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The Library. 

The Public Libraries of Aberdeen. 1 

the occasion of the first visit of the Library Association to 
Aberdeen, it seems fitting to give some account of what may 
be regarded as its Public Libraries. Under this term I include 
the University Library, that of the Mechanics' Institution, now 
absorbed in the Public Library, the Public Library itself, and the 
Anderson Library at Woodside, now an integral part of the city. 
Other libraries there have been, and are, in the district which 
might by a little stretch of terms be brought within the scope of 
my paper, such as the Library of the " Advocates in Aberdeen," 
the Free Church College Library, and the small, but valuable, and 
highly interesting library at the Roman Catholic College at Blairs, 
a few miles out of town. But time and other considerations have 
deterred me from dealing with these, and with still more reason 
have forbidden any account of such private adventures as the 
library which was reared by the founder of a firm of booksellers 
in town, which as A. Brown and Co. is still vigorously extant, 
and of which the present convener of the Public Library book- 
sub-committee was for long the sole representative. As far back 
as 1801 this library, as shown by the printed catalogue issued 
then, contained no less than 15,000 volumes, while about ten years 
after, having absorbed another similar circulating library, it 
acquired the name of the United Public Library, and is stated to 
have contained no fewer than 52,000 volumes in all departments 
of literature a sufficient witness of the literary enterprise 
and tastes of the citizens of Aberdeen of that far-off time. But 
the time at my disposal compels me to pass by these and kindred 
topics, however interesting they might be made, and to limit my 
efforts to tracing briefly and cursorily the history of the strictly 
public institutions I have already named. 

' Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 
Aberdeen, September, 1893. 


2 The Library. 

By its antiquity, as well as by its magnitude and value, the 
University Library claims our first attention. Of its earlier 
history there is little to tell, for like that of most institutions 
which are the growth of a slow development through many ages 
it exists in but a shadowy and fragmentary form. The University 
itself, or at least that portion of it which was called King's College 
and University, was founded in 1494, but apparently it possessed 
no library till some forty years after that date, when it stands 
recorded that " Bishop William Stewart built the librarie hous, 
and with a number of bookes furnisht the same." After this 
there is almost a complete blank for about a century, during which, 
however, we are to suppose that the library grew and increased in 
numbers and usefulness, for at the end of that period, namely, in 
1634, there is a distinct college minute to this very business-like 
effect " It is ordainet be the rectour and memberis that the 
keeper of the bibliotheck sail, about the tyme of Michaelmese 
yeerlie, wpone fourtie-aucht houris advertisement, delyver the key 
of the bibliotheck to the rector of the universitie, that he may 
imploy two or thrie of the memberis for visitting the said biblio- 
theck to see giff all the buikis and instrumentis belonging thereto 
be present in the librarie ipsa corpora ; with certificatioun against 
the said keeper, that in caice aney be amissing without and nocht 
within the dooris of the said librarie at that tyme, he salbe lyable 
not onlie to furnische ane wther buik of the samen kynd wpon his 
awen expenssis, bot also to pay for his negligence the sowme of 
ten merkis for ilk book that bees wanting as said is, by the pryce 
of the samen." 

After the establishment of this stringent rule we come upon 
several references to gifts of small collections of books and to the 
existence of a catalogue or catalogues. In this matter of gifts, 
however, greater good fortune was the portion of the sister insti- 
tution at Marischal College and University, founded in 1593. 
To it we find that, in 1613, Dr. Duncan Liddell bequeathed his 
library and also a sum of 6,000 merks, the balance of the interest 
of which after paying for a professor of mathematics was to be 
devoted to the purchase of " new books of most ancient mathe- 
maticks." Last year the balance amounted to 10 IDS. gd. A 
still more noteworthy and valuable gift was that which came to 
it in 1624 from Thomas Reid, secretary to His Majesty James I. 
for " the Latine tongue." Reid was a native of these parts and 
a member of the family which subsequently produced the founder 
of Scottish philosophy. He was educated at Marischal College, 

The Public Libraries of Aberdeen. 3 

and after perambulating the continent, as was the habit of Scotch 
scholars of the day, he was selected by King James I. to fill the 
post just named. Reid had decidedly bookish tastes and made 
good use of his knowledge and opportunities on the continent in 
bringing together a fine collection of editions of the classics and 
the fathers, together with some valuable and curious MSS. 
These he bequeathed to the town of Aberdeen for Marischal 
College, together with " six thousand merks to be invested in 
land, so as to yield six hundred merks yearly for a librarian, 
whose duty shall be to hold his door open four days a week for 
the scholars and clergy to have the use of the books of the said 
bibliotheck, and no ways to be astricted in no further duty." 

A catalogue of his collection was made, numbering some 
1,350 titles, of which, fortunately, there is a copy extant, sub- 
scribed by Reid himself, and giving date, place and printer's 

The next important event in the history of the University 
Libraries took place in 1709, when there was granted to the 
" four universities in Scotland " the privilege of receiving copies 
" of each book or books upon the best paper that, from and 
after the loth day of April, 1710, shall be printed and published, 
or reprinted and published with additions." This privilege was 
slightly modified in 1814, and finally withdrawn in 1836, when 
its place was taken by an annual money grant to each of the 
four universities. But the odd thing was, that while the Act 
referred to the universities in Scotland as four in number, there 
were really five, Aberdeen alone possessing two, as those of us 
who were schoolboys here before 1859 were proud to know, and 
in our knowledge crowed over our English comrades because all 
England itself had no more. However, the proud fact had its 
inconvenience, for it led to much litigation and heart-burning 
between the two local universities, each claiming to be one of 
the four universities referred to in Queen Anne's Act. At last, 
in 1738, it was finally decided by the Lords of Session that to 
King's College should belong the custody of the books " for the 
use of both colleges." But, apparently, the university authorities 
were more eager in asserting their claims than in using them, 
for, when the annual money grant was struck in 1838 on the 
basis of proportion to the extent to which the copyright privilege 
had been used, Aberdeen received only ^"320, while to Edinburgh, 
St. Andrews and Glasgow fell the respective sums of ^"575, 
^630, 707- 

The Library. 

As I have already remarked, the library at King's College 
was, on the whole, less fortunate than that of Marischal 
College. But it had at least one generous benefactor, who 
wisely recognised that it was not only necessary to have books 
in a library, but also necessary to have them properly housed 
and cared for. This good friend was James Fraser, an alumnus 
of King's College, who, after being tutor to the Duke of 
St. Albans (son of Charles II.), was appointed to, and for forty 
years held, the office of secretary to Chelsea Hospital. He was 
a great book collector, and under James II. was librarian of the 
Royal Library and licenser of printing. His gifts to his alma 
mater were both generous and timely. In his lifetime, in addition 
to many valuable books, he gave upwards of 1,200 for the 
purpose of repairing and completing the library building, and at 
his death he bequeathed a sum for the purpose, among other 
things, of establishing a regular library-keeper. 

Coming down to more recent times, among some conspicuous 
gifts we ought specially to mention that made to Marischal 
College by Miss Melvin in 1856. This consisted of the library 
of her brother, Dr. James Melvin, whose name is even yet held 
in high honour and reverence in Aberdeen and throughout 
Scotland for his services as rector of the Grammar School here, 
and for his great repute as a Latin scholar. His library con- 
tains 6,984 volumes, relating chiefly to the Latin and Greek 
language and literature, but rich also in works relating to 
Scottish literature and history. Some years after the union of 
the two colleges in one university, the Melvin Library was 
removed to King's College, where it is now located. As com- 
memorative of this removal, and as helping to preserve the 
memory of a scholar of whom Aberdeen and Scotland have 
reason to be proud, a stained glass window was erected in the 
library, which meets the eye as you enter the spacious hall. It 
is arranged in four lights, in three of which are figures of George 
Buchanan, Arthur Johnston and Thomas Ruddiman, as repre- 
sentative Scottish Latinists of the i6th, iyth and i8th centuries. 
In the fourth light is seen the figure of Dr. Melvin in his robes 
as rector of the Grammar School, and below, a device of a bee- 
hive and grapes, with the punning legend 

" Mel-vinum Natura dedit : gaudete Camenae." 

On a general review of the history of the two University 
Libraries at King's and Marischal Colleges, it is pretty evident 
that but for the gifts, great and small, which fortunately dropped 

The Public Libraries of Aberdeen. 5 

in from time to time from intelligent benefactors, they would 
have been in a somewhat sad case. This is partly to be accounted 
for by the fact that they had no stable sources of income of any 
great amount. But apart from this, there is no blinking the 
fact that the interests of the libraries did not greatly concern 
the responsible authorities ; and that they showed no great zeal 
in extending them, nor care in preserving them. So late as 
1717, the whole stock at King's College Library, according to 
a catalogue completed in that year, amounted just to 2,857 books. 
Nearly a century later, namely in 1802, the stock had risen 
to only 9,486 volumes, notwithstanding that in the interval it 
had received numerous gifts. An interesting and instructive light 
is thrown upon the spirit and tone of those in power by what 
took place when 'one of their numbsr endeavoured, to his honour 
be it said, to secure for the libraries the consideration which they 
required and deserved. This would-be reformer was William 
Ogilvie, " Professor of humanity and Lecturer on political and 
natural history, antiquities, criticism and rhetoric in the Uni- 
versity and King's College of Aberdeen." (You see in those 
days they knew nothing of specialists, and took care to provide 
every man with a sufficiently wide field on which to discourse at 
large.) But William Ogilvie was no ordinary man ; though it is 
only quite recently that the full proportion of his remarkable 
qualities has come fully into view. Just two years ago, as is 
doubtless known to several here, a work of his was republished, 
accompanied by biographical and other notes from the hand of a 
solicitor in this town, Mr. D. C. Macdonald. The work thus 
republished first saw the light in 1782, under the title of An 
Essay on the Right of Property in Land. It was published anony- 
mously ; and we do not wonder at this when we come to know 
the very radical ideas promulgated in it on a subject which is 
now more than ever agitating the public mind ; and that on lines 
which this north-country professor unobtrusively laid down over 
a century ago. A man of ideas so far ahead of his day and 
generation could hardly fail to be a thorn in the flesh of his 
staid, easy-going colleagues, and not least so in the very matter, 
now before us, of the attitude of the university authorities to the 
libraries under their charge. As early as 1764, the very year of 
his appointment as a professor, he promulgated a scheme for 
raising funds to purchase books for each library in every alternate 
year ; and though it came to nothing, it got into a printed form 
which survives to this day as a monument of Ogilvie's broad 

6 The Library. 

and catholic views of the functions of a library.* His aim 
to benefit the university libraries ; but his desire was more than 
this, for he hoped to attain his object by broadening their basis 
and extending their scope ; and, in a word, by converting them 
into true public libraries in which, to use his own quaint words : 
" not only the architect, the ship-builder, and the farmer ; but 
even the tallow-chandler and pin-maker, may find the latest 
improvements that have been made in his profession." The 
project, as I have said, came to nought ; and, remembering the 
time and circumstances of the proposal, one does not wonder 
at this ; we rather wonder that it received, as it did receive, the 
assent of the authorities of both universities. I suspect they 
must have been won over by the ardent and persuasive tongue of 
the young professor ; and that when they came to scan it in the 
cool light of print it ceased to charm them. Twenty years later, 
we find Professor Ogilvie again directing attention to the state of 
the library ; alleging that it was " extremely deficient in various 
branches of science and literature ; " and pointing out that 
for eight years preceding not more than ^"5 or ^"6 had been spent 
annually on books. But the University Faculty declined to move 
in the matter, being, as they said, "of opinion that purchasing 
books for the library is no legal burden upon the funds of the 
college." Undeterred by this rebuff, the professor gallantly 
returns to the attack; and, among other arguments, puts the 
rather sly and pointed query whether "buying books for the 
library " is less of a legal burden than " dividing annually among 
the masters any accrescing revenue that may arise?" This 
seems to have been too much for his colleagues, and they once 
and for all stamped out Ogilvie and his public spirit by declining 
positively to have anything to do with what they called his 
" self-denying schemes for benefiting their successors." 

Happily, in these later days a more intelligent, and I may add 
a more intelligible, spirit prevails in university counsels, and while, 
as is but natural, the process of dissipating the ideas and customs 
of centuries is slow, the whole body of professors is permeated 
with a sense of the important place and functions of the library 
in the University Constitution. As a result there is, I have 
reason to believe, an immediate prospect of changes in the con- 
duct and management of the University Library of Aberdeen 
which will bring it quite abreast with the best arrangements of 
any similar institution in the country. In this connexion I would 
mention the name of my friend Professor Trail, than whom there 

* Reprinted for the Library Association, by Mr. J. Y. W. MacAlister. 

The Public Libraries of Aberdeen. 7 

is no more enthusiastic advocate in the university for the welfare 
of its library, and who has spared neither time nor thought in 
advancing its interests. Of those prospective changes the most 
conspicuous will relate to the all-important matter of cataloguing, 
and to the facilities to be provided for those who have the right to 
use the library. At present, the only catalogue available to 
readers is a printed alphabetical author catalogue, published in 
thi'ee volumes, in 1873, an< ^ since extended by a supplementary 
volume issued in 1887. But it is now contemplated to have, in 
addition to a MS. author catalogue that is always up to date, 
a subject catalogue, compiled partly by the aid of specialists in 
the several subjects, and including references to the more im- 
portant papers in volumes of transactions, &c. In addition to 
these there will be subsidiary cataloguing devices which will 
all help to make known to students the resources of the 
library as they are and as they are extended from time to 
time. In the matter of hours, too, which hitherto have been 
regulated rather on the principle that the function of the library 
was to jealously " keep " the books and not to issue them, it is 
not likely to be long ere the stinted allowance of three hours 
of open doors in winter and of two hours in summer will give 
place to a more generous arrangement, in which the convenience 
and interests of all who wish to read or borrow will be more con- 
siderately dealt with. Time forbids me to tell of other reforms 
which are in the air, and equally does it preclude any detailed 
mention of some of the treasures which enhance and adorn the 
collection. But this is the less to be regretted, as you will have 
an opportunity on your visit to the library of examining and 
judging of some of these for yourselves. Leaving the University 
Library then, let me ask your attention for a brief space to 
another and somewhat different part of my subject. 

Early in 1824, the very year that saw the foundation of 
Dr. Birkbeck's Mechanics' Institution in London, generally 
regarded as the first of its kind in the country, a few citizens of 
Aberdeen banded themselves together for a like purpose. They 
were, many of them, men of exceptional intelligence and enter- 
prise, and alive to the importance of providing for their fellow- 
citizens, and especially those of the tradesman class, opportunities 
of instruction in the various sciences connected with their 
several callings. Within a few months, and before the close of 
the year, they were in a position to congratulate themselves and 
the public on the remarkable and encouraging success which 

8 The Library 

had attended their first efforts. Among these the formation of 
a library naturally occupied a place, and with some pride they 
were able to report that by gift and purchase they had accumu- 
lated a stock of not less than 500 volumes " of real importance." 
This jubilant tone, unfortunately, was not long maintained. 
In less than three years the institution was in pecuniary diffi- 
culties, and with some justice and evident bitterness the 
directors had to lament the apathy and neglect of those ^-for 
whose special benefit the institution was founded, as well as 
the want of countenance and support from their wealthier fellow- 
citizens. For some years after this outburst of feeling the 
institution seems to have been in a somewhat comatose con- 
dition, but again, in 1837, we find it asserting itself in a vigorous 
fashion on a broader base, and with an enlarged scope of objects 
and interests. In this reawakening the library shared. Its 
stock was now 1,100 volumes, specially rich, it would seem, in 
works of natural philosophy and chemistry and" the arts 
depending on them, excelling in this respect, it was alleged, 
the library of any mechanics' institution in Scotland. To add 
to the usefulness of these a printed catalogue was issued, which 
deserves some attention, and a copy of which I am fortunately 
able to show you. The titles of the books are clearly set forth 
in classified order, and a short analysis of the contents is 
appended in the case of most of the works. The execution is 
such as by its thoroughness and carefulness cannot fail to elicit 
our admiration, and this admiration is heightened by the perusal 
of the brief preface. In a few pregnant paragraphs the diffi- 
culties which beset the compiler of a classified catalogue and its 
deficiencies for the users of it, are set forth with singular clear- 
ness and conciseness, and, as you read, you feel that surely, of 
all mechanics' institutes, that of Aberdeen was singularly 
fortunate in its librarian. And when I tell you that the person 
who was this was also for it secretary, teacher of natural 
philosophy and leader of the mutual instruction class, and that 
he has since become the Dr. Bain whom all the world knows as 
teacher and psychologist, you will understand something of its 
good fortune. 

To the subsequent events in the history of the Aberdeen 
Mechanics' Institution and of its Library, time permits me only 
briefly to allude. In 1845, strong in faith and undismayed by 
want of success, the directors, aided by private subscriptions to a 
considerable amount, laid the foundations of a large and hand- 

The Public Libraries of Aberdeen. 9 

some building in one of the principal streets of the city, provided 
with rooms large and small for all its purposes. With its occu- 
pation of these the institution started afresh on its career of 
usefulness, but unfortunately cumbered with a load of debt which 
continued to the end to embarrass its plans and depress its 
energies. It was seldom that the annual income from the library 
reached the sum of ^"250, and of course but little of that was 
available for the purchase of books. The directors gradually 
became wearied of their Sisyphean task, and began to look about 
for some means of escape from their trouble. Fortunately, a 
double way was open to them. On the one hand, there was the 
hope that by their assistance the citizens might be induced to 
adopt the Public Libraries Act ; on the other, there was the 
reorganization under the Endowed Institution Act of the noble 
foundation in the city known as Gordon's Hospital. After pro- 
longed negotiations both these ideas were realised, with the 
result that certain funds and properties were handed over to 
the governors of Robert Gordon's College for behoof of the 
science and art schools under their control, and the citizens 
adopted the Public Libraries Act and became the possessors of 
the library and the building of the Mechanics' Institution, subject 
to certain debts and liabilities. Of the stock of books thus pre- 
sented as a nucleus for the Public Library, some 8,000 were found 
to be suitable for the lending department, and some 5,000 for the 
reference. By gift and purchase these have since been raised to 
over 20,000 and 19,000 respectively, a very creditable increase 
during the nine years that have elapsed since the institution of 
the Public Library. 

It is hardly necessary that I should trace even in a cursory 
fashion the various stages in the development of the Public 
Library from the first days of its opening when, to the surprise 
and no small consternation of the authorities, the citizens rose 
in their thousands and almost swept the shelves of their con- 
tents down to its settlement in a building specially reared for 
it. Suffice it to say that, as an institution for the intellectual 
recreation and instruction of the community, it seems at least 
to have justified the expectations of all who were concerned in 
its establishment. Quite recently an interesting and instructive 
avowal was publicly made that so far " the money spent on the 
library was the best pennyworth of ratepayers' assessment 
spent in the city," as to which the only comment I would venture 
to make is that should the citizens see fit to entrust the Library 

io The Library. 

Committee with yet a little more than the penny, they would 
find both committee and librarian ready as before to give a good 
account of it. From conditions within and around it, Aberdeen 
occupies a special place as an educational centre, and in that 
centre the Public Library has a part to play which can be filled 
by no other institution, and the importance and utility of which 
are limited only by its resources. As the only public library of 
any great size north of Dundee, it is as it were a beacon of light 
and leading for the whole of the north of Scotland. It has ever 
been for me, as librarian, not the least source of genuine plea- 
sure, even while it was mingled with responsibility, that I have 
been able to stretch a helping hand to many an inquirer dwelling 
apart in regions certainly not contemplated by the citizens of 
Aberdeen when they adopted the Public Libraries Act, but I 
daresay they make their less favoured fellow-countrymen heartily 
welcome to any crumbs that fall from their better-spread table. 

I ought not to conclude this brief sketch of the Public 
Library without mention of its good fortune in the matter of 
book gifts. These have been numerous and varied, but three 
gifts in particular stand out, conspicuous by their size and value. 
One of these is the collection of books and handsome bookcases 
which came from the late Dr. Francis Edmond, of Kingswells, 
who was throughout a good friend to the Library. It embraces 
1,300 volumes of general literature, many of them rare and fine 
editions of classic works in beautiful binding. Then there is 
tiie valuable, and in some respects unique, collection of overdo 
volumes almost exclusively connected with music, and especially 
with the music of Scotland, which Mr. James Walker, of this 
city, after spending many years and much money in bringing it 
together, wisely and generously handed over to the Public 
Library as its proper home, and to it, I am happy to say, he 
still makes additions. Lastly, I may mention the collection of 
some i, 600 volumes which belonged to my brother, the late 
Professor Croom Robertson, and which is specially rich in works 
of philosophical and sociological interest. These three collec- 
tions, while as to their subj ect matter they are ranked in the general 
stock of the library, are each kept together and apart, so that 
they form enduring memorials of the interest which those whose 
names they bear severally took in the library. And surely no 
better way could be found of keeping green the memory of anyone 
in the community with which he was connected, than this of a 
good collection of books, which is ever before the eyes of the 
citizens and of which all are freely invited to make use. 

The Public Libraries of Aberdeen. n 

Of the Anderson Library at Woodside, it is not necessary 
that I should say much. Founded in 1881 by Sir John 
Anderson, a native of Woodside, who, largely by dint of his own 
energies and intelligence, rose from the humblest circumstances 
to the position of Superintendent of Machinery of the War 
Department, it was a proof at once of his sense of the value and 
pleasure of books, and of his laudable desire to impregnate the 
inhabitants of his birth-place with similar ideas. Sir John lived 
to see his library, consisting of some 10,000 volumes, organized 
and installed in an elegant building, erected at his own cost ; and 
at his death, which took place in 1886, he left a small fund for 
behoof of the library. For some time after its opening it was 
attended with marked success ; but unfortunately, this success 
has not been maintained ; and of late instead, a spirit of something 
like apathy and neglect would seem to have prevailed. During 
last year, while the lending department has had a roll of 1,300, 
the number of actual borrowers has hardly exceeded 500 ; while 
that of those who have made use of the reference department has 
been so small as to be scarcely worth estimating. For this want 
of appreciation of what was intended to be a great public boon, 
some may be disposed to find an explanation in an intellectual 
inferiority, or, at least, in a lack of taste for reading in the 
inhabitants of Woodside. But it would be as unwise as weak 
thus to cast a slur on a whole community, and ride off on the 
easy assumption that it suffered from a double dose of original 
unregenerateness. We may safely say, I think, that the district 
has yet to be discovered which will not gladly avail itself of 
a library, provided it is conducted on sound principles, and with 
a due regard to the tastes and requirements of its readers. 
I suspect, therefore, that for the explanation of failure in the 
Anderson Library we must look elsewhere; and that we are 
likely to find it in defects arising from smallness of funds, lack of 
knowledge and sympathy, and a general want of go and touch. 
If this diagnosis be correct, then the remedy is not far to seek. 
Now that Woodside is an integral part of the city of Aberdeen, 
the Anderson Library should be affiliated to its Public Library, 
from the larger life and greater wealth of which it could not fail 
to draw the vigour which would restore it to its pristine condi- 
tion, and enable it to realise the hopes of its founder. 

But now I must have done. My narrative, with all its de- 
fects, has, I trust, not been without its interest ; nor yet, if you 
agree with me, has it been wanting in signs of hopefulness and 

12 The Library. 

encouragement. Though so far removed from the most active 
centres of library work and life, we in Aberdeen have yet felt the 
impulse which in recent years has stirred them, and we have 
profited by their experience. And now, when we have been 
fortunate enough to bring their prime movers bodily into our 
midst, we are surely indulging in no vain hope that, as a result of 
their visit, we shall feel a yet greater stimulus and inspiration for 
the future. 


The Classification of Books in the Natural Sciences.* 

MY interest has been considerable for some time in the 
subject of this paper, and has been awakened from 
several sides. The theoretical interest that every student of 
Natural Science should have in observing classification sys- 
tematically applied has been deepened for me by being brought 
face to face with some of the difficulties of organisation in our 
University Library. The problems that arise have been yet 
more vividly impressed on me during an attempt to work out 
the parallel task of putting into practical form a classification 
suited for use in a botanical museum, to be applied so soon as 
the extension of our buildings, now in progress, has included the 
botanical, department. 

I have naturally sought to become acquainted with the 
schemes of classification that have been published, such as 
those of Dewey (with its modification by Mann), Cutter, 
Scudder and others, as well as with the distribution of subjects 
in the annual records of the several Sciences. The result has 
been to make me realise at once how much to be desired a good 
system is, and how many and great are the difficulties in the 
way, that must be overcome before one can be formed. I wish 
to come as a pupil in the hope that a statement of some difficul- 
ties may elicit a discussion in which light may be cast on the 
best methods of overcoming them. 

There is no question that the relative location must supersede 
the fixed system in every living library, whichever modification 
be adopted. Dewey's Decimal System has great merits, but it 
has defects that are self-evident ; and the same holds good of 
every system, so far as I am acquainted with them. Moreover the- 
requirements of a general library differ so much from those of a. 
specialist that it is not easy to reconcile the two. There are 
comparatively few books that may not fall under more than one; 
division, in any relative scheme, according to the special point 
from which they are regarded, e.g., Bates' Naturalist on the 
River Amazon may be classed under Scientific Travels, or under 

* Read before the Library Association, Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

j^ 'The Library. 

Natural History, or under Brazil. The decision is still more diffi- 
cult as regards books that include widely different topics. Journals 
and other periodicals are specially difficult to class ; while publi- 
cations of many learned societies are almost as troublesome. 
Such books as that first referred to will probably be found under 
different heads in different libraries, according to the views of 
the librarians ; while periodicals will receive special locations ; not 
being assigned to the separate subjects, save when devoted to 
single departments of knowledge. But the specialist desires 
to have all works that treat on his special department 
brought together, and, as far as practicable, subjected to 
close classification under this great division, otherwise he is apt 
to overlook information of importance. How can these different 
standpoints best be brought into harmony ? Should it be effected 
by full cross references ? If so, these would require to include 
references to at least the more important papers contained in the 
several books or periodicals placed under heads apart from the 
one in question. 

In the several sciences there are often parallelisms that are 
helpful to the memory, and that it is well to indicate by corres- 
ponding series in the library. This is peculiarly the case in the 
more closely related sciences, e.g., Botany and Zoology. This is 
recognised to some extent in most systems ; but it might be more 
fully recognised. In all classifications it is desirable that, so far 
as possible, the various grades should be of nearly equivalent 
importance, apart from the mere number of subordinates in each. 

The succession of groups should also be, in so far as possible, 
a natural one, with no serious dislocations ; nor should groups 
be associated when they have little in common, nor should they 
include sub-divisions that are not akin. The several groups 
should be so well defined that each heading should appear but 
once in the scheme, nor should it be too closely approached by 
some other heading elsewhere. The neglect of these points 
leads to difficulty in assigning books to their several positions, 
and to equal difficulty in securing that all the information on 
each subject is accessible. Under the several sciences it is not 
advisable to assign fixed numbers or symbols very minutely in 
the sections devoted to the groups in classifications. It is probable 
that the larger divisions, and many of the smaller ones also, that 
are now recognised by specialists will continue to be so ; but even 
these must be subject to revision in the light of wider knowledge, 
and there is almost the certainty of more or less extensive changes 

The Classification of Books in the Natural Sciences. 15 

in the relative positions assigned to them. The libraries should 
not stereotype shifting views in Science. 

Classification in libraries appears to resemble in many points 
classification in the Natural Sciences. In each, the growth of 
knowledge has made classification necessary. In each, it was 
artificial for a time, the alphabetical author-catalogue resembling 
the artificial systems in Science. In each, the need of better 
methods has led to the search after a truer basis of classification, 
which has given us the natural systems in the Natural Sciences 
and the arrangement by subjects in libraries. In each, there is 
much to be done in reaching on to a higher goal ; and in each it 
is unlikely that a perfect system will ever be attained. In each, 
evolution is the key to the line of progress. Librarians have 
their own special difficulties to meet; but you have one great 
advantage in not having to make allowance for the many missing 
links, as we must in Botany and in Zoology. A most serious 
difficulty common to both is the necessity in actual use of 
attempting to express in linear arrangement the very complex 
relationships that exist between the several groups. 

Dewey's "Decimal Classification and Relative Index" is doubt- 
less well known to you all. Its value is attested by the number 
of libraries in which it, or some modification of it, is used ; and 
its use continues to spread, until there is reason to anticipate its 
predominance, at least in countries where English is spoken. 
Its simplicity and power of sub-division render it very attractive, 
and its excellent index is an immense advantage. But just 
because of these good qualities, and of the position that it has in 
consequence secured, it may become a danger to true progress. 
As with the Linnean system in Botany, its adherents may be- 
come so satisfied with it as to refuse to improve upon it, or to try 
to advance to any better one. Its relative excellence makes it 
desirable to examine in how far it supplies our needs, and to 
subject it to criticism from this point of view. My remarks will 
apply to the 4th edition, published in 1891. 

A full analysis of the treatment of " Natural Science" in it, 
including certain departments that fall under this also, though 
placed for convenience under other heads, would occupy much 
time. I will confine myself to a far more limited task, viz., the 
consideration of a few points as examples, taken from the divi- 
sions with which I am most familiar. 

The first fact that strikes one is the absence of gaps to provide 
for future extensions of knowledge. Yet experience warrants the 

16 The Library. 

belief that new departments will arise co-ordinate in value with 
those now recognised, and that cannot find a natural place in the 
scheme as it stands. The subject of Evolution, with its many 
offshoots, is a striking example of this kind of recent growth. 

Division 570, Biology, Ethnology, is a very unnatural group. 
It is true that it is much more easy to find fault than to point out 
a remedy ; but the collocation of so widely different topics as it 
includes is unsuitable. Some of them would fall naturally into 
other groups. The results in such a case as this remind us of 
the traditional bed of Procrustes ; and warn us of the grave 
danger of being carried away by the attractive symmetry of the 
method of classification. 

The division contains: i. Prehistoric Archaeology; 2. Eth- 
nology ; 3. Natural History of Man ; 4. Homologies ; 5. Evolu- 
tion, Species ; 6. Origins and Beginnings of Life ; 7. Properties 
of Living Matter ; 8. Microscopy ; 9. Collectors' Manuals. 
Every biologist must recognise the advantage of having a loca- 
tion for books treating of Biology, as distinct from its divisions, 
Botany and Zoology. More and more clearly do we recognise 
the close bond between the two Sciences, and that many parts 
of Biology should be treated so as to keep this bond in view. 
The division may be usefully retained for Biology, freed from 
several of the subjects associated with it by Dewey ; while their 
places may be occupied by subordinate groups not recognised in 
this connection by him. 

" Prehistoric Archaeology" surely belongs to " History" or to 
the " Arts" rather than to " Biology". 

" Ethnology," in so far as it relates to historical matters, 
would also more naturally fall under " History " or " Customs 
and Popular Life " ; while, as regards man as an animal alone, 
it should find a place, along with the " Natural History of Man," 
under " Zoology". 

" Microscopy " is not well placed in this division. The 
microscope is, it is true, indispensable to biologists ; but it is 
scarcely less indispensable to many other workers in science. The 
subject would be better placed under " 507, Methods of Teaching 
and Studying," while the methods peculiar to each Science should 
be placed under a corresponding number in that Science. 

ID like manner "579, Collectors' Manuals" usually relate to 
more than Biology, and should find a place under the wider head, 
with a corresponding number under each Science for the few 
limited works restricted to it. 

The Classification of Books in the Natural Sciences. 17 

Turning now to the relative location of the subjects that 
remain under " Biology, Ethnology," their arrangement scarcely 
appears natural. A preferable one would appear to be " Origin 
and Beginnings of Life," " Properties of Living Matter," " Ho- 
mologies," " Evolution ". To these might be added headings for 
Pathology (in so far as due to causes, or producing effects, common 
to plants and animals), and Distribution both in space (Geogra- 
phical) and in time (Geological) in so far as these affect the pro- 
blems of Biology. 

Divisions 580 (Botany) and 590 (Zoology) show a want of 
balance in eight sub-divisions being devoted to classification 
alone, and one only to the Physiological and Structural depart- 
ments of the Sciences. The latter sub-division is overcrowded to 
a most inconvenient degree. 

It may be noted that the order of succession is reversed in 
the classification of plants and of animals, passing from higher 
to lower forms in the former, from lower to higher in the latter. 

Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum, the authority 
followed in the arrangement of the Natural Orders in Botany, 
will probabty retain its well-deserved position in English-speaking 
countries for years to come. But in the Natural Sciences there 
is not yet a stable classification ; and among plants especially it 
is most difficult to determine which orders should be regarded as 
the most highly developed. Is it then advisable to stereotype in 
the libraries a classification that is liable to great changes ? 

Under Zoology there is a section " 599^9, Bimana ". This 
would appear to be the proper location of the " Natural History 

Returning for a moment to the " Physiological " sub-divisions 
under each of the two Sciences, we find that it is divided into 
i. Physiology; 2. Pathology; 3. Embryology; 4. Morphology 
and Comparative Anatomy; 5. Habits; 6. Economic; 7. Organo- 
graphy and Descriptive Anatomy; 8. Histology; 9. Geographical 

It is needless to dwell on this arrangement as by no means 
placing together the groups naturally related to one another. 

The Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology of Man are not to 
be found under Zoology, as one might expect, but under Medicine, 
as 611 and 612. 

The Economic sections of Botany and Zoology are much 
restricted, the useful products being distributed under such 
headings as 615, Materia Medica ; 630-39, Agriculture; 664, 

jg The Library. 

Foods ; 665, Oils, etc. ; 668-4, Gums and Resins ; 670, Manu- 
factures ; 694, Carpentry ; 710, 712, 715, 716, Landscape Garden- 
ing, etc. 

I must apologise for so long a criticism and one that may 
appear so unfavourable of a scheme that is so ingenious and so 
excellent in many respects. It proceeds from no want of admira- 
tion of the ability so conspicuous in every page ; but rather from 
the belief that the scheme offers a basis for the system of the 
future, and that hostile criticism is useful in so far as it may 
serve to point out weaknesses and defects, since even though it 
may fail to show how to secure a remedy for such, it may yet 
tend, by exciting discussion, to the remedy being secured, and to 
the usefulness of the system being extended. 


On the Advantage of Occasional Exhibitions of the 
more Rare and Valuable Books in Public Libraries.* 

MY aim in writing this paper has been to bring under the 
notice of the members of this Association the desirability 
of each Public Library in the kingdom holding occasionally an 
exhibition of the rare, curious and illustrated books contained 
therein, in order that the Library may be popularised and its trea- 
sures introduced to a larger circle of readers. The reference de- 
partments of many Free Libraries, one must admit, are not so 
frequently used as their importance demands. Valuable folios 
and quartos lie on the shelves and are seldom consulted, because 
the public are not acquainted with them, and thus the Library is 
not appreciated as it might be. If the public are slow in intro- 
ducing themselves to the books, then an effort ought to be made 
to introduce the books to the public, and one of the most effective 
ways of doing this is by exhibiting them. 

In St. Helens two book exhibitions have taken place in con- 
nection with the Free Library, but as they were conducted on 
totally different lines, it would be better, perhaps, to refer to each 

In the first place, I ought to state that any credit in regard to 
these two book exhibitions is due to a member of the Library 
Committee with whom the idea originated. 

The first exhibition took place on Easter Sunday, 6th April, 
1890, when the large assembly-room in the Town Hall was 
placed at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. A 
short notice appeared in the local papers, and on small placards, 
stating that the exhibition would be open free to the public from 
2 till 8 o'clock, P.M., and a few thousand handbills were sent to 
the various works in the borough, with a request that they 
might be distributed among the workmen. A number of long 
tables, covered with crimson cloth, were provided for the books, 
which numbered about 200 volumes, and included among 
others the following subjects : Painting and sculpture, industrial, 

* Read before the Library Association, Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

20 The Library. 

decorative, and ornamental art, architecture, natural history,, 
numismatics, and Lancashire antiquarian, historical, and pic- 
torial. There were also books containing portraits of celebrities, 
landscape and other views, and also curious, comic and humorous 
volumes. Several members of the Library Committee, together 
with the Library staff, and other willing helpers, were present to 
assist in turning over the leaves, and to see that no injury happened 
to any of the books. During the exhibition selections of sacred 
music, instrumental and vocal, were rendered at frequent inter- 
vals. The Chairman, and two or three members of the Library 
Committee, addressed the visitors, emphasising the fact that the 
volumes on view were only a small number of those which 
comprised the reference library, and that the books were brought 
there, not only for the purpose of showing the public some of the 
treasures the Library possessed, but with a view to a better 
appreciation and use of the Library by the public, for whose 
benefit it had been established. The exhibition was attended by 
about 1,200 persons, and it was evident from the many manifesta- 
tions of delight and praise that the books were thoroughly enjoyed 
and appreciated by the visitors. The total cost of the exhibition 
did not exceed six guineas. 

The second book exhibition took place during the summer 
of this year and lasted two months. It was held at the Victoria 
Park Museum, a short distance from the Central Library, in two 
rooms well adapted for the purpose. Of course valuable books of 
reference could not be allowed to remain exposed to visitors 
for so long a period as two months without running serious risk 
of damage, so a number of show-cases were obtained in which 
the more expensive books were placed, the leaves and illustra- 
tions being occasionally turned over by an attendant ; neverthe- 
less, visitors were allowed the privilege of obtaining any book 
from the show-cases for more careful and minute inspection. 
Against the walls were fixed stands on which were placed 
a number of inexpensive, illustrated volumes to which the 
visitors were allowed free access. Some really good pictures, 
chiefly oil paintings, were borrowed, on condition that they would 
be offered for sale, and these helped to relieve the sombre 
appearance of the walls and heightened the general effect of the 
exhibition. On each book in the show-cases was placed a small 
cardboard slip containing the title, author, and date, and, where 
necessary, a reference to any special feature of the volume, and 
in addition a catalogue of the most notable books and of all the 

Book Exhibitions in Public Libraries. 21 

pictures was printed and sold for a penny, a little more than cost 
price. A notice appeared in the catalogue stating that the Com- 
mittee requested the co-operation of the visitors in protecting 
from injury the books which were exposed on the stands, while a 
second notice was posted above the book-stands round the rooms 
requesting visitors to turn over the leaves carefully. 

It is gratifying to be able to state that the total damage done 
during the two months was very slight, when the large number of 
visitors is taken into account. The catalogue also stated that the 
books on view were the property of the Corporation of St. Helens, 
that they had been selected from a stock of nearly five thousand 
volumes, which formed the reference department of the 
Free Public Library, and a hope was expressed that the 
exhibition might be the means of bringing under the notice of 
the public some of the more interesting books in the Library, so 
that they might be more frequently called for and consulted. The 
list of books included several elephant folios, such as Roberts's 
Holy Land, Hogarth's Works, and others, which were too large 
to exhibit in glazed cases, but which were obtainable for reference 
from the attendant from time to time when convenient ; a notice 
appearing in the catalogue to that effect. The only advertise- 
ment was a small placard posted at the park, which is visited by 
thousands of persons during the summer months, at the Central 
and Branch Libraries, and on the various posting stations in the 
borough. Books relating to the history, topography, and indus- 
tries of St. Helens and the surrounding district, were made a 
special feature of the exhibition, and caused a considerable 
amount of interest, several visitors expressing their intention of 
becoming better acquainted with the volumes on their return to 
the Library. Others evinced great pleasure in looking over the 
fine art and illustrated books, and several who spoke to me about 
the exhibition expressed their delight on learning, for the first 
time, that the books belonged to the Free Library, remarking 
that they had no idea such treasures could be seen there. In 
order to prevent over-crowding, a nominal charge of one penny 
was made for admission, and the attendance on the whole, was 
very satisfactory, numbering over 4,000 persons. The total 
receipts for admissions, sale of catalogues, and commission on 
pictures sold, amounted to the sum of ig 35. gd., which, after 
deducting printing and working expenses, left a small balance to 
the credit of the Library. 

In this account of the two book exhibitions which have taken 

22 The Library. 

place in connection with the St. Helens Free Library I have 
endeavoured to give you a brief outline of what has been 
attempted and of the pleasing success resulting therefrom. If 
only a few students and readers are induced to make use of the 
Library through visiting a book exhibition, it will not have been 
held in vain, but apart from any numerical gain in the way of 
new readers it would give pleasure and satisfaction to hundreds 
who rarely, if ever, make use of the Library, and thus the " people's- 
university " would be popularised and its influence for good ex- 

In conclusion I would ask members to give this matter their 
earnest attention. Let them by way of experiment have a local 
exhibition on either of the two plans named and I feel sure they 
will be gratified by the result, for in the words of the late Lord 
Neaves, a celebrated Scotch lawyer and something of a poet : 

" To have a thing is little, if you're not allowed to show it, 
And to know a thing is nothing, unless others know you know it." 


Xegal IRotes anfc (Slueries. 

UNDER this heading will appear, from time to time, questions on 
Public Library Law, with the answers given thereto, by the Honorary 
Solicitor of the Library Association, Mr. H. W. FOVARGUE, Town Clerk, 
of Eastbourne, joint author of Public Library Legislation. 

Questions should be sent direct to the Hon. Solicitor, who will, when 
possible, send his reply by post, but in every case the right is reserved of 
publishing both question and answer in THE LIBRARY. 

[NOTE. The Hon. Solicitor requests us to say that several questions were put 
to him by members during the Aberdeen Meeting, of which he kept no note. If 
these questions are now sent to him in writing, he will be glad to reply to them by 



On page 103 of Public Library Legislation, you insert the Technical 
Instruction Act, 1889, "in view of the probable application by Free 
Library and Museum Committees for a grant," &c. Kindly let me know 
under what clause of what Act such application can be made. 

Page 104 (d) seems to give such power to the managers of "an 
institution " in the receipt of aid from the Department of Science and 
Art. No doubt a Free Library is an institution, but must it be first in 
the receipt of aid from the Department of Science and Art? 

Am I correct in supposing that a Free Library, having classes for 
higher or technical instruction may hope for money from three sources, 
besides the Parish rate ? 

i. Science and Art Department. 

2. County Rate, under the Technical Education Act. 

3. Contribution under the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 

We are endeavouring to carry the Public Libraries Act in this small 
rural parish, and Public Library Legislation has not given me the very 
definite information I want as to when and how the Library Commis- 
sioners can work the Technical Instruction Act .... 

A. B. 

We desire to send in a requisition for a poll on the Public Library 
Acts ; I cannot find in Public Library Legislation the exact form for 
such requisition. Will you kindly tell me where to find a copy of the 
necessary form ? We have sent in one form, duly signed, but it has been 
returned because unfortunately not in due form. 

A. B. 


I presume your parish is not in an urban district [see Public Libraries 
Act, 1892, section I (2)] ; therefore your requisition must be addressed and 
delivered to the Overseers. I think the following form complies with 
section 3 (i) of the Act : 

24 The Library. 

To the Overseers of the Poor for the Parish of 

We, the undersigned, being ten or more voters in the Parish aforesaid, being 
a Library District within the meaning of the Public Libraries Act, 1892, do 
hereby require you (as the authority mentioned in section 3 of the said Act) 
to ascertain the opinion of the voters in the said Parish as to the adoption of 
the said Act for the said Parish. 

Dated this day of 18 

(To be signed by ten or more County Electors.) 

Name Address No. on Register of County Electors. 

A. B., of &c.,&c. 

You may, if you please, add to the requisition, 

" and whether they are in favour of the rate being limited to one halfpenny 

in the pound," 

or as set forth on page 45 of the Legislation Manual, but note section 3 
(2) on page 4. 

As regards the payment of a portion of the Technical Education Grant 
to a Free Library Committee, see the note on page 1 14 of the Manual. 
This refers more to Boroughs than Parishes. There is no specific pro- 
vision in the Public Libraries or Technical Instruction Acts, suggesting 
that Free Library Committees should make application for a grant, but 
there is nothing to prevent their doing so. On the other hand, while a 
County Council is not prevented from making such a grant, they cannot 
be compelled to do so, the funds being in their hands to deal with as they 
see fit, subject to the provisions of the Statutes. If you are already pro- 
viding " Technical or Manual Instruction " (see pages 106 and 107) in 
your Parish, you may ask for aid from the County Council, and the 
Council may make such grant as it sees fit (see section i [2] of the Local 
Taxation [Customs and Excise] Act, 1890, p. 114). The grant to East- 
bourne is paid by the County Council under section I (3) of that Act, but 
that sub-section does not apply to a parish such as yours. If, however, 
you are not actually carrying on such work, but only contemplate doing 
it after the adoption of the Public Libraries Act, then I think the best 
course in that event would be for the new Library Commissioners to 
address a letter to the Organising Secretary, or the Clerk of the County 
Council, to the effect that if the Council can see its way to make a grant 
in aid of Technical Instruction, the Commissioners would be willing to 
act as " the local committee " on behalf of the County Council, to make 
the necessary arrangements. I think, too, you could urge the County 
Council to make a special grant for one or more of the purposes enume- 
rated in the note on p. 114. The County Council is not restricted to the 
making of grants only to institutions receiving aid from the Science and 
Art Department. It may, and doubtless has, organised its own lectures 
and classes, and in many counties the councils are only too glad to find 
a local committee in a parish willing to assist them in their efforts, but I 
must again observe that it really is a matter of favour, and not of right. 

The Science and Art Department pays grants on the results of the 
examinations in science and art classes, as to which you should consult 
the Science and Art Directory, to be obtained from the Department for 
one shilling. 

It also makes grants towards the erection of buildings, the conditions 
being set forth in the Directory. 

Subject to the foregoing observations I reply to your queries I, yes ; 
2, yes, though such a " rate " is not made in any county to my know- 
ledge ; 3, yes. 


The County Register recognises two classes of voters, which it defines 
as County Electors and Parliamentary Electors. Section 27 of the Act 

Legal Notes and Queries. 25 

seems to me to carry with it that both these classes are " voters " under 
the Public Libraries Act, and that, therefore, women may be voters if 
qualified. Is this so ? 

The penalty for collecting voting papers without an authorisation in 
writing is very severe under Sec. 9 of Schedule i, but there seems to be 
no special form for such authorisation. 

A. B. 


Only the voters whose names appear in Division I and Division 3 of 
the Lists of Voters can vote upon any question under the Public 
Libraries Act. The names in Division 2 are those of Parliamentary 
Electors who are not County Electors or Burgesses. The names of any 
women electors will appear in Division 3, and they are entitled to vote. 
No special form is provided for the appointment of a collector, but the 
appointment is to be by the District Authority, z>., in a parish, the over- 
seers. I think the following would be sufficient : 

Parish of 

We, the undersigned, being the Overseers of the Parish of 
and the District Authority within the meaning of the Public Libraries Act, 
1892, and the regulations made thereby for ascertaining the opinion of the 
voters in the Parish, do hereby appoint Mr. of 

to (deliver and) collect the voting papers for ascertaining the opinion of the 
voters in the said Parish pursuant to the provisions of the said Act and 

Dated this day of 189 . 

The form would require amendment according as the district is a 
borough, urban district or parish. 

THE PENNY LIMIT (Section 2, Public Libraries Act, 1892). 

I read the Act (Section 2) as allowing successive pennies to be imposed 
in successive years, thus utterly altering the fundamental principle of the 
old Acts. I can see no other interpretation. 

May an addition of a penny be made to the rate each year till the 
rate reaches a sum undefined by the Act ? Or, in other words, is it not 
the case that there is no restriction left on the total amount of the rate 
except that in the first year it cannot exceed a penny, and that no annual 
increase may exceed a penny ? 


Section 2(1) distinctly provides that the rate for one financial year 
shall not exceed one penny in the pound. The words " or addition to a 
rate" are, as stated in Public Library Legislation, new. They are both 
unnecessary and confusing, but they simply mean that where a limit of, say, 
a halfpenny or three-farthings has been fixed by the ratepayers in the first 
instance, any addition which may be made under Section 2 (2) to that limit 
must not make the rate at any time more than one penny in the pound. I 
appreciate your reading of Section 2 (i), which would be that an addition to a 
rate shall not be levied for any one financial year to an amount exceeding 
one penny in the pound, but it must be borne in mind that the Act of 
1892 is mainly a Consolidating Act, and that the words are really inserted 
for the purpose of strengthening the limit of one penny imposed by the 
old Act. 

26 The Library. 



I shall be glad if you will give me some information on the following 
queries: (a) Under the Act of 1892, are commissioners compelled to 
spend the whole of their income during the current year ? (b) Or is it 
legal for them to reserve a sum each year for future alterations and 
repairs ? 


In my opinion (a) there is no provision in the Acts compelling commis- 
sioners to spend the whole of their income during the current year, but 
their expenses in any year are to be such amount as is sanctioned by the 
District Board (Section 22 [3]), and of course that body might not sanc- 
tion the raising of money to be carried over from one year to another. I 
presume you have observed in the section referred to the only limit on 
the District Board is with regard to the amount of the rate which it may 
levy for the purposes of the Act, and that the words " or expend " which 
were in the old Act have been omitted. I am presuming that your 
library is in a Metropolitan District, and subject, therefore, to Section 22. 
You will find this question discussed at page 3, note c. of Public Library 

(b} Any balance in hand at the end of a financial year must be 
brought into the next year's accounts (see the form of statement of 
accounts, page 28 of Public Library Legislation). There seems to me to 
be nothing in the Act to prevent the accumulation of balances for future 
alterations and repairs, except the power of veto in the District Board of 
Works upon the amount of expenses which it may sanction. If you have 
any difficulty, I think you might create a sinking fund for future altera- 
tions and repairs, and charge payments into it as part of the expenses, 
though, so far as regards the District Auditor, I cannot see that he would 
have any power to question the accounts unless the amount " levied " 
exceeded the limit imposed by the Act or the ratepayers. 



The County Council refuse to help us in purchasing books of 
a technical and industrial nature upon the ground that this is a rate- 
supported institution, and, therefore, outside their pale. Now, seeing 
that County Boroughs are already being largely assisted from revenue 
obtained from the Excise and Customs Act, how is it that County Councils 
ignore our claims for help under the same Act ? 


I much regret that in a non-County Borough there is no obligation on 
the County Council to allocate any portion of the Customs and Excise 
duties to the Town Council. In East Sussex the County Council pay 
the Town Council its proportion on the basis of rateable value. There 
is nothing to prevent the use of these funds for the purchase of books 
suitable for technical instruction, but, on the other hand, there is no 
power to compel the County Council (or even the Town Council if the 
grant were made to them) to do this. 



We are charged ^2 145. 4d. for collection of the rate, and .9 as 
proportion of Town Clerk's and Chamberlain's salaries. Can you inform 
me if this is the regular practice ; as our whole income is only 
179 is. id.? 

Legal Notes and Queries. 27 


In my opinion there is no power to charge for the collection of the 
rate. The Library Committee are entitled, under section 30 of the 
Public Libraries (Scotland) Act, 1887, to the amount of their estimated 
expenses, so long as they do not exceed the rate limit. As regards the 
Town Clerk's and Chamberlain's salaries, it is, of course, competent for 
the Library Committee to appoint a salaried clerk (section 21), and if 
it suits the convenience of the Committee to have the services of the 
Town Clerk, it is only fair that a proportion of his salary should be 
charged to the rate. As regards the Chamberlain, unfortunately I am 
not acquainted with his duties or with the services he renders for the 
Library Committee, who may appoint salaried " officers," and if he per- 
forms any services for the Library Committee, a proportion of his salary 
would be perfectly legal, but not otherwise. 


Can you inform my Committee of any Public Libraries which have 
special power under a local Act, separate and distinct from the Public 
Libraries Act to enforce the Rules adopted for the management of the 
respective Institutions ? As our Town Clerk is in doubt whether the 
Act which empowers Library Committees to adopt Rules also empowers 
the enforcing of them, I should be glad of your opinion on the matter. 


Your Town Clerk will find in the Manual on Public Library Legis- 
lation issued by the Association at page 80, et seq., extracts from the 
Manchester and Sheffield Local Acts giving special powers to those 
Corporations to enforce regulations and bye-laws. 

In my opinion there is a defect in the Public Libraries Act, 1892, 
inasmuch as no specific power is provided for enforcing Rules and 
Regulations when made. An amending Bill has been drafted by the 
Secretary and myself which, if passed, will remove these and other 
objections to the Public Libraries Acts. The Bill will, I hope, be 
introduced by Sir John Lubbock next Session. 

28 The Library. 

The Guildhall Library and its Work. By Charles Welch, F.S.A. 
An Address delivered at a meeting of the Library Associa- 
tion, held in the Guildhall in April, 1889. 

It appears now with additions, illustrations, and an appendix. Begin- 
ning with the formation of the Library in 1425, the author traces its 
growth and development up to 1888, when the number of books 
amounted to over 40,000 works, contained in 57,116 volumes, besides 
27,075 pamphlets. The following paragraph shows the character of the 
books read : " It is gratifying to observe that fiction amounts to only 
16.56 per cent., history and magazines each 7.04, theology 6.6, biography 
5.37, useful arts 5.28, science 4.58, poetry 4.49, topography 4.4, philology 
3.34, foreign literature 3.25, genealogy 3.17, Encyclopaedia Britannica2.73, 
fine arts 2.64, travels 2.46, philosophy 2.37, Greek and Latin classics 2.20, 
music 2. 02, archaeology 1.49, politics 1.32, commerce 1.23, drama 1.14, law 
10.6 and bibliography 0.35." (Printed under the direction of the Library, 

IRecorfc of Bibliograpbp ant> OLibrat^ ^Literature. 

English Book-plates, ancient and modern. By Egerton Castle, 
M.A., F.S.A. London: George Bell & Sons, 1893. Svo. pp. 
352. Price los. 6d. nett. 

In this new edition of Mr. Egerton Castle's interesting handbook of 
the history of English Book-plates, Messrs. Bell and Sons have literally 
outdone themselves in the liberality of their illustrations. In the first 
edition, as we noted at the time, these were plentiful enough, but their 
number must now be augmented by more than a half. It is true that 
a few notable plates have been withdrawn ; the beautiful specimens of 
Sherborn's work, executed for Mr. and Mrs. Cyril Flower (now Lord 
and Lady Battersea) being the most to be regretted. Mr. Sherborn, 
however, is well represented in the present edition by copies, struck 
from the original coppers, of his plates for Mr. William Robinson (show- 
ing a portrait of Erasmus, and much fine foliage- work), for Mr. Thomas 
Swanbrook Glazebrook (a good example of a heraldic plate), for Lord 
Wolseley (a fine piece of work, but too crowded), and for Lord de Tabley, 
the last being hardly in his best style. A novel feature has been intro- 
duced into the present edition by three examples of eighteenth century 
plates (those of Edgerton Smith of Preston, ca. 1725 ; of John Henslow, 
ca. 1780 ; and the son of Captain Cook, ca. 1785) ; all of them printed from 
the original coppers. Two interesting portrait plates are also now given, 
both originals ; the first, an etching by Paul Avril, executed for Mr. H. S. 
Ashbee ; the second, " a photo-etching from a pen-drawing by Agnes 
Castle," showing Mr. Walter Herries Pollock in a forest, apparently wait- 
ing to fight someone. The new illustrations in the text, as opposed to 
these more important plates, are so numerous that we cannot notice 
them individually. Some of them are excellent in every respect ; others 
too deliberately fantastic for a design which ex hypothesi is to stare its 
owner in the face from the covers of some hundreds of volumes. All of 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 29 

them, however, are interesting as showing the tendency of modern taste, 
and we can only admire the perseverance of Mr. Castle, or of Mr. Gleeson 
White (the editor of the Ex-Libris Series, of which this volume forms part), 
in getting together so large and representative a collection. As regards 
Mr. Castle's letterpress, his preface speaks of the whole work as having 
been re-modelled ; a phrase rather stronger than the amount of alteration 
we have been able to discover seems to us to warrant. In the interval 
between the two editions, Mr. W. J. Hardy's work on book-plates, in the 
series of Books about Books, has appeared ; and Mr. Castle here makes 
some slight use of it, with many courteous acknowledgments. With the 
aid of Mr. Fincham he has also greatly enlarged his Bibliographical 
Appendix, so that it now includes " every published account of a literary 
allusion to English book-plates that might prove of interest to the ex- 
librist? Altogether this enlarged edition of his book is very handsome 
and fascinating ; and we cannot doubt but that it will be as successful as 
its predecessors, which speedily went out of print. 

