1, w^hen he resigned his commission in the navy, and became chief of 
ordnance, construction, and repair in the confederate navy. 

INGRAHAM, Joseph H., 1800-61: b. Maine. After a brief period in mercantile 
pursuits, he became a teacher in Washington college, near Natchez, Miss. In 18oG he 
published The Southwest by a Yankee, and afterwards Lafitte; JJurton, or the Slcgets; 
Capt. Kyd; Tlie Dancing Feather, ancl some other popular romances. Subsequently 
he was ordained an Episcopal minister, and took charge of a paiish and school at 
Holly Springs, Miss. His last and most important works were Prince of the llonse of 
David; Pillar of Fire; and Throne of David, a series of works of tiction based upon the 
Old and New Testament histories, and intended to illustrate the Bible. 

INGRAILED'. See Engrailed. 

INGRES, Jean Dominique Auguste, an eminent French painter, was b. at i\[ont- 
auban, Sept. 15, 1781, studied under David (q. v.), and subsequently went to Rome. 
Here he resided for fifteen years, after which he spent four years in Florence, by which 
time his fame was so well established that he was called to the school of fine arts in 
Paris as the successor of Denon. In 1834 he succeeded Horace Vernet as director of 
the academy at Rome, and in 1845 he was made commander of the legion of honor. 
Among his compatriots his reputation is now firmly established. Ingres occupies a sort 
of middle place between the classic and romantic, schools, but rather inclines to the 
former. Among his numerous pieces maybe mentioned "Raphael et la Fornarina," 
"Romulus, Vainqueur d'Acrou," "Virgile lisant son Ene'ide a Auguste et u Octavie," 
"La Mort de Leonard de Vinci," "Le Vam de Louis Xlll.," "L'Apotheose d'Honiere,"' 
" Stratonice," "Jesus au Milieu des Docteurs," " Moliere dans son Cabinet," ami 
"L'Apotheose de Napoleon I.," with a motto flattering the late emperor of the Fiench, 
Li nepote redinvus. At the Paris exhibition of 1855 Ingres had a whole salon to him- 
self. In 1862 he was raised to the dignity of senator and made a member of the 
imperial council of public instruction. He died in 1867. 

INGRES, Jean Domenique Auguste [From Supplement^, one of the most eminent 
painters of the French school, was b. at Slontauban, Sept. 15, 1781. A casual \iew (<f 
a copy of one of Raphael's pictures inspired him (so it is said), at the age of ten, with 
the ambition to become a painter: he forthwith began to study drawing: and after 
having been successively the pupil of a M. Roques and of M. Briaiit, a lands(;ai)e- 
painter, he w^ent to Paris in his I7th year, and entered the studio of the great painter 
David. He remained with David as a pupil for four years. He carried off the secon I 
prize for painting at the academy of the fine arts in 1800, and in the followinu- year he 
took the first — an honor which has scarcely, in any other case, been awarded to so 
young an artist. The picture which gained for him this high distinction was " Tluj 
Arrival of the Intercessors at the Tent of Achilles." It is now at the school of fine. arts. 
and unquestionably it compares well with many of the works whicii have made him 
famous. In 1802 he exhibited two portraits, which still rank among his finest works of 
this class; in 1804 he exhibited a portrait of the first consul, and also a porti'ait of 
himself. He again painted Napoleon, now become emperor, in 1806, and the picture 
was bought for the hopital des invalides. . In 1806 he set out for Rome, where he con- 
tinued to live for many j^ears. He seems to have made a reputation in Italy early, and 
the commissions he received, including several from the pope, prove that his reputation 
stood very high. From his countrymen, however, the pictures which he sent to Paris 
for man}^ years met only with neglect or ridicule. It was at Florence, where he resided 
from 1820 to 1824, that he painted a picture which at length gained him a party of 
enthusiastic admirers among the Parisians. The picture was " Le Voeu de Louis XIII." 
It was exhibited at the Louvre in 1824. and though much decried as well as much 
admired, it still raised Ingres, previously almost unnoticed, at a bound to the chief 
place among French idealist painters of that time. He received from Louis XVIII. the 
cross of the legion of honor; and he was forthwith appointed to succeed baron Denon 
as professor at the academy of the fine aits. 

Now that he had become the acknowl 'dgcd head and representative of a school of 
art, it was natural that his work should be subjected to a searching criticism, moi'e 
eager to detect faults than discover merits. He brought upon himself a perfect tempesr 
of discussion in 1827 by a work called "L'Apotheose d'llomere," which his admirers 
declared to be a masterpiece; while the party of his detractors — then numerous and 
influenticd — condemned it as bad in drawing, as poor in coloring, and especially as being 



Ing:ria. 09 

Injector, ^ "' 

ungraceful, coarse, and even vulgar in conception, Tiie French critics seem now to be 
jigreed not only that this was Ingres's tinesl attempt at epic i)aiuling, but that it place? 
hun at tlie head of the French sciiool, and on the level of the greatest painters the world 
has seen. Many foreign judges, however, are disposed to hold that the stricture.^ 
originally made upon it were to a large extent well founded. The discussion uhich it 
oi'iginated ranged over ;dl the painter's work; it was renewed year after year, and the 
bitter expressions of some of his critics made such an impiession upon Ingres, that from 
18o2 to 18o4 he exhibited nothing but two portraits, and m the latter year embraced an 
ojiportunity which offered of again establishing himself in Italy. He became director of 
tile French academy at Rome, a post which has been held by many distinguished artists, 
and in which his predecessor was Horace Yernet. "J'his tinie he remained in Italy for 
about ten years. During these years he sent many pictures to be exhil^ited at Paris; 
these gradually wrought upon the public taste; and when he returned, he found his 
countrymen unanimous and enthusiastic in admiiation of him, and in raptures about 
his latest composition — "Cherubini [the composer] Inspired by the Muse." Since then 
it has been treason in Paris to breatlie a doubt about the greatness of Ingres. The state 
ratified the decision of the pubih- liy tiie libc^rality with which it bestowed its honors 
upon him. He was made an otbcer c^f the legion of honor in 1841, a commander in 
1845, and grand officer in 1855; he was named a senator on May 25, 18C2; and he was 
soon after appointed a member of the imperial council of public instruction. He 
became a member of the institute in 1825. Many of his works are now^ in public 
collections. At the Paris exhibition of 1855 a room was set apart for his pictures, and 
one of two grand medals of honor was awarded to him — Eugene Delacroix getting the 
other. He continued to exercise liis art almost to the close of his life; and whatever 
may be thought of the success of his higher nims, he showed himself to the last uhat he 
liad always been, the most painstaking, conscientious, and learned of painters. The 
Kaiad which he painted in 1861 (" La Source "), and whicii was his solitary contribution 
to the London exhibition of 1862, is considered the finest of his later works; it was 
enthusiastically admired, even b}^ those who strongly dissented fi'om the prai>es lavished 
by his countrymen upon his more ambitious undertakings. He died, after a short 
illness, Jan. 14, 1867. During the summer an exhibition of liis works took place in 
Paris, at which almost all his pictures and the cartoons for Lis w^orks in stained glass 
and mural paintings were brought together. 

"L'Apotheose d'Homere," "Le Martyre de St. Symphonea," "La Naissance de 
Venus Anadyomene," "La Source," "L'Odalisque," and the portrait of M. Bertin, aine, 
may be mentionc d as among the most characteristic — they are certainly among the most 
admired — of the works of Ingres. His admirers — who are at present the whole body of 
his countrymen — recognize in him, among modern painters, the most faithful and 
])ersevering and the most successful student of the traditions of the renaissance; they 
declare his paintings equal in power and fidelity to the best works of the great masters. 
On the other hand, it is maintained b}' his censors or detractors that Ingres was deficient 
in invention and in refinement; that all the good things in his works have been borrowed 
from ancient ])ictures; and that, moreover, lie copied badly from his motlels, and often 
spoiled wiiat he borrowed by his setting of it. Such censures appear greatly exag- 
gerated; but it may be confidently said that Ingres is at present worshiped by his 
countrymen with a somewhat blind veneration; ami that they would do well to expend 
upon a few really great works the admiration which they lavish upon everything that 
proceeded from him. 

INGRIA. See St. Petersburg, Government of. 

INGROSSING, or Engrossing, a deed means, in laAv, the writing it out in full and 
regular form on parchment or paper for signatuie. The person who engrosses is usually 
a law-stationer or clerk. In Scotland the corresponding term is "extending a deed," 
and the name of the person who does so must be named in the testing clause, wliich is 
not necessary in England, 

INGULPH, abbot of Croyland, long considered the author of the Jlisioria Monasferii 
Croi/la/uJcnsis (History of the Monastery of Croyland or Crowland, in Lincolnshire), is 
supposed to have been b. in London about 1030 a.d. According to the account of his 
life in his history, he studied oratory and philosophy at Oxford; became a favorite of 
Edgitha, the wife of Edward the confessor; visited duke William of Noimandy at his 
own court in 1051; and, after a disastrous pilgrimage to the holy land, entered a 
Norman monastery. Here he remained till 1076. when he was invited to England by 
the conqueror, and made abbot of Croyland, where he died Dec. 17, 1109. The IJi-sioiia 
Moiuisterii Croj/lftndensis wns printed by Savile at London in 1596, ard in a more com- 
plete edition by Gale at Oxford in 1684. It has been translated into English for Bohn's 
antiquarian library by Riley. Some writers even of the last centuryqnestioned the 
entire genuineness of the book; but their skepticism did not proceed further than the 
hypothesis of interpolations by a later writer; but in 1826 the late sir Francis Palgrave, 
in an article in the Quarterly Review, endeavored to prove that the whole so-c^dled 
history was little better than a novel, and was probably the composition of a monk in 



20 Iiijeetoi*. 

the 13th 01 14tli century. His conclusions have been, on tlie whole, almost universally 
adopted. 

INHALATION, in medicine, a term used to si<rnify the Lrcnthing into the lungs of 
vapors or gases for producing anaisthesia, or for more strictly curative purposes. The 
inhalation'mav be accomplisiied in a variety of ways. The ordinary. manner of adnun- 
istering chloroform or ether is to fold a napkin in the form of a funnel and moisten 
tlie interior with a dram of chloroform or a half ounce of sulphuric ether, and apply it 
to the nostrils and mouth of tlie patient, admitting a certain quantity of fresh air at the 
.same time. The napkin may be folded in such a manner as to accomplish this, or it 
m \y be occasionally partially Vemoved. The quantity of the anaesthetic may be renewed 
when necessary. There are various forms of apparatus rendering the operation more 
certain for those whose experience is not great, and, as a rule, they are to be considered 
desirable. The inhalation of nitrous oxide gas should always be performed with well- 
made apparatus, and this substance should be carefully puritied before it is taken into 
tiie lungs. The steam, or rather the vapor of hot water, is employed in tliroat diseases, 
often affording great relief; and medicinal substances, such as iodine, chlorine, and 
camphor are sometimes used in conjunction, but it is often desirable to use the watery 
vapor without any combination. A very convenient, and, in the absence of other 
apparatus, the only available way, is to place a funnel over an open vessel containing hot 
water, and inhale the hot vapor "^through the spout. A deep vessel, such as a two quart 
earthen pitcher, may be used, holding a pint of boiling water — the patient breatidng 
from the open mouth, putting his face close over the vessel, with care to moderate the 
lieat of the contents. Tiie vapor of iodine is often found beneficial in affections of the 
throat or lungs, and this may be inhaled by using the alcoholic tincture, or the solid 
substance may be put into a wide-mouth bottle, from which the patient may inhale the 
va|)or, wdiich, if the quantity is sufficient, will be afforded rapidly enough at ordinary 
te iiperature. If the quantity used is small, it may be slightly warmed. The vapor of 
ca bolic acid is often beneficial as an inhalant, and may be administered in a similar 
manner. There are various kinds of apparatus for inhalation, with the common object of 
iiiiroducing vapor to the lungs in the proper strength or temperature, and due admix- 
ture of air. 

INHAMBAN', or Inhambana. a Portuguese t of East Africa, 200m.n.e. of Delagoa 
bay, and near the mouth of the Inhamban river ; pop. 6,500. It exports wax, ivory, 
copal, oilnuts, and India rubber. 

INHERITANCE. See Heihs, Intestacy, Will, Succession. 

INHIBITION, in Scotch law, is a writ which is issued in order to prohibit a person 
from alienating his heritable estate until the debt of the creditor is paid. 

INHIBITION, in physiology. See Nekvous System. 

INIA, Iiiia Bolmensis, a cetaceous animal of the family cMphinicla;, in form resem- 
bling a dolphin, with a long and slender snout. It is the only known species of its 
genus, and is one of the few cetacea which inhabit fresh water. It is found in some of 
the upper tributaries of the Amazon, and in the lakes near the Cordilleras. It is from 
7 to 13 or 14 ft. long. The inia feeds chiefly on lish. It is pursued for the 
sake of the oil which it yields. It is generally found in little troops of three or four. 
The females show great affection for their young. 

INITIALS. Though in general it is usual and regular in all legal deeds and writings 
for a party to write his full Christian name and surname, yet in many cases, especially 
in documents of a mercantile nature, signature by initials will bind equally with the full 
signature. 

INJECTIONS. This term is applied in medicine to fluids thrown into the passages or 
cavities of the body by means of a syringe or elastic bag. The fluids thus injected into 
i\m rectum or lower bowel are termed clysters (q. v.). The inje tion of a dilute solution 
of salt into the veins has been found to be of great service in even ad.vanced cases of 
Asiatic cholera. The injection of blood into the veins is described in the article Trans- 
fusion OF Blood. 

INJECTOR, Giffard's, is now in general use for feeding w^ater into stenm-boilers, 
particularly locomotive boilers. Feed-pumps are difficult to keep in order when driven 
at high speed. The very rapid action of the valves severely tries their durability. In 
the case of locomotives, inconvenience was often occasioned by the fact that (heir 
feed-pumps acted only when they were running; and thus, if an engine happened to 
stand still for any length of time, the water occasionally got too low in the boiler. The 
injector acts equally well whether the engine is running or at rest. 

The diagram fig. 1 will give an idea of the essential parts of the injector. A is the 
steam-boiler, B being the water-level, CDF a pipe into which steam is admitted: this 
pipe terminates in a cone DF, which is inclosed in a larger cone HH. In the cone DF, 



Injunction, 
luk. 



24 




Fig, 



the pointed plug E can be raised or lowered so as to increase or diminish the areaof the 

aperture at its lower end F. G is a pipe connnuni- 
cating with the water-cistern, and adinittiiiu- water 
into the external cone HH. K is a pipe conununi- 
catingwitli the boiler under the water-levei. On open- 
ing communications between the boiler and this 
apparatus, it might be expected that steam would 
rush out at F, and water at K, both currents meet- 
ing with great force, and escaping into the atmosphere 
between tlie two openings. Paradoxical as it may 
appear, the outtio wing stream of water at K, although 
it is actually flowing undera greater pressure than the 
current of steam escaping at F, due to the Juxid of 
water arising from the dilference of level between the 
aperture at K and the water-level at B, isovei'powered, 
and driven back into the boiler; and not only is the 
outflowing current of steam at F able to drive back 
the stream of water trying to escape at K, but the 
torrent of steam drags with it a large quantity of 
water with which it comes into contact as it is passing 
through the cone HH. This water flnds its way into 
the cone HH, through the pipe G, from the tender 
or (nsiein, and constitutes the feed-water. The steam 
rushing from the aperture at F will necessarily be 
condensed by the cold water with which it comes irno 
contact in the cone HH. The explanation offered of 
the action of this apparatus is as follows. The open- 
ing at F, through which the steam escapes, has 
nearly twice the area of the opening into which the water is to be forced at K. Tiie 
opening in the cone HH is also larger than the aperture at K, and it appears that 
the mechanical power contained in the flow of steam from F is, as 
it were, transformed from a large area to a smaller, with a corre- 
sponding increase in its intensity. This diminution of its volume 
arises from its condensation by the cold water through which it has 
to rush in the cone HH. We get thus the mechanical ]iower due 
to a column of large area concentrated into a small area, with a cor- 
responding increase in its velocity, and to this increase of velocity is 
due the fact that a current issuing at FH will enter at K, in spite of the 
counter-pressure at K The injector for feeding boilers is rather an 
expensive apparatus, in consequence of the number of adjustable 
parts required to be provided. Variations in the pressure of steam 
require alterations in the area of the steam-passage, and in the 
distances between the mouths of the conical openings for the outflow 
and inflow of steam and water. 

Fig. 2 shows in section a simple form of injector for raising water. 
Steam issuing from the pipe S, into the vessel WE, will draw the 
water through the pipe T, and force it up through the narrow neck 
below R. to a height of about one foot for every pound of pressure 
per square inch. It is doubtful if those injectors can work so economically, as regards 
expenditure of steam, as ordinary slow-moving pumps; but they' possess many con- 
veniences and advantages, which are bringing them into use. 

INJUNCTION, a writ in English law. by which the cliancery division of the high 
court of justice stops or prevents some inequitable or illegal act being done. Tlie writ 
is peculiar, in general, to chancery, though to a limited extent it was introduced in(o 
common law. If the party disobeys the injunction, he maybe attached for contempt 
of court, and imprisoned till he ol)eys. If he obeys it, he may apply 1o luive the injunc- 
tion dissolved. In Scotland a remedy of a similar kind is called an interdict ^q.v ). 

INJUNCTION (a?/ fc), in legal practice, a writ of a court with equity jurisdiction, 
addressed to a party or parties defendant, commanding the performance oi- non 
performance of some specific act. It is either prohibitory or mandatory: in the one? 
case forbidding a certain act, in the other commanding something to be done for 
instance, it may either forbid the creation of a threatened nuisance, or enjoin its removal 
if established. It is borrowed from the Koman law, which, under the name of ' intei 
diet," had a very wide application. A court of chancery, having nssumed jurisdiction 
of a case, will, if necessary, enjoin the defendant from taking the same action before a 
court of law. But for the exercise of this power on the part of a chancellor, conflicts 
of jurisdiction, detrimental to the public welfare and vexatious to private citizens, might 
often arise. It is a rule of chanceiy courts, however, not to grant injunctions where 
litigants have an available remedy in courts of law. An injunction is either tem])oi'ary 
or perpetual. A temporary injunction is issued upon ex farfe evidence, and is designed 
to bring both parties into court for an impartial hearing. If it appear that there was 




Fig. 2. 



25 



Injunction. 
Ink. 



no just warrant for the injunction, it will be dissolved; if it be found to rest upon 
equitable grounds, it will be made perpetual. Injunctions are often employed to pre- 
vent infringements of patents, copyrights, and trade-marks, and in some special cases 
to restrain breaches of covenants and agreements. If a judgment for debt have h( en 
obtained, and the defendants afterwards discover the plaintiff's receipt for the sum laid 
in the declaration, the latter may be prevented by injunction from levying upon the 
goods of the former to satisfy such judgment. Where the party enjoined disregards the 
injunction he will be punished for contempt by the court upon application by tlic 
plaintiff. 

INK. The most important kinds of ink may be included in the two following heads 
— Writing Ink and Printing Ink. 

1. Writing Ink. — The composition of the ink used by the ancients is not well under- 
stood; it is, however, certain that their ink exceeded ours in ])]ackness and durability. 
Mr. Underwood (who read a paper upon the subject of ink before the society of arts in 
1857) thinks that some old ink was merely a carbon pigment, like the Indian ink of the 
present day, while other kinds were veritable dyes of iron and acids (true chemical com- 
pounds), with the addition of a good deal of carbon. 

The essential constituents of ordinary black ink are galls, sulphate of iron (popularly 
known as green vitriol or green copperas), and gum; and the most important point is 
the regulation of the proportion of the sulphate of iron to the galls. If the former is in 
excess, the ink, although black at lirst, soon becomes brown and yellow. The gum is 
added to retain the coloring matter in suspension, and to prevent the mixture from being 
too tluid. The following prescription by prof, Brande yields a very good ink; " Eoil six 
ounces of finely bruised Aleppo galls in six pints of water, then add four ounces of 
clean and well crystallized sulphate of iron, and four ounces of gum-arabic. Keep the 
whole in a wooden or glass vessel, occasionally shaken. In two months, strain, and pour 
off the ink into glass bottles." The addition of a little creasote is useful as a check to 
the formation of mold. Stephens's ink — a blue liquid, which in a few hours after its 
deposition on paper becomes of an intense black — is one of the most popular of our 
writing fluids. It consists essentially of gallotannate of \ro\\ , dissolved in su]phat'M)f 
indigo, while in ordinai'y ink the coloring matter is merely ^uxpendcd by means of the 
gum. Runge, a German chemist, has discovered a simple and cheap black wiit. 
ing fluid, prepared from chromate of potash and a solution of logwood, which possess s 
the properties of forming no deposit, of adhering strongh^ to the paper, of b( ing 
unaffected by exposure to water or aculs, and of neither acting on, nor being acted on 
by steel pens. 

Various receipts for indelible inks have at different times been published. Dr. Nor- 
mandy asserts that the ink obtained by the following combination cannot be obliterat( d 
or defaced by any known chemical agent: 24 lbs. of Frankfort black (which 
is supposed to be a charcoal obtained from grape and vine lees, peach kernels, and bone- 
shavings) must be ground with mucilage, formed by adding 20 lbs. of gum- 
arabic to 60 galls, of water, and the mixture strained through a coarse tiannel; four 
lbs. of oxalic acid are then added, together with as much decoction of cochineal or 
sulphate of indigo as will give the required shade. 

Bed Inks are of two kinds, one variety consisting essentially of the tinctorial matter 
of Brazil-wood, and the other being prepared from cochineal or carmine, Siepii( ns's 
red ink, which is one of the best of these preparations, is obtained as follows: " i\(!d to 
a quantity of common carbonate of potash, soda, or ammonia, twice its weight of enule 
argol in powder. When the effervescence has ceased, decant or filter the solution from 
the insoluble matter. To this fluid add by measure half its quantity of oxalate of alum 
ina, prepared by dissolving damp, newly precipitated alumina in as small a quantity as 
possible of a concentrated solution of oxalic acid. The mixture thus prepared is next 
colored, when cold, with bruised or powdered cochineal, and after standing for 48 
hours, is strained, when it is fit for use." (Muspralt's C^'emistry, vol. ii. p. 378.) 

Blue Inks are now chiefly made either directly or indirectly from Prussian blue. 
Stephens's unchangeable blue ink is formed by dissolving this salt (which should be first 
well washed in a dilute mineral acid) in an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. Ink of 
which Prussian blue is the basis, is unaffected by any of the numerous physical causes 
which operate injuriously on black ink. unless it be exposed to a strong light, when the 
iron (which exists as a sesquioxide in Prussian blue) becomes deoxidized, and causes the 
color of this ink to fade; but on removing the writing from the influence of light, the 
color is restored. 

Purple, green, and yellow inks have been formed, by various chemists, but they are 
not of sufficient importance to claim a notice in this article. 

Sympnthetic Inks leave no trace of color upon the paper, but when exposed to heat or 
chemical action of some kind, become more or less distinctl}^ apparent. The following 
are a few^ of the principal kinds of this class of compounds. On writing with a solution 
of sugar (acetate) of lead or of ternitrate of bismuth, and washing the paper with a solu 
tion of hydrosulphuric acid (sulphureted hydrogen), the letters come out black. On 
writing with a solution of nitrate of cobalt, and washing the paper with a solution of 
oxalic acid, the letters come out bbie. On writing with a solution of subacetate of lead, 
and washing the paper with a solution of iodide of potassium, the letters come out yel- 



Ink. na 

lllU. ^" 

htir; or on Writing ■with a dilute solution of chloride of copper, and gently heating the 
l);iper, the letters wliicli were previously invisible assume a l)eautiful ydlow tint, wlueh 
disappears on cooling. On writing with a solution of arsenile of potash, and washing 
the paper with a solution of nitrate of copper, the letters come out green. 

2. Printing Ink is a soft glossy compound, altogether different in its composition from 
tiie inks wliich have been already described. The following ai"e, according to Mr. 
Underwood (in the paper ah'eady referred to), the necessar}^ conditions of a good print- 
ing iidv; 1. it must distribute freely; 3. It must liave much greater affinity for the paper 
iIkui tor tiie type; 3. It nuist dry almost immediately on the paper, but not (\vy at all on 
the type or rollers; tliis is a great desideratum, especiallyfor newspajjcrs; 4. It should be 
literaliy proof against the effects of timeand cliemical reagents, and sliould never change 
< o or. It is prepared by boiling tlie best linseed oil in an iron pot, kindling and allow- 
ing it to l)urn for a short time; by this operation the oil acquires the necessary drying 
([Uility. After being again boih.'d resin is dissolved in it, in order to conuuunicate body 
to the tluitl, which now somewhat resembles Canadian balsam. Tlie coloring matter — 
which is lampblack for black ink; carmine, lake, vermilion, etc., for red ink; inciigo or 
Prussian blue for l)lue ink; lemon and orange chrome (clu'omale and biclu'omate of lead), 
oi- gamboge, for yellow ink, etc. — is then added to the liot mixture, and tlie whole i3 
drawn otf. and finally gi'ound into a smooth uniform paste. 

In lithography a inriting and a printing ink are employed, both of which differ alto- 
gether from the compoiuids already descril)ed. The writing ink is composed, according 
to Muspratt, of the follovving materials; shellac, soap, white wax, and tallow in certain 
proportions, to wliich is added a strong solution of gum-saudarach, and it is colored with 
lampblack; wliile the printing ink, wiiich is employed to take impressions on paper 
fiiuii engraved plates, with a view to their transference to liie stone, is composed of 
I;, How, wax, soap, shellac, gum-mastic, black pitch, and lampblack. 

Y^\^ {nnle). Ancient Ink>i. — The inks of the ancients had nothing in common with 
(Hir-i except the color and the gum employed for obviating too great fluidity. Employ- 
ing broader-pointed pens than ours they required thicker inks, and though the compo- 
sition of these inks is not fully understood, yet it is certain tliat they excelled ours in 
boili richness and stability of color. Ample testimony to these characteristics is borne 
by existing papyri, whose age is more than 4,000 years, and by the lirown leatlier and 
white vellum 5lSS., of an age exceeding 3,000 years, which are now treasured in 
the museums of Europe. While some of these inks were pigments, like the India and 
C'iiinese inks of to-day, others seem to have been actual dyes of iron and acids, with the 
addition of a good deal of ivory-black, lampblack, soot, or other form of carbon. From 
Persius and Ausonius, we learn tint the Romans made use of the juice of the cuttle-fish, 
or sepia, wliich abounded in the Mediterranean. Most elegant manuscripts written in 
golden and silver inks have com; down to our day; and also a few written wholly in red 
ink, made of vermilion, purple, or cinnabar, though red was more frequently used for 
headings of books, chapters, and pages. The emperors of Constantinople were wont to 
sign tlie acts of tlieir sovereigtity witli red ink, and their first secretary was guardian of 
the vase coiuainingthe cinnabar or vermilion, wliicli only the em])eror might use. Green 
ink, tliougii rarely found in charters, often occurs in Latin manuscripts, especially those 
of later years It was also used by the guardians of tli(^ Greek emperors, befoie their 
wards obtained their majority. Blue or yellow inks, fortunately, were seldom employed 
in manuscripts; and in his Origin '(Did Progress of Writing, Thomas Astle said that he 
had neither found nor heard of the use of yeilow ink during the past 600 years. 

INK BERRY, Ilex glabra, a shrub belonging to the holly family (aquifoliacecp). Leaves 
eveigieen, an inch or more long, wedge-lanceolate or oblong, sparingly toothed toward 
the apex, of a l)eauliful dark gr^^en color, smooth and shining on the upper surface, 
peduncles, half an inch or more in length, the sterile ones being from 3 to 6 flow- 
ered, the fertile ones solitary and producing small black berries. The shrub is from 2 
to 4 ft. high and grows upon sandy soils along the coast of the United States from 
cape Cod to Florida. The leaves and bark have been used as a remedy in intermittent 
fever, but do not possess much power. Its principal use is for decoration, as a constit- 
uent in bouquets. It is brought to New York and Philadelphia in quantities from 
southern New Jersey. 

IITXERMANN, a small Tartar village in the Crimea, is situated near the eastern 
extremity of^lhe harbor of Seva.stopol. It is memorable for the battle which took place 
there, during the Russian w^ar. between an army of Russians 60,000 strong, and detach- 
ments of allied forces, consisting of about 14,000 troops actually engaged. At about 6 
o'clock on the morning of Nov. 5, 1854, the Russians, who had marched westward from 
Sevastopol, along the southern shore of the harbor, and whose movements were con- 
ceaievi by the darkness and a thick, drizzling rain, appeared crowding up the slopes of 
tlie plateau to the s., on which tlie allies were posted. Here a handful of men, about 
1400 strong, a portion of the "household guards," made a most heroic stand for six 
con.secutive hours against a body of Russians that was probably ten times as numerous. 
Reinforcements, both Eni>Tish and French, coming up to the rescue, the Russians were 
finally driven from the field. 



0*7 Infti 

-" « liiu. 

INLAND BILL of exchange menns a bill of exchang-e drawn bv and upon persons 
living ill the ir-aine country. The rules applicable to foreign bills differ in some respects 
from those applicable to inland bills. By a recent statute, all bills drawn by persons in 
England on persons in Scotland or Ireland, and vice cerm, are to be treated as inland 
I ii.s. 

INLAY ING is tlie art of decorating flat surfaces by the insertion of similar or differ- 
ent materials; thus, wood of one color is decorated by inlaying with others of different 
colors: to this kind of inlaying the French term marqueterie is now generally applied, 
^le.al of one kind is inlaid with other kinds, and often very beautiful effects aie pro- 
duced. Wlien steel is inlaid with gold or l)rass, it is usually called Damascene work. 
One variety produced in India is called Kuft-gori — in this, the inlaid metal, Ubiudly 
gold, occupies more of the surface than the meial forming the ground. Another beau- 
iiiul viiriely of Indian inlaying is called Tutenague or Bedery-work, which consists \n 
making the article to be inlaid, most frequently a hookah bowl, of an alloy consisting of 
( opper one part to pewter four parts. Tiiis is hard, but is easily cut; the pattern is then 
engraved, and little pieces of thin silver cut to the desired forms are dexterously ham- 
nieied into the spaces thus cut out to receive them. Ivory, pearl, shell, bone, tortoise- 
.snell, are favorite substances for inlaying wood; and stone or marble is inlaid with an 
immense variety of colored stones. In the art of stone-inlaying, the Florentines have 
long held the palm; their favorite work is black marble, with inlaid figures of briiliant- 
colored stones; this work is called pietra dura, or Florentine work. Very beautiful 
work of this kind, excelling the Florentine, is now made in the imperial works at St. 
Petersbtirg, where the art has of late been sedulously cultivated by the Russian govern- 
ment. This art was always a favorite one in Delhi and Agra, wliere some of the most 
exquisite work is still produced. Usually, in the Indian work, white marble forms the 
giound-work, and the figures are formed of carneliau, jasper, agate, jade, lapis-lazuli, 
and other costly hard stones. No stone-inlaying has ever rivaled tlie inlaid marble walls 
of the celebrated Taj Mahal, the tomb of the sultana of shah Jehan, at Agra. The 
designs are very artistic, the execution almost marvelous, and the harmony of color 
produced by the different stones employed is most beautiful. Many other materials than j| 
those mentioned are used for inlaying; and there is a style of inlaid-work in which small 
squares of colored stone, glass, or pottery are made to form pictorial and artistic decor- 
ations; this is called mosaic-work (q.v.). 

INLET, an arm of the sea open only on one side, and stretching into the land, is 
distinguished from a bay (q.v.) only by its smaller size, as a haven is, again, by still 
smaller dimensions, distinguished from an inlet. Examples of inlets are seen in the 
indentations of the w. coast of Norway; as of bays in the deeper and wider indentations 
of the coast of Italy. 

INMAN, Henry, 1801-46; b. N. Y. ; an eminent painter. With a preference for the 
military profession he intended to enter the academy at West Point, but on seeing 
at Jarvis's studio Wertmiiller's picture of Danae his purpose was changed; he became 
J! pupil of Jarvis, and early excelled in miniature painting. He afterwards devDted 
himself to portraits, and also to landscape, genre, and history. He spent some time in 
Boston and Philadelphia. His health failing, he visited Eng'and in 1844, where he 
]iainted portraits of Chalmers. Wordsworth, and Macaulay. On his return he began for 
the national capitol a series of historical pictures, one of which was "Daniel Boone of 
Kentucky," but which was unfinished at his death. Among his best works were the 
])ortraits of chief -justice Marshall and bishop White, his "Rip Van Winkle awaldng 
from his Dream," "Mumble the Peg." and "Boyhood of Washington." He was made 
^ ice-president of the national academy of design. He had a fine literary taste, and 
wrote several valuable sketches. 

INMAN. John O'Brien, son of Henry, an artist. From the west, where he hnd 
gained a reputation as a portrait painter, he came to New York and opened a studio. 
His flower-pieces and genre pictures have been much admired, and found a ready sale. 
He went to Italy in 1866. 

INN (ancient CFJnns), a river of Germany, the most important Alpine aflfluent of the 
Danube, rises in the s. of the Swiss canton of Orisons, at a height of 4,293 ft. above sea- 
level, and flowing n.e. through that canton forms the valley of the Engadine. It maiti- 
tains generally a n.e. course to its junction with the Daniibo. Leaving Switzerland, it 
enters the Austrian dominions at the village of Finstermlinz. flows through the crown- 
land of Tyrol, and crosses the s.e. angle of Bavaria, after which, forming the boundary 
between Bavaria and upper Austria, it enters the Danube at Passau, after a course (if 
28.") miles. Its principal aflHuent is the Salza from the south. It is regularly navigable 
from the town of Hall, 8 m. below Innsbruck. At its junction with the Danube the 
Inn is broader than the Danube itself. 

_ INN — INNKEEPER (see Hotel). In point of law, an inn is merely a house of enter- 
tainment for travelers, which any person may set up without license like any oilier trade. 
It is when excisable liquors are sold that a license is recpiired. Public-houses and ale- 
houses are, however, synonymous terms with inns, for the innkeeper almost invariably 
finds it expedient to obtain the necessary license to sell spirits and beer. As to these 



xtin. • 28 

liiiiacent. 

licences, see Beer Acts and Public-houses. The rights and duties of innkeepers 
irre.>>pective of the license will here be noticed. It may be observed, in the first place, 
that though public-houses are always inns, yet beer-houses are not so, the latter being 
merely shops for selling beer and a few other liquors, the distinguishing characteristic 
of the public-house being, that refreshment as well as lodging may be had on the prem- 
ises by all comers. Taverns are ciiieliy places for the sale of wines and liquors; 
victualing-houses, for the sale of victuals; cotfee-houses and hotels are also varieties, 
all of which may or may not be inns, according as they do or do not hold themselves 
out to give meat, drink, and lodgings to all travelers; and it is not at all necessary that 
any sigti-board be put up to distinguish the inn. 

One of the incidents of an innkeeper is that he is bound to open his house to all 
travelers without distinction, and has no option to refuse such refreshment, shelter, and 
accommodation as he possesses, provided the person who applies is of the description 
of a traveler, and able and ready to pay the customary hire, and is not drunk or dis- 
orderly, or tainted with infectious disease. He is, of course, bound only to give such 
accommodation as he has. If the traveler has a horse and kigg;ige, the innkeeper is 
bound to receive these also, if he has accommodation, provided the traveler himself 
intends to lodge there as a guest. But the traveler is not entitled to select whatever 
room he pleases, and if he will not accept such reasonable accommodation as is offered, 
the innkeeper can order him to leave the house. As some compensation for this com- 
pulsory hospitality, the innkeeper is allowed certain privileges; thus, he has a lien 
on the hoise and carriage or goods of the guest for that part of the bill or reckoning 
applicable to each respectively — i.e., he can keep these until he is paid for the keep, 
even though they ait not the property of the guest. But he cannot detain the person 
of his guest until payment is made, for, if so, a man might be imprisoned for life with- 
out any legal process or adjudication. While, however, an innkeeper has this remedy 
for his score, he is also liable to great responsibility for the safety of his guests and 
their goods. By the Roman law, under the edict nauicp, cmipones, siabuhdii, he was 
bound to restore safely whatever goods of his guests were intrusted to him, unless some 
damnum J atale, or some act of God. prevented his doing so. This rule has been adopt( d 
^by the law of England. Hence, if the guest be robbed of his goods at tlie inn, the 
innkeeper is liable, unless the robbery was caused by the guest's servant or companion, 
or by his own gross negligence, as, for example, by leaving a box containing money in 
the commercial room, after exposing its contents to the bystanders. So the innkeeper 
will be excused if the guest took upon himself the charge of his own goods, yet the 
guest does not take that charge by merely accepting from the landlord the key of the 
room, though that may l)e an element in the question. A guest who takes all reasonable 
precaution — as, for example, locking his room-door — and is j^et robi)ed, has therefore a 
good claim on the landlord for indemnity; and the landlord will not escape liability 
by putting up a notice in his rooms that he will not be answeiable for such losses, othci- 
wise guests would have no protection, for they are very much at the mercy of the 
keepers of such houses. It has been attempted to extend the com.mon-law liabilit}^ of 
innkeepers for the safety of the goods of their guests to ordinary lodging-house keepers, 
but the courts have held that an ordinary boarding-house keeper or lodging-house keep( r 
is only responsible for ordinary care, i.e., such care as he takes of his own goods. He 
must, it is true, be careful in selecting his servants, but he is not bound absolutely to 
return the goods safe merely because they were in his house along with the lodger. 

In Scotland the Roman rule of law as to the responsibility of innkeepers for the 
safety of the guest's goods has been also adopted, and the other heads of law are sub- 
stantially the same as in England, except that no indictment would lie in Scotland 
against an innkeeper for refusing a guest. But the substantial remedies are the same. 

INN — INNKEEPER {ante). The meaning attached to these terms in this country 
is almost if not quite identical with that which they bear in England. The duties and 
responsibilities of innkeepers to their guests are also the same in principle in lioth coun- 
tries. The only difference is that in many of the American states an innkeeper ^ho 
provides a safe for the use of his guests, and notifies them that they should place therein 
their "moneys, jewels, and ornaments," is not responsible for the loss of such artichs 
if the guest neglect to avail himself of this means of safety. The man who merely 
takes his meals in a public restaurant attached to an inn is not a guest of the inn itself; 
his rights are merely those of a casual boarder. An innkeeper may entertain boarders 
as w^ell as travelers, but his responsibility for the safety of the goods of, the former is 
nr^t the same as that which he assumes in the case of the latter. He is responsible not 
merely for the traveler's personal baggage, but for all the goods received into his cus- 
tody; and if they are lost or destroyed by any agency except "an act of God" — by 
wliieh is meant lightning, storm, earthquake, or anything outside of the ordinary course 
of events — he must pay for them. Of course if the traveler lose his goods by his own 
carelessness or that of his servant, the innkeeper is not responsible. 

INNATE IDEAS. See Common Sense. 

INNEE HOUSE, the name given in Scotland to the higher divisions of the court of 
session (q. v.). 



29 



Inn. 
Innocent. 



IWNER TEMPLE, one of the four inns of court in London having the exclusive 
privilege of calling persons to the English bar. See Inns of Coukt. 

INNES, Thomas, the author of A Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of Scot- 
land, was the second son of James Innes of Drumgask, in the ])aiisii of Aboyne, and 
CO. of Aberdeen. He \vas b. at Drumgask in the year 16(52, and at the age of 15 was 
sent by his father, a zealous Roman Catholic, to be educated at the university of Paris. 
He was ordained priest in 1691, and took his degree as master of arts in 1694. He con- 
tinued in France for some years, discharging his ecclesiastical duties, and assisting 
his elder brother, Lewis, principal of the Scots college at Paris, in arranging the valua- 
ble records wiiich had been deposited there by James Beaton, tlie last Roman Catholic 
archbishop of Glasgow. In 1698 Innes returned to Scotland, and othciated as a mission- 
ary priest at Inveravon, in the old diocese of Murray. He again went to Paris in 1701, 
and passed the rest of his life at the Scots college, with the exception of one or more 
visits which he made to Britain. The great object of his life was to write the true his- 
tory of Scotland, and to refute the fabulous narratives which had been hitherto gen- 
erally received by his countrymen. The latter part of his task was fully accomplished 
by his Critical Essay, which was published at London in 1729, in 2 vols. He had pre- 
pared himself for the work by a careful study of all the materials which he could lind in 
the libraries of France, and of the books, whether printed or in manuscript, which he 
was able to consult during his journeys to England and Scotland. lu the winter of 1724 
he w^as seen by Wodrow, who had one feeling at least in common with him, and who 
thus refers to him in his Analecta: "There is one father Innes, a priest, brother to 
father Innes of the Scots college at Paris, who has been in Edinburgh all this winter, 
and mostly in the advocates' library in the hours when open, looking at books and manu- 
scripts. He is not engaged in politics, so far as can be guessed; and is a monkish, book- 
ish person, who meddles with nothing but literature." In the Critical Essay, Innes 
examined the authorities on which depended what was then generally received as the his- 
tojy of Scotland, and showed how little reliance was to be placed upon them. But not 
content with overthrowing fable, he pointed out what the true history was, and where it was 
to be found. The difficulties in the way of this inquiry were very great. Even at the 
present day, when most of the materials for Scottish history have been printed, it is no 
teasy matter for the student to examine them. In Innes's time they were for the most 
part in manuscripts, whose veiy existence was unkncnvn except to a few antiquaries. 
Every subsequent writer on this portion of Scottish history has admitted the high merit 
and the practical usefulness of Innes's work. He gave his ready assistance to all wiio 
were engaged in pursuits similar to his own. particularly to bishop Keith in his History 
of Scotland and his Catalogue of Scottish Bishops, and to Dr. Wilkins in his Concilia 
Magnce Britannim et Hibcrnice. To this last work he also contributed a valuable letter 
on the ancient form of holding synods in Scotland. Innes died at Paris on Jan. 28, 1744, 
in the 82d year of his age. The Critical Esjay has now become a comparatively scarce 
work, but has never been reprinted. It was intended by its author to be an introduction 
1o a Civil and EcclesiasticLl History of Scotland. One volume of this History was prepared 
by its author for the press, extending from the introduction of Christianity to the death 
of St. Columba in 597; and another volume was also left in an incomplete state, bringing 
down the narrative to the year 821. The whole was printed in one volume by the Spal- 
ding club in 1853, under the editorship of Mr. Grub. Imperfect as it is, it forms a valu- 
able addition to our historical literature, being distinguished by the same learning, acute- 
ness, and moderation for which the Critical Essay is so remarkable. As has recently 
been observed, its author loved truth better even than he loved his church. A full 
biographical notice of Innes, and an account of his various works, will be found in the 
preface to his Civil and Ecclesiastical History. 

INNESS, George, b. N. Y., 1825; a landscape painter. He came to New York at 
the age of 16 to study eng?-aving, but on account of ill health returned to his parents, 
ih^ living in Newark, N. J. The next four years he spent at home, painting and 
sketching; and again coming to New York, he passed a month in Gignoux's studio, 
lie visited Europe twice, spending some time in Italy. After his return he lived in 
Boston. In 1862 he went to Eagleswood, N. J., where for a time he practiced his art. 
His work is in the style of Rousseau. Many of his landscapes are greatly admired. 
Among his best pieces are " The Sign of Promise," "Peace and Plenty," "A Vision of 
Faith," "Going Out of the Woods," "Passing Storm," "Summer Afternoon," "Twi- 
light," " Sun.shine and Shadow," " The Apocal3'ptic Vision of the New Jerusalem and 
River of Life," and "Light Triumphant." He now lives in Boston. 

INNISCATTERY. See Scattehy Island. 

INNISHERKIN, a small island on the s. coast of Ireland, belonging to the co. of 
Cork, from the shore of which it is separated by a channel a quarter of a mile in width, 
is about 1 m. n.e. of Clear island. It is well cultivated, and contains some good slate- 
quarries. Pop. upwards of 1000. 

INNOCENT, the name of 13 popes, the most remarkable of whom are the following. 
Innocent I., a native of All)ano, was elected bishop of Rome in 402. Next to the pon- 
tificate of Leo the great , that of Innocent I. forms the most important epoch in the 



Innocents. QQ 

III us. 

history of the relations of the see of Rome with the other churches, hoth of tlie east and 
of the west. Under him, according to Protestant historians, tlie system of naming 
legates to act in the name of the Konian bishop in different portions of the church origi- 
nated; while CathoUcs at least admit tliat it received a fuller organization and develop- 
ment. He was earnest and vigorous in enforcing tl:e celibacy of tlie clergy. He main- 
tained, with a firm hand, the right of the bisliop of Rome to receive and to judge appeals 
from otlier chiu-ches, and his letters abound with assertions of universal juri.-^.iiction, to 
which Catholics appeal as evidence of the early exercise of the Roman primacy, and 
from which dean Milman infers that there had alread}^ "dawned upon his mind the 
conception of Rome's universal ecclesiastical supremacy, dim as yet and shadowy, yet 
full and comprehensive in its outline" {Latin Chridiaidty, 1. p. 87). Innocent 1. died 
in 417. 

Iknocent ni. (LoTHAHio CoNTi), hy far the greatest pope of this name, v*'as b. at 
Anagni in 1161. After a course of much distinction at Paris, Bologna, and Rome, he 
was made cardinal; and eventujilly, in 1198, was elected, at the unprecedentedly early age 
of 37, a successor of pope Ceiestine III. His pontificate is justly regarded as the culnn- 
nating point of the temporal as well as the spiritual supremacy of the Roman see; and 
it is freely avowed by the learned historian of Latin Christianity, that if ever the 
great idea' of a Christian republic, "with a pope at its head, was to be realized, " none 
coidd bring more lofty or more various qualifications for its accomplishment than Iimo- 
cent III."(iv. p. 9). Accordingly, under the impulse of his ardent but disinterested 
zeal for the glory of the church, almost every state and kingdom was brought into .sub- 
jection. In Italy, during the nnnority of Frederick II. (son of the emperor Henry YI. , 
king of Italy), wlio was a ward of Innocent's, the authority of the pope within his ow.i 
states was fully consolidated, and his influence among the other states of Italy was con- 
firmed and extended. In Germany he adjudicated with authority upon the rival 
claims of Otlu) and Philip; and a second time he interposed effectually in l)eh:ili' of his 
ward, Fredeiick II. In France, espousing the cause of the injured Ingei'burga, ho 
compelled her unworthy husl)and, Philip Augustus, 1o dismiss Agnes do Meianic, 
"whom he had unlawfully married, and to take back Ingerburga. lu Spain he exer- 
cised a similar authority over the king of Leon, who had married within the prohibited 
degrees. The history of his conflict with the weak and unprincipled John of England 
would carry us beyond the space at our disposal. If it exhibits Innocent's character 
for consistent adherence to principle, and his lofty indifference to the suggestions of 
expediency, in a less favorable point of view than his other similar contests, it at the 
same time displays in a stronger liglit the extent of his pretensions and the completeness 
of his suprenuicy. In Norway ho exercised the same authority in reference to the 
usurper Svvero. In Aragon he received the fealty of the king Alfonso. Even the king 
of Armenia, Leo, received his legates, and accepted from them the investiture of his 
kingdom. And, as if in order that nothing might be wanting to the completeness of 
his authority throughout the then known world, the Latin conquest of Constantinople, 
and the establishment of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, put an end. at least during 
Ids pontificate, to the shadowy pretensions of the eastern rivals of his power, s])iritual as 
well as temporal. Pursuing consistently the great idea which inspired his entire career, 
his views of the absoluteness of the authority of the church within her own dominion 
were no less unbending than his notion of the universality of its extent. To him, every 
offense against religion was a crime against society, and, in his ideal Christian republic, 
every heresy was a rebellion which it was the duty of the rulers to resist and repress. 
It was at his call, therefore, that the crusade against the Albigenses was organized and 
undertaken; and although he can hardly be held responsible for the fearful excesses 
into which it ran, and although at its close he used all his endeavors to procure the 
restitution of the lands of the young count of Toulouse, yet it is clear from his letters 
that he regarded the undertaking itself not merely as lawful, but as a glorious enterprise 
of religion and piety. As an ecclesiastical adnunistrator. Innocent holds a high place 
in his order. He was a vigorous guardian of public and private morality, a steady pi'o- 
tector of the weak, zealous in the repression of simony and other abuses of the time. 
He prohibited the arbitrary multiplication of religious orders by private authority, but 
he lent all the force of his power and influence to the remarkable spiritual movement in 
which the two great orders, the Franciscan and the Dominican (q.v.), had their origin. 
It was under him that the celebrated fourth Lateran council was held in 1215. In the 
following year, he was seized with his fatal illness, and died in July at Perugia, at the 
early age of 50. His works, consisting principally of letters and sermons, and of a 
remarkable treatise On the Mucrij of lite CoiuUtion of Man, Avere published in two vols. 
folio (Paris, 1682). It is from these letters and decretals alone that the character of the 
age, and the true significance of the church-policy of this extraordinary man. can be 
fully understood; and it is only from a careful study of them that the nature of his 
views and objects can be realized in their integrity. However earnestly men may 
dissent from these views, no student of mediaeval history will refuse to acceiit dean 
Milman's verdict on the career of Linocent IIL, that " his high and blameless, and, in 
some respects, wise and gentle character, seems to approjich more nearly than any one 
of the whole succession of Roman l)ishops to the ideal light of a supreme pontiff";" and 



Ol Innocents. 

" ^ Inns. 

that "in him, if ever, may seem to be realized the churchman's highest conception of 
a vicar of Clirist" (Latin Christianity, iv. 277). 

Innocent Xf. (Benedetto Odescalchi), elected in 1670, was one of the most dis- 
tinguished among the popes of the 17tli century. He was a vigorous and judicious 
reformer, and his administration is entirely free fiom the stain of nepotism, which had 
sullied the fame of many of his predecessors. But his historical celebrity is mainly 
owuig to his contest with Louis XIV., which illustrates as well the personal character 
of the pontiff, as the peculiar spirit of the age. The dispute began from an attempt on 
the part of the pope to piit an end to the abuse of the king's keeping sees vacant, in vir- 
tue of what was called the Droit de Regale, and appr()i)rialing tlieir revenues. Tlie 
resistance to this aftempt drew forth the celebrated oechn-ations of tlie French clergy 
as to the Gailican liberties. See Gallican Church. But the actual conflict regarcUd 
the immunities enjoyed by the foreign ambassadors residing in Rome, ai d especi;illy tlie 
right of asylum, wliicli they claimed not only for their own residences, but also for a 
certain adjoining district cd" the city. These districts had gradually become so many 
foci of "crime, and of frauds upon the revenue; and the pope, resolving 1o put an end 
to so flagrant an abuse, gave notice that, while he would lespect the rights of the exist- 
ing ambassadors, he would not thereafter receive the credentials of any new ambassa- 
dor who should not renounce these abusive claims for himself and iiis successors. 
The great powers murmured at this threat, but it was wilh France that the crisis occnu- 
red, on the death of the marechal d'Estrees. The pope renewed his notice in May, 1687. 
Louis XIV., on the other hand, instructed his new ambassador to maintain the dignity 
of France, and sent a large body of military and naval olticers to support his preten- 
sions. Innocent persisted in refusing to grant an audience to the ambassador. Louis, in 
reprisal, seized on the papal territory of Avignon, and threatened to send a fleet to the 
coast of the papal states, but Innocent was immovable; and in the end, the ambassjulor 
was compelled to return with his credentials unopened, nor was the dispute adjusted till 
the following pontificate. Innocent died in 1689. 

INNOCENTS, HOLY, Feast of, one of the Christm.as festivals, held in the western 
church on Dec. 28, and in the eastern on the 29th, undei- a title similar to that of tlie 
Latin festival. It is intended to conmiemorate the massacre of the children " from twfi 
years old and upward" at Bethlehem. See Herod. These children are referred to ;is 
martyrs by St. Cyprian, and still more explicitly by St. Augustine; and it is to them 
that the exquisite hymn of Prudentius, Salvcte Flares Blartyrinn, is jiddressed. Tlie 
concurrence of the east and west in celebrating the festival is an evidence of its antiq- 
uity. In t.he modern (;hureh this feast is celebrated as a special holiday by the young, 
and many curious customs connected with it prevail in Catholic countries. One of 
these is, that in private families the children are on this day piivileged to wear the 
clothes of the elders, and in some sort to exercise auihorit}- over the household in tlieir 
stead. So also, in communities of nuns, the youngest sister becomes for this day 
superioress of the house, and exercises a sort of sportive authority even over the leal 
superiors. 

INNOMINATE ARTERY, Arteria innominnta, is the first large bi'anch given off 
from the arch of the aorta. It varies fi'om an inch and a half to two inches in length, 
and divides into the right carotid and the right subclavian arteries. See Circulation. 
Organs of. This artery, through which all the blood to the right side of the head and 
neck, and to the right arm, flows, has been tied by several surgeons for aneurism of Ihe 
right subclavian, but the operation has never been successful. An important fact has, 
however, been established, viz., that the circulation of the blood in the parts supplied 
by this large vessel is re-established by anastomosis (q. v.) after the operation. 

INNOMINATE BONE. See Pelvis. 

INNOVA'TION, OK Novation, a name sometimes given in the law of Scotland to the 
exchange or substitution of one obligation for another. It is in effect taking a fresh 
secui'ity. 

INNS OF COTJRT, the name given in England to certain voluntary societies which 
have the exclusive right of calling persons to the English bar. There are four such socie- 
ties in London, viz., the inner temple, the middle temple, Lincoln's inn. and Gray's inn. 
Each of these inns possesses certain smaller inns, which are mere collections of houses 
or cnambers, as Clifford's inn, new inn, Furnival's inn, etc. The four inns are each 
governed by a committee or board, called the benchers, .who are generally queen's 
counsel or senior counsel, self-chosen, i.e., each new bencher is chosen by the existing 
benchers. Each inn has also a local habitation, consisting of a large tract of houses or 
chambers, which are in general occupied exclusively by barristers, and sometimes by 
attorneys, and are a source of groat wealth. Each inn is self-governing, and quite distinct 
from the others, all, however, possessing equal privileges; but latterly they have joined 
in impo.sing certain educational tests for the admission of students. It is entirely in the 
discretion of an inn of court to admit any j^nrticular person asa member, for no member 
of the public has an absolute right to be called to the bar, there being no mode of com- 
pelling the inn to state its reasons for refusal. But, practically, no objection is ever 



liiowracliiW. 

made to the admission of any person of good clmrncter. Each inn has also tlie power 
of disbarring iis members, that is, yf withdi'uwing from them the right of i)racticing as 
counsel. This right has been rarely exeici.-td, l>ut Of late years there have been exam- 
ples of persons abasing their profession, ana ii.dnlging in dishonest practices; in sucli 
cases the inn has its own mode of inquiring mio the facts affecting the character of a 
member, and is not bound to make the investigation public. By this high controlling 
power over its nft-mbers, a higher character is supposed to be given to the bar as a body, 
tlian if each individual was left to his own devices, unchecked, except by the law. See 

IJAKUISTEU. 

INNSBSTJCK, capital of the Tyrol, is charmingly situated on tUe Inn, at its junction 
with the Sill, at the height of 1900 ft. above' sea-level, in the midst of a valley, 
surrounded by mountains ranging from 6,000 to 9,200 ft. high. It lies on the right bank 
of the Inn, and is connected with the suburb of St Nicolaus, on the left bank, by 
a wooden bridge, from which the name of the town {lull's Brilcke, Ger. the Inn's 
Bridu'e) is derived. The Inn is also crossed by a chain bridge a little below the town. 
The'lFranciscan church, or hofkirche, architecturally uninteresting, is remarkable for 
its elaborate monument to the emperor Maximilian I., which, though constructed iit 
the request of Maximilian, and intended for his burial-place, does not contain his 
remains. The monument consists of a marble sarcophagus supporting the emperor's 
effigy in bronze, in a kneeling posture; while on both sides of the aisle are rows of 
monumental bronze figures, 28 in niunber, representing a variety of distinguished 
personages, male and female. In this church, on Nov. 3, 1651, Christina (q.v.) of 
Sweden was solemnly received into the Roman Catholic church. The other chief 
buildings are the Ferdinandeum, a museum containing a collection of the productions 
of the Tjn-ol in art, literature, and natural history; and the university (founded in 1G72, 
and, after sevei-al vicissitudes, organized anew in 182.j), with faculties, which has now 
upwards of 500 students and about 70 professors and lecturers. Innsbruck carries on 
important manufactures of ^voolen cloth, silk, gloves, ribbons, and carved work, as 
well as a flourishing transit trade. It is connected with Munich by railway, and a 
railroad across the Brenner pass, completed in 1867, unites Innsbruck with Botzen and 
Verona. Pop '69, 16,810. 

INNUEN DO, a part of a pleading in cases of libel and slander, pointing out what 
and who was meant by the libelous matter or description. 

INNUIT. See Esquimaux, ante. 

INO, in Grecian mythology, was the daughter of Cadmus and Ilarmonia. Athamas 
king of Thebes, having divorced Nephele, whom he had married by the command of 
Juno, then married Ino, who bore him two sons, Learchus and Melicertes. Ino, jealous 
of Piirixus and iielle, the sons of Nephele, aslier sons' rivals to the throne, sought to 
destroy them. This so enraged Juno that she made Athamas mad, who in his frenzy 
killed his .son Learchus. Ino, fleeing with Melicertes in her arras, pursued by her 
husband, leaped into the sea, and was changed by the gods into a sea-goddess under the 
name of Leucothea. The story of Ino is used with many variations by Sophocles and 
other Greek dramatists. 

INOCARPUS (7. eduli.i), the mape or rata of the South sea islands, is a tree important 
to tliL'ir inhabitants for its fruit, a nut covered with a thin fibrous husk, which supplies 
a considerable part of their f;3od, and is sometimes called the South sea island chestnut. 
Tlie fi'uit is pulled in a green state, and roasted. The tree is a very beautiful one, of 
stately giowth and fine foliage; the leaves oblong, 6 or 8 in. long, evergreen, but of 
delicate texture. It is one of those which, as they advance in age, instead of increasing 
unifoi-inly in thickness, throw out buttresses to support the trunk. Small projections 
first appear, extending in nearly straight lines from the root to the branches, which 
finally become like so many planks covered with bark. The central stem continues for 
many years perhaps only 6 or 7 in. in diameter, whilst the buttresses, 2 or 3 in. thick, 
extend from it at the bottom, 2, 3, or 4 feet. These natural planks are used for paddles 
of canoes and other purposes. 

INOCULATION. If the matter of a variolous (or small-pox) pustule, taken after the 
commencement of the eighth day, be inserted in or beneath the skin of a person who 
has not previously suffered from small-pox, the following phenomena are induced: 1. 
Local inflammation is set up; 2. At the end of six days there is fever similar to that of 
small-pox; and 3. After the lapse of three more days, there is a more or less abundant 
(•ru|)tion of pustules. This process is termed inoculation, and the disease thus produced 
is denominated inoculated small-pox. The disease produced in this artificial manner is 
nuich simpler and less dangerous than ordinary small-pox; and as it was an almost 
certain means of preventing a subsequent attack of the ordinary di-ease, inoculation 
was much practiced till the discovery (about 1796*) of the antivariolous power of 
vaccination. 

* This was the year in which Jenner inoculated his tirst case (the boy Phipps) with matter taken 
from the hand of a girl who had been directly infected by the cow. He was aware of the protective 
efficiency of cow-pox as early as 1770, and mentioned the circumstance in that year to his master, 
.John Hunter. 



qo Innsbruck. 



The importance of inoculation was re(;ognizc{l in the cast at a very early period. 
;;or(ling to Dr. Colliuson {Sinall-2K>x and Vacci nation Historically and MedicdUy Con- 



Th 

Acc( ^ . - 

iiidei-ed, p. 14), the Chinese had practiced tliis i)rocess from the Cth c, and tlie Brali- 
inins from a very remote antiquity. In Persia, Armenia, and Georgia it was in use, 
and it is even said to liave been employed in Scotland and Wales. It was not, how- 
ever, till lady Mary Wortley Moulagu wrote her celebrated letter from Adrianople 
ill 1717 that the operation became generally known in this country. In that letter slie 
writes: " The small-pox, so fatal and so general amongst us, is here entirely harmless, 
by the invention of engrafting, which islhe term they give it. Every year, thousands 
undergo the operation. There is no example of any one who has died of it, and you 
may believe that I am well satistied of 'the safety of this experiment, since I intend lo 
try it on my dear little son." Four years afterwards, she had her daughter publicly 
inoculated in this country; the experiment was then performed successfully on six 
condenuied criminals at Newgate, and on the strength of these successful cases, "the 
critical ccuirse was taken of inoculating two children of Caroline, princess of Wales, 
which gave a sanction to the practice." — Colliuson. op. cit. p. lo. 

Inoculation was not, however, thoroughly established for more than a quarter of a 
century after its introduction. It met with virulent opposition both from tlie medical 
profession and the clergy. A sermon is extant which was preached in 1722, l)y the rev. 
Edward Massey, in which it is asserted that " Job's distemper was confluent small-pox, 
and that he had been inoculated by the devil." The great drawback to inoculation 
turned out, however, to be this: while it was invaluable to him who underwent the 
operation, and completely guarded him from the natural disease in its severe form, its 
effect upon the community at large was extremely pernicious, in keeping alive the 
n;itural diseas2, and increasing its spread amongst those w'ho were not protected by 
inoculation. While one in five or six of those who took the natural disease died, the 
average number of deaths at the inoculation hospital was only 3 in lOUO; and 3'et, 
according to the authority of Ileberden, in every thousand deaths within the bills of 
mortality in the first oO years of the 18th c. (before inoculation was at all general), only 
74 were due to small-pox. The deaths from this disease amounted to 95 in 1000 during 
the last 30 years of the century; so that, notwithstanding the preservative effects of 
inoculation on almost all who were operated on, the total number of deaths from this 
disease increased in 100 years in the ratio of about 5 to 4. Moore {The History of Small- 
pox, 1815) states that, at the beginning of the 18th c, about one-fourteenth of the popu- 
lation died of small-pox; whereas, at the latter end of the same century, the number 
(notwithstanding, or perliaps rather in consequence of, inoculation) had increas;'d to one- 
tenth ; and this immense consumption of human lives was not the total evil, for many 
survivors were left with the partial or entire loss of sight and with destroyed constitu- 
tions. From these remarks it will be seen that the benefits which were expected from 
inoculation were far from being realized, and small-pox would doubtless have gone on 
increasing in its destructive ])OWer, if it had not been checked by Jenaer's invaluable^ 
discovery of vaccination (q.v,). 

INOFFI'CIOIJS TESTAMENT, a will made whereby near relatives have not been pro- 
vided for by the testatcn-. 

INOSITE, or Phaseomannite (Gr. ?koC, muscle). CcTTicOr,. a variety of glucf>se, or 
grape sugar, named from its occurrence in the nuiscular substance of the heart as tirst 
siiown by Scherer. Cloetta found it in the lungs, kidneys, spleen and liver, and Miiller 
in the brain. It is also contained in urine in diabetes mellitus, and in Bright's disease of 
the kidneys, and also in abundance in the vegetable kingdom, as in the unripe fruit of 
j.'haseolas vulgaris, green kidney beans, peas, cabbage, asparagus, and many other plants. 
By careful crystallization, it is obtained in beautiful rhombic tables resembling gypsum. 
In microscopic preparations it has the form of fine prismatic tufts. It readily (lissolves 
in water, but is insoluble in alcohol or ether. It does not ferment under the influence 
of yeast, but with cheese, flesh, and decaying animal tissues in the presence of chalk, 
it undergoes lacteous fermentation — lactic, butyric, and carbonic acids being formed. 
Inosite is unchanged when heated with dilute mineral acids, and also when boiled in 
strong aqueous solutions of potash or baryta, without being colored. If inosite be evapo- 
rated nearly to dryness, and a small portion of calcium chloride and ammonia be added, 
upon re-evaporation a beautiful, characteristic rose color will be produced. See 
Sugar. 

IXO'UYE KAYO'RU. A Japanese statesman b. in Choshiu. Sent to Europe by 
his daimio in 1863 to study, he returned in 1864 and endeavored, by acting as mediator 
to his clansmen, to prevent the bombardment of Shimonoseki in 1864. He was appointed 
minister of finance. He went to Corea, and negotiated the treaty with Corea, Feb. 27. 
1876. after which he visited the centennial exposition at Philadelphia. He was appointed 
minister of foreign alfairs, 1879. Under his conduct the treaties with Japan will be 
revised. 

INOWEA'CLAW (called also Jung Breslau, " Young Breslau "), a small t. of Prussia. 
in the government of Posen, is situated on an eminence in a fruitfid plain, 26 m. s.s.e. of 
Bromberg. It is an ill-built town; contains many religious edifices: carries on a con- 
U. K. yilL— 3 



In Partibus. OA 

lutiuisitiuu. 

siderable trade, especially in brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of machinery; 
and has a pop. of, 75, 9,139. 

IN PARTIBUS INFIDE'LIUM (Lat., "in the regions of the unbelievers"). Titular 
bishops in the churcli of Konie have been styled bisliops in partibus injideliuin since tlie 
13th century. They are actual bishops, who have no diocese, and take their titles from 
places where there is now no bishop's see, but where there once was. This practice 
originated after the Greek schism, and became general in the time of the Crusades. The 
places conquered by the crusaders in the east were furnished with Roman Catholic bish- 
ops; but when these conquests were again lost, the popes continued to appoint and con- 
secrate the bishops, as a continual protest against the power which had prevailed over 
their alleged right, and to signify their hope of restitution. The same policy has been 
pursued with regartl to Protestant countries. But in Britain the assumption of terri- 
torial titles being illegal and dangerous, the Roman Catholic bishops actually resident 
have usmJly borne titles derived from distant places. Thus, till 1878, the bishop in 
Edinburgh was styled bishop of Abila. The Roman Catholic bishops in England were 
similarly designated from places abroad until 1850, when their assumption of titles 
from their actual sees gave prodigious otfense to the church of England, and led to the 
passing of the ecclesiadical titles bill, which, however, remained a dead letter, and was 
repealed in 1871. 

IN PERSONAM. See In Rem. 

INQUEST. See Coronek. 

INQUEST OP OFFICE, a process to put the king or the state in possession of 
escheated lands or tenements, goods or chattels. The case must be tried by a jury, not of 
any particular number of persons; it may be twelve, or more or less tlian that number, as 
may happen to be convenient. In this country the process is resorted to when real 
property is to be forfeited to the state for want of heirs. In states where aliens, by the 
operation of the common law, are not allowed to hold real estate, an inquest of office 
would be applicable to vest in the state the title to lands in their possession. 

INQUISITION, in English law, is the return or report made by a sheriff or coroner as 
to tile tinding of a jury on matters inquired into. 

INQUISITION, The, called also the Holy Office, a tribunal in the Roman Catholic 
church for the discovery, re])ression. and punishment of heresy, unbelief, and other 
'Offenses against religion. From the very first establishment of Christianity as the 
religion of the Roman empire, laws, more or less severe, existed as in most of the ancient 
•religions, for the repression and punishment of dissent from the national creed; and tlie 
^emperors Theodosius and Justinian appointed officials called "inquisitors," whose 
-special duty it was to discover and to prosecute before the civil tribunals oft'cnscs of this 
(Class. The ecclesiastical cognizance of heresy, and its punishment by si)iiitual cen- 
sures, belonged to the bishop or the episcopal synod; but no special machinery for the 
jpurpose was devised until the spread, in the 11th and 12th centuries, of certain sects 
ateputed dangerous alike to the state and to the church — the Cathari, Waldenses, and 
Albigenses — excited the alarm of the civil as well as of the ecclesiastical authorities. In 
ithe then condition of the public mind, however differently it is now constituted, heresy 
"Was regarded as a crime against the state, no less than against the church. An extra- 
ordinary commission was sent by pope Innocent III. into the s. of France to aid the 
local authorities in checking the spread of the Albigensian lieresy. The fourth Latcran 
*eo(iaiicil (1215) earnestly impressed, both on bishops and magistrates, the necessity of 
iriieTeased vigilance against heresy; and a council held at Toulouse directed that in each 
parish the priest, and two or three la}' men of good repute, should be appointed to 
€xaimine and report to the bishop all such off'enses dis(;()vered within the district. 

So far, however, there was no permanent court distinct from tiiose of the bishops; but 
TUiader Innocent IV., in 1248, a special tribunal for the puri)nse was instituted, the chief 
dir^stion of which was vested in the then recently established Dominican order. The 
inquisition thus constituted became a general, instead of. as previously, a local tribunal; 
and it was introduced in succession into Italy, Spain, Germany, and the southern prov- 
inces of France. So long, moreover, as this constitution remained, it must be regarded 
^s a strictly papal tribunal. Accordingly, over the French and German inquisition of 
the following century tlie popes exercised full authority, receiving appeals against the 
rigor of local tribunals (Fleury. v. 266), and censuring, "or even depriving." the 
inquisitor for undue severity {ibid. 303). In France, theinquisition was discontinued 
under Philip the handsome: and though an attempt was made under Henry II. to revive 
it against the Huguenots, the effort was unsuccessful. In Germany, on the appearance 
of the Beghards (see Beguines), in the beginning of the 14th c, the inquisition came 
into active operation, and inquisitors for Germany were named at intervals by various 
popes, as Urban V., Gregory XI., Boniface IX., Innocent VIII.. down to the reforma- 
tion, when it fell into disuse. In England, it was never received, all the proceedings 
against heresy being reserved to the ordinary tribunals. In Poland, though established 
in 1327. it had but a brief existence. The history of tlie times of its introduction and 
of its discontinuance in the various states of Italy, would carry us beyond the limits at 
our command. 



q~ In PartibNSi 

It is the history of the inquisition as it existed in Spain, Portugal, and their depend- 
encies, that has al)Sorbed almost entirely the I'eal interest of this painful subject. As 
an ordinary tribunal similar to those of other countries, it had existed in Spain from au 
early period. Its functions, however, in these times were little more than nominal; but 
early in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, in conseqnence of the alarms created by 
the alleged discovery of a plot among the Jews and the Jewish converts — who had been 
required either to emigrate or to conform to Christianity — to overthrow the government, 
an application was made to the pope, Sixtus IV., to permit its reorganization (147t>); 
but in reviving the tribunal, the crown assumed to itself the right of appointing tiic 
inquisitors, and, in truth, of controlling the entire action of the tribunal. From this 
date forwards. Catholic writers regard the Spanish inquisition as a state tribunal, a 
character which is recognized by Kanke, Gu.izot, Leo, and even the great anti-papal 
authority, Llorente; and in dissociating the church generally, and the Roman see ilsell, 
from that state tribunal. Catholics refer to the bulls of the pope, Sixtus IV., protesting 
against it. Notwithstanding this protest, however, the Spanish crown maintained its 
assumption. Inquisitors were appointed, and iu 1483 the tribunal commenced its tei'- 
rible career, under Thomas de Torquemada. The popes, feeling their protest unsuccess- 
ful, were compelled, from considerations of prudence, to tolerate what thej-^ were pow- 
erless to suppress; but several papal enactments are enumerated by Catholics, the oL'ject 
of which was to control the arbitrary action of the tribunal, and to mitigate the rigor 
and injustice of its proceedings. Unhappily, these measures were ineffective to control 
the fanatical activity of the local judges. The number of victims, as stated by Llorente. 
the popular historian of the inquisition, is positively appalling. He affirms that during 
the 16 years of Torquemada's tenure of office, nearly 9,000 were condemned to the 
flames. The second head of the inquisition, Diego Deza, in eight years, according to 
the same writer, put above 1600 to a similar death; and so for the other successive^ 
inquisitors-general. But Catholics loudly protest against the credibility of these fearful 
allegations. It is impossible not to see that Llorente was a violent partisan; and it is 
alleged that in his work on the Basque Provinces, he had already proved himself a venal 
and unscrupulous fabricator. x\lthough. therefore, he has made it impossible to dis- 
prove his accuracy by appealing to tlie original papers, which he himself destroyed, yet 
his Catholic critics — as Hefele iu his Lifa of Cardinal Xlmenes — have produced from his 
own work many examples of contradictory and exaggerated statements; Prescott, iu 
his Ferdinand and Isabella (iii. 467-470). has pointed out many similar instances; Kanke 
does not hesitate {Filrsten und Volker der Slid. Earopas, i. 242) to impeach his honesty; 
and Prescott pronounces his "computations greatly exaggerated," and his "estimates 
most improbable" (iii. 468). Still, with all the deductions which it is possible to make, 
the working of the inquisition in Spain and in its dependencies even in the new world, 
involves an amount of cruelty which it is impossible to contemplate without horror. 
When it was attempted to introduce it into Naples, pope Paul III., in 1546, exhorted 
the Neapolitans to resist its introduction, "because it was excessively severe, and 
refused to moderate its rigor by the example of the Roman tribunal" (Llorente, ii. 147). 
Pius IV., in 1563, addressed a similar exhortation on the same ground to the Milanese 
{Ibid. ii. 237); and even the most bigoted Catholics unanimously confess and repudiate 
the barbarities which dishonored religion by assuming its semblance and its name. 

The procedure of the inquisition deserves a brief notice. »The party, if suspected of 
heresy, or denounced as guilty, was liable to be arrested and detained in prison, onlyj;^ 
])e brought to trial when it might seem fit to his judges. Tlie proceedings were con- 
<lucted secretly. He was not confronted with his accusers, nor were their names even 
then made known to him. The evidence of an accomplice Avas admissible, and the 
accused himself was liable to be put lo the torture, in order to extort a confession of Ids 
guilt. The punishments to which, if found guilty, he was liable, were death by fire, as 
exemplified in the terrible xiuto da Fe (q.v.), or on tiie scaffold, imprisonment in the 
galleys for life or for r. limitcfi period, forfeiture of propeity, civil infamy, and in minor 
cases, retractation and pubHc p. 'nance. This form of procedure is strangel}'' at variance 
with modern ideas; but ii is fair to recollect that some of the usnges were but the ordi- 
nary |>rocL'dures in all the courts of the age, whether civil or ecclesiastical. 

The rigor of tlie Spanish inquisition abated in the latter part of the 17th century. 
In the reign of Charles III., it was forbidden to punish capitally without the royal war- 
rant; and in 1770 the royal authority was required as a condition even for an arrest. 
From 1808, under king Joseph Bonaparte, the inquisition was suppressed until the 
restoration: it was again suppressed on the establishment of the constitution in 1820; 
but it Avas partially restored in 1825; nor was it till 1834 and 1835 that it was finallv 
abolished in Spain, its property being apj)lied to the liquidation of the national debt. 

The inquisition was established in Portugal in 1557, and its jurisdiction was extended 
to the Portuguese colonies in India. The rigor of its processes, however, was much 
initiirated in the 18th c, and under John VI. it fell altogether into disuse. 

The inquisition in Rome and the papal states never ceased, from the time of its 
establishment, to exercise a severe and watchful control over heresy, or the suspicion 
of heresy, which offense was punished by imprisonment and civil disabilities; but of 
capital sentences for heresy, the history of the PiOman inquisition presents few instances, 
and, according to Bajmez {On CkilLalion, p. loZ), that tribunal "has never been known 



36 

Inquisition. 

to order the execution of a capital sentence" for the crime of lieresy. Tlic tribunal still 
exists under the direction of a congregation, but its action is conimed to tiie exanuna- 
tion of books and tlie trial of ecclesiastical otfenses, and questions of chur(;h law, us in 
the recent case of the boyMortara; and its most remarkable prisoner in recerit times 
^vas an oriental impostor, who, by means of forged credentials, succeedetl in obtaining 
liis ordination as a bishop. — See Llorente's 7sto/'m Critica de la Inquisicion ; Prescotl's 
Fcrdiimnd and Imhella ; llefele's l)er Cardinal Ximenes ; cine Biograplue ; Bahnez, 
Catholicism and Protestantism compared in Relation to CiDilization. 

INQUISITION {a.ite). The first Christian emperors, following the example of their 
predecessors in regarduig themselves as legal masters of all things within the empire, 
assumed the control of theological opinion and the punishment of errors therein. Con- 
stantine banished Arius, after his condemnation by the council of Nica}a, and ordered 
Lis books to be burned. He afterwards banished Athanasuis. Constantius, 383, 
inflicted the same punishment on Ilosius of Cordova because he refused to condemn 
Athanasius. Theodosius, having resolved to exterminate Arianism, compelled the arch- 
bishop of Constantinople to resign, directed his lieutenant to expel by force of arms all 
the Arian clergy from the churches, issued man}^ edicts against all heretics, and was the 
first of the Christian emperors to inflict the penalty of death on a Christian becau^^e of 
heretical opinions. In the 8tli c. synodal courts increased the facililies for detecting 
and punishing heresy. 

The inquisition in France. In the latter part of the 12th c. various sects called 
lieretical, such as the Cathari, Albigenses, and Waldeuses, had increased so nuich, espe- 
cially in the s. of France, that very vigorous measures to destroy them were deemed 
iiecessar}^ Papal legates, accordingly, were sent to assist in the work; and from that lime 
tlie inquisition became a permanent institution. The w^ork of seeking out and punishing 
heresy was systematically pursued. Two or three persons in each parish, and, if neces- 
sary, all the inhabitants, were made sworn agents in discovering those who were heret- 
ical, who held secret meetings, or forsook, in any particular, the prescribed course. They 
Av ho refused to take the oath exposed themselves to the suspicion of heresy. Bisho| s 
who were not zealous in searching out the heretical were deprived of ofilce; and, 
Avhethcr zealous or not, they were under the supervision of the legates, who in fact con- 
trolled the work. The commission, which the council of Toulouse required to bo 
appointed in each parish, w^as to be employed exclusively in searching out heretics and 
in reporting them for trial and punishment. He who concealed the guilty forfeited his 
offices and lands. The house which sheltered them wr.s to be destroyed. If they were 
sick, no physician w^as allowed to visit them. The penitent among them, clad in a pecu- 
liar garb, were driven from their homes, and, unless specially favored by the pope, 
were deprived of all office. But as, notwithstanding all I'lese measui-es, heresy still 
prevailed, the inquisition was made a jiapal tribunal to wiiich the bishops themselves 
v/ere subjected and over which the monks oi the Dominican order were appointed the 
])ermanent head. Their eagerness in the woi'k so' n gave popular currency to a satir- 
ical change of their name into Domini canes (the dogs of the Lord). The civil authority 
Avas made the executioner of the judgments which they pronounced. Persons v.ho 
were even suspected of heresy were liable to imprisonment, accomplices and criminals 
were received as witnesses, •the accused never saw his accusers nor was told who they 
wete. Torture for compelling confession was at first allov/ed to be used only under the 
authority of the civil power; but afterwards, in order to maintain secrecy, the inquisi- 
tors themselves applied it at their pleasure. The jurisdiction and also the emoluments 
of tlie tribunal Avere enlarged by extending the meaning of the word heresy so as to 
include usury, fortune telling, insult to the cross, contempt of the clergy, and connec- 
tion Avith leprous persons, Jews, and demons, demonolatry, and Avitchcraft. Those who 
recanted were condemned to practice penance of the severest kind, and were often 
deprived of all their privileges, rights, and property. Those who barely escaped con- 
viction were imprisoned for life; and the obstinate and the relapsed were put to death 
at the stake by the secular arm. In 1252 Innocent IV. commanded that accused per- 
sons should be tortured not only to make them confess then* OAvn heresy, but also to 
reveal that of others. 

In Germany the first inquisitor Avas Conrad of Marburg, who administered the oflhice 
Avith great severity (1231-33). The sentences of death Avhich he pronounced wTre all 
approved by the emperor, Ferdinand II., but Avere so vigorously opposed by the nobil- 
ity and people that very few of them could be executed. In 1233 the loAver orders of 
]>eople, taking the law into their own hands, attacked and killed Conrad in the streets 
of Strasburg. AVhen the Beghards appeared, 1367, Urban V. appointed two Dominicans 
inquisitors, who, countenanced by the emperor, Charles IV., renewed in Germany the 
cruelties practiced by their order in France. Afterwards the number of inquisitors Avas 
increased to six for the n. of Germany alone. As the reformatory influences increased, 
the general work of the inquisition was diminished, but in the latter part of the 15th 
c. a special zeal against sorcery and witchcraft Avas awakened, under the transient ])OAver 
of wliich many persons Avere put to death. In the IGlli c. the refornnition overthrew 
the tribunal, and all subsequent efforts to set it up again in Germany proved vain. 

In Italy the inquisition, partially introduced under the Dominicans in 1224, was 



n*7 

*-* • Inquisition. 

fully cstMblislied by Grc2:oVy IX. in 123."). lis power was first direetecl chiefly against 
the Waldeiises, who, having fled from ihe s. of France to Piedmont, were tilling Italy 
with their doctrine. Afterwards it took in Iiand otiier heresies also; but it was greatly 
weakened by the schism in the pai)acy and by political agitations in the free states of 
Italy. About the middle of the 14; h c, notwithstanding the opposition and the censures 
of Clement VI., measures were generally ado])ted to restrain its exorbitant power. The 
inquisitors were compelled to associate the bishop,s with them in examining accused 
])ersons; they were restricted to the cogidzance of heresy alone, and the power of 
imprisonment, coiiflsciUion, tine, and corporal punisliment was remanded to the secular 
arm. But such procedure having proved insufficient for suppressing free inquiry and 
maintaining the authority of the church, Paul III. instituted a supreme and universal 
inquisition at Konie, consisting of six cardinals, and having authority on both sides of 
the Alps to try all causes of heresy, with the power of arresting and impiisoniug sus- 
pected persons and their abettors, of whatsoever estate, rank, or order. The grace of 
reconciliation and absolution the pope retained in his own hands. He assumed also the 
authority of the judge, and arrogated the power of life and death even over the subjects 
of the different governments of the world. These cardinal inquisitors soon made them- 
selves feared in Italy and all countries over which they had influence. In Rome they 
executed their victims with less publicity but more fiequency than the Spanish inquisi- 
tors. They were tyrannical also in their ti'eatment of the press. Some books they 
destroyed, others they disfigured, and all printers they restrained from doing any work 
without a license from them. Opposition to them, however, everywhere arose. The 
republic of Venice, refusing to receive a tribunal responsil)le only to the pope, insisted 
that with his officers a certain number of Venetian magistrates and lawyers should 
always be joined, and that the final sentence concerning laypersons should be subnntted 
to the senate before it was announced. The Neapolitans a'^t the beginning of the 16th c. 
had twice resisted successfully the establishment of tlie inquisition aniong them. In 
1546 the emperor. Charles V., renewed the attempt to introduce it into Naples, and 
according to the Spanish model. But the people, rising in arms against it, refused to 
receive anything more than a tribunal of limited powei's similar to that of Venice. In 
Sicily, Spain supplied an inquisitor; and after the Iribnnal had been for a time abolished, 
it was restored in 17S2, and was retained until 1808, when Napoleon, as king of Italy, 
abolished it. In Sardinia, having been restored by Gregory XVI. in 1833, it continued 
until the revolution of 1848. In Tuscany three commissioners, elected by the congre- 
gation at Rome, in concert with the local inquisitor, handed over their sentence to the 
duke, who was bound to execute it. In addition to this provision the " hol}^ office" 
exerted its infiuence with the local authorities to send accused persons, especially 
ecclesiastics and strangers, to be tried at Rome. Since the abrogation of the pope's tem- 
poral power the tribunal still exists at Rome, but its j^ublic action is greatly restrained. 

Spain. The inquisition was commenced, 1242, in Aragon. where the council of 
Tarragona gave instructions to the Dominicans. During the 13th and 14th centuries its 
power was directed fiercely against the Albigenses, M'ho were numerous in that part of 
Spain. St. Ferdinand sometimes threw the fagots on the pile, and John II. hunted the 
heretics of Biscay as wild beasts among the mountains. By the middle of the *15th c, 
vvhen the heresy of the Albigenses had been almost extirpated, new material for the 
inquisition was found among the Jews, many of wjiom, having professed conversion 
to Christianity, were suspected of being still unbelievers. After the union of Aragon 
and Castile the inquisition was reorganized in a more malignant form with the zealous 
approval of Ferdinand and the reluctant assent of Isabella. The first three general 
inquisitors, Torquemada, Desa, and Ximenes, made their names infamous by cruelties 
which, after all the deductions which can possibly be claimed, appear improbable and 
almost incredible, simply because of the multitude of the victims, and of the horrible 
sufferings to which they were doomed. 

In Portugal the efforts made to establish the inquisition failed almost entirely until 
after the union with Spain. It was then, under Spanish influence, introduced, yet not 
without diflficulty, and only as a tribunal of the crown. The pope protested against this 
independent feature of it. but was compelled to tolerate v'hat he could not prevent, and 
to be satisfied with a share in the proceedings and of the pecuniary gains. The highest 
tribunal was at Madrid, and the grand inquisitor was appoined' hy the king, subject 
nominally to approval by the pope. Wlien Portugal became again an independent king- 
dom, John IV. endeavored to abolish the inquisition, but was prevented by the opposi- 
tion of the Jesuits and priests. In the 18th c. Pedro II. succeeded in imposing restraints 
on the tribunal; in the next reign, the Jesuits having been expelled, its power was still 
further diminished; and under John VI. it was abolished, and the record of its proceed- 
ings burned. 

Into the Netherlands the inquisition was introduced in the 13th c, and exerted its 
authority severel3^ Under Spanish influence it was especially active during the reforma- 
tion. In 1521 Charles V, published at Worms an edict against heretics, and appointed 
two inquisitors for the Netherlands, who, entering immediately on their work, were 
greatly aided by the regent, Margaret of Austria, and Granvella. bishop of Arras. 
Nevertheless, tlie reformation spread, and Charles, bent on destroying it, commanded 
the inquisition to be reorganized after the Spanish model. ■■ This command he after- 



In Rem. QQ 

Insanity. 

wards modified in consequence of tlic courageous representations of the new regent, 
Maria, queen of Hungary. Still the tril)unal was very active, and great numbers of 
persons were condemned and put to death. Under Philip II. new cruellies were intiictetl 
wliich, instead of extinguishing heresy, added new intenseness to popular fury. 
Several cities immediately united in demanding the abolition of tlie tribunal; others 
joined them, and in 1556 a league of the nobility was formed which, in loyal but earnest 
terms, renewed the request. This was for a time granted; but soon the duke of Alva 
was sent to the Netherlands with utnestrieted powers; and cruellies, hilherlo unknown, 
were inflicted on the suspected and the rich. In 1568, by a sentence of the "holy uttice" 
all the inhabitants of the Netherlands were condemnecl to death as heretics. "From 
this universal doom only a few persons, specially named, were excepted. A proclama- 
tion of the king, dated ten days later, contirmed this decree and ordered its instant exe 
cution. Three millions of people — men, women, and children — were sentenced to the 
scaffold in three lines" (Motley, lilse of the Dutch llepublic, ii. 155.). Even this did not 
destroy the reformation; but after the provinces had been de-olated and almost depopu- 
lated by emigration and death, their independence was secured, and the iuquibition 
driven from the laud. 

In Mexico, South Ameuica, and India the inquisition was established by Portugal 
and Spain, Under John VII. of Portugal it was abolished in India and Brazil. 

IN REM, a legal phrase designating an action against the thing, in contradistinction 
to proceedings in personam, or against the person. In admiralty practice such actions 
are common. They are brought for the enforcement of maritime liens against a vessel 
or cargo for the recovery of salvage, to procure the forfeiture of property, for a viola- 
tion of the revenue laws, or to obtain possession of a prize in time of war. The action 
is solely against the pr(iperty, taking no account of the owner or person in possession. 
The property, wijatever it may be, is treated as if it were the defendant. If it be a 
vessel of that name, the title of the action will be "The United States vs. the ship Par- 
thian." The same form of action is used to determine the legal status of a party before 
a court in respect to marriage, divorce, or other personal relations. Decrees in actions 
in rem, in wdiatever country they may have been made by a court of competent juris- 
diction, are generally respected by the courts of other countries. 

INSANITY means all unliealthiness of mind. This consists, according to one opinion, 
in such disorganization or degeneration of the nervous structure as to render the exer- 
cise of reason impossible; according to another, it consists in disorder of the reason 
itself; and according to a third, in perversion or destruction of the soul, or the moral 
part of our nature. The prevailing view of physiologists is, that insanity is a symptom 
or expression, manifested through the functions of the nervous system, of physical dis- 
ease. The legal term, lunacy, represents only those deviations from that standard of 
mental soundness which is universally recognized, although difficult of detinilion, in 
which the person, the property, or the civil rights may be interfered with. Thes*- devia 
tions are, briefly, where the incapacity, or violence, or irregularities of the individual 
are such as to threaten danger to himself or others, and to unlit him for his ordinary 
business and duties. Insanity is more comprehensive, and includes all states of the 
feelings and passions, as well as of the understanding, which are inconsi.'^tent with tlie 
original and ordinary character and habits of the individual, and with his relations to the 
family or community of wdiich he is a member. It has been stated broadly, that if a 
man hQ deprived of the enjoyment of his religious rights by exclusion from membership 
of the church to which he belongs; of his civil rights in giving evidence in a court of 
justice or on oath; and of his personal rights in the management of his property and 
affairs, he may be regarded as insane; but more correct views of the human mind have 
led to the belief, that many degrees of feebleness of the faculties, many forms of eccen- 
tricity and extravagance, and many defects in the will and moral sentiments, which 
were formerly regarded as crime and wickedness, but which do not involve such depri- 
vation, may be classed under the same designation. Very recently, the interpretation 
of insanity has been greatly widened, and now includes various degrees of moral per- 
version, morbid habits, and sudden impulses, such as dipsomania and homicidal mania. 
The great divisions of this class of diseases into mania, melancholia, and imbecility, 
remain popularly very much the same as they were 2,000 years ago. While this fact 
may indicate that such a classification has a foundation in nature, it has, unfortunately, 
tended to render the treatment, or rather the maltreatment, of the insane as stationary 
as the view of the diseases under which they labor. The following arrangement may 
, serve to explain what insanity is, as well as what it appears to be. 

Affections of the Intellectual Powers. — Idiocy, the non-development of one 
or more faculties. Imbecility, the imperfect development of one or more faculties. 
Fatuity, or dementia, the deprivation by disease, or age, or otherwise, of powers which 
have been developed. Mania, with delusion, excitement, and irregular action of all, 
])ut especially of the intellectual powers; accompanied also by errors connected with 
the ^pf'cial s(>nsos. 

.VKFi.ci'ioxs OF THE SENTIMENTS. — Melancholia., exaltation of grief, penitence, and 
anxiety. Monomanui of Jear, exaltation of cautiousness. Monomania of pride, exalta- 
tion ol' self-esteem. Monomania of superstition, exaltation of the sense of devotion and 



89 



In Rem. 

Insauity. 



the marvelous. Monomania of suspicion, cx;\lt:itioii of jealousy, cnv}-, want of conli 
dence. Monomania of vanity, exaltation of craving fur applause, grandeur, of feeling 
of ambition. 

Affections OF Propensities. — Dipsomania, incontrollable craving for stimulants. 
Homicidal mania, impulsive desire to destroy life. Kleptomania, incontrollable desire 
to acquire. 

This catalogue is not intended to be exhaustive. The departures from health will 
correspond not merely with the primitive mental powers and instincts, but with every 
l-»ossible combination of these, and with such complications as may result from heredi- 
tary predispositions, innate peculiarities, education, and habit. — Dr. Combe On Derange- 
ment; Copland's Dictionai-y, art. "Insanity." 

For the disposal and treatment of the insane, see Lunatic Asylum. 

INSANITY (ante), unsoundness of mind. Unhealthiness and unsoundness, accord- 
ing to general usage, are not synonymous terms when applied to the mind. A perfectly 
healthy mind requires a perfectly healthy body, and it also needs a certain healthy or 
normal training. The degree and also the quality of unhealthiness or unsoundness to 
constitute insanity must be such as to destroy a certain amount of the self-control of the 
individual, or to produce a di^gree ot per vei'sion of the intellectual or moral faculties. 
Modern alienists hold that such perversion is always connected with physical disease of 
some part of the nervous system. In most cases post-mortem examinations, as they are 
now made, reveal nervous lesions of some kind in all persons dying insane. Certain 
rules, useful, though sometimes empirical, for the diagnosis of insanity are adopted by 
physicians. Persons threatened with insanity are usually depressed in their manner, or 
are easily excited, the excitement being greatly out of proportion to the cause. A want 
of co-ordination of the faculties of the mind leads the subject to erroneous conclusions, 
and the formation, therefore, of false data; hallucinations appear, and the mind becomes 
completely unhinged. All forms of insanity have one important symptom in common,, 
which is an impairment of the faculty of attention, arising, probably, from the loss of 
will. Delusions and hallucinations are, however, more certain symptoms, and clear 
ideas as to the definition of these terms are important. A delusion is more nearly con- 
nected with the mind; a hallucination is the result of an error in some sensory function. 
A man laboring under a delusion may b'.'iieve that he is about to lose, or has lost, all 
his propert}'- when there is no foundation for such a belief, or that he is some other 
person, or that lie is in possession of great riches. These delusions, therefore, may be 
of a gloomy or of a hopeful and exalted nature. A person laboring under a hallucina- 
tion may imagine that he sees a spirit, or a person who does not exist, or dilTerent kinds 
of animals. In the temporary insanity of delirium tremens such hallucinations often 
occur. H illucinations affecting the organs of taste and smell arc common among the 
insane, and they are usually of an unpleasant character. Hallucinations of sight are 
common in those stages of insanity accompanied by exhaustion of the brain, when 
supernatural visions are likely to occur, and such patients often imagine that they hear 
voices commanding them to perform certain acts, often of a criminal nature, and of 
course they are then dangerous. Insane persons have a disposition to take off their 
clothes, sometimes probably from a feeling of oppression, sometimes with the idea of 
exposing the person. Insanity, especially that connected with epilepsy, often manifests 
itself in homicidal tendencies and acts. Although the qualities of insanity are infinitely 
various, as must be the result from the infinitely various parts of the nervous system 
which may be the cause of the aberrant phenomena, or the infinitely various ways in 
which those parts may be affected, still it is found convenient to classify the various 
forms into certain general grotips, and the practice is not entirely empirical, but is con- 
nected with sound philosophy. The division of the older writers was mainly into 
mania, or violent insanity, and melancholy, with many subdivisions. There were then 
many fanciful distinctions because the researches of histological pathology had not con- 
nected physical phenomena with these causes. It was believed that physical disease was 
tiie chief cause, but what the nature of the ailment might be was not as well under- 
stood as now. Thomas Arnold, in 1803, made a classification into ideal, and notional, 
including over thirty varieties. Among certain sub-varieties, which he called patlietic, 
of whicii there were sixteen, were amorous, jealous, avaricious, misanthropic, suspi- 
riou?. bashful, timid, sorrowful, etc. Pinel (q.v.), one of the original reformers in the 
treatment of the insane, made four principal divisions — mania, melancholy, dementia, 
and idiocy. Esquirol added monomania. Dr. Pritcliard, in 1835, discriminated 
between moral and intellectual insanity, but many authorities do not recognize such a 
disease as moral insanity. That insanity is hereditary is now admitted by all alienists 
and physicians; also, that the inheritance is one of a physical nature, stamped deeply 
upon the typical structures of the organs of the body. Drunkenness is considered as 
one of the most powerful causes of insanity, and statistics support the opinion. The 
report of the commissioners of lunacy in England, in 1844, attribute 18 per cent of 
about 10,000 cases to the effect of alcohol. Dr. Benjamin Rush attributed the drinking 
of alcoholic liquors as the cause of more than one-third of the cases in America. Dr. 
W. B. Carpenter, of London, in his work on Mental Physiolocjy , says that this indul- 
gence weakens the will to that extent that control is lost over the emotions. Weakening 



40 

Insanity. ^^ 

of tlie will is, indeed, one of the important features of insanity, and the powerful influ- 
ence of the extreme use of opium and tobacco in this relation, as well as in weakening 
the memory, has been the personal experience of many. Dr. Maudslcy believes that 
one of the most povvei'ful causes of insanity is the eager pursuit of riches. He says; 
"In several instances in which the father has toiled upwards from poverty to vast 
wealth, with the aim and hope of founding a family, I have witnessed the results in a 
degeneracy, mental and physical, of his offspring, which has sometimes gone as far as 
extinction of the family in the third or fourth generation. When the evil is not so 
extreme as madness or ruinous vice, a moth(n*'s intiuence having been present, it may 
still be manifest in an instinctive cunning and duplicity, and an extreme selfishness of 
nature. I cannot but think, after what I have seen, that the extreme passion for getting 
rich, absorbing the whole energies of a life, does predispose to mental degeneration in 
the olTspring — either to moral defect or to moral and intellectual deficiency, or to out- 
breaks of positive insanity under the conditions of life." 

Imtituti.ohsfor the Insane. — The history of the care of the insane is full of interest. 
Among tiie ancients mental disease was less frequent than in modein times, but there 
were cases of insanity, and these were looked upon with a degree of awe, and the 
disease was often held to be sacred. In modern times, until the present century, less 
regard has been paid to the humane treatment of the insane than in any other period of 
history; although, during the dark and middle ages, the ignorance upon the subject, and 
the unsettled state of public affairs, must have led to great neglect or cruelty. But 
neglect to the unfortunate lunatic was much preferable "to the care he received when 
imprisoned within the walls of a madhouse, and subject to the will of a keeper, who 
was often chosen more on account of his physical than his moral or intellectual q\iali- 
ties. In Europe one of the first measures in the reform of institutions for the insane 
Avas made by Pinel, who, in 1792, liberated fifty-three patients at the Bicetre from 
chains in wdiich they were bound. But he had been preceded in the same direction by 
Dr. Franklin, with others, as early as 1750, in the organization of the Pennsylvania 
hospital, in which a department for the care of the insane was established. A system 
of treatment was there adopted which was afterwards practiced by Pinel. In England, 
during the 16th, 17th, and part of the 18th centuries, considerable attention appears to 
have been given to insane asylums, and lunatics often received comparatively kind 
treatment; but for various causes, Avhich seem ever to be the aecon.paniments of 
human institutions, the management became bad, and the society of Friends, in 1792, 
established an institution called the "Ketreat," which was so successful that the atten- 
tion of tlie government was finally called to the subject. A commission was appointed 
by the house of commons, whose investigations revealed a hori-ible state of affairs. It 
was brought out in tlie evidence before them that it was customary, when lunatics were 
taken to Dublin, to tie them to the back of a cart and force them to walk the whole 
distance. About one in five lost an arm from this treatment. It was found, in one 
house where there were 23 confined — 14 men and 9 women — and where 7 of the women 
were supported at their own expense, that one room on the ground floor, 21 by 16 ft., 
and 7 ft. high, contained only six cells, 9 ft. long and 5 ft. wide, with a passage of 3 ft. 
between. There were no windows, and no means for ventilation; and the door opened 
opposite a pigsty and dung heap about 7 ft. distant. Three cells had board floors, the 
other three were on the bare ground. The bedsteads consisted of wooden boxes, 6 ft. 
long and 2| wide, to whicli the patient was chained. These unfortunates were taken 
into the open air once a week, when the straw was changed. The patients were so 
dirty that careful inspection was impossible. In regard to treatment, the physician at 
Betldem said: "Twice a year, with a few exceptions, the patients are bled, and after 
that they take vomits once a week for a number of weeks, and after that we purge 
them. That has been the practice for years, long before my time." 

The different forms of insanity are usually considered under the following divisions: 
1. Melancholia; 2. Mania; 3. Dementia; 4. Imbecility ; 5. Idiocy; 6. General Paralysis. 
Melancholy is usually preceded by hypochondria, and this is caused or accompanied 
with certain diseased conditions of the bodily organs, very frequently of the liver and 
digestive organs. The condition is often relieved ])y frequent administration of cathar- 
tics, combined with good diet, wine, iron, exercise, and recreation. When these remedies 
fail the patient will generally pass into a condition of mania. This is the case when 
the brain is tlie subject of degeneration through disease. This deprives the patient of 
the power of exercising the will; delusions and hallucinations supervene, and the con- 
dition becomes one of decided mania. Restraint often becomes necessary, but the ten- 
dency is to its abolishment as much as possible, it being rarely practiced except in the 
acute stasres. Mania may be acute or chronic. When there is hereditary taint it may be 
caused by grief or disappointment; but peculiar forms accompan}' epilepsy and general 
paralysis of the insane. The subject of mania exhibits the presence of the disease 
generally by great mischievousness or filthiness or obscenit3^ or b}^ all of them. The 
bodily health of a maniac often does not seem to suffer, but frequently there is great 
constipation, and serious disturbances are taking place in the cerebral substance, as 
post-mortem examinations often reveal; but often they are not of a nature to cause 
death. The strangest of all forms of insanity is what is called general paralysis of the 
insane, an affection- not to be confounded with ordinary paralysis. It has been only 



41 



Insanity. 



witliin the present century that the disease has been recognized. M. Cahneil gave a 
description of it in 1826, and since tliat time it has been caretiiUy studied. It hastlirec 
stages: 1. Tlie stage of incubation; 2. Tlie acute maniacal stage; 8. Tlie ch'onic maniacal 
stage. A fourth stage might be added, that of dementia, but it is as well reg,u-ded as 
the" sequel to or a part of the chronic stage. The subject of this grave disorder gen- 
erally shows, at the commencement of the attack, a strangeness of manner which is 
different from that of all other forms of insanity, and which is usually easily recognized 
by tlie experienced alienist. The subjects are nearly always males. A man is observed 
to depart suddenly from his ordinary habits; he seems to iiave lost his conscience; will 
make no apology for misconduct, of which lie is constantly guilty. He fails to keep 
appointments, is often extremely immodest, and is easily roused to uncontrollable 
passion. As the disease advances he becomes sullen and more excitable, so that before 
long his friends are obliged to put him under restraint. He is prone to imagine himself 
a great personage, possessed of boundless power ami riches, and boasts of performing 
the most wonderful feats of strength or agility, even after his disease has seriously 
impaired his bodily strength. In consequence of these peculiar delusions the French 
have called the disease nuirilc des grandeurs. The speech becomes defective, accom- 
panied by a peculiar stammer which is ditlicult to describe, but wliicli is almost diag- 
nostic to the experienced physician. Fits somewhat resembling those of epilepsy take 
place from time to time, but which are not at all amenable to treatment. A diagnostic 
distinction between these fits and those of true epilepsy is. that in the latter disease the 
patient usually bites his tongue, while the general paralytic does not as a rule. One 
important symptom is irregularity of the pupils of the eye. In 108 cases examined by 
Dr. iSTasse, of iSieburg, irregularity was found in all but three; and Dr. Austin found 
the exceptions only two in 100. This, taken together with the otiaer symptoms, is 
decisive. The average duration of the disease is about two years; sometimes it runs its 
course in a few weeks. Sometimes there is, for a sli>rt period, apparent recovery, and 
the patient may attempt to resume his occupation, but the attemjjt lias alwaj's failed. 
The last stage, that of dementia, is truly pitiable; there is constant tremor, he loses his 
power to sw^ailow, and will often cram food into his mouth un:U his cheeks are no 
longer capable of distension. 