Printers' Marks : a Chapter in the History of Typography. 
By W. Roberts, editor of "The Bookworm." London: 
George Bell &> Sons, 1893, 8vo. pp. xv. 261. Price 75. 6d. 

Like other volumes in the pretty Ex-Libris Series, to which it belongs, 
Mr. Roberts' book is avowedly "popular" in its intention, and does not 
emulate the exhaustive research which we applauded in our notice of 
Dr. Kristeller's Die Italienische Buchdrucker und Verlegerzeichen a short 
time ago. His book, however, is both entertaining and instructive, and, 
having regard to the limits which its inclusion in the series necessarily 
imposed on it, a more systematic method of treatment was, perhaps, 
impossible. Mr. Roberts would, indeed, have been in a better position 
for attempting this if he had adopted a more natural sequence in his 
chapters than the patriotic, but rather unscientific order England, 
France, Germany, Holland, Italy and Spain. The German printers 
carried their marks with them into almost every country into which they 
helped to introduce the art of printing. The influence of the marks used 
by the Italian printers is very observable in many French examples ; and 
the French marks, again, greatly influenced those both of England and 
Spain. Mr. Roberts partly atones for his mistaken arrangement by an 
introductory chapter in which he endeavours to give a general survey of 
his subject, but his deviation from the scientific order in working out his 
subject in the different countries has left his own views less clear than 
they might be, and his introduction suffers accordingly. In justice, 
indeed, to Mr. Roberts, we are bound to point out that his first few pages 
offer by no means a fair specimen either of his powers or of this book as 
a whole. Thus, on page i, we have the unwary statement that " in the 
earlier stages of its history, at all events," the mark " was merely an 
attempt to prevent the inevitable pirate from reaping where he had not 
sown," a theory for which we believe there is no evidence whatever, 
except its apparent reasonableness to our modern conceptions. Unless 
we are greatly mistaken, until nearly the end of the fifteenth century 
there was no copyright either in letter-press, illustrations or devices. 
One printer copied from another, as one scribe had copied from another 
scribe, and the conception of piracy only grew up gradually. When we 
come to the granting of privilegia, we reach something approaching the 
modern law of copyright, and in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 

30 The Library. 

the device certainly came to be used as a trade-mark, and was dishonestly 
imitated along with the text of the book. But this belongs to the middle 
or later stages of its history, not to the earlier. 

On p. 2, Mr. Roberts confronts us with the remark that in the case of 
incunabula, without the name of the printer or place of imprint, " the 
mark of the printer has almost invariably been the chief aid" in enabling 
bibliographers to " place " these books ; where, for " almost invariably," 
the strongest adverb that can be used is " occasionally." A little later 
on he writes : 

"A very natural question now suggests itself 'Who invented these 
marks?' Laire, 'Index Librorum ' (Soec. xv.) ii. 146, in speaking of a 
Greek psalter, says : Habet signaturas, registtum ac cusiodts, sed non 
numerantur folia. Lilterce principales ligno incises sunt, sicut et in prin- 
cipio cujuslibet psalmi viticulce qua gallicl vignettes appellantur, quaruni 
usum primus excogitavit Aldus. The volume here described was printed 
about 1495, and the invention, therefore, has been very generally attributed 
to Aldus. That this is not so, will be shown in the next chapter." 
But in the Latin sentence quoted, where is there a word about a 
printer's mark ? Viticultz clearly refers to head-pieces, which, as far as 
we know, Aldus was the first to use, imitating them from Greek manu- 
scripts. If Mr. Roberts had stopped to think, he would surely have seen 
that no printer would ever have placed his mark at the beginning of each 
of the hundred and fifty psalms ; just as, a few lines further on, he might 
have saved himself from charging Antoine Cayllaut with irreverence in 
a mark for which we have a peculiar affection, merely because he repre- 
sented in it his patron saint, not surely by way of pun, but as claiming 
S. Antony's protection for his books ! 

We have written at length on these statements, not because they are, 
but because they are not, fair samples of Mr. Roberts' work as a whole. 
His later pages are not entirely free from errors, but they contain a great 
deal of curious and interesting information, to which the numerous illus- 
trations give considerable value, and we should be sorry if these pre- 
liminary rashnesses prevented a pleasant little book from winning 
acceptance. For our own credit we have said the worst there was to say 
against Mr. Roberts' work, and, this said, we are free to recommend it 
with a clear conscience. 

Bouquinistes et Bouquineurs. Physiologie des quais de Paris 
du Pont Royal au Pont Sully. Par Octave Uzanne. Illus- 
trations d'E. Mas. Paris, 1893. 8y o- PP- xi. 318. Price 10 

The Book- Hunter in Paris ; Studies among the Bookstalls and 
the Quays. By Octave Uzanne. With a Preface by Augus- 
tine Birrell. London: Elliot Stock, 1893. 8vo. pp. xxv. 232. 
Price 2 is. 

The first point which suggests itself to a reviewer of M. Uzanne's 
amusing book and its English translation, is the interesting difference in 
their price. If it could be attributed to the presence in the English ver- 
sion of the seven-page preface, by Mr. Augustine Birrell, the author of 
Obiter Dicta should indeed be a proud man, for the English reader 
would be reckoned as willing to pay something over eighteenpence for 
the pleasure of reading each page of his little essay. We are afraid, 
however, that the real cause of the discrepancy is other than this, and 
must be traced to the fact, often alluded to in this magazine, of the much 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 31 

larger public to which a writer on books can appeal in France than in 
England, enabling the publisher to reckon on a far greater market for his 
venture and reduce its price accordingly. To read M. Uzanne in any 
other language than his own, is to deprive oneself of the pleasure offered 
by a very charming style, but the translator, as far as we can see, has done 
his work well, and his version reads well enough. A touch of classicism 
is natural in a Frenchman, and the author, in his 'historic prolegomena,' 
reminds us that the bookstall is not an invention of modern Europe. 
Aulus Gellius, in his Nodes Attica, tells us how, on landing at Brindisi, 
on his return from Greece to Italy, soon after leaving his ship he 
noticed a bookstall : 

" Immediately, with the eagerness of a book-lover, I ran to examine it. 
There was a collection of Greek books, full of fables, prodigies, strange and 
incredible narratives ; the authors were old writers whose names are of but 
mediocre authority; I found there Aristaeus of Proconesus, Isigonos of Nicsea, 
Ctesias, Onesicritus, Polystephanus, Hegesias and others. These books, 
much dilapidated and covered with ancient dust, looked wretched enough, 
but I asked the price of them. Its unexpected reasonableness led me at once 
to purchase them, and I carried away a great number of volumes, which I 
looked through during the two following nights." 

The purchaser who buys shabby books because they are cheap, has ever 
been the bookstall-man's best patron, and in the absence of confessions 
from earlier bookmen, Aulus Gellius must be reckoned as the father of all 
these. In France the tribe of Snuffy Davies found their earliest haunt 
on the Pont Neuf, which was at one time covered with stalls. But in 1649 
the more regular bookseller complained of their competition, and a royal 
edict was issued, whose preamble dwelt on the necessity to " restore to 
honour the printing and book trades, and to suppress whatever tends to 
their debasement." Despite the protests of the stall-keepers, this edict 
was enforced the following year, and amid the great lamentation of the 
humbler class of book-lovers the stalls were all swept away. As M. 
Uzanne justly observes, the contents of one of these old stalls, if it could 
now be resuscitated, might help to furnish a fashionable library ! 

Ejected from the Pont Neuf, the stall-keepers some twenty years 
later are found established on the banks of the Seine, where, in despite 
of edicts, they have managed to maintain their position down to the pre- 
sent day. Of the stall-keepers, both of the last generation and of the 
present, M. Octave Uzanne gives a graphic account. Naturally this is 
less interesting to English readers, to whom the names are but names 
and nothing more, than to the French book-lovers to whom the poor 
fellows of whom he writes are familiar personages. But the narrative is 
studded with little pictures, and these come to the aid of our imagination. 
The earnings of the stall-keepers are very small, fifteen francs being an 
average day's taking. Of this about one-half may be reckoned as gross 
profit, against which there must be many sets-off for books which have 
at length to be sold as waste-paper, and for the depredations of the 
book-thieves, to whose exploits a special chapter is devoted. The stall- 
keepers are not without their friends, among the chief of whom must 
have been M. Xavier Marmier, who not only paid royally for his 
occasional bargains, but in his will left a thousand francs to provide 
a grand dinner for his old friends, which was duly celebrated at 
Vefour's restaurant on the 2oth November, 1892. M. Uzanne reckons 
that there are now 156 stall-keepers on the quays, who own between 
them 1,636 boxes, which, on an average of sixty volumes, may be 
guessed to contain 97,260 books, and, on a taking of only ten francs 
a day for each proprietor, to yield a turnover of half-a-million francs 

a year 

32 The Library. 

public Xibrattes an& lectures. 


Central Library, 

Manresa Road, S.W., 

November i8/7z, 1893. 
The Secretary, Local Government Board. 

SIR, I am directed by the commissioners for these libraries to inquire 
if they are entitled to regard it as within their powers under the Public 
Libraries Acts to pay a fee to a lecturer or lecturers to deliver occasional 
lectures on the library premises or elsewhere, or if they are not, are they 
empowered to pay a lecturer for a lecture or lectures if the subjects of 
these are entirely confined to explaining or illustrating the contents of the 
library, with a view to encouraging a larger use of the books by the rate- 
payers ? 

If the answers to the above questions are in the affirmative, I am further 
to ask if the commissioners are empowered to set apart a room in their 
premises for the express purpose of such lectures. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 


Local Government Board, 

Whitehall, S.W. 
12th December , 1893. 

SIR, I am directed by the Local Government Board to advert to your 
letter of the i8th ultimo, and in reply to state that it appears to them to 
be doubtful whether occasional lectures such as you refer to would con- 
stitute a school for science or art within the meaning of Section II. of the 
Public Libraries Act, 1892, and if they did not, it would not appear that 
the Chelsea Public Libraries Commissioners have any power to incur 
expenditure in respect of them. 

If any expenditure of the kind appeared in the commissioners' accounts, 
the question of its legality would be one for the district auditor to consider 
in the first place. The board cannot decide the question at the present 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

S. B. PROVIS, Assistant Secretary. 

J. H. QUINN, Esq., 

Clerk to the Chelsea Public Libraries Commissioners, 
Central Library, Manresa Road, S.W. 

North Midland Library Association. 33 

flortb /NMManfc 3Librat Hesociation, 

A MEETING of this Association was held at the Free Public Library, 
Leicester ; amongst those present being Mr. W. Crowther (Derby) 
President, Mr. C. V. Kirkby (Leicester), Vice-President, Mr. John T. 
Radford, Hon. Sec., Mr. Easom (Nottingham), Mr. Walton (Derby), 
Mr. F. S. Herne (Leicester), Miss Horton (Leicester), Mr. G. H. Andrews, 
(Loughborough), and others. In the absence of the chairman of the 
Leicester Free Library Committee the Association were welcomed by 
Mr. Kirkby, after which a visit was paid by the members to the West- 
cotes branch library, which met with the approval of all present as a 
model of what a branch library should be. Tea was provided at the 
Welford Coffee House. The members then met at the Central Free 
Library for business. Letters of apology were read from absent members. 
The President (Mr. Crowther) next dealt with current events having 
relation to libraries and librarians. A paper on " Branch Libraries," by 
Mr. John Potter Briscoe was, in the absence of the writer, read by 
Mr. Radford, and raised an animated discussion in which Messrs. 
Kirkby, Crowther, Radford, Walton and Herne took part. 

The Hon. Sec. then drew the attention of the members to the great 
usefulness of the " Index to Periodicals," issued from the Review of 
Reviews office, and recommended its use in all libraries, either in con- 
junction with " Poole's Index "or separately. A question having been 
asked as to the number of libraries which placed the Sportsman on their 
tables, it appeared that at none of the libraries represented was it to be 

Mr. C. V. Kirkby next opened a discussion on "damaged books," 
dealing with damages caused by water, abstraction of leaves or plates, 
written remarks or pencil marks. A sheet of questions sent to one of the 
members by Mr. Cotgreave, London, was read and discussed. 

Votes of thanks to the Free Library Committee for the use of the 
room in which the meeting was held, and to the chairman for presiding, 
brought the meeting to a close. 

publications of tbe %.H:a,1fc, 


WE believe we shall be doing our readers a service by bringing under 
their notice the publications of the L.A.U.K. 

The council did not begin the publication of the Association Series 
as a speculation or in hope of making gain. For several years the 
association, both publicly and privately, had been urged to produce such 
hand-books, and as soon as funds permitted a start was made. The sole 
object was to advance practical librarianship and promote the interests 
of libraries, and therefore, the price of each number was fixed at cost, and 
as a certain amount of free distribution was necessaryit is obvious that even 
if each edition were sold out there would still be a considerable money loss 
to be borne by the association ; but this was cheerfully anticipated in the 
belief that the result would justify the expenditure. The work of the authors 
and editors has been in every case a labour of love, and they have cheerfully 
given an amount of time and work which, if devoted to private ends, 
would undoubtedly have earned substantial reward. 

34 The Library. 

The circumstances have forbidden any expenditure on advertising 
and the council has had to trust to the gratuitous recommendations of the 
press, of purchasers, and of members of the association. It thus happens 
that although some of the hand-books have been out for more than twelve 
months the hon. secretary is frequently asked to give information, not 
only to the public, but to members of the association on matters which have 
been fully and authoritatively dealt with in hand-books which can be 
purchased for sixpence ! 

This is not as it should be, and we feel that we shall do good service 
by calling the attention of our readers to the L.A.U.K. publications from 
time to time ; and this month we are happy to be able to make the 
following pleasing announcement : 

With the view of making them more widely known the council 
has resolved to dispose of fifty copies of each of the L.A.U.K. 
publications at reduced prices from now until the end. of May, 
1894. All orders will be dealt with in strict rotation as received, but no 
order will be supplied unless accompanied by a remittance in full, together 
with a reasonable allowance for postage or carriage of parcel. If too much 
is sent the difference will be returned with the books. 

As it would be unreasonable to burden the honorary secretary with 
avoidable correspondence on this subject, intending purchasers are re- 
quested to prepare their orders carefully, according to the terms of the 
subjoined list. 

N.B. All orders must be marked Publications " Special Offer," and 

The Hon. Secretary, L.A.U.K., 

20, Hanover Square, 

London, W. 

All of the following are offered at the reduced prices affixed. 


Transactions : 

International Conference, London, 1877, 

i os. 6d. for 55. 3d. 

Second Annual Meeting, Manchester, 1879, 

i os. 6d. 55. 3d. 

Third Edinburgh, 1880, 

los. 6d. 53. 3d. 

Fourth London, 1881, 1 

I in one , , 

Fifth Cambridge, 1882, J 

Fvol,2is. los ' 6d ' 

Sixth Liverpool, 1883, 

IDS. 6d. 53. 3d. 

Seventh Dublin, 1884, 

I2S. 6s. 

Proceedings : 

Eighth ,. Plymouth, 1885, 

4S. 2S. 


[N.B. The 'transactions and Proceedings were discontinued after the 
Plymouth volume, and thereafter the papers and reports of meetings have 
been published in The Library Chronicle (1885-1888) and in The Library 
from 1 889 on wards.] 

Monthly Notes. January, 1880, to December, 1883. A few odd 
volumes 6s. each, and loose numbers 6d. each. Reduced price: vols. 35., 
parts .rl. 

Publications of the L.A.U.K. 35 

The Library Chronicle. Edited by E. C. Thomas. 1884-1888, 5 vols. 
2 i2s. 6d. ; reduced price \ IDS. ; a few odd volumes 8s. each ; reduced 
price 45., and loose numbers 4d. each. 

The Library. Edited by J. Y. W. MacAlister. 1889-1892. Vols. L- 
IV., cloth, 2 2s. ; reduced price i is. ; single vols. IDS. 6d. ; reduced 
price 55. ; monthly numbers 6d. ; Vol. V., 1893. Monthly numbers is. 

N.B. Cases for binding " The Library " can be obtained, price is. 

Public Library Manual. Edited by J. Y. W. MacAlister and Thomas 
Mason. PART I. LIBRARY LEGISLATION (1855 to 1890), by H. W. 
Fovargue and J. J. Ogle. Demy 8vo, 2s. 6d. ; reduced price 6d. 

The Library Association Series (la. 8vo). Edited by J. Y. W. MacAlister. 

No. i. LIBRARY APPLIANCES, by James D. Brown, is. ; reduced 
to 6d. 

No. 2. PUBLIC LIBRARY LEGISLATION : being the Law relating 
lo Public Libraries and Technical Education, and all Statutes 
directly or indirectly affecting Libraries, Museums, Art Galleries, 
&c, in England, Ireland and Scotland, by H. W. Fovargue, 
Town Clerk of Eastbourne, and J. J. Ogle, Librarian of the Public 
Library, Bootle, 2s. 6d. ; reduced to is. 3d. 

No. 3. PUBLIC LIBRARY STAFFS, by P. Cowell, 6d. ; reduced to 3d. 

D. Brown, 6d. ; reduced to 3d. 

No. 5. CATALOGUING RULES, 6d. ; reduced to 3d. 

The Library Association Year Book for 1893 (containing complete List 
of the Public Libraries in the United Kingdom, Rules for Cata- 
loguing, Syllabuses of Examinations and Specimens of Questions, 
and full Particulars of the L.A.U.K. and its work), revised to 
September, \ s. ; reduced to 6d. 


To the Editor of "THE LIBRARY." 

DEAR SIR, Mr. Cotgreave in his article on the above, attempts to 
ridicule the value of the remarks I made in a previous letter to THE 
LIBRARY respecting the merits of the Liverpool Card System. Mr. Cot- 
greave mistakes my first point, although he states the question fair enough : 
ist, "Should a book be replaced without being marked off, the error is 
found out by the absence of the card from the pocket," but his answer 
that the Cotgreave Indicator does better than this, " as each borrower 
receives his ticket back upon returning a book," does not fit the case at 
all. On the card system, when a borrower does not require another 
book, he not only receives his ticket back, but the date on which he 
handed in his book is marked against his name and ticket number in a 
" Check Book," and it is impossible for him to obtain another book until 
that check is removed. My point is that, if by some oversight a popular 
book is placed on the shelf without being marked off as returned, the 
error on the card system is rectified as soon as the book is applied for 

36 The Library. 

again, but with the " indicator " the mistake is not made known until the 
fourth or fifth week after, when the overdues are attended to. 

I do not wish your readers to infer that these errors are more 
numerous on the Cotgreave Indicator than on other systems, but any 
librarian who " overhauls " or "checks" his indicator is aware of little 
errors of this nature that do occur. 

My second point referred to the facility the card system gave when it 
was necessary to stop some popular book for a particular reader. Mr. 
Cotgreave is right in saying that with the cards it is necessary in some 
cases to look for the class and number of the book in each of the thirty- 
one lots of cards, but even in such a case twelve copies of a popular book 
can be stopped within two minutes, and I doubt very much if it is possible 
to manipulate the twelve little ledgers in the indicator and place slides on 
the outside of the cases in less time. 

Yours faithfully, 



SEASON 1893-94. 

THE FOURTH MONTHLY MEETING of the season was held at 20, 
Hanover Square on Monday, January 8th, 1894, at 8 p.m. Mr. Joseph 
Gilburt in the chair. 

Twenty-seven members were present and some visitors. 

The minutes of previous meeting having been read and confirmed, 

Mr. MacAlister gave notice that at next meeting he would move that 
Mr. Passmore Edwards be elected as Hon. Member. 

The following papers were then read : 






The papers were both discussed at considerable length, by Messrs. 
Gilburt, Verney, Burgoyne, Cox, Quinn, James, Brown, and others, and 
votes of thanks were passed to the authors. 

Yorkshire Village Libraries. 1 

OOME time ago our esteemed Secretary requested me to 
^ obtain for the use of this Association a few particulars 
respecting the Village Libraries of Yorkshire, with a view of 
procuring some data upon which the general question of village 
libraries might be discussed. I at once promised to do what I 
could in the matter, and proceeded to draw up a circular intended 
to elicit some information as to the extent and character of the 
village libraries at present existing in our county. The follow- 
ing are the heads under which it was thought desirable to obtain 
particulars : 

1. Name of place and postal district. 

2. Population. 

3. Extent of district covered. 

4. Name of Library. 

5. How established (by gift, bequest, contributions of villa- 

gers or otherwise). 

6. How supported. 

7. Number of volumes. 

8. Number of issues per year. 

9. During what days and hours open. 

10. Are the books taken home to read? 

11. Is there a reading room attached? 

12. Are the services of the librarian voluntary or paid for? 

13. Distance from nearest town. 

Copies of this circular, prefaced of course by a few paragraphs 
explaining the object for which it was issued, were sent first to 
the villages in the West Riding, addressed to the " Village 
Librarian," Village Library, and subsequently to those situa- 
ted in the North and East Ridings of the Shire. Returns were 
quickly received from 56 villages in the West, and from 50 in the 
North and East Ridings, all filled up as requested, and signed 
by the librarian, in charge, while the remainder of the circulars, 
some 25% of the number sent out, were returned as " not known " 
or " no library." With respect to the returned circulars, there 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association,. 
Aberdeen, September, 1893. 


38 The Library. 

is, however, no reason to suppose that there are no libraries in 
those places from which there was no response, inasmuch as 
the circular, being addressed to the village librarian, might 
possibly have failed to reach the managers of the Sunday school 
libraries in the locality. Apart from these possible omissions, 
the details to hand from the other districts will probably be 
deemed of sufficient importance to justify the effort made to 
obtain them. 

The body of information thus procured has been carefully 
tabulated under the above headings, each village being arranged 
in its alphabetical order, and the whole formed into two groups, 
one including the West Riding, and the other the North and 
East Riding portions. It may be mentioned here that the York- 
shire Union of Mechanics' Institutes has a system of travelling 
libraries, of which advantage is taken in some places, a charge 
of one guinea a year being made for the loan of 50 books per 
quarter, but this excellent organization cannot, in the nature of 
things, fully meet the requirements of the case, although it per- 
forms a very important work in distributing healthy literature in 
the country districts. 

While it is impossible to place the returns in your hands at 
the present time, 1 it will perhaps be worth while to bring before 
your notice one or two main facts embodied in them, and also 
some conclusions drawn therefrom. 

The first thing which strikes one in analysing the information 
received, is the total inadequacy of the existing libraries to cope 
with the work they are intended to perform. Some of them have 
been formed through the efforts of the ministers and school- 
masters, and some by the combined efforts of the villagers them- 
selves ; others have been established by gifts of small collections 
of a theological character, which, however admirable in them- 
selves, are admittedly not the best for our general reader. But 
the returns show quite clearly that however well-meaning efforts 
of this kind may be, the results are by no means of a satisfactory 
character, and that, as a rule, they fail to meet the reasonable 
requirements of those they are intended to serve. The obvious 
cause of this failure is the lack of adequate funds for efficiently 
carrying on the library work ; indeed, some of the letters which 
have accompanied the forms, give plain indications of the heroic 

1 The returns were not printed when this paper was read, but they are now 
appended herewith. 

Yorkshire Village Libraries. 39 

struggle which the managers of these libraries are making to 
render their institutions more efficient. The following extract is 
from one letter out of many on the subject, and it will give an 
idea of the brave efforts made by some of our villagers to bring 
themselves into touch with the world of literature, of which many 
of them know little or nothing. It is from one of our most 
remote Yorkshire dales, and runs as follows : " I may say that 
it is about six years ago since a few of us (working men) saw the 
need of some such place and institution as we now have, so we 
rented an old chapel, drew up rules, got a number of names for 
membership, and opened the place. As soon as we got any 
money in hand, we purchased books, besides getting a number 
of daily and weekly newspapers and periodicals. I am glad to 
say it has been wonderfully successful. It has been, with two 
or three small donations, and the proceeds of three public enter- 
tainments given by the members, self-supporting. We have one 
drawback. The dale is poor through the mining industry, which 
is so bad, and many of the miners cannot afford to become mem- 
bers. Also the houses are scattered, and some of them rather 
out of the way, although we have a suitable place or institute." 
And he finishes by saying that " we shall be very glad if the 
extent and usefulness could be greatly increased." This letter 
helps us to realise in a measure what is actually taking place in 
many of our villages to-day. It is not that the people are in- 
different, nor is it the want of workers, for the extract shows 
that men are not only desirous of reading books, but that they 
are also willing to work for the purpose of obtaining them. And 
yet, while the country people are desirous of being brought into 
contact with books, there has so far been no attempt made to 
meet their requirements, beyond the futile efforts of men like 
these, or of the country parson and schoolmaster in the same 
.direction. This then, being the state of things, it appears to me 
that the Library Association has a splendid opportunity of doing 
something in the direction of assisting those libraries which are 
now in existence, and of helping to establish others in villages 
where no library is at present located, and in order to do this, I 
should like to suggest that our Association shall take steps for 
approaching the proper authorities, for the purpose of bringing 
before them the advantages of adopting the Free Libraries Acts, 
and also for enlisting the sympathies of the County Councils in 
the same direction. 

No one who has seen the extraordinary development of iree 

40 The Library. 

libraries in our large towns can reasonably doubt that they 
would be as successful if established in the villages. We may 
also rest assured that it is in the direction of the villages that we 
must look for the further development of the library movement, 
and the sooner, therefore, that we realize this fact the better it 
will be for all concerned. But, although the adoption of the 
Libraries Acts would practically solve the difficulty, there 
are other ways in which it is possible to help the existing 
libraries. For instance, if our publishers could be induced to 
present copies of some of their works to libraries of this charac- 
ter and to town libraries as well for that matter I feel sure 
they would benefit themselves more than the recipients, for my 
experience tends to prove that many books are purchased by 
persons who have first seen them in our public libraries, and who 
otherwise in all probability would have never become acquainted 
with them. Much more might also be done by our village minis- 
ters and schoolmasters. Good work has been done, and is now 
being done by these gentlemen, for the returns show clearly that 
a large proportion of the libraries is being worked voluntarily by 
them. Great credit is due to them therefore on that account, 
yet much more might be accomplished by this means, and it 
may be worth while to consider whether it is not possible to 
enlist more of them in extending library work in our villages. 

Leaving now this part of the subject and turning to another 
side of the question, I find it difficult to make many generalisa- 
tions upon the returns, as each locality has its peculiar set 
of conditions, which vary from every other in some essential 
particulars. The question of what constitutes a village, and 
what is the difference between a village or town, was settled by 
drawing the line at a population of 20,000, indeed the population 
of the largest place mentioned on the returns does not exceed 
16,000 persons. The number of volumes varies quite as much 
as the population, the lowest number being 50, while the highest 
(Settle) reaches 11,000. The issues of course vary propor- 
tionately, and range from a modest 100 volumes a year to 
60,000, which is the number reached at Hebden Bridge. 1 

To conclude, my main object, as I said before, is to gather 
information, so that we may have facts to help us in considering 
this matter, and I sincerely hope that when these returns are 

1 This seems a very extraordinary issue when the population and stock of 
books are taken into account. 



During what Days and Hours open. 

Are the Books 
taken Home 
to Read? 

Is there a Read- 
ing Room 

Are Services of the 
Librarian Volun- 
tary or Paid for ? 

Distance from 
Nearest Town. 

Every 3 weeks for Teachers 




12 miles from 

and Scholars 



Sunday Afternoon, 4 to 4.30 




Kirby Moor- 

Side, 4 miles 

Two hours every alternate 




10 miles from 


Barnard Castle 

Saturday Evening 





Fridays and Saturdays, After- 




6 miles from 

noon and Evening 


Saturday Evenings, 7 to 8 




Nearly 6 miles 

Tuesday Evening, 8 to 9; 




i miles from 

Library and Reading-room 


every day till 10 o'clock 

Week-days, 6 to 10 p.m. 




3^ miles from 



Wednesday Evening, 7 to 8 




5 miles 


y at 

Saturday, 7 to 8 




2 miles 



T?nr TTnrrnioht : Tuesdays, 7 




4 miles 

Yorkshire Village Libraries. 41 

printed the whole question of village libraries will have that 
attention which the importance of the subject demands. The 
work of obtaining information should be at once proceeded with, 
and I would urge my fellow librarians to work systematically 
their own districts to this end. By this means a valuable body 
of facts will be accumulated, which will undoubtedly serve to 
pave the way for a general recognition of the necessity of 
carrying out the library movement in our small towns and 


A Proposal for the Establishment of District Public 
Libraries on an Economical Basis. 1 

THERE is no doubt that the spread of Free Public Libraries 
in small places where the penny rate yields less than 500 
per annum, has been greatly retarded by the impossibility of 
adequately paying for the services of a skilled librarian. 

This hindrance has been all the more operative from the 
slight encouragement to the legal union of neighbouring places 
for library purposes formerly existing. The Public Library Acts 
of 1892-3 have now opened the way for the union of separate 
parishes and of urban places in any given district. 

Will the new facilities be availed of to any extent ? The 
answer to this question will probably depend in part on the 
successful demonstration of the practicability of providing a 
separate library for each place in the district, with skilled advice 
and control in the management by the union in the hands of a 
common Board of Commissioners of the separate incomes of 
the places concerned. 

Hitherto few are the districts where two or three parishes 
have united under a common authority, but undoubtedly there 
are in Great Britain many groups of from six to a dozen parishes 
especially in mining and manufacturing districts comprised 
within a moderate area where it would be possible by legal 
union to organise a system of library administration under one 
skilled librarian acting under a single body of Commissioners a 
system, too, which would provide a separate library for each 
parish or township. 

Suppose such a group of ten parishes forming one library 
district, with an income from the penny rate quite adequate to 
allow a sum of ^200 for a librarian's salary, an average of ^"20 
per parish. Such an officer could, on the plan herein unfolded, 
exercise proper supervision over the ten separate libraries con- 
sisting say of one thousand volumes each, do all the skilled work of 
catalogue making, and act as Clerk to the Commissioners. He 
would, of course, need women or boy assistants, one say for each 
parish, or for each group of two or three parishes, according to 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association 
Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

Proposal for Establishment of District Public Libraries. 43 

whether the libraries were open every evening, or only on 
certain evenings per week. The labour of these assistants 
would not be beyond the capacity of untrained villagers, and 
consequently the cost of such assistance would be trifling. 

A printed catalogue for each library would be a more serious 
item of expense, but in this the plan now proposed shows how 
great an economy may be practised in its production. 


The libraries should be denominated at the Central office by 
letters, say : A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K. One half of each 
library should be the same in all and its catalogue on sale sim- 
ultaneously in ten villages. The remaining half of each library 
would differ in each village from that in all the rest, and would 
remain in each place in succession for say twelve months. When 
the annual move on took place the unsold catalogues of each 
itinerant library would move on too with the several collections, 
and so would have a sale in ten villages in succession. 

Each village would then in the course of ten years have had 
access to a permanent library of five hundred volumes and to ten 
itinerant libraries of five hundred volumes each in all to five 
thousand five hundred volumes. 

Is this quite clear ? Village No. i would have itinerant 
library A this year, B next year, C the following year and so on. 
Itinerant library A would be at village No. i this year, No. 2 
next year, No. 3 the following year. The printed catalogue of 
the whole of the books in any one village at one time would be in 
two parts that of the permanent and that of the itinerant 
collection. Eleven catalogues would be required for the whole 
system and they would have a sale in ten parishes. 

If it were thought better the itinerant libraries might be 
worked in two circuits of five parishes. There would be some 
advantages in this arrangement ; it would fit in with a 
quinquennial revision of the collections and the catalogues, and 
would allow of the purchase of 2,500 books in duplicate. There 
are, of course, obvious economies in the bills for general print- 
ing, office stationery and other expenses, and the purchase of ten 
copies of each of five hundred volumes at one time. These 
economies need not be dwelt on before practical men. 

The principle of the plan proposed is elastic enough and 
would apply equally well to a system of branch libraries in a 

44 'The Library. 

town. When such libraries become say a quarter as numerous 
as public-houses are at present, may I hope that this plan or 
something like it will be in operation in many towns ? 

A County Councillor of philanthropic leanings might do 
worse than commence an agitation in his own district to induce 
the adoption of the Public Libraries Acts in such a district as 
referred to, and if he were a wealthy man, might stimulate the 
people to a trial of the scheme by one of those generous offers, 
which are the glory of wealthy Americans, and too seldom 
reported on this side of the Atlantic. 

Am I too hopeful in saying : Once the plan is set agoing in 
any suitable circuit of villages, it would recommend itself and 
" win its widening way " to general favour in rural districts. 

J. J. OGLE. 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and 

Indexes. 1 

HHHIS paper is not concerned with the rules and principles 
^ which ought to govern the compilation of catalogues and 
indexes, but simply with the various mechanical methods which 
have been invented for the purpose of displaying or holding such 
catalogues and indexes. 

The subject has never been systematically treated during the 
whole period of seventeen years through which the Library 
Association has existed ; and from this conclusion I do not 
exclude the imperfect attempt made to describe some of these 
mechanical methods in the small tract on " Library Appliances," 
issued in 1892. One or two individual devices have been des- 
cribed at different times, but most notice has been bestowed on 
the printed catalogue, and the endless ways of compiling it. 
Considering the great importance to every librarian, of a 
thorough knowledge of the many methods of maintaining perfect 
alphabetical order in a librar}^ catalogue, printed or manuscript, 
to which additions are constantly being made, I must confess to 
a feeling of surprise that the subject has not been more frequently 
introduced. No doubt it is to this apathy that most of the 
childish makeshifts here and there visible can be traced. 
Who does not recall, for example, the foolscap folio or demy 
quarto volume, ruled faint and margin, in which was once 
kept that alphabetical catalogue, or list of names ? First came 
the careful spacing-out of the virgin volume in due proportion, to 
insure that letter B had more leaves than letter Y ; then came the 
entries, nicely measured by vowels or second letters ; then the 
little congestions here and there, leading to the gradual invasion 
of adjoining pages reserved for something else ; then the general 
disorder suggestive of a Salvation Army procession ; and, finally, 
the purchase of another virgin volume, double the size, in which, 
after a bit, the same phenomena were repeated. It is almost 
impossible to believe, though it is nevertheless true, that, in spite 
of all the teachings of experience, the plain folio book continues 
to rank as a labour saving tool ! Notwithstanding its very 

1 Read at a monthly meeting of the Library Association, November, 1893. 

46 The Library. 

obvious defects, this indexing apparatus must be considered the 
mother, if not grandmother, of all the various methods invented 
to circumvent the permutations of the alphabet, The book, 
guarded or otherwise, in which a Page or leaf containing several 
entries forms the unit for arrangement, is really the first of the 
five groups into which the various existing methods naturally 
divide themselves. I need only mention the public catalogue of 
the British Museum as a type of this group. The second group 
comprises most of the Card systems, in which, as a rule, a single 
entry is the unit for arrangement, though I shall show you forms 
which admit of a different treatment. The third group I prefer 
to name the Sheaf system, from the fact that entries on slips are 
collected or bound up in bundles. In this system, the whole of 
an author's works can be made to form the unit for arrangement. 
The fourth group may be called the Broadside or Placard system, 
from the circumstance that a series of entries or single movable 
titles are arranged in frames of various kinds. In this the 
column of entries is the unit for arrangement ; and it, therefore, 
closely resembles in principle the " Page " systems of the first 
group, though differing from them in the method of display. The 
fifth and last group may be called the Panoramic system for want 
of a better name : and in this the unit for arrangement is the 
single entry applied to a continuous column of limited capacity. 
Mr. Mason's revolving drum may be mentioned as one type of 
this group. I have now set forth the five heads under which 
I propose to describe some of the cataloguing methods in 
existence ; and, I trust, if the difficulty of the subject excludes 
the hope of making it amusing, your professional interest will, at 
least, move you to follow me with a decent show of patience. 

There are probably twenty or more " Page " systems in use, 
including those with fixed and movable leaves, besides two 
methods in which the single entries are also movable, as well as 
the leaves. 

I shall only mention two of the fixed " Page " systems, 
because they are representative of all the rest. One is the 
catalogue of the British Museum, in which the alphabet of 
entries is distributed over a large number of volumes, thereby 
rendering one copy of the catalogue of service to very many 
readers. The other is the Mitchell Library Catalogue, in which 
an entire alphabet fills one volume, thus making necessary the 
provision of many complete catalogues before an adequate 
number of readers can consult it at one time. There are several 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 47 

points deserving notice in connection with these variations of a 
single idea. To me, it seems almost impossible to resist the 
conclusion that, for a large library, a catalogue on the distribu- 
tive plan of the British Museum is more economical as regards 
labour and cost ; more serviceable to the consultors, especially 
if arranged in separate author and subject alphabets ; and more 
likely to remain longer uncongested, than the plan of concentra- 
tion adopted at Glasgow. It is only once in a while that several 
persons wish to consult the same division of a sectional catalogue, 
and even then, having to wait their turn is just the same as having 
to wait for a chance of seeing a complete catalogue when all are 
in use. Apart from this, and the fact that a divided " Page " 
catalogue will serve many more persons at once than a dozen or 
more complete catalogues of a similar nature, my objections to 
guard-books of any kind greatly out-weigh all that I can say in 
their favour. There is first, their enormous comparative cost ; 
second, the continuous and unhealthy labour of mounting them 
up to date ; third, their unfailing tendency to become congested 
at all times and particularly at places where special precautions 
are adopted as a certain preventive ; and fourth, the ease and 
rapidity with which they become soiled and destroyed in a busy 
library ; not to speak of the continual peeling away of entries. 

This brings me to the guard-book, or "Page" variety of 
catalogue, which possesses means for the insertion or abstrac- 
tion of leaves when required. There are numerous methods of 
attaining this end, and in the specifications filed at the Patent 
Office, there are probably a hundred different kinds of binders, 
files, and albums, in which means for adding or withdrawing 
leaves are provided by the use of springs, wires, gut or cords, and 
screws. The earliest of these is doubtless the album laced 
together with cords, of which I have here an example. Mr. 
Cowell, of Liverpool, showed a book something like this at the 
London conference in 1877, and at Liverpool in 1883, but the 
method of adjustable binding is really old, and has been used in 
Holland and Germany, probably also in Britain, for many years. 
Still, it has recently been patented, though not possessing one 
scrap of novelty. Mr. Cowell's 1877 album provided for the 
insertion of single slips, a fact worth notice at this point. 
Another somewhat similar book is used in France, and no doubt 
some of you who visited Paris in 1892 will recognise the style of 
catalogue as that used in the Bibliotheque National and else- 
where. In principle it differs from the cord binders in several 

48 The Library. 

respects. The leaves are held by the pressure of two wooden 
slats, which are drawn together by means of two or more endless 
screws, turned by a key. Leaves can be inserted at any place, 
till the volume is full, and then the contents may be divided, and 
two books used ; this subdivision and spreading being continued 
as the entries increase. The last of the fixed entry " Page " 
catalogues to which I will direct attention, is that recently 
patented by Professor Magnusson, of Cambridge. 1 The special 
feature of this is the provision of a series of hooks hinged to the 
back, which pass through and secure double leaves or folded 
sheets. It only remains to point out the defects of all cata- 
logues in which a page of miscellaneous fixed entries forms 
the unit for arrangement. The most obvious drawback is that, 
accurate and simple intercalation is in time rendered impossible, 
because of the entries having to be pasted down, hence true 
alphabetical order can never be maintained, save for a short 
period, or till the spaces left for additions are filled. A like fate 
awaits the inserted leaf, which is sometimes fastened in guard- 
books adjoining the congested page, and easily placed in movable 
page books, such as I have described, but this only dislocates the 
order of entries, and gives two or more places for one author or 
subject. At the British Museum the slip -entries are secured to 
the pages only at the ends, and are lifted up and rearranged 
when congestion becomes too pronounced ; but no other English 
library has such resources or such readers at command, so that 
no particular importance attaches to the fact. I should like to 
add, as a matter of personal opinion, that to an untrained person, 
there is absolutely no advantage in being able to scan a number 
of different entries on a page, with one sweep of the eye. For 
proof of this, ask any ordinary person of moderate education to 
turn up a word in a dictionary. The two catalogues I am about 
to show you are free from the defects mentioned before, in that, 
besides having movable leaves, the single entries are also mov- 
able. The first of these is only intended for staff or private use, 
and is the invention of Mr. Vernon Kirkby, of Leicester. You 
can see at a glance that the ends of loose slips are simply pushed 
under the threads, and become temporarily secured in any order 
desired. By leaving liberal spaces, or better still, keeping the 
leaves unbound in boxes, or one of the many cheap adjustable 
binders now on the market, additional leaves can be inserted, 

1 Patent specification, No. 7,588, 1892. 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 49 

and the contents of any congested pages easily re-distributed 
over the fresh space. The second " Page " catalogue with mov- 
able entries is a modification of the Rudolph Continuous Indexer, 
to which I will draw your attention later on. It is perfectly 
elastic and movable in every respect, full provision being made 
for the congestion difficulty, so that its expansion in any direction 
is practically limitless. In this respect it resembles the " Card " 
and " Sheaf " catalogues to be described in another part of this 
paper. It is the invention of Mr. A. J. Rudolph, of the San 
Francisco Public Library, who has also applied the same idea 
to cabinets of drawers. My admiration of the principle of this 
catalogue-holder is very great, but my opinion is that the con- 
struction of the book is not adapted for much use at the hands of 
ordinary readers. The binding arrangement does not seem 
sufficiently secure, and the cardboard slips bearing entries are 
almost certain to fall out in course of time. There is a general 
lack of security in all the catalogue holders with movable 
leaves which I have just shown, and this must be regarded as a 
serious defect ; at least among British librarians, who have to 
deal with more readers than are to be found anywhere abroad, 
among whom are a large number of persons not yet educated to 
regard public property with suitable respect. I need not describe 
any more of the binders in which provision is made for leaves 
being moved, as I shall discuss the whole question on fresh lines 
when dealing with the " Sheaf " systems. It is only necessary to 
add, before passing on, that most of the patented " Page" binders, 
so far as I know them, are useless for library purposes. 

I should not like to enter upon an inquiry on the origin of the 
" Card " catalogue. One thing appears certain ; its origin is not 
American, as seems to be generally supposed. One of our own 
members brought forward evidence at Paris last year, proving 
that cards for indexing purposes had been used by the French in 
i775, 2 while the library now called the Bibliotheque National used 
them even earlier. It is also recorded in our own transactions 
that cards were used for cataloguing purposes at Trinity College, 
Dublin, and elsewhere in Ireland, early in the present century . i{ 
My own opinion, which is at present only based on suspicion, is 
that cards have been in use for indexing since the days of Dick 
Whittington. The idea of an index on cards or slips, giving 

- Prosser (Richard B.) : " The Origin of the Card-Catalogue," 1892, 4 pp. 
" London Conference," 1877, p. 156. 

50 The Library. 

unlimited means of expansion and intercalation, must have 
occurred very early to persons habitually engaged in the mainten- 
ance of alphabetical order. The simple plan of keeping cards on 
edge in boxes or drawers is quite common in business houses all 
over the world; and the Bank of England may be mentioned as 
a conspicuous case, having introduced them in 1852 ; after which 
other banking houses adopted them. When general access to 
these nests of alphabetical order became common, various safe- 
guards were introduced to prevent intentional or accidental 
misplacement, and so in course of time arose the wire, the bar, 
the rod, the shoulder, and other methods of obtaining security. 
I am not going to weary you with a dissertation on the nature of 
" Card " catalogues, nor am I proposing to explain what they are, 
as I assume every librarian with an elementary knowledge of his 
profession must at least have heard mention made of this 

The " Card " catalogue stored in cabinets with fixed drawers, 
is probably the most familiar in this country. It may be seen in 
London in different forms, at the Guildhall, Royal College of 
Surgeons, St.-Martin-in-the-Fields, Whitechapel, and Clerken- 
well. The cards are secured by a rod which passes through 
holes punched in them, and the rod is either locked or screwed 
into the back or front of the drawer. This is the form almost 
universally used in the United States, but I am disposed to 
think the American cabinets excel our own in manufacture, 
and in greater uniformity as regards sizes of cards, guides, 
and the provision of slides, on which the drawers can run 
out quite clear of the cabinets without falling or sagging. 1 
Before passing to other points connected with the cabinet 
variety of " Card " catalogue, I should mention the fixed 
drawers which are in some libraries fitted along the front 
of counters, either in single or double rows. This seems to 
be peculiar to this country, and I may mention examples at 
Battersea, Lambeth (Tate Central Library), and Shoreditch. 
My impression as regards the " Card catalogue " in cabinets 
of fixed drawers is that its popularity is greatly on the decline. 
The reasons for this are obvious to any one who gives the sub- 
ject a single thought, but it may be as well to mention a few 
of its drawbacks. In a cabinet of six drawers to the tier, it 
is impossible to adjust it so that both tall and short persons 

4 See Catalogue of the Library Bureau, Boston, 1893, PP- 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 51 

will find it equally accessible. In fact, a stool is almost a neces- 
sity, for the tall man to sit on, and the short one to stand on. 
One person using a cabinet of similar dimensions monopolises 
from 6,000 to 8,000 entries, as it is impossible for two readers to 
consult it at the same time. Hence ten six-drawer cabinets pro- 
vided at immense comparative cost will only serve ten readers 
simultaneously, if it so happens that each one desires to see 
a different tier of the cabinet ; but this seldom occurs, it being 
much oftener the case that all ten want drawers in two or three 
of the cabinets. In addition to these objections may be men- 
tioned the large amount of space they occupy, and the difficulty 
of obtaining a good light on the lower drawers. For these, and 
other reasons, the cabinet catalogue may almost be considered a 
thing of the past, save in libraries where huge expenditures have 
already be.en made in maintaining this cumbersome form of 
appliance. In America, which may be regarded as the land 
where the card cabinet has been "boomed" into almost 
universal use, there is a rapidly-growing feeling of antagonism 
to the cabinet ; and during my recent wanderings in that 
wonderful country, I met quite a number of librarians who 
expressed themselves favourable to movable trays or drawers of 
cards. In the progressive State Library at Albany I found 
movable trays stored in pigeon-holes in actual use, and at 
Chicago, I noticed various sorts of trays or boxes which were 
intended to be removed by readers to tables or benches for 
consultation. Of this kind of movable tray there are a number 
of varieties, the oldest being probably of French origin. But I 
will first draw your attention to a recent English tray made by 
Mr. T. B. Vernon, inventor of a letter-filing method. I have 
here a specimen which will speak for itself, but I may add that 
this style of tray is what our American cousins are now adopting 
in preference to cabinets. The great advantage possessed by the 
movable tray is that it will serve a very large number of readers 
at one time. 

There are numerous plans for securing the rods and blocks, 
but none of them are easily described, and I have been dis- 
appointed in getting as many models as I expected. In 1871, 
Mr. H. W. D. Dunlop, assistant librarian of the Royal Dublin 
Society, patented a tray system for the display of card catalogues, 
which in my opinion beats everything of the kind for eccentricity 
and perverted ingenuity. 5 I shall not attempt to describe it, but 

5 Patent Specification, No. 945, 1871. 

52 The Library. 

must ask you to look at this illustrated specification and under- 
stand it for yourselves. I may say that the cost of providing 
hinged discs or slats of metal or card board in the elaborate shapes 
devised by Mr. Dunlop would be enormous. The main feature 
of the invention is, I think, the means given by the long slot cut 
in the lower part of the plates for lifting the entry wanted above 
the level of the tray and folding it back for convenience of refer- 
ence. I cannot say if this invention has ever been put into 
operation, but should be glad to receive information on the 

This is a drawing of another tray invented by Dr. Carl 
Dziatzko in 1879, while he was librarian at Breslau. His 
successor, Professor Staender, made various minor improvements 
and it is largely used in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. 
The main feature, as you will observe, is the broad brass bar 
passing over the cards to keep them in place. It is necessary to 
secure the block tightly when the tray is not full of cards, other- 
wise it is easy to slip a card up under the bar. A similar prin- 
ciple has been several times applied to cabinets and trays, the 
main difference being that rods or stout wires are used instead of 
flat bars. 

The French model to which I referred was first described in 
1866, and afterwards made in an improved form in 1874. 

The inventor, Mr. F. Bonnange, of Paris, is the originator, 
so far as I can ascertain of the hinged card, and those of you who 
were at Paris in 1892, or have visited any of the large Paris or 
other French libraries, must have seen this style of tray " Card " 
catalogue. I have been unable to obtain a model from Mr. 
Borgeaud, the maker, but I can show you an almost identical 
Italian device, which was introduced by Mr. Staderini of Rome, 
over ten years ago. The Bonnange tray is similar in principle to 
this, save that, instead of a sliding block gearing with a ratchet, 
it has a powerful endless screw worked by a key, on which a 
block travels as required. The hinged cards shoulder into the 
side-groves, as in the Staderini system, but there is also a large 
slot cut to enable the cards to be placed astride of the screw 
without resting on it. When the key is turned to the right the 
block travels along till the cards are all firmly clamped ; when 
turned to the left the cards are released. A feature of some 
little importance possessed by both the Bonnange and Staderini 

u Bonnange (F.) : Nouveau systeme de catalogue au moyen de cartes. Paris, 1866. 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 53 

methods is that the lower part of the hinged card forms a 
counterfoil when firmly clamped. If the accession or other 
number of the book catalogued on the upper half is written on 
the clamped part, it will remain in the tray as a record, if anyone 
accidentally or wilfully tears off and destroys the entry. This is a 
merit not possessed by any of the ordinary card methods, because 
when cards are torn from the rods they become lost for ever- 
more, and nobody can say whether the catalogue is perfect or not. 
There is another decided merit possessed by these hinged card 
methods, and that is both sides of each card can be written upon. 
I have not seen the Bonnange system used in this way, but I 
have filled up a few Staderini cards to show how it works in 
actual practice. When this is done, of course each card may 
carry two or more entries. It will also be observed from the 
pictures I am about to hand round, that the Staderini trays are 
intended to lie parallel with the front of the table instead of at 
right angles, as in ordinary drawer cabinets. 7 When these 
merits are mentioned, I am afraid their good points are exhausted, 
because when the very important test of comparative price is 
applied they will be found among the most expensive of 
systems. The plan of breaking up " Card" catalogues into trays 
or boxes holding from 1,000 to 1,500 entries, has been carried 
even further in Germany, particularly in the university libraries, 
where small boxes with handles and falling sides are much used. 
The specimen now shown is used at Giessen, Berlin, and other 
places, but it is not sufficiently safe-guarded for general public 
use ; besides which, it is awkward to manipulate, and the boxes 
are a trifle flimsy. They are generally stored in revolving book- 
cases with contents labels attached to the flap of each lid. For 
private use this style of catalogue may be very useful, but it 
would never do for ordinary public libraries. 8 I think I have now 
mentioned the more important " Card " methods which present 
much difference in the manner of arrangement. There are quite a 
number of varieties of trays, boxes and cabinets, all differing in 
minor points, but the same in principle, so that it is needless to 
describe more of them. I have great doubts as to the efficiency 
of cards for all cataloguing purposes, and fear that the objections 

7 Staderini (Aristide) : Brevi cenni sopra due sistemi di schedario per cataloghi. 
Roma 1890. 

8 A small card catalogue case in box form was patented by Mr. Walter Thomas 
Rogers of the Inner Temple Library, London, in 1890. Patent Spec., No. 17, 599, 


54 The Library. 

from the public point of view alone are too many and too serious 
to be easily overcome. The one difficulty of handling the cards 
with the necessary speed is in itself sufficient to repel many 
readers, and forms an insurmountable objection to others. At 
Clerkenwell, when we had book catalogues and card cabinets 
side by side, the former were invariably used by our readers to 
the neglect of the latter. I observed the same conduct among 
the readers in American libraries, and believe this will be found 
the general experience everywhere. The considerations of com- 
parative cost, space occupied, and unpopularity with readers 
should be enough to make librarians reflect before adopting any 
" Card " system. 

The "Sheaf" system of keeping catalogues is not so well- 
known in Britain as the "Card" or " Page" system, but it has 
for many years been adopted in Italy, Holland, France, 
Germany, and generally throughout Europe. America has 
only recently bestowed serious attention on the plan, and has 
contributed one or two varieties to the common stock. The 
" Sheaf" system aims at combining the advantages of both card 
and book catalogues, and to a considerable extent succeeds. 
The main objects of the system are to break up the catalogue 
into handy sections, so that the maximum number of readers can 
be served at once ; to provide means for continuous expansion in 
strict alphabetical order ; to thoroughly safeguard the sections ; 
to reduce the amount of space occupied ; and to furnish readers 
with a volume which can be used with as much facility as an 
ordinary book. The idea is by no means novel. Where it 
actually originated I cannot say, but I know that a primitive 
example of the system was used by Dr. Crestadoro, of Manches- 
ter, thirty years ago, and that Mr. Sutton showed a sample of it 
at Nottingham in 1891. This consisted of an iron bar, on which 
were two bolts slightly apart, having a small nut on each. The 
slips were punched to fit on to the bolts, and the bundle was 
clamped by the nuts. It was an invention only adapted for 
private use. 9 In 1871, was invented the Leyden slip catalogue, 
so named because it was designed for use in the University 
Library of Leyden, in Holland. It consists, as may be seen 
from the example now in my hand, of a pair of boards, hinged, 

9 Mr. Robertson, of Aberdeen, devised a similar apparatus for the University 
Library, which he described in Monthly Notes, 1883, p. 84 ; and Mr. C. M. 
Torboss, of Philadelphia, described a one-screw arrangement in Library Notes, 
1887, p. 214. I am not aware if this has been used. 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 55 

and slotted at top and bottom near the back. The slips are 
slotted to correspond, and a piece of cord or gut is tied firmly 
round the volume and through the slots so as to bind the whole. 
There is no firmness or security about this book, and anyone 
could easily undo it. Nevertheless, I am disposed to think it 
is a cheap and convenient method of temporarily binding slips for 
private or staff use. 10 A very similar plan, but with holes instead 
of slits, has often been tried in various places ; and I have here a 
specimen of Mr. George Shaw's catalogue book, which he con- 
templates introducing at the Athenaeum Library, Liverpool. Of 
much more importance than either of these is the " Sheaf" cata- 
logue holder, made by Mr. A. Staderini, of Rome, who invented 
one of the formsof " Card " catalogue already mentioned. 11 It com- 
prises a fixed back and boards, to which two iron screw bolts are 
attached, and the slips when inserted are clamped by means of two 
brass screw caps turned by a key. These volumes are numbered 
and kept in pigeon-holes, which bear the volume numbers and 
letters denoting the section of the alphabet contained in each 
volume. The pictures now exhibited show the arrangement 
better than it can be described. A " Sheaf" catalogue book on a 
principle very similar to this, has been invented by Mr. W. C. 
Lane, now of the Boston Athenaeum ; and at Harvard University 
other forms have been tried. The main objection to the 
Staderini holder, apart from its cost, is that, by reason of the 
rigid back, it always occupies the maximum space, while the 
slips are much inclined to sag when the holders are not quite 
full. Its clumsiness is also a disadvantage. A " Sheaf" holder 
on exactly the same principle, but with a different fastening 
arrangement, is that invented some years ago by Mrs. Sacconi, 
of the Marucellian Library, Florence. 12 It has a rigid back also, 
but I think the manner of securing the slips, and the superior 
way in which the volume lies open make it rather better than 
Staderini's holder. On the other hand, it is open to the same 
objections as to sagging and space occupied, which I pointed out 
against Staderini. It is intended to be kept in pigeon-holes, as 
this picture shows. An invention, almost identical in principle, 
was recently patented in this country by Messrs. E. and A. 