The insaidt/ which accompanies epilepsy, known as epileptic insanity, has been 
studied with care, and many important conclusions liave been reached. In this form 
the acts of the subjects are extremely sudden and independent of tbe will, and are of a 
strong homicidal tendency, and after the attack has i)assed away they are unable to 
remember anything that has transpired. The pathology of insanit}'' is an exceedingly 
interestmg study. There is often, in addition to evidences of cerebral and membraneous 
congestion, thickening of the bones of the cranium, and adhesion and thickeniug of the 
dura mater. Blood cysts are often found in the arachnoid cavity, and there is great wast- 
ing of the cerebral substance, the brains of the insane weighing less than those of per- 
sons dying of other diseases. 

The treatment of the insane is often difficult, requiring an intricate knowledge of 
various diseases, and great experience among insane patients;_but the most impcu'tant 
element of success, under all circumstances, may be embraced in one word — humanity. 
The wretch who neglects or maltreats the unfortunate subject of mental derangement 
intrusted to his care, if not himself insane and irresponsible, should be regarded witli 
universal contempt. 

According to the census of 1870— the latest official authority at present obtainable — 
the total number of insane persons in the United States (besides idiots, 24,477) was 
87,o82, in a population of 38.555,983. In England the total number of insane, includ- 
ing idiots, was, in 1870, 54,713, in a population of 22,090,000; in Scotland, 7.571, in a 
jK)|)ulation of 3,222,837; and in Ireland, 17.194, not including idiots, in a population of 
5.195.236. In France, in a population of 37,988,905. there were in 1866, of insane per- 
sons. 50,726. It may be estimated that the number of insane in Europe, in 1866. was 
about 270,000. The following table includes a list of the public and many of the private 
insane asylums in the United States, with the number of patients: 



Name of Institution. 



Hospital for the Insane 

A.sylum for the Insane 

Asylum for Chronic Insane 

Lunatic Hospital 

Insane Dep., State Almshouse 

Limatic Hospital 

McLean Asylum for the Insane 

Shady Lawu 

Lunatic Hospital 

St^te Asylum for Incurable Insane 



Locality. 



Augusta, Me State 

Concord. N. H State 

Brattlelioro. Vt State 

Woi ce te?-, Mass State 

Worcester, Mass State 

Taunton. Mass State 

Noithampton. Mass. . . State 

Tewksbui-y. Mass State 

Boston. Mass I City 

Somerville, Mass Corf). 

Northampton. Mass . . Priv. 

Danvers, Mass State 

Natic, R. I , State 



Kind. 



1873. 



411 

267 
470 

469' 
434 
433 



107 
161 



1875, I Date and Pat s. Organ- 



403 
281 
471 

'478' 
602 
476 
319 
200 
148 
12 



173 



1879, 
1879, 
1878, 
1879, 
1879, 
18?9, 
1879, 



419 
268 
459 
371 
490 
.5.59 
442 



1878, 200 

1879, 5.53 1878 



1840 
1842 
1830 

1832 
18.53 
1857 



18.39 
1818 



Insanity. 
Insectivorous. 



42 



Name of Institution. 



Butler Hospital 

General Hospital for Insane 

Retreat for tiic Insane 

Spring Hill Institution 

Cromwell Hall 

State Emigrant Insane Asylum 

Hudson lUver State Hospital 

N. Y. Stale Lunatic Asylum 

State Lunatic Asylum for Insane 

Criminals 

Willard Asylum for Insane 

State Honieop. Asylum for Insane. . 

City Asylum for Insane 

Kings C ounty Lunatic Asylum 

City Lunatic Asylian 

Monroe County Asylum 

Bloomingdale Asylum 

Providence Asylum 

Sanford Hall 

Private Asylum 

Brigliam Hall 

Marshall Inllrmary 

Asylum for Chronic Insane 

State Lunatic Asylum 

Essex County Lunatic Asylum 

New Jersey Staie Lunatic Asylum. . 

Penn. State Lunatic Asylum 

Western Penn. Hospital for Insane.. 

State Hospital for the Insane 

Department for Insane, Almshouse. 

Penn. Hospital for the Insane 

Friends' Asylum for the Insane 

Burn Brae 

State Hospital for the Insane 



Locality. 



Providence, R. I 

Middletown, Conn. . . 

Hartfurd, Conn 

Litchfield, Conn 

Cromwell, Conn 

Ward's Island, N. Y. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Utica, N. Y 



Maryland Hospital 

Mount Hope Retreat 

Government Hospital for the Insane 

Eastern Lunatic Asylum 

"Western " " 

C.'ntral Lunatic Hospital (colored).. 

irlospital for the Insane 

Insane Asylum for North Carolina. 

Asylum for the Insane 

Lunatic Asylum 

Hospital for the Insane 

Lunatic Asylum 



Hospital for the Insane . 



Eastern Kentucky Lunatic Asylum 
"Western " '" " . 

Central 

Cleveland Hospital for Insane 

Western " " " 

South-eastern " " " 

Noith-western " "■ " 

Central Ohio Asjlum 



Auburn, N. Y 

WiUard, N. Y 

Middletown. N. Y 

Ward's Island, N. Y... 

Flatbush, N.Y 

Blackweirs IsFd, N. Y. 

Rochester, N. Y 

Manhattanville, N. Y.. 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Flushing, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Canandaigua, N. Y 

Troy, N. Y 

Binghamton, N.Y 

Trenton, N. J 

Newark, N. J 

Morristown, N.J 

Hariisburg. Penn 

Dixmont, Perm 

Danville, Penn 

Philadelphia, Penn — 
Philadelphia, Penn — 
Frankford, Phil., Penn 

Kelleyville, Penn 

Warren, Penn 

Norristown, Penn 

Catonsville, Md 

Baltimore, Md 

Washington, D. C 

Williamsburg, Va 

Staunton, "Va 

Richmond. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Raleigh, N. C 

Cohmibia, S C 

Milledgeville, Ga 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Jackson, Miss 

Jackson, La 

Austin, Tex 

Nashville, Tenn 

Lexington, Ky 

Hopkmsville, Ky 

Anchorage, Ky 

Newburtc, O 

Dayton, O 

Athens, O 

Toledo, O 

Columbus, O 



Kind. 1873. 



COI^P. ; 

State' 

Corp. I 

Priv. 

Priv. 

State 

State 

State 

State i 
State 
State 
City 
Co. 
City 
! Co. 
Corp. 
Coip. 
Priv. 
Priv. 
Priv. 



Longview Asylum 

Cincinnati Sanitarium . 



State 
State 
Co. 
State 
State 
State 
State 
City 
Corp. 
Corp. 
Priv. 
State 
State 
State 
Corp. 
Nat'l 
State 
State 
State 
State 
otate 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 



Carthage, O City 

College Hill, O ; Priv. 



Asylum for the Insane Kalamazoo, Mich 

Eastern Mich. Asylum for Insane. . . Pontiac, Mich 

Hospital foi'the Insane Indianapolis, Ind 

Central Hospital for the Insane Jacksonville, 111 

Southern " " " *' Anna, 111 ... 

Northern " " " " .... Elgin, 111 

Cook County Asylum Chicag<j, 111 

Bellevue Place i Jatavia. Ill 

Oak Lawn I Jacksonville, 111 

Hospital for the Insane JMendota, Wis 

Northern Hospital for the Insane. . . |Oshkosh. Wis 

Hospital for tlie Insane Mount Pleasant, Iowa. 

Independence, Iowa. . . 

St. Peter, Minn 



Lunatic Asylum No. 1 Fulton, Mo 

" " " « 1 St. Joseph, Mo. 

St. Louis County Asylum St. Louis, Mo . . 

St. Vincent's .lisylum jSt. Louis, Mo . . 



State 
Si-ate 
State 
State 
State 
State 
Co. 
Priv. 
Priv. 
State 
State 
State 
State 
State 

State 

State 

Co. 

Corp. 



Lunatic Asylum Ossawattamie, Kan .... State 

Hospital for the Insane Lincoln, Neb State 

Asylum for the Insane Stockton, Cal State 

" '■ " Napa. Cal State 

Lunatic Asylum Portland. Oregon State 

Steilacoom, "Wash. T . . ; State 



129 
395 
148 



187 
18,-) 
580 

86 
770 

27 

559 

718 

1077 



189 
"27 



653 



408 
4.50 
166 
1023 
416 



1875. Date and Pat's. .Organ. 



143 

450 

130 

20 



148 
200 
635 

106 

1175 

80 

700 

778 

1276 

1.58 

189 

75 

31 

6 

70 



127 
252 
620 
268 
334 
194 
284 
242 
309 
564 
330 
304 
165 
115 
372 
528 
322 
1.55 
250 
560 



577 



1872. 
305 



474 
472 



17'2 



30 



314 
205 
495 
113 
303 
1870. 
303 



299 
213 

1872. 

178 

53 

1156 



167 
36 



714 
1.50 
342 
416 
491 
260 
1027 
419 
80 



155 
297 
718 
294 
356 
24« 
350 
250 
300 
516 
352 
325 
107 
152 
375 
526 
350 
270 
560 
600 
605 
111 



1879, 
1879, 
1878, 



148 
510 
132 



1880, 12 



1878, 
1877, 



232 

582 



1877, 104 
1879, 1502 

1878, 146 
1878, 989 



1878, 1234 
1878, 188 



1880, 7 
1879, 59 
1878, 110 



1879, 506 

1879, 527 

1879, 426 

1879, 609 
1878, 360 

1878, 406 
1878, 82 

1880, 36 
Capacity 750 

1880, 611 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 

1878, 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 

1878, 

1878, 

1879, 

1878, 

1878, 

1879, 

1879, 

1878, 

1880, 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 

1879, 



COO 
550 



500 
450 
200 
200 
300 
20 
12 
375 
550 
550 
251 
517 

350 
250 
320 
137 

111 

80 

1302 

189 

200 

100 



329 
370 
819 
323 
448 
223 
415 
277 
375 
7-54 
403 
401 
210 
275 
376 
549 
376 
341 
625 
599 
571 
115 
830 



1879, 683 

1879, 44 

1878, 497 

1878, 306 

1876, 600 

1878, 534 

1878, 458 

1878, 525 



1879, 507 

1879, 540 

1877, 608 
1879, 450 

1878, 660 

1878, 410 

1878, 216 

1879, 322 



1878, 
1878, 
1878, 
1878, 
1878, 
1879, 



207 
120 
1127 
714 
235 
75 



1845 
1866 
1824 

1874 

1872 
1843 



1.1C9 
1674 
1861 
1855 



1821 

1845 

1855 
1859 
1880 
1847 

1878 
1851 
1857 
1872 

1841 
1817 
1880 
1880 
1880 
1872 
1842 
1855 
1773 
1828 
1870 
1864 
1856 
1827 
1841 
18(50 
1855 

1861 
18-W 
1824 
18.54 
1873 
18.55 
18.55 
1874 

1877 

1800 



18.59 

1878 
1848 
1848 
1874 
1871 

1807 

1860 
1862 
1861 
1872 
186(i 

1851 

1808 



1866 
1871 
1853 

1875 

1872 



J^O Insanity. 

^'^ 111.-.* cijvo: ous. 

INSANITY BEFORE THE LAW. Sec Lunacy. 

INSCRIPTIONS, a term applied to all writings engraved or written on objects or 
monuments not of the class of books, principally on hard materials, sucii as metals, 
stones, and other substances. They are a class of documents of the highest interest and 
importance to history and philology, and a consideration of them embraces tlie whole 
scope of liistor}', language, and art. The oldest (excepting those of Clnna) are probably 
the Egyptian inscriptions found in the pyramids (see Pyramids), of about 2000 B.C. ; to 
which succeed those of Assyria and Babylonia, reaching nearly as high an antiquity 
(see CuNEiFOKM CiiAiiACTERS); whicli are succeeded by the Persian and Median, 525 
R c, and along with which prevailed the Phenician, probably about 700 B.C. (see 
PiiENiciA); whicli were in their turn succeeded by the Greek, between 500 and COO B.C., 
or even earlier; which were succeeded by the Etruscan and Roman, in 400-300 B.C., 
and continued tlirough the middle ages in Europe to the present day. See Paleog- 
raphy. In the east, the oldest inscriptions are those of China, which ascend to 2278 
B c. ; -those of India not being older than 315 B.C., or the age of Sandracottus; while the 
antiquity of the hieroglyphical inscriptions of Central America cannot be determined. 
Of man}'' ancient nations, the history and language are found in inscriptions only, as in 
the case of Lycia and Etrui'ia, and all official inscriptions have a certain authority, from 
their contemporaneous nature, and the care with w hich they were executed. 

Before the invention of paper or other light substances for the record of events, pub- 
lic acts, devotions, and other documents were inscribed on bronze, as the early treaties 
and dedications of the Greeks, or even lead, as certain small rolls of imprecation and 
others found in Greece; gold plates were inscribed and placed in foundations under 
the temples, as that of Canopus show; the exequatvrs of consuls among the Greeks, and 
the discharges of the Roman soldiery, were inscribed on bronze tables; while charms, 
amulets, and other formulae were occasionally inscribed on metals. The numerous 
inscriptions known, probably amounting to half a million, have been classed under public 
or official acts, tables of magistrates, military titles, lists of magistrates, those relating to 
the gymnasia or games, honors rendered to emjierors or men, donations, rites, private 
and .sepulchral, comprising epitaphs, some in elegiac and heroic verse, and numerous 
minor inscriptions on gems, vases, and othei' objects of ancient art, on wax tablets or 
'purjlUaria, and the scrawls discovered on the wails of public and private edifices, as at 
Pompeii and elsewhere. Tlie study of the letters and their form will be seen under 
Alphabet; that of the different languages and the mode of deciphering, under their 
respective heads. Those found upon coins will be mentioned in Numismatics. The 
most remarkable inscriptions are the trilingual inscription of Rosetta, that of Shal- 
manazer on the obelisk of Nimrud, and the cylinder of Sennacherib; the trilingual 
inscription of Darius I. on the rock at Behistun; the Greek inscriiition of the soldiers of 
Psammetichus at Ibsamboul, and of the bronze helmet dedicated by Hiero I. to the 
Olympian Jupiter; the inscription on the cotlin of the Cyprian king Asmumazer; the 
Etruscan inscription called the Eugubine tal)les; that of Mummius, the conqueror of 
Corinth, at Rome, and the will of Augustus at Ancyra; the inscription of the 
Ethiopian monarch Silco; the old monument of Yu, and the inscription of Se-gan-fu, 
recoiMuig the arrival of Christianity in China CjoI a.d.); the inscriptions of Chandra- 
gupta and Asok.'i in India. The study of iiKscriptions is so difficult that it has 
formed a special branch of scholarship, such as decipherment for those of which 
the language has been lost, or epigraphy for the dead languages. Special collections 
of the insci'iptions of different localities, and general ones, have been made of 
those in the same languages as As.syrian, Greek, Etruscan. Oscan, and Latin, by 
Gruter, Muratori, Bockii, Franz, Orellius, jNlommsen, Letronne, Lcbas, and others. 
Inscriptions have also engaiied the scholarship and attention of the most accom.plished 
philologists, with various success, from the ei'd of the 17th century. They have been 
forged l)y Fourmont and otheis. — Gruter. Tiiesanrvs Ivscr. (fo. l()03-63); Muratori, 
Nocaa Themitrax (4to, 1789); Kellerman, Spec. Epigraph. (1841); Mommsen, IiiKcript. 
J^eapol. (fo. 1852); Bockli and Franz, Corpus Irii<cripf. Greee.; Osann, SyJloge (1822); 
Lejisius, Inscr. Ifmbr. et O.sr.; Gesenius, Script. Ling. F/icen ; (^arucci. Graffiti. 

INSECT FERTILIZATION. See Fecundation. 

INSECTIV'ORA (Lat. insect-eating), in Cuvier's system of zoology, one of the divisions 
of the mammalian order carnnria (q.v.). None of the insectivora are of large size; most 
of them are small timid creatures, generally nocturnal in their habits, and useful in the 
economy of nature chiefly in preventing the undue increase of woim and insect tribes. 
Altliough many of them are not exclusively insectivorous, all of them have the summits 
of the molar teeth beset with small C(mical tubercles, as for the purpose of breaking up 
the hard coverings of insect prey. Their dentition is otherwise very different in the 
different families. Their legs are short. They all place the whole sole of the foot on 
the ground. The snout is generally elongated. The families of talpidee (moles, etc.), 
soricid/i' (shrews, etc.). erinaceada' (hedgehogs, etc.), and tupaidee (banxrings) are referred 
to insectivora. The insectivora, although in some respects very different from the 
cheiroptera, exhibit an affinity to them in others. 

INSECTIVOROUS BIRDS. Recent investigations, especially in the western states 
and territories, have brought more fully into notice the valuable qualities of certain 



insectivorous A A 

Insects. 

birds, fi? to their power of decreasing;- the mnltiplicatioii of destructive insects. Although 
ornitliologists have long given their advice and Avarnings, it has been the mistake of a 
considerable portion of the agricultural population of the countiy to believe tliat 
cer'=du birds, which are called graminivorous, committed sufficient depredations to 
make them obnoxious, and therefore they have destroyed tliem. These fears may be 
well founded in a few instances, in regard to those predatory birds which destroy 
other and valuable birds, as the crow, tlie .crow-blackbird, and the blue jay. Unfor- 
tunately these cunning birds are not the ones which have come in for tlie gr('at(;st 
share of condemnation. Tiie blue-headed grackle, or Brewer's blackbird, a perfectly 
innocent little creature, and a friend of man, has been destroyed in the western country 
in countless numbers because it visited the corntields in search of a kind oT grul) 
which lived upon the ears of corn. To get the grub the bird picked oi)en the husks 
at the end of the ear, or through them at the sides. This did little damage to the 
ear, which the grub would have destroyed. But the farmer, fearful that the birds 
were carrying off his crop, soaked grain in strychnine, and strewing it upon the ground, 
caused the birds to die by the million. Prof. Sanuiel Augliey, of Lincoln, Neb., 
has furnished a list of locust-feeding birds for the tirst annual report of the U. S. 
entomological commission, wliicli is extremely interesting and instructive, and from 
his chapter the notice of Brewer's blackbird above given is taken. It seems that 
this bird is purely insectivorous and does not live upon grain or seeds at all, unless 
it cannot get insects, grubs, or worms. Prof. Aughey states tliat the robin is not 
abundant in Nebraska, but is slowly increasing. A few were killed to ascertain the 
contents of their stomachs. Out of six, four of them had 51 to 59 locusts in their crops, 
and less than half that number of other insects This was in the years 1865, 1875, and 
1877, not great locust years, as 1874. A number of wood thrushes were bought from 
boys and their stomachs found tilled with locusts (1865-75). The family of wrens were 
found particularly the friends of the farmer in their locust devouring habits. He men- 
tions eight species, the long-billed marsh wren being perhaps the greatest feeder. The 
parents in one nest were seen to bring 81 locusts from dry bluffs about a miie distant in 
the space of an hour. The short-billed marsh wren was not detected in locust carrying, 
but is believed to be a locust feeder. The lumse wren feeds upon quantities of small 
locusts, but was never see u to capture a full grown insect. Tiie fumWy sylricolida', or 
Americ;in warblers, of the same order {iiises.sores), of which piof. Aughey mentions some 
30 different species belonging to different genera, are nearly all great locust eaters. The 
golden warbler was a curious exception, as its stomach contained only half as many 
locusts as of other insects, while the converse was the rule with other species. The 
swallows and sparrows were found to be great locust caters. The cliff-swallow, or cave- 
swallow, is perliaps the principal insect destroyer, on account of its numbers. It breeds 
on the sides of cliffs and under the eaves of buildings. U. S. geologist Haj^den has 
observed great numbers of these birds along the JVIissouri river, especially along the 
chall?. bluffs near Niobrara, and prof. Aughey also observed them in the same locality 
in 1877. Three miles e. of the town on the sides of a perpendicular chalk rock he 
counted 2,100 nests of the cliff'-swallow. They eat countless numbers of locusts. Of 
the fainily (impnUdce, or boinhijcilUdrje, or wax-wing family, the "brotherly love" vireo, a 
common bird in eastern Nebraska, eats vast numbers of locusts and other insects, and 
the w^arbling vireo. abundant in n. w. Nebraska, is quite as great a locust and other insect 
feeder. The slirike family {laiiidn'), particularly the white-rumped shrike, which arc 
quite abundant in Nebraska, are great locust eaters, but in their stomachs were also found 
portions of other insectivorous birds. They are, therefore, not to be highly commended. 
Among the American starlings, the bobo'ink, reed-bird, or rice-bird, is very abundant in 
Nebraska, where it breeds. It is popularl}^ supposed to be exclusivel.y graminivorous, 
but prof. Aughey discovered that on occasions it was highly insectivorous, as their 
stomachs, whenever examined, were found to contain, along with seeds, many locusts. 
The king bird, or bee martin, as well as many other " flycatchers," of which 10 or more 
species are mentioned, are, of course, highly insectivorous, but where locusts abound 
these insects are their favorite food, the phoebe bird parlicidarly being a locust-gormand. 
The cuckoos, which are shot and sold by the butchers, weie often found to have over 45 
locusts in their stomachs, none less than 37. The gohlen-winged woodpecker, or flicker, 
was often found with no seeds in its stomach. Eight flickers were bought from n sports- 
man who had shot them in a wood in Dixon county, and their stomachs were filled with 
locusts and other insects. Two of them had eight grains, four of them from two to six 
grains, and two of them had none, in their stomachs. This beautiful bird, the robin, and 
even the merry bobolink, are hunted and shot, even in our eastern states, wliere they are 
not near plentiful enough, by unthinking men, and they ought to be protected. Mr. Cyrus 
Thomas, one of the menil)ers of the entomological commission for examining into the ♦. 
subject of the Rocky mountain locust, in chap. xii. of the report above mentioned, on ' 
"the usefulness of birds," maintains that, with very few exceptions, the whole class of 
birds aie the friends of man. We know that many of them are his companions, and 
certainly more would be if he did not lay his destructive haud.s upon them. See Birds 
and Ornithology. 

IN3ZCTIV OBOTJS PLANTS. See DiON^A, 



4K Insectivorous. 

'^'J lUbt-Cl.S. 

INSECTS, Tnsccfn, one of the classes of articrdnfa (q.v.), or arlicnlated animals, of the 
division having arlicuiatecl members. All the articulata iiaving arlieulated members 
were ineluded by Linna?iis in llie elass of insects; but the crtiMacea and ardcJuiuIa were 
soon separated from it, and afterwards the iinjriapoda. See these heads. This restricted 
application of the term insect corresponds more nearly with its popular use, and so 
well accords witii its derivation, that it may be regarded as one of the most appropriate 
names employed in natural history. It is from a Latin word, signifying cat into; a 
derivation exactly answering to that of the Greek eiitoma, from which the science having 
insects for its subject receives the name of entomology. Insects, a natural and extremely 
well defined class of organized beings, are remarkable, in their mature ov perfect state, 
for the division of their bodies into t!iree very distinct portions — the head, thorax, and 
(ibdoiuen; the divisions being oftc.-n so deep, that the slenderness to which the body is 
there reduced cannot be conlemplated without admiration. 

The body of an insect, as of all the other articulata, is composed of a certain number 
of rings.. One of these forms the head; or, if the head ought to be regarded as really 
composed of several rings, mrxliiied and condensed together, as the skull of vertebrate 
animals is formed of modified vertebra?, yet no distinction of rings ap])ears. The eyes, 
the antennae, and the organs of the mouth, are the most conspicuous organs connected 
witli the head. 

The thorax is formed of three rings, closely combined, but easily distinguishable. The 
first is the j^ro'^/^^^yYav the second, the luesothorax; the third, the metathorax (Gr. pro, 
before; mesos, middle; and meia, after). Of these rings, one or another is often remark- 
ably developed. The legs and wings are attached to the thorax. Insects liave six legs» 
and generally four or two wings, never any other number; but some are wingless, and 
this is the case not only in all the insects of certain groups, but also in particular species 
of groups ordinarily winged, and is sometimes even a distinction of sex, as in the glow- 
worm. The first pair of legs are attached to the prolhorax; the second, to the meso- 
tliorax; and the third, to the metathorax. The first pair of wings are attached to the 
mesothorax; the second, to the metathorax. In dii)terous (two winged) msecls, the place 
of the second pair of wings is occupied by two small organs — little threads, terminated 
by a knob — called balancers (Jialteres), tlie use of which is not well known. 

The abdomen consists of nine rings, or of few^er; as some are often obliterated, or 
modified, to form vaiious api)endages. It contains the principal viscera. In it, tlie 
sexual organs are situated. The rings of the abdomen are much more separate and mov- 
able than those of the thorax. The terminal rings of the females of some groups form 
an oviduct or ovipositor, which is sometimes capable of being cmplo3'ed as a boi'er, to 
make a place for the eggs in the animal or vegetal^le organism destined to receive them, 
and which in wasps and bees is replaced l)y a sting. 

The nervous system of insects, in all their stages of existence, exliibits the general 
characters noticed as belonging to the articulata (q.v.). There is a brain, or ganglion of 
the head, from whicli arise the nerves of the eyes, antennse, and mouth. 

The rings of wiiich the body of an insect is composed appear most distinctly in the 
external covering. Tliis is in most parts hard, but more or less flexible, of a'horn-like 
substance, chiefly composed of chitin (q.v.). The external covering of insects is the prin- 
cipal framework of their bodies, and to it the muscles areatiached. The extennal cover- 
ing of each ring is more or less distinctly divided into two parts — a doi-sal and a ventral 
— ^the connection at the sides being effected by a softer and more flexible nu-mbrjuie, a 
still softer membrane connecting the rings of the abdomen, so as to abowM^onsiderable 
freedom of motion; whilst between the rings are minute pores CiiWad istigniata or spiracle!^, 
by which air ^ admitted to the trachea', or air-tubes {q.v.), the organs of respiration. 

Insects respire neither by means of lungs nor of gills, and the blood is not brought to 
a particular part of the body for a(3ration, as by circulation in vertebrate and many inver- 
tebrate animals, but the air which enters by the breathing-pores is conveyed by tubes to 
all parts of the body, and even through the delicate structure of tlie wings, so that tne 
whole frame is rendered more light by the very means employed to maintain and increase 
muscular energy. Respiiation is extremely active in insects; they consume a great 
quantity of oxygen in proportion to their size, and they display, in general, an extra- 
ordinary degree of activity and muscular energy. The flight of very many kinds is far 
more rapid in proportion to their size than that of birds; others disj)iay a simihu- superi- 
ority of powers in running, swimming, or digging and burrowing; whilst the leaping of 
many, as fleas and grasshoppers, and the springing of others, as cheesehoppers, prodigi- 
ously exceeds anything of which any vertebrate animal is capable. The respiration of 
aquatic insects takes place in the same manner as that of other insects, and they come to 
the surface of the water for fresh supplies of air. 

The blood of insects is thin and colorless. It is not everywhere inclosed in vessels, 
butis freely diffused in interstices between the muscles and other organs, and in the 
visceral cavity. It contains globules or corpuscles of determinate shape. How far the 
dorsal vessel (see A.kticulata) should be regarded as a heart, is not fully determined; but 
by its contractions and dilatations, a constant motion of the blood is maintained. 

The members of insects liave generally a structure analogous to that of ihe trunk, in 
being composed of articulations, the hard and solid part of which is the external cover- 



46 

Insects. ^ 

ing. This appears very perfectly in the legs, the antennae, and the palpi, but not in the 
wiugs. 

The legs of insects consist of two principal parts, the thigh {femur) and shank (tibia), 
with two smaller articulations, the coxa and trochantei; interposed between the body and 
the thigli, and at the extremity of the shank, a set of three, four, or five small articula- 
tions, called the taraus. The last segment of the tarsus in terrestrial insects is generally 
terminated by a pair of hooks or little claws; and many dipterous insects, as the house- 
lly (q.v.), have disks and suckers for taking hold of smooth surfaces. 

The wings of insects are often very large in proportion to the size of the body, and 
the rings of the thorax are soldered together, and supported by supplementary pieces, to 
give firm support to them, and to the powerful muscles necessar}'^ for their action. The 
hard covering of the body of an insect consists, like the skin of vertebrate animals, of 
three layers, and the membranes of the wings are filmy expansions of the outermost of 
these, the epidermis. The ribs or nervures in the wings of insects are tubes, of which 
one of the uses is the conveying of air even to the extremities of the wings. The forms 
of tlie wings are very various; some of the more important diversities being chaiacter- 
istic of diiferent orders. The bodies of insects are often very much covered with hairs, 
which are often very long and thick in proportion to the size of the animal, and on the 
wings of butterflies and other lepkloptera are flattened and expanded so as to form scales 
(see Butterfly) often richly colored, and also, by reason of very fine parallel striae, with 
which they are marked, displaying an admirable iridescence or reflection of evanescent 
prismatic colors in changing light. The first pair of wings in coleopterous insects or 
lieetles is represented by a pair of hard chitinous elytra (Gr. coverings), or wing-covers, 
Orthoptewns insects have softer leathery or parchment-like elytra. 

Insects feed on very different kinds of food; some prey on other insects, some devour 
animal, and some vegetable substances, some sack the juices of animals, some the juices 
of jilanta or the honey of their flowers. The structure of the mouth varies accordingly, 
and the digestive organs also vary. The mouth is either adapted for gnawing, cutting, 
and tearing, or merely for sucking, or it is adapted partially for both of these purposes. 
'I'he parts of a mandibulate moutii are an upper lip (Jabriim) and an under lip {lahiicm), 
moving vertically; and an upper pair of jaws or mandibles {mandibnla) and a lower pair 
of jaws (/naxiUoi), moving horizontally. The upper and under lip meet when the mouth 
is shut. Both are as hard as the jaws. The lower lip is sometimes regarded as consist- 
ing of two parts, called the chin (uienfum), and the tongue (liiigva), which is more mem- 
braneous and fleshy, and reposes on the inside of the chin. The upper jaws or mandibles 
are usually powerful, and often strongl}' toothed and hooked, sometimes furnished with 
cutting edges like sharp scissors, and sometimes adapted for bruising and grinding. They 
are also the instruments which bees and other insects use for their wonderful operations 
of cutting, tearing, building, plastering, etc. The lower jaws or maxill£e are gen- 
erally less powerful. In some insects, in which the mandibles are enlarged into great 
organs of prehension, the maxillae alone serve for the ordinary use of jaws in eating. To 
the maxillae and the lower lip are attached organs called palpi or feelers, consisting of a 
number of minute articulations, supposed to be delicate organs of touch connected with 
the purposes of the mouth, and distinguished as w axillary palpi and labial palpi. 

The mouths of mandibulate insects are sometimes called perfect, and those which 
exhibit a different character, ^m7}^?;/■^'c^'. The terms, however, are improper — each kind 
is perfect, according to the purposes for which it is to be used. Yet a correspondence 
of structure maybe traced, so that the parts of the mandibulate mouth may be recognized 
under various and very remarkable modifications in the mouths of insects which ;ive ')y 
suction. Thus the filaments which form the proboscis of butterflies are the maxill;e 
excessively lengthened, and the cutting parts of the mouth of the flea are the mandibles 
and maxillae. The proboscis of flies represents the lower bp. 

The alimentary canal of insects is usually more or less convoluted. Between the 
mouth and the pi'oper digestive stomach, it sometimes exhibits a cw;? (honey-bag of bees) 
in insects which live by suction, and this is either a dilatation of the lower part of the 
gullet or a lateral vesicle; sometimes a r/?>,?«/T?, with muscular walls, often armed with 
horny pieces, for trituration of food. The stomach is of a very elongated form. The 
liver is represented by long slender bile-tubes, four or more in number, which wind 
around the intestine, and pour their secretion into it, where it originates from the stom- 
ach. The salivary glands are generally similar tubes. 

The eyes of insects are of two kinds— smpfe or stenimatic, and compound or composite. 
See Eye. Some insects have only simple eyes {ocelli), some have only compound eyes; 
but the greater number have two large compound eyes on the sides of the head, and 
three small simple eyes between them. Compound eyes occur in insects only in their 
mature or perfect state; the eyes of larvae are simple. 

The antennae (q.v.) are generally regarded as organs of touch. They are attached to 
the head in front of the eyes, and are always present, antl always two in number. They 
exhibit a vast variety of different forms. Insects make much use of their antennae to 
investigate surrounding objects by contact, although, if this is then' sole use, it is not 
very easy to assign any probable reason for some of tiieir forms; but there is not mucli 
plausibility in the conjectures which assign to them a part in the exercise of the senses 
of hearing and smell, although these senses and taste are evidently enjoyed by insects, 



4r 



Insects. 



or nt least by many insects in great perfection, and their particular seat and oricans are 
not well ascertained. The sense of smell appears to be of gnat importance to insects 
in guiding tlieni to their food. The sexes are distinct in all insects, and very remarkable 
differences are often exhibited by tl»e males and females of the same species, in size, 
color, and the form and structure of parts that have no immediate connection with the 
reproductive system. What are called neuters in some tribes are imperfectly developed 
females. The connection of the sexes takes place only once in the lives of insects, and 
a remarkable provision is made in the female for the consequent ftrlilizatiqn of eggs 
tliat in some — as bees — continue for a long time afterwards to be successively developed. 

Insects are generally oviparous; a few arc ovoviviparous. The aphides afford an 
instance of what has been called the alternation of generations. The greater number of 
insects take no care of their eggs after depositing them, and many themselves pass out 
of existence before the eggs are hatched; the chief part of the lives of insects being gen- 
erally spent in their immature states, and their brief existence in a perfect state serving 
mainly for the propagation of their species. Thus many insect tribes disappear entirely 
on the -approach of winter, their eggs awaiting the warmth of spring or summer to be 
liatched. Tlie case is very different, however, witli bees, ants, earwigs, and some othei-s, 
wliich carefully tend and rear their young. — The number of eggs laid by insects is very 
various, but often very great. The "tiea, indeed, only lays about 12, and many dipter- 
ous and coleopterous insects about 50; but the silkworm produces from 500 to 2,000; a 
single queen bee is supposed to lay 40,000 or 50,000 in a season; and the female termite 
or white ant, laying about 60 eggs in a minute and for a period of very considerable 
though unknown duration, exceeds as to tlie number of lier eggs any other linown animal 
in the world. 

Tlie eggs of insects are generally winte, yellowy or green; they are of very various 
shapes — round, cylindrical, conical, lenticular, etc.; they are sometimes smooth, some- 
times beautifully sculptured. 

The stage of development at which insects come forth from the eg^ is very different 
in different tribes- in some they appear as footless w^orms; in others they have rudiment- 
ary feet, but still with very little power of locomotion; in others, besides little claws 
representing the six feet of the perfect insect, there are on the abdominal segments of the 
worm-like body fleshy tubercles serving as feet; in others still, the legs are well developed, 
and the insect on issuing from the egg differs little from the perfect insect, except in the 
want of wings; whilst, finally, in a comparatively small number (lice, etc.), tJiere is no 
obvious difference except in size. Similar differences of the degree of development 
appear in the mouth, eyes, and other organs. Hence the subsequent changes by which 
the mature state is reached are very dilferent in degree; and insects being primarily 
divided into those which undergo and those which do not undergo metamorphosis, some 
of the former are commonly spoken of as undergoing complete and others incompleie 
metamorphosis. In the tirst state of insect life the insect is called a larvu (q.v.). Grubs, 
caterpillars, and maggots are the larvae of different orders of insects. From this state it 
passes into that of a pupa (q.v.), or nymph — a chrysalis or aurelia is the jmpa of a lepi- 
dopterous insect — and finally it becomes an imago, or perfect insect. 

The metamorphoses or transformations of insects have always been regarded with 
great admiration. A worm inhabiting a muddy pool becomes a winged creature that 
sports in the air. A crawlmg caterpillar that ravenously devours some kind of herbage 
with its horny jaw^s, eating vastly more in proportion to its size than an ox, is converted 
into a splendid butterfly, flitting from flow^er to flower and feeding only on nectareous 
juices. The intermediate or pupa state only adds to the wonder. The caterpillar, after 
several moltings, or changes of skin, and when it has attained its utmost size, ceases from 
eating, perhaps fixes itself under a leaf, becomes incased in a hornj^ covering, as in a 
second egg, and from this it finally breaks forth j^ moth or a butterfly. Many larvse also, 
when about to change into the pupa state, spin cocoons (<i.v.) in^vhich they envelop 
themselves by means of spianercts on the under lip. through which a viscid*^ secretion, 
passes in fine threads which harden into silk. But whilst the pujvTi of many insects are 
motionless, or nearly so, and eat no food whatever, the pupa* of other insects, as dragon- 
flies, are active and voracious. The ■ intermediate or pupa state often differs little from 
the larva state, except in the possession of wings, or fiom the perfect state, except in 
the wings being merely rudimentary and still unfit for flight. 

An opinion at one time prevailed that the successive envelopes of the larva were all 
contained from the beginning within the first, within them the covering of the pupa, and 
within it the perfect insect. This extraordinary fancy has given place to the belief, 
established on sufficient observation, that the envelopes which the growing larva succes- 
sively casts off are merely a hard, thick, extra vascular, and unextensile epidermis; that 
tlie jaws, claws, etc., of the larva, with which it parts when it becomes a pupa, in the 
case of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis are connected with the epidermis; 
and that the covering of the pupa is a new secretion. Discoveries, however, do not 
render less marvelous, but only more admirable, the changes which take place. Of 
these, some of the most important are in the organs of the mouth, the digestive organs, 
and the nervous system. 

It is not certain that any insect has a voice or cry, altliougli the origin of the sounds 
produced by some of thenr, as the plaintive, squeaking note of the death's-head moth, is 



lii>iilveiicy. 

not kiiovv'ii. TLc soTinds of -uliich wc do knov; the origin r.rc not produced b}^ the mouth 
or throat. See Ghasshoppek, Dpjatii- watch, and Cicada. — Tho hatnininy or hazziiig^ 
of insects during fliuht luis been commonly ascribed t(; ihj extremely rapid vibrations of 
tlieir wings. Burmeister, however, supp )ses it lo be pi'odueed by vibratory laminae in 
the respiratory spiracles of the thorax, acted upon by t.iC forcible emission of air during 
the violent muscular action necessary for flight. 

Insects are all animals of small size, and many of them arc minute. The largest 
species are tropical, and insects of all sizes abound in warm far more than in cold 
climates. The insects of the polar regions are comparatively few, and are to be seen 
only during summer; those of them whose whole existence is not comprised within a 
single year spending the winter, as very many insects of temperate climates also do, in \\ 
state ot' torpidity. All insects are very fond of heat, and many which do not become 
completely torpid in cold weather become partially so. It ic only in warm weather thrt 
insects display their greatest activity. As to their geographical distribution, insects arc 
found in all countries, to the utmost alpine and polar limi's of vegetable life. Many 
kinds are peculiar to particular climates and countries. The insects of the Malayan 
iirchipelago and of Australia, like their other natural productions, are generally very 
different from those of other parts of the world. The insects of elevated mountainous 
regions within the tropics generally resemble those of the temperate and frigid zones, but 
are seldom the same. The multitude of species of insects is very great. The species of 
coleopterous insects alone, or beetles, are more numerous than all those of vertebrated 
animals together. 

A few insects are important for their usefulness to man, and a greater number for the 
injuries which they intlict. Of the former, bees and silkworms deserve to be first named; 
rnd after them the cocliineal insect and cantharides or blistering-flies. There are a few 
others to which we arc indebted for substances useful in medicine and the arts, rs kermes, 
lac, galls, etc. Of the injuries intlicted by insects, the most serious are those caused by 
\\\? destruction of herbage and crops, as by the ravages of locusts, of some kinds of catcr- 
])i]lars, and of numerous tribes of coleopterous and dipterous insects. See Corn-fly, 
TiKNip-FLY, etc. 

The primary division of insects into those which do not and those which do undergr) 
nietai)iorphosis {itmetahoUa, and meiaholUi of Leach), has been already noticed. Tlie 
former are divided into the orders iliysdnuva (q v.) and parasita (q.v.) or anoplnra, and 
«re all included in tlie order aptera (see Apterous Insects) or wingless insects of 
Linnaeus. The insects undergoing metamorphosis, which are far more numerous, ai'c 
divided into two great groups, mandibutata and luiustellata, the former having tlie 
mouth fitted for mastication, the latter for suction. The mandlbiilaia form the univei- 
sally recognized oi'ders coleoptcra, orthopiera, including dcrmoptera of some entomolo- 
gists, neuroptera, and liymcnoptevd; the hauaieXlaUi form the orders hemiptera, including 
homoptera of some, Icpidoptera, Hirepsiptera, dlptera, and suctoria {apJianiptera of some). 
bee these heads. 

Foml Insects. — Several causes conspire to make the remains of insects in the strati- 
fied rocks comparatively rare, such as their possession of the power of flight, their 
soft and speedil}^ decomposing bodies, and the extent to which they are preyed upon by 
other animals. That they were abundant during some periods is, however, very 
evident. In the lower lias several bands of limestone occur, which, from the abun- 
dance of insect remains contained in them, have been called "insect limestone." They 
are crowded with the \\ ing-cases of several genera of coleoptera, and insects almost 
entire are frequently found. The strongly nerved wings of some neuroptera are beau- 
tifully perfect. In the eocene strata at Auvergne, a considerable thickness of limestone 
is formed entirely of the indusia or cases of the aquatic larva of a neuropterous insect. 
Amber from tertiary strata often abounds in insects captured and inclosed while this 
petrified gum was in its ])rimitive fluid condition, and now made permanent in the 
transparent stone, with every minute detail of structure beautifully preserved. 

The oldest strata in which insects remains have been observed belong to the carbon- 
iferous period. The remains consist of fragments of neuroptera, orthoptera, and cole- 
optera. 

The lower lias insects belong to various orders; they are generally of a small size, 
ai)parently indicating a temperate climate. In the upper lias they are not infrequent; 
a few specimens have been found in the oolite propei; and in the wealden both land 
and water forms occur. None have been noticed as yet in the deep-sea rocks of the 
cretaceous period, but in the newer tertiary strata they are common, especially in the 
amber from the lignite beds of Germany and in the cavern deposits. It is Avorthy of 
remark that no new forms liav(! been observed; all are either referred to living genera 
or placed in new yet nearly allied genera. 

INSESSO'RES (Lat. pcrchers), or Perching Birds, an order of birds called passenne 
(sparrow-like) />/?-<^.'< by Cuvier. In respect of the number of species which it contains, 
it is by far the largest order of the whole class of birds. Cuvier says- " Its character 
seems at first sight purely negative, for it embraces all those birds which are neither 
swimmers, waders, climbers, rapacious, nor gallinaceous. Nevertheless, by comparing 
them, a very great nuitual resemblance of structure becomes perceptible," A principle 



jiCk Insessorei*. 

^^ Insolvency. 

characteristic is found in the structute of the feet, which are particularly adapted for 
perching on the branches of trees, and have three toes before and one behind, the hind 
toe on the same level with the others. The legs are neither very long nor very strong; 
nor are the claws in general very long or very sharp. The wings are often long, arid 
the power of flight very considerable, but this is not always the case. The neck is not 
long. The bill exhibits many varieties in length, thickness, etc., being very short and 
thick in some, very slender in others, but never exhibits the characteristic peculiarities 
of the accipitrine beak, although there is an approach to them in the shrikes, which are 
a connecting link between the two orders. The insessores with short Strong beaks are 
principally granivorous, those with slender beaks insectivorous; but very many adapt 
themselves almost indifferently to both kinds of food. Some feed on pulpy fruits; some 
on vegetable juices; some chiefly on carrion. The stomach is a muscular gizzard. To 
the order insessores belongs the singing birds, and throughout the whole order a vari- 
ously complicated structure of the lower larynx prevails. The insessores pair, but the 
attachment of the sexes in most of them seems to endure only for a single season. They 
generally build interwoven nests, and lay numerous eggs. The young are always naked 
and blind on coming forth from the egg. — The insessores are divided into four great 
tribes or sections, dsntirostref, conirostres, tenuirostres, and fisdrostres. See these 
heads. 

INSOLVENCY, or Bankruptcy, is the state of a person declared to be unable to pay 
his debts. Insolvency is a term which in England had long been confined to the case 
of a non-trader who was unable to pay his debts. All who were traders (a term which 
was not always easily defined) were said, in the same circumstances, to be, not insolvent, 
but bankrupt. Different courts, called the bankrupt and insolvent courts, were appli- 
cable respectively to these two great divisions of mankind, traders and non-traders, and 
the chief points of diflierence in the procedure were these. In the case of traders, the 
court of bankruptcy was the court to which they or their creditors applied for its sum- 
mary intervention. That court, whenever a man who was a trader was unable to pay 
his debts — certain tests of which inability, called acts of bankruptcy, were assumed as 
infallible symptoms — on the application of a creditor, took forcible possession of his 
property or his assets of every kind and denomination, converted these into money, and 
distributed the produce impartially among the creditors, according to certain rules, at 
the joint expense of the creditors. In the course of doing this, the court required the 
bankrupt to state all the property he had, where it was, and to give explanations as to 
what had been lately lost; and it was a crime for him to conceal or make away with any 
part of his property to the prejudice of this impartial distribution. The creditors also 
came in and proved their debts against his estate, thereby showing their title to share in 
it. In this way the debtor was entirel}^ stripped of everything (with a few trifling 
exceptions) which he had, and which was salable; and, on the other hand, he received 
a certificate which entirely cleared him of the incumbrance of his past debts for ever — • 
freed him not only from imprisonment, but even from the liability to pay more in fu- 
ture, should he afterwards become rich; and he could thus begin the world anew. 

On the other hand, the non-traders, who consisted of country gentlemen, professional 
men, gentlemen at large, and nondescripts of every degree who were not traders, fell 
under the care of the insolvent court. These non-traders petitioned the court voluntary 
ily, instead of their creditors doing so, as was the case in the bankrupt court, and they 
of course put off this application till the last, when they were in prison, though they 
might also petition before any creditor put them in prison. The sole condition on 
which the insolvent court granted them its protection, and discharged them from 
prison, was, that the}' should not only give up all their property, but state fully all the 
debts and liabilities they had incurred. If they did this satisfactorily, the court relieved 
them from imprisonment, which was the most obnoxious of their terrors, but did not 
entirely free them from the debt they had incurred. On the contrary, they were still 
liable for their debts; and if ever they should in future become rich enough to pay 
twenty shillings in the pound, they were still held liable to make up that amount. This 
contingency, however, seldom happened, and, moreover, when it did happen, consider- 
able leniency was shown to the debtor, so that practically, both in bankruptcy and in- 
solvenc)^ the debtor was more or less, whitewashed, and was at least saved from im- 
prisonment. 

Important changes were made in the practice of bankruptcy by the act of 1869, 33 and 
34 Vict. c. 71, which repealed the prior enactments and rendered the law more uniform. 
Under that act non-traders as well as traders may be made bankrupts; and even peers of 
the realm not only may be made bankrupt, but, on being declared so, are at once dis- 
qualified from sitting and voting in the house of lords till they have received their dig- 
charge. The act 84 and 35 Vict. c. 50, provided that the moment a peer is adjudged a 
bankrupt his disqualification begins, and he commits a breach of privilege if he sits or 
votes, or attempts to do so, while thus disqualified. And if he is a representative peer, 
a new election must take place when he becomes bankrupt. 

The bankruptcy laws date from the time of Henry VIII. , and the insolvency laws 
from the time of Elizabeth, the distinction as above explained having always been kept 
up between them till the old statute, 24 and 25 Vict. c. 134 passed in 1861. By that 
U. K. VIII.— 4 



50 

Insolvency. *^ 

statute, the insolvent court was abolished. The court now administering this branch 
of the law is called the court of bankruptcy, which, as far as the London district is 
concerned, sits in Basinghall street, city. The London district includes all the area of 
the ten metropolitan county courts. The rest of England is divided into separate juris- 
dictions, and the judge of each county court is the ordinary judge. In Loudon, the 
chief judge in bankruptcy, who is also one of the judges of the chancery division of the 
high court, sits, and has several registrars under him, to whom he has power to delegate 
his jurisdiction. Each judge "of county courts has also all the jurisdiction of a judge in 
chancery ; and each county court is a branch of the bankruptcy court. There is an 
appeal from a local court to the chief judge, and then to the high court of appeal. Tlie 
office of official assignees is abolished, and the creditors choose a trustee to represent 
their interests and administer the estate, and collect and distribute the effects. The reg- 
istrar of each county court is an official trustee, but he merely acts till the creditor's 
trustee is appointed. The comptroller, whose office is in London, keeps a register of 
all bankruptcies, showing the state and progress of each; and the high bailiff serves all 
summonses, and inserts advertisements in the Oazette. 

The tests of bankruptcy, or rather the acts done b}'- a trader which make him liable to 
be proceeded against as a bankrupt, are technically called acts of bankruptcy. These 
are ; departing the realm — remaining abroad — absenting himself from his dwelling-house 
— keeping (himself prisoner in his) house — suffering himself to be outlawed and sued by 
creditors for debt — or allowing his goods to be taken in execution for debt — executing 
a fraudulent grant, gift, or conveyance of his lands or goods. If a trader execute a 
conveyance of his whole property to a trustee for the benefit of his creditors, this will 
be treated as an act of bankruptcy, if an}^ creditor petition within six months thereafter 
to make him a bankrupt. And, after a petition has been presented, the paying or giv- 
ing security to any one creditor, so that he shall receive more than the other creditors, 
is void and null. If any creditor make an affidavit of debt, and give notice to the 
trader requiring immediate payment, the court of bankruptcy may order this to be filed, 
and call on the trader, if he do not bond fide dispute the debt, to enter into a bond with 
sureties to pay it in a given time, and refusal or neglect to attend or to pay this is an 
act of bankruptcy. With regard to a non-trader, the acts of bankruptcy were these: 
if, with intent to defeat or delay his creditors, he depart the realm, or remain abroad, or 
make a fraudulent gift, conveyance, or transfer of his real or personal estate; but in 
these cases the court did not declare him bankrupt until it was shown he had, whether 
abroad or not, been personally sei'ved with notice of the intended application, or at 
least that every reasonable effort had been made to effect such personal service; that is 
to say, to put into his hands written notice and full information of what is intended 
against him. Other acts of bankruptcy, which were applicable to both trader and non- 
trader alike, were the lying in prison for debt — suffering his goods to be taken for debt 
— filing a, declaration in the court of bankruptcy that he is unable to meet his engage- 
ments, provided a petition for adjudication of bankruptcy be filed against him within 
two months thereafter. The acts of bankruptcy, in all cases, are now the same, and 
are as at first stated, one being also the filing of a declaration of inability to pay his diabts. 
The mode in which an adjudication in bankruptcy is conducted in England is as 
follows: The act of bankruptcy, as already explained, must have occurred within six 
months before the proceeding is commenced. The first step is a petition to the court. 
This may be presented either by one or several creditors. If, as is most usual, it is pre- 
sented by a creditor, then such creditor must have a claim of debt amounting to not less 
than £50; or if the debt of two creditors amount to £50, they may jointly petition; or 
if the debt of three creditors amount to £50, they may jointly petition. Such debts 
may be due under mortgages, securities, or liens, and the costs and interest previouslj^ 
due in respect of such debts count as part of the whole debt. If a person in prison for 
debt is too poor to pay the fees, he formerly could be allowed to present the petition 
against himself in forma pauperis; and as a monthly return of all debtors must be for- 
warded Jto the bankruptcy court, if prisoners stayed bej'^ond a limited time — viz., if 
traders beyond a fortnight, and if non-traders beyond two months — without voluntarily 
petitioning, the court would at once make them bankrupts. But, imprisonment being 
abolished, creditors now begin the process. On the petition for adjudication of bank- 
ruptcy being presented, together with an affidavit of the debt, it is filed in court, and on 
proof of the particular act of bankruptcy, the court adjudicates the debtor a bankrupt. 
The court then appoints the official registrar to take possession of the property and 
premises. Before the adjudication is advertised in the Gazette, the debtor is to have 
notice personally, or by service, at his premises, and a certain number of days, from 
seven to fourteen, are allowed to him to show cause why the adjudication should not 
be deemed valid. The bankrupt is then to deliver up all his books and papers on oath 
to the official registrar. He is bound to give information to the official registrar and 
the court, and to attend from time to tnue for that purpose, and he is allowed remunera- 
tion for that purpose. A small sum is also allowed for his and his family's maintenance 
during the proceedings. In general, the bankrupt from this time to the end of the pro- 
ceedings is free from being arrested by individual creditors, and receives a protection 
from the court. The petitioning creditor, at iiis own costs, prosecutes the petition up to 
the stage when the creditors choose their trustee, when these costs are repaid to him. 



*^ ■*- Insolvency. 

Soon after adjudication of bankruptcy, a ten days' notice is given in the Gazette to the 
•creditors to meet and appoint a trustee. On this occasion, tlie creditors must first prove 
their debts, which they do by their alfidavit or oath, togetlier with production of any 
security or document verifying the debt. All creditors having thus proved their 
respective debts, have power to choose one or more persons as creditors' trustees; but 
the court has power to reject for want of securit}''. The creditors may be represented on 
such occasion by an agent or deputy, whose authority needs no stamp. Creditors may 
determine whether such trustees shall give security. The court declares the appointment 
final. From the moment of their appointment, the whole of the bankrupt's real and 
personal property of every kind vests in them. They can sell it, and in general do every 
thing which the bankrupt himself could have done. They are accountable to the creditors, 
aud must render frequent accounts, and give explanations, which accounts must be printed 
iind sent to every creditor. Tliey manage and realize the estate and collect the debts, 
and can compromise claims and sue if needful. The court can summon the bankrupt, 
his wife, and all persons for examination. A sitting is appointed for every examina- 
tion of the bankrupt which the court or the trustees may deem necessary. Meanwhile 
all creditors who have debts must complete the proof. Every creditor may prove his 
debt by deliveriug or sending through the general post, to the official registrar — or, if 
the creditors' trustee has been appointed, then to the latter — a statement of such debt, 
and of the account of any, aud a declaration signed by such creditor appended thereto 
that such statement is a full, true, and complete statement of account, and that the 
debt is justly due. If the debt is undefined, and consists of unliquidated damages, then 
the court orders a jury to be impaneled, either before itself or a court of law, to fix the 
sum. Debts which have been incurred, but are payable at a future time, may also be 
proved, and so may contingent debts and liabilities. When wages are due to clerks and 
servants at the time of the bankruptcy, the court may order a sum not exceeding four 
months' wages, and not exceeding £50, to be paid in cash; aud for any surplus that may 
be due, the clerk or servant must prove and share with the other creditors. If the other 
creditors oppose a particular debt, and show it is unfounded, the court will expunge it. 
When all the examinations necessary of the bankrupt have been gone through, a day is 
appointed for considering his discharge. A discharge shall not be granted unless it 
is proved to the court that a dividend of ten shillings in the pound has been paid, or 
might have been paid, except through the negligence or fraud of the trustee; or that a 
special resolution of creditors has been passed to the effect that the failure to pay ten 
shillings in the pound has arisen from circumstances for wiiich he was not responsible, 
and that they desire that an order of discharge shall be granted to him. And the court 
may suspend for a time, or withhold altogether, the order of discharge, if the creditors, 
by special resolution, have decided that the bankrupt has made default in giving up to 
his creditors all the property required by the act to be given up, or that a prosecution 
has been commenced against him for some fraudulent offense declared by the debtors 
act of 1869, 32 and 33 Vict. ,c. 62. The effect of the discharge is to free the bankrupt 
entirely from all debts capable of being proved under the bankruptcy. The creditors 
have it in their power to determine whether any and what allowance should be made to 
the bankrupt up to and upon his discharge. 

A debtor who is unable to meet the demands of his creditors may, instead of leaving 
them to commence proceedings in bankruptcy, call them all together, and lay a state- 
ment of his affairs before them, when those present are to decide whether the estate 
shall be wound up by arrangement. Due notice of this must, however, have been given 
to all creditors whose debts exceed £10. The debtor must also attend and answer all 
questions. If the majority of creditors agree, they may thus liquidate the estate by 
arrangement, and they proceed somewhat in the manner usual in bankruptcy by appoint- 
ing a trustee; and there is power, in case of any legal or other difficulties, to call on the 
court to adjudicate the debtor a bankrupt in the usual way; and in all cases the proceed- 
ings are under the surveillance of the bankruptcy court. 

The criminal offenses committed by a bankrupt are such as not surrendering himself 
to the jurisdiction of the court at the time appointed; not making a full discovery of all 
his property and his dealings with it; concealing or embezzling part of his property 
above £10; not informing his trustee of any false debt proved under his bankruptcy; 
falsifying his books; fraudulently accounting for his property by fictitious losses; pawn- 
ing or mala fide disposing of property within three months before the bankruptcy. 

In Ireland bankruptcy is substantially the same process in all its features as in 
England. 

Scotch bankruptcy, or sequestration, is substantially the same process as that which 
prevails in England and Ireland; but there are some differences of no small im|)ortance, 
besides the different names given to the steps of the process. Certain acts and conduct 
of the bankrupt are held to be symptoms of notour bankruptcy, corresponding to what 
'are called in England acts of bankruptcy. The first step is a petition for sequestration, 
which may be presented by creditors whose debt must be of the same amount as in 
England. There is no separate court of bankruptcy, but the sheriff of the county, or 
the court of session, has jurisdiction to award sequestration, and the court then appoints 
a judicial factor, if necessary, until the creditors elect a trustee, in whom the property 
vests. The creditors also appoint commissioners to advise with the trustee as to the 



Insolvency. pvO 

Inspiration. ^^ 

management of the estate. The duties of the trustee and commissioners are nearly 
identical with those of the trustee in England. The creditors prove their debts in a 
similar way. There are also powers of winding up the estate under a deed of arrange- 
ment. The whole procedure in the sequestration has been very much imitated in the 
latest statutes passed in England. The commissioners of the creditors fix the trustee's 
remuneration. The trustee examines the grounds of claim of creditors, there being an 
appeal to the lord ordinary or sheriff, and he examines the bankrupt on oath, if neces- 
sary. On a report from the trustee as to the conduct of the bankrupt, which is not 
demandable by the bankrupt till five months after the sequestration, the bankrupt 
petitions for his discharge, and if the creditors all concur, he is entitled to his discharge 
at once ; at later dates, if he has the concurrence of a certain number of his creditors, he 
is also entitled to a discharge; but if the creditors oppose, the court has a discretionary 
power to grant or suspend the discharge with or without conditions. In Scotland 
there is no distinction, as there was once for many purposes in England, between 
traders and non-traders. Another peculiarity of a Scotch sequestration is, that the pro- 
cess is applicable not only in the case of debtors who are alive, but in cases of persons 
who have died in insolvent circumstances; whereas in England the only remedy is an 
administration suit in the court of chancery. In Scotland there is a process called 
cessio honorum, w^hich resembles the process called insolvency in Englapd, the principle 
of which is, that the debtor is only relieved from imprisonment, but not from the debt; 
and where the debtor has trifling assets, it is in the power of the creditors to resolve 
that their debtor shall not have a discharge under the sequestration, but only a decree 
in a cessio bonorum (q.v.). 

With regard to the effect of a discharge under a bankruptcy in either of the three 
kingdoms, the rule is, that whether the bankruptcy is awarded in England, Ireland, or 
Scotland, all the property of the bankrupt vests in the assignee or trustee, wherever it 
is situated; and when the bankrupt is discharged, the discharge is thereafter complete 
and given effect to in all parts of the United Kingdom. Of late years, owing to the 
belief tliat it was much easier to be made a bankrupt, and obtain a discharge from debt, 
in Scotland than in England, various English debtors resorted to Scotland for forty 
days, in order that they might be made bankrupt, no doubt thinking that creditors 
would be less likely to oppose their discharge at that distance; and after their discharge, 
they returned to England and pleaded this Scotch bankruptcy. But a recent statute 
has given power to the Scotch courts to refuse the remedy of sequestration to debtors 
whose debts were chiefly contracted in England, and to remit them to their own country. 

INSOLVENCY {ante). The distinction between insolvency and bankruptcy, so long 
observed in England, is unknown in the United States, where the two words are used 
interchangeably in legal proceedings as well as in ordinary speech. The constitution 
empowers congress to " establish uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies through- 
out the United States." The laws of congress made in accordance with this provision 
have been called bankrupt laws, while those made by the* states for the same purpose 
have generally been called insolvent laws; but this implies no essential difference in 
the meaning of the words. Whenever congress passes a bankrupt law, the insolvency 
laws of the states are thereby superseded. The first U. S. bankrupt law was enacted 
April 4, 1800, and repealed Dec. 19, 1803; the second, passed Aug. 19, 1841, w^as repealed 
in 1843; the third, enacted Mar. 2, 1867, was repealed May 11, 1878. These laws were 
alike in purpose and spirit, though differing in details. Their object was to discharge 
insolvent debtors upon the surrender in good faith of all their property, and to divide 
the same equitably among their creditors. They also provided a method whereby 
creditors, under certain conditions, could force a debtor into insolvency. The last law 
was repealed, not so much from any opposition to its main principle, as on account of 
the alleged needless expensiveness of some of its processes. As debtors and creditors 
are often citizens of different states, the operation of the state insolvent laws is often 
attended with much embarrassing and expensive litigation, which can be avoided only 
by confiding the whole matter to tribunals whose jurisdiction is not restricted by state 
lines. There are two different processes by which insolvent debtors in many if not all 
the states of the union frequently obtain their discharge, and these are sometimes pre- 
ferred to a resort to proceedings in bankruptcy. One of these processes is M'hat is 
known as a voluntary "composition" by the debtor with his creditors, whereby the 
latter agree to surrender a portion of their claims on condition that the remainder shall 
be paid. In such cases the parties usually enter into covenant, founded upon a sufficient 
consideration to make it valid, such covenant being in the form of a "composition 
deed" in which all the conditions of the bargain are set forth in legal form and under 
seal. This deed is made void by any subsequent fraud of the debtor in disposing of 
his property. The other method of relief is by assignment on the part of the debtor of 
all his property, to be equitably divided among his creditors. The assignee of the 
property assumes in law the responsibilities of a trustee, and is held to a faithful per- 
formance of his duty as the administrator of a trust fund. The mode of making such 
assignments is sometimes specifically regulated by statute. The fraudulent preference 
of any creditor by a debtor in contemplation of insolvency will, in general, be a sufficient 
ground for withholding a discharge. In many states the payment of a prior debt 



K q Insolvency, 

^ ^ Inspiration. 

^vitbin a year of the insolvency proceedings, by a debtor having reason at the time to 
tsuppose liiniself insolvent, will prevent his discharge. Insolvency is either voluntary 
or involuntary. In the case of the former the debtor himself petitions to be allowed to 
take the benefit of the insolvency laws and to have a distribution of his property made 
among his creditors for the payment of his debts; and his petition sets forth the 
amount of his debts and his inability to pay them. In the case of involuntary insol- 
vency, the creditor's petition that the assets of the debtor may be distributed under the 
insolvency laws among his creditors, on the ground of fraudulent concealment or con- 
veyance of the debtor's property, or of his failure to dissolve within a certain time an 
attachment placed upon it. Upon proof of the facts alleged in the petition, a warrant 
against the debtor's property isssues from the proper authority, judge of probate, 
master in chancery, or commissioner of insolvency, as the case may be. The ofRcer of 
the court, or magistrate, thereupon takes possession of the debtor's effects, A meeting 
of the creditors is then called, and an assignee is chosen to whom the debtor's propei'ty 
is conveyed. He has absolute power over the property, subject to the order of the 
court, collects debts, makes payments, transfers real estate, calls meetings of the credit- 
ors, etc. In most states, after all the property of the debtor has been applied in pay- 
ment of his debts, hp is entitled to a discharge upon consent of a certain percentage of 
his creditors, according to number or to the amount of their claims. 

INSOMNIA. See Sleep, ante. 

INSPECTOR— INSPECTOR-GENERAL,, terms in military affairs, having a somewhat 
vague signification. There are inspectors-general of cavalry, infantry, artillery, engi- 
neers, militia, and volunteers, whose duties are really those which their names infer- 
viz., the periodical inspection of the several corps of their respective arms, and the 
pointing out of deficiencies, the corps being under the command, however, of its own 
officers, and not of the inspector-general. The inspectors-general of musketry and 
gunnery instruction are charged with the direct superintendence and ordering of such 
instruction throughout the army. In the medical department, the inspectors-general of 
hospitals constitute the highest grade of surgeons, under the director-general of the 
whole department. 

Inspectors are employed in many capacities. Inspectors of volunteers are staff 
officers charged with the administration and organizing of the detached corps of 
volunteers in their several districts. The post of inspector-general of auxiliary forces 
has lately been abolished, and his duties transferred to the department of the adjutant- 
general, in order to bring the militia and volunteers more immediately under the super- 
vision of the commander-in-chief. 

INSPECT'ORSHIP DEED is a deed executed between an insolvent person and his 
creditors, whereby they accept a part payment, and allow the insolvent debtor to carry 
on the business under their supervision, with a view to further payments. 

INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS. See National Education. 

INSPIRA'TION (literally, hreatliiiig into) is applied in theology to denote the action of 
tlie divine mind upon the human mind, whereby the latter is both supernaturally 
informed and qualified to communicate the information received. The term remlation 
is used more distinctively to express the first part of this action, and inspiration to express 
the second part. But, in truth, all inspiration, as the word itself bears, implies revela- 
tion. There is a necessity for supernatural qualification in the utterance of truth, 
only where the truth is such as has not been reached by the ordinary exercise of the 
human faculties, but in some degree at least supernaturally communicated. The 
prophet or apostle is inspired only as the utterer of knowledge beyond the ordinary 
reach of human intelligence. 

The inspiration of the Scriptures signifies a supernatural qualification or special 
divine authority in the books of Scripture as depositories of truth. When the theolo- 
gian asserts any book of the Bible to be inspired, he means that it possesses an author- 
ity different from any other book, that it contains truth not merely as any ordinary 
book may do, but by a special divine impress. It is different from ordinary books, as 
conveying in a more immediate and direct, and therefore authoritative, manner divine 
truth. All orthodox theologians may be said to agree in ascribing this special divine 
character to Holy Scripture; but further there is no agreement. Tlie mode of inspira- 
tion, the degree and exteirt of it, are all subjects of dispute. On one side, there are 
the advocates of plenary inspiration, as it is called; then there are those who advocate 
various subordinate or partial degrees of inspiration. The advocates of plenary inspi- 
ration contend that the whole letter of Scripture is inspired, that its words were imme- 
diately dictated by the Holy Spirit, and are literary the words of God, and not of man. 
The several writers of Scripture were nothing more than the penmen of the Divine 
Spirit, under whose control they vibrated as the strings of a harp in the hands of an 
artist. They were as a piece of mechanism touched by God himself. Those who 
maintain this theory, spe^k, indeed, of the individuality^ and diverse characteristics 
of the writers of the Scriptures, but only as one would speak of the different tones 
which the same artist would produce from one and the same musical instrument. The 
differences are not so much in the moral or intellectual individuality of the writers 



54 

Inspiration. 

themselves, as in the diverse aims and uses with which the Holy Spirit employs thein ; 

for, according to this theory, the Divine is all in Scripture, and tlie imman intelligence 

its mere vehicle or passive instrument. The words of Scripture are no less the words 

of God than if he were heard to utter them from heaven. It follows from the same 

theory that inspiration is essentially intermitting. It is not a higher quality of any soul^ 

but a divine afflatus, seizing the soul at certain moments, and abandoaiing it at others. 

j While the canonical epistles of St. Paul and St. Peter are to be held inspired, the words 

' of these apostles at other times may not have possessed any special authority. The 

authority of the Scripture which they have delivered, however, is absolute. The 

i inspired' or thcopneustic document is throughout faultless, as the sole work of the 

i Divine Spirit, faultless equally in its form and in its essence, in its spirit and its letter. 

It admits of no gradation; all is equally divine, and therefore equally accurate, whether 

it relate to some ordinary fact, or to some great truth of the supernatural life, whether 

it treat of a dogma or of the details of a narrative. As one of its recent supporters 

writes: "Every verse of the Bible, every word of it, every syllable of it, every letter of 

it, is the direct utterance of the Most High," It follows no less that what God has- 

thus miraculously written, he must have miraculously preserved. A providential canon 

is the plain sequence of a plenarily inspired Bible. 

In opposition to this theory are various others, all of which impose certain limits 
upon the perfection of Scripture. Some confine inspiration to all that is directly relig- 
ious in the Bible, to all that is directly of the character of revelation, leaving out of the 
question all that belongs to the sphere of science or ordinary history. Otliers exempt 
the form or letter of Scripture, and attribute inspiration only to its spirit, ideas, or doc- 
trines. Others go still further, and comprise in the fallible form the mode of argument 
and expository details. Eacli of these theories supposes inspiration to be connected 
primarily with the authors rather than with the books of Scripture, sometimes with the 
extraordinary gifts accompanying the first preacliers of tlie Word of God, sometimes 
with the peculiar privileges of prophets or apostles, and sometimes with their special 
position as immediate witnesses of the facts of revelation and their singular religious- 
aptitude. Whatever differences may characterize the advocates of these respective 
views, it is plain that they, one and all, liave abandoned the ground of the absolute 
infallibility of the letter of Scripture. 

In a matter of controversy like tlie present, it is not our function to determine in 
favor of any particular view, but simply to indicate what the more important opinions, 
are, and the grounds on which they are held. Those who claim for the letter of the 
Bible a freedom from all error or imperfection, do so on the d priori ground of neces- 
sity; such infallibility is held to be implied in the very idea of a revelation of the divine 
will; while those passages which seem inconsistent with the facts of science or of his- 
tory, or with other parts of the Bible itself, admit, it is maintained, of satisfactory 
explanation. For such reconciliations of apparent discrepancies our readers are referred 
to the current commentaries and harmonies. Those theologians, again, who deny the 
necessity of infallibility, and hold that the inconsistencies referred to never have and 
never can be satisfactorily explained away (and their number has been for some time on 
the increase), argue in the following way: it is plain, first of all, and especially, that 
the question is not one to be settled according to any preconception, but according to 
the evidence of the facts given us in Scripture. The only right idea of inspiration is, as 
one has said, "that which we form from our knowledge of the Bible itself. It is a 
question to be solved not by speculating what the Bible ought to be, but by examining 
what it actually is." All d priori arguments are evidently at once inapplicable and 
dangerous on such a subject. The partisans of plenary inspiration maintain that it is 
necessary to the preservation of faith to hold, that God has not only revealed the truth 
to man, but that he has deposited that truth in an infallible record. Not only so; but 
the infallibility of the canon is no less indispensable; for all would be lost if any doubt 
was allowed to rest upon any portion of the Word of God. But if an infallible text and 
an infallible canon l)e necessary, why not also an infallible interpretation? Without the 
latter, the two former may be of no use. All may be lost by a false or defective com- 
mentary of the sacred text. It is plain that the idea of verbal inspiration cannot stoi> 
short of the conclusion of an infallible interpretation; and even such a conclusion,, 
which upsets Protestantism, by denying the right of free inquiry, would not save it; 
for an infallible commentary would not necessarily insure infallible instruction — all 
might still be lost by the weakness, ignorance, or defect of the recipient mind. No- 
infallibility of text, of canon, or even of interpretation, could insure the infallible 
reception of the truth, thus trebly guarded. . If we would not be caught, then, in this 
absurd chain of assumption, we must break its first link, and ask, not what the Bible 
must be or should be, but what it is. This view is strongly argued in a recent treatise 
on inspiration by M. de Pressense, one of the most distinguished of the French Protest- 
ant divines belonging to the evangelical school of theology. According to this writer,, 
who may be taken as the representative of a large class of theological thinkers, the 
Bible is a mass of documents -of varying age and varying authenticity; its text has 
undergone the usual changes attending the transmission of historical documents; it is 
marked by the usual inequalities and varieties of style that we meet with in any other 



^^ Inspiration. 

collection of ancient literature; it presents in many cases peculiar difficulties, differences 
and even contradictions of detail, scientific and historical errors. AUwlio have studied 
the gospels minutely, and especially the quotations in the gospels and the epistles of St. 
Paul from the Old Testament, know that there are various inaccuracies and misapplica- 
tions of facts throughout them. The same microscope of criticism that reveals to us the 
depths of the inner meaning of the divine message in all its manifold fullness, reveals to 
us also the imperfections, and even the contradictions, of the human messenger. The 
following are only a few of the instances in which such "imperfections and contradic- 
tions" show themselves. 

1. The recital of the temptation in St. Matthew and St. Luke. In the former (Matt. 
iv. 6-8), the vision from the pinnacle of tlie temple is placed first; in the latter (Luke 
iv. 1-10), that from a lofty mountain takes precedence. 

2. In Matt. x. 10, Jesus commands his apostles to take for their missionary journey 
neither "scrip, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves." In Mark vi. 8, he 
commands them to " take nothing for their journey, save a staff only." 

3. In the narrative of the passion, as in that of the resurrection, there are numer- 
ous contradictions of detail resting on a fundamental and striking unity. According to 
Mark xiv. 72, the cock is represented as crowing on each of the first and second occa- 
sions on which Peter denies his Lord. In the accounts given by the other evangelists, 
the cock only crowds upon the third denial (Matt. xxvi. 74; Luke xxii. 60). The state- 
ment of the death of Judas differs materially in Matthew and in the Acts of the Apostles. 
According to the former, Judas casts down the pieces of silver, and departs and hangs 
himself; and the chief priests afterwards purchase with the price of his guilt the potter's 
field for tlie burial of strangers, hence called the field of blood. According to the Acts 
of the Apostles i. 18, Judas himself is represented as having purchased the field " with 
the reward of iniquity;" then as having m some way (not explicitly stated in the narra- 
tive) met there a bloody death, from which circumstance the field took its name. In 
the narratives of the resurrection, it is well known there are numerous variations; and 
numerous palpable errors of memory as to historical facts occur, such as may be seen 
by comparing. Mark ii. 26 with 1 Sam. xxi. 2-6, and 1 Cor. x. 8 with Numb. xxv. 9. 

4. As to the citations of the Old Testament in the New, they are almost entirely taken 
from the Septuagint, and evidently in many cases quoted from memory, with little 
regard to their exact sense in the original. Thus, St. Matthew (ii. 6), in applying to the 
Messiah the prophecy of Micah (v. 2), says of Bethlehem precisely the reverse of the 
Septuagint. "Thou art too little to be reckoned among the thousands of Juda," he 
translates: " Thou art not the least among the princes of Juda." In many cas§s, the 
New Testament writers, while repeating the inaccuracies of the Septuagint tran^'%tion, 
turn them to admirable account; this is especially remarkable in the gospel of St. Mat- 
thew and the epistles of St. Paul. Thus (iii. 3) St. Matthew translates with the Septua- 
gint: "The voice of one crying in the wilderness;" while the Hebrew is: "A voice 
cries, make plain in the wilderness the ways of the Lord " (Isaiah xl. 3). Compare 
also Matt. xii. 21 and Isaiah xlii. 4, also Matt, xv. 8 and Isaiah xxix. 13. 

None of these errors, it is maintained, are of any material consequence so far as the 
substantial veracity of Scripture is concerned. The very fact that a microscopic criti- 
cisni can detect no more serious inconsistencies in the scriptural writers, is rightly held 
to be one of the most striking testimonies that could be given to their truthfulness. 
Such slight inaccuracies are the mere freedoms which writers, thoroughly honest, and 
animated with a high interest which overlooks trifles permit themselves. But how- 
ever unimportant in themselves, they are considered b}^ many theologians to be alto- 
gether inconsistent with a theory of verbal inspiration. However minute, they are recog- 
nized as real discrepancies — human imperfections in the sacred record — and as conse- 
quently proving that the mere text or letter of Scripture is not infallible, that it cannot 
be regarded as a "direct utterance of the Most Pligh." 

Inspiration, therefore, according to these theologians, does not imply the infallibilit}" 
of the scriptural text; it is something consistent with scientific, historical, exegetical, 
and even argumentative errors (witness, to quote no other example, St. Paul s allegori- 
cal argument about the sons of Abraham, (jal. iv. 22, 25). There is nothing valid, no 
divine authoritative element, it may be said, that can survive such deductions. If there 
are such errors in Scripture, why may it not all be imperfect or erroneous? The suffi- 
cient answer is, that it is not so — that, judged by the very same critical tests which 
detect such errors, the Bible remains an entirely unique book. Every Christian mind 
recognizes in it a higher divine knowledge and authority than in aught else. The 
divine spirit in Scripture makes itself felt, shines forth in every page of it; and this \9 
inspiration in the highest sense, the mind of God meeting our minds in Scripturg, 
enlightening, guiding, elevating, purifying them. There is nothing more in reality to ; 
be got from any theory than this. An inspired letter, or word, or message is nothing to 
any one in itself; the meaning is everything. We must understand the word or mes- 
sage. There is no degree of objective authority that can supersede this subjective. proc- 
ess of apprehension on our part. There cannot, therefore, be immunity from error, 
let the symbol or the text be as perfect as possible. It is only to us what wc see it to 
mean; and this meaning, in the case of Scripture, shines with a divine power and luster 



Inspired. ;=:f4 

lustinct. ^^ 

such as invest no other book. It bears its own divine witness. In such an idea of 
inspiration, criticism finds nothing inconsistent, nothing impossible, and no higher 
idea can be well formed of it. 

INSPIRED, THE, or CoMAiuNiTY of True Inspiration, a small body of Christians 
who profess to derive their origin fiom pietists of Germany and from French Protest- 
ants of the Cevennes — a remnant of the Albigenses — named Camisards from the peculiar 
dress they wore. They receive the teachings of the German mystics, Bohme and 
Schwenkfeld, and cherish evangelical opinions, but do not use the sacraments. They 
claim at times to be divinely inspired, retaining their mental activity, but becoming 
insensible to outward things. They hold their property to some extent in common. In 
1844 they established a community at Ebenezer, Erie co., N. Y., which continued 10 
years. They then removed to Iowa, and have now settlements in that state and in 
Canada. 

INSTALLA'TION, in church law, means the ceremonial act or process by which a 
person presented and legally confirmed in a benefice is formally put into possession of 
his office, and by which he is fully empowered not alone to exercise its functions, but to 
enjoy its honors and emoluments. The ceremonial form, as well as the name, differs 
according to the office which is conferred, as " enthronizatiou " for a bishop, "induc- 
tion " for a rector, etc. "Installation" properly regards the oflflce of a canon or pre- 
bendary. The word is also used generally for a formal introduction to any office. 

INSTERBURG, a t. of Prussia, in the province of east Prussia, is pleasantly situated 
on the left bank of the Angerap, 15 m. w.n.w\ of Gumbinnen. It contains a castle, and 
several educational institutions. Cloth-weaving, tanning, brewing, and distilling, with 
a trade in corn and linseed, are carried on. Pop. '75, 16,380. Insterburg had its origin 
in a casde of the Teutonic order of knight^, built here at an early period. At the 
close of the 16th c. it had attained the rank '^f a town, which increased considerably 
after the 17th c. about which time a number of Scottish families settled at Insterburg 
on account of its trade. 

INSTINCT. It has been common to describe the actions of the lower animals as 
guided by principles different from what obtains in the human constitution. The power 
of self-preservation is considered as reason in man, and as instinct in the brutes; but 
this contrast does not contain a real opposition. There is much that is common in the 
Impulses of men and animals. When an animal, having found a morsel agreeable to 
its taste, masticates and swallows it, and takes up another of the same, the mental 
operation is not essentially different from what a human being would go through in the 
like circumstances. In both instances we have an example of the exercise of will, or 
volition, which operates to promote the pleasures and ward off the pains of the sentient 
being. 

The most important meaning connected with the term instinct is what contrasts with 
experience, education and acquired knowledge. The original or innate tendencies and 
powers of the mind are to be distinguished from the powers that grow up in the course 
of the animal's experience of the world, and its companionship with other living 
creatures. There has been a disposition to underrate the acquired aptitudes of the 
inferior animals, and to refer their capability of self-preservation purely to their natural 
or primitive endowments. But in point of fact men and animals alike possess both 
ihstincts and acquisitions; for although in man the preponderance is greatly in favor of 
the acquired, he, too, must start from something primordial, the basis of the other. 

In the first place, there are certain actions of importance to the sa*fety and well|being 
of the individual that are termed reflex, or automatic. They seem to be almost out of 
the sphere of mind proper, as they are performed even unconsciously. Among t*Iiese are 
the propulsion of the food along the alimentary canal, sneezing, respiration, etc. In 
all these we have important activities, which are inherent in the constitution, and are 
performed as effectually at the beginning of life as at the full maturity of the being. 

In the second place, there is a certain original provision for rhythmical and combined 
movements among the active organs, more especially those concerned in locomotion. 
Thus, there is a natural tendency to alternate the limbs, although the human infant 
cannot turn this to account at once for the ends of walking, as some of the quadrupeds 
can. From this alternation the two eyes and the two sides of the face are specially 
exempted, and brought under another arrangement equally primitive — namely, con- 
currence. But all these cases alike illustrate the presence of an original mechanism of 
the frame, by which the movements are grouped up to a certain point. 

In the third place, it may be safely maintained that there is an inborn tendency in 
all animals to act somehow, or to put forth the energies that they possess, without wait- 
ing for the stimulus of their sensations. This spontaneous activity is shown more or 
less in every creature after rest and nutrition (see Spontaneity). Destitute of any 
special direction at the outset, it yet prompts to a great many experiments or trials upon 
things, in the course of which the animal discriminates the suitable from the unsuitable 
by means of its sensations, and thereby learns to follow up the one and eschew the 
other. 

Fourthly, in connection with our emotions there are certain primitive links of 
mental state with bodily manifestation, which constitute a natural language of the feel- 



K/T Inspired. 

*^ • Instinct. 

iDgs understood by the whole human race. The meaning of the smile, the frown, the 
sob, the contortion of pain, is uniform, and therefore instinctive. See Emotion. 

Fiftlily, the power of will or volition, although it can be shown to be a grointh, must 
have some primitive and instinctive elements in the constitution to start from. See Will. 

Sixthly, there must be certain primordial powers of the liuman intellect. What 
these are, lias been much disputed. Every one must concede the existence of some 
intellectual forces or faculties, as, for example, discrimination, the basis of all knowl- 
edge; reteutiveness, the faculty of acquiring everything that is acquired; and agree- 
ment, or similarity (see Intellect); but it? is contended by one school that we possess 
not merely powers of receiving knowledge by our contact with the world, and our con- | 
sciousness of our minds, but actual notions or ^f?eas that cannot be traced to our experience ; 
of the material or mental phenomena that we encounter. This is the doctrine of innate ' 
ideas, intuitive conceptions, <ij9;7ori cognitions and judgments, lirst truths, etc. See 
Common Sense. 

Animals possess, as a rule, the instincts of human beings, with some that are special 
to themst'lves. They have the reflex actions above enumerated; they have, even in a 
more decisive form, the primitive combined movements for locomotion and other pur- 
poses; they have the spontaneous activities that come under control in their voluntary 
acts; they have emotional manifestations that are emittent, although their organs of 
expression are fewer; they have certain rudimentary powers, which are developed by 
experience into the activity of the will. 

There are certain intellectual judgments that in man are mainly, if not wholly, the 
result of experience, but in animals are instinctive. The chief of these is the appre- 
ciation of distance and direction, which is shown in the ability to take an aim, as in 
birds pecking their food soon after they are born. The higher quadrupeds learn to 
feed themselves in a space of time too short*for acquisition. It would seem also that 
animals have instinctive notions of things, as in the case of the aquatic animals knowing 
water at first sight, a fact generally aifirmed, and not easy to contradict. In the same 
way, they may know their food at first sight before tasting it. 

It is in connection witli sociability that we have the largest compass of undoubted 
instincts. Animals seem to know their own species by intuitive perception. Predatory 
animals certainly recognize their prey by instinctive perception ; the young kitten is 
aroused by the sight of a mouse; the dog pursues a cat with a decision and vehemence 
that could not be given by eduction. So animals that are preyed upon intuitively dread 
their captors. \ 

While pleasure and pain must be regarded as fundamental attributes of the mind, [ 
inseparable from its w^orking, the more special modes of feeling called emotions, as i 
love, anger, fear, are states superinduced upon the primary modes of feeling, and as | 
they appear from the earliest moments of life, they are properly termed instincts, being 
common to man and to animals. 

Among the most notable instincts are the constructions of forethought — as the 
nests of birds, the cells of bees and wasps, the ant-hillocks, the beaver's dwellings, the 
spider's web; also the precautionary movements of animals, as in the migrations of 
birds and fishes, according to season. The striking and extraordinary anecdotes given 
of the sagacity of some animals, as the dog, the horse, the cat, the elephant, do not, 
properly speaking, exemplify instinct; they involve experience, memory, and reason, 
which animals are capable of in a greater or less degree, and with great individual 
differences, even in the same species. Respecting these various instinctive aptitudes, 
the account given until lately was that each distinct animal species was originally 
created so; and that the powers belonging to each were handed down without change 
from parents to offspring. A new rendering of the phenomena has been given in 
the doctrine of ewlution. According to this doctrine, as applied to mind, instincts are 
experiences and acquisitions that have become hereditary. 

' ' Though reflex and instinctive sequences are not determined by the experience of the 
iiidimdual organism manifesting them, yet the experiences of the race of organisms form- 
ing its ancestr}'^ may have determined them. Hereditary transmission applies to mental 
peculiarities as well as to physical peculiarities. While the modified bodily structure 
produced by new habits of life is bequeathed to future generations, the modified nervous 
structure produced by such new habits of life are also bequeathed; and if the new 
habits become permanent, the tendencies become permanent. Let us glance at the 
facts: Among the families of a civilized society, the changes of occupation and habit 
from generation to generation, and the intermarriage of families having different occu- 
pations and habits, greatly confuse the evidence of mental heredity. But it needs only 
to contra^ national characters to see that mental peculiarities caused by habit become 
hereditary. We know that there are warlike, peaceful, nomadic, maritime, hunting, com- 
mercial races — races that are independent or slavish, active or slothful; we know that 
many of these, if not all, have a common origin ; and hence it is inferable that these varieties 
of disposition, wiiich have evident relations to modes of life, have been gradually pro- 
duced in the course of generations. In domesticated animals, parallel facts are familiar. 
Not only the forms and constitutions, but the dispositions and instincts of horses, oxen, 
sheep, pigs, fowls, have become different from those of their wild kindred. The 
various breeds of dogs exhibit numerous varieties of mental character and faculty per- 



Institute. PLQ 

Iiistrumentation. *^^ 

manently established by mode of life; and their several tendencies are spontaneously 
manifested. A young pointer will point out a covey the first time he is taken afield" 
(Spencer's PsycJiology, vol. i., p. 422). 

The strongest evidence, however, for the evolution theory is the remarkable simi- 
larity between instincts and acquisitions. Our instincts are just the powers that we 
need for our support and preservation, and that we should acquire by trying what 
actions are best suited for this purpose. An animal coming into the world unable to 
adjust the movements of its limbs, head, and mouth, to pick up the food that lies before 
it, would have to learn these movements as quickly as possible. Once acquired, they 
persist, and if very strongly embodied in the nervous system, they may be transmitted 
in a more or less perfect form to the next generation. Even granting that the trans- 
mission is not full and complete, a sufficient trace may be left to render the acquisition 
comparatively short. There are a great many instincts that need a certain amount of 
practice to make them operative; the first attempts at locomotion in most animals are 
feeble and awkward. 

INSTITUTE, a term used in Scotch entail law to denote the person who is first 
mentioned or described as entitled to take the entailed estate. All those who come 
after him are called substitutes. When the institute dies before the entailer, the next 
person mentioned takes as institute. There are certain rules of construction which 
favor the institute, but these are entirely technical. 

INSTITUTE, The, English law, is the mode of citation or reference to chief- 
justice Coke's great work, in four volumes, on English law. Another name for the first 
part of it is Coke upon Littleton, owing to its being a commentary by Coke upon a work 
of Littleton. The second book is a comment on acts of parliament, the third is a 
treatise on the pleas of the crown, and the fourth on the different kinds of courts. 

INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. On the revival of letters, associations for mutual inter- 
course and co-operation, called academies (q.v.), were formed in Italy and France, one 
of which, composed of poets of no great note, was converted by Richelieu into a national 
institution, under the name of Academie Frangaise, and met for the first time July 10, 
1637. The chief object of this institution was the cultivation of the French language; 
but this was indifferently accomplished, owing to the intermeddling of the court, which 
arrogated to itself the right of directing the public taste. Many of the judgments of 
this academy were strangely erroneous — e. g., its rejection of the Old of Corneille, and 
its refusal to admit Moliere, Boileau, and La Bruyere as members. The academy was 
intrusted with the preparation of a dictionary of the French language ; but the merits of 
this work have been much disputed, and the plan of it generally condemned. — The taste 
for devices, inscriptions and medals, which prevailed in the 17th c, suggested to Louis 
XIV. the foundation of the Academie des Inscriptions in 1663, for the immediate object 
of examining his collection of medals and other antiquities; but the abbe Bignon, 
superintendent of the royal library, secured its perpetuation, with an extension of its 
field of labor, as the Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, under which desig- 
nation it met for the first time July 16, 1701. — The third academy in order, and at 
present the most distinguished scientific association in the world, the Academie Royale 
des Sciences, was founded by Colbert in 1666, remodeled by Bignon in 1699, and further 
enlarged in 1785. — The painter, Le Brun, founded in 1648 an Academie de Peinture, for 
which he obtained a charter in 1655; and in 1664, Colbert remodeled and established it 
as the Academie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture. — An Academie Royale d" Architecture w^as 
also founded. 

All these academies were suppressed by an edict of the convention, Aug. 8, 1793; 
but on Oct. 25, 1795, the directory established a great national association for the pro- 
motion of the arts and sciences, called the Institut National. It was at first divided 
into three classes: viz., sciences physiques et mathematiques; sciences morales et 
politiques; sciences de litterature et beaux-arts; but on the suppression of the second 
class by the first consul in 1803, the remaining classes were rearranged as follows: 
sciences physiques et mathematiques; langue et litterature Fran9aise; histoire et 
litterature ancienne; beaux-arts; and this arrangement continued during the empire. 
On March 21, 1816, a royal ordinance commanded that the four classes should be replaced 
by four academies, but the general title, "Institute of France," was retained, being- 
modified by the epithet "royal," "imperial," or "national," in harmony with the 
political changes in France. Since 1870 it is, of course, the Institut National. The 
four academies are: 1. U Academie Frangaise; 2. L' Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- 
lettres; 3. L' Academie des Sciences ; 4. IJ Academie des Beanx- Arts ; and an ordinance, 
bearing date, Oct. 26, 1832, re-established the old second class as a fifth academy, 
L" Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, and this organization still subsists. 

Each academy has its own independent government, and the free disposition of the 
funds alloted to it, an agency and secretaries; the library and the valuable collections of 
the institute are common to the five; the common fund is managed by a committee of 
ten members (two from each academy), under the presidency of the minister of public 
instruction. Members are elected by ballot, the election requiring to be confirmed by 
government, and members of one academy may be elected as members of any or all of 
the other four. Each member has an annual .salary of 1500 francs, and the secretaries 



59 



Institute. 
Instriiiuentation* 



have 6,000. Each member also receives a napoleon for each meeting of the academy at 
which he is present, but is liable to a tine if absent for a Miiole year, or to expulsion for 
a prolonged absence without sufficient cause shown. Eacli academy meets once a 
week for two hours; each lias also one public annual sitting; and on Aug. 15 there is 
a general public meeting of the whole five. All the academies, with the exception of 
the first, have a certain number of academiciens libres, associes etrangers, and correspon- 
dants; the "academiciens libres" have only the right of attending the meetings of the 
academy; the "associes etrangers " are foreign members. The following table gives- 
the full complement of members and correspondents for each academy: 



1. Acad6mie Frangaise 

2. " ' des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres.. 

3. " des Sciences 

4. " des Beaux- Arts 

5. '* des Sciences Morales et Politiques 



Members. 



40 
40 
65 
41 
40 



226 



Academi- 
ciens Libres. 



10 

10 

10 

6 



36 



Associ6s j Correspon- 
fitrangers. i dants. 



8 

10 

6 



22 



50 

100 

40 

46 



236 



r 



Among the associes etrangers in 1874 there were in the 2d academy, prof. Max Mliller; 
in the 3d, profs. Owen, Airy, and Wheatstone; and in the 5th, the right hon. W. E. 
Gladstone, and the right hon. earl Stanhope. Of correspondents, Mr. Thomas Wright 
belonged to the 2d, as did also sir H. Rawlinson, Mr. Layard, and Dr. John Muir of 
Edinburgh, Late correspondents with the various academies were prof. Faraday, sir 
D. Brewster, sir J. W. Herschel, lord Brougham, Mr. M'^CuUoch, Mr. Grote, and Drs. 
Wheweil and Whately. The Academie FraiiQaise occupies itself with debates on gram- 
mar, rhetoric, poetry, and French literature in general, and its great work is the prep- 
aration and continual improvement of a dictionary of the French language. It has 
the disposal of two prizes of 10,000 francs each, one of 2000 francs, and every alternate 
year a sum of 1500 francs to be bestowed on meritorious authors in poor circumstances. 
The Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres has for its subject history in its most com- 
prehensive sense, including chronology, geography, numismatology, and the study of 
monuments of every kind, and of the languages of all nations at all times. It has in 
its gift a prize of 2000 francs, and another for numismatology. ' The Academie des 
Sciences has for its subject statistics, pure and mixed mathematics, medical science, etc. ; 
and has the gift of eleven prizes, several of which are of 10,000 francs; all are annual, 
with the exception of one, which is decennial. The Academie des Beaux- Arts occupies 
itself with painting, sculpture, architecture, engraving and music; and with the prepara- 
tion of a dictionary of the fine arts, and alternately with the first academy, distributes 
the sum of 1500 francs among poor mcnltorious authors. The Academie des Sciences 
Morales et Politiques discusses mental philosophy, law and jurisprudence, political economy 
and statistics, general and philosophical history, and politics, administration, and finance ; 
and haS the gift of two prizes — one decennial, the other quinquennial. There is also a 
Bordin prize in the gift of each academy ; and two general prizes — one annual, the other 
triennial — in the gift of the institute. 

Each year a sum is voted by the French government for the general fund of the 
institute, and from this fund are paid the allowances of members, salaries of the secre- 
taries and other officials, and several prizes ; also experiments, printing, etc. 

INSTITUTES is the name given to the elementary treatise on the Roman or civil law. 
See Law, Roman, Civil. 

INSTITUTION, in church law, means the final and authoritative appointment to a 
church benefice — more especially a bishopric — by the person with whom such right of 
appointment ultimately rests. Thus, in the Roman Catholic church — even after the 
"election" of a bishop by the chapter, or his " nomination" by the crown, when that 
right belongs to the crown — it is only the pope who confers " institution." In English 
usage, institution is a conveyance of the cure of souls by the bishop, who, or whose 
deputy, reads the words of the institution, while the clerk kneels. The institution vests. 
the benefice in the clerk, for the purpose of spiritual duty, who thereupon becomes 
entitled to the profits thereof. But the title is not complete till induction (q.v.). 

INSTRUMENT, in point of law, is scarcely a technical term, though it is frequently 
used in England as descriptive of a will or testamentary writing — and often any dc^cu- 
ment not under seal. In Scotland, on the other hand, it is usually descriptive only of a 
notarial instrument. 

INSTRUMENTATION is the arranging of music for a combined number of instruments. 
The nature and character of the musical ideas must alone determine whether the instru- 
mentation shall be simple or artistic, and perhaps complex; the latter being the case when 
some of the instruments take a more prominent part than others. For both pui-poses, a 
thorough knowledge of every instrument in the orchestra is absolutely necessary, as 
without this, instrumentation becomes only a deafening mass of sounds. The stringed 



Instriiinents. A A 

insurance. 

instruments, from their nature, in most cases, form the principal parts of a score, around 
which the other instruments move, without depriving tliem of tb.eir importance. The 
wind instruments represent, more or less, as it were, a subordinate chorus, wliich nuiy 
again be divided into two kinds, viz., the wood instruments and the brass, which, with 
the stringed instruments, give three essentially different choral effects, that may be 
mixed up together in endless variety. A knowledge of the art of instrumentation is only 
to be acquired by great experience; at the same time much may be learned by consulting 
the following works: Die Iiistrumeniirung fur das Orchestra, by Sundelin; the German 
text-books on instrumentation by Marx and Lobe; Berlioz, Traite cV Instrumentation; 
Gassner, Partiturkenntniss. 

INSTRUMENTS, Musical, may be divided into three classes — stringed, wind, and 
percussion. Stringed instruments are of three kinds: those whose sounds are produced 
by friction, as the violin, viola, violoncello, etc. ; by twitching with the finger or other- 
wise, as the harp, guitar, mandoline, etc. ; by striking, as the pianoforte and dulcimer. 
Wind instruments are of two kinds, viz., the reed species — as the hautboy, clarionet, etc. 
— and the flute species, as the flute, flageolet, etc. The trumpet, horn, trombone, and 
all similar wind instruments, are generally classed among the reed instruments; but 
whether the sound is produced by the lips of the blower acting as a reed, or by the 
compressed stream of air. as in flute instruments, is not yet determined. Percussion 
instruments are those Vv^hich on being struck produce only one .fixed sound, as the drum, 
triangle, cymbals, tambourine, etc. Whatever material may be used to form a musical 
instrument, there are only tw^o means of producing musical sounds, and these are by the 
vibrations of a fixed elastic body, such as the string of the violin or pianoforte, the reed 
of the hautboy, bassoon, etc. ; or by the vibrations of a confined column of air put into 
motion by a stream of compressed air, as in the flute, flageolet, and all the ordinary flute 
species of organ pipes. 

INSUCEEN MULTURES, in Scotch law, mean the payments made to the miller by 
persons who are bound to grind their corn at a particular mill, under a servitude called 
thirlage (q.v.). Outsucken multures mean the payment for the mere grinding, which 
strangers pay; and 'the insucken multures include ihat plus a small premium, which 
goes to the proprietor of the mill. 

INSURANCE, a contract of indemnity, whereby one party, in consideration of a 
specified payment, called a " premium," undertakes to guarantee another against risk of 
loss. The first principles of insurance would appear to have been acted on at a very 
early period, since, without attaching undue importance to the opinions of writers who 
cor.tend, on the authority of Livy, that they were known during the second Punic war, 
or that the emperor Claudius can be considered an insurer, because, in order to encourage 
the importation of corn, he took all the loss or damage it might sustain upon himself — 
there are yet extant rules of sundry "guilds," or social corporations of the Anglo-Saxons, 
whereby, in return for certain fixed contributions, the members guarantee each other 
iigainst loss from " fire, water, robbery, or other calamity." It was, however, to cover 
maritime casualties that insurance, viewed in its commercial aspect, seems to have been 
first undertaken. So early as 1435 the magistrates of Barcelona issued an ordinance 
relating to this class of business, and we find in the speech of the lord keeper Bacon, 
on opening queen Elizabeth's first parliament, the allusion, " doth not the wise merchant, 
in every adventure of danger, give part to have the rest assured." The merit of being 
the first to apply mathematical calculations to the valuation of human life belongs to 
the famous John de Witt, pensionary counselor of Holland, whose report to the states- 
general on the valuation of life annuities has been lately brought to light by Mr. 
Hendriks. The first insurance company established in Britain appears to have been the 
" Amicable," founded in 1696; not the office known by that name now, but the one that 
still exists as the "Hand in Hand." Omitting the gambling and other objectionable 
projects for which the science of insurance has been held responsible, it would exceed 
the limits of the present article to give any detailed account of even the more legitimate 
applications of it which are current at the present day: the traveler can be protected 
from the pecuniary loss entailed from damage by rail or flood; the gardener from the 
devastation of the hailstorm; the farmer from the inroads of disease among his cattle; 
and employer and employed alike reap tflie benefit of a guarantee on fidelity, 126 estab- 
lished life oflSces within the United Kingdom appeared in an accredited list published in 
1874, and although there were, besides, 66 winding up in chancery, there is an amount 
of confidence to be placed in the stability and integrity of the greater number existing 
that cannot be exceeded in any other commercial interest. We propose confining our 
remaining remarks to the divisions of fire, life, and marine insurance. 

1. Mre Insurance. — Although the business of fire insurance is not founded upon such 
exact data as can be made available in the practice of life insurance, yet considerable 
progress has been made by the offices towards a correct classification of the risks they 
run, and the rates of premium range b}^ slight gradations from a minimum of Is. 6d. 
per cent, which covers an ordinary private dwelling-house, to £3 3s. per cent and 
upwards, charged for insuring cotton-mills, sugar-refineries, theaters, and like specially 
liazardous risks. The average rate of premium received for risks in the United King- 
dom may be estimated at 4s. per cent. A duty of 3s. per cent per annum used to be 



o-t Int^truuieute^ 

" -»■ Insurance. 

levied by government upon all fire insurances, except farming-stock and public hospitals, 
and tlie parliamentary returns made of it afforded valuable statistical information of the 
total amount insured. The duty paid in the year 1860 amounted to £1,558,608, repre- 
senting a gross amount insured over the year of £1,039,072,140; and farming-stock, 
£73,309,898. Since the repeal, in 1869, of tlie act which levied a duty upon fire insurances, 
no data remain for estimating the total value of those now eifected in this country. The 
"life assurance company's act, 1870," provided only for the publication of the accounts 
of such fire ottices as do life business also. The local returns made to the board of works, 
upon which to estimate the contributions of the companies for the maintenance of the 
fire brigade, afford incidentally an interesting proof of the wealth of the metropolis, and 
of the magnitude of its business operations. Over the area mentioned, which excludes 
the important warehouses of the Victoria docks, the returns exhibited by the resident 
companies of insurances for 1873 showed a total value of property covered of upwards 
of £488,500,000. Fire insurance policies are of too familiar use to require explanation 
here, but one point in connection with them may be noticed: unlike a marine policy, 
they guarantee the insured to the extent of the whole amount specified in them, without 
regard to the excess of value of the entire property before the fire, unless an exceptional 
"average clause" is attached to the policy. 

2. Life Assurance, in its widest sense, is a contract entered into by the assurer to pay 
a certain benefit contingent upon the duration of one or more lives. The "present 
value" or single premium corresponding to an assurance of £1, payable at the end of the 
year of death of an individual, is deduced from the value of an annuity on the same life 
(see Annuity), and is expressed by the formula v — (1 — v) A^, where v is the sum which 

will amount to £1 in one year (therefore equal to . — , ?• being the interest of £1 for a 

year), and A^^ is the value of an annuity of £1 per annum on the life aged x. 

The more common form in which a life assurance is carried out is, however, by the 
payment of an annual premium to the company assuring, and this is determined (using 

the same symbols as above) by the formula i— j — r (1 — v). The truth of which is thus 

1 + Ax 
demonstrated in a popular form by Mr. Gray. The present value of an "immediate" 
annuity on a life aged x — i.e., of an annuity of which the first payment falls to be made 
at the commencement of the transaction — being l+^x* i^ i^ easily deduced by propor- 
tion that £1 will purchase an immediate annuity of r— j — r-, the reciprocal of the first 

value; and this would be the proper premium for the benefit if the latter were paid to 
the assured at the beginning of the first and not at the end of the last year of the 
duration of the policy ; but inasmuch as the benefit is not paid until the close of the 
stipulated period, the difference between its immediate value and its value if due a year 
hence (1 — v) has to be deducted from each year's premium, and the formula is the result. 

The three important elements that have to be taken into account in the calculation of 
office premiums are — the rate of interest which is to accrue from their investment, the 
mortality returns with which the future experience of the insured is expected to agree, 
and the proportion or "loading" to be added to the nei rates to meet expenses of 
management, and afford a profit to the insurer. The rate of 3 per cent has, with a ver}' 
few exceptions, been adopted as a basis for such calculations, as the nearest to what can 
be expected to be realized on good security for transactions extending over many years. 
The mortality table most generally in use is that originally published by Mr. Milne, 
derived from the observations of Dr. Heysham on the rate of mortality in Carlisle during 
the nine years 1779 to 1787 inclusive, and hence known as the Carlisle table. This, how- 
ever, is now being superseded by the mortality experience of life assurance companies, 
collected by the institute of actuaries, and published in May, 1869, exhibiting certainly 
the most correct standard of assured life in this country, and possessing, by reason of 
the great skill with which it has been graduated, a complete adaptation for all practical 
purposes. 

The following are examples of net premiums calculated on the institute data: 

SINGLE AND ANNUAL PKEMIUMS FOR ASSURANCE OF £100, FOR W^HOLE OF LIFE — 

INSTITUTE TABLE H"*, 3 PER CENT. 

Single premium 

Age. £ s. d. 

20 32 17 9 

25 35 16 3 

30 39 4 5 

35 42 19 

40 47 1 2 

45 51 13 5 

50 56 12 3 

55 61 17 3 

60 67 5 6 



Annual premium 


£ s. 


d. 


1 8 


7 


1 12 


6 


1 17 


7 


2 3 


10 


2 11 


9 


3 2 


3 


3 16 





4 14 


6 


5 19 


9 



62 

Insurance. 

For comparison, we append the corresponding premiums, calculated on the Carlisle 
data: 

SINGLE AND ANNUAL PREMIUMS FOR ASSURANCE OF £100, FOR WHOLE OP LIFE — 

CARLISLE, 3 PER CENT. 

Single premium. Annual premium. 

Age. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

20 33 17 Hi 1 9 lOi 

25 36 17 lOf 1 14 Of 

SO 40 3 6 1 19 Oi 

35 43 7 Hi 2 4 8 

40 ....47 3 2 2 11 llf 

45 50 17 8i 3 4i 

50 55 8 7i 3 12 5i 

55 60 18 11 4 10 lOf 

60 66 10 7i 5 15 9i 

The question of the addition to be made to such (net) premiums is influenced by differ- 
ent considerations having regard to the practice of the office using the table. 

Assurance companies are divided into three classes: 1. Proprietary companies, being 
those offices possessing a capital tlie property of the partners, and which, in addition to 
the accumulated premiums, is pledged to the policy-holders as a guarantee for the 
fulfillment of their claims. As the liability in such companies is limited to the net sums 
assured, the addition made to the premiums requires to be only such a proportion as 
will cover the actual outlay for management, and remunerate the shareholders for the 
risk of loss which they run by fluctuation in the mortality, or from bad investments. 
A comparison of the above premiums with the " non-participation" rates usually adver- 
tised, will show that the prevailing competition has induced the construction of tables 
very favorable to the public. 2. Mutual offices, where the members themselves constitute 
the company, being liable to each other for all claims. Here, in the absence of a 
capital, it is usual to adopt a scale of premiums known to be in excess of what is 
required to meet the sums insured. The profit arising therefrom is periodically ascer- 
tained, and allotted to the assured, most frequently in the form of " bonuses" or additions 
to the claims payable under the policies. Some companies doing a large business are 
of this class, and in point of stability and irreproachable management bear the highest 
character. 3. Mixed companies are proprietary companies charging such increased rates 
as will yield a bonus, but which, in return for the expenses of management and guar- 
antee of their capital, reserve for their proprietors a stipulated proportion of the profits. 

It would be beyond our province to deal with the comparative merits of these 
systems; undoubtedly, offices in which the assured participate in a part or the whole of 
the profits, have for some years back enjoyed the largest share of public support. Life- 
assurance, in the abstract, is certainly one of the greatest blessings of modern times. 
The extent to which it has been made available may be judged from the fact that the 
total sum, including vested bonuses, for which the existing offices are liable is above 
£343,000,000 sterling; the annual premiums payable, therefore, being above 10,000,000 
— a sum equal to one-seventh of the net public revenue of the United Kingdom, or nearly 
half of the entire customs duties. 

A greatly increased facility for making the necessary calculations in connection with 
life-assurance has been developed within the last few years by the use of " commutation 
tables," the invention of Mr. George Barrett, and of which a large collection, calculated 
by Mr. D. Jones, is published by the society for the diffusion of useful knowledge. 
For the best information on their construction, and other formulae, the reader is referred 
to the standard works of De Morgan, Gray, Milne, and the triinsactions of the institute 
of actuaries, published quarterly. See Post- Office Insurance. 

3. Marine Insurance. — Although this branch of the subject does not possess such a 
general interest as the preceding, it is one that requires quite as great an amount of 
study and experience to insure its successful prosecution. In estimating the rate of 
premium, the insurer has to take into account not ou\y the quality of the vessel covered, 
but the season in which she sails, the known character of her captain, the nature of the 
commodity carried, and (the contract being an indemnification both against the elements 
and the enemy) tlie state of our political relations. Nevertheless, losses at sea, like 
other incidents, are observed to follow certain laws, and if the average from which the 
value of the risk is deduced is of sufficiently broad basis, the result over equal intervals 
of time can be predicted with reasonable certainty. Until 1824 the only companies that 
could grant marine insurances were the Royal Exchange and London Assurance; and 
although the monopoly of these offices then ceased, and many other companies have 
since been established, a large portion of the business is, however, still transacted by 
individual insurers designated "underwriters." The underwriters of London form an 
influential society known as "Lloyd's" (q.v.), from having originally met in a coffee- 
house kept by a person of that name in Abchurch lane; and their extensive business, 
numerous agents for procuring information, and general influence in the mercantile 
community, have long gained for them a world-wide reputation. As a small number of 



63 



Insurance. 



risks, viewed in connection with tlie great hazard to which property at sea is exposed, 
would not secure a safe average to the individual insurer, he finds it prudent to take 
but a fractional part of the entire risk on himself, and this is done by subscribing or 
"underwriting" the stipulated proportion on a policy drawn out for the whole amount 
to be covered. The necessity for circulating the policy for this purpose, and otherwise 
negotiating the insurance, has given rise to another business, that of the "insurance 
broker," with which, however, that of the underwriter is often combined. A system 
of mutual insurance is frequently carried out by associations of ship-owners forming 
"clubs," by which ship-owners arrange for the mutual insurance of their vessels, or 
shares of vessels — the various claims arising from loss or accident being met by pro 
rata contributions from the members in proportion to the sums respectively insured hy 
them. Under this system the commission of the ship-broker, although included in the 
premiums, is saved by the owner. 

Marine insurance differs from an ordinary fire insurance, in respect that in case of 
partial loss the underwriter pays only such a proportion of the sum insured as the 
damage sustained bears to its whole value at the time of insurance. See Average. In 
adjusting a partial loss, it is usual to deduct one-third of the nominal value, for new- 
materials furnished to replace the older destroyed, and labor. Policies are of two kinds, 
"valued" — where the insurance is based on a specific bill of lading — and "open," 
where, in case of loss, the value of a ship with her stores is estimated as at the date of 
sailing, her freight at the amount she would have earned had the voyage terminated 
favorably, and her cargo at its invoice price, adding premium and all charges. The 
insurance is binding although the ship may have been lost when the policy was exe- 
cuted, but any warranty, if not true, is held to vitiate the insurance, even although 
the misstatement is not material to the risk. A stamp-dut}', now reduced to a nominal 
rate, is levied upon all marine insurance policies. In fixing its amount, the choice lies 
with the insured of doing so with reference to the term of insurance (not exceeding one 
3'ear), or per single voyage, as follows: By time — for any term not exceeding six 
months, 3d. per £100; exceeding six months, 6d. per £100. By voyage, 3d. per £100. 
The rates for marine insurance have been much increased within recent years, in conse- 
quence of the increased number of shipwrecks. For the five years 1861 to 18G5 inclus- 
ive, the annual average reported was 1538; from 1866 to 1870, 1862; and from 1871 
to 1876, 2,536. The increase is partly explained by the inclusion of minor casualties 
in the latter period. 

Insurance, in Law. — The law on the subject of insurance is substantially the same 
throughout the United Kingdom. 

Fire Insurance. — The contract is generally preceded by proposals, in which case 
the proposals and policy of insurance must be read together, if the policy refers to these 
proposals. In order to insure property, the insurer must have some interest in the 
property insured, for otherwise there would be an inducement to commit arson. But 
he need not be owner; it is enough that he be accountable for the goods, or hold a lien 
on them, as a carrier, wharfinger, or bailee. Thus, many carriers keep up a floating 
policy to cover all goods which may happen to be on their premises within a given 
period. In all these cases, the words of the policy are the important points; and good 
faith is required in giving a correct description of the goods or premises, for every 
statement or representation as to anything that is essential is taken to be a warranty. 
The premises must not be materially altered during the risk, otherwise the policy 
will be void; but often the policy stipulates that alterations maybe made on giving 
notice. A person in lodgings may insure his goods, and may safely call the house his 
"dwelling-house " for that purpose. But, as a general rule, great care must be taken 
by the insured not to misrepresent anything material, and not to conceal any extra- 
ordinary risk which the insurer ought to know. If a fire happens, either on the prem- 
ises, or in neighboring premises, the insurer cannot set up in defense that it was caused 
by the negligence of the insured or his servant, for these are generally the very things 
which an insurance is intended to guard against. When a fire happens, it is generally 
always provided by the policy that notice of the loss is to be sent in, and full particulars 
of the damage done, and the alleged value, for it is only the actual loss which is insured 
against, and that only can be recovered; Thus, if a person insures his house or furni- 
ture for £600, and damage only to the extent of £50 has been done by fire, he can only 
recover the £50, for otherwise he would be better off than he was before the fire, and 
the contract is one merely of indemnity — i.e., it does not add to one's wealth, but merely 
secures against loss. It is often provided that the annual payment of the premium on a 
contract of insurance may be paid within 15 days after the first or previous year has 
expired, but it is dangerous to allow the payment to be postponed so long, for if a fire 
happen in the interval, the insurer will not in general be liable. Sometimes the same 
property is insured in several offices, but in that case the insured party can nevertheless 
only recover the value of his loss once and no more. He can sue either of the insurers, 
however, for the amount, if each policy cover the whole value, and the party who pays 
can then recover a proportionate part from the other co-insurers, for they all divide the 
loss among them. In cases where carriers and others take out a floating policy of fire 
insurance, the carrier can sue for the full loss of the goods, though far exceeding the 
extent of his own interest in them, but in that case the owner of the goods destroyed is 



Insurance. 



64 



entitled to recover the balance from the carrier, even though originally he never gave 
authority to the carrier to insure them. And so, in like manner, if a person is insured, 
and recovers his loss from the insurer, and then sues a third party for the wrong which 
caused the loss, the insurer gets the benefit of what may thus be recovered, in diminu- 
tion of his own loss. 

Life Insurance is not a contract of indemnity, like fire insurance, and therefore a 
person may insure his life in as many insurance offices as he pleases, and his executors 
will recover the full amount insured from each of the insurers, regardless of the rest. 
In order, however, to insure a life, the insurer must either himself be "the life" or 
must have a pecuniary interest in the life. Thus, a creditor is entitled to insure his 
debtor's life; a wife may insure her husband's or her own, as if she were unmarried; 
and he may insure the wife's, if she has an annuity or property settled upon her for 
life, in which he has an interest. It is enough, also, that the interest of the insurer 
exist at the time the policy is entered into, and hence, though the interest afterwards 
cease, he will still be entitled to recover the amount, if the policy is kept up. Thus, a 
creditor whose debt is satisfied, may still recover on the policy. In entering into con- 
tracts of life insurance, scrupulous good laith is exacted in the description of the nature 
of the life insured, and any fraudulent misrepresentation in a material point is fatal to 
the insurer's right to recover. Some companies even go the length of inserting in their 
policies a clause, that if any misrepresentation (i.e., however trifling) be made, the 
policy v/ill be void. But particular care should be taken to avoid such offices, for the 
policies taken out on such terms will generally be so much waste paper, as far as any 
security is concerned. At the same time, it is often dangerous for the insurer to treat 
lightly any misrepresentation, for in the end the question, whether it is material or not, 
will be one not for him or his executors, but for a jury, in case an action is brought- 
When the policy is effected through an agent on the principal's life, and the agent, 
unconsciously and without the authority of the principal, makes a misrepresentation, 
this will bind the principal. Where the person whose life is insured commits suicide, 
or is hanged, the policy is void, unless, in the case of suicide, he was in a state of 
insanity at the time. The policy, however, frequently has an express provision on 
this subject, the terms of which will be in that case all-important, and will govern the 
liability. In case the policy provides, as it often does, for its continuance, if payment 
after the expiration of the year is made within 15 or 21 days, it is dangerous to run the 
risk of this interval, for if the party dies during the 15 days before the premium is paid, 
the policy will not be set up by his executors coming forward to pay within those days. 
But the policy sometimes expressly allows of this, in which case it will be competent 
for the executors to make the payment. Life assurances are often assigned in security 
of a debt, in which case the assignor generally covenants to pay the premiums, so as to 
keep the security up; and failing payment by the assignor, the assignee is generally 
authorized to pay them himself, and recover the amount from the assignor. Notice 
of an assignment of a life policy should always be given to the insurance company, so 
as to let them know whom they are to pay. 

MaHtime Insurance is effected either on a voyage from one port to another, in which 
case it is called a voyage policy, or it is from one given day to another, in which case it 
is called a time policy. When the value of the propert}'^ insured is expressed in the 
policy, it is called a valued policy, and when not so expressed it is an open policy. In 
general, wagering or gaming policies are void by statute, and the insurer must have 
some interest in the ship, such as the profits of the voyage or the freight. The insur- 
ance of seamen's wages, howicver, is not competent, for it tends to take away the 
stimulus of exertion from the crew. When tjie policy states a fixed sum as the value of 
tlie property, and expressly provides that the policy shall be deemed sufficient proof of 
interest, the insurance is an insurance " interest or no interest," and void by the 
statute. When the policy is a voyage policy, there is an implied warranty by the 
insurer that the ship is seaworthy at the commencement of the voyage, but there is no 
such warranty in a time policy. As is the case in fire and life policies, any fraudulent 
concealment of material circumstances which increase the risk will void the policy. 
But everything done in the usual course of navigation and trade is presumed to have 
been foreseen, and in contemplation of both parties. The policy is understood to 
cover the risk, not only of the perils of the sea, properly so called, but of ignorance or 
negligence on the part of the master or mariners. But the loss caused by mere tear 
and wear is not covered by the policy; the cause of the loss must be something fortui- 
tous or accidental. Every policy impliedly assumes that the vessel will proceed 
straightway to her place of destination, without unnecessary delay. But sometimes, 
from unforeseen causes, it is absolutely necessary for ihe master to deviate, in which 
case, and in which only, the policy will remain good, strict proof, however, being 
always given of this imperious necessity. When the ship has been so injured or 
deteriorated as to render it hopeless to restore it, and the repairs will cost more than 
the ship is worth, the assured may abandon the ship, and claim for a total loss. See 
Average. 

INSURANCE {ante). Fire Insurance. — The processes in vogue in the United 
States are practically the same as in England, whence they are derived. In insurance 



65 



Insui'iince. 



against loss by fire the governing; principles are simple, and, except in cases termed 
'■^ hazardous" and " extra-hazardous," are generally understood. As to these latter the 
provisions are purely arbitrary and as stipulated between the contracting parties, being 
based on the great variety of tlie influences which atlect the character and extent of the 
risk. However, the degree of liability of insurers is to be liberally construed as regaras 
the insured; and the accidental presence among insured property of articles rated liaz- 
ardous or extra-hazardous, is not to be considered as vitiating a polic}'' otherwise valid. 
And, on the same principle, the definition of " storing " certain classes of goods, is not 
contemplated as depriving the insured party of the right to shelter such goods for his 
own domestic use without additional premium. So, also, a description in a policy of 
a building insured is not to be deemed violated to the extent of affecting the insurance, 
on account of any relative alteration of location by reason of the acts of outside par- 
ties, as in the case of the erection of new buildings changing the condition described as 
isolation. Injuiy, or even destruction, without ignition, does not involve liability on 
the part of the insurer. It is the same with regard to the effect of lightning: there is 
no liability unless positive tire ensues. Explosion from gunpowder is rated as a loss, 
while that from steam is not. Even negligence on the part of the insured does not 
le^i^'.n the liability of the insurer, except where this affords suspicion of fraudulent 
design. And, also, a fire which results from insanity in the insured party is not 
accounted any defense of the iusiu-er. Stipulations permitting the insurer to rebuild or 
repair, at his own option, are frequent incidents in the framing of policies. The general 
understanding of the law of insurance provides that, in the event of false representations 
on the part of the insured inducing the acceptance of a risk on terms which would not 
have been granted by the insurer on a truthful statement, the policy is vitiated. Such 
representations, or the conditions governing tliem, are termed material to the risk, and 
only such. The same rule applies also to concealment on the part of the insured: con- 
cealment through ignorance, or of facts not material to the risk, is not considered to 
impugn the validity of tlie policy. 

The number of New York fire-insurance companies in 1879 was 59; the number 
doing a fire-marine business, 22; total, 81. The number of fire companies of other 
states reported in the same year was 42; of fire-marine,' 21; total, 03. Of New York 
mutual fire-insurance companies there were 6; of mutual fire-insurance companies of otlier 
states, 1; of foreign fire-insurance companies, 20; of foreign fire-marine, 2. Grand 
to'al of American fire-insurance companies doing business in New York, 108; of 
foreign, 20; of American fire-marine companies, 43; of foreign, 2. Final total of fire 
and fire-marine insurance companies doing business in New York, 173. It is shown by 
tiie annuid report of the superintendent of the insurance department of the s^^ate of 
New York, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1879, that the number of fire and fire-marine 
companies doing business in the state was 173; that their combined capital amounted? 
to $50,992,220; their gross assets were $120,221,458.33; liabilities, $33,899,357.21. The 
income of these companies for the year was $45,951,247.66; expenditures, $45,894,- 
816.95; net receipts over expenditures, $56,430.71. The standing risks of the com- 
])anies included averaged $100 of insurance to $2.15 of net assets; the average premium 
being 87 cents on every $100 insured. Of the 173 companies considered, oidy 23 liave 
liad an existence dating back further than 1850, the three oldest being the Knicker- 
bocker (1787), the Eaule (1803), and the Albany (1811). Of the remainder, 106 have 
l)een organized since 1860, 73 since 1870. and 52 between 1850 and 1860. — The great fire 
ill Chicago, Oct. 8-10, 1871, causing a pecuniary loss of more than $rOO,000,000, involved 
losses to the insurance companies amounting to $96,533,721, all of which but $6,000,000 
was in United States companies. Of the companies involved, 57 were compelled to sus- 
pend. The loss b\^ insurance companies after the great fire in Boston, Nov. 9, 1872, 
amounted to $52,676,000, of which $35,351,600 was borne by Massachusetts companies. 

Marine Lisurance includes in the category of losses covered by a policy those which 
may be occasioned by fire, barratry, piracy, theft, capture, arrest or detention — besides 
those caused l)y the action of the winds or waves, by sinking or grounding. An 
important principle ofjtains. permitting tlie insured to abandon the property in question, 
and declare a total loss, leaving the underwriter to make all that he can out of what 
remains in a damaged or otherwise unavailable condition. This abandonment, how- 
ever, is allowed only when the partial loss exceeds 50 per cent of the value, and a 
provision of this character is usually inserted in the policy. In the United States 
there are two kinds of insurers — stock companies and mutual companies. In the first 
the profits are divided among the stockholders; in the second they accrue prorata 
to the insured, or are applied to reduce the premiums paid. Marine insurance covers 
the ships, the cargo, theearr.ings for freight, and tlie profits upon the cargo. It is usual 
to place a valuation upon the ship, bui tlie remaining losses become matters of proof. 
Illegality/ in the interest insured renders the contract void. Warranty is an important 
element in marine insurance, and is eitlier express, which is made a part of the policy, 
or implied, as in the case of absolute seaworthiness at the time of insurance. Warranty 
covers tlie ownership, national cliaracter of the vessel, lawfulness of the cargo covered 
and the voyage, the taking of convoy, and the time of sailing. If the warranty be 
not justified the insurance does not attj^ch. Implied warranty takes cognizance of 
|» misrepresentation, and also of concealment of material facts. It also requires that there 
U. K. VIII.-5 



Insurance. 

shall be do deviation from the course set clown or implied, or from the stated desti- 
nation. Such a change vitiates the insurance, and discliarges llie insureis from all 
subsequent risks. The illegality of a voyage or cargo discharges the insurer, not 
because of that fact, but because of its concealment, the law recognizing this as a 
risk not taken or implied in the contract. Insurance from a port begins on ihc 
actual departure of the vessel; insurance at and from a place begins when the destina- 
tion named is reached by the vessel in good condition. A customary clause in insur- 
ance poli(;ies states that the insurance is in existence "until the sliip be arrived and 
moored 24 hours in safety." — The number of New York marine insurance companies 
reported for 1879 was 7; other states, 1; foreign marine, U. S. brandies, 8; total, 10, 
doing business in New York. The total assets of these companies was $19,947, 903.4o; 
total income, $8,042,498.50; total expenditures, $6,024,005.99. 

Life Iiisarance. — The germ of life insurance in the United States may be found in 
corporations chartered before ihe revolutionary war, one example of which was that 
organized in Philadelphia in 1769 for the benefit of the families of Episcopal clergymen, 
the rates and rules of which were suggested by Benjamin Franklin and his friend 
Richard Piice of London. In the early part of the present century the Massachusetts 
Hospital Life insurance company and the New York Life and Trus*^^ company were 
chartered, but their plans were crude, and they failed to attract much attention. It 
was not until 1843-46 that the foundations of the business were fairly laid. During 
that period companies were formed in New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Con- 
necticut, tlie success of which soon led to the organization of many others; the public 
attention was gradually awakened to the advantages of this form of insurance, new 
companies were chartered on every hand, and the business, small at tirst, increased 
with great rapidity. Its gigantic development is indeed one of the marvels of the cen- 
tury, lis progress has been far more rapid than in England, France, or Germany. At 
first the subject was very imperfectly understood, the popular enthusiasm outrunning 
the popular intelligence. "There is no busmess scheme known among men," says the 
Massachusetts insurance commissioner, "in which exist so many pitfalls for honest 
ignorance, or lurking-places for designing fraud, as in that of life insurance." Honest 
mistidves both as to principles and methods have in some instances been followed by 
disastrous results, while there is every reason to believe that in many instances covetous 
men have talven advantage of "the lurking-places for designing fraud." It is stated on 
high authority that of the 200 life insurance companies organized in this country, more 
than 120 have failed or retired — all but 20 of them since 1862. Forty-two failed out- 
right, 72 reinsured their risks, and the remainder closed their doors uiuler various 
mutual arrangements. No less than 55 companies, for one reason or another, ceased 
doing business in New York between 1859 and 1879, Many of those which became 
insolvent are now in the hands of receivers, where some of them have lingered for 
years, 'affording rare opportunity, says the present Massachusetts commissioner, 
"for the robbery of policy-holders by a class of professional shysters." The numerous 
failures that have occurred and the disasters attending them have led to a more careful 
study of the subject, and many mistakes and abuses, the inevitable results of empiricism 
or carelessness, have been corrected. The legislation upon the subject has been greatly 
improved. The companies are now required to make a com])lete disclosure of their 
receipts, assets, expenditures, and investments, and of their methods of doing business, and 
when one is found to be drifting upon the rocks, the law interposes for the protection 
of its policy-holders. 

Life insurance companies are of two general classes, proprietary and mutual. A pro- 
prietar}^ company is constituted of those who furnish the capital necessary to the pursuit 
of the business. Insurers, as such, have no voice in the management, and no participa- 
tion in the profits. In a nuitual company, on the contrary, every policy-holder is an 
insurer as well as insured. The policy-holders exercise control through their power in 
the election of managers, and are entitled to their relative share of the profits. There 
are also companies in which the proprietary and the mutual principle are to some extent 
blended, those who furnish the capital required in the beginning, and who assume 
responsibility for the first expenses and early losses, covenanting to divide among the 
insured either the whole or a part of the profits. 

The rates of insurance are determined by a table of mortality, compiled from the 
results of observation and experience, and showing the percentage of deaths likely to 
occur in a single year among a certain number of persons of a given age. The table, in 
other words, shows the average rate of mortality in the community. According to the 
"American experience table," so called, of 100,000 persons 10 years of age, living at a 
certain date, it is assumed that 749 will die during the ensuing year; and this death-rate 
determines the risk assumed by the company, and, in connection with other circum- 
stances, tiie amount of the premium to be paid by the insured. From this point the 
calculation proceeds year by year, for 85 years, when it is assumed that of the whole 
100,000 persons only 3 will be living. The table shows the death-rate in every year 
between the two extremes of 10 and 95. in fixing these rates of mortality no account 
is taken of health or disease, cr of strong or weak constitutions. But as the companies 
are careful to insure only those who are certified by medical authority to be in sound 
health, the rate of mortality among the policy-holders must be far below that shown in 



67 



Insttrance* 



the table; a circumstance ^vhicll, as an}- one may see, inures greatly to (he advantage 
of the companies, whether fairly or not is a question for consideration. Certainly the 
rates of insurance are considerably higher than they would be if the calculation were 
made, not upon' the general rate of nKutality in the community as a wliole, but upon 
that of a select number of persons certitied by medical authoiity to be in exceptioniilly 
sound health. It is the usual practice of the proprietary companies to allow the policy- 
Iiolders interest on the amount of their premiums at 4| per cent; the mutual companies 
generally allow 4 per cent. Of course the profits of the companies are largely drawn 
from the higher rate of interest at which they are able to invest the money received from 
their customers. In this respect their practice is the same as that of the savings banks, 
and few will doubt that it is legitimate and fair. 

In the beginning tiiere was no governmental supervision of the business of the com- 
panies, and they were allowed without restriction to confiscate to their own use the 
funds derived from policies that had lapsed, w hether from accident or inability to meet 
an accruing payment. The periodical premium, by the conditions of the policy, was due 
on a certain day, and if it were not paid, the insurance M'as forfeited. The number of 
such cases was of course very great, especially in times of business depression, multi- 
tudes finding it impracticable to raise the money necessary to keep their policies alive. 
Within a few years the legislatures of some of the states — notably those of Massachusetts 
and New York — have interposed for the ^^rotection of policy-holders thus situated. 
The New York statute, passed May 21, 1879, declares that " whenever any policy of life 
insurance hereafter issued by any company organized or incorporated under the laws of 
this state, after being in force three full jears, shall by its terms lapse or become for- 
feited for the non-payment of any premium, or of any note given for a premium, or 
loan made in cash on the policy as security, or if any interest on such note or loan, 
unless the provisions of this act are specially waived in the application, and notice of 
such waiver written or printed in red ink on the margin of the face of the policy when 
issued, the reserve on such policy, including dividend additions, calculated at the date 
of the failure to make any of the payments above described, according to the American 
experience table of mortality, and with interest at the rate of 4| per cent per annum, 
after deducting any indebtedness of the insured on account of any annual, semi-annual, 
or quarterly premium then due, and any loan made in cash on such polic3^ evidence of 
which is acknowledged by the insured in writing, shall, on demand made, with sur- 
render of the policy within six months after such lapse, be taken as a single premium 
of life insurance at the published rates of the company at the time the policy was 
issued, and shall be applied, as shall have been agreed in the application and policy, 
either to continue the insurance of the policy in force at its full amcunt, so long as such 
single premium will purchase temporaiy insurance for that amount, at the age of the 
insured at the time of lapse, or to purchase upon the same life, a'^ the same age, paid-up 
insurance payable at the same time, and under the same conditions, except as to pay- 
ment of premiums, as the original policy." It is also provided that "if the reserve 
upon any endowment policy, applied as a single premium of temporary insurance, be 
more than sufficient to continue the insurance to the end of the endowment term 
named in the policy, and if the insured survive that term, the excess shall be paid 
in cash at the end of such term, on the conditions on which the original policy was 
issued." 

Policies of life insurance are of various kinds, ana the}' may be still farther varied by 
the addition of new or the suppression of old conditions, as the law permits. A whole- 
life policy is one in wiiich the company binds itself to pay the representatives of the 
insured a certain amount of money at the end of the year in wdiich he may die. The net 
premium for such a policy, the amount thereof being equitably fixed in view of all the 
elements entering into the case, may be paid wholly in advance or in annual or less fre- 
quent installments, as the parties may agree. A term-policy is one in wdiich the com- 
pany pledges itself to pay the representatives of the insured a ceitain sum oi money at 
the end of the year in which he may die, provided his death occur wilhin a certain 
number of years named in the policy. An endowment-policy is one in which the com- 
pany promises to pay a fixed amount to the insured himself at a ceitain future time if 
he should then be alive. The premium may be paid wholly in advance, or at stated 
intervals, as the parties may agree. Children's endowment-pjolicies are promises to pay, 
on a child's attaining the age of 18, 21, or 25 years, a specific amount. If the child die 
before the time named, the premiums paid will be returned or retained, according to 
the agreement of the parties as expressed in the policy. An endowment-insurancc'- 
policy combines the conditions of a pureendownnent-policy with those of a term-policy, 
the company agreeing to pay a certain sum of money at a certain future time in case the 
person whose life is insured should then be alive, or at his death, if that should happen 
before the time agreed upon, A joint-Ufe policy is one in which the company binds 
itself to pay a certain sum at the death of ojie or two or more persons named, on the 
joint continuance of whose lives jqs^ranee is made. Although there are still other 
varieties of policy, those above explained nre the most important and fundamental. 

In all cases where tho continuance of the life of the insured is of pecuniary value to 
the company, the forfiier is l)y the policy placed under certain conditions, a violation 
of which works fpif eitijre tq t|ic i^tfep pf l^be polipj'^ n-P^ 9t 3'U sunis that may have been 



Intaglio, aO. 

Intellect. ^'^ 

paid thereon. These conditions forbid the insured to travel An regions where human 
life is exposed to peculiar dangers, or to engage in certain hazardous occupations, or to 
take his own life. He is moreover bound to maintain the accuracy and truthfulness of 
all the dechmitions made in his application for insurance, any proved misrepresentation 
on his part working forfeiture. Suicide will not woik a forfeitnre if it be proved that 
the act was committed when the reasoning faculties of the insured were " so far impaired 
that he was not able to understand the moral character, the general nature, or tlie con- 
sequences and effect" of the same, or that lie was "impelled thereto by an insane 
impulse which he had not power to resist." As to restrictions upon travel, residence, or 
occupation, they may be waived in any case under a written consent of the company. 
Policies are often surrendered after a certain number of payments have been made, the 
company paying therefor what is called the surrender value, which of course is generally 
a small sum compared with the aggiegate of the premiums paid thereon. In some of 
the states tlie companies authorized to transact business theiein are permitted to maku 
a special deposit with the insurance department for the protection of policies duly reg- 
istered in books kept by the deprrtuient for that purpose, the state making itself respon- 
sible for tlie safe-keeping of such securities, which must always be kept equal to the 
value of the policies thus registered. 

There are no statistics at hand which make a complete and accurate disclosure of the 
amount of business tiansacted by the life insurance companies of this country; but the 
following facts gathered from the last report of tlie New York superintendent indicate 
the vast extent of the business. The number of life insurance companies chartered by 
the state and doing business there in 1879 was 12; the number of companies chartered 
by other states and doing business there, 19 — total 31. Number of policies in force in 
these companies in 1879, 595,486; total amount insured by these policies, $1,439,961,265; 
total assets of these companies, $401,515,793; grooS liabilities, excepting capital, $336,- 
238,071; surplus as regards policy-holders, $65,277,721; total amount of premiums, 
$52,721,720; total income, $76,174,954; excess of income over expenses, $9,996,387; 
total number of policies issued in 1879, 67,399, amounting to $167,865,390; policies 
terminated during the year, 67,661, amounting to $176,606,626; policies terminated by 
death, 7,359, amounting to $20,284,347; policies terminated by maturity, 4,804, amount- 
ing to $9,043,849; policies terminated by surrender, 18.224, amounting to $54,257,436. 
The figures from the last report of the insurance commissioner of Massachusetts are not 
less striking: — Number of policies issued in 1879 by the 30 companies doing business 
there, 68,388, amounting to $165,802,173; number terminated during the year, 66.033, 
amounting to $173,085,374; policies in force, 588.757, amounting 'to $1^427,178,306; 
claims by death in 1879, 7,273, amountins; to $20,010,078; gross income of the compa. 
nies, $75,509,926; gross expenditures, $66,734,530; gross assets, $401,172,216; gro .^ 
liabilities, $362,734,965; surplus as regards policy-holders, $43,119,151; net present value 
of policies or computed premium reserve, $349,488,935. The policies are thus classified; 
Life-policies, 461,888, amounting to $1,185,338,649, with a reserve of $256,418,927. 
Endowment-policies, 109.361, amounting to $202,704,494, with a reserve of $90,123,671. 
All other policies, 17,508, amounting to $39,135,163, with a reserve of $3,534,006. 
Total reserve, $350,076,604. These figures do not represent the complete aggregate of 
the business of life insurance in the United States. It is believed that the whole 
number of lives insured. is not less than 1,100,000, while the aggregate sum insured 
is fully $2,705,000,000 — a sum amounting to one-twelfth of the entire capital wealth of 
the union. "There are in the countr3^" says one autllorit3^ "more than half a million 
families who have voluntarily subjected themselves to a tax amounting in the nggregate 
to about $100,000,000 a 3^ear, and are under bonds, more or less, in the aggregate amount 
of about $400,000,000 to continue to pay this tax for life or for a longer period." These 
statements serve to show the enormous bulk of the business, and at the same time sug- 
gest to the political economist some problems of the highest importance to the public 
welfare, in respect to which great differences of opinion are known to exist. 

Accident Insurance. — The system of insuring travelers and others against accident is 
of recent institution, as is that of the insurance of live-stock, plate-gla:s, and other fragile 
articles, and of steam-boilers against explosions. Accident insurance companies have 
liecome an important and popular institution in the United States, one such having 
paid nearly $4,000,000, during 15 years of its existence, in indemnity for injuries and 
death losses. Of these companies there are but two in the United States, and five or six 
in England, the latter being about 35 years old, and the American companies 17; the 
English companies, however, have far fewer insurers than those in the United States. 

INTAGLIO (Ital. "cutting in"), a term in art, the opposite of relief (see Alto- 
iMLiEvo), means the representation of a subject by liollowing it out in a gem, or other 
substance; so that an impression taken from the engraving presents the appearance of a 
bas-relief. 

INTEGRAL CALCULUS. See Calculus. 

INTEGRA TION. See Calculus. 

INTELLECT, the name for the thinking portion of our mental constitution. Mind 
contains three elemenlary cons ituents — emotion or feeling, volition or the will, and 



/>Q Iiitaglio. 

^^ Inteiifcct. 

intelligence or tliought. See Emotion, Will. The intellectual powers are explained 
in part by their contrast with feeling and will. When we enjoy pleasure or suffer 
pain, we are said to feel; when we act to procure the one or avoid the other, we put 
forth voluntary energy; when we remember, compare, reason, our intelligence is 
exerted. 

The powers of the intellect have been variously classified. Among the commonly 
recognized designations for them, we may mention memory, reason, and imagination. 
which imply three very distinct applications of our menial forces. Reid classilicd 
them as follows; Perception by the senses, memory, conception, abstraction, judgment. 
reasoning. Stewart added consciousness, to denote the power of recognizing our tnental 
states, as sensation and perception make us cognizant of the outer world; likewise 
atterition (a purely voluntary function, although exerted in the domain of intelligence), 
imagination, and the association of ideas. 

it might be easily shown that in such a classification as the above there is no funda- 
mental distinctness of function, although there may be some differences in the direction 
given to the powers. There is not a faculty of memory which is all memory, and 
nothing but memory. Reason and imagination equally involve processes of recollec- 
tion. And with regard to the association of ideas, it has been shown by Mr. Samuel 
Bailey {Lettern on the Hitman Mind) that if this is to be introduced into the explanation 
of the intellect, it must supersede tiie other faculties entirely; in short, we must 
proceed either by faculties (as memory, reason, etc.), or by association, but not by 
both. 

In endeavoring to arrive at a satisfactory account of the human intellect, we must 
make a deeper analysis than is implied in tlie foregoing designations. We find at least 
three facts, or properties, which appear in the present state of our knowledge to be 
fundamental and distinct, no one in any degree implying the rest, while taken together 
they are considered sufficient to explain ail the operations of intelligence, strictly so 
tailed. 

1. Discrimination, or the consciousness of difference. When we are affected by the 
difference of two tastes or odors, or sounds or colors — this is neither mere feeling nor 
volition, but an intelligent act, the foundation of all other exercises of our intelligence. 
We must recognize the impressions on our senses as differing, before we can be said to 
have the impression of anything; and tlte greater our pow^ers of discrimination in any 
department, as color, for example, the more intellectual are we in that special region. 
We could have no memory if we did not first recognize distinctness of character in the 
objects that act on the senses, and in the feelings that we experience. In some of the 
senses, discrimination is more delicate than in others; thus, sight and hearing give us a 
greater variety of impressions than taste or smell, and are therefore to that extent more 
intellectual in their nature. In the course of our education, we learn to discriminate 
many things that we confounded at first. Every craft involves acquired powers of 
discrimination as w^ell as habits of manipulation. A man is in one respect clever or 
stupid, according as his perceptions of difference in a given walk are delicate or blunt. 

2. The next great intellectual property is Retentiveness. or the property whereby 
impressions once made persist after tlie fact, and can be afterwards recovered without 
the oriuinal cause, and by mental forces alone. When the ear is struck by a sonorous 
wave, we have a sensation of sound, ad the mental excitement does not die away 
because the so'and ceases, there is a certain continuing effect, genendly, although not 
always, much feebler than the actual sensation. Nor is this tlie whole. After the sen- 
sation has completely vanished, and been overlaid by many other states of mind, it is 
possible to evoke the idea of it by inward or mental links, showing that some abiding 
trace h d been left in the mental sj^stem. The means of operating this revival is to be 
found in the so called forces of association. See Association of Ideas. 

3. The last great fundamental fact of intellect is agreement or Similarity. See 
Association of Ideas. 

It is believed that these three properties, in combination with the other two powers 
of Jhe mind (feeling and volition or will), are adequate to explain all the recognized 
intellectual faculties or processes — memory, reason, imagination, etc. Memory is 
almost a pure case of retentiveness, or contiguity, aided occasionally by similarity. 
Perception by the senses is only another name for discrimination, the basis of all char- 
acteristic mental appreciation of matter or mind. Judgment is either discrimination or 
similarity, according as it discovers difference or agreement in the things judged of. 

Sir W. Hamilton, in departing from the common classifications of the intellect, 
adopted the following division into six faculties or powers: 1. The presentatiTe faculty, 
by which he meant the power of recognizing the various aspects of the world without 
and the mind within, called in the one case external perception; in the other, self con- 
sciousness, and sometimes reflection. 2. The conserratirs faculty, or memory proper, 
meaning the power of storing up impressions, to'be afterwards reproduced as occasion 
requires. 3. The reproducUm faculty, or the means of calling the dormant impressions 
up into consciousness again. These means are, as stated above, the associating princi- 
ples. 4. The representative faculty, for wiiich imagination is another name, which 
determines the greater or less vividness of the impressions or ideas thus reproduced. 
5. The eldborative faculty, or the power or comparison, by which classification, general- 



Intemperance, ^f) 

Interest. * ^ 

ization, abstraction, and reasoning are performed. This, in fact, is one (not the only) 
application of the general power of similarity. Lastly, 6. The reguUUive faculty, or 
the cognicion of the « ^/wri or supposed instinctive notions of the intellect, as space, 
time, causation, necessary truths, etc. This corresponds to what in German philosophy 
is called the "reason," as contrasted with "understanding," which deals with experi- 
enced or contingent truth. 

On examining the above distribution, it will appear. that while the first faculty, the 
presentative, coincides with the primary fact of di-<;rimiaation, the three subsequent — 
conservation, reproduction, representation — are merely modes or distinct aspects of 
retentiveness. All the three must concur in every case of the effective retention or 
recollection of anything. The last power, the regulative, is of course disputed by the 
opposite school, who refuse to recognize a primary or distinct faculty as giving birth 
to the ideas in question. See Consciousness, Cause. 

INTEMPERANCE. See Intoxication. 

INTENDANT, or Intendant Militaire, an ofHcer in the French army charged with 
the organization and direction of all the civil services attending a force in the field. 
The otticers acting under his orders are those in charge of all the finance services, the 
provisions, stores, hospitals, artillery train, and transport departments, besides the 
interpreters, guides, and such like temporary services. The intendant-eri-chff of an 
army is the representative of the minister of war; and, short of superseding the 
general's orders, can exercise, in case of need, all the functions of that high officer of 
state. The intendance is divided into intendants, ranking with general officers, sub- 
intendants with cols., and assistant-intendants withmajs. ; besides cadets, who receive 
no pay, and constitute a probationary grade 

Intendant was the name given in France before the revolution to the overseer of a 
province. Such permanent officers were tiist appointed by Henry 11. (1551). Under 
tlie complete system of centralization established by Richelieu, these intend-jints, as they 
were now called, became the mere organs of the royal minister, to the exclusion of all 
jM'ovincial action. To them belonged the Di'oportioning of assessments, the levying of 
ssoldiers, etc. The national assembly, in 1789, established in each department an 
elective administration. Napoleon virtually restored the intendants, but exchanged the 
hated name for that of prefects (q.v.). 

INTERAMNA. See Terni. 

INTERCALARY (Lat. infercalaris, for insertion), an epithet applied to those montlis 
or days which were occasionally inserted in the calendar, to make it correspond with 
the solar year. See Calendar. 

INTERCESSION, Doctrine or. Scripture, in many places, represents Christ, after 
having finished his redemptive work on earth, and ascended into his state of glory and 
exaltation, as ever pleading with God on behalf of those whom he has redeemed by the 
shedding of his blood (Rom. viii. 34; Heb. vii. 25; 1 Joiin ii. 1). Theologians say, 
liowever, that we are not to suppose that God needs to be interceded with, as if he were 
still reluctant to forgive men, or that Christ's intercession makes him more merciful 
than before. They tell us, that since it is evident from the whole tenor of the New 
Testament, as well as from a multitude of special passages, that the penal saciifice of 
Christ on Calvary reconciled God to man, we must regard the intercessory woik (if 
Christ rather as serving to illustrate the eternal holiness of God and the changeless love 
of the Savior, and as intended to keep continually in view the sacrifice of atonement 
on which it is founded. The doctrine of the intercession of Christ is held both by 
Protestants and Roman Catholics; but the latter, in addition, believe in the efficacy of 
the intercession of the Virgin and the saints, wMio, hoAvever, do not directl}' intercede 
for men with God, but with the Savior, the sinless One, who alone has the ear of the 
King of the universe. 

INTERCOLUMNIATION, in classic architecture, the distance between the columns of 
I a building, measured at the bottom of the shaft. The intercolumniation varies in 
<lifferent examples, but the most favorite distance for the columns to be placed jipart is 
' 2i diameters of the column, which by Vitruvius is called euiityle. The central inter- 
columniation of a colonnade is frequently made wider than the others when required 
for access t:. a gate or door. In Doric arciiitecture the intercolumniation is decided by 
the spacing of the triglyphs, the columns being usually placed under the center of every 
other triglyph. 

INTERCOMMTJNING, Letters of, was an ancient writ issued by the Scotch privy 
council, warning persons not to harbor rebels. 

INTERDICT, an ecclesiastical censure or penalty in the Roman Catholic church, 
consisting in the withdrawal of the administration of certain sacraments, of the 
celebration of pul)lic Avorship, and of the solemn l)urial-service. Interdicts are of three 
kinds — local, which affect a particular place, and thus comprehend all, without dis- 



H I Intemperance. 

* ■•- Interest. 

tinction, who reside therein; personal, which only affect a person or persons, and which 
reach this person or persous, and these alone, no matter where found; and mixed, which 
affect both a phice and its inhabitants, so that the latter would be bound by the interdict 
even outside of its purely local limits. The principle on which this eccles-iastical 
penalty is founded may be traced in tlie early discipline of public penance, by which 
penitents were for a time debarred from the sacraments, and from the privilege of 
presence at the celebration of the eucharist; but it was only in the mediaeval period 
that, owing to circumstances elsewhere explained (see Excommunication), it came into 
use as an ordinary church censure in the then frequent conflicts of the ecclesiastical and 
civil power. It was designed to awaken the national conscience to the nature of the 
crime, by including all alike in the penalty with which it was visited. The most 
remarkable interdicts are those laid upon Scotland in 1180 by Alexander III. ; on Poland 
by Gregory VII., on occasion of the murder of Stanislaus at the altar; by Innocent III. 
on France, under Philippe Auguste, in 1200; and on England under John in 1209. The 
description of England under the last-named interdict, as detailed by some of the con- 
temporary chroniclers, presents a strangely striking picture of the condition of the 
public mind, which it is difficult with our modern ideas fully to realize or to under- 
stand. It would be a great mistake, however, to suppose that during the continuance 
of an interdict the people were entirely/ destitute of spiritual assistance. The interdict 
mainly regarded the solemnities of public worship; it was permitted to administer 
baptisin, confirmation, and the; eucharist in all cases of urgency; to confess and absolve 
all who were not personally the guilty participators in tlie crime which the interdict 
was meant to punish; to celebrate marriage, but without the solemnities; and to confer 
orders in cases of necessity. And under the popes, Gregory IX., Innocent III. and IV., 
and Boniface III., still further mitigations of its rigor were introduced, one of which 
was the removal of the interdict and restoration of pul)lic worship on certain great 
festivals, especially Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, Assumption, and All Souls. The 
council of Basel enacted very stringent rules as to the use of this penalty, and in later 
times the general interdict has been entirely disused, although occasionally, in very 
special circumstances, and to mark the horror of the church for some enormous crime, 
instances are still recorded in which a particular place or church has been visited w-ith 
the penalty of a local interdict. 

INTESDICT, in Scotch law% is an order issued by the court of session to stop or pro- 
hibit a person from doing an illegal or wrongful act. It is obtained on presenting a 
note of suspension and interdict to the lord ordinary on the bills. The party applying 
for it must have both title and interest — that is, he must be more than a mere stranger. 
The principles on which it is granted in Scotland are substantially the same as those in 
which the parallel writ of injunction (q.v.) is granted by the court of chancery in 
England. 

INTEEDICTION is a process peculiar to the law of Scotland, by which persons of 
imbecile muids may either restrain themselves, if conscious of their w^eakness — then 
called voluntary intertliction — or may be restrained by the court of session in invitum, 
then called judicial interdiction. The effect of both is to appoint trustees or interdic- 
lors, whose consent is necessary to all deeds whereby the imbecile's heritable estate is 
alienated. See Imbecility. 

INTERE3SE TEEMINI, a term sometimes used in English law to denote the kind of 
interest which a lessee takes in land when the lease is executed. It amounts to a right 
of entry on the lauds, which is assignable. 

INTEREST, the payment due by the borrower of a sum of money to the lender for 
its use. The interest of £100 for one year is called the rate pe?^ cent; the money lent, 
the principal; and the sum of any principal and its interest, the amount. The current 
or market rate of interest fluctuates widely, by reason, not, as is often supposed, of the 
extent of the supply of money, but of the variable rates of profit, as in Holland, where 
it has always been comparatively low, and in our own time in Australia and California, 
where mercantile profits being in excess, the rate of interest is relatively high. 

A strong prejudice against exacting interest existed in early times, arising from 
a mistaken view of some enactments of the Mosaic law-;* and as late as the reign of 
Edward VI. there was a prohibitory act passed for the alleged reason that " the charg- 
ing of interest was a vice most odious and detestable, and contrary to the word of God^" 
Calvin, the famous reformer, was one of the fii'st to expose the error and impolicy of 
this view, although a series of enactments, known as the usury laws, to some extent 
perpetuated it,' by an attempted restriction of the maximum rate to be paid. In Eng- 
land this rate was fixed by act 21 James I. at 8 per cent. During the commonwealth it 
was reduced to 6 per cent; and by the act 12 Anne. c. 16. to 5 per cent, at which rate it 
stood tdl 1839. when the law was repealed. In Scotland any charge for interest was 
prohibited before the reformation. In 1587 the rate was fixed by law at 10 per cent; 

* See Exodus, xxii. 2.5; Leviticus, xxv. 39: Deuteronomy, xxiv. 19: the application being to money- 
lent for the rehef of distress, and not advanced to the borrower that he might improve it. 



72 

Interest. • *^ 

in 1633 at 8 per cent; in 1661 at 6 per cent; and by the net of Anne, as above noted, at 5 
percent. It is now admitted that the operatiou of such hivvs tended only to raise the 
real rate of interest, by (h'ivitig men in distress to adopt extravagant metliods of i-aising 
money — the bonuses thus paid being really and in effect an addition to tlie nominal 
interest. 

Interest is computed on either of two principles: 1, Simple interest, where, siiould 
tlie interest not be paid as due, no interest is cliarged upon the arrears. Allhougli this 
mode of reckoning has little to recommend it in reason, it is adopted in many uansac- 
tions, and receives the sanction of the law. The computation of simple interest is easy, 
it being only necessary to calculate the product of the principal, tlie rate per cent, and 
the period in years and fractions of a year, the result, divided by 100, giving the sum 
required, Thus, wanted the interest of £356 6s. 8d. for 3.^ years at 4 per cent. 

356V X 34 X 4 -J- 100 = £49 17s. 9d. 
2. Compound interest is the charge made where — the interest not being paid when due — 
it is added to the principal, forming the amount upon winch the subsequent year's 
interest is computed. The rules for most readily making computations by compound 
interest can only be effectively expressed algebraically, and, using the symbols in article 
Discount, we annex a few of the elementary formultje. 

1. Since £1, increased by its interest?', at the end of one year becomes 1 -f- '''» ^^'^'^ 
amount at the end of the second year becomes (1 + '')'• 'i'^^^ generally at the end of tlu^ 
7i'^ year (1 + r)°. Example: To find the amount of £1, improved at 5 per cent for six 
years, r, the interest for £i, is .05, and n = Q; therefore (1.05)*^ = 1.34, or £1 6s. 9^d. 
2. Since £1 becomes in one year 1 -\-r, it is found by ordinary proportion that the frac- 
tion of £1 which will amount to£l in ayear is il-\-r) ' i.e., — ■ — j = v; and reasoning 

as above, the sum which will amount to £1 n years hence is (1 -\- r) " = v^. 3. The 
amount of £1 in n years being (1 -{-r)", it will be seen tliat the excess of this sum over 
the original £1 invested, or (1 -j- ^")" — I, is the amount of an annual inci'cment or 
" annuity" of £r for the period, and from this, by proportion, is deduced the formula 
for the amount of an annuity of £1 for the same time, being 

l(l + r)n_l. 

4. Reasoning as in (3), the present value of an annuity certain of £1 for n years, or the 
sum which, improved at interest, will meet the annuity is 



1 

1 



1 — ?;° 



(l-|-r)"_ 

Tables for the four classes of values above described, based on various rrtes of interest, 
are given in most works on annuities.. Those by Mr. Ranee are computed for eacii 
quarter per cent from ^ to 10 per cent. It ma}^ be useful to note two results that can 
be easily deduced from a table of the present values of -annuities (4). 1 The annuity 
which £1 will purchase for any number of years is the reciprocal of the corresponding 
value in such a table. Example: A person borrows £100, to be repiid by annr'ity in 15 
years, with interest at 5 per cent; required the annuity? The present value of an 
annuity of £1 per annum for that period, at the I'ate stated, is £10.38, and 100 X 10.38 ' 
= 9.6342 = £9 12s. 8Jd. 2. To find the annuity which in a given period will amount to 
£1 — subtract from the annuity that £1 will purchase, ascertained as above, r, the 
interest of £1 for a year. Example: The annuity which, paid for 15 years, will amount 
to £1, taking interest at 5 per cent, is — 

Value of annuity which £1 will purchase as last found £.096342 

Subtract r, at 5 per cent 050000 



Annuity required £.046342 

Or £4 12s. 8i-d. will amount in 15 years to £100. 

Interest, tn Law. — In England and Ireland, when a debt has been for some time 
due, there is no obligation imposed on the debtor by the connnon hnv to pay any interest 
whatever, though the sum has been fixed and often\lemanded. The creditor can ahvays 
sue for his debt, which is his proper remedy, but he derives no benefit from giving time 
to his debtor. Therefore, if interest is to be paid, this must be, as a genei-al rule, by 
virtue of express agreement. Nevertheless, there has always been one or two exceptions 
to this rule. Thus, by the usage of merchants, it nas always been usual, when an action 
lias been brought to recover the amount of a bill of exchange or promissory note, for the 
Jury to add interest from the time it was due; but even this was not a matter of course- 
it was a matter of discretion for the jury, and was generally withheld when there was 
delay in bringing the action. Another exception existed in tlie case of money due upon 
an award by an arbitrator, in which case interest is due from the day when the awaid 
w^as made. A third exception was in the case of a bond for money, in which case interest 
was added from the day it ought to have been paid. And lastly, if a surety had to pay 



• *-' Intei'eKt. 

money for his principal, he could recover it back with interest. In all other cases, if there 
was no express agreement about interest, none could be ( lainied. If, liowever, llieie was 
a course of dealing between the parties, or a usage allecting a particular trade to give 
interest, then, witliout express agreement, this was understood. A reeent statute some- 
what amended tiie above defect of the common law, for by 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 42, s. 28, 
a jury may now add interest at the oi dinaiy rate on all debts or sums certain, wliicli aie 
made payable imder some written instrument at acertam time; and even if not due under 
a written instrument, tlien if a written demand has been made, expressly giving notice 
that interest will be cliaiged from and after the date of tlie demand, if not paid then, 
interest will also be due. But even in these last cases it is discretionary in the jury to 
give the interest, and therefore it is not claimable as a matter of course. As regards com- 
pound interest, it is dfovilovi not claimable in auy case, except where it has been expressly 
jsti])ulated for, or where there is in some particular trade a definite custom to pay interest, 
and such custom must always be proved. 

It ought also to be added that the court of chancery has ahvays been in the habit of 
charging trustees who have misapplied funds with 5 per cent interest on the amount, and 
also I ompound interest; but in simple cases of retaining moneys in hand without investing 
them, they have been charged 4 per cent. Formerly it w^as prohibited by statute in 
England to lend money on the security of real estate at a higher rate than 5 per cent; but 
these statutes have been abolished, and now any person may borrow or lend at wliatever 
rate of interest he can agree with the other party Pawnbrokers are allowed to charge 
interest not exceeding a fixed sum. See Pawnbkoking. 

In Scotland the law has always been much moi'e liberal in alloAving interest to be 
claimed on outstanding debts, for there the converse principle was acted on, that on 
nearly all debts whatever, interest was claimable either by statute or by common law 
Thus, interest is due on bills of exchange, on the amount contained in a horning or charge 
to pay, on sums paid by cautioners, on the price of lands sold, on money advanced at 
request, on the price of goods sold, if the usual time of credit has expired, and generally 
on all debts which there lias been delay in pajing. 

INTEREST {ante) is founded upon the principle that, as capital is the fruit of labor, 
its possessor is therefore entitled to compensation for its use. A general denial of this, by 
destroying one of the most powerful motives to industr}^ entei'prise, frugality, and fore- 
sight, would, it is now generally believed, hinder the advancement of the human I'ace in 
knowledge and virtue, if indeed it did not give it a direct impulse toward barbarism. It 
is the belief of the most enlightened political economists of the present day that mucli of 
tlie legislation upon this subject, intended as it has .been to protect the poor from the 
assumed rapacity of the rich, has nevertheless been in reality a mistaken and injurious 
kindness — an attempt to regulate by law that which might better be left to the discretion 
of the parties directly concerned. The interests of capital and labor are not conflicting 
but identical, and any legislation resting upon a contraiy assumption is now seen to b(^ 
injurious alike to both. The opprobrium cast, in the name of Christianity, upon the 
money-lender in the early centuries of our era, originated un(piestionably in motives of 
benevolence; but it is now seen to have been founded in ignorance of the divine law of 
political economy. The money-lender may indeed abuse liis power to the injury of the 
borrower, a? the borrower may sometimes deceive the lender, but this is o""ly the abuse of 
a thing not bad in itself. It was the growth of commercial enterprise under the influ.encc 
of the Protch^ant reformation that first effectually undermined the ancient doctrines upon 
this subject; and the economists of the school of Locke, Hume, Adam Smith, and finally 
of Jeremy Bentham, did much to set the truth in a clear light. More and more the legis- 
lation of the world in respect to this subject is advancing toward an unreserved recogni- 
tion of the principle that the rights of capital and lalior rest upon one and the same 
foundation, and that the money-lender is not, any more than tlie money-borrowei-. 
necessarily a wi ong-doer. In England, as long ago as 1854, all laws intended to prevent 
die taking of higher than legal rates of interest were repealed, borrowers and lenders 
oeing left free to make such agreements as might be mutually satisfactory. Some of the 
American states have, within a few^ years, followed the example of England, and the 
tendency of public sentiment in the United States is believed to be in the same direction. 
The generally pievailing rate of interest in the United States is 6 per cent, though in some 
of the states it is higher. In some states a particular rate is declared applicable to ordinary 
transactions where there is no sperific agreement, but the i^arties are at liberty to stipulate 
for any rate that to them may seem good; if no rate be mentioned the legal rate is under- 
•■tood to be imj^lied. No agreement to pa}'' a higher than the legal rate can be enforced, 
unless such agieement is expressly authorized by statute, tlie established presumption of 
ilie law, in the absence of such legislation, being that such a' rate is usurious. If there is 
a stipulation to pay a higher than the so-called legal rate of interest to the time of tiie 
inaturit}^ of the obligation, and nothing is said of the rate to be charged after that period 
in case of default, the w^eight of authority favors the conclusion that thenceforth the 
interest must be reckoned at the statutory rate. Sometimes an obligation to pay interest 
arises from well-eslablished usage wdi en there is no written contract to that effect; as 
where a debt is due upon account, and it is the general custom, within the knowledge of 
the debtor, to charge interest upon such claims after a certain time. Again, interest is 



Interfei'ence. fjA 

Interuiediate. 

recoverable as damages for failure to pay a debt or claim at the time it becomes due, 
though there be no contract to tliat effect, such interest being reckoned at llie legal rale 
from I lie time when the debt should have been paid. For example: suppose a note of 
hand, without interest, to be due upon a certain day; if there be default of payment at 
llie appointed time, the courts will award interest from that date until the note is paid. 
If judgment have been obtained for a debt, intei'cst on the same is reckoned at the legal 
rate from the day the judgment was rendered. The common law upon tliis point has in 
tliis country generally been reversed. Upon uidiquidated demands — i.e., demands, the 
amount of which, and the date when payment is due, have not been precisely tixed — interest 
is not collectible. If a man convert to his own use the personal property of another, 
interest upon the value of such property accrues from the time of its conversion. The 
custodians of trust funds and trustees of every sort will be required to pay interest in 
cases of maladministration of the sums intrusted to them. If a guardian or executor 
fail in his duty to account for or invest the trust-funds in his possession within a reason- 
able time, he is liable to pay interest thereon as damages for his delinquency, and, if the 
case be flagrant, compound interest may be cliarged. In ordinary transactions compound 
interest is not favorably regarded by the courts and is seldom enforced. Even a special 
agreement to pay interest at the coiupound rate will generally be treated as not binding. 
An obligalion to pay compound interest may, however, arise from the usages of trade, 
and in such cases courts will exact payment. In the case of foreign conti'acls interest 
will be allow^ed at the legal rate of tiie place where the contract is to be performed. 
Specitic legacies draw interest from the testator's death, but on general legacies, payable 
at a particular day, interest is not allowed till that day arrives, 

INTERFERENCE, a term employed to express the effect which raj^s of light, after 
being bent or diffracted, produce on each other. If the rays meet after diffraction, 
their light, when jihowed to fall on a surface, will be divided into bars or stripes, alter- 
nately light and dark, as is shown in the article diffraction (q,v,). Tliis phenomenon 
has been made the touchstone of the two rival theories of light, the undulatory and the 
ciaindoii,. According to the former, it is thus explained: If two luminous waves simul- 
taneously impel a molecule of ether, its motion will be the resultant of the original 
impulses; and if the two motions (as in the case of diffraction) be nearly in the same 
direction, the resultant will be nearly their sum; if opposite, their difference. Thus, 
wlien a particle has begun to undulate from the action of a luminous wave, and if, 
while in motion, another wave impinue upon it. the result will be increase of light, if 
the motion of the second wave conspire with that of the first; but a decrease, if they 
oppose each other; and total darkness, if, while opposing, they are equal in velocity. 
Let d be the distance corresponding to a complete period of vibration; then, if the 
second wave impinge upon the molecule after it has accomplished one or more whole 
vibrations corresponding to the distances (/, 2f/, 3i, etc., and has returned to its original 
position, the two waves will evidently conspire together, and produce more violen.t 
motion; but if it impinge on the molecule, when the latter has only accomplished half a 
vibration, corresponding to distances \d, %d, %d, etc., then the wave will op])ose the 
particle's return to its original position; thus producing diminution of motion, or, if 
equal, rest. In the former case, the intensity of light is increased; in the latter, dimin- 
ished; and if the undulations are of equal velocity, the light is doubled in the first case, 
and destroyed in the second. The emission theory totally fails to explain interference. 
In light of different colors, the value of d differs for each color, being least for violet, 
and greatest for red light. The principle of interference accounts in tlie most satisfac- 
tory way for the colors of thin plates, the fringes that accompany shadows, etc. ; and its 
explanation foi'ms the most decisive reason yet known for adopting the undulatory in 
preference to the eniissioii theory of light. See Light. 

INTERJECTIONS are exclamations expressive not so much of a thought as of an 
emotion — as, ah! alas! hurrah! pooh! They are, therefore, liardly parts of speech, and 
never form part of a sentence. They are, in fact, more akin to the sounds emitted by 
the lower animals than to articulate language. 

INTERIM, in the history of the reformation, the name given to certain edicts of the 
German emperor for the regulation of religious and ecclesiastical matters "'in the mean- 
lime" (Lat. iideriia), till they could be decided by a general council. The first is the Ratls- 
boii iiiteriin. the result of the deliberations of a commission appointed during the diet of 
Kitisbon (Regensburg) in 1541, of which Eck, Pflug, and Gropper were'the Roman 
Gatholic, and Melanchthon, Bucer, and Pistorius the Protestant members. On the greater 
number of doctrinal points the commission found it passible to agree on terms which 
might be deemed consistent with the views of l)oth parties; but as to the sacraments and 
the power of the church, the differences were irreconcilable. By the Protestants in 
general, th;; whole movenicnt was looked on as a scheme to entrap thcmi into a formal 
return to the church of Rome. At the next diet, at Augsburg in 1548, a new interim 
was by the emperor's command prepared by Pfiiig, Helding (Sidonius), and Agricola. 
It is calle<l the Au(/^hurg interim. In it the use of the cup bv the laity, the marriage of 
priests, and some other minor things, were conceded to the Protestants; but it met with 
very geiuM-al opposition, particularly in the n. of Germany, and was revoked in 1552. 
By the exertions of the elector Maurice of Saxony a third interim, the Lcipsic interim, 



1 



>r?r Interference. 

• *^ Iiiteruiediute. 

was ndopted at tlie diet of Lclpsic Dec. 23, 1548, which guarded the Protestant creed, 
but achiiitled ^Tcat part of the Uomau Catholic ceremonial, and recoj,nized the pov/er of 
popes and bishops when not abused. But the offense given to tlie more zealous Protest- 
ants by lhi8 interim, which Melanchthou, Bugeuhageu, and Major supported, led to divi- 
sion in the Protestant church. 

INTERLA'KEN (" betw^een the lakes"), a village of Switzerland, is delightfully situ- 
ated on ihe riglit bank of the Aar, in a phun between lakes Thun and Brienz. Along 
the M'iilnat uceiiue ov huihiony, between the lakes, there is an almost uninterrupted line 
of bote. 8 or pensions. Within a few miles of the village are many of the .most wonder- 
ful sights that the country affords. Ten miles southward is the Staubbach (the "sky- 
born waterfall"), with its perpetual iris; a few miles furthers., and in full view from 
the villag'e, are the magniticeut Jungfrau and several other remarkable peaks of the 
Bernese Alps. The visitors are the chief source of income to the inhabitants, who liuui- 
beronly (1870) '1896. 

INTERLINEATIONS in a deed arc additions or corrections written either on the 
margin or between the lines. In England interlineations in a deed are not fatal, pro- 
vided only it is proved that they were made before executing the deed. It is usual XQ 
put the parties' initials opposite the place where the interlineations occur, in proof of 
this, or at least by way of memorandrm. In affidavits and other documents, the initials 
should also be put at the places interlined. In Scotland, if the interlineation is at all 
material, it ought to be signed by the parties, and the fact mentioned in tlie testing 
clause, otherwise it will be picsumecl that the interlineations were made after the execu- 
tion, and will vitiate the deed. 

INTERLOCUTOR, in Sc(Uch law% means a finding or judgment of a judge or court in 
a cause. In England the word is not used. 

INTERLOCUTORY JUDGMENT, in England, Ireland, and Scotland, means a judg- 
ment wdiicii is not final, but which is n:iereiy a step in the suit or action. So as to inter- 
locutory decrees or orders. 

INTERLUDE, in music, is a short melodious phrase played by the organist (geiieTally 
extenipore) between the verses of a psalm-tune. In the Gei'man Protestant church the 
interlude (or zwLschenspiel) is generally played between each line of the verse, to give the 
congregation time to breathe. To accompany the chorale of the Lutheran church with 
scientific and appropriate interludes is reckoned in Germany the chief test of a good 
organist. 

INTERMARRIAGE. The intermarriage or intercourse of near relatives has been uni- 
versally believed to entail degeneration upon tlie offspring, and the act has been con- 
demned and prohibited. The physical deformity and mental debasement of the Cagots 
of the Pyrenees, of the Marrons of Auvergne, of the Sarrasins of Dauphine, of the Cretins 
of the Alps, and the gradual deterioration of the slave population of America, have been 
attributed to the consanguineous alliances which are unavoidable among these unfortu- 
nate peoples. More recently, the same opinion has been supported by the history of deaf- 
mutism and of idiocy. Of 285 deaf and dumb children whose parentage could be traced, 
70, or nearly 30 per cent, were the offspring of the intermarriage of blood-relations. But 
in opposition to, and apparently destructive of such an hypothesis, may be adduced the 
unimpaired condition and symmetry of the Jews, of the small Mohanunedan communi- 
ties in India, of the isolated tribes in North America, among whom the repeated inter- 
marriage of near relatives is compulsory. Moreover, this opinion does not hold in the 
analogous cases among the inferior animals, as the Arabs can trace the pedigree of their 
most valuable horses to the time of Mohammed, whilst they avoid all crossing; the stud- 
books in this country record the ascendants of racers for 200 years, and show the perpetu- 
ation of the qualities of strength, and weight, and fleetness by propagation within the 
endowed family, both Eclipse and Childeis being descended from a horse the olfs])ring 
of a parent and foal ; and the descendants, again, of these horses, whicl) still maintain 
the highest estimation, afford many instances of very close breeding; and lastly, the 
Durham ox and the Ditchely sheep were the result and triumph of breeding in and in. 
The present state of the controveisy, as it has been recently conducted in France, may 
be summed up in the pioposition that consanguineous alliances are not necessarily hurt- 
ful to the offspring, provkled the parents be healthy and robust; but the observations of 
Devay and Bemiss in America show that such generalizations should be received with 
(i^mtion. It should be added that even were it established that mental disease generally 
followed such unions, the transmission might depend rather upon the increased certainty 
of rei)roducing heieditary tendencies than upon the violation of any physiological law. 
— Steinau, Essay on HerccUlary DUeasen and Intermarriage; Devay, D>i Danger des Mar- 
i<iges Conmngains (1862); Boudin, Dangers des Unions Consanguins, etc.; Annales 
d' Hygiene P/ihlique (1862); Ribot's Herediie (1874); etc. 

INTERMEDIATE HARMONIES, in music, are the harmonies introduced between 
extreme non-related keys, while modulating from the one key to the other, which 
harmonies prepare the ear to receive the new key. 

INTERMEDIATE STATE. See Eschatology and Future Life. 



Intermezzo. ^fi 

laterinittent. ' 

IZTTERMEZ'ZO, a short dramatic comic scene, with singing, peculiar to the Italian 

siage, and introduced between acts of an opera or phiy. 

INTERMIT TENT FEVER. Sec Ague. 

INTERMITTENT FBYER (ante), a form of fever characterized by febrile parox- 
ysms and intermissions. It is also called lever and ague, chills and fever, shals.ing 
fever, and periodical fever. It belongs to the class of malarial fevers which are sU))- 
]K)sed to originate in the actio^i of marsh miasm, which latter is, again, supposed to be 
])r(Kluced ))rincipally by decomposing vegetable matter in swamps and low grounds. 
Post-mortem examinations in tiie few cases M'hich are fatal reveal a condition of the 
liver, spleen, and brain called bronzing, and the presence of a dark pigment in the blood. 
More or less of this condition probably exists in cases not fatal. There is frequently an 
enlargement of the spleen, but this is not particularly cliaracleristic of the disease, while 
the bronzing is. Intermittent fever ma}^ be divided into two distinct periods, the period 
of the ])aioxysm, and tliC period of intermission; or, the active and the quiescent. The 
paroxysm is divided into three distinct stages — the cold, the liot, and the sweating stage. 
There are usually sonie premonitory symptoms, but except in a few cases they are slight 
and oflen unnoticed. The marked premonitory symptoms are headache and weariness, 
accompanied with yawning, but they are not characteristic, and serviceable only to those 
who have had, or suspect an attack of, the disease. The cold stage is ushered in with a 
feeling of chilliness in the back and limbs; there is also pain in these parts and head- 
ache. The skin and to some extent the subcutaneous muscles are contracted, pro- 
ducing that condition known as "goose flesh." A thermometer placed in the axilla, 
however, indicates an increase rather than a diminution of temperature, although 
exposed surfaces and the extremities are cooler than nalinal. Rigors, accompanied by 
regular shaking of a rhythmical character, are sometimes violent. The pulse is quick- 
ened, but small and feeble; the face very pale, and if the attack be severe, livid, as are 
the roots of the nails, the circulation in the fingers being almost completel}" suspended. 
The diu'ation of this stage is variable, sometimch a few minutes, sometimes two hours; 
the average being about 40 minutes. The second or hot stage usually follows gradually, 
with tlusliings of heat, until a decidedly febrile condition is developed. The cold stage 
is sometimes absent, but is replaced by a nervous condition, or drowsiness, and some- 
times coma (q.v.). This occurs in those cases which are called malignavt intermittenl, 
and which will be noticed further on. Hot dagc. — The fever which folloAvs the cold stage 
is often intense; the pulse is full and bounding, and the face crimson. The pain in the 
back and limbs ceases, but the headache continues. A thermometer placed in the axilla 
indicates a temperature of from 105" to 106° F., and there is great thii'st. This stage 
lasts from three to eight hours, when the sweating stage commences, perspiration ai'jpear- 
ing first on the face, then passing to the bod}' and limbs, Avhile the heat, headache, 
thii'st, and all other unpleasant symptoms gradually de])art, the patient often passing 
into a natural slumber. This stage usuall}' lasts three or four hours, when the parox- 
ysmal or active period is over. The sweating is often, but not always, very profuse. 

The period of intermission now commences, and accoiding to its duration, before 
another paroxysiri comes on, the disease receives certain distinguishing names, denoting 
certain types. If the parox3\sm come on every daj' it is called a quotidian type. If tlie 
intermission be of two days' duration, that is to say, if the paroxysms succeed each 
other on the third days, the tj^pe is tertian. If three days intervene, or when the par- 
oxysm reappears on the fourth day, the fever is said to be of the qiiartam type. The 
quotidian and tertian types are the most common, the quartan is rather rare. Statis- 
tics of the U. S army show that the quotidian and tertian types occur with about 
equal frequency, but it is probable that the cases wliich come under obser\ation in 
private practice would place the tertian form in the majority. Of 98,237 cases in 
tiie U. S. army, 51,623 were of the quotidian, 44.857 of the tertian, and 1757 of the 
quartan type. Cases have been reported of a quintan, a sextan, a heptan, and even 
an octave type, but in these cases it is not certain that there is sufficient regu- 
larity in the recurrence to justif}' a type title. The type frequently changes from a 
quotidian to a tertian, and sometimes to a quartan, or in the other direction; but a 
lengthening of the period of intermission is more conmion, especially if the patient 
be under mild treatment: active treatment generally eradicates the disease or causes 
a cessation of the paroxysms before a change of type can take place. The type 
may also be compound, that is, the quotidian paroxysm may occur twice every 
day, in which case it is called a double quotidian. In a double tertian, a paroxysm may 
take place every day. but they will have a different character on succeeding days; in 
other words, there will be two distinct forms of the tertian type, alternating with each 
other. Sometimes a double tertian occurs in which there are two paroxysms every 
other day. Another form is a double quartan, when a paroxysm occurs on two suc- 
cessive days, while there is none on the third day, the paroxysms being unlike. A 
triple quartan has also been observed, in which there are three successive paroxysms 
on three successive days, but differing from each other, as in the double forms, 'i'hcse 
forms are all rnre, except the doable tertian, which is not infrequent. In the period of 
intermission the condition of patients varies; some feel quite well, while others experi- 
ence many unpleasant symptoms, such as loss of appetite, debility, headache, nausea, 



n Intermezzo, 

luteruiittent. 

aud sometimes palpitation of the licavt. There is nccessnrily a more or less ansemic 
conditioti, even when the natural or individaal force of the person impels him to 
shake off Ids unpleasant symptoms, and maiiitam his bodily aud n\ental functions by 
activity. Every person hibonn^ii' under the protracted intluence of nsalarial poi.son gen- 
erating intermittent fever has niore or less of i\ pin died appearance. Ad the functions 
of uutntion are to a certain extent interfered with, sometimes producing enlargement 
of tlie spleen. Tlie genend appearance observed in persons laboring under intermittent 
fever is called by physicians malarious cachexia. Protracted continuance of the disease 
is liable to bring on a variety of organic ditKculties, according to the constitution of the 
individual, the liver probably being the organ most often implicated. The causes of 
intermittent fever are obscure in one sense, yet the conditions which produce the 
disease are well known. Though marsh miasm is known as the principal factor in the 
generation of the'disease, we caiuiot precisely state what marsh nuasm is. Although, 
as will be noticed further on, certain low forms of vegetable life have been discover(3d 
and claimed to be present wherever intermittent fever prevails, and to be absent when 
it does not prevail, the observations have not yet been veritied ; and awaiting further 
investigations, we can assert only that tliere is in marsh miasm such a disease-generating 
force. Wherever marsh miasm can be excluded as a factor, there intermittent fever is 
always absent. There are, however, marsh}' districts where interndttent fever does not 
prevail. It appears, tlierefore, that the marsh ndasm which generates the fever is of si 
peculiar nature, or that the emanations of marshes are not always miasnjatic; that tliere 
must be sometldng added to the exhalations which arise from simple vegetable decom- 
position ordeca3% or that some peculiar organism must be developed which when taken 
into the system will produce the disease. Viewing the question in this light, the theory 
of the generation of intermittent fever which was proposed by Dr. J. H. Salisbury (an 
account of which is contamed in the American Journal of Medical Sciences for Jan., 
1866) deserves attention and careful test. Certain facts have long been known in regard 
to many of the conditions which propagate the disease. It does not prevail in high 
mountain regions wdiere the soil is barren, or upon extensive sandy sea-beaches, where it 
is impossible for any of the products or peculiar accompaniments of marsh decomposition 
to be present. Therefore that a certain intluence is generated in marshy districts >vhich 
is capable of producing malarial fever cannot be doubted. The disease does not v>ccur 
in those zones where the temperature never rises above G0\ Malarious influences 
increase as we approach the equator, and are noticeable along tide-waters wdiere the shores 
are low and alternately inundated and left exposed to the heat of the sun. Turning up 
the soil or excavating for the streets of cities and for railroads, the clearing away of 
forests, and the consequent exposure of the rich soil to tlie action of the sun's rays, often 
converts a salubrious section into one exceedingly unhealthful. Many facts connected 
w ith malarial intluence are worthy of notice. The malarial poison, whatever it is, seems 
to have a specific gi'avity. When it travels over the earth it keeps near the surface; per- 
sons occupying the upper stories of houses located on a malarious plain are less affected 
than those living nearer the ground, particularly if they remain in-doors after sunset, for 
it is another well remarked fact that night air contains more of the malarious intluenc;? 
than the air of day does, as though a degree of sensible moisture were necessary for its 
propagation. Now, the theory of Dr. Salisbury meets many of these facts. His obser- 
vations were made on low-lands in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, principally in the 
vicinity of Lancaster, Ohio. He discovered certain organisms in the expectorations of 
])ersons laboring under the disease, which he also found in the soil, or collected upon 
glass plates in tlie vicinity of the residence of the patient. He suspended glass plates at 
different elevations over diff'erent localities, and found that there was acertam level above 
which the malarial intluence did not pass, and that this level was also the limit to the 
passage of these organisms. He also found that the organisms were not present in the 
dry air of day, arising only in the damp air of evening or night. The organisms in ques- 
tion are a species of alg^e resembling paliiielhc, which he found upon the surface of the 
soil, particularly wdiere it had been disturbed, as by the feet of cattle, or by wagons. They 
hqive the appearance of green, red, and white incrustations, resembling a saline deposit 
from evaporation. Dr. Salisbury lias given the name (/oniaftrna to the plant, to which 
he also apj^lies the name of ague plani. He enumerates the following species: G. ruhrum, 
(r. rerdan!<, G. paludis, G. pbnnosfs, G. alha. Dr. Salisbury remarks that the lesions in 
intermittent fever, are confined mostly to epithelial structures, and therefore the liver 
and spleen are organs that suffer specially, and refers to a case reported by Morgagni in 
wdiich the spleen weighed 8 d)s., and to one by Bailly in which it w^eighcd 10 li)s.. and 
was a mere mass of pulp. Dr. Salisbury found the ague plant ia the urine of tirj 
patients; if the plant be the cause of intermittent fever, this w^ould form a diagnostic 
symptom of value in obscure cases. Di-, Salisbury ctates (Oct. , 1880) that subsequent 
observations have, in his opinion, confirmed the results of his investigations as publish((l 
in 1866. 

Treatment. — It may be said with great confidence that intermittent fever is one of the 
few diseases wdiich the physician expects to combat successfully by the administration 
of drugs. There are diaigs which have a specific curative action, and also those which 
have a decidedly beneficial effect as adjuvants. The principal specific remedy is Peru- 
vian bark, or its alkaloid-, which arc commonly prcleried. Of these, quinine and cin- 



Internal, 
luteruational. 



78 



chonidia, usually in the form of sulphates, are most used. Quinia has been long in use 
as an antiperiodic, but ciuchonidia is a recent introduction. It is much less expensive 
than quinia, and by many its action is preferred, as being milder and more permanent. 
The dose of quinia varies with the constitution and condition of the patient, but as a 
general statement, in a case of well developed tertian, the cure will require from 20 to 
60 grains of quinia sulphate, or one-half more of cinchonidia, divided into 5 or 10 
repeated doses; and it is advisable to give in connection some alkaline salt, as the bicar- 
bonate of soda, or of potash; or when a laxative effect is desired, liochelle salts. It is 
often advisable to precede the administration of the anti-periodic with a cuthartic, and 
for this purpose there is nothing better, if the patient will consent to take it, than pow- 
dered rhubarb, in the dose of a dram or more. Less may be given if combined with 
one-half or one grain of podophyllin; or podoplndlin may be given alone, or combined 
with live or six grains of calomel. The quinia or cinchonidia is often given to the extent 
of producing ringing in the ears, one of the symptoms of qvininism. This, however, is 
not always advisable or necessary; a continued use of one of these remedies during con- 
valescence, in conjunction with some preparation of iron, generally meets the demands 
of the case. 

Dr. Gaspar Griswold of New York has used the alkaloid of jaborandi, in the form of 
muriate of pilocarpiii, in a number of cases of intermittent fever, and his reports in the 
Medical Record indicate that the remedy possesses great value. It does not appear that 
the remedy has any specific action on the inateries morbi of the disease, as many suppose 
to be the case with quinia, but that it breaks up the stages of the attack in consequence 
of its powerful diaphoretic qualities Dr. Griswold administers it hypodermically, 
using from one-sixlh to one-fifth of a grain, dissolved in water at the commencement of 
the cold stage. The effect is to bring on the second or sweating stage in a few minutes, 
thus abolishing the hot stage. 

The results in one of the cases which occurred in 1879 are given in the following table: 



1st paroxysm, no treatment. 

Time. Temp, of Axilla. 
11.15 A.M lOU 



11.45 
12.15 
12.45 


P.M 


1.15 




1.45 




2.15 
2.45 




3.15 




8.45 





10^ 



o 



rD 



104 
105 

104^ r ^ 

102| ) ^ 

lOOi \ % 

99 ^ 



2d paroxysm. 

Hypodermic injection of ^ gr. of pilocarp. mur. 
at 11.09 A.M. 
Time. Tettip. of Axilla. 

11.05 A.M 102 

11.35 " 1004^ 

12 05 P.M 99i 



12.35 
1.05 
1.35 
2.05 
2.35 
3.05 
3.35 



99i 

99 

99i 

99i 

99 

99 



The patient had no more chills during the next ten days without further treatment, 
and was discharged as cured. These results, if verified, may change somewhat preva- 
lent views in regard to the therapeutic action of quinia. Here we have a remedy which 
seems to act by interrupting the stages of the paroxysm ; but jaborandi may possibly 
have some specitic action also. 

Malignaiii inter miitent or Pernicious intermittent fever, sometimes called Congestive 
intermittent. — Intermittent fever, ordinarily not a dangerous disease, has a form the 
cause of which is not always discoverable, but which is one of the most fatal diseases. 
Fortunately the cases are rare, except during certain seasons, in very malarious regions. 
It is more prevalent in the southern and western states, as the level portions of Alabama, 
Missis.sippj, Louisiana, and about tlie estuaries of some of the creeks and rivers emptying 
into the great lakes. Sometimes the malignant character of the attack is not manifested 
in the first paroxysm, or even the secon 1, and is thus likely to deceive the practitioner; 
but it often reveals itself in the first paroxysm, and may then cause death. Prof. Drak(i 
states that the first symptoms, however, are more or less anomalous, and will give warn- 
ing, esi:)ecially if other cases have taken place in the neighborhood. The symptoms vary, 
and yet to the experienced are characteristic, taken in connection with the history. The 
patient bacomcs rapidly delirious, or stupid, or comatose; or coma may follow delirium. 
Sometimes epileptiform convulsions occur. In some cases there is very great s,weating, 
and sometimes the extremities become as cold as marble. Sometimes there is vomiting 
and purging, followed by a collapse, as in cholera. Sometimes the urine fails to be secre- 
ted, and frequently there is albuminuria. There is often hemorrhage from the. stomach, 
bowels, or kidneys, or all of these organs. The pulse is small and irregular, and there is 
often great difficulty in breathing. If the pulse gets fuller the patient may get relief, 
but if the paroxysm passes off without much improvement, the next one will not unlikely 
prove fatal. The pathological conditions found after death do not differ essentially from 
those found after death from ordinary intermittent fever, except that they are intensi- 
fied; and it is possible that the disease is caused by the generation within tlie system of 
an excessive amount of malarial poison, the eliminative functions of the system "^not hav- 
ing acted. During the prevalence of intermittent fever, if there be a tendency to the 



'9 



Internal. 
International. 



malignant type, the number of these cases will be (liminished by adopting, generall}', 
prompt, active, and sustaining treat meni:. During the paroxysm tlie application of 
warmth in various ways, by warm blankets, bottles of hot water, liot biieks, or other 
iUaterials, as sinapisms, should be made. The administration of chloroform, in dram 
doses, is recommended on good authori y, the dose being repeated, it' necessary, till anai's- 
thesia is produced. But the chief reliance for the expulsion of the disease is in the 
administration of quinia or ciiichonidia, and the action of either of these medicines will 
be much promoted by giving it in connection with those simple alkalies which have been 
found to give activity to the secreting functions of the skin and glandular organs, such 
as the caruonates of soda and potasli. Ammoniacal carbonate may also be found use- 
ful. Wine is demanded, probably in every case, and all possible means of supporting 
the strength should be employed. The diet should be carefully selected with great regard 
to the condition pf the patient. Beef-tea, the staff diet of the sick-room, is not to be 
omitted, and steak may be chewed and the juices swallowed if the patient have any appe- 
tite for it. All articles of food should be liberally sailed. The axiom that recovery from 
disease consists in regeneration of tissue should not be lost sight of in the treatment of 
this disease more than in any other. The nervous system should be supplied witli the 
best products of nutrition. During a state of coma, or at other times, if the stomach be 
irritat)le, quinia may be administered by means of a hypodermic syringe. The drug is 
dissolved in w^ater containing 10 drops of sulpiuiric acid to tlie ounce, and from 20 to 40 
grains are sometimes administered. The chief objection to this mode is in the bulk of 
the injection, and the inflammatory swellings that are liable to ensue. But these must 
be regarded in connection with the dangerous condition of the patient. Tepid bathing 
must not be neglected. If recovery takes place, but the malarious Ciichexia remain, a 
change of air and climate will be advisable, and ihe place selected should have an atmos- 
phere as pure as possible. Colorado possesses the climatic conditions desirable in such 
eases. 

INTERNAL REVENUE. See Revenue. 

INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT. See Copykigiit, ante. 

INTERNATIONAL DATELINE.— The line at which dates change, being mnde 
later l)y one day by those who cross the line from east to west, and earlier by one day 
by those crossing it from west to east. 

If a person start at midday, that is, when the sun was shining perpendicularly on 
the meridian that passes through the place of starting, and travel westAvard, keeping 
pace with the sun, thus keeping the sun directly over the meridian of the place at which 
he might be, he would make a complete joui"ney around the globe in twenty-foui' hours, 
and return to his place of starting at noon the n(;xt day. Twenty-four houis would have 
passed, but to the traveler the sun would have been sinning perpendicularly as at noon 
all the time; and the question arises, when or at what point did the traveler change 
from noon of one day to noon of the next? For instance, if he should start at Monday 
noon and keep the sun in the zenith, he would arrive at the place of starting Tuesday 
noon — it would be noon-day to him during the whole joui'uey of twenty-four hours — • 
Monday noon would change to Tuesda}' noon without an intervening night: where 
would the change occur? It is to him apparently still Monday noon, and to obtain the 
correct dale he must drop a day. The reason for di-o]iping a day can be more fully 
shown as follows: — Remembering that the earth makes one complete revolution on its 
axis in twenty-four hours, and thus the sun in its apparent diurnal revolution moves 
over 800 degrees of space in twenty-four hours, it thus moves over 15 degrees of space 
in one hour, from which it is evident that the differencre in longitud(^ which cnuses tlie 
difference in the relative time, may be estimated in time, allowing 15 degrees to an hour, 
or one degree to four minutes. Therefore, suppose a man starling from any given 
point, travel one degree w., his watch, instead of marking 12 o'clock at noon, 
according to the correct time at that place, would mark four minutes after twelve. Let 
him travel w. 15 degrees, and he will find that 1 o'clock by his watch will be noon- 
day by the sun. Let him go on to 120 degrees, and v>iien the sun is in the zenith 
his watch will indicate eight o'clock p.m. Completing his journey around the globe, 
he will have gained, in this manner, twenty-four hours. From this it will be seen that 
in order to obtain the correct date twenty-four hours must be subtracted from his time. 
On the other hand, if a person could travel eastward at the same speed with which the 
sun apparently travels westward (the same rate of speed with which the earth revolves 
on its axis), if he should start on his joui'ney at noon-day, he would meet the sun when 
exactly on the opposite side of the earth from the place of starting, and continuing the 
journey would again meet the sun at the place of starting, thus seeing three noon-days 
within the twenty-four hours, or apparently gaining a day. This we know to be 
impossible, since only twenty-four hours of time have passed, while in reality an extra 
period of light has been gained, and thus to obtain the correct local date a day must be 
added to your time. 

From this we see that, for every time a person travels around the earth in either 
direction, there is a difference in time of one day, and the result is the same regardless of 
the rate of speed. To avoid the confusion of dates which must necessarily result from 
this constant gain on one side and loss on the other, it has been prciposcd to determine 



80 

International. 

upon some line at which custern bound travelers shall add a day, and wcsUvard bound 
travelers slx;ill drop a day from their reciconing, and tluis prevent a disagreement in 
regard to tnc day of ilie weelv. The line at whicii this addition or subtraction shall be 
luaile is what is meant by the date-line. 

The fact and necessity of such a date-line may be shown in a way with which ali are 
familiar. Take a simple problem in arithmetic on "longitude and time." "When it 
is y o'clock A.M., May 1, at Singapore, long. 10-1" e., what time is it at Manila, long. 121'' 
oO e. V" The difference of longitude estimated eastward from Singapore is 17^ 80 . The 
appii(;ation of the ordinary rules Of arithmetic gives for an answer, 10 h. 10 m. May 1. 
But tlie ditfercnce of longitude estimated westward from Singapore is 842' 30', giving 
for an answer 10:10 a.m., ^\pril 80. This shows that when the time of day at one place 
i- known, and the longitudes of both places known, the time of day at the other may be 
oi)taiaed in two vvays, viz.: by using the difference of longitude estimated west, or 
t'^tim.ited east. But "the d.ites thus obtained differ by one day; which is correct? Some- 
limes ihe one and sometimes the other. In the prol)lem just conside:ed the latter result 
is correct. In such problems the difference of longitude nuist be taken in such a direc- 
tion as not to come across the date line; or if the date-line be crossed, tiie dates must be 
changed in accordance with the above detiuition. 

Tiie calendars in general use throughout the civilized world originated in 
Home. The one most generally adopted is the Gregorian. Russia, and all other 
countries of the Greek church, still use the Julian calendar. The two calendars 
differ as to the day of the month, but agree as to the day of the week. AVldch 
ever calendar is used, all places received their date from Home. Places receiving dates 
by westward communication from Rome would naturally be considered earlier in 
time, at the same instant, and those places receiving dates by eastward communication 
W()ald be considered later in time at the same instant; and date-lines would naturally 
occur where these directions of communications met. Such is the fact. The western 
part of Europe, the islands of the Atlantic ocean, the whole of South America, and the 
greater part of North America, have received civilization by w^'stward communication 
from Rome. Therefore there is no date-line in the Atlantic or in America (since the 
occupation of Alaska by the United States). The eastern part of Europe and Asia 
received civilization by eastward communication from Rome. Date-lines, therefore, 
occur in the Pacific ocean between islands that have received dates by eastward, and 
those that have received by westward communication. By connecting these lines we 
have an irregular line whose general direction is n. and s., and wliich may properly bo 
called the date-line, though not always, and perhaps not usually, the line where vessels 
change dates. The north-western part of North America, otherwise known as Russian 
America, now Alaska, received civilization by eastw^ard communication, therefore their 
dates would correspond with those of Asia; but the north-westei-n part of British America 
received civilization by westward communication, thus the dates there would correspond 
with eastern America and Europe. From this we see that two neighbors, one living in 
Russian America and one in British America, might differ as to the day of the week. This 
was often the case before Alaska was purchased from Russia l)}^ the United States in 1867. 
The dating in Alaska has been put back to conform with Ihe rest of the United States. The 
date line, therefore, must now pass through Behriug's straits, or, according to some author- 
ities, just w. of the strait. North of the strait some authorities claim that it passes 
between Plover and Herald islands, which hoids, -as the former was discovered from the 
eastern continent and the latter from the western. Scnith of the strait it passes \\. of 
Clarke's or St. Lawrence island. Thence it passes w. of Gores island; thence south-west- 
erly between the Aleutian islands and Asia. It thence passes south-westerly some degrees 
e. of cape Lopatka and the group of Kurile islands, thence just e. of the Japan islands, 
Jesso and Niphon, keeping vv. of Guadalupa and Margaret's islands, but e. of Bonin, Loo 
Choo, and Patclioo islands, and s.e. of Formosa. This island w^as unknown to the 
Chinese until about 1403. About 1634 the Dutch established themselves here, and built 
fort Zeland on a small island commanding the harbor of the capital Taeman. After 
retaining possession for 28 years, they were expelled by Coxigina, a famous Chinese 
rebel, whose successors ruh.'d until 1683, wdien it was taken by the Chinese. It thus retains 
the same dating as the Chinese nation proper. The line then passes through Bashee 
channel, just n. of the Bashee islands. It enters the China sea e. of Hong Kong. It then 
])asse3 s. just w^ of the Philippine islands, but keeps e. of Palawan island. It is here that 
it reaches its most w^estern point, being about 116° e. longitude. It then takes a south- 
easterly course, passing through the Sooloo islands, s. of Mindanao and n. of Gilolo. 
Thence it passes e. nearly parallel with, but just n of, the equator to a point about 165" 
just n. of Shank island; thence south-easterly, leaving High island, Gilbert archipelago, 
Taswell islands, and the De Peyster group orrthe n.e. ; thence to a point n.e. of the Nav- 
i«rator or Samoan islanrls to longitude about 268' w. ; thence it turns s., keeping e. of the 
Navigator, Friendly, Tonga, Vasquez, Kermadec, and Curtis islands, and w. of the 
Society i.slands, and Cook's or Ilarvey islands; thence it continues s., bearing a little to 
the w,, s'^ as to cross, according- to some authorities, Chatham island; thence to the .south 
pole. By following this description the line can be traced with a pencil on a map of the 
world. 

The popular idea seems to be that 180' e. or w. of Greenwich is tlie point at which 



81 



International. 



the change occurs. National pride is not lilicly to give Eugland tlie right to consider tlie 
180° w. of Greenwich as having any special advantage over the 180° w. of Berlin, 
Paris, Vienna, Rome, Madrid, St. Petersburg, or even Washington, D. C. A vessel 
sailing from San Fi-ancisco to Samoa would reach its destination before reaching 180° w. 
of Greenwich, and would tind itself a day behind the Saraoans in date. Other illustra- 
tions might be given to show that the 180' fiction does not remove the difficulty. For 
instance: the Spaniards on the Philippine islands still use the latest dating; a navigator 
sailing from San Francisco to these islands, who had changed his date at 180°, would tind 
himself a day ahead on his arrival. This would not be the case if he had sailed to Yokohama 
or Hong Kong, which have the advance dating. In making a round tiip from San Fran- 
cisco to Yokohama, a navigator might keep his dating unchanged and thus be right on 
his return, or he might make two changes, skipping a day on his outward voyage at any 
time or place on the way, and dropping a day at any time or place on his return. Cruis- 
ing vessels are said not to regard the 180° in their dates, as ihey might in some cases have 
to' change their dating very frequently. 

Numerous proposals have been made for an initial meridian for all nations, in order 
to dispense with the many now in use, but no satisfactory proposition has yet been 
made. M. de Beaumont suggests one passing through Behring's strait. Rome has also 
been suggested for various reasons, among them tiie fact that it was the home of old and 
new style, and need not offend national pride; and because it is nearly on the meridian 
of Copenhagen, Uraniburg, Leipsic, Munich, Padua, Venice, Christiana, Gotha, Nerona, 
and Modena, and not far w. of those of Berlin, Prague, Naples, and Palermo. This 
meridian band has been called the great street of the world's observatories. With this 
suggestion there has been coupled the suggestion that Rome be made 180°, and that 0° 
bo left Unmarked, passing somewhere along Behring's straits, and that e. and w. as 
applied to longitude be dispensed with. 

Another point may be noted. Taking the line as described, its most western point 
on the Philippine islands is 117° e., and the most eastern point is 168' w. longitude. 
Using these limits, from the time any given time or day begins to the time it ends i-? 53 
hours. Or taking the eastern part of Alaska, as was formerly done, which is 130° e., and 
a day remains on the face of the earth for 55 hours and 32 seconds. Taking the foi-mer, 
we can see that for 5 hours each day, by the same calendar, there are three diiTerent 
dates in different parts of the world. These hours in Washington, D. C, and all places 
on or near that meridian, are from 6:10 a.m to 11:10 a.m. For instance, during these 
liours of to-day, Jan. 1, 1881, with us, the Navigator islands are in the early part of Jan. 
2, and the Philippine islands are finishing Dec. 31, 1880. 

INTERNA' TIONAL LAW is divided into public international law and private inter- 
national law. 1. Public InteriKitional L<iw, or the law of nations, consists of those rules 
which independent nations agree among theniselves to be just and fair in reuulating 
their dealings with each other in times of war and peace. The mode in which they 
arrive at tliis common understanduig of what is just and fair, is by comparing the 
opinions of text-writers who profess to set forth and collect the general opinion of civilized 
nations, for all these writers appeal ultimately to the principles of natural reason and 
common sense, as the test of what they profess to be the proper rule. Ti'eaties of peace, 
alliance, and commerce also define and modify the existing international law as between 
the contracting parties. The decisions of prize-courts, which profess to proceed on 
principles of natural justice, of universal application, are also declarations of this inter- 
national law. The leading doctrines thus adopted are as follows: A sovereign state is 
one which governs itself independently of foreign powers. In the event of a civil war 
in one nation, other nations may remain indifferent spectators, and treat the ancient 
government as sovereign, and the government de facto as entitled to the rights of war 
against its enemy. If the foreign state profess neutrality, it is bound to allow impartially 
to both belligerent parties the free exercise of those rights which war gives to public 
enemies against each other, such as the right of blockade, and of capturing contraband 
and enemy's property. V/here a colony or province asserts its independence, and has 
shown its ability to maintain this independence, the recognition of its sovereignty by 
other foreign states is a question of policy and prudence only; but until acknowledged", 
courts of justice and private individuals are bound to consider the ancient state of things 
as remaining unpltered. When a change occurs in the person of the sovereign, or in the 
internal constitution of a state, all treaties made by such state which were not personal 
to the former sovereign, continue to be binding on the succeeding sovereign. 

All sovereign states are, in the eye of international law, on a footing of equality. 
Each Slate has the right to require the military service of its own people for purposes of 
self-defense, and to develop all its resources in the manner it thinks fit, so long as it does 
not interfere with the same equal rights of other nations. When, however, one state 
unduly aggrandizes itself, and augments its military and naval forces beyond what all 
the other states consider proportioned to its po'^ition, then those other states have sonic 
ground to interfere. This, however, is considered a delicate business, and not to b/; 
attempted rashly; and it is difficult to define what is a just ground of interference. Th ' 
acquisition of colonies and dependencies has never been considered a just motive for 
such interference. According to Wheaton {International Law, 88, 6th ed.), interferences 
U. K. VIII.— 6 



International. 



82 



to preserve the balance of power have been generally confined to prevent a sovereign, 
already powerful, from incorporating conquered provinces into his territor}', or increas- 
ing a dictatorial intiuence over the councils and conduct of other independent states. 
The aversion to interference has no doubt in modern times, become stronger and stronger; 
and it may be taken to be now almost an axiom, that no foreign state has any just ground 
of interfering in what is merely an internal revolution of a state, or a mode of readjusting 
its own constitution; in short, each state ought to be allowed to manage its own internal 
affairs, and to choose whatever form of government best suits the people, for tlie exercise 
01 this right can, in general, nowise iilfect other states. 

Each state has the natural riglit to make its own laws regulating the property and 
status of all the subjects within its territory. On the high seas, loih the public ajid 
private vessels of every nation are subject to the jurisdiction of the state to wliich they 
belong. Offenses there committed against its own nuudcipal laws give to the state I'o 
which the vessels belong jurisdiction; but no right of visitation and search belongs to a 
nation in time of peace, though piracy and other offenses against the law of nations, 
being crimes not against any particular nation, but against all mankind, may be punished 
by any slate in which the offenders can be found. The traffic in slaves is, however, not 
classed with piracy by the law of nations, though nations may declare it to be so as 
regards their own subjects; and tliey may also enter into a compact as to that matter, as 
has been done by Great Britain with other nations With legard to crimes and their 
punishment, though each state will punish all crimes by wliomsoever committed, if 
committed within its own territory, and also all crimes committed in its p\d)lic and 
private vessels on the high seas, or in a foreign port; likewise all crimes, wherever com- 
mitted, by one of its own subjects, yet ii cannot arrest one of its own citizens it he is 
within the territory of another state; to do so Avould be an invasion of the municipal law 
of that state; hence it can only arrest its criminals in foreign states l)y the leave of such 
state, and such state is not bound to accede to such a r( quest. Hence arises the expe- 
diency of two states entering into an extradition treat}', by which they bind themselves 
to give up to each other criminals who have committed certain specified offenses. 