10 See Paper by Du Rieu in Library Journal, 1885, p. 206. 

11 See Note 7. 

12 Sacconi (Giulia) " Un Nuovo Sistema di segatura meccanica per Cataloglie," 
Firenze, 1891. 

56 The Library. 

Derepas, of Paris. 13 It was not particularly described as a 
catalogue holder, however, but rather as an ordinary binder: 
The last of the " Sheaf" catalogue holders which I propose to 
mention is that patented by myself last year. This has a flexible 
expanding and contracting back, and the slips are bound by the 
action of two cylindrical screws, turned by a metal key. It is not 
necessary, as in the cases of all other " Sheaf" holders, to undo 
this one in order to remove the slips to make an addition, the 
loosening of the screws being all that is necessary. The keyed 
slot cut at the back of the slips gives a sufficient catch, when the 
screws are tightened, to firmly bind the slips in place. The book 
numbers, if written on to the clamped portion of the slips, will 
remain in the books, if entries should be wilfully torn out, and so 
no catalogue could be made imperfect without the librarian's 
knowledge. The little xylonite label-holder on the back enables 
contents slips to be changed at will, without damaging the back. 
These holders should be kept in numbered pigeon-holes, which 
will facilitate finding and replacement. Their small size makes 
them very convenient for general use, and they occupy very little 
space compared with their capacity. One of these volumes will 
hold, on an average, 1,000 entries, and it occupies but 56 cubic 
inches of space. A card tray, to hold a similar number of 
entries, will occupy at least 225 cubic inches. The whole of the 
" Sheaf" systems have advantages not to be got from any other 
method at the same cost. As both sides of each slip can be used 
for the works of the same author, and each slip can carry from 
one to a dozen entries, it follows that a moderately sized volume 
will hold a comparatively large number of titles. The Staderini 
holder, on thin paper, contains 450 leaves ; with linen mounts, 
320. Sacconi's ordinary holder has a capacity of 250. The 
Leyden, and similar holders, are strongest when kept thin, 
and, probably, 150 slips would be a maximum. My own variety 
of holder will contain 600 thin manilla slips for type-writing, 500 
of fairly thick paper for handwriting, and from 300 to 350 thick 
manilla or ledger paper slips. I allow, as the result of careful 
calculation, an average of two entries per slip in an author 
catalogue, where one writer's works can be recorded on a single 
slip. For the convenience of those who desire a comparison 
of storage capacities and prices, I have compiled a table, which 
shows at a glance these particulars for " Card " and " Sheaf" 
catalogues : 

13 Patent Specification, No. 13,229, iSSi. 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 57 

Cost. Space occupied. 

American Card Cabinet 22/- 840 cubic inches. 

Stone's Card Cabinet 2i/- 748 ,, ,, 

Vernon Card Tray 25)- 380 ,, 

Bonnange Card Tray (42 6 if 500 cards used both sides) 6$/- 480 ,, ,, 

Staderini Card Tray (500 only) 3i/- 400 ,, ,, 

Staderini Sheaf Holder (900 only)* n/8 135 ,, ,, 

Sacconi Sheaf Holder (2 vols., 250)* 2O/- 200 ,, ,, 

Leyden ,, ,, 6/- 128 ,, ,, 

Brown ,, . ,, 8/- 56 ,, 

* These are ruled on one side only, as if it were intended that the front side 
alone should be used ; but in my calculation I have allowed for the use of both 

Applying these results to a catalogue of 10,000 entries, the 
American Cabinet would cost 11, at the American price, prob- 
ably more when imported here, and accommodate two readers 
at a time. Stone's cabinet would cost 10 ios., and also accom- 
modate but two readers. Vernon's Trays would cost 12 ios. 
(probably only 10 ios. for this number), and accommodate ten 
readers. The Bonnange Trays would cost ^"32 ios. (21 6s. if 
both sides of cards used), and accommodate five readers at 
double trays, or ten at single. Staderini's Card Trays would 
cost 15 ios., and accommodate ten readers. Staderini's Sheaf 
Holders would cost 5 i6s. 8d, and accommodate ten persons. 
Sacconi's Sheaf Holders would cost 10, and accommodate 
twenty readers. The Leyden Holders would cost ^"3, and 
accommodate forty readers ; and Brown's Holder would cost 
$ 153., and accommodate ten readers. Of course allowance 
should be made for the racks or pigeon-holes required by the 
sheaf holders, which would in most cases nearly double the space. 
Before concluding these notes on the " Sheaf" catalogue system, I 
should mention that all the appliances before described have 
slips which are well adapted for type-writing, and this cannot be 
said of any of the card plans ; as the Hammond machine seems 
to be the only one which lends itself readily to card printing. 
But all the machines now on the market, including the Ham- 
mond, can be used for printing slips for the "Sheaf" system. This 
is a very important consideration. I may also point out that 
manuscript additions to any slip can be made without removing 
it from its place, which is an important advantage not possessed 
by any of the " Card " systems. I should have mentioned that 
there is a German slip album which is used for cataloguing in 
the university libraries, but it is clumsy, and the slips are only 

58 The Library. 

secured by a brass catch which anyone could undo. There is 
nothing novel in its principle, and I only mention it to show tha-t 
I am not passing over anything worthy of notice. The principal 
disadvantages of the " Sheaf" system are these: The volumes do 
not lie open so well as could be desired, indeed there is an 
automatic shutting tendency not yet overcome, but this is a gain 
when careless readers leave them lying on the tables, instead of 
replacing them in the rack. There is also the danger of mis- 
placement, which, by the way, applies equally to any form of 
portable catalogue. But the great danger to every kind of 
catalogue, whether guard-book, card, or sheaf is DIRT, and 
there seems no possible way of getting over this difficulty. 
Nevertheless, I think the slip books suffer less than cards. At 
least it has been the case in Clerkenwell, as you will easily 
observe by comparing these cards for recent additions, now with- 
drawn, with the little slip book which I showed before. 

I will not detain you over the " Broadside " or "Placard" 
system of displaying catalogues, because I know every librarian 
has invented one for himself. The glazed frame with movable 
back on which we stick sheets with lists of additions to the 
library, is such a universal library appliance, that I must ask 
pardon for mentioning it. But it was the forerunner of more 
elaborate devices, such as the Liverpool one, with divisions for 
holding movable blocks on which were pasted and arranged 
entries of new books. At Middlesbrough, Cardiff, and else- 
where in England these "Placard" systems have been adopted in 
various forms, chiefly for lists of additions. At Boston, in the 
United States, I saw nearly one side of a wall covered with long 
grooved slats arranged in vertical columns, which had once been 
used for displaying cardboard slips bearing entries of new books. 
They were not being used while I was there, so that I assume 
they had proved a failure on such a large scale, no doubt 
because of the enormous labour and difficulty of transposing 
and adding to such a great collection of columns of single entries. 
The plain glazed frame with columns of type-written entries 
arranged in rough alphabetical order, seems to be all that the 
public desires in the way of a temporary catalogue of additions. 
Personally I have always found it just what is necessary. I do 
not think the "Broadside" or " Placard "form of catalogue is 
desirable, save for temporary purposes, lists of additions, special 
class lists, or similar lists. 

The " Panoramic " system of cataloguing is of comparatively 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 59 

recent origin. My first intimation of this idea was received 
nearly ten years ago, when Mr. Mason, then in Glasgow, hinted 
in a mysterious way about a plan he had of revolutionizing 
the prevalent methods of displaying catalogues. He took no 
steps to achieve this result till 1891, when he showed us at 
Nottingham a somewhat crude specimen of his contrivance. 
Since then he has greatly improved upon the manner of operat- 
ing his cylinders, and anyone can see in daily use at St.-Martin- 
in-the-Fields the revolving drum form of " Panoramic" catalogue, 
which is, so far as I can ascertain, the very first of its species. 
I have no idea of its cost, or to what extent, and how, it is used 
by the public. The idea of a continuous band with entries 
attached in alphabetical order, occurred to Miss James as it has 
occurred to Mr. Mason and others, and she prepared, some time 
ago, the little model which I have here to show you. With 
rollers in the cellar and attic, there is no reason why this style of 
appliance should not be made to carry the whole catalogue of a 
library, and perhaps make a useful lift ! The most recent of 
these " Panoramic " catalogue holders is the Rudolph Continuous 
Indexer, invented by the Mr. Rudolph whom I have already 
mentioned. The illustrations which I have will serve to give 
some idea of its appearance and method of working. It con- 
sists of a cabinet standing 3ft. 6in. high, by ift. Sin. wide, and 
2ft. 6in. broad, with a plate-glass top, through which the 
catalogue can be examined. Inside there are 600 slats, which 
revolve over two hexagonal drums in a continuous chain, and 
these are looped up for storage purposes in hanging folds by 
the very ingenious mechanical means provided. Each slat 
has metal grooves at the edges, under which cardboard slips 
bearing entries are arranged as desired. The slats are detach- 
able, so that a fresh one can be inserted anywhere in the chain 
when congestion occurs. The machine is operated by a crank, 
and I can bear testimony to the claim that it works rapidly, 
easily, and without noise. Each slat will hold 136 single 
line entries, and the total capacity of a complete cabinet 
may be put at 40,800 double line entries. It has, therefore, 
some advantage as regards storage capacity, adjustability, 
and ease of working. On the other hand, I regard it as a 
fatal defect, as far as library use is concerned, that one con- 
suitor can monopolize the whole 40,800 entries. Even when 
broken up into smaller cabinets the objection would be but little 
remedied, and the additional expense might make any advantage 

60 The Library. 

too costly. As well as I can recollect, the price of a 600 slat 
cabinet was quoted at Chicago as between ^"50 and 60, and 
this practically puts the contrivance out of reach of all save the 
largest and wealthiest libraries. I should also mention that 
when Mr. Cowell and myself were carefully examining one of 
these indexers at Chicago, the chain suddenly snapped in two, 
which rather shook my faith in the integrity of the fastening. If 
no more security can be given than this, what will happen when 
the small boy engages in a record-breaking grind ? For various 
purposes of commercial indexing I should be disposed to think 
the Rudolph Indexer would be extremely useful, but as a 
catalogue for ordinary public use in libraries I do not think it 
would be a success. As an accession list it might, however, 
prove of the utmost service, though its cost must ever be an 
obstacle to wide adoption in Britain. 

I have now concluded my survey of cataloguing and indexing 
appliances, and trust the specimens now on the table may 
be thoroughly examined before the meeting disperses. 

Nov. 13, 1893. 


[Mr. Brown's paper was illustrated by a large number of cataloguing 
appliances, selected from the Museum of the Association. These can be 
seen by librarians interested at the Clerkenwell Public Library, Skinner 
Street, London, E.G. ED.] 

By way of appendix to this paper I have selected from my 
private notes a few of the more important contributions to the 
literature of cataloguing ; but have confined the list to writings 
in the English language. This list includes rules for cataloguing, 
specimens of catalogues which are typical of some principle, and 
practical notes on the matters of arrangement and display. The 
whole is arranged in chronological order so that the gradual 
development of British and American catalogues and systems 
may be to a small extent traced. At some future time I propose 
to publish the whole of my notes on the literature of cataloguing, 
which are rather extensive. 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 61 

1597. Maunsell (Andrew) Catalogue of English printed bookes. . 
Gathered into alphabet, and such method as it is. 
London, 1597. Part i., Divinity; Part ii., Science. 
[First printed catalogue of printed books ?] 

1605. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Catalogues. 1605, 1620, 
1674, I 73 8 l8l 4 (classed catalogue of topographical 
books), 1843-57 (authors), 4 v. 

1650. Durie (John) Reformed Librarie-keeper. . London, 1650, 
" ... all the books and manuscripts, according to the 
titles whereunto they belong, are to bee ranked in an 
order most easie and obvious to bee found, which I 
think is that of Sciences and languages ; when first all 
the books are divided into their subject am matenam where- 
of they treat. . . " "... in the printed catalogue a 
reference is to bee made to the place where the books 
are to be found in their shelvs or repository." " . . a 
catalogue of their Titles made alphabetically in refer- 
ence to the autor's name with a note of distinction to 
shew the science to which they are to bee referred." 
[See Lib. Chron. 1884, p. i ; Lib. 1892, p. 81.] 

1658. London (William) Catalogue of the most vendible books 
in England orderly digested, under the heads of 
divinity, history, physic, law, &c., London, 1658. 

1692. Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. Catalogues, 1692. 
(" Books arranged under a few general headings.") 
New catalogue commenced by Ruddiman, 1742-1807, 
3 v. Present catalogue, 1867-79, 7 v. 

1699. Kirkwood (James). An Overture for founding and main- 
taining of bibliothecks in every paroch throughout the 
kingdom [Scotland]. . . 1699 anon. Every parish 
library shall have ". . . exact alphabetical catalogues " 
[of books] " with the place where, and the time when 
they are printed. . . " From these local catalogues 
" . . . a general catalogue of all the books in the king- 
dom. . . shall be printed and distributed through every 
paroch of the kingdom. . . " " It will be convenient 
that all the Bibliothecks in the kingdom observe the 
same method of ranking and placing their books, which 
method may be to rank the books according to their 
name and number, in the general catalogue, which name 
and number must be written upon a piece of paper and 
battered [i.e., pasted] to the back of the book. . . that 

62 The Library. 

it may be easiely seen and read by any person that 
comes into the Bibliotheck. . . ' [Reprinted in 
Greenwood's Public Libraries, 3rd edition, 1890, and 
by Mr. H. T. Folkard, of Wigan. There are the germs 
of many advanced modern ideas in this interesting tract, 
alphabetical and uniform cataloguing, classification and 
press-marking, open access, and newsrooms.] 

1734. London, Middle Temple Library. Catalogus librorum 
Bibliothecae Honorabili Societatis Medii Templi 
Londini, ordine Dictionarii dispositus. London, 1734. 
[This is the earliest English use of the word dictionary 
applied to the arrangement of a catalogue I have been 
able to find. Mr. Cutter mentions 1742 occurring in a 
German catalogue, as the earliest use of this term he 
had found up to 1876.] 

1773. London Catalogue of Books in all languages, arts and 
sciences that have been printed in Great Britain from 
the year 1700, properly classed under the general 
branches of literature, and alphabetically disposed 
under each head. . . London, 1773. 

1787. British Museum. Catalogues of printed books, 1787, 2 
v.; 1813-19, 7 v.; 1841 (v. i., A-Az., all published. 
Contains cataloguing rules. 1849 (books of reference). 
Present great author and title catalogue in progress. 

1792. Signet Library, Edinburgh. First catalogue, 1792. 
Catalogue. . . (arranged according to classes by George 
Sandy. . . librarian) ; with an alphabetical index of 
authors and subjects, 1805. 1820-37 (dictionary index ; 
1856 (law books. . . with an alphabetical index of 
authors and subjects) ; 1871, &c. (Present catalogue 
in two vols., with supplement.) [The 1805 catalogue 
is elaborately classified (on De Bure's plan ?) and has 
what is practically a dictionary catalogue for an index.] 

1809. Royal Institution, London. Catalogue. . . methodically 
arranged, with an alphabetical index of authors, by 
William Harris, 1809. New classified catalogue. . . 
with indexes of authors and subjects, and a list of 
historical pamphlets, chronologically arranged, byBenj. 
Vincent. 1857-59. 

1809. Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Catalogues, 1809 (classed); 
1827, &c. 1874-82, 5 v. (Mr. Cutter's elaborate classed 
catalogue, with indexes). 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 63 

1829. Letter to the Bishop of London on the expediency of 
establishing parochial libraries in the Metropolis, and 
the formation of a national catalogue on all subjects of 
philosophy and literature. By a subscriber to King's 
College. London, 1829. 

1835. London Institution. Catalogue of the library, systema- 
tically arranged. London, 1835-52, 4 v. (Has an 
" introductory preface " with " some judicious remarks 
as to the importance of classed catalogues.") 

1835. Penny Cyclopaedia. . . v. 4 1835. [See article "Biblio- 
graphy" for some interesting notes on catalogues and 

1837. Panizzi (Sir A.) Letter on a new catalogue of the 
library of the Royal Society, 1837. Letter to S. P. 
Rigaud respecting catalogue of Royal Society Library, 
1838. Catalogue of the scientific books in the library 
of the Royal Society, 1839. [See next entry. Panizzi, 
assisted by others, compiled the B.M. rules.] 

1839. British Museum Cataloguing Rules. Adopted 1839. 
First printed in catalogue of printed books, 1841. Also 
in Nichols' "Handbook for Readers at the British 
Museum," 1866, p. 38-54 : Sims' " Handbook to the 
Library of the British Museum," 1854, P- 9 I- 95 (con- 
densed) ; Stevens' " Catalogue of American Books in 
the British Museum," 1866 (the revised rules of 1862); 
"Library Association Year Book," 1893, P- 4 2 - 

1841. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Seventh edition, 1841. [Ar- 
ticle, "Bibliography," pp. 629-32. An author's "sepa- 
rate treatises ought to be entered under the subjects to 
which they belong."] 

1843. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Catalogue. 
[Author entries, with biographical notices, and alpha- 
betical subject-index, with cross-references. Compiled 
by Mr. C. C. Jewett. In 1838 biographical notices 
were included in the author catalogue of the Andover 
Theological Seminary of Massachusetts.] 

1852. Jewett (C. C.) Smithsonian report on the construction 
of catalogues of libraries. . . . with rules and examples. 
Washington, 1852. 

1854. Boston Mercantile Library. Catalogue, 1854. [Diction- 
ary of Authors, Subjects, &c., by W. F. Poole. " This 
is the first complete triple asyndetic dictionary cata- 
logue " Cutter.] 

64 The Library. 

1855. Edwards (Edward) Special report on the plan, prepara- 

tion, and printing of a classed catalogue of the reference 
department of the Manchester Free Libraries. Man- 
chester, 1855. 

1856. Crestadoro (Andrea) " Art of Making Catalogues of 

Libraries," by a Reader in the British Museum. London, 
1856. Anonymous. [See also the preface to the cata- 
logue of the Manchester Free Reference Library, 

1858. Low (Sampson). Index to the British Catalogue of 
Books. . . . 1837-57. London, 1857 [?by Cresta- 
doro]. This was preceded by " Bibliotheca Londinen- 
sis : A Classified Index to the Literature of Great 
Britain. . . . 1814-46." London, 1848. It is assumed 
by Mr. Cutter that this was the immediate forerunner 
in England of the dictionary catalogue. See " U. S. 
Report on Libraries," 1876, p. 534-35. 

1876. Public Libraries of the United States of America, special 
report. . . . Bureau of Education. Washington, 1876. 
[Contains useful articles on various aspects of cata- 
loguing, by Messrs. Cutter, Dewey, Noyes, Schwartz, 

1876. Barnwell (J. G.) A universal catalogue: its necessity 
and practicability. Lib. Jour., 1876, p. 54. 

1876. Cutter (C. A.) Rules for a printed dictionary catalogue. 
Washington, 1876 ; second edition, 1889 ; third edition, 
1891. Issued by the Bureau of Education. 

1876. Dewey (Melvil). Decimal classification and relative 

index for arranging and cataloguing libraries. . . . 

Boston, third edition, 1888. [Described in U. S. 
Report, 1876, but first " developt erly in 1873."] 

1877. Cross (J. Ashton) Universal Index of Subjects. L. A. 

Trans., 1877, p. 104; Lib. Jour., 1877, p. 191. 

1877. Depping (G.) Note on Co-operative Cataloguing. L. A. 
Trans., 1877, p. 100; Lib. Jour., 1877, p. 188. 

1877. Walford (C.) New General Catalogue of English Litera- 
ture. L. A. Trans., 1877, p. 101 ; Lib. Jour., 1*877, 
p. 1888. 

1877. Stevens (H.) Photo-bibliography. L. A. Trans., 1877, 

p. 70; Lib. Jour., 1877, P- I ^2. 

1878. L. A. U. K. Report and Evidence on General Catalogue of 

English Literature, and Universal Catalogue of Printed 

Mechanical Methods of Displaying Catalogues and Indexes. 65 

Books. L. A. Trans., 1878, pp. 8-9 ; 1872, p. 6 : 1880, 
p. 9. 

1878. Thomas (E. C.) Proposed Index to Collectaneous Litera- 

ture. L. A. Trans., 1878, p. 88. 

1879. Cambridge University Library. Rules to be observed in 

forming the Alphabetical Catalogue of Printed Books. 
In Cambridge University Reporter, 1879, pp. 768-71. 
1879. L. A. U. K. Report on Title Entries, L. A. Trans., 1879, 
p. 8; do. 1880, p. 5; Cataloguing Rules, 1880, p. 174; 
Title Entries, 1881, p. 6; Cataloguing Rules, 1881, 
83 ; Report on Illustrations to the Cataloguing Rules, 
1883, p. 8; Cataloguing Rules as revised at Liverpool, 
Lib. Chron., 1885, ? 2 5' See also Lib. Assoc. Year 
Book, 1890, &c. [These Rules are for Author and Title 
Entries only, and were published separately, as well as 
in the publications noted above.] 

1882. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Compendious Cataloguing 

Rules for the Author-Catalogue, 1882. [Includes a Size- 
Notation. See Monthly Notes, 1883, p. 5-9 and 31-33; 
Lib. Jour., 1883, p. 298-301 : Lib. Assoc. Year Book, 1893, 

P- 57-1 

1883. American Library Association. Condensed Rules for an 

Author and Title Catalog. Lib. Jour, 1883, p. 251-54, 

1884. Garnett (R.) Photography in Public Libraries. L. A. 

Trans., 1884, p. 66. 
1884. Perkins (F. B.) San Francisco Cataloguing. Public 

Libraries. A Manual of the System used in the San 

Francisco Free Public Library. San Francisco, 1884. 
1886. Fletcher (W. I.) Co-operative Cataloguing. Lib. Jour. y 

1886, p. 74; Nation, vol. 42, p. 147. 

1886. Library Notes. Card Catalogues. 1886, p. 33-42. 
1886. Garnett (R.) Card Catalogue Systems. Lib. Notes, 1886, 

p. 182. 
1886. Library Notes. American versus English Catalogs. 

1886, pp. 179-95. 

1886. Schwartz (J.) A Dozen Desultory Denunciations of the 

Dictionary Catalogue, with a Theory of Cataloguing. 
Lib. Jour., 1886, p. 470. 

1887. Library Notes. Library Handwriting. 1887, p, 273. 

1888. Garnett (R.) Prof. Dziatzko's Cataloguing Rules. Lib. 

Chron., 1888, p. 166. 

66 The Library. 

1888. Dewey (M.) " Rules for author and classed catalogues, 

with 52 facsimiles of sample cards ; with a bibliography 
of cataloguing rules," by Mary S. Cutler. Boston, 
1888 ; second edition, 1889 ; third edition, 1890; fourth 
edition, 1892. [Originally issued for Columbia College 
Library, New York, but now the Rules of the Library 
School at Albany.] 

1889. Wheatley (H. B.) How to Catalogue a Library. Lond., 


1890. Linderfelt (K. A.) Eclectic Card Catalog Rules. 

Author and title entries. Based on Dziatzko's " In- 
struction," compared with the Rules of the British 
Museum, Cutter, Dewey, Perkins, and other authorities. 
With Appendix, containing a list of oriental titles of 
honour and occupations. Boston, 1890. 

1892. Garnett (R.) British Museum Catalogue as the basis of a 
Universal Catalogue. Lib., 1893, P- 93- [Read at 
Paris, 1892.] 

1892. Law (T. G.) Co-operative Catalogue of English Litera- 
ture up to 1640. Lib., 1893, P- 97- [Read at Paris, 

1892. Green (H. E.) Card Volumes versus Card Drawers. Lib. 
Jour., 1892, p. 5. 

1892. Rudolph (A. J.) Progressive Machine Index. Nation, 

vol. 55, p. 125, 1892. 

1893. Sacconi-Ricci (Giulia) Various forms of Catalogue used 

in Modern Libraries, with special reference to a system 
of Mechanical Binding. Lib. Jour., 1893, p. 423. 
1893. Brown (J. D.) Mechanical Methods of displaying Cata- 
logues and Indexes. L. A. U. K. Meeting, Nov., 1893. 
[The paper to which this list is an appendix. Lib., 
1894, P- 45-1 


public ^libraries anb 6ov>ernment publications. 

THE custodians of public libraries should note Mr. Gladstone's reply 
in the House of Commons to Mr. Hayes Fisher, of Fulham, on December 
27th, 1893, on the question as to the free supply of public documents to 
libraries. It was to the effect that since 1886 provision had been made to 
supply copies of parliamentary papers to any Committee of a Public 
Library applying for them to the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office, 
London. Mr. Mullins, of Birmingham, points out that in September, 
1886, the same reply was given to the same question by the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer. It seems extraordinary that no steps were taken to 
make known this intention on the part of the Government, and it is 
doubtless due to this negligence that so few librarians were aware of the 
matter. It is to be hoped that advantage will be taken of this provision 
by libraries all over the country, if only to justify the various outcries 
which have been made from time to time on this question. 

pening of tbe Camberwell Central SLibran?* 

THE extensive borough of Camberwell, which includes the parliamen- 
tary divisions of Duhvich, Peckham, and North Camberwell, was en 
fete on October 9, the occasion being the opening, by the Prince of 
Wales, of the new Central Library, and a public garden in the rear of the 
building, in the Peckham Road. The presence of his Royal Highness, 
accompanied by the Duke and Duchess of York, naturally added to 
popular enthusiasm, but the widespread interest evinced by many 
thousands of readers in the institution itself was also an important factor 
in making the event a memorable one in the history of the borough. 

The success of the Camberwell Public Libraries has been very re- 
markable. Sincr the first library was opened in 1890, 1,407,369 books 
have been issued to readers. During the past year, four libraries were 
in operation, two of which were in temporary premises, and the issue of 
books reached a total of 542,425. 

The new edifice is a handsome structure, designed by Mr. R. P. 
Whellock, in the Jacobian-Renaissance style. The elevation facing the 
Peckham Road is of red brick and Portland stone, having two gabled 
buildings, one on either side of a tower, with an open arcaded porch 
supported on four columns of Cornish granite. The main corridor is 
ten feet wide, partitioned with arcaded granite columns, the lending 
library, news and magazine rooms, commissioners' and chief librarian's 
rooms being to the right and left of the corridor, which leads to the 
reference library. Spacious store-rooms 'and caretakers' apartments 

68 The Library. 

are also provided, and there are clock and record rooms in the 
tower. The building will probably cost over ; 10,000. The sum paid 
for the land was ^3,000, but the latter has been reduced by ^1,000, the 
sum paid by the Vestry for the library garden. This sale has enabled 
the commissioners to purchase a site at Nunhead, where another library 
is required. 

The Prince of Wales and the Duke and Duchess of York were 
received at the entrance of the library by the Lord Mayor of London 
(a native of Camberwell), Mr. George Crispe Whiteley, M.A. (chairman), 
the library commissioners, the clerk (Mr. C. W. Tagg), the architect 
(Mr. Whellock) and the chief librarian (Mr. Edward Foskett). The 
royal visitors, having inspected the library and garden, proceeded to the 
dais in the large news room, where an enthusiastic reception awaited 
them. After a dedicatory prayer offered by the Rev. John Dixon Dyke, 
M.A., rural dean of Camberwell, Mr. G. C. Whiteley, M.A. (chairman of 
the library commissioners), gave a lucid resumt of the history of the 
libraries in Camberwell. 

The Prince of Wales said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Let me begin by saying it was with the 
greatest pleasure I accepted the invitation to come here to-day to open 
this your central library and recreation ground. Before the excellent 
address we have just heard from Mr. Whiteley I had hoped 1 might 
have been able to touch on some interesting topics connected with these 
proceedings, but to use a nautical expression, he has completely taken 
the wind out of my sails. (Laughter.) I fear there is little left to say 
but to express my appreciation of the fine qualities of this building, so 
well arranged and so well built in every respect. (Applause.) I under- 
stand you have in it 20,000 books now, and that you have room for 
60,000 volumes. Perhaps one of the most remarkable facts in connec- 
tion with these libraries is that since they have been used 1,500,000 
books have been taken and every one has been safely returned. 
(Laughter and applause.) In connection with this library it must be a 
great boon to this part of London to have a plot of ground behind it for 
recreative purposes. (Applause.) Most sincerely do I wish prosperity 
and success to this excellent undertaking, with which Mr. George 
Livesey's name has been so very properly connected by Mr. Whiteley, 
for to him we all owe deepest thanks. Most heartily do I hope that the 
people in this neighbourhood may long gain every possible advantage 
from this excellent institution. (Applause.) I thank you all, ladies and 
gentlemen, most kindly and heartily for the very warm reception given 
me on this occasion, and accorded also to my son and daughter. (Loud 
applause.) I beg now to declare the library and recreation ground open. 

After the departure of the royal visitors, short speeches were delivered 
by Mr. F. G. Banbury, M.P., Mr. M. Wallace, Mr. J. Faulkner, Mr. 
Seth Coward, Mr. George Livesey, and others. 

A Great Catalogue, being an Appreciation of the 
Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody In- 
stitute, Baltimore. 1 

URING the last eight or nine years I have observed with 
great interest, with sincere admiration, and, I must con- 
fess, with a little envy, the progress of the catalogue of the 
Peabody Library at Baltimore. It chanced that the completing 
volume reached my hands just after I had received from Mr. 
MacAlister a letter urging me, as librarian of a Scottish library, 
to make some contribution to the proceedings of this meeting. 
My own work, though sufficiently engrossing, had not developed 
anything specially novel or notable, and as I was reluctant to 
return a negative to our Secretary's request I thought I might 
without impropriety engage the attention of the association for a 
few minutes in an appreciation of what may be truly called a 
great catalogue. I do not make any comparison or contrast 
between this and other important works of the same class ; and 
my purpose being appreciation in the conventional sense, and 
not criticism, I do not refer to features in the catalogue which 
personally one would have preferred to see differently treated. 
Happily, it is quite possible, while reserving judgment on this or 
that characteristic of a catalogue, to render a tribute of respectful 
admiration to the work as a whole. 

The establishment of the Peabody Institute at Baltimore is 
but one, and not the most impressive, of the great acts of 
benevolence which caused the name of its founder, before his 
death, to become famous throughout the Old World and the New, 
as suggestive of a liberality of the freest and largest kind, guided 
by a sound and discriminating judgment. 

The library was designed as one for scholars, for serious 
study and research, and consequently contains little of what is 
merely popular. It is important from the large proportion of 
works of permanent value and great cost which it contains. One 
does not care to assess the position of a library by the number of 
pounds or of dollars expended upon it, but in this case the high 
average character of the books is roughly shown by their cost, 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 
Aberdeen, September, 1893. 


yo The Library. 

which is at the rate of about thirteen shillings a volume. It may 
be mentioned in passing that the popular element in library 
work has been more recently supplied in Baltimore by the 
establishment of the Enoch Pratt Free Libraries. Happy the 
city which has had two such benefactors. 

The preparation of the catalogue was commenced in 1869. 
When the first volume was issued in 1883 the library contained 
80,000 volumes. By the time the last was issued in 1892 that 
number had been increased to more than 100,000, an addition 
during the printing of the catalogue of more than 30,000 volumes. 
As all entries of new books were inserted in the part of the 
alphabet not reached at the date of their acquirement, it follows 
that the later volumes contain entries of many works which do 
not appear in their places in the earlier parts of the alphabet. 
These entries, together with those of new books still being 
added, will form a series of supplementary volumes on the same 
excellent lines, but, as one of the staff promises, with improve- 

As now completed, the catalogue consists of five volumes in 
imperial octavo, containing together more than 5,000 pages, each 
in two columns. A rough calculation shows that on an average 
one of these large and closely-printed pages is devoted to the 
cataloguing of every twenty volumes. This fact alone is 
testimony to the very thorough way in which the contents of 
collective or miscellaneous volumes have been brought into view. 
The total number of references is 357,429, or about three and a 
half references to each volume. 

The general arrangement is alphabetical, all kinds of entries 
author, subject, or title being, as is usual, thrown into one 
alphabet. The entries under authors are full, and where 
necessary the contents are freely detailed ; under the titles there 
are abundant references, and at the various subject headings 
throughout the catalogue there will be found cited in many 
cases an array of authorities not often paralleled elsewhere. 

The principal periodicals are not set out ; that is to say, 
there is not under the title any list of the contents. But each 
article is indexed and inserted in its proper place in the general 
alphabet, under the appropriate subject word, and under the 
author's name where that is known. The entry includes a fairly 
full title of the article, the name of the periodical, the volume 
number and date of the appearance of the article, the page in the 
volume at which it occurs, and the number of pages it covers. 

A Great Catalogue. 71 

Volumes of essays or miscellaneous collections are described, 
set out, and indexed, each article in like manner appearing 
under the name of its subject in the general alphabet. The 
publications of academies and learned societies (except those 
dealing with science) are analysed and indexed in a similar 

But the feature of this catalogue which most distinguishes it 
from others is the treatment of large collections of the highest 
importance, such as the editions of Greek and Latin fathers 
issued under the name of the Abbe Migne, the Monumenta 
Germanise Historica of Pertz, the French historical collections 
of Bouquet, the Italian collections of Muratori, and the great 
Thesauri Antiquitatum of Graevius, Gronovius, and others. In 
the treatment of each of these extensive and difficult works, 
there is first an elaborate setting out of the contents in an 
alphabetical sequence under the most important word, and 
secondly each item is referred to its proper place in the general 
catalogue, under both author and subject, and this not less with 
short pieces, sometimes not exceeding a page, than in the case of 
lengthy treatises. To convey an idea of the labour involved in 
this process, Dr. Morison, the late Provost, who signed the 
prefatory notes to the first four volumes, mentions that the treat- 
ment of the several series entered under the name of Migne 
alone, upon which several persons were engaged at different 
times, is equivalent to the continuous work of one person for 
two years. The table of contents of these series occupies 25 
pages, 50 columns of solid nonpareil, and the author and subject 
references dispersed throughout the catalogue number many 
thousands. Dr. Morison adds: "It is believed that none of 
these great collections has ever before been analysed, and the 
contents, under appropriate heads, made accessible to scholars." 
May it not be added that the service is not to scholars in 
Baltimore alone, but that by the dispersion of the catalogue 
scholars all over the world will reap advantage from the labours 
of the staff of the Peabody Library ? Other libraries which 
possess any of these important collections may with great 
advantage refer in their catalogues to the analysis which is here 

As a result and reward of the laborious processes adopted, 
the catalogue abounds in articles of great value to scholars and 
students. Of these I select two for particular mention ; that 
under the word " Inscriptions," and that under the word 
" Drama." 

72 The Library. 

The word " Inscriptions " occupies twenty pages, four 
columns, and the larger part of it is closely set in small type. 
After a page and a half relating to inscriptions generally, the 
entries are arranged under the specific language in which 
the inscriptions recorded appear in alphabetical order : 
Anglo-Saxon, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, and so on. Cunei- 
form inscriptions occupy three columns, Greek nine columns, 
Latin ten columns, Phoenician two columns, Sanskrit two 
columns. It may be doubted if the student of inscriptions will 
find in any other catalogue existing, so full and satisfactory a 
guide to the literature of his subject. 

The word " Drama " occupies seventy-six pages, and includes 
a systematic arrangement of works and of articles on each branch 
of dramatic literature and art. The writings of all authors in 
this line of literature are duly entered or referred. The most 
remarkable feature of the article, however, is a list of plays of all 
periods, and in many languages, arranged in alphabetical order 
of the title. The list extends to more than 100 columns of small 
type, and contains a good many thousand titles ; and the 
necessary references are provided to show the reader where 
each edition of each play may be found. 

It seems something in the nature of an anti-climax to say 
that the typography of the work is excellent. By the judicious 
use of various kinds of type the eye is greatly assisted, and after 
a little use of the volumes picks out the required item almost 
without effort. It is hardly necessary to state that the catalogue 
is extremely accurately printed, and that errors of the press are 
" conspicuous by their absence." 

It remains to make some reference to those by whom this 
work has been accomplished. 

The first Provost of the Peabody Institute, Dr. Nathaniel 
H. Morison, was responsible for preparing the plan of the 
catalogue, and for its general control and supervision. Its 
execution was under the immediate charge of Dr. Philip R. 
Uhler, to whose suggestion many of its most characteristic and 
valuable features are due. Other members of the staff who are 
honourably mentioned are Mr. Troeger, and Mr. Parker. Dr. 
Morison signed the prefatory notes to the first four volumes, but 
did not live to witness the completion of the fifth. He was 
succeeded in his office of Provost by Dr. Uhler, who, in the 
preface to the fifth volume, after fitting reference to his pre- 
decessor's death, states briefly the course and object of the work, 

A Great Catalogue. 73 

and concludes : " The Catalogue as it now stands is but a first 
step in that progress which aims to satisfy the researches of 
students, in accordance with the expressed wish of Mr. Peabody. 
It is now submitted to the consideration of scholars, by whose 
decision it will take such rank as it merits, in the domain of 
library literature." 

We may admire Dr. Uhler's courage in speaking of such a 
work as a first step, and respectfully assure him that its place is 
secure, high among the greatest of its kind. 


In the Lending Library. 1 

HP HE philosopher-librarian which term will, I think, cover all 
-* my craft-brethren and craft-sisters of this Association I 
will suppose to be seated meditatively in the lending library, 
after having broken the record with an unparalleled issue ; 
thinking over the strange unfathomable people, and the too 
easily fathomable books which he has been distributing to 
them, and over the never-ending problem of how to fit the 
right people with the books suited to them, whether by Cot- 
greave or Robertson mechanical means, or by the older system 
of human conversation. 

As philosopher, he or she is sure of one great fact, that 
there are in the world books to suit every man, woman and 
child, and as librarian he or she has confidence that the 
library contains them. There may be some slight initial im- 
pediments such as the readers not knowing themselves what 
they want, or, greater impediment still, thinking they do. But 
this is one of the true objects of philosophy, to teach mankind 
what to want, and of course is applicable to readers and books, 
and our next step will be to get them to ask for it. Bearing 
in mind the infinite variety and complexity of the human 
minds we have to deal with, our problem is not an easy one, 
but I hope to show is both practical and useful, and may be 
stated thus How to read ouv readers. 

Whenever I have heard a paper descriptive of the work at 
the People's Palace Library, it has struck me that a gallant 
attempt was made by the lady who administers the mind-food 
to Her Majesty's East End of London subjects to solve this 
problem in her sphere, and that a mind-concert with harmonious 
results is carried on between librarian and readers in the circular 
domed portion of that building, as the ear-concert is in the 
Queen's Concert Hall. 

My own readers, chiefly drawn from the families of the 
Queen's legislators, past, present and future, are not them- 
selves easy reading, ay, and require translating, too, some of 
them ; not unillustrated with comic cuts. 

1 Read at a Monthly Meeting of the Library Association, February, 1894. 

The Library. 75 

An instructive reading is obtained from the way lists are 
sometimes made out. The dictated list generally secures the 
intervention of Mrs. Malaprop, and " Auld Licht Idylls " 
become " All Night Idylls ; " " Told in the Verandah " is 
changed to " A Toad in a Verandah ; " " The Kernel and the 
Husk " is rendered " The Colonel and the Husk ; " " Sarace- 
nesca," by Marion Crawford, shows all the variations which the 
female name Sarah will .combine with, and the Rev. Hugh 
Stowell Brown's life is asked for as " Who stole Brown's life." 
The copied list shows some strange features, especially if 
coupled with illegible writing, but a very simple mistake 
converts " lo in Egypt" into "Jo in Egypt" and provokes the 
irreverent thought that our respected President has written a 
poem on the Old Testament Viceroy of Pharaoh, and in an 
unwonted spirit of American humour has called him Jo a 
liberty that even Sir Edwin Arnold, whose poetic licence took 
that patriarch through some strange adventures, did not venture 

These kind of lists amuse but do no harm. More mischievous 
are those lists which ask for books that the reader knows 
nothing of, but has been attracted by some catchy titles seen 
in newspaper advertisements, and it is these lists that are 
responsible for that mass of literature that exists only for the 
circulating librarian and the remainder man by no means to the 
advantage of the former, who is far better without it ; while the 
latter well, he is the man at the other end of the see-saw, and 
when the circulating librarian's weight is taken off the one end, 
let him look out for himself. 

It is often said of certain kinds of literature that it is good 
only for the circulating libraries. That may mean, and in fact 
generally does, that it can only be got rid of to them. But as 
regards its being good for them I venture to speak with some 
authority, that no book is really good for them that is not good 
altogether good for a man to buy if he can afford it, to hire 
it if he cannot. The circulating library may endure with stoical 
silence the losses that many an ephemeral book brings them, 
but find good in it they cannot. 

Those institutions are looked to to help in the realisation of 
some funny ideals. There is the author's ideal, which is that 
the libraries shall take as many copies of a work as any sort of 
a demand can be stirred up for, to compel their clients to read 
them, and what is more, to like them. If the works are sue- 

76 In the Lending Library. 

cessful and run out of print, a new edition is produced with the 
slightest possible alteration, and then they are to buy them all 
over again. This amounts to a compulsory taking of the author's 
physic, and when you are ready to thank goodness that it is all 
gone, a variation of one ingredient in the prescription is made, 
and you are expected to take it all over again. The reader's ideal 
is that the libraries shall provide happy hunting grounds of three 
volume novels, ever new, ever good, always amusing, always 
exciting, with a spice of impropriety, but not too outrageous. 
The realisation of this ideal is the gathering of a crop of dead- 
sea apples, and all the librarian may expect as reward for help- 
ing towards it, is a tacit implication of responsibility for their 
unsatisfactoriness. But the librarian has his ideal also, and 
that which he is ever striving to realise is that all readers 
should want good books, good for them and good for the 
library, and that all should know what they want, though this 
last is sometimes pleasantly substituted by the reader saying, 
" You know so much better than I do what will suit me help 
me to a book." The librarian's ideal is that every one who 
goes out of the doors should go out helped. This means a 
great deal more than that he should go out with a book in his 
hand, and indeed it means more than that he should go out 
with the book asked for, and this is a thing that takes our test 
and our measure. The young assistant, newly entered to his 
or her duties, bristling with zeal but lean of knowledge, dis- 
tributes according to that overflowing zeal and lack of know- 
ledge. The mechanical indicator has no zeal, and only as 
much knowledge as Mr. Robertson or Mr. Cotgreave put into 
it. One human habit I have noticed on the face of Mr. 
Cotgreave's invention, of blushing when questions are put to it 
revealing deficiencies. I think it is rather tantalising and 
aggravating that that indicator should look so cheerful and 
bright when it tells you the book you want is out, and that cold 
slaty blue stare of the numbers of the books that are in is rather 
suggestive of their dryness and unattractiveness. 

Our free public librarians are oftimes troubled with heavy 
statistics of fiction issues. Not only do the thoughts of them sit 
heavily on their chests, but sometimes cause commissioners to 
sit heavily on the (money) chest when fresh outlay for books is 
desired. We really want some system of counting, like that of 
the marks at a rifle range, when Whymper's Andes counts for so 
many marks as a bull's-eye, and a volume of the Pseudonym 
Series counts for so few as an outer. 

The Library. 77 

Now it seems to me that when you come to read your readers, 
these large fiction issues are very much made up of this book, 
that was taken out because it had such a comical title that one 
could not make out what it could be about ; and this, because the 
heroine's name was the same as the reader's ; and this, because 
they are sure someone said something about it, but whether it 
was in praise or blame they did not remember. All these issues 
were for one day only. They would have been for a shorter 
time did the rules of the library permit it. 

Now why should not a reader of fiction go into the matter 
with as clear a head and eyes as open as one who reads science 
or history ? If I have mentioned many weaknesses, and perhaps 
some crookednesses of readers, it is not that our attitude to them 
should in any way savour of loftiness or contempt. We do not 
despise the minds any more than the books we cannot read. 
We do not want all readers to be so docile as the boy who 
went to a friend of mine for Jack Sheppard, and on being told, 
rather severely, that it was not in the library, said, " Then I'll 
take the Sunday at Home.'" 

It never seems to vex a reader if you put before him a list or 
a lot of books he has read and liked. It shows him you have got 
his keynote, and that there is a probability of harmony between 
you ; but introduce only two or three uncongenial or dis- 
cordant books, and the sympathetic feeling suffers. And it 
nearly always happens that directly after the wrong reader 
has taken a book not quite suited to him or her (I everywhere 
imply both sexes), the right one comes in directly after, whom 
that would have been the very book for. 

I am not now claiming priestly functions for the librarian 
that must be a subject of the future but there is something 
matrimonial about suiting a reader with a book, and woe betide 
the maker of bad matches ! 


A Danish Charging System. 

libraries, in which an indicator is not in use, it is of 
great importance to have an easy method of finding the 
book which a borrower has, or the borrower who has a distinct 
book. The following method is in use in the public library in 
Helsingfors, Finland, from which the annual loans are more than 
60,000. It has been devised by V. Vasenius, in his pamphlet 
Rad romnde folkbiUiothek I. : Varden af folkUUiothek. I have 
varied the method a little for the use of Horsens Public Library, 
where the loans are fewer. Perhaps this method may also be of 
interest to English librarians. 

The method used in Helsingfors is as follows : 
Every borrower has a ticket, on which is written the 
borrower's number. Before the borrower receives a book, the 
number of the book and of the borrower are written on a little 
card (a square inch or more in size), the first number on the left, 
the other on the right side, and then the borrower may go, after 
having left his ticket. By this method, as many persons as you 
like can give out books. When the loan time is over the date 
of the day is written or stamped on every card. Afterwards the 
cards are arranged according to the number of the books, and 
the loans are in this order entered in a register, the numbers of 
the books on the left, the numbers of the borrowers on the right 
side. On the right side of every page is left an open margin. 
Here, afterwards, the date of the return of the book is entered. 
From day to day the cards are inserted among the cards already 
received in the numerical order of the books. The cards are 
kept in a little paper, or tin, box. Between every hundred cards 
a card a little higher is placed, and on this card (or guide) the 
number of the hundred (100, 200, &c.) is written. The borrowers' 
tickets are arranged in the same way. When the book is re- 
turned, the corresponding card is taken out and placed in another 
box. On the card the number of the borrower's ticket is seen, 
and it is removed and returned to the borrower, who again can 
have another book. When the loan time is over the cards taken 
out are arranged according to the date, and the cards on which 

A Danish Charging System. 79 

the same date is stamped are arranged according to the book 
numbers, and then are noted in the register the books which 
are returned. 

For the use of Horsens Public Library I have varied the 
method as follows : 

Every borrower has a numbered ticket. In the register the 
borrower receives his place according to his ticket number. The 
first left hand page of the register contains the numbers o 4. 
the corresponding right-hand page the numbers 5 9 ; these two 
pages together are numbered page i, &c. In the borrowers' 
place in the register are immediately entered the number of the 
book and the date of the loan. On the pasteboard card are 
noted, at the top, the number of the book ; below, the number of 
the borrower. The cards are arranged according to the order of 
the book-number, and the cards of every day's issues are kept 
separately (the library is but open twice a week). The borrower 
retains his ticket. 

These cards give an excellent means of obtaining a statistical 
account of the loans. When the cards are arranged according 
to the book-numbers, we can see how often every book has been 
given out ; when arranged according to the number of the bor- 
rowers, how many books every borrower has taken out. Es- 
pecially the first knowledge is of great interest for the purchase 
of new books. 

Horsens, Denmark. 

[Mr. Steenberg, in a letter accompanying this interesting note, ex- 
presses the fear that his description may be so lacking in novelty as to 
suggest the Danish proverb, which, in such cases, has it that " The egg 
will teach the hen," but we can assure him the method will be new to 
many English librarians. Its general resemblance to the card systems 
of England and the United States is well marked, though the preparation 
of a fresh card for every book issued is more like some of the American 
plans than any which have yet obtained favour in England. ED.] 

Scientific Books in Public Libraries, 

T N the new series of " Science Gossip," No. i recently issued, 
* Mr. John T. Carrington, the editor, makes the following 
remarks on the representation of scientific literature in British 
Public Libraries, which we reproduce the more readily, as they 
contain just that grain of truth which makes them peculiarly 
applicable to one or two cases known to most librarians who 
have studied some catalogues from the point of view of the con- 
tained representation of subjects : 

" Presumably the first intention in establishing free libraries is to 
provide material for educational purposes, and we are told that recreative 
reading is thrown in, as it were, for a bait to induce readers to take up 
more serious subjects as the process of education proceeds. We should, 
therefore, expect that such money as remains, after the supply of light 
literature is effected, would be expended upon the acquisition of the most 
modern literature which could be obtained. A recent tour through the 
metropolitan libraries, and those in some of the larger midland counties' 
towns, has been surprising in its results. Science is certainly fairly 
represented by regular stock books in most of them. These largely 
consist of such illustrated, or shall we say ' picture ' books, as Lowe's 
* Beautiful Leaved Plants ' ; the Rev. F. O. Morris's works ; Sir William 
Jardine's numerous volumes in his 'Naturalists' Library'; Buffon's works, 
and a long series of books chiefly out of date. From an educational 
point of view the majority of such books tend to delay rather than 
advancement in the onward march. In too many cases the income of 
the library goes in the purchase of fiction or general expenses, and the 
librarian depends upon donations for the science section of his catalogue, 
and must accept whatever comes to hand. We can readily understand 
the result by remembering a cynical definition of Charity as ' the giving 
that which is no longer a necessity.' It is only reasonable that having 
pointed out these defects, I should be expected to suggest some list of, 
say the best hundred books on scientific subjects, or to invite opinions. 
I have no list to produce, neither am I going to ask for one from our 
readers. There is, however, a way of obtaining such a list, which would 
be of the utmost value to the libraries, and the public consequently. No 
librarian, nor even his masters, the Library Committee, can be expected 
to know every best book, especially in science, where such voluminously 
new and original works are being so rapidly produced. If some 
authoritative body, such as the Education Department of the Imperial 
Government, or failing that, the Library Association, were to invite the 
councils of various learned societies, like the Royal, Linnean, Zoological, 
Geological, Geographical, Botanical, Chemical, Anthropological, and 
Meteorological, to draw up a list of works dealing with their special 
subjects, we should then get at such a list of text-books and authorities 

Scientific Books in Public Libraries. 81 

as would be satisfactory. Then the money could be well spent as it 
became available. This list might be revised from time to time, as 
changes became necessary through the progress of research. Can this 
suggestion be taken up ? It only requires the powerful aid of the Press 
generally to alter this worse than useless expenditure of money upon the 
dish of science served up in most of our free libraries." 

One element in this question Mr. Carrington has discreetly 
left out of view, and that is the enormous comparative cost of the 
majority of scientific books. Another is the extreme quickness 
with which they go out of date and use ; while yet another is the 
comparatively small number of public library users who have 
been educated up to a proper appreciation of advanced text- 
books. Again, and this applies particularly to surgical and 
anatomical works, many are quite unsuited for popular circula- 
tion even in reference libraries. It is, furthermore, an un- 
questionable fact that, the presence of such collections as 
Jardine's " Naturalists' Library," has led many public library- 
readers to study science at all, and ultimately produced good 
results, by their insistence on the library procuring more modern 
and exact books. What is really wanted is a catalogue some- 
what similar in scope to Mr. J. D. Brown's "Guide to the 
Formation of a Music Library," recently published by the 
Library Association, and we believe Mr. Ogle, of Bootle, has 
already prepared such a list, which, on publication, will fulfil the 
purpose of separate lists drawn up by different learned societies 
as proposed by Mr. Carrington, perhaps rather more practically. 
Nevertheless, his suggestion is good, and it is to be hoped the 
Library Association will take the initiative in enlisting the 
interest and co-operation of the various scientific societies in this 
most important work. It would be an extremely valuable and 
helpful piece of work if every great society of this kind would 
draw up, print, and circulate, a list of books in each subject 
most likely to benefit students and the public at large. 



Camberwell Public Libraries. Catalogue of books in the 
Central Library (Lending and Reference) ; compiled by 
Edward Foskett, F.R.S.L., Chief Librarian. London: 
Printed by Cooper and Budd, 1893. 8vo., 570 pp. 

No one can question the industry of the Chief Librarian of the Cam- 
berwell Public Libraries. This is the fourth catalogue issued by him 
since 1890, and in some respects it is a very remarkable piece of work. 
The number of volumes catalogued is stated to be over 20,000, of which 
13,615 are in the lending and 6,413 in the reference department. 
Mr. Foskett wisely divides his catalogue into two parts, but a more 
prominent type might have been used with advantage for the running 
headline, to prevent the chance of readers referring to the wrong portion 
of the book. With that trifling exception the style of typography is all 
that can be desired, and the execution of the work reflects credit both on 
author and printer. We have not hunted up and down the pages of this 
catalogue for small misprints which will slip into the most careful piece 
of printing. No doubt they exist here, but their discovery can be of no 
service to anyone except the compiler, and, from what we know of pre- 
vious catalogues issued by Mr. Foskett, we can confidently say that all 
care has been taken to avoid them. The plan adopted is what is known 
as the dictionary catalogue, but several new features have been introduced 
which require careful explanation and criticism. Mr. Foskett writes in 
his preface, "All the works of biography, fiction, French literature, 
German literature, history, music, poetry, travel, c., have been grouped 
under their respective headings in alphabetical as well as numerical 
sequence, the lists thus forming dual keys to books and library-indicators." 
Of the value of such a list as the fiction for use with the indicator no 
one can for a moment deny, and it appears to us to be remarkable that 
both the numerical and alphabetical sequence in a list of 5,500 books 
have been successfully maintained down to the very last volume added to 
that class. It should be noted that if we look for Dickens in the body 
of the catalogue, we are referred to fiction for his novels. In this respect 
the catalogue does not adhere to the dictionary plan, but probably the 
novel-reader will prefer to have all his literary food within thirty-two 
pages, rather than have to range over the whole catalogue. We have 
tested a number of entries in biography, and find that the class list has 
been more carefully prepared than the entries in the catalogue proper. 
The biography is invariably entered under the author, but the subject 
entry is frequently omitted. Sometimes under the subject the entry is 
fully recorded, and at other times there is merely a reference to the class- 
list. While we regret this want of uniformity in treatment, we notice 
with pleasure that in the biography class-list the years of birth and death 
have been supplied for the convenience of readers. This, in itself, 
renders the catalogue of value to everyone, and must have entailed no 

Library Catalogues. 83 

little labour to the compiler. If we have pointed out what appear to us 
to be shortcomings in this catalogue, we have done so in no churlish 
spirit, but with hearty admiration for the work as a whole, and with 
appreciation of the unique method in which Mr. Foskett has endeavoured 
to serve his readers. He has furnished them with an excellent guide to 
a most carefully chosen and extensive collection of books. 

Newington Public Library, S.E. Catalogue of the Books in the 
Lending Department, compiled by R. W. Mould, 1893. Roy. 
8vo, pp. viii., 68, advts. 

The experiment Mr. Mould has tried is thus set forth : " The plan of 
entering in the catalogue all books, with few exceptions, once only under 
author or subject as seemed most desirable has been adopted with the 
belief that it would allow of a useful guide to the contents of the library, 
being issued to the public at a popular price without imposing any 
additional burden upon the very limited funds of the institution in respect 
of the cost of publication. The object has been gained as regards cost, 
and the compiler ventures to hope that the catalogue will be found to 
meet all reasonable requirements of those for whose use it has been more 
especially prepared." The departure is a bold one, but it would require 
more time for the purpose of halting between two opinions than has been 
given to it to make anything approaching a satisfactory catalogue. The 
difficulty referred to by Mr. Mould is certainly much better met by the old 
form of a classified list than in this way, and with much less trouble and 
cost. It is inconceivable that a medley, neither one thing or another, can 
serve any useful purpose, and unless the Newington people are more 
learned than usual they will be little helped. Take the following examples 
of author entries : 

Stanley (A. P.) See Christianity, c. 