There are certain usages or ceremonials of respect shown by one nation to another 
in certain circumstances, and these are lounded on the tlseory of the equality of sove- 
reign states. As regards the right of precedence among kings, emperors, and princes, 
there is nothing settled and binding, except, perhaps, that Catholic powers concede the 
precedency to the pope. But as regards ndnor matters, it is the settled courtesy for one 
nation to salute by striking the flag or the sails, or by tiring a eertam number of guns on 
approaching a fleet or a ship of war, or entering a fortified port or harbor. Sometimes 
these ceremonials are regulated by express treaty, as, for example, as regards the mari- 
time honors formerly exacted by Denmark from vessels passing the sound and belts at 
the entrance of the Baltic sea. 

The rights of states in time of peace consist of the rights of legation and of negotia- 
tion. Every independent state has a right, in point of courtesy and usage, to send pu])lic 
ministers or representatives to, and receive ministers from, sny otlicr sovereign state 
with which it desires to maintain relations of peace and amity. See Ameassadok ; 
Envoy; Chakges d'affaires; Consul. 

When war is commenced between two countries, tliere are certain rights acknowl- 
edged to exist towards each other. Before war is pioclaimed, intermediate methods are 
sometimes adopted, with a view to avoid that last necessity; these are laying an embargo 
on the ships or property of the offending state found in 11)6 ten ilory of the offended state; 
also taking forcible possession of the tiling in contioversy, also retaliating and making 
reprisals. When war is once declared, Ihe t'rst ste]i is to seize and confi^cate all the enemy's 
property within the teiTitor3\ It becomes ludawful for the subjects of each belligerent 
state to trade with the subjects of the other belligerent. The test of vhetlier a person is 
a subject of either state is generally his domicile; so the character of shij)S depends on the 
national character of the owner, as ascertained by his domicile. As regards the conduct 
of one belligerent state against tlie other, some writers have laid it down, that every- 
thing is fair against an enemy, and that no means of punishment are too severe; but 
this rigid rule has been qualified by the more liumane practice of modern times. Instead 
of putting prisoners of war to death, the practice is to exchange or dis( harge them on 
conditions. Instead of indiscriminate destruction of the enemy's property, temples, 
public edifices, monuments of art and science, are spared. The laws of war are more 
unsparing at sea than on land; the practice prevails of commissioning privateers to prey 
on the commerce of the enemy, the captor being in general entitled to tlie property. 
W^hen property taken is recaptured, states differ as to the mode of dealing with the 
propert}^ recaptured. The validity of a capture at sea must be determined in a prize 
court of the captor's country or of an all}'', and the prize court professes to act on 
univer.sal principles applicable to all countries. 

As regards neutrals in time of war, tiie leading doctrines are stated under the heads 
Contraband of War ; Blockade ; Foreign Enltstme^'t Act. 

At the congress of Paris, 1856, the ambassadors of Jreat Britain, France, Russia, 
Austria. Prussia, Turkey, and Sardinia, agreed to a joint declaration, modifying the 
state of the laws of war as follows: 1. To abolish privateering; 2. To adopt the maxim, 
"free ships, free goods" — i.e., an enemy's goods shall not be taken in a neutral ship v.nless 



Oct International. 

they are contraband of war; 3. To allow a neutral's goods in an enemy's ship to be free 
except as to contraband; 4. To abolish l)l()ckades unless they are real and Icept up by 
an effective force. Tliese declarations were not acceded to by America, because it 
objected to tlie abolition of privateering, so that though, in the event of war between 
the countries wiiich agreed in tlie declaration, the above modifications will probabl}^ be 
adopted, this will not be the case in the event of America being at war with one or other 
of these parties. See Wheaton's I liter national Law; Mackenzie's /SYwrf/^ in Roman Lao 
Macqueeii's Chi^f Points in the Laws of War. 

2. Private Liter national Laic is that collection of laws that regulates the mode i 
which ordinary courts of justice administer the remedies and give effect to the rigljts > 
parlies where such rights were acquired partly or wholly in a foreign country, and who 
different remedies mu-st otherwise have necessarily applied. In such cases, the cou 
which administers the remedy, acting on what is culled the courtesy of nations, 
comitas gentium, endeavors to put the parties in the same position as if they were st. . 
bound by the foreign laws, and gives effect to those laws so far as they do not coutiict 
with the native laws inessential principles. The fundamental doctrine which underlies 
this branch of law is, that each subject of a foreign independent state is entitled to have 
the protection of his own laws, so far as is compatible with the equal independence of 
the state whose courts administer the remedy, and hence, though a court can in general 
only administer the laws of its own state, it may, ^^ro hac vice, incorporate part of the 
foreign laws as part of its own remedies. Accordingly, in carrying out. this doctrine, 
certain fair and equitable rules are adopted in dealing with foreigners in certain situa- 
tions, the chief of which arise out of the heads of marriage, death, intestacy, and reme- 
dies generally. 

This branch of the law has been long cultivated by the continental countries of 
Europe, where many learned jurists have discussed its principles. But probabl}' owing 
to the insular position of the Unite I Kingdom, little attention was given to it there; and 
indeed no work even incidentally treated of the subject until Mr. Justice Story, an 
American judge, in 1834, first produced his celebrated treatise on the Conflict of LaiCH, 
and gave to British lawyers a methodical view of the results at which foreign jurists 
had arrived. In the United States, where each independent state had its own muni- 
cipal laws, which often differed materially from those of the other federal states, it was 
natural and inevitable that some system should be adopted as to the way each state 
should deal with the rights of persons coming from the neighboring states; and hence 
America preceded England in thj devel()p:ne:it of this branch of the law. Story's work 
is still the standard authority in the United Kingdom. Since the laws of Scotland 
diff'er in many respects from thos ! of England and Ireland, and each couniry has its 
own courts exercising independent jurisdiction, it is a matter of course that questions 
of conflict under these two codes of law shouki often arise Not oidy do the courts of 
Scotland and England treat the laws of the other country as foreign laws, and deal with 
each other in much the same way as they would deal with France, or any other foreign 
country, but the laws in other respects are materially different, and give rise to conflicts. 
On this particular branch of the law affecting England and Scotfand, Mr. Paterson's 
Compendium of LJnglish cind Scotch Law couUxm^ ii summiivy of all the material differ- 
ences existing between the laws of these two countries, thai are of the greatest practical 
imp 'rtance to residents in the United Kingdom. 

As regards marriage, the leading doctrine of the comitas gentium is, that it is imma- 
terial in what part of the world a man is married provided he is married, and when 
once married according to the law of the place where he then is, such marriage will be 
held a valid marriage all the world over, and wherever he goes. This doctrine, how- 
ever, is qualified in this way, that the lex loci contractus — i.e. , the law of the place where 
the marriage was contracted — shall regulate the validity of the marriage only so far as 
any ceremony is essential to the institution of marriage; but it is not allowed to dictate 
who the parties are who may validly marr3^ nor to vary any essential part of the con- 
tract. The reason of the latter qualification is, that there may be rules of policy in one 
country which may prohibit marriages between certain persons, or may prohibit certain 
consequences, and therefore the evasion of the native law by persons going abroad for 
such a purpose is not to be tolerated. For example, in Scotland, marriage is treated as 
a niere contract, which requires no particular ceremony beyond mere mutual consent; 
Avhile in England some ceremony is absolutely essential — viz , the ceremony of the mar- 
riage being celebrated in a parish church by a priest, or in a superintendent-registrar's 
office, if there is no priest. Accordingly, any two English persons may go to Scotland 
and be married there by exchanging a verbal declaration of marriage;%ind if one had 
resided there 21 days before, they will be held to be married persons, and may immedi- 
alely return to England, if so disposed. On the other hand, if two Scotch persons go 
to England, they cannot be married by exchanging mere verbal declarations; they must 
be married, according to the English law, either by a piiest in a church or without one 
in a superintendent-registrar's office; and if so, they will be held to be married all the 
world over. Aiiain. the law of England declares that no marriage shall be valid within 
certain prohibited degrees, and amongst others no man is there allowed to marry his 
deceased wife's sister. Hence, if a man and his deceased wife's sister go from England 
to Denmark, where the law allows such persons to marry, and they there are married 



84 

International. ^ 

according to tlic form there prevailing, and then return to England, where their domi- 
cile is, liioy will nut be treated as married persons, because lliey went to evade their own 
law in'a matter whicli is considered of vital importance. It would, liowever, be dif- 
ferent if a man and liis deceased wife's sister, who were Danes, and domiciled in Den- 
niarii at the time of their marriage, came afterwards to this country; tliey would in 
that case be treated as properly married, for their domicile was then Danish, and they 
had a right to follow their own law. 

Anollier important head of international law is as to the law which regulates the suc- 
cession to the property of a person deceased. On this subject, the rule is, that it is the 
law of the country in which a man was domiciled at the time of his death which regu- 
hites the succession to his personal property, even though such property is scattered 
over all parts of the world; hence, it is necessary first to ascertain where the deceased 
person had his domicile. See Domicile. The above rule as to the domicile of a 
deceased person governing the succession applies only to his personal property; as to 
his landed or real property, the succession to it is governed by the law of the country 
where such land is situated. Hence, if an Englishman dies domiciled in England, leav- 
ing a Scotch estate, such estate will descend according to the Scotch, and not the Eng- 
lish law, and it is well known the rules of succession diiTer materially in the two 
countries. See Paterson's Compendium of Enrjllah and Scotch Law. Where tlie person 
does not die intestate, but leaves a will, then it is now, by statute, almost immaterial 
whether his will was made according to English or Scotch law. 

Another important head of |)rivate international law is as to the court in which a 
remedy can be obtained on ordinary contracts. The rule is, that wheiever a contract 
was made, the contract must be valid according to the law of the place where it v/as 
made, but the remedy may be had anywhere else wherever the defendant can be found. 
Thus, if a person makes a contract or incurs a debt in Scotland, and afterwards goe? to 
England, he ma}^ be sued in the English courts, though the English court will only 
allow the remedy, provided the contract was valid according to Scotch law. It follows 
also from this rule that if a debt be incurred in Scotland which would prescribe in three 
years, yet, if the debtor be in England, he can be sued any time within six years, for 
that is part of the English remedy. It is often of no small importance to know where 
and in what country a person may be sued. The general rule is that one must follow 
his debtor, and sue the debtor in whatever country such debtor resides. In this respect, 
how^ever, Scotchmen have greater advantages over Englishmen than Englishmen over 
Scotchmen, for while the rule in England is that a Scotchman can only be sued there in 
ordinary cases, provided such Scotchman is actually present in England, and can be 
personall}'^ served with process of the court — i.e., with a copy of a writ of summons — in 
Scotland the rule is that in many cases an Englishman can be sued though he never in 
his life were in Scotland at all; it is enough if he has some debt due to him there, or 
has left some trifling article of property — such, for example, as his umbrella — which can 
be arrested. In the latter case the chattel or debt is first seized by the Scotch creditor, 
in order to found jurisdiction, or, as it is technically called, arrestum jurisdiclionis 
fundandm causa, and then the Englishman can be sued, and judgment maj^ be obtained 
against him in his absence, even though he never heaid of the action. Englishmen 
have often complained of this as a barbarous practice of ihe Scotch courts; nevertheless, 
the veiy same practice exists in the city of London, though nowhere else in England. 
When judgment is once obtained either in England, Scotland, or Ireland, it is now 
competent for the judgment creditor at once to attach or seize the goods of the debtor 
in either of the two other countries, if in the mean lime the debtor has gone there. The 
creditor used formerly a fresh action in the new country to which the debtor had 
removed, and went over precisely the same process again. This circuitous process has 
heen at last effectually remedied by an act of parliament, which allows execution to 
follow judgment in any of the three kingdoms, except where a Scotch judgment was 
founded on arrestment only. 

I:N'TERNATI0NAL law (ante) is the body of rules, derived from custom or from 
treaty, by which nations, either tacitly or expressl}^ agree to be governed in their inter- 
course with each other. Some of tlie rules have existed from the beginning of i)istory; 
their number has gradually increased, their scope widened, and their quality improved. 
The Amphictyonic council, formed in very early times and limited to Grecian tribes, 
required that after a battle an exchange of prisoners should be made, and a truce 
declared in order that the dead might be buried. They also bound themselves not to 
destroy any city included in the alliance, or to cut it off from running water in war or 
peace. The Romans in their early days established a college of heralds for declaring 
war, and allowed only sworn soldiers to take part in it. The influence of Christianity, 
declaring the universal brotherhood of man as one of its fundamental truths, has been 
great and beneficent in the sphere of national character and intercourse. Many barbari- 
ties fell at once before it, and many others have been gradually mitigated and subdued. 

International law has two natural divisions — the one containing ruler, for the inter- 
course of nations during peace, and the other regulating the changes made by war. 

I. Rifjhis and duties of nations during peace. 

1. The parties to international law. Individuals cannot be parties; but may, if Strang- 



85 



International. 



ers, claim humane treatment under the law of nature broader than that of nations. Only 
independent, organized communities are nations, and have the po\ver of making treaties 
with other nations. Protected or dependent states, provinces and colonies, tlie members 
of confederacies, and separate kingdoms made one by a permanent compact, must conduct 
all tlieir intercourse with other nations througli- that nation on whicli Uwy are dependent, 
or of whicli they are a part. No particular form of government and no dilference of relig- 
ious belief necessarily excludes a nation from tlie obligations and advantages of inteina- 
tional law. Independent states have equal duties and rights, without reference to their 
size or other relative differences, and are sovereign in tiie sense of having no political 
superior. The individual Btates of the American union nuiy be said to have a certain loctd 
and relative sovereignty; but with respect to other nations the United States only consti- 
tute a sovereign state. International law deals only with state cte facto. While a beid}', 
hitherto dependent or fornnng a part of a nation, is striving to effect its independence, 
other nations cannot help it, without creating a state of war with the parent state. A state 
cannot evade its obligations by change of constitution. Denmark and Norway, when 
separating in 18f4, each took its share of the debt of the united kingdom; and the 
United States assumed the debts of the preceding confederation. The independence of 
a state implies, first of all, freedom in the conduct of its internal affairs. Generally 
there cau be no legal interference with them by another state. Yet when a slate, by 
external alliances, is increasing its power in a degree ihat endangeis the welfare or 
tranqiullity of its neighbors, the right of interfering in order to preserve the balance of 
power is claimed and has been exercised; as, for example, in the war of the Spanish 
succession, and after the French revolution and the fall of Napoleon. On the other 
hand, when circumstances do not lequire or warrant such an interference, there have 
been national declarations designed to forestall and prevent it. An instance of this was 
furnished by what is called the Monroe doctrine — president Monroe's declaration made 
in order to prevent European interference in what had been Spanish x^meiica — that 
"the United States would consider any attempt on the part of the allied European 
powers to extend their system to any portion of our hemisphere as dangerous to our 
peace and safety." Also when any great cruelty lias been ])racticcd by the strong 
against the weak the right of interference by other nations is claimed. A signal instance 
was furnished in 1827, during the struggle for independence by the Greeks against the 
Turks, when the allied fleets of Great Britain, France, and Russia destroyed the Turkish 
fleet. 

2. A state has a sovereign right to its territories and property. Its property consists 
of public buildings, forts, ships, lands, money, and similar possessions. All private 
property, also, within its limits is under its protection. Its territory includes all the 
surface of land or water within its limits; of harbors, gulfs, and straits within certain 
headlands; and of the sea within a league from the shore. Outside of this limit the sta is 
free to all nations for commerce and fishing. But while foreigners are fiee to catch lish 
in any part of the ocean contiguous to the territoiy of a state — as on the banks of New- 
foundland — they cannot dry their nets or cure their fish on the adjoining coasts unless 
the privilege have been granted by treaty. A ship owned by inhabitants of a countiy 
cannot be regarded as national territory, but is simply pi ivate property under the pro- 
tection of the national flag. In a foreign port it may be attached for del)t, and its crew 
are accountable to the laws of the port and of the country for any misconduct which they 
may commit. Rivers between two countries, unless a contrary provision is made by 
treaty, are common to both, and the boundary runs through the principal channel. When 
a river rises in one state and enters the sea in another, each portion, strictly speaking, is 
subject to the state within whose limits it is contained. The dwellers on the upper shores 
have no right, except by concession, to descend to the sea through the lower territory. 
Yet there seems to be an equitable claim to the privilege almost amounting to a right; 
and within the present century almost all such navigable rivers in the Christian world 
have been opened by treaty to the use of those wdio live on their upper waters. Among 
these may be mentioned the Rhine, Scheldt, Danube, La Plata and its tributaries, Amazon, 
and St. Lawrence. 

3. Duties which foreigners coming into a country owe to its laws and government. 
Aliens, sojourning in a country, must submit to its laws unless released from their juris- 
diction by special treaty or internatiomd custom. The}^ are secure in the enjoyment of 
thei;- property, the use of the courts, and the transaction of lawful business. They can 
dispose of their property by will to persons residing abroad, or can transmit it to their 
own country. They have also the protection of consuls and ambassadors appointed by 
tlieir own c(,untry. Several classes of persons are specially exempt, in a greater or less 
degree, from the jurisdiction of local laws; as, for example, sovereigns traveling through 
a foreign country, ambassadors accredited to it, the officers and men of national ships 
in its ports, and foreign armies when passing through it by permission. In England 
formerly no one born a subject could lawfully expitriate himself, nor could any foreigner 
be naturalized except by special act of parliament. But in 1844 provision was made for 
granting foreigners all the rights of native-born subjects except membership of the privy 
council or of parliament. In the United States a foreigner may be legally naturalized 
after five years' residence, and three years after he has formally declared his intention 
to renounce his former nationality and become a citizen. Persons who have commuted 



International. *^^ 

an offense against the laws of their country often flee for refuge into another. If the 
offense be political only, the nations which are most free themselves generally allow the 
fugitives to remain; but if they have committed, or are charged with crime, they may be 
delivered up for trial to theirown country when demanded according to the provisions 
of treaties made for the purpose. An aujbassador in very ancient times was considered 
a sacred person; and, as national intercourse and comity have been enlarged, there has 
been a proportionate increase in his rights and privileges. His person, dwelling-place, 
properly, family, and attendants, are, in a great degree and as a rule, exempt from the 
criminal and civil jurisdiction of the country to wiiich he is sent, lie has liberty of 
worship, according to the customs of his country and to his own choice, for himself, his 
household, and by extension of courtesy, for other persons belonging to his nation. In 
some countries this liberty has been restricted to worship in his own house. Consuls 
are agents wlio have no diplomatic character, but are sent to reside in certain districts to 
]>rotect the interests, chiefly commercial, of the country which appoints them. Their 
duties are imposed by their own government, and are i)erformed by permission of the 
foreign power. They are honored and protected by the flag of their country; but their 
privileges are, in general, much less than those of ambassadors, except in Mohammedan 
countries, where, having often been required to perform diploiuatie duties, tlu^y have 
acquired corresponding rights. The modern offlce of consul arose in the coannercial 
times of tlie middle ages, when companies of merchants, going to reside in tlie easlei-u 
parts of the Mediterranean, had olflcers, chosen at first l)y themselves and afterwards by 
tlieir governments, to settle di'^putes that arose in conducting business affairs. Treaiies 
are compacts betw^een nations for the regulation of intercourse between both governments 
and people. They comprise, in a great measure, the history of international law. The 
l)ower to make them is deteimined by the constitution of individual slates. In the 
United States they are negotiated under the direction of the president, and are ratiiied by 
a two-thirds vote of the senate. When they promise the payment of money it must be 
appropriated for the purpose by a vole of the house of representatives. 
11. International relations as modified by tear. 

1. War is a contention by force of arms between two or more nations. In order to bo 
just it must be necessarily undertaken to repel an injury or to obtain a righteous dem ind. 
The power of deciding for what purpose and when it is to be waged must be left to each 
nation, because there can be no other judge. A nation tha' h:is been wronged, or thinks 
it has, r?iay take no notice of tlie wrong, or employ only peaceful measures to obtain 
redress, or accept the offered mediation of a friendly power, or propose arbitration, or 
use arnKKi force. In general, otiier nations have no right to interfere. Yet. in some 
cases, war between two nations may become- to other nat ons a cause for w^-ir. Media- 
tion offers a way for escaping war vvhi;;h may be equally honoral)le and advantageous 
to both parties. Yet it can only give advice which m ly be rejected by one or both of 
the parties. Arbitration, in special cases, may l)e simple, easy, and effective. The 
parties agree on the arbitrators, the points to be considered, the time and place, and the 
law which is to govern the case; and they bind themselves to abide by the decision. The 
success which has, in numerous instances within the present century, been attained by 
a"l)itration, and especially in the recent important case between the United States and 
Great Britain arising out of the war for the suppression of the southern rebellion, war- 
rants the hope that war may often, in a similar way, be avoided. After the happy set- 
tlement in the instance last mentioned, the British house of commons presented an 
address to the queen, praying that measures might be taken "with a view to furiher 
improvement in international law and the establishment of a general and permanent 
system of international arbitration." 

2. War between tW'O nations interrupts all recognized intercourse between the indi- 
viduals members of each. The relations of commerce, the rigiit given by treaty to resi<le 
in either country, and all communication by direct channcds between them, come to an 
end. Sometimes permission is granted to remain still in the country; and generally 
time is granted to remove with property and effects. The treaty of 1794 between the 
United States and Great Britain stipulates that " neither the debts due from individuals 
of the one nation to individuals of the other, nor shares nor moneys which they may 
have in the public funds or in the public or private banks, shall ever, in any evcni of 
war or national difference, be sequestered or confiscated." According to chancellor 
Kent, "as a general rule, the obligations of treat.es are dissipated by hostilities." It 
is said also by another writer that "Great Britain, in practice, admits of no exception 
to the rule that all treaties, as such, are brought to an end by a subsequent war between 
the parties." The peace of Westphalia and the ti'eaty of "Utrecht have l)een renewed 
several times when the nations concerned in them, after having been at war, were 
making new treaties of peace. 

3. The interests of humanity demand that, during warlike operations on land, non- 
combatants should be molested as little as ])os.sible in the prosecution of their peaceful 
interests and in the enjoyment of their homes. On the sea, ships and cargoes belonging 
to enemies have, until recently, been accounted lawful prey; but in the enlarged com- 
mercial relations of the world much progress lias been made towards exempting inno- 
cent traffic on the seas from interruption during war, 

4. The forces lawfully employed in war are, on laud, regular armies, militia, and 



87 



International. 



volunteers; <and, on the sea, national ships and private vessels commissioned by national 
authority. But as privateeriuL^ is necessarily attended witii great evils, earnest eltorts 
have been made to restrict or abolisii it. In 1856 the parties to the declaration of Paris 
adopted four rules concerning maritime warfare, one of which declares that " privateer- 
ing is and remains abolished." Other nations were asked to accept them on condition 
that they would l)e bound by tliem all; and almost all Christian stiUes did agree to them. 
Tiie United States withheld their assent because, as it is their policy to maintain only a 
small navy, the right to resort to privateering in case of war offers the only way by 
which they can cope with the large navies of otlier nations. They agreed, however, to 
adopt all the rules, provided the signers of the declaration would consent to exempt 
from capture all innocent traffic of enemies on the sea. In 18G1 the offer was made to 
two of the principal European powers, by the secretary of state, on the part of the 
United States, to come under the operation of the four rules; but as it was made for the 
whole republic — the rebellious as well as the loyal states — it was declined. 

5. The rights and duties of neutral nations. In recent times the commercial inter- 
course among people of different nations has become so genei'al and constant, that the}"" 
are practically united almost into a confederacy so as to be entitled to a voice in decid- 
ing whether war between individual nations shall, in any pafticuhu" case, be permitted. 
Sometimes, in view of peculiariti^\s in its position, a territory is made permanently neu- 
tral so that armies cannot cross its boundaries nor can it engage in war. Switzerland 
and part of Savoy, since 1815, and Belgium, since 1830, have been in this condition. 
Sometimes several powers unite in an armed neutrality in order to maintain certain 
maritime rights against both belligerents. But such a league is liable- to result in war. 
A neutral stale must be impartial in its dealings with both belligerents; must keep itself, 
its territory and subjects, as detached as possible from the war; and be equally humane 
to both parties when storm, disaster, or hunger casts them on its shores or within its 
bounds. By the treaty of Washington, in 1871, Great Britain and the United States^ 
adopted three rules to be applied in settling difficulties then existing between them, to 
be observed by them in future, and to be urged on the acceptance of other nations. 
These rules are — that "a neutral government is bound, fin^t, to use due diligence to pre- 
vent the fitting out, arming, or equipi)ing, within its jurisdiction, of any vessel which 
it has reasonable ground to believe is intended to cruise or to carry on war against a 
power with which it is at peace; and also to use like diligence to prevent the departure 
from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to ci'uise or carry on war as above, such 
vessel having been specially adapted, in whole or in part, within such jurisdiction, to 
warlike use: second, not to permit or suffer either beiligon'ent to make use of its ports 
or waters as the base of naval operations against the other; or for the purpose of the 
renewal or augmentation of military supplies or arms, or the recruitment of men: 
third, to exercise due diligence in its own ports and waters, and as to all persons within 
its jurisdiction, to prevent an}'' violation of the foi-egoing obligations and duties." 

6. The liabilities and rights of neutral trade. By the rules set forth in the declaration 
of Paris, a "neutral tiag covers the enemy's goods with the exception of contral)and of 
war," and " neutral goods, with the excei)tion of contraband of war, are not liable to 
capture under an enemy's flag." The term "contraband of war" is used to denote arti- 
cles which directly aid warlike operations. According to a formula adopted by the 
United States, the list includes all kinds of guns, tire-arms, ammunition, weapons, armor, 
military clothing, equipments for men atid cavalry horses, ai > all instruments, of any 
material, manufactured and prepared for making war by sea or land. The right of 
blockade in time of war is universally admitted, but in general is available only for har- 
bors, mouths of rivers, and limited districts of coast. As a blockade begins and ends at 
definite times, previous notification, of both its beginning and ending, must be given to 
traders and neutral governments. To be legal, it must be maintained by armed force 
sufficient to show that it is actual, and to prevent all ordinary and open attemj)ts to pass 
it. All merely formal, or, as they have been called, paper blockades, like Najwleon's 
Berlin and Milan decrees and the two counter British orders in council in 1807, are 
regarded by international law as futile and void. When a vessel is captured and found 
guilty of attempting to enter or leave a blockaded port, the penalty it incurs is the con- 
fiscation of itself and its cargo. In carrying out the International rules adopted concern- 
ing contraband goods, enemies' goods on enemies' ships, and blockades, search is often 
necessary to determine the nationality of the vessel and the nature of its cargo. It must 
be submitted to by the vessel, but must not be so conducted as to give unnecessary 
annoyance. The right of search is a war right applicable to merchant vessels only in 
time of war. and to those suspected of piracy at any time, inasmuch as piracy involving 
attack on the peaceful and unarmed, is held to be war against the human race. 

. INTERN'ATIONAL WOPtKINGMEN'S ASSOCIATION, commonly known as the 
International, organized in 1864 at London by an assemblage of workingmen fiom the 
principal countries of Europe, is an association of trades-unions designed to protect the 
working-classes against the power of capitalists, and seeking to overthrow the system of 
paying labor with wages by substituting for it national co-operative associations. The 
programme and rules for its government drawn up by Dr. Cail Marx were finally 
adopted, in preference to those of Mazzini and Bakunin, at the first general congress, 



International. QO 

luteioceanic. ^^ 

lield at Geneva, Sept., 1866. The reasons assigned for forming the association were : 

1. That the emaucipation of labor must be aecomphshed by workingmen themselves. 

2. That the struggle to effect it is a struggle, not for class privileges and monopolies, but 
for equal rights and duties with an abrogation of class rule. o. That the economical 
subjection of laborers to capitalists — who monopolize the nuans of labor — that is, tlie 
sources of life— lies at the foundation of servitude in all its forms, of all social unhapjii- 
ness, menial inferioiity and political bondage. 4. That the economical deliverance of 
the working classes is, therefore, the first great end which political movements ought to 
seek. 5. That effoits in this direction have, thus far, been unsuccessful because of the 
want of union among the departments of labor in each country, and aniong the woii^ing 
classes of dilferent countiies. 6. That the emancipation sought for is not a meicly local 
or even national problem; but one which, embi'acing all countries where modein society 
exists, requires especially the co-operation of the most advanced nations. 7. That the 
present revival of effort among the working-classes in the principal countries of Europe, 
while it may anin.ate their hope, should ulso warn them against a repetition of their old 
errors, and (.-alls on them to consolidate innnediately the various disconnected movements 
among themselves. Three subsequent meetings of the general congress were regularly 
held; but the tilth meeting, which was to have been at Paris in 1870, was prevented by 
tiie war between France and Prussia, and since that time no meeting has been held. The 
influence of the association has been extensive and effective. The strikes of the bronze 
workers in Paris, 1867, and of the builders in Geneva, 1868, were sustained and made 
successful by English money; and in England the power of trades-unions and of strikes 
was greatly increased, through the power wiiicli the association exerted in iireventing 
the master- worlvmen from obtaining supplies of laborers in other lands. The move- 
ment encountered a very severe check during the Franco-Prussian war. Many of 
Jhe Paris communists belonged to the association, and it defended their excesses in a 
pamphlet written by Marx and published by the general council at London. But while 
its operation is at present less public — even its visible organization having been bioken 
up or suspended — its importance is maintained l)y an increased efficiency among the 
national unions, and by the establishment in all the principal countries, of organs for 
diffusing its ideas. 

It is a curiously interesting fact that we owe the International to an occasion on which 
it would be least of all expected that such an institution would arise. Tliat occasion 
was the international exhibition held in London in 1862, operating through the visit 
paid by French worl;men, on the invitation of their English brothers. In accordance 
with this invitation, delegates were sent from the different French trades-unions, and 
these men inspected carefully tlie exhibits and processes displayed at Kensington, and 
duly reported their opinions and imj)iessions to the labor organizations which they repre- 
sented. But besides this semi-official duty, they assumed another, whicli appears to 
have been thrust upon them — perhaps iniiocently enough — from both sides of the chan- 
nel, that of investigating the relations of English laborers to their employers, and of 
comparing notes as to the relative conditions (>f labor in the two countries. On Aug. 5, 
1862, at a tavern in London, a meeting of the delegates and of English workingmen was 
held, which may be considered to have been the first step towards international labor 
organization. At this meeting an address was read by the English workingmen, which, 
while harmless enough in its sense and in its wording, contained the secret cause of all 
labor struggles, since it recited the reasons for dissatisfaction on the part of the laboring 
class, while it recommended international association as a remedy. The existing objec- 
tionable conditions of labor were stated to be competition, disputes as to wages, and 
the increasing introduction of machinery. Tlie French delegates were not only cordially 
received and liberally treated by their English conirades, but, moreover, inducements 
were held out to certain of them to remain in England for the purpose of conference and 
study as to the mo.st advantageous plan on which to organize vast strikes which should 
be sustained by the full power of international associated effort. In 1863, by taking 
advantage of a manifestation in favor of Poland, a pretext was found for a reunion, at 
which the organization was still fui'ther adv^mced. And now it needed only certain 
changes in the French laws to make the new society permanent and powerfid. This 
was effected l)y a fortunate bill which passed the French corps legislatif in 1864, by 
which coalitions were authorized in France. 

On Sept. 28, 1864. at the grand internaiional meeting at St. Martin's hall, in London, 
the provisional regulations of the " international association" were adopted, and these 
were ratified two years later, in the first congress of the Internationals, held at Geneva. 
Progress now became rapid in the new organization. A bureau for the receipt of sub- 
scriptions was opened in Paris, and met with general patronage on the part of the work- 
ingmen. Subordinate societies, or " groups," were formed in Germany, Switzerland, 
Italy, Denmark, and Belgium. Journals were established, and widely circulated, advo- 
cating tiie views of the international, which already began to oppose its conclusions to 
those of the cabinets and courts of Europe. The outbreak of the Franco-German war 
presented an opportunity which was not neglected. The formation of battalions of the 
national guard in Paris was aided l)y the Internationals to the extent of infusing as mucli 
of their own element into them as was practicable, with the design of corrupting that 
body, and employing it in the great social revolution which it was designed to precipi- 



OQ International. 

^*^ Interoceanic. 

tate. The second congress took place at Lausanne, Sept. 2, 1867; the third at Brussels, 
Sept. 6, 1868; the fourth at Basle, Sept. 6, 1869, and at this gathering, attended by 80 
delegates, a Mr. Cameron, sent by the national labor union of the United States, claimed 
to represent 800,000 workingmen in the new world. In the following year, 1870, much 
uneasiness had begun to be t'elt in Europe in regard to the growing po'ver of the Inter- 
national, and suits were instituted against it in France. Yet a tifth congress was to have 
been held in Paris in that year, but was prevented by the outbreak of the war. Incident- 
ally, It should be noted tliat one of the delegates to the congress of Basle was Bakuuin, 
a professed Russian nihilist. Twenty-nine journals advocated the principles of the 
International in Europe; Seven of these were published in Switzerland and Belgium, 
one in Italy, six in Spain, and the remainder in Germany and Holland, none being issued 
on French territory: one, printed in German, emanated from New York. It is believed 
that efforts were made on the part of the French empire to unite with the Internationals 
as against the bourgeoisie. Certain it is tliat Mazziui, Garibaldi, Blanqui, and Ledru- 
Rollin distrusted the new organization. But in the end the empire and the International 
were found opposed to each other, and though the government decided finally not to 
attack the International as a secret society, it instituted proceedings against fifteen 
members of the committee of the Paris bureau, on the charge of having beloijged to an 
unauthorized society, and tliese w^ere tried early in 1868, but on being condemned, were 
simply tined 100 francs each. The tribunal in this ca-se declared the association dissolved, 
in its bureau in Paris; yet a few months later others of its conmiitteemen were tried, 
condemned, and this time imprisoned for three months, in addition to being fined. The 
result of these trials was dissimulation on the part of the Internationals — and the institu- 
tion still lived. In 1889 there came to the surface, in connection with the International, 
gen. Clusuret, who had been naturalized as an American citizen, and who now under- 
took to found in this country a journal in the interest of the order: this intention ho 
afterwards abandoned, but claimed to have organized relations between the French and 
American groups. Documents discovered in the possession of members of the Inter- 
national tended to show the existence of a plot to promote a social revolution in Paris in 
the interest of the ouvriers, and this was, in fact, the inception of the comminie. The 
names of certain of tliese members, who were afterwards tried on accotuit of their mem- 
bership, and escaped with light fines, appeared later among the list of the members of 
the commune, who, for two months and a half, led the concerted movement of pillage, 
murder, and incendiarism in the city of Paris. At the present writing there exists no 
evidence to show that the International has been entirely abandoned. 

INTEROCEANIC SHIP CANAL. One of the greatest schemes to facilitate the 
commerce of the world is the project for the construction of a ship canal across the 
isthmus joining North and South America — a scheme which has been contemplated 
since an early period in the history of America. In the search for a shorter route to 
India, Columbus discovered land which he thought part of Asia, but the exploiations 
of Balboa disproved this and re-presented the old problem. The isthnuis was an 
obstacle which enterprising men thought to remove by cutting a canal. In 1528 
Galvao, a Spaniard, proposed to Charles V. an artificial water-way, and the latter, in 
1534, directed Cortez to locate a route, and surveys were subsequently made, Gomara 
suggested three routes in 1551, one via Nicaragua; and another Spaniard explored the 
isthmus in 1567 under the patronage of Philip II. In 1695 William Paterson projected 
with royal favor an expedition to colonize Darien and cut a canal across the isthmus, 
but the enterprise failed. A number of explorations and plans were made after this by 
men of different nationalities, and, in 1804, Humboldt published a discussion of the 
various canal routes wliicli aroused new interest; and, as commerce increased, the 
importance of tlie problem became still more evident, and many projectors arose in the 
chief maritime nations. 

In 1825 the Central American republic sought the co-operation of the United States 
in the construction of a canal via Nicaragua, and a contract was made, but the neces- 
sary capital was not subscribed. The scheme was resuscitated in 1831. Many persons 
have recently cited the Monroe doctrine as a reason why the canal should not be built 
by foreign capitalists, an objection which, in the light of the enactments of both houses 
of congress in 1835 and '39, constitutes a grave misapplication of the spirit of that doc- 
trine. The more cosmopolitan views, together with liberal legislation and the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty with Great Britain in 1850, favor, first, the construction of the canal by 
any individuals or companies willing to undertake it; secondly, the contemplation of 
the work as international in character; thirdly, the formation of treaties with other 
nations which would guarantee the perpetual neutrality of the canal. Since 1864 every 
part of the isthmus which appeared feasible as the route of a canal with or without 
locks has been explored by Americans at public or private expense, while in a number 
of cases all the requisite data have been collected for the estimation of length, excava- 
tions in earth and rock, tunneling, location of locks and dams, and the improvement of 
harbors. After a number of explorations of the isthmus by French engineers, M. Ferdi- 
nand de Lesseps, the projector of the Suez Canal, and M, Henry Biouiie sent invitations 
to chambers of commerce and scientific societies, requesting Uiem to send representa- 
tives to a congress to be held in Paris to discuss the various projects for piercing the 



Interoceanic. 

isthmus, ^vllicll had been chiborated by American and French engineers. It was hoped 
that by these means tlie best route miglit be decided upon, and tliat then capital would 
be invested and the work vigorously prosecuted. One hundred and thirty-five engineers, 
statisticians, and scientists met at Paris, May 15, 1879, and formed the congress, of 
which M. de Lesseps was chosen president. 

A short sketch will first be given of the work of the congress and the projects pre- 
sented, after which a few observations will be made upon the results. Five commitlees 
were appointed: — 1. The committee upon statistics, to consider the probable tratiic of 
the canal, the tonnage, etc. In the opinion of these gentlemen a canal without locks 
would be profitable, while a canal with locks would not. At $3 per ton, a minimum 
annual traffic of G. 000,000 tons would be necessary — equivalent to 8 ships of 2,050 tons 
(\'^x[\y — lo pay ordinary dividends. They stated the probable maximum limit of the 
actiial traffic'to be 24 ships in one day, but thought a capacity of 50 ships per day desir- 
able; 4,830,000 tons would naturally have passed through the canal in 1876, had it been 
built. It was calculated that the canal could be finished in 1887, and that the tonnage 
would aggregate 7,250,000 tons the first year. II. The committee upon economical and 
commercial questions considered the saving to each country in cost of transportation, 
the new markets which would be opened, and similar questions. 'I'he distance by 
water from European ports to all the ports of the Pacific ocean, from the cities on the 
Atlantic coasts to the cities on the Pacific coasts of America and to the vast countries 
on the coasts of Asia, eastern Africa, and the islands of the Pacific, would be extraordi- 
narily shortened. It would no long(,'r be necessary for the guano ar.d nller of South 
America and the wheat of California to delay in the calms of the equinox, or to brave 
the storms of Cape Horn. The great vegetable and mineral resources of the Pacific 
Soutli American states and of Central An^erica would naturally be greatly developed. 
The larger part of the tonnage would be that of ships of the United States. III. The 
committee upon navigation discussed the effect of tiie canal upon naval architecture, 
the effect of currents of wind and water upon traffic and the canal, and cognate topics. 
They recommended that the canal should hav^ a minimum depth of 27.2 ft., a breadth 
at the bottom of 82 ft., at the top of 229.6 ft., and in rock excavations a breadth at the 
surface of 98.4 feet. Locks shotdd be 72.2 ft. wide and 492 ft. long, and so distributed 
that 50 vessels per day could pass. IV. The committee upon technical questions exam- 
ined different routes, estimates of cost of building, working, maintenance, and repairs; 
they also considered the safety and speed of navigation in the harbors and canal. They 
recommended the adoption of the tide-water route without locks, extending from the 
gulf of Simon to the bay of Panama; this is commonly called the Panama route. V. 
The committee upon wnjs and means calculated the cost at $120,000,000, the gross 
annual revenue at $18,000,000, and the total capital required at $150,000,000. The^^cost 
of maintenance was estimated at $1,200,000 per annum, and a royalty of 5 per cent 
of the gross earnings would be due the United States of Colombia. All were in favor 
of the strict neutralit}^ of the canal. At the close of the session a vote was taken upon 
the report of the technical committee, which was accepted with the following vote: 
yeas, 75; nays, 8; abstained from voting, 16; absent, 36; total, 135. Eight projects 
were presented to the technical committee, of which a short description is given. The 
width of the isthmus in the vicinity of Panama, which is the narrowest part, is 34.17 m. 
when measured in a, straight line. The Panama railroad crosses the Cordilleras through 
the pass at Culebra, which is 285.4 ft. above the sea-level. 

Routes ria Pdiuima. — (1.) In the opinion of Lull and IMenocal, who surveyed this 
route in 1875, a sea-level canal would not prove profitable; but they made a project for 
a lock-canal. Starting from the bay of Colon, the route crosses the Chagres river at. 
Matachin through a high aqueduct, and reaches the summit level at an elevation of 
124.6 ft. above the sea. A dam extending between the rocky shores of the Chagres 
river Avould supply the canal with nearly 35,000,000 cubic ft. of water per day through a 
subterranean duct 13,120 ft. long. The canal crosses the Cordilleras through Culebra 
pass, enters the valley of the Rio Grande river, deflects to the right, and enters the 
harbor of Panama e. of the terminus of the Panama railroad. A new channel would be 
made for the Rio Grande river, and a canal to drain its eastern afiluents. Thirty-eight 
curves, some having as short a radius as 2,493 ft., and 25 locks, would be necessary. 
The total excavation is estimated at 48,397,000 cubic yds'., and the cost at $96,000,000. 
The length would be 45.45 rn.. and tlie time of pas.<-age 2.5 days. Menocal considers 
the Nicaragua route more desirable than this. (2.) Messrs. Wyse and Reclus, accom- 
panied by explorers and engineers, located a rout(3 for a sea-level canal, which follows 
substantially the line of the Panama railroad. It was after M. de Lesseps had been 
convinced of the feasilnlity of a tide-level canal at this point that the invitations were 
sent out which resulted in the Paris congress. Beginning at the town of Colon, or 
Aspinwall, on the bay of Simon, the canal crosses tiie marsh of Mindi, curves twice, 
and reaches the Chagres river, which it intersects several times and follows to Matachin. 
It then enters the valley of the Obispo, i)ierces the mountain through a tunnel 25.263 
ft. long, occupies the llio Grande valley, and terminates in the gulf'of Panama. The 
length of this route is 46.6 m., and there are 13 curves. It uses the river beds the whole 
distance, and would drain the valleys. A lateral canal would be built at Matachin, on 
account of a fall of 49.2 ft., to conduct the water of the Chagres into the canal; a 



91 



Interoceanlc. 



number of such cuttings are necessitated liy the rapids and the heavy rnin-falls, which 
produce destructive floods. The deptii of Uie canal at I lie eastern extremity is 27.9 ft. 
below mean tide, and at the western 28.9 ft. below the lowest neap tide. The canal is 
65.6 feet wide at the bottom, expanding near the ends lo 328 feet. A cross section of 
tlie tunnel is 78.7 ft. wide at mean tide, is shaped above tlie water like a Gothic arch, 
aud ends in a circular arch the highest point of wliich is 111.5 ft. above the water. 
To allow vessels to pass each other, the canal will be widened at intervals of about 5.6 
miles. No rise of water exceeding 19;} ft. is anticipated. iSudden inundations would 
be prevented by dams in the upper Chagres valley, forming natural reservoirs from 
which the How of water could be regulated to a considerable extent. A sea-wall 2,788 
ft. long would render the bay of Simon serviceable, winle a channel at the western end 
would be protected by walls, the material for which would be obtained by the rock- 
cuttings. The earth near the ends can he removed by dredging. It was calculated 
that it would be neces.sary to excavate 80,625,000 cubic yards of rock and 25,296,000 cubic 
yards of earth. Wyse and Reclus estimate the cost at |95, 000.000. (3.) A ])roject for a 
lock-canal, presented by the same engineers, contemplated the construction of dams m 
the Chagres and liio Grande rivers, forming two lakes, connected by a cutting, whose 
maximum depth would be 236.2 feet. This would form a plane 78.7 ft. above tide 
water, 25.48 m. long, 13.66 m. from Colon, and 7.45 m. from Panama, to each of which 
ports the descent would be made througii five locks. The calculated cost is |'85,600,000; 
the total excavation, 15,696,000 cubic yds. ; the length, 45.o6 m. ; and the time of pas- 
sage, 2 days. 

Routes ma Nicaragua. — Two projects were presented. (4.) The first was elaborated 
by Messrs. Lull and Menocal, and based upon surveys made in 1872-73 at the expense 
of the U. S. government. This plan Avas favored by the American representatives and 
by a number of French engineers, and is the route most popular among the Ameri- 
can people. The eastern extremity is at the harbor of Greytown, and the western at 
the harbor of Brito. Starting from Greytown, the canal is constriictc d, partly by exca- 
vation and partly ])y dikes, on the left bank of the San Juan river to the m(;uth of the 
San Carlos, a distance of 43.5 miles. Here a dam is thrown across the San Juan, which 
flows through a rocky valley, producing slack-water navigation 63.38 m. to thr lake of 
Nicaragua. This lake, situated 107 ft. above the sea-level, having a length of 109. S5 m. 
and a breadth of 34.78 m., forms a large natural reservoir. Fiom 50 to 60 m. of the 
route will be across the lake; some dredging, however, will be necesi^ary. The western 
section starts from the lake near the mouth of the Rio del Medio, enters the Rio Grande 
river 4.97 m. from the lake, where it receives the waters of the Rio del Medio, and 
cros.<^es the Rivas pass. At this point a stream called the Chicolata becomes an affluent, 
and finally the canal enters the valley of the Rio Grande river, and terminates near its 
mouth. The total length is 180 m., of which but 62 m. are artificial. A bar of sand 
would be removed from the mouth of the harbor at Greytown, and the deposition of 
silt prevented by turning the San Juan river into the Colorado. At the ha.rbor of Brilo 
a breakwater would be built, and a jetty to keep out the silt from the Rio Grande river. 
Ten locks will be required each side of the lake. The western section passes thn^ugh 
Volcanic mountains, but no great difficulty in construction is antici})at( (■. Blast irg \\\\\ 
be necessary to form a channel at the entrance of the canal to the lake ai;d in the Livas 
pass. The dimensions proposed are: depth, 26^ f t. ; breadth at bottom, 71.2 ft; breadth at 
water-level, 150.9 ft. ; and, in rock, 59.7 ft. at the bottom, and 89.9 ft. at the water-level. 
The total material excavated by blasting, dredging, and digging amounts to 62,700,000 
cubic yds., and the total cost is calculated to lie $52,577,718, or, adding 25 per cent to 
cover errors and contingencies, $65,722,147. Time required for transit, 4^ days. (5.) 
The second project, that of M. Blanchet, is quite different from the American. The 
chief feature is to preserve tlie level of the lake throughout the major part of the San 
Juan river by the construction of a dam. To build the western section, he proposed to 
cut Guyscoyal pass, and convert the valley of the Rio Grande river into a lake by a dam 
at La Flor i312 ft, long, and suj^portiiig 65.6 ft. of water. The descent to the harbor 
of Brito would be made by locks. The chain of two artificial lakes and one natural 
would have a length of 147.26 in., while the total length of the canal would be 182.4 
miles. Tins route requires the excavation of 36,240,000 cubic yds. of earth and rock, 
the cost is calculated at $72,400,000, the time at 4^ days, and 14 locks must be built. 

(6) The Tehiiantepcc route, submitted by M. de Garay, is located in Mexican terri- 
tory, and connects the bay of Vera Cruz with the gulf of Tehuantepec. The land is 
level and low. except a narrow ridge of the Cordilleras on the Pacific coast. The water 
from a number of large streams would be utilized. The dimensions proposed would 
not admit of the passage of the largest ships. The length would be 174 m. ; the time of 
passage, 12 daj^s. One hundred and twenty locks would be nece.'^sary. (7) TJie Atrato- 
Napipi route, surveyed by Selfridge and Collins, starts from the gulf of Barien and 
passes up the Atrato river at its level to the mouth of the Napipi, a distance of 149 
miles. The minimum depth of the river is 25.6 feet. From this point the air-line dis- 
tance to the bay of Chiri-Chiri is 27.95 miles. Dredging would be done for 5.6 m. in 
the Napipi river, under wliich the canal afterwards passes by means of a tunnel; it 
terminates in a basin 18.7 ft. above mean tide after passing through 5.6 m. of tunnel in 
the mountains near the Pacific. Two locks connect the basin with the bay of Chiri- 



92 

Iiiteroceanic. 

Cbii-i, aud jetties must be built and bars cut through in the harbors. The cost is 
estimated at $98,200,000, the time of passage at three days, and the total length at 180 
miles. (8) The San Bias route was explored by McDougal in 1864, at the expense of 
Mr. Kelley, of Philadelphia, and was afterwards surveyed by Self ridge. At this point, 
the narrowest part of the isthmus, the width is but 31 miles. A lide-level canal is 
impracticable, owing to the height of the Cordilleras and the location of the streams, 
Upo!i the authority" of Wyse and Kecius, the length of the canal would be 32.9 m., and 
about 10 out of the 24.85 m. of excavation would be tunneling. An excavation of 
44,478,000 cubic yds, would be required, at a cost of $95,000,000, while the jjassage 
would take one da}'", and there would be one sea-lock. In addition to the plans outlined 
above, which were the more important ones presented to the congress, a number of 
moditications of them, as well as independent routes, have been proposed. In a paper 
read before the society of arts, London, capt. Bedford Pim, r.n., m.p. — a gentleman 
who has passed through Nicaragua six times, and surveyed the major part of both coast- 
lines of the isthmus — pronounces the improvement of the harbor at Greytown the most 
difficult part of the work on the Nicaragua route. The entrance to the harbor is 
alternately clioked up with sand by a storm, and opened by a flood in the San Juan 
river. To avoid this harbor, which he thinks would "completely swamp the enter- 
prise," he proposes a route starting from Pim's bay, 40 m. n. of Greytown, and ending 
at the port of Realejo, on the Pacific. This route would be 290 m. long, and would 
include 85 m. of navigation on the lake of Nicaragua and 40 m. on lake Managua. The 
chief featui'e of the plan is tlie proposal to make the de[)th of the canal only 8 ft., and to 
transport the vessels upon "pontoons by the process which has been successfully used 
in the Victoria docks (London) for years." He suggests that a railroad should first be 
built connecting with steamboats on the lakes as an auxiliary to the construction, and 
as liable to afford a valuable knowledge of the district. The captain estimates the cost 
at an average of about $100, OuO per mile, or a total of $30,000,000, and proposes that 
the governments of England, France, and the TJnited States should each guarantee one 
per cent upon the capital, and that a five-acre plot of land should be given with each 
$50 share. 

Speaking of the personnel of the congress, a gentleman w^ell known in Paris wrote: 
"Let it be remembered that one-half of the congress v/ere French; they had been chosen 
by the organizers of that assembly; 34 members belonged to the geographical or the 
commercial geographical society of Paris. What was their competency to decide 
between a canal with locks or on a sea-level? Fourteen other members were engineers 
or assistants of some sort on the Suez canal. What was their impartiality between M. de 
Lesseps and others? And, among the otiiers, if one takes account of personal friend- 
ships and of the prestige exercised by a great name, how many more will remain?" Capt, 
Pim says, "The selection of a route for the proposed canal seems to have been a foregone 
conclusion " The parties most interested in the canal are the American states and Eng- 
land. England sent no official representative, but gave sir John Stokes permission to 
attend. The United States looked upon the congress as a meeting of capable specialists 
convened to discuss a matter of paramount importance, and, with this in view, appointed 
rear-admiral Daniel Ammen and Anecito G. Menocal, civil engineer in the U. S. navy, 
commissioners to represent the government officially, and placed at their disposal all 
relevant reports and papers which had been prepared by government officers. They had 
"no official powers or diplomatic functions," and no authority to state what action would 
be taken by their government. Commissioner Ammen abstained from voting, upon the 
ground that " only able engineers can form an opinion after careful study of what is 
actually possible, and what is relatively economical in the construction of a ship canal." 
At present, whatever may be the opinion of the advocates of other schemes, there appear 
to be two strong parties: first, those favoring a tide-level canal via Panama; and, second, 
those favoring the lock canal via Nicaragua, projected by Lull and Menocal. M. de Les- 
seps says an hour and a half were required for a steamship to pass through a lock which 
was a "vast improvement" upon older ones; therefore locks w^ould limit the traffic of the 
the Nicaragua canal, and render it unprofitable. Rear-admiral Ammen states that a lock 
515 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, and having a lift of 18 ft., is being built at St. Mary's, ]\Iich., 
through which, it is computed, a steamer will pass in 11 minutes. M. de Lesseps thinks 
earthquakes would injure the locks. Admiral Ammen thinks, upon the evidence of ruined 
archways, that the result would not be serious, while the locks would be so constructed 
as to allow repairs to be made in the minimum time, and, save in four instances, without 
drawing the water from the canal. Eminent scientists and engineers have made objec- 
tions to the Panama route, some of which they consider serious and irremediable. Com- 
modore M. F. Maury, ll.d., author of a work upon physical geography, and* Maury's 
Sailinfj Directions, says: "If nature, by one of her convulsions, should rend the continent 
of America in twain, and make a channel across the isthmus of Panama or Darien as deep 
and as wide and as free as the straits of Dover, it would never become a commercial 
thoroughfare for sailing-vessels." He also states that vessels going to or from Panama 
have been detained by calms for months at a time. This same great belt of calms covers 
all of the isthmus s. of Panama, while its effect at the mouth of the Atrato is still more 
vexatious! The fact that the Panama railroad has not diverted sailing-vessels from their 
old route around cape Horn, confirms the above. Only one-third of the foreign commerce 



93 



Interoceanic. 



of England is carried on in steamships, and their increase is less rapid than that of sail- 
ing-ve"ssels, so that a hirge part of the sliipping of the world would be excluded. The 
lieavy rainfall of the Chagres valley culuiiuated in a Hood in Nov., 1879, which damaged 
the rauaiiia railroad to such an extent as to cause the suspension of traffic for two or 
three months. Such a tlood would i)robal)ly have done much injury to the canal had it 
existed. Panama affords no mateiials for construction, inferior facilities for obtaining 
supplies and labor, has a dry season of but two or three months, and is one of the 
unhealthiest regions in the world. On the other hand, Nicaragua contains good building 
material, ample supplies, a population from which many laborers could be recruited, 
and it has a dry season of tive or six months. It is far more healthy, especially west of 
the lake. The Panama route would cost $94,511,300; the Nicaragua, $65,722,187; the 
former would draw liltle or no support from the region through which it pa.^ses, while 
the latter would develop a country rich in the piochictions of the three kingdoms of 
nature. The concession for tlie Panama roule granted by the United States of Colombia 
is controlled by M. de Lesseps, who organized a company and opened books in Europe 
and America to receive subscriptions. Some steps have been taken in i\merica to 
organize the Nicaragua canal company, the presidency of which was offered to gen. U. S. 
Grant by admiral Ammen. Mr. Jo^^^ph Nimmo, chief of the bureau of statistics, thinks 
the present commerce insufficient lo support the canal. Whether this be true or not, the 
question is one not of desirability nor of feasibility, but one of the time when to build, 
and of its safety as a financial investment. 

INTEROCEANIC SHIP RAILWAY. Capt. James B. Eads, the projector of a 
railway across the American isthmus for transporting ships, presented the essential 
features of his plan to the canal committee of the house of representatives in March, 
1880. Of its kind, the scheme is in many respects more ambitious than any heretofore 
proposed. The engineering and financial success achieved by capt. Eads in the con- 
struction of the St. Louis bridge, and the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi river, 
demands a careful consideration of projects which he may advocate. The proposed 
railway is to consist of twelve tracks, phu-ed 4 or 5 ft. apart, upon which the ship car- 
riage, or cradle, runs. At each terminus an inland basin is excavated, perpendicular to 
the shore line of the harbor, and 3,000 ft. long. Gates placed at the outer end of the 
basin, which is lined with masonry, make it possible to pum^p out the water when 
repairs are necessary. The track in the basin is 30 ft. below water-level at the harbor 
end, and, rising 1 ft. in 100, intersects the surface level at the other extremity. The 
dimensions of cradles will be adapted to the size of vessel traiisported. The largest 
merchant ships weigh, when loaded, about 0,000 tons. Tliis weight will be aistributed 
over 1200 wheels, making the pressure 5 tons upon a single wheel which could support 
20 — a pressure ordinarily exceeded in practice, as the driving-wheels of many locomo- 
tives must sustain 6h tons. 

A ship to be transported enters the harbor end of the basin, and is floated to where 
her keel is over the keel-block of the cradle, then the supports are adjusted under the 
bilges substantially as in a dry dock. The weight rests chiefly upon the keel, while a 
part is distributed over the bilge blocks, wdiich also keep the ship in an upright posi- 
tion. A stationary engine hauls the cradle and ship out of tlie water, and then two 
very powerful locomotives are attached, which draw^ their great load to the other ter- 
minus, at a speed of ten or twelve miles an hour. The locomotives are to have five 
times the size and power of freight engines, and with their tenders will use all twelve 
tracks. The wheels have double flanges, and as their number is ^reat, the rails and 
road-bed sustain but a moderate pressure, and the failure of one or several wheels 
would not be serious. Derailment is impossible, and the displacement or breakage of 
rails would cause no delay, as six of them would bear the entire weight. Above each 
wheel are two strong steel springs, which diminish the strain, and each wheel can be 
removed separately by loosening two bolts. Cars would pass each other by means of 
transfer tables, which would move the cradles sideways. One of the chief arguments 
against this plan is that loaded ships will not endure the strains imposed upon them 
Avhen out of water, and supported only at intervals. The assumption that the mobility 
of water equalizes the strain is not correct, as it is common in rough weather for the 
whole weight of a ship and cargc to bear upon the ends or the middle, leaving the 
remainder of the ship unsupported; indeed, a gale subjects a ship to very severe tor- 
sional and lateral strains, which change constantly in direction and intensity — strains 
far exceeding any which would be incurred on the railway. Farther evidence upon 
this point is furnished by tlie portage railroad of the Alleghany mountains, which, 
forty years ago, connected the canal systems of eastern and western Pennsylvania. 
Over this railroad loaded canal-boats — frail craft compared with sea-going vessels — 
were hauled for a distance of over 30 m. up and down steep inclines. Many 
experienced ship-builders consider ship transportation by rail feasil)le, and, compared 
Avith ship canals, economical. Thus it will be seen that this project involves only the 
combination upon a large scale of a number of well-tried engineering expedients. 

Routes could probably be located at Panama, Nicaragua, and Tehuantepec, with a 
grade of 30 or 40 ft. to the mile, Capt. Eads estimates the cost of a road and harbor at 
Panama at $50,000,000, and the route is, perhaps, the shortest that could be found, but 



Interpleader. Q^ 

expensive harbor improvements would be required. The Chiriqui route has steeper 
grades, but superior natural harbors. The Panama route would probably exclude the 
transportation of vessels without steam-power. See Intkroceanic Ship Canal. Mr. 
Eads believes " that upon any route where it is possible to build a canal, it is equally 
possible to build and equip a substantial and durable ship railway;" that a railway is 
practicable where a canal is not; that the elements of cost, time of construction, speed 
in transit, capacity, and cost of maintenance and operating, are all heavily in favor of 
the railway; that the capacity of the railway could be increased at any time to transport 
more or larger ships with no interruption of traffic; that more accurate estimates can be 
made of the cost of a railway and the time of completion than of a canal, as the latter 
requires sub-aqueous work, where the conditions are more variable, and that, tlierefore, 
capitalists will have more confidence in the railway. It is estimated that tlie railway 
could be duplicated once in ten years for the interest on the difference between the 
cost of a canal and a railway of equal capacity. A traffic of 5,000,000 tons yearly, at 
$2 per ton, would give an income of $10,000,000, which, deducting 50 per cent for 
expenses, would leave a dividend of 10 per cent upon the capital. 

INTERPLEADER SUIT was till recently brought only in the court of chancery to 
determine which of several parties claiming the same thing is entitled. Formerly, 
tliere was no analogous process in courts of common law wliereby several parties 
claiming one thing could be brought into the field, but in 1831 a statute gave power to 
do this to a limited extent. By the judicature act of 1875, the interpleader acts are 
applicable to all actions in the high court. See Multiplepoinding. 

INTERPOL A'TION, the insertion of a word, line, verse, sentence, part of a sentence, 
or whole passage, geneially with a view to secure respect for some opinion by the 
apparent support of antiquity, or of those whose authority is greatest. Many instances 
of interpolation are well known, and others are with great probability suspected, in 
which the works of early Christian writers have been tampered with, to make them 
yield support lo novel doctrines and practices. — In mathematics, interpolation is the 
insertion between two members of a series increasing according to a certain law, of 
other members such as, if not absolutely, yet very nearly, may accord with the same 
law. 

INTERPRETATION, in law, is the judicial exposition of the meaning of consti- 
tutions, treaties, statutes, contracts, wills, and other papers, or parts of the same, 
that affect the rights of parties to any action in a court of justice. It often happens 
that a suit is determined by the interpretation of written words or phrases of doubtful 
meaning, so that courts in exercising their powers in tliis respect incur a very high 
responsibility, which is all the gn-eater from the impossibility of reducing interpretation 
to an exact science under rigid rules. It is necessary that courts should not only have 
a clear unclci'stnnding of the general meaning of words and of their application to the 
matters in hand, but also that they should be able impartially to weigh the whole envi- 
ronment of the cases upon which they are to pass an authoritative judgment, and at the 
same time cherish an earnest purpose to do exact justice to the parties. Their duty 
sometmies involves the necessity for very nice, not to say ingenious, discriminations, 
wliich tax alike their judgment and conscience. In regard to many things their task 
has been made easy by well settled rules and a long line of precedents; but new ques- 
tions often arise, upon which precedents are to be made rather than followed. It some- 
times happens, from alack of skill in composition, that a single passage, taken by ilself, 
is partially or wholly incompatible with the manifest spirit and intent of a legal docu- 
ment. In such cases courts will exercise a large discretion, in order, if reasonably 
possible, to make the instrument consistent in itself. Every written paper necessarily 
assumes the existence of facts or incidents that are either not expressed at all, or 
expressed only by implication, and that must be considered before the exact meaning 
can be determined. An incompetent or unscrupulous judge might do a great wrong b}'- 
a too close adherence to a particular part of an instrument while failing to give due 
w^eight to its spirit and purpose as a whole. Particular words and phrases must be con- 
sidered in their relations to the context and to the subject matter, not torn fi om their 
connection and interpreted by themselves in such a way as to defeat the manifest intent 
of the instrument. Oral evidence cannot vary the terms of a written document, which 
must be considered as a whole. Courts are not at liberty to supply by interpretation 
the unexpressed intent of a legislature, testator, or contractor. The interpretation 
must be made in good faith and be in accord with good sense and the common under- 
standing of language, not forced or strained to support a theory fatal to the document 
itself. Inadvertent errors or omissions will be overlooked, and mistakes in orthography 
and grammar will be lightly regarded where the meaning is clear. It is a general rule 
that the words of a statute are to be taken in their ordinary sense; but if the statute 
relates to a particular subject or class of persons, and requires the use of terms not gen- 
erally familiar, their meaning will be determined by the prevailing usage in regard to 
the subject. The will of a legislature cannot be judicially conjectured. Penal sUitutes, 
in deference to the recognized rights of accused persons, are construed with great 
strictness; courts will not enlarge their scope by strained interpretations even to punish 
persons of whose guilt they have no moral doubt. 



Q"J Interpleader. 

INTERVAL, in music, is tlio difference of pitch betvrccn sounds in respect to height 
or depth, or the distance on the slave from one note to another, in opposition to the 
unison, which is two sounds exactly of the same pitch. From the nature of our sj^stem 
of musical notation, wliich is on five lines and tiie four intervening spaces, and from 
the notes of the scale being named by the first seven letters of the alphabet, with repe- 
titions in every octave, it follows that there can only be six different intervals in the 
natural diatonic scale until the octave of the unison be attained. To reckon from C 
upwards, we find the following intervals; thus C to D is a second; C to E is a third; C 
to F is a fourth; C to G, a fifth; C to A, a sixth; C to B, a seventh; and from C to C 
is the octave, or the beginning of a similar series. Intervals above the octave are 
therefore merely a repetition of those an octave lower; thus from C to D above the 
octave, although sometimes necessarily call a ninth, is neither more nor less than the 
same interval which, at an octave lower, is termed the second. A flat or a sharp placed 
before either of the notes of an interval does not alter the name of the interval, although 
it affects its quality; for example, from C to G^ is still a fifth, notwithstanding that 
the G is raised a semitone by the sharp. Intervals are classified as perfect, major, and 
minor. Perfect intervals are those which admit of no change whatever without destroy- 
ing their consonance; these are the fourth, fifth, and the octave. Interv^als which admit 
of being raised or lowered a semitone, and are still consonant, are distinguished by the 
term major or minor, according as the distance between the notes of the interval is large 
or small. Such intervals are the third and sixth; for example, from C to E is a major 
third, the consonance being in the proportion of 5 to 4; when the E is lowered a semi- 
tone by a flat, the interval is still consonant, but in the proportion of 6 to 5, and is 
called a minor third. Tlie same description applies to the interval of the sixth from 
C to A, and from C to S^. The second and seventh, though reckoned as dissonances, 
are also distinguished as major and minor. The terms "extreme sharp" and "dimin- 
ished" are applied to intervals wdien they are. still further elevated or depressed by a 
sharp or a flat. For the mathematical proportions of intervals, see Harmonics. 

INTESTACY, the state of a person who has died without leaving a will. Every 
person in the United Kingdom has the right, as one of the incidents of ownership, of 
regulating the succession of his property after his death; that is, of executing a will 
which must comply with certain requisites, so as to show that it was solemnly and 
deliberately made, by which will the owner can give his property to whomsoever he 
pleases. The forms in Scotland differ from those in England ar^d Ireland, and there is 
some restriction on the right of testing or bequeathing property, but in all places the 
principle is, that if no will, or deed equivalent to a will, is executed, or, if a will 
executed is invalid from defect of form, then an intestacy occurs, and the law provides 
an heir or next of kin, in lieu of the owner himself doing so. See Heik; Succp:ssion; 
Will. A person may die partially intestate, for his will may have included only somo 
of his property, in which case the property not so included goes to the heir-at-law. or 
next of kin, according as it is real or personal estate, as if no will had been marte. But 
it is often a difficult question in construing the will, whether the property not specially 
mentioned was not conveyed by general words to the residuary legatee or devisee — a 
question which turns entirely on the language used in each case. 

INTESTINES. See Digestion, Organs and Process op. 

INTONING, according to the general use of tl:e word, is the recitative form of offer- 
ing prayer. Intoning differs from ordinary reading in having fewer inflections of the 
voice, and these only at stated parts of the prayers, and according to certain rules. 
The greater part of the prayer is recited on one note, the last two or three words being 
sung to the proximate notes of the scale. In the longer prayers, the terminal inflection 
is generally omitted. The words intoning and chanting are sometimes used interchange- 
ably, but, though there is ground common to both, each has a domain peculiar to itself. 
Intoning may be defined as ecclesiastical recitative, and when several voices are 
employed in its performance, they sing, for the most part, in unison, breaking into 
harmony at the termination of the clauce or sentence. Chanting embraces recitative 
and rhythm, both divisions being in continuous harmony. In the Anglican service, as 
performed in cathedral churches, all those parts of the ritual, speaking generally, which 
are not set to rhythmical music, are intoned: these embrace tliat part of the morning 
and evening service which precedes the daily psalms, the litany, and the prayers in 
general. 

John ^larbeck (1550) was the first in England to adapt the offices of the reformed 
church to music; his work contained melody only. lie was followed by Tiiomas Tallis, 
wiio flourished during the reigns of Henry VIII. , Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. 
The grave melodj^ (founded on the ancient usage) and sublime harmonies of Taliis have 
iiever been equaled, and have continued in use till the present day with but slight 
modification. Tallis seems to have invented the form of the Anglican chant now used 
for the psalms. In the Roman Catholic church these are sung to the Gregorian tones. 
See Gregorian Chant. The canticles are sung to rhythmical music of a" more elabo- 
rated character, in which form they are technically named "services." The lessons, 
previous to the last review (1661) of W\q Book of Common Prayer, y^Qxe intoned; since 
then, the invariable practice has been to read them. 



Intoxication. Q^ 

Introduction. ^'^ 

The practice of in'/oning existed <among the Jews at a very early period, and there is 
great probability that the ecclesiastical chant in present use throughout Christendom 
is but a niodihcation of that which formed part of the ancient Jewisii ritual. The 
eastern and western churches, at variance on most points, are at one on this, Moham- 
medans also make use of this mode of prayer; and barbarous tribes (American Indians 
and Soutli Sea islanders) are wont to propitiate tlieir false gods in a species of riidc 
chant; all which seems to point to some deeply-seated instinct of human nature, and to 
indicate an intuitive perception of the truth, thaii a solemn and reverential manner, 
distinct from his manner of ordinary intercourse with his fellow^s, best belits the 
creature in his approaches to the Creator, The Lutheran church and the church of 
England have continued the practice, though only to a permissory and nou-cssenti:d 
extent. The latter uses it in her cathedral and collegiate churches, and in these vast 
edilices its advantages over reading are strikingly manifest. 

INTOXICATION. Whether induced by fermented liquors or by distilled spirits, it is 
through the alcohol contained in either that the effects of intoxication ensue. These 
may be considered under two heads: 1. As they immediately manifest themselves during 
a single act of intoxication; and, 2. As they gradually arise through the frequenl; 
repetition of the act. The one refers to the state of drunkenness simply, the other to the 
habit (intemperance). 

The effects of alcohol, in a single act of intoxication, vary according to the way in 
which the spirit has been taken. If swallowed rapidly, in large quantities or in a con- 
centrated form, the agency is that of a powerful narcotic poi.^on. The mode of action 
here is partly through a direct impression by the alcohol on the nerves of the stomach, 
and partly by its absorption into the blood, and its transmission thus to the brain, which 
is proved to take place with great rapidity. The individual falls into a deep slu])or, 
from which it is impossible to rouse him. The face is ordinarily livid, with a swollen 
aspect, but sometimes it is ghastly pale. The skin is covered with chilly damps; the 
pulse is feeble, or perhaps wholly imperceptible, the breathing is slow and weak, though 
sometimes laborious and snorting; the eyes are rolled upwards, with contracted, or 
occasionally, dilated pupils; the jaws are clenched, and there are frequently convulsions. 
Where death follows, it may ensue in a few minutes, or after a period varying from a 
single hour to a day. Where the quantity taken is sv>'allowed more slowly, as i:i 
ordinary drinking, the conseqences are those which are too familiarly known as char- 
acterizing a fit of drunkenness, and are the product of the more gradual and less exces- 
sive absorption. The first effect is that of a feeling of wellbeing, diffused over the body, 
and imparted to the mind. This gradually leads to a state of exhilaration, and thence 
to boisterous mirth and loquacity, attended at first by a swift transition and vivacity of 
the ideas, but speedily lapsing into indistinctness and confusion. In the increasing 
whirl of excitement, the individual loses all sense of prudence and self-government, 
betrays himself by his indiscretions, provokes pity and ridicule by his follies, or incurs 
danger by his recklessness. Along with this mental condition, the flushed face, flashing 
eye, and throbbing brain show, at first, the corresponding state of excitement of the 
bodily functions; while, along with the subsequent confusion of thought, the reeling 
gait and the look of stolid incomprehension denote the inthrallment that has followed. 
In a further stage, the memory fails, the individual maund rs and mumbles in his 
speech, and the surrounding objects, recently seen imperfectly and misapprehended, 
wdiolly cease to impress him. At length, amid other loathsome concomitants, he sinks 
powerless, and stupor intervenes, from which he again awakens to consciousness after an 
indefinite number of hours; but then usually to suffer from qualms of sickness and 
other feelings of pain and depression, entailed upon him by a natural law as the reaction 
from his excess, and only dispelled after a still longer interval. The outline of the 
effects may vary. With some, the progress of a fit of drunkenness is never attended by 
hilarity or other conspicuous excitement, and a dreamy and subdued forgetfulness seems 
all that is produced or that is sought for. With some, even, it leads to a state of queru- 
lousness or of unreasoning melancholy. With others, the condition is one of furious 
madness, hesitating before no extreme of violence and outrage. 

It is chiefly to the after-effects of the paroxysm that we are to trace the original 
growth and ultimate inveteracy of the drunken habit. The uneasy sensations of de])r('S 
sion, following upon the excitement of the previous debauch, are sought to be relieved by 
a fresh recurrence to the stimulant; and a morbid appetite is thus created which craves 
its relief, and finds it, in the renewed administration of spirituous drinks, just as the 
natural appetite of hunger develops those sharp disquietudes that are allayed h?f 4'o#(l. 
This morbid appetite, in so far as it is morbid, may in itself be regarded and treatSfCa.*^ 
a disease. But the universal health shows ultimately signs of a more deep injury. Tiiei 
cheeks begin to have a bloated and flabby look, with a complexion that eitlier'wears a 
peculiar pallor, or verges into shades of purple, while the nose not rarelv presents a sus- 
picious tinge of crimson. The appetite for ordinary food fails, the digesdon is im]mire(l, 
the sleep is disturbed, and the vigor of frame and capacity for exertion sink accordingly, 
the limbs often aching and trembling, and the heart drooping with a miserable feeling 
of nervous exhaustion. Even prior to this, the drunkard is often liable to those minor 
illusions which end in the full development of what is known as the drunkard's delirium, 



or 



Intoxication, 
liitroductiou. 



or delinnm tremem^, a form of temporary insanity characterized by a state of abject 
terror, with shaking of the limbs, tlie suflerer fancying that he is surrounded with mon- 
strous pluuitasms, or that he is devoted otherwise to horrors, disasters, or crimes. One 
effect, and a leading one, of the customary presence of alcohol in the blood of the 
drinker, is to reduce the vitality of that fluid, so that it tends to sustain cnly the lowest 
forms of nutrition and animalization, and deposits, in great part, merely an inert fat 
Avithin those organs where it should minister to the growth and maintenance of a 
delicate construction, destined for uses essential to life.'' Thus we have fatty deposits, 
or changes of higher structures into fat, in the heart, the liver, and in the blood-vessels, 
the coats of the last becom-ing easily ruptured. Hence, liability to diseases of the heart 
and of the liver often followed by dropsies, or to affections of the other intestines, or to 
attacks of apoplexy and palsy. If not cut off abi'uptly in his career, the life of the 
drunkard becomes one long malady towards its close, the final condition being usually 
one of imbecility of mind and body, yet with throes of suffering to the last. It has been 
nuthoritatlvely shown that, while the average expectation of future life to the temperate 
man at 50 may be reckoned at 20 years, that of the drunkard at the same age is only 
four years. Again, between the ages of 21 and 30, the deaths among drunkards have 
lK>en found to be more that five times, and between 31 and 00, more than four limes 
what occur among the general community at the like ages. See Dipsomania and 
Delikium Tremens. 

Intoxication, or Drunkenness, is, in point of law, no excuse for any wrong done 
by the drunken party. Crimes which are committed in a state of drunkenness ai e pun- 
ishable in the same way as if the actor were sober, though it is discretionary in the 
court to mitigate the sentence. As regards contracts entered into by a drunken party, 
there is no peculiarity, unless the fact of drunkenness was taken advantage of b.y the 
sober party, in which case it lies on the drunken parly to prove this. Cases may no 
doubt arise where the drunkenness may be an element of fraud, and so the contract or 
deed may be rescinded or set aside. The mere act or state of druidienness, when pri- 
vately indulged in, is not an olfensc against the law; but if it be shown in public, it may 
become so. If, for example, a person be drunk in the streets or a public place, he was 
made, by a statute of James I., liable to be fined 5s., or, if unable to pay, to be com- 
mitted to the stocks for six hours. By a more modern enactment of 1872, called the 
intoxicating liquors licensing act, which repealed the older statute, every person found 
drunk in a highway or public place, or in a licensed house, is liable to a penalty of 10s. \. 
and on a second offense within 12 months, to 20s., and on a third offense wilhin 12 
months, to 40s. To be drunk and riotous, or be drunk while in charge of a horse or 
carriage, or of a gun, is punishable with a fine of 20s., or imprisonment for one month. 
Local acts also often impose other penalties. In Scotland several ancient statutes were 
l)assed against drunkenness, which, however, are in desuetude. In several local police 
act5 a penalty is imposed on drunkenness in the streets, and the police and impiove- 
ment act of Scotland, 25 and 26 Yict. c. 101, s. 254, subjects drunken persons in the. 
streets to a penalty of 40s., or 14 days' imprisonment, in all places where that act is 
«dopted. 

IITTRA'DOS, the under or inner side or sofiit of an arch (q.v.), the upper or outer 
curve being called the extrados. 

INTRANSIGEN'TES, the name of a political party in Spain, comprising ihe 
extreme radical republicans. The federal republic having been declared June 8, ISTo. 
they combined with the internationals in a communistic movement, which broke out in 
insurrection in several cities at once. Cartagena was held by them from July. 1873. 
until Jan., 1874, when it was surrendered. These troubles brought about the restora- 
tion of Serrano to the executive government, and led up to the proclamation of Alfonso 
XII. as king of Spain. 

IH"TRENCHMENT, in a general sense, is any work, consisting of not less than a panv 
])et and a ditch, wiiich fortities a post against the attack of an enemy. As a means of 
prolonging the defense in a regular work of permanent fortification, intrenchments arc 
made in various parts, to which tlie defenders successively retire when driven in from 
forward works. Bastions are ordinarily intrenched at the gorge by a breastwork and 
ditch, forming either a re-entering ^ngle or a small front of fortification. Such a work 
across the gorge of the Redan at Sebastopol caused the repulse of the British attack in 
Sept., 1855. A cavalier, with a ditch, is also an intrenchment. An army in the field 
often strengthens its position by intrenchments, as by a covtinued Ime of parapet and 
ditch, broken into redans and curtains, or by ^lint with intercals, consisting of detached 
works of more or less pretension flanking each other. 

INTRENCHMENT {ante). See Fortification, ante. 

INTRODTTCTION (Ital. introdnnone), in music, is a kind of preface or prelude to a fol- 
lowing movement. Formerly, the introduction was only to be found in large music^nl 
works, such as symphonies, overtures, oratorias, etc.; but now it is found in every ron('^o. 
fantasia, polonaise, waltz, etc., on the principle that it is considered abrupt to begin all 
at once, without preparing the audience for what is to come. In a stricter sense, intro- 
duction is applied to the piece of music with which an opera begins, and which imme- 
U. K. YIIL— 7 



Intromission. QQ 

Invecta. 

diately follows the overture. In some cases, the overture and introduction are united, 
the composition going on without any formal pause, as in Gluck's Iphigeiiie en Tauride, 
Mozart's Idomeneo and Don Giovanni. As the overture, which contains a harmonical 
sketch of the opera, should make a permanent impression on the audience, the custom of 
uniting it with the introduction has very properly been discontinued, and the introduc- 
tion treated ac an independent movement. 

INTKOMISSION, in Scotch law, is the assumption of legal authority to deal with 
another's property. It is divided into legal and vicious. Legal intromission is where the 
party is expressly or impliedly authorized, either by adjudgment or deed, to interfere, as 
bv drawing the rents or getting in debts. Vicious intromission is where an heir or next 
of kin, without any authority, interferes with a deceased person's estate; as, for example, 
where a person not named by a will, or without the authority of any will, collects the 
property of the deceased person, as if lie were regularly appointed. By so doing, the 
vicious intromitter incurs the responsibility of paying all the debts of the deceased. The 
vitiosity, however, may be taken off by the intromitter being regularly continued exec- 
utor. The corresponding phrase in England to a vicious intromitter is an executor cle 
son tort. 

INTRUSION, the Scotch law-term for a trespass on lands. 

INTUI TION. See Instinct, and CoMMon Sense. 

IN'TTJS-STISCEPTION, or Invagination, is the term applied to that partial displace- 
ment of the bowel in which one portion of it passes intollie portion immediately adjacent 
to it, just as one part of the tinger of a glove is sometimes pulled into an adjacent part 
in the act of withdrawing the hand. In this case, the contained portion of intestine is 
liable to be nipped and strangulated by the portion which contains it, and all the danger 
of hernia (q.v.) results, with far less chance of successful interference on the pnrt of the 
surgeon or physician. It is one of the most frequent and fatal causes of obstruction of 
the bowels. The extent of the intus-susception may vary from a few lines to a foot or 
more. Even when intiammation is set up, the affection, although in the highest degree 
perilous, is not of necessity fatal. The invaginated portion mortifies and sloughs, while 
.adhesion is established between the peritoneal surfaces of the upper and lower portions 
;.at their place of junction, so that the continuity of the tube is preserved, although a 
flarge portion may be destroyed. If the patient is strong enough to bear the shock of the 
iiutiajnniation, gangrene, sloughing, etc., a complete recovery ensues. 

itNULIN. See Elecampane. 

INUNDATIONS and FLOODS are produced by the overflow of the ocean or of 
n-srers. To these the low countries adjacent to the sea or rivers are liable. Holland, 
mmij'Of whose cities and fields are upon ground snatched from the ocean, presents the 
jiMSt frequent scene of these calamities. In the year 860 a.c, the sea rose and swept 
over a portion of the Netlierlands, carrying with it vast tracts of land, and changing the 
verj' shape of the coast. In 1014 a large part of the Netherlands and England, and in 
1134 a part of Flanders, were submerged. In 1164 a part of Friesland and the lowlands 
of the Elbe and Weser were inundated. On All Saints' day in 1170 the northern part 
of H«iiand was visited with a flood so terrific that miles of country were swallowed up 
by the .encroaching sea, and exactly to a day 400 years later the south of Holland was 
ravaged by the waves, so that Antwerp, Bruges, Hamburg, Rottei'dani, and Amsterdam 
were submerged, and 30,000 people perished. In 1277 an inundation from the sea 
destroyed 44 villages; in 1287 by another 80,000 persons were drowned, and the Zuyder 
Zee receiyed its present form and extent. In the 15th c. it is said that 100,000 were 
'^;^';troyed through the imperfection of dikes. In 1362 a flood destroyed 30 villages on 
the coast of Nordstrand. The St. Elizabeth flood of 1377 swept away 72 villages, laid 
demhie J/O ra.. -of territory, and altered the course of both the Maas and Rhine. By th(! 
formation of .dunes and an elaborate system of dikes the Dutch have succeeded of lat(; 
years in keeping the restless invader at bay. and thus avoiding a national calamity. 
But while the dunes have done much to save the Netherlands from great loss, 3-et these 
would have afforded but a partial barrier without dikes. When dikes were first used 
is not known. In the 7th c. Friesland was diked by king Adgillus, and in the 8th c. 
Zealand by the Danes and Goths. When Spain ruled Holland, the dikes, not being 
kept in good condition, the engnieer Caspar de Robles, governor of Friesland, com- 
pelled the people to repair them, and set his own soldiers to work. 

Other countries besides Holland have suffered fropi the encroachments of the ocean. 
England, notwithstanding her barrier of high cliffs, has been the victim of several intni- 
dations. In 1607 the greater part of south Devonshire and the neighboring countries 
of Dorset and Cornwall were deluged by a sea-flood that caused a fearful loss of life 
and property. Denmark too, in 1634. was visited with an inundation, when the sea 
with a mighty sweep which reached even Bremen, Hamburg, and Oldenburg, poured 
over the villages of the Nordland, destroying more than 20,000 human beings and 
150,000 cattle. In 1717 the waters overflowed the northern coast, and ruined an immense 
number of buildings. In 1825 the waters rose to a great height, the flood being ascribed 
to an eai'thquake. 

The floods from rivers are sometimes beneficial, as, for instance, those of the Nile, 



QQ Intromission. 

^ ^ luvecta. 

which fertilize with their deposit the alhivial plains. But for the most part they are 
destructive, aud those of modern times have been more disastrous tl)an earlier ones. 
The direct cause of river-floods is the discharge of water into the channels more rapidly 
than it is carried off. The most effectual remedy against these disasters is high and 
solid dikes, though even these are sometimes unavailing. In 1829 an inundation 
occurred at Dantzic, occasioned by the Vistuhx breaking through its dikes, when 4,000 
houses were destroyed, many lives lost, and 10,000 cattle perished. In France, Oct. 
31 to Nov. 4. the baone poured its waters into the Rhone, broke through its banks, 
covered 60.000 acres, aud inundated several cities and towns. The Saone had not risen 
so high for 238 years. May 12, 1849, there was an inundation of the Mississippi at 
New Orleans, when 160 squares and 1600 houses w^ere flooded. At different times the 
inundations of the Ohio, Mississippi, and other rivers have destroyed much properly 
aud man}' lives. The most destructive inundation of modern times is that which 
occurred in Hungar^^ March 12, 1879. Szegedin, the second commercial town in Hun- 
gary, was nearly destroyed by the bursting of the dikes of the river Theiss. The first 
intimation of the coming calamity was given Monday, March 10, when two of the three 
dams protecting the town gave way, and Doi'ozsma near Szegedin, containing 400 houses, 
was totally destroyed. Though 5,000 men were immediately set to work on the remain- 
ing embankment, two days later it burst, and the waters, aided by a gale, rushed forth 
with terrific violence, carrying away part of the railway station aud rolling-stock, and 
flooding the town with many feet of water. Two thirds of the town were submerged, 
inclutiiug the citadel, the post and telegraph offices; and whole rows of houses fell. The 
synagogue fell in, crushing many who had sought refuge in it, and the inmates of the 
orphanage were buried in its ruins. Two manufactories were burned. To add to the 
horrors of the scene the city was in darkness, the gas-works being 15 ft. in the water; 
80,000 people were houseless, and from 4,000 to 6,000 supposed to have been drowned. 
Of 9,700 houses all but 261 were destroyed. A hundred square miles in the neigh1)or- 
hood of Szegedin were flooded and the crops of the district lost. So sudden and violent 
w^as the flood that, instead of five or six hours which it Avas calculated the flood would 
take to spread through the town, scarcely an hour and a half had passed before Szegedin 
was submerged. The poorer classes were extremely unwilling to le^ve their homes, and 
in many cases force was necessary for their removal. Thousands suffered for want of 
food, acd sickness broke out among the r.efugees encamped on the dikes. 

INUTJS, or Innuus, a genus of apes, to which the Barbary ape (q.v.) belongs. The 
Barbary ape is /. sylvanus. 

IN\"ALIDES, wounded veterans of the French army, maintained at the expense of 
the state. The Hotel des Imalides is an establishment in Paris where a number of these 
old soldiers are quartered. Itsciiapel contains the tomb of the great Napoleon, and is 
an object oi' much attraction to all visitors. It was founded by Louis XIV. in 1671, and 
during his reign and for a long time afterwards was a place of retirement for the aged 
servants of court favorites as well as for invalided soldiers; but this abuse was put an 
end to by St. Germain in Louis XV. 's reign. In 1789 the hotel had a revenue of £68,- 
000, but during the time of the republic its property was alienated and the institution 
supported from the public revenue. The hotel can accommodate 5,000 men, and the 
actual number of inmates is not much below this. 

INVALIDING- signifies the return home or to a more healthy climate, of soldiers or 
sailors whom wounds or the severity of foreign service has rendered incapable of active 
duty. The man invalided returns to his duty as soon as his restored health justifies the 
step. 

INVARIABLE PLANE. The position of a point in space is determined — as explained 
in the article Co-ordinates — by referring it to planes intersecting one another at right 
angles; and in ascertaining the motion of the point by this means, the planes must 
either be immovable or allowance must be made for their altered position, an operation 
of considerable C()!U|)l('xity. In ;istronomy none of the obvious!}' marked planes, such 
as that of the ecliptic (q v.) or of the equator (q.v.), possess this requisite quality of 
fixity so as to form a convenient basis for determining the position of heavenly bodies 
with absolute exactness. Laplace, therefore, conferred a boon on astronomy, when he 
discovered that in the solar system there does exist *' an invariable plane, about which 
the orbits perpetually oscillate, deviating from it only to a very small extent on either 
side. This plane passes through the center of gravity of the solar system, and it is so 
situated that if all the planets be projected on it, and if the mass of each planet be mul- 
tiplied into the area, corresponding to any given time which is described by the projected 
radius vector, the sum of such products will be a maximum. By means of this property, 
which is independent of any particular epoch, it will be easy for astronomers in future 
ages to determine the exact position of the plane, and to compare observations together 
by means of it" {Granfs History of Physical Astronomy). Such a plane is not peculiar 
to the solar system, but must exist in all systems where the bodies are acted on by no 
other force than their mutual attraction. See Force. 

INVECTA ET ILLA'TA, a phrase used in Scotch law to denote all things which a 
tenant has brought upon the premises, as his household furniture, tools, utensils, etc.; 
also, in case of thirlage, all corn brought v.ilhiu the liraiis of the thirl or servitude. 



iTivected. 1 ()f) 

Invertebrate. J vv 

INVECT ED, or Invecked. See Engrailed. 

INVENTION. See Patent. 

INVENTORY, a list or scliedule of goods or property setting forth tlie particulars, so 
as to iiilorm parties interested. The term is used in Enghmd in reference to an executor 
or admiuistrutor making out a list of the deceased person's effects. In Scotland it is 
also used in reference to the property of an infant, pupil, or minor, whose estate is under 
tiie care of a guardian, tutor, cur.itor, judicial factor. In Scotland it is also used in 
connection with the various pleadings and deeds and documents produced or used in a 
snit or action, then called an inventory of process. So as to an inventory of titles, that 
is, the titles of an estate shown to a purchaser. 

INVERARAY, a small royal and parliamentary burgh and seaport of Scotland, the 
county town of Argyleshire, is picturesquely situated on the w. shora of loch Fyne, where 
the river Aray falls into the loch, 45 m. n.w. of Glasgow, It consists of one principal 
street running parallel to the loch, and a square with a church in the center. An obelisk, 
standing near the church, commemorates the death of 17 gentlemen, all Campbells, who 
were executed here without trial in 1685, for their adherence to Presbyterianism. Close 
to the town stands Inveraray castle, the chief residence of the dukes of Argyle. Invera- 
ray, the ancient town, the capital of the West Highlands, was situated at some distance 
to the n. of the present town. Not a vestige of it now remains. The trade of Inveraray 
is chiefly in herring-tishing. Pop. in 1871, 905. 

INVERCARGILL, a t. in the province of Otago, New Zealand, formerly capital of 
Southland when a province, lies at the mouth of the New river. It possesses four banks 
and several churches. The surrounding district is principally taken up with pastoral 
operations. The town is a telegraph station, and two newspapers are published. It is a 
terminus of the Bluff Harbor and Invercargill railway; and several other lines are in 
course of construction or projected. Pop. '75, 2,480. 

INVERNESS', a royal, parliamentary, and municipal burgh, situated at the moutli. 
and mostly on the right bank, of the river Ness. It is the chief town of the county to 
which it gives name, and may be regarded as the capital of the Highlands. Its environs, 
well cultivated and beautifully wooded, are almost surrounded by mountains and hills of 
various heights, forming altogether a most picturesque and interesting landscape. Pop. '71 , 
14,510; annual value ot' real "property (1878-79), £68,101; corporation revenue (1877-78). 
£3,642. It unites with Fortrose, Nairn, and Forres in returning one member to parlia- 
ment. The tirst chai'ters of Inverness as a burgh are granted by king William the lion 
(1165-1214 A.D.), By one of these it is stipulated that when the king has made a ditch 
round the burgh, the burgesses shall make a palisade on the edge of the ditch, and keep 
it in good repair forever. \n 1411 the town was burned by Donald, lord of the isles, on 
Ins way to Harlaw (q.v.). Macaulay, writing of the year 1689, describes Inverness as ."a 
Saxon colony among the Celts, a hive of traders and artisans in the midst of a population 
of loungers and plunderers, a solitary outpost of civilization in a region of barbarians." 
The castle-hill, on the s. side of the town, part of an old sea-terrace, was the site of a 
castle, which, in 1303, was taken by the adherents of king Edward I. of England, l>ut 
subsequently retaken by those of king Robert Bruce. King James 1. is said to have held 
a parliament in the castle in 1427. An iron suspeuLion-biidge, constructed in 1855, con- 
nects the two parts of the town. In the High street stands the town-cross, and beside it 
the famous Clach-na-cuddin, a lozenge- shaped blue slab, formerly regarded as the palla- 
dium of the burgh. In the same street are the town hall and exchange, built in 17U8. 
Of the old religious foundations of Inverness, there is little more than mere tradition. 
The Dominicans seem to have had a monastery, founded by king Alexander II., in 1238. 
The Franciscans also are believed <to have had a convent in the town. Among more 
modern buildings and foundations may be enumerated Raining's school, established 
1747; the spire of the old jail, 150 ft. high, built in 1791, curiously twisted by the earth- 
quake of 1816, and since readjusted; the royal academy, 1792; the county buildings and 
jail, on the site of the castle, 1835; and St. Andrew's cathedral, a fine Gothic building, 
the foundation-stone of which was laid in Oct., 1866, by Dr. Longley, archbishop of Can- 
terbury. There is a sm;dl woolen manufactory, a workmen's club and library, several 
printing establishments, three newspapers, a native bank (the Caledonian), and five other 
banking-offices. Inverness has still its four great annual fairs, but the establishment of 
shops throughout the county has greatly diminished their importance. It has three har- 
bors, built at difi:erent times, and a considerable amoimt of shipping by the Moray firth 
and the Caledonian canal, wluch connects it with the w. coast. 

INVERNESS, a co. of Cape Breton island. Nova Scotia, Canada; pop. '71, 23,415; 
soil fertile. Coal and petroleum are found. Fishing and agriculture are the chief occu- 
pations of the people. Capital, Port Hood. 

INVERNESS-SHIRE, the largest co. of Scotland, includes Badcnoch, Glenroy, and the 
valley of the Spey on the e. ; Lochaber on the s. ; Glenelg, Glen Garry, Arisaig, Moydart, 
and Eraser's county on the w. ; Glen Urquhart and Glen Morriston towardsthe center. 
It includes also Strathgla^s on the n., and several of the W^estern islands, viz., Sk3'e, 
Harris, north and south Uist, and Barra, etc. The mainland portion lies between n. lat. 
56' 40' and 57" 36', and w. long. 3° 30' and 5° 55'; and is bounded on the e. by the coun- , 



101 



Invected. 
Invertebrate. 



ties of Aberdeen, Banff, Elgin, and Nairn; on the s. by Perth and Argyleshire; on tbe 
w. by the Athmtic and Koss-sliiie; and on the n. by Koss-shire. It measures; 
from n.e. to s.w. 85 m., and from n.w. to s.e. 57 m.; and has an area of 4,256 sq.m., 
of which more than two-tliirds consist of barren heath. The wildest and most moun- 
tainous portion is towards tlie w , comprising a tract 70 m. in extent, and designated the 
Hough BoKJidf. Tlie most extensive moss in Great Britain lies on the s, of Badenocli^ 
wliere, in the naturally formed wooded islands, large herds of deer find a refuge. These 
mosses had at one time been mostly, if not wlioUy, covered with trees, some of them 
of great magnitude. In Strathspey 1^ three tiers of stocks, one above another, have been 
found, sliowing that a succession of forest trees must have grown up. flourished for ages, 
and then, one after anotlier, disappeared by the work of time or the axe. At present, 
the natural pines occupy a hirger space than in any other county of Britain. There are 
also many thousand acres ot" plantiitions of ordinary forest trees. Some mountains 
•attain considerable altitude. Ben JSevis, no^ ascertained to be the highest in Great 
Britain, is 4,406 ft. above the level of the sea Cairngorm, partly in this county, is 
4,050 ft. high. The geological formation of th 3 county is various; but primary rocks, 
consisting of gneiss, mica-slate, granite, porphyry and trap rocks, mostly prevail. The 
most fertile soil of tlie county rests on tlie red sa idstone in the valley of the Aird, and 
between the county town and Beauly. There are several lakes of some extent, as loch 
Ness, loch Locliy, loch Laggan, loch Ericht, and a number of other lochs forming arms 
of the sea. The principal rivers are the Ness, Spey, Lociiy, Beauly, Findhorn, Nairn, 
Garry, Morriston, and the Foyers (q.v.). The county is divided among 80 or 90 
propi'ietors, a few of whoin possess above 100,000 acres of surface. The old valued rent 
(1674) was £6,099; the valuation for 1878-79 was £319,877, exclusive of railways and 
canals, which amounted to £26,663, According to the agricultural returns of 1876, the 
total acreage under all kinds of crops, fallow, and grass, was 125.831: 40,221 acres were 
under corn crops, 22,421 under green crops, 26,895 under clover and grasses under rota- 
tion, 35,228 with permanent pasture (exclusive of heath and mountain-land). Of the 
land under crops, 738 acres wei'e wheat, 7,169 barley, 31,067 oats, 1109 rye. Of land 
under green crops, 8,017 acres were potatoes, 14,234 "turnips, 162 vetches, etc. Of live- 
stock, there were 9,008 horses, 54,742 cattle 724,518 sheep, and 4,127 swine. There are 
comparatively few antiquities worth noting in the county. These consist principally of 
remains of vitrified forts and ruins of old castles. The battle which decided the fate of 
the Stuarts was fought April 16. 1746, on Culloden moor, a few miles from Inverness. 
The Gaelic language is still generally, but in scarcely any district exclusively, spoken. 
Pop. in 1871, 87,531. The constituency returns one member to parliament. 

INVERSION, in music, is the transposing of one of the two notes of an interval by 
an octave upwards or downwards, to a position the reverse of that which it before occu- 
pied with respect to the other note, so that if the transposed note was the lower note of 
the two, it shall now be the higher one, and Dice versa. The new interval thus formed 
takes its name from the complement of the octave; for example, a unison inverted 
becomes an octave, a second becomes a seventh, a third becomes a sixth, a fourth 
becomes a flfth, a fifth becomes a fourth, a sixth becomes a third, a seventh becomes a 
second, and an octave becomes a unison. The following shows how these arise: 




■~=^ 


^^22=1-: 



^ -(SB- -&■ -iS'^ ^^ -€5> -'£5'- -<5>- 

Unison. 8v. 2d. 7tli. 3d. 6th. 4th. 5th. 5th. 4th. 6th. 3d. 7th. 2d. 8v. Unison. 

By inversion diminished intervals become augmented, and augmented become dimin 
ished; major become minor, and minor become major; but perfect intervals are also 
perfect when inverted. For inversion of chords, see Chord. An important use is also 
made of the w^ord inversion, in reference to a whole passage or phrase, for which sec 
article Counterpoint. 

INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS, Iiwertehrata, are those animals which have not a verte- 
bral column or spine. The division of animals into vertebrate and invertebrate is a 
natural and unavoidable one, acknowledged in all sj^stems of zoology. But these groups 
being formed, the one on a positive and the other on a negative character, are by no 
means of equal value in the classilication of the animal kingdom. In Cuvier's system, 
the invertebrate animals form three of the great divisions of the animal kingdom — viz., 
moUusca, artlculata, and radiata, each of which, like veretebrata, exhibits a peculiar type 
of structure. There are also animals of lower organization than those which can with 
certainty be referred to these divisions, although included by Cuvier amongst the 
radiata, forming the acrlta and protozoa of recent systems. Amongst the lower inverte- 
brate animals, nuurh more than amongst vertebrate animals, the arrangement into 
gi'oups must be regarded as at present, in a great measure, tentative and provisional; 
although in the higher departments of invertebrate zoology many of the classes and 
other groups are very well delined. The organization of some of them, as insects, 
however different from that of vertebrate animals, is not evidently lower, but exhibits 
a perfection as admirable as in any of them, whilst all vital powers are most fully dis- 
played. 



105 

Invertebrate. -i vy -^ 

INVERTEBRATE ANI^IALS {ant'). Tlie followin.^ synopsis is a general classifi- 
cation, according to the latest and best authorities, of the principal divisions ot the 
invertebrate branch of the animal kingdom, including classes, orders, and most ot" ine 
families. It will serve, also, as a reference or index to the various articles scattered 
throughout the work, which specially treat of genera and species. The etymology of 
the principal names is usually given except when found in the articles referred to. 

Sub-kingdom I. Piiotoz'oa, first or lowest animals; very simple, mostly micro- 
scopic; body composed of a jelly-like, albuminous substance, having no nervous, and no 
distinct circulatory, system; usually no mouth and no special digestive cavity. See 

PllOTOZOA. 

Class A. Gregartnida (Lat. gregnrias, living together in numbers). Very minute 
organisms inhabiting the interior of insects and other animals. They have no power 
to throw out prolongations as in rhizopoda. This class has only one order. See Gre- 

GARINES. 

Class B. Rhizopoda (q. v.). Protozoa having the power of throwing out and retract- 
ing prolongations (pseudopodia) of the body substance; no mouih, with few exceptions. 
Divided into five orders: 

Order I. Monera (Gr, monas, unit). Minute organisms having the power of throw- 
ing out thread-like prolongations, which are a part of the structureless body {sa^XKlc). 
These pseudopodia branch out in all directions, interlacing and anastomosing. When 
at rest the body is more or less globular. There is no nucleus or contractile vesicle. 

Order II. Ama'bca (Gr. anioibos, changing). Rhizopods which are usually naked, 
having short, blunt pseudopodia which do not anastomose. They contain a nucleus and 
one or more contractile vesicles. The amadja or proteus animalcule is the type of the 
order. It is a nucroscopic animal, which makes its appearance in vegetable fresh-water 
infusions. It is composed of two layers of gelatinous matter, called the entosarc and 
the endosarc, or outer and inner layers. The endosarc contains the nucleus and contrac- 
tile vesicle or vesicles, and also cavities called vacuoles. There are no traces of any 
nervous system in the amoeba, and yet it possesses locomotive power. 