Roscoe (W.) See Medici, Popes, &c. 

Drummond (H.) Natural Law in the Spiritual World. 

See also Africa, &c. 

We find no entry under Christianity, but under Christ, &c., there is a 
book by Dean Stanley ; there is a book by Roscoe under Medici, but none 
under Popes, and in the Drummond as in the others it is impossible to 
know what the " &c. " includes, or to discover what the library contains. 
There are other faults such as misprints, excessive use of repeat dashes 
(even up to seven), incorrect alphabetization, &c., but the compiler claims 
indulgence owing to the haste at which it has been produced, and he 
evidently is entitled to it. No doubt the next edition will do him more 
credit. It may be that in this case he has made the beginner's mistake of 
straining after* novelty. 

We appreciate the difficulties arising from want of funds, but we 
believe that in Newington these have arisen from an injudicious mortgag- 
ing of the rate without securing experienced advice, in fact the librarian 
was appointed but a few weeks before the opening. 

Kendal Public Library. Catalogue of the books in the Lending 
and Reference Departments, compiled by Henry Bond. 
8vo, Kendal, 1893, PP-> i v -> 2 7- 

If we except the old method of using capitals wherever possible this 
little catalogue must be considered a model one. The lines upon which 
it is compiled have evidently been carefully thought out and laid down at 
the outset as well as uniformly adhered to up to the finish, and the result 
is in every way most creditable. The selection of books contained in it is 

84 The Library. 

a good one. The printer deserves much praise, as we do not remember 
having seen a catalogue of the kind better or more exactly printed. 
Moreover it is not disfigured by the ugly, but it is to be feared oftimes 
necessary, advertisements. 

Leicester Free Public Libraries. Catalogue of the books, 
pamphlets, &c., relating to Leicestershire in the Central 
Reference Library, compiled by C. V. Kirkby. [? 1893] 
8vo, pp. 94. 

The arrangement is that of a dictionary catalogue with subjects and 
many title entries. Many of these entries are quite superfluous in what is 
but a contribution towards a list of Leicestershire literature. In the case 
of topographical works or those concerned with local history, more than 
author-entries are no doubt necessary, but not otherwise. We should have 
preferred to have seen the local connection of the authors invariably 
shown, and if the dates could have been added, all the better. Sizes, 
collations, and the names of local printers also would have given it a 
distinct value. If the formation of a local collection carried to the 
inclusive length, now so often adopted in free libraries is to be justified or 
prevented from being characterized as a mere fad, its special value and 
interest can only be proved by treating a catalogue of it bibliographically 
upon some such lines as those suggested above. 

Leicester Free Public Libraries. Supplementary Catalogue of 
the Central Lending Library. 2nd ed., compiled by C. V. 
Kirkby. Sm. 8vo [? 1893], PP- I2 ^- 

The criticism offered on a former catalogue from Leicester, compiled 
as this is in a quasi-dictionary form under classes, is applicable to this 
and need not be repeated. That an ordinary classed catalogue would 
have served the same purpose and could have been sold at one-third the 
price there is no doubt. There are a number of slips ; inter alia we 
note Dr. Garnett appears throughout as Garnet, Rev. A. Jessopp as 
Jessop, Isle of Man is under Isle, and Hardy's "Group of Noble Dames" 
is classified as biography with the contents treated as if they were not 

Darwen Public Free Library. A list of books added to the 
Library, 1891-93. Pp. 9, sm. 4to. 

A mere short-title list, calling for no particular remark except that the 
omission of dates of publication is a drawback. " Hopkinson on the 
Indicator," one of the entries, seems new if bearing upon the subject as it 
concerns librarians, and might mislead any professional brother who did 
not recognize in it a well-known work on the steam-engine. 

Nottingham Free Public Libraries. Central Lending and 
Reference Libraries. Music, musical instruments, and 
musicians. 2nd ed., Nov., 1893. Ry 8vo, pp. 7. 

An alphabetical list, useful enough in its way, but would have served 
its purpose much better if arranged in the customary manner, i.e., into 
theory, instrumental, operas, histories, &c. It is an odd idea to include 

Library Catalogues. 85 

Edna Lyall's " Knight Errant," Fothergill's " First Violin," and others 
equally unlike in a serious list. The peculiar punctuation is somewhat 

Jersey City, N.J. Supplement. No. 2, to the alphabetical 
finding list of the Free Public Library, Jan. ist, 1893. 
Imp. 8vo, 1893. 

Salem Public Library, Salem, Mass. 5th Supplement to the 
finding-list. October, 1893. R y- 8vo, 1893. 

We bracket these together for the purpose of saying that they are 
very admirable specimens of the work of certain American libraries. 
British librarians have usually formed the opinion they possess of their 
American brethren from some such catalogues as these, and that their 
publications are of general excellence is well-known. We feel justified 
in stating, after a careful examination, that for some cause or other, mainly 
want of the requisite funds, such supplementary lists as these are not 
always equalled on this side of the Atlantic. 

Library of the College of New Jersey. Class of '83 Library of 
Political Science and Jurisprudence. Finding list. Prince- 
ton, 1893. Imp. 8vo, pp. 44. 

" A ' finding list ' is technically unpretentious. The arbitrary short- 
title system which is found on the whole so practical, is, at best, only a 
servant to the regular longer-titled ' author ' and ' subject ' catalogues. 
This one ... is printed by the linotype method, and the type-bars being 
owned by the library only a small edition has been printed, as corrected 
editions can be printed at any time at small expense. The method has 
certain limitations (e.g.^ there can be no accents on capital letters), but 
its advantages are decided. The chief of these is the fact that new bars 
can be made and inserted as readily as cards in a card catalogue. In 
this way proof editions for library use, printed on a galley press, can be 
kept up to date, at slight cost." This method of printing has something of 
novelty about it and something to commend it, and seems to get over the 
difficulty of keeping catalogue matter standing in type to save re-setting. 
The list is arranged according to a special classification prepared by the 
professors of the college, and we commend this classification to the notice 
of those specially interested. The Library of Political Science and 
Jurisprudence is a memorial formed by members of the class of 1883 
upon the occasion of a decennial reunion, and no more useful or appro- 
priate memorial could be found for a college than a special library. 

We have received the following booksellers' lists which are of 
more than ordinary interest : 

Handbook to various publications, documents, &c., connected 
with the rise and development of the railway system, sold by 
Mr. Edward Baker, Birmingham. 1893, i2ino, pp. 128, is. 

A most valuable contribution and guide to the literature upon the his- 
tory and progress of railways, chronologically arranged, and enhanced in 
interest by a descriptive commentary upon each item. 

86 The Library. 

Catalogue of books on the topography and genealogy of 
Lancashire, with an appendix of Cheshire books, compiled 
by Albert Sutton, Manchester. 1893, sm - 4 to ? PP- 4> IS - 

Of permanent value and should be placed for reference alongside of 
Fishwick's " Lancashire Library." 

Collection d'incunables soigneusement decrits et mis en vente 
par L. S. Olschki. Venise, 1893. Roy. 8vo, pp. 220. 

With exact transcripts of titles and colophons, collations, and descrip- 
tions of fifteenth-century printed books, including a number of editiones 
principes. In every case the reference number to Hain is given. 

Iftotes anfc IFlews. 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ABERDEEN. At the meeting of the Aberdeen University Court on 
December I2th, the meeting proceeded, in private, to the appointment of 
a librarian. The library committee reported that thirty-six applications had 
been received, and that a short list of three had been made up : Mr. 
P. J. Anderson, Aberdeen ; Mr. A. W. Robertson, Free Public Library ; 
and Mr. Wheeler, Oxford. Mr. Anderson was elected. The salary is ^300 
a year. Mr. Anderson is perhaps best known by his contributions to the 
municipal and academic history of Aberdeen, and as secretary of the New 
Spalding Club. He was previously lecturer on English literature, history, 
&c., to the Church of Scotland Training College, Aberdeen. 

ARBROATH. A history of Arbroath Public Library, by J. M. 
McBain, has appeared in serial form in the Arbroath Herald. 

AYR. At the meeting of the Ayr Carnegie Public Library Com- 
mittee, held on November i8th, the Clerk submitted the following letter 
he had received from the Town Clerk, relative to the charge made for 
readers' tickets : 

" Referring to your letter of 1 9th inst., I have carefully considered the question 
of the legality of the charge of one penny sanctioned by the Library bye-laws 
for the application forms supplied to intending borrowers of books. 

" The question is a delicate one, depending as it does on matters of fact which 
I have not the means of ascertaining exactly. Such a charge is not necessarily a 
departure from the spirit of the Act. The Committee are to make bye-laws for 
regulating the control, management, protection, and use of their property, and if 
a charge of one penny is necessary in order to such management, protection, or 
use, then it is legal. 

Library Notes and News. 87 

" It appears that in Aberdeen previous to a charge of one penny being 
sanctioned by their bye-laws, they suffered from irresponsible persons making 
application for readers' tickets and putting the management to the trouble and 
expense of providing them, and registering names, while such persons never after- 
wards applied for their tickets. I have no hesitation in saying that to check a 
practice of this kind, if prevailing to any large extent, the Committee would be 
legally entitled to pass a bye-law such as the one in question. 

"In the case of Hawick, to which reference was made at the Library Com- 
mittee meeting, the charge of one penny was made without the sanction of any 
bye-law, and the Town Clerk ruled that in absence of such a bye-law the charge 
should not be made. I am not aware that in any place where such a bye-law 
exists its legality has been ever questioned." 

Mr. Dewar said he had recently visited the free library in Belfast, and 
he found that a penny was charged from every party who applied for a 
ticket. They had also to pay another penny at the end of each year for 
renewing the ticket. Mr. Bain asked if the Town Clerk stated that it 
was legal to make the charge. The Clerk said the whole point of legality 
was as to whether it was necessary for the protection of the property in 
the institution. They had pre-supposed that it was. The matter then 

BANGOR. This city was the first in North Wales to adopt the 
Public Libraries Acts. It does possess a library, but for a term approach- 
ing three months that library has been closed. The librarian, although 
extra assistance has been allowed him and paid for by the town council, 
sees no prospect of its early re-opening, or of the work of cataloguing the 
books coming to a completion. The library happens to be also a news- 
room, and for the period previously named the newspapers and period- 
icals have been placed in the museum below, where the accommodation 
for readers is of the scantiest and most inconvenient character. The place, 
even in the daytime, is badly lighted, and when dusk falls, the room has 
to be closed, there being no gas or artificial light. 

BARKING. Mr. Thomas Mason, of St. Martin-in-the Fields Public 
Library, gave the first of a series of free lectures, which have been 
arranged by the Public Library Committee, on February 8th at the 
Town Hall. The title of the lecture was " What should we read," and it 
was listened to by a good audience, who followed the lecturer's racy 
and instructive remarks with much appreciation. A brief summary of 
the lecture appears in the Essex Times of February loth. 

BIRMINGHAM. Another important branch library was opened at 
Small Heath by the Mayor of Birmingham (Alderman Johnson), on Dec. 
30, 1893. The building has been erected at a total cost of ^5, 600 including 
fittings, and comprises a main news and reading-room over 70 feet long 
by 32 feet wide. A book store measures 30 feet by 1 5 feet, and a room 
33 feet by 29 feet has been provided for the use of ladies. The stock at 
starting will be 5,000 volumes. 

The Mayor in his speech referred to the progress of the Birmingham 
libraries, and to the experience they had gained since the library system 
was inaugurated. He stated that they had found it necessary to enlarge 
the space set apart as a reading-room for the reading of newspapers and 
periodicals, owing to the great interest taken in that department. As an 
antidote to the cursory reading of newspapers, they proposed to put in 
every branch library a set of books of reference. Mr. Jesse Collings, 
M.P., Mr. S. Timmins, and others, took part in the proceedings. It may 
be mentioned that the Small Heath library will serve the Bordesley 
district of Birmingham. 

88 The Library. 

BLACKBURN. In January a man was fined 205., costs, and 
the price of re-binding, for malicious damage to a book borrowed from 
the Free Library, and for felonious intent in an attempt to sell it after 

BLAENAU FESTINIOGr. A short time ago, the local board of 
Blaenau Festiniog resolved to adopt the Public Libraries Acts, if, on 
taking a vote, they found the ratepayers were in favour of it. A poll was 
taken, resulting in favour of adopting the Acts, and there is now open a 
central library at Fourcrosses, and a local branch at Festiniog Village, 
and another at Tanygrisian. 

BRADFORD. Mr. Butler Wood recently read a paper on "The 
Influence of the Moorlands on Charlotte and Emily Bronte," before the 
Bradford Scientific Association, which has been printed as a small 
pamphlet. He has also issued a useful " Hand-list of Works on Tech- 
nical and Kindred Subjects recently added to the Reference Library," 
in the selections of books for which he obtained the assistance of the 
heads of departments in the Technical College. 

BRISTOL. The Town Council in January, by thirty-seven votes to 
nineteen, has refused to open the Free Libraries in the town on Sundays. 

In the Bristol Observer, of January 2oth, is an account, with illus- 
trations, of the St, Philip's Branch Library, Bristol. 

CAMBORNE. Mr. Passmore Edwards, in November, offered to 
give 2,000 towards the cost of a Free Library building at Camborne, on 
condition that the ratepayers (who some months ago voted against the 
adoption of the Free Libraries Act) consent to maintain it. 

CAMBRIDGE. At the December meeting of the Free Library 
Committee it was unanimously agreed to extend the benefits of the Lend- 
ing Library to persons residing in the county, upon payment of a small 
annual subscription. 

CARDIFF. On the 28th February the memorial stones of the ex- 
tension of the Free Library in the Hayes were laid. 

COLNE. At the monthly meeting of the Colne Local Board on Feb- 
ruary 28, Mr. R. Foulds gave notice of his intention to move, at the next 
meeting of the Board, a resolution that the Public Libraries Acts of 1892 
and 1893 be adopted by the board. 

DRUMOAK, ABERDEENSHIRE. The Public Library of this small 
parish was opened on January 9th by Mr. Irvine, of Drum. The Rev. 
W. M. Grant, one of the speakers, among other things said that "the 
Committee, though largely under clerical influence, had given the first 
place to fiction. He liked a good novel, and did not think time mis-spent 
even in reading a novel not very good." The Rev. Charles Mackie 
followed in a racy speech in which he stated that Mr. Grant and himself 
had exercised a very severe censorship in weeding out books from those 
forming the nucleus of the Library. He remarked that it might be 
supposed that the rejected were novels and such-like, but strange to say 
they were entirely works of reverend divines of the most unimpeachable 
orthodoxy ! There is considerable hope for the village libraries when 
the clergy seem disposed to approach the subject in such a liberal and 
self-denying spirit. 

Library Notes and News. 89 

GRAVESEND. The Lending Library was opened on New Year's 
Day. The present stock in the lending and reference departments 
amounts only to about 3,000 volumes, which will, however, shortly be 
increased. There are already over i ,000 borrowers. Average daily issue 
about 100. Card-charging system copied from the Holborn Public Lib- 
rary has been adopted, there not being space enough for an indicator. 
A census lately taken showed that over 500 visits were made daily to 
the rooms. 

GRAYS. On February I2th, the Free Library and Reading Room, 
at Bank Buildings, High Street, were formally opened by Mr. G. H. 

HAWARDEN. The Rector of Hawarden announces that St. 
Deiniol's Theological and General Library, near Hawarden Church, 
which already contains 25,000 volumes, and will soon be put by Mr. 
Gladstone under a trust, was provisionally opened about January for the 
use of students (old and young, clerical and lay), inquirers, authors, and 
clergy, or others seeking intervals of rest. 

HULL. The Baker Street Hall was opened by Alderman Wood- 
house, D.L., as a temporary Reading Room, on January 3rd. 

IPSWICH The Reference Department of the Free Library has just 
been enriched by the addition of a complete set of volumes of Blomefjeld's 
" Topographical History of Norfolk," in the original binding, published 
in 1807, the gift of Mr. Alderman Westhorp (President of the Museum). 

KILMARNOCK. Mr. Henry Young Simpson, of Arbroath, an 
assistant of the Mitchell Library, Glasgow, has been appointed librarian 
of the Kilmarnock Public Library. 

LEAMING-TON. On February igth, a tramp was committed to 
prison for begging in the Free Library. 

LIVERPOOL. A branch Library and Newsroom is to be built in 

LONDON : CLERKENWELL. With this number is issued, as a 
supplement, the circular issued by the Commissioners respecting the 
" Free Access of Borrowers to the Lending Library Book-shelves." This 
new system will come into operation on May i, and we have been re- 
quested by Mr. Brown, the librarian, to ask his brother librarians to 
abstain from calling or writing for information till after the first week 
in May. So much interest has been manifested in the experiment by 
librarians, and others, all over the country that it has been found some- 
what of a tax attending to so many enquiries in the midst of the work 
necessitated by the change. Mr. Brown will, therefore, evidently be 
assisted by other librarians restraining their curiosity concerning a 
scheme which can only be properly judged after a fair trial. 

LONDON : KENSINGTON. On Wednesday, December 27th, 
1893, the members of the staff of these libraries held their second annual 
concert, with the Vicar of Kensington in the chair, supported by Captain 
James, and other Commissioners, and the Chief Librarian, Mr. Herbert 
Jones. The concert was a great success, musically as well as socially. A 
noticeable feature was the presence among the audience of librarians 
from other parts of London. 

go The Library. 

LONDON : LAMBETH. On Saturday, Dec. 2nd, 1893, the North 
Lambeth Library, Lower Marsh, was opened by H.R.H. the Princess 
Christian. The Rector of Lambeth was in the chair, and the Ven. 
Archdeacon F. W. Farrar and Mr. Edwin Lawrence took part in the 
proceedings. The building is close to the coster-haunted New Cut, and 
is specially remarkable for a large, lofty and well lighted reading room. 
This practically completes the Lambeth system of libraries, towards which 
at least ,40,000 have been contributed by various generous donors. We 
heartily congratulate Mr. Burgoyne on the success of his work since he 
was appointed about seven years ago. 

LONDON: MILE END. On Jan. 24th, by a majority of 25 to n, the 
Vestry of Mile End resolved not to consider the question of taking over 
the Library of the People's Palace, as part of a proposal involving the 
adoption of the Public Libraries Act, 1892. The use of the Library 
building and its contents had been offered to the parishioners conditional 
upon their undertaking to maintain it under the provisions of the Act. 
Much hostile criticism of the proposal was expressed, chiefly on the 
ground that the public would not have absolute control of the building, 
and that the rates of the parish were already more than sufficiently high. 
It appears to us from the discussion reported in the East London 
Observer of January 27th, and elsewhere, that there are considerable 
difficulties surrounding the question of a joint management of any public 
institution by which one party supplies a building and contents, while 
another has to meet the working expenses. The spirit which has hitherto 
animated the powers that be in reference to the adminstration of the 
People's Palace Library is not such as to raise very sanguine hopes for the 
future conduct of affairs, and it would probably be more graceful and 
better policy in every respect, if the governors would hand over the Library 
to the parish unconditionally, when the act was adopted. The library 
side of the People's Palace scheme has been so starved from the first, and 
the whole concern has been such a lamentable failure in spite of the best 
efforts of a competent officer, that it seems rather preposterous to burden 
the Mile End parishioners with such an acquisition unless quite unfettered 
with conditions. The People's Palace authorities having proved their 
incapacity to direct the affairs of a library on liberal modern lines, should 
hasten to divest themselves of further trouble by giving the books to the 
people of Mile End, and turning the reading room into a circus : enter- 
tainments of this sort being considered best for the East London popula- 
tion by the Palace managers. 

LONDON : PADDINGTON. Presiding at the Paddington Vestry 
Hall, on February 24th, over the sixth annual meeting and conversazione 
of the Paddington Free Public Library, Mr. J. R. Diggle (Chairman of 
the London School Board), in moving the adoption of the report, said that 
over thirty parishes in London had now adopted the Public Libraries Act, 
and he hoped that Marylebone and Paddington would soon add their 
names to the roll. Within certain limits he had sympathy with those who 
did not desire to augment public burdens, but everything depended upon 
what they spent the money for. Referring to the class of books usually 
borrowed from libraries, he observed that fiction always stood out 
prominent. A great deal of history might as well be called fiction, and 
there was sometimes more real history in books of fiction than in those that 
went under the name of historical books. Those who would in the future 
write the history of our own time would obtain a more vivid idea of their 
subject from contemporary fiction than from any other source. When 

Library Notes and News. gi 

they thought of what fiction really was, when they used the term in its 
higher meaning, he was sure few would deny to those who used public 
libraries the pleasure and the impetus which fiction often gave to all the 
better parts of a man's nature. He owed a good deal to fiction. In his 
(Mr. Biggie's) younger days, Scott's novels not only afforded him intellec- 
tual training, but also strengthened every desire that tended towards 
nobleness of purpose and purity of character. Then again, there was 
more philosophy in fiction, such as that of George Eliot, than many would 
find in philosophical works so-called. On the whole, contemporary fiction 
was pure, enlightened, and high-minded. He concluded by urging his 
hearers to spare no individual effort to bring into the parish the powers 
conferred by the Public Libraries Acts. 

Moore, formerly assistant librarian at the Highfield branch, but latterly 
of the Central Reference Library, Sheffield, was appointed, on January 
25th, sub-librarian of the St. George, Hanover Square, Public Libraries. 

His Grace the Duke of Bedford has given ^500 towards the fund being 
raised by the St. Giles' Library Commissioners for completing and 
equipping the new library. 

MANCHESTER Mr. C. W. Sutton, chief librarian, on January 
3 ist, gave the third lecture of a series on u Civic Life and Civic Duties." 
His subject was the Manchester Free Libraries. He stated that with 
the magnificent library which Mrs. Rylands is building in Deansgate, 
and which will open with about 80,000 volumes, with the Reference 
Library of 100,000, and the Lending Libraries containing about 130,000 
more, with the Cheetham Library of 40,000 volumes, with the libraries 
now in the Owens College containing about 70,000 volumes, for the 
housing of which Mr. Chancellor Christie is about to erect a fine building, 
there will soon be in Manchester a group of libraries accessible to the 
public of such excellence and magnificence as to be unrivalled in any 
city outside London. 

PERTH. The agents of the late Professor Sandeman propose to 
hand over ,10,000 to the town at Whitsuntide for providing a Free 

READING. On February 26th, the librarian (Mr. W. H. Greenhough) 
exhibited to the members of the various literary and scientific societies of 
the town and district, a selection of interesting books, maps, &c., belong- 
ing to the reference department of the Reading Free Library. Mr. 
Greenhough gav.5 an interesting account of the books exhibited. About 
600 persons visited the collection, of which a notice appears in the 
Reading Mercury of March 3, 1894. 

RIPON The Bishop of Ripon has intimated that he wishes it to 
be known that the Holden Library at the Palace, Ripon, is intended 
for the benefit of the clergy of the diocese, and that any of them who 
desire to use it will be cordially welcomed at the palace. 

ROCHESTER. The town council, in February, took a post-card 

D!! of the ratepayers upon the subject of the Public Libraries Acts, 
he result is a majority of 364 for adopting the Acts. More than 
half the ratepayers failed to record their votes. 

92 The Library. 

were adopted here in the early part of the present year, under the new 
powers conferred on local authorities by the Amending Act of 1893. 

SEVENOAKS. Sevenoaks in January declined to adopt the Free 
Libraries Acts. The Local Board, under the powers of the recent 
amending Acts, rejected a motion to establish free libraries by seven votes 
to three, despite the fact that the proposal had a very strong backing 
from outside. 

SHEFFIELD. On January loth, the City Council decided by 19 
votes to 1 6, that all betting news should be obliterated from the news- 
papers taken in at the various public libraries. The City Council dis- 
cussed again, on February I4th, the expediency of blotting out betting 
news from the newspapers supplied to the free libraries. The council 
had ordered, as above noted, all gambling news to be blotted out, but the 
Free Libraries Committee declined to act upon the instruction, and asked 
the council to rescind the resolution. The resolution was rescinded by 
37 votes to 24. 

STA.INFORD. Lady Winnington opened on the nth December, 
a village Reading Room and Club at Stainford, Worcestershire. The 
building, which is one of Humphrey's iron houses, consists of two rooms 
and a bar for refreshments. It is supplied with papers, a library of books, 
and plenty of games. It is to be closed in April for the summer months. 

ST. HELENS. The new branch Library and Reading Room, 
erected by the St. Helens Corporation in Chancery Lane, Parr, St. 
Helens, was opened by the Mayor (Mr. A. Sinclair), on January 25th. 
The Parr Library makes the fourth building of the kind in the borough. 
The Parr Library is a handsome structure, and its situation is convenient 
for the bulk of the residents of the somewhat scattered district. Its 
erection has been carried out by Mr. Peter Tickle, contractor, at a cost 
of ^850. It is built with Ruabon bricks, the floors and partitions being 
of pitchpine. 

TYNEMOUTH. On and after January ist, people residing outside 
the municipal boundary, may, at a cost of 2s. 6d. per annum, borrow 
volumes from the Public Library. In February, during a heavy gale, the 
roof and part of the reading room were blown down and the library had 
to be closed. 

WAKEFIELD. On January 4th, at the Wakefield Young Men's 
Christian Association, a library was opened to the memory of the late 
Mr. John Mackie, of Crigglestone Cliffe, president of the Association. 
The library consists of 1,200 works. 

WIDNES. Colonel Luard, R.E., Local Government Inspector, held 
an inquiry on December 6th, into an application of the Town Council 
for sanction to borrow ,9,415 for the provision of a technical school and 
public library. There was no opposition. 

the Rev. J. E. C. Welldon opened the Kilburn Free Library, which is 
situated in Salusbury Road, N.W. Mr. W. B. Tuke (chairman of the 
Library Committee), presided, and explained that this was one of three 
libraries to be opened in the three important divisions of Willesden, the 

Library Notes and Netvs. 93 

other two now being in course of erection. At present the building 
contained about 4,000 volumes, but there was shelf accommodation for 
close upon 10,000. The Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, after referring to the 
value of public libraries as counter attractions to the public-house and 
" bucket-shop," observed that in order to love a book it was necessary to 
know it well. Reading has been democratised, and public libraries were 
for the poor as well as for the well-to-do. When he thought of the ever- 
accumulating mass of literature, of the Niagara of books, he recognised 
the great difficulty of selecting what to read. There were two ways of 
reading books Comparatively few should be, in Bacon's phrase, " chewed 
and digested." It was necessary to cultivate the power of rapidly 
tearing the heart out of novels, biographies, modern histories, and other 
works. That power, which was quite consistent with accurate reading, 
led to an enormous economy of time. Abridgments, extracts, and 
reviews, were useless as substitutes for the books themselves. By 
adopting the method he advocated, most persons would find time to 
diligently study the Bible, " The Pilgrim's Progress," Homer, Dante, 
Shakespeare, Goethe, Gibbon's " Decline and Fall," Darwin's " Origin 
of Species," and others of the first rank. 

raised by the public spirit of the people in this rapidly increasing and 
progressive district, was opened on February I4th, as a Public Lending 
Library and Reading Room. The institution is an addition to those at 
Willesden and Kilburn, and has been built and furnished at a cost of 
.2,600. The building is in Craven Park Road. With Mr. Samuel 
R. Hutt, who presided, were Sir H. Roscoe, M.P., Mr. Ambrose, M.P. 
for the Harrow Division, representatives of district bodies. Sir H. 
Roscoe, in the inaugural address, regarded the establishment of Free 
Libraries as one of the most satisfactory proofs of the advance of 
England in civilisation and refinement. Harlesden, he said, with a 
population of 20,000, stood second on the list of all England of districts 
which had increased enormously within the past few years. He gave an 
interesting address on books and reading, recommending the adoption of 
some definite course of study. 

WINDSOR. Mr. J. Cross, who was employed for many years in the 
Royal Library at Windsor Castle, and has recently acted as assistant- 
librarian, died on December 3ist, after a brief illness. The deceased was 
upwards of 60 years of age. 


THE death took place in Anglesey a short time ago, in his seventy-fifth 
year, of Major Plant, F.G.S., who was for forty-three years librarian and 
curator of the Salford Free Library and Museum. He was appointed in 
1849, an d retired in April, 1892. On his retirement he received handsome 
and substantial recognitions of his valuable and prolonged services, and 
more recently his portrait, specially subscribed for and painted, has been 
placed on the walls of the institution over which he presided. He was a 
native of Leicester, and for some years was curator of the museum in that 
town, and was for a long period an active member of several of the learned 
and scientific societies in Manchester, contributing numerous papers, 
chiefly on geology, to their transactions. He was also for many years 

94 The Library. 

a prominent Volunteer, retiring with the rank of major. He took a warm 
interest in the work of the Library Association founded in 1877, attending 
most of its meetings until his health became seriously impaired. It used 
to be a saying that no meeting of the Library Association was complete 
without Major Plant. At the dinners usually held in connection with the 
annual meetings he generally responded to the toast " The Army, Navy, 
and Volunteers," being frequently the only semi-military member present. 
He was understood to have been the first librarian of a rate-supported 
(free) library in the kingdom, and was somewhat proud of the distinction. 
Belonging to the old school, he held very decided opinions, was out- 
spoken, and had the courage of his convictions. In discussions he had 
the reputation of throwing in the dark shadows effectively. Though 
somewhat brusque in manner, he was genial, good-natured, and kind. 
He had a distinct individuality, and those who knew and understood him 
will deeply regret his loss. Liverpool Post. 

association IRecorfc. 

SEASON 1893-94. 

THE FIFTH MONTHLY MEETING of the season was held at 20, 
Hanover Square, on Monday, February I2th, at 8 p.m., Mr. H. R. Tedder 
in the chair. 

Thirty members and a number of visitors were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting having been read and confirmed, Mr. 
MacAlister moved, and Mr. W. H. K. Wright, vice-president, seconded, 
that Mr. J. Passmore Edwards be elected an honorary member of the 
association, and it was carried unanimously. 

The following paper by Mr. Joseph Gilburt was then read : 

The paper, which hit off in a happy and humorous manner a number 
of lending library difficulties and oddities was discussed by the Chairman, 
Mr. Mason, Mr. Wright, Mr. Burgoyne, Mr. Humphrey, Mr. Inkster, and 
Mr. Macalister, after which a vote of thanks was passed to the author. 

On the Ventilating and Heating System of the 
Aberdeen Public Library. 1 

" I "HE subject of the ventilation and heating of libraries having 
- already at the Reading meeting in 1890 been before the 
Association, it is unnecessary for me to discuss the general merits 
of the question. Whatever else we may differ upon we are at 
least agreed in desiring to have in the interests alike of health, 
comfort and cleanliness, the maximum of fresh pure air with the 
minimum of discomfort, dust and expense throughout our library 
rooms. Towards this end the Committee of Management of the 
Public Library in this city, following in the wake more par- 
ticularly of one of the large infirmaries in Glasgow and of several 
of the Aberdeen Board Schools, adopted a system which has 
been attended with highly satisfactory results, and of which, 
therefore, I wish to give you some account. 

At the outset I would explain that the system in question is of 
the kind called the " mechanical system," and as such is to be 
distinguished from what may be called the " natural system." 
Further it is a mechanical system by impulsion as distinguished 
from that by extraction. 

As a mechanical system it undertakes by means of suitable 
machinery, to supply throughout the building a constant and 
controllable supply of fresh purified air, which is warm in 
winter and cool in summer, and to do this irrespective of the 
natural conditions of the external atmosphere. In this way 
it seeks to overcome the defects which are inherent in every so- 
called natural system of ventilation, whether it takes the primitive 
and prejudicial form of partly opened windows, or of the less 
objectionable, but still disadvantageous form of a system of inlet 
and outlet tubes. For all such methods have the radical objec- 
tion that they are dependent for their action on the condition of 
the external atmosphere, and that they cease to operate, or 
operate injuriously when these conditions are unfavourable. As 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 
Aberdeen, Sept., 1893. 


96 The Library. 

long as the wind is blowing into the mouth of an inlet, it may be 
assumed that fresh air will find its way into the building in a 
reasonable amount. But if the atmosphere is stagnant, or the 
direction of the wind is such as to carry it away from or past the 
inlets, then the air of the building also becomes stagnant and is 
soon vitiated. This objection is obviated by the introduction of 
machinery, which working, irrespective of varying external con- 
ditions, ensures a constant supply of fresh air in all circumstances. 

But, as I have said, the system adopted in the Aberdeen 
Public Library, is not only mechanical it is mechanical in a 
special way, operating by a process of impulsion as distinguished 
from one of extraction. The difference between the two methods 
is considerable, and not the less so is that between the results as 
affecting health and cleanliness. 

Mechanical ventilation by extraction proceeds on the principle 
that given a vitiated atmosphere in a room, the best way to purify 
it is to induce an upward current of air by means of a fan or other 

In this way the foul air is extracted, and is replaced by fresh 
air, which finds its way in by various channels provided for the 
purpose. But by this method not only are dust and other 
obnoxious matter carried into the room, but the air is sucked 
in at windows and other places where it is not wanted. 

A more serious objection is that there is no proper diffusion 
of the incoming fresh air, owing to its tendency to pass directly 
through the room from the point of entry to the point of exit. 
Now with ventilation by impulsion, the case in this respect is 
altogether different. Here the fresh air which it supplies is 
forced into the room in such a way that it cannot fail to be 
thoroughly mixed with the air already there, from which in turn 
it is similarly expelled. To understand how this is done in the 
public library here, I would remind you that the building 
consists of three main floors devoted, exclusive of subsidiary 
rooms, to the reading-room, the lending department, and the 
reference department. Each of these measures about 75 feet 
by 45 feet, by 18 feet high, giving a cubical content to each of 
over 60,000 feet. 

For its supply of air each is dependent on what is forced into 
it through the channels provided, all others being as far as 
possible closed. There are no fireplaces, and the windows are 

On the basement floor, behind the reading-room, and a little 

Ventilating and Heating System of Aberdeen Public Library. 97 

below its level is an apartment, open on one side to the external 
atmosphere, the size of the opening being 6 feet 6 inches by 
5 feet 6 inches. It is through this opening that all the air sup- 
plied to the building comes. 

To ensure its proper distribution there in all conditions of 
atmosphere, the air is drawn in by means of a Blackman fan, 
5 feet in diameter, which is propelled by means of an Otto gas 
engine of 3 h.p., at such speed as may be thought necessary. 
The fan is placed at the entrance of a large duct, from which 
other ducts branch off to the several floors. In order that this 
incoming current of air may be as clear as possible, before it is 
propelled through the various channels, it is drawn through a 
screen of manilla hemp, which is kept moistened by an occa- 
sional automatic flush of water, thus effectually excluding all 
dust, soot, &c. In the winter time, when the outside temperature 
is lower than is desirable, the incoming current of air, after 
passing through this screen, traverses a large coil of high pressure 
hot-water pipes, heated by a patent slow combustion furnace, 
by means of which it is suitably warmed prior to distribution. 

Now having seen the beginning of the strong current of fresh 
air (cool in summer, warm in winter), let us enter one of the large 
rooms and see what is taking place there. At various points 
along the wall are oblong openings at a height of six feet from 
the floor. These are the inlets for the fresh air. As outlets we 
have several grated openings 20 inches high and of various 
lengths, and placed at intervals on the walls, but quite close to the 
floor. These latter openings lead into various shafts, which find 
their final outlet in one large central shaft at the roof of the 
building. But to return to the fresh air in the room. This air 
we have seen is forced into it at various openings overhead, and 
circulates through the room before it finds an outlet on the level 
of the floor. The result is that the entire air of the room may be 
renewed from four to nine times per hour, according to the speed 
at which the propelling engine is worked. And yet while this 
thorough change is going on, there is none of that perceptible 
current which, under the name of draught is, or is fancied to be, 
so often hurtful. If you place your hand, or a lighted taper, 
over any of the inlets, the strength of the incoming current is 
sufficiently felt. So if you spread your handkerchief over any of 
the gratings at which the spent air is being forced out of the 
room, or apply the lighted taper, you are no less sensible of 
the change that is going on, and yet, so equally is the force of 

98 The Library. 

the outgoing current distributed, that if you place the handker- 
chief or taper but a foot away from the grating it will hardly 
be seen to wave or flicker. In support of the efficacy of this 
method of ventilation, chemical observations have repeatedly been 
made with most satisfactory results. For myself, I can only 
speak of the results as they affect the organ of smell, but as I 
flatter myself that in that respect my sense is unusually keen, 
and that I take care to exercise it in all conditions, my testi- 
mony is not to be lightly esteemed. The effect of that testimony 
to the worth of the system described as a means of maintaining 
pure air, even in the most crowded room and on a muggy day, is 
distinctly favourable ; not less so is it to the merit of the system, 
already alluded to, of reducing to a minimum that great source of 
worry and trouble to all librarians, the floating dust in the atmo- 
sphere of our library rooms. With windows that cannot open, 
with doors through which when they are swung open the trend of 
the current is rather outwards than inwards owing to the com- 
pressed state of the internal atmosphere, and with the air that is 
forced into the room coming to us through a filtering screen, we 
have in the Public Library in Aberdeen, the luxury of an 
atmosphere as free from dust as probably is to be found in any 
public building in the country. 

And now for a few words as to the cost. The price of in- 
stallation here was about 800, but this is about ^"300 more than 
it would have been had its adoption been contemplated from the 
first, and the necessary structural arrangements made as the 
process of building went on. The daily consumption of gas for 
working the engine, for 14 hours a day, is about 600 feet, which 
at 33. 6d. per thousand feet amounts to a fraction under two- 
pence per hour. As for the cost of heating the building, ex- 
perience so far would show that the annual outlay in this respect 
would amount to ^"30 to 35, and when the area and loftiness of 
the chief rooms are taken into account, the charge seems small 
indeed. And yet I am not without hopes that, with a little more 
experience we may be able to reduce even this cost still lower. 

In conclusion, I have only to say that if I have succeeded in 
interesting any here in our experiment in Aberdeen in this 
department of library organization, it will give me much pleasure 
to show it in actual operation in the Public Library. A very 
little observation there will enable you to understand both the 
method and the merits of the system in a way that I could hardly 

hope to do by any number of words. 


The Village Library Problem. 

proposal which has recently been made for the establish- 
ment of village libraries on a national scale to commemo- 
rate the public services of Mr. Gladstone, seems to have met 
with a considerable amount of approval, and the Westminster 
Gazette is to be congratulated on the measure of attention which 
it has drawn to a question by no means so simple as may be 
supposed. In the first place, it does not strike us as a desirable 
thing to establish libraries intended for general use as the out- 
come of mere political sentiment, nor would the promoters find 
the public inclined to subsidise any institution which might be 
claimed as a monument to the public spirit of the Liberal party 
alone. In the second place, the originator of the idea to give 
such a memorial to Mr. Gladstone can have made no estimate 
of the enormous initial cost, nor of the difficulties surrounding 
the questions of endowment and maintenance. To provide 
libraries alone, each containing one thousand volumes, for a 
county with fifty parishes, would cost ^"6,250, so that a 
thoroughly national scheme would mean an outlay which 
public subscriptions could never meet. When other important 
items are added, such as accommodation, fittings, rent, adminis- 
tration, &c., the sum required to establish libraries of reasonable 
size and variety of contents in every village of only a few 
counties, would be found far in excess of what could be ex- 
pected from voluntarjr sources, while no provision would be 
made for future maintenance and extension. In these circum- 
stances, it may be well to regard the formation of village libraries 
by means of voluntary donations as an impossibility. 

The question of brightening and restoring the life of our 
villages and rural districts is, however, one of the most impor- 
tant to which statesmen can give attention, because on the 
repopulation of the villages and ultimate return to the country 
of the surplus inhabitants now congesting every great town and 
every department of labour, depends the solution of all social 
problems now being discussed throughout the length and breadth 

ioo The Library. 

of the land. The recent action of Parliament in establishing 
Parish Councils, is a long step in the right direction, which is 
likely in a brief space of time to lead to a great quickening of 
the rural life of England. These Parish Councils are armed 
with certain powers, among them being the adoption of the 
" Public Libraries Act, 1892," by vote of the parish meeting, 
enabling them to institute, among other things, libraries and 
reading-rooms, which are justly regarded as the agencies most 
likely to give zest and variety to the monotonous round of 
ordinary country life. Unfortunately, the powers conferred are 
insufficient for the proper discharge of the purpose, and we are 
confronted with the anomaly of local authorities furnished with 
leave to execute important public work with means which are 
ridiculously inadequate in probably more than three-fourths of 
the parishes of England. The rate of one penny in the pound 
on the rateable value of an ordinary rural parish will not realise 
an income sufficient to do more than mock the efforts of the 
Parish Council to establish a library large enough and good 
enough to satisfy public requirements, and we are certain that 
unless additional powers are conferred, the provision affecting 
the formation of libraries by the adoptive powers given, will 
practically remain a dead letter, save in a very few exceptional 

This brings us to the main point of the whole question, and 
to the conclusion, formed after much study, that the village or 
parish is not the proper unit to adopt for the organisation of a 
system of libraries in the rural districts. The income of the 
average parish which can be appropriated for the purpose is 
utterly inadequate, and anything that may result from attempts 
to form libraries with such scanty means, is certain to prove un- 
satisfactory in the long run. Take for example the county of 
Dumfries, in the south of Scotland, which is both topographically 
and in regard to the distribution of population, a fairly typical 
case. The rateable value of the whole county, excluding seven 
towns, which are separately governed, is about ^"500,000, after 
making an allowance for losses likely to arise from various 
causes. The product of a penny rate on this sum is about 
^"2,000, without making much deduction on account of pasture 
lands, which are not subject to the full rating. But, in order to 
give the most favourable conditions to the proposed plan of 
adopting the village or parish as the unit for organisation rather 
than the county, we will assume that the library rate does 

The Village Library Problem. 101 

produce ^"2,000. If this sum is equally divided among the 
forty-three parishes of Dumfriesshire, it will furnish an average 
income of ^"47 per annum to each. This is much more favour- 
able to the village library idea than if each parish were taken 
separately, because then, the incomes would range from less than 
20 to over ^"85 per annum, and would put the smaller places 
hopelessly out of any practical scheme. Assuming, tlien, that 
every parish has ^"47 per annum for library purposes, let us see 
how the arrangement would work. To begin with, forty-three 
libraries must be organised, each with separate accommodation, 
fittings, service, stock, and equipment. This would cost roughly 
about ^"4,300, or 100 per parish ; separate items being reckoned 
as follows : 

s. d. 

Fittings and alterations, say ... ... 20 o o 

500 volumes at 2s. 6d. each ... ... 62 10 o 

Printing, charging, &c. ... ... 10 o o 

Extras, such as proportion of rent, 

carriages, stationery, &c.... ... 7 10 o 

100 o o 

The annual cost of maintaining each library would, on the 
basis of 4-7, probably be distributed among these items : 

s. d^ 

Rent 5 

Books, &c. 15 o o 

Librarian ... ... ... ... ... 12 o o 

Light, heating, cleaning 10 o o 

Stationery, &c. ... ... ... ... 500 

47 o o 

Or, even cutting down the librarian's income to 5 per annum, 
the 7 thus added to the available funds might very easily be 
absorbed in greater rent and working expenses, without in any 
degree increasing the efficiency of the library. It thus appears 
that each individual parish would have to save its income for 
two years, a practice not yet recognised in local government, 
before it could establish a library in any sense adequate to the 
public needs. After this, it would have a continual struggle 
with poverty and, perhaps, in the long run, only afford an object- 
lesson on the utter futility of properly serving a large parish con- 
taining three villages and 3,000 inhabitants with a petty col- 


The Library. 

lection of from 500 to 600 volumes. In this calculation we have 
adopted the most favourable method of dealing with the question, 
by taking the whole county and equally dividing the income. 
As a matter of fact, the difficulties and expense of inauguration 
would be very greatly increased if each parish adopted the Public 
Libraries Act for itself, or even combined with a few adjoining 
places for the purpose. 

Having shown that the parish is not the best area to adopt for 
library purposes, let us endeavour to point out an alternative 
which would be infinitely more satisfactory. Suppose, for 
example, that each county council was empowered to adminster 
the public libraries within its own bounds, and suppose that 
Parliament gave it the power of collecting from every parish 
council a rate of one penny in the pound, to be devoted to the pur- 

poses allowed by the " Public Libraries Acts." We at once get 
an income adequate in amount, and a control removed from the 
petty jealousies and animosities of small areas. The income, in 
the case of most counties, would be insufficient for the purpose of 
enabling libraries to be established in every village or even 
parish ; but it would be enough to establish a series of travelling 
libraries, giving every inhabitant of the county access to thous- 
ands of well-selected books, instead of to a very few hundreds. 
The common idea of a travelling library is that of a box of books 
after the style of the itinerating Haddingtonshire libraries, es- 
tablished early in this century by Mr. Samuel Brown, and imi- 
tated more recently by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institu- 
tions, and by the State of New York and other bodies at home 
and abroad. Our idea, on the contrary, is of an actual library of 

The Village Library Problem. 103 

fair size, fully equipped in every respect with all the best modern 
appliances, and a carefully selected stock of books, under the care 
of a qualified officer, which would travel in a given circuit, and 
change about as may be necessary. The illustration annexed 
shows the outward form of the proposed library, which is simply 
a lightly constructed furniture van, well ventilated, lighted, and 
safe-guarded, with wall shelving capable of storing a minimum of 
1,500 volumes. Let us again return to the county of Dumfries, 
with its assumed income of ^"2,000 per annum ; and see how our 
proposed travelling libraries will work out, as compared with the 
small, fixed village libraries. To serve the forty-three parishes 
eight travelling libraries would suffice. These would allow of a 
weekly call, of some hours' duration, at every village in the 
circuit, and suffice to serve outlying hamlets and farms. The 
initial cost would be ^"2,940, or a total of ^"367 los. per van, and 
the whole could be provided from the rate in two years, without 
hoarding. The cost per library may be. roughly appropriated as 
follows : 

s. d. 

Van, complete ... ... ... ... 100 o o 

1,500 vols. at 2s. 6d. each 187 10 o 

One Horse ... ... ... ... ... 70 o o 

Charging System, &c 10 o o 

^367 10 o 

The annual cost of maintenance would be as follows, per 
van : 

Librarian 78 o o 

Driver 65 o o 

Horse 45 o o 

Repairs ... ... ... ... ... 10 o o 

Books ... 20 o o 

Light and Heat, &c. 700 

Printing, Charging, &c 500 

^230 o o 

making the total annual expenditure about ^"1,840. Economies 
might be effected in salaries by having persons of responsibility at 
every stopping place, to volunteer to issue and receive books, but 
all proper continuity of service would be broken, and the library 
would be deprived of the knowledge of a trained official, which is 

104 The Library. 

almost absolutely necessary to the success of popular institutions 
of this sort. These are details, however, which do not affect the 
final result to any great extent, for here are good libraries pro- 
vided at less cost by co-operation than can be provided by indi- 
vidual effort, while every person in Dumfries would have a choice 
of 12,000 volumes, as no library would remain in any circuit 
longer than three months, but would change about, so that fresh 
books would always be available. There is yet a further im- 
provement on this scheme, which is that, by reason of the 
economical working of the travelling libraries, a sum is available 
which would help to gradually build up and maintain good read- 
ing rooms in every extensive village in the county. But grants 
from the technical education funds, and co-operation with the 
school boards would also be necessary. Whether grants in aid 
from the Education Department would be sanctioned by Parlia- 
ment is at present doubtful, but they will probably be forth- 
coming some day, when the educational machinery of the country 
is consolidated and extended. There are in every county 
existing libraries of various kinds, which might be included in 
a general scheme by arrangement, and so reduce the first cost of 
establishment. But if obstacles to amalgamation existed they 
could still serve to lessen first cost by reducing to some extent 
the expenditure on behalf of the parishes or villages in which 
they were situated. Two such cases occur to mind in connection 
with Dumfriesshire. The Telford Library, endowed by the great 
engineer of that name, in the parish of Westerkirk, contains over 
7,000 volumes, all in good condition, and might be used to 
greater public advantage if allowed to circulate throughout six 
or seven of the adjoining border parishes. The Miners' Library 
at Wanlockhead, established in 1757, contains about 3,000 
volumes, and would, if modernised and strengthened, become a 
good fixed library for the whole of north Sanquhar, and save the 
travelling libraries a climb of over 1,300 feet, no joke in the 
winter time, considering the desolate nature of this mountain 
district. Nearly every district has some kind of collection 
which might by this scheme be utilised for the public benefit. 
In any case, where possible, such collections could be absorbed 
in the general store of the county, which would have to be es- 
tablished in a good centre. This would accommodate surplus 
books, and form a kind of magazine and clearing house, at which 
the vans could replenish stock, and all the books could be over- 
hauled from time to time. We have not said anything about 

The Village Library Problem. 105 

economies likely to result from the recent improvements in 
electric traction, but it might be possible to get vans carrying 
their own motive power, thus dispensing with both horses and 
drivers, and considerably reducing expenditure without impairing 

Here, then, is a practical scheme, well worth discussion and 
possible realization, and we should be glad to have county 
councillors, librarians and others bringing pressure to bear on 
the Government in order to produce the necessary slight changes 
in the law. Could not Sir George Trevelyan be induced to intro- 
duce proper provisions in the Scottish Local Government Bill 
now being prepared, so that this scheme, or an alternative one, 
could be tried in the North ? 


The Show-Case of Recent Additions to the Library 
of the British Museum. 

T TNTIL recently, the only way in which a bookman interested 
^ in the National Library could learn what treasures it had 
recently acquired, was by studying the report of the British 
Museum, which is annually printed as a Parliamentary paper. 
For a Parliamentary paper to get itself printed, it has to be 
formally moved for in the House of Commons or Lords, and then to 
take its turn with others. As a result, the Museum report for one 
year generally appears in the summer of the next, and for this 
reason, as well as, perhaps, from the great number of departments 
with which it deals, book-lovers do not often acquaint themselves 
with its contents, though these generally include some interesting 
bibliographical notes. By a recent addition to the show cases in 
the King's Library, a more excellent way has been discovered 
of acquainting the public with the chief treasures lately acquired 
by the department of printed books, room having been found for 
an exhibition of " recent additions." A visitor to the Museum 
can thus inform himself at a glance what books of exceptional 
interest the library has recently acquired, and instead of merely 
reading about them, can see at least the title pages. The show- 
case is now quite full, and the variety of its present contents 
make it happily illustrative of the catholicity of taste which a 
national librarian is bound to cultivate. Apparently the 
Museum has not lately acquired any peculiarly fine specimen of 
early printing, for the incunabula, at present exhibited are more 
interesting for other reasons than for their typography. A Spanish 
edition of Werner Rolewinck's Fasciculus Temporum bears an 
earlier date than any other book in the case, having been printed 
by B. Segura and A. de Portu at Seville in 1480. It is open at 
the page which shows a little wood-cut of Venice, copied from 
that used in the edition printed in that city by Walch the pre- 
vious year. Side by side with this are shown two other fine 
Spanish books, the Cayda de Principes, a translation of Boccaccio's 

Recent Additions to the Library of the British Museum. 107 

De Casibas Illustrium Virorum, printed at Toledo in 1511, and a 
copy of the first Spanish translation of the Travels of Sir John 
Mandeville (Libra de las Maravillosas del Mundo y del viage de la 
tierra sancta), printed at Valencia by Jorge Castilla in 1521. 
Both these handsome folios are illustrated, the, Mandeville with 
the usual catchpeny cuts copied from the German editions, and 
the Boccaccio by a really fine design of the Wheel of Fortune, 
distinctively Spanish in style. As we have said, the interest of 
these books is literary and artistic rather than typographical, 
and the same remark applies to an early French book, the 
Chasteau de Virginite, printed by Jean Trepperel in 1506, which 
has a title-cut which is a good example of French work of that 
decade. A copy printed at Rome about 1482, of the second 
letter of Pope Sixtus IV. to the Doge of Venice, about a treaty 
of peace with Ferrara, is of importance historically, and the 
Museum was doubtless glad to acquire it as a complement to 
the unique copy of Caxton's edition of the correspondence (Sex 
quamelegantissime epistole) purchased two years ago. Liturgical 
students will doubtless rejoice in a missal for the use of St. 
Malo (Missale ad usum insignis ecclesie Macloniensis] printed by 
R. Mace at Rouen in 1503, and said, perhaps rashly, to be 
unique, while mathematicians of an antiquarian turn may be 
glad to see a copy of the Paris edition (1514) of the Ars 
Arithmetica of Cardinal Martinez Siliceo. To the mere collector 
this work will be chiefly interesting, because it is nicely 
printed on vellum, a distinction which it shares with two 
other of the present exhibits, a copy of an early seven- 
teenth century edition of the Constitutions of the Golden 
Fleece (reprinted from the editions of c. 1560), and of 
Didot's edition of another Constitution of a very different sort, 
that of France in 1790. Of the movement which led up to this 
latter, Voltaire is reckoned as one of the originators, but another 
" recent addition " shows him in the unusual character of a 
defender of Christianity. The friends of a certain deceased M. 
Boulanger had thought fit to publish in 1756, a work which he 
had left in manuscript, entitled Le Christianisme devoile, giving it 
the imprint of London to avoid the censorship, though it was 
really printed at Nancy. A copy of this was no doubt sent to 
Voltaire in expectation of a testimonial, but the critic played the 
part of Baalam ; and the marginal notes with which the book is 
full, are not of a character to have pleased " feu M. Boulanger," 
had he survived to read them. That on the title-page is, of 

io8 The Library. 

itself, sufficiently crushing " Get ouvrage est plus rempli de 
declamation que methodique. L'auteur se repete et se contredit 
quelquefois. On dira que c'est Vimpiete devoilee" 

Turning now to the books printed in England, we find that 
the most important of these is also enriched by an autograph, 
that of Charles I. The eight-leaved pamphlet on which this is 
written, is a copy of Instructions which his Maiestie's Commissioners 
for the Loan of Money to his Maiestie throughout the Kingdome are 
exactly and effectually to observe and follow. According to the 
colophon this was suffered to be printed for the sake of expedi- 
tion, but great care was to be taken that copies should be given 
to no one but the Commissioners themselves, and until the 
present one turned up, the fact of the Instructions having been 
printed was quite unknown. The king's signature is appended 
to the head-title on the second leaf, where the blank is filled up 
to show that the copy was intended for the use of one of the 
Commissioners for the town of Nottingham. The Instructions 
themselves show that the Government was fully alive to the 
discontent which this forced loan was likely to occasion, and 
was anxious that the Commissioners should use every means to 
avoid friction. Two English-printed books earlier than these 
Instructions are both of them interesting. The first is a copy of 
an Essortatione al Timor di Dio, by Jacobus Acontius, a foreign 
refugee in England. This was printed posthumously, and was 
for long thought to have perished entirely. It was published 
with the imprint, In Londra appresso Giovanni Wolfio, who adds to 
his name the interesting epithet, Servitore de I Tllustrissimo Signor 
Filippo Sidnei. We know that Henri Estienne was proud to call 
himself on his title-pages, " Printer to the Fuggers," but Sidney, 
unlike the Augsberg merchants, was throughout his life miserably 
poor, and it could only have been esteem or affection which 
prompted Wolf to assume the title of Sidney's servant. The 
book is not dated, but the word Signor, instead of Cavaliere, 
makes it probable that it was printed during Sidney's life. The 
other English book is the Verlum Sempiternum and Salvator Mundi 
of John Taylor, the water-poet, printed in 1616, the earliest of 
the numerous Thumb-Bibles, or epitomes in verse of the Old and 
New Testaments, measuring little more than an inch square. 
It is also an example of back-to-back binding, the two parts 
opening from different sides. The little book was reprinted in 
the folio edition of Taylor's works, but this is the only copy 
known of the original edition. 