Order III. Foraminifera {Lat. foramen, an aperture). Rhizopods in which the body 
is protected by a shell or test, usually composed of carbonate of lime. Body not divided 
into entosjirc and endosarc, as in amoeba; and there is neither nucleus nor contractile 
vesicle. Pseudopodia long, thread-like, and interlacing. The foraminifera are mostly 
marine. Dr, Carpenter says that foraminiferous fauna probably have a greater modern 
range of seas than at any previous period, but there is no indication of any tendency 
to elevation to a higher type. There arc vast deposits of them in the deeper portions of 
the Atlantic ocean, where the water is warmed by heated currents. There are several 
genera and species, many of them presenting rarely beautiful forms. Forandnilera have 
been found in paleozoic and mesozoic formations, and the eozobn Canadense, found in the 
Laurentian rocks of Canada, has been thought to be a gigantic foraminifer. See Fora- 
minifera. 

Order IV. Badiolaria (Lat. radius). Rhizopods liaving a siliceous shell or test, or 
siliceous spicules, and pseudopodia standing out like radiating filaments, sometimes 
interlacing. There are three families. 

Family 1. Acantlirometrina, minute globular bodies, surrounded by siliceous, radiat- 
ing spines, often floating near the surface of the ocean, sometimes in great numbers. 

Family 2. Folycistina. Nearly related to foraminifera, the principal difference being 
that the shells are flinty instead of calcareous. The siliceous shell is sometimes exceed- 
ingly beautiful. They are all microscopic, and have a wide distribution in the ocean. 
Tliey are also abundant tertiary fossils. 

Family 3. Thalassicollida (Gr. thalnssa, sea, and holla, glue). Rhizopods having 
" structureless cysts containing cellular elements and sarcode, and surrounded by a layer 
of sarcode, giving off pseudopodia. which commonly stand out like rays, but some- 
times have the form of a network" (Huxley). They are simple, or composite. The 
three best known genera of the family are sphcp.rozouii, collospluera, and thalassicoUa. They 
abound in most seas, floating near the surface; size, from an inch in diameter down- 
wards. 

Order V. Spongida or Porif era (q.Y.\ " Sarcode bodies destitute of a mouth, and 
united into a composite mass which is traversed by canals opening on the surface, and 
is almost always sujiported by a frame-work of horny fibers, or of siliceous or calcare- 
ous spicula" (Allman). See Sponge. 

Class C. Infusoria (Lat. infusum, an infusion). Protozoa usually provided wit'a 
^ a mouth and rudimentary stomach. They have vibrating cilia or contractile filaments, 
but no pseudopodia; bodies microscopic, usually consisting of three layers; occur in 
infusions. Divided into three orders: 

Order I Giliata (Lat. cilium, an eyelash). Infusoria in which the outer layer of the 
body has more or less vibratile cilia, or hair-like organs, for locomotion or procuring 
food. Some are provided also with jointed bristles; 'others have hooks for attachin"' 
themselves to other bodies. The typical members of the order arc param(£cium anil 
vortici'l'a ((I. v.). See Infusoria. 

Order II. JSucloria. Infusoria in which the body is covered with a number of radi- 



103 



Invertebrate. 



ating, retractile, filamentous tubes, having at Ihcir extremities suctorial disks, by means 
of which they obtain food. 

Order III. Flagellata. Infusoria having lash-like tilaments (tiagella) and occnsionnlly 
cilia. Some have one and some two liagella, and some are composed of numerous 
zooids, each with a single tiagellum and projecting membranous collar, all contained 
in a slimy sarcode, and forming a cylindrical colony. 

Sub-kingdom II. C(p:lentekata (q.v.). This sub-kingdom is the modern represen- 
tative of the Radiata of Cuvier, with the following exceptions: The echinodeimata 
and solecida have been removed to form annuloida; all of protozoa, to form that sub- 
kingdom; and polyzoa have been placed with mollusca. The remainder of radiata con- 
stitute coeleuterata, a name proposed by Frey and Leuckhart. from Gr. koilos, hollow. 
and enteron, the bowel. The principal feature of this sub-kingdom is the peculiar 
structure of the digestive apparatus; tlie body cavity and the stomach being one and 
the same. In some of the ca^hniterata, however, there is a wide membi'anous tube 
leading from the mouth into the general interior cavity. This sub-kingdom is divided 
into two classes, hydrozoa and actiuozoa. See Polypi. 

Class A. Hydrozoa (Gr. hudra and ^06*/?., animal; hydra animal). Coelenterata in 
which the walls of the digestive cavity entirely coincide wiih those of the body cavity. 
The reproductive organs are external processes of the body. They are all aquatic, 
mostly marine. The hydrozoa are divided into six sul>-classes: 

Sub-class I. Hydroida. See Hydroids. This sub-class comprises six orders: 

Order I. Hydrida. Fresh-water polyp; only one genus, hydra, including various 
species. 

Order II. Coiynida (Gr. korune, fi c\ub). Pipe coralline (q.v.), (tubularia). The order 
is entirely marine, with one exception. The reproductive elements are developed in 
distinct buds or sacs, wdiich are external processes of the body, called by professor All- 
man, gono.'iphores. There are great variations in the form of these generative buds. In 
some species they are mere sac-protuberances called sporosacs. I'here is an advance 
in structure in the different genera, the gonosphore being sometimes composed of a bell- 
shaped disk, called the gonocalyx. 

Order III. Sertularula (Lat. sertum, a wreath). The animals of this order resemble 
the corynida in becoming permanently fixed after their embryonic condition. Each 
polypite consists of a soft, contractile and extensible body, having at its distal extremity 
a mouth surrounded by preliensile Icnacles. The internal arrangement of the whole 
organism is exceedingly interestmg. See Sertularia, Plumularia, and Polypi. 

Order IV. Cainpaniilarida (Lat. cmnpanula, a bell). This order resembles sertula- 
rida, but the gonosphores are usually detached as free-swimming medusae, instead of 
being permanently attached. 

Order V. Thecomedasce. Prof. Allman has recently described a remarkable hydrozoon 
which he regards as the type of a new order. It is always found embedded in a species 
of sponge, which it permeates by chitinous (see Chitik) tubes, opening on the surface. 
See Stepiianoscyphus Mirabilis. 

Order VI. Medusidm or Hydro medusidcn (acalephse in part). The animals included in 
this order have often been placed in a distinct sub-class (discophora) of hydiozon, but 
they are now generally regarded as simpl}- an order of hydroid zoophytes. They com- 
prise most of the smaller organisms connnonl}^ known as jelly-fishes or sea-nettles, from 
the property of causing a stinging to any part of the human body M'hich msvy be 
touched by them. See Acaleph^. 

Sub-class II. Sipiionophora (Gr. siphon and phero, I carry. All of this sub-class 
are permanently free, and composite. They are very beautiful, delicate organisms, 
chiefly inhabiting the surface of tropical seas. There are two orders; 

Order I. Cdlycophoridee (Gr. kaly.v, a cup, and phero, I carry). The bodies of the 
polypites in this order are distinctly divided into three portions, called proximal, medinn. 
and distal. The proximal ends are provided with protecting plates called bracts. The 
calycophoridfe have swimming bells by which they propel themselves through the 
water. Huxley divides this order into four families: diphydaj, spha^ronectida^, prayidse, 
and hippopodidfE. 

Order II. PhyKophorklm (Gr. phym, an air-bladder). The polypites of this order 
resemble those of the preceding in form, but the tenacles are more complicated, and 
are sometimes several inches in length. They also have peculiar bodies, called feelers, 
or pulpi, which resemble immature polypites. The reproductive organs are developed 
upon special processes, called gonoblastidia, which sometimes remain permanently 
attached, or are thrown ofl' as free-swimming medusoids. The genus physnlia is the 
Portuguese man-of-war. See Physalia, The order is divided into several* families by 
Huxley. 

Sub-class III. Lucernartda (Lat. hicerna. a lamp). These are the sea-blubbers, 
sea-jellies, hidden-eyed medusae. Divided into three orders: 

Order I. Lucernaridm. This* order comprises those lucernarida which have only a 
single polypite, and are fixed, but only for a time. Reproductive elements developed 
in the v.alls of the umbrella, without the intervention of free zoOids. 

Order II. Pelagidm (Gr. pelages, sea). These animals, like the preceding, have only 



104 

Invertebrate. 

a single polypite, but have an umbrella with marginal tentacles in which are developed 
the reproductive elements. 

Order III. T^/i/^o.v/om/cZte (root-mouthed lucernari(hie). In this order the reproductive 
elements are developed in free zooids, produced by tission from attached lucernaroids. 
The umbrella of generative zooids is without marginal tentacles, and the polypites are 
numerous, forming witli the genetalia a dendriform mass depending from the umbrella 
(Greene). ' See Riiizostomid^ and AcALEPHiE. 

Sub-class IV. Gkaptolitid^ (Gr. grapho, I write). Rhabdophora of x^llman. 
The members of this sub-class are all extinct, but their nearest living allies are the ser- 
tulariaus. Their structure is not easily made out. They are generally found in pyrit- 
ous impressions, having a silvery luster, in the Silurian formations, and are character- 
istic fossils. See Graptolites and Sektularia. 

Sub-class V. Hydrocorallin^. This sub-class has been formed by Mr. Moseley 
for the reception of two groups of marine animals which produce a regular skeleton of 
carbonate of lime, often of large size, and which have been hitherto generally referred 
to the corals. See Millepore and Stylasterid^. 

Class B. Actinozoa (Gr. actin, a ray). Coslenterata, in which the imperfect 
stomach, or wide tube, which is so called, empties into the body cavit}^ which latter is 
divided into a number of compartments by vertical partitions. The reproductive organs 
are internal. As in hydrozoa, the tissues are chiefly divided into two layers, an ecto- 
derm and an endoderm, but there is more tendency to the formation of special organs, 
and in some of the members of the class muscular fibers are well developed. No vas- 
cular system has been found in any of the actinozoa, nor any traces of a nervous sys- 
tem except in ctenophora. Most of the actinozoa are permanently fixed. Sea-anemones 
have some locomotive power, and one order, ctenophora, above mentioned, consists of 
active, free-swimming organisms. Mtmy of the class secrete a horny or calcareous skele- 
ton called a coral, or coraUuni. The actinozoa are divided into four orders: 

Order I. Zoantharia (Gr. zoon, animal, and antfws, a flower). In this order the soft 
parts are disposed in multiples of five or six, typically six, and they also have simple 
tentacles, usually numerous. The zoantharia are divided into three sub-orders: 

Sub-order I. ZoantJiaria malacodermata. In these organisms there is either no coral- 
lum or a pseudocorallum in the form of adventitious spicules scattered through the 
soft parts. This sub-order comprises three families: 

Famihj 1. Actliiidm. These are commonly known as sea-anemones. They have no 
cornllum or only a pseudocorallum, and are seldom compound. They have locomotive 
power. 

Famihi 2. lllyanihidtB. No corallum; polyps single and free, with rounded tapering 
base. The genus ilyanthus is in most respects identical with the ordinary actimn, but 
the base of its conical body is much attenuated, and by separating allows of a free 
existence. 

Family 3. Zoanthidce. These organisms are in colonies, and exist in the form of a 
crust or of creeping roots, and have no power of locomotion. 

Bab-order II. Zoanlharia sderohasica. These are the black corals, and are always 
composite, composed of a number of polypes united by a common, fleshy material, 
which is thin and internally supported by a simple or branched horny axis called a 
nclerobass. The polypes do not secrete a calcareous, but a horny corallum, and they 
generally have six simple tentacles. All the black corals form colonies, which are fixed 
to some foreign objegt. 

Sub-order III. Zoantharia, Sclerodermata, or MadreporidcB. The animals comprising 
this sub-order include most of the coral-producing zoophytes of recent seas. See Zoan- 

THARTA. 

Order II. Alyconaria. The asteroid polyps. Tentacles fringed; soft parts arranged 
in multiples of four instead of five or six, as in zoantharia. AH the members of this 
order are composite, the whole colony forming a branched mass, with the exception of 
one genus, haimeia. Divided into five families: 1. alcyonidae; 2. tubiporidae; 3. pen- 
natulida3; 4. gorgonidse; and 5. heliophoridae; the fifth family being recently founded 
by Mr. Moseley. The alconyum, or "dead-men's toes," may be regarded as the type of 
the family alcyonidse. The tubiporidse contain the organ-pipe corals, the corallum 
being composed of bright scarlet cylinders united by plates. See Coral, Polypi, Gor- 
GONiA, Alcyonium, and Pennatula. 

Order III. Rugom (Lat. rugosus, wrinkled). This order is extinct, and, excepting 
TiolocyHtlH elegaru of the cretaceous formation, their fossils do not occur in rocks later 
than the paleozoic, and therefore are known only by the characteristics of the corallum. 
The rugosa are divided into four families: 1. stauridse; 2. cyathaxonidae; 3. cyatho- 
phyllida3; 4. cystiphyllidae. 

Order IV. Gteno'phora (Gr. kteis, a comb, and pliero. I carry). " Transparent, oceanic, 
gelatinous actinozoa, swimming by means o: ctenofiltores. or parallel rows of cilia dis- 
posed in comb-like ])lates" (Greene). The order comprises five families: 1. calymmidse; 
2. cestidas; 3. callianirida?; 4. pleurobrachiadas: 5. beroida?. See Beroe. The ces- 
tida; have a flat, ribbon-shaped bodv at right angles to the direction of the digestive 
tract, and three or four feet long (Venus's girdle). The pleurobrachiadiE, the typical 
family, have a transparent, colorless, spherical, melon-shaped body, in which the two 



105 



Invertebrate* 



poles of the spheroid are called oral and apical, the rest of the. hod}^ constituting the 
interpolar region. Tlicre is a transverse moutli at the oral pole opening- into a fusiform 
digestive cav-lty, in tlie lower part of whicli there are peculiar brown cells performing-, 
it is supposed, the functions of a liver. The interpolar region, or body, is traversed by 
eight meridianal bands or ctenophores, elevated transversely into a number of i-idges, 
e«ich having a fringe of cilia, forming a comb-like phite. Besides these comb-like ridges, 
there are two long^ tentacular processes, also fringed with curved cilia, forming singu- 
larly beautiful and interesting organs. See CTENoriioiiE. » 

Sub-kingdom HI. Echiiiodermata (Gr. eciUnos, hedgehog, and derma, skin; from hav- ^ 
lug a spiny skin). The echinodermata, including the sea-urchin-^, star-fishes, etc., weie . 
formerly included in the sub-kingdom radiata, but they form a very distinct group, and 
althougli they have been classified by ])rof. Huxley, on account of some remarkable 
afiinities with the lower worms, as the tape-worm and other intestinal parasites, in a 
sub-kingdom called annuloida, the weight of authority inclines to a separation into a 
distinct group, constituting a sub-kingdom. The echinodermata may be defined as 
follows: Simple marine organisms, the body of the adult more or less conspicuously 
radiate, that of the young often distinctly l)ilateral. Nervous system radiate, composed 
of an oesophageal ring and radiating branches. S<'xes generally distinct, rarely united. 
They are commonly known as sea-urchins, star-fishes, brittle stars, feather -stars, sea- 
lilies, sea-cucumbers, etc. The echinodermata are divided into seven orders: 

Order I. Crinoidea (Gr. krinon, a lily, and eidos, form). Sea-lilies; feather-star (q.v.); 
medusa-head crinoid; pentacrinus (q.v.); stone-lily — eiicrinus UUiformis. See Encri- 
NiTES and CrIiN'oidea. 

0,'der II. Bladoldea (Gr. Uastos, a bud. and eidos, form). These animals are all 
extinct, and their fossils are found in the paleozoic formations, chiefiy in the carbonif- 
erous rocks. The body was fixed to the sea-bottom by a short, jointed pedicel, and iu 
many respects resembled the following. 

Order III. Cystoidea (Gr. kystis, a bladder). These organisms are also extinct, and 
their fossils are confined to the paleozoic age. The body Avas, in most instances, fixed 
to the sea-bottom by a short, jointed, calcarecnis pedicel, and was more or less spherical 
and covered with numerous pol^'gonal, calcareous plates acciu-ately fitted together. On 
the upper surface there w-ere two, and sometimes three, apertu/es, the use of which is a 
matter of controversy. One "was, probably, for the mouth, one for locomotion, and the 
third for voiding excreta. 

Order IV. Ophiuroidea (Gr. ophis, a snake; oura, a tail; and eidos, form). Sand stars 
— opliiuria: brittle stars — ophiocoma. 

Order V. Asteroidea {sXiiv-tovmcd) Star-fishes (q.v.);' cross-fish — ^waster; sun-star — 
solasfer; cusion-star — goniaster. 

Order VI. Echiiioidea, sea-urchins, sea-eggs, heart-urchins. Sexes distinct. See 
Echinus. 

Order VII. /i^y/«9if/m';'o/^^?<5^, vermiform or slug-like echinoderms, with a leather}'' skin, 
in which calcareous granules and spicules are developed; mouth surrounded by a circlet 
of tentacles: larva vermiform, and without a skeleton; sexes usually distinct. The 
members of this order are commonly known as trepangs, sea-cucumbers, etc., and are 
the most highly organized of all the echinodermata. There is a long, convoluti'd intes- 
tine, and a special respiratory or water-vascular system is often developed in the form 
of arborescent tubes. At a certain period the young are barrel-shaped, having trans- 
verse rings of cilia, by means of which they rotate rapidly on their long axis, and have 
been at this stage of existence described as a distinct genus, under the name of auricn- 
laria. In the adult typical holothurians, locomotion is produced hy means of rows of 
ambulacral tube-feet, or by alternate extension and contraction of the body, but in 
some members the animal moves by means of spicula distributed in the integument. See 
Hqlothuria. 

The echinodermata began their existence in the lower Silurian formation, and their 
remains are found in most sedimentary rocks up to the present time. The cystoidea 
and blastoidea are extinct, and not more recent than paleozoic. Many crinoids are 
extinct, having their irreatest development in paleozoic time. In the triassic formation 
is found the beautifid stone-lily. In the Jurassic occurs the pear-encrinite, and in the 
cJialk the tortoise-encrinite. Fossils of asteroidea abound in both upper and lower 
Silurian rocks, as paleogaster, a beautiful form (q.v.). Many rare and beautiful fossils 
ab(jund in the oolite, as goniaster, pluinaster. and uriaster. The ophiuroidea are rare 
fossils, the protaster Sedgwickii being an example, found in the silurian; but most 
of the members are more recent, many reaching to the present time. The echinoidea are 
represented in the paleozoic rocks by only one family, but numerous fossils are found 
in mesozoic and recent periods. The echinoids of the secondniy and tertiary formations 
resemble present forms in not having more than twenty rows of calcareous plates. 

Sub-kingdom IV. Annui-osa (Lat. animlus, a ring). The members of this sub-king- 
dom have a bod}^ which is usually more or less elongjitod. and alwa3's bilaterally sym- 
metrical instead of radiate. Usually the body is divided into segments, whicli may bo 
definite or indefinite, arranged along an antero-posterior axis. Lateral appendages, 
when present, are symmetrically arranged. The nervous system consists of one or two 



Invertebrate. ^^^ 

ganglia situated anteriorly, or of a double gangliated chain near the ventral surface. 
I'his kingdom is divided into three primary sections. 

Section I. Scolecida (Gr. scvlex, a worm), including parasitic worms, wheel-ani- 
malcules, etc., whose characteristics are an elongated, tiatteued body, which may have 
an annulated integument, but otherwise not at all or imperfectly segUKuied. There is 
a water-vascular system, but none for the circuhition of an elaborated fluid. The 
nervous system consists of a few ganglionic masses, or a ring, from which proceed a fe^v 
liiamentsr the principal feature which sei)arates them from the ringed worms, or annc- 
lida, which have u ventral gangliated nerve chain. The section comprises tw o divisions, 
containing seven orders: 

Division I. Platyelmia (Gr. platus, flat). The members of this division have a 
more or less flattened body, and no true segmentation. It includes two parasitic orders 
and one non jjarasitic order. 

Order I. Tceriaida ov- Gestvidea. See Entozoa, Hydatid, and TArE-woRM. The 
joints of the tape-worm are generative segments, v% hich are thrown off by a process of 
gemmation, and are not true segments of the animal, which consists of the head. 

Order II. Trematoda (Gr. trema, a hole). Tliese oiganisms are known as suctorial 
worms. See Fluke, Hematozoa, Monostoma. and I'i^IlMatoda. 

Order III. Tarhellar'ui (including planarla of Cuvier). See Planaria and Nemeh- 
TES. These animals are nearly all aquatic and non-parasitic. 

Division II. Nematelmia (q.v.). Scolecida. having an elongated and cylindrical 
body. Most of the division have an annulated integument, but there is no true segmen- 
tation, and rarely locomotive appendages. They are mostly unisexual, and are para- 
sitic during the whole or a pai't of theii' existence. The division comprises three ordei's; 

Order I. AcantliocepliaUi, thorn-headed worms (Gr. akanilia, thorn; kephale, head). 
These animals are entirely parasitic, vermiform, and have no mouth or alimentary 
canal. They have a proboscis armed with curved hooks. At the base of the proboscis 
there is a single ganglion of nerve matter giving off radiating filaments in all directions. 
It has been discovered that, as in the ta^naida, the adult worm is developed within a 
hooked embryo. These tJtornlieaded irorms arc among the most formidable that infest 
the intestinal canal of vertebrates, particularly of birds and fishes. 

Order II. Gordincea, hair-worms. See Nematelmia. These are thread-like, para- 
sitic organisms, which in their earlier stages inhabit the bodies of insects, such as 
bee les and grasshoppers. They have a mouth and alimentary canal. The sexes are 
distinct, and they quit their hosts in order to breed. They resemble hairs, and are often 
many times as long as the insects they infest. See Wok]\is. 

Order III Nematode or Nemaioidca (q.v.). Most of these animals are internal para- 
sites, inhabiting the intestinal canal, pulmonary tubes, or cellular tissues of man and 
other animals; but many are not i)arasitic. The best known are the ascarislvinbricoides, 
the round worm of the stomach and intestines (see Ascakis); Xht oxyuris 'cermicularis, or 
thread-worm (q.v.); f.Uaria medineiixU. or Guinea-worm (q.v.); trichina spiralis (q.v.), 
vinegar eel. See Sci.erostoma and Hematozoa. 

Division III. Rotifeka. Order rotifera (wheel animalcule, builder animalcule, 
flexible creeper). See Rotatoria. The position of tliis group is doubtful. It is placed 
here by Huxley, but it is sometimes placed among the lower orders of annulosa. These 
animals have a boily composed of numerous segments or somites (Gr. soma, body), 
arranged along a longitudinal axis. They have a nervous system consisting of a double 
chain of ganglia running along the under surface of the body, with a collar of nervous 
matter around t'ne gullet. The sub-kingdom is divided into two primary divisions: 
arthropodd, provided with articulated appendages; and anarthropoda, having no articu- 
lated appendages. 

Section II. Anarthropoda. Locomotive appendages, when present, not distinctly 
articulated to the body (whence the name). This division contains the earth-worms, 
leeches, tube-worms, spoon-woi-ms, (^tc. Divided into three classes: 

Class I. Gephyra {Hpunodoidea). Body sometimes annulated, sometimes not; no 
ambulacral tubes or foot-tubercles ; sometimes bristles seiving for locomotion. The 
sipunculus and its allies form this class. From certain affinities they have sometimes 
been placed among the echinodermata, but they do not secrete calcareous matter, and 
there is no i-adiate arrangement of the nervous system (see Sipunculus). The Brilisli 
species of this class are grou|)ed by prof. E. Forbes as follows: 

Family 1. Sipuncnlacea, having a retractile proboscis, around the extremity of which 
there is a circlet of tentacles. 

FamVy 2. Priapalacea, having a retractile proboscis, but no tentacles. 

Famdf/ij. T/udassamacea. proboscis with a long, fleshy appendage; no oral tentacles. 

Class II. Annelida. Included by Linnaeus in his class xermes. See Annelida. 
The meml)ers of this class have distinct segments, each segment usually corresponding 
with a single pair of ganglia in the doul)le ventral cord, all tlie segments being similar 
except those at the anterior and posterior extremities. Each segment may have a pair 
of lateral appendages, but they are never articulated with the body. There are four 
orders : 

Order I. lUrudinea {discopltora, or svctorialleeches). These animals are characterized 
by having a locomotive and adhesive sucker posteriorly, or at both extremities, and by 



lor 



Invertebrate. 



having no bristles or foot-tubercles. They are hermaphrodite, and the young undergo 
no metamorphosis. See Leech. 

Order 11. Oligocha'td. (Gr. olif/os, few; chnife, liair), earth-worms — lumbricidm; ^vater- 
worms — naididm; and mud-worms — liinicoloi. These have locouioiive appendages in 
the form of bristles. See Eauth-wokm. 

Order III. I'ubicola (Lai. iuki. a tube). These annelides inhabit tubes, sometimes 
calcareous and secreted by the animals; sometimes composed of a glutinous secretion 
mixed with grains of sand, forming a cement. Sexes separate; young passing through 
a metamorphosis. There is a pseudo-hemal system, usually containing red blood, some- 
times green, llespirato^•y organs in spiral, funnel-shaped tufts, or branchiae. See 
Tuiiicoii^ and Sekpula. 

Order IV. Errantia (Lat. erro, I wander), nereidea, dorsihranchiata. Respiratory 
organs in the form of branchial tufts, arranged along the back and sides of the body. 
This order includes the sand-worms, sea- worms, and sea-mice. Body soft, integument 
having a great number of segments; head provided with eyes, and two or more feelers, 
which are not jointed like the antenna? of crustaceans; mouth on the under surface of 
the head, and having one or more pairs of horny, lateral-working jaws; stomach and 
intestine usually distinct, and lined with ciliated epithelium; perivisceral cavity tilled 
with a colorless fluid containing corpuscles (Owen). The pseudo-hemal system consists 
of a dorsal and a ventral vessel connected by transverse branches. There are })ulsating 
dilations at the base of the branchial tufts. The circulating fluid is usually red, but is 
yellow in some, as the sea-mouse (q.v.). On account of the position of ihe tufts the 
members of this order are sometimes called dorslbrancJiiate, or notohranchiate. The 
nervous sj^stem in errantia consists of a double, ventral cord, with two ganglia to each 
segment or somite. The cerebral ganglia, situated in front of the gullet, are large, and 
send filaments to the eyes and feelers. Among the errantia is the common lob-worm, 
often used by fishermen for bait. It lives in deep burrows formed in the sand on the 
sea-shore, the animal passing the sand through its body to get nourishment. There are 
thirteen pairs of branchiae or gills, placed one of each pair on a side, in the middle por- 
tion of the body. In the nereidae, or sea-centipedes, the head is distinct, and has eyes 
and feelers, the mouth having a large proboscis with horny jaws. In the eunicea the 
branchiae are large, and the mouth has from seven to nine horny jaws. The eunice 
gigantea often has over 400 segments, and is sometimes more than 4 ft. long. Traces 
of errantia are found in the Cainbrian rocks and other formations up to the present time, 
and the tubicola have left thin sheaths in all formations from the Silurian upwards. 
See Lug-worm, Lob-W'Oum, Nereis, and Palolo. 

Class III. Ch/Etognatha (Gr. chaite. bristle; gnntlios, jaw) (Huxley), arrow^- worms 
(mgitta). This class is constituted to receive the single genus sagitta, formerly classed 
among the annelides. See Sagitta. 

Section III. Arthropoda, or Articulata (q.v.). The members of this division of 
the sub-kingdom annulosa possess jointed appcmdages, articulated to the segments of 
the btxiy (whence the name). The following are the chief characteristics: The body 
is composed of a series of segments arranged along a longitudinal axis, more or less of 
the segments having articulated appendages, and both being protected by a horny, shell- 
like cuticle. The ai)pendages are hollow, coiitaining muscles. The nervous S3'stem is 
in the form of a doul)le cliain of ganglia, running along the ventral surface of V-^-a body, 
and united by commi-sures. The blood-circulntoiy system is placed near the back, and 
/^on'^ists of •!. contractile cavity provided with valvular apertures. There is communi- 
cation wi'h a periviscei'al cavity, and the system contains true corpusculated blood, 
liespiration is etfected l)y the general surface of the body, b}^ giU-^, bv pulmonary sacs, 
or by tubular foUls of tiie integument called trdcliece. The arthropoda are divided into 
four great classes, viz. : Vim crnstacea, including the lobsters, crabs, etc.; X\\(i arnehnida, 
including the spiders, scorpion.s, etc.; X\\q. mynapoda (centipedes and millipedes); and 
the uiiyecia. or insects. 

Class I. Crustacea (Lat. crusta, a crust). Respiration effected by gills or by the 
general body surface. There arc two pairs of antennae. The locomotive appendages 
are more than eight, articulated to the segments of the thorax, and in most instances to 
those of the abdomen, the pairs generally being from five to seven. All these animals 
pass through a series of metajnoi'phoses, and every embiyonic organ or part is perma- 
nently represented in some member of a lower onler. Authorities differ in the classifi- 
cation of the Crustacea, but that adopted here divides them into four sub-classes, com- 
prising sixteen orders. 

Suii-CLASS I. Epizoa (Gr. epi, upon, and 'soon, animal). These animals are parasites 
in the adult state upon the bodies of fishes, but when young they are free-swimming, 
and have antennas and eyes. This sub-class contains thre3 orders: 

Order I. Irhthyophthira (Gr. icJithus, a fish, and p]itheu\ a louse). These animals 
become attached to the skin, eyes, or gills of fishes by a suctorial mouth, or cephatic 
processes, or by a disk borne by the last pair of thoracic limbs, or by booklets at the 
extremities of the first pair. The males are usually not aftache(l, but adhere to the 
females, which are much larger. In attaining the adult condition they pass through 
retrograde metamorphosis. See Lerneada. 

Order 11. Bhizopephala (Gr. rhiza, root, and kephale, head; root-headed). These 



1 0^ 

Invertebrate. ^^^ 

aniinals, like those of the preceding order, are free-swimming -when 3'oung. Tlie larvae 
have ovate bodies, one eye, and a dorsal shield. In the seeond, or puptie. stage, they 
become inclosed in a bivalve shell and attach themselves to larger crustaceans. Tliey 
then lose all their limbs, and appear like mere sacks. At the point of attachment they 
send tubuhir roots into the body of the host, winding round its intestuies. 

Order III. Cirripedia. LarvjK free-swimming, but a cement-like secretion from a 
gland is discharged through the antennae by which they become permanently attached 
10 rocks, wood, cetaceans, turtles, other crustaceans, and sometimes jelly-fishes. The 
more inijjortant members are the acorn-shells and the barnacles. See Balanus, Barna- 
cles, and CiKRiiopoDA. The cirripedia are divided into three sub-orders, thoraci.ca, 
ahdominalia, and ajwda. 

Sub CLASS 11. Entomostraca (q.v.), divided into two great legions or divisions. 

Division A. Lopiiyropoua (Gr. lophoiiras, having stiff hairs). Possessing few bran- 
chia, and attached to the appendages of the mouth. Feet few, mainly locomotive. 
Mouth not suctorial, but has organs of mastication. There are two orders. 

Order I. Ostracoda (Gr. ostrakon, a shell; eldos, form), water-tleas. Small animals 
inclosed in a shell composed of two valves united along the back by a membrane. 
The lespiratory organs are attached to the posterior jaws, and there are only two or 
three pairs of feet. Most of them pass through several stages of metamorphosis. See 
CYPiifs. 

Order II. Copepoda (Gr. kope, an oar, and podes, feet). These aninials inhabit both 
salt and fresh water. Head and thorax covered by a shell, and furnished with tive pairs 
of swimming feet, and generally two caudal locomotive appendages. One of the most 
common of the water-tleas is a member of this order, under the name of cyclops (q.v.). 
These oar-tooted crustaceans are regarded by some zoologists as being the same in the 
lai'val state as ichthijophira. the latter animal becoming moditied by being attached to, 
and existing upon, othei" animals. 

Division B. Branciiiopoda (q.v.). .These animals have many branchice attached 
to the legs, which are numerous and formed fo: svvinuning. This division is made to 
include cladoccra, phyllopoda, and trlloblta, although the latter departs somev^'hat from 
the characterLStics of the other members. 

Order I. Cladocera (Gr. klados, a branch, and keras, a horn). Carapace or shell simi- 
lar to ostracoda; feet, .four to six pairs, usually bearing resi)iratory organs; two pairs 
of antenna?, one pair lai'ge, branched, and used for swimming. The daphnia pulex, or 
branched-horned v,'ater-liea, is inclosed withm a bivalve shell which opens anteriorly. 
The head is not inclosed, and has a single eye. The gills are in the form of plates, 
attached to tive pairs of thoracic legs. The animal is parthenogenetic (see Partheno- 
genesis), and it produces two kinds of eggs. One kind, the summer eggs, are deposited 
between the valves of the carapace, and are hatched there; but the winter eggs are 
deposited in a receptacle on the bacii of the carapace, called the saddle, which after a 
time is cast off and floats about till the water becomes warm enough to hatch the eggs. 
See Water-flea. 

Order II. Phyllopoda [Qv. phyllon. a leaf), leaf-footed crustaceans. Carapace covering 
head and thorax, or the body entirely naked. Feet never less than eight pairs, leaf- 
formed and respiratory, and also used in swimming. They are intei'esting on account 
of their affinity to the extinct order of trilobites. The various species of the genus 
brancJiippiis have no carapace, and exist in ponds and swamps in many parts of the 
world. The brine-shrimps (genus artemia) are found in the brine pans of salt-works, 
and in lakes much Salter than the ocean. They abouuu in the Great Salt lake of Utah. 
See Brine- Shrimp. 

Order III. Trilohita (three-lobed crustaceans). See Trilobites. 

Order IV. Merostomata (Gr. meron, thigh, and stoma, mouth). Crustaceans, often of 
great size, in which the mouth is furnished with mandibles and maxilla?, whose termi- 
nations become walking or swimming feet and organs of prehension. Divided into 
two sub orders, xiphosura and eurypterida. 

Sub-order 1. Xtpliosura (Gr. xiphos, a sword; oura, a tail). The only living repre- 
sentatives are the king-crabs (horse-shoe crabs), of v^'hich there are but few species. Sec 
King-crab and Merostomata. 

Sub-order 2. Eurypterida (Gr. euros, broad, and pteron, wing), extinct crustaceans, 
some of which reached gigantic dimensions. See Merostomata. 

Sub-class IV. Malacostraca (Gr. malakos, soft, and ostralcon, shell. The name 
was used by Aristotle to designate the whole class Crustacea). Crustaceans having 
generally a definite number of somites, seven belonging to the thorax, and seven to 
the abdomen, counting the telson, or last segment, or tail. There are two primary 
divisions. \ 

Division A. Edrtophthalmata (q.v.). Malacostraca in which the eyes are sessile ' 
(whence the name), and the body not protected by a carapace: eyes usually compound, 
but sometimes simple; as a rule, there are seven pairs of feet, for which reason Agassiz 
called the division tetradecapoda. There are three orders. 

Order I. Lamiodipoda (Gr. laimos, throat; dis, twice; podes, feet). First thoracic 
segment simalgamated with the head, the append;iges of the segment appearing to be 
inserted into the throat (whence the name). Respiratory organs consist of vesicles. 



109 



Invertebrate. 



attached to the thorax or bases of the legs; feet hooked; all mariue. See Whale- 
Louse. 

Order IL AmpMpoda (Gr. amphi, both; podes, feet). Resembles the preceding, but 
tlie tirst tlioracic segment is not united to tlie head: seven pairs of thoracic limbs, some 
of them directed forwards and some of them backwards, from which fact the order 
derives its name. They are all small animals. See Gammarus and Sand-Hofpi:u. 

Order III. Isopoda {q.v.). Kes[)iratory organs in the form of branchiae attached to 
the under surface of the abdomen. The young are developed within a larval men^ibrane, 
which in time bursts, liberating them, but tiiey then have only six instead of seven pairs 
of limbs, as in the adult state. The isopoda are divided by Milne-Edwards into three 
sections, wliicli from their ha])its are called natatorial, sedentary, and cursorial. Some 
of the natatorial are parasites of hshes. All the sedentary are parasites of the gill- 
chambers or ventral surfaces of decapod Crustacea. The cursorial, or running, are prin- 
cipal]}' land animals, the better known being the wood-louse (q.v.). An aquatic genus 
is limnoria (q.v.). Other well-known isopods are the water-slaters, rock-slaters, shield- 
slaters, etc. Sec AsELLUS and Wood-Louse. 

Division B. Podophthalmata. See Podophthalma. This division contains the 
glirimps. lobsters, and crabs, and is divided into two orders. 

Order I. StomopodJi (q.v.). See Squilla, Glass Crab. 

Order II. Deaq^odd (Gr. deka, ten ; podes, feet). Branchiffi or respiratory organs con- 
tained in cavities at the sides of the thorax. Heart in the form of a quadrate sac, 
liaving three pairs of valvular openings. There are great differences in the niode of" 
development. The decapoda are divided into three tribes, the macrura, anomura, and 
brachyura. See Crab, Crustaceans, Hermit Crab, Pea Crab, Praw^n, Purse 
Crab, Hiver Crab, and Land Crab. 

Class IL Arachnida (q.v.). This class resembles the Crustacea in many esscntiid 
characteristics, but there are marked differences. The respiratory organs are never in 
the form of branchiae, but of pulmonary vesicles, or ramified tubes or tracheae, in which 
they breathe air; there are never more than four pairs of locomotive limbs, and the 
abdominal sections never have limbs. The eyes are always sessile, while in llie higher 
Crustacea they are always borne upon movable peduncles, and both pairs of anteimae 
are developed. In the higher aracimida one of the two pairs of normal anteiuiae are 
never developed (Huxley). The arachnida comprise two great divisions, the trachearia 
and the pulnwnaria. 

Division A. Trachearia. Respiration cutaneous, or by tracheae (q.v.). Eyes 
never more than four in numl)er. Tlie division comprises three orders. 

Order I. Podosomafa {Gv. podes, feat; soma, body). Included in arachnida b}'^ Cuvier. 
but placed by Milne-Edwards among the Crustacea, on account of the metamorphoses 
which they undergo. Having, however, not more than four pairs of legs, they would 
seem more properly to belong to the arachnidia. Among the best known are nymplum 
and pycnogonum. See Pycnogonid^.. 

Order II. A^arina or Mononierosomala (Gr. aknri, a mite). Abdomen unsegmented 
and united with tiiorax and head into one mass. Respiration by tracheae; most of th« 
order are parasites. Usually divided into three families, of whicli the third, acarkUi, 
includes the mites and ticks (q.v.). See Acarus and Acarus Folliculorum. 

Order III. 'AdelarthrosomaUi {Gv. adelos, hidden; arthros, joint; soma, body). Abdo- 
men compo.sed of segments, but all three parts of the animal united in one mas5. 
Respiration by tracheae, opening on tlie ventral surface of the bod}'. The order coin- 
prises three families: L Phalangidce {q.v.), harvest spiders; 2. P.^evdoscorpionida' {q.\.). 
I)Ook scorpion; 3. Solpyrjidee. In this family the abdomen is in distinct .segments, ;uid 
separated from the thorax. 

Division B. Pulmonaria, Higher arachnida, as scorpions and spiders. Respira- 
tion performed by pulmonary stics, sometimes aided by tracheae; six or more eyes; 
abdomen usually distinct from cephalothorax; divided into two orders. 

Order I. Pedipalpi (Lnt. pes, pedis, afoot; and palpo, to feel). Scorpions (q.v.) and 
other animals intermfdiate between scorpions and true spiders. In this order the abdo- 
men is distinctly segmented, but there is no well-marked division between it and th« 
cephalothorax. Family!. Scoi'pionidep; see Scob.fio'N. Fainily^. TJielyphonida',veseta- 
ble true spiders externally, but are distinguished from them by having a segmented 
abdomen and no spinnerets, and from the scorpionidse by the extremity of the abdomen 
liaving no sting. 

Order II. Araneida. Characterized by the fusion of the head and thorax into one 
mass, and by an unsegmented abdomen, which is usually soft and joined to the rest of 
tiie body by a constricted peduncle. See Spider, Tarantula, and Mygale. 

Class III. Myriapoda (q.v.). Divided into three orders. 

Order I. Ghilopoda {Gv. cheilos, Jip; podes, feet; foot-lipped). Centipedes and their 
allies. See Centipede. 

Order II CM'ognatha {Gv. cheilos, lip; gimthos, jaw). See Millipede. 

Order III. Pavropoda. This order consists of one peculiar millipede, described by- 
sir John Lubbock under the name pauropvs. The bod}^ is only one-twentietli of an 
inch long, consisting of ten segments. Found among decaying leaves in damp places. 



Invertebrate, 

in England and Amcricfi. Fossil inyriapoda; the oldest fossil mj-riapoda are in the 
carbonit'cious forniation, where several species of millipedes have been found. 

Order IV. Onyckophora. In the West Indies, South Africa, South America, and 
New Zealand, there are peculiar animals of a genus called peripatus, which has been 
classed with leeches, tape-worms, and myriopoda. Their habits are terrestrial, living 
in decayed wood, under stones, and in moist earth. They have a cylindrical worm-like 
hody, annulated and provided with many pairs of jointed feet, terminated with hooked 
claws or bristles. The respiratory organs, as recently shown by Moseley, are in the 
form of traclieai, wiiich open by numerous apertures. 

Class IV. Ixsecta. Those articulate animals (articulata or arthropoda) which have 
the head, thorax, and ahdomen distinct; three pairs of legs on the thorax, none on the 
abdomen; a single pair of antennae; eyes generally compound; usually two pairs of 
wings on the thorax; respiration by trachea. See Insects and Larva. According as 
insects attain the adult state without passing through a partial or a complete metamor- 
phosis, they may be arranged in three grand divisions: Ametahola (without change), 
Ileirtiinstahola (half change), and HolomeUibola (whole change). It will answer the pur- 
pose here to simply arrange them into twelve orders, every one of which will naturally 
fall under one of the above divisions. The ametabola have been called apterous i/i- 
secU (q.v.). 

Order I. Anoplura (Gr. nnoplos, unarmed; oura, tail). Apterous insects (q.v ) in 
which the young pass through no metamorphosis; mostl}' parasitic, on man and other 
animals (lice, pediculi). Mouth suctorial; body flattened; legs short, with claws; repro- 
duction rai^id. See Louse. 

Order II. 3IaUophaf/a (Gr, mallos, a fleece, and phaf/o, I eat). Aptera, in which the 
mouth is formed for biting, and furnished with mandibles and maxiila?. They resem- 
ble the pediculi, except as to moutli, not sucking the juices of their hosts, but living 
upon tlieir integuments (bird lice). 

Order III. Collemhola. Minute aptera having a partial masticatory or suctorial 
mouth, and the first abdominal segment furuiphed with a suctorial tube, and next the 
iast abdominal segment with peculiar leaping appendages. This order has been estab- 
lished by sir John Lubbock for the reception of those insects called "spring-tails.'' 
Tiieir scientific name, coUembola, is given because they attach themselves to foreign 
bodies by means of tiieir ventral suctorial tube. See Poduka. 

Orderly. Thi/sanura {Gv. tlii/.sanoi, fringes; oura, tail). Aptera gcnerall}^ having a 
masticatory moutli, tmd the extremity of the abdomen furnished with long, bristle-like 
appendages for locomotion, not springing. See Lepisma, 

Order V. Hetnlptera (q.v.). JPlant lice, cochineal insect. See xVphis, Hop Fly, 
Froth Fly, Coccus, Cochineal, Coffee Bug, Cicada, Lantern Fly, Phylloxera, 
Harvest Bug, Harvest Fly, and Water Bug. 

Order VI. Orlh)ptera {q.w.). Grasshoppers, locusts, etc. See Cockroach, Cricket, 
JMole Cricket, Mantis, Gryllus, Earwig, Phasmid^, Walking Stick, and Locusts 
AND Grasshoppers. 

Order VII. Nearoptera (q.v.). Wings four, all membranous, and nearly equal in 
size; lace-like in appearance; metamorphosis rarely complete; larvai six-legged. See 
May Fly, Ephemera, Dragon Fly, Ant Lion, Caddis Fly, Golden Eye-Fly, Stone 
Fly, and Termites. 

Order VIII. Aphaniptera (Gr. ap/ianos, showing but little). Wings rudimentary, in 
the form of plates; moutli suctorial; metamorphosis complete. See Flea and Chigoe. 

Order IX. Diptera (q.v.). See also MusctD^, Bot, Tabinid^, Crane Fly, Ceci- 
domyia, Hessian Fly, Horse Fly, House Fly, Forest Fly, Cheese Hopper, CKs- 
trid.e. Maggot, Sheep Louse, Turnip Fly, and Wheat Fly. This order comprises 
what are commonly known as flies. 

Ordxr X. Lepidopiera (q.v.). Butterflies and mollis (q.v.). See Caterpillar, 
Cabbage Moth, Cabbage Butterfly, Codltn ]MoTn, Corn Moth, Clothes Moth, 
Dea-^h's-Head Moth, Ghost Moth, Goat Moth. Grass ]Moth, Hawk Moth, Pea 
?tlAGG0i, Plumed Moth, Winter Moth, and Tinid^. 

Order XI. Hijirtenoptera {(\.y.). Wings four, membranous, with fewnervures; wings 
sometimes absent; mouth always having maxillas. which sometimes aid in forming a 
suctorial mouth. The order is very extensive. See Ant, Bee, Hornet, Wasp, Hum- 
ble Bee, Carpenter Bee, Gall Fly, Ichneumon, Saw Flies, and Sphegid/E. 

Order Xll. Strepsiptera (q.v.). These animals are minute parasites on bees, etc. 
The female is a soft grub without feet, but with a horny head, which it protrudes from 
between the abdominal segments of its host. The males are winged and active. The 
larvai are active, and have six feet. 

Order XIII Coleopte.ra (q.v.). Mouth having an upper lip, two mandibles, two max 
illae, and maxillary palpi; a movable lower lip with two jointed labial palpi. The larvai 
usually have thirteen segments, including the head. This order comprises the beetles. 
See Cantharis, Chafer, Cockchafer, Pine Chafer, Bark Beetle. Click Beetle, 
Blaps, Darkling Beetle. Cocoanut Beetle, Goliah Beetle, Golden Beetle, 
Hercules Beetle. Pea Beetle. Pose Beetle. Rove Beetle, St.\g Beetle, Death 
Watch, Clover Weevil, Pea Weevil, Weevil, Meal AVorm, Dysticus, Lamellf- 



Ill 



Invertebrate. 



CORNES, Hop Flea. Firefly. GLf>'v\-\\-oRM, Elater, ^Iylabkis, Tun:vir Fly, Scara- 
B^iD^:, ScARAiJ.EUs, WiNE WoKM, and Xylophaga. 

Sub-kingdom Mollusca (Lat. vioUIk, soft). Soli-bodicd ar.imals, usual]}'' having a 
shell or cxo-skeleton, and commonly known as slieil-Jish. The blood-circulating system 
is placed near tlic back, the nervous system near the ventral surtace, the alimentary 
canal lying mostly between the two. "\Vlien well developed, the nervous system cuu- 
sists of three principal nervous masses or ganglia. There is usually, but not always, 
a heart, or blood-propelling organ. The digestive system consists ot a mouth, oesopha- 
gus or gullet, stomach and intestine and excretory oritice, though in some the latier 
organ is absent. The mouth in some is furnished with ciliated tentacles, as in polyzoa; 
in others with two ciliated arms, as in brachiopoda. In the bivalves, or JamelUbranrhi- 
ata, the moulh has four membranous palpi; sometimes it has a complicated system of 
teeth, as in gasteropoda and pteropoda. Generally there are salivary glands, and the 
liver is well developed, pouring the bile into the stomach or commencement of the gut. 
In the mollusca proper, kidneys have also been found. Blood colorless or very slightly 
tinged. In poh'zoa the circulation is effected by the motion of cilia. In tuniaita the 
heart is tube-like, and propels the blood periodical!}' in either direction. In the higher 
orders there is always a distinct heart, -which is s3'Stemic, consisting of an auricle and a 
ventricle. See Mollusca. This sub-kingdom includes two great divisions called moi- 
hiscokla and mollusca proper, both comprising seven principal classes. 

Division A. ^Iolluscoida. Nervous system consists of only one ganglion, or a 
pair with accessory ganglia; heart imperfect or absent. Divided into three classes: 
Poh'zoa, tunicata, and brachiopoda. 

Class I. Polyzoa (q. v.). See also Pll^iatella. 

Class II. Tunicata (q.v.). Sec also Ascidia. Pyrosoaiid.e, and Salpa. 

Class III. Brachiopoda (q.v.). Body protected by a bivalve shell lined by an 
integument or mdittle. ]\Ioutli furnished with spirally coiled processes or arms. Ven- 
tral valve usually the larger of the two. All marine; commonly known as lamp-shells. 
See Lamp-Shell. This class is divided into ten families. 

Furiiib/ 1. Terebi'atulidce (Lat. terebro, to bore). See Terebratula. Most of these 
mollusks commenced their existence in the paleozoic rocks, and have survived to tlic 
present time, but some are extinct. 

Family 2. Thecididm (Gr. tJukc, a sheath). These animals are attached to some 
object at the sea-bottom by the beak of the ventral, or larger valve. All the l^nown 
species are included in the single genus thecidium, which commenced in the upper 
trias, and there is only one species which is not exclusively fossil. 

Family 3. Spiriferida'. See Spikifeks. These animals had a curiously constructed 
shell, and their remains are very interesting. They range from the Silurian to the 
Permian formations, and none have been found later tlnui The lias. 

Fatnily 4. Kaninckinida^. The only genus known, koninckina , is represented by a 
single species, K. leonhardi, of the trias of St. Cassian. 

Family 5. RltynchonellidcE {Gv . rhynchos, a beak). Commencing in the lower silurian. 
one genus only remaining, rhynclionella (q.v.). The pentamerus (q.v.), an interesting 
fossil, ranges from the lower silurian to the c:'.rboniferous inclusive. 

Family 6. ScropJLomeiiidce. All exclusively paleozoic. Principal genera: orfhis, 
orf/iMna, Davidsonia, strophomcna, and lepio'.na. See Orthis. The typical species of 
(jrM2*z/ia are silurian; but according to Davidson the genus ranges through the Devo- 
nian and carboniferous formations into the Permian, 

Family 7. Froductid(E. Shell attached to submarine objects by the beak or by means 
of spines borne by the ventral valve. Genus chonctc^, found in silurian, Devonian, 
and carboniferous "formations. Producta in Devonian to PermiaiL 

Family 8. Craniadoi This family contains only one genus, crania, which is found 
in the silurian and in all formations to the present time. The fossils are very beauti- 
ful and interesting. 

Family 9. Diminidcc. Pange from silurian to present time. A description of these 
interesting fossils may be found in the Paleontology of JS'tic Fork, by James Hall, and 
in Dana's Manual of Geology. 

Family 10. Lingulidce (Lat. Ungula. a little tongue). Range from Cambrian period 
to the present time. Animal fixed by a muscular peduncle passing out between tlie 
beaks of the valves. Shell of horny texture, containing phosphorus in its composition. 
The genus obolus. a beautiful fossil, is confined to the silurian rocks. The present 
representative is Ungula (q.v.). 

Division B. Mollusca Proper. Those members of the sub-kingdom mollu-ca 
•which have three principal pairs of ganglia, distributed irregularly in position, and a 
heart which never has less than two chambers. They are naturally disposed into two 
groups — X\\e Acephala. which have no distinct head,' as the oyster and other lamdli- 
h'-anchiata; and the Enc^ephala, in which there is a distinct head, as in W\e gaMeropolx. 
nteropods, and cepludopods. These three latter groups or classes have complicated 
.irramrements of teeth upon the tongue, for which reason they have been given I>y 
Huxley the general name odontophorn. The division acephala contains only one class." 

Class I. '"Lamellibranciiiata (q.v.), (Lat. lamella, a plate; Gr. hranchlr.^'^xW^), called 



112 

Invertebrate. a i -^ 

by Lamarck clionchlfeva. These animals have wo distinct head; body protected b)' a 
bivalve shell, as in the brachiopods, but the sliebs dilier as niucli as ihe animals. In 
the bracliiopods one shell is generally C()nsi(kTal)ly larger than the other, while in the 
lamellibrauchiates the two shells are generally of eqital size Again, in the bracliiopods 
either one of the shells is synimetrieai, or equilateral; that is, a line may divide it into 
two equal and relatively sinuhir halves, wnile the valve of a laniellilmmchiate is nevj^r 
quite equilateral. See Shell, The respiratory organs are two hunellilorm gills on each 
side of the body, whence the name of the class. Sometimes there is only one gill on 
each side. These gills, or plates, or branchise, are composed of tubular rods and a net- 
M'ork of capillary vessels. Externally they are furnished with vibratory cilia for the 
circulation of water over the surface. In some the jnargins of the mantle (the integu- 
mentary covering in all mollusca, ^and which secretes the shell, see Molluscs) are 
united to form a closed branchial or respiratory chamber into which water is admitted 
and expelled by tubes called siphons. In others the margins of the mantle are free. 
The valves of the shell are brought together by one or two muscles, called adduciovfi. 
Tliose having but one are called monomyaria, those having two, diinyaHa. Their habits 
iire various; some lie on the bottom, as the oyster and scallop; others are tixed to 
objects, as mussels; others are sunk several inches deep in the sand on the sea-shore; 
others bore holes in rocks or wood, wliile many are fiee and locomotive. The lamelli- 
brauchiates are divided into two sections, with respect to the respiratory organs; those 
having the margins of the mantle free, without siphons, are with two exceptions Cidled 
adpiionida, the other dphordda. iJoth sections comprise 21 families. 

Section A. Asiphonida. 

Family \. Ostreida>. Shell inequivalve and sliglitly inequilateral; a single adductor; 
mantle margins not united; ostira, rccten. See Oyster and Scai>lop. 

Fdmlly 2. ADiciilidce. Mantle margins free. See Pearl Oyster, Pinjn^a, and Mal- 

r.EACE.^. 

Family 3. MyiilidcB. Shell equivalve, mantle lobes united between the siphonal open- 
ings. One genus is dreissena (q. v.). 

Family 4:. Arcadm. Shell equivalve; mantle margins separated. See Arca. 
Family 5. Trigowidoe. Shell equivalve, trigonal; mantle margin free. See Tri- 

ClONIA. 

Family 6. JJnionida'. Shell usually equivalve; mantle margins united between 
Siiphonal openings. S(.'e Fresii-"\vater Mussel, 

Section B. Siphoniix\. 

Family 7. Giiamida'. Shell inequivalve; adductor impressions large; mantle mar- 
gins united; siphonal orifices small. See Ciiama, 

Faviily 8. llippuritidce. Shell inequivalve, uiisymmetrical, thick. See Hippuriteh 
and Radiolites, 

Family 9. Tiidacnidm (q.v.). Shell equivalve, large, and very beautiful; manti*; 
margins extensively united; siphonal orifices surrounded by a thickened border. Se*j 
C*>AM, Bear's Paw. 

tomily 10. Cardiada^. Shell equivalve, heart-shaped, with radiating ribs; manl.l* 
open in front; siphons usually short. See Cockle. 

Family 11. Litciuidai. Fossils mostly found in Secondary, tertiary, and recent 
formations, but some aie Devonian and carboniferous. See Lucina. 

Family 12. Cycladidm. Shell sub-orbicular; mantle open in front; a single siphon, 
or two moie or less united, Cyclas and cyrena, are the two most important members, 
and date from the commencement of the cretaceous period to present time. They 
inhabit fresh water. 

Family 13. Cyprinidce. (There is also a genus of fishes of this name.) Shell equi- 
valved; mantle margins united behind by a curtain. The animals comprising this 
group are rc])resented by Cyprina and Astarte. The latter has sometimes been assigned 
to the rank of a distinct family, Astartida3. See Astarte. 

Family 14. Vencridxe (q.v.). 

Family 15. Mactrida'. See Mactra. 

Family 16. Tellinidm (q.v.). 

Family 17. Soknida?. See Solen, 

Family 18. Myacido'. The more important genera are mya, Ihetis. and pan&pcera (q.v.). 

Family 19. Aiiatinidce. Mantles more or less united; siphons long, more or le.ss 
united. This family has considerable paleontological importance, numerous in paleo- 
roic, and reaching a great development in secondary formations. 

Family 20. GaHrochrenido'. Mantle margins thick in front; siphons long and united ; 
])iu'rowlng in mud, and predaceous upon oysters and other mollusks, burrowing lioles 
throuiih their shells. Range from oolite to the present time. See Aspekgillum, Gas- 
troch^::na, and Clavaoella. 

Family 21. PholadldjE. Manj' fossil species are found in Jura.«8ic rocks. The living 
genus, <i'ylo}ihaaa, includes the teredo (q.v.). See Piiolab. 

Eiiccphalic{\W\H\or\ of mollusca, or rephalov?/oi-a. 

Class II. Gasteropoda (q.v.). Ti)ese animals never iahnbit a bivalve shell. Many 
arc naked, but the majority are provided with a univalve, sometimes with a multivalv« 
shell The gastoropods are divided into two primary sections, pukiwfnfeTa and l/i-qncht- 



113 



Invertebrate. 



fera, according as their respiratory organs are formed for breathing in free air or in 
water. 

Section A. Branchifera. In this section the respiration is aquatic, by walls of the 
mantle cavity, or by gills. Divided into three orders. 

Order I. Prosobranchiata {PccUnibranchiata). Branchiae pectinated or plume-like 
and situated in advance of the heart, whence the name. 

Section 1. Siphonostomata (q.v.). Margin of shell notched or produced into a canal. 
Comprises six families. 

Family 1. Sirombidai (q.v.). 

Family 3. Muricidm. See Murex, Purple Colors, and Fusus. 

Family 3. Bucciiiidm. See Pukpura, Helmet Shell, and Whelk. 

Family 4. Conidoi. See Cone Shell. 

Family 5. Volutidce (q.v.). 

Family 6. Cyprceidce. See Cowry. 

Section 2. llolostomata. Margin of shell seldom notched or produced into a canal. 

Family 7. Naticidm. 

Family 8. Pyramidellidm. See Chemnitzia. 

Family 9. Cerithiadce. 

Family 10. Melaniadm. 

Family 11. Turretellidc^ (q.v.). 

Family 13. Littorirudo', periwinkle (q.r.). 

Family 13. Paludi7iidm, river snails, ampullaria, and paludina, the latter well 
known. 

Family 14. Neritidm. Globose shell; long slender tentacles; mostly marine, and 
belonging to the tropics; one British species. 

Family 15. Turbinidoi (q.v.). Top shells. See Pheasant Shell and Trochidje. 

Family 16. Haloitidm, ear-shells (q.v.). Shell spiral, ear-shaped. See Haliotis and 
Ianthina. 

Family 17. FissurelUd(B (q.v.). 

Family 18. Calyptrmidce. See Calyptr^a. 

Family 19. Patellidm. See Limpet. 

Family 20. Bentalidce. See DANTALitJM. 

Family 21. Chitonidce. See Chiton. 

Order II. Opisthobranchiata. Branchiae placed toward the rear of the body, whence 
the name. 

Section 1, Tectibranchiata. Branchiae covered by a shell or mantle, a shell ia most; 
sexes united. 

Family 1. Tornatellidm. Cretaceous, principally. 

F^amily 2. Bullidae. Babble shells. See Bulla. 

Family %. Aplysiadm. Shell absent or rudimentary, and concealed by the mantle; 
animal slug-like (aplysia). 

Family 4. Plenrobranchidm. Shell covers only the back of the animal. That of one 
species is known as the Chinese umbrella. 

Family 5. Phyllidiadce. Shell absent. 

Section 2. Nudibranchiata (q.v.). Animals destitute of a shell in the adult condition. 
Branchiae external, on the back or sides of the body. 

Family 6. Dorido'. Sea lemons. See Doris. 

Family 7. Tritoniadm. Nearly allied to the preceding. 

Family 8. jFolidce. See Glaucus. 

Family 9. Phyllirhoidfje. 

Family 10. Elysiadm, elysia, actoeonia. 

Order III. Nucleobranchiata (q.v.) or Heteropoda. Shell present or absent; animal 
free swimming, in the open sea, with a tin-like tail or flattened ventral fin. 

Family 1. Firolidm. See Firola and Carinaria. 

Family 2. Aflantidm. See Bellerophon. 

Section B. Pulmonifera. See Pulmonata. Respiration aerial, by means of a. 
pulmonary chamber. 

Division I. Inoperculata. Shell having no operculum. 

Family 1. IIelicid(B. See Bulimus. 

Family 2. Limacidce. See Slug. 

Fo.mily^. Oncidiad<p.. Shell absent; animal slug-like. 

Family 4. Limnmidm. See Limn^a. 

Family 5. Auriculidce. See Auricula, 

Division II. Operculata, Shell having an operculum. 

Family Q. Gyclodomidcp.. Shell spiral; aperture nearly circular. All these animals 
are terrestrial, beginning in eocene. 

Family 7. Aciculidce. Shell elongated, cylindrical. 

Class III. Pteropoda (q.v.). Open sea animals, swimming by means of wing-like 
appendages on each side of the neck. There is usually a symmetrical, glassy shell, 
muscular stomach, and well-developed liver. The heart has an auricle and a ventricle. 
Nervous system composed mainly of one ganglion below the gullet, with branches. Sexes 
united, young passing through a metamorphosis. Divided into two orders. 
U, K. VIII.— 8 



Investiture. 114 

Invocation. x x i 

Order I. Thecosomata (Gr. theke, sheath, and soma, body). Having an external shell : 
respiratory organs contained in a cavity in tlie mantle. 

Family 1. Hyaleidce. See Hyalea, 

Family 2. Limacitiidce. Shells minute, spiral; sj?^>a^i's. 

Order II. Oy?miosomata (q.y.), (Gr. r/ymnos, naked; soma, body). See Clio. 

Class IV. Cephalopoda (q.v.). Divided into two distinct and well-marked orders. 

Order I. Dibranchiata. Having two branchiae and an ink-bag; comprising two sec- 
tions, Octopoda and Decapoda. 

Section A. Octopoda. Having not more than eight arms, which are provided with 
sessile suckers. 

Family 1. ArgonautidcB. See Argonaut. 

Family 2. Octopodidce. See Poulpe. 

Section B. Decapoda (Gr. deka, ten; podes, feet). Arms eight, with tvro clavated ten- 
tacles, making ten; suckers pedunculated. 

Family 8. ^Tenthidoi. See Hook Squid. 

Family 4. Belemrdtidce. See Belemnites. 

Family 5. Sepaidm. See Cuttle-fish. 

Family G. SpirulidcB. 

Order II Teirabrancliiata (q.v.). Having four branchice (whence the name); no ink- 
bag; more than ten arms, and these without suckers. 
^Family 1. Nautllidoi. See Nautilus. 

Family 2. Ammonitidoe. See Ammonites, Ceratites, and Baculites. 

INVESTITURE (Lat. in, and \)estio, to clothe), in feudal and ecclesiastical history, 
means tiie act of giving corporal possession of a manor, office, or benetice, acconi])anied 
by a certain ceremonial, such as the delivery of a branch, a banner, or an instrument of 
ottice, more or less designed to signify the power or authority whicli it is supposed lo 
convey. The contest about ecclesiastical investitures is so interw^oven with the whole 
course of media3val history, that a brief account of its origin and nature is indispensable 
to a right understanding of many of the most important events of that period. The 
system of feudal tenure had become so universal that it affected even the land held by 
ecclesiastics, and attached to most of the higher ecclesiastical dignities, monastic as 
well as secular. Accordingly, ecclesiastics who, in virtue of the ecclesiastical office 
which they held, came into possession of the lands attached to such offices, began to be 
regarded as becoming by the very fact feudatory to the suzerain of these lands; and, as 
a not unnatural result, the suzerains thought themselves entitled to claim, in refei'enco 
to these personages, the same rights which they enjoyed over the other feudatories of 
their domains. Among these rights was that of granting solemn investiture. Now, in 
the case of bishops, abbots, and other church dignitaries, the form of investiture con- 
sisted in the delivery of a pastoral staff or crosier, and the placing a ring upon the 
finger; and as these badges of office were emblematic — the one of the si)iritual care of 
souls, the other of the espousals, as it were, between the pastor and his ciiurch or mon- 
astery — the assumption of this right by the lay suzerains became a subject of constant 
and angry complaint on the part of the church. On the part of the suzerains it was 
replied that they did not claim to grant by this rite the spiritual powers of the office, 
their function being solely to grant possession of its temporalities, and of the temporal 
rank thereto annexed. But the church-party urged that the ceremonial in itself involved 
the granting of spiritual powers; insomuch that in order to prevent the clei'gy from 
electing to a see when vacant, it was the practice of the emperors to take possession of 
the crosier and ring, until it should be their own pleasure to grant investiture to their 
favorites. The disfavor in which the practice had long been held found its most ener- 
getic expression in the person of Gregory VH., who having, in the year 1074, enacted 
most stringent measures for the repression of simony, proceeded, in 1075, to condemtj. 
under excommunication, the practice of investiture, as almost necessarily connected 
with simony, or leading to it. Thi^ prohibition, however, as is observed by Mosheim 
(ii. 326), only regarded investiture in the objectionable form in which it was then prac- 
ticed, or invcstilure of w'hatever form, when the office had been obtained simoniacally. 
But a pope of the same century. Urban H., went further, and (1095) absolutely and 
entirely forbade, not alone lay investiture, but the taking of an oath of f :il1y to a lay 
suzerain by an ecclesiastic, even though holding under him by the ordinary feudal ten- 
ure. The contest continued during the most of the 11th century. In the beginning of 
the 12th c, it assumed a new form, the pope, Paschal II., having actually agreed to'sur- 
render all the possessions and royalties with which the chiu'ch had been endowed, and 
whicli alone formed the pretext of the claim to investiture on the part of the emperor, 
on condition of the emperor (Henry V.) giving up that claim to investiture. This 
treaty, however, never had any practical effect; nor was the contest finally adjusted 
until the celebrated concordat of Worms in 1122, in which the emperor agreed to give 
up the form of mvestiture with the riiuj and pastoral staff, to grant to the clergy the right 
of free elections, and to restore all the ])ossessions of the church of Rome which liad 
been seized cither by himself or by his father; while the pope, on his part, consented 
that the elections should be held in the presence of the emperor or his official, but with 
a right of appeal to the provincial synod; that investiture might be given by the empe- 



1 "I '?: Investiture'. 

^^*-^ Invocation. 

ror, but only by the toucJi oftlie scepUr; "and that the bishops aiul othnr clinrch dignitaries 
aiiouid t'aitlifully discharge all the feudal duties which belonged to their principality. 

8uch Avas the compact entered into between the contending parties, and for a lime it 
had considerable effect in restraining one class of abuses; but it went only a little way 
towards eradicating the real evil of simony and corrupt promotion of unworthy candi- 
dates for churcli dignities. Still the principle upon which tlie opposition to iuvestitui'e 
was founded was almost a necessary part of the mediaeval system, and Mosheim (ii. 32?) \ 
regards it as "perfectly accordant with tlie religious principles of the age." It was, in \ 
fact, but one of the many forms in whicli the spirit of churchmanship has arrayed itself, 
whether in ancient or modern times, against what are called the Erastian tendencies 
Avliich never fail to develop themselves under the shadow of a state church, no matter 
what may be its creed or its constitution. 

INVESTITURE, the term used in Scotch law to denote the giving feudal possession 
of heritable propert}^ It was formerly given to the vassal in presence of the pares curing 
but latterly has been superseded by infeftmeut or sasine, and now it is effected by mere 
registration of the deed of conveyance. 

INVOCATION OF ANGELS AND SAINTS, the act of addressing prayers to the blessed 
spirits who are with God, whether the angels or the souls of the just who have been 
adnutted to the happiness of heaven. The practice of addressing praj^ers to angels, 
espccialh' to the angel-guardian, to the Virgin Mary, and to other saints, prevails in the 
Roman, the Greek, the liusso-Greek, and the eastern churches of all the various rites. 
In the Christian religion, the principle of the unity of God excludes all idea of subor- 
dinate sharers of the divine nature, such as is to be found in paganism, and all alike, 
Roman Catholics as well as Protestants, agree that its very first principles exclude the 
idea of rendering divine worship, no matter how it may be modified, to any other than 
the One Intiuite Being. But while Protestants carry this principle sp far as to exclude 
every species of religious worship and every form of invocation addressed to angels or 
saints, as trenching upon God's honor, and irreconcilable with the Scriptures, whicli 
hold him forth as the sole object of worship and the only fountain of mercy, the Roman 
Catholic religion permits and sanctions a worship (called douki<() of the saints, inferior 
to the supreme worship (latreia) offered to God, and an invocation of the saints, not for 
the purpose of obtaining mercy or grace from themselves directly, but in order to ask 
their prayers or intercession with God on our behalf. For this doctrine and the analo- 
gous practice, they do not advance the direct authority of Scripture (except a few pas- 
sages which seem to thorn to imply the intercommunion of the two worlds, as Matt, 
xiii. 3, Luke xiv. 17. Exod. xxxii. 13), but rely on what to them is equally decisive tes- 
timony, viz., the imwritten word of God conveyed by tradition. Origen (0pp. ii. p. 
273) sj)eaksof the belief that " the saints assist us by their praj^ers" as a doctrine which 
is "doubted by no one." St. Cyprian, addressing the confessors going to maityrdom, 
engages by anticipation their prayers in his behalf when the}' shall have received their 
heavenly crown (Ep. GO, Dod well's edition) To the same effect are cited the testimo- 
nies of Basil (0pp. ii. 155), Gregory Nazianzen (0pp. i. 288), Gregory of Nyssa(ii. 1017), 
Ambrose (ii. 200), Chrysostom (iv. 449), and many other fathers, as well as the liturgies 
of the various ancient churches, whether of the Roman, the Greek, the Syrian, or thp 
Egyptian lite. 

On the other hand, Protestant historians, even admitting the full force of these testi- 
monies to the existence of the practice, allege that the practice is an early but unscrip- 
tural addition, dating only from the infusion into the church system of Alexandrian 
neoplatonism and oriental magianism, which they believe to have left traces even in 
the so-called orthodox Christianity of the 4tli and 5th centuries. But leaving aside the 
doctrinal controversy, the fact at least is cotain that in the 4th, and still more in the 
5th and following centuries, the usage was universal; and a curious evidence of its 
prevalence is furnished by the fact that the very excess to which it was carried was con- 
demned as a heresy (that of the Collyridians) by those who themselves confessed the 
lawfulness of the practice when confined within its legitimate limits. That similar 
excesses in the practice and similar abuses as to the nature and limits of the legitimate 
invocation of the saints continued through the mediaeval period, Roman Catholics them 
"selves admit, although they allege that such abuses were at all times reprobated by the 
authentic teaching of the church; and the multiplied devotions to the saints, especially 
to the Blessed Virgin, the efficacy claimed for them, and the extraordinary legends con- 
nected with them, and the prominence which the worship had assumed in the church, 
were among the most fertile themes of invective with the first reformers. The council 
of Trent (25th Sess., Ofi the Invocation of Saints) defines very precisely what is the doc- 
trine of the'Catholic church on this subject. It declares "that the saints who reign 
with God offer up their praj^ers to God for men; that it is good and useful suppliantly 
to invoke them, and to resort to their prayers, aid, and help, for the purpose of obtain^ 
ing benefits of God through his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our Redeemer 
and Savior." From this decree it is inferred that the Catholic doctrine on the saints 
does not prescribe the practice of invoking them as necessar}^ or essential, but only as 
"good and useful," and that what is to be asked of them is not the direct bestowal of 
grace and mercy, as from themselves, but only their prayers, their assistance, and their 



Invoice, 1 1 A 

Iodine. ^ ^^ 

help in obtaining benefits from God; and although many forms of prayer which are in 
use among Catholics bear, especially to a Protestant reader, all the appearance of direct 
appeals to the saints themselves for the benefits which are implored, yet all Catholic 
authorities are unanimous in declaring that these forms of words are to be intei-preted, 
and that, from habitual use, they are so interpreted, even by the most superficially 
instructed Catholics, with the understood explanation that all the power of the saints 
to assist us consists exclusively in their prayers for us, and seconding our prayers by 
their own. See Bellarmine, Controverdoe de Sanctorum BeatitiuUne, lib. i. cap. xvii, 

Protestants object to the invocation of saints and of angels, that it is without evi- 
dence of divine authority, contrary to the whole tenor of Scripture, and derogatory to 
the mediator=;liip of Christ. They ask what reason can be adduced for believing that 
prayers addressed to saints are even heard by them, or that they have always a knowl- 
edge of the worship addressed to them? They further deny that the prayei's addressed 
to saints — and particularly to the Virgin Mary — are always capable of explanation as 
merely an asking of their prayers on behalf of those who invoke them, and quote many 
instances in proof. 

INVOICE, a list or account of merchandise or goods sold, either sent along with the 
goods themselves or separately. 

INVOLUCRE (Lat. a wrapper or envelope), in botany, is a group of bracts surround- 
ing flowers in their unexpanded state, and occupying a place on tlie floral axis beneath 
them after their expansion. The bracts which form an involucre are generally grouped 
in a whorl. In umbelliferous flowers, there is very commonly an involucre, not only 
to the umbel, but to each division of the umbel, or umhellule. The former is called the 
general involucre, or simply the involucre ; the latter are partial involucres, or involucels. 
The cup of the acorn, hazel, chestnut, etc., may be regarded as an involucre. 

INVOLUTE. See Evolute. 

INVOLU'TION AND EVOLUTION are two operations the converse of each other. The 
object of the first is to raise a number to any power, which is effected by continuously 
multiplying the number by itself till the number of factors is equal to the number des- 
ignating the power; thus, 3 raised to the t/m-d power is 2 X 2 X 2, or 8; 7 raised to the 
fourth power is 7 X 7 X 7 X 7, or 2401, etc. Evolution, on the other hand, is the ex- 
traction of a root of any number, that is, it is a method for discovering what number, 
when raised to a certain power, will give a certain known number — e.g., the square 
root of 64 is 8, that is, 8 is the number which, raised to the second power, will give 64; 
3 is the fourth root of 81, that is, 3 raised to the fourth power is 81, and so on. The 
symbols expressive of the two operations are as follows: 5"^ means that 5 is to be raised to 
the third power; (7'^)^ means that the square or second power of 7 is to be raised to the 
fifth power; \^d or \^9 or 9^ signifies that the extraction of the second or square root of 
9 is required; |/256 or 258*, that the fourth root of 256 is to be extracted; and so on. 
Involution and evolution, like multiplication and division, or differentiation and inte- 
gration, differ in the extent of their application; the former, or direct operation, can al- 
ways be completed, while there are numberless cases in which the latter fails to express 
the result with perfect accuracy. 

INYO, a CO. of California, bounded w. by the Sierra Nevada, ande. by Nevada; 4,725 
sq.m. ; pop., '80, 2,928. One of the lofty peaks of the Sierra Nevada here is Mt. Whit- 
ney. Owens river flows into Owens lake, a large body of water. Part of the valley of 
the river is fertile. Gold, copper, tin, sulphur, and sail are found. The staple products 
are grain, hay, wool, and pork. There are some quartz and saw mills. Capital, 
Independence. 

10, in Greek mythology the daughter of Inachus or lasus, and priestess of Juno at 
Argos, was loved by Jupiter, who, on account of Jimo's suspicions, changed her into 
a white cow. Juno having obtained of him the cow as a present, set the hundred-eyed 
Argus to watch her. Mercury by command of Jupiter killed Argus and released her. 
Juno then sent a gad-fly, which Dursued her until in her wanderings she reached Egypt, 
where she recovered her original form. The full account of this myth is found in the 
Prometheus of ^schylus. According to the usual explanation, lo symbolically repre- 
sents the moon, Argus the stars, and Mercury the clouds. 

I ODINE (symb. I. equiv. 127) is one of a group of four non-metallic elements to 
which the term halogens (q.v.) has been applied. It derives its name from Gr. iddes, 
violet-like, in consequence of its magnificent purple color when in a state of vapor. At 
ordinary temperatures, it usually occurs in solid dark-gray glistening scales; it is, how- 
ever, crystallizable, and sometimes appears as an octahedron with a rhombic base. It 
is soft, and admits readily of trituration, has the high specific gravity of 4.95, and 
evolves a peculiar and disagreeable odor, which indicates its great volatility. It fuses 
at 225°, and at about 350° it boils, and is converted into the purple vapor to which it 
owes its name; it has an acrid taste, and communicates a brownish-yellow cok)r to the 
skin. It is very slightly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in watery solutions of 
iodide of potassium and of hydriodic acid, and in alcohol and ether. Iodine vapor is the 
heaviest of all known vapors, its specitic gravity being 8.716. It combines directly with 



m Invoice, 

ludiue. 

pnosphoms, sulphur, and the motals. Its behavior with hydrogen is annlogo\is to that 
of chloriueand bronHne(seeHYDi{OCirLOiiic Acid), but itsatlinities are weaker tliau those 
of the last-nanuid elements. It likewise combines with numerous orgauic substances, 
and the compovmd wiiicli it forms vvitli starcli is of sucli an intense blue color, that a 
solution of starch forms the best test for the presence of free iodine. By m^ans of this 
test, one part of iodine may be detected when dissolved in one uiillion parts of water. 

The following are some of the most important iodine compounds. With h^'drogen, 
it forms only one compound, hydrwdlc acid (HI), a colorless pungent acid gas, which in 
most respects is analogous witli hydrochloric acid. It is obtained by the action of water 
on t(.*ri()di(le of phosphorus. The soluble iodides of the metals may be obtained by the 
direct combination of hydriodicacid with the metalJic oxides, the resulting compounds 
being the metallic iodide and water. Some of these iodides are of extreme brilliancy, 
and others are of great value in medicine; amongst the hitter must be especially men- 
tiened iodide of potassium, iodide of iron, and the iodides of Inercur3^ 

Iodide of potassium is, next to quinine and morphia, the most important medicine 
in the pharmacopoeia. It crystallizes m colorless cubes, which are sometimes clear, but 
usually have an opaque whitish appearance, and aie soluble in water and spirit. It is 
decomposed and the iodine set free, by chlorine, bromine, fuming nitric acid, and ozone 
(q. v.). There are various waj^s of obtaining this salt; the following is one of the best. 
If iodine 1:3 added to a wai-m solution of potash until a brown tint begins to appear, 
iodide of potassium (Kl)and iodate of potash (KO, lOa) are formed. J^y gentle ignition 
of the residue obtained by evaporation, the iodate is decomposed into iodide of potassium 
and oxygen, so that all that remains is fused iodide of potassium, which is dissolved in 
water and allowed to crystallize. Iodide of iron is formed by digesting iron wire or 
filings in a closed vessel with four times the weight of iodine suspended in water. Direct 
combination takes place, and a pale-green solution is formed, which by evaporation 
i)i vacuo yields crystals. It is the solution which is most commonly employed in 
medicine, but as, on exposure to the air, it becomes decomposed, and iodine is liberated, 
it is usually mixed with strong syrup, which retards this change. 

There are two iodides of mercur\', viz., the greeri sub-iodide (Hgal) and the red iodide 
(Hgl). They may be formed either by the direct union of the two elements, or by the 
double decomposition of iodide of potassium and mercurial salts. There are two well- 
defined compounds of iodine and 0x3 gen, viz., iodic acid (IO5) and periodic acid (IO7), 
corresponding to chloric and perchloric acid, neither of which are of any special 
interest. 

Iodine in small quantity, and usually in combination with sodium, magnesium, or 
calcium, is very widely diffused over the earth's surface. It exists in sea-waler, in 
marine animals and plants, and in certain mineral springs. It is also found in several 
minerals, as, for exanq^ie, in certain Mexican silver ores, in Silesian zinc ores, in phos- 
phorite from the Upper Palatinate, and in coal. 

Iodine was discovered in 1811, byCourtois, in the waste liquors produced in the man- 
ufacture of carbonate of soda from the ashes of sea-weeds. A few years later, Gay- 
Lussac discovered that it was a simple elementary body. It is obtained from the half- 
fused ash of dried sea-weeds, which is known in this country as kelp (q.v.), and in 
Normandy as varek, and contains the iodides of sodium, potassium, inagnesium, and 
perhaps calcium in considerable quantity. The iodine is liberated by the addition of 
binoxide of manganese and sulphuric acid. Most of our commercial iodine is prepared 
in Glasgow. 

The preparations of iodine are employed extensively in medicine and in photography 
(q.v ). Iodide of potassium, and the preparations of iodine genei'dly, are almo>t 
entitled to be regarded as speciiics in cases of goitre, bronchocele, or Derbyshire neck. 
Out of 364 cases (collected by Bayle) which were treated with iodine, 274 were cured. 
Hanson, Lugol, and others have shown the value of the iodine-treatment in scrofula. 
The preparations of iodine are also eminently successful as resolvents in chronic indura- 
tion, and enlai'gement of the liver, spleen, uterus, etc. In many forms of chronic rheu- 
matism, and in certain affections of the osseous system, due to a syphilitic taint, iodide 
of potassium is of the greatest service; and its value in the treatment of chronic lead- 
poisoning is not so generally known, even in the medical profession, as it deserves to 
be. The iodide of potassium dissolves the compounds of lead with albumen, tibrine, 
etc., wi\ich abound in the body in chronic lead-poisoning; and these dissolved com- 
pounds are excreted by the kidneys. In these cases, lead may often be detected in the 
urine, almost inuuediately after the administration of the iodide. This salt has a simi- 
lar action in chronic m( rciu'ial poisoning, and cases are recorded of mercurial salivation 
having come on durinirthe use of iodide of potassium, in consequence of the liberation 
of mercuiy. which liad been previously fixed in the system. 

Iodide of iron, which may be given either in syrup or in the form of Blancard's 
pills (an excellent French mode of administering this salt), is especially serviceable in 
scrofulous affections of the glandular system, in which the use both of iodine and of 
iron is indicated. The iodides of mercury have been prescribed with good effect in 
various forms of syphilis. They must be given with caution, on account of their 
energy, the average dose of the red iodide being a fraction {^-^ to |) of a grain. Pure 
iodine is seldom prescribed internally; but in the form of tincture and ointment, it is a 



Iodoform. 1 1 R 

Ionian. ± ±0 

most useful topical application in cases of goitre, local enlargements, diseases of joir.ls, 
cliilbhiins, etc. 

lu large doses, iodine and most of the iodides act as irritant poisons; but very few 
fatal cases are on record. In the event of poisoning with the tincture of iodine, the tiist 
point is to evacuate the stomach; and the vomiting is assisted by the copious use of tepid 
liquids, containing starchy matter, as, for instance, starch, Hour, or arrow-root boiled in 
water; the object being to form iodide of starch, wliich is comparatively inert. 

IODOFORM, a substance of analogous composition to chloroform (q.v.), the chlorine 
in the latter being replaced by iodine, its formula being CHI3 (using modern 
equivalent numbers). It is a solid, yellow crystallizable substance, ol)tained by the 
action of tincture of iodine upon an alcoholic solution of potash, the reactions being 
smiilar to those which take place in making chloroform by this method. It melis 
at 246.2° F., but distills with the vapor of water at 212". It possesses some of the 
anaesthetic properties of chloroform, but it has a wider use in medicine, being employed 
in those cases in which the action of iodine (q.v.) is indicated. At the same time it will 
relieve pain, and is therefore peculiarly applicable in cases of painful tumors. It is said 
to be a successful application to ringworm of the sealp, to ulcers of the cornea, and for 
promoting the healing of burns and blisters. Gastralgia, alone or connected with ulcer 
cf the stomach, lias been relieved b}' its administration, and different forms of external 
neuralgia are said to have been cured by it. The dose of iodoform is from one to three 
grains three times a day, given in the form of a pill. As an outward application it may 
be dissolved in glycerine or alcohol, or an oil; or it may be prepared in the form of an 
ointment. A common form for topical application is a solution of one part of iodofoim 
in four parts of sulphuric ether. 

I OX, in Grecian mythology the reputed son of Xuthus and Creusa; but Euripides 
in his tragedy Ion makes him the son of Apollo. 

lO'NA, the modern name of the most famous of the Hebrides, is believed to have 
originated in a mistjiken reading of n for u; the woitl, in the oldest manuscripts, being 
clearly written loan. From the 6th c. to the 17th c. the island was most generally called 
/, //, I((, lo, Eo, Hy, Hi, llii. Hie, Hu, Y, or Ti — that is, simply, "the island;" or 
Icolmkill, I-Columh-Kille, or Hii-Colum-Kille — that is, "the island of Columba of the 
church." 

It is about 3 m. long, and varies in breadth from a mile to a mile and a half. In 1871 
it had a pop. of 236. Its area, computed by Bede at •five families" (or "five hides 
of land," as the passage is rendered in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), is estimated at 2,000 
imperial acres, of which rather more tlian a fourth part is under tillage. The soil is 
naturally fruitful, and yields earlier crops than most parts of Great Britain, barley sown 
before the middle of June being ready for the sickle in August. This remarkable fer- 
tility was regarded as miraculous in the dark ages, and, no doubt, led to the early occu- 
pation of lona. Dunii, the highest point of the island, is 330 ft. above the sea-level. 

Its history begins in the year 563, when St. Columba (q.v ), leaving the shores of 
Ireland, landed upon lona with twelve disciples. Having obtained a grant of the island, as 
well from his kinsman, Conall, the son of Comghall, king of the Scots, as from Br ' 'i, 
the son of Melchon, king of the Picts, he built upon it a monastery, which w^as long 
regarded as the mother-church of the Picts, and was venerated not only among the Scots 
of Britain and Ireland, but among the Angles of the n. of England, who owed their con- 
version to the self-denying missionaries of lona. From the end of the 6th to the end of 
the 8th c. lona was scarcely second to any monastery in the British isles; and it was tliis 
brilliant era of its annals which rose in Johnson's mind wdien he described it as "that 
illustrious island which was once the luminary of the Caledonian regions, whence 
savage clans and roving barbarians derived the benefits of knowledge and the blessings 
of religion." But neither piety nor learning availed to save it from the ravages of^ the 
fierce and heathen Norsemen. They burned it in 795, and agam in 802. Its " fam'ily" 
(as the monks w^ere called) of 68 persons were martyred in 806. A second martyrdom, 
in 825, is tlie subject of a contemporary Latin poem by Walafridus Strabus, abbot of the 
German m« nastery of Reichenau, in the lake of Constance. On the Christmas evening 
of 986 the island was again wasted by the Noisemen, wdio slew the abbot and 15 of his 
monks. Towards the end of the next century the monastery was repaired by St. Margaret. 
the queen of king Malcolm Canmore. It was visited in 1097 by king Magnus the bare- 
footed, of Norway. It was now part of that kingdom, and so fell under the ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction of the bishop of Man and the archbishop of Drontheim. In 1203 the bishops 
of the n. of Ireland disputed the authority of the Manx bishop, pulled down a monastery 
which he had begun to build in the island, and placed the abbey under the rule of an 
Irish abbot of Deny. The Scottish church liad long claimed jurisdiction in lona, and 
before the end of the 13th c. the island fell under the rule of the Scottish king. Its abbey 
"was now peopled by Clugniac monks; and a nunnery of Austin canonesses was plantid 
on its shores. Towards the end of the 15th c. it became the seat of the Scottish bishop 
of the isles, the abbey church being his cathedral and the monks his chapter. 

No building now remains on the island which can claim to- have sheltered St. 
Columba or his disciples. The most ancient ruins are the Laithrichean, or Foundations, 
in a little bay to the w. of Port-a-Cliurraich ; the Coblian Cuildich, or Cudees's Cell, in 



11 Q Iodoform. 

-'-•^ Ionian. 

a hollow between Dunii and Dimbhuirg; t ho rath or hill fort of Dunbliuirg; and the 
Gleann-an-Teampull, or Glen of theJUhurch, in the middle of the island, believed to be 
the site of the monastery which the Irish bishops destroyed in 1203. St. Oran's chapel, 
now the oldest church in the island, may probably be of the latter part of the 11th cen- 
tury. St. Mary's nunnery is perhaps a century later. The cathedral, or St, Mary's church, 
seems to have' been built chietiy in the early part of the 13th century. It has a choir, with 
a sacristy on the n. side, and chapels on the s. side; u. and s. transepts; a central tower, 
about 75 ft. high; and a nave. An inscription on one of tlie columns of the choir appears 
to denote that it was the work of an Irish ecclesiastic who died in 1202. On the n. of 
the cathedral are the chapter-house and other remains of the conventual or monastic 
buildings. In the ''Reilig Oran" — so called, it is supposed, from St. Gran, a Ivinsman 
of St. Columba, the first who found a grave in it — were buried Ecgfrid, king of 
Northumbria, in 684; Godred, king of the Isles, in 1188; and Haco Ospac, king of the 
Isles, in 1228. No monuments of tliese princes now remain. Tlie oluest of the many 
tombstones on the island are two with Irisli inscriptions, one of them, it is believed, being 
the monument of a bishop of Connor wlio died at lona in 1174. 

After centuries of neglect this interesting island seems now to be in the way of 
improvement. It possesses a. church connected witli the establishment, also a free 
church, and a school. A small and conmiodious inn — the St. Columba — was erected in 
18C3 by the duke of Argyll, the propiietor of lona; by which means tourists and anti- 
quarian explorers are enabled to make visits of satisfactory duration. During summer 
steamers from Oban (see Hebrides) call at lona twice a week; they land passengers by 
boats at Baile Mor, the only village on the island, and usually allow time for visiting the 
ruins. See the duke of Argyll's lona (1871). 

lONA ISLAND, a small island in the Hudson river, in Rockland co., about 40 m. 
from New York. It has extensive vineyards, and is a popular resort for excursions. 

IONIA, the ancient name of the most flourishing country of Asia Minor. It received 
its name from the lonians (one of the four mo3t ancient tribes in Greece), who, again, 
according to the mythological account, derived theirs from Ion. the son of Apollo by 
Creusa, a daughter of a king of Athens. According to the usually received tradition, they 
were driven out of the Peloponnesus by the Achaians, and removed to Attica, whence, 
about 1050 B.C., bands of them went forth to settle on the coast of Asia. Ionia was a 
beautiful and fertile country, extending, according to Ptolemy, from the river Hermus to 
the river Meander, along the coast of the ^gean sea, but Herodotus and Strabo niake it 
.somewhat larger. It soon reached a high point of prosperity; agriculture and commerce 
flourished, and great cities arose, of which Ephesus, Smyrna, Clazomenae, Erythro", 
Colophon, and IVIiletus were the most celebrated. These free cities, which formed the 
nucleus of tlie Ionian League, were, however, gradually subdued by the kings of Lydia, 
and passed (557 B.C.) under the sway of the Persians, but were allowed a considerable 
measure of internal liberty. During the great Persian war, the contingent which they 
were compelled to furnish to their oriental masters deserted to the Greeks, at the battle 
of Mycale (479 B.C.), whereupon the lonians entered into an alliance with Athens, upon 
which they now became dependent. After the Peloponnesian war, they were subject 
to the Spartans, and again (387 B.C.) to the Persians till the time of Alexander the great. 
From this period, Ionia shared the fate of the neighboring countries, and in 64 b.c. was 
added to the Roman empire by Pompey, after the third Mithridatic war. In later times, 
it was so ravaged by the Turks that few traces of its former greatness are now left. — The 
Toniam were regarded as somewdiat effeminate. They were wealthy and luxurious, and 
tlie fine arts (see Ionic Architecture) were cultivated amongst them at a much earlier 
date than amongst their kinsmen in the mother-country. The Ionic Dialed excels the 
other Greek dialects in softness and smoothness, chiefly from the greater number of vowels 
introduced. 

IONIA, a village of Michigan, on Grand river, and on the Detroit and Milwaukee 
railroad, 38 m, n.w. of Lansing; pop. 3,251. It has 8 churches, 2 national banks, a high 
school, a public park, a state-prison, 2 iron foundries, a brewery, a pottery, a brickyard, 
2 flouring mills, railroad repair-shops, and 2 newspapers. 

lO'NIA, a CO. in central Michigan; 576 sq.m.; pop. '74, 28,376. It is watered by 
Grand, Flat, Maple, and Looking-glass rivers. The surface is undulating, and there are 
extensive forests of beech, pine, and sugar-maple. The soil is generally fertile. The 
chief products are wheat, maize, oats, hay, wool, and lumber. The Detroit, Lansing 
;uid Lake Michigan, and the Detroit and Milwaukee railroads intersect the county. There 
are numerous manufactories for carriages, agricultural implements, saddlery, sash, doors 
and blinds, and woolen goods; also flour and sawmills. Cap., Ionia. 

IONIAN ISLANDS, a group, or rather chain, running round the w. coast of Epirus, 
and w. and s. of Greece. It consists of about 40 islands, of which Corfu, Paxo, Santa 
IMaura, Theaki, Cephalonia, Zante, and Cerigo, are of considerable size; the total area is 
about 1000 sq.m., and the pop. '70, 218,879, is mostly of Greek descent. The surface is 
generally mountainous, the plains and valleys being fertile. The collective term ' 'Ionian, ^ 
is of modern date. After the division of the Roman empire these islands were included 
in the eastern half, and so continued till 1081, when the duke of Calabria (subsequently 



Ionian. 100 

Iowa. ^ - ^ 

king of Naples) took possession of them. From this time they underwent a continnnl 
change of masters, till the commencement of the lotli c, when the}^ by degr 'cs came into 
the possession of the Venetians, who in 1797 ceded them to France. They were seizetl 
by liussia and Turkey in 1800, by France in 1807, by Britain in 1809, and on Nov. 5, 1815, 
were formed into a republic (" The Septinsular republic") under the protectorate of the 
latter. While they were connected with England, the government was carried on by two 
assemblies, and the lord hifih cniiniissioner, who was the representative of her majest}'. 
The lower assembli/ consisted of 40 members, who required to be nobles; 29 were elected 
by the islanders themselves, and 11 by the lord high commissioner; their tei'm of otRco 
was hve years, during which period they held three sessions, of three months each. Th(3 
Kciiate, composed of tive members, which the commissioner had power to increase to seven, 
formed the executive. Tlie commissioner was invested with extensive powers; he could 
convoke an extraordinary meeting of parliament, confirm or reject the resolutions of the 
senate, and veto all bills passed by the legislature. Up to 1848 the press was restricted, 
and the government was really a despotism, but in that and the following year wide- 
spread dislike of the English government became apparent. To remove what were sup- 
posed to be grievances, lord Seaton, then lord high commissioner, introduced sweeping 
changes in the constitution, including vote by ballot, lowering of the franchise, and 
freedom of the press. A demand was then made for annexation to the kingdom of 
Greece, and an insurrection broke out in Aug., 1849, in Ceplialonia. It was suppressed 
by sir Henry Ward, who had succeeded lord Seaton, with what was considered by some; 
persons as undue severity. Fresh concessions were granted, but without appeasing the 
malcontents. In the end of 1858, Mr. Gladstone was sent as a special commissioner to 
ascertain what could be done to meet the claims of the population. But he foimd that 
they would be satisfied with nothing but annexation to Greece. There was no 'great 
desire on the part of the English government to continue their connection with the Ionian 
islands. They had cost the United Kingdom £100,000 per annum, and had b(>en a per- 
petual source of annoyance. In 18G3 the election of the son of the king of Denmarii a.s 
constitutional king of Greece supplied England with an opportunity of getting rid of 
this troublesome dependency. On March 29. 1864, a treaty was concluded at London by 
which they were annexed to Greece, and since this period they have formed a province 
of the Hellenic kingdom. In Feb., 1867, they were visited by a series of shocks of 
earthquake, most vio'ent in Ceplialonia, where they caused great destruction of life and 
property, and almost destroyed the two chief towns. See Murray's Handbook for Greece 
and the Ionian Islands, by K. G. Watson, 4th edition, 1872. 

IONIAN MODE, in music, one of the old church m.odes, said to be the same as the 
ancient Greek mode of that name, and the only one of tiie old church modes which agree s 
with our modern system of music, the Ionian mode being the same as our key of C majo]-. 
The character of the Ionian mode, however, must have appeared to the ancients mon; 
properly defined than it can to us, as it was the only one of their modes which had a 
major third and a sharp seventh. 

IONIAN SEA, a name anciently given to that part of the Mediterranean which 
washed the shores of Greece and Epirus, separating them from. Italy and Sicily. It is 
connected with the Adriatic by the strait of Otranto. The name is found first in 
^schylus, but its origin and exact meaning are doubtful. 

IONIC ARCHITECTURE, a style of Greek architecture which took its origin in lonin, 
and seems to have derived many of its characteristic features from Assyria. See Gkecian 
Arciiitectuke. The chief peculiarity of Ionic architecture is the capital of the 
columns ((i-v.), which is decorated with spiral ornaments cnlled volutes (q.v). The 
columns have also bases, which were not used in Doric architecture. The cornice is 
distinguished by the dentil band, an ornament first introduced in this style. The 
honeysuckle ornament (q.v.), so much used in Ionic architecture, is one of the features 
which indicate its eastern origin. 

Many large temples were erected in this style in Asia Minor and Greece. Among the 
finest examples now existihg are the temples of Erechtheus and Minerva Polias on the 
Acropolis at Athens, Apollo Didymaus at Miletus, Minerva Polias at Priene, and Bacchus 
at Teos; and the temple of Fortune at Rome. 

IONIC SCHOOL is the collective name given to the earliest Greek philosophers, Thales, 
Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, and Anaxagoras, on account of their following 
one general tendency, and belonging for the most part to Ionia. See the biographies of 
these philosophers. 

lONIES, a small tribe of Indians of the family of the Caddoes, and said by Spanish 
writers to be a part of the confederacy known as the Texas. They consider the Hot springs 
of Arkansas as their original abode, whence they afterwards removed to Texas. They 
are a peaceful tribe, and cultivate the land for their support. In 1859 they were removed 
by the government to a district on the Wachita river, Indian territory. 

lOS'CO, a CO. in s. Michigan, on lake Huron nnd Saginaw bay; 550 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 
8,163. It is intersected by the Au Sable and Au Gies rivers. It is nearly level, and has 
extensive forests of pine trees. There are many saw mills, and the piincipal export is 
lumber. Cap., Tawas city. 



I 



■f Q-| Ionian. 

-^ — -^ Iowa. 

I. 0. TJ., a memorandum of debt given by a borrower to a lender, so called from being 
made in this abbreviated form: 

London, January 1, 1878. 
Mr. A. B., I. O. U. £20. 

C. D. 

It is a convenient document, because it requires no stamp, and yet it is valuable evidence 
of the existence of the debt, in case an action is afterwards brought. If, howevei', the 
I. O. U. contain any promise to pay the debt, then it will amount to a promissory-uote, . 
and be void unless it have a stamp. 

I OWA, one of the United States of America, was organized as a state, witli governor 
and legislature, in 1846. It lies between 40° 20 <uid 48" 80' n. lat., and 90' 12 and 96' 
53 w. long., and extends 208 m, from n. to s., and 800 from e. to w.. with an area of 
55,045 sq m., or 85,228,800 acres. It is bounded on the n. by Minnesota; e. by Wiscon 
sin and Illinois, from which il is separated by the Mississippi river; s. by Missouri; and 
w. by the state of Nebraska, from which it is separated by the Missouri river. It has 99 
counties, with Des Moines for its capital. The pep. in 1840 Wiis 48,112; in 1850, 192,214; 
in 1860, 674,948; in 1870, 1,182,988. The rivers are the Mississippi and Missouri on its 
eastern and western borders, and the Des Moines, Iowa, Red Cedar, and their branches. 
The surface is undulating and beautiful, with alternate forests and prairies. There are 
no mountains; but bold bluffs, with picturesque ravines, line the rivers. In the n.e. 
there are rich deposits of lead, and coal in the s. and w., with iron, marble, clay, gypsum, 
etc. The soil is exceedingly fertile; and the climate healthful; the peach blossoms in the 
middle of April, but the winters are severe, with an average of 26". The chief produc- 
tions are wheat, maize, flax, tobacco, cattle, and hogs. It has not much direct foreign 
commerce, but trades extensively with the Atlantic and gulf lowns, and with the interior 
The chief river ports of Iowa are Keokuk, Fort Madison, Burlington, Muscatine, Daven- 
port, Clinton, Bellevue, and Dubuque. There are many manufactories, and in 1875 
there were 8,767 m. of railway. In 1870 there were 7,822 public schools, 49 colleges, and 
108 other schools, with a total attendance of 217,654. 

IOWA {ante) is the most purely agricultural of all the United States. The beauty of 
its scener}^ the evident fatness of its soil, its natural good drainage, attracted the best class 
of farmers and business emigrants from the north-eastern states, filling it with a population 
of great thrift, energy, and intelligence. Midway between the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans, drained e. by the Mississippi and w. by the Missouri, and in the zone of the 
greatest movement of migration, it became populous with a rapidity never before equaled 
in the history of states so purel}^ agricultural, or which have no extraordinary city 
growth; and its wealth and population are distributed with remarkal)le uniformity. 

History. — Iowa was originally a part of the immense territory included in Louisiana, 
ajd ceded to the United States in 1803. Its name, signifying in the Indian language 
"the beautiful country," is derived from the river so designated. The first w^hite settle- 
ment within the limits of the state was made in 1788 by Julian Dubuque, a Frenchman 
from Canada, who obtained a grant of a large tract, including the city now bearing his 
name, and the rich mineral lands surrounding it. He built a fort, carried on the mining 
of lead, and traded with the Indians until his death in 1810. In 1834 the territory now 
constituting the state of Iowa was placed under the jurisdiction of Michigan, and in 
1830 under that of Wisconsin. In 1888 settlements were made near Burlington by com 
panics from Illinois and other states, and, a few years later, at other points along the Mis- 
sissippi. In 1888 the territory of Iowa was organized in due form, the seat of the govern- 
ment being fixed at Burlington. It included within its boundaries at that time the 
gi'eater part of the present state of Minnesota, and the whole of Dakotah territory. In 
1839 the government was removed to Iowa city. In 1844 a state constitution was framed 
and admission to the union prayed for; but congress was dissatisfied with the 
boundaries assumed, and therefoi-e denied the petition. Soon afterwards congress defined 
the boundaries that would be acceptable, and th;y were appioved by the people of the 
territory; and on Dec. 28. 1846, the new state was admitted to the union. In 1857 the 
capitol was fixed at Des jMoines. The constitution at present in force was adopted in 
1857. According to the state census of 1878 the pop. was 1,251,383; number of families, 
288,098: dwellings, 231,540; voters, 261,205. In 1870 there were 24,115 persons 10 
years old and upward who could not read, and 45,671 who could not write; and of these 
illiterates, 24.979 were of native, and 20,692 of foreign birth. 

The state is well watered, its streams being all affluents of the great rivers wdiich 
bound it on the e. and west. The Des Moines, the Checaque or Skunk, and the Iowa 
and its aifluents flow into tiie Mississippi. Those flowing into the Missouri are the Big 
Sioux (forming a part of the w. boundary), the Chariton, Grand, Platte, Nodaway, and 
Nishnabat(ma. The Iowa rises in Hancock co., in the northern j-yart of the state, 
and joins the Mississippi 35 m. above Burlington. It is nearly 300 m. long, and is 
navigable 80 m. to loAva city. The largest of the interior rivers is the Des Moines, which 
has a course of 300 m. within the state, draining upwards of 10,000 sq.m. of territory. 
Next to the Des Moines in size is the Red Cedar, which rises in Minnesota, and empties 
into the Iowa. In the northern portion of the state are many small but picturesque 



1 o o 

Iowa. ^--^ 

lakes, of the same kind as those so numerous in Minnesota. The largest of these is lake 
Okobojo, in Dickinson co., 15 m. long, and from one-fourth of a m. to 2 m. wide. 
The soutliern portion of the state is especially beautiful in its undulations, wnich are 
intersected by the kirger rivers with their fertile valleys. In the n.e. the surface is 
more elevated, and there are hills and mounds covered witli oaks, while the rivers some- 
times tumble Gv^er precipitous walls of rock. Lead ore and other metals are found 
in this section in abundance, while the land is of an excellent quality. The prairies of 
the state are of great extent, and unrivaled beauty and fertility. Coal is found in abund- 
ance in the s. and w. portions of the state, the measures extending over an an area of 20,000 
sq.miles. Extensive bedsof superior peat are found in the northern part of the state. The 
lead-mine tract is in a belt occupied by Galena limestone, which touches the Mississippi 
at Dubuque, and lies along the valley of tlie Turkey river in a n.w. direction. The mines 
have been w^orked only in the immediate vicinity of Dubuque, where they are very pro- 
ductive. From 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 lbs. of ore, yielding 70 per cent of lead, have been 
smelted there annually for some time past. Small deposits of iron ore are found in some 
parts of the state, and a deposit of gypsum of great purity exists upon a small area near 
Fort Dodge. Building-stone of excellent quality is abundant. The soils of the state are 
generally very good, and there is but little inferior land. The valleys of the Iowa, Red 
Oedar, and Des Moines, especially, are of unrivaled fertility. The climate is well 
adapted to agricultural operations. The winters, owing to the prevalence of n. and n.w. 
winds, to which nature offers no (Obstruction, are severe ; but the winds of the summer, 
which are equally free, serve to temper the heat. The mean tempeiature of the year is 
48'; spring, 47^; summer, 70'; autumn, 45; winter, 28|. 1 here is probably no 
healthier country than low a in the world, a fact which may safel}^ be attributed to the 
excellent drainage afforded by IlS streams and its undulating surface. The southern part 
of the state, along the rivers, is well wooded. In the northern portion trees arc compara- 
1 ively scarce, though groves of pine and cedar are found in some places. T lie most 
< onimon trees are ash, elm, sugar and wiiite maple, hickory, walnut, oak, poplar, and 
b'.sswood. Of fruit trees, the apple, pear, and cherry grow in perfection. The wild 
grape, plum, and gooseberry are indigenous. 

The state, agriculturally considered, is in the foremost rank. For the cultivation of 
the cereals it is unsurpassed. Potatoes grow in great perfection, and the soil and climate 
are also favorable for llax, tobacco, and the castor-oil plant. In Crawford co., in the 
western part of the state, some experiments have been made in tea-culture, and 700 lbs. 
to the acre have been produced. In 1870 the state contained 9,396,467 acres of improved 
land, 2.534,796 of woodlaijd, and 3,620,533 of other unimproved land. The number of 
farms was 116,292, of which 34,041 contained from 20 to 50 acres; 41,372 from 50 to 100; 
30,1-42 from 100 to 500; 321 from 500 to 1000; and 38 over 1000. The cash value of 
these farms was $392,662,441 ; of farming machinery and implements, $20,509,582; wages 
paid during the year, $9,377,878; estimated value of all farm productions, *$114, 386.441; 
value of orchard products, $1,075,169; of garden products, $244,903; of forest products, 
$1,200,468; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $25,781,223; of live-stock, 
$82,987,133; of home manufactures, $521,404. The number of horses was 433,642; of 
mules and asses, 25,485; of milch cows, 369,800; of other cattle, 614,366; of sheep, 
JS55,493; of swine, 1,353,908. The number of live-stock assessed for valuation in 1878 
was: cattle, 1,530,056; horses, 672,808; mules, 42,566; sheep, 301,743; swine, 2,324,116. 
The amount of ao:ricidtural productions in 1870 was: wheat, 29,435,692 bush.; corn. 
21,005,142; rye, 505,807; oats, 21,005,142; barley, 1,960,779; buckwheat. 109,432; peas 
and beans, 42,313; potatoes, 591.462; sweet potatoes. 34,292; clover seed, 2,475; grass 
seed, 53,432; tlax seed, 88,621; hay, 1,777,389 tons; tobacco, 71,792 lbs.; wool. 2,967,- 
043; butter, 27,512,179; cheese, 1.087,741; maple sugar, 146,490; hops. 171,113; flax, 
095,518; honey, 853,213; wine, 37,518 gallons; sorghum molasses, 1,218,635. In 1872 the 
improved lands had increased to 9, 987, 788 acres. The production of wheat in that vear 
was 32,437,830 bush.; of corn, 141,744,522; of oatb, 22,113,013; of barlev, 5,770,169; of 
wool^, 2,348,884 lbs. 

The statistics of manufactures in 1870 presented these figures: Number of establish- 
ments, 6,566; capital invested, $22,420,183- wages paid, $6,893,292; persons employed, 
25,032, of whom 23,395 were males above 16, and 951 females above 15 years of age; 
value of products, $46,534,322, The principal industries were: agricultural imple- 
ments, blacksmithing, boots and shoes, carpentering and building, caiaiaiics and wag- 
ons, flouring mills, furniture, malt liquors, lumber, pork packing, saddlery and harness, 
and woolen goods. 

The state, while it has no direct foreign commerce, has an extensive trade with 
Atlantic ports and with the interior. There are three United States ports of delivery— 
liurlington, Dubuque, and Keokuk. The topnagein 1870 was 5,489, mostly at Dubuque, 
where there is some ship-building. In 1873 there were in the state 75 national banks, 
with a capital of $().017.000, and a circulation amounting to $5,674,385. The number 
of savings banks in 1877 was 20. with assets amounling to'$3.301,209; liabilities, includ- 
ing capital stock, $3,104,614; undivided profits, $196,594. There were at the same time 
31 banks of issue and deposit organized under state law, with assets amounting to 
$3,190,063. 
, BaUicays. — Iowa is in the direct line of trans-continental commerce. Five great 



123 



Iowa> 



1-alhvays traverse the state from e. to -vv. and connect directly or indirectly with tlie 
Union' Pacitic raih-oad. These are, beginning- from the s., tiie Chicago, Burlington, and 
Qiiincy, entering tlie state e. at Burlington and w. at Council Bhills; the Chicago, Bock 
Island, and Pacific, entering e. at Davenport and \v. at Council Blutfs; the Chicago and 
TSorlh-weslern, entering e. at Clinton and w. at Council Blull'.^; the Blinois Central, 
entering e. at Dubuque and vv. atlSioux City; and the Milwaukee and Si. Paul, entering 
e. at JNicGregor and w. at Council Bluffs. Besides these e. and v/. roads, other hues of 
roads, together uith the ramifying branches of those already named, loim a system of 
connections soutliward and south-easterly towards the Mississippi and Missouri rivers 
and tet. Louis. These are: '.he Chicago, Clinton, and Dubuque, and the Dubuque and 
Minnesota, on the w. bank of the Mississi])pi from Clinton on the s. to the iiJithern 
boundary of the state; the Davenport and !St. Paul, the Burlini-ton and Minnesota, the 
Burlington, Cedar Bapids, and Minnesota, the Central of Iowa, the Keokv.k and Des 
Moines, and Des Moines and Fort Dodge, the Sioux City and St. Paul, and the Sioux 
City and Pembina. From the older of these roads there are many branches, so that 
there are few farming districts in the state more than 20 m. from a railway. In its 
early settlement the territory relied largely on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, whicli 
bound it e. and w., as outlets lor its products. Kow its network of railways convey 
most of its surplus eastward and distribute merchandise from older states almost at the 
producers' doors. The new territories and mining regions westward also consiunc a 
part of its surplus. The valu(^ of railroad property in the state in 1879 was >1?22, 540,904, 
miles of track, 3,922; capital stock, $90,012,451; aggregate debt of all the roads, 
$70,243,795; earnings for the vear ending June 30, 1879 — passengers, mail, and expres-;, 
$5,835,177; freight, etc., $lG,005,5a2>— total, $21,340,700; expenses $12,904 420; net 
earnings, $8,433,288. The aggregate amount of taxes p:iid by the roads in 1818-79 was 
$584,l(i9. There are in the state over 1200 m. of steel rail. The miles of track of 
some of the principal roads in llie state are as follows: Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific, 
310; Burlington, Cedar Rapids, and Minnesota, 248; Burlington and Missouri River, 
292; Central of low^i, 189; Chicago and Korth-western, 272; Des lUoines Valley, 249; 
Illinois Central, 403. All railroad property is taxable at the same rates and in the same 
manner as that of individuals, and tlie state exercises a thorough supervision over the 
roads to prevent unjust discriminations in rates of fare and freight. The government 
c;mal, constructed around the Des j\Ioines rapids at Keoktd^, Avas opened in 1877. It is 
7.V m. long and 300 ft. wide, and has three locks, each 350 ft. long. It cost not far from 
$4,400,000. 

The debt of the state is $545,435, nearly half of -which is due to the permanent school 
fund. 

The public institutions maintained by the state are the college for the blind at 
Vinton; the school for the deaf and dumb at Council Bluffs; the hospitals for the insane 
at Mount Pleasant and Independence; the soldiers^' orphans' homes at Cedar Falls, 
Davenport, and Glen wood; the reform school for boys at Eldora, and one for girls near 
Salem; and two penitentiai'ies, one at Fort Madison, the other at Anamosa. The 
•common school svsteui is under the joint direction of state and C(mnly superintendents 
and district directors. The number of persons of school age (between 5 and 21) in the 
state in 1878 was 577,353; number enrolled, 431,317; number in atteiulance, 204,702. 
The number of school districts in 1873 was 2,536; graded schools, 419; schools ungraded, 
8,397; school-houses, 8, 85G; number of teachers — males, 0,091 ; females, 10,193 — total, 
16,284: average monthly compensation of male teachers, $36.28; of females, $27.68. 
The number of private schools was 121; of their teachers, 364; of their pupils, 12,132. 
The amount of the permanent school fund in 1873 was $3,294,742, imxlucing an 
income of $275,789; tofal expenditure in that year for school purposes, $4,229,455, 
of wliich $2,248,676 was for the salaries of teachers. There is no state school 
devoted exclusively to the training of teachers. Among the higher institutions of 
learning m the state are the following: The state university at Iowa Cit3^ and the state 
agricultural college at Ames, both under the patronage of the state; Upper Iowa ^mi- 
versity at Fayette, Methodist; Tabor College at Tabor, Congregational; German college 
at Mt. Pleasant, Methodist; Iowa Wesleyan university at Mt. Pleasant, Methodist; 
Whit tier college at Salem, Friends; Huiuboldt college at Sjjringvale; Cornell college at 
Mt. Vernon, j\lethodist; Western college at Western, United Brethren; Oskaloosa college 
at Oskaloosa. Disciples; Central university of Iowa at Peila, Baptist; Amity college at 
College Springs; university of Des Moines at Des Moines, Baptist; Iowa college at 
Grinnel!, Congregational; Penn college at Oskaloosa. Friends; Simpson Centenary 
college at Indianola, Methodist; Norwegian Luther college at Deborah, Lutheran; and 
Burlington university at Btirlington. The wdiole number of professors and teachers in 
these institutions in 1873-74 ^^^s 168, of students 3,570. The agricultural college admits 
students of both sexes and unites manual labor with study. Tlie number of libraries in 
the state, according to the census of 1870, was 3,540. of which 2,387 were private; 
volumes in the public libraries, 377,851; in the private libraries. 295.749. The chief of 
the public libraries are the state library at Des Moines and the state historical libraiy at 
Iowa City. According to the state census of 1873, periodicals published in Iowa were 
22 daily,- 2 tri-weekly, 6 semi-weekly, 272 weekly, 2 semi-monthly, 19 monthly, and 1 
bi-monthly. The number of religious organizations, according to the census of 1870. 



Iowa. 1 '^-l 

Ipecacvianha. J- -/ -x 

T\a'! 3,763; church edifices, 1446; church property, $5,730,852. The chief denomina- 
tions are the Baptist, Christian, Coogrcgatioiuii, Episcopal, Friends, Jews, Lutheran, 
Methodist, Presbyterian, Reformed, Koniau Catholic, Second Advent, United Brethren 
in Christ, Universalist, and Unitarian. 

The general election is held on the 2d Tuesday in Oct., except in the years of 
the presidential election, when it occurs on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in 
Isoveniber. The governor and lieutenant-governor are elected for 2 years by a plurality 
Of the popular vote. The salary of tne former is $3,000 per annum. The legislature 
consists of a senate of 50 members elected for 4 years, half of them biennially, and a 
house of 100 members elected biennially. The sessions are biennial, occurring in the 
even years. Senators nmst be 25 yearsof age, representatives 21 j'ears, and the governor 
and lieuteuant-governor 30 3^ears. The secretary- of stale, auditor of slate, register of 
state land ofiice, and superintendent of public instruction aie elected ior 2 years, and 
each has a salary of $2,200. The governor appoints the adjutant- and inspector-general 
and ihe state librarian for terms of 2 years. Tlie supreme couit consists of four judges, 
elected by the people for years, one every second year, and the one having the sloilest 
time to serve is chief-justice. Judges of the district ( ourt are elected in single districts 
for 4 years. The judges of the supreme court receive a salary of $4,000, those of the 
district court $2,200 per annum. Circuit courts, consisting of a single juilge, are held 
by the district court judges. The constitution prohibits the lending of the credit of the 
state for any purpose, or the borrowing of moie than $250,000 at anyone time, but 
permits a larger debt to be contracted to repel invasion or suppress insurrection. Ko 
corporation can be created by special law, and stockholders in banks are individually 
liable to double the amount of their stock. The legislature is prohibited from granting 
divorces or authorizing lotteries. The property righl> of husbands and wives are equal, 
each upon the death of the other inheriting one third in value of his or her real estate, 
while neither is liable for the separate debts of the other. The contracts made by the 
wife in her own name are enforced by or against her precisely as if she were unmarried. 
A married woman may sue and be sued without the husband being joined in the action. 
Women are by law eligible to all offices connected with public schools. The state offers 
a premium for the phmting of forest trees by deducting a certain sum from the taxes of 
citizens in proportion to the number of trees they may set cut. The amount of property 
thus exempted from taxation for the years 1879 and I8b0 is estimated at nearly $6,000,- 
000. A new state capitol is nearly completed. Its greatest length is 263 ft., and its 
greatest width 246 feet. It is estimated to cost not far fiom $2,000,000. The electoral 
votes of Iowa for president and vice-president of the United States have been cast as 
follows: 1848, 4 for Cass and Butler; 1852, 4 for Pierce and King; 1856, 4 for Fremont 
and Dayton; 1800, 4 for Lincoln and Hamlin; 1864, 8 for Lincoln and Johnson; 1868, 8 
for Grant and Colfax; 1872, 11 for Grant and Wilson; 1876, 11 for Hayes and Wheeler. 

IOWA, a s.e. co. of Iowa, intersected by the Iowa and the n. branch of the English 
rivers; 576 sq.m. ; pop. '75, 17,456. It is nearly level, well-wooded, and l»as a fertile 
soil, much of it prairie. The staple productions are wheat, oats, maize, potatoes, hay, 
and pork. It is traversed by the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad. Bitumi- 
nous coal is here found. Capital, Marengo. 

IOWA, a CO. in s.w. Wisconsin; 750 sq.m. ; pop. '75, 24,133. It is bounded by Wis- 
consin on the north. The surface is varied by hills, valleys, and forests, the latter not 
extensive. The soil is fertile, yielding wheat, maize, oats, and hay. Mines of zinc and 
copper liave been opened, and lead is abundant. A division of the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul railroad passes along the n. border, and Mineral Point railroad runs to the county 
seat, Dodgevillc. 

IOWA CITY, a city in Iowa, United States, formerly the capital of the territorial 
goverimicnt, is situated on the Iowa river, 80 m. from its mouth. It is bu It on a suc- 
cession of plateaux, rising from the river. The fir.-t is a pul)lic promenade; the third 
is frowned by the ca]Mlol, now the state university. It has also county buildings, 
and the si.ite asylums, wiili factories on the river. Iowa City has steamboat navigation 
to the Mississippi, and is on the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad. Pop. '70, 
5,914. 

IOWA CITY (^;/A):s the capital of Johnson co., and was, 1839-57, the capital of 
Iowa territory and state; pop. '74, 9,000. It is 54 m. from Davenport, and 120 m from 
Des Moines, and connected with these by the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad. 
The city is built on a high plateau 150 ft. above the river, and surrounded by hills. The 
Iowa university, established 1860, and occupying the building formerly used as the cap- 
itol, has 4 departments, 600 students, a library of 6.500 volumes, and is open for both 
PCXes. The city contains two national banks, a savings bank, 3 academies, a high school, 
15 churches, a foundry, a paper-mill, manufactories for carriages, plows, pumps, cigars, 
linseed oil, and alcohol, and has also a number of flouring mills. There are also several 
newspapers, one of which is in the Bohemian language. 

IOWA COLLEGE, at Grinnell, Poweshiek co., Iowa; organized in 1848, under the 
auspices nf the Congregationalists. It comprises preparator}^ academical, normal, med- 
ical, and law depart^raents. Professors in 1878, 15; students, 120. President^ Geo. F. 
Magoun, D.D. 



•\S)X Iowa. 

■*-^0 Ipecacuanha. 

IOWA RIVER, a river of Iowa rising in Hancock co. Flowino^ s.e. 300 m., it 
empties into the Mississippi, It is navigable for small vessels 80 m. to Iowa city. 

IOWA STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, at Ames, Story co. ; organized in 
1869, with an endowment of 204,309 acres of laud, appropriated by act of congress of 
July 2, 1862; annual income. ,^41,000. The college farm contains 873 acres, of which 00 
acres are included in the lawn and ornamental grounds. The main college building is 
four stories high above the basement, 150 ft long by 112 ft. deep through the wings. In 
the basement are diniug-hall, kitchen, laundry, experimental kitchen and laundry, print- 
ing-office, and armoiy. The laboratory is of brick, two stories high, and 70 by 44 feet. 
Another brick bui.diug is devoted to bi)tany and veterinary science, and behind it is the 
veterinary hospital and dissecting room. The library contains 6,000 volumes. The 
museum occupies a large room in the main building. It includes mounted specimens of 
a few mammals: several hundred birtls (mounted), representing the avian fauna of the 
state; a large collection of reptiles, in alcohol; a few fishes; and a small but typical col- 
lection of invertebrates. A set of the " Ward models," illustrating the principal larger 
fossils, and a cabinet of mineralogical specimens, are of service in the study of geology. 
There are, besides, the following collections in the process of formation: A seed collec- 
tion; an entomological cabinet: sets of the eggs and nests of birds; the brains of verte- 
brates; skulls of mammals; and skeletons of vertebrates. Each department is well sup- 
plied with appai'atus. Women are admitted to all the courses of study. Number of 
professors in 1880, 13; other teachers, 9; students, 284; alumni, 165. . All male students 
are required, unless excused by the proper authority, to wear the prescribed uniform, 
attend all military exercises in their respective classes, and become members of the college 
battalion. President, A, S, Welch. 

IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY, in Iowa City, was organized in 1847, wdth an 
endowment by congress of tw^o townships of land; to which was added in 1878, by the 
state, $20,000 annually. Its annual income, from all sources, is $51,000. The campus 
embraces an area of 10 acres, on which are placed the three principal college buildings. 
Besides these, there are, outside the campus but on land owned l)y the university, an 
observatory, hospital, and homeopathic medical college. There is a large laboratory for 
physical science, with a select apparatus of excellent quality; a laboratory for natural 
science, with a dozen good microscopes; a cabinet, not large, but select in the department 
of corals, and birds of Iowa. The library contains about 15,000 volumes. Number of 
l)rofessors in 1880, 22; lecturers and instructors, 18; students, 540; alumni, 1231. Women 
are admitted to all the courses of study. There is no gymnasium, but regular military 
drill and instruction. There is a law department, with two professors. The medical 
department embraces instruction in both the allopathic and homeopathic schools. 
President, J. L. Pickard, ll.d. 

lOWAS, a tribe of American Indians of the Dakotah family, called lowas by some of 
the Algonquins. but known among themselves by the name of Pahucha. In 1700 they 
lived on the Mankato river, Minnesota, numbering 1500, and often at war with the 
Osages and other tribes. At ditferent times treaties have been made with them by the 
United States, by one of which, 1836, they were removed to the w. bank of the Missouri 
above Wolf river. They have been greatly reduced by intemperance, war, and disease. 
By a treaty, 1861, they ceded to the United States all but 16,000 acres. The remnant of 
this tribe, numbering now only 225, is under the cliLrge of the Friends, who have a school 
of over 60 pupils and an orplians' industrial home, 

IPECACUANHA, the name both of a very valuable medicine and of the plant produc- 
ing it. The piant {cephaelis ipecacaanha) belongs to the natural order cinchonacece, and 
grows in damp shady woods in Brazil and some other parts of South America. It is 
somewhat shrubby, with a few oblongo-lanceolate leaves near the ends of ti)e branches, 
long-stalked heads of small white flowers, and soft dark purple berries. The part of 
Ipecacuanha used in medicine is the root, which is simple or divided into a few branches, 
flexuous, about as thick as a goose-quill, and is composed of rings of various size, some- 
what fleshy when fresh, and a^Dearing as if closely strung on a central woody cord. The 
different kinds known in commerce {gray, red, brown) ^tq all produced by the same plant; 
the differences arising from the age of the plant, the mode of diying, etc. Ipecacuatdia 
root is prepared for the market by mere drying. It is collected at all seasons, although 
chiefly from Jan. to March; the plant is never cultivated, but is sought for in the forests 
chiefly by Indians, some of whom devote themselves for months at a time to this 
occupation. It has now become scarce in the neighborhood of towns. 

Various other plants, containing emetine, are used as substitutes for true ipecacuanha. 
The ipecacuanha of Venezuela is produced by sarcostemmn gJnucum, of the order 
asclepiadem; and to this order belongs tyl&phora asthmaiica, the root of which is found 
a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha in India. 

It is in the bark of the root that the active principle, the emetine, almost entirely lies, 
and in good specimens it amounts to 14 or 16 per cent; the other ingredients, such as 
fatty matters, starcli, li^nine, etc., being almost entirely ioert. Emetine is represented 
by the formula CstHstNOio. It is a white, inodorous, almost insipid powder, moderately 
soluble in alcohol, and havir.g all the characters of the vegetable alkaloids. It acts ts a 



Ipl.icrates. IQ/^ 

violent emetic in doses of onc-sixtecnth of a grain or loss, iind is- a powerful poison. 
The incautious inlialution of the dust or powder of ipecacuanha — as in tlie process of , 
powtieriug it— will often bring- on a kind of spasmodic asthma. 

In small and repeated doses — as, for instance, of a grain or less — ipecacuanha 
increases the activity of the secreting organs, especially of the bronchial mucous 
membrane, and of the skin. In larger doses of from 1 to 5 grains it excites nausea and 
depression, while in doses of from 15 to 80 grains it acts as an emetic, without producing 
such violent action or so much nausea and dejiression as tartar emetic. 

Ipecacuauha is useful as an emetic when it is neceesary to unload the stomach in 
cases where there is great debility, or in childhood. As a nauseant, expectorant, and 
diaphoretic, it is prescribed in affections of the resipratory organs, as catarrh, hooping- 
cough, asthma, etc.; in affections of the alimentary canal, as indigestion, dysentery, 
etc. ; and in disordei's in which it is desired to increase the action of the skin, as in 
diabetes, febrile affections, etc. 

Besides the powder, the most useful preparations are the wine of ipecacuanha — of 
which the dose to an adult as a diaphoretic and expectorant ranges from 10 to 40 minims, 
and as an emetic from 2 to 4 drachms — and the compound ipecacuanha powder, commonly 
known as Dover s powder (q.v.). To pi'oduce the full effect as a sudorific, a dose of ten 
grains of Dover's powder should be followed by copious draughts of white-wine whey, 
treacle-posset, or some other warm and harmless drink. 

IPHIC'RATES, an Athenian general conspicuous in the first half of the 4th c. b.o. 
He is distinguished for his improvements in military tactics, especially for the light 
oval target instead of the round heavy buckler of earlier use. A common mode of war- 
fare among the Greek states, who were often at war, was by sudden incursions into each 
other's territories, ajd rapid retreats. Iphicrates, seeing that safety required light 
armor, organized a body of soldiers carrying a light target, and from it called Peltasta^. 
Their discipline and efficiency were such that but few of the heavy-armed infantry' 
dared to meet them. With these he attacked a Spartan corps near Corinth, 392 n.c, 
and totally destroyed it. This was followed oy successive victories, and his military 
career was very brilliant. In the Hellespont and with the Persians in Egypt he served 
with high distinction. After the peace of Autalcidas he married the daughter of Cotys, [ 
king of Thrace, and formed an alliance with him against the Athenians for the posses- 
jn of the Thracian Chersonesus. Subsequently the Athenians pardoned him, and 
ave him a joint command in the social war. Though accused by one of his colleagues 
>f misconduct, he was honorably acquitted. He lived after this quietly in Athens, 
where he died at an advanced age. 

IPHIGENI A, in Grecian legend, a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, or, 
according to oihers, an adopted daughter of Clytemnestra. Her father, having offended 
Diana, vow^ed to make atonement by sacrificing to the goddess the most beautiful thing 
born within the year. This happened to be Iphigenia. Agamemnon long deLiyed the 
fulfilment of his vow, but at length the Trojan expedition drew on, and the Greek fleet 
being detained in Aulis by a calm, the seer Calchas declared that Agamemnon must 
keep his promise. When Iphigenia was brought to the altar, however, she disappeared, 
and a hind lay there in her stead, Diana herself having carried her off in a cloud to 
Tauris, where she became her priestess, but was afterwards recognized by her brother, 
Orestes, who carried her, along with the image of Diana, to Attica. Tlie legend is of 
post-Homeric origin. It has, however, been much wrought into Grecian poetry, and 
afforded many subjects to painters and sculptors. In modern litcnitui'e it has been 
again employed with great power of genius and poetic art by Goethe in his Iphigenui, 
auf Taurm, 

IPOMJE'A, a genus of plants of the natural order contohulaceii, differing ver}- little 
from the genus coiimlvidus. The species are numerous. They are mostly natives of 
warm countries. 8omc of them are often to be seen in flower-gardens and hot-houses, 
being y(n'y ornamental, and readily covering trellises with their twining stems, large 
leaves, and large beautiful flowers. The roots of some %i them yield a resinous sub- 
stance, which possesses properties resembling those of jalap, and the true jalap (q.v.). 
plant itself has sometimes been referred to this genus, 

IPSAMBTJL'. See Abousambul. 

IP SICA. See Modica. 

IPSUS. a t. of Phrygia, Asia Minor, near, as is supposed, the modern villngc of 
Bulavadin, and noted for the battle, 300 B.C., in which Antigonus and his son Demet-, 
rius were overthrown by Alexander's four generals, Ptolemy, Seleucus. Cassander, and 
Lysimachus. Ipsus was the seat of a Christian bishop in the 7th and 8th centuries. 

IPSWICH, a t. of Essex cc, Mass., 27 m. n.e. of Boston, on the Ipswich river and 
the Eastern railroad; pop. '80, 3.(399. It has G churches, a savings-bank, a girls' school- 
of high character, established 1828; an insane a^sylum, a public library, a high schooi!. a 
classical academ.y established 1650, factories for boots, shoes, and hosiery; also planing, 
saw, and gristmills. The Indian name is Agawam. 



■[0 7 Iphicrates. 

-*■ — • Ireland. ^ 

IPSWICH, a market t., parliamentary and municipal horougli, and river-port of Eng- 
land, capital of tlic co. ot Suffolk, is agreeably situated ou the river Orwell, at the 
foot of a range of hills, 68 m. n.e. of London. The older portions of the town consist 
of narrow and irregular streets, some of the old houses of which are ornamenled with 
curious carved work. It contains numerous churches and benevolent institutions, a 
town-liall, a mechanics' institution, with about 700 members; and a woiking -men's 
college, with 200 members. O'f its educational establishments, the piincipa! is tJie 
grammar-school, founded by cardinal Wolsey, and endowed by queen Elizabeth. It 
has an income from endowment of £116 6s. bd., has six sciiolarships, exclusive of an 
Albert scholarship, founded as a memorial of the late prince consort, and two exhibi- 
tions at Pembroke college, Cambridge. There are large iron and soap factories, 
breweries, corn-mills, and ship building docks. In 1875, 4,450 vessels, of 840,113 tons, 
entered and cleared the port. The exports are chiefly agricultural produce, and agri- 
cultural miplements and machinery; imports, wine, coal, iron, and timber. The town 
can be approached by vessels of 500 tons. It sends two members to the imperial parlia- 
ment. Pop. '71, 42,947. Ipswich was pillaged by the Danes in 991, and again in luOO. 

IPSWICH, a t. of Queensland, Australia, on the Bremer; pop. '71, 5,092. It has a 
number of churches, a grammar-school and a hospital, and is a place of increasing busi- 
ness importance. 

IRAK-A'JEMI, a large province of Persia, is bounded on the n. by the provinces of 
Azerbijan, Ghilan, and Mazanderan, and on the e. by Khoi'asan. On- the s. and w. the 
boundaries are not detinitely laid down. In the extreme n. are the Elbuiz niountnins, and 
throughout the province are several other chains, all of them running fiom s e to n.w. 
A great portion of the surface of the province consists of elevated table-lands, 
but there are also numerous fertile valleys traversed by rivers. Many of the rivers of 
Irak-Ajemi are swallowed up by sandy tracts into which they flow. The chief towns of 
the province are the capital Teheran and Ispahan. 

IRAK-A'EAEI, a district in Turkey in Asia, the ancient Babylonia (q.v.), comprises 
the ruins of the ancient cities of Babylon, Seleucia. and Ctesiphon. During the last 
250 years of the caliphate this was the poor remnant of their once wide dominion which 
remained to the successors of Mohammed. 

IRAN, the modern native name of Persia. See AtIyan Race. 

IRANIC RACES AND LANGUAGES. See Persian Language and Liteea- 
TURE, ante. 



\ 



IRBIT', a district t. of the government of Perm, eastern Russia, since 1775; founded 
(1635) by Russian emigrants. The town is situated on the rivers Irbit and Nitza, in lat, 
57° 35' n., and long. 62" 50' e., is 1760 m. distant from St. Petersburg, and contains 
(1867) 4,244 inhabitants. It is remarkable for its extensive fair, the largest in Russia, 
after that of Nijni-Novgorod. The fair takes place annu;rllyf!om Feb. 27 tillthe end 
of Mar., has been instituted for more than 200 years, .and attract.^ about 10, ()00 mer- 
chants and visitors from Russia, Siberia, Persia, Bokhara-, etc.- The principal goods are 
cloths, silk stuffs, brocades, sugar, coffee, china, and hardware from Russia; tea and 
nankeen fi'om China, through Kiachta; furs and fish fiom Siberia; cotton stuffs from 
Bokh.'ira, etc. The whole quantity of goods l)rought to ujarket is valued at £6,500,000. 

IREDELL, a co. of w. North Carolfna; 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 22,673, It is drained 
by branches of the Gadkin, and is well-wooded, hilly, and fertile. The staple productv^ 
are grain, cattle, wool, and tobacco. Gold is found. It is traversed by the Western 
railroad. Capital, Statesville. 

IREDELL, James, 1751-99; b. England, of Irish ancestry. He enVigrnted to North 
Carolina at the age of 17, was admitted to the bar in 1770, made deputy attorney-general 
in 1774, judge of Uie state suprr-me court in 1777. He was attorney gineral of North Car- 
olina, 1779-82; and judge of the United States supreme court from 1790 until his death. 
He was a man of ability and learning. In 1791 he published Iredeir.s lien'sal of ihc Slatvic.s 
of North Carolina. His judicial opinion in the case of '" Chisoliu vs. Geoigia" is said to 
contain the germs of the doctrine of state rights as sulisequently developed. He died 
Iq Edenton. 

IREDELL, James, 1788-1853; son of James; b. N. C. He graduated at the college 
of New Jersey in 1806. and was admitted to the bar. For 10 years he was a nii mber of 
the legislature,, and twice speaker of the lower house. In the war of 1812 lie com- 
manded a company of volunteers at Norfolk, Va. In 1819 he was chosen judge of tlie 
superior court; in 1827 was governor of the state; and U. S. senator in 1828-31. For 
many years after this he was a reporter of the decisions of the state supreme court, and 
published 13 volumes of law and 8 of equity reports. In 1833 he was one of a commis- 
sion to collect and revise the state statutes. He published also a treatise on the law of 
executors and administrators. 

IRELAND, an island forming part of the United Kin2:dom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, lies between lat. 51° 26 and 55° 23' n., and lona. ^5' 20' and 10° 26 west. It is 
washed on the n., w., and s. by the Atlantic, and on the e. by a strait, called at different 



Ireland. 



128 



places the North channel, the Irk-ih sea, and St. George's channel, which separates it 
from the larger ishuui of Great Britain. Its greatest length, from Fair head in Antrim to 
Crow head in Kerr\% is 300 m., but its greatest meridional length is not more tlian 225; 
its greatest breadth, between the extreme points of Mayo and Down, is 182 m., but 
between Gahvay bay and Dublin it is not more than 120. Tlie total area is about 
o2,524 sq m., of which 15,464,825 acres are arable land; 4,357.338 acres are uncultivated ; 
310,597 are covered with wood; 49,236 are occupied by towns of 2.000 inhabitants and 
upwards; wliile tiie lakes and waters of the country cover 627,464 acres. Pop. '71, 
5.412.377. Ireland is divided into four provinces of Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and 
Coanaught, which again are subdivided into 32 counties. Tlie following table exhibits 
the area of the different provinces and counties, the number of inhabited houses, and 
the poix in 1861 and 1871 (as at first published): 



Provinces and Counties. 



Leinster. 

Carlow 

Dublin 

ls;ildare 

Kilkenny 

King's 

Longford 

J.outh 

Meath 

Queen's 

Westmeath 

Wexford 

Wicklow 

Total 

MrrNSTER. 

Clare 

Cork 

Kerry 

Limerick 

Tipperary 

Waterf ord. . . 

Total 

Ulster. 

Antrim 

Armagh 

Gavan 

Donegal 

Down 

Fermanagh 

Londonderry 

Monaghan 

Tyrone 

Total 

CONNATJQHT, 

Galway 

Leitrim 

Mayo 

Roscommon 

Sligo 

Total 

General Total (Ireland) . 



Area in 
Stat. Acres. 



221, 

418, 
509, 
493, 
269 
203, 
578, 
424, 
453, 
576, 
500, 



342 

517 
436 
■32 
985 
409 
149 
657 
854 
468 
588 
178 



4,876,315 



827,994 

,849,685 
,185,917 
680,842 
,061,731 
461,552 



6,067,721 



762,079 
328,086 
477,360 
,193,442 
612,335 
457,370 
522,314 
319,741 
806,657 



5,479,384 



1,566,352 
392,363 

1,367.618 
603,955 
461,7.52 



4,392.040 



20,815,460 



Inhabited 

Houses, 1871. 



9,704 

51,024 
14.263 
20,609 
14,842 
12,000 
16,7'81 
18,660 
15,001 
15,138 
24.972 
14,114 



227,108 



Population, 

18?1. 



51,472 

405.625 

84,198 

109,302 

75,781 

64,408 

84,198 

94,480 

77,071 

78,416 

1^2,506 

78,509 



1,335,%6 



Population, 

1861. 



26,159 
85,030 
32,233 
31,847 
38,3.54 
21,139 



234,762 



147,994 

516,046 
196,014 
191,313 
216,210 
122,825 



1,390,402 



74,037 
34,429 
26,372 
40,800 
55,653 
17,.516 
32,601 
21,821 
41,263 



344,492 



419,782 
179,221 
140,555 
217,992 
277,775 
92,688 
173,932 
112,785 
215,668 



1,830,398 



57.137 

410,252 
90,946 

124,515 
90,043 
71.691 
90.713 

110,373 
90,6.50 
90,879 

143,954 
86,479 



1,457,635 



166,305 
644,818 
201, 8C0 
217,27/ 
249, "06 
134.252 



1,513,558 



369,210 
190,086 
153,906 
237,395 
308.680 
105,768 
184,209 
126,482 
238,500 

1,914,236 



45,747 
17,405 
44,091 
25,792 
20,955 



153,990 



960,352 



248,257 
95,324 
245,855 
141,246 
115,311 



845,993 



5,402,759 



271.478 
104,744 
254,790 
157,272 
124,845 



913,135 



5,798,564 



Physical Aspect. — Ireland is of oblong form, and, like Great Britain, the eastern 
coast is comparatively unbroken, while the w., n., and s. are deeply indented. It is 
an undulating or hilly country — less rugged than the Highlands of Scotland, and not so 
tame as the eastern section of England, "its hills are more rounded than abrupt, and lie 
not so much in ranges as in detached clusters round the coasts. These mountain tracts 
rarely extend more than 20 m. inland, and they seen to form a broad fringe round the 
island; while the interior appears as a basin composed of flat or gently swelling land. 
The principal ranges are the Mourne mountains in Down, which attain their highest 
elevation in Slieve Donard, 2,796 ft. above the sea; the mountains of Wicklow, which 
rise to a height of 3,039 ft. ; and Macgillicuddy Reeks in Kerry, which, in the peak of 
Carran-Tuai, the loftiest point in Ireland, reach 3,414 feet. The purely flat or level 
portions of the island, with the exception of some fine tracts of fertile valley-lnnd in 
Kilkenny, Tipperary, and Limerick, consist mainly of bog or morass, which "ocenpies, 
according to Dr. Kane, 2,830,000 acres, or about a seventh part of the entire super- 



129 



Ireland. 



ficies. The largest of tliose morasses is the bog of Allen, which stretches in a vast 
plain across the center of the ishind, or over a large portion of Kildare, Carlow, King's 
and Queen's counties — having a summit elevation of 280 feet. Extensive tracts of deep 
wet bog also occur in Longford, liosconnnou, and other counties, and give a pecu- 
liarly dreary and desolate aspect to the scenery. Notwithstanding the quantity of water 
in these bogs, they exhale no miasma injurious to health, owing to the large quantity 
of tannin which they contain. 

Hydrograpliy. — I'he i)rincipal river of Ireland, and the largest in the United King- 
dom, is the Shannon (q.v.). The streams which drain the eastern part of the central 
plain are the Litfe}- and the Boyne; the south-eastern part, the Suir, the Barrow, and 
the Nore; wiiile the waters of the north-eastern part are collected into Lough ISeagh. 
chiefly by the Blackwater. and thence discharged into the sea by the lower Bann. The 
rivers e.vtenial to the great central plain are necessarily short. The principal are the 
Erne, flowing to the n.w. ; the Foyle and the Bann, to the n.; the Lagan, to the n.e. ; 
the Slaney, to the s.e. ; and the Bandon, Lee, and Blackwater, flowing in an easterly 
course through the co. of Cork, the most southern co. in the island. None of these 
rivers are naturally of importance to navigation. The Shannon, however, has been 
made navigable to its source by means of locks and lateral cuts; the Barrow, by similar 
means, to Athy; the Foyle, by canal to Strabane; and several of the others have been 
artificially united by such lines as the Lagan, Newry, Ulster, Royal, Grand, Athy, and 
other canals — which now intersect a considerable portion of the island. 

The lakes of Ireland (called loughs) are, as might be expected from the surface- 
character of the country, both numerous and extensive in proportion to the size of the 
island. The largest is lough Neagh in Ulster, covering an area of 100,000 acres. The 
other loughs of consequence are loughs Erne and Derg, also in Ulster; Conn, Mask, 
and Corrib, in Connaught; the Allen, Ree, and Derg, which are expansions of the river 
Shannon, and the lakes of Killarney (q. v.) in Kerry. — The bays and salt-water lousihs 
which indent the island are also numerous and of considerable importance. About 70 
are suitable for the ordinary purposes of commerce; and there are 14 in which the 
largest men-of-war may ride in safety. The principal are loughs Foyle and Swilly, on 
the n. coast; the bays of Donegal, Sligo, Clew, and Gal way, the estuary of the Shannon, 
Dingle bay, and Bantry bay, on the w. ; the harbors of Cork and Waterford, on the s, ; 
Wexford harbor, the bays of Dublin, Drogheda, and Dundalk, and loughs Carlingford, 
Strangford, and Belfast, on the east. — The islands are, generally speaking, small and of 
little importance. On the e. coast the largest is Lambay, about 2^ m. off the coast of 
Dublin; on the s. and s.e. coasts are Clear island, the Saltees, a dangerous group of 
islets, about 8 m. s. of the Wexford coast, indicated by a floating light, and Tuscar 
rock, al)out 8 m. e. of Carnsore point, also a dangerous ledge, rising 20 ft. above the 
sea, and surmounted by a light-house after the model of the Ed(lystone; on the w. coast, 
the Skelligs, Valentia, the Blaskets, the South Arran isles, Innisbofin, Innisturk, and 
Clare, Achil or " Eagle" island, and the Inniskea islets; on the n. coast, the North Arran 
isles, the Tory isles, and Rathlin. 

Geology. — A great series of grits and slates of Cambrian age occur in the s.e. of Ire- 
land; the upper portion contains a few fossils of zoophytes and worms. Lower Silurian 
strata rest unconformably on the C'ambrian rocks in the same district. They consist of 
flags, slates, and grits many thousand feet in thickness, extending over large portions of 
Kildare, Wicklow, Wexford, and Waterford. Several detached patches occur to the w, 
of this district, forming the Keeper, Arra, and Inchiouin mountains. A tract of similar 
beds stretches from the center of I.ieland, near the souice of the Shannon, to the coast of 
Down. The strata in proximity to the Wicklow and Dublin granites are converted into 
gneiss and mica-slate. This is the condition of all the beds in the n.w., in Donegal, 
Tyrone, and Mayo; they appear to be a continuation of the highly altered strata of the 
n, of Scotland. Detached portions of upper silurian measures occur on the western 
side of the island, in Kerry, Galway, and Mayo. 

Between the silurian and old red sandstone is an enormous thickness (11,000 ft.) of 
sandstone grit and shale in Kerry and Cork. These strata are almost wholly unfossi- 
liferous. 

Old red sandstone strata, consisting of red and yellow sandstone and slate, cover a 
large tract of the s. of Ireland, stretching almost continuously from the extreme w. of 
Cork and Kerry into Waterford and Kilkenny, being stopped by the silurian rocks of 
Wexford and Carlow. Along the bases of the silurian mountains of the s. center of 
Ireland, and in the southern portion of the county of Cork, occurs a great thickness of 
sandstones, which have hitherto yielded no fossils; some geologists refer these to the 
old red series, others hold them to be lower carboniferous. 

The carhoniferons limestone is extensively developed in Ireland, occupying the whole 
of the center of the country, except in those places already alluded to, where the older 
rocks appear on the surface. This great tract is an extensive plain covered with drift, 
and with peat-moss and fresh-water marl, in which are found the remains of megaceros 
hihernicu-s and bos longifrons. In Kerry, Cork, and Waterford the strata are very much 
contorted, the coal-seams are changed into anthracite, and so squeezed and crushed as 
to be got only in small dice-like fragments. Further n. the strata are nearly horizontal, 

U. K. VIII.— 9 



It'«land« 



130 



but the coal-fields are limited, and the seams arc generally of inconsiderable thickness. 
'iUiey occur chiefly in Tipperary, Kilkenn}^ Tyrone, and Antrim. 

Small deposits of Pernuaa krata are found at Ardtrca in Tyrone, and at Cultra near 
Belfast; the sandstones of Roan hill near Dungaunon are probably of the same ace. 
'J'lie red and variegated marls containing beds of gypsum and rock-salt, which exist On 
the coast n. from Belfast, are probably triasdc. Resting on Ihesb marls are a few thin 
beds of lias. Cretaceous strata occur in Antrim and Derry. 

Climate. — Though the climate of Irelana bears, as might have been expected, a siron.'i 
resemblance to that of Great Biitain(q.v.), it hnsyet a character ])eeuliar to itself. OAvjnir 
to the marked difference in the contiguration of its surface, its greater dist;mce from 
the continent of Europe, and its being, as it were, more completely b.-itlied in the warm 
waters of the gulf-stream. The mean annual temperature of the central parts of the 
country is about 50°, 0, rising in the s to 51°. 5, and falling in the n. to 48''. 5. There are 
thus 3^0 of difference between the extreme n. and s., andit may be noted that, speaking 
generally, this difference is constant through all the seasons of the year. The mejiii 
temperature in winter is 4r.5; in spring, 47°. 0; in sunmier, G0\0; and in autumn. 

The annual rainfall averages from 25 to 28 in., except in the neighborhood of hills, 
where the precipitation is considerably augmented; thus, at Yalentia,'"in Kerry, the rain- 
fall of 1861 amounted to 73 in., and doubtless this large fall was grently exceeded in 
tlio.se pai'ts which are situated among the higher hills. The rainfallin Minter. particu 
larly in the w., is greatly in excess of the other seasons, owing to the low temperature of 
the surface of the ground during winter, which suddenly chills the warm and moist s.w. 
winds. that prevail, especially at this time of the year, and condenses iheir vapor into 
r 'in. Since in Great Britain the chief mountain ranges are in the w\, it follows that over 
the whole eastern slope of the island the climate is dryer, the amount and frequency of 
the rainfall much less, and the sunshine more brilliant than in the west. In Ireland, on 
the other hand, the hills in the w. do not oppose such a continuous harrier to the onw^ard 
progress of the s.w. winds, but are more broken up and distributed in isolated groups. 
It follows that the sky is more clouded, and rain falls more frequently in Ireland, and 
the climate is thus rendered more genial and fostering to vegetati(m; hence the appropri- 
ateness of the name " Emerald Isle." Again, oAving to its greater distance from the con- 
tinent, the parching and noxious c. winds of spring are less severely felt in Ireland, 
because the n.e. winds have acquired more warmth and moisture in their progress. It is 
on this account that the most salubrious spring climates possessed by England. Scotland, 
and Ireland are situated in the s.w of their respective countries. 1'luis, Queenstown, in 
the s.w. of Ireland, enjoys an jiverage spring temperatm-e as high as 50°.0, which is about 
the liighest in the British islands, and nearly 3 .0 higher than the e. of Kent, which is 
nearly in the same latitude. 

Since wheat ripens in these latitudes with a mean summer temperature of 56°. 0, it fol- 
lows that the climate of Ireland is quite sufficient for the successful cultivation of the 
finer sorts of grain, wiiich are subjected to much less risk in backward seasons than is the 
case in north Britain, where the summer temperature is only a degree and a half from 
the extreme limit of wheat cultivation. Also, considering its remarkably open winters, 
which lengthen out the period of grazing, its mild and genial climate through all the 
seasons, and its comparative freedom from droughts, it will be seen that its climate is 
equally well adapted for the rearing of cattle. These considerations, combined with the 
fertility of the soil, open up for Ireland, as far as the physical conditions are concerned, 
a prospect of great national prosperity, based on most remarkable, though as yet only 
partially developed agricultural resources. 

8oil and Vegetation. — Until the !niddle of last century Ii-eland was almost exclusively 
a pasturing country, and in 1727 an attempt was made (unsuccessfully, however) to pass 
an act compelling land-holders to "till five acres out of every hundred in their posses- 
sion, and to release tenants to the same extent from the penal covenants in their leases 
against tillage." The result of this state of things is tiie wretchedly poor system of agri- 
culture, from which Ireland still suffers largely. The natural fertility of the country is 
nevertheless great. 

The extent under each of the principal crops in 1871, 1873, and 1875 is given in the 
following table: 

Extent cultivated in 
Crops. 1871. 1878. 1875. 

Acres. Acres. Acres. 

Wheat 244,451 168,485 161,321 

Oats 1,636,136 :, 510,089 1,499,371 

Barley, here, and rye 232,534 239,428 244,059 

Beans and pease 10,913 12,872 11.647 

Potatoes 1,058,434 903, 282 900,277 

Turnips 327,035 347,904 332.783 

Other green crops 126,220 121,234 137,026 

Flax 156,670 129,432 101,248 

Meadow and clover 1,829,044 1,837.483 1,943,923 



JlOL Ireland. 

The estimated produce in 1871 and 1876 was as under: 

Produce. Produce. 

Crops. 1871. 187(i. 

Wheat 705,939 481,815 qrs. 

Oats 7,410,814 7,648,774 " 

Barley, here, and rye , 965,709 1,109,981 " 

Beans and pease 49,690 4b, lol " 

Potatoes 3,793,641 4,154,785 tons. 

Turnips 4,246,332 4,440,«18 " ' 

Mangel and cabbage 761,863 1,039,023 " 

Flax 12,919 27,141 " 

Meadow and clover 3,315,525 3,458,239 " 

Live-stock. — According to the census of 1851, tlie estimated value of the live-stock 
was £27,737,393; for 1861, £33,434,385; and for 1871, £37,515,211. In 1875 the esti- 
mated value was £52,343,697. 

Fisheries. — In her fisheries, Ireland is supposed to possess an almost inexhaustible 
mine of wealth, but, strange to say, they are niucli neglected. The surrounding sea?; 
abound with cod, ling, hake, herrings, pilchaids, etc., and yet the Irish markets iuc 
extensively supplied with cured fish from Scotland and the Isle of Man. The number 
of vessels and boats engaged in the sea-fisheries in 1846 w^as 20,000, employing 100,000 
men and boys; but in 1876 it had decreased to 5,965, employing only 23,693 persons. 
The m^wcyi^Vi^ms are improving annually, and in 1877 employed 11,582 men. Tlicir 
estimated value is over £400,000 a year. 

Manufactures. — According to McCulloch, "Ireland is not, and never has been, a 
manufacturing country. Its unsettled turbulent state, and the general dependence (jf 
the population on land, have hitherto formed insuperable obstacles to tlie formation of 
great manufacturing establishments in most parts of the country; whilst the want of 
coal, capital, and skillful workmen, and the great ascendancy of England and Scotland 
in all departments of manufacture, will, there is reason to thiuli, hinder Ireland from 
ever attaining eminence in this department." Linen is the staple manufacture, of whicli 
Belfast and the surrounding districts of Ulster are the chief seats. The export of linen 
manufactures from Ireland to Great Britain was, in 1864, £10,327,000, Ihe manufac- 
ture of woolen stuffs is limited to a few localities, as Dublin, Cork, Waterford, Queen's 
CO., and Kilkenny. Silk and cotton manufactures are also carried on, but only lo 
a comparatively inconsiderable extent. In 1875 the number of factories (cotton, woolen, 
worsted, flax, jute, and silk) in Ireland amounted to 235, employing 1,087,968 spindles, 
21., 056 power-looms, and 67,741 persons of both sexes; of these, 149 were flax factories, 
employing 925,562 spindles, 17,827 power-looms, and 60,316 persons. A great source Of 
employment for females has of late years sprung up in the n. of Ireland, in the work- 
ing of patterns on muslin with the needle. Belfast is the center of this manufacture, 
which employs about 300,000 persons, chiefly females, scattered through all the counties 
of Ulster; and some localities of the other provinces. About 40 firms are engaged in the 
trade, and the gross value of the manufactured goods amounts to about £1,400,000. Silk 
manufactures, since their introduction by French emigrants in the beginning of the last 
century, have been almost entirely confined to Dublin; but poplin is now extensively 
manufactured there, and in a few other towns. 

Commerce and Shipping. — The exportation of the agricultural produce of the country 
has always been the chief commercial business carried on in Ireland. By far Ww. 
greater part of this trade is carried on with Great Britain. It cannot, however, Ik; 
traced later than 1825, when the commercial intercourse between Great Britain and 
Ireland was assimilated by law to the coasting-traffic carried on between the different 
ports of England, except in the single article of grain. 

The number of sailing and steam vessels, with their tonnage, registered in the ports 
of Ireland, in 1871, was 1776 vessels, tonnage 218,162; in 1875, 1703 vessels, tonnage 
218,343. 

Government. — The government of Ireland, since the union in 1801, is identical with 
that of Great Britain. It is represented in ihe imperial parliament by 28 members of 
the house of lords, and 103 of the house of commons. The executive government is 
invested in a lord-lieutenant, assisted by a privy council and chief secretary; and the 
law is administered by a lord chancello-r, a master of the rolls, and twelve judges of the 
supreme court of judicature, which has two divisions — the high court of justice, with 
several subdivisions, and the court of appeal. County and municipal matters are con- 
ducted nearly as in England, with the exception of an armed national constabulary or 
police force of about 12,000 men, with 348 horses. 

Religion. — A vast majority of the inhabitants of Ireland are Roman Catholics; but 
the Episcopal church, a branch of the Church of England, was the established church 
till Jan., 1871. It now exists independently as the Church of Ireland. In 1871 the 
number of Roman Catholics was 4,150,877; of Protestants, 1,260,568; and of Jews, 258. . 

Education. — Ii'eland possesses several universities: Dublin university (q.v. ) was 
founded by queen Elizabeth in 1591; the queen's colleges of Belfast, Cork, and Galway, 
opened in 1849, are united in one university. The Roman Catholic university was 



Inland. ^^^ 

fouuded in 1854: and Mnynooth college (q.v.) in 1795, for t]ie education of Roman 
(jatliolic priests. There are also several Irish colleges and medical schools in connection 
witli the London university. Tlie primary schools of Ireland are mostly und(;r the 
management of the " commissioner-i of national education," This system, establisiied in 
18J3, proceeds on the principle that 'the schools shall be open alike to Christians of 
every denomination; that no pupil shall be recpiired to attend any religious exercise, or 
receive any religious instruction which his parents may not approve; and that sutticienl 
opportunity shad be afforded to pupils of each religious persuasion to receive separately 
•such religious instruction as their parents or guardians may think tit," The fodowing 
l<T,ble exinbits the progress of the system: 

Years. No. of Schools. No. of Pupils, Parliamentary Grants. 

1834 1,106 145,521 £2U.O0O 

1840 1,978 232,560 50,000 

1850 4,547 511,239 125,000 

1860 5,6C2 804,000 270,722 

1870 6,806 998,999 394,209 

1871 6,914 1,021,700 408,388 

In 1875 there were 7,267 national schools, with a total of 1,011,799 pupils; of whom 
798,024 were Roman Catholic; 111,132 Presbyterian; and 89,907 Episcopalian children. 
The ])arliamentary grant in the same year was £639,368. Besides the national school^, 
the "church education society" had, in 1870, 52,166 scholars, of whom 44,662 belong .d 
to the established church. 

Jlistoi'i/. — According to ancient native legends, Ireland was in remote times peopled 
by tribes styled Firbolgs and Danauns, eventually subdued by Milesians or Gaels, who 
acquired supremacy in the island. The primitive inhabitants of Ireland are now believed 
to have been of the same Indo-European race with the original population of Britain. 
Although Ireland, styled lerms, is mentioned in a Greek poem live centuries before 
Ciirist, and by the names of Ihbernia and Juxerna in various foreign pagan writers, 
little is known with certainty of her inhabitfaits before the 4th c. after Christ, when, 
i;n(ler the appellation of S<-oti, or inhabitants of Scotia, they became formidable by their 
descents upon the Roman province of Britain. These expeditions were contiimed and 
extended to the coasts of Gaul till the time of Laogaire MacNeill, monarch of Ireland 
(430 A.D.), in whose reign St. Patrick (q.v.) attempted the conversion of the natives. 
Although Christianity had been previously introduced in some parts of the island, 
Patrick encountered great obstacles, and the new faith was not fully established i\ 
Ireland till about a century after his decease. , 

From the earliest period each province of Ireland appears to have had its own king, 
subject to the ard-righ or monarch, to whom the central district called Meath was 
allotted, and who usually resided at Tara. Each clan was governed by a chief selected 
from its most important family, and who was requireil to be of mature age, capable of 
taking the field efficiently v^hen occasion required. The laws were peculiar in their 
nature, dispensed by professional jurists styled brehons, who, as well as the poets and 
men of learning, received high consideration, and were endowed with lands and 
important privileges. Cromlechs, or stone tombs and structures, composed f)f large 
nncemented stones, ascribed to the pagan Irish, still exist in various parts of Ireland. 
Lacustrine habitations, or stockaded islands, styled o'annogs or crannoges {q.\.), in inland 
lakes, also appear to have been in use there from early ages. Of articles of metal, 
stone, clay, and other materials in use among the ancient Irish, a large collection has 
been formed in the museum of the royal Irish academy at Dublin. It is remarkable 
that a greater number and variety of antique golden articles of remote age have been 
found in Ireland than in any other part of northern Europe; and the majority of the 
gold antiquities illustrative of British history, now preserved in the British museum, 
are Irish. 

In the 6th c. extensive monasteries were founded in Ireland, in which religion and 
learning were zealously cultivated. From these establishments numerous missionaries 
issued during the succeeding centuries, carrying the doctrines of Christianity under 
great difficulties into the still pagan countries of Europe, whose inhabitants they sur- 
prised and impressed by their self-devotion and ascetism. Many students of distinction 
from England and the continent frequented Ireland, and received gratuitous instructiou 
at this period. To these ages has been ascribed the origin of the peculiar style of arl- 
ornamentation, specimens of which are still extant in Irish manuscripts, and which was 
long erroneously assigned to the Anglo-Saxons, who now^ appear to have been mdebted 
to the Irish mainly for Christianity, and entirely for letters. Among the eminent native 
Irish of these times were Columba (q.v.), or Colum Cille, founder of the celebrated 
monastery of lona; Comgall, who established the convent of Bangor, in the county 
of Down; Ciaran of ('lonmacnoise; and Adamnan. abbot of lona, and biographer 
of Columba. Of the Irish missionaries to the continent, the more distinguished weie 
Columbanus (q.v.), founder of Bobio; Gallus of St. Gall, in Switzerland; Dichuill, 
])atronizcd by Clotaire; and Ferghal. or Virgilius, the evangelizer of Carinthia. The 
progress of Irish civilization was checked by the incursion of the Scandinavians, com- 
mencing towards the close of tiie 8th c, and continued for upwards of 300 years. 



133 



Ireland. 



Establishing them8L4ves in towns on the eastern coast of Ireland, with the assistance of 
Iricndly native tribes, they continued to make predatory expeditions into the interior 
until their signal overthrow at the battle of Clontarl", near Dul)lin (1014 a.d.), by Brian, 
surnanied Borumha, monarch of Ireland. From the clo^^e of tlie blh to the 12th c, 
Ireland, although harassed l)y the Scandinavians, produced many writers of nieril, 
among whom were ^ngus, the hagiographer; Cormac MacCulleuan, king of Munster. 
and bishop of Cashel, the reputed author of Connac'is Glossdry; Cuan O'Lochain; Gilhi 
Moduda; Flan of Monaslerboice; and Tighernach, the annalist. The Irish scholais 
who during these times acquired higliest eminence on the continent were Joanius 
Erigena, the favorite of Charles the bald of France; Dungal, one of the astronomers 
consulted by Charlemagne; Dichuill, the geographer; Donogh, or Donalns, bishop of 
Fiesole; and Marianus Scotus. Of the state of the arts in Ireland during the same 
period, elaborate specimens survive in the shrine of St. Patrick's bell, the cross of 
Cong, in Mayo (12th c); the Limerick and Cashel croziers, and the Tara brooch, all 
displaymg minute skill and peculiar style. To much earlier times is assigned the Book 
of lulls (see Kells), a Latin copy of the four gospels, in the library of Trinity college, 
Dublin, whicli Mr. Westwood has pronounced to be the most elaborately executed 
manuscript of early art now in existence, and of portions of which fac-similes are given 
in his work Palaographia Sacra Pictoria. Of the Irish architecture of the period 
examples survive at Cashel. The well known round towers of Ireland are believed to 
have been erected about this era as belfries, and to serve as places of security for 
ecclesiastics during disturbances. The skill of the Irish musicians in the 12th c. is attested 
by the enthusiastic encomiums bestowed by Giraldus Cambrensis upon their perform- 
ances. The Scandinavians have left behind them in Ireland no traces of civilization 
except coins struck at Dublin, Walerford, and Limerick, in which towns they were, 
for the most part, subject and tributary to the natives. 

The first step towards an Anglo-Norman descent upon Ireland was made by Henry 
II., who obtained in 1155 a bull trom pope Adrinn IV., authorizing him to take posses- 
sion of the island, on condition of paying to the papal treasury a stipulated annual 
revenue. Political circumstances prevented Henry from entering upon the undertaking 
till 1166, when Dermod MacMurragh, the depo^^d king of Leinster, repaired to him, 
and obtained authority to enlist such of his subjects as might be induced to aid him in 
attempting to regain his forfeited lands. Dermod, returning to Ireland in 1169, with 
the aid of his foreign mercenaries, and still more numerous Irish allies, succeeded in 
recovering part of his former territories, and in capturing Dublin and other towns on 
th£ eastern coast. After his death in 1171 the succession to the kingdom of Leinster 
was claimed by his son-in-law, Richard FitzGislebert, earl of Pembroke, surnamed 
"Strongbow." In the following year king Henry, with a formidable armament, 
visited Ireland, received homage from several of the minor native chiefs, and from the 
chief adventurers, granting to the latter charters authorizing them, as his subjects, to 
take possession of the entire island, in virtue of the grant made to him by the pope. 
The chief Anglo-Norman adventurers, FitzGislebert, Le Gros, De Cogan, De Lacy, and 
De Curci, encountered formidable opposition before they succeeded in establishing 
themselves on the lands which they thus claimed. The government was committed to 
a viceroy, and the Norman legal system was introduced into such parts of the island as 
were reduced to obedience to England. The youthful prince John was sent by king- 
Henry into Ireland in 1184; but the injudicious conduct of his council having excited 
disturbances, he was soon recalled to England. Joim, when king, made an expedition 
into Ireland in 1210, to curb the refractory spirit of his barons, who had become for- 
midable through their alliances with the natives. During the 13th c. the principal 
Anglo-Norman adventurers succeeded in establishing themselves, with the feudal insti- 
tutions of their nation, in some parts of Ireland, by the assistance or suppression of 
native clans. The Fitzgeralds, or Geraldines, acquired almost unbounded power in 
Kildare, and east Munster, or Desmond; the Le Botillers, or Butlers, in Ormond or 
west Munster; and the De Burghs, or Burkes, in Connaught. After the battle of 
Bannockburn, the native Irish of the north invited over Edward Bruce, and jittcmpted 
to overthrow the English power in Ireland. The court of Rome, at the instigation of 
England, excommunicated Bruce with his Irish allies; but although his enterpris(! 
failed of success, the general result was a comparative collapse of the English dominion 
in Ireland, The descendants of the most powerful settlers gradually became identified 
with the natives, whose language, habits, and laws they adopted to so great an extent, 
that the Anglo-Irish parliament passed, in 1367, the "statute of Kilkenny,"' decreeing 
excommunication and heavy penalties against all those who followed the customs of, or 
allied themselves with, the native Irish. This statute, however, remained inoperative; 
and although Richard II., later in the 14tli c, made expeditions into Ireland with large 
forces, he failed to effect any practical result; and the power and influence of the 
natives increased so much that the authority of the English crown became limited to a 
few towns on the coast, and the district termed "the Pale," comprising a small circuit 
about Dublin and Drogheda. 

In 1534 Thomas Fitzgerald, son of the viceroy of Henry VIIT., revolted, but not 
meeting with adequate support from his Anglo Irish connections, he was, after a short 
time, suppressed and executed. Henry received the title of " king of Ireland" in 1541, 



134 

Ireland. ^^* 

by an act passed by the Anglo-Irish parliament in Dublin; and about the same period, 
some of the native princes were induced to acknowledge him as their sovereign, and to 
accept peerages. The doctrines of tlie reformation met little favor either with the 
descendants of the old Englisli settlers or with the native Irish. About the middle of 
the 16t.h c. Sliane O'Neill, a prince of tlie most powerful ancient family of Ulster, 
attempted to suppress his rivals, and to assume the kingship of that province, in which 
he was eventually unsuccessful; but after his death in 1567 his successor received the 
title of earl of Tyrone from Elizabeth. Tlie attempts of the English government in 
Ireland to introduce the reformed failli and English institutions stirred up great dissen- 
sions in Ireland. Among the first to revolt was the earl of Desmond, after whose 
death, in 1583. his vast estates in Munster were parceled out to English settlers. Soon 
after, the chief clans of Ulster took up arms; and in opposing them the forces of 
Elizabeth, commanded by officers of high military reputation, encountered many 
reverses, the most serious of which was that in 1598 at the battle of the Yellow Ford, 
near Armagh, where the English army was routed and its general slain. Philip III. of 
Spain, at the solicitation of the Irish chiefs, dispatched a body of troops to their 
assistance in 1601, which, landing in the extreme south, instead of in the north, as had 
been expected, were unable to effect anytiiing, and vs'ere constrained to surrender. 
AlthoLigli Elizabeth was supported by numbers of native Irish, the northern chiefs, 
O'Neill and O'Donnell, held out till the queen's government came to terms with them 
in' 1603, recognizing them as earls of Tyrone and Tirconnell. In 1608 these noblemen, 
having apprehensions for their personal safety, quitted Ireland unexpectedly, and 
retired to the continent. Their withdrawal enabled James I. to carry out that project 
of parceling out tlie n. of Ireland to Scottish and English settlers which is usually 
known as the "plantation of Ulster." The Irish took advantage of the contentions in 
England to rise in insurrection (1641) and massacre tlie Protestants. It is believed that 
nearly 40,000 fell victims to their fury. The country continued in a state of anarchy 
till 1649, when Cromwell overran it. At the revolution the native Iiish generally took 
the part of James II., the English and Scotch "colonists" of William and ]\Iarv, and 
the war was kept up for four years (1688-93). From this time till 1778 history records 
little beyond the passing of penal staUutes against the Roman Catholics. In 1778 ]iar- 
liament relaxed the stringent pressute of these acts; but the wideh^ spread disaffection 
Avliich they caused gave birth to numerous societies, resulting in the rebellion of 1798, 
which was not suppressed till 1800, On Jan. 1 of the following year the legislative 
union of Great Britain with Ireland was consummated, and from this period the his- 
tory of the country merges in that of Great Britain. 

IRELAND, Arms of. The insignia of Ireland have been variously given by early 
writers. In the reign of Edward iV., a commission appointed to inquire what were 
the arms of Ireland found them to be three crowns in pale. It has been supposed that 
these crowns were abandoned at the reformation, from an idea that they might denote 
the feudal sovereignty of the i)ope, wIkjsc vassal the king of England was, as lord of 
Ireland. However, in a MS. in the heralds' college of the time of Henry YIL, the 
arms of Ireland are blazoned azure, a harp or, stringed argent; and when they were for 
the tirst time placed on the royal shield on the accession of James I. they were thus 
delineated: the crest is on a wreath or and azure, a tower (sometimes triple-towered) 
or, from the port, a hart springing argent. Another crest is a harp or. The national 
flag of Ireland exhibits the harp in a field vert. The royal badge of Ireland, as settled 
by sign-manual in 1801, is a harp or, stringed argent, and a trefoil vert, both ensigned 
with the imperial crown. 

IRELAND, Church of, the Irish branch of the Episcopal church of England and 
Ireland, established by law in Ireland, according to the act of union passed Jan. 1, 1801. 
The established church of Ireland, considering itself the rightful successor of the medi- 
aeval Roman Catholic church, took possession of the dioceses, parishes, and church 
.property, and for a long time retained the divisions then existing. The Roman Catho- 
lics, constituting a large majority (77 per cent) of the population, have always regarded 
as unjust the existence, in their country, of an established Protestant church in connec- 
tion with that of England. Notwithstanding its small membership the church had, in 
1833, 4 archbishoprics, 18 bishoprics, the income from which was estimated at from 
£130,000 to £185,000. In that year the first inroad was made upon the prerogatives of 
the established church in the reduction of the archbishoprics to two and tlie bishoprics to 
ten. In 1868, on motion of Mr. Gladstone, the English house of commons voted todi-- 
establish the church of Ireland. The house of lords rejected the proposition. But so 
strong was the expression of public opinion against the continuance of the privileges of 
the Irish church that the royal commissioners on the revenues and condition of the 
church of Ireland, recommended in their report. July 27, 1868, important reductions as 
to its benefices. They suggested, among other changes, the abolition of four bishoprics 
and one archbishopric, and that all benefices with less than 40 Protestants should be 
suppressed. At the close of the year 1868 Mr. Gladstone became prime minister and 
int'.oduced, in Mar., 1869, a new bill for the disestablisliment and disendowment of the 
Irish ciiurch, wliicli, after a long and earnest debate, passed both houses of parliament, 
and on July 26 received the royal assent. The bill, containing 60 clauses, is entitled, 



l*^*^ Ireland. 

" A bill to put an end (o the cstalilishment of the church of Ireland, and to make pro- 
vision in respect to the temporalities thereof, and in respect to the royal college of May- 
nooth." Tiie disestablishment was to be total and to take place Jan. 1, 1871, when the 
ecclesiastical courts and laws were to cease, the bishops to be no longer peers in parlia- 
ment, the ecclesiastical conmussion terminate, and a new commission of church tempo- 
ralities, composed often men, appointed, in which the whole property of the Irish church 
should be vested. Public endow'ments, including state grants or revenues (estimated at 
£15,500,000), were to be retained by the state, and private endowments, such as 
money given from private sources since 1660 (valued at £500,000), were to remain 
with the disestablished church. The vested interests connected with Maynoolh 
college, with the Presbyterians who were receiving the regium clonum, and 
the incumbents, were to be secured. The aggregate of the payments would amount 
to about £8,000,000, leaving £7,500,000 "at the disposal of parliament, and 
which should be appropriated "mainly to the relief of unavoidable calamity 
and suffering." A general convention held in Dublin, 1870, adopted a constitution for 
the disestablished ciiurch, according to which the chuich is to be governed by a gen- 
eral synod, composed of a house of bishops and a house of clerical and lay delegates, 
meeting annually in Dublin. The house of bishops has the right of veto, but seven 
members must agree upon it to render it valid. The bishops are chosen by the diocesan 
convention, but if the convention fail to elect a candidate to a vacant see by a majority 
of two-thirds of each order, the election falls to the house of bishops. The primate or 
archbishop of Armagh is elected by the house of bishops from their own order. The 
property of the church is vested in a permanent representative body, composed of three 
classes — the ex-offic.io archbishop and bishops, one clerical and two lay representatives for 
each diocese, and the co-opted members chosen by the ex-officio and representative 
members, and equal in number to the dioceses. (3ne-third of the elected members 
retire by rotation. The first convention adopted resolutions against the ritualistic prac- 
tices introduced into the church of England. In 1873 the number of benefices was 
1548, of curates 622. The population connected with the church of Ireland, b}' the cen- 
sus of 1861, was 693,357 or 11.9 per cent of the whole population; in 1871, 683,295 or 
10 per cent. As soon as the Irish act pa.ssed the temporalities commission took charge 
of all the property which had belonged to the established church, and sent out forms U) 
be filled up by clergymen and others who had claims for a continuance of income. The 
whole number wiio had commuted at the end of 1873 was 6,162. The amount paid for 
claims up to Feb., 1873, was £8,259,673. 

IRELAND, New\ See New Ireland. 

IRELAND, William Henry, 1777-1835; b. London, son of Samuel, an English en- 
graver and author; was educated in France, and apprenticed to a conveyancer. Visiting 
with his father, 1795, Stratford-upon-Avon, he forged a lease or deed pretending it to be 
the autograph of the poet, wliich he said he had found among some old law papers. 
He perpetrated other forgeries, and produced the plays of Vortigem and Henry the 
Secojid as the plays of Shakespeare, which deceived many literary men. Vortigeui 
was acted at Drury Lane theater, and both were published, 1799. He confessed the 
forgeries, abandoned his profession, and spent the remainder of his life in more reput- 
able pursuits. He w^rote several novels, plays, poems, etc. }li^ Confessions, 1805, con- 
tain an account of all his forgeries. 

IRELAND ISLAND, one of the Bermudas (q.v.). 

IRELAND— LAND LEAGUE. The year 1879 was memorable in the history of 
Ireland for having witnessed the beginning of a condition of public distress which eventu- 
ally assumed the proportions of a famine, and for having seen, based upon this condition, 
the first movements of the popular disturbances of the following year. The poor har- 
vests of 1879 having rendered it impracticable for the tenantry of Ireland to fulfill their 
rigorous rental obligations, demands were made upon the landlords for reduction of 
rent, and public meetings to this end wxre held in various parts of the country, besides 
an immense gathering in Hyde park, London, the largest ever held in that place, 
which was attended by more than 100,000 persons. In" Oct. the National Irish Land 
League was organized by Charles Stewart Parnell, a prominent agitator, who was made 
its first president. This organization was established to procure a reduction of rents 
through constant agitation in the first instance; to emphasize and enforce a general 
refusal to pay rent, if this demand were not complied with; and, finally, to bring about 
a radical change in the existing system of English land-laws, by which the relation of 
landlord and tenant should be abolished and in its place established a class of 
peasant proprietors. The various speakers who devoted themselves to advocating the 
new scheme were violent and even seditious in their utterances, and three of these — 
James Bryce Killen, ]\[ichael Davitt, and James Daly, proprietor of the Mayo Telegraph — 
were arrested on a charge of, having used seditious language at a public meeting held 
Nov. 2. 1879, at Gurteen, co. Sligo. Meanwhile the distress in the country increased, 
and during the winter and spring of 1879-80 a condition of famine spread through- 
out the western part of .Ireland, where the most appalling scenes were every day 
occurrences. Organized efforts for relief were made in England tuider tlie direction of 
the Duchess of Marlborough; and in tlie United Slates heavj^ subscriptions were col- 



Irena.u8. ^36 

lected, and large sums of money expended in breadstuff 3 and provisions, wiiicli were 
sent to tlie starving Irisli. In the height of tlie generous excitement Mr. Parnell visited 
America, and traveled over the country, speaking in the principal cities and towns in 
the interest of the Land League. Tliis movement aroused considerable opposition and 
ill-feeling, which was emphasized by the course of the New York Herald, whose pro- 
prietor, after causing his journal to oppose the political enteri)rise of Mr. Parnell, 
giariea a v;ubscrJptiou for the suffering Irish, heading tiie list with the sum of $100,000. 
Subscriptions poured in to the ''Herald'' fund with extraordinary libeiality, and in a 
lew weeks the amount subscribed reached the sum of half a million dollars, wliich av;-.s 
placed in the hands of a committee of gentlemen in England and Ireiand. and by them 
distributed. The visit of the U. S. frigate Constellation to Leland, loaded with grain 
and i^rovisions, the gift of American citizens, was also an incident of this exciting period. 
The sulTering in L-eland was greatly reduced by this timely aid, but the incendiary 
speeches of the Land Leaguers continued to excite pu])lic feeling, and agrarian outbreaks 
began to occur in different parts of the country, Tiie assassination of'the earl of Mayo 
and other landlords by their exasperated tenants added fuel to the flames, and by the 
close of the year (1880) it was generally conceded that no landlord's life was safe, if he 
remained on his estates in L'cland, unless he acceded to the demands of his tenants. 
But by this time these had grown bolder — mainly through the instigation of the Land 
League — and whereas before they had been satisfied with a reduction of rent, they now 
clamored for proprietorship. So serious had the situation be( ome, and so much were 
English statesmen and politicians impressed with the necessity for radical action, that 
plans for buying up the English proprietorship in Ireland and distributing it among the 
native farm-tenants were seriously recommended to parliament, and taken into con- 
sideration by some of the leading minds in England, The British government, alarmed 
at the state of affairs, dispatched troops to the disturbed districts, and announced the 
policy of first restoring law and order before entering on measures of relief. 

lEENiE US, one of the most important of the ante-Xicene Christian writers, was an 
Asiatic by birth, but is known in history solely through his connection with the Greco- 
Gaulish church of southern France, of w hich he was a bishop. He was a scholar of 
Polycarp, through whom he may be regarded as having sat at the feet of St. John the 
apostle and evangelist. Irenaeus w'as a priest of the church of Lyons under the bishop 
Pothinus, upon whose martyrdom, in the persecution of Marcus Aurelius in 177, he 
was himself elected to the same see, which he continued to govern for twenty five years. 
Irenaeus is commonly believed to have suffered martyrdom at Lyons in the pei'secution 
under Septimius Severus in 202. Llis principal, indeed almost his only perfect, work 
is that which is commonly cited as Adversus Hareses (Against Heresies). It is directed 
against the Gnosticism of his own age, and is most valuable as a picture of the doctrinal 
and moral condition of that age. Most of his other works also were doctrinal, but they 
are known only by description or by fragments. The earliest edition of the works of 
this father is that of Erasmus (Basel, 1526). They have been several times re-edited, the 
most prized edition being that of the Benedictine, Dom Massuet (Paris, 1710, and Venice, 
1734) 

IRE'NE, a celebrated Byzantine empress, was b. in Athens about 752 a.d. Her beauty 
and talent excited the admiration of the emperor Leo IV., who married her, 769 a.d. 
Slie is believed to have poisoned her husband, 780 a.d., after which event she becauie 
regent during the minority of her sou, Constantine VI., then only nine years of age. A 
great w^orshiper of images — in fact, this species of idolatry had during the lifetime of 
her husband caused her to be banished from the imperial palace — she quickly began to 
plot for their restoration, and with this purpose assembled a council of bishops at Con- 
stantinople, 786 A.D., whicii, however, was broken up hy the troops of the capital. A 
second council held at Nit.e in the following year was n:Oie successful, and image- 
worship was re-established in the eastern church. In 788 a.d. her aimy was dei'eated 
in Calabria by Charlemagne, who threatened the Byzantine empire. In 790 a.d. Con- 
stantine succeeded in taking the government out of her hands; but seven years after 
she caust'd him to be deprived of his eyes, and shut up in a dungeon, where he soon 
died. Still she w^as not free from anxieties. Her two favorites, Stauracius and vEtius, 
were constantly embroiled with each other, and their jealousies only ceased with the 
death of the foimer, 800 a.d. She now tried to secure her possession of the throne by a 
marriage with Charlemagne, but the Frank emperor had apparently no relish for a wonian 
who had committed so many crimes, and the scheme proved abortive. Two years later 
lier treasmer, Nicephorus, rebelled against her, and suddenly seizing her pei'son, banished 
lier to the isle of Lesbos, where she w>ts forced to spin foi-^a livelihood. Here she died 
of grief, 803 a.d. Irene w\as a wise, able, and energetic ruler; but her crimes were so 
great and unnatural that history can speak of her character as a whole only in the 
language of reprobation. The Greek church, however, on account of her zeal for image- 
worship, has placed her among its saints, 

IRETOH, Henry, an English gc^ieral of tlie period of the Commonwealth, Avas the 
eldest son of German Ireton, of Attenton, in Nottinghamshire, and was b. in 1610. Pie 
studied law at Oxford, but on the breaking out of the civil' war offered his services to 
the parliament. His connection with Cromv.ell, who.se daughter, Bridget, he married 



1 O i Iris. 

in 1646, greatly advanced his interests. At Naseby ho was taken prisoner by Rupert, 
but rescued some hours after, when Cromwell's Ironsides decided tlie fortune of the day. 
Iretou was one of the most implacable enemies of the king, and signed the warrant for 
his execution. When Cromwell passed over to Ireland to subdue that country he was 
accompanied by his son-in-law, on whose vigor, judgment, and tact he placed much 
reliance. Cromwell's presence, however, was soon required in Scotland, and the com- 
plete subjugation of Irehmd was intrusted to Ireton. His career was brief, but success- 
ful. He was, liowever, unsparing in his severity. On Nov. 15, 1651, he died of tlie 
])lague before the walls of Limerick. His remains were conveyed to England and 
interred in Westminster abbey; but after the restoration they were disinterred and 
burned at Tyburn. Ireton left one son and four daughters. 

IRIARTEA, a genus of palms, all South American, having lofty, smooth, faintly 
ringed stems, and pinnate leaves with somewhat triangular leaflets. The leaf-stalks ri-,e 
froni a sheathing column. The Pashiuba or Piziuba Palm (I. exorhka), common in 
swamps and marshy grounds in the forests of the Amazon district, is remarkable for 
sending out roots above groimd, which extend obliquely downwards, and often divide 
into many rootlets just before they reach the soil; the tree as it grows still producing 
new roots from a higher point than before, whilst the older and more central ones die, 
so that at last a lofity tree is supported as on three or four legs, between which a man 
may walk erect witli a palm of 70 ft. high rising straight above his head. The 
outer wood is very hard, so as to be used for harpoons; splits easily, and into perfectly 
straight laths; is excellent for floors, ceilings, shelves, etc.; and is exported to North 
America for umbrella-sticks. 

I£IDE'.S:, or Irida'ce^, a natural order of endogenous plants, mostly herbaceous, 
although a few are somewhat shrubby. They have very generally either root stocks or 
corms. The leaves are generally sword-shaped, in two rows, and eqriitant (so placed 
that one seems to ride on the back of another). The perianth is 6-partite, colored, often 
very beautiful, in some regular, in others irregular. The stamens are three, with anthers 
turned outwards. The ovary is inferior; there is one style, with three stignnas, which 
are often petal-like, and add much to the beauty of the flower. The fruit is a 8-celIed, 
3-valved capsule. Almost 600 species are known, of which the greater number are 
natives of warm countries. They are particularly abundant in South Africa. A f cav 
are British. Iris, gladiolus, and crocus are familar examples of the order. Saffron is 
the principal economical product. Acridity is a prevailing characteristic, and some 
species are medicinal; but the corms and root-stocks of some are edible. 

IRIDIUM (sym. Ir, eq. 99 — in the new system, 198 — sp. gr. 21.15) is one of the so- 
called noble metals. It is occasionally found native and nearly pure in considerable 
masses among the Uralian ores of platinum, but is usually combined with osmium as an 
alloy in flat scales. It is a very hard, white, brittle metal, which may be melted by the 
oxhydrogen blowpipe, or by the heat of a voltaic current. In its isolated form, it is 
unacted upon by any acid, or by aqua regia, but as an alloy it dissolves in the Jatter 
fluid. It forms three oxides, IrO, IraOs, and Ir02, which pass readily into one another, 
and thus occasion the various tints which solutions of the salts of tliis metal assume. It 
was in consequence of these varying tints that the name of iridium, derived from «>i>, 
the rainbow, was given to this metal. Three sulphides and chlorides, corresponding to 
the oxides, have been obtained. This metal was discovered at the same time as osmium, 
in 1803, b}^ Sraithson Tennant. 

IRIDOSMINE, a mineral alloy of iridium and osmium. It has a steel-gray color and 
metallic luster, and occurs in flattened grains about the size of a small pin-head. It is 
also found as a heavy gray powder. Its hardness is about equal to that of quartz, and 
its density ranges from 19.2 to 21.12. It is usually associated with platinum and with 
gold, bearing a small percentage to the latter. According to Dr. Toi'rey, the earlier 
assays at the assay office in New York yielded rather less than 1 oz. to $1,000,000 of 
gold, but this increasetl to 7 or 8 oz., and again diminished. The chief use of iridos- 
mine is in tipping the nibs of gold pens. 

IRIS, in classic mythology, the daughter of Thaumas and Electra. She is described 
(in Homer) as a virgin goddess; but later writers state that she was married to Zephy- 
ras. by whom she became the mother of Eros. She was employed, like Mercury, as the 
messenger of the gods, and to conduct female souls into the shades, as he conducted 
those of men. She is frequently represented on vases and in bas-reliefs as a youthful 
winged virgin, with a herald's staff and a pitcher in her hands. There can be no doubt 
that this myth originated in the physical phenomena of the rainbow, which was per- 
sonified at first as the messenger of peace in nature. 

The broad-colon.'d ring in the eye is called the Iris. See Eye. — Iris is also the 
name of one of the planetoids (q.v.) discovered in 1847. 

IRIS, or Flower-de-Luce, a genus of plants of the natural order iridece^ having the 
three outer segments of the perianth reflexed. the three inner arched inwards, and three 
petal-like stigmas covering the stamens. The species are numerous, chiefly natives of 
temperate climates. The Yett^low Iris, or Corn Flag (/. pseudacorux), is a well-known 
native of inoisl grounds in all parts of Britain, often spreading over a considerable extent 



in^V; 138 

Irisite. 

of land, and conspicuous even at a distance by its tall leaves and large deep yellow flow- 
cr^. The Stinking Ikis {I. fcetkUssinw) is very abundant in soine of the southern parts 
of England, but does not extend far north. It lias livid purple flowers. The leaves have 
a ver}^ disagreeable smell. The s. of Europe p:-oduces a greater number of species, as 
also does North America. The flowers of most of the species are beautiful, iSoine of 
them have received much attention from florists, particularly /. xvpldum, sometimes 
called Spanish Iris; /. xiphioides, or English Iris; and /. Oermanica, or Common Iris, 
all conn-rooted species, and all European. Many fine varieties have been produced. 
The Persian Iris (/. Persica), the Snake's-iiead Iris (/. tuberosa), and tlie Chalcedo- 
ntan Iris(/. Susi'ana) are also much esteemed. The Persian iris is delightfully fragrant. 
The roots of all these species are annually exported in considerable quantities from Hol- 
land. Many other species are of frequent occurrence in flower-gardens. — Tiie fresh rool- 
stocks of /. pseud<( corns are very acrid, as are those of many other species. Those of 
/. Florentlna, I. pallida, and /. Gerinanica are orris root (q.v.). Those of i. dichotoma are 
aten in Siberia; those oil. edulis at the cape of Good Hope. 

IRISH (GAELIC) LANGUAGE and LITERATURE. The Irish (Gaelic) is one of the 
still living Celtic languages (see Celtic Nations). The alphabet consists of the follow- 
ing eighteen letters — a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, I. m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, corresponding in their 
forms with the Roman characters of the 5th c. after Christ. In Irish there is no indef- 
inite article; nouns are masculine or feminine, and anciently a neuter gender existed. 
The nominative and accusative are the same in form, as are also the dative and ablative; 
the nonunative and vocative feminine, and the genitive and vocative masculine, always 
have similar terminations. Nouns substantive have five, and nouns adjecuve four 
declensions. Verbs are active, passive, regular, irregular, impersonal, and defective; 
their moods are indicative, consuetudinal, past irdicative, imperative, infinitive, and 
conditional; regular active verbs have no subjunctive; the tenses are the present, con- 
suetudinal present, preterite, consuetudinal past, and future; in the tenses of the pas- 
sive voice there is no distinction of number Or person. Prepositions are rarely com- 
pounded with verbs or adjectives, instead of which the Irish use prepositions or adverbs 
]ilaced after the verbs. Adverbial phrases composed of two or more ])arts of speech are 
very numerous both in ancient and in modern Irish. The simple conjunctions are few, 
but there are many conjunctional phrases. Interjections are numerous, and vary 
throughout the provinces. The regular versification of the Irish consists of four dis- 
tinct meters, styled Oglachas, Droighneach, Bruilingeacht, and Dan Direach; of the 
last, there are five species, each distinguished by peculiar features. There are also 
classes of popular poetry possessing distinct linear and syllabic components. The best 
authorities on the Irish language are the Irish Grairimar, by J. O'Donovan (1845); the 
Orammatica Celtica of J. C. Zeuss (1856); and Irish Glosses (1860), published by the Irish 
archa3ological and Celtic society. 

The oldest existing specimens of the Irish language are to be found in sepulchral 
inscriptions in Ireland, and in the glosses or interpretations afltixed to Latin words in 
documents transcribed by Irish ecclesiastics of the 8th and succeeding centuries, now 
preserved in some continental libraries. The principal ancient vernacular manuscripts 
in Ireland are Leabhar nah- Uidhre, and the Book of Leinster (12th c); the Books of Bal- 
lymote, Lecan, and Dan Doighre, or Leabhar Breac (14th c); all compiled from older 
writings on liistorical and miscellaneous subjects. The most ancient manuscripts in 
Iieland containing original matter in the Irish language are the Book of Ar magi i (9tli c), 
and the Book of llynins, of a somewhat later date, both ecclesiastical in their contents. 
The writings extant in the Gaelic language of Ireland consist of ecclesiastical docu- 
ments, laws, bardic or semi-historic tales, historic tracts, genealogies, liistoric poems, 
treatises on medicine, translations from foreign authors, proverbs, compilations of the 
17th c, popular poetry, political and satirical poems and songs, composed by native 
Gaelic writers in Ireland within the last century. Of the ecclesiastical documents the 
next in importance, after the Book of Armagh and the Book of Hymns, are the metrical 
Festologies of ^ngus Ceile De (9th c). the Martyrology of Tallaght (10th c), and that 
of Marianus O'Gorman (12th c). In this department there are also extant many lives of 
saints, monastic rules, devotional and religious poems. A large bod}'' of old Irish juris- 
pruflence, known as the Brehon Laws, is preserved in manuscripts of the 14th and 15th 
centuries. Of the Irish bardic or semi-historic tales, numbers are extant ranging in 
date from the 12th to the 18th century. The principal Irish historic tracts are those on 
the tribute styled Boriimha,, the wars of the Danes with the Irish, and the wars of Tho- 
mond. Copious genealogies of the principal native families exist in various manuscripts, 
and from such sources MacFirbis, a learned Irish antiquary of the 17th c, made an 
elaborate compilation known i\s LeaMar Genealach, or the "Genealogical Book," now 
considered a high autlioi-ity. The chief composers of poems on the history of Ireland 
were Eochadh O'Flin (10th c), Gilla Caemhain, and Flan of Monasterboice (11th cen- 
tury). The most important ancient Irish annals are those of Tighernach, of Ulster, of 
Inisfallen, and of Connacht. 

The Irish manuscripts on medicine contain original treatises by native physicians of 
the 14th and 15th centuries, with commentaries on the then known medical authors 
of Europe and in the east. The Irish translations from foreign languages are chiefly 



J^^^ Irisite. 

versions of mediaBval Latin and continental books — historic, scientific, romantic, and 
religious. Of original adages and proverbial sentences great numbers exist, of various 
ages. The privileges enjoyed by the Iii?,h poets under the clan system enabled them lo 
devote themselves to the production of elaborate metrical compositions, many of which 
possessed high "excellence, and elicited the praises of the poet Spenser. During llie 
wars against Elizabeth the bards were energetic in stimulating the chiefs lo whom they 
were attached. The merit of the elegiac poem on the deaths of the earls of Tyioiie and 
Tyrconiiell by their bard Mac an Bhaird, who accompanied them in exile (1608 a.d.), 
attracted the attention of the critical lord Jeffrey, who became acquainted with it 
through Mangan's English version in the meter of the original. Among the native 
writers in Ireland after the establishment of the English dominion, in the reign of 
James I., was Dr. Geoffrey Keating, compiler of a history of Ireland in the Gaelic lan- 
guage, and author of religious treatises and poems. About the same period historical 
and hagiographical compilations were made by the O'Clerighs, the most impoitant of 
which was that styled the Annals of the Kingdom by the Four Matifers, extending from 
the earliest period to 1616 a.d., edited in seven large volum s (Dublin, 1848), with an 
English version and copious notes, by the late Dr. John O'Donovan, the ablest of Irish 
scholars. The Gaelic continued to be the language of the native rural population of 
Ireland during the 17th and 18th centuries, and many religious and romantic pieces 
were composed in it for popular use. Differing from the English settlers in religious 
and political sentiments, the native Irish found gratification in satirizing and ridiculing 
them in the Gaelic language, in which they composed numerous songs in favor of the 
Stuarts, and denunciatory of the Hanoverians and their adherents. jMembers of old 
Irish families who attained high distinction in military service on the continent, retained 
with pride the Gaelic tongue; it was also commonly spoken by the soldiers in the Irish 
brigades in France, and in the American army during the w^ar of independence. Various 
attempts were made since the middle of the last century to print Gaelic documents, but 
the critical knowledge of the language in its archaic forms having fallen into abeyance, 
sucli publications proved entirely unsatisfactory, until the subject was taken up about 
1830 by government, during the progress of the ordnance survey of Ireland. From this 
may be said to date the true Irish school of accurate historic and linguistic learning, 
which has since produced many valuable volumes, under the superintendence of the 
antiquarian section of the royal Irish academy and the Irish archaeological and Celtic 
society. On the works issued by these two bodies, which for many years have included 
nearly all the most erudite scholars of Ireland, philological and historic students must 
now depend, as other publications on these subjects are, with few exceptions, illusory 
and misleading. 

The Irish, in its modern forms, is still spoken commonly by the rural classes and 
native land-owners in Connaught, Munster, the remote parts of Ulster, the s. of 
Leinster, as well as in the islands off the western coast of Ireland. The provincial dia- 
lects vary considerably in words, pronunciation, and idioms. The Irish emigrants h.ave 
carried their language across the Atlantic, and songs and poems in the Irish language 
and character occasionally appear in American newspapeis. Professorships of tlie 
Irish language exist in Trinity college, Dublin; in the Queen's colleges at Belfast, Cork, 
and Galway; and in the Roman Catholic college at Maynooth. The chief collections of 
Irish manuscripts are those of the royal Irish academy and Trinity college, Dublin; 
luunbers are also preserved in the British museum, in the Bodleian, and in some private 
libraries. 

IRISH MOSS. See Carrageen. 

IRISH SEA, a continuation northward of St George's channel (q.v.), separates the 
n. of Ireland from the central districts of the United Kingdom. Between the coasts 
of Louth and Lancaster the Irish sea has a width of 120 m. ; its greatest length between 
St. George's channel on the s. and the North channel on the n, is also about 120 miles. 

IRISITE, a resinoid substance which is the principal constituent of the asplialtic 
mineral grahamite, which has been used successfully in making pavements (see Pa\ e- 
^[ent); also for gas-making. It was originally investigated by prof. Llenry Wurtz. 
Grahamite is fotind in vertical fissures in horizontal rocks in Ritchie co., W. Va., and 
also at a place about 100 m. av. of Denver, Col. The mean of analyses of grahamite by 
])rof. Wurtz gives: carbon, 78.66; hydrogen. 8.57: oxygen, 12.77; density, 1.145. The 
other ingredient of grahamite is viscosite (q.v.). Grahamite is black, and has a variable 
luster; is fusible under pressure, because of the viscosite constituent. It is very solu- 
ble in chloroform, benzole, bisulphide of carbon, and warm oil of turpentine. The 
viscosite is dissolved out of the grahamite by sulphuric ether or light petroleum naph- 
tha. Irisite may be obtained from the residue by means of one of the grahaniite 
solvents above mentioned, filtering and evaporating. When pure it is black, very l)ril- 
liant, and infusible without decomposition. When its solutions are spread in thin films 
upon smooth surfaces, the most gorgeous rainbow hues are produr-ed. If a mineral 
acid be added to a solution of irisite, the latter substance will coagulate, after which it 
is insoluble in all its former solvents, it having undergone a remarkable change. Anal- 
ogous to grahamite is the mineral albutite, found in the province of New Brunswick, 
which also contains a small quantity of irisite and viscosite. 



Iritis. 1 lA 

Iiou. ^*^ 

IRI TIS is the term applied to inflammation of the iris. See Eye. The cavity across 
which the iris is stretched, and the iris itself, which projects into that cavity, and divides 
it into an anterior and a posterior clianiber, are lined or invested by a membrane which 
resembles the larger serous membranes of the body, such as the pleura, peritoneum, 
etc., and consequently the inflammation of this membrane is of the adhesive kind. See 
Inflammation. When it is added that the eft'usiou of lymph may limit or entirely 
slop the movements of the iris, and may alter the form or even close up the aperture 
of the pupil, the seiious nature of the disease will be at once perceived. 

The objec'ive symptoms of iritis (those which can be observed by the physician) are: 

1. Redness of the eye, arisino- from vascularity of the sclerotic; 2. Change in the color 
of the iris. When lymph is elf used in the texture of the iris, a gray or blue eye is ren- 
dered yellowish or greenish, while in a dark eye a reddish tint is produced. The bril- 
liancy of the color of the iris also disappears. When the inflammation is very violent, 
or has been uncliecked by remedies, suppuration may take place. 3. Irregularity and 
sometimes immobility of the pupil, produced by the adhesion of the back of the iris to 
the crystalline lens. The subjective symptoms (those of which the patient alone is con- 
scious) are intolerance of liglit, dimness of vision, and pain in and around the eye. 

The causes of iritis are various. The disease may arise from actual injury in sur- 
gical operations performed on the eye; from over-exertion, and too prolonged continu- 
ous use of the eye (thus it is common among needlewomen, engravers, and watch- 
makers); or from some constitutional taint, especially syphilis, gout, rheumatism, and 
scrofula. 

The treatment of iritis varies to some extent according to the cause which induces it, 
but the great remedies are three. 1. Blood-letting, for the purpose of moderating the 
febrile disturbance, and of facilitating the operation of the second remedy, which is, 

2. Mercury, which used to be given in large doses (such as two, three, or four grains, 
with a little opium, every four or six hours), but which is preferably given in small 
doses, such as two or three grains of hydrarg. c. creta, with a little hyoscyamus, two or 
three times in the 24 hours. This dose should be lessened as soon as the mouth begins 
to be tender, and by that time the lymph will be found to break up, and leave the pupil 
clear. 8. Belladonna. The pupil should be kept well dilated by the application of the 
extract of belladonna to the skin round the eye, or, far better, by the instillation into 
the eye of a weak solution of sulphate of atropine, with the view of preventing adhe- 
sion of the iris, or of breaking, or, at all events, of stretching and elongating any adhe- 
sive bands that may be formed; and thus of preventing any impairment of the move- 
ments of the iris, and any irregularity of the pupil after the inflammation shall have 
abated. 

IRKUTSK', a government of eastern Siberia, bounded by the government of Jenis- 
seisk, the government of Jakutsk and the Chinese empire, occupies an area of 307,990 
sq. miles. The soil is partly fertile, partly hilly and marshy; the climate in general 
severe. The Baikal and Nerchinsk mountains, with their numerous branches, give the 
country a high alpine character; besides these, the Saian range extends along the south- 
ern borders, and the Jablonovy or Apple range along the eastern. The principal rivers 
are the Lena, Shilka, Agiin; the largest lake is the Baikal (q.v.). The product'ons of 
the country are rye, wheat, barley, oats, rhubarb, hops; reindeer, sables, ermines, foxes, 
seals; flsh — sturgeon, cod. silure; minerals — gold, silver, lead, jasper, amethysts, 
topazes, emeralds, yellow amber, rock-salt, and coal. The pop. of the government is 
(1870) 378,244, and consists of Buriats, Tunguses, and Russians. The iidiabitants are 
for tlie most part employed in agriculture, and to some extent in fishing and hunting. 
As a local industry, the manufacture of an excellent oil out of stone-pine nuts deserves 
notice. The foreign commerce consists in the trade with China, carried on through 
Troitzko-Savsk and Kiachta (q.v.), and has risen to great importance in recent times. 

The government of Irkutsk is divided into five districts — Irkutsk, Verkliolensk, Bala- 
gansk, Nijneudinsk, and Kirensk. The capital is Irkutsk; the other towns are Telma, 
with a cloth-factory, Troitzko, Savsk, Kiachta, Kirensk on the Lena, Nijneudinsk, and 
Yerholensk. 

IRKUTSK, capital of the Russian government of that name, is the residence of the 
gov. gen of eastern Siberia, and the seat of a bishop. It is situated on the right bank 
of the Angara, near its confluence with the river Irkut. in lat. 52° 17' n., and long. 104° 
2fl e., and is 3,842 m distant from St. Petersburg. The town is about 1200 ft. above 
the level of the sea, and enjoys a very healthy climate, thouuh in winter the cold is so 
severe as to freeze mercury. The streets are straight and wide, but ill-paved, and the 
Ikouses mostly built of timber. The town possesses 23 Greek churches, 9 hospitals, a 
theater, IG schools (including a gymnasium), and 86 factories or works. Besides these 
the town contains a public library, a museum of natural history, and some other public 
institutions. The pop, is about 32,000, consisting mostly of Russians and Buriats. 
Irkutsk was founded in 1C61 by a Cossack chief named Iwan Pochapof. and owing to 
its position on the great thoroughfare between eastern and western Siberia, between 
I hina and Rus.sia, it soon became the commercial center of Siberia, especially for the 
tea-trade. The current of the Angara is so rapid that the sti'ongest frosts cover it but sel- 
dom with ice. Nevertheless, it is navigable, and constitutes the mainway for the goods 



1 4.1 IriHs. 

^^^ lion. 

bound for Kinclitix by means of hike Baikal, as "svcll as for those coming from eastern 
Siberia, Russian America, and Cliina to Irkutsk. Tlie former are chietiy tuis and 
metals; the latter, tea, meat, anil fisli from lake Baikal. The comniunieations between 
Irkutsk and Jakutsk, and the otlier northern towns of Siberia, are cairied on by the river 
Lena. The manufactures of Irkutslv are purely local, and supply the hall'-uomad Burials 
and Tunguses inhabiting the adjacent country. 

IRNERIUS, or Gahnia, b. Italy, 11th c. ; was professor of Roman law in the uni- 
versity, of Bologna. 