Recent Additions to the Library of the British Museum. 109 

Close to the Thumb Bible is another very rare edition of the 
scriptures, a fragment containing Genesis to Joshua, xv., of the 
Lithuanian Bible, printed in London about 1660. The Lithua- 
nian Protestants, it seems, were poor and oppressed, and they 
sent over one of their number, S. B. Chylinski, to beg the 
English people to print for them an edition of the Bible in their 
native language. The funds were found, but Chylinski appears 
to have made away with some of them, and the translation was 
never completed. A larger fragment is preserved at the 
Ecclesiastical Library, at St. Petersburg, and until this copy 
was discovered was considered to be unique. 

The next English-printed book in date to the Lithuanian 
Bible here exhibited, is a school magazine, The Flagellant, 
" avowedly written," as the preface tells us, " by Westminster 
Boys," and published in 1792. Like most school magazines, 
it enjoyed but a short career, and brought at least one of its 
editors into trouble. This was Robert Southey, whose autograph 
the present copy bears, and who, for a whimsical paper de- 
nouncing " the beastly and idolatrous custom of flogging," was 
very unjustly expelled. Another magazine here shown, also 
enriched with autograph notes, is a copy of The Dial, published 
at Boston, Massachusetts, between 1841 and 1844, with Emerson 
as one of its chief contributors. In this copy, against the table 
of contents, he has placed the names of the respective authors 
of most of the articles. The first edition of Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne's earliest novel, Fanshawe, is another treasure from across 
the Atlantic. It was published anonymously, and is the rarest 
of all his works. With this may be ranked the Simonidea, of 
Walter Savage Landor, published at Bath, also anonymously, in 
1806. Both these are good possessions for an English Library, 
but the interest of both wanes before that of another recent ac- 
quisition, a copy, one of the six printed, and the only one which 
has survived of Enid and Nimue : the true and the false. By Alfred 
Tennyson. This was printed in 1857, and is a trial-version of 
two of the Idylls of the King (Enid and Vivien] which the poet 
submitted to the criticism of a few of his friends. It contains a 
sprinkling of lines, different from those in the published version, 
and the author is seen at work in his own autograph corrections 
in this copy. 

Besides the books we have mentioned, there are two inter- 
esting specimens of South American printing, two early operas, 
to represent the musical section of the Library, a Corean atlas, 

no The Library. 

which looks as if it ought to belong to the fifteenth century, but 
is only attributed to circ., 1800, and other rarities. Those we 
have mentioned are sufficient to show how varied are the 
treasures which the Museum Library sweeps into its net, and 
will, we hope, encourage some of our readers to make a visit of 


Hmertcan anfc Brftisfo ^Libraries. ffstte 2, 

THE following appears in the Library Journal for March, 1894 : 
" We should be loath to add to international polemics by treating other- 
wise than good-naturedly the further comments and criticisms of our 
recent visitor, Mr. Brown, nor did we intend, in our comment upon his 
original article to do other than ' speak up ' for American libraries in fair 
counter to some of his conclusions. We will therefore only disclaim on 
the part of Americans ' contemptuous reference ' to European libraries ; 
nor will we comment on the tone of his reply, except to say that doubt- 
less Americans as well as English are prone to generalise from hasty 
information, and to draw conclusions, which might not be confirmed by 
a more full acquaintance with facts. We can scarcely let the matter pass, 
however, without entering friendly protest against Mr. Brown's method 
of comparison of figures of libraries. Witness his first citation : ' In 
Boston, during the year 1890-91 (I have no later figures), the total use of 
the libraries amounted to 1,715,860, made up of 1,367,924 book issues and 
347,936 visits ; total cost, ^33,426, or 4d. per head of users. In Man- 
chester, during 1891-92, the total use amounted to 4,718,986, made up of 
1,654,568 book issues and 3,064,936 visits ; total cost about ,13,000 or one 
half-penny per head of users. Boston use per head of population is 3'8o ; 
Manchester 9.' This is only another illustration of how figures can 
mislead. Deducting reference room figures which the 'newsroom' use 
in England, owing to the difference of custom in America and England 
regarding newspapers, makes unfair, we have, by testing the reports of 
1891 for these two libraries, the following figures : Circulation: Man- 
chester, 702,000 ; Boston, 1,715,000. Number of books in library : 
Manchester, 206,000 ; Boston, 576,000. Number of books purchased : 
Manchester, 6,400 ; Boston, 25,000. Now, applying Mr. Brown's method 
of deducing results, let us see what these figures show : Percentage 
cost per book circulated, Manchester, 9*5 ; Boston, 9*2 ; percentage cost 
per book cared for, Manchester, 3*1 ; Boston, 27 ; percentage cost per 
book purchased, Manchester, 10 ; Boston, 6'6. Who shall say which 
figures are correct ? Who shall say that either library is badly managed ? 
As a matter of fact we believe both are admirably administered. 
These differences could be multiplied to an unlimited degree, but these 
are sufficient to question the usefulness of such comparisons. No con- 
clusions can be drawn from such comparative library figures, because 
the conditions are so dissimilar as to make any such tests radically 
unfair. Indeed, they are as misleading generally as the few users of 
American libraries in the deserted months of July and August were to 
Mr. Brown. As for the vaunted Americans contributions to library 
science, of which Mr. Brown demands a list, we may have over- 
estimated them. But we had supposed the modern card-catalogue, the 
dictionary catalogue, the Library Association, modern library architec- 
ture, periodical indexes, library schools, branch library systems, free book 
deliveries, access to shelves, the Rudolph indexer, the linotype permanent 
catalogue, the revolving book-shelf, and a few minor improvements, had 

ii2 The Library. 

been important contributions to modern libraries, and had helped to 
make possible the present library development the world over. And in 
making this claim there is no wish to depreciate, as Mr. Brown evidently 
believes, either European libraries or librarians. What is claimed is 
that America, practically without libraries 50 years ago, has, from that 
very poverty been compelled to cope with difficulties unknown in Europe, 
and has done this so successfully that to-day it has not merely developed 
a great library system and constituency, but has helped to waken 
European libraries from their sleep of many years, and given them an 
impetus that is among our proudest achievements. If they are now sur- 
passing us, so much the better. We shall as thankfully accept develop- 
ments and improvements from them as they have from us. We are not 
competing in enmity. We are all the same brotherhood, eager only to 
make libraries as great a need and aid to the public as may be. Every 
European improvement on American ideas will be welcomed. We will 
revolutionize our methods, if we are but shown how. Give us something 
better, in kindliness or in criticism, and we will adopt it." 


I have no captious desire to say the last word on the comparative 
merits of British and American libraries and methods, but should like a 
small space in which to make a few friendly remarks on the courteous 
article above quoted. I share the writer's views as to the ease with 
which figures can mislead, and must congratulate him on the brilliant 
illustration he has given us of how they can be made to do so. The 
Manchester "circulation" of books in 1891 is stated at 702,000 per 
annum, as against my figure of 1,654,568 [1890-91 was 1,509,124]. This 
smaller total is evidently arrived at by taking the "home use" totals 
alone for 1890-91, and it does not, therefore, represent all the books 
actually issued for home-reading and those read on the premises. On 
the other hand, the Boston total of 1,715,860 includes 347,936 "numbers 
of periodicals passed . . . over the delivery desks of the Central 
Library," making the actual book issues of Boston, both for "home" 
and "hall" use, 1,367,924, as I have previously stated. Now, I want to 
know why the books read in the reference libraries of Manchester should 
be considered unworthy to rank in a comparison with those of Boston, 
whatever " difference of custom" may exist. It seems a very extraordi 
nary thing to take the whole of the work done in one year at Boston, and 
contrast it with the work of only one department at Manchester. The 
actual home-reading of Manchester in 1891-92 was 761,500 vols. 
[1890-91 702,000], and in 1892-93 it reached 872,655 vols. In Boston the 
total "home" use in 1892 was 719,464, and the "hall" use, in the Bates 
central and branch libraries, 648,460 vols. Adding the 347,936 " perio- 
dicals passed over the delivery desks," we get the total of 1,715,860 on 
which the American writer bases his conclusions. When I state that the 
"hall" use at Manchester, excluding parts of current periodicals and 
newspapers, amounted to 893,068 in the year I first quoted ; that the home 
use was 761,500, making the actual book issues 1,654,568 ; and that on top 
of all this 3,000,000 visits were made for the purpose of reading magazines 
and newspapers, it will be seen that the Library journal statistician has 
given his case away by sheer inaccuracy. But, why, on the other hand, 
should the work of our newsrooms be discounted ? Surely, if only because 
of their enormous clientele, they must be doing good work, and reaching 
a class of reader left untouched by both lending library, reference library 
and magazine or reading room? Again, my contention was, and is, that 
the volume of work accomplished by British libraries is much in excess 
of that of American libraries, while the comparative cost is very much 

American and British Libraries. 113 

less. On such a basis, is it to be imagined that the newsroom work at 
Manchester, which absorbs a considerable amount of the working expenses, 
ought to be ignored because not represented at Boston, when the question 
is entirely one of the amount of work actually done for a certain expendi- 
ture ? This is simply lugging in the matter of comparative quality, which 
forms no part of the question at issue. If the Manchester libraries are 
used on an aggregate 5,073,825 times in 1892-93, and organise lectures 
besides, for a total expenditure of ,15,941, it is perfectly fair to claim 
that they are doing much more work for much less money than Boston 
with (in 1892) an aggregate use of 1,715,860 and an expenditure of over 
,33,426. It is begging the question to regard it from any other stand- 
point. As a minor matter, it may be noted that Manchester, in 1891, 
employed 86 of a staff (excluding cleaners), while in Boston the staff 
numbers over 150. I shall waste no more time on comparative statistics, 
as it is quite evident that something in the rate of exchange exists which 
leads to extraordinary differences in the valuation of work. 

Personally, I am only too grateful for the stimulus which has come 
from the United States in many matters pertaining to library work, to 
haggle over the appraisement of the services which American librarians 
have rendered by their energetic methods. We followed them in the good 
example of forming a Library Association, which has done wonders in 
the development of the "public library" side of our work; we adopted 
with enthusiasm the labours of the late Ur. Poole and the present Mr. 
Fletcher ; and we have even considered, without occidental suggestion, 
huge projects like universal catalogues of literature. But we did not 
follow as regards card and dictionary catalogues, branch libraries, access 
to shelves, library architecture, and book deliveries. On the contrary, 
if we did not lead, we pointed the way, and the American knack of 
turning everything to the best commercial purpose, and the advantage 
they had of profiting from the lessons of old-world experience, did the rest. 
The card-catalogue has been more generally used in the United States 
than elsewhere, but what is it after all but an "adaptation from the French " ? 
It may interest American Librarians to know that card catalogues were 
used in the Bibliotheque Nationale more than 130 years ago ; in 
Trinity College, Dublin, over 60 years ago, and even in the Bank of 
England 42 years ago, for indexing purposes. Where, then, the 
novelty ? As a matter of opinion, I consider the card and sheaf systems 
of Bonnange (France), and Staderini and Sacconi (Italy), superior to any 
of the elaborate cabinet outfits yet devised by American ingenuity. 
That is, of course, on the score principally of public utility and ease 
in manipulation. Was the dictionary catalogue an original contribution 
to the machinery of librarianship, or only a mere development of older 
European plans ? I believe it was the latter, and have no hesitation in 
saying that it was evolved from the dictionary indexes which used of 
old (80 years ago and more) to accompany most British classed library 
catalogues. The Americans come in more as the users and developers 
of the amended plan, and as those who were quick to apply the system 
to free public library catalogues, than as originators. Private munificience 
has done nearly everything in America for the employment of architects, 
and the erection of many decidedly pretty and picturesque library build- 
ings ; but neither private nor public intervention have established a single 
principle in the planning and fitting of libraries which has not been 
pondered over and over again by European librarians and architects. 
And what is more to the point, American librarians have learned nothing 
from their superior experience which is of general application. I make 
a present to the United States of the "Library School" idea with all my 
heart. May its operations not in course of time flood the universal globe 
and librarianship with a " monstrous regiment of women," which neithe 

ii4 The Library. 

trumpet-blasts nor acts of legislature will ever keep in check ! The 
branch library system was at work in Manchester before Boston had well 
got its central library squarely into order, for in 1857 the Hulme and 
Ancoats branches were established, two years after the main Boston 
Public Library was started for lending. It was not till November, 1870, 
that the East Boston branch library was established, being the first, as 
far as I am aware in America. Before that date many branch libraries 
had been opened in England. 1 The free book deliveries claimed are, I 
assume, the Chicago, Boston, Jersey City and Baltimore delivery stations, 
which, by the way, have not been welcomed with universal enthusiasm 
even by American librarians. And what are they after all, but a variation 
of Samuel Brown's itinerating libraries which flourished in East Lothian 
in Scotland for many years early in this century? The reason why such 
stations have not been established in England is because, as compared 
with branches, they are not considered sufficiently convenient for the 
public, in towns. I may be allowed to point out that the Yorkshire Union 
of Mechanics' Institutions has had, for many years, a delivery system 
somewhat similar to the American ones, and it is likely the plan will in 
time extend to counties for which it seems best suited. Somewhere 
about 1725, Allan Ramsay, a Scots poet, established in Edinburgh a 
circulating library, to the shelves of which the readers had open access. 
Since then, every proprietary library, society library and mechanics' 
institute has allowed direct access with more or less freedom. In 
Cambridge Public Library the practice dales from 1858 ; and the 
British Museum and Patent Office, London, furnish examples of un- 
restricted access to shelves probably unequalled anywhere outside the 
Australian colonies. The practice is one of very long standing in 
Britain, and though far from general in public libraries will pro- 
bably be extended to most of them in the course of a few years. 
The Rudolph indexer is the invention of a native of Germany. Apart 
from that, the idea of a panoramic catalogue is at least of ten years' 
standing in England ; while Mr. Rudolph's indebtedness to the late M. 
Jacquard, of Lyons, for the mechanical part of his machine is quite 
evident. But why claim a cataloguing method of such very recent intro- 
duction, which most practical Americans shake their heads over ? The 
linotype permanent catalogue in its present state of development is a 
thing rather to avoid, but we are obliged to the Americans for experi- 
menting with it. Finally, I am informed that the revolving book-case 
was originally the subject of an English patent, but that it was first suc- 
cessfully introduced on a commercial basis in the States. 2 After all, what 
are any of these appliances or developments of practice compared to the 
great British democratic library, established by the people, managed by 
the people and used by the people, which is the real parent of modern 
librarianship ? If anything has tended to influence the progress of 
the modern library and its work, it has been the spectacle presented only 
in Britain, of poor communities cheerfully taxing themselves to establish 
libraries, and in hundreds of cases fighting strenuously in the cause, as if 
contending for a mighty privilege. 

When everything is said that can be said on either side, the fact 
remains that both Britain and the United States have much to learn from 
each other. Then, on the other hand, each has much to teach its own 
people, and I can instance the enormous amount of missionary work 

1 The Liverpool branches date from 1853. 

2 The Patent of Benjamin Crosby, bookseller, London, is dated 1808, No. 
3153. In some respects it is superior to the so-called "American" revolving 
case. ED. 

American and British Libraries. 115 

required in the southern states of America, and the needs of our own 
rural population, as cases in point. It is certain that both British 
and American librarians stand in sore need of greater instruction in 
what has taken place and is being done in each country, and as a prac- 
tical way to that end, I suggest that the 1895 conferences be held at 
some convenient point in England, when an opportunity can be given 
British Librarians to show their work, and for American librarians to 
expound their views. In the past each association has been so engrossed 
in its own work and in the contemplation of results, that too little 
heed has been given to the progress achieved by other nationalities, so 
that the danger arises of both becoming so puffed up with conceit as to 
emulate the little boy who thought to teach his granny how to suck 
eggs. The mere exchange of journals and reports is not enough to help 
on the work of mutual advantage. We want to see the American 
librarians and hear them in private, as well as through the unconvincing 
channel of print, or when charged with oratory. Let them, therefore, 
come over in 1895, as it is easier and pleasanter for them than for us, 
to undertake the journey, and we can assure them of cool weather and a 
warm welcome. In conclusion, I can only hope that none of my remarks 
have jarred the feelings of anyone, American or British. On the con- 
trary, I trust my jottings will even prove acceptable to many Americans, 
if only for the novelty they present of being a trifle more honest than the 
foolish statements of the passing unprofessional stranger, who is so 
prone to see for the first time abroad, the very institution to which he 
lives next door at home. Nothing, I am sure, would please British 
librarians more than a thorough scrutiny of their libraries and methods 
by a competent American librarian, who could be candid without being 
unfair ; and who took the trouble to look into the historical aspect of 
matters, as well as at their mere present-day surface appearance. 


IRecorfc of Bibliograpbs anfc Xibrars ^literature. 

Voyage d'un livre a travers la Bibliotheque Nationale. Par 
Henri Beraldi. Extrait du journal La Nature, Paris, G. 
Masson, editeur, 1893, 4 to > PP- 45- Only 95 c pi es 

The brief account of the working of the Bibliotheque Nationale here, 
reprinted from La Nature, is written with M. Beraldi's accustomed charm 
of style, and is full of interesting information. A book may arrive at the 
Bibliotheque, as at the British Museum, by one of three different ways : 
(i) presentation, (2) purchase, (3) legal enactment" depot legal." 
According to M. Beraldi, the French library is more enterprising than 
its English rival in the matter of soliciting donations, provoki? g-fthem 
" avec une seduction infinie " by means of letters " which thehsirens 
would not disavow." In point of numbers, however, the nett result of 
its efforts is not very great, M. Beraldi stating it as from 2,500 to 
3,500 " articles," against 3,914 received by the Museum in this way in 
1891. Perhaps, however, M. Leopold Delisle's little notes may have 
been rewarded by a difference in value, to which statistics cannot do 
justice. By purchase, the Bibliotheque acquires annually about 4,500 
articles, a very good return for the miserable 70,000 francs (2,800) 
placed at its disposal. The Museum, in 1891, purchased no less than 
1 8,6 1 8 separate works, or more than four times as many. When we come 
to books received under the Copyright Acts in the two countries it 

n6 The Library. 

would seem, at first sight, as if French publishers were much more 
active than English ones, which we do not think is the case. M. Beraldi 
gives 28,000 as the average number of "articles" annually acquired for 
the Bibliotheque by "depot legal," whereas in England, the Museum 
return for 1891, gives only 11,875 distinct works as received under the 
Copyright Act. The difference is so great that it is probably due to 
the methods of enumeration, which offer such an immense variety of ways 
of reckoning as to make comparison between the returns of any two 
libraries very delusive. Thus, in 1891, the Museum received 171,822 
single numbers of newspapers, and 66,206 separate parts of periodical 
publications and works of progress. When it employs the mysterious 
word "articles," it claims to have received 111,658, against 36,000 
attributed by M. Beraldi to the Bibliotheque. Taking into consideration 
the much greater number of books purchased, it can hardly be doubted 
the English library is growing the more rapidly of the two, but any exact 
comparison seems at present hopeless. In one point, however, the 
Museum is undoubtedly better off. Its tribute of copyright books is paid 
by publishers, who are bound to send every book complete. In France the 
legal obligation rests with the printer, who is bidden to send in his work 
" tel qu'il est imprime." As illustrations are often printed separately 
from the text of the book to which they belong, and by a different firm of 
printers, there is no legal obligation for the two parts of an illustrated 
book to be delivered together, and the illustrations might often be over- 
looked. M. Beraldi tells us that the public spirit of the printers and 
publishers greatly lessens the evil produced by this defect in the law, 
but it is one which should certainly be remedied. 

Arrived at the Bibliotheque by whatever means, the book is registered 
and press-marked, and then sent to be catalogued. The press-marking 
is based on a subject-classification, in which "A" denotes theology and 
the rest of the letters of the alphabet other departments of human know- 
ledge. Small letters and numerals help to sub-divide the great classes, 
and in French History the division is carried so far that there is a sepa- 
rate class-mark for the reign of each French king. A list of the books 
added to the library is printed each month, and the separate slips 
entered in the various class catalogues which are now being kept up. 
This system was inaugurated in 1875, an ^ since that time great progress 
has been made in catching up the vast arrears which had been growing 
greater and greater every year since about 1830. M. Delisle declares 
himself now ready to print a complete catalogue of the whole library, 
and only lack of funds prevents this great national work from being 
undertaken. Lack of funds, indeed, seems to hamper the staff in every 
direction. Fourteen years ago a committee, appointed by the Govern- 
ment, declared that the Bibliotheque was so crowded with books that fresh 
buildings must be begun at once, but as yet their first stone has not been 
laid. As we have already noted, the sum allowed for the purchase of 
books is miserably small, and the 30,000 francs granted for binding 
seems even more inadequate, when it is remembered that the majority of 
French books have not even the protection afforded by our English cloth 
covers. The staff, again, is said to be quite insufficient for the 
amount of work imposed upon it. It is to this cause and to the absence 
of a general catalogue with press-marks, enabling readers to identify 
clearly the books they want, that the long delays in the supply of books 
in the "salle de lecture" are attributable. M. Beraldi bears eloquent 
testimony to the willingness of the staff, both of librarians and attendants, 
but when one man is given ten books to fetch at the same time, and 
three out of the ten (the usual proportion) are wrongly described on the 
reader's requisition, it is small wonder that the last of the ten books 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 117 

remains undelivered after twenty, thirty, or even forty minutes. The whole 
account of the library is a story of a great institution cramped, despite 
the heroic efforts of its staff, by an extreme parsimony. The parsi- 
mony is the result of the deliberate sacrifice of every other department 
of the state to the needs of the Army and Navy, a sacrifice, alas, 
which seems destined to impose its like upon every other nation of 

Book- Song, an anthology of poems of books and bookmen, 
from modern authors. Edited by Gleeson White. London: 
Elliot Stock, 1893. 8vo - PP- xviii., 185. Part of the Book- 
Lover's Library, edited by Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A. 
Price 53. 

Like that other excellent work, The Book Lover's Encheiridion, Mr. 
Gleeson White's anthology of poems of books and bookmen, suffers a 
little from the monotony of its contents. We are extremely pleased that 
there are so many minor poets especially in America, where the minor 
poet most doth grow who are ready to profess their love for books in 
verses which are unimpeachable on any score, save that of dulness. But 
when we have read what G. B., and Mr. Charles R. Ballard, and Mr. John 
Kendrick Bangs, and Mr. Charles Knowles Bolton have to remark on the 
subject of books, the edge of our appetite seems already taken off, ere yet 
Mr. Edgar Greanleaf Bradford, Mr. Alfred C. Brant, Mr. J. J. Britton, 
and Mr. Irving Browne, not to mention all the C's, D's, and E's (Mr. 
White's order is that of an alphabetical catalogue of authors) are given 
their chance. Even the names of Mr. Beverley Chew, of Mr. Greece C. 
Dutt, fail to arouse in us any ecstacy of interest. In plain truth, Mr. 
Gleeson White has cast his net somewhat too widely. There are plenty 
of good poems in his anthology. That Mr. Austin Dobson has con- 
tributed to it liberally, and that it includes verses by Calverly, Mr. 
Andrew Lang, Mr. Richard Le Gallienne (who is unusually happy in his 
book-poems), Mr. Swinburne (whose commendation of one book, how- 
ever, is an offence), Mrs. Graham Tomson, Dr. Garnett, Mr. R. L. 
Stevenson, and other notable poets or verse-writers, is a sufficient proof 
of this. But the anthology is a little too extensive to be quite delightful, 
and we think that Mr. White would have shown wisdom in curtailing it. 
It is a very pleasant collection notwithstanding, and if the gold is mixed 
with a certain amount of pinchbeck, perhaps this only adds to our 
pleasure when we meet it. We are sure Mr. Gleeson White is not to 
blame for the fact that his volume contains, without acknowledgment, 
several poems which first saw the light in THE LIBRARY. 

The Little Passion of Albert Diirer, with an introduction by 
Austin DoDson. London : George Bell < Sons, 1894. 8vo - PP- 
17, and thirty-seven plates with explanatory letterpress. Price 
55. nett. 

The volumes of Messrs. Bell Sons' pretty Ex-Libris series follow 
closely on each other's heels, and this must be reckoned as one of the 
prettiest and most valuable of those yet issued. Strange as it may seem, 
the plates are printed from stereotypes taken from the original woodcuts, 
which are still in existence at the British Museum. The stereos were 
taken in 1844, for Sir Henry Cole's edition, and the impressions from 
them are superior to any which could now be taken from the blocks 
themselves, some of which are worm-eaten, while in a great many the 
border lines are broken. For the stereos new borders were added, the 

1 1 8 The Library. 

worm-holes cleverly stopped, and the injured portions re-engraved with 
great care by an excellent wood cutter, C. T. Thompson. Though Sir 
Henry Cole took all this care, his edition was not complete, since it 
lacked the explanatory verses of the monk Chelidonius, while the order 
of the cuts was disturbed. Later editors, with the fear of the suscepti- 
bilities of that strange person, the "general reader " before their eyes, 
omitted several cuts altogether, so that this handsome reprint is the first 
issued in England which corresponds faithfully with the Nuremberg 
edition of 1 5 1 1. This is generally reckoned as the second, the honour of an 
editio princeps being assigned, not quite reasonably, to the set of 
impressions, without letterpress of any kind, struck off in 1509-10, which 
perhaps should be more fitly regarded as artist's proofs. To dilate on 
the excellence of Albert Diirer's cuts, after they have stood the test of 
nearly four centuries, would be absurd, and Mr. Austin Dobson's name 
is so genuine a guarantee of sterling work, that to praise his introduction 
is almost equally superfluous. All lovers of art and of book-illustration 
will be glad to possess this edition, in which the only defect which can 
possibly be found is that the paper on which it is printed is unnecessarily 
thick and heavy. Is it really a fact that the English public measures the 
value of a book by its weight or bulk, or is this only a bad tradition of 
English publishers, to be dispelled as soon as one of the race will have 
the hardihood to abstain from giving to a thin book a thickness not its 
own ? 

Una Visita ad alcune Bibliotheche della Svizzera, della Ger- 
mania e dell 'Austria, per Giulia Sacconi-Ricci, sottobibli- 
otecaria della Biblioteca Marucelliana di Firenze, Firenze 
G. Cavnesecchi e figli, 1893, 8vo., pp. 288. 

Signora Sacconi-Ricci may certainly claim to rank among the most 
enthusiastic of librarians. This interesting volume, bristling with facts 
and figures, is the result of a holiday trip, and that holiday trip a honey- 
moon ! No wonder the Signora everywhere met with a most cordial 
reception at the various libraries she visited, for such devotion to a very 
exacting profession is not met with every day and deserves to be met 
half-way. Some of the details of the histories of the different libraries 
are derived from the works of Petzholdt (Adressbuch der Bibliotheken, 
1875), our own Edward Edwards Memoirs of Libraries, Dr. Dziatzko, 
and other trustworthy writers, but the Signora has supplemented these 
with information gained on the spot, so that her work is brought thor- 
oughly up to date, and must be ranked as the best authority on the 
libraries of which she treats. These are the Cantonal Libraries of 
Lucerne and Zurich, the town library of Zurich, the University and 
Royal Libraries of Munich (the ambiguous name of which, in Italian, 
Monaco, at first suggests very different associations), the Imperial 
and University Libraries at Vienna, and the libraries at Graz. 
Some of these institutions are not very interesting in themselves, 
but they present many interesting variations in their clienteles and 
organizations, and together give a valuable conspectus of library work on 
the continent, especially as regards the lending-out system to which 
we have no parallel in our older libraries in England, except at Cam- 
bridge. The Signora's work is crowded with information, and contains 
numerous plans and schedules showing the systems of cataloguing and 
the forms of requisitions for books used in the different institutions. 
Altogether it is an extraordinarily thorough piece of work to have been 
compiled in so short a time, and can hardly be praised too highly. 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literatim. 119 

Authors and their Public in Ancient Times : a sketch of literary 
conditions and of the relations with the public of literary 
producers, from the earliest times to the invention of print- 
ing. By Geo. Haven Putnam. G. P. Putnam's Sons : New 
York and London, the Knickerbocker Press. 1894. 8vo., pp. 
xvii., 309. 

Mr. Putnam has compiled a very readable book, but he has nothing 
new to tell, and his work by no means carries out the promise of its 
title page. It begins, it is true, with the earliest times, in which the 
fragments of book-lore which have come down to us from Chaldaea, 
Egypt, China, Japan and other ancient countries, are pieced together 
-from various popular manuals. The two chapters on Greece and Rome, 
where Mr. Putnam had his ground prepared for him by such writers 
as Birt and Schmitz, are fairly full and interesting, especially that on 
Rome, which brings us down to the fourth century of our era. Half-a- 
dozen pages are then devoted to Constantinople, and with a reference to 
printing at Venice the book comes to an end. Mr. Putnam was under 
no obligation to collect materials for the history of " literary conditions 1 ' 
in Europe from, say, the 8th to the 1 5th centuries, but to advertise a work 
which wholly omits them, as extending "from the earliest times to the in- 
vention of printing," is as though an English history professedly coming 
down to the time of the Tudors, were to consist of some stories of the 
Heptarchy, a fairly good account of the Norman Conquest, and a reference 
to Cardinal Wolsey. After all, a good deal more is known about book- 
production in the middle ages, than in Chaldasa, India and Persia, and 
the other ancient countries, to which Mr. Putnam gives up more than fifty 
pages. As we have said, however, the two chapters on Greece and Rome 
give a useful summary of their subject, though even in these the reader 
must be warned to be on his guard against the too frequent misprints. 

The Library of James VI., 1573-1583, from a manuscript in the 
hand of Peter Young, his tutor, edited with introduction and 
notes, by George F. Warner, M.A., F.S.A. Edinburgh: 
printed at the University Press by T. and A . Constable for the 
Scottish History Society. 1893. 8vo., pp. Ixxxvi. (Extracted 
from the Miscellany, vol. xv. of the Publications of the 
Scottish History Society, December, 1893.) 

When he came to man's estate, James VI. of Scotland was a lover of 
fine books, and both in England and Scotland employed good binders. 
The library, however, of which Mr. Warner has to tell, was formed not 
by the king, but for him, and consisted partly of such works as his tutors 
thought fit for his education, partly of such wreckage as could be got 
together of the interesting collection which had belonged to his mother, 
Mary, Queen of Scots, and had been first confiscated, and then nibbled 
away piecemeal after her flight into England. 

The story of this hand-list of the young king's books is a strange one, 
and we may leave Mr. Warner to tell it in his own words : 

" Although its very existence," he says, " was unknown until a year 
ago, there is every reason to believe that it came to the British Museum 
when the Royal Library was removed thither, as far back as 1759. 
Probably it was regarded merely as a rough list of some portion of the 
collection made public property by George II. ; in any case, instead of 
being classed and catalogued, as it ought to have been, among the MSS. 

I2O The Library. 

it was kept with the printed books, and the result was that, without being 
catalogued at all, it was put away in a cupboard, and lay there undis- 
turbed for more than a century. With keener eyes or better fortune than 
his predecessors, Mr. Garnett, the present Keeper of Printed Books, has 
at length brought it to light, and as an interesting memorial of the early 
years of James VI., its publication by the Scottish History Society has 
an obvious fitness. The MS. is a small quarto of twenty paper leaves, 
bound in limp vellum. Both within and without it is much soiled and 
worn, so as to render the writing in some places almost illegible, and it 
was evidently treated from the first as a rough note-book, without any 
particular care. In the centre, however, of each cover is stamped a 
small gilt crown between the initials I. R., and this evidence of royal 
ownership is fully borne out by the contents." 

Against the different entries in his hand-list Peter Young, one of the 
king's tutors, of whom Mr. Warner gives an interesting sketch, has 
appended the source from which they were obtained, and it appears from 
these notes that about seventy of his books had been recovered from his 
mother's library. Probably in no other way could he have become 
possessed of such works as Amadis of Gaul, Flores and Blanchefleur, 
Dom Flores of Greece, and other romances. It would be satisfactory, 
indeed, to know that the much be-tutored monarch ("they gar me speik 
Latin as I could speik Scottis," is one of the " Apophthegmata Regis," 
noted down by Young in this volume) was allowed the free run of his own 

But like most of the princesses of the time, Mary had, or affected to 
have, classical tastes, and her editions of Herodotus and Sophocles, of 
Virgil and Livy were doubtless dutifully thumbed by her son. Altogether 
the royal library, some of which was kept at Edinburgh, and the rest, 
probably, at Stirling, seems to have possessed about six hundred volumes, 
those acquired by purchase, we are told, being generally more serious in 
character than the donations, in which lighter literature occasionally 
appears, as in the books on hunting and falconry, given him by Argyll. 
Bishops, however, were among the most prominent of the book-givers, 
notably the King's great-uncle, Robert Stewart, Bishop of Caithness, 
and their donations were mainly classical or theological. Light books 
and heavy books are all duly entered by Peter Young, and the entries 
reprinted by Mr. Warner, whose zeal has added to the difficult task of 
deciphering the faded manuscript, that of ascertaining as far as possible 
the exact edition to which the King's copy of each work probably 
belonged. The editor's best repayment for his labour was doubtless the 
discovery of the entry relating to the two " golf cloubbis," given by the 
Lord of Rossyth, and one or two of the Apophthegmata Regis, in which 
the young scholar's wit took a livelier turn. 

Manuel de 1' Amateur de Livres du XIX siecle, 1801-1893. 
Editions originales. Ouvrages et periodiques illustres. 
Romantiques. Reimpressions critiques de textes anciens ou 
classiques. Bibliotheques et collections diverses. Publica- 
tions des Societes de Bibliophiles de Paris et des departe- 
ments. Curiosities bibliographiques, etc., etc. Par 
Georges Vicaire, preface de Maurice Tourneux. Paris : 
Librairie A. Rouquette, 1894, 8vo. Fasc. I., pp. xix., coll. 352. 

This is the beginning of a most admirable work, the only possible 
objection to which is that it presents the bibliography of French belles- 
letters in the present century in so systematic a fashion that the book- 

Library Notes and News. 121 

man of the future will find his work all done for him and his occupation 
gone. The rather lengthy title-page which we have beautifully trans- 
cribed in full gives of itself a clear idea of the field which M. Vicaire has 
occupied. The entries under the authors' names are in chronological 
order, giving a full title, publishers' and printers' addresses, size, and 
present value, in large type, followed by a collation and notes, giving 
original price, information about the illustrations, &c., in smaller type. 
The utmost pains have been spent on the work, and as it includes the 
bibliography, not only of authors, but of publishing societies, like the 
Societe des Amis des Livres and the Societe des Anriens Textes Franqais, 
and also of the more important periodicals, all of which are fully collated, 
its value can hardly be over-estimated. As we turn over the leaves, we 
are struck by the moderate prices which most of the books are 
appraised at. The publications of the Amis des Livres, which vary in 
value from one to seven hundred francs, are the only real exceptions. 
That splendid work LArmee fran^aise, has failed to maintain its pub- 
lished price j Balzac's Peau de Chagrin in the illustrated edition of 1838, 
is valued at 200 to 300 francs, and his Physiologie du Mariage at 
100-125 francs, the rest of his books in their original wrappers at only a few 
francs apiece, Theodore de Banvilles are to be obtained as a rule at from 
two to eight francs apiece, the only notable exception being the Odes 
Funambulesques of 1857, a good copy of which is worth a couple of pounds. 
Baudelaires rule at about the same price, Barbey d'Aurevillys a good 
deal higher. But on the whole the "little collectors" of France are 
certainly able to pursue their hobby more economically than their 
English brethren, just as M. Petit's Les Editions originaux des Classiques 
franqais shows that the first editions of Moliere and Racine are to be 
obtained for a tithe or less than the auction values of our English 
Elizabethans. Fine bindings and illustrated books, on the other hand, 
are more esteemed in France than on this side of the Channel. 

IRotes anb IFlews, 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

BELFAST. Mr. G. Smith, Assistant Librarian of University 
College Library, London, has been appointed out of fifty-two candidates, 
Librarian of the Linen Hall Library. 

DEWSBURY. In March it was agreed to establish a branch reading 
room in the house at the Public Park. The sum of ^500 is to be spent 
on books for the Reference Library. The Town Clerk has advised that 
books cannot be issued to persons only employed in the town, and not 
resident therein. 

122 The Library. 

been found impracticable to hold the meeting of the Museums As- 
sociation which is to take place in Dublin this year immediately 
before or after that of the Library Association at Belfast, as was origin- 
ally intended. It was hoped that this arrangement would have enabled 
members to attend both meetings without inconvenience, but the latter 
body, the London correspondent of the Birmingham Post states, has not 
seen its way to change the usual period of its annual meeting in 
September, when Lord Dufferin is to preside ; while it has been decided 
that the Dublin meeting will be held in June, Professor Valentine Ball, 
Director of the Dublin Museum of Science and Art, occupying the 

FAREHAM. At the monthly meeting of the Fareham Local Board 
held on March 2, Mr. Sandy moved that it was desirable to adopt the 
Public Libraries Acts in Fareham. The matter dropped, and Mr. 
Sandy intimated he would bring it up again. 

GLASGOW. "Dry rot in the Mitchell Library" is the announce- 
ment which confronts us in a Scot's newspaper, and after the first start 
we are in one sense relieved to find that it only affects the flooring. 
Considering the recent opening of the new building it is rather serious, 
however, to be told that the whole of the flooring of the large reading- 
room will have to be renewed. 

HARTLEPOOL, WEST.- Mr. A. Watkins, sub-librarian of the 
Minet Library, London, has been appointed librarian here, out of a 
selected list of candidates. 

LONDON : BRITISH MUSEUM Every man-of-letters ought to 
rejoice that Mr. Baron Pollock has decided the points of law against Mr. 
and Mrs. Martin in the action they brought against the trustees and chief 
librarian of the British Museum. Of course the plaintiffs may appeal, 
especially as the finding of the jury lent some support to their case, and it 
is possible that the law of libel may be even as they allege. But if it be, 
then only one conclusion of any importance follows the law must be 
amended. The possible causes of action for libel on the shelves of the 
British Museum Library are practically limitless if Mr. Baron Pollock 
be wrong in his law. 

LONDON : CHELSEA. The second exhibition of illustrated books 
in the reference room of the Public Library was held on April 5th, from 
3 to 9.30 p.m. A great improvement has been effected here by the 
recent installation of the electric light. 

LONDON : ST. PANCRAS. An effort is being made to secure the 
adoption of the Public Libraries Acts in this parish. 

LONDON : STREATHAM. On March 5, the Commissioners de- 
cided to open the reading-rooms on Sundays. 

REDRUTH. At the Local Board meeting held on March 12, in ac- 
cordance with a special notice sent to the members of the Board in 
January last, it was proposed by Mr. Tweedy, seconded by Mr. Carkeek, 

Library Notes and News. 123 

and decided, that the Public Libraries Act, 1892, be adopted and come 
into operation in the Urban district of Redruth, on ist of May next. It 
was also decided that the resolution arrived at on the subject be 
advertised in two local papers, and that posters be affixed to the churches 
and chapels, and at such other places as bills are usually posted. 

RATE. The ordinary business was preceded by a special meeting of the 
Council, as the Urban Sanitary Authority for the urban sanitary district 
of the county borough of Salford, at which Alderman Makinson (chairman 
of the Museum, &c., Committee) moved .-"That this Council, acting as 
the Urban Sanitary Authority, under the Public Health Acts, for the 
urban sanitary district of the county borough of Salford, and being the 
urban authority designated in the Museums and Gymnasiums Act, 1891, 
pursuant to powers conferred on them therein, resolve to adopt and 
hereby adopt the said Museums and Gymnasiums Act, 1891, for and 
within the said district of the said county borough, so far as relates to 
museums only." The object of this motion, he said, was to enlarge the 
scope, and extend the usefulness of the museum and libraries. All the 
public libraries throughout the country came under the ordinary Libraries 
Act ; but the Act of 1891 was not a libraries Act, but one which simply 
referred to museums, providing for obtaining certain privileges which a 
corporation that had museums and libraries did not enjoy. Hitherto the 
Peel Park Museum had been sharing, unfortunately, in the id. rate for 
parks and libraries, a circumstance which he and others regarded as an 
injustice ; and as the Act would enable them to separate the two and 
charge a special museum rate of one half-penny, he thought it desirable 
to do so. The Act, if applied, would enable them to give a penny rate to 
parks and libraries, and a half-penny rate to the museum. If this motion 
were passed it would not be necessary, he thought, to come to the 
Council for money which they had authorised to be given in connection 
with the forthcoming exhibition. The resolution was carried by 38 votes 
to 16 ; the Mayor (Alderman W. H. Bailey) and Alderman Bowes 
speaking strongly in favour of the motion. 

SOUTHAMPTON. The Southampton School Board have decided 
to approach the Free Libraries Committee " with a view to the estab- 
lishment of juvenile libraries in connection with the Board Schools." 
The advantage of having a good well-selected library in connection with 
a school must be generally admitted, especially where the teachers take 
an interest in the work of guiding the reading of their scholars into 
useful channels. Several of the schools in Southampton have libraries 
attached to them, and many of the Sunday Schools of the town also 
possess large collections of books suitable for juvenile reading. The 
opinion has been placed on record by H.M. Inspectors of schools 
that in schools where libraries are provided the intelligence of the 
scholars is of a higher and more practical character than in schools 
where a library does not exist. A school library ought to be worked 
so as to furnish the scholars with just that kind of reading, and just 
so much of it, as will be useful to them in quickening their intelligence 
and increasing their general knowledge. When it is made to serve that 
purpose, only good results will follow. A school library will not be a 
success unless the teachers take a living interest in it. The question 
here is whether a scheme of school libraries can be worked in connection 
with the Free Library Committee. That is done in Leeds and some 
other towns with very good results. It resolves itself into a question 

124 ^* Library. 

of ways and means. If it can be done, it may possibly have the effect of 
relieving the congestion which takes place in the lending department at 
the Free Library, particularly on Saturday nights, and we are sure the 
matter will receive the careful consideration of the Free Libraries 

SOUTHPORT. At the meeting of the Town Council, on March I3th, 
the question of " blacking-out " cropped up. After a discussion it was 
decided not to adopt this method of dealing with a reading-room 

WATERFORD On 6th March, Mr. T. Greenwood addressed a 
large meeting in support of the adoption of the Public Libraries Acts. 

WEST HAM. Mr. Arthur Acland, M.P., vice-president of the Com- 
mittee of Council on Education, opened the New Hermit Road Board 
School, West Ham, on March 7th. Mr. Acland said he knew no work 
more honourable than that of trying to advance national education. They 
who were engaged in that work, whether locally or at the centre, were 
laying the foundation of the future well-being and welfare of the citizens 
of the country, and it was only by their work that they could have any 
hope of grappling with the difficult problems which beset them on every 
side. He would much like to see in every school a good library, with 
books adapted to the intellect of children of all ages. He thought they 
ought to arrange that part of their work so that all the best and most ex- 
pensive picture books, and the best books which were found in the houses 
of the rich, should be available for the children in the Board Schools. 

on March 8th, opened a Reading Room and Library at West Stow, this 
being one of a series of similar institutions which his lordship is erecting 
in the villages on his estate near Bury St. Edmunds. 


from Constantinople that the Sultan has issued an imperial decree 
directing that three copies of every book or pamphlet printed in Turkey 
since he first ascended the throne are to be sent to the Imperial Palace, 
and one copy to the new' library of the Sublime Porte. It is said that, on 
the one hand, this edict will encourage native authors in writing and 
publishing new works, while on the other hand, the Imperial censors will 
be better able to control and check obnoxious publications. The new 
order, however, has placed the governors of various districts in a situation 
of some difficulty. There is no correct list of books published in Turkey ; 
many of the volumes are out of print, and these will have to be reprinted 
in order to obtain the necessary copies. Several authors who have pub- 
lished books which might be considered of an advanced type, have 
thought it best to leave his Majesty's dominions, lest a close perusal of 
their works in official quarters should lead to their becoming unpleasantly 

HANOVER. In November it was stated from Berlin that the 
negotiations between the Prussian Minister of Finance and the Duke of 
Cumberland in regard to the administration of the Guelph estate have 
been definitely concluded. According to the terms of the arrangement 
arrived at, the Royal Public Library and the Guelph Museum will, it is 
declared, remain permanently at Hanover. 

Obituary. 125 

LEIPSIC. Herr C. F. Peters, of Leipsic, head of a well-known firm 
of music publishers, has just presented to the corporation of his native 
city a magnificent Free Musical Library, supplied with upwards of 15,000 
musical works of all sorts, including vocal and other scores, manuscripts, 
enyclopasdias, dictionaries, and other books of reference, besides a collec- 
tion of paintings, portraits, and busts of musicians. Apart from the 
national collections, this is understood to be the first free library of its sort 
established in Germany. 

PARIS. NATIONAL LIBRARY. The total number of readers at the 
Paris National Library during the past year was 117,013 in the room to 
which admission is only given by ticket, and 58,504 in the public room, 
while 430,875 volumes were consulted in the former, and 77,146 in the 
latter. This is nearly double the total of ten years ago, and it appears to 
be all the larger when it is added that there are only 350 seats in the 
larger, and 105 in the smaller room. Times, January 27, 1894. 

SYDNEY, N.S.W. The returns of the Free Public Library for 1893 
show a continued increase in the popularity of that institution. There 
were 216,089 visitors, of whom 10,119 were patrons on Sunday after- 
noons. During the year 4,000 volumes were added to the collection, now 
making a total of 101,348. On the ist September, Mr. R. C. Walker, who 
has held the position of principal librarian since 1869, retired, and Mr. 
Henry C. L. Anderson, M.A., was appointed to the vacancy. Mr 
Walker has since been gazetted a trustee of the Institution. 


It is with much regret that we make the announcement of the death 
of Dr. William F. Poole, an honorary member of the Library Association, 
and one of the most distinguished of American librarians. He was born 
at Salem, Mass., on December 24, 1821, and died at Evanston, Illinois, 
on March i, 1894. 

Dr. Poole's work as a librarian has been influential and varied to an 
extraordinary degree, and though chiefly known in Europe by his 
laborious and valuable " Index to Periodical Literature," he has other 
claims on the gratitude of American librarians. While employed at the 
Boston Mercantile Library as librarian, 1852-55, he compiled a " title-a- 
line " catalogue or finding list, which may be accepted as one of the 
earliest examples of the popular catalogue now so universally used in 
dictionary form. His work at Chicago, both in the Public and Newberry 
libraries, has long been recognised in the United States, particularly in 
the west, as combining simplicity and efficiency in a singular degree ; 
while his views on library architecture, now realised in the Newberry 
library of Chicago, prove him to have been one who studied the require- 
ments of the public before those of the staff, though not ignoring them 
either. He was one of the American delegates to the International Con- 
ference held at London in 1877, and from the first took a prominent part 
in the work of the American Library Association. His works and 
appointments are detailed with much care by Mr. W. J. Fletcher, his 
co-editor and successor in the work of periodical indexing, in the Library 
Journalior March, 1894, and to this sympathetic notice we refer those 
who desire fuller particulars of the career of this great and influential 
librarian. His loss will be keenly felt by librarians all over the world, and 
by none more than those of the English-speaking countries. 

126 The Library. 

association IRecorfc. 

SEASON 1893-94. 

THE SIXTH MONTHLY MEETING of the season was held at 20, 
Hanover Square, on Monday, March 12, at 8 p.m. ; Alderman Brittain, of 
Sheffield, in the chair. 

Twenty-one members and some visitors were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed, after which 
Mr. G. R. Humphery read a paper entitled : 


in which he described the work of the Paris municipal libraries, particu- 
larly as regards their lending of books or parts of books on artistic and 
technical subjects. The discussion was long and interesting, and was 
taken part in by the Chairman, Messrs. Mason, Gilburt, Tedder, Quinn, 
Verney, Moore, Roberts, and others ; the result being rather to controvert 
Mr. Humphery's claims for the superior work of the Paris libraries as 
compared with those of London. Mr. Joseph Gilburt, in particular, 
advocated the case of the London libraries at considerable length, and 
with great point and ability. 

In succession to the late Mr. Talbot Baines Reed, the Council has 
elected Mr. J. Reed Welch, of Clapham Public Library, to fill the 
vacancy among the London members of the Council. 

[By way of a rider to Mr. Brown's remarks on American Libraries, p. 112, 
we quote the following from the Library fotirnal for March : 

" Mr. Melvil Dewey's proud word ' America is the pioneer, with England as 
a fine second ' may sound well to many, but it is not just. Massachusetts and 
Connecticut may stand ahead of England in respect to the average achievement of 
their public libraries : America as a whole stands unquestionably below England.' 
This is rather hard on us, but it agrees with the report recently made upon us by 
Mr. Brown, of Clerkenwell, after his visit to this country." (From a review of 
Kergers " Entwicklung u. Organisation der Volksbibliotheken," by Miss Mary 
E. Kawley). This shows that an independent Austrian observer has arrived at a 
conclusion very similar to that of Mr. Brown, touching the library work of Britain 
and America. We should like to ask in supplement to Mr. Brown, what public 
initiative has done for the library system of America, apart from private beneficence 
and the exceptional cases of certain New England states. The work of federal, 
state endowed and collegiate libraries bulk so largely in the United States, par- 
ticularly in the department of cataloguing and the issue of publications which 
involve huge expenditures of money, that it is apt to overshadow, and be taken 
as representative of the average accomplishment of American local public (i.e., tax 
supported) libraries. The main strength of the British library system lies in its 
local public libraries, and it ought always to be borne in mind that the splendid 
work of such institutions is done with the scantiest incomes imaginable, so that the 
public interest, rather than a fostering system of advertising, must be regarded 
as its chief mainstay. In some departments of administrative work, British 
libraries are, on the whole, rather behind those of the United States, but in the 
matter of public use and appreciation it must be claimed that they are very far 
ahead. ED.] 

Introduction to a Discussion on the Blacking Out 
of Sporting News in Free Libraries. 1 

T AM here as the apologist of a system which has met with no 
small amount of criticism, and in some quarters, of severe 
opposition, and perhaps there may be some degree of fitness in 
the permission accorded to me to open the debate on this subject, 
inasmuch as it was at the library with which I am connected that 
the novel, and at first sight questionable method of dealing with 
a long-felt nuisance was first attempted. 

We had long suffered from the annoyance caused by the 
numbers of rough and ill-behaved fellows who, in spite of all 
efforts, persisted in disturbing the peace of the reading rooms, and 
interfering with the comfort of quiet readers at the newspaper 
stands. Having no taste for reading whatever, beyond the latest 
tips, programmes, and results of races, and having exhausted 
these, they would beguile the time of waiting for the arrival of 
other papers by various loutish tricks, until, in spite of every 
effort, the reading-rooms and especially a small branch news- 
room which was not under direct supervision were shunned by 
the better class of ratepayers. Under these circumstances the 
committee thought fit to approve of a plan I had had in my 
mind for some time, of blacking out the portions of newspapers 
containing information in reference to betting and horse-racing. 

Of course this novel procedure evoked a good deal of hostile 
criticism, and various objections were raised against it ; but the 
number of inquiries which I received from various libraries 
proved that we were not the only sufferers from the betting 
nuisance, and that there were others ready to follow in our path, 
if it proved a safe and feasible way out of the difficulty. Among 
those who adopted this course, within a few weeks of its intro- 
duction at Aston, were the public library authorities of 
Wolverhampton, Leicester, Stockport, and Middlesbrough, and 
the question was under consideration by the committee of several 
other important public libraries. 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Associa- 
tion, Aberdeen, September, 1893. 


128 The Library. 

Having thus briefly outlined the history of this movement, I 
now beg respectfully to deal with the principal grounds of object - 
tion urged against it. 

Among the objections urged against this measure was that we 
ought to cater for all classes of ratepayers, and that the betting 
and sporting class had as much right to consideration as others. 
To that argument I would answer that no public library, so far 
as I am aware, has ever attempted to cater for this class. We 
cater for architects and builders by taking the Building News 
or the Builder, for artists by providing the art magazines, and 
for other classes by the English Mechanic, the Engineer, the Garden, 
the Contract Journal, the Phonetic Journal, the Musical Times, &c., 
&c., but I do not know a free library where the Sporting Chronicle 
is taken, or other papers of that class with which I am not suffi- 
ciently acquainted to recount their titles. If the argument with 
which I am dealing be sound, some, at least of these founts of know- 
ledge should be provided for such readers as may care for them. 
Since, therefore, no serious attempt has been made to cater 
for this class, the objection I have quoted falls to the ground. 

We are told, also, that we have no right to deface the news- 
papers, which are public property. But we do. Every library 
is, unfortunately, under the necessity of defacing, to some extent, 
even valuable books, on account of the weakness to which even 
the best human nature is liable. We impress our library stamps 
on choice plates and on the ample margins of books which, if 
they were our own, we should shudder to commit such sacrilege 
upon. And if it be necessary to perform one act of defacement 
for the protection of library property, surely it is also justifi- 
able to perform another for the protection of the readers. 

We have had that venerable article of debate, the thin end 
of the wedge, introduced into this controversy ; and have been 
told, that if this method of defacing portions of our newspapers is 
sanctioned, it will be carried to further lengths ; and in libraries 
under the dominance of the Unionist Party, the librarian will be 
called upon to carefully erase the name of Gladstone wherever it 
occurs in periodical literature, and where Gladstonian Liberals 
rule the roost all references to the past history of certain 
individuals, and the former utterances of a leading statesman 
shall pass under the blacking-brush before the newspapers find 
their way to the stands or tables. 

But an examination of the lists of newspapers taken, or of the 
books provided in our libraries, is a sufficient answer to that 

Blacking Out of Sporting News. 129 

argument. No librarian, and, I believe, no library committee, 
has ever allowed political convictions to interfere in the selection 
of either books or newspapers in public libraries, and I do not 
think it is to these institutions or their managers that we must 
look for manifestations of that spirit of unfairness which un- 
happily prevails in many quarters at the present time. 

We have been told that we have no right to eliminate the 
betting or other similar information from newspapers, but I ask 
you, suppose this betting and racing news, and the highly in- 
tellectual letters of " Vigilant," and " Nunquam Dormio," and 
others of that school of essayists were printed on separate supple- 
mentary sheets, what would you do with them ? I apprehend 
not a few of them would find their way speedily to the waste- 
paper basket ; and if we have a right to deal with this infor- 
mation in this manner when printed as special supplements, surely 
we may deal with it as summarily when it occupies so large an 
amount of that space which correspondents, when writing to the 
papers declare to be so valuable. 

With the charge of attempting to make men righteous by 
acts of public coercion I do not propose to deal, inasmuch as I 
disclaim, so far as Aston is concerned, any such intention. We 
do not seek to interfere either on behalf of men's morals or their 
pockets ; we are not the agents of any anti-gambling society ; 
we simply seek by a method, which I do not profess to be proud 
of, but which I regard as a necessary evil, to secure the comfort 
and quiet of a large body of readers in our newsrooms. 