'' IRON (sym. Fe [Lat. fejTum], eq. 28 — in the n 'w system, 53 — sp. gr. 7,841) occurs 
more abundantly than any other metal. In its native form it is cliietiy found in meteoric 
stones (see Aerolites), and in certain ores of platiimm, and is consequently of compar- 
atively rare occurrence, but the so-cidled iron ores — the oxides, sulphides, etc. — are very 
widely distributed. The most important of these ores are mentioned below. 

Pure iron may be obtained by the ordinary method described below, and also by 
reducing the peroxide by means of hydrogen gas and heat, when it is obtained in the 
form of a tine black powder, or by heating the protochloride in a glass tube through 
which a current of dry hydrogen is passed. In this case, pure iron is deposited as a glis- 
tening miiTor on the glass. 

This important metal will be most conveniently considered under the three heads of 

1. Chemistry/ of Iron. — Chemically puie iron is of so little general interest that we 
shall confine our remarks on the properties of this metal to those which are exhibited 
by bar or w^rought iron. Its color is gray or bluish-white; it is hard and lustrous, takes 
a high polish, is fibrous in texture, and when broken across, exhibits a ragged fracture. 
It requires a very intense heat for its fusion, but before melting passes into a soft pasty 
condition, in which state two pieces of iron may, by being hammered together, be united 
or Avelded so completely as to form, to all intents and purposes, a single portion. At a 
red heat, it may be readily forged into any shape; but at ordinary temperatures it pos- 
sesses very little malleability, as compared with gold and silver. In ductility, it stands 
very high, being barely exceeded by gold, silver, and platinum; and in tenacity, it is 
only exceeded by cobalt and nickel. Its susceptibility to magnetism is one of its most 
remarkable characteristics. See Magnetism. At a high temperature, it burns readily, 
as may be seen at the forge, or (more strikingly) when a glowing wire is introduced into 
a jar of oxygen. In dry air, and at ordinary temperatures, the lustrous surface of the 
metal remains unchanged; but in a moist atmosphere the surface rapidly becomes oxi- 
dized and covered with rust, which consists mainly of the hydrated oxide of iron. At a 
red heat, iron decomposes water, and liberates hydrogen, 'the oxygen combining with 
the iron to form the black or mngnetic oxide (Fe304). which occurs in minute crystals. 
This is one of the ordinary methods of obtaining hydrogen. 

The aflinities of iron for most of the non-metallic elements are very powerful. 
The chief of the iron compounds are — 

a. Oxides of Iron. — Iron forms four definite compounds with oxygen — viz. (1), the 
jv'otoxide (FcO), which is the base of the green or ferrous salts of iron; (2), \\\e sexqnioxide 
or peroxide (FcsOs), which is the base of the red or ferric salts; (3), the black or magnetic 
oxide (Fe304), which is regarded by some chemists as a compound of the two preceding 
oxides; and (4), ferric acid (FeOa). The protoxide cannot be obtained in an isolated 
form, but it forms the base of various ferrous salts, and combines with water to form a 
hydrate (FcO,HO), which, on the addition of an alk?li. falls in white flakes. 

The most important j)rotosalts of iron, or ferrous salts, are the carbonate, the sul- 
phate, the phosphate, and the silicate. 

Carbonate of iron (FeO.COs) exists naturally in various minerals, and may be obtained 
artificially by precipitating a soluble protosalt of iron with carbonate of potash or soda, 
when the carbonate falls in white flakes. On exposure to the air. it absorbs oxygen, and 
gives off carbonic acid, and is thus converted into the hydrated peroxide. Sulphate of 
iron (FeO.SOs+'^HO) is obtained by the solution of iron, or its sulphide, in dilute sul- 
phuric acid; in the former case, there is an evolution of hydrogen, and in the latter, of 
sulphureted hydrogen. The reactions in the two cases are expressed by the equations, 

Fe + S03,HO = FeO,S03-i-H 
FeS-f S03,H0 = FeO,S03 + HS. 

On evaporation of the solution, the salt is obtained in clear bluish-green rhomboidal 
crystals, containing seven atoms of water. This salt is commercially known as copperas 
or green vitriol, and its various ?,pplications in technology are noticed in the article 
Vitriols, Blue AND Green. 

Phosphate of iron is obtained by precipitating a solution of a protosalt of iron with 
phosphate of soda, when a white precipitate of phosphate of iron is thrown down. 

All these salts, especially the carbonate and sulphate, are extensively used in medi- 
cine. 

Silicate and phosphate of iron occur naturally in several minerals. 

The peroxide of iron, termed also sesquioxide, red oxide, or ferric oxide, is obtained 
in an anhydrous form by igniting the protosulphate, and is known in the arts under the 
names cokot/uir, crocus of Mars, or rouge, according to the degree of levigation to which 



Ii2 

it has been submitted. It is employed for polishing glass, jewelry, el c, and is also 
used as a pignieut. It occurs botli in tiie anhydrous and in the Jiydrated form in vari- 
ous n\inerals. 

The liydrated peroxide (2Fe.2O3.3HO) is obtained by- precipitating a solution of a 
persait of iron, or of a ferric salt, with an excess of potash, ammonia, or allvjiline cuibo- 
nate. It falls as a yellowish-brown tlocculent precipitate, whicli Avhen dried forms » 
dense brown mass. This hydrated peroxide of iron, when freshly prepared and sus- 
pended in water, is regarded as an antidote in arsenical poisoning. Rust, as has been 
already mentioned, is a 113'drated peroxi(ie, combined with a little ammonia. 

Tlie most important of the persalts of iron, or ferric salts, are the neutral and the 
basic sulpliate, whese formulae are FcqOs.SSOs and Fe203,3S03.5Fc203 respectively, tlie 
nitrate (FcaOs.SMOs), the phosphate, and the silicate. Of these, the neuti-al sulphate, 
the phosphate, and the silicate occur in various minerals. The nitrate, which is obtained 
by the solution of iron in nitric acid, is a useful medicinal agent. 

The black or magnetic oxide 'a.\\& ferric acid, which has not been obtained in a free state, 
and is only known as a constituent of certain salts, must be passed over without com- 
ment. 

h. Haloid salts of iron — the chlorides, bnmiides, and iodides — next require notice. 
There are two chlorides — viz., a protochloride (FeCl) and a perchloride or sesquichloride 
(FcaCls). The latter may be obtained by dissolving peroxide of iron in liydrochloric 
acid. The tincture of the sesquichloride of iron is perhaps more generally employed in 
medicine than any other preparation of this metal. The protiodide is an extremely 
valuable therapeutic agent. 

c. There are probably several sulphides or sulphurets of iron. The ordinary sulphide 
is a protosulphide (FeS). It occurs in small quantity in meteoric iron. It may be 
obtained artificially by the direct union of the two elements at a high temperature, or by 
the precipitation of a protosalt of iron b}^ sulphide of ammonium. It exists in glistening 
masses, varying in color from a grayish yellow to a reddish brown. It is insoluble in 
water, but in moist air becomes rapidly oxidized into prolosulphate of iron. With acids, 
it develops sulphureted hydrogen. The bisulphide of iron (FeS.2) is the i7'on pyrites of 
mineralogists, and the mundic of commerce. Under the latter name, it is used exten- 
sively in the preparation of oil of vitriol. There are also other sulphides of less impor- 
tance. 

The protosalt^ and the persalts, or \\\g ferrous and i\ie ferric salts, give totally different 
reactions with the ordinary tests. The solutions of the former have a greenish color 
and a peculiar metallic taste, while those of the latter are generally of a brownish-yellow 
color, and are very acid. Sulphureted hydrogen gives no precipitate with an acid solu- 
tion of a ferrous salt, while it gives a milky precipitate of sulpliur with a solution of a 
ferric salt. Potash, soda, and ammonia throw dowm a white hydrated oxide fiom the 
former, and a brown hydrated peroxide from the latter. Ferrocyanide of potassium 
gives with ferrous salts a white precipitate, which soon becomes blue, whde with ferric 
salts it at once produces a blue precipitate, even in a very dilute solution. Tincture of 
galls (tannic acid) produces no immediate change of color with the ferrous, but a deep 
blackish-blue color (ink) with the ferric salts. Sulphocyanide of potassium produces 
no change with. the ferrous, but gives a deep blood-red tint with the ferric salts. Suc- 
cinate and benzoate of ammonia produce no precipitate or change of color with the 
former, while with the latter, if the solution is not too acid, they throw down pale 
reddish-brown precipitates. 

2. Manufacture of Iron. — The increasing use of iron is a prominent characteristic of 
the present age, and every day sees some new application of it in the arts of life. 
Although the most useful of the metals, it was not the first known. The ditficulty of 
reducing it from its ores would naturally make it a later acquisition than gold, silver, 
and copper (q.v.) See also Bronze, and Bronze Period. The reduction of the ore 
known as the black oxide of iron, howev^er, has been carried on in India from a very 
early time. 

In Europe the rich specular and other ores of Spain and Elba were much used 
during the Roman period; in Greece, also, iron M^ac known, though, as among the 
Romans, its use was subsequent to that of bronze. We are informed, too, by the Roman 
historians that this metal was employed by the ancient Britons for the manufacture of 
spears and lances. The Romans, during their occupation of Britain, manufactured iroTi 
to a considerable extent, as is evidenced by the cinder-heaps in the forest of Dean and 
other places. The rude processes then in use left so much iron in the cinders that 
those of Dean forest furnished the chief suppl}' of ore to 20 furnaces for between 200 
and 300 years. In those early times, the iron ores were reduced in a simple conical fur 
nace, called an air-bloomery, erected on the top of a hill, in order to obtain the greatest 
blast of wind. The furnaces were subsequently enlarged and supplied with an artificial 
blast. Charcoal was the only fuel used in smelting till 1618, when lord Dudley intro- 
duced coal for this purpose; but the iron-masters being unanimously opposed to the 
change, Dudley's improvement died with himself. It was not reintroduced till Abraham 
Derby, in 1713, employed it in his furnace at Coalbrook Dale. But as this method was 
not properly understood, the production of English iron declined with the change of 
fuel, till, in 1740, it was only three-fourths of what it had formerly been. About 10 



143 



Iroc 



years after this, however, the introduction of coke jrnve renewed vigor to the iron-trade, 
and then followed in rapid succession those great improvements in tlie manufacture 
whicli have given lo the liislory of iron tlie interest of a romance. The introduction of 
Watt's steam-engine in 1770, the processes of puddling and rolling invented by Henry 
Cort in 178-i, and the employment of the hot-blast by Neilson of Glasgow in 1830, have 
each been of inestimable service. The greatest improvement introduced into the iron 
manufacture in recent times is the process of Mr. Bessemer for the production of steel, 
patented in 1856 (see Bessemer Process). The " Siemens-Martin" method of making 
steel has also of late come into extensive use. An important new process for steel is 
patented by S. T. Thomas. 

Iron ores are abundantly distributed over the globe; the chief kinds being — 1. Mi'g- 
netic iron ore; 2. Red hematite, specular, or red n-on ore; 8. Brown hematite or brown 
iron ore; 4. Carbonate of iron, includuig spathic ore, clay ironstone, and blackband 
ironstone. 

The ore richest in the metal is the magnetic (see Magnetism), or black oxide of iron. 
AVhen pure it contains nothing but oxygen and iron, its chemical formula being Fe304, 
wiiich gives 73 per cent of iron by weight. It occurs in dark heavy masses of black 
crystals, and is found in the older primary rocks. Sweden is famous for this ore, and 
for the iron produced from it, which is esteemed the best in Europe. .The celebrated 
mines of Dannemora, in that country, have been constantly worked since the 15th cen- 
tury. Russia, too, has great iron works in the Ural mountains, which are supplied with 
this ore. So, also, have Canada and several of the American states, as Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, etc. The rock formations in which magnetic iron ore occurs 
very rarely contain coal, hence it is almost always smelted with wood-charcoal, which, 
as it contains no sulphur, is one great cause of the superiority of the iron produced 
from it. 

Red hematite differs from the last onl}'' in containing proportionally a little more 
oxygen, its formula being FcsOs, that is to say, 70 per cent of iron by weight. There 
are several varieties of this ore, but only two need be referred to. The first of these, 
upecular iron, so called from its bright metallic luster, occurs in large and beautiful 
crystalline masses in the island of Elba, where it has been worked for more than 2,000 
years, and is likewise found in many other parts of the world. It is of a steel-gray 
color, assum'ng a red tint in thin fragments and when scratched. The other variety is 
kulney ore, whose origin is still a curious problem, as its deposits occur sometimes in 
veins and sometimes in apparently regular beds. Its characteristic form is in large 
kidney-shaped nodules, witli a fine radiated structure. This shape, however, is only 
assumed in the cavities of massive deposits. Red hematite is sometimes called blood- 
stone. It is used for polishing metals, and yields a blood-red powder, used as a pig- 
ment. This valuable iron ore is found in many countries, but in few" places in greater 
abundance than at Whitehaven and Ulverstone, in the n.w. of England, where splendid 
masses of it occur, 15, 80, and even 60 ft. in thickness. These two districts produced, 
in 1877, about 2,285,000 tons of hematite. 

Broicn hematite, or brown iron ore, is a hydrated peroxide of iron, and has the same 
composition as red hematite, except that it contains about 14 per cent of water. It is 
generally found massive, more rarely crystalline, and a variety occurring in small rounded 
nodules is called pea iron ore. When mixed with earth or clay, it forms the pigments 
yellow ocher and brown umber. Brown hematite is now an important ore in Gi'cat 
Britain, about 2,000,000 tons being annually raised. It occurs in diffei'ent geological 
formations, chiefly in Devonshire, the forest of Dean, South Wales, and in the co. of 
Antrim in Ireland; also in an earthy form in Northamptonshire. It is the ore chiefly 
smelted in France and Germany. 

Bog iron ore is a variety of brown hematite, usually' containing phosphorus, which 
occurs in marshy districts of recent formation. 

Carbonate of iron, when found in a comparatively pure and crystallized state, is known 
as spathic, spathose, ov sparry iron ore; but when impure and earthy, nii clay ironstone and 
blackband ironstone. Spathic ore was little "vvorked in England previous to 1851, soon 
after which it was discovered in Somersetshire. It forms mountain masses in various 
parts of Prussia and Austria, and is now much in demand to yield the spiegeleisen 
required in the Bessemer process. In its purest form it contains 48 per cent of iron; and 
in color it varies from white to buff or dark brown, some specimens of it taking a beau- 
tiful polish, and looking like marble. • The clay and blackband ironstones are essentially 
mixtures of carbonate of iron with clay, blackband having also a considerable proportion 
of coaly or bituminous matter. These dull earthy-looking ores occur abundantly in 
Great Britain, and form, after coal, the greatest of her mineral treasures. Fully one- 
third of all the ore mined in the country is obtained from the coal-measures, where for- 
tunately both the fuel and the limestone, indispensable for the reduction of the iron, are 
also found. The ore occurs as balls or nodules in the shales, or in continuous beds. 
Some of these seams are full of fossil shells, and the ore is then called "musselband" 
ironstone. 

Formerly, the three great iron districts of Britain were South Staffordshire, South 
Wales, and Central Scotland, each producing nearly equal quantities, and together 
yielding about four-fifths of the total produce of the country. Now, however, the South 



144 

Iron. ^^^ 

Staffordshire field is becoming exhausted, its produce being only about a fourth of what 
it was, while that of the South Wales and S(;o^(i^h districts has increased, and is now 
vieldiuo" annually, tlie former a million and a quarter, and the latter more than three 
hiillionlons of ore. North Staffordshire, Shropshire, Derbyshire, atid the West Ridmg 
of Yorkshire, are the principal remaining districts yielding ores from the carboniferous 
beds. The iron from the West Hiding ore is the best in Britain as regards quality. 

There is yet another ureat iron district, yielding an ore belonging to a more recent 
formation than the carboniferous — namely, the lias. This deposit, which scarcely more 
than 80 years auo was unknown, is now producing iron to the enormous amount of 
1,875,000 tons per annum. It is the ironstone of the Cleveland hills, in the n.e. of York- 
shire, which, from its resemulance to common sandstone, passed unnoticed till 1847. 
About that time, isolated blocks of it, found on the sea-coast, were discovered to con- 
tain about 30 per cent of iron. On further examination of the district these were 
l)roved to be detached pieces of a massive bed, no less than 15 ft. thick, which could be 
traced for many miles along the sides of the hills. Some idea of the value of this vast 
deposit of iron ore will be found in the fact, that the ironstone seams of the coal-meas- 
ures seldom exceed 20, and are worked as low as 8 inches in thickness. Another mass 
of ironstone of great thickness, also belonging to the lias beds, was more recently discov- 
ered in North "Lincolnshire. In the oolite, too, beds of brown iron ore have been 
discovered in several counties, but chiefly in Northamptonshire, where it has been 
worked with so much spirit, tliat about a million tons of ore per annum are now raised. 

To those remarkable discoveries may be added that by Mr. Rogers of Abercarn, who 
first detected, some yenrs ago, the value of the spathic ore in tlie Devonian rocks of 
Somersetshire, now largely worked. "We may state, too, that hematite has recently been 
mined to seme extent in the Shetland islands. About 420,000 tons of what is called 
" burnt ore " are now yearly obtained in Great Britain from the residue of iron pyrites 
(sulphide of iron) which has been burned to yield its sulphur for the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid. Fully 1,000,000 tons of iron ore are now annually imported. 

Before proceeding to describe the manufacture of iron, we give two analyses of 
British ores: the first is by Mr. J. Spiller, taken from a series published in the Memoirs 
of tlie Geological Survey, and the second is by Dr. Murray Thomson. 
r. 

CLAY IRONSTONE, CHIEFLY A CARBONATE OF IRON, BLACK-BED MINE, LOWMOOR, 

YORKSHIRE. 

Protoxide of iron 36. 14 

Peroxide of iron 0.61 

Protoxide of manganese 1 38 

Alumina 0.52 

Lime 2.70 

Magnesia 2.05 

Carbonic acid 26.57 

Phosphoric acid 0.34 

Sulphuric acid trace 

Bisulphide of iron 0.10 

Water, hygroscopic 0.61 

" combined 1.16 

Organic matter 2.40 

Insoluble residue, chiefly silica and alumina 25.27 

99.85 

Metallic iron per cent 29,12 

SCOTCH PLACKBAND. 

Protoxide of iron 36 47 

Protoxide of manganese .* 4.16 

Alumina 3.69 

Lime 2.75 

Magnesia 77 

Carbonic acid 23. 26 

Phosphoric acid trace 

Silica 9. 26 

Organic (coaly) matter 17.92 

Water 93 

Sulphur 66 

99.87 
Metallic iron per cent 28,36 



145 



Iron. 



It will be noticed that in the case of these ores the impurities are rather numerous. 
Nevertheless, the modes of preparing and smelting them are somewhat rude and simple, 
as the low price of iron will not pern'iit of its ores being treated with the same care as 
the ores of lead, copper, tin, and some other metals. 

Iron ore is still reduced in the s. of Europe by the old and imperfect process of the 
Catalan forge, not unlike a common smith's forge. In Great Britain, however, as 
well as in all other countries where iron is largely smelted, the blast-furnace is now 
universally employed, by means of whicli the metal is obtained in the state of crude or 
cast iron. For the tiner kinds of iron, charcoal is the fuel employed, because, unlike 
coal or coke, it contains no sulphuret of iron or other injurious ingredients. The Rus- 
sian and Swedish furnaces smelt with charcoal, and on this, as mucli as on their pure 
ores, depends tiie high reputation of their iron. A solitary charcoal-furnace at Ulvcr- 
stone in England, and another at Lorn in Scotland, are still working — the only relics of 
times past, when this was the only fuel employed. 

As a preliminary process to the actual smelting in the blast-furnace, clay and black- 
band ironstones are generally roasted. This is accomplished by breaking the ore into 
small pieces, spreading it in open heaps on the ground, and mingling it more or less with, 
small coal according to the nature of the ore. Blackband commonly contains enough of 
carbonaceous matter to burn without the addition of coal. The pile, which may contain 
from one to several thousand tons of ore, is lighted at the windward end, and burns 
gradually along, aided by occasional fires in the sides, till the whole heap has undergone 




Fig. 1. Hot Blast-furnace. 



calcination, the time required for this purpose being generally about a month. Some- 
times the operation of roasting is performed in close kilns, instead of open heaps, a mode 
by which the ore is considered to be more uniformly roasted, and with considerably less 
fuel. Of late years, the kilns are often heated by the waste gases of the blast-furnace. 
By calcination, clay ironstone loses from 25 to 30, and blackband from 40 to 50 per cent 
of its weight, the loss consisting chiefly of carbonic acid and water, but sulphur and 
other volatile substances are also dissipated in the process. The roasting also converts 
the protoxide and carbonate of iron into peroxide, which prevents the formation of slags 
of silicate of iron, such slags, owing to the difficulty of reducing them, causing a loss of 
iron. In this country rich ores like the magnetic or red hematite are not subjected 
to calcination, but they are so in Sweden. 

The older type of blast-furnace consists of a massive tower of stone or brick-w^ork 
strengthened with iron binders; the newer plan is to build it of comparatively thin brick- 
work, and surround it entirely with strong iron plates. In either case an inner lining 
of refractory fire-brick is given to it, which is separated from the outer portion of the 
wall by a narrow space filled with sand. Internally they vary much in form, but per- 
haps the barrel shape is the most prevalent, and most of them contract towards the bot- 
tom in the shape of an inverted cone. Recent ones have been built from 80 to 100 ft. 
in height, instead of not more than 60 as formerly. The blast-pipe, with its tuyeic- 
branches, surrounds the hearth, and on one side there is a recess and openings for run 
ning off the metal and slag. See Blast-furnace. 

Fig. 1 is a sectional view of a hot blast furnace, with the blowing-engine and other 
appliances, which is taken, with some modification, from Mr. Fairbairn's work on iron. 

U. K. VIII.— 10 



146 

It may be well to state here that one engine usually supplies the blast to several fur 
naces. A is the body of furnace; B the hearth, above which are placed the tuyeres, C; 
D is the bell and cone arrangement, around which there is a gangway to enable the 
workmen to feed the furnace. The bloAving-engine is shown at F. Air is forced into 
the furnace by means of the blowing cylinder, G, from which it passes into tlie receiver, 
H, and thence along a pipe into the heating-oven, I. Here a large surface of pipe is 
exposed, in arcli-shaped rows, to tlie fire, which heats the inclosed air to from 600"" to 1000" 
F. At some temperature within this range it enters the lower part of tiie furnace by 
means of the tuyeres, C. Some of the larger blowing-engines discliarge 60,000 cubic 
ft. of air per minute, under a pressure of 3^ lbs. per sq. inch. See Blowing-ma 

CHINES. 

The bell and cone at D is for the purpose of closing tlie mouth of the furnace S(. 
as to save the "waste gases," chielly carbonic oxide, wliich are allowed to escape 
in open-mouthed furnaces (see Blast-furnace). These are conveyed away by pipes 
from openings just under the cone at D, and are turned to raise steam, heat the blast, 
etc. 

The operation of smelting is thus performed: The roac'ed ore, coal, and lime (flux) are 
either lioisted, or, if the nature of the ground permits, moved along a platform or gang- 
way to the gallery near the top of the furnace, and fed into it at intervals througli the 
openings in the side, when the mouth is open, or by lowering the cone D, wlien it is 
closed. We may here state that the furnace is kept continually burning except when 
under repair. The materials are of course raised to a very high heat, and gradually fuse 
into a softened mass. The clay of the ironstone then unites with the lime to form a 
coarse glass or slag; the oxide of iron at the same time gives up its oxygen to the fuel, 
and allows the metal itself to collect on the hearth at the bottom of the furnace, united 
with from 3 to 5 per cent of carbon, which it takes from the fuel, forming the variety 
called cast-iron. Every 12, and sometimes every 8 hours, the metal is run off from the 
furnace, by means of a tap-hole at the bottom of the hearth, into rows of parallel molds, 
called pigs, which are formed in sand, hence the name " pig-iron." The slag which floats 
on the melted iron is run off by an opening at the top of the hearth. If the furnace is 
working well, the slag should be of a light-gray color; a dark-brown or black color shows 
that too much iron is passing into it. 

The quantity of materials necessary to yield a ton of pig-iron may be taken roundly as 
follows : 2 tons of calcined ironstone ; 2^ tons of coal, of which about 8 cwts. are required 
for the blowing-engine and hot-air pipes; and from 12 to 16 cwts. of broken limestone. 
The proportions, however, vary in different districts according to the nature of the fuel 
and ore. The weekly produce of a single blast-furnace varies extremely — from under 100 
to more than 500 tons in some of the larger furnaces. 

Different districts classify their pig-irons in slightly different ways, but, as a rule. No, 
1 to No. 4 are known as gi'ay iron. No. 1 is largest and brightest in the grain, brings 
the highest price, and is best adapted for fine castings. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 become succes- 
sively less in the grain, of a duller luster, and lighter in color, but up to No. 3 are known 
as foundry pigs. After No. 4 the metal ceases to be gray, and though higher numbers 
are sometimes employed, the other qualities are more usually known as forge, mottled, 
and white pig-irons. Gray iron has its carbon partly in the chemically combined, but 
chiefly in tlie uncombined or graphitic state, and requires a higher temperature to melt it 
than white iron, though very fluid when melted. Wliite iron has its carbon wholly in 
the combined state, and is chiefly available for conversion into malleable iron. Hematite 
pig-iron suitable for making Bessemer steel has an exceptionally high value. 

The hot-blast process which has been described above was introduced in 1830 by 
Mr. James B. Neilson of Glasgow, and has been productive of very remarkable effects on 
the iron trade. The whole invention consists in simply heating the air blown intr) the 
furnace, and yet the saving of fuel by this is about one-half, and the production of iron, 
since it came into use, has enormously increased. The "cold-blast " is still, however, to 
a limited extent employed, and produces the strongest ^ron, though necessarily at a much 
higher cost. The difference in cpiality appears to be caused by the greater heat in the 
case of the hot blast facilitating the passage of impurities into the iron. 

Of late years much attention has been given to plans for saving fuel in the blast- 
furnace. Previous to the introduction of the hot-blast as much as 8 tons of coal, as 
coke, were consumed for every ton of pig-iron made. Even when this is reduced to 
under 3 tons of raw coal per ton of pig-iron, fully three-fourths of all the heat produced 
is still wasted in open-mouthed furnaces. The method of saving the waste gases by clos- 
ing the mouth of the furnace, as shown in fig. 1, now generally adopted when coke is 
used, is attended with so much economy, that, in the Cleveland district alone, 600,000 
tons of coal per annum are saved by adopting it. There being a difficulty in closing the 
mouth of the furnace when raw coal is used, Mr. Ferrie of Monkland, a short time ago, 
patented a self-coking blast-furnace, by which, among other advantages, the gases can be 
saved. It has now been in use for some years in Scotland, and produces a ton of pig-iror 
with 34 instead of 53 cwts. of coal previously required. Raising the temperature of fin 
blast to from 900" to 1000° F, has also been attended with a saving, and so likewise, in 
some districts, has an addition to the height of the furnace. 

We pass now to the consideration of malleable or wrought iron. It differs from cast- 



147 



Iron. 




Fia. 2.— Refinery. 



iron 'm being almost free of carbon. The great object in the processes adopted for the 
conversion of cast into malleable iron, 
accordingly, is to deprive the former 
of its carbon. But it is also very de- 
sirable to get rid of deleterious in- 
gredients, such as silicon, sulphur, 
and phosphorus, which latter are 
generally present in minute quantities 
iu the cast-iron. The ordinary pro- 
cesses for the manufacture of malleable 
iron are n fining, imddling, sldngling or 
hammering, and rolling. The refinery 
is shown in section in fig. 2. It con- 
sists of a tiat hearth. A, covered with 
sand or loam, and surrounded with 
metal troughs, B, through which a 
stream of water is constantly flowing, 
to keep the sides from melting. C are 
the tuyeres in connection with the 
blowing -engine. The cast-iron is 
melted with coke on the hearth, and 
a blast of air kept blowing over it, 
which causes its carbon to unite with the oxygen of the air, and pass off as carbonic 
oxide gas. Oxygen also unites with silicon to form silica, and with iron to form the 
oxide. The silica of the sand uniting with oxide of iron, produces^ a* slag of silicate 
of iron. The refined metal is finally run out in cakes on a bed of east-irou, kept cool 
by a stream of water. Being only partially decarbonized by this process,' it is next 
broken up for the puddling furnace. About 10 per cent of iron is lost in the refinery. 

Fig. 3 shows a puddling furnace in longitudinal section. B represents the hearth; 
A, the grate or fire-place ; and C, the chimney, which has a damper at the summit to 

regulate the draught. The grate is 
separated from the hearth by means 
of a bridge, D, which prevents the 
direct contact of the fuel with the 
iron. White pig-iron, or at least 
such kinds as contain carbon in the 
combined state only, are best suited 
for puddling, because they become 
pasty, and so more easily worked 
than gray iron containing gi-aphitic 
carbon, which does not soften into 
this condition previous to fusion. It 
is only in some districts that the 
''refining" process is much used, in 
others a portion only of the puddling 




Fig. 3.— Puddling Furnace. 



furnace charge is refined; and in making inferior kinds of malleable iron, the pig-iron 
is not previously refined at all. There are two ways of puddling now practiced: the 
first or older way, best applicable to refined iron, is called dry puddling, and in it the 
decarburization is produced chiefly by a strong current of air passing through the 
furnace: the second, or newer process, is called toet puddling or boiling, in which case 
the oxidizing of the carbon js effected chiefly by hematite, magnetic ore, basic slags, 
and other easily reduced materials, but to some extent also by the air. 

The operation of puddling, though differing in its details according to circumstances, 
is in a general way conducted as follows: A charge of from 4^ to 5 cwts, of metal! 
including some hammer slag and iron scale, is placed on the bed of the furnace while 
still hot from previous working. In about half an hour, when the furnace is in working- 
order, the charge is melted, and is then stirred or " rabbled " for a considerable time, 
when it begins to "boil" by the formation and escape of carbonic oxide, which forms 
jets of blue flame all over the surface. Gradually, as the carbon of the pig-inm is more 
and more oxidized, pasty masses of malleable iron separate, and these are removed in 
balls commonly weighing about 80 lbs., but sometimes larger. About an hour and a 
half is required to work off a charge, and it takes from 22 to 26 cwts. of pig-iron to 
produce a ton of malleable iron. Siemens's regenerative gas-furnace, in which inferior 
fuels can be utilized, is applied to puddling as well as to other metallurgical processes; 
but our space is too limited to give any of its details, or to desci-ihc the more recent 
revolving puddling furnace of Mr. Danks, which is the most promising of any of the 
attempts yet made to puddle iron by mechanical means. 

The process immediately following the puddling or boiling is called "shinnjinu/' 
and consists in hammering the puddled balls \\ith either the helve or steam-hammer, or 
in passing them through a squeezer till they are sufficiently consolidated, and the greater 
part of tlie cinders forced out. For a description of the steam-hammer, which is much 
used for heavy forgings as well as for shingling, see that head. Puddled balls which 



Iron. 



148 



liave undergone shingling are called slabs or hlooms. These are next passed ihrough 
heavy rollers termed "forge" or "puddle-bar rolls," and reduced to the form of a tint 
bar. For all the better kinds of iron the bars thus treated are cut into short lengths. 
piled together, reheated in a furnace, and again passed through the foi'ge lolls. Once 
more the iron is cut, piled, and heated, and then passed through the " mill-train," con 
sisting of what are termed the "bolting" or "rough rolls," and tinally through the 
" finishing rolls." Both these sets of rolls in the case of plates and sheets are plain, but 
in the case of bars are grooved, so as to form them into the required shape, such as flat, 
square, round, octagonal, or T-shaped iron. 

There is still another important variety of iron, viz., steel, the manufacture of which 
remains to be described. Steel differs from malleable iron in containing a varying pio- 
portion of carbon, usually from .5 to 1.8 per cent. When rich in carbon, it closely 
resembles cast-iron in composition, except that it is more free from impurities. Steel 
can be made by adding carbon during the direct reduction of a pure iron ore in a furnace 
or crucible, but the results of this method are scarcely ever uniform. The finer kinds of 
steel are still made by the old cementation process — that is, by the roundabout plan of 
first converting cast into malleable iron, by depriving the former of its carbon, and then 
adding carbon again by heating the iron with charcoal (see Blistek Steel). In 
making any kind of steel, however, the getting rid of silicon, phosphorus, and sulphur 
is as important, and a matter of more dithculty than the securing of any required pro 
portion of carbon. 

As blistered steel is full of cavities, it is necessary to render it dense and uniform, 
especially for the finer purposes to which steel is applied. By one method it is con- 
verted into what is called "shear steel." This is done by breaking the bars oi blister 
steel into short lengths, heating them in bundles, and partially welding with a forge- 
hammer. The rod so formed is heated again, and now brought under the action of tlie 
tilt-hammer. Here, by a succession of blows, it is formed into bars, which are much 
more compact and malleable than blister steel, and consequently better fitted for edge- 
tools :.nd the like. If the single-shear steel is doubled upon itself, and again welded and 
drawn into bars, it is called double-shear sieel. By another method, viz., that of melt- 
ing the blister steel in fire-clay crucibles, , and casting it into ingots, " cast-steel " (q.v.) is 
made. This is the best kind of steel, being finely granular, homogeneous, dense, and 
well adapted for the finest cutting instruments. 

Steel is now largely made directly from pig-iron by puddling, much in the same way 
as that process is applied to the production of malleable iron (see Kkupp's Steel). By 
another plan (Uchatius's process), pig-iron is granulated and heated in acrucible with the 
oxides of iron and manganese, and fire-clay, the result being cast-steel. This process 
has succeeded well in Sweden. The Siemens-Martin process consists in melting pig-iron 
along with malleable iron and Bessemer steel scrap, about 7 per cent of spiegeleisen 
being added towards the end of the process. The operation is conducted in the Siemens 
regenerative furnace, and the product in this case is also cast-steel. 

There are also several modes of manufacturing steel direct from the oi"e, such as 
by the old way in the Catalan forge, and by Chenot's process, in which hydrocarbons 
are used. 

Bessemer's method of producing malleable iron directly from pig-iron is altogether a 
failure. Steel, however, is successfully and largely made by his process, which consists 
iin blowing air through molten pig-iron till the whole of the carbon and silicon is removed 
fey oxidation, and then introducing into the melted iron a given quantity of spiegeleisen 
«(;a peculiar kind of cas.-iron), containing a known percentage of carbon (see Bessemer 
Process). 

It would appear from the results of recent experiments made on the large scale at 
Middlesborough, that Messrs. Thomas & Gilchrist have succeeded, by a comparatively 
simple device, in practically eliminating the phosphorus from Cleveland pig-iron during 
the conversion of the latter into steel in the Bessemer converter. The great importance 
of this discovery will be at once understood when ^\e state that the Cleveland iron is the 
cheapest in Great Britain, and that the Cleveland ore yields one-fourth of all t!ie iron 
made in the country. Hitherto it has not been remunerative to make steel from this 
pig-iron on account of the exceptionally high percentage of phosphorus il contains, and 
the difficulty there has been of removing an ingredient so deleterious to steel. Success, 
however, has at length been achieved by obtaining, through the use of lime and oxide of 
iroia,, a basic slag in the converter, and by lining tliis vessel witii bricks made chiefly of 
magiaesian limestone fired at a very high heat. A basic lining is thus given to the con- 
verter instead of the ordinary siliceous one, which is acid, and so a base is furnished 
with which the phosphoric acid can combine without the certainty of the lining being 
eaten away by the basic slag, as would be the case when this lining is siliceous. It is only 
as respects the nature of the slag in the converter, and the kind of lining used for this 
vessel, that Thomas & Gilchrist's mode of making steel, as far as it has yet been tried, 
differs from Bessemer's; except that for the latter a high-priced pig-iron is required. Of 
course steel can be made by the new process from other low-priced irons besides Cleveland. 

We will now take a glance at the properties of each of the three principal kinds of 
iron, and the purposes to which it is chiefly applied. Cast-iron, as the crudest, clirapest, 
and most fusible, is used for the heavy portions of engineering work, such as bed-plates 
tor machines, cylinders, columns, cisterns, low-pressure boilers, water and gas pipes. 



149 



Iron. 



rollers, girders, and tlic like. A large quniitity is consiiined in the manufacture of 
"hollow- ware," which includes pots, puns, and other cooking-vessels. For all kinds 
of ornamental objects, again, it is almost exclusively used, because here its property 
of being readily cast into molds gives it a great advantage on the score of cheapness. 

Malleable iron differs cousidei'abiy in its properties from cast-iron. The latter is 
practically incompressible, but it can be comparatively easily torn asunder. Malleable 
iron, on the contrary, possesses great tenacity; it is, moreover, very malleable and duc- 
tile, especially at a high temperature, so that it can be rolled into sheets as tliin as paper. 
or drawn into the finest wire. Further, it possesses the valuable property of welding — 
that is, two pieces can be completely united together by hammering at awliite heat. 
Malleable iron is largely employed for the innumerable variety of articles included under 
the general term " hardware," such as locks, keys, hinges, bolts, nails, screws, wire- 
work, and the so-called tin-plale, which is merely sheet-iron dipped in melted tin. It is 
the mainstay of the railways and thc'clc'Ctri'C telegraph, and has almost displaced timber 
as a material for steamships and sailing-vessels. It is also much used for roofs and 
bridges of large size. Rolled armor-plates for war-ships and fortifications are now made 
of malleable iron from 5 to 22 in. thick. 

Steel possesses several valuable properties which do not belong to either cast or 
wrought iron. It is harder, denser, and whiter in color. It is also more elastic, takes a 
higher polish, and rusts less easily. Like malleable iron, it is also weldable. But its 
most characteristic property consists in its admiiting of being tempered at will to any 
degree of hardness. If, for instance, a piece of steel be heated to redness and plunged 
into w^ater, it is made hard and brittle; but if it be again heated and slowly cooled, its 
original softness is restored. By gently lehcating the Gteel it will acquire a gradation of 
tiuts indicating various degrees of hardness, beginning with pale straw color, and passing 
successively to full yellow, brown, purple, and finally to blue. The straw color is the 
result of a temperature of about 440^ and the blue of about 570° F., the former being 
the liardcsfc and the latter the softest tempering. 

The use of steel is no longer confined to such small articles as fides, edge-tools, knives, 
and other cutlery. By means of improved machinery and processes, steel is at ])resent 
manufactured on a scale that was little dreamed of thirty years ago, so that such objects 
as field-guns, heavy shafting, tires, rails, boiler-plates, and the like are now being made 
of this material. The superior tensile strength of steel, which is about double that of 
malleable iron, gives it a great advantage where lightness is required. Large numbers of 
steamships are now being built of steel. 

In 1740 the entire quantity of iron made in Great Britain is believed not to have 
exceeded 25,000 tons; in 1802 the annual make was estimated at 170,000; in 1828, at 
702,584; and in 1839, at 1,512,000 tons. In 1854, the first year of the carefully collected 
statistics now published annually by the minmg record office, the produce was 8,069,888, 
and from that time to the present it has gradually risen to nearly 7,000,000 tons. A very 
large amount of this pig-iron is converted into malleable iron, as there are now upwards 
of 7,000 puddling furnaces in the country. In the United States about 2,830,000 tons of 
pig-iron were made in 1872. but the make had fallen in 1876 to 2,098,236 tons. On the 
continent the iron manufacture is rapidly extending in France, Belgium, Prussia, Aus- 
tria, Sweden, and Russia. It is remarkable that as much as 250,000 tons of steel were 
made in 1875 both in Germany and France by the Bessemer and other processes, a large 
quantity being also made in other countries. Notwithstanding the activity of the iron- 
trade abroad, the produce of Great Britain is still about one-half that of all other coun- 
tries put together. 

Sieiiieiiss regeaerative gas-furnace is now so much used in the making and melting of 
steel, as well as for other purposes, that it is desirable to give a short des(;ription of it 
here. No furnace yet designed can be compared with it in respect to economical con- 
sumption of fuel. It consists of two parts: one of these contains the "regenerators," 
or, as Dr. Percy calls them, the "accumulators;" the other, which may either be quite 
near or more than 100 ft. apart, contains the " gas-producers" or source of the heat. In 
the regenerative portion, when the furnace is to be used for the production of iron or 
steel, there is a melting hearth or bed like that represented at B in fig. 3. Immediately 
below this hearth there are two pairs of arched chambers filled with fire-bricks placed 
sufficiently far apart to let air or gases pass freely between them, and at the same time 
expose a large surface to absorb heat. .One pair of these chambers or regenerators 
communicates by separate flues with one end of the hearth, the other pair with the 
opposite end of it. Thus we have in duplicate, so to speak, a chamber thiough which 
gas and another through which air can be admitted. The furnace being in operation; 
while the gas and air are being admitted to the hearth through, sa}^ the left pair of these 
chambers, the highly-heated products of combustion pass through the open brick-work 
of the corresponding pair on the right before reaching the chimney. What would pass 
up the chimney as waste heat in an ordinary furnace is thus absorbed by the bri(;ks of 
the regenerators. After a given time — usually from 80 to 60 minutes — by means of suit- 
able pipes and valves, the arrangement, or if we may so call it, the current, is reversed. 
Gas and air are now sent through the freshly-heated pair of regenerators, while the 
'* waste heat" in turn passes into the other pair. In this way, by reversing the valves at 
intervals, hot currents of gas and air, in suitable proportions, are always reaching the 
hearth where combustion is effected at a very high temperature. 



Ir^rli 



150 



Tile gas-producer, of which there are commonly fo;;r in a blocli, is a rectangular 
chamber with a sloping front and grate of firebars, on uhicli, by means of a feeder, a 
tliiclv layer of fuel is maintained. Tliis fuel is mainly convened into carbonic oxide, 
hydiogeu, and hydrocarbons — all combustible gases— and together forming the "gas" 
we have referred to in describing the regenerator. Almost any kind of fuel, however 
poor, may be used for these gas-producers, which are connected by means of a pipe with 
the generators. 

3. Iron ill its Physiological and Therapeutic Relations.'— Iron is an essential constituent 
of the coloring matter of the blood-corpuscles of all vertebrate animals; and according 
to the best authorities, one part by weight of iron is found in 230 parts of blood-corpus- 
cles, and the total quantity of this metal in the blood of a man Aveighing 140 pounds is 
about 38 grains. It is the presence of iron in the blood that communicates to the ashes 
of that fluid their reddish-brown color, the iron being found in them, as the peroxide. 
The ashes of the hair, of birds' feathers, of the contents of eggs, of the gastric juice, of 
milk, and indeed of most animal fluids contain traces of this metal. 

Nothing is known with certainty regarding the chemical condition of the iron in the 
animal body, tliat is to say, whether it is present as a protoxide, a peroxide, etc. It is 
introduced into the system with the food and drink, and any excess beyond wdiat is 
required is discharged with the excrements. When an insufficient quantity is contained 
in the nutriment, chalybeate medicines become necessary. The iron that is set free 
within the system by the constant disintegration of blood-corpuscles is carried out of the 
system partly by the urine, partly by the coloring matter of the bile, which is highl}^ 
ferruginous, and probably is in part eliminated by the hair. The exact part which the Iron 
plays in the body is uncertain; but it is most probable that the power whichtlie blood- 
corpuscles possess as oxygen carriers is mainly due to the presence of this substance. 

When from an}^ cause the blood-corpuscles are reduced in number, the state known 
as ancamia isi-Y .) is produced, which is accompanied by general weakness and deranged 
functions. In this condition of the system the iron compounds are of incomparably 
more service than any other remedies. In chlorosis (q,v.), which is closely allied to 
anaemia, in amenorrhoea; and in certain painful nervous affections, the salts of iron are 
of especial service. The forms in which iron may be prescribed are very numerous, 
and vary considerably in their utility, according to the readiness with which they get 
taken up into the blood. Amongst the most generally used ferruginous medicines may 
be mentioned the tincture of the sesquichloride, the saccharine carbonate, the compound 
iron mixture (containing the carbonate), the sulphate, the potassio-tartrate, several citrates 
(especially the citrate of iron and quinine), etc. A course of chalybeate waters (q.v.) 
may often be prescribed with great advantage, when the patient cannot bear the admin- 
istration of iron in its ordinary medicinal form. 

IRON {ante). The processes of converting the ore into metallic iron are of two kinds — 
direct and indirect. In the direct process the ore is converted by one operation or a few 
operations into wrought iron. This method, employed by the ancients, is still used in 
some parts of the world, as in India and Central Asia, Africa, and South America. 
With some modifications and improvements it is practiced also in Europe and the United 
States, and yields the best iron, but at a greater expense than by the indirect process, 
which consists in first making pig-iron by smelting the ore in a blast-furnace with fluxes, 
by Avhicli means the metal is more readily obtained, and then reducing t]^e product by 
puddling and other processes, or by certain manipulations converting the pig-iron into 
cast-steel. 

The following table, taken with the preceding from the annual report of the secre- 
tary of the American Iron and Steel Association, presented Ma}' 20, 1880, shows in tons 
of 2,000 lbs. the production of all kinds of iron and steel in the United States from 
187210 1879: 

IMPORTS OF PEIXCIPAL IIION AND STEEL PRODUCTS FROM ALL COUNTRIES INTO THE 
UNITED STATES FROM 1871 TO END OF FIRST QUARTER OF 1880. 



Sorts. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1st qr. 

1880. 


Pip iro.n 

Bar- i ion 

Iron rails 

Steel rails — j 

Old and scrap 
iron 

Band, hoop, and 
scroll 


245,553 

122,565 

506,202 

till now I 

as iron, f 

220,340 

13.098 
12,047 

5,434 
322 
441 


295,967 

89.576 

381,064 

149,786 

278,257 

12,379 
10,149 

5,875 
684 
407 


154.708 
62,2.53 
99,209 

159,571 

108,838 

8.245 
10,713 

4,668 
404 
262 


61.165 

26,876 

7,796 

' 100,515 

40,746 

1,422 
6,741 

3,219 
53 
74 


66,457 

24,591 

1,942 

16,316 

25,856 

228 
3,616 

2,004 
46 
23 


83,07'2 
26,6.52 

287 

14,149 

144 

1,758 

1,863 
15 
35 


66,871 
30,478 

35 

10,903 

171 

1,18^ 

1,073 

2 

53 


74,484 

33,;ii6 

10 

6,225 

7 


340.672 
48.840 
19,090 

25,057 

248,429 
1.031 


179,491 
43,590 
16,230 

13,457 

154,738 

1,807 


Sheet-iron 

Anchors, cables, 
and chains. .. 

Boiler-iron 

Castings 


838 5,459 

646 892 

1 91 

09 01 


3,688 

607 

100 

20 


Total 


1,185,984 1.2:^4.144 


608,923 


248,607 


141,079 


127,975 


110,769 


115,626 689.622 


413,734 















151 



Iron. 



The followin^^ is the foreign value of iron and steel maniifnctiires (tin-plate excluded) 
imported into the United States during; the time specified 1871, $47,919,926; 18^^ ^"^ 
724,227; 1873, $45,764,670; 1874, $24,594,584; 1875. $15,264,216; 1876, 
1877, $9,195,368; 1878, $8,943,043; 1879, $20,103,101; three months of 1880, 



$10,584,126; 
$13,031,674. 



Sorts. 



1872. 



1873. 



Pig-ii'on 

Rolled iron, nails and rails, i 

Roiled iron, excluding rails. 

Bessemer steel rails 

Open hearth steel rails 

Iron and all other rails 

Rails of all kinds 

Kegs of cut nails, included 
in rolled iron 

Crucible cast- steel 

Siemens - Martin or open 
hearth steel 

AH other steel, except Bes- 
semer 

Bessemer steel ingots 

Blooms from iron and pig 
ore 

Splegeleisen included in pig- 
iron 



2,854,.5.58 

1,847.922 

941,992 

94,070, 



2.808,278! 

1,837,4301 

1,076,308 

129,015 



905,930! 

1,000,0001 

4,065,322 

29,260, 



761,062 
890,077 

4,024;704 
34,786 



3,000| 3,500 



7.740 
120,108 



13,714 
170,650 



58,000, 62,.564 



1874. 


1875 


2.689,413 

1 1,694,016 

1,110,147 

144,944 


2,266,581 

1,599,516 

1,097.867 

298,863 


584,469 
729,413 


50 1 649 
792,512 


4,912,180 
36,328 


4,726,881 
39,401 


7,000 


9,050| 


6,353 
191,933 


12,007 
375,516 


61,670 


49,243 




7,832 



1876. 



187 



:878. 



2,093, 
1,509. 
1,042. 

412, 



236 
269 i 

1011 
461 



2,314. 

1,476, 

1,144, 

432, 



1879. 



467, 
879, 

4,157. 
39, 



1681 
,629j 

,814' 
382 



24,490 

10,306 
525,996 

44,628 

6,616 



332, 
764, 



40 



585' 2,577,361 

759' 1,. 55.5, 57 6' 

219 1,232,68(; 

169: 550.398: 

. . . j 9,397! 

,540 322.890: 

,709} 882,085 

,918! 4,396,130; 
,430; 42,906i 



3.070,875 
2,047,484 
1.027.324 

683,964 
9.149 

420,160 
1,113,273 

5,011,021 

56,780 



25,031 

11,924 

560,587 

47,300 
8,845 



36,126 56,290 

8,5561 5,464 
732,226 928,972 



50,045! 
10,6741 



62,353 
13,931 



IRON, a CO. in s.e. Missouri; bounded n.e. by Iron mountain and Pilot Knob; 500 
sq.m. ; pop. '70, 6,278. It is mountainous, and has extensive forests of oak, pine, v/al- 
nut, etc. Iron ore is abundant, and gold, lead, nickel, and other metals are found. 
The Gtaple products are grain and wool. Tiie Si. Louis and Iron Mountain railroad 
passes through it. Pilot Knob is in this county, a conical hill 1500 ft. above the sea, 
and 560 ft. above the plain. 

IROjST, a CO. in s. Utah, extending through the state from e. to w. ; intersected in the 
e. by the Colorado; 9,200 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,013. The Wasatch mountains cross it in the 
west. The staple is wool; but wheat, maize, hay, and potatoes are produced. Much of 
this county is covered with arid plains, and requires irrigation. It abounds in iron and 
other minerals. Capital, Parow^an. 

IRON BABE TREE, a name given in Australia to certain species of eucalyptus (q.v.). 
and particularly E. resinifera, on account of the extreme hardness of the bark. These 
trees attain a height of 80 or 100 ft., and a circumference near the base of 20 to 25 feet. 
The timber is very valuable for ship-building, and for other purposes in whtch hardness 
and durability are required. It withstands vicissitudes of weather for a great number of 
years without injury. 

IROJST-CLAD OATH, an oath of allegiance prescribed by statute of the United 
States, for those taking ofhce under the national or state governments, in accordance with 
the provisions of tiie 14th amendment to the constitution. The oath as administered 
reads' as follows ; 



"I, 



residing at 



, do solemnly swear that I have never volun- 
tarily borne arms against the United States since I have been a citizen thereof ; that I 
have voluntarily given no aid, countenance, counsel, or encouragement to persons engaged 
in armed hostility thereto ; that I have neither sought, nor accepted, nor attempted to 
exercise the functions of any office whatever under any authority or pietended 
authority in hostility to the United States; that I have not yielded a voluntary support to 
any pretended government, authority, power, or constitution within the United States, 
hostile or inimical thereto. And I do further swear that, to the best of my knowledge 
and ability, I will support and defend the constitution of the United States against all 
enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; 
that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; 
and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about 
to enter. So help me God." 

Sworn to before me, this day of , 188 — . ) 

U. S. Commissioner. 

This oath is still administered to officers under the U. S. government, but its applica- 
tion has been restricted by special acts of congress, relieving, in certain instances, classes 
and individuals from the effect of its provisions. 

IRON-CLAD SHIPS. See Armor plates, ante. 
^ IRON CROSS, a Prussian order of knighthood, instituted on Mar. 10, 1813. by Fred 
erick William III., and conferred for distinguished services in the war which \Aas then 
being carried on. The decoration is an iron cross vv^itli silver mounting. The grand 
cross, a cross of double the size, was presented exclusively for the gaining of a decisive 
battle, or the capture or brave defense of a fortress. 



Iron. 1 ?^f) 

Irony. ^^^ 

IRON CROWN, the crown of the ancient Longobardian kings, given, according to an 
unautlienticuted tradition, by pope Gregory the great to queen Theodolinda. and pre- 
served till lately in the cathedral of Mouza. Henry, in 1311, is the lir.-,t German emperor 
who is known to have wcn-u it. It was removed by the Austrians to Vienna after lb59, 
but was presented to the king of Italy in 1866. The outer part of the crown consists 
of a golden hoop, with enameled flowers and precious stones, in form like an ancient 
diadem, within which is a thin plate or tillet of iron, which is declared by a tradition 
long opposed by the church at Milan, but adopted by the congregation '' dei sacrl rlti" 
at Rome, to have been hammered from one of the nails of the true cross. When 
Napoleon I. was elected king of Italy in 1805, he took this relic and crowned himself 
with it, disdaining to receive it from the hands of a bishop; and at the same time he 
founded an order of kniii;hthood, taking its name from the iron crown. The order — 
foriiott^n after the fall of Napoleon — was restored and remodeled in 1816 by the 
emperor Francis I., who gave it the name of the Austrian order of the iron crown. 

IRON MASK, The Man with the. The story of the prisoner so called, confined in 
the Bastile and other prisons in the reign of Louis XIY., has long kept up a romantic 
interest. The first notice of him was given in a work entitled Memoires Secrets pour 
servir a VlUstoire do Perse (Amst. 1745-46). According to this writer, he was the duke 
of Vermandois, a natural son of Louis XIV. and De la Valliere, who, having given a 
box on the ear to his half-brother, the grand dauphin, had to expiate it with imprison- 
ment for life. The assertion was without foundation, for the duke of Vermandois died 
in camp in 1683; but the confidence with which it was made caused a deep sensation, 
and the romance of Mouhy, U Homme au Masque de Fer, which immediately followed 
(Hague, 1746), was read with all the more avidity that it was prohibited. Voltaire, in 
his Steele d^ Louis XIV., treats the anecdote historically. According to him, the 
prisoner was young, and of a noble figure. In journeying from one prison to another, 
he wore a mask, and was at last transferred to the Bastile, where he was treated with 
great distinction; and so on. 

The first authentic information with regard to the iron mask was given by the Jesuit 
Griff et, wlio acted for nine years as confessor in the Bastile, in his Traiie des differentes 
Sories de Preuves qui serveut, a Stablir la VeritS dans rHistoi/)^e (Liege, 1769). He brought 
forward the MS. journal of Dujonca, the lieut. of the Bastile, according to which Saint- 
Mars arrived, on Sept. 18, 1698, from the isle de Sainte-Marguerite, bringing with him 
in a litter a prisoner whom he had already had in custody at Pignerol. The prisoner's 
name was not mentioned, and his face was always kept concealed by a mask of black 
velvet. The journal mentions his death on Nov. 19, 1703, and that he was buried in 
tlie cemetery of St. Paul. This is confirmed by the register of burials for the parish of 
St. Paul's, where the prisoner is mentioned under the name of Marchiali. 

After long silence Voltaire returned to the subject in his Essai sur les Menrs, but he 
brought forward nothing new. In the seventh edition of the Dictionnaire Philosophique 
he related the story anew, under the head Anna, corrected his errors as to time from 
the journal of Dujonca, and concluded with the assurance that he knew more about the 
matter than Griffet, but chose, as a Frenchman, to be silent. An addition to the article, 
apparently by the editor of the work, freely states the opinion that the mask was an 
elder brother of Louis XIV. The writer makes Anne of Austria to have had this son 
by a favorite, and being thus undeceived as to her supposed barrenness, to have brought 
about a meeting with her husband, and in consequence bore Louis XIV. Louis is held 
to have first learned the existence of this brother when he came of age, and to have put 
him in confinement, to guard against any possible unpleasant consequences. Linguet, 
in the Bastille Demilee ("The Bastile Exposed"), ascribes this paternity to the duke of 
Buckingham. Saint-Michel published a book in 1790, in which he relates the story of 
the unfortunate being, and points to a secret marriage between queen Anne and caidinul 
Mazarin. What is remarkable is that the court continued to manifest an interest in 
the matter, and took every means to keep the identity of the prisoner in the dark. 
When the Bastile fell the prisoner's room was eagerly searched, and also the prison 
register; but all inquiry w^as vain. The abbe Soulavie, who published Memmres de 
Marechal Eichelieu (Lond. and Par. 1790), tries to make out from a document written by 
the tutor of that unfortunate prince that the iron mask was a twin-brother of Louis 
XIV. A prophecy had announced disaster to the royal family from a double birth, 
and to avoid this, Louis XIII. had caused the last born of the twins to be brought up 
in secret. Louis XIV. learned of his brother's existence only after the death of 
Mazarin, and that brother having discovered his relation to the king by means of a 
portrait, w^as subjected to perpetual imprisonment. This view of the matter was that 
almost universally prevalent till the time of the revolution. It is also followed in 
Zschokke's German tragedy, and in Fournier's drama, founded on the story. 

The first conjecture of what till recently seemed to be the truth is contained in a 
letter dated 1770, written by a bai'on d'Heiss to the Journal Enci/clopedique. The same 
is repeated by Louis Dutens in his Intercepted Correspomlence (1789), who declares that 
theie is no poiiit of history better established than the fact that the prisoner with the 
iron mask was a minister of the duke of Mantua. This minister, count Matthioli, had 
pledged himself to Louis XIV. to urge his master the duke to deliver up to the French 



l-q Iron. 

^•^'-' Irony. 

the fortress of Casale, which gave access to the ^vhole of Lombardy. Though largely 
bribed to nuiiutaiu the French interests he begun to betray them; and Louis XiV., 
having got conclusive proofs of the treachery, contrived to have Matlhioli lured to the 
French frontier, secretly arrested, April 2'S, 1G79, and conveyed to the fortress of 
Piguerol, which was his lirst prison. The conclusion of DTieiss and Dutens, that 
"Matthioli was the iron mask, though acute, was only a conjecture. But the documents 
since discovered and published by M. Roux-Fazillac in his lieccrches IddoriqaeH et 
critiques sur V Homme au Masque de Fer (Par. 18U0), by M. Delort in his Uistoire de 
V Homme an Masque de Fer (Par. 1825), and M. Marius Topin in his Man loiih the Iron 
Mask (18G9). seemed to leave little doubt on the subject, and the public had apparently 
made up its mind that the secret was at last discovered; but a still more recent work by 
a French otticer, M. Th. lung. La Verite sur le Manque de Fer{Les Empoisoiuieurs) d'apres 
dt's Documents inedits des Archives de la Guerre et autres deputn publics, WQ^-ViO'd {Pur. 
1873), has conclusively shown that Matthioli could not have been the mysterious 
prisoner, and endeavors to prove — we would almost venture to say, succeeds in proving — 
that the man in the iron mask was the unknown head of a wide-spread and formidable 
conspiracy, working in secret for the assassination of Louis XIV. and some of his 
ablest ministers. The severity of M. lung's labors with reference to this subject will be 
understood when it is stated that in the course of his researches he had to examine some 
1700 volumes of dispatches and reports in the bureau of the ministry of war. 

I RON-MONGERY, a term applied to the small manufactures of iron or hardware kept 
for general sale in shops. 

IRON MOUNTAIN, a famous deposit of iron ore in Washington co., Mo.. 40 m. 
s.w. of St. Genevieve, on the Mississippi, and connected with St. Louis by railroad. 
The ore is rich and pure. It is magnetic, having distinct polarity, and in some places 
acts strongly on the needle. The main body of the ore has a Uiickness of 50 ft,; its 
depth is unknown, but the amount is immense. In 1871 262.477 tons, and in 1872 
371,474 tons were shipped by the Iron Movmtain company, Tiie deposit has been fully 
described by Dr, Litton in the second annual report of the geological survey of Mis- 
souri, 1855, and by prof. Raphael Pumpelh^ and Dr. Adolph Schmidt. 

IRONS, otherwise called Bilboes, are shackles of iron into which the ankles of a 
prisoner are fixed, and which slide on a long iron b ir. Refractoiy sailors and soldiers, 
who evince violent behavior, and become unmaniigeable, are commonly put in irons, 
several being placed side by side along the same bar. In cases of extreme violence the 
wrists may be similarly treated, but instances of this latter punishment are rare. The 
punishment of " putting in irons" is more common in the navy than in the army. 

IRONS, AViLLiAM JosiAii, b. England, 1812; graduated at Oxford; was made pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's, London, 1860; and chosen Bampton lecturer, 1870. He is the 
author of several valuable theological treatises. 

IRONTON, a city of Law^rence co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, 142 m. above Cincin- 
nati and 100 s.e. of Columbus; pop. '70, 5,686. It is on a plain at the base of lofty hills. 
Avhich contain iron ore and bituminous coal. It is the terminus of the Iron railroad, 13 
m. long. It has 10 churches, 2 national banks, a high school, 5 weekly news])apers, a 
large number of furnaces, rolling-mills, iron-foundries, and machine-shops. The chief 
article of export is iron, the iron trade amounting to $7,000,000 a year. The city is 
lighted with gas, and furnished with water by the Holly works, 

IRONWOOD, a name bestowed in different countries on the timber of different trees, 
on account of its great hardness and heaviness. — Metrosideros vera belongs to the natural 
order myrtacem, and is a native of Java and other eastern islands. It has ovato-lanceo- 
late, shortly stalked, smooth, sharp-pointed leaves; and axillary, many-flowered, stalked 
cymes. Its wood is much valued by the Chinese and Japanese for making rudders, etc., 
and is imported into Britain in small quantities under the name of ironwood. The bark 
is used in Japan as a remedy for diarrhea and mucous discharges — Ma^ua ferrea, a tree 
of the natural ordcv gutt if era, is a native of the East Indies, and is planted near Bud- 
dhist temples for the sake of its fragrant flowers, with which the images of Budilha arc 
decorated. The flowers resemble small wiiite roses, and contrast singularly with the 
deep crimson buds and shoots. The timber, known as ironwood, is veiy hard, as is that 
of M. speciosa, another tree of the same genus and region. — The wood of vepris vndulata, 
of the order diosniacem, is called white ironwood at the cape of Good Hope. It is very 
hard and tough, and is chiefly used for axles, plows, and other agricultural implements. 
— The wood of olca laurifolia, a species of olive, is called black ironwood in the same 
country, and is used for the same purposes, and for furniture, 

IRONY (Gr. eironeia, from eirdn, n dissembler) is the name given to that peculiar 
style of thought and expression by which words are made to convey a meaning exactly 
opposed to their literal sense. When skillfully used iron}^ is one of the mostcrnshing 
and irresistible figures of rhetoric. Instances will readily occur to every reader of his- 
tory and literature. One of the most celebrated is that "recorded in Scripture, where 
Elijah taunts the discomfited priests of Baal on Mount Carmel. The gre^it master of 
irony in, ancient times was Socrates, who, as has been happily said, raised it to the 
dignity of a philosophic method. 



Iroquois. 1 ^-t 

Irrigation. X*J-x 

IROQUOIS. See Indians. 

IROQUOIS (ante), or Six Nations, a confederacy original!}'- consisting of the five 
tribes, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onoudagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, to whom in 1712 were 
added the Tuscaroras. The league was then called the Six Nations. They inhabited 
the central and western part of New York, and numbered about 15,000. Each tribe was 
divided into families, and governed by sachems, but all matters of common interest 
were settled in a general meeting of all the sachems of the confederacy. They were the 
most powerful, enterprising, and intelligent of all the Indian tribes. They encouraged 
other nations to join them, and in the early part of the 17tli c. had conquered all the 
neighboring tribes. They were alternately at war and in alliance with the Dutch, French, 
and English. In the war of the revolution they took sides with the English under the 
brave leaders Brant of the Mohawks and Red Jacket of the Senecas, destroying with fire 
and sword several white settlements. After the war, treaties were made at different times 
for the cession of their lands, until, 1796, the Indian title was extinguished to the whole 
region from lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence, and most of the Iroquois emigrated to 
other places. The Mohawks settled on Grand river, Ontario, Canada, numbering now 
2,000. Some from the Tuscaroras and other tribes joined them. In 1820 some of the 
Oneidas settled on a reservation in Green Bay, Wis., and some of the Senecas in 
Indian territory. Some of the Oneidas and Senecas removed in 1820 to Caniida. The 
Cayugas in 1795 sold their lands in New York, and joined other tribes with whom they 
intermarried, a few living together at the Cattaraugus reservation in Erie, near Buffalo. 
In 1855 the Iroquois group in New York, Wisconsin, Arkansas, and Missouri numbered 
about 6,000, The languages of the Iroquois, though in grammar and vocabulary related, 
are distinct. Most of the Protestant denominations have had missions among the Six 
Nations from the beginning of the century. The Book of Common Prayer has been printed 
in Mohawk, and portions of the Bible in Mohawk and Seneca, The principal works on 
the Iroquois published are Cusick's Sketches of the History of tlie Six Nations, 1826; Golden 's 
History of the Five Nations, 1727 and 1805; Schoolcraft's Notes on the Iroquois, 1826; 
Stone's Life of Brant, 2 vols., and Life of Ee(f Jacket, 1841. 

IROQUOIS, an eastern co, of Illinois, bordering on Indiana, intersected by the Iroquois 
river, and partly drained by the Kankakee river; 1100 sq.m.; pop, '70, 25,782. It is 
traversed by the Chicago division of the Illinois Central. Toledo, Peoria, and Warsaw, 
and Chicago, Danville, and "Vincennes railroads. Capital, W^atseka. The surface is level, 
mostly prairie. The soil is generally fertile. The staple products are eats, maize, hay, 
cattle, and pork. 

lERA'TIONAL NUMBERS, a term applied to those roots of numbers which cannot be 
accurately expressed by a finite number of figures. For instance, y2 is an irrational num- 
ber. If the diameter of a circle is one foot, the circumference is an irrational number. 
Irrational numbers have been denned to be numbers which are incommensurable Avith 
unity. They are also commonly termed surds. 

IRRAWA'DI (said to mean, like Mississippi, "father of waters"), the great river of 
Farther India, is believed to rise in Thibet, near lat. 28° n., and long. 98' e., terminating in 
lat. 16" 20' n , and long 96° e. Its course is pretty nearly due s., and has l)een estimated 
at 1200 m. in length. After receiving the Ning-thee, the Mogonny, the Bhamo, and the 
Lungtchuen, it begins to form its delta about 17° n., which, between the Rangoon on the 
e,, and the Bassein on the w., comprises 10,000 sq.m. of forest and pasturage, curiously 
intersected by an inextricable network of the smaller branches of the stream. With 
regard to facilities of communication, the Trrawadi appears to be decidedly^ superior to the 
Indus and the Ganges, being na/igable, even at low water, for vessels of 200 Ions, as far 
as Ava, which is 400 m. from the sea, and for canoes as far as Bhamo, which is 180 m. 
higher up. The Irrawadi successively traverses China, Burmah, and Pegu. As the 
region last mentioned, forming the lowest part of its basin, is a province of British 
India, the Irrawadi, as a whole, may be said to be virtually under the control of Eng- 
land. In both our Burmese wars, it constituted the line of advance for our armies. 

IRREDU'CIBLE CASE occurs in the solution of cubic equations (q,v.) by Cardan's 
method whenp is negative, and^^ greater than i- (abstracting from the sign). These 

conditions render 4^ j- + ^ ^^ imaginary quantity, and thus Cardan's formula fails in 



\4 ' 2 



its application. The difficulty is got over by the aid of trigonometry. 

IRREL'EVANT, a term used in Scotch law to denote that what is said or put forward 
by an opponent in an action has no bearing on the subject, even if it were true. The 
corresponding term, in English law, is that the pleading containing the irrelevant matter 
is demurrable 

IRRIGA'TION (Lat, watering), a method of producing or increasing fertility in soils 
by an artificial supply of water, or by inundating them at stated periods. Irrigation was 
probably first resorted to in countries where much of the land must otherwise have 
remained barren from drought, as in Egypt, where it was extensively practiced nearly 
2,000 years b.c, and where great systems of canals and artificial lakes were fol-med for 



• — -| ■- -- Iroquois. 

±00 Irrigation. 

the purpose. Extensive works, intended for the ii ligation of hirge districts, existed in 
limes of remote autiquity in JNIesopotamia, Persia, India, Cliinn, and some other parts of 
tlie east; and in sucii of these countries as have not entirely lost their ancient prosperity, 
such works still exist. In many parts of the world the necessity of irrigation, at least 
at certain seasons of the jeav, is so strongly felt that the agriculture even of compara- 
tively rude tribes depends on the facility with which it can be accomplished. Some 
plants also require a very abundant supply of water, and irrigation has become general 
wliere their cultivation prevails. Tins is particularly the case with rice, the principal 
grain of great part of Asia. Irrigation is supposed to have been introduced into Britain 
by the Romans, but was very little practiced till the beginning of the present century. 
In Europe, irrigation prevails chiefly in the s. , where it was extensively practiced by the 
liomans, from whom it was adopted by tlie Lombards; and it is most extensively prac- 
ticed in Lombardy, and in some parts of Spain, and in the s. of France, so that the great 
plains and valleys of the Po, Adige, Tagus, Douro, and other rivers, are almost entirely 
subjected to a systematic irrigation, which prodigiously increases their fertility. The 
extent of irrigated land in the valley of the Po is estimated at 1,600,000 acres, and the 
increase of rental thus caused at £830,000. 

Irrigation in Britain, and in most parts of Europe, except Lombardy, is almost exclu- 
sively employed for the purpose of increasing the produce of grass by converting the 
land into water-meadows. The value of it, even for this one purpose, does not seem to 
be sufficiently understood. Poor heaths have been converted into luxuriant meadow's 
by means of irrigation alone. But in the countries in which irrigation is most exten- 
sively practiced the production of all crops depends on it. 

The irrigation of land with the sewage water of towns is, under another name, the 
application of liquid manure. In no sm[dl degree the water of rivers and of springs 
depends on its organic and mineral constituents for its fertilizing properties, so that the 
application of it is not in principle different from that of liquid manure ; but it must be 
borne in mind that the mere abundance of water itself is of great importance for many 
of the most valuable plants, as the most nutritious substances brought into contact with 
tlieir roots are of no use to them unless in a state of solution; whilst it is an additional 
recommendation of irrigation, that the supply of w^ater most favorable to the grow'tli of 
many valuable plants, is destructive of some whiclf in many places naturally encumber 
the soil, as heath, broom, etc. The water which is used for irrigation should be free from 
mud and such impurities as mechanically clog the pores of leaves, or cover up the hearts 
of plants, and interfere with their growth. Irrigation is far from being so extensively 
practiced in Great Britain as seems desirable. The extent of water-meadows in England 
is stated to be not more than 100,000 i\cres. They are mostly confined to the w. and s. of 
England. Individual farms, irrigated with sew^age water, are to be met with in Nottingham- 
shire, Staflordshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and in one or two counties in Wales. The 
most successful instance, however, of sewage irrigation in Great Britain is to be found 
near Edinburgh, where an extensive tract of meadows, lying bctwx^en Portobello and 
Leith, yields a rent of £20 to £40 an acre; the grass is cut from 3 to 5 times a year, and 
as much as 10 tons an acre have been obtained at a cutting. See Sewage, Manure, 

The method of forming and laying out water-meadows will be easily gathered from 
the following sketch of the different species of irrigation as practiced in this country. 

1. Bed-woj'k Irriyatioa. — This method can only be conveniently applied to ground 
which is nearly level. It consists in laying out the ground into sloping beds or ridges, 
from 30 to 40 ft. w^ide, according to the nature of the soil, having their upper ends lying- 
in .1 gentle slope from one side to the other of the meadows Along the upper ends of the 
be.ds is drawn the drain or conductor, which brings the w'atcr from the reservoir or river, 
as the case may be; and this conductor must be tapered off towards its further end, in 
order that the diminished supply of water may still overflow. From this conductor, 
small drains, caWcd feeders, are led down along the crown of each ridge. In the lowest 
part of the meadow, a main-drain, which must be made nearly as large as the conductor, 
is cut across the lower ends of the beds, and the w^ater, after having served the purpose of 
irrigation, is led into it by means of small drains cut in the furrows. The feeders should, 
like the conductor, taper towards their furthei extremity, both for the purpose of retard- 
ing the vehjcity of the water, and of preserving a continual overflow along their whole 
length. On the contrary, the small drains should gradually widen tow^ards their lower 
extremity, wdiere they meet the main-drain. The dimensions and inclination of the con- 
ductor and feeders should be so regulated to the water-supply, that the beds can be wholly 
laid under water to the depth of about one inch. The expense of bed-work irrigation 
ranges from £20 to £40 per acre. 

2. Catch-icork Irrirjation differs materially from the former; it can be applied to land 
whether level or not, costs only £4 per acre, and, in the opinion of many, is quite as 
effective. The conductor formed as before is led along the highest side of the field, then 
with the aid of a level, a succession of perfectly level gutters (which, of course, must be 
winding) are drawn across the field in the same direction as the conductor, and not 
more than ten yards from each other; these are crossed by feeders running from the con- 
djctor to the iowc'st side of the field, thus forming a kind of checkwork. The main- 
drain is made as before, and the feeders, which taper towards their lower extremity, serve 
for small drains. Tliis plan is more etfective than the former, when the supply of 



Irrigation. 1 '"\A 

living. ^^^ 

water is limited; and a?; it can be applied to a hillside as well as to alevel field, ils api li- 
catiou is rapidl}' extending. 

3. SubterraneouH Irrujation isonly applicable to perfectly level fields, and consists, firsi, 
of ditches being formed all round the sides. At right angles to these, drains or conduits 
are drawn across the held in parallel lines. When the land is to be irrigated, water is 
li't into the ditclies, and tiience to the cross-drains, till it rises to the level of the surface; 
isnd Avhen the ground is to be laid dry, ttie side-ditches are emptied by sluices. The 
liottoni of the ditches is below the level of that of tlie cross-drains, so that they serve 
both as conductor and main-drain. 

The first two methods of irrigation are only applied to pasture-lands, and the third to 
fens and drained morasses, which are apt to become parched in summer; the last method 
would be very valuable for land under green crop in cases of drought. 

The management of water-meadows requires great skill and care, but we can only 
here mention the chief points to be attended to, Avliich are these: the water, if limited in 
quantity, must be confined to a part which it can effectually irrigate; too much water 
or too rapid a flow tends to wash away the soil; the meadow may be kept under water 
for a fortnight at a time, in Nov., but the time cliould be diminished till April or May, 
when regular watering should cease; after the grass is cut or eaten down, the water may 
be let on for a few days; and it is necessary that between the times of watering the land 
should be laid perfectly dry. Special precautious are necessary in winter, to guard 
against any bad effects resulting from frost, etc. 

IRRIGATION {ante). Some of the ancient works for irrigation were stupendous. 
The canal of the Phai'aohs, which connected Pelusium with the Red sea, was an irrigat- 
ting canal. There existed a work in Arabia, probably long before the time of Solomon, 
Avhicli, in some respects, excelled all works of the kind, modern or ancient, and corre- 
sponds well with the fact that the Arabians were among the first mathematicians. In 
Yemen, Arabia, there was an immense reservoir for holding water for irrigating the 
valley of Mareb. This reservoir was made by a dam 2 m. long and 120 ft. high. It was 
constructed of immense blocks of ashlar, and was so diu'able as to serve the purpose for 
Avhicli it was built more than 2,000 years. It then gave way, scattering ruin in the 
course of the tori-ent wdiich it let loose. . It must be borne in mind that one of the best 
examples of modern engineering is a dam in France across the Furens which is 1G4 ft. 
high, but only 328 ft. wide at the top. This work almost sinks into insignificance when 
compared to the ancient Arabian dam. It may, perhaps, be presumed that there is some 
exaggeration in the statement regarding the ancient work, but a reasonable allowance 
must leave it as one of the most stupendous engineering works of which we have any 
record. The plains of Assyria and Babylonia were intersected with a system of ctuials 
both for irrigation and navigation. In many of them the water was raised by mechani- 
cal means somewhat like that practiced at present in Egypt. The ancient Peruvians 
and Mexicans constructed immense aqueducts for irrigation purposes. The system of 
ii'rigation practiced in Lombardy at -"the piesent time, and derived from the ancient 
Romans, is the cause of the wonderful fertility of that country. The distribution of the 
waters of all the rivers of Lombardy is held b}^ the government, and is rented for periods 
of time to the horticulturists and agriculturists. Channels are made for leading the 
water from the rivers, and from these secondary channels are constructed, about 24 ft. 
apart. In summer the water is allow^ed to flow only a few hours during each w^eek, but 
from Oct. to April the flow is steadily kept up, except during grass-cutting. The lands 
thus irrigated well repay their owmers for the outlay by the increased rent received, 
which is about one-third more, wdiile the yield is double. The cultivation of rice can 
be successfully carried on only with irrigation, and the best lands are therefore found 
on the alluvial flats bordering rivers. The land is intersected by ditches, along which 
there are embankments supplied with gates, so that the water in the ditches may be 
raised above the level of the fields, and flowed upon them at pleasure. The rice is 
planted in trenches and lightly covered, and then the water is let on and kept there tor 
from 4 to 6 days, or when the grains swell and begin to sprout. It is then let off 
till the sprouts are 2 or 3 in. above the ground, when it is let on again for about the same 
space of time. Then it is drained off, and after a time the rice is cultivated with a hoe. 
In from 6 to 8 weeks the water is again let on for 2 weeks, for the first 4 days to a con- 
siderable depth, after which it is gradually let off. See Rice. Considerable attention 
is paid to irrigation in our western territories and California. The facilities are 
usually great, as elevated mountain streams may generally be used as sources, whence 
the water finds its way by gravity wherever it is directed 

IREITABILITY in plants, a term employed to designate phenomena very interesting 
and curious, but than which none connected with vegetable life are more imperfectly 
understood. Such are the phenomena of wdiat is usually called the sleep (q.v.) (jf plants; 
the motion of the spores (q.v.) of many cryptogamic plants by means of cilia; the 
motions of oHcillatorm, diatomacete, and others of the lowest aU/ai; the successive 
approaches of the stamens of Parnnssia pdlustvf's to the pistil; the movements of the 
leaves of the morinff phatt (q.v.) of India; and those caused by agitation or by the touch 
of a foreign body in the leaves of sensitive plants (q.v.) of the dioiia>a or Venus's fly-trap, 
etc, in the stamens of the barberry, scJiizanthiis, etc., and in the stigmas of mimidus, 



1 ,-! >T Irrigation, 

-* *-' i Irving. 

etc. Many explanations have been pro'posed of these phenomena, but none satisfactory. 
Of the existence of anything analogous to tlie nervous system of animals, which has 
been imagined, there is not the slightest proof, closely as some of the phenomena resem- 
ble those of animal life. The explanations which have been proposcsd are no better 
than mere guesses. See Muscles. 

IRRITANCY (Lat. irHtus, of no effect), a term in Scotch law to deucte something in 
the nature of neglect or injury which destroys or makes void an existing right; in Eng- 
lish law it is called forfeiture. Thus, there is the irritancy of a feu-right from non-p.-iy 
ment of the duty for two years. — Ihuitant Clause, in a Scotch entail, is a chnisc 
which makes void certain prohibited acts of tl:2 heir of entail, such as selling the prop 
erty. 

IRRITANTS. Those medicines which when applied to the skin or mucous mem- 
branes produce irritation are commonly called irritants. The term has been sometimes 
vaguely applied to medicines which produce irritation of nerves in distant parts when 
taken internally, as instanced in the action of strychnine upon tlie spinal cord, but sucii 
use is confusing; the better term to apply to strychnine is that of nervous stimulant. 
In one sense, however, irritants are nervous stimulants, because they act upon the 
nerves, and when these are paralyz.ed or divided the irritants lose their power. There 
is diversity in the action of irritants. Most mineral or miner-ncid irritants cause dis- 
organization, as corrosive sublimate, nitrate of silver, caustic ])otash and soda, aUo 
sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric acids; but these agents are called also caustics. It 
would perhaps be more proper to apply the term irritant to such substances as create 
irritation without acting chemically, although disorganization or death of the parts 
might follow their continued application. The imponderable agents are irritants. Heat 
is an irritant, and may be considered as a mechanical or kinetic irritant. Light is also 
an irritant to the retina, and in diseases of the eye is often a powerful one. Elec- 
tricity is an irritant when applied in certain forms, but may be used as a mild stimulant, 
just as heat may be employed to disorganize and to excite excessively, or to irritate or 
to gently stimulate. 

IRRITA'TION is the term applied to any morbid excitement of the vital actions not 
amounting to inflammation; and it is often, but not always, a cause of that condition. 

In cases of irritation, remarkable sympathetic symptoms are often observed. Thus, 
irritation of a calculus occasions intense sickness and vomiting. But of all sources of 
sympathetic morbid affections of this class, irritation of the stomach and intestines is at 
once the most common and the most important. The ordinary sick headache is tiie 
most frequent form of this sympathetic affection; but in certain morbid conditions, and 
especially in the puerperal state, the symptoms may be such as pretty closely to resem- 
ble those of acute inflammation of the peritoneum, the heart, the pleura, or the mem- 
branes of the brain. It is to Dr. Marshall Hall that the credit is mainly due of pointing 
out those cases in wdiicli irritation so closely resembles inflammation He has shown 
that blood-letting affords a certain means of diagnosis in these cases. In true intlam-. 
mation, 80 or 40 oz. of blood may be taken befo're there are any sym])toms of faint- 
ness; while in irritation, the loss of a very few ounces (9 or 10) of blood will cause 
the most decided syncope. 

IRTISH', a river of Siberia, an affluent of the Obi (q.v.), 

IRVINE, a royal and parliamentary burgh, seaport, and market t. of the co. of 
Ayr, Scotland, is situated on both banks, but principally on an eminence on the right 
bank of the river Irvine, which is here crossed by a handsome stone bridge, about a 
mile above the embouchure of the river in the firth of Clyde. It is 11 m. n. of Ayr, 
and 29 m. s.w. of Glasgow by railway. The harbor has now become so much sanded 
up, as only to admit vessels of about 100 tons burden. The "academy" is one of the 
most flourishing educational institutions in the w. of Scotland. Ship-building, and the 
manufacture of book-muslins, jaconets, and checks, are among the branches of indus- 
try. Formerly, many women were emploj^ed in sewing muslins. The shipping trade 
for vessels under 100 tons burden is considerable. Irvine unites with Ayr, Campbel- 
town, Oban, and Inveraray, in sending a member to parliament. Pop. 71, 6,866. 

IRVINE, William; 1742-1804; b. Ireland; d. Philadelphia. He graduated at the 
Dublin university, was surgeon of an English ship of war in the English and French war. 
at the close of wdiich, 1763, he emigrated to America, settling at Carlisle, Penn. In the 
revolution he joined the colonies, and was appointed by congress colonel of the 6th 
Pennsvlvanian regiment. At the battle of Three Rivers, Canada, he was made prisoner, 
but exchanged May, 1778. He was made brig.gen. May 12, 1779. In 1781-88 he had 
command at fort Pitt of the troops for the defense of the western frontier, and 1785 was 
appointed for the state an agent to examine the public lands and devise a mode for their 
distribution to the soldiers. In 1787 he was made a member of the old congress, and ol 
the convention to revise the constitution of Pennsylvania. In 1794 he was membev ot 
congress, and was appointed to the command of the troops to suppress the "whisky 
rebellion." He was president of the society of the Cincinnati. 

IRVING, Rev. Edwakd. was b. in the town of Annan, Dumfriesshire, Aug. 15. 1792: 
studied at the university of Edinburgh, and, after completing his curriculum for the min- 



Irvins. 1 ?^<5 

livingites. ^^'-' 

istry, became assistmt (in 1819) to Dr. Chalmers, then a minister in Glasgow, His ser- 
mons did not prove very popular. Chalmers himself was not satisfied. In 1822 Irving 
received a call to the Caledonian church, Hatton garden, London, which he accepted. 
His success as a preacher in the metropolis was such as had never previously been wit- 
nessed. After some years, however, the world of fashion got tired of" Irving; but it was 
not till his more striking singularities of opinion were developed that fa>^hion Unally 
deserted him. At the close of 1825 he began to announce his convictions in regard to 
the second personal advent of the Lord Jesus, in which he had become a firm believer, 
and which he declared to be near at hand. This was followed up by the translation of a 
Spanish work, 77ie Coming of the Mes^inh in Majesty and Glory, by Juan Jomfat Ben 
Eura, which professed to be written by a Christian Jew, but was, in reality, the compo- 
sition of a Spanish Jesuit. Irviug's introductory preface is regarded as one of his most 
remarkable literary performances. In 1828 appeared his HoniiUes on, the Sacraments. 
He now began to elaborate his views of the incarnation of Christ, asserting with great 
emphasis the doctrine of his oneness with us in all the attributes of humanity. The lan- 
guage which he held on this subject drew upon him the accusation of heresy; he was 
charged Avith maintaining the sinfulness of Christ's nature, but he paid little heed to the 
alarm thus created. He was now deep in the study of the prophecies; and when the 
news came to London in the early part of 1830, of certain extraoidinary manifestations 
of prophetic power in the w. of Scotland (see Irvingites), Irving was prepared to 
believe them. Harassed, worn, baffled in his most sacred desires for the regeneration of 
the great Babylon in which he dwelt, branded by the religious public, and satirized by 
the press, the great preacher, who strove above all things to be faithful to what seemed to 
him the truth of God, grasped at the new wonder with a passi.onate earnestness. Matters 
soon came to a crisis. Irving was arraigned before the presbytery of London in 1830, 
and convicted of heresy; ejected from his new church in Regent's square in 1832; and 
finally deposed in 1833 by the presbytery of Annan, which had licensed him. His defense 
of himself on this last occasion was one of his most splendid and sublime efforts of 
oratory. The majority of his congregation adhered to him, and gradually a new form of 
Christianity was developed, commonly known as Irvingism, though Irving had really 
very little to do with its development. Shortly after his health failed, and in obedience, 
as he believed, to the Spirit of God, he went dowm to Scotland, where he sank a victim 
to consumption. He died at Glasgow, Dec. 8, 1834, in the 42d year of his age. — See 
Carlyle's Miscellaneous Essays, and Mrs. Oliphant's Life of Edcoard Irving (London, 1862). 

IRA^NG, Peter, 1771-1838; b. K Y., brother of Washington. He studied but 
did not practice medicine. In 1802 he was editor and proprietor of the Morning Chron- 
irle, a Democratic journal which advocated the election of Aaron Burr to the presidency. 
He was associated with his brother in the publication of Knickerhockef s History of Neio 
York. He resided in Europe, 1809-36. 

IRVING, Theodore, ll.d. ; b. N. Y., 1809; graduated at Columbia college, 1837; 
visited Europe, 1828; and in Madrid, Paris, and London attended lectures and 
studied literature. He studied law in London and New York. In 1836-49 he was pro- 
fessor of history and belles-lettres in Geneva college, N. Y., and subsequently for 3 
years was professor of belles-lettres in the Free academy of New York. In 1854 he was 
ordained a minister of the Episcopal church; became rector of St. Andrews's parish, 
Richmond, Staten island, and, 1874, rector of St. John's school for young ladies in New 
York. He published The Conquest of Florida by Be Soto, and The Fcranta in of Living 
Waters, a devotional work, 

IRVING, Washington, a distinguished American author, was b. in the city of New 
York, April 3, 1783. He was the youngest son of William Irving, who had emigrated 
from Scotland, and settled in New York as a merchant before the revolution. Washing- 
ton Irving at the age of 16 entered a law office; but he profited largely by his father's 
well-stocked library, Chaucer and Spenser being his favorite authors. New York, at this 
period, w^as a small town of about 50,000 inhabitants, many of whom were descendants 
of the original Dutch settlers, having quaint manners and customs, of which Irving was 
a curious observer. In 1804, with the excuse of a tendency to pulmonary disease, he 
visited, and traveled extensively in Europe; returned to New York in 1807, and con- 
tributed a series of genial and humorous essays to a periodical called Salmagundi. In 
1809 he wrote A History of New York, from the beginning of the ^orld to the end of the 
Diitch Dynasty, by Diedrick Knickerbocker, a burlesque chronicle, written in so quiet n vein 
of humor that it has sometimes been taken for a veritable history. 

Having no inclination for law, he engaged in commerce with his brothers as a silent 
partner, but devoted his time to literature, and in 1813 edited the Analectic .Wagasine, in 
Philadelphia. At the close of the war m 1815 he visited England, where he was warmly 
welcomed by Campbell, whose biography he had formerly written, and was introduced 
by him to Walter Scott. While he was enjoying his English visit his commercial house 
failed, and he was suddenly reduced to poverty, and the necessity of writing for his 
l)read. The Sketch-book, portions of which had appeared in New York, was olfered to 
IVIurray, and afterwards to C'onstable, but was refused by both of these celebj-ated pub- 
lishers. After an unsuccessful attempt of the author to publish it on his own account, 
Murray, on Scott's recommendation, took the Sketch-book, paying £200 for the copyright, 



-1 rrQ Irving:. 

^*-''-' Irviiigiles. 

which he afterwards increased to £400. It had a charm in its beauty and freshness, and 
was a surprise as the worli of an Ameiioan, and was therefore received with great favor. 
Irving went to Paris, and in 1822 wrote Hvaceb ridge Hall, and in 1824 the Tides <>f a 
Trailer, lie was tlun invited by Everett, the American ambassador to ISpain, to accom- 
pany him to Madiid, to translate documeuts connected with tlie life of Columbus. Wiih 
these materials he wrote his Hlatory of the Life and Voyages of Columbus ii'S'Z'S); Voyaf^cs 
of the (Companions of Coluiuhus; The Conquest of Granada; TJieAUtamb)-a{\'6o2), a por- 
tion of Avliich was written in the ancient palace of the Moorish kings; Legends of the 
Conquest of Spain (1885); and Mahomet and his !Snccessors{l'SVd). In 1829 Irving returned 
to England as secretary to the American legation. In 1881 he received the lionorary 
degree of ll.d. from tlie vniiversity of Oxford; and next yeai" returned to America, where 
he was received with great enthusiasm. A visit to the ilocky mountains produced his 
7our on the Pixiiries. He also (contributed sketches of Abbolsford and JN'ewsLead abbey 
to the Crayon Miscellany, and from the papers of John Jacob Astor wrote Astoriit (1887), 
and \\ie Adve iitares of Captain Bonneville ; also a series of stories and essays in the Kniekcr- 
bocker Magazine, collected under the title of Wolferi's Roost. In 1842 he was appointed 
minister to Spain. In 1846 was published his Life of Goldsmith; and his gi-eat work, the 
J^if^ <'f Washington, was publislied in 1855-59. An edition of his works in 15 vols. 
reached a sale of 250,000 vols. He spent the last years of his life at Suunyside, in his 
own "Sleepy Hollow," on the banks of the Hudson, near Tarrytow^u, with his nieces, 
where he died suddenly of disease of the heart, Nov. 28, 1859. He was never married. 

IRVING, William, 1766-1821; b. N. Y., brother of Washington. He was an Indian 
trader on the Mohawk river, 1787-91; and in 1798 a merchant in New York. In that 
j'-ear he married a sister of James K. Paulding, and was associated with him and Wash- 
ington Irving in the publication of Salmagundi, contributing to it most of the poetical 
articles. He was a member of congress 1818-19, but resigned on account of ill health. 

IRVINGITES, the common but improper designation of a body of Christians who 
object to any designation which implies sectarianism, and therefore use no other name 
than the Catholic Apostolic Church. In the winter of 1829-80, the rev. E(hvard Irving 
(q.v.), then a minister of the Scotch church. Regent square, London, delivered a series 
of lectures on spiritual gifts, in which he maintained that those which we are in the habit 
of calling "extraordinary" or " miraculous" were not meant to be confined to the prim- 
itive church, but to be continued through the whole period of the present dispensation. 
About the same time, as if to confirm the views of the great preacher, there occurred at 
Port-Glasgow, in the w^. of Scotland, certain strange phenomena. It was alleged that 
miraculous acts of healing had happened, and tiiat the gift of tongues l.'ad reappeared. 
After what seemed to be a sufficient investigation on the part of some of the members of 
Mr. Irving's church, it was concluded that the manifestations Avere genuine. Similar 
manifestations shortly after occurred in his own church, which were also pronounced to 
be genuine. They were held to be of two kinds: 1st, speaking in tongues, and 2(1, 
prophesying. As the former bore no resemblance to any language with which men were 
conversant, it was believed to be strictly an "unknown tongue," the Holy Ghost "using 
the tongue of man in a manner wliich neither his owni intellect could dictate, nor that of 
any other man comprehend." The latter, " prophesying," consisted chiefly of "exhorta- 
tions to holiness, interpretations of Scripture, openings of prophecy, and explanations of 
s^^mbols." After some time, Irving was deposed from his office for heresy by the ciiurch 
of Scotland, but meanwhile the religious opinions w'th which his name is associated had 
been assuming -a more definite and ecclesiastical shaj^e. The final result was the Ajws- 
iolic Catholic Church, the constitution of which is briefly as follows: 

There are, as in the apostolic times, /t*?/?' ministries: 1st, that of "apostle;" 2d, that 
of "prophet;" 3d, that of "evangelist;" and 4th, that of "pastor." The apostles are 
invested with spiritual prerogatives; they alone can minister the Holy Ghost by the lay- 
ing on of hands; to them the mysteries of God are revealed and unfolded to the churcli ; 
and they decide on matters of order and discipline. Nothing that transpires in any 
cliurch in the way of "prophetic utterance" can be authoritatively explained save by 
them; and the various "angels of the churches " are bound to bring all such utterances 
under their cognizance, in order that they may be rightly interpreted. The function of 
the "prophet " has been already indicated. The work of an "evangelist" mainly con- 
sists in endeavoring to " bring in " those who are without. The "angel " of the Catholic 
Apostolic church corresponds with the bishop of other Christian denominations. The 
ministers of each full congregation comprise an angel, with a fourfold ministry (consist- 
ing of elders, prophets, evangelists, and pastors), and a ministry of deacons to take charge 
of temporal matters. This ministry is supported by tithes, the people giving a tenth of 
their income for the support of the priesthood. Church affairs are managed by a council 
of ministers of all classes, whose selection and arrangement are conceived to have been 
foreshadowed in the structure of the Mosaic tabernacle. 

The Catholic Apostolic church does not differ from other Christian bodies in regard 
to the common doctrines of the Christian religion; it only accepts, in wliat it considers 
to be a fuller ;;nd more real sense, the phenomena of Christian life. It believes that the 
wonder, mystery, and miracle of the apostolic times, were not accidental, but are essen- 
tial to the divinely instituted church of God, and its main function is to prej^are a people 



Irwin. 1 ^A 

Isabella. ^^-'^ 

for the second advent of Christ. A very special feature of the Catholic Apostolic church 
is its extensive and elaborate symbolism. In regard to the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, the doctrine of the objective presence is held, but both traiisubstantiation and 
consubstaotiation are repudiated. 

The Catholic Apostolic cbui-ch has established itself in England, Scotland, Canada, 
the United States, Prussia, France, Switzerland, Ireland, Belgium, Russia, Denmark, 
Sweden, Australia, and India. 

IRWIN, a CO. in s. Georgia, bounded n.e. by the Ocmulgee, and intersected by the 
Allapaha; 850 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 2,696. It is level and sandy, and extensively covered with 
piue forests. It produces some oats and maize. Capital, Irwinville. 

IRWIN, .Tared, "1751-1818; b. Mecklenburg co., N. C; at an early age removed 
with his parents to Georgia. In the revolution he was active against the tories and 
the Indians. After the war he was chosen to the state legislature, was a member of 
the convention which adopted the constitution in 1789, president of the state constitutional 
convention of 1798, president for many years of the senate, and governor of Georgia, 
1790-98 and 1806-9. Removing to Pennsylvania, he was member of congress from that 
state, 1813-17. 

ISAAC ("he v>ill laugh"), a Hebrew patriarch and pastoral chief, was the son of Abra- 
ham and Sarah, and half-brother of Ishmael. His birth happened when both his parents 
were advanced in age. The incidents of his life, as recorded in Genesis, are well known. 
He died at Hebron, aged 180 years, leaving two sons, Jacob and Esau. — Isaac's character 
has always been very differently interpreted. What has been called by some his mild and 
gentle disposition, simple pastoral piety, others have termed weakness and want of char 
acter. His (for the most part) blameless ways, however, call forth our love and esteem. 
The Midrash ascribes to him, in allusion to Gen. xxiv. 63, the institution of the afternoon 
prayer. 

ISAAC {anti') was distinguished for obedience to his father, combined with resigna- 
tion to the will of God. These traits of character were conspicuous in his quiet submis 
sion to being bound upon the altar. This event has had various explanations, and its 
account has been viewed in different lights. It has been denied that it was a divine voice 
which called for the sacrifice. The usual view, however, holds to the obvious meaning 
of the narrative. Among different explanations in this view, may be noted the follow- 
ing, which reads this history in the light wdiicli the completed Scriptures throw backward 
upon it. It was needful that Abraham, as the father of the faithlul, should exercise such 
trust in God as would make him, in that day of darkness and idolatry, the founder of a 
godly line and an example to believers even in distant times. It was therefore requisite 
that he should have his knowledge of God's plans increased in order that it might furnish 
a foundation for great and conspicuous faith. This was done chiefly by means of the 
land in which he sojourned, and of Isaac his son. The promise that the land should be 
given to his descendants was one of the first stones of the foundation on which his faith 
was built; to this was added the assurance that a son should be born to him in his old 
age. When, 25 years after his entrance into Canaan, this second promise was ful- 
filled, the living son, the heir of the promises, became the means of a great increase 
to Abraham's knowledge, and confirmation of his faith. He was taught not only 
that Isaac represented the Messiah, the Divine deliverer, who was to descend from 
liim, but also that the Messiah by offering up himself unto death would make atone- 
ment for the sins of men. Therefore his offering of Isaac was demanded, and made 
actual through all its stages to the moment when his life was on the point of 
being taken; and was then completed by the substitution of the victim which Abra 
ham was directed to slay instead of his son. Thus Isaac manifested a Chris-tlike 
obedience and submission even unto death; wdiile the actual death inflicted on tlie 
other victim represented the completion of the sacrifice to which his greater son would 
deliver himself up. Abraham's own experience also was made representative of God's 
great sacrifice in salvation. He went through all the anguish that a father's heart could 
experience in inflicting death on a beloved son without actually striking the final blow, 
and even this he had so fully intended to strike, and had come so near striking it, that he 
must have passed through almost all the bitterness of which his soul was capable. Thus 
was he taught, as fully as possible before the event, the feelings of Christ and of tJie 
Father which have since been indicated by the Scripture words, "Father, if it be possi- 
ble, let this cup pass from me; " "My God, why hast thou forsaken me;" " God spared 
not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all." In this way also Abraham was 
brought to exercise faith concerning the resurrection of the dead, as completely as was 
possible before the actual resui-rection of Christ; so that the New Testament says of 
Abraham that he offered up his son on whom the promises rested, " accounting that God 
was able to raise him up even from the dead; whence also he received him in a figure. 
It is probable that no single view likely to be reached by modern thought solves all the 
mystery or presents all the Divine truth involved in this scene from a remote antiquity." 

Isaac's love for his wife, prominent in the scriptural record, is obscured by only one 
act, in which evidently he was betrayed into cowardly selfishness in persuading his wife 
to deny the conjugal relationship between them, because, as he afterwards acknowledged, 
he said, "Lest I die for her." Yet this great fault of his life is hardly to be regarded 



In-t Irwin. 

O ^ Isabella. 

as a betrayal of a real character which liad been habitually concealed, but rather as an 
exceptional overwhelming of his better nature by the power of unjrovcriuible fear. In 
tJiis respect he may have resembled his father, who sinned twice in the same way, yet 
not in accordance with his usual character, but in ghiring contrast to it. In his youth 
Isaac Avas thoughtful, in manliood increasingly reflective, and , through ail his life 
prayerful and devout. In his treatment of his children he was unwisely partial; and 
.as, while he preferred one sou, Rebecca favored the other, it is probable that they both 
promoted that alienation between the brothers which afterwards so unhappily increased. 
In disposition he was peaceful and forbearing, preferring to suffer wrong rather than 
contend violently for his rights. In business relations he was upright; in agriculture 
he was successful, and became exceeding rich in servants, flocks, and herds. In old 
age he was disquieted with bodily infirmity and domestic grief. He died full of days, 
and is one of those concerning whom the certain revelation has been put on record that 
he has a place in the kingdom of heaven. 

ISAAC I., CoMXENUS, Emperor of Constantinople, was the first of the family of the 
Comueni who attained to that dignity. His father Manuel, his brother John, and 
liimself were employed in important military and civil capacities by Basil II. (976-1025); 
but during the reign of the latter's imbecile and tyrannical successors, in whose ej^es it 
was criminal for any one to excel in wisdom and ability, Isaac w'as exposed to consid- 
erable danger. Such, however, was his prudence, and the affection of the people for 
him, that the emperors unwillingly suffered him to live unmolested; and on the depo- 
sition of Michael VI. (1056-1057), Isaac was elevated to the vacant throne. On his 
accession he found the affairs of the empire in what was by this time their normal con- 
dition; rebellion within, aggression without, and the treasury exhausted. He succeeded 
in establishing a system of great economy in all branches of the administration, and in 
order still further to lighten the taxes on the people, called upon the clergy to contribute 
their share. But the clergy, then as now, refused to endure the imposition of any such 
burdens, and the patriarch Michael is reported to have even threatened him with depo- 
sition. But death delivered Isaac of this formidable opponent, and the clergy were 
compelled to submit. In 1059 he repelled the Hungarians, who had encroached upon 
his possessions in then.w. ; but soon afterwards, to the great grief of his subjects, ho 
was attacked by a violent fever, and believing his dissolution approaching, appointed 
his famous general, Constantino Ducas, as his successor. He, however, recovered from 
his illness, but resigning the crown, retired to a convent, where he lived for two years 
in the odor of sanctity, and died in 1061. He w^as one of tlie most virtuous emperors 
of the east, and to great learning, wisdom, and prudence, united an administrative 
ability and energy, that would, had his reign been of longer duration, have gone far to 
regenerate the effete Byzantine empire. Nov was he deficient in literary attainments. 
We still possess by him Scholia — hitherto unedited — on Homer, his favorite author; 
further, a work, C/iaracferistics, soil., of the Greek and Trojan chiefs mentioned in the 
Iliad; and finally, a treatise O/i the Works of Homer. 