R. K. DENT. 

The Statistical Accounts of Scotland. 1 

hundred years ago there was issuing from the press in 
Edinburgh a work relating to Scotland regarding which, 
when completed, George Dempster, Advocate, Provost of St. 
Andrews', said: " That no publication of equal information and 
curiosity had appeared in Great Britain since Doomsday Book, 
and that from the ample and authentic facts which it records it 
must be resorted to by every future statesman, philosopher and 
divine as the best basis that has ever yet appeared for political 
speculation." Another writer characterised it as " A work which 
the wealth of kings, the decrees of senates, and even the 
authority of despots had hitherto failed to effect." Of the work, 
Sir John Sinclair, the author and compiler, himself said: "Per- 
haps a more interesting exhibition of diversified talent was never 
made than in the original manuscript reports from the multitude 
of authors, whom public spirit, personal friendship, private 
influence, gratitude, or importunity had called almost simul- 
taneously into the field of authorship. Many of the reports 
showed great natural ability as well as literary acquirement ; 
and the whole collection did the highest honour to the Church of 
Scotland." And of this work, I myself may say that had libraries, 
public libraries, formed as important a factor in the educational 
and social advancement of the country then as they are doing to 
day, that it was only with such a work as this in their hands that 
librarians, especially Scottish Librarians, could by any possibility 
have satisfied the many and varied enquiries regarding their 
country which would be then, as they are now, constantly asked 
of them. To me the work is a wonderful and genuine picture, or 
rather a great gallery of pictures, 938 in number, of Scotland, 
delineated by able and enthusiastic artists, showing the country 
in all its interesting and varied details, and executed in a manner 
to this day unsurpassed. Do I require to make an apology for 
bringing a work, regarding which the foregoing can be said 
under the notice of an assembly of librarians ? I think not, so I 
proceed to give first a short account of the man to whom we are 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Associa- 
tion, Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

The Statistical Accounts of Scotland. 131 

indebted for so valuable a publication. John Sinclair he became 
Sir John in 1786 the eldest son of George Sinclair, of Ulbster, 
in Caithness, was born at Thurso Castle in 1754, lived a long, 
active, laborious and eminently useful life, and died in Edinburgh 
in 1835, in the 82nd year of his age. Statesman, agriculturist, 
statistician, lawyer, traveller, author, and philanthropist, all are 
truly applicable to this man, and all taken together fail to take 
in the man in full. Member of Parliament for different con- 
stituencies from 1790 to 1807 founder and first president of the 
Board of Agriculture. As traveller he, in the years 1785-87 
made a journey through France, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, 
Russia, Poland, Austria, and Prussia, during which tour 
he had intercourse with many of the most distinguished 
personages on the continent, and personal interviews with 
several of the crowned heads of Europe ; all the time chiefly 
interesting himself in questions concerning agriculture and com. 
merce, which afterwards proved a great help in his efforts for 
the improvement of our national agriculture. As author, you 
make the attempt to classify his books, pamphlets, &c., of which 
he wrote the enormous number of 367 under such headings as 
literary, statistical, agricultural, political, financial, medical, 
naval and military, and still you have to add the convenient 
heading of " miscellaneous." As philanthropist, note the 
effectual efforts he made in relief of the wants and sufferings of 
his countrymen in the north of Scotland during the terrible 
famine of 1782 relief provided not only through his earnest 
appeals to private benevolence, but by his influence and perse- 
verance succeeding in wringing from a reluctant Government 
the grant of a sum of ^"15,000, by which he was enabled to pro- 
vide food for no fewer than 111,521 starving people, and thereby 
averting the horrors of disease and probable revolution which 
usually follow in the wake of protracted famine and privation. 
Note one other philanthropic action of his. Among the enact- 
ments passed for the pacification of the Highlands after the 
rebellion of 1745, was one prohibiting the wearing of the ancient 
Highland dress. Only to the heart and knees of a true 
Highlander could the degradation and discomfort involved in the 
enforcement of such an Act be known, and endeared to all 
Highlanders must ever be the one who was instrumental in gett- 
ing that degrading enactment removed from the Statute Book. 
To Sir John Sinclair belongs that honour, and in this relation 
one writer says : 

132 The Library. 

11 Another benefit, the extent and value of which perhaps no 
man with Saxon blood in his veins can duly appreciate, Mr. 
Sinclair was the chief instrument in procuring for his Celtic 
countrymen. We allude to the legislative exemption from the 
painful necessity of wearing breeches. The Act legalizing the 
philabeg passed in the middle of winter ; yet no sooner did it 
become known than, in the country north of Stirling, fifty 
additional square miles of human skin courted the refreshing 
influence of the mountain breezes. The lo Paeans of the various 
clans on their enfranchisement from a bondage so distressing 
were loud, if not musical. Bonfires blazed on Braemar, and 
tallow candles in the windows of Inverness ; the heart of Thurso 
was made glad, and wild expressions of gratitude and gratulation 
awoke all the mountain echoes of Badenoch and Lochaber. Yet 
some dissentients, though comparatively few, there must have 
been from the reigning hilarity. The unhappy Lowland tailors 
who, induced by former similarity of garb, had pitched their 
shop-boards in these mountain regions, saw the ruin of their 
hopes in the sudden deluge of kilts which overspread the land. 
They became at once aware that in the country of the Gael their 
occupation was gone for ever, and having become bankrupt, and 
honourably paid nothing in the pound, sought employment for 
goose and shears among a population less proud of baring their 
persons to the action of the elements." 

Such was the man to whom we are indebted for the Statis- 
tical Account of Scotland. The compilation of this great, and, 
what might be considered for a single and private individual, an 
impossible work, was undertaken about the year 1790. The 
idea of preparing such a work arose thus : In 1785, Sir John 
published a work " On the Public Revenue of the British 
Empire." To this book he wished to subjoin a general view of 
the political and social circumstances of the country, but owing 
to the insufficiency of reliable material, was compelled to abandon 
the idea. Not losing sight of it, however, and being subse- 
quently a lay member of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland, and on intimate terms with most of the leading men 
then convened, it occurred to him that by means of the clergy 
those men each located in his particular parish, and consequently 
having the best opportunities of being acquainted with the very 
particulars wanted from them he might be furnished with such 
information respecting their parishes, which, when carefully and 
skilfully arranged and digested, might form a work of great 

The Statistical Accounts of Scotland. 133 

public utility, Without loss of time a circular letter was dis- 
patched to every parish minister in Scotland. This letter was 
accompanied by queries to the number of 160, specifying every 
minute particular regarding the parish, and everything connected 
with its history and condition, classified generally under the four 
heads of geography and natural history, population, productions, 
and miscellaneous subjects. This was the beginning, and a fairly 
good start it was. But very soon the energetic mover in this 
great undertaking began to encounter difficulties enough to have 
crushed anyone but himself. These difficulties we need not 
here particularise ; suffice it to say that while the majority of the 
clergy entered into the project with great willingness and zeal, 
and replied to the queries addressed to them with readiness, and 
in many cases with marked literary ability, enabling the editor 
to issue his first volume in 1791, it was found by the middle of 
1792 that of the 938 parishes, 413 had sent in no report. There 
was no difficulty in accounting for this. It must have been 
expected that among so many men some would prove to be in- 
dolent and some jealous, some would be new to their parishes, 
and some old and ready to leave them, some would be stupid, 
and many indifferent. Difficulties must also have been expected 
from the flock, as well as from the pastors. It was natural that 
they should object to have their circumstances and pursuits 
minutely enquired into. Many would see in the enquiries of 
their ministers nothing but an impertinent personal curiosity, 
and hence their unwillingness to supply the information wanted. 
Still, the work went on ; and backed by the influence of the 
Government, and the favour of the educated classes, the laggard 
contributors being meanwhile stimulated by repeated circulars, 
and as a final resort, by the appointment of five statistical 
missionaries, Sir John had the intense satisfaction of seeing this 
great work, a work extending to twenty-one volumes, completed 
on the ist of January, 1798. 

The practical and beneficial results arising from the in- 
formation given forth in this compilation, were as varied and 
immediate as they were unexpected. Three of them may be 
mentioned : (i) The passing of an Act augmenting the livings 
of the clergy, and fixing ^"150 as the lowest stipend to be paid ; 
(2) The evidence in these volumes having shown the wholly in- 
adequate pay received by the parochial teachers, resulted in 
immediately obtaining for them, either directly from the heritors 
or by endowment, a considerable addition to many of their 

i^4 The L ib vary . 

salaries ; (3) By showing the importance to the country of the 
agricultural statistics given in that publication, Sir John was 
enabled to prevail on the Government to establish the Board of 

A general view of the scope of the work may, perhaps, be 
best obtained by looking somewhat carefully into the report of 
one parish. For that purpose I select the parish of Thurso, in 
Caithness, seeing it was the one written by Sir John himself. 
He, first of all, supplies an excellent map of the parish ; he then 
gives a general introduction, which is followed by the several 
chapters, sixteen in number ; then a conclusion, followed by five 
appendices. The sixteen chapters and the conclusion are further 
subdivided into sections, amounting in all to seventy-six. This 
surely shows a minuteness of detail and a comprehensiveness 
which would render the omission of anything of any importance 
whatever almost an impossibility. The subjects of the sixteen 
chapters are as follows: I. Preliminary Observations; II. History 
and State of the Town; III. Constitution and Government; 
IV. Population; V. Ecclesiastical State ; VI. Charitable Funds 
and Institutions; VII. Education; VIII. Revenue Department ; 
IX. Military and Naval Department ; X. Manufactures and 
Trade; XL Fisheries; XII. Police and Supply ; XIII. Manners 
and Customs; XIV. Arts and Sciences; XV. Miscellaneous 
Observations; XVI. Country part of the Parish. The informa- 
tion given under these several headings is not only valuable and 
interesting, it is, also, sometimes curious. Thus, under Longevity, 
a section of Population, we are told of a man then alive and 
active in the parish at the age of 105 ; under Post-office we are 
informed that the salary of the postman and his runners was ^"47 
per annum, and that Thurso had only four posts in the week : 
under Fisheries, salmon fishing, we have narrated a catch of 
2,560 salmon at one haul, in the Thurso, in the year 1748; under 
Eminent Men, mention is made of one such individual ; and the 
section, Natural History, must have been inserted on the Snakes- 
in-Iceland principle, as all that the section tells is that " Nothing 
remarkable occurs in this department." 

The New Statistical Account of Scotland, published under the 
direction of a committee of the Society for the Sons and Daughters 
of the Clergy of the Church of Scotland fifty years after the 
publication of the account we have just been describing, differed 
from it, not only in a great part of the matter, for you know 
statistics are notoriously changeable and changing, but particu- 

The Statistical Accounts of Scotland. 135 

larly in the form of publication as regards the arrangement of the 
parishes. In the original account, the " Reports on the Parishes " 
seem to have been issued just as they happened to be ready for 
publication, without any regard to any arrangement whatever, 
whether alphabetical or under counties. In the new account 
you will find a distinct improvement, for in it the parishes 
are arranged topographically under their respective counties. 
With regard to the change of matter mentioned above, take one 
illustration. The account of the Parish of Liberton, near 
Edinburgh, given in the old account is summarised under six 
general headings with no subdivisions, while the report of the 
same parish in the new account requires five general headings 
and forty-six subdivisions for the narration of the information 
therein contained. And while, as a rule, you find in the new 
account fuller, and of course, more recent information, still much 
that is interesting and valuable regarding Scotland is to be found 
only in the old account. 

I do not wish you to go away with the idea that these volumes 
contain nothing but dry statistics, columns of figures, interesting 
only to the statistician. All through the volumes much will be 
found of interest to the general reader, to the archaeologist, the 
antiquary, and the folklorist. Curious epitaphs will there be 
found for those who delight in meditating among the tombs ; 
there you can read of the excellence of the bread at Peterhead, 
and the weight of the cabbages in the parish of Forgue ; of in- 
stances of the salmon itself jumping into the boiling pot ; calcu- 
lations respecting the physical stature of Adam and Eve ; the 
effects of disappointment in love ; the fact that the servant maids 
in Stornoway always had their morning dram ; that school- 
masters had part of their emoluments from cock-fighting dues ; 
that Redgorton servants stipulated at hiring time that they should 
have salmon for their meals only twice a week ; that the session 
clerk of Heriot conjoined with that important office those of pre- 
centor, beadle, and grave-digger ; that golf was played at Burnt- 
island, Musselburgh, and Montrose, and that coal was first used 
as fuel in Scotland in the year 1291. In these volumes librarians 
will note with pleasure that in Scotland 100 years ago there were 
10 public libraries, and last, but not least, you can there read of 
the advantages to be derived from a perusal of the Statistical 
A ccounts of Scotland. 

But the Scotland of 100 years, of 50 years ago, is not the 
Scotland of to-day, and this work, so valuable in so many ways 

136 The Library. 

to so many different people, specially so to those charged with 
the administration of large libraries, has long ago ceased, so far 
as the changeable and changing part of it is concerned, to be of 
much practical utility. Is it not, therefore, natural to hope, to 
wish, that soon we may hear that the publication of another new 
statistical account is in contemplation ? There should be no 
difficulty in finding the willing and competent editor the 
difficulty might lie in there being too many of them and the 
well-known commercial enterprise of the class would quickly 
produce the publisher. That there is abundance of material for 
such a work needs no pointing out to a meeting of librarians. 
Could you imagine how a set of blue books such as are now 
yearly issued by Parliament would have delighted the soul of 
Sir John Sinclair 100 years ago, how he would have revelled in 
the reports of crown commissioners, parliamentary committees, 
board of trade, fishery commissioners, board of agriculture and 
of manufactures, in census, railway and other such like reports. 
And consider the immense number of private works bearing on 
the topography, biography, antiquities and general condition of 
Scotland which have issued from the press during the last 50 
years, works containing abundance of varied and accurate in- 
formation regarding this country, and touching upon almost 
every corner of it, and only waiting to be again brought together, 
digested, arranged and issued anew in some such form as the 
Statistical Accounts of the past. 


Librarianship as a Profession for Women. 

Assistant in the St. Helen's Public Library. 

"XT OW that women are entering as competitors in almost 
* ^ every field of labour formerly looked upon as belonging 
exclusively to the sterner sex, it may not be uninteresting to hear 
a little about library work as a profession for women. 

In the first place, let us look for a moment at the mere 
routine work which goes on in every free library, and which is 
done for the most part by the assistants, I refer to the labelling, 
repairing and issuing of books. The first two will in all proba- 
bility be done more quickly and neatly by a girl than a boy ; and 
as regards the issuing of books, there is an advantage in having 
at least one female assistant, as many of the lady borrowers 
prefer to be attended to by one of their own sex. In those 
libraries which have separate reading-rooms for ladies, it is 
also essential that a female assistant should look after the 
room and attend to the renewal of the papers and periodicals 
placed there. 

But to proceed to the real work of a librarian, that which is 
done for the most part behind the scenes, such as choosing new 
books, classifying and cataloguing them, attending to correspond- 
ence, and the numerous other duties which are comprised in 
a librarian's work. Here, too, a woman will be as much at home 
as a man, and will make the institution under her charge a 

In America, women are taking their places in this ever- 

138 The Library. 

widening sphere of labour, and proving that they can do work of 
this kind quite as well as their brothers. There they have more 
opportunities of getting a fair trial than we in England possess, 
for library committees are convinced that librarianship is a pro- 
fession eminently suited to earnest women of education and 
refinement, and give them every encouragement accordingly. 

The Library School at Albany seems to be doing a good work 
in training and sending out women ready to labour for the 
uplifting of those in the towns where their lot is cast, and that 
good may be done amongst the readers, especially young readers, 
cannot be denied. 

Now that so much more education is considered necessary for 
every station in life, libraries will soon be found in every town in 
the kingdom, and this will open up a vast field of labour for both 
men and women. It is only lately that librarianship has been 
included amongst the professions at all, and it depends mainly 
on librarians themselves whether their work is recognised by the 
outside public or not. 

A paper was read at the second annual meeting of the 
Library Association, held in Manchester in 1879, by the late 
Alderman Thomas Baker, who was then chairman of the 
libraries' committee, on " The Employment of Young Women as 
Assistants in Free Public Libraries." Mr. Baker said he believed 
the plan was first tried in the Manchester libraries, and had 
proved a success. At that time they were only employed as 
assistants ; but since then ladies have held the position of 
librarians in the branches of the Manchester library, who have, 
doubtless, in the first place, served in the capacity of assistant in 
one of the libraries under the corporation. 

A girl who enters a library as assistant, and intends to make 
the work her life-work, if we may so call it, neglects no 
opportunity of learning as much as possible of the technical part 
of librarianship, and at the same time tries to improve herself in 
general knowledge. There is not much time for very deep study 
of any subject, for the hours in a library are usually very long ; 
but a librarian, male or female, who is always on the alert to find 
out the books which will be most useful to borrowers and 
persons who come to seek information of various kinds, will 
make the institution under his or her charge more popular and 
flourishing than one who is very learned in any one subject, 
and, perhaps, oblivious of the fact that the visitors to a 

Libmrianship as a Profession for Women. 139 

library do not all incline to the same study as himself, but 
expect a little attention to their needs and wants from the 
librarian. At the same time one can never know enough, 
and must be ever ready for fresh ideas, and prepared to learn 
as much as possible. 

Women are employed in many of the great American 
libraries, and even hold the post of chief librarian in some of 
them. There, however, they are specially trained at the Library 
School, and are put on an equality with men, and so obtain the 
same advantages. Some go in for cataloguing as a speciality ; 
this is suited to the quiet, shy women, who, though fully qualified 
for the work, prefer to do that part of it which may be accom- 
plished away from public view. Others, who do not shine in 
cataloguing, are well fitted to meet and aid those who come to 
consult the books under their charge. Some combine both 
qualities, and are fitted to take control of a library. In England 
women are not yet admitted into the old and large reference 
libraries which are scattered over the country, nor into the 
libraries connected with our colleges, but they are gradually 
making their way as librarians in the public libraries which are 
springing up in many of our provincial towns. In this position 
they must have an all-round knowledge of library work, and be 
able to help the readers and borrowers in their search for works 
on special subjects, or even to direct the reading of those who are 
unable to make a wise choice for themselves. 

Here I may just mention that women have acquired rather a 
bad reputation for being slow in coming to a decision, and when 
asked to give an opinion on a disputed point or to recommend 
the best book on a certain subject, they hesitate, are not quite 
sure, and so on. This is a fault to which many women are 
prone, and one which must be cured if they are to work on the 
same level as men. If a woman means to get on in library work, 
she must learn to be self-reliant, and to make up her mind at 
once when a decision is to be made. It must be owned, 
however, that this reproach is not so much deserved as it was 
some years ago. Girls are now taught on the same principles as 
boys in many cases, and instead of being made fine ladies are 
taught business habits from childhood, and left to use their 
own judgment in various matters. This sort of education is 
bearing fruit already, and the girls who have had this advantage 
are readier to compete for the same work as their brothers 

140 The Library. 

than those who have been brought up in the old-fashioned 
way. A woman may have as solid an education as a man, and 
use it as a means of earning a livelihood, and still be a womanly 

The wider the education possessed by a librarian the more 
successful the work is likely to prove, and now that librarianship 
is being found to be as well suited to the capacity of woman as 
man, there will be keen rivalry between the sexes, for our 
colleges, Girton and Newnham amongst the number, are sending 
out year by year women who are well taught, self-reliant, and 
ready to work to the best of their ability in whatever calling they 
have chosen. That of librarianship will be, I think, one which 
will commend itself to many as a means of helping others in the 
search after knowledge, and will also be found an agreeable 
employment. Miss Black, who was one of the first two librarians 
at the People's Palace, London, formerly of Newnham College, 
Cambridge, passed the graduation examinations, and would have 
obtained the degree had she been a man. Miss James, the late 
librarian, had three ladies as assistants, two of whom studied at 
Newnham College, and the other at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. 
All these ladies have found the work most attractive, and, to quote 
their own expressed opinions, they think there is at present no 
occupation more suited to women who are fairly well educated, 
and possess a real love of books. It ought not to be taken up as 
a mere pastime however, for nothing can be done in this work 
without earnestness, interest and thoroughness, also devotion to 
books. At Blackpool, Bridgwater, Darlaston, Darwen, Glossop, 
Nantwich, Poole, Fleetwood, Middleton, Northwich, Sitting- 
bourne, Willenhall, Carnarvon, Galashiels, Hawick, Selkirk, 
and Widnes, ladies fill the office of librarian. At Peel Park 
Library and Regent Road, Salford, and at two or three of 
the branch libraries at Manchester, ladies are employed as 
librarians. In addition to the above named towns, the following 
libraries employ female assistants, viz. : Battersea, Clerken- 
well, Westminster and Chelsea, London ; Aberdeen, Derby, 
Doncaster, Edinburgh, Oldham, Nottingham, Paisley, Sheffield, 
Glasgow (Stirling's Library, Baillie Institution), Bradford, 
Bristol, Manchester, Liverpool, and St. Helens, and the three 
lady librarians at Blackpool, Salford, and Widnes have female 

Libvarianship as a Profession for Women. 141 

But to be a successful librarian, a woman must have a 
practical training in all the work connected with a library ; 
and to get this it is necessary that she should become, in the 
first place, an assistant to some librarian, who will teach her the 
technicalities of his craft. 

England has not as yet found it necessary to establish a 
special college for the training of librarians, such as is in success- 
ful operation in the United States, but still something has been 
done, and the L.A.U.K. examinations of library assistants 
is a step in the right direction ; and, doubtless, before long, 
all applicants for the post of librarian will have to produce 
certificates from this body. As women prove their capability 
for this kind of work, better appointments than those they now 
fill will be thrown open to them ; and they will be engaged 
in the higher positions in our great libraries, and will so work 
and use their talents that their influence will be felt by many 
in towns other than those in which their work lies. But that 
time has not yet come ; they must, at present, be content to 
wield their sway over the libraries which are so quickly springing 
up around us, and let their work, by its quality and usefulness, 
prove them fit for still better things. 

Another hindrance to the employment of women in libraries 
is, that many enter the field, not with the view of making it a 
life-work, but merely as a means to an end. They think it a 
pleasant sort of work, but do not intend to remain at it. Now, 
the best work cannot be done, unless it is felt to be the work on 
which one's life is to be spent, and few or no women will remain 
in a library after marriage, for instance. But if their work is to be 
a real work, this must not be an obstacle. Let the work be done 
during the time they are engaged in it be it long or short, in 
such a manner, that when they leave it, it has not to be done 
over again by the next comer, but is as perfect as it is possible to 
make it. 

At present, the employment of women as librarians is in its 
infancy, but is sure to prove a success ; for girls who make up 
their minds to embrace the library profession as their life-work 
will work patiently and well, and will lose no opportunity of 
learning all that will aid them in their duties, and will show that, 
given the same opportunities as boys, they will do equally as well 
in this as in many other professions, and may, perhaps, excel 
some of them. 


The Library. 

In conclusion, I would just remark that we do not wish 
to supplant our male friends in this work, but only ask that 
fair opportunities may be given to those of our sex who are 
anxious and willing to become labourers in this field of public 

The Bibliographical Society. 

HP HE first Annual Meeting of the Society was held at 20, 
A Hanover Square, on January I5th, 1894, a * 3 P- m ' an hour 
which did not appear to be very convenient to members, as the 
attendance was a small one. The Report of the Council began 
with a sympathetic allusion to the death of the Society's 
first Hon. Secretary, Mr. Talbot Baines Reed, F.S.A., who had 
taken so active a part in establishing it. It was announced that, 
at the special request of Mr. Reed, Mr. Alfred Pollard, of the 
British Museum, had accepted the Hon. Secretaryship, with 
Mr. John Macfarlane, also of the Museum, as Assistant 

Reference was made to the papers which had been read 
during the first session, on " The Present Condition of Biblio- 
graphy," by Mr. H. B. Wheatley; on "Method in Biblio- 
graphy," by Mr. F. Madan ; on " Incunabula," by Mr. S. J. 
Aldrich ; on the " Iconography of Don Quixote," by Mr. H. 
S. Ashbee ; on the " Official Record of Current Literature," 
by Mr. H. R. Tedder; on "Special Bibliographies," by Mr. 
R. C. Christie; and on "The Ideal Book," by Mr. William 
Morris and Mr. C. T. Jacobi. All of these, together with the 
President's Inaugural Address, had been printed in the Transac- 
tions, and were already in members' hands. 

A promise was made that, for the benefit of country mem- 
bers, there should be substituted for the post-cards on which 
notices of meetings had hitherto been sent out, a four-page 
News-sheet, containing an abridgment of the last paper ; a list 
of recent books on bibliography ; queries and answers ; and notes 
of the works on which different members are engaged. The first 
number of this News-sheet duly appeared in February, and has 
been regularly continued : forming a useful means of communica- 
tion with distant members of the Society. 


144 The Library. 

It was announced that two members had died during the 
year and thirteen resigned ; while forty-five new candidates had 
been elected, representing an increase of thirty members, and 
bringing the Roll of the Society up to 185. With the view 
of enabling the Society, by means of a definite income and a 
definite number of workers, to proceed with the work it has 
undertaken, with the knowledge of how much it is possible to do 
in each year, the Council sought and obtained from the 
General Meeting power to close the Roll of the Society when 
not less than 210 members had been elected. We are informed 
that this number was reached on March igth, and that notice was 
then given by the Council that the Roll of the Society would be 
declared closed on May 2ist, and thereafter, candidates be elected 
only to fill vacancies. Up to May igth, the Hon. Secretary 
(Alfred Pollard, 13, Cheniston Gardens, W.) will be glad to 
receive the names of candidates, and to give information as to the 
objects of the Society. 

The balance-sheet for the first year showed a surplus of 
^"125, of which 100 was due to the subscriptions of life 
members. It was announced that in future, in addition to the 
Transactions and News Sheet, the Society would print a series of 
monographs, and that the first of these, an extended version of 
a paper read at the November meeting by G. R. Redgrave, on 
Erhard Ratdolt and his Work at Venice would shortly be sent to 
press, and would contain a bibliography and ten full-page 

Some verbal alterations were then made in the rules, with 
the view of making it clearer that the issues of the Society are 
intended only for the use of its members, and not for those who 
hold aloof from it, and of defining the terms on which libraries 
and public institutions can be admitted to membership. 

The officers of the society, and the members of the Council, 
with the addition of Mr. F. Jenkinson, were then re-elected, and 
the proceedings came to a close. 


ASSOCIATION, 1890-93. 

THIS Association was formed as the result of a meeting held at the 
University College, Nottingham, on March 29th, 1890, summoned by 
Mr. J. P. Briscoe and myself. 

At this meeting it was decided to form an association with the above 
title, whose members should consist of persons working in libraries, or 
connected with the management of libraries, at a nominal subscription, 
viz., 2s. per annum, juniors is. per annum. 

The Association has members residing in Nottinghamshire, Derby- 
shire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, and Northamptonshire. It numbers 
about forty members. Any of its members are at liberty to invite the 
Association to visit their library for its meeting without incurring any 
expense, as it is an understood rule that a tea is provided in the town, 
visited at a cost not exceeding is. per head, and members attending the 
meeting can calculate the cost it will entail beforehand. 

The meetings are movable, and held in the months of September, 
November, February, April, and in addition generally one summer 
meeting. Up to the present, fourteen meetings have been held at the 
following towns : Nottingham, live ; Newark, Leicester, and Derby, two 
each ; Boston, Loughborough, and Lincoln, i each. 

The following papers have been read at the meetings : 

Rev. W. E. Atack, "The Pleasures and Difficulties connected with a 
small Library." 

J. P. Briscoe, " Derby Printers and Booksellers of the Eighteenth 
Century" ; and " Notes on Early Newark Printers and Booksellers." 

W. Crowther, "Sketch of the Chatsworth Library" (read in the 
Library at Chatsworth). 

T. Dent, "Associated Libraries for small Places" ; and " A Lough - 
borough Puritan." 

F. S. Herne, "The Old Town Library of Leicester" ; "Leicester Per- 
manent Library" and "An Old Leicester Bookseller." 

P. Herring, " Notes on a Collection of Notts. Books " ; "A Suggestion 
in Pen Names"; and "Embossed Books." 

J. S. Kirk, " booksellers and Book Collectors of the Past " ; and a 
" Note on the Method of Marking or Stamping Books, Engravings," c. 

Z. Moon, " On Leicestershire Worthies." 

R. H. Oldershaw, " Musical Advertising." 

H. A. Prichard, " How to Popularize Small Libraries." 

W. H. Walton, " Some Ancient Libraries." 

John T. Radford (Hon. Sec.), "Damaged Books" ; "Assessment of 
Public Libraries" (March, 1892) ; " Libraries and Librarians." 

This, I think, will be admitted to have been a varied and useful 
collection of papers and subjects for discussion. 

The members have also visited the various libraries in the towns where 
the meetings have been held and been shown the working of them, and 
also visited the large works of Messrs. Bemrose Co., Derby. 

146 The Library. 

Each member of the Association receives a copy of the newspaper 
reporting the meeting, which generally contains full reports of the papers 

The Association is now an affiliated member of the L.A.U.K., sending 
its representative to the conference, receiving a report of the work done 
there, and also circulating the LIBRARY amongst the N.M.L.A. members. 

I think if other similar associations were established it would result in 
benefit to numbers of librarians who are unable to join the parent associa- 
tion, and also possibly be to the benefit eventually of the L.A.U.K. 



MR. BROWN, of Clerkenwell, writes : " An absurd series of paragraphs 
appear in Answers of March3i, among which, with other things, it is stated 
that I was the originator of music sections in public libraries, and that 
pieces of music were borrowed from the Clerkenwell Public Library which, 
when played to a person afflicted with brain fever, effectually cured his 
disorder. This article has rather upset some of those quidnuncs who, 
because they were born over half a century ago, naturally were the first 
to introduce all sorts of things into libraries, and I desire to disclaim all 
knowledge of the Answers statements, since the suggestion has been 
rather unkindly made that I was the author of the paragraphs myself. 
On previous occasions I have stated the well-known facts that music was 
introduced into public libraries nearly forty years ago, and Liverpool, 
Birmingham, Manchester, Cambridge and many other towns have had 
collections for a long series of years. I am not aware if the Americans 
claim this * innovation,' but incline to think not, as Brooklyn, sometime 
before 1882, is the earliest instance I can find, and this is youth compared 
with Liverpool, which introduced music previous to 1859. 

" As regards the alleged cure, I have my doubts, especially as Clerken- 
well possesses no music of therapeutic value, so far as I am aware. With 
the exception of various violin ' schools,' collections of vocal music, 
etc., our music section is not as yet remarkable. I am a believer in the 
curative power of music in cases of nervous upset, and share to a modified 
extent the opinions of my namesake, Dr. Richard Browne, of Oakham, 
who issued his ' Medicina Musica ' in 1729. It would be a very ad- 
mirable thing if someone possessing the necessary qualifications would 
compile for the use of hospitals and public libraries a classified list of 
music peculiarly adapted to the cure of disease. This would be very rich 
in anodynes and counter-irritants ! A remarkable instance of this latter 
power may be observed in the ease with which a new popular comic song 
kills its predecessors. I have also heard it stated that bagpipe music 
relieves the toothache, but this, 1 suspect, is a libel concocted by some 
jealous sassenach." 

A Chicago correspondent writes : " An adventure which befell me 
the other day in a Chicago public library may, perhaps, be of interest 
to your readers. I had asked for a copy of Geoffrey Hamlyn, and 
the librarian said that he had never heard of the book. After research, 
however, he came and informed me that there was a book called ' The 

Jottings. 147 

Recollections of Geoffrey Hamlyn,' and that, if that was the book I 
wanted, I should have asked for it by its proper title. I bowed my 
head beneath the rebuke, and a few minutes afterwards I handed in 
a written request for another book, ' The Posthumous Papers of the 
Pickwick Club.' The librarian curtly assured me that no such book 
existed, and that he believed that I was having a game with him. And 
so I was, though not exactly the sort of game that he supposed." 

" THE Political Committee of the National Liberal Club are trying an 
interesting experiment in the formation of Circulating Village Libraries. 
To selected villages, boxes containing from fifty to one hundred volumes 
of carefully-selected books, comprising hisi >ry, biography, natural history, 
science, poetry and standard novels, are sent out. The boxes of books 
are placed in charge of persons willing to act as hon. librarians, and who 
undertake to be responsible for the safe custody of the books. No 
charge is made for the boxes which are changed periodically, and the 
Committee has decided upon the localities which appear best adapted for 
giving the scheme a fair trial.'' After seeing these boxes we are not dis- 
posed to think they will do much more than just serve the members of 
village clubs preferably Liberal. Fifty or even a hundred volumes is a 
miserable provision for any village above the dimensions of a Highland 

FROM the Boston Public Library, in the United States, come some 
odd stories about persons of eccentric literary taste. One woman has 
taken out a volume of sermons every Friday for years (she does not care 
what the religious views of the writers are), and then on each succeeding 
Monday a novel " to unbend her mind again." Another wants only 
novels that have clergymen as their chief characters, and there is one old 
maid that cannot be induced to read any work written by a woman. 

MR. THOMAS GREENWOOD, author of Public Libraries, Sunday School 
and Village Libraries, &>., has removed from Stoke Newington to the 
country, and should be addressed in future at Frith Knowl, Elstree, Herts. 

AN American librarian has taken the trouble to compile statistics from 
all the libraries, as to what books are most in demand. It appears that 
Dickens still leads the way with David Copperfield. Then follows Scott's 
Ivanhoe, Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter, Mrs. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, 
Wallace's Ben Hur, G. Eliot's Adam Bede, Thackeray's Vanity Fair, 
Miss Bronte's Jane Eyre, Lytton's Last Days of Pompeii, Mrs. Craik's 
John Halifax, Hugo's Les Miserables, Miss Alcott's Little Women, and 
Mrs. Burnett's Little Lord Fauntleroy. In the list of authors taken out, 
the prolific writers, of course, stand higher than those who have produced 
but few popular novels, Miss Louisa M. Alcott stands second on the list 
which is headed by Dickens. 

IN the Building News of December 29, appear two designs sent in 
for "A Village Library and Technical Institute." 

" M. DELISLE, the principal librarian at the Bibliotheque Nationale, in 
Paris, warns us that our modern literature is destined to perish. Of the 
two thousand and odd volumes published annually in France, not one, 
he thinks, will remain after a certain time. Cheap paper is a splendid 
thing in its way, but this is the price we must pay for it. Old-fashioned 
paper made from rags has stood the test of hundreds of years, as the 

148 The Library. 

many fine specimens of fifteenth century printing 1 show ; to say nothing 
of still earlier books in manuscript. Nowadays, however, paper is made 
of all sorts of material of a more or less perishable character. In parti- 
cular, as M. Delisle points out, books printed on paper made from wood 
pulp soon begin to rot away. At first the pages are covered by yellow 
spots, and these are replaced in course of time by holes. Even so-called 
hand-made papers are often no more durable, being treated with 
chemicals that slowly destroy them." M. Delisle has omitted to mention 
among the destroying causes of modern books, and indeed of all books 
possessing a vestige of popularity, tlie present-day public library with 
its thousands of readers and immense turn over of literature. The 
average life of a popular book is from four to five years, so that, as 
libraries and readers multiply, the destruction will increase to an 
enormous extent. Even books on stout paper made from linen are 
perishing under the combined influences of dirt and thumbing. Henry 
Mackenzie in his "Man of Feeling" confesses to having used "an 
edition of one of the German Illustrissimi " for gun wads, and the late 
R. P. Gillies relates some queer stories of the tieatment meted out to 
whole libraries by ignorant owners. If such was the case in the early 
part of the present century, how much more must the destruction be now 
when book-plates, title-pages, printer's marks, imitation leathers, paper- 
pulp articles and sausage wrappings are so much in demand ? The 
remedies are the constant multiplication of editions by publishers and the 
conservation of books by libraries which perform the preserving functions 
of museums. 

OLfbrarg IKlotes ant> 1Rews, 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
htm early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In cottrse of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ABERDEEN. Dr. Danson chose as his subject "The Citizen in 
Search of Culture : Free Libraries, Picture Galleries and Museums, and the 
Education they bring," to conclude his series of lectures on " The Life 
and Duties of a Citizen." 

At the meeting in April of the Library Committee, it was remitted to 
Messrs. A. Walker and G. Walker and the Librarian to prepare a suitable 
minute regarding the late Mr. William Alexander. The terms of the 
minute are as follows : " The Aberdeen Public Library Committee, being 
deeply moved by the sudden death of William Alexander, LL.D., of the 
Free Press and Evening Gazette, Aberdeen, and a member of the Public 
Library Committee, records with sincere regret its sense of the great loss 
thereby inflicted upon the community generally, and upon the Public 
Library in particular. A member of the committee for upwards of six 
years, Dr. Alexander was thoroughout conspicuous by the regularity and 

Library Notes and News. 149 

assiduity of his attention to the duties devolved upon him ; by the know- 
ledge and sagacity which he consistently brought to the committee's 
councils ; and by the depth and enthusiasm of his interest in whatever 
concerned the welfare of the Library. The loss of his services in these 
respects the committee has greatly to deplore. But perhaps even yet 
more has it cause to lament the loss of help rendered by him to the cause 
of the Library in divers ways outside the immediate sphere of the com- 
mittee. Than Dr. Alexander no one had more at heart the interests of 
the Library and those of the community as affected by them. From the 
first days of its institution, and before them, he had a strong and un- 
wavering sense of the high and important functions of the Library in the 
intellectual and social life of the citizens. As ajournalist of wide influence 
and universal respect, he was able, through the medium of the press, to 
keep his ideal with regard to the Library well before the public mind. 
As a private citizen, he was ever, with an unobtrusiveness which was 
distinctly characteristic of him, devising some helpful service, either by 
the presentation by himself of books and other literature by which the 
Library has been enriched, or by stimulating others to a similar living 
interest in its well-being. And thus it has happened that he who was 
himself one of the Library's best friends became the means of winning 
over and attaching others, who in their turn have rendered welcome 
service to the Library and its resources." 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE. On March igth the books of the Ashton 
Free Library were again available for public use in the Heginbottom 
Technical School and Free Library. The library was established in 1882 
and lodged in the Town Hall. The books were chiefly provided by the 
Heginbottom Trustees, Mr. Hugh Mason, and the late Lord Stamford. 
In 1883 the Corporation obtained Parliamentary powers for the erection 
of a building, but before these were put into force the trustees of the late 
Mr. George Heginbottom offered to provide ,10,000 for a Technical 
School. This gift was gladly accepted, and it was decided to house the 
library in the same building, which was opened with great rejoicing in 
July last. The total cost has been ,20,502, of which the Heginbottom 
Trustees gave ,10,000, the Science and Art Department .1,164, arj d the 
Lancashire County Council ^650. The Corporation Library contained 
in its old home 8,000 volumes ; these have now been augmented to 
13,000, and the whole have been re-arranged and catalogued by the 
librarian, Mr. D. H. Wade, who has had the assistance of Mr. J. J. 

AYR. Considerable success has attended the Carnegie Public Li- 
brary since its opening in September last, contrary to the forebodings of 
many, who thought the new Library would be a failure ; and certainly 
past experienres in Ayr tended to foster that opinion. 

More than half a century ago a Mechanics' Institute Library was 
formed, and there was also what was called the Ayr Library, established 
and maintained by private proprietors. The Mechanics' Library never 
had a very successful career, and after a time had to be closed for want 
of public support. The Ayr Library also became defunct. 

Some time after a movement was set on foot to establish a Public 
Library, and a fund raised to start it. In course of time the Mechanics' 
Library handed over the whole of its books, the Ayr Library also giving 
their valuable collection, and thus a good Public Library, containing over 
6,000 vols. was floated, though it was never successful. About ten years 
ago an attempt was made to adopt the Free Libraries Act, but the verdict 
of a public meeting was decidedly against it. 

150 The Library. 

Three years since Mr. Carnegie generously offered the munificent 
sum of .10,000 to erect a building and equip the Library, provided the 
Free Libraries Act was adopted. This was at once carried by an over- 
whelming majority. 

A handsome building of three stories has been built. In the basement 
are store rooms, boiler room, lavatory, &c. On the first floor are situated 
the Lending Library, Reading Room, and Committee Room, all opening 
off the entrance hall. On the top flat are the Reference Library, Ladies' 
Room, Museum and Art Gallery. All the rooms are spacious, well 
lighted, elegantly fitted up, and every provision has been made for the 
comfort and convenience of the public. The memorial stone of the 
building was laid by Mrs. Carnegie on October 5th, 1892. On the same 
day Mr. Carnegie was presented with the Freedom of the Burgh. 

The Library was formally opened by Provost Shankland on Septem- 
ber 2, 1893. From the commencement every department has been 
increasingly taken advantage of by all classes. During the first week, 
over 500 readers were enrolled, and 563 books given out. There are 
now 3,884 readers, and the daily issue has reached 488 vols. The 
total number of books given out since the opening has been 64,280. 

BATH. At the City Police Court on April 9th, Henry Mitchell, late 
librarian of the Royal Literary and Scientific Institution, was charged 
with embezzlement of its funds. He was sentenced to six months' 
imprisonment with hard labour. 

BRADFORD. A " Bronte Society and Museum" has been formed 
here, largely through the efforts of Mr. Butler Wood, the well-known and 
popular librarian. It is already a success and has attracted members 
both in America and in Paris. Mr. J. Horsfall Turner is corresponding 
secretary, and Mr. Wood, bibliographical secretary. 

BURY. On April loth, Councillor Taylor read a paper on " The 
Desirability of Establishing a Free Library," before the Bury Literary and 
Scientific Society. In the discussion which followed Mr. S. Kay offered 
^50 towards the establishment of a Free Library. 

BUXTON. In March the committee elected Mr. T.Sargent, of Derby, 
to the post of librarian and curator of the Museum, Town Hall. The 
salary is $$ per annum. There were 10 candidates. 

CA.MBORNE. Mr. J. Passmore Edwards laid the foundation stone 
of the public library building which he has presented to this Cornish 
town, on April 10, 1894. The proceedings were enthusiastic and lengthy, 
and are detailed in the Western Morning News, of April n. As we 
have previously noted, Camborne participates in the Ferris bequest, but 
it was undoubtedly due to Mr. Edwards' generosity that the act was 

COLNE (LANG.). In April the Public Libraries Acts were adopted 
at a meeting of the Colne Local Board, Lancashire, by a majority of three 
votes. The proposal to adopt the Act was rejected by a ballot of rate- 
payers five years ago. The Board have purchased land for the site of a 
technical school, and it is believed the school and free library will now 
form one institution. 

DOVER. On March 21, a very favourable resolution in favour of the 
adoption of the Public Libraries Acts, was passed at the Town Hall 

Library Notes and News. 151 

DUNDEE. At their March meeting, the Town Council approved of 
the scheme for establishing a branch library at Lochee, the members 
expressing warm gratitude for the generosity of the late Mr. T. H. Cox 
and his trustees, for thus providing means to enable the Committee to 
establish the branch in Lochee which they had long been most anxious to 
see erected there. In addition, there is a sum of ^4,000 to be invested, 
and the proceeds devoted to this branch library. 

FALMOUTH. A temporary Free Library was opened on April 2 by 
the Mayor. On April 14, Mr. J. Passmore Edwards laid the foundation 
stone of the public library building. A view of this appeared in the 
Building News of April 14. 

GLASGOW. A second edition of the " Concise Guide to the 
Mitchell Library " ha < s been issued. It contains some views of the 
interior, a complete list of the periodicals taken, and gives an interesting 
historical account of the library and its various valuable collections. It 
is published by Messrs. Bryce and Son, and is given away free, the cost 
being defrayed by advertisements. A copy is presented with this 
number of the LIBRARY. 

GLOUCESTER. An influential deputation, headed by the Dean 
(Dr. Spence), waited on the Council at their March meeting, and pre- 
sented a memorial in favour of the Corporation adopting the Public 
Libraries Acts. 

LEICESTER. On April 10, Aid. Hart (mayor of Leicester) formally 
opened a branch Free Library in the Belgrave district, one of the 
parishes added to the borough under the recent extension scheme. For 
the present an upper room of the Belgrave Road Coffee House is being 
utilised for the purpose, but this is intended only as a temporary arrange- 

LONDON. London, in its issue of April 19, has an article on "What 
Londoners read," /.., " The Literary Tastes of the People as shown by 
an Examination into the Class of Books Read at London Free Public 
Libraries." A continuation of the article appears in the number for April 
26. Returns are given from most of the London Public Libraries. 

LONDON : BRITISH MUSEUM.- In the Times of March 19 is 
an article on the extension of the area occupied by the Museum and its 

LONDON : CRIPPLEGATE. The St. Luke's (Middlesex) Vestry 
on March 20 decided to ask Cripplegate to join in a deputation to the 
Charity Commissioners to urge upon them the desirability of the trustees 
of the St. Luke's parochial charities being allowed to make a contribu- 
tion to the cost of the erection of the proposed Cripplegate Library, such 
contribution to entitle the parish to elect a representative governor 
of the foundation. The work, it was stated, was flagging for want of 

clerk to the City Parochial Foundation, is arranging with Mr. C. Welch, 
the Guildhall librarian, for the removal to, and exhibition at, that place of 
a number of ancient and deeply-interesting deeds relating to old City 
charities. It is needless to say that many of these are distinctly precious 

The Library. 

from an archreoK'ical point of view, as they date as far back as the reign 
of King John and Kdward III. They will add yet another interesting 
feature to the Guildhall Library. 

LONDON : ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS. A Poll of the parish 
recently taken here, on the question of combining with the parish of St. 
Paul, Covent Garden, for library purposes, resulted in a large majority 
being in favour. 

LONDON : STOKE NEWINQ-TON. On March 17 Mr. Alderman 
and Sheriff Dimsdale attended in state at the Stoke Newington Public 
Library, and unveiled the portraits in oils of the late Messrs. Joseph 
Beck, C.C., and John Runtz, M.B.W., who were instrumental in securing 
Clissold Park to the public. At the same time a very valuable collection 
of prints relating to Stoke Newington and the neighbourhood, the gift of 
Mr. E. J. Sage, were hung in the public reading room. It has been de- 
cided to open the reading room on Bank Holidays as an experiment. 

LONDON : STREATHAM. It has been decided that the Tate Free 
Library shall henceforth be opened on certain hours each Sunday. 

MANCHESTER. The thirteenth branch of the Manchester Free 
Library was opened on March 31, in Chester Road, Hulme, by Mr. 
Councillor H. Rawson, the deputy-chairman of the Public Free Libraries 
Committee. The Lord Mayor of Manchester and many members of the 
City Council took part in the proceedings. Additional women assistants 
have been engaged for the staff of the Manchester Libraries. 

MERTHYR. A movement is on foot to get the Public Libraries 
Acts adopted in this town. 

OSWE3TRY. On April 5 the Free Library Committee appointed 
Mr. T. P. Diamond to the post of librarian. There were thirty-eight 

PENARTH. The Penarth Local Board, under the presidency of 
Mr. T. Bevan, on April 2, adopted the Free Libraries Act after giving the 
usual due notice. 

PENZANCE. Mr. J. Passmore Edwards, of London, has intimated 
to the Mayor of Pcnzance, Mr. W. H. Julyan, his intention of presenting 
the Free Library with 1,000 volumes of books. The library, which was 
only opened in October last, has had a remarkable success, over 2,000 
persons, or about a fifth of the inhabitants, having become borrowers. 
The resources of the institution have consequently been very largely 
drawn upon. The generous gift of Mr. Edwards comes at a very oppor- 
tune moment, and will be very highly appreciated. There are at present 
about 5,000 volumes on the shelves. 

RICHMOND, SURREY. In April the Free Library Committee 
passed a resolution, upon the casting vote of the chairman, for opening 
the library on Sundays. 

STOKE-ON-TRENT. On April 16 a branch library was opened 
at Basford. 

Library Notes and News. 153 

SUNDERLAND. The Museum and Library Sub-Committee are 
preparing plans for enlarging the Free Library, which is at present 
inadequate to meet the requirements of the town. 

WATERFORD. On March 27 the Public Libraries Acts were 
adopted unanimously at a large meeting of the citizens. 

WILLESDEN. The National Review for April contains the address 
on the " Art of Reading Books," delivered by the Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 
at the opening of the Kilburn Public Library on January 4. 

WIMBLEDON. The motion to open on Sundays was defeated at 
the March meeting of the Library Committee. 

WORCESTER. On April 3 H.R.H. the Duke of York visited 
Worcester, and laid the foundation stone of the Victoria Institute. This 
building when completed will also contain the Free Library. 

MASSACHUSETTS. Mr. C. B. Tillinghast tells the readers of the 
Forum many interesting facts ascertained by the Massachusetts Free 
Public Library Commission, of which he is chairman, and which princi- 
pally busied itself with the needs of the rural communities. It appears 
that the libraries are almost exclusively used by young people. Bound 
volumes of illustrated magazines and the higher grade of reviews are in 
constant and increasing demand : 

" The most popular book in our libraries to-day is ' Uncle Tom's 
Cabin.' It is still read in all our communities by people of all ages and 
classes and alt nationalities. Wherever lists of books having the widest 
circulation are kept, this book usually heads them. 'Ben-Hur' retains 
a remarkable fascination for the reader. ' Lorna Doone 3 and the novels 
of William Black, among the books by modern authors, have a large 
circulation. The 'Scarlet Letter' and the 'Marble Faun' stand high on 
the record of books most circulated. Some of the stories which delighted 
the readers of a generation ago, like ' The Lamplighter,' ' Queechy,' and 
' The Wide, Wide World ' seem to have a perennial vitality, and are much 
read to-day, while some of the books whose titles are most familiar to 
the modern ear, like ' Looking Backward ' and ' Robert Elsmere,' after 
a wonderful run for a time soon drop out of the list of those widely called 
for. The steady demand for ' Ivanhoe ' and others of Scott's novels 
proves their undying charm ; and it appears to be a fact that the number 
of those who read Scott is increasing, while the number of the readers of 
Dickens is diminishing. In the reference department of our libraries the 
most noteworthy of modern developments is the growing use which is 
made of works upon the fine arts, especially architecture Bio- 
graphy, especially autobiography . . . rivals the novel in popularity. The 
' Personal Memoirs of General Grant ' ... is still in constant demand. 
. . . The dry details of ancient and mediaeval history are not so much 
read as they were a quarter of a century ago. . . . Readers at large are 
more interested in the present condition of a country, its resources, its 

people, and the habits and customs of their daily life Books which 

tell in simple untechnical language the story of birds, animals and plants, 
and other natural objects .... are coming into more general use. . . . 
The good old classics of English literature, while the lighter form still 
retains some hold upon the general reading public, are not so widely read 
as they were a generation ago. Graces of style do not appear to have 
the charm for the present that they exercised over the preceding genera- 

,^ The Library. 

In Massachusetts the Free Library idea seems to be very thoroughly 

Acetate is divided into 352 local autonomies, and its population in 
1800 was - -MS 043 There are libraries from which the people are en- 
titled to take books for home reading, free of all expense in 305 of these 
owns and cities, which embrace more than 97 per cent, of the population. 
The aeereeate number of volumes in the libraries is two and three-quarter 
millions, and the circulation for home use is five million volumes per 
annum more than two volumes to every man, woman, and child in the 

Q0A " 



THE Boston Public Library, when re-opened in its new home, will put 
in practice several schemes for facilitating the mechanical part of the work. 
Among them, according to Mr. S. A. B. Abbott, president of the 
Trustees, will be the "substitution of machinery for the old fashion of 
legs in bringing the books to the readers. . . . Orders for books 
will be transmitted almost instantaneously by pneumatic tubes to stations 
in the stacks, and books conveyed to and fro by a cash railway, carrying 
baskets of twenty-five pounds' capacity. An indicator showing what 
books are out will stand by the delivery-desk." The catalogue will not 
be open to the public, but will be served out by assistants as wanted. 
The card cabinet form is to be abandoned in favour of what, from the 
description, appears to be the Staderini catalogue tray. There appears 
to be a most bewildering array of " novel and ingenious devices," tele- 
phones, book-railways, and other elaborations of library practice. Some 
of the arrangements seem to be based on a certain distrust of the 
public, otherwise so many plans for overcoming the difficulties caused 
by barriers would be quite unnecessary. It is claimed that the new 
Boston Public Library will surpass every institution of the sort in 
the world as a " temple of culture," and certainly with mural deco- 
rations by Messrs. Whistler, Sargent, and other painters, it will so far 
be unique. It seems a somewhat retrograde movement for an im- 
portant library, which at one time showed the way in the States, to cut 
off readers so completely from their own books, and at one stroke 
annihilate the refining influence of contact with literature by substi- 
tuting a cash railway, warranted to carry twenty-five pounds, as an inter- 
mediary between readers and their wants. It strikes us as a very 
reactionary measure, after such a tremendous expenditure of dollars 
and splendid chance of a root and branch reform, to resort to such 
complicated and unsatisfactory devices as mechanical deliveries and in- 

The sooner library management is simplified, the better it will be for 
both readers and books ; but if matters are arranged on these latter-day 
Boston lines, there will soon be evolved the mechanical library automaton, 
with an electro-motor where the brains ought to be. 

The different " state library associations " and " library clubs " of the 
United states should be more frequently imitated in Britain. Although 
the grouping of districts for the purposes of local library clubs and 
:.itions is difficult, there seems no good reason why the North 
Midland and Mersey district library associations should not be imitated 
in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, North-East England, Central England 
(Birmingham centre), and South-Western England, with a club in 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 155 

London for all comers. The constant comparison of experiences and 
rubbing together of notions which go on in such bodies as the clubs 
and associations of New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Chicago, 
California, &c., must have the best possible effect in stimulating interest 
and propagating knowledge of library movements, and there is no 
reason at all why such associations should not be formed to meet in the 
intervals of the annual meetings in this country. Perhaps Mr. Radfora's 
note on the North Midland association may lead to imitation in other 
centres. Can it be that the average British librarian is less gregarious 
than his American cousin ? 

The Library School of Albany made a tour to Boston on April 
17-27, taking Hartford, Springfield, Worcester, Salem, Cambridge, and 
the Boston libraries in succession. Twenty-seven members accompanied 
the trip, among whom were Miss M. S. R. James, of London, and Miss 
S. P. English, of Cambridge. This was one of the visits, combining 
education in library matters with a pleasant outing, which are organised 
from time to time among the pupils of the Library School. Miss James 
attended as a visitor. 

IRecorb of Bibliograpbp anb SLibran? ^Literature* 

The Binding of Books. By Herbert P. Home. London : 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner, and Co., 1894. 8vo, pp. xiii., 
224. Price 6s. nett. (Vol. vi. of " Books about Books." 
Edited by A. W. Pollard.) 

So much has of late years been written concerning book-binding that 
those who know anything about books cannot well avoid knowing some- 
thing about fine bindings also. Articles and monographs have appeared 
on all the great styles of binding and a considerable number of large and 
expensive books, chiefly French, have been published on the art itself. 
The time is therefore most opportune for a work like the present, which 
gives adequate technical and historical information in a moderate com- 
pass and at a moderate cost. Indeed the technical part is treated at 
such length that we are inclined to resent these details of the binder's 
shop, but they find an excuse in the fact that they enable a collector to 
recognize good work in the "forwarding" as well as in the " finishing" of 
abinding. While mentioning this branch of the subject we should like to 
suggest that Kettle-stitch which Mr. Zaehnsdorf, followed by Mr. Home, 
regards as a corruption of catch-up stitch is simply the German Ketten- 
stich or chain stitch, and may even be the Kettel-stich or the stitch that 
forms a little chain. We are glad to see that Mr. Home embraces the 
opportunity of giving conclusive proofs that books were not usually 
placed upright in early libraries, but on their boards, as we ventured to 
maintain when reviewing a previous volume of this series (" Books in 
Manuscript, 1893"). 

The freshest and, in our opinion, the most interesting portion of Mr. 
Home's book is that which treats of Italian bindings. As he justly 
observes in speaking of Grolier, " The bindings of his Aldine volumes 
are, without doubt, of Italian workmanship ; having been executed in 
every probability, by Venetian binders ; and these appear to have 
furnished the model, according to which his other bindings were worked." 

!^6 The Library. 