ISAAC II., Angelus; 1154-1204; a Byzantine emperor. Delivered by a popular revolu- 
tion from death, to which he had been condemned by his kinsman, Andronicus Com- 
nenus, emperor of Constantinople, he obtained the throne, 1185. His vices and 
incapacity rendered him unpopular, and he wsls dethroned by his brother, Alexis III., 
1195, and deprived of his sight, but restored by the crusaders who took Constantinople, 
1203. He vv^as again dethroned by Alexis Ducas, and put to death. 

ISAAC, Levita, a distinguished Jewi.sh rabbi, b. at "VVetzlar, Germany, 1515. He 
joined the Roman Catholic church with his son, 1546. He was professor of Hebrew and 
Chaldee at Louvain, and in 1551 at Cologne. He was the author of several learned 
grammatical works, and also translations. His name after his conversion was John 
Isaac Levi. The date of his death is unknown. 

ISABELLA, a central co. of Michigan, intersected by the Chippewa river; 576 
sq.m. ; pop. '70, 4,113. The surface is generally level, and largely covered with forests 
of pine and sugar-maple. Productions: w-heat, oats, maize, lia}'-, atid potatoes. The 
Flint and Pere Marquette railroad passes through the n.e. part. Capital, Mt. Pleasant. 

ISABELLA of Castile, queen of Spain, b. on April 28, 1451, was the daughter of John 
11. , king of Castile and Leon, and in 1469 married Ferdinand V., surnamed "the 
Catholic." king of Aragon. On the death of her brother, Henry IV., in 1481, she 
ascended the throne of Castile and Leon, to the exclusion of her elder sister Joanna. 
She had won the support of great part of the states of the kingdom during her brother's 
life, and the victorious arms of her husband compelled the consent of the rest (sec; 
Ferdinand). Isabella was a woman of remarkable energy and talent, and possessed no 
inconsiderable beauty and much winning grace, although proud, ambitious, and deficient 
in true womanly gentleness. She was always present in meetings of council, and 
insisted on the use of her name along with that of Ferdinand in all public documents. 
. She died at Medina del Campo, on "Nov. 26, 1504, after having exacted from her hus- 
band, of whom she was always jealous, a promise, confirmed'by oath, never to marry 
again. 

U. K. VIIL— 11 



Isabella,- 1 AO 

Isaiah. ^^-^ 

ISABELLA II. (Maria Isabel Ltiisa), ex-queen of Spain, the elder daughter of Fer- 
<linand YII. by his fourth wife, Miiria Christina, of the Two Sicihes, was b. at Madrid, 
Oct. 10, 1880, and by a decree whicli set aside the Salic law in Spain, and was cou- 
lirmed by the cortes, Mar. 29, 1830, became the heiress-apparent to the tlirone, which 
.she ascended on the death of her fatlier m Sept., 1888, her mother being appcinteil 
queen-regent. An insurrection in favor of her uncle, Don Carlos (q.v.), who, accordin^g 
to the Salic Jaw, would have succeeded to the throne, immediately broke out in the 
north-eastern provinces, and raged with great violence for seven years, but was 
ultimately suppressed by the aid of Britain, France, and Portugal. During this tumult- 
uous epoch, elTective internal administration was impossible, and it was necessary to 
conciliate as far as possible all parties, in order to prevent desertions to the Carlists. 
Before the revolt had been crushed, which was conclusively effected in 1839, politicians 
liad begun to divide into two classes, the moderados, or "conservatives," and the 
cxaltados, or ''liberals;" and though the queen-regent sided with the former party, she 
found it necessary to enlarge the liberal constitution of 1834, and ultimately (1837) to 
re-establish the constitution of 1812. The attempts of the moderados to inaugurate a 
more narrow polic}'' in 1839 failed, and Maria Christina was forced to Hee to France, 
leaving the regency and the care of the young queen to Espartero (q.v.). On Nov. 8, 
1843, the queen was declared by the cortes to have attained her majority; and this was 
followed soon after by the return of the queen-mother, the milittiry dictatorship of 
Narvaez, and an anti-liberal policy. The question known as the ''Spanish Marriages," 
Avhich at that time agitated the different courts of Europe, was settled by French influ- 
ence, the queen marrying her cousin, Don Francisco d'Assisi, eldest son of Ferdinand 
VII. 's youngest brother (Oct. 10, 1846); while her sister, Maria Ferdinand Luisa, espoused 
the Duke of Montpensier, the tifth son of Louis Philippe. This marriage of the queen, 
based wholly upon the political interests of the party in power, has been fruitful of 
domestic annoyances, estrangements and reconciliations rapidly succeeding each other. 
After eight years of authority, during which he had repressed all liberalism with an iron 
liand, and foiled the intrigues both of the Carlists and the king-consort, Narvaez gave 
place to Murillo (Jan., 1851), who began by promising liberal reforms, and agreed to a 
concordat with the pope. A change to almost purely absolute government in 1853, was 
followed by the banishment of many chiefs of the constitutional party, and a formidable 
rising of the army took place. The queen-mother fled to France, and Espartero Avas 
once more put at the head of an administration in which liberal principles held swa}'. 
But the queen disapproving of his policy, he resigned in favor of O'Donnell, Juh'^ 14, 
1856, who was soon after supplanted by Narvaez; and the latter, in turn, had (Oct., 1857) 
to make way for a liberal government. In July, 1858, O'Donnell was restored to power, 
and with the exception of a brief interval in June, 1865, in which Narvaez was president 
of the council, maintained himself in the premiership till his death. Nov., 1867. The 
ehief foreign events of Isabella's reign were — repeated negotiations of the United States 
with Spain, with the view of purchasing the island of Cuba; the rectification of the 
Pyrenean frontier: the successful war with Morocco (q.v.); the annexation and sub.«e- 
quent evacuation of St. Domingo (see Hayti); and the discreditable squabbles with the 
republics of Chili and Peru, The nation became more and more impatient under the 
despotic rule of the last years of Isabella's reign; and at length, in Sept., 1868, a revolu- 
tioji broke out, which ended in the formation of a republican provisional government, 
and the flight of Isabella to France. In 1870 she renounced her claim to the tlirone in 
favor of her son, Alfonso (chosen king in 1874). She returned to Spain in 1878. 

ISABELLA THE CATHOLIC, Okdek of, a Spanish order of knighthood, founded by 
Ferdinand VII., in 1815, as a reward of loyalty, and for the defense of the possessions 
of Spanish America. It is now conferred for all kinds of merit. The sovereign is tlie 
liead of the order, which is divided into the three classes of grand crosses, commanders, 
and knights. 

ISABELLA OP ENGLAND. See Edward II. and III., ante. 

ISABEY, Jean Baptiste, 1767-1855; b. France. He was a pupil of the celebrated 
painter David, and began his profession by making crayon portraits, but devoted most 
of his life to miniature-painting, in which he became very eminent. His pictiu'e of 
Napoleon, 1802, reviewing his troops, gained for him great renown, and he became the 
emperor's miniature-painter. The members of the imperial family, the marshals and 
other dignitaries of the empire, sat to him, and he was invited to visit Alexander of 
Russia. His Tableaux des 3fa7-echa/u- and the Covference of Vienna are fine large his- 
torical paintings. 

IS/EUS, b. probably at Chalcis, though claimed by Athens. The dates of his bii-tli 
and death are unknown, though it is certain that he became eminent as an orator tlie 
last lialf of the 4th c. B.C. He was the son of Diagoras. In his youth he was at one 
time dissipated and extravagant, but afterwards reformed. He went when young to 
Athens, studied oratory under Lysias and Isocrates, and taught with success a school of 
rhetoric of which Demosthenes was a pupil. He was the fifth in order of the 10 Attic 
orators, and is mentioned b}'' Plutarch, in his JJven of tlie Ten Orafovfi, as the autiior of 
G4 orations. Only 11 are extant. They are all forensic, and treat mostly of subjects 
relating to disputed wills. His style, though elegant and vigo'ous, lacks the perspicuity 



1 L\0 Isabella. 

^^^ ' Isaiah. 

and simplicity of liip master Lysias. An English translation by sir William Jones was 
published in London in 1794, with a commentary and notes critical and historical. 

ISAI'AH (Heb. Yeshayahu, "Salvation of God"), the most sublime of the Hebrew 
prophets, was the son of one Amoz. He uttered his oracles in the reigns of Uzziah, 
Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. Regarding his outwurd life, almost 
nothing is known. He appears to have resided at Jerusalem, in the vicinity of the 
temple, was married, and had three sons, given him, he says, "for signs and for 
wonders in Israel." The period of his death is not known, but according to a rabbinical 
legend, apparently accepted by the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews (xi. 37), (Sanh. 
108 6, etc.), he wus sawn asunder by order of king Manasseh, who abhori-ed his oracles 
(cf. Jos. Ant. X. 31). If this statement is well founded, Isaiah must have been nearly 
100 years old when he was thus barbarously murdered. — The prophecies of Isaiah, 
viewed in their literary aspect, do not exhibit a continuous unity of design; they con 
.sist of a series of " visions" beheld at ditferent times, and arranged neither exactly in 
chronological nor material order. The compiler or editor of the whole is believed by 
many not to be Isaiah himself. Yerse 38tli of chap, xxxvii. is regarded by the majority 
of scholars of note as conclusive proof of a latei- hand. The grand controversy, however, 
is not concerning the arrangement of these prophecies, but concerning their autlioi'ship. 
Did they all proceed from one and the same person, or are diffeient authors discernible? 
Orthodox critics maintain the unity of authorship, and assert that Isaiah, if he did not 
edit, certainly wrote the whole 6(5 chapters. The first who doubted this was the Ger- 
man scholar Koppe (1779-81). who suspected that the last 27 chapters (40 to 60) were tlu^ 
work of a later hand. He was followed by Doderlein, Eichhorn. and Jnsti, and ilic 
same view has been substantially adopted by Paulas, Bertholdt, De Wette, Gescnius, 
Hitzig, Knobel, Umbreit, and Ewald. The chief arguments against the Isaiah-author- 
ship are: 1. That the subject-matter of these burdens relates to what happened long 
after Isaiah's death, 100 years at least, viz.. the redemption of the Jews from captivity, 
consequent upon the overthrow of the Babylonian monarchy by the Medo-Persian 
arm}'. 2. That the writer speaks of the exile as something present, and of the desola- 
tion of Judah as a thing that had already taken place. 3. That Cyrus is mentioned by 
name, and an intimate knowledge exhibited of his career. 4. That an extraordinarily 
minute acquaintance with the condition and habits of the exiles is shown. 5. That the 
sentiments are far more spiritual. 6. That the style is totally different, being more 
smooth, flowing, rhetorical, and clear. To these objections, Hengstenberg, Ilavernick, 
Keil, Henderson, Jahn, Moller, Alexander, and others have replied more or less satis- 
factorily. Their principal argument is tiie predictive character of prophecy. In these 
prophecies, we have the first distinct and vivid annoimcements of a Messianic deliverer 
(whence Isaiah has been called the " Evangelical prophet"). As, however, they are 
found chiefly in the last 27cl)apters (the supposed work of a deutero-Isaiah), it has been 
made a question, by those who do not believe in prophecy in the usual sense, whether 
the " deliverer," who redeems the people by his own sufferings, is a literal prediction of 
Jesus Christ on the part of the prophet, or only a personification of the sanguine hope 
of deliverance that animates his patriotic and religious soul. 

The style of Isaiah possesses an astonishing richness and variety. It rencliC!^ the 
pinnacle of grandeur, and melts into the softest pathos. Ewald, a master of testhetic as 
well as of philologic criticism, attributes to him "the most profound prophetic excite- 
ment and the purest sentiment, the most indefatigable and successful practical activity 
amidst all perplexities and changes of outward life, and that facility and beauty in 

representing thougiit which is the prerogative of the genuine poet In the sent i- 

ments which he expresses, in the topics of his discourses, and in the manner of expres- 
sion, Isaiah uniformly reveals himself as the kingly prophet" {Propheten deti Alien 
Biimles, vol. i. p. 166, etc.). Among the chief commentators on Isaiah are Jerome, 
Aben-Ezra, Abarband, Vitringa, Lovvth, Henderson, Calmet, Hitzig, Rosenmiiller, 
Gesenius, Hengstenberg, and Alexander. 

ISAIAH, Prophecy of {ante). The reasons alleged by some critics, within this cen- 
tury, for denying that Isaiah wrote the last 27 chapters of the book called by his name 
are: 1. As, according to a tradition mentioned in the Talmud, the order in which tlie 
three great prophets w^ere aivanged was originally Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah, it is to 
be inferred that Isaiah was placed last because of a suspicion which somewhere existed 
that the latter part had been written after Ezekiel. To this it is answered that the infer 
ence w^ould not be wan-anted even if the alleged order of arrangement w^ere certain: ))ut 
that it is not certain or probable is shown by a witness earlier than the Talmud, that i«, 
the ar.thor of Ecclesiasticus. who refers to the three prophets in the order in which they 
now stand — Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel. 2. The writings of the prophets who lived 
after Isaiah, and befoi'e the captivity, do not show an acquaintance with the second part 
of the prophecy. To this it is answered: (1) that the fact woidd not prove the non exist- 
ence of the second part when these prophets wrote; and (2) that in fact, as will hereafter 
be more fully shown, Jeremiah and other prophets of the time si:)ecified, do quote this 
second part (yet the objector insists that, on the contrary, it contains quotations from 
them). 3. The last part differs from the first in style and religious views. To this, other- 
critics reply that no differences exist which are inconsistent with unity of authorsliip; 



Isaiah. 

that the first part contains tlio germs of the principal things exhibited in the second: and 
tliat tlie style or the latter part greatly resembles that of the former, although it naturally 
rises in fullness and sublimity as the scope of the prophecy is enlarged. 4. Isaiah lived 
more than a century before the cajnivity in Babylon, and did not once foretell it; but as the 
author of the second part narrated so fully the special condition of the Jews at that time, 
and the general oriental relations, even calling Cyrus by name, he must have been an 
oye-witness of what he described. The answers to this are: (1) This reasoning, which 
is simply the assumption that absolute prediction is impossible, will appear without 
force to those who take notice that the prophet ascribes all tiie i3rcdictions which he 
records to God as their author, .who claims the prerogative of foretelling the future, and 
exercises it in regard to Cyrus, Babylon, and the Jews, for the express purpose of reveal- 
ing himself to those who did notdcnowhim. (2) If the reason alleged proved that the 
second part of the prophecy was written after, or at, the captivity, it would equally prove 
tliat it was written after, or at, the coming and crucifixion of Jesus Christ; for these 
events are described in it as clearly as is the deliverance of the Jews by Cyrus. (3) In 
the first part of the prophecy Isaiah does foretell the captivitj^ in Babylon. In chapter i. 
he promises a restoration and redemption which admit of a primary reference to the 
return from captivity; in vi. he speaks of a time when the cities of Judah would be 
wasted without inhabitant, the houses be without man, the land be desolate, and the men 
l)e removed far away; xxxix., he tells Hezekiah: " Behold, the days come, that all that is 
in thy house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be car- 
ried to Babylon: nothing shall be left;" xiii., xiv., he foretells that the Lord would stir up 
the Medes against Babylon, would set Israel in their own land, and that in the day of 
their deliverance they should say concerning Babylon: "How hath the oppressor ceased, 
the golden city ceased!" 

Proofs THAT THE last 27 chapters were written by Isatait. — I. Exte.vnrd. — 1. 
Tliere is evidence that several of the prophets who wrote before the Jewish captivity 
were familiar with this part of Isaiah, alluded to it and quoted it. While the full force 
of this evidence can be felt only after a careful comparison of many passages in tlie 
original language, part of it can be at once appreciated. Isaiah lii. i, 7 says; '.'There 
shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean. How beautiful upon 
the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace:" and 
Nahum, who wrote about 660 B.C., says: "Behold upon the mountains the feet of him 
that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace. O Judah. the wicked shall no more 
p;iss through thee." Isaiah xlvii. 8 says to Babylon: "Thou that art given to pleas- 
ures, that dwellest carelessly; that sayest in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me;" 
and Zephaniah, about 625 B.C., applies the same language to Nineveh: "This is the 
rejoicing city that dwelt carelcsslj^ that said in her heart, 1 am, and there is none beside 
Tue." An examination of the contexts will show, it is believed, that Isaiah is the earlier 
writer from whom the others quote. Consequently it is plain that the latter part of his 
prophecy existed long before the captivity, 2. The book of Ezra :ind the second book of 
Chronicles give the decree of C-yrus liberating the Jews, in which he says: "All the 
kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord God cf heaven given me, and he hath charged nw. 
to build him a house in Jerusalem." On the supposition that Daniel and other Jews had 
at Babylon the book of Isaiah containing these last chapters, the action of Cyrus, on 
being made acquainted with their declarations concerning himself, was simply that 
whicli an intelligent and upright man would naturally feel stirred up to perform. But 
on the supposition that the book contained only the first 39 chapters, then for the great 
historical facts of the return of the Jevv^s to their own land, of the grant to them of royal 
tn^asures for rebuilding their temple, and of the conqueror's ofiicial acknowledgment of 
obligation to God, whom he had not known, no sutficient reason is assigned. 3. The 
book of Isaiah as it stands in the Hebrew canon has 66 chapters. If it had, at first, con- 
tained only 39, an addition of 27 chapters of any sort, and especially of the 27 now form- 
ing the latter part, could not liavc been made to it, at any subsequent time, without some 
record, or proof, or intimation remaining concerning the agent, author, process, or time! 
But in this case nothing of the kind has ever been seen or heard of. 4. The book of 
Ecclesiasticus, written in Hebrew after 300 B.C., in eulogizing the succession of Scripture 
characters, speaks of Isaiah as "the prophet who Avas great and faithful in his vision; 
in his time the sun went backward, and he lengthened the king's life. He saw by an 
excellent spirit what should come to pass at the last, and he comforted them that 
mourned in Zion. He showed what should come to pass forever, and secret things ere 
ever they came." This description, affirming Isaiah's prophetical eminence in Heze- 
kiah's time, speaks chiefiy of things contained in the last 27 chapters, and links them 
firmly with the first part, characterizing the xl. and Ixi. when it says: "he comforted 
them that mourned in Zion;" the xlii. when it speaks of "showing secret things ere ever 
they came;" and the close of the book, when it points to things that "should come to 
l)ass forever." This short passage, therefore, shows that the writer of Ecclesiasticus had 
the book of Isaiah in its integrity as Ave have it now. 5. In the Septuagint translation 
of the Old Testament, made about 250 B.C., the book of Isaiah consists of 66 chapters. 
At tliat time, therefore, the whole book must have been in circulation as it is now. 6. 
AV'hen the Savior went into the synagogue at Nazareth there was delivered to him 
" the book of the prophet E.saias," and, having opened it, he found the place where it 



165 



Isaiah. 



was written: "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed mc to 
preach the gospel to the poor." This passage is part of the Ixi. chapter. When the 
treasurer of Candace was returning from Jerusalem he read in his chariot Esaias the 
prophet; and the passage that lie asked Pliilip to expound — " He was led as a sheej) lo 
the slaughter" — is in the liii. chapter. Paul, in Romans, atlirins "Esaias saiLh, "Lord, 
wlio h'dih believed our report?'" This also is part of the liii. chapter. Again he 
declares: " Esaias is very bold, and saith, ' I was found of them that sought me not. . . , 
Xll day long I have stretched out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people.' "' 
This is in the Ixv. chapter. From the New Testament, therefore, it is plain that the 
book of Isaiah at the time of Ciirist contained these 27 chapters as it contains them now. 

II. Internal. — Two items only of the internal proof that Isaiah ^vas the author of the 
whole book can here be given. 1. The first chapter is an introduction, not merely to the 
tirst part, but to the whole book, and in its closing verses bears a marked resemblance 
to tlie last 27 chapters. After its condemnation of Judah and Jerusalem for their sins, 
it promises a future purification and redemption, and ends Avitli declaring that incorrigi- 
bb sinners shall be destroyed. "Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her con- 
verts with righteousness. And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners 
shall be together." The last 27 chapters contain three sections, of 9 chapters each, all 
])romising a future salvation, and all ending with declaring the destruction of the 
wicked. "The first section, referring primarily to deliverance from captivity and idol- 
atry, says: "Go ye forth of Babylon, utter it to the end of the earth, say ye: Tlie Lord 
hath redeemed his servant Jacob. . . . There is no peace, saith the Lord, to the wicked." 
The second section, referring especially to a spiritual salvation, says: " Peace, peace to 
him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith the Lord; and I will heal him. . . . 
There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked," The third section promises the new 
heavens and the new earth, which are to continue forever, and intensifies the declaration 
of destruction to the wicked. And as the introduction, in the first chapter, closes witk 
declaring that the mighty sinner and his w^ork "shall both burn together, and none shall 
quench them," so the whole book closes with the dreadful sentence: " Their worm shall 
not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they^ shall be an abhorring unto all 
flesh." 2. Through the book of Isaiah — the first part and the last — there is a series of 
prophecies concerning the Messiah which demonstrates the unity of the whole. Some 
of tiiese are the following: in chap. ii. the prediction springs at once to the last days, 
Avheu the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, 
and men shall learn war no more; in chap. vii. it promises the birth of a virgin's son, 
who should be named Immanuel, as a sign of the son of Mary; in the ix, it glorifies the 
way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, and proclaims joyful tidings con- 
cerning the child that should be born, one of wdiose names would be the mighty God, 
and whose government and peace should increase forever; in the xi. it declares that a 
rod should come forth out of the stem of Jesse, on whom tlie Spirit of the Lord should 
rest; in the xxxii. it announces that there should come a man as a hiding-place from the 
wind, and a covert from the tempest; in the xxxv. it affirms that the wilderness and the 
solitary place should be glad, and the ransomed of the Lord return and come to Zion 
with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads: and in the last 27 chapters it expands 
all these promises, beginning witli the voice of the forerunner in the wilderness, 
revealing the glory of the suffering Messiah, and foretelling the new heavens and the new 
earth. 

Analysis. — The book contains two prophetical parts with intervening chapters in 
which history and prophecy are closely combined. Part I. contains 35 chapters. 
Chapter i. is introductory, as has been said, to tlie wdiole book; ii.-iv. announce the 
Messiah's kingdom and judgments on transgressors; v. pronounces condemnation on 
Israel and Judah under the emblem of a cherished vineyard that yields only evil fruit; vi. 
records the prophet's vision of the glory of the Lord, and foretells a mingling of judg- 
ments and mercy; vii. promises a child, as a sign from the Lord, whose birth would 
soon be followed by the desolation of the land of the two hostile kings; viii. denounces 
judgments on Israel and Judah under the emblem of the prophet's son whose name 
signifies, "Hasten the spoil, rush on the prey;" ix. foretells the birth and the divine 
nature of the Messiah ; x. describes the advancement and defeat of the Assyrians; xi,, 
xii., portray the blessings of the Messiah's kingdom; xiii.-xxiii. contain a series of 
"burdens," to be borne by Babylon, Pliilistia, Moab, Damascus and Israel, Ethiopia, 
Egypt, Assyria and Israel, Egypt and Ethiopia, the desert of the sea, Dumah antl 
Arabia, Jerusalem and Shebna, and Tyre; xxiv.-xxvi, announce judgments and sorrow 
on account of sin, followed by the blessings and joy of salvation; xxvii, represents the 
punishment of Assyria and Egypt under the emblems of the leviathan and the dragon of 
the sea; xxviii.-xxxi. proclaim judgments on Israel and Jerusalem mingled with 
mercies; xxxii. promises the Messiah under various emblems; xxxiii., xxxiv., foretell 
judgments on the nations, mingled with mercy to the people of God; xxxv. closes the 
first part with a glorious prediction of the Messiah. Intermediate c/iajjters (xxxvi.- 
xxxix.) in which history is -combined with prophecies that were fulfilled immediately, 
except that, in mercy to Hezekiah, the captivity tlireatened was deferred. Part II., 
consisting of 27 chapters, and comprising prophecies concerning the whole work of 
redemption from the rebuilding of Jerusalem to the new creation, is subdivided into thre^^^ 



Isainbert. 1 Af^ 

Isidore. ^^^ 

sections of 9 chapters each. Section 1 (chapters xl.-xlviii.), in which both the Messiah 
and Cyrus are promised as deliverers, with the latter, as first to come, emphatically 
named and described in the central place. Section 2 (xlix.-lvii.), promising tlie Messiali 
alone, assigns his sufferings, death, and consequent glor}^ tlie central place. Section ?> 
(Iviii.-lxvir), exhibiting tlie glory only of the Messiah, gives the central place to Zion as 
the bride. 

ISAMBERT. Fran(^ois Andre, 1793-1857; b. France. He distinguished himself 
greatly at the bar by his defense of the free colored people of the Fren'ch West Indies. 
He assisted in forming the French geographical society, and the society for the abolition 
of slaver}^ He was a voluminous writer. Among his works were a Manual for the 
Publicist \ind Statesman ; The Beligi/ms Condition of France and Eurojie ; A History of 
Justinian ; History of the Origin of Christianity ; a translation of the works of Josephus 
and of the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, besides numerous articles contributed to 
jjeriodicals. 

ISANTI, a CO. of Minnesota, intersected by the St. Francis or Rum river; 490 sq m. ; 
pop. '75, 3,901. The surface is diversified with forests and lakes. The soil is fertile, 
producing wheat, oats, maize, grass, and potatoes. Capital, Cambridge. 

I'SAE, or IsER, a river of Germany, rises in the Tyrol, to tlie n. of Innsbruck, and. 
entering Bavaria, flows generally in a ii. and n.e. direction, and joins the Danube at 
Deggendorf, after a course of about 180 miles. Munich and Landshut are situated upon 
Its banks. In the first part of its course, it is an impetuous mountain torrent; and even 
after it leaver the Alps it has many rapids and islands, but for a great part of its course 
It is navigable for boats. Much wood is floated down the Isar from the mountains. 

ISAURIA, a tract of country in Asia Minor on the n. side of Mt. Taurus between 
Plnygia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Pisidia. The Isaurians were a wild and half barbarous 
people, living by plunder and rapine, and greatly annoyed the Roman and Byzantine 
rulers. They have displayed an indomitable spirit from the earliest times. When 
opposed by superior numbers they fled to thei'- mountain fastnesses. They were equally 
formidable at sea, and with their Cilician neighbors ravaged the eastern seas with their 
piracies. In 78 B.C. they w^ere reduced to a temporary submission by the Romans, but 
soon renewed their raids, keeping their neighbors in constant alarm. The Romans 
endeavored to surround their country with a chain of fortresses. In the od c. they 
formed one nation with the Cilicians, and one of their number proclaimed himself 
Roman emperor, but was put to death. In the 8th c. two of their number, Zeno and 
Leo III., obtained the throne of the eastern empire. The capital. Isaura, at the foot of 
IMt. Taurus, the only important cit}^ was a large, rich, and well-fortified place. It was 
burned, together with its inhabitants, by the Isaurians when unable to withstand the 
siege of Perdiccas. The country was rocky and barren, producing chiefl}^ the vine, 
Avhich was cultivated with care. 

ISCHIA (the ancient ^naria), an island situated between the bay of Naples and that 
of Gaeta. It is about 37 sq.m, in extent, and has a population of 28,000 inhabitants. 
Ischia is a favorite place of summer resort, and is noted for the excellence of its mineral 
Avaters and numerous springs, the great richness of its soil, the exquisite flavor of its 
fruits and wines '^^^^ f^^e enchanting character of its scener3^ Its highest point is the 
volcanic Monte Epomeo, 2,574 ft. above the level of the sea, of which the eruptions 
have been numerous and disastrous; that of 1302 was of two months' duration, and 
occasioned a serious loss of life and property. The lake of Iscliia appears to occupy au 
extinct crater of the volcano, and abounds in fish. 

ISCHL, a small t. of upper Austria, surrounded on all sides by gardens, is finely situ- 
ated on the river Traun, amid magnificent alpine scenery, 28 ni. e.s.e. of Salzburg. It 
is the chief town of the district called the Salzkammcrgut (q.v.). The situation of "ischl, 
and the salt baths, wiiicli were established here in 1822, have attracted to it vast numbers 
of visitors. The emperor and many of the Austrian nobility have built villas here, and 
tlie town has also acquired celebrity from having been the scene of various diplomatic 
conferences. Pop. '69, 6,842. Much salt is manufactured here. 

ISE'O, Lake, or Lacus Sevinus, a lake of northern Italy, situated between the prov- 
inces of Bergamo and Brescia. Its extreme length from n. to s. is about 20 m.; its 
average breadth, 6 m. ; and its greatest depth, 984 feet. On its banks is situated the town 
of Lsco. The lake is fed by the rivers Oglio and Borlazzo. The surrounding scenery is 
highly interesting, broken into picturesque heights, and studded with fine villas, vine- 
yards, and olive-gardens. 

ISEEE, a river of the s.e. of France, rises in Savoy, at the western base of Mt. Iseran. 
flows in a general s.w. direction througli Savoy, and through the departments of Isere 
and Drome, and joins the Rhone 8 m. above Valence. Its entire length is about 190 m.. 
for the last 50 of which it is navigable, but not without difficulty, as'its channel is inter- 
rupted by shoals and islands. 

ISERE, a department in the s.e. of France, is bounded on the n. and w. by tiie river 
Rhone, on the e. by the department of Savoie, and on the s. and s.e. by those of Drome 
uud Hautes-Alpes, Area, 3,200 sq.m., of which nearly a half is in arable land, and a 



Id'' Isambert* 

lOi isidoie. 

tit'th in wood. Pop. '76, 581,099. The surface is level in the n.w., but beeomes moun- 
tainous as one proceeds s., where the scenery is very imposing. Mt.Ohiu, on the soutii- 
eastern border, is 12,664 ft. high. The chief rivers, besides the Bhone, are the Is^re, from 
which the department derives its name, and its affluents the Drac and Romanche. Tlic . 
department of Isere is one of tlie richest of France in mineral productions. Mines 
of iron, lead, copper, and coal are worked, and gold and silver occur. The vine is 
carefully cultivated in the valleys; 5,324,000 gallons of wine are said to be produced 
aniuially. Arrondissenients, Grenoble, La Tour du-Piu, St. Marcellin, and \iennc; 
capital, Grenoble. 

ISERLOHN', an important manufacturing t. of Prussian Westphalia, is situated in -.i 
picturesque and mountainous district, on the Baar, a tributary of the Ruhr, 18 m. w. of 
Arusberg. The industry of Iserlohn is chiefly directed to the-manufacture of hardware 
of various kinds, especially of brass and bronze articles. Pop. '75, 16,868. 

ISERNIA (anc. ^sernia, a city of the Sanmites), a t. of Italy, in the province of 
C'ampobasso, is situated in a commanding position on the crest cf a hill, 24 m. w. of 
Campobasso, and is surrounded by scenery of romantic beauty. The modern town con- 
sists chiefly of one long and narrow street, and is surrounded by walls. Among numer- 
ous olher antiquities is a subterranean aqueduct, hewn in the solid rock, which still 
supplies the fountains and manufactories with water, and remains unimpaired through- 
out its entire course of one mile. Isernia was much injured by an earthquake in 1805. 
when some of its finest buildings were ruined. Woolens, paper, and earthenware arc 
here manufactured. Pop. 8,584. 

ISHIM, a river of Siberia, an affluent of the Obi (q.v.). 

ISHMAEL (Heb. Yuhmael, "God will hear"), the first-born of Abraham, by Hagnr, 
the Egyptian handmaid of his wife Sarah. His character is found foretold before his 
birth by an angel, who met Hagar sitting by a well in the wilderness on the way to Shur. 
wdiither she had fled to avoid the harsh treatment of her mistress: "And he will be a 
wild [literally, "a wild ass-"] man; his hand'against every man, and every man's hand 
against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren" (Gen. xvi. 12). 
Expelled from his father's house, along with his mother, when he was about the age of 
15, he went into the southern wilderness, wiiere he grew up to manhood, and became 
famous as an archer. Scripture represents Ishmael in a not unfavorable light, and it 
was predicted that he should become a great nation. This "great nation" is commonly 
believed to be the Arabian; and there is no good reason for doubting that at least the 
northern Arabs — the wild Bedouins who roam over the great wastes between the penin- 
sula of Sinai and the Persian gulf — may, to a certain degree, be the descendants of 
Ishmael. There is, however, not a shadow of reason, as all scholars now admit, for the 
notion that the founders of the great Joktanite and Cushite monarchies in the s. of 
Arabia were of Islimaelitic origin ; and the description given in Scripture of the charactci- 
and habits of Ishmael and his descendants does not in the least apply to these^ mon- 
archies. The Bedouins of northern and central Arabia, on the other hand, are full of 
Ishmaeli tic traditions. Mohammed asserted his descent from Ishmael, and the Moham- 
medan doctors declare that Ishmael, and not Isaac, was offered up in sacrifice — trans- 
ferring the scene of this act from Moriah in Palestine to Mt. Arafat near Mecca. 

rsIAC TABLE, a monument much esteemed and quoted by archaeologists previous to 
the discovery of hieroglyphics, being a flat rectangular bronze-plate, inlaid with niello 
and silver, about 4 ft. 8 in. long, by 3 ft. in height. It was sold by a soldier of the 
constable de Bourbon to a locksmith, and bought of the same by cardinal Bembo in 
1527, passed after his death to Modena, and finally to Turin, where it is now deposited. 
It consists of three rows of figures of Egyptian deities and emblems. Its object was 
supposed to have been votive, or even to have been tlie nativity of the emperor Trajan ; 
but it is now recognized as a very late or spurious monument. — Winckelmann, Op. iii. 
113, V. 450; Wilkinson, sir G., Mann, and Cust. 

ISIDORE OF CHARAX, b. at Charax on the Tigris; was a geographer, living in 
the 1st c. A.D. He wrote a work describing the Romans, Greeks, and Parthians, 
extracts from wiiicli are found in Pliny, and fragments published in modern times give 
nmch information concerning Asiatic geography. 

ISIDORE OF SEVILLE (Isidokus, Hispalensts), one of the most distinguished 
ecclesiastics of the 6th century. He is particularly remarkable as among the earliest 
representatives of the church of Spain, and of that great movement in the western 
church by which the doctrinal and moral system of Christianity was brought into har- 
mony with the habits and institutions of those various races and nationalities whicli, by 
successive immigrations and wars, were eventually erected into the Hispano-Gothic king- 
dom, which exercised so powerful an influence on what is called Latin Christianity. He 
was born about 560 or 570, at Carthagena, where his father, Severianus, was prefect. 
Two of his brothers, Fulgentius and Leander, were, like himself, bishops, the first of 
Carthagena, the second succeeding himself in the see of Seville. The episcopate of Isi- 
dore is rendered notable by the two half-ecclesiastical, half-civil councils of Toledo in 619 
and in 633, which were held under his presidency, and the canons of wdiich may 
almost be said to have formed the basis of the constitutional law of the Spanish. 



Tsidoriam 1 fiR 

Isla. ^^^ 

kingdoms, both for church aud for state, down to tlie great constitutional changes of 
the 15th century. He also collected with the same object all the decrees of councils 
and other church laws anterior to his time. His death, which occurred in 636, forms 
one of the most remarkable scenes in early Christian history. When he became sensible 
of the approach of death, he summoned his flock to his bedside, exhorted them to 
mutual forbearance and charity, prayed tiieir forgiveness for all his own shortcomings 
in his duty, and directed all his property to be distributed among the poor. His works, 
which are in the most various departments of knowledge — theological, ascetical, liturgi- " 
cal, scriptural, historical, philosophical, and even philological — were first published in 
1580; but the most complete edition is that of Arevali, 7 vols. 4to (Rome, 1797-1808). 
We are indebted to Isidore for many fragments of, Greek and Latin authors, among the 
number several of whom hardly any other remains have been preserved. 

ISIDO'EIAN DECRE'TALS, also called False Decretals, a spurious compilation of 
the 9tli c , which, by a singular combination of circumstances, obtained currency in the 
western church, and continued for several centuries to enjoy unquestioned authority. 
Up to the 9th c, the only authentic collection of decretals, that of Dionysius Exiguus, 
commenced with the decrees of pope Siricius in the end of the 4th century. The 
so-called Isidorian decretals stretch back through the predecessors of Siricius up to 
Clement himself, and comprise no fewer than 59 decrees or epistles anterior to the time 
of Siricius. In a later part of the Isidorian collection, moreover, are interpolated nearly 
40 similar documents, unkuow^n till the time of that compilation. All these documents 
are presented not merely as authentic, but as the genuine productions of the particular 
popes to whom they are attributed. The subject-matter of these decretals is most 
diversified, comprising the authority and privileges of the pope, the whole system of the 
hierarchy, with the relations of its several orders to each other and to the common head. 
In all, there is a strong and systematic assumption of the papal supremacy; but it is at 
the same time more than doubtful whether the direct object of the autlior was the; 
exaltation of the papal prerogative. It*is much more likely that the object was to 
protect the rights of bishops against the arbitrary rule of the metropolitans. Deon Mil- 
man thinks it probable that the author believed that he "was not asserting for Rcnne 
any prerogative which Rome herself had not claimed" (Latin Christianity, ii. 378). 
Catholic historians, indeed, go further, and while they admit and denounce the clumsy 
fraud, contend that the easy and universal acceptance which the decretals met, furnishes 
the strongest presumption that the discipline which they have elaborated and methodized, 
Avas already in full possession, although witiioujt the formal and written law which the 
daring adventurer attempted to provide in the decretals of the- early pontiffs. 

It is curious that the author, the place, and the date of this singular forgery arc .'tid 
matter of uncertainty. It is certain that it did not come from Rome; and the most 
probable conjecture assigns its origin to Mentz, at some time between the years 840 and 
847. It was introduced under the name of Isidore of Seville, as a part of the genuine 
collection known as his, and was believed to have been brought from Spain by Riculf, 
the archbishop of Mentz. It is hardly possible, in an age of discussion like ours, to 
doubt that, when the decretals first appeared, even the most superficial inquiry, or the 
slightest critical investigations of tlie historical sources, would have sufficed to detect 
the fraud. " It is impossible," says dean Milman, "to deny that at least by citing with- 
out reserve or hesitation, the Roman pontiffs gave their deliberate sanction to this great 
historic fraud;" and yet it is equally impossible to fix the limit beyond which, in an age 
so uncritical, literary or historical credulity might not be carried without provoking its 
susceptibility, or disturbing its peace. 

From the first circulation of the false decretals down to thel5th c, no doubts were 
raised regarding them. Nicholas of Cusa and cardinal Turrecremata were the first to 
question their genuineness; but after the reformation, the question was fully opened. 
The centuriators of Magdeburg demonstrated their uttejly apocryphal character. A 
reply was attempted by Father de la Torre; but the question may be said to have been 
finally settled by Blondel.— See Milman's Latin Christianity, ii. 370-80; Walther's 
Kirdienreclit, p. 155; GU-'orer's Kir chengeschichte. 

rsiNGLASS. See Gelatine. 

ISIS, the name of an Egyptian deity, the sister and wife of Osiris, called by that 
people //fs, daughter of >S'(?Z> or Chronos, and Nu or Rhea; according to other versions, 
of Hermes and Rhea, born on the 4th day of the Epagomeme, or five days added to the 
Egyptian year of 360 days. After the murder of Osiris by Typlion, and the throwing of 
him in a coffin into the'Tanitic mouth of the Nile on the 17th Athyr, Isis was informed 
of the deed by the Pans and Satyrs, and went into mourning at Coptos; and hearing 
from some children where the chest had been thrown, proceeded to seek for it in company 
with Anubis, and discovered it inclosed in a tamarisk column in the palace of j\Ialcander, 
•HtByblos; and sitting down at a fountain in grief, w'as discovered by the ambrosial 
scent of her hair, and invited to the court by the queen Astarte, to nurse her children. 
One of these she fed with her finger, and endeavored to render immortal by placing him 
in flames, Avhile she herself, under the form of a swallow, flew round the column and 
bemoaned her fate. Having obtained the column Isis took out the chest of Osiris, 
wrapped it in linen, and lamented so deeply that the youngest of the queen's sons died 



-I />Q Isidoi'iaii* 

of fright. She then set forth with the chest and eldest son to Egj^pt, dried up the river 
Phaedrus on her way, and killed with her glances the eldest son, named Maneros, who had 
spied her secret grief in the desert. Having deposited the chest in a secret place she pro- 
ceeded to Buto to Horus; but Typhou discovered the chest, and divided tlie botly into 
28 or 26 portions, and scattered it over tlie country. Tliese the goddess again sought, 
and found, except the phallus, which had been eaten by fish; and wherever she found 
any of the limbs, she set up a tablet, or sent an embalmed portion, deposited in a figure 
of the god, to the principal cities of Egypt, each of which subsequently claimed to be 
the true birthplace of Osjris. , After the- battle of Horus and Typhou, Isis liberated 
Typhon, and had her diadem torn off, and replaced by one in the shape of a cow. She 
was the mother of Haroris by Osiris before her birth, and of Harpocrates after the 
death of Osiris. She buried Osiris at Philae. The moiuirch Rliampsinitus played at 
dice with her in Hades. Her soul was supposed to have passed into the star Sothis or 
Sirius. Her worship was universal throughout Egypt; she was particularly worshiped 
at PliihTe and at Bubastis, where a special festival was celebrated to her; and her tears 
were supposed to cause the inundation of the Nile. Another festival was celebrated" to 
her at the harvest. 

In the monuments she is called the goddess-mother, the mistress of heaven, sister 
and wife of Osiris, and nurse of Horus, the mourner of her brother, the eye of the sun, 
and regent of the gods. In her terrestrial character, she wears upon her head the throne 
which represented her name; in her celestial, the disk and horns, or tall plumes. She 
is often seen suckling Horus; sometimes she has the head of a cow, indicating her 
identity with the cow Athor, of whom the sun was born. Occasionally she is identified 
with other female deities, such as Pasht. On her head she wears the vulture symbol of 
maternity. Her attributes were assumed by the queens of Egypt, and Cleopatra sat and 
gave responses in the character of the youthful Isis. 

The worship of Isis was introduced into Rome by Sulla (86 B.C.) from Tithorea, 
and shared the fate of that of other Egyptian deities, being associated Avitli that of 
Serapis, Anubis, and others, and the temples from time to time destroyed. It fiourished 
under the Flavians and Hadrian. At this time Isis was represented with a sistrum or 
rattle, a bucket, and a dress with a fringed border, knotted at the chest. On the Alex- 
andrian coins, Isis appears as Pharia, before the Pharos, holding a full sail. The festi- 
vals, seclusicm, rules of chastity, attracted many followers, but the worship was not 
altogether considered reputable by the Romans. It was more extended and respected 
in Asia Minor and the provinces, but fell before Christianity (391 a.d.). Isis was wor- 
shiped as the giver of dreams, and in the twofold character of restorer of health and 
inflicter of diseases. 

The myth of Isis, as given by Plutarch, appears to be a fusion of Egyptian and Phe- 
nician traditions, and the esoterical explanations offered by that w^riter and others show 
the high antiquity rnd unintelligibility of her name. She was thought to mean the 
cause, seat, or the earth, to be the same as the Egj^ptian Neith or Minervn, and Athor 
or Venus; to be the Greek Demeter or Ceres, Hecate, or even lo. Many monuments 
have been found of this goddess, and a temple at Pompeii, and a hymn in her honor at 
Antioch. The representations of her under the Roman empire are most numerous, Isis 
having, in the pantheistic spirit of the age, been compared with and figured as all the prin- 
cipal goddesses of the Pantheon. — Plutarch, De hide; Herod, ii. c. 59; Ovid, Met. ix. 
776; Bunsen, Egypt's Place, i. p. 413; Wilkinson, sir G., Mann, and Oust., iii. 276, iv. 
366; Birch, Gall. Ant. p. 31. 

ISIS. See Thames. 

ISKANDEROON', or Alexandretta, a seaport of Asiatic Turkey, on the coast of 
Syria, is situated on a gulf of the same name, 60 m. w\n.w. of Aleppo, of which it is 
the port. Its harbor is the best on the Syrian coast; but the town itself, though much 
improved within late years, is still poor and miserable. JSTumerous vessels of large ton- 
nage, and witli cargoes the value of which is considerably upwards of a million sterling, 
annually enter and clear the port. Galls, silk, cotton, and fruits are exported; and the 
chief imports are rice, corn, salt, and goods of British manufacture. Pop. 1000. 

ISKELIB, or Eskilup, a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Anatolia, near the 
Kizil-Irmak, about 260 m. e. of Scutari. There are several mosques and a ruinous castle 
on the top of a bold and naked limestone rock. In the neighborhood are sepulchral 
caverns, some of which are sculptured. Pop. estimated at 9,000. 

ISL A, Jose Framcisco de, 1703-81 ; b. Spain ; a Jesuit preacher and satirist, a man 
of acute wit and intense humor. He ridiculed a religious festival at Salamanca and a 
I'oyal pageant at Pampeluna by an ironical eulogy so artfully disguised that at first it 
was regarded as an honest adulation, but upon its burlesque character becoming known, 
he was compelled to leave the city. His most important satire w^as The Life of the Popu- 
lar Preacher, Fray Gerundio, in whose adventures beheld up to public contempt the 
ignorance and audacity of the itinerant friars of the time. It was condemned in 17G0 
by the inquisition on the clamor of the lower clergy, but his popularity saved him from 
personal persecution. His poem Cicero is rich and pungent in sarcasm. A copy of it 
was presented to the BostoL athenaeum in 1844, with some of his autograph letters. 



Isles. ^ ' ^ 

IS'LA DE LEON', a narrow island in the Atlantic, s. of Spain, separated from the 
mainland by the strait of Santi Petri. It is 10 m. long; pop. 10,000. On it are the 
cities of Cadiz and Isla de Leon. It is fortified, has several convents, 2 hospitals, and 
an observatory. 

IS'LA DE nI^GROS, one of the group of islands in the Malay archipelago, known 
as the Philippines. It is 140 m. long, and averages 25 m, in width, its total area being 
8,827 sq.ni., with a pop. of 255,827, in scattered Spanish settlements, mostly on the n. 
shore. 

ISLA DE PI'NOS, an almost circular island, of 800 sq.m. and 900 inhabitants, is the 
largest of the numerous satellites of Cuba, lying off tlie s. coast of the queen of the 
Antilles, pretty nearly on the meridian of the capital, Havana. It is celebrated for its 
excellent climate, exuberant fertility, rich mines, and valuable timber. 

ISLAM, or EsLAM (Arab.), the proper name of the Mohammedan religion; designating 
complete and entire submission of body and soul to God, his will and his service, as 
wOil as to all those articles of faith, commands, and ordinances revealed to and ordained 
by Mohammed the prophet (see Mohammedanism). Islam, it is held, was once the 
religion of all men; but whether wickedness and idolatry came into the world after the 
murder of Abel, or at the time of NOah, or only after Amru Ibn Lohai, one of the first 
and greatest idolaters of Arabia, are moot-points among Moslim (a word derived from 
Mam) theologians. Every child, it is believed, is born in Islam, or the true faith, and 
would continue in it till the end were it not for the wickedness of its parents, *'who 
misguide it early, and lead it astray to Magism (see Guebres), Judaism, or Christianity." 
See Mohammed Koran. 

ISLAMABAD'. See Chittaggng. 

ISLAND (Ang. Sax. iglaiid, "properly, eye-land, a spot of land surrounded by water, 
as the eye in the face" — Wedge wood; Ice, ey, Dan. de, meaning isle, and akin to eye; 
the s in island crept in through the influence of Fr. isle, derived from Lat. insula), in 
geography, land surrounded with water. New Holland is sometimes regarded as a con- 
tinent, and sometimes as an island; so that the distinction of the terms is somewhat 
vague; even the great eastern and western continents are surrounded with water. In 
the ocean between New Holland and Asia, and to the eastward, islands are more nume- 
rous than anywhere else in the world. There, also, the largest islands are found. 
Excluding New Holland, the largest islands in the world are Borneo and Greenland; 
after these, New Guinea, Madagascar, Sumatra, and Great Britain. Islands are often 
in groups, and when the number is great, the assemblage is called an archipelago. Some 
islands have the appearance of intimate geological connection with the continents near 
which they are situated, and some of such connection with each other that they seem as 
if they were the remaining parts of a former continent; others, generally of a more circu- 
lar form, have their geological character more complete in itself. In the South seas 
there are two very distinct classes of islands, the one mountainous, and often with 
active volcanoes; the other low and flat, formed of coral. See Coral Islands. 

ISLAND, a n.w. co. of Washington territory, comprising the two islands Whidby 
and Camano, and bordering on the strait of Juan de Fuco; pop. '70, 626. Whidby is 
40 m. long, but quite narrow, and noted for its fertility and salubrity. The staple prod- 
ucts are grass, barley, wool, and potatoes. The county is partly covered with forests. 
Capital, Coupeville. 

ISLAND POND, a village of Essex co., Vt., on a small lake of the same name; pop. 
300. It is on the Grand Trunk railroad, 149 m. from Portland. It has 3 churches, a 
newspaDer, flouring and lumber mills, and a custom-house. It is on the boundary 
between the United States and Canada. 

ISLANDS OF THE BLESSED M-ere, according to a very old Greek myth, certain 
happy isles situated towards the edge of the western ocean, where the favorites of the 
gods, rescued from death, dwelt in joy, and possessed everything in abundance that 
could contribute to it. 

ISLAY, an island on the w. coast of Scotland, belonging to the group of the Inner 
Hebrides, and to the co. of Argyle, lies w. of the peninsula of Kintyre, from which it is 
distant about 15 m., and s.w. of the island of Jura, from which it is separated by a strait 
called the sound of Islay. Greatest length, 24 m. ; irreatest breadth, 17 m.; area, about 220 
sq.m.; pop. '71, 8,143. In the n. the island is hilly, and along the eastern shore runs a 
ridge rising from 800 to upwards of 1500 ft. in height. The central and western districts 
are undulating or flat. Agriculture has of late years been greatly improved: the number 
of acres under cultivation is about 22,000, and abundant crops, both white and green, are 
produced. There are eight distilleries on the island, which produce about 400,000 gal- 
lons of whisky annually. Chief exports: black-cattle, sheep, and whisk}'". Lead and 
copper ores have been worked in mines in the interior, but not shipped to any consider- 
able extent. 

ISLE LA MOTTE, an island 6 m. long in lake Champlain, forming the township of 
Isle la Motte, Grand Island co., Vt. It is 30 m. n. of Burlington. Pop. '80, 504. 

ISLE OF DOGS. See Dogs, Isle of, ante. 



I 



Isles. 

ISLE OF FRANCE. See Mauritius, ante, 

ISLE OF MAN. See Man. Isle of, ante. 

ISLE OF WIGHT, England. See Wight, Isle of, ante. 

ISLE ROYALE, a co. of Michigan, including the island of the same name, 

together with several smaller islands, in lake Superior, n.w. of Keweenaw point. Isle 
Royale island, 40 m. long, is extensively covered with trees, and abounds in copper anti 
other minerals. Tlie county is remarkable for the interesting discoveries made of the 
relics of a prehistoric people to wiiom the use of copper was known. Some of their 
excavations, propped up with hu^e wooden supports, now dropping to decay, show a 
wonderful knowledge of the art of liiiuing. Their tools were of stone and copper, and 
many of them are found on the island. Siskwit bay is a small settlement of miners em- 
ployed in the copper-mines of a New York company. Capital, Minong. Pop. '80, 55. 

ISLES, Lords of the. The lords of the Isles are famous in poetry and romance, 
but no proper liistorical account of them has j'et been written, and it is ditticult lo dis- 
criminate between truth and fable in the various notices which have been preserved. 
Tiie western islands of Scotland, or Hebrides, as they were afterwards called, originally 
a portion of the domains of the Scots and Picts, were afterwards subdued by the Nor- 
wegians. When Scotland became consolidated into one monarchy, its kings endeavored 
to wrest the islands from the Norsemen; and during the contest which ensued, tiie 
various chiefs sometimes professed allegiance to the king of Scotland, and sometimes to 
the king of Norway, or their own more immediate superior, wiio ruled in Man. Tlie 
Scottisii supremacy was finally established b}^ the victory of Largs, in the reign of Alex- 
ander III., and the final cession of the islands by Magnus, son of Haco. king of Norway, 
made in the year 1266. By that treat}^ all the islands of the Scottisii seas, except tliose 
of Orkney and Zetland, were surrendered to Scotland. Man was conquered by the 
English during the wars of the succession, but the other islands remained subject to the 
Scottish sovereigns. The first name which generally appears in the lists of the lords of 
the Isles, as distinct from the kings of Man, is Somerled; and the great chiefs who after- 
wards held the islands and portions of the mainland near them, claimed descent from 
this powerful lord. He appears prominently in Scottish history in the middle of the 
12th c, during the reigns of David I., and his grandson and successor, Malcolm IV. 
How lie acquired his great authority is not precisely known. Even the race to which 
he belonged is uncertain; probably, like most of his subjects, he was of mixed descent, 
Norwegian and Celtic. His sister was married to Malcolm Mac-Hetii, the head of the 
great Celtic family of Murray, who has been confounded by most Scottish writers with 
the impostor Wimund, and whose true history has been explained by Mr. E. W. Robert- 
son in his Scotland under her Early Kings. In the year 1164 Somerled landed on the 
coast of Renfrew, at the head of his subjects of Argyle and the Isles, and was defeated 
and slain. His dominions seem to have been divided among his three sons — Dugal, 
Angus, and Reginald or Ronald. The descendants of Dugal became lords of Argyle 
and Lome; and those of Reginald, lords of the Isles. Reginald is said to have been suc- 
ceeded by Donald, and Donald by Angus Mor, who was the father of Angus Og. We 
know from Barbour that Angus of the Isles, "lord and leader of Kintyre," gave his 
fealty to Bruce when most hardly pressed at the beginning of his reign, receiving him 
into his castle of Dunaverty, and that he afterwards fought under the great king at Ban- 
nockburn. This chief is the hero of The Lord of the Isles, but his name, as Scott tells 
us, "has been euphonm gratia, exchanged for that of Ronald." John of the Isles, son 
of Angus, married, first, his cousin, Amy of the Isles, and secondly, Margaret, daughter 
of king Robert II. ; and among his descendants by these marriages are said to be the 
IMcDonalds of Sleat, Keppoch" Glengarry, and Clanranald. During the troubled and 
disastrous reign of David II., John of the Isles was able to maintain himself in a state of 
practical independence of the Scottish crown. He was at last, however, obliged to sub- 
mit. He met David at Inverness in 1369, and gave hostages for his fidelity. His suc- 
cessor was Donald, his eldest son by Margaret of Scotland, and the most powerful of all 
the Island lords. He set the kings of Scotland at defiance, and made treaties as an 
independent sovereign with the kings of England. He married Margaret, daughter of 
Eupheraia, coiuitess of Ross. Margaret's brother. Alexander, earl of Ross, by his 
marriage with the daughter of the regent Albany, left an only child, who became a nun. 
Donald claimed the earldom in his wife's right; and when this claim was refused by the 
regent, he prepared to maintain it by force, Taking possession of Ross, he marched at 
the head of a large army from Inverness, through Murray and Strathbogie, entered the 
Garioch, and threatened to destroy the burgh of Aberdeen. At Harlaw (q.v.), near 
Inverury, he was encountered on St. James's eve, 1411, by a Lowland army much 
inferior in number, commanded by Alexander Stewart, earl of Mar. The action was 
fiercely contested, and, though not decisive in itself, the lord of the Isles retreated, and 
all the advantages of the combat remained with Mar. This engagement, famous in 
lii.story and song, probabl}^ saved the Lowlands of Scotland from Celtic supremacy. 
Donald was soon afterwards obliged to surrender the earldom of Ross, and to submit to 
the regent. He Avas succeeded by his son, Alexander. This lord, like other great Scot- 
tish nobles, was seized and imprisoned by James I., wiio was determined to allow no 
riile in Scotland except his own. Wheu restored to liberty, he again broke out into 



Isles. 1 'ZO 

Isinailis. -*^ • ^ 

Insurrection, but his army was routed ; and in order to obtain pardon, he appeared at 
the altar of the church of Hoh'rood, and kneeling half-clothed before the king, pre- 
sented his sword, and implored forgiveness. x\fter a short imprisonment he was again 
pardoned. Upon his mother's death, he assumed the style of earl of Ross, and seems to 
[lave been in possession of the earldom. He was succeeded as earl of Ross and lord of 
the Isles by John, his eldest son. John, like his predecessors, acted as if he were an 
independent sovereign rather than a vassal of the king of Scots. He entered into a con- 
federacy with the earls of Douglas and Crawford, the one, the most powerful nobleman 
in the s., the other, in the center of Scotland; and had they acted together Avith prompt- 
ness and determination, the house of Stewart might, have ceased to reign. In Oct., 14(51, 
at his caslle of Artornish, on the coast of Argyle, he granted a commission to his kins- 
man Ronald, and Duncan, archdeacon of the Isles, to enter into a treat}^ with Edward 
IV. of England. By that trea\y, which was concluded in the following year, he agrei-d 
to become liegeman to Edward, and to assist him in conquering Scotland, He was 
attainted more than once, and tiually was obliged to resign the earldom of Ross, whicli 
was annexed to the crown. This took place July 10, 1476, and John was at the same 
time created lord of the Isles. He is said to have died in 1498. After his decease, the 
title of lord of the Isles was assumed by Donald the bastard, son of Angus of the Isles, 
an illegitimate son of John, lord of the Isles; and several chiefs were attainted in 1503 
and 1505 for supporting his claims. In July, 1545, another Donald, styling himself earl 
of Ross and lord of the Isles, presiding in a sort of Highland parliament, granted com- 
mission to the bishop elect of the Isles and another person to enter into a treaty with the 
earl of Lennox, then acting for Henry VIII. of England. This document is given by 
Mr. Tytler, the historian of Scotland, who remarks that " it is a diplomatic curiosity, 
not one of the Highland chieftains, eighteen in number, being able to write his name." 
In a paper addressed by the Highland commissioners to the privy council of England, 
they speak of their constituents as " the auld enemies to the realm of Scotland," the very 
name by which the Scottish parliament was wont to speak of the English. Various 
persons, claiming to be descendants of John, earl of Ross, assumed the style of lord of 
the Isles; but the title does not appear to have been recognized after his decease, except 
as annexed to the crown. The eldest son of the Scottish sovereign has generally used 
the style of lord of the Isles, along with his other titles. 

ISLES OF SHOALS, a cluster of 8 barren rocky islands in the Atlantic ocean off 
the coast of New Hampshire, 10 m. s.e. of Portsmouth. The two largest are Appledore, 
containing 400 acres, and Star, 150. On these are large hotels for visitors, who resort 
there for the sea air, boating, and fishing. A steamer runs daily from Portsmouth. On 
White island is a revolving light 87 ft. above the sea. These islands are iulnibited by a 
few fisliermen. 

rSLINGTON, a suburb of London, but so closelv connected with it as to form part 
of it, is situated 2 m. n. of St. Paul's. Pop. in 1851, 95,329; in 1861, 155,841; in 1871, 
213,778; it is remarkable for the number of its religious, educational, and benevolent 
institutions. 

IS'LIP, a village of Suffolk co.. Long island, N. Y., 44 m. e. of Brooklyn, is on 
Great South bay, and on the South Side railroad. It is a summer i-esort. It has 3 
churches, 2 academies, several mills, and a shipyard. Pop. 1500. The total population 
of the townsiiip, containing the large villages of Bay Shore and Sayville, is 5,815. 

ISMAEELIAH, or Ismaelians. See Ismailis, ante. 

ISMAIL, a t. and river port in the Russian government of Bessarabia, on the n. 
bank of the Kilia branch of the Danube, about 40 m. from the mouth of that river. 
It was taken and destroyed by Suvorof in Dec, 1790; came into possession of Rus- 
sia in 1812; was assigned to Moldavia by the treaty of Paris, 185G; and w^as trans- 
ferred to Russia again by the Berlin Congress of 1878. It carries on an important trade 
in corn, as well as a considerable general trade. Pop. above 20,000. 

ISMAILIA. See Suez Canal. 

ISMAILIS, is the name of a very advanced "free-thinking" Mohammedan sect, of the 
Shiite branch of Islam (see Shiites), which sprang up in the 9th c. a.d., and spread 
throughout Mohammedanism. Recognizing Ali r.lone as the rightful successor of the 
prophet, they held Abu Bekr, Omar, 0th man, Moawia, to be usurpers, and counted 
their imams, or representative prophets, from Ali ordy. The seventh imam was one 
Ismai'l, wiio lived about 150 Hedjrah (772 a.d.), the son of Jafar Assadik, or rather of 
his son, Mohammed. He was supposed to be the righteous prophet, the only orthodox, 
spiritual head. The notion of the imam, in general, is that of an ever-living, though, at 
times, hidden, supreme guide of the people, who, after a time, is restored to humanity, 
or at least to the believing part of it. A prayer, preserved to us by Ibn Chaldun, will 
best show^ the peculiar notion connected with this belief, to which no small part of 
Islam confessed. Every evening, a certain number of imamiehs prayed: "O imam, 
appear unto us! Humanity is awaiting tiiee; for righteousness and truth have perished, 
and the world is gone down in darkness and violence. Appear unto us, that we may, 
through thee, return unto God's mercy." It was thought, in fact, that Ali himself had 
reappeared in every imam, and that he would descend again, some day, "from the 



173 



Isles. 



clouds," to unite all believers, and trt restore the pure faith. Tlic real importance of 
tliis sect, which had existed unobserved for some time, dates from Abdallah Ibn Mai- 
luuu, whose father had been executed for professing materialistic doctrines, and trying 
to turn people away from the doctrines of Islam. Abdallah seems to have pructically 
carried out his father's notions, but more cautiously. He is described by the Arabic 
writers as an utterly irreligious and unscrupulous materialist or "Zendik." The Mes- 
siah, whom he preached, stood higher than Mohammed himself, and though he did not 
exactly reject the Koran en bloc, he yet contrived to allegorize and symbolize away nearly 
all its narratives and precepts. But the systematic way in which Abdallah went to 
work, in trying to undermine, and eventually to abrogate, all Islam, and, as his biogra- 
phers have it, to replace it by materialism, atheism, and immorality, is very remarkable 
indeed. 

He established missionary schools; and the instructions given to the young mission- 
aries were artfully designed to win over not merely all the different Mohammedan sects, 
both Sunnites and Shiites, but also Jews and Christians. The missionary's (dai's) tirst 
task was to win for himself the perfect contidence of the proselyte to be, by ihe affec- 
tation ot great orthodoxy, and by a vast display of pious learning, chiefly Koranic. 
Tiie disciple is b}^ degrees to be cross-examined on difficult passages, on their "spir- 
itual meaning," and on some points touched upon belonging to the physical sciences. 
Only matters of acknowledged obscurity and uncertainty are chosen as subjects of dis- 
course, matters the real understanding of which belongs exclusively to the "aristocracy 
of learning." Generally, the youth is so deeply impressed with the erudition displayed, 
the expectations raised, the mystery, and. the rest, that he will follow gladly to the end. 
But, at times, the missionary meets with a less docile subject, a man who may be accus- 
tomed to discussions on these topics, who may have pondered over these things him- 
self: the dai" shall appear to accommodate himself to such a one's views, applaud all he 
says, and thus ingratiate himself with him; all the while taking care to show himself 
well informed on those points which may be in favor with his disciple, and that mode 
of faith which he professes. All this is to be done very carefully, lest the other might 
"suspect and betray." The ordinary individual, on the other hand, is, after the tirst 
preliminaries, to be told that religion is a secret science, that most people know nothing 
of it, or utterly misunderstand it, that if the Moslems knew what degree of science God 
has imparted to the imams, by quite a special favor, there would no longer be any dis- 
sensions among them. The disciple, whose curiosity has by that time been fully roused, 
is then to be instructed in a few allegorical interpretations of both the practice and 
tlieory of the Koran; and when he is convinced of the desirability to know more, and 
everything that the master knows, tlie latter is merely to point out to him that all this 
knowledge belonged of right to all Islam, but that the wickedness and perverseness of 
those who followed the wrong successor, has caused all dissension and infidelity in the 
community of the believers. It is the imams who are the dispensers of the right inter- 
pretation, not people's own reason and judgment. 

For the religion of Mohammed, they were to tell the disciple at this stage, was not a 
thing easy to comprehend. It did not mean to flatter the senses, or to dazzle by outward 
signs. It was on the contrary, a difficult, the most difficult matter. Only angels of the 
first rank, or a prophet specially chosen, or a faithful servant whose heart God had 
searched and found true, w^ere worthy of bearing this most precious of all burdens. 
By these and other speeches, the ordinary disciple is soon brought to revere and to 
admire the dai' beyond all other men around him, rpon whom .he henceforth only looks 
as inferior beings and infidels, and his desire of knowing more or all becomes passionate. 
But hitherto the procedure has been discreet. All that was desired in this first prelimi- 
nary stage, was to unsettle -the man's faith. The preparatory questions put to the neo- 
phyte were so contrived as completely to puzzle and bewilder him (e.g. — Why did 
God take seven days to the creation of the world? Why are there 12 wells and 12 
months? What is the figure of your soul?); and if the missionaries themselves pro- 
ceeded to answer them, it was by allegorizing interpretations of the Koran, the Sunnah, 
and the laws. But they used the common artifice of stopping short just in the middle 
of an explanation, for they said, when pressed to continue: " These things are not lightly 
to be communicated; God alw^ays requires a pledge first. If you will swear into my 
hands, with the most solemn and inviolable oaths, never to divulge our secret, never to 
give any assistance to our adversaries, never to lay a trap for us, and never to speak to 
us unless for the purpose of telling us the truth, then I will tell you more." When, if 
the neophyte has taken the requisite oath — and it is only at the very commencement of 
the initiation that oaths are of any moment to the Ismaili — he is further asked to contri- 
bute a certain sum of money, as a pledge for his sincerity. Should the convert, how- 
ever, exhibit the slightest degree of reluctance either in swearing or in paying, he is 
instantly given up b}' the dai — "a prey to the never-to-be-solved doubts of his heart." 

Thus far the first preliminary degree. In the second, the missionary begins to initiate 
the neophyte's mind into the doctrines of the Imamat — i.e., to prove to him, by argu- 
ments and proofs best adapted to his mind, how the understanding of God's religion can 
only be accomplished by following the revelations given to and communicated by certain 
special delegates; whose names are communicated to him in the ^/uVrZ degree. There 
are, he is told, seven such imams, as there are (according to the Koran, Sur. 65, 12) 



174 

Ismail. -^ * ^ 

seven planets, seven heavens, seven earths — viz., Ali, Hassan, Huscin, Ali Zein Alabidin, 
Mohammed Albakir, Jafar Assadik, Ismai'I. In the fourth degree, the proselyte learns 
that the number of the prophets, whose task it was to abrogate at different periods the 
ancient forms of faitli, and to substitute new laws, is also seven, like that of the iman)s; 
that each of them had a " companion," to whom he confided his whole dispensation and 
its sacred meanings, and that the latter communicated the same in a secret manner, and 
by oral tradition, to another man after him, who again handed it down to a successor; 
until, after a string of seven such •' successors," or samet (silent ones), in contradistinc- 
tion to the propliet {natik^ or speaking, teaching one, a new imam is born. Tlie tra- 
ditional chain has thus never been broken. After seven times seven such successions of 
prophets and their " silent'-' successors— during which seven religions were successively 
abrogated — there appeared the last and crowning prophet, who abrogated all the religions 
that were before him, and who is the " chief of the last century" — the last natik. These 
seven are: (1) Adam, Avitli his companion (" Soos") Setli;\2) Noah, with 8em; (3) 
Abraham, with Ismael; (4) Moses, with Aaron. The last of the seven "silent ones" 
that followed him was John, the son of Zachariah. The 5tli is Jesus, the son of Mary, 
with Simon " Kepha" — by theAn supposed to be Arabic = purity. The 6th of the 
" speaking prophets" is Mohammed, the son of Abdallah; with him w^as Ali, the son of 
Abu Talib; and he was followed by six other "silent ones," who transmitted to each 
other the secret mysteries of his religion; the last of whom was Ismai'I, the sou of Jafar 
Sadik. The 7th of the prophets is the "chief" or "master of the century." In him 
culminate and are completed all those sciences which are called "the sciences of the 
primeval ones." It is he who has first fully opened up the inner and mystic meaning of 
tlie words of faith; from him, to the exclusion of every one else, their explanation is to 
be received. He, and he alone, is to be followed, obeyed, and trusted in all things. By 
utterly submitting to his words and teachings alone, man is in the right path. All the 
propli^ets and all tlieir teachings without exception before him are abrogated througli him 
and by him. 

In the j^i'/i degree, the Koran and its precepts are made the subjects of discussion. 
It is proved to the convert how utterly wrong and foolish it is to interpret the words in 
their usual sense. Here, again, great subtlety is brought to bear upon the disciple. If 
he be a Persian, he is told that the Arabs are the oppressors of his country, upon which, 
with other humiliations, they have also imposed the slavish worship of this book. If lie 
be an Arab, his mind is wrought up against the Persians, who, he is told, have appro- 
priated to themselves the pontificate and the sovereignty that by rights belonged to the 
Arabs. He is then instructed in a multitude of mystical relations of things depending 
upon n\imbers. 

The practical religious instruction begins with the sixth degree, into wiiich the neo- 
phyte only enters when fully prepared in his mind to deny all positive religion, and 
wiien he has given the most undoubted pledges of his discretion and silence. Every 
Koranic precept is now allegorized. Prayer, tithes, pilgrimage, legal purity, and other 
religious observances, are cautiously and systematically interpreted to mean certain 
spiritual things only. These precepts, the missionary explains, have onl}^ been estab- 
lished " as enigmas by the philosophical prophets a,nd imams, who saw in them the only 
means of keeping the common people in dependence, of exciting them to actions useful 
to society, of preventing them from hurting each other, and to commit gross crimes." 
But by slow degrees, the philosophers, Plato, Aristotle, P^'thagoras, and their systems 
are introduced to the neophyte. They and their systems are contrasted with the propliet 
and the imams, and their dicta. The result is represented as by no means flattering to 
the latter. He is distinctly shown the absurdity of a blind belief in so-called historical 
traditions; it is made clear to him how hearsays and legends differ from reason and the 
full and free action of the logical faculties: in this way the open contempt with wiiidi 
the imams themselves are then spoken of, no longer shocks the disciple to any very 
great extent. 

The seventh degree paves the way for the negation of God's unity, wiiich is fully 
carried out in the eighth. Here the JDemiin'gos, i.e., a second god, but little inferior to 
the Supreme Being, is the real creator of all things. The first cause, or the "pre-ex- 
isting," has neither hands nor attributes; no one is to talk of him, or to render him any 
worship. Much as this part of the doctrine has given cause to discussions within th(! 
bosom of the Ismailis themselves, it is yet scarcely doubtful that it is the notion of the 
Demiurgos that has crept in here. Hamza himself speaks of this " pre-existence" as tlie 
Word, or J^kioh fq.v.), although nothing can be more obscure than the manner in whicli 
this most abstruse dogma is either explained or denied by the different doctors. The 
Koran and the "word of God" are then taken in hand, and explained to the proselyte in 
a fashion ve]\y different from the one he had been accustomed to before. The resun-ec- 
tion, the end of the world, the supreme judgment, the disti'ibution of rewards and 
punishments, are treated as allegorical or mystical sym])ols of the revolutions of th(; 
stars and the universe, whicli follow each other periodically, and of the destruction and 
reproduction of all things terrestrial, such as physical science and pliilosopliy teach. 
The ninth and concluding degree of initiation frees the proselyte from all and every 
restraint with regard to liis belief. He may, and some do, adopt the system of Manes 
(see Lakes), of the Magi (q.v.), of Aristotle or Plato, or he may proceed eclectically with 



175 



Ismail. 



them all. As to the notions previoiisly instilled into his mind with regard to the 
prophets or the imams, he is now led to look upon all those " inspired" people as without 
exception inferior to Mohammed ben Ismai'l, the cliief and doctor of the last period. 
The disciple learns, at this stage, that no miracle has ever been performed by any one of 
them; tliat the prophet is merely a man distinguished by his purity and the perfection 
of his intelligence, and that this purity of his intelligence is precisely what is called 
"prophecy." God throws into the prophet's mind what pleases him, and that is what 
is understood by "Word of God." The prophet clothes this Word afterwards with tlesh 
and bones, and communicates it to the creatures. He establishes by this means the 
systems of religious institutions which appear to him the most advantageous for. the 
ruling of men; but these institutions and behests are but temporary, and intended for 
the preservation of order and worldly interests. No man who knoios need practice any 
single one of them ; to him, his knowledge sutRces. 

As to Mohammed, the son of Ismail, of whom the proselyte is told at first that he 
will reappear in this Avorld — he is afterwards represented to him as merely destined to 
reappear in his doctrine, by means of the propagation of his pure philosophy by the 
mouth of his disciples and apostles. As to the Arabs themselves, the missionaries teach 
that God abhors them, on account of their having killed Husein, the son of Ali, and 
that he has therefore taken from the caliphs the Imamat, as he took from the Israelites 
the prophetical succession, when they had killed their prophets. 

Thus the creed of the Ismailis had been gradually built up. Many changes were 
introduced into it at different times, and among them this very important one: that the 
person of Mohammed, the son of Ismail, itself was changed for another, a descendant 
of Abdallah, the son of Maimun Kaddah. 

The two principal writers on this subject are Makrizi and Nowairi; to the latter of 
whom the greater part of the foregoing information is due. He has preserved for us at 
length the very curious oath imposed upon the proselytes at the beginning of the initia- 
tion; and also certain instructions reserved for the missionary himself, which simply 
teach him to " be all things to all men." The following is a characteristic sample: 
"Then, again, there will be those to whom you must preach the belief in a living 
Imam. Say Mohammed ben Ismail is alive at this moment. Be very gentle and very 
modest with them; pretend to despise gold and silver; make them recite 50 prayers a 
day: recommend them to abstain from lying and other vices, also from wine. Tiicse 
people-are of the utmost use to us. Leave them in their special creed, only just telling 
them some of the mysteries of the number Seven; but break their spirit by the surcharge 
of prayer. These will be our best proofs against any assertions of an advanced disciple, 
if he should betray us. Furthermore, these people, when properly managed, are sure 
to leave you at their death all their money, as they would, during their lifetime, give 
you everything they possessed without a murmur. The more advanced you may at 
once inform of the abrogation of Mohammedanism by our Imam — of the worthlessness 
of the Koran and its laws in their literal sense. To the still higher disciples you may 
confide the entirely spiritual nature of the Imam's 'life 'in such a manner that their 
belief in the dogma of the resurrection is practically destro3'ed by it. From this stage 
you will conduct some to the renunciation of the belief in the existence of those heavenly 
beings, the 'angels,' and the creation of Adam as the first man on earth, while there 
were many before him. Having arrived at this point, you will find it marvelously easy 
to destroy the dogma of the existence of God and the mission of angels to the prophets, 
and to substitute for all this our own truth — i.e., the eternity of the universe. The last 
step is the abolition of both Mohammed ben Ismail and Ismail, who are only the ' gales' 
to knowledge." 

So far the doctrines of the Ismailis, who, doubtless, aimed — apart from an original 
desire of purifying and allegorizing Mohammedanism, and elevating it to a philosophical 
system — at political power, flow far one of their principal branches, the Kaumathfans. 
succeeded in this, will be found under that heading. See Makrizi, Nowairi, Silvestre 
de Sacy, Religion des Druses, etc. 

ISMAIL' PASHA', or Ismail I.. Viceroy and Khedive of Egypt; b. Cairo, Egypt, 
1830; is the second son of Ibrahim Pasha, and grandson of MehemetAli. Educated at 
Paris, on his return to Egypt he was appointed by his uncle Said Pasha to tlie govern- 
ment of the country during his uncle's absence in Europe, and in 1862 placed in 
command of the army. On the death of Said Pasha in 1863 he succeeded as tlie fifih 
viceroy of Egypt. During the American war of the rebellion he acquired vast wealth 
by the production of cotton. Regarding the Suez canal of coimt de Lesseps as 
"onducing to the powder and resourcas of Egypt, he actively encournged the enterprise, 
n 1866 he secured from the sultan the hereditary succession in his line, and in 18G7 had 
1 onferred upon him the title of khedive. Not satisfied with these privileges he demanded 
more, threatening to withdraw the ^roops he had sent agninst the Cretan insurgents 
and to seize Crete if his demands were refused. By the advice of foreign powers he 
recalled his demand. But in 1868-69, l)y extending his rule over the Upper and White 
Nile, by making foreign loans for the increase of his tirmy and navy, by jjroposing the 
neutralization of the Suez canal and inviting foreign rulers to be present at its opening, 
he made himself almost an independent sovereign. The sultim commanded him to 



Is mud. 1 ^fi 

reduce his army, recall his orders for iron-clads and breech-loaders, and the contraction 
of foreign loans, threatening him with deposition if he rel'used. Not receiving expected 
aid from Russia and other powers, he submitted. Afterwards he received new preroga- 
tives, giving him control of his army, and liberty to make loans and commercial treaties. 
In 1874 he obtained a victory over the sultan of Darfur, central Africa. By public roads, 
agriculture, and other methods, he endeavored to civilize the surrounding rude tribes, 
;ind introduced many and various public improvements. But in 1879 the governments 
of France and England, in view of the wretched tinancial condition of Egypt and the 
dissatisfaction of the people with the administration, determined to interfere in behalf 
of good government, and united in demanding of the Porte that the khedive should 
commit the portfolios of finance and public works to English and French ministers. 
But the khedive resented any interference of the western powers with Egyptian affairs. 
The sultan offered to depose Ismail Pasha, and to appoint Halim Pasha, Ismail's uncle, 
as his successor; but the powers advised the khedive to abdicate, promising to support 
his son Tevtik. The sultan acquiesced in the course recommended, and, June 26, he 
signed the firman deposing the khedive in favor of his son, prince Mohammed Tevfik. 
Ismail at once complied with the demand, and his son was proclaimed khedive as Tev- 
tik I. Ismail received an annual allowance of £50,000, each of his sons Hassan and 
Hussein £20,000 ; and his mother £30,000. Ismail Pasha left Egypt J une 30, for Naples. 

ISMTJD', IsMiD, or Izmid. See Nicomedia. 

ISNARD, Maximin, 1751-1830; b. France. In 1791 he was a member of the 
national assembly, in which he distinguished himself for his boldness and eloquence. 
He was re-elected in 1792. He joined the Girondists, and was arrested in June, 1793, 
but escaped, concealing himself with a friend until the fall of RobespieiTc. He appeared 
again in the assembly, and afterwards was a member of the council of 500. After this 
he lived in retirement in his native cit}', engaged in literary and philosophical pursuits. 

ISNIK', or IzNECK. See Nic><ea. 

ISOBAROMET'RIC LINES (Gr. isos, equal) are lines connecting together on a map 
those places which exhibit the same mean difference between the monthly estremes of 
the barometer. These oscillations are greater in some countries, as Hindustan and New- 
foundland, than in others, as western Europe and the Antilles. 

ISOCH'RONISM (Gr. isos, equal, clironos, time). A pendulum is isochronous when its 
vibrations are performed in equal times, w^hether these vibrations be large or small; but 
it can only possess this property by being constrained to move in a cycloidal arc. Sec 
CYCiiOiD. This is managed by causing the string to w^rap and unwrap itself round two 
equal cycloidal cheeks, the diameter of whose generating circle is equal to half the 
length of the pendulum, Isochronism is closely approximated in practice by causing 
the pendulum to describe a very small circular arc. 

ISOC'RATES, a celebrated Grecian orator, was b. at Athens, 436 B.C. He had a weak 
voice, and much natural timidity, which shut him out from a political career; but" he 
ttiught rhetoric, and wrote orations for others, for wiiich he received large sums; and 
tJiough he did not mingle in the strife of parties, he was earnestly interested in the cause 
<»f his country's independence and honor. The fatal battle of ChaBroneia broke his 
heart: he refused to taste food, and died after an abstinence of several days, 338 B.C., in 
the 98Lh year of his age. Isocrates was a friend of Plato. His orations, of whic'i 
upwards of 20 are extant, are characterized by extreme carefulness and elegance of style, 
but are not to be compared with those of Demosthenes in fervor, or with those of Lysias 
in natural beauty and simplicity. The best modern editions are those of Lange (Halle, 
1803), Ad. Coraes (Paris, 1807), G. S. Dobson (Lond. 1828), and Baiter and Sauppc 
(Ziirich, 1839). 

ISODYNAM'IC, Isocli'nic, and Isogon'ic LINES (Gr. isos, equal, dynamis, force, 
Mino, to bend, gonia, an angle), or lines of equal force, equal inclination, and equal 
declination, are three systems of lines, wiiich being laid down on maps, represent the 
magnetism of the globe as exhibited at the earth's surface in three classes of phenomena, 
the varying intensity of the force, the varying dip or inclination of the needle, and its 
varying declination from the true meridian. See Magnetism. 

I SOLA BELLA. See Borkomean Islands. 

ISOLA GROSSA, or Lunga (Great or Long island), one of the many islands which lie 
off tiie western coast of Dalmatia, in the Adriatic sea, extends between 43° 51' and 44" 
11' n. hit. Greatest length, 27 m. ; greatest breadth, 3 m. ; pop. 12,000. 

ISOLA MA'DRE. See Bohromean Islands. 

ISOMERISM (from the Greek word isomeres, composed of equal parts), a term applied 
to those organic compounds which are identical in their ultimate or percentage compo- 
sition, but present differences in their chemical properties. Isomeric compounds, or 
isomeridcs, arc divisible into metameric compounds, or metamerides, and polymeric com- 
pounds, or polymerides. 

In all metameric compounds, the equivalent number is the same, while in all poly- 
meric compcun Is the equivalent numbers are simple multiples of the equivalent of the 



1 '7'7 Ismud. 

■*■ * * Isomorphism. 

lowest number of the 2;i"oup. As an illustration of metamerides, propionic acid, 
(HCCbHbO:,), acetate of nietliyl (CoPl30,CJi303). and formic ether (C4H5O,0JiO3) may 
be taken. Their rational formulai, which express tlieir probable coustitution, are per- 
fectly distinct, yet it will be at ouce seen that they all have the same empirical formula 
(CCH6O4), and consequently the same percentage composition, and the same equivalent 
number, viz. 74. 

As an illustration of pol3'merides, the liydrocarbons homologous with olefiant gas 
may be taken Oletiant gas is represented by the formula C4H4, propylene by OeHe, 
])utyleue by CsHe, amylene by CioHio. These substances have the same percentage 
composition, but different equivalent numbers, all the formuke being multiples of the 
more simple formula, C2H2, which represents the composition of an alcohol-radical, 
methylene, which has not yet been isolated. 

The carbo-hydrates, which are represented by the general formula CxH^O^, present 
well-marked examples of isomerism. Thus, cellulose (Ci2H]oOio), starch (Ci2liioOio), 
a/id gum (C12II10O10) are metameric; while grape-sugar (Ci2Hi20i2) possesses the same 
percentage composition, but twice as high an equivalent number, as hydrated lactic acid 
(CeHeOf,), and the same percentage composition, but three times as high an equivalent 
number, as hydrated acetic acid (C4H4O4); hence the three last-named substances are 
polymeric, 

ISOMERISM (ante). Isomeric bodies may be considered as naturally divided into 
physical isomers and chemical isomers. The physical are more strictly or perfectly 
isomeric than the chemical, and on account of their similar molecular or radical com- 
position when they are subjected to the action of different forces or reagents exhibit the 
same behavioi*. Thus there are several hydrocarbons known as terpenes, having the 
composition C10H16, as the oils of lemon, bergamot, and turpentine, which show the 
same reactions under the influence of chemical agents, except their difference of 
odor and action on polarized light. Chemical isomers merely, do not carry tlieir isom- 
erism so far, for although they may have the same proportion of elements, and also 
the same molecular weight, they do not exhibit the same behavior under reagents. 
Thus, the molecular formula C3H6O2 represents three different bodies which decompose 
differently when acted upon by caustic alkalies, proprionic acid, C3H5O.HO, being con- 
verted at common temperatures into proprionate of potassium, CsHsOjKO. Acetate of 
methyl, C2H30,CH30, is not changed at ordinary temperatures by caustic potash, but 
when heated with it, acetate of potassium and mcthylic alcohol are produced. Again, 
formate of ethyl, CHCCoHsO, when heated with caustic potash, is changed into for- 
mate of potassium, CHO,KO, and ethyl alcohol, C2H5HO. These chemical isomers are 
the metameres mentioned in the preceding article, their behavior depending upon the 
manner in which organic radicals enter into their composition. See Radical, in chem- 
istry. Another class of isomeric bodies are called polymeres. 

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION (Gr. t'dn^, equal, and fjerpov, measure), a kind of 
drawing used by architects and engineers for purposes of construction. It is an ortho- 
graphic projection in which one plane or projection is employed, and therefore the 
measurement is without regard to the rules of perspective, the plane of the drawing 
being supposed to be at an infinite distance from the eye. It is used to delineate 
structures whose principal lines are parallel to three rectangular axes, and the plane of 
projection makes equal angles with these axes, which arc called co-ordinate axes, and 
the planes, taken tw^o and two, are called co-ordinate planes. The plane of projection 
passes through the point of intersection of the three axes, and this roint is the center of 
projection. The projections of the co-ordinate axes are the directing lines of the pro- 
jection, and form equal angles of 120° with each other. 

ISOMORPHISM (derived from the Greek words isos, equal, and w.orphe, form) strictly 
signifies similarity of form, but it is now restricted by chemists to those substances which 
are not only similar in their crystalline form, but are also analogous in their chemical 
composition. The diamond (C), magnetic oxide of iron (FcO,Fe203), and alum 
(KCSOs 4" AI2O3.3SO3 + 24aq.), all ciystallize in octohedra, but there is obviously no 
analogy in the chemical composition of these substances; on the other hand, the sj'jinelle 
ruby (MgCAloOs), magnetic oxide of iron (FeOjFcsOs), and chrome ore (FeO.CraOs), 
not only crystallize in octohedra, but (as their formulae sho^v) are also analogous in their 
chemical composition. Hence, the members of the latter group are truly isomorplious 
in the restricted sense, while the members of the former group present only one of the 
conditions of chemical isomorphism. In most cases, however, as Mitscherlich (to whom 
we owe most of our knowledge of this subject) has shown, the chemical composition of 
substances that correspond in form is analogous; and that chemist has further endeavored 
to prove that crysUiUine form is independent of the chemical nature of the atoms, and 
that it is determined solel}'' by their grouping and relative position; the same number of 
atoms combined in the same way always producing, as he asserts, the same crystalline 
form. 

Miller, in his Chemical Physics, gives fifteen groups in which the existence of iso- 
morphism has been distinctly ascertained. From these we select three groups — one of 
elements, and two of compounds: 

U. K. VIII.— 13 



Isopoda. 
listhitius. 



178 



Arsenic 

Antimony 

Tellurium 



Cliloride of Potassium, KCl 
Iodide of Potassium, KI 

Bromide of Potassium, KBr 
Fluoride of Potassium, KFl 



Alumina AlaOg 

Sesquioxide of Iron FeaOs 

Sesquioxide of Chromium, CraOs 
Sesquioxide of Manganese, MuaOs 

The discovery of the coincidence of similarity in crystalline form where the chemical 
composition is also similar, is the most important generalization yet arrived at in the 
science of crystallograpliy ; and in chemistry it has been of essential service in facili- 
tating the classiticatlon of compounds, and in determining the combining numbers or 
atomic weigiits of tlie elementary bodies. 

ISOPODA (Gr. equal-footed), an order of malacostracous crustaceans of the section 
edriophthainni (q.T.), mostly aquatic — some marine, some inhabitants of fresh waters — 
but some terrestrial, inhabiting damp phices, as the armadillo, woodlouse, etc. The 
body is flattened. The thorax consists of seven segments bearing seven pair of feet — 
six in the young before their first moiling. The' females have usually large plates 
attached to the thoracic segments, meeting to form a pouch for the eggs and young. 

The interesting fossils called trilobites' (q.y.) are supposed to be isopoda, or nearly 
related to them. 

ISOTHERM AL LINES (Gr. ifios, equal, and thermos, warm) are lines laid down on 
maps to connect together places of the same mean Xiim\>(iYn.\mQ.—Isotliernl lines {Gr. 
thews, summer) are those which connect places of equal mean summer temperature.— 
Isocheimonal lines (Gr. cheimun, winter) connect places of equal mean winter tempera- 
ture.— Alexander von Humboldt was the first to lay down these systems of lines on 
maps in 1817. Their importance in reference to climate, meteoro'logy, and the geo- 
grapliic distribution of plants and animals, can hardly be overestimated.— If the whole 
surface of the earth were uniform, it is evident that isothermal lines would precisely 
correspond with the degrees of latitude, and there m ould be no isotheral and isocheimonal 
lines, as distinguished from the isothermal; but neither would the earth be habitable for 
man, or suitable for almost any of the animal c vegetable tribes which actually exist upon 
it. Isothermal, isotheral, and isocheimonal lines are tiierefore laid down altogether from 
observations recorded and compared. In laying them down, care must be taken to 
make allowance for the elevation of each place of observation above the level of the 
sea, they being all laid down as for that level. Isothermal lines are named according 
to the mean temperature which they indicate, the line of 50°, the line of 60^ etc. They 
are far from corresponding with parallels of latitude, nor are they parallel with one 
another, but are curved in such a manner as to indicate two northern ar.d two soutliern 
poles or centers of greatest cold. It is in the extra-tropical parts of the northern hemi- 
sphere that these curvatures are greatest. The nortliern poles of cold are situated in 
the arctic regions, one to the n. of iSibiTia, nearly in the meridian of Jakut.sk, and the 
other to the n. of America, nearly in the meridian of the most western part of Pludson's 
bay; and the isothermal lines throughout the greater part of the northern hemisphere 
descend to a lower latitude in the e. of Asia and in the e. of America than elsewhere, 
ascending, however, to a comparatively high latitude on the western coasts of both the 
great continents. Thus, the line of 50° F , which passes through the n. of England 
and the n. of Ireland, and there I'eaches its most noitlieiii latitude, descends below the 
latitude of New York, on the eastern coast of America, 'i'lie distances of the isothermal 
lines are also remarkal)ly various in different parts of tlie world. Thus, in the e. of 
North America, from Charleston to Labrador, the mean annual temperature varies more 
than a degree and a half for every degree of latitude; whilst in central Europe the 
variation is only about nine-tenths of a degree, and on the western coasts of Europe 
still less. 

The isotheral and isocheimonal lines are neither parallel among thcmselTes nor with 
the isothermal lines, and it is in this that a chief difference of continental and of insular 
climates appears, the summers of the former and the winters of the latter enjoying 
con:paratively large proportions of the heat of the year. 

Another interesting system of lines relative to temperature has been laid down by 
Mr. Dove, which he calls mthnormal lines — the term, however, is objectionable, as 
formed from words of two languages — lines connecting places Avhich have the same 
excess above or defect below the "normal mean temperature of their latitude. See 
Cllviate, Meteorology, and Terrestrial Temperature. 

ISPAHAN', properly Ispahan, a famous city of Persia, capital of the province of Irak- 
Ajemi, and formerly capital of the entire country, is situated on the Zenderud, in an 
extensive and fertile plain. 226 m. s. of Teheran; lat. 32° 40' n., long. 51° 43 east. The 
Zenderud is here 600 ft. broad, and is crossed by three noble bridges, one of them 1000 ft. 
in ]- ngth. and having 34 arches. Groves, orchards, avenues, and cultivaied fields sur- 
round the city for miles; brtt the permanent beauty of the vicinity only serves to make 
the contrast all the more striking between the former splendor of the city and its present 
ruinous condition. Miles of street are now almost tenantless, and many of the palaces 
are deserted, and rapidly falling to decay. In the Chahnr Baf/h, an extensive pleasure- 
ground on the s. of the city, is a palace called the Chehel Siffon, or "Forty Columns." 
once a favorite royal residence. Along the front of this palace is a double range of 



-| '"Q Isopoda. 

^ « ^ Isthmus. 

columns, each rising from the hacks of four Hons in white marhlc. Tlie pillars are inlaid 
with mirrors, and the walls and roof are profusely decorated with glass and gilding. The 
suburb Julfa, o:i the southern bank of tlie river, once a tlourishing Armenian settlement 
of 30,000 inhabitants, is now little better than a muss of ruins. Ispahan, however, is still 
an important city, and the sent of extensive manufactures, including all sorts of woven 
fabrics, from rich gold brocades and figured velvets to common calicoes. Trinkets and 
ornamental goods i.i great variety, with tire-arms, sword-blades, glass and earthenware, 
are also mauulactured. JMany of its bazaars are still crowded daily, and its merchants 
are still intluential enough to affect ]>rices in India. Of late years, too, Ispahan has shown 
considerable signs of improvement; many of its edifices have been rebuilt ; rice, an impor- 
tant article of commerce, is now largely cultivated in the neighborhood. Pop. estimated 
at 80,000. 

Ispahan was a trading town of importance, and the capital of Irak, under the caliphs 
of Bagdad. It was taken by Timur in 1387, when 70,000 of the inhabitants are said to 
have been massacred. During the 17tli c, under Shah-Abbas the great, it became the 
capital of Persia, and reached the climax of its prosperity. Its walls were then 24 m. in 
circuit, and it is said to have had between 600,000 and 1,000,000 inhabitants. It was 
then the emporium of the Asiatic world; the merchandise of all nations enriched its 
bazaars, and ambassadors from Europe and the east crowded its court. In 1723 it was 
devastated by the Afghans, and some time afterwards the seat of government was trans- 
ferred to Teheran (q.v.). 

ISRAEL, Kingdom of. See Jew^s. 

ISRAEL. See Jacob, ante. 

ISRAELITES. See Jews, ante. 

IS RAFIL', one of the three angels who appeared before Abraham to announce the 
forthcoming fate of Sodom, and specially designated as the angel of music. According 
to the Koran, to Israfil is assigned the duty of sounding the " last trump" on the day of 
resurrection. 

ISSAQUENA, a western co. of Mississippi, having the Mississippi river on tliew., 
and tlie Yazoo and Sunflower on the e. ; 600 sqm.; pop. '70, 6,887. It is watered by 
the Yazoo and Sunflower rivers. The surface is level, covered with thick forests, and 
often inundated. The soil is fertile, and produces cotton, maize, and sweet potatoes. 
Capital, Mayerville. 

ISSOIRE (anc. Imodurum) a t. of France, in the department of Puy-de-Dome, at the 
continence of the Couze and Allier, 20 m. s.e. of Clermont. Pop. '76, 6,089. 

ISSOUDUN, a manufacturing t. of France, in the department of Indre, is situated on 
the river Theolle, on the railway from Orleans to Limoges, 18 m. n.e. of Chateauroux. 
The principal manufactures are woolen cloth and yarn. Pop. '76, 11,293. 

ISSUE, in law, means the point of fact in dispute which is submitted to a jury. 

ISSUE, in law {ante). The point in dispute between the parties to a suit may be one 
either of law or of fact. If the former, it is decided by the court without the inter- 
vention of a jury; if the latter, it is determined by a jury, or, in equity practice, by a 
judge. In some of the states of the union issues of both kinds may by consent of 
parties be tried by a referee. When a court of law or equity is sitting without a jury, 
it sometimes happens that a question of fact arisec upon which the decision of a jury 
is desired. A fictitious suit is thereupon framed, involving the point in question, and 
brought to trial before a jury summoned for the purpose. The verdict rendered being 
returned to the court, is accepted as a settlement of the issue of fact, and the trial of the 
cause out of which that issue grew thereupon pi'oceeds. In the state of New York a 
feigned issue in such cases is not required, the actual question as it arises being submitted 
to a jury by order of court. 

ISSUS, anciently, a seaport on a gulf of the same name in Cilicia, Asia Minor, celebrated 
for a victory which Alexander the great obtained here over Darius (333 b c), by which the 
camp and family of Darius fell into his hands. Its exact site has not been ascertained. 

ISTALIF', a t. of Afghanistan, situated 22 m. n.n.w. of Cabul, on a tiibutary of the 
Cabul river. In 1842 it was partially destroyed by the British. Previous to that event, 
it had 15,000 inhabitants, who were employed chiefly in spinning, weaving, and dyeing 
cotton. 

ISTER. See Danube, ante. 

ISTHMUS (Gr.), in geography, a narrow neck of land joining two portions of land. 
The name isthmus was by the ancients often employed without any addition to desig- 
nate the isthmus of Corinth, joining the Peloponnesus to continental Hellas. Here 
there was a famous temple of Neptune, and here also were celebrated the Isthmian 
Games (one of the four great national festivals of Greece), at first every third year, and 
afterwards every fifth year. They were said to have been originally instituted by Sisy- 
phus, and afterwards restored by Theseus. The games, like those of Olympia, consisted 
of athletic exercises, with the addition of competitions in music and poetry. The victors 
were crowned with garlands of fir, and their statues were placed in the temple of Neptune. 



Down to the destruction of Corinth by the Roman gen. Miimmins (146 B.C.), the mnnnge- 
nient of tliese games was in the hands of the rulers of that city, tliough the Athenians 
always enjoyed Ihe seats of honor. The Romans added the coarser and more brutal 
amusements of gladiatorial exhibitions and tights with wild beasts. The spread of 
Christianity Avas fatal to their popularity, but we still read of them in the reigns of Con- 
stant ine and Julian. 

ISTPIMUS CANALS. See Interoceanic Canal. 

ISTHMUS OF DARIEN. See Darien. 

ISTHMUS OF SUEZ. See Suez. 

ISTIP, a t. of European Turkey, in Roumelia, on the Istip river; pop. 8,000. It is 
well built, and has a large trade. It contains some steel-works and the remains of an 
old castle. 

IS TRIA, an Austrian margraviate, wliich, with the county of Gorz and Gradiska, and 
the town and territory of Trieste, forms the Austrian crown-land of the coast-districts or 
Kiistenland. It consists of a peninsula projecting into the n.e. corner of the Adriatic sea, 
together with the adjacent Quarnero islands. 

ISTRIA iante),^ anciently Ilistria, a peninsula of s. Austria, projecting into the n.e. 
part of the Adriatic sea, and including some islands; between lat. 40° 35' and 45° 50' n. 
and long. 13° 23' and 14° 40' e. ; 1908 sq.m. ; pop. 254,905. The peninsula is 50 m. long, 
with an average breadth of 30 miles. A ridge of rocky mountains runs through its 
entire length, the highest point of which is Monte Maggiore, 4,200 ft. above the sea. 
The coast is rugged and rocky and has many excellent harbors. The soil isM^ell adapted 
to vines, olives, and other fruits. In the mountains herds of cattle find pasture, and 
marble and freestone are quarried. The fisheries and salt-works furnish employment to 
many of the people. The Istrians belonged to the stock of Illyrians, and like them were 
pirates. The Romans subdued them first about the beginning of the 2d c. B.C., and 
reconquered them in the following century. Their independence was finally over- 
thrown bj^ C. Claudius, 177 B.C., their country, united to Italy, continuing subject to 
Rome till it fell into the hands of the Goths in the Gth century.* The eastern emperors, 
drove out the Goths and retained the country till the 10th and 11th centuries, when it became 
subject to Carinthia and Dalmatia. The Venetians in the 13lh c. seized the western part, 
and Austria the eastern, both of which on the overthrow of the Venetian republic, 1797, 
were by treaty made over to Austria, From the downfall of Napoleon in 1813 till 1849, 
Istria formed a part of the government of Trieste. 

ISVORNIK'. See Zvoenik. 

ISWARA (from the Sanskrit iv', to possess power, hence literally, lord) is an epithet 
applied to different Hindu divinities, but in mythological acceptation mostly designates 
Siva (q.v.). 

ITACOLUMITE, a peculiar, siliceous, metamorphic schistose rock, found accompa- 
nying talcose slates and schists, composed principally of quartz grains with hydrous mica, 
which latter mineral makes it flexible, whence it is called flexible sandstone. Its flexi- 
bility is peculiar, bending as though made of short joints. It is found in Brazil, the 
Ural mountains, Georgia, North and South Carolina, and elsewhere, })articularly in 
sections of these regions wliere there is gold. It has been observed by Lieber that in 
South Carolina itacolumite passes gradually into sandstone and conglomerate, showing 
its sedimentary origin. 

ITALIAN ARCHITECTURE. This term is usually limited to the style practiced by 
the Italian architects of the 15th, 16th. and 17th centuries, and which has since been adopted 
in every country in Europe. This style originated in a revival of the ancient architecture 
of Rome. Although Gothic architecture had been practiced in Italy during the 13th and 
14th centuries, it had never been thoroughly naturalized. The Italians always showed a 
preference for the round arch over the pointed northern form; and even in the buildings 
they erected in the pointed style, there is a certain simplicity and largeness of parts 
indicative of a classic feeling. As early as 1350, Giovanni Pisano. in the beautiful 
sculpture of the pulpit at Pisa, showed a return to the ancient models. Amolpho di 
Lapo built the cathedral of Florence (1290-1300), and in his design proposed a great dome 
(a remarkably Roman feature) over the crossing of the nave and transept. This he 
did not live to complete; but he prepared Ihe way for Brunelleschi, the chief aim of 
whose life was the accomplishment of the great dome of the cathedral. He went to 
Rome to study the ancient buildings there, at that time neglected and hardly known 
to the Italians themselves. After devoting a considerable time to exploring these 
monuments, he returned to Florence; and, after great opposition, succeeded in cariying 
out the construction of the dome as it now stands. From this time, the revival of 
Roman architecture went on rapidly. It was encouraged by the popes and other princes 
of Italy; and the invention of the printing-press soon spread a knowledge of the works 
of tlie Italian architects over Europe. At first, the Roman moldings and ornaments 
only were copied and applied to the existing forms. As the ancient style became 
better understood, its general principles were gradually adopted, until at length the 



T Q 1 Istlimus. 

-Loi Italic. 

modern Italian style was foraied. This style may be defined as ancient Roman archi- 
tecture applietl to the forms and requirements of modern buildings. It has been 
admira])ly applied to domestic, but it has never been so successfully used in ecclesiast- 
ical, editices. The domes of tlie Italian churches render the interiors of these build- 
ings very impressive, and are a feature for the introduction of v^hich into the w. of 
Europe we are ind