The name of Grolier, the continuity of the art in France and the fact 
that, to quote Mr. Home again, "in that country, alone, does there exist 
any 'considerable literature upon its history and methods" have thrown 
the early Italian binders into undeserved obscurity, and we are glad to 
see them come by their own again. For though the French attained to 
a much higher degree of mechanical perfection, it was the Italians who 
raised bookbinding to its nearest approach to a fine art. Indeed, Mr. 
Home would have us call it a fine art, and speaks of it as being even 
now " sensible to new emotions." But binding is, after all, a mechanical 
craft in which usefulness is the one thing necessary, while ornament is a 
mere adjunct and is restricted within very narrow limits. The handling 
of the book must always be reckoned with, and as for the ornamentation 
that endeavours to connect itself with the text, it is (pace Mr. Cobden 
Sanderson) usually as ridiculous as a frame of tree-calf round a land- 
scape. The " bands of daisies " on a copy of " In Memoriam," which 
receive Mr. Home's lukewarm approbation, remind us of those memorial 
cards which some people delight to distribute after a funeral. 

For his French bindings, Mr. Home is largely indebted to Thoinau, 
Bouchot and others, as he is forward to acknowledge ; but the informa- 
tion is excellently arranged, and not only gives all that is known of the 
Eves, Le Gascon, Padeloup, etc., but not a single known name appears 
to us to be omitted. 

The account of the English binders is likewise remarkably complete, 
and a particular interest attaches to the influence of foreign importations 
of books, and to the struggles of our native binders to hold their own 
against the foreign craftsmen who came over in such considerable num- 
bers. In an extract from one of Berthelet's bills for binding a New 
Testament and Psalter for Henry VIII., the volumes are described as 
"bounde backe to backe." Now this is so exceedingly rare a form of 
binding that we think it should have been explained. It consists in 
making one cover common to two books, reversing them so that the fore- 
edge of one is next to the back of the other. 

We wish that Mr. Home's style were as good as his matter, but owing 
to an extraordinary system of punctuation, which has not even the merit 
of consistency, his sentences are broken up into jerky fragments ; in fact, 
his book is a perfect series of colons and semi-colons, and is powdered with 
commas. This is sufficiently irritating, but when he goes so far as to 
introduce them into quotations, and to write " que j'ai tirees, d'un Manu- 
scrit" (p. ix.), we should like, in the spirit of the Mikado, to condemn 
him to a few "virgules" a la militaire. His accuracy, too, is not above 
suspicion, for in the same quotation he gives "du" for "d'un," and 
"S. A. R." for "S. A. S."; in another (p. 107) "bien nous aidera" for 
"Dieu nous aidera"; and again (p. 211) "gene" for "geue." 

But let us not end with a carping note, for the book is a valuable 
mine of information, and in that respect fitly terminates the excellent and 
useful series of "Books about Books." 

The Bookplate Annual and Armorial Yearbook, 1894. London : 
A. &C. Black. 4 to. Price 2s. 6d. 

We offer a hearty welcome to this new venture of Mr. Leighton's ; 
and trust that he may be spared to issue a goodly series of his annual. 

t is unnecessary to tell those who know anything of Mr. Leighton's 
work and methods that it is beautifully got up ; and that the paper, type 
and illustrations are all that could be desired. It contains many items 
likely to be of use to the herald and the antiquary ; but, we take it, that 
use only was not the aim of the ingenious editor, for it abounds rather in 
quaint conceits than in prosy information. 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 157 

We observe that Mr. Leighton evinces a friendly feeling towards the 
Library Association and its younger sister, the Bibliographical Society, 
inasmuch as his annual contains a brief, comprehensive prospectus of the 
aims of both these bodies. That the editor is not a slave to pedantic 
accuracy is shown by his robbing the Hon. Secretary of the Library 
Association of one of his initials ; but, as he is wealthy enough to spare 
a few, we shall not say anything severe on the subject. 

Library Classification, by W. I. Fletcher, A.M., Librarian of 
Amherst College. Reprinted, with alterations, additions, 
and an Index from his Public Libraries in America. Boston 
[Mass.]: Roberts Brothers, 1894. London price, 43. 6d. 

This is a very handy and simple system of classification which may 
be strongly recommended to the notice of English public librarians as an 
alternative to the more elaborate American systems of Messrs. Dewey, 
Cutter, Perkins, and others. Mr. Fletcher offers his book as " a way of 
escape for those who shrink from the intricacies and difficulties of the 
elaborate systems, and to substitute for painstaking analytical classification 
a simple arrangement which it is believed is better adapted to be practi- 
cally useful in a library, while doing away with most of the work involved 
in carrying out one of these schemes." Mr. Fletcher adopts thirteen main 
classes : A. Fiction (J. Juvenile) ; B. English and American Litera- 
ture ; C. History ; D. Biography ; E. Travels ; F. Science ; G. Useful 
Arts ; H. Fine and Recreative Arts ; J. Political and Social Science ; 
K. Philosophy and Religion ; L. Works on Language and in Foreign 
Languages ; and R. Reference Books. These he further divides into 
numerical subdivisions, as Class C. History: "15. Philosophy and 
Study of History"; " 16. History of Civilization"; "17. Historical 
Essays and Miscellanies," &c., and provides for the alteration and inter- 
polation of subjects to any extent. Exception may be taken to his 
Classes L. and R. on the ground that most of their contents could probably 
be included in some of the other classes ; but the author has left every- 
thing so elastic that no great difficulty need arise in adapting the scheme 
to any library. We should have preferred an alphabetical to a numerical 
arrangement under sub-divisions of classes, as it would have further 
simplified the system and differentiated it even more from the other 
American classifications which depend so much on a mnemonical nota- 
tion. Mr. Fletcher proposes, as we understand him, to number his books 
on, say Great Britain in Class E, No. 100, thus : 

EIOO-I. Carnegie. American Four-in-Hand. 

E 100-2. White. Eastern England. 2 v. 

E 100-3. Loftie. London. 

Why not simply number the books E. 100 to denote their place in the 
scheme of classification and arrange them in an alphabet of author's 
names, or by counties ? In the smaller subjects at any rate, which are not 
so greatly in need of minute subdivision, the alphabetical arrangement 
gets over every difficulty arising from the intercalation and with- 
drawal of books. The mere finding of a book could be effected as easily 
one way as the other. We heartily commend the system to the considera- 
tion of English librarians, and hope to notice later on, Mr. Fletcher's work 
on the Public Libraries of America, of which this forms an amplified 


Xibrarg association 1Secort>* 

SEASON 1893-94. 

THE SKVKXTH MONTHLY MEETING of the season was held at 20, 
Hanover Square, on Wednesday, April 1 1, at 8 p.m., Mr. H. R. Tedder 
in the chair. 

A large number of members and some visitors were present. The 
minutes of the last meeting having been read and confirmed, the following 
paper by Mr. Falconer Madan, M.A., was read 

This was discussed by Messrs. Tedder, Leighton, Davis, Verney, 
MacAlister, Bowes, Burgoyne, Humphery, Gilburt, Goss and Cox, 
many interesting opinions being elicited regarding the processes repre- 
sented as being carried on in the facsimile of the engraving which 
Mr. Madan distributed. This interesting paper will be published in 

Summer Scfoool, 1894, 

ARRANGEMENTS are being made for a Summer School to be held on 
20th, 2 ist and 22nd June. The Council is desirous that it should be 
generally understood that the advantages of the Summer School are not 
confined to members of the Association, and that anyone recommended 
by a member will be welcomed. It will, in the main, follow the lines of 
last year, with some slight changes, but it is impossible yet to issue a 
definite programme. Programmes, with full particulars, will be sent on 
application to the Hon. Secretary. Each application should be accom- 
panied by a stamped addressed envelope. One new feature will be a 
Conference of the members of the School at the end of the meeting, when 
they will be invited to compare notes upon what they have seen, and 
discuss library matters generally. Librarians and library assistants and 
others who desire to be present, are requested to send in their names at 
once to the Hon. Secretary, 20, Hanover Square. 


AN examination for librarians and library assistants will be held at 
20, Hanover Square, on Monday and Tuesday, June i8th and igth. 
Examinations will be arranged for in the other centres (a list of which 
will be found in the Yearbook] to meet the convenience of candidates. 

For full particulars of the examination, with syllabus and specimens 
of questions, see the Library Association Yearbook, 1893 (Simpkin 
Marshall, is.), which maybe obtained through any bookseller. 

N.K This will probably be the last Examination under the present 
scheme, as the Council of the Association has decided to revise it, and 
nay substitute a purely practical examination. Candidates who have 
passed in some of the subjects are therefore warned that they may not 
have another opportunity of completing the remaining subjects required 
to secure a certificate. 

Kntrance fee for professional examination, los. ; for preliminary, 55. 
The entrance fees are returned to candidates who make a bona fide 
empt to answer the questions. Candidates should enter their names 
at once, and state at which centre they desire to be examined. 


Hon. Secretary. 

Letters of Gabriel Peignot. 

T OWE the opportunity of once more directing attention to the 
bibliographer Peignot to the kindness of that excellent 
member of the Library Association, Mr. Sam Timmins. After 
the appearance of my first paper on this subject (see Library 
Chronicle, vol v., No. 58, p. 177) Mr. Timmins kindly lent me a 
bundle of letters in MS. which Peignot had written mostly from 
Dijon to his friend M. Baulmont, comptroller of the Post Office 
at Vesoul. Multifarious occupations compelled me to defer the 
task of examining these letters, and I am bound to confess that 
the labour has not yielded matter of so much interest as I antici- 
pated. The light, pleasant style which marks the correspondence 
is what one expects from a fellow countryman of Madame de 

The letters, many of which were published in 1857, were 
written from different towns of France while the Inspector of 
Studies was on his official rounds. They derive interest from the 
notices of places little known in England and described here with 
unassuming simplicity. 

It may still be said of Peignot in connection with these letters 
what Brunet said of his published works : " There is no pre- 
tension about his judgments no false assumption. Always 
modest in his writings, always indulgent towards other writers, 
this estimable man of letters must have met with more friends 
than censors." We get a glimpse of his personality in a letter he 
wrote from Saumur on igth September, 1820. He describes 
the town as picturesquely situated on an amphitheatre of 
rock. He called at the library and was received by the 
librarian in a way that " made him blush." " He (the librarian) 
spoke of the happiness he felt in having me there, and other 
absurdities. He had my bibliographical works and never ceased 
paying me compliments enough to break my nose (me casser lentz). 
I gave him some information of editions of the XVth century 
which only gave him a greater fancy for my poor little person." 


!6o The Library. 

On another occasion some eight years later he stayed on his 
rounds at Lyons, and there was invited by M. Pericaud, the 
librarian, to inspect the public library. He found among other 
curiosities an old book relating to Vespasian, Emperor of Rome. 
According to this version of the legend, that august personage 
was cured of a bad ulcer by St. Veronica and the holy face of 
the Saviour. In gratitude for the cure, the Roman Emperor, 
followed by his dukes, counts, barons and knights, destroyed 
Jerusalem, was afterwards baptised, confessed and received the 
communion at the hands of his good friend the apostle of Rome. 
Pilate, having defended Jerusalem to the last extremity, was 
excommunicated and banished to Vienne. Peignot was delighted 
with this curious mixture of Roman and mediaeval history. 
Singular to relate, these are almost the only two notices, con- 
tained in more than a hundred of the letters, of libraries and 
books, excepting his own publications. Of other matter, such as 
politics and important contemporary events, there is nothing to 
be found. Probably the writer, who was a confirmed royalist, 
had acquired the habit of epistolary caution in the days of the 
Directory, Consulate and Empire and retained it in his old age. A 
letter he wrote on 2yth May, 1814, when he was threatened with 
dismissal from office, is one long groan. A visit which he paid the 
year before to Beaune, the place ridiculed by the poet Piron as 
inhabited by long-eared gentry, Peignot makes great fun of : 
" It was market day, the road up to the town was encumbered 
by those peaceful animals to whom Beaune owes a renown more 
durable than brass or marble. What a number of ears ! and of 
what a length ! Doubtless those gentlemen recognised in my 
heavy, massive driver a colleague and friend, for the moment he 
appeared in the midst of them, they saluted him with acclama- 
tion. This concert of hian ! hian ! was divine. The good man 
smiled his gratitude and perfectly enjoyed the harmony, but I 
not belonging to this parish and preferring more refined 
pleasures, bade him hasten forward." 

The first letter of the series is dated from Grai, 2gth May, 
1813, when he first went to reside in Dijon. The last of the 
series is dated nth November, 1845, four years before his 

In August, 1814, Talma, the famous actor, visited Dijon and 
played " Hamlet " there, producing a great sensation. The 
women among the audience uttered loud cries, and many of them 
left the theatre, followed by some of the men. To his great delight, 

Letters of Gabriel Peignot. 161 

Peignot was invited by a M. Didiet to meet Talma and his wife 
at dinner. When the company met, they were, says the letter- 
writer, "like the Muses" in number. "Talma," he continues, 
" is as amiable in society as he is admirable on the stage. Of 
the five hours that elapsed, through the dinner to the coffee, I 
had three and a-half to converse with him specially, and the 
time did not seem to me long. As at the beginning of dinner, 
M. Demontreau put several questions to me on literature and 
bibliography, which I answered in a satisfactory manner ; it 
would seem that Talma was induced to address me in particular. 
He is very well informed, and he related to me some incidents of 
his life. He was a pupil of the Abbe Lille ; and he cited an ode 
of Horace which he had turned into French verse. Intimately 
connected with Champfort he was with him during the dying 
hours which the unfortunate poet lived after his attempt at 

suicide He spoke much of Madame de Stael. In 

the way of good reading he places Ducis at the head of all. 
Delille reads only his own works well ; Teissier is feeble ; 
Laharpe detestable, screaming, biting, and spiteful. Champfort 
sparkled with wit, but he was very caustic ; and his conversation 
had the effect of a display of fireworks. I asked Talma how old 
he was. He would say no more than that he was older than I 
am. Yet my hair is turning grey, and his locks are a beautiful 
black. He told me that his hair was very well dyed, and then I 
saw signs of grey underneath. He spoke of literature, and of his 
library. He detests novels, and looks out for history, travels 
and antiquities. He is very strong on costume, and quoted 
specimens of each reign of our monarchy. He is marvellously 
well acquainted with manuscripts : and corrected certain 
anachronisms in the descriptions of mediaeval manuscripts in 
the Dijon Library. He complained of the fatigue he endured 
when playing with bad actors, who forced him often to play 
a double part. He is very short-sighted; for which I pitied 
him. ' Congratulate me rather,' he said, ' owing to my short- 
sight ; when I am acting, I see nobody in the theatre, and give 
myself wholly to the part I am playing.' 

" His voice is agreeable in conversation ; but when he raises 
it to the tragic tone he makes the ceiling shake. I should never 
finish if I were to tell you all that he said during this agreeable 
evening. With him was a young lady, to whom he seemed very 
attentive. She is not his wife. I forgot to say he told us many 
curious stories of Fouche, and spoke much of Buonaparte. Of 

j52 The Library. 

the last named he said, ' I like him, and I ought to do so, for he 
has overwhelmed me with benefits. He has hurled himself into 
the abyss, and he is unfortunate but not detestable, especially 
not to those on whom he has conferred benefits. Louis is on the 
throne, and is our king. I would sacrifice myself to prevent 
anyone from doing him harm, and to defend him.' " 

Two of Peignot's sons have just returned from Paris, young 
officers in the army, and have " jumped upon his neck." This 
makes letter-writing rather difficult, and he complains that his 
petits diables de militaires make such a noise that he can write no 

I have given this long extract, not only because the subject is 
more or less interesting in itself, but also to show how pleasantly 
Peignot writes on familiar topics. 

M. Didiet, the host of Peignot and Talma, had been so 
fortunate to dig up in his garden an earthenware pot of coins of 
the time of Charles VI., and of one of these Peignot became the 
happy possessor. With a true collector's devotion to his passion 
Peignot, in 1826, began to write his account of curious wills, the 
complete edition of which was not published till 1849. More 
than seventy pages of the second volume of the work are occupied 
by a will of Napoleon Bonaparte, from which it appears that the 
great soldier was very liberal in bequeathing property that he 
did not possess. Many of the most eccentric wills printed in the 
book are of course attributed to English people, and the compiler 
seems surprised at himself when printing the will of M. Helloin, 
a judge at Caen, adding that it is strange the freak commanded in 
the will did not originate on the northern side of the channel. M. 
Helloin was so fond of his bed and so much addicted to lying 
therein that he directed his executors to have him buried with his 
bed exactly as he lay when death should surprise him. 

Peignot's letters refer continually to his collection of wills, 
which he is incessantly striving to increase. One of the most 
comical of his burlesques is a mock petition to his publisher and 
friends to make room for two newly-found wills which he has 
discovered after the book had gone to press and was announced 
to be complete. 

Here and there among the letters glimpses are to be obtained 
of their kindly writer's health and worldly prospects. Under the 
date of 3ist December, 1819, he complains of weakness of the 
stomach, and in wishing a happy new year to his correspondent 
he writes, " Welcome 1820, for 1819 has only two hours to live, 

Letters of Gabriel Peignot. 163 

after which it will fall for ever into the gulf of eternity. Let us 
endeavour to bury thirty years more." He was unconsciously 
prophesying truly, for he died in 1849. " Adieu!" he continues, 
" let us meanwhile laugh, drink I was going to say eat, but my 
grumbling stomach warns me that that is not given to everybody 
in the world." 

Our letter writer seems to have generally a good opinion of 
Englishmen. He gives due credit in one of his epistles to an 
Englishman who sounded the Lake of Geneva and found that it 
was 900 feet at the deepest part ; 430 feet near shore and 36 feet 
in places near the centre. Among Peignot's intimate friends 
was the poet Armand Gouffe who lived at Beaune. He was a 
popular writer of songs, bacchanal and otherwise. Charles 
Nodier was also a friend mentioned in these letters as crying out 
for a third edition of " Peignot's Bibliographie." It must be 
noted here that Peignot's first publication was anonymous, and 
appeared in " L'an IV.," under the title <3f " Opuscules philoso- 
phiques et poetiques du frere Jerome mises au jour par son cousin 
Gabriel P.," i8mo, Paris. It is generally admitted that his 
works did much to popularise the study of bibliography. 

The list of Peignot's publications which appeared in 1830, 
was privately printed and distributed among friends as a warn- 
ing against literary poachers who adopted his titles and not 
unfrequently the matter of his books. He dubs offenders of this 
kind with the title of " ostrogothiques," which sounds more 
terrible than our word "vandals." 

It is amusing to read of the excitement caused among Peignot 
and his friends both at Dijon and at Vesoul by the appearance of 
Henry Bonn's huge " Guinea Catalogue." 

One instance more of the action of the whirligig of time occurs 
in one of Peignot's letters where a particular hybrid of umbrella 
and parasol, now named in London shops "en tout cas" was 
fifty years ago styled in Burgundy " si tu veux," e.g. : 

S' il fait beau, 
Prends ton manteau ; 

S' il pleut, 
Prends le si tu veux. 


Scientific Text-Books, and the Disposal of Editions 
Out of Date. 1 

THERE are many who do not realise the vast difference there 
is between the meaning of a "new edition" of a standard novel 
and the same of a scientific text-book. Yet thereby hangs one 
of the most difficult problems in library work. A book of fiction 
or a poem, be it good or bad, is the masterpiece of an individual ; 
its value in the market depends on the man who wrote it, upon 
the ingenuity he has shown in contriving the plot of his story, 
on the extent to which he has fashioned his characters in 
accordance with those we meet in real life, and on his power of 
depicting scenes from life as they are, not as he thinks they 
ought to be. To speak generally, the first edition seals the 
book's fate for better or for worse ; later editions can only be of 
value in so far that they are issued while the author is still 
living, contain his own corrections, and such latter when they 
are confined to the merest details in style. So the first and 
early editions of the works of Dickens, of Thackeray, of Scott, 
of Tennyson and of Browning will never be cumbersome on the 
shelves of any library. For there is nothing new to be discovered 
in human nature : the wishes, ambitions, schemes, loves, hopes 
and fears of mankind are now as they have ever been. 

Trite as the above remarks may seem to the majority of those 
present, they are only made to emphasise the gulf that is fixed 
between the domain of the imagination and that of science, or 
the pursuit of truth in literature. We enter, as it were, into 
another world when we come to deal with books relating to science 
in all its varied aspects. Here all is change and progress. 
Nothing remains still. The biologist, or zoologist, as he used to 
be called, sits down and writes his book. It is duly announced, 
printed and published, and perchance has a rapid sale. All the 
medical schools and scientific academies purchase it, and eager 
students complain because "more copies are not on the text- 
book shelf." But ere the student has digested its contents for 
his next examination, the author, or some other fellow-worker, 

1 Read at a Monthly Meeting of the Library Association, January, 1894. 

Scientific Text-Books. 165 

has unravelled fresh threads of the tangled skein of hidden truth. 
Promptly the first edition becomes "out of date," and our 
author must needs re-furbish his literary weapons, and do battle 
with some fresh competitor, ever ready to spring up, by bringing 
out a second edition, containing all facts up to date. The first 
edition is no longer asked for, but is relegated to some out of the 
way shelf at the top of the book case, while its value in the 
market often falls to half the original cost. Thus, exactly the 
converse happens to what obtains in the literary world of poetry 
and fiction, where first editions in a few years become worth 
double or treble what they originally cost. 

Such is the general rule with regard to works of science. A 
constant succession of editions is turned out year after year, and 
newer and newer becomes the dress of the old friend till its 
earliest attire is at length well nigh unrecognisable. 

But no rule is without its exceptions. There are certain 
branches of science, the original editions, or perhaps the only 
edition, of works on which are of permanent value, or the latest 
edition published years ago is still looked up to and consulted. 
Especially is this noticeable in those departments less abstruse. 

To take a few instances at random : works on the geology of 
particular areas such as the British Isles, because we know 
that what was written twenty or thirty years ago on that subject 
has proved true, though many additional facts have been brought 
to light. Or, again, works on human and comparative osteology, 
which is one of the most demonstrable branches of science ; also 
systematic treatises or those relating to the classification of 
plants or animals, for these old systems are nothing less than 
frameworks which have never been broken up or destroyed. 
Repairs, alterations and additions there may have been in the 
way of transferring one species to another order, or adding 
freshly-discovered species to different orders, or creating varieties 
out of a species whose characters are not very constant ; but as 
to the task of re-naming the whole vegetable and animal king- 
dom, why, nobody dreams of it : hence old works on such subjects 
have become standard. A few examples of such works are here 
quoted : 

Darwin's Origin of Species (1859). 

Descent of Man (1871). 

Owen (Richard) Odontographia, or Treatise on the Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Teeth (1845). 

On the Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Lyell (C.) Principles of Geology. 

j56 The Library. 

Lyell (C.) The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man 


Murchison's Siluria. 

Spencer (Herbert) Principles of Biology. 

Sowerby's English Botany or coloured figures of British 
Plants, ii vols (1864.) 

Burmeister's Manual of Entomology, translated by Shuckard 

Miller (Hugh) Old Red Sandstone. 

And, again, among standard works should be included 
numerous atlases of plates, large and small, folio et infra. The 
descriptions may be at fault, but the lithographed depictions 
rarely. The careful and painstaking execution of the latter 
compares favourably with modern work of the same kind. 

Lastly, the transactions of learned societies and sets of certain 
journals should be kept intact, not because everything they 
contain is of value, but because they form, as it were, a con- 
tinuous history of the gradual advance of knowledge. Among 
these may be mentioned the following : Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society; Journal of the Linnean Society; Transactions and 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, and Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History. 

But all said and done, the fact remains that if a book has 
to be written which shall cover the whole field of one par- 
ticular branch of knowledge (and that, surely, is the correct 
definition of a text-book), the value of the first edition can 
never be permanent, because in some quarter or another 
fresh truth brought to light often subverts a previous theory. 
The rapid strides made in these various branches are daily 
being chronicled, not only in scientific journals, but in lay 
newspapers as well, and the discoveries of investigators are duly 
announced week after week. The latest facts are constantly 
being made known in physiology, biology whether relating to 
plant or animal life, chemistry, pathology, bacteriology, astronomy, 
electricity and engineering. So here we are left face to face 
with the problem as to what we are to do with those text-books, 
worthless in the eyes of science, that crowd our book shelves. 
In dealing with a practical question it is hard to eliminate the 
play of imagination, and not to wish that there was some race 
of men in distant climes, some band of colonists of our own 
nation, who, ignorant and untaught, were willing to begin simply 
on the knowledge our fathers had, and to go through the mis- 
takes before they got to the truth. That indeed would be an 

Scientific Text-Books. 167 

easy solution of the question, so that to hand over our discarded 
books to them would be their profit and no loss to ourselves. 
But unfortunately our congeners in the colonies want to be on a 
level with us, and a good deal more too. It only needs a glance 
at some of their scientific and medical transactions and journals 
which find a place in our libraries, to see what quickened means 
of transit between and communication with the old country 
have done to advance the knowledge of our kinsmen at the 
Antipodes and elsewhere. 

Again we must face stern fact. There is no doubt that if a 
large majority of these books were to undergo a process of metem- 
psychosis by passing through the paper mill, and re-appear 
bearing on their pages the freshest discoveries, the scientific 
world would in general be no loser. But those who object to 
such wholesale extermination will doubtless concede that as soon 
as all the library shelves are full, the least valuable, or rather the 
most worthless, shall go the way I have just hinted, to make 
room for more useful successors. 

Another plan, already being adopted with some success in a 
few libraries, is to open a subscription at a bookseller's where 
there is a circulating library, for a limited number of volumes of 
the latest editions of text-books on loan, and to send for a supply 
of others in exchange as soon as they have been read through. 
This obviates the purchase of text-books which, for reasons 
stated earlier in this paper, must in a year or two become 
valueless. Such a plan solves the question to a certain extent, 
so far as the librarian is concerned, but it leaves the bookseller 
or proprietor of the subscription library in the very same plight 
as we ourselves would have been as regards the old editions, 
did we not adopt this method of ridding ourselves of it. But 
that is a question the bookseller can be safely left to settle, 
since he has the book-auctioneers and his own remainder sales 
to rely upon. 

Before closing this paper, to which I invite the discussion of 
those present, one cannot refrain from reflecting on the ennobling 
aspect of a scientific library. Though every shelf may contain 
books full of error and vain speculation, we cannot but acknow- 
ledge that the aim of the authors was a lofty one. For, after all, 
such a library is nothing less than the collection of the endeavours 
of hundreds or thousands of minds, the majority of bodies they 
tenanted now being dust and ashes, to give to the world what was 
earnestly and conscientiously believed, or hoped to be, the truth. 


The Place of the Public Library in Relation to Ele- 
mentary, Secondary, and Higher Education : 
being, mainly, an account of the work accom- 
plished at the Wolverhampton Public Library 
Technical College. 1 

TO those who attended the October meeting of this Associa- 
tion, the principal part of the title which I have chosen 
for the subject of this address, will be familiar. It is unnecessary 
to make any apology for again bringing up the subject of 
technical education and its relation to the work of a public 
library, for it is one of those subjects which should have a 
perennial interest for all who are interested in the development 
of education. 

In the following paper I purpose explaining, first of all, what 
I believe is the relation of libraries and education, and secondly, 
recording a portion of the interesting history of an institution 
in which the operations of the library and technical classes are 
carried on side by side, with the most successful and praise- 
worthy results. 

Carlyle, in one of his most charming addresses, has truly 
said, that " the true University of our days is a Collection of 

If he is right and I do not think public librarians at any rate 
will disagree with him it follows that a library, in which the 
noblest thoughts of all time are collected, and in which the latest 
and most valuable discoveries in science are brought together, 
is an institution of the highest educational importance to the 
community in which it is situated ; and as such it appears to 
me that local authorities should, by some means or other, be 
induced to supply the best kind of instruction. What is the 
best kind of instruction we, as librarians judging from the dis- 
cussion which followed the reading of Mr. Axon's paper are 
fairly well agreed. 

1 Read at a Monthly Meeting of the Library Association, December, 1893. 

The Public Library in Relation to Education. 169 

Carlyle has also remarked in an address which he delivered 
to the students of Edinburgh University that it is a most 
useful and excellent plan to have a library of good books in con- 
nection with every university. If this is so, and here again I 
believe we shall agree, is it not equally important that there 
should be in connection with every large library, classes which 
may help diligent students to reach the university ? 

I feel convinced that if Carlyle were living to-day, and were 
asked to express an opinion with regard to the relationship of 
libraries and the teaching of secondary or technical education, 
he would unhesitatingly agree that a library connected with a 
technical school, or a " People's University," as Mr. Axon wisely 
calls the combined institution, is a most desirable and excellent 

In his recent paper, Mr. Axon asks, " What is the place of a 
public library in a well-organised system of public instruction, 
stretching from the elementary school to the university ?" The 
question has been brought forward at an opportune time, but I 
am inclined to think, with our esteemed secretary, that Mr. 
Axon's treatment of the subject is a little disappointing I say 
this with the greatest respect and scarcely deals with the points 
which we hoped he would have solved. 

Towards the close of his interesting paper a considerable 
portion of which refers to the " University of Harvard College" 
Mr. Axon tells us that "the English town libraries touch 
education at every point, and have a relation, more or less close, 
to primary, secondary, and higher instruction." Here we find 
an indefinite acknowledgment that a relationship exists, but 
what the relation is we are not able to discover from the paper 
in question. However, we are all greatly indebted to Mr. Axon 
for suggesting a consideration of this most important subject ; 
and if the present paper adds any interest to the points raised in 
his address, its author will be satisfied. 

At the outset, then, let us repeat the question, " What is the 
place of the library in its relation to elementary and higher 
education ?" 

To my mind, and I speak from practical experience, a public 
library should be, and is in some cases, the bridge by means of 
which an intelligent youth may pass, if desirous, from the 
elementary school to the university ; or, if intended for com- 
mercial pursuits, such an institution should " bridge over," to use 
the words of a recent report of the National Association, " the 

i jo The Library. 

unoccupied space which now exists between the end of the 
primary instruction and the commencement of industrial life." 

In short, it is desirable that a public library should provide a 
course of instruction which will cover the period of life which lies 
between the elementary school and the university, or the com- 
mercial life. I do not intend these remarks to apply to London ; 
there seem to me to be ample facilities afforded for study in this 
great metropolis without burdening public libraries with the 
necessarily extra expense and work which science and technical 
classes involve ; but I think that in the suburbs some provision 
might be made for the combined working of the two branches of 
our educational system. 

The idea of including technical schools as part of the work of 
a public library is by no means new ; several libraries in the 
country have worked the two successfully for many years ; and it 
is gratifying to observe the tendency to make the connection 
more general. 

With your permission I desire to record a little of the interest- 
ing history of an institution which has successfully carried on 
the work of a library and the teaching of science for over twenty 
years ; from this it will appear that the theorem proposed at the 
commencement of my paper is based on actual facts. 

This institution, situated at Wolverhampton the metropolis 
of the Black Country, was established first as a public library in 
the year 1869; and for several years its work was limited to the 
issue of books, and the providing of periodical literature. 

In the year 1873, Mr. Elliot who has been chief librarian 
and secretary of the classes from the commencement, and with 
whom I was privileged to work for thirteen years saw the 
necessity for providing instruction which would be of service: 
(i) to those whose elementary education terminated at an early 
age and whose subsequent career rendered it almost impossible 
for self-improvement ; and (2) to those who were desirous of pre- 
paring for a more ambitious position in the educational or com- 
mercial world. 

To the Committee's credit, Mr. Elliot's proposals were 
adopted; and in September, 1873, classes for instruction in 
twenty-one subjects were extensively advertised. These sub- 
jects included arithmetic, book-keeping, chemistry, languages, 
physiology, &c. During the first session 200 students, mainly 
consisting of persons engaged in the trades of the district, pre- 
sented themselves for instruction. At first, three rooms, not used 

The Public Library in Relation to Education. 171 

for library purposes, were sufficient for the classes ; but in the 
year 1880, the number of students had grown considerably, and 
it became necessary to build two extra rooms. In the session 
which followed, 572 persons came from all parts of the town and 
district for instruction ; 267 of these entered for instruction in 
arithmetic, shorthand, languages, book-keeping, and other com- 
mercial subjects ; and 305 were admitted as students in the 
classes connected with the Science and Art Department. 

Three years later, ten years from the commencement of the 
classes, the number of students had increased to 671. This year 
extra subjects were taught, and the standard of success of the 
examinations was very high. In agriculture, magnetism and 
electricity, &c., for instance, the whole of the students were suc- 
cessful in satisfying the Government examiners. 

In the year 1884, a remarkable increase was shown in the 
number of students requiring instruction ; 945 persons were 
registered, an increase of 274 over the preceding year. Marked 
progress is also observed in the number and nature of subjects 
taught ; thirty-one classes were formed, fourteen being regu- 
lated in accordance with the instructions of the Science and Art 
Department ; fourteen were confined to the study of languages 
and commercial subjects ; and others were formed for instruction 
in the subjects of iron and steel manufacture, mechanical 
engineering, and electric lighting, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the City and Guilds of London Institute. 

At this period in the history of the Wolverhampton People's 
College for such it can truly be called the teaching of 
chemistry and metallurgy had attained to so great a degree of 
perfection, and the interest of the students in these subjects 
became so intense, that it became absolutely necessary for 
additional accommodation to be found for instruction in practical 
chemistry and metallurgy. By the kindness of the Chairman of 
the Committee, a large piece of land was obtained adjoining the 
library, and on this laboratories have been erected, the cost of 
which has been defrayed mainly by local gentlemen. The 
chemical laboratory has been used for several years, and has 
proved of immense advantage to those students who had pre- 
viously passed the examinations in theory. 

" The teaching and practical work in the chemical labora- 
tory," says the Librarian's report, " have succeeded beyond 
expectation ; some of the students obtained the highest distinc- 
tions at the May examinations, held under the regulations 
of the Science and Art Department." (Twenty-first Annual Report.) 

172 The Library. 

Last year thirty-five subjects were included in the pro- 
gramme of classes held at Wolverhampton ; twenty-one of these 
were on technical and science subjects, and were carried out in 
accordance with the rules and regulations of the Science and Art 
Department, and the City and Guilds of London Institute ; the 
remaining fourteen included many of the subjects necessary for 
a successful commercial life, and which are included in the 
syllabus of the Society of Arts. During the year 1,072 students 
joined the classes. The total number of students who have 
received instruction in science subjects only, amounts to 2,842 

This, then, is the history of Wolverhampton Public Library 
Technical College as briefly as I can give it. There still remains 
the question of cost of maintaining a school of this description ; 
before concluding this paper I hope to say something on this 
point ; but before entering upon its consideration, I desire to 
bring before your notice one or two examples of the students who 
have profited by attending these classes. 

A large proportion of those attending the technical classes at 
\Yolverhampton, belong to the industrial or working class popula- 
tion ; and it is a remarkable, yet gratifying fact, to find that 
whenever any special distinction is obtained by a student, that 
student is generally an artisan. 

I have in my mind at the present time three or four students 
who have distinguished themselves ; the first is by trade a fitter, 
who entered the mechanical classes either immediately before or 
immediately after leaving school ; he was a most diligent student, 
and much of his spare time when unoccupied with his trade or 
classes was spent in the reference department of the library, 
studying the most difficult problems of science. After several 
years in the library classes, this student was successful in secur- 
ing a Whitworth Exhibition Scholarship value ^50, for one 
year. The name of Sir Joseph Whitworth should be honoured 
by all who care for the development of technical education : he 
set apart the sum of ^"100,000 for encouraging the study of 
mechanical and engineering subjects. The interest of this sum 
is devoted to the maintainance of scholarships, which are open 
to all the subjects of the Queen. The student I refer to was 
successful in obtaining one of these scholarships for passing the 
following subjects : 

Metallurgy, honours ist class; machine construction and 
drawing, advanced ist class; magnetism and electricity, ad- 

The Public Library in Relation to Education. 173 

vanced ist class ; inorganic chemistry, advanced 2nd class ; 
sound, light, and heat, steam, practical plane and solid 
geometry, and theoretical mechanics, advanced 2nd class ; 
mathematics, stage ii., 2nd class ; practical metallurgy, elemen- 
tary, 2nd class ; and freehand drawing, 2nd class. 

This was in the year 1891. In 1892 he entered again, and 
was successful in gaining from the Science and Art Department 
a Royal Exhibition scholarship, value ^"50 a year, for three 
years, with free tuition, travelling expenses, &c., at the Royal 
College of Science, Dublin. It may be interesting to you to 
know that this young man was successful in obtaining certificates 
for the following subjects : 

Practical inorganic chemistry, honours ist class; practical 
metallurgy, honours 2nd class ; in the subjects practical plane 
and solid geometry, theoretical mechanics (solids and fluids), 
light and heat, he obtained advanced ist class ; in mathematics, 
stages iii. and iv., 2nd class ; in sound, physiography, and practical 
organic chemistry, advanced 2nd class, and elementary 2nd class 
in theoretical organic chemistry. 

Another case with which I am well acquainted is that of the 
son of a shopkeeper, who entered the mathematics and mechanics 
classes before his elementary education was finished. He plodded 
along diligently and was successful in gaining bronze medals 
from the Science and Art Department for a ist class honours 
pass in mathematics, stage iii. ; for a ist class honours pass in 
theoretical mechanics, and for a second class honours in mathe- 
matics, stages v. and vi. In addition he has obtained a scholar- 
ship, valued at ^"30 a year for three years, at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and since entering upon a university career he 
has increased his sizarship from ^"30 to ^"40 a year, and has 
gained an exhibition scholarship of 20. 

Is it not likely, gentlemen, that if no such classes had existed 
this promising youth would have remained in some inferior 
position ? As it is, however, he is exciting some interest among 
those who have watched him so far, and it is their belief and 
hope that he is laying the foundation of a most useful and 
prosperous career. 

Numerous examples of remarkable success at the Wolver- 
hampton Library classes could be cited, but I may weary you if 
I do more than state that many students are now holding im- 
portant positions which are clearly traceable to the training they 

!74 The Library. 

had received at these admirable classes. The present Borough 
Surveyor of Wolverhampton is a man who commenced life as a 
journeyman plumber ; he entered these classes, and by sheer 
perseverance has risen to the important office he now occupies. 

And now let us consider the all-important question of cost of 
maintaining a school of this description. 

I am aware, of course, that in a large number of our libraries 
it is impossible, with the limited amount received from the rate, 
to make any attempt to provide classes and books for furthering 
the cause of secondary or intermediate education ; but you will 
all, I think, be surprised to learn that for the first twelve years' 
work at Wolverhampton the average cost of efficiently main- 
taining the technical school did not exceed ^"23 per year. 

The Library Committee superintended the whole of the 
arrangements, and the library staff performed the duties of 
registering, &c. 

The rooms in which the classes were held were lent free of 
cost : the lighting, heating, cleaning ; and all accessories such 
as desks, pens and ink, chalk, blackboards, &c., were provided 
by the Committee. In the science classes, numerous appliances 
were necessary, but these were partly supplied by grants from 
the Science and Art Department, up to December, 1891. 

A nominal fee is paid by the student to the teacher for 
admission into the classes, ranging from is. to 55. a quarter, 
excepting the higher stages in the laboratory ; the teacher also 
until recently received the Government grant on results. Up to 
1892 the amount of grant paid to the science teachers at Wolver- 
hampton, made a total of ^"3,302 i8s. 

Since the passing of the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) 
Act in 1890, considerable changes have taken place. With a 
liberality, which is worthy of note, the Wolverhampton Council 
has made a handsome grant of money for the support and 
efficient maintenance of the classes : the result is that some of 
the teachers are receiving salaries equivalent to the amount 
which they will lose by the withdrawal of Government grant for 
second-class elementary passes ; and one teacher the professor 
of chemistry and metallurgy is devoting the whole of his time 
to teaching, and is paid a salary of ^"300 a year. The cost of 
maintenance in the future, therefore, will not be far short of 
"500 per annum. 

It seems to me that, taking Wolverhampton as an example, 
where rooms are available, the question of expense should not 

The Public Library in Relation to Education. 175 

be a barrier ; and I trust that some pressure will be brought to 
bear on County Councils, so that institutions of a character 
such as that described, may be established in all parts of the 

A leading member of this Association, in one of the excellent 
association handbooks recently published, has said: " The main 
object of public libraries is to promote education and literary and 
scientific inquiry, by placing within the reach of the community 
at large those books which, by reason of their scarcity or costli- 
ness, would not be otherwise available, and such other books as 
are useful for the purpose of general education and recreation." 

With Mr. Cowell we must all agree, but at the same time we 
must not overlook the fact that it is not by books alone that 
scientific and technical education will be promoted ; there must 
be a union of classes and books if education is to attain to the 
most desirable ends. Students require not only advice in the 
choice of books on special subjects, but direct training, and I 
must confess that it is not always in the power of a librarian 
even to give advice on abstruse scientific subjects without the 
assistance of a specialist ; therefore it seems to me that where 
the two institutions are combined, there is every prospect of 
mutual help : the Librarian and Committee on the one hand 
receiving from the teachers great assistance in the selection of 
books on scientific and technical subjects ; and the teachers and 
students on the other hand having the privilege of using those 

At Wolverhampton the students have exceptional oppor- 
tunities for obtaining the more expensive books on scientific 
subjects ; for by the liberality of a few wealthy inhabitants, 
something like ^"50 a year is collected for the purpose of reward- 
ing the most diligent students. The successful students are 
permitted to select their own prizes, and these for the most part 
consist of text -books, but they are not allowed to choose 
novels. The lists of books chosen by students give an excellent 
idea of the interest taken in their work ; and to those who 
possess the early reports of the Wolverhampton Public Library, 
a perusal of these lists should prove instructive. 

I should weary you if I attempted to give an idea of the 
admirable collection of works provided by the committee for 
students ; but I may add that in each class-room, lists of books 
on the subjects taught are placed in a prominent position, and 
have proved of very great service. 

176 The Library. 

In concluding, let me express the hope that this slight attempt 
to bring into notice the operations of a very successful public 
library and technical college may be received by you as a begin- 
ner's efforts should always be received, that is, with appreciation 
and encouragement ; and also, that the consideration of so 
important a subject should receive the attention it undoubtedly 



IRotes anfc 1Rew0. 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should b& 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragra-bhs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ALTRINCHAM. The new free library and technical school were 
opened at Altrincham early in May. The trustees handed over to the 
local board the literary institute, which, including building, library, and 
site, was valued at ^4,000. The hall has been enlarged to nearly twice 
its former size, and a free library and reading-room, with a technical 
school, have been built at a cost of between 5,000 and ,6,000. The 
architect was Mr. Popplewell, of Manchester. 

BLACKBURN. Mr. W. A. Abram, an ex-public librarian of Black- 
burn, died on Wednesday, May 2nd, in his sixtieth year. He was the 
immediate predecessor of the late Mr. D. Geddes, and on his resignation, 
in order to become a journalist, he was placed on the library committee. 

BRISTOL. " The Museum and Library Committee do not care to 
talk about what they are doing until they have presented an exhaustive 
report to the Council. In consequence, they do not get credit for the 
good they are really accomplishing. They have laid down a plan for the 
complete renovation of the building and its fittings, and are carrying it 
out section by section as fast as they can. Naturally, their attention has 
been paid first to the roofs, which have been thoroughly overhauled. A 
separate hot water apparatus for the upper museum has been introduced, 
and other improvements have been made. The lecture theatre has been 
thoroughly ventilated, and is now in the hands of the decorators. The 
further work in contemplation is the reconstruction of the sanitary 
arrangements, the complete renovation of both the museum and library, 
and the repainting of all the cases. A stock-book of the contents of the 
library has been prepared." 

I7 8 The Library. 

DOVER. On April 3rd, the Dover Town Council decided almost 

unanimously to postpone the question of adopting the Public Libraries 
Acts. The feeling seemed to be that there was no immediate hurry. A 
long letter on the subject of this proposal from Mr. J. H. Allchin, assistant 
librarian, Maidstone, and a report of the Town Council proceedings 
appeared in the Dover Express of April 6th. 

KIDDERMINSTER. The new Public Library was opened by the 
Countess of Dudley on April 25th in the presence of a large and 
distinguished company, including Lord Dudley, Mr. A. F. Godson, M.P., 
Mr. R. Biddulph Martin, M.P., Mr. Richard Eve, the Corporation of 
Kidderminster, and members of the Public Library Committee. This town 
was one of the first in the country to adopt the Public Libraries Acts, the 
poll being taken and a majority 0/199 was secured in Feb., 1855, five years 
after the Act was passed. For many years, however, only a Reading 
Room and a small Reference Library were maintained, the Lending 
Department being only opened in 1880. The room at the disposal of the 
Library Committee has been inadequate for some years, and it is mainly 
due to the energy and perseverance of the present Mayor (Mr. Tomkin- 
son) that a Reading Room, Lending and Reference Libraries of suitable 
dimensions, as well as a Museum, are now forthcoming. The new 
Library, has been erected by the side of the block of buildings now 
devoted to literature, science, and art. Mr. Archibald Sparke, formerly 
first assistant at Cardiff, has been appointed Librarian. 

LINCOLN. The Town Council has appointed the first Free Public 
Library Committee for Lincoln. It consists of members of the Town 
Council and several " outsiders." The building, which was until recently 
used for a Mechanics' Institution is now being adapted for free library pur- 
poses. It is to be regretted that the Mechanics' Institution was not 
merged into the Free Library. Mr. Potter Briscoe, public librarian, of 
Nottingham, has rendered assistance in the planning of the library, and 
in other ways. 

LEEDS. At the Leeds Police Court, on May 5th, J. Whiteley Brook, 
of Sun Dial House, Hunslet, an artist, was summoned at the instance of 
the Corporation, for wilfully damaging a book in the Reference Library 
at the Municipal Buildings. The Town Clerk said the defendant applied 
at the Library for Volume I. of The Sketch, which was issued to him. 
Whilst in possession of the book he extracted a plate containing a report 
of an interview with Mr. Phil May. The defendant had previously offered 
a shilling to Charles Thomas, an assistant at the Library, if he would 
extract the portion referred to. This, of course, Thomas declined to do, 
and when the book was returned by defendant, Thomas, being suspicious, 
examined it. Defendant afterwards told the sub-Librarian that he had 
been endeavouring to obtain that particular number of The Sketch for 
nearly twelve months. The Bench imposed a penalty of one shilling and 
costs and ordered the defendant to pay forty shillings for the damage, 
forty-five shillings in all. 

LIVERPOOL. Mr. Henry Tate has recently presented books to 
the value of ,5,500 to the University College. These consist of works of 
reference in each department of literature and science. 

Library Notes and News. 179 

LIVERPOOL. The proprietors of the Liverpool Library held their 
annual general meeting on May 17, at the library, Mr. R. Wilson Ker, 
president, in the chair. There was a very small attendance, those 
present including Colonel Goffey, Colonel Whitney, Councillor Burgess 
(vice-president), Dr. E. Brown, Messrs. R. Roberts, P. Macmuldrow, 
W. Goffey, T. C. Nicholas, W. A. Hill, B. Howorth, and John Hughes. 
The chairman moved the adoption of the report and statement of ac- 
counts, which have been published. Mr. B. Howorth (hon. treasurer), 
in seconding, remarked that, taking into consideration all the circum- 
stances, the proprietors of the library had every reason to be satisfied, 
for the expenditure had been very great. They were reaping corres- 
ponding advantages in the way of comfort and cleanliness. The chair- 
man said that three years of the new regime had terminated, so that 
the gentlemen elected on the committee three years ago now went out 
of office. During that period much good had been done. They were 
now unencumbered by debt, the electric light had been installed, a 
number of rare and valuable books had been rebound and put in cases 
for their preservation, and the whole place had been thoroughly re- 
paired and decorated. 

Brassey, who was accompanied by Lady Brassey and supported by the 
Hon. and Rev. A. G. Lawley, Mr. G. Howell, M.P., Mr. E. H. Pickers- 
gill, M.P., Mr. C. Harrison, L.C.C., Mr. F. A. Bevan, and others, pre- 
sided on the loth of May at the eighteenth annual meeting of the above 
institution, of which his lordship is one of the vice-presidents. The 
report stated that 45,693 readers had registered during the year, 30,390 
had attended the lectures and evening classes, whilst the total number 
benefited was not far short of 80,000. The Library is supported entirely 
by voluntary contributions, and it is hoped that funds will be forthcoming 
to enable the committee to erect a larger and more convenient build- 
ing. Special reference was made to the successful course of Gilchrist 
Science Lectures which were delivered for the first time in that part 
of the metropolis in connection with the Library, and were attended by 
27,000 persons. The financial statement showed an adverse balance of 
j5i 8s. yd. Lord Brassey, in the course of a short address, said he 
knew of no part of London where the need for an institution of that 
description was greater than there in the midst of that dense and strug- 
gling population. 


extract the following from a recent issue of the Pall Mall Gazette : "The 
mere newspaper-man at a dinner party recently was drawn into a dis- 
cussion about the winds. Some one asserted that the wind no longer 
bloweth where it. listeth, but in the direction of the steepest barometric 
gradients, or some such nonsense, and this was flatly contradicted. Said 
the scientific talker : "You can see all about it in Ferrel's book. It is 
the book on the subject in English;" and the newspaper person being 
happily caught by a shower in the Brompton Road next day, determined 
to drop into the palatial Science Library of the Museum and read this 
Ferrel, and see what changes had recently been made in the order of 

Entering, he accosted one of the dozen or so attendants who were 
watching a little man sleeping over an atlas, and asked for " Ferrel's 

Assistant had never heard of such a book. 

" Not heard of ' Ferrel's Winds' !" said the newspaper man, repeating 

jgo The Library. 

what the scientific person had said to him. " My dear sir, it is the book 
on the subject." 

" Is the book in the catalogue ?" said the assistant. 

The newspaper man had some little difficulty with the catalogue. 

"Let's see it's about meteorology," said the assistant, coming to his 

rescue. " In this catalogue you find books on Meteorology under Physics. 
Is it a new book ? This catalogue was printed in '91. There's a catalogue 
of newer books over there." 

" I suppose," said the newspaper man, trying in his vulgar way to be 
sarcastic, " when your people had a catalogue like this printed and bound 
up they did not expect any more books would ever be published ? " 

Assistant did not know. "Oh ! in that supplementary catalogue, by- 
the-bye," said he, " we put books on Meteorology under Astronomy." 

But the South Kensington authorities, it would seem, had never heard 
of Ferrel. The assistant told some one else, who told an official sitting 
on a throne at the end of the room, and he conveyed a promise to the 
newspaper man that he would tell some one else, and very probably, if he 
would come again in a week or so, the book might be ready for him. The 
newspaper man then tried for another modern book on meteorology he 
had heard of by Dickens or Dickson, and failing that, and finding the 
rain continued unabated, he settled down to the studious consideration of 
the South Kensington catalogue. 

It is one of the most astonishing catalogues in existence, and took, he 
hears, a numerous staff of librarians many years to bring to its present 
climax of badness. 

Clearly the librarian has chosen a form of classification for his books 
not only quite unsuited to his readers' needs, but loose and defective as a 
classification. An alphabetical catalogue of authors, capable of interpola- 
tions, after the British Museum model, and supplemented by biblio- 
graphies, would be far more convenient. 

As he was leaving the South Kensington Library the newspaper man's 
eye caught the racks of new books recently received. It would be inter- 
esting if any one could tell the public who buys the books for this 
establishment. While Ferrel his grievance still rankles is absent, 
cheap and childish books of the "Tales about Trains" type, with 
sensational pictures of accidents and rescues, and books about the 
Wonders of Nature and that kind of thing are sufficiently represented. 
Altogether, there is scope here for some authority to explain." 

MANCHESTER. The Gorton Free Library was opened early last 
month, in the presence of a large gathering of spectators. Dr. Ward, 
of Owens College, had been asked to undertake the duty, and in doing so 
he delivered an address which will well repay perusal and consideration. 
He was supported by local representatives and other members of the City 
Council, and brief speeches were delivered by them, in which testimony 
was severally borne as to the admirable manner in which the architects 
have done their work. The site, as will readily be admitted by those who 
knew it before the erection of the library was commenced, was an 
awkward one ; but the difficulties have been admirably overcome, and 
the inhabitants of Gorton may be congratulated upon the possession of a 
building at once commodious, admirably adapted for the purpose to 
which it is devoted, and internally very attractive to the eye. 

NEWOASTLE-ON-TYNK-At a meeting of the Books and House 
Committee of the Newcastle Corporation, held recently, it was unani- 
mously resolved to recommend to the Library Committee the appoint- 

Catalogue Criticism. i8r 

ment of Mr. Basil Anderton to the post of librarian in the Free Library^ 
in succession to the late Mr. W. J. Haggerston. As sub-librarian Mr. 
Anderton conducted the affairs of the library during Mr. Haggerston's 
illness, and we understand that there is every likelihood of him being 
unanimously chosen to fill Mr. Haggerston's place without application on 
the part of the committee for other candidates. 

OVINGHAM. Mrs. E. Bigge, of Knebworth, Hertfordshire, opened 
a new reading and recreation room at Ovingham yesterday afternoon. 
The building has been erected according to plans prepared by Mr. W. 
Bedlington, Newcastle, and has cost about ^400, exclusive of the 
site, which has been generously granted, free of cost, by Mr. Bigge, 
who is the chief landowner in the village. After the opening of the 
building, the Rev. Canon Lloyd opened a sale of work in aid of the build- 
ing fund. 

OXFORD. Bodleian Library. The annual report of the Curators 
for 1893, just issued, shows that 57,206 items were added to the Library, 
of which total 19,897 were periodicals, 4,530 music, and 9,010 bound and 
unbound. The work of cataloguing is proceeding, and the subject- 
catalogue of printed books is more used by readers than ever before. 
The income was ,8,528, and the expenditure ,8,346 ; of which ^4,635 
were paid as salaries to 32 persons, excluding extra payments for special 
cataloguing assistance. No information is given in the report of the 
extent to which the public use the Library. 

RAWMARSH. The lending department of the Rawmarsh Free 
Library was opened on May 21, by the chairman of the Local Board, Mr. 
E. Bamforth. The catalogue of books comprises about 1,200 of various 
kinds of literature suited to the tastes and requirements of the district. 
Mr. F. Hall, C.C., also addressed the meeting. The books will be given 
out several nights a week. 

YORK. The late Mr. Edward Hailstone's collection of Yorkshire 
books fell into good hands when it was bequeathed by him to the Minster 
Library at York. Since finding a home, and doubtless a permanent 
home, there, the custodian, Canon Raine, has added over a thousand 
volumes to the collection. If, as was generally supposed, the former 
possessor had accumulated a unique assemblage of books relating to 
Yorkshire, the collection now must be without a parallel. Although 
some degree of dissatisfaction existed on account of the collection going 
to York, Mr. Hailstone had well considered the matter long before his 
decease, and had good reasons to know that, once in the custody of Canon 
Raine, the books would meet with loving care, for they had been his 
life-long friends. 

Catalogue Criticism. 

THE universal truth of ^Esop's fable about the old man and his donkey 
could not be better illustrated than by our experience in the matter of 
catalogue reviewing. For a long time we were entreated to deal with 
this important branch of practical library work, and it was often pointed 
out that good service could be done to public library bibliography if all 
new catalogues were subjected to a judicious and honest criticism. 
Accordingly great pains were taken to secure the best expert reviewing, 

!82 The Library. 

and we are confident it would be impossible to challenge any of the 
criticisms that have appeared in the pages of THE LIBRARY as either 
wanting in knowledge or fairness and what is the result ? When our 
reviewer speaks well of a piece of work we hear nothing about it, for the 
compiler justly thinks it nothing more than his due-; but should the 
unfortunate reviewer venture to point out blunders and careless work, 
indignant remonstrances pour in from the victim and his friends ; and we 
are sorry, and almost ashamed for the credit of the craft, to have to say 
that subscribers have stopped their subscriptions, and members of the 
Library Association have even resigned their membership on this ground 

We are tired of this, and, after this month, will criticise no more public 
library catalogues. Instead, we shall, month by month, publish a list of new 
catalogues, briefly describing them without criticism of any kind. From 
time to time our reviewer will furnish general articles criticising in the 
abstract anynew features in recent cataloguing, and calling attention to the 
graver faults. In this way we shall hope to effect some good without doing 
any harm or hurting any feelings ; for those compilers, who feel that they 
have been guilty of errors pointed out, will have the satisfaction of think- 
ing that no one but themselves is aware of how well the cap fits. 


Wigan. Free Public Library. Reference Department. Cata- 
logue of Books, by H. T. Folkard, Librarian. (Letter G 
only). Part 2, 1894. 

Mr. Folkard's elaborate work continues steadily on its way, attaining 
to the same level of merit as was reached by the previous parts of his 
catalogue. The alphabetical arrangement of the titles of tracts contained 
in collections such as the Geological Survey, the Harleian Miscellany -, 
Sowers' Tracts and others is most useful for students. There may be 
some question as to the advantage of devoting three pages in small type 
to Gibson's Preservative against Popery, because many of the tracts are 
obsolete and their subjects worn out. But the utility of the list of short 
papers in Gallon's Vacation Tourists is unquestionable. Still, we would 
rather have too many than too few of these explanatory notices, and we 
may express the hope that every librarian will be stimulated by Mr. 
Folkard's example and by Mr. Barrett's encouraging account of the great 
catalogue of the Peabody Institute, Baltimore (vol. vi., No. 63 of the 
LIBRARY) to be as copious and informing as possible. 

It is interesting to find that Wigan possesses Robert Southey's copy of 
Garibayfs Spanish History. " I am glad to possess a relic of Garibay," 
writes the English author ; " Garibay whom I love for his laborious life 
and for the excellent simplicity with which he requests Philip II. to 
employ a few of his very few leisure moments in reading these four 
volumes " (folio !) 

A glance at a few of the subjects entered in this part of the catalogue 
testifies to the care and liberality of the Wigan Committee in providing 
for the literary needs of the frequenters of the Library. Mr. Gladstone's 
works, speeches and memoirs occupy two quarto pages of the list ; 
Goethe an equal space ; Oliver Goldsmith a page and a half, and Robert 
Greene, the old dramatist, a full half page. The index to Greek writers 
in the library more than fills one page, and the miscellaneous collections 
of scientific papers are set forth in due proportion. So that here the 
most omnivorous reader can find pabulum to his heart's content. 

Library Catalogues. 183 

Ashton-under-Lyne Corporation. Catalogue of books in the 
Heginbottom Free Library. 8vo, pp. viii., 563. 1894. 

A dictionary catalogue. The extent of it is due to the large, clear 
type used in printing. The reference books are distinguished by printing 
the entries in italics. Printed across the page. 

Ayr. Carnegie Public Library. Catalogue of books in the 
Lending Library. Roy. 8vo, pp. vi., 178. 1893. 

A dictionary catalogue, with class lists of fiction, biography, travel, 
&c., leading off with title-entries. Printed in double columns. 

Cardiff Free Libraries. Catalogue of books in the Central 
Lending Library, Nov. 3oth, 1893. Sm. 410, pp. 370, advts. 
1893. Price 6d. 

A dictionary catalogue, printed in double columns, by Heywood, of 
Manchester. Contents of volumes of essays set out, and a good index 
to them at the end, occupying 22 pages of three columns each. The 
work is dedicated to the memory of the late chairman, Peter Price, J.P., 
"whose public spirit led to the foundation of this library in 1861." 

.Holborn [London] Public Library. Author catalogue of books 
added to the Lending Department, 1893. 8vo, pp. 32. 

London Library, St. James's Square, S.W. List of books added 
May to Dec., 1893. 8vo, pp. 44. [1894.] 

An author-list, with occasional references under series, c, and other 
new features, all distinct improvements on the previous catalogues. 
Printed across the page. 

Lewisham Public Libraries. Second supplementary catalogue 
of books added to the Perry Hill Branch Library. Roy. 
8vo, pp. 36. 1894. 

Printed in double columns. To meet the difficulty of readers not 
obtaining the popular books they want, the indicator number of each 
book as returned will be withdrawn to denote that the book has been 
received and will be ready for issue upon the principle of " first come, 
first served," al the opening of the library the following day. We note 
also that chessmen have been provided in one of the reading rooms, and 
these are accompanied by a handbook to the game. 

Nottingham Free Public Reference Library. Class list, No. 
19, archaeology and antiquities. Roy. 8vo, pp. 23. 1894. 
Price id. 

Twickenham Free Public Library. Catalogue. 8vo, pp. viii., 
269. Oldbury pr., 1894. Price 6d. 

Dictionary catalogue, printed across the page. 

j84 The Library, 

West Ham Public Libraries. Canning Town Branch. Cata- 
logue of the General Lending and Reference Departments. 
Sections 1-6, A to Nine, in parts. 8vo, Lond., 1894. 
A dictionary catalogue. Printed across the page. The cover of 

section 4 has the contents misprinted and the author-references to fiction 

and other matter left out, but the form in which we have received it is 

evidently but a temporary one. 

Royal Dublin Society. Catalogue of accessions, 1891-1893. 

6 pts., 8vo. 1891-3. 

Dictionary catalogue, with collations, imprints, &c. Printed across 
the page. 

Lake Forest University Library, Illinois. Finding List. Dec., 
1893. 8vo, pp. vii., 119. 1893. 

A classified list with a single location appended to item to enable the 
reader to find the book he wants, as this is an " open library.'' Blank 
leaves at the end for notes or for pasting in lists of later additions. 

TCccorfc of ^Btblioorapbp an& Xibrars literature. 

A brief Bibliographical Account of some of the chief works 
in the Reference Department of the Free Public Library, 
Reading, by Wm. H. Greenhough, Public Librarian. 8vo, 
pp. 28. 1894. 

This pamphlet contains Mr. Greenhough's descriptive account of books 
in the Free Reference Library at Reading, which were recently specially 
exhibited to the members of various local learned societies, and those 
who had the privilege of hearing Mr. Greenhough considered that his 
notes were worth circulating for the benefit of students in Reading 
generally, and accordingly requested his committee to print them. For 
our own part, we have read the descriptions with the greatest interest 
and pleasure, and we strongly recommend the preparation of similar 
guides to the contents of our free reference libraries everywhere, and 
more particularly do we recommend it to those who have occasional 
exhibitions of their treasures after the manner suggested by Mr. Lan- 
caster in his paper communicated to the Aberdeen meeting of the 
L.A.U.K. The Reading committee have been well-advised in printing 
this, and it must have a considerable effect upon the use made of their 
fine library. Committees might do more in this direction than at present, 
and print the addresses which are now so often given by librarians upon 
their books. There are also other librarians not blessed with a gift of 
public lecturing, who would be in their element when preparing some 
such chatty guide as this. We should like to see the example of St. 
Helens, Chelsea and Reading, in making special exhibitions of reference 
library books, more extensively followed. 

We have received from Mr. Albert Sutton, of Manchester, 
a " Catalogue of Angling and Fishing Literature," containing 
some three hundred entries of books bearing upon this sub- 
ject. It is an excellent and exactly compiled handbook to 
angling literature, beautifully printed on large paper, and is 
published to commemorate the Walton tercentenary. We corn- 
commend it to all lovers of the " gentle craft." 

i8 5 



SIR, An article appears in the "Library Journal: the official organ 
of the American Library Association " for April, 1894, entitled " How to 
Catalogue Books ; J. Taylor Kay in the Nineteenth Century" This has 
been appropriated from the Nineteenth Century without consent, the 
review in question having on its cover the words " All rights reserved." 
Why literary property or goods should be placed on a different footing to 
other property is surely a soluble moral as well as political problem. 
Singularly enough the following words are left out of the text in convey- 
ing the article, " Under the Copyright Act the proprietor of every pub- 
lished work is required to register his claim, for his own protection, in 
the books of the Stationers' Company before legal proceedings can be 
taken." This of course refers to this country only. 

J. TAYLOR KAY, Librarian. 
The Owens College, Manchester, 
May 10, 1894. 


SIR, At the invitation of Sir Edmund and Lady Verney some mem- 
bers of the Library Association, on Whit Monday, visited Claydon Park, 
the ancient Buckinghamshire seat of the family. They were very cordially 
received by their hosts at the railway station and escorted to the house. 
After a rest Sir Edmund took them for a drive of some twelve miles 
through the picturesque lanes and villages of this charming district. A visit 
to the Claydon Village Library was of special interest, as this is the first 
distinctly rural parish that has adopted the Act. The library of some five 
hundred volumes of good general literature is kept in a room in the 
village school ; Miss Verney acts as librarian, but the amount produced 
by the rate (nine pounds) is so small that donations would be highly 
appreciated. On the return of the party to Claydon House they were 
most kindly entertained to luncheon, and after a visit to the church in the 
park (which contains numerous monuments of the Verney and allied 
families as well as several brasses) they were driven to Hillesden, escorted 
by Lady and Miss Verney. Here is a fine I4th century church which 
was described by the vicar, an ardent local antiquary to whom the party 
were much indebted. It should be mentioned that there is a sunk sun- 
dial of unusual form in the south wall of this church, dated 1601. Again 
returning to Claydon House the party were conducted over the mansion 
by Sir Edmund and Lady Verney. The rooms are of noble proportions, 
and many have exceptionally fine ceilings and much carved work, while 
objects of interest abound. Notably a fine series of family portraits, and 
in the museum the dresses of some members who held official positions 
in the 17th century are of special interest, as such articles have been 
but very rarely preserved. Special mention must be made of the library, 
a noble apartment well-suited for its purpose, containing about five 
thousand volumes. The books are being carefully examined and 
catalogued, and possibly some works of exceptional interest may be 

2 86 The Library. 

found, but there is strong reason to fear that many "useless books" 
were parted with by a former owner of the house. Fortunately for 
posterity the Verney letters (some thirty thousand in number) remain, 
and perhaps the most enjoyable hour of the day was that spent in look- 
ing over numbers of the actual documents, aided by the constant lucid 
explanations of Lady Verney, who having edited a large number of these 
family memorials has made their contents her own peculiar study. The 
party were then invited to take tea, and at the conclusion of the meal it 
was proposed by G. Potter : 

" That the best thanks of the Library Association be given to Sir 
Edmund, Lady Verney, and family, for the very kind manner in which 
they entertained the few members of the association, who, notwithstand- 
ing the rainy morning and early hours of starting, fortunately for them- 
selves decided to go to Claydon." 

This was seconded by Mr. Ed. Maynard, of Twickenham, and 
carried by acclamation. 

Thus concluded perhaps the most enjoyable trip of the kind in 
which it has been the good fortune of the writer to take part. 



SIR, Not long since I became involved in a controversy respecting the 
ninth and last edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," which aroused 
considerable interest. I purpose now to answer numerous enquiries by 
giving a precis of the facts which are not generally known. 

During a discursive talk on books and book-buying, as the victim 
of an interviewer, I casually remarked that some of the articles in the 
ninth edition of the Britannica were revised after the first few volumes 
had been published. This information appeared to astonish my 
interviewer ; but I understood his interest and incredulity when 
he pathetically explained that he had recently purchased a second- 
hand copy of the " ninth " edition. He reported me as having 
said : " These little trade secrets one ought to know before going book- 
buying," an opinion he regarded as an axiom after due reflection. 

The accuracy of the statement that there were sets of the " ninth " 
edition of varying literary value in the market was, I know, doubted 
by my confreres of the Library Association, who assumed that in an 
unguarded moment I had possibly fallen into an error or trap set 
for the unwary. This view was indignantly confirmed by the publishers 
(Messrs. A. and C. Black) who, in a letter to the South London Mail Y 
declared that there were "no little trade secrets" in the matter; that 
the statement referred to was "entirely inconsistent with the facts of 
the case" ; that "to have done such a thing would be unjust," and 
they asked to be excused " their proper feeling of resentment that such a 
statement should have been made." 

The foregoing protest may stand for what it is worth. It will be seen 
that I had no alternative but to withdraw or substantiate the statement. 
In the interest, therefore, of practical bibliography, I submit both state- 
ment and denial to the test judgment of fact. 

I have on my table two sets of the "ninth" edition, which are sup- 
posed to be identical. I open vol. i. of each, and I find that the date, 
preface, and title agree. I turn to the different parts of the volume, and the 
pagination and matter appear to be exactly the same. Without special 
knowledge that would be the verdict. I have before me an advertise- 
ment dated 1887, announcing the re-issue of the ninth edition, which was 

Correspondence. 187 

prior to the completion of the first issue, and I believe both issues were 
completed concurrently in 1889. No mention is made of any corrections 
in the earlier volumes, and the natural inference was quite consistent 
with the publisher's assertion that no revision had been made. I now 
turn to specific articles in the two copies of vol. i., purporting to be the 

AGRICULTURE. Under this subject (p. 416) there is an excision of no 
less than forty-nine lines of the text. The section of the article deals 
with agricultural co-operation. In the first issue of vol. i. there is no 
alphabetical list of the contents to this article, but in the re-issue the 
omission is rectified by an index of over two hundred references. 
Unfortunately, however, to make room for the index, and at the same 
time to preserve the apparent identity of the volumes, it was necessary 
to omit some of the general text, of which the following is the con- 
cluding portion sacrificed : 

" From the foregoing review the moral to be drawn is two-fold : first, that all 
varieties of tenure, having apparently some natural affinity for the circumstances 
out of which they have arisen or by which they are surrounded, have presumably 
some special virtue which ought to secure them against unqualified condemnation 
a priori ', and secondly, that landed tenure should be left absolutely free to adapt 
itself naturally, by gradual modification, to changing circumstances, without arti- 
ficial coercion or restraint of any kind. Whatever be the conflicting pretensions- 
of seignorial and peasant proprietorship, or of large or small farming, it must 
always be, in an agricultural sense, equally impolitic to seek by legal enactment,, 
on the one hand, to bind or hold land together, or on the other to accelerate 
its subdivision. However patent the superiority of leases over tenancy at 
will, the statutory prohibition of these and the statutory', prescription of 
those would involve an interference with freedom of contract, equally un- 
warrantable in either case. Whatever be the virtue latent in industrial 
co-operation, all virtue goes out from it when, instead of being left to 
introduce itself spontaneously, it is forcibly obtruded or patronisingly led for- 
ward. The only assistance, apart from the organisation of some simple process 
for the verification of titles to land, which agriculture requires or can safely accept 
from law, is removal of the artificial obstructions which law has placed in its way 
of the legal sanction given to primogeniture and entails in England, of the 
legal compulsion imposed upon testatorship in France, of all those legal impedi- 
ments, in short, by which immovable is prevented from being utilised with the 
same facility as movable property. If in any conceivable circumstances it might 
be expedient legislatively to foster the growth or arrest the decay of a peasant 
proprietory, or to promote co-operative farming, the considerations warranting 
measures of the kind must be social or political rather than agricultural, and, as 
such, do not fall within the scope of this paper." 

AMERICA. An illustration of revision similar to the foregoing will be 
found under this subject. The article first appeared without an index of 
contents. The omission was supplied when the volume was re-issued,, 
certain portion:, of the text being deleted to give space for the new matter 

ANATOMY. The complex nature of this subject, combined with the 
length of the article, which runs to no pages, makes an index of the con- 
tents of paramount value to the student who consults it. This essential 
key is lacking in the first issue of vol. i. ; but it mysteriously appears in 
the re-issue of the unrevised " ninth " edition. The importance of the 
index may be gathered from the fact that there are over three hundred 
references. The last two pages of the article have been mercilessly 
mutilated, rather than revised, in order to meet the arbitrary exigencies of 
the stereo, plates. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. The treatment of this most interesting subject in vol. 
ii. affords a variation in the examples of excision and addition. In the 

!88 The Library. 

earlier issue of the volume there is a summary of contents, a list of 
artists, and one of sculpture and architecture ; but these all disappear in 
the subsequent issue of the same volume. Now the summary and lists 
were of undoubted importance ; but something of still greater value was 
omitted viz., a bibliography of the subject, which makes its appearance 
in the re-issued volume at the expense of the lists referred to. The 
bibliography is singularly comprehensive, and is of the utmost value. The 
publishers evidently had a keen sense of this, or they would not have 
inserted it by sacrificing other valuable matter which, it is to be hoped, 
will re-appear in a future edition. 

The above references and quotations prove that there have been 
important revisions in the " ninth " edition ; and the information which 
enables a book-buyer to discriminate as to the value of different sets, which 
appear to be identical, is a " secret " worth knowing. The examples I 
have furnished of variations in the text, and the addition of indexes to 
important subjects, very considerably increase the literary and monetary 
value of the volumes in which they appear, and the work as a whole. 
This is particularly the case when the volumes are likely to be in frequent 
requisition, as in a public library. 

I do not agree with Messrs. Black as to the injustice of making addi- 
tions and corrections in the ninth edition ; the injustice, if any, was in 
making them without a notification in the re-issue, and then in impugning 
the veracity of my statement by denying that the revisions had been 



SIR, The article by Miss Richardson in last month's issue of THE 
LIBRARY is worth some discussion, and I propose to touch on a point 
which threatens before long to add another problem to those already 
existing in an unsolved condition. I refer to the whole question of 
employment in public libraries. The difficulties in the way of educated 
men and women obtaining good positions in public libraries are likely to 
increase as time advances, largely for the reason that the present rate 
limitation makes it absolutely impossible to pay large salaries to anyone, 
much less those demanded by persons possessing the qualifications which 
both Miss Richardson and Miss James have described. The apprentice- 
ship system is a necessity of the financial position in which nearly every 
public library finds itself, and before the aspirations of well-educated and 
mature, but otherwise utterly unpractical college graduates are satisfied, 
it becomes every librarian to see to the advancement of those of his own 
staff, male or female, who have gone through the mill of elementary 
librarianship. Colleges and high schools are pouring out young men and 
women by the score, all with an education sufficiently valuable to rank as 
a marketable commodity, and numbers of these are clamouring for 
immediate entrance into libraries at salaries commensurate to their attain- 
ments. However much my sympathy goes out to these seekers of genteel 
employment, my idea of justice moves me to demand that before any- 
thing is done for them, something should be done for the small army of 
Subhc library assistants who have borne the brunt of the toil of bringing 
ritish librarianship to its present high state of efficiency, and who have 
in many cases spent from ten to fifteen years in subordinate positions. I 
know of many cases in which, on the strength of a comparatively useless 
classical degree, combined with inside influence, university graduates 
have been placed in library positions for which their training was practi- 
cally useless, and who prove and publish their utter incapacity by travel- 

Obituary. 189 

ling from library to library in quest of knowledge which in most cases has 
been gathered by the librarians with great sacrifices continued through a 
long course of years. Why, in the name of common-sense, should the 
claims of the young college person be advanced with so much pertinacity, 
when everyone knows that the very best librarians are those who have 
grown up with libraries, and spent years in acquiring that special techni- 
cal knowledge, which, it is evidently assumed by some, any academic 
young man or women can absorb through the pores of the skin in half an 
hour's study ? For every profession in existence special training is 
demanded in addition to the general education imparted in schools and 
colleges, and on these grounds I maintain that no person, male or female, 
has a right to aspire to chief library positions on the sole strength of a 
college degree. British librarians are working up the material they 
already have in their existing staffs, and it is unquestionable that library 
assistants are improving every year in all-round ability, being in their own 
sphere equal to any body of assistants in any other profession. I must 
therefore, deprecate the wholesale manufacture of library assistants, 
chosen solely from college-bred young men and women, till the aspirations 
of those who have already made librarianship a " life work " are better 
rewarded, and the efforts of assistants to improve themselves are 
encouraged and fostered in every possible way. I write in no narrow 
spirit of trade unionism, but solely with the view of controverting the 
extraordinary idea which is obtaining so much hold, that a university 
education necessarily fits any man or women for any position in life with- 
out further preparation. I shall be glad if a discussion can be raised in 
THE LIBRARY on this very important matter. 



WE regret to have to record the death of Mr. W. J. Haggerston 
librarian of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Public Library, which occurred on 
Sunday, May 6th. He had been ill for the last two years, and the library 
committee had on several occasions given him prolonged leave of absence, 
but no permanent good ensued. He was born in 1848 at Brecon. In 
1861 his parents removed to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and in 1867 young 
Haggerston was appointed junior assistant in the library of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society. Five years afterwards he obtained the posi- 
tion of librarian of the new public library at South Shields, which was 
opened in 1873 ; and in 1879 he was appointed first librarian of the New- 
castle Public Library. This library was opened in 1880 with 20,000 
volumes, a number which has increased in fourteen years to nearly 
80,000, a result greatly due to the marked ability with which he advised 
the purchases of the books committee. 

Mr. Haggerston was present at the Library Conference held in 
London in 1877, and was for many years a member of the Council of 
the L.A.U.K., but he had not attended an annual meeting since that 
of Dublin in 1884. 


THOMAS HURST was born on the 8th of January, 1834, in Sheffield. 
His father was a joiners' tool manufacturer. His mother was the head 
teacher in the girls' department of the Lancasterian Schools in Sheffield 
for a period of forty years. Until the age of 21 Thomas Hurst was a 
teacher in this school, where he had, for some time, the sole charge of 
400 boys. His father had the intention of sending him to a University, 

i go The Library. 

but this was abandoned, and, immediately on attaining his majority, he 
took a situation as a rate collector. After rilling this situation for a year, 
he saw an advertisement for a sub-librarian at the Sheffield Public 
Library, and, disliking the work in which he was engaged, he applied 
for the post and was appointed out of 150 candidates. The duties of 
this office were so congenial to him that he threw himself, heart and soul, 
into the work, and during the illness of the chief librarian (Mr. Parsonson), 
which lasted for a period of two years, the work was so satisfactorily per- 
formed by him, that upon the death of Mr. Parsonson in 1873, he wa s 
appointed to the post of chief librarian, which position he held until his 
death. He was thus the oldest servant of the Sheffield Corporation, 
having held office for 38 years as a librarian, and for 21 years of that 
time he had been chief librarian. 

By the death of Mr. Hurst, Sheffield not only loses its oldest civic 
servant, but one of the best and most conscientious men whom it was ever 
my privilege to know. His cheerful and happy disposition made him uni- 
versally popular. His zeal and activity in the service of the Corporation 
were most remarkable. His industry knew no bounds. More ungrudging 
and faithful services were never rendered to any Corporation than were 
rendered by him to Sheffield. He was a man utterly devoid of pretence 
or affectation, but with a thorough knowledge of his duties and with a 
firm determination always conscientiously to carry them out. He had, 
naturally, a wide circle of friends, and was esteemed by all who knew 
him. He was a member of the Abbeydale Congregational Church, and 
was chosen one of its first deacons. The minister of this church, in an. 
obituary notice of Mr. Hurst, says : " He served the church as financial 
secretary, and this work could not have fallen into more exact or con- 
scientious hands. Always to be found at the post of duty ; his work 
stood the test of the keenest criticism. Without much external demon- 
stration, he had a secret joy in his work, and, in point of punctuality and 
methodical service, we can hardly expect to find one to fill his place with 
equal ability." 

Mr. Hurst was married, and leaves a widow, two sons, and four 
daughters to mourn his loss. 

W. H. B. 


SEASON 1893-94. 

Hanover Square, on Monday, May ;th, at 8 p.m., Mr. Henry R. Tedder 
in the chair. There was a large attendance of members. The meeting 
had been convened to consider a letter which had been received from 
the Joint Committee of the National Sunday League and the Sunday 
Society asking the Association to join with them in requesting the 
Government to open the national libraries and museums on Sundays. 

Mr. Herbert Jones moved and Mr. Humphery seconded the following 
resolution : 

That no action be taken in connection with the letter received from the 

National Sunday League and the Sunday Society. 

After some discussion the following amendment was moved by Mr. 
MacAhster, and seconded by Mr. Crowther, of Derby : 

That in the opinion of this meeting the question of the 'opening of libraries 
and museums on Sundays does not fall within the objects of the Library 
Association, and it therefore respectfully declines to express an opinion 
upon the subject. 

pn the amendment being put it was carried nem. con., and on the 
motion of Mr. Foskett it was resolved that the resolution be communi- 
cated to the societies interested. 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 1 

title which I have selected for my paper is comprehen- 
sive enough to embrace a treatment of each section of the 
Library of the Royal Colonial Institute in all its aspects, but to 
deal with all of them even in the briefest way would require a 
much longer time than is at my disposal, so I shall, therefore, 
confine myself chiefly to the main points with respect to past and 
present conditions. So rapid has been the growth of Colonial 
literature, more especially of recent years, that a separate paper 
might well be written upon each of the divisions of the library, 
treating in detail the works regarding each of the British Colonies. 
Coming however, to the subject before us, I will first refer to two 
instances prior to the establishment of the Royal Colonial 
Institute, of the existence of similar institutions. As long ago as 
1837 a society was formed with the title of the Colonial Society, 
for the purpose of affording a place of rendezvous to persons 
interested in the various dependencies of the Empire in every 
quarter of the globe, and by means of which information upon 
all Colonial subjects might be collected and circulated through 
the intercourse of many individuals having the same object in 
view. One of its chief purposes was stated to be the establish- 
ment in a convenient situation in the west end of the metropolis 
of an extensive library, consisting of all important works relating 
to the Colonies, together with a selection of the most approved 
maps, charts, and the latest surveys in addition to a regular 
supply of one or more newspapers from each Colony. The 
Society occup : ed rooms firstly in Parliament Street, and after- 
wards in St. James's Square, but owing to insufficient support 
from those for whose benefit it was established, ceased to exist 
about five years after its inauguration, the contents of its library 
being sold, and many of the books have since found a home in 
this library. The second attempt was more limited in scope, 
and bore the title of the General Association for the Australian 

1 Read at a Special Meeting of the Library Association, May 29, 1894. 

19 2 The Library. 

Colonies. This was started in 1855 for the purpose of furthering 
the welfare and prosperity of the Australian Colonies, and more 
especially of promoting the passing of the several Constitution 
Bills of those Colonies, and of entering into correspondence when 
necessary with the various departments of state of Her Majesty's 
Government. The founders of this association comprised amongst 
others, the following gentlemen, who subsequently took an active 
part in the establishment of the Royal Colonial Institute, and are 
at present amongst its most active fellows : The Right Hon. 
Hugh Childers, Mr. F. A. Du Croz, Sir Arthur Hodgson, Mr. 
Donald Larnach, Sir Charles Nicholson, and Sir James A. Youl, 
who acted throughout the society's existence as honorary secre- 
tary and treasurer, and is at present one of the warmest suppor- 
ters and a Vice-President of the Royal Colonial Institute. The 
association at one time numbered 231 members, but during 
1862, or only seven years after its establishment, it came to 
an untimely end, as its funds were not sufficient to carry out 
the varied and important objects which it was thought ex- 
pedient to take in hand. The minute book and proceedings of 
the association, containing many important and valuable 
documents, were kindly presented to the library of the Royal 
Colonial Institute by Sir James Youl, and are interesting records 
of the work performed at that period in connection with the 
affairs of the Australian Colonies. Coming now to the more 
immediate subject of my paper, it is exactly twenty-six years ago 
that a few gentlemen, prominent amongst them being Viscount 
Bury now Earl of Albemarle, Mr. A. R. Roche, Sir James A. Youl, 
and other representatives of colonial interests met together with 
the object of forming a society, which should assume in relation 
to the Colonies a position similar to that filled by the Royal 
Society as regards science, and the Royal Geographical Society 
as regards geography, the result being the foundation of the present 
institution under the title which was adopted by its predecessor 
of 1837 of the Colonial Society, the prefix Royal being graciously 
sanctioned by Her Majesty the Queen, twelve months later. 
Inconvenience, however, arising from the similarity of the initial 
letters to those of the Royal College of Surgeons, the title was in 
1870 changed to that of the Royal Colonial Institute. One of the 
chief objects of the Institute was the establishment of a reading 
room and library in which recent and authentic intelligence upon 
Colonial and Indian subjects might be constantly available, and 
my object to-night is to attempt to explain how well that part of 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 193 

the programme has been carried out by the Council on behalf of 
the Fellows, who have ever had in view the importance of pro- 
curing as complete a collection as possible of the literature of the 
Colonies and India, in order that reliable information might be 
supplied to those in search of knowledge regarding all parts of 
the British Empire. One of the first acts of the Council in the 
early days was the appointment of a deputation to wait upon the 
Secretaries of State for the Colonies and India, which offices were 
then held respectively by the Duke of Buckingham and Sir 
Stafford Northcote, afterwards Lord Iddesleigh, for the purpose 
of obtaining their official sanction and support, which was readily 
granted, in addition to which both those distinguished statesmen 
undertook to address the governors of the various Colonies and 
India in favour of the Institute, the result being that many 
works illustrative of the resources and progress of all parts of 
the Empire were received and formed the nucleus of the library 
in which we are assembled this evening. As another instance 
of the interest taken in the library during its childhood by the 
leading statesmen of that day, it is only necessary to mention 
the constitution of the first library committee, which consisted of 
the Right Hon. Stephen Cave, Mr. Arthur Mills, M.P., Sir 
William Denison, formerly Governor of Tasmania, and the 
Right Hon. Hugh C. E. Childers, who is now the sole surviving 
representative. These gentlemen, with the assistance of the 
Rev. Dr. Currey as honorary librarian, an office which was 
afterwards held by Mr. J. V. H. Irwin, were instrumental in 
enlisting the sympathy and co-operation of several prominent 
Colonists as well as publishers and authors, and so adding to the 
library many works of a distinctly Colonial character, besides 
drawing up lists of books suitable for purchase. Although the 
acquisition of a representative library was one of the chief aims 
of the founders of the Institute, it was quite impossible for a few 
years to devote any special grant for the purchase of books, 
owing to difficulties which had to be faced and overcome, both 
as regards insufficient space and a still greater obstacle, want of 
funds. The Council were, therefore, almost entirely dependent 
upon the generosity of donors for any substantial increase in the 
library. Hence it is not surprising to find that during the first 
five years of its existence the progress of the library was far 
from rapid, and that at the termination of that period, viz., 1873, 
the year following the commencement of my own connection 
with the Institute, the collection of books numbered slightly 

ig^ The Library. 

more than three hundred many being of a very general char- 
acter, and having no bearing whatever upon the Colonial Em- 
pire. These, it is needless to say, have since made way for 
others more suitable for so distinct a library. During that year, 
however, a small grant was set aside for the purchase of a few 
works, such as were absolutely necessary for purposes of refer- 
ence as well as historically valuable, and never losing sight of 
the great importance of the question the Council have, by judi- 
cious and well-directed action, continued, and as circumstances 
permitted, increased the grant, by which means the chief works 
of note have been secured and the importance of the library has 
become firmly established and recognised. I have already stated 
that in 1873 the library contained about three hundred volumes, 
and in order to demonstrate its rapid growth from that time, it 
will be necessary to quote a few statistics which shall be of the 
briefest possible description. In 1881, or thirteen years after 
the foundation of the Institute, the first catalogue was printed, 
the library then containing 2,500 volumes. In 1886 a second 
catalogue upon a far more comprehensive scale was issued, the 
cost of publication having most liberally been defrayed by Mr. 
C. Washington Eves, and contained 7,291 entries, besides a 
catalogue of authors; whilst at the present time a new catalogue, 
to which I shall refer later on, is in course of preparation, 
which will contain the titles of over 20,000 volumes and 
pamphlets embracing every branch of Colonial literature. It 
will thus be seen that between the years 1881 and 1886 the rate 
of increase was about 1,000 volumes annually; whilst from 
1886 to 1894 it: has been more than double that number. 

In the account of the progress of the library so far, I have 
chiefly referred to the acquisition of books by purchase, but the 
very substantial increase of recent years, is to a considerable 
extent attributable to the important and valuable donations 
from the various Governments of the Colonies and India and the 
Secretaries of State for those Departments, Societies, Universi- 
ties, Chambers of Commerce, &c., in all parts of the Empire, as 
well as publishers, authors and Fellows of the Institute, re- 
siding both in Great Britain and the Colonies, who have all been 
actuated by one motive the prosperity of the library of the 
Royal Colonial Institute. The Institute was first located in 
very modest quarters in Westminster, afterwards removing to 
two rooms in Suffolk-street, Pall Mall, which soon became too 
limited in extent, necessitating a further removal to rooms at 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 195 

No. 15, Strand, where under the able guidance of the late Dr. 
Eddy, and afterwards of Sir Frederick Young, as honorary 
secretary, its success became assured, and the solid foundations 
of the present building were laid, which now affords a conve- 
nient place of meeting for Colonists, as well as the chief centre 
in London for purposes of reference upon all Colonial subjects ; 
where the student, the historian, the statesman, the merchant, 
and the ordinary enquirer may obtain full and reliable in- 
formation regarding all parts of the British Empire. This 
brief glance at the early history of the library shows that the 
Council and Fellows have to a great extent created and steadily 
supported one and, in my humble opinion, the chief department 
of the Institute, and to those who have rendered the library 
what it is, the Institute owes a debt of ceaseless gratitude. 
It is almost impossible to realise or estimate the immense 
amount of good which its treasures have exercised in every 
direction. The circulation of information through its books has 
undoubtedly contributed to raise the tone of thought and 
feeling, and to educate the British public throughout the 
whole of the United Kingdom, as well as to create a desire for 
acquiring a knowledge of the extent and resources of the Empire 
among no inconsiderable portion of the community. As regards 
the books comprising the various sections of the library, to 
attempt a description, or even to enumerate all those that I, in my 
enthusiasm, might consider especially important, would be too 
great an undertaking, so I will content myself by briefly referring 
to the general plan of arrangement, and pointing out a few 
books that I have selected as deserving of special attention, and 
which you will have an opportunity of inspecting at the termina- 
tion of my paper. The library is arranged in sections, each 
Colony occupying a distinct position in the several presses, every 
part of the British Empire being represented, from the great 
Dominion of Canada to the smallest island dependency ruled by 
the British Government. Among the collections of voyages are 
those of Hakluyt (black letter edition), Purchas, Churchill, 
Harris, De Brosses, Callander, Dalrymple, Burney, Pinkerton, 
Astley, Kerr, and others, as well as a complete set of the publi- 
cations of the Hakluyt Society (presented to the Institute by Mr. 
Washington Eves), which contain rare and, in many instances, 
unpublished narratives of travellers and navigators which ex- 
hibit the growth of intercourse among mankind, with its effects 
on civilization, and recount the toils and adventures of those 

j 9 6 The Library. 

who first explored unknown and distant regions. In close 
proximity to the collections are the works of celebrated 
voyagers and navigators extending over a period of 350 years, 
and including those of Tasman (Dutch edition), of which a very 
complete translation appears in the third volume of Burney's 
Voyages, Dampier, Funnell, Cook, the volumes bearing upon that 
celebrated navigator's voyages numbering twenty-four, Anson, 
Sparrman, Vancouver, and Flinders, as well as the French 
voyages of Bougainville, De Gennes, Chabert, Dumont d'Ur- 
ville, Sonnerat, Marion, La Perouse Baudin, who commanded 
the celebrated voyage of Peron and Freycinet, down to those of 
Lady Brassey and the Duchess of Buckingham and Chandos, 
which were performed in far more luxurious style. In con- 
nection with the voyage of Flinders, I would draw your parti- 
cular attention to what, in my opinion is the most valuable and, 
at the same time, unique treasure in the library. I refer to the 
collection of original pencil and water colour drawings by 
William Westall, A.R.A., who proceeded as landscape painter 
with that celebrated expedition of discovery and survey on the 
coasts of Australia during the years 1801 and 1802. 

The sketches comprise views of King George's Sound, Port 
Lincoln, the head of Spencer's Gulf, Kangaroo Island, Port 
Phillip, Port Jackson, the Hawkesbury River, Keppel Bay, Port 
Bowen, Shoal Water Sound, Thirsty Sound, and the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria ; besides sketches illustrative of the natives, the flora, 
and fauna. The collection is one of the greatest historic interest, 
forming the entire existing series of the sketches made by the 
artist during the expedition, and having been drawn from nature 
on the spot. There are two remarkable illustrations of pictorial 
representations by the aborigines themselves one in the interior 
of a cave in Cavern Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, with drawings 
of turtles, sword-fish, &c., and another of grotesque human 
figures and a kangaroo in a cave near Memory Cove, at the 
entrance of Spencer's Gulf. Before Mr. Westall accepted the 
appointment of landscape painter to the expedition, he stipulated 
that his original drawings should be returned to him after the 
requirements of the Admiralty had been fulfilled. The authorities 
returned them accordingly, and they have been in the possession 
of the family up to the time of their acquirement by the Institute, 
in November, 1889. Some of the drawings show signs of their 
partial submersion in the " Porpoise " (in which vessel the expedi- 
tion embarked for England), when she was lost on Wreck Reef, 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 197 

situate to the westward of the southernmost point of the Great 
Barrier Reef. A few show indications of damage by small in- 
dentations. These marks were caused by the lively young mid- 
shipmen (one of whom afterwards became famous as Sir John 
Franklin), who amused themselves by driving the sheep that 
were saved from the wreck over the drawings, when they were 
spread out to dry on the coral sands of Wreck Reef. 

The collection is also interesting to South Africans, as it in- 
cludes several pencil drawings of Table Mountain and its vicinity, 
the " Investigator" having touched at Table Bay and Simon's 
Bay on her voyage to Australia. 

There is also a set of water colour drawings of headlands and 
coast scenery, which were prepared (after the artist's arrival 
in England), for the purpose of being engraved in the published 
volume of charts of the expedition which accompanies Flinder's 
narrative. In connection with these engravings, it may be men- 
tioned that after the celebrated voyage of the " Adventure " and 
" Beagle" (1826-1836), Captain King expressed to the artist his 
personal obligations for the artistic accuracy of his work. It 
appears that on the first approach to Australia of those vessels, 
during a heavy gale, there was some doubt as to whether they 
could venture to make King George's Sound, but, as they neared 
the coast, the entrance was so readily recognised by aid of the 
illustrations that both ships were enabled to sail in without 
hesitation, instead of beating about at sea. 

The collection comprises 144 sketches, and at the time of its 
acquirement by the Council of the Institute, excited a consider- 
able amount of interest, delegates being appointed in several in- 
stances by the Colonial Governments to inspect and report upon 
the collection, which has been described as the most beautiful 
and truthful which has ever been executed of the scenery of 
Australia. The announcement that these drawings had been 
acquired by the Institute caused Mr. William Essington King, 
a grandson of Governor Philip King, to present a water colour 
drawing of Government House, Sydney, painted by William 
Westall in 1802, which has been added to the collection. I 
have devoted considerable space to the collections, as well as 
the individual voyages, on account of their importance as affect- 
ing the whole of the Colonial Empire, and will now briefly 
refer to the other sections of the library. There are many 
works of an important character bearing upon the survey of 
the coasts of Australia, including Grant's narrative of the 

I9 8 The Library. 

voyage of the " Lady Nelson," Captain Philip King's survey in 
1818, the expeditions to Botany Bay of Tench and Governor 
Phillip, John White's voyage to New South Wales, Hunter's 
Historical Journal of the transactions at Port Jackson in 1793, 
and Collin's account of the English colony in New South W 7 ales. 
These works lead us to the period of the exploration of the in- 
terior of Australia, in which section are the travels inland and 
across the continent of Allan Cunningham, Oxley, Sturt, 
Mitchell, Grey, Eyre, Stokes, Leichhardt, Burke and Wills, 
Jardine, McKinlay, McDouall Stuart, who fixed the centre of 
Australia and crossed the country from sea to sea, during 1858-62, 
and more recently of Giles, Warburton, Gregory and Tietkens, all 
of them household words in connection with Australian explora- 
tion. As regards general works upon the Australian Colonies, 
the collection is very complete, and comprises several rare works, 
in many instances unobtainable by the collector of the present 
day concerning the history, trade, resources and physical features 
of those Colonies. Amongst them are Wallis's Historical Account 
of New South Wales which is a curious work, containing twelve 
plates engraved on the common sheet copper employed in 
coppering the bottoms of ships, by Preston, a convict, and were 
the first specimens produced in the Australian Colonies. Lycett's 
Views of Australia and Tasmania, with descriptive letterpress, as 
well as a general account of the Australian Colonies, published 
in 1824 ; and the historical works of Went worth, O'Hara, 
Braim, Therry, Lang, Coote, Sutherland, Rusden, Stephens 
Harcus, Moore, Labilliere and others, as well as Barren Field's 
Geographical Memoirs, Barton's Literature and Prose Writers, and 
the complete and voluminous Picturesque Atlas of Australia, 
consisting of three volumes and containing a history of 
those Colonies from their discovery to the year 1889, together 
with over 800 illustrations. I cannot quit the Australian 
section without referring to the many works of that veteran 
author, Mr. James Bonwick, most of which are in the library, 
and who is credited with the first important attempt to found a 
literary reputation in Victoria. His first work on Australia was 
published in 1848, and at the present time he is actively engaged 
on behalf of the Government of New South Wales in assisting, 
and in fact, performing the chief work in connection with the 
publication of the historical records of that Colony, and of 
Australia generally. In the department of ethnology Australia 
is strongly represented, the library containing all the principal 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 199 

works regarding its aborigines. Works of Australian fiction 
have not been omitted, the collection including those of Mrs. 
Martin, Miss Atkinson, Hume Nisbet, the celebrated works of 
Marcus Clarke, and those of the now famous Mr. T. A. Browne, 
better known as Rolf Boldrewood. In close touch with Australia 
are the works relating to Tasmania, New Zealand, New Guinea 
and Fiji. The Tasmanian collection comprises all the principal 
histories, including Parker, Melville, West, and Fenton, the 
writings of James Bonwick, and the excellent account of the 
aborigines by Mr. Ling Roth, as well as numerous minor works 
regarding general subjects. Coming to New Zealand, although 
the actual settlement of the country is an event of comparatively 
recent date, the literature connected with it is remarkably ex- 
tensive and varied ; but the Institute is in possession of one of 
the best and most representative collections to be found in any 
library, and embracing in addition to Tasman's voyage, the works 
of Nicholas Busby, Earle, Yate, Polack, Hursthouse, Grey, 
Thomson, Fox, Maning, Chapman, Heaphy, Terry, Dieffen- 
bach, Hochstetter and Hector, the numerous writings of Mr. 
Colenso, Wakefield's Adventure in New Zealand, with the 
volume of illustrations, containing fifteen coloured plates, litho- 
graphed from original drawings, John White's Ancient History 
of the Maori, in six vols., the most complete work of its kind, 
and the scarce and valuable work of George French Angas 
entitled the New Zealanders, as well as the South Australians 
and Kafirs, by the same author, all of which contain 
numerous coloured plates with descriptive letterpress. In 
this section there are, also, two works of more than ordinary 
interest, viz., A Collection of Original Specimens of the Trees, 
Shrubs, and Flowering Plants of New Zealand ; which were 
collected in 1840, by Mr. H. S. Tiffen, surveyor in the service of 
the New Zealand Company, all of which were named by Sir 
William Hooker ; his original notes being placed alongside the 
specimens. This collection was specially made for the New 
Zealand Company and was presented to the library by our 
chairman, Sir Frederick Young, who was one of the original 
shareholders of the company. The other is a curious little work, 
entitled, The Cannibals, or a Sketch of New Zealand, published in 
1832 by the Massachusetts Sabbath School Union, in Boston, 
U.S.A., consisting of sixty-six pages ; but I have been unable 
to find any reference to it in any of the works relating to New 
Zealand, and have submitted it to several experts, who have 

200 The Library. 

neither seen nor heard of the work. Before leaving New 
Zealand I cannot but acknowledge the kindness of Mr. Charles 
Smith, of Wanganui, who on arrival in England last year, 
placed the catalogue of his own library at my disposal, in order 
that I might select from it any works which were not already in 
the Institute Library. By his kindness, many works which 
were published in the Colony were added to the library, and 
so vastly increased the importance of the New Zealand section. 
The New Guinea division contains 130 volumes and pamphlets, 
covering a period of one hundred years, and extending from the 
voyage of Sonnerat in 1776, to the travels of Bevan, Chalmers, 
D'Albertis, and the present energetic governor, Sir William 
MacGregor. Fiji is represented by sixty-six works, covering a 
period of eighty-one years, containing a general review of the 
past and present history of that thriving Colony. There is in 
addition a large number of works relating to the South Pacific, 
many of those scattered islands owing allegiance to the British 
Crown, and, therefore, being entitled to a place in the library. 
Leaving Australasia, the next section to claim attention is that 
relating to British North America ; embracing Newfoundland, 
and the various provinces of the vast Dominion of Canada, 
which includes, in addition to what are termed the older 
provinces, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward 
Island, Manitoba, the North West Territories, and British 
Columbia. The history of Newfoundland is of considerable 
interest, inasmuch as it is our oldest Colony and owing to 
certain political events, still continues to occupy an amount 
of attention not vouchsafed to many of the larger Colonies. 
Its very early history will be found in the various collections 
already referred to, whilst for more recent information we have 
the works of Chabert, Reeves, Anspach, Chappell, Bonnycastle, 
Pedley, Hatton and Harvey, &c. The Dominion of Canada is 
represented by a vast collection ; and although in no way com- 
plete, nevertheless contains all the chief works of interest 
regarding that portion of the empire including those of Rogers, 
Colden's History of the Five Indian Nations of North America ; the 
complete works of the eminent historian, Francis Parkman a 
series of historical narratives, in which the romantic story of the 
rise, the marvellous expansion, and the ill-fated ending of 
the French power in North America is for the first time 
adequately told, and forms one of the finest themes that 
ever engaged the pen of the historian ; the works of Heriot, 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 201 

Weld, Gray, and Bouchett's topographical and geographical 
account of Canada, which illustrated the ability and 
zeal of an eminent French-Canadian, one of many who has 
placed at the disposal of the student of the present day so much 
historical literature regarding the country. In this section are 
also the works of Catlin, Gait, Garneau, Smith, Lillie, Mrs. 
Moodie, Turcotte, Marshall, Gray, and Judge Haliburton, whose 
works have obtained a world-wide reputation and include The 
Clockmaker in which the eminent Judge created " Sam Slick," 
a type of a down east Yankee pedlar, " who sold his wares by a 
judicious use of that quality which is sure to be appreciated the 
world over, ' soft sawder and human natur.' " There is also a 
History of Nova Scotia, by the same author, which was, for a 
long time, considered the best work published on that particular 
Colony. The speeches of Joseph Howe also occupy a place in 
this section, and it is a curious coincidence that whilst a printer 
and publisher, Howe printed the first work of the humourist, 
Judge Haliburton. Among the more recent works are those of 
Leggo, Dubreuil, Ryerson, Dawson, Logan, Macoun, and Kings- 
ford, whose history of Canada is now appearing in periodical 
volumes and is a most complete record of the foundation and 
progress of the Dominion. There are numerous works upon 
the Western province of British Columbia embracing those of 
Pemberton, Hazlitt, Mayne, Sproat, Macfie, and others. The 
writings of Dr. Bourinot comprise a library in themselves 
regarding the Parliamentary institutions of Canada as well as the 
intellectual development of the Canadian people, whilst most of 
Mr. H. J. Morgan's works will be found here, both those gentle- 
men being strong supporters of the Institute and liberal donors to 
its library. There is one other work which should be mentioned 
in connection with Canada, viz., Todd's Parliamentary Govern- 
ment in British Colonies, which is of recent date, and has gained 
a world wide reputation as setting forth the operation of Parlia- 
mentary Government in furtherance of its application to Colonial 
institutions. Closely allied to Canada is the section devoted to 
works on the Arctic Regions, which from a very early period in 
the history of our navigation, have been an object of curiosity 
and research, including those of Ellis, Hearn, Ross, Mackenzie, 
Franklin, Parry, Rae, Richardson, McClintock, Nansen, Greely, 
&c. The little Island of Bermuda, lying off the American 
Coast, is represented by twenty-four works. Turning now to 
Africa, which section comprises the Cape Colony, Natal, 

202 The Library. 

Matabeleland and Mashonaland, West Africa, East Africa, and 
African Travel, there are few instances where there has been so 
rapid an increase in the literature of any country, but in spite of 
the continuous flow of works, almost every publication of any 
importance at all will be found in the library. Regarding the 
Cape Colony, the works of chief importance are those of Kolben, 
Sparrman, Paterson, LeVaillant, Van Renen, Thunberg, Baines, 
Percival, Lichtenstein, Latrobe, Burchell, Pringle, and Harris, 
whose well-known work upon the game and wild animals of South 
Africa was preceded by a similar one which is now very scarce, 
and little known, entitled African Scenery and Animals, consisting 
of a collection of coloured drawings by Samuel Daniell published 
in 1804-5, this being supplemented sixteen years later by a second 
work by the same author, entitled Sketches representing the 
Native Tribes, Animals, and Scenery of South Africa. Amongst 
the more recent works upon the Cape Colony are those of 
Mackenzie, John Noble, whose admirable handbooks convey so 
graphic a description of the Colony, and the valuable collec- 
tion of the writings of G. M. Theal, the historian of South 
Africa, which contain a complete history of Southern Africa from 
the period of the origin of European power to the present day. 
The work is based upon the records of the Cape Colony, which 
are carefully preserved at Cape Town, and furnish the most 
complete information that can be needed for the compilation of a 
history of the country, and contains copies of the various 
manuscripts and maps which have been preserved at The 
Hague. The records of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 
relative to the aboriginal tribes, by Donald Moodie, published 
in 1841, is another very rare work which belongs to this 
section. Natal is represented by a large collection of works 
bearing upon the history, rise and progress of the Colony, whilst 
the most recent addition to the Empire, viz., Matabeleland and 
Mashonaland occupies a separate section which contains the 
works of the various writers upon that portion of Africa, pro- 
minent amongst them being those of Theodore Bent and F. C. 
Selous, both of whom in their own special spheres have done so 
much in making known the varied features of the country. 
There is a large collection of works regarding the West Coast of 
Africa, which includes the Colonies of the Gambia, Sierra Leone, 
the Gold Coast, and Lagos, whilst Eastern Africa and Uganda, 
although a somewhat limited section nevertheless contains all the 
chief publications upon that portion of the Empire. African 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 203 

Travel occupies considerable space, and embraces all the works 
of the early explorers as well as those of more recent times, both 
British and foreign, who have done so much in opening up the 
interior and so creating fresh markets for the disposal of British 
manufactures. Lying off the Coast of Africa on the one side are 
Mauritius and the Seychelles, and on the other St. Helena, 
Ascension and Tristan d'Acunha. The collection of works upon 
Mauritius and the Seychelles includes amongst many others the 
Voyage of St. Pierre in 1800, Grant's History of Mauritius, Brad- 
shaw's Views of Mauritius with descriptive letterpress, and an 
account of Mauritius by Milbert, who originally left France with 
the expedition of M. Baudin, which he accompanied as landscape 
painter, but was left at Mauritius, owing to illness, when the 
expedition proceeded on its way to Australia, and devoted him- 
self to a study of the affairs of that island, producing this work in 
1812, together with a volume of plates. The best work upon the 
Seychelles is that of H. W. Estridge, the copy in the library 
containing several original water colour drawings. The St. 
Helena section consists of twenty-eight works, Ascension of eight, 
and Tristan d'Acunha, which as a rule is visited by a British 
war ship twice a year, of seven. Proceeding to the eastern 
possessions, there are many of the more important works 
on India, including Aden, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 
as well as separate sections for Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, 
with the outlying Cocos and Keeling Islands, Burma, Borneo 
and Hong- Kong. The Ceylon collection is a highly important 
and interesting one including the works of Knox, Ribeyro, 
Percival, Cordiner, Davy, Forbes and Emmerson Tennant, in 
addition to 160 other works bearing upon the history and progress 
of the island. The Straits Settlements are represented by 
eighty-six works, and Burma by fifty-eight covering a period 
of nearly a hundred years, from Syme's Embassy to Ava, pub- 
lished in 1800, to the present time. The works regarding Borneo 
and Labuan number over ninety including Beeckman's Voyage to 
and from the Island in 1718, Moor's notices of the Indian Archi- 
pelago (a collection of papers relating to Borneo), and all the 
chief publications of recent years. Upon Hong-Kong, the most 
eastern Colony, there are twenty-five works. Turning once more 
to the western hemisphere we come to the West Indies, in which 
section there are many rare and curious works regarding those 
islands, which have occupied so prominent a place in the history 
of colonisation and the Empire. Those worthy of your special 

204 The Library. 

attention are Ligon's History of Barbados, which was published 
in 1657 ; Hans Sloane's account of Jamaica, containing a large 
number of copperplates, illustrating the botany and natural 
history of the island; the two edkions of Blome's Description of 
Jamaica, published respectively in 1672 and 1678; Davies's History 
of the Carribbee Islands, in addition to which there are many inter- 
esting works regarding the whole of the West India Islands, and 
including the Bahamas, British Honduras and British Guiana, 
the latter Colony being represented by 160 volumes and pam- 
phlets, extending over a period of two hundred years, and in- 
cluding the writings of Bancroft, Schomburgk, Dalton, Boling- 
broke, Brett and latterly of Darnell Davis, who has made a 
complete study of the early records of the West Indies, and 
im Thurn, who is the greatest living authority upon the 
interior of the country. The little Colony of the Falkland 
Islands has not been neglected, several works regarding this 
out-of-the-way possession being in the library, together with all 
the most important publications relating to exploration in the 
Antarctic Regions, where discoveries have been made which 
have added to the examples previously set by British seamen of 
patient and intrepid perseverance amidst the most discouraging 
difficulties. The Mediterranean Colonies or Dependencies, con- 
sisting of Gibraltar, Malta and Cyprus occupy a separate section 
comprising seventy-seven works. For the botanical student 
there is a very comprehensive collection of the floras and 
botany of the various colonies, embracing the works of Aublet, 
Forster, Sweet, the floras of Ceylon, Barbados, Jamaica, 
Austral Africa, West Africa, the whole of Australasia, Hong- 
Kong, Canada, Mauritius, Bermuda, as well as Sir Joseph 
Hooker's Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of the " Erebus " and 
"Terror" in six volumes including New Zealand and Tasmania, 
the whole being illustrated with numerous coloured plates. 
There is also a collection of the poems of the principal Colonial 
writers beginning with Mr. James Montgomery's West Indies, 
a poem regarding the abolition of the slave trade, and those 
of Adam Lindsay Gordon, Kendall, Harpur, Domett, Brunton 
Stephens, Flanagan, &c., representing Australasia, Moodie and 
Pringle, the father of South African Verse, representing the 
Cape Colony, and Cameron, Duncan Scott, Sangster, Reade, 
and Roberts, the foremost name in Canadian song at the present 
day representing the Dominion of Canada. The remaining 
section of the library contains a collection of works upon the 

The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute. 205 

Colonies generally, their history, resources, Government and 
Trade, as well as Emigration and the important question of 
Imperial Federation, and embracing the works of all the chief 
writers upon Colonial questions during the past two centuries. 
The Parliamentary Library in another part of the building 
contains the proceedings of the legislatures of the various 
Colonies, together with the Blue Books, Parliamentary Debates, 
Statutes, and Government Gazettes, which are regularly 
supplied by the Colonial Governments and carefully preserved 
for purposes of references. Colonial Directories and 
Handbooks regarding all the Colonies and general works 
of reference published in this country, such as the Encyclo- 
pedia Bntannica which was presented by Mr. F. H. Dangar, 
a member of the Library Committee, form a special feature of 
the library, whilst a collection of over 300 colonial newspapers 
and magazines, generously presented in many instances by the 
proprietors, supplies a mass of information regarding current 
events throughout the whole of the British Empire, and at the 
same time constitutes a rich fund for the investigation of future 
historians. Back files of the newspapers are presented annually 
to the British Museum, where they are preserved and rendered 
available to Fellows of the Institute by the Museum authorities. 
Having taken a cursory glance at the contents of the library, I 
will very briefly refer to its catalogue, which is now in the 
printer's hands. The system I have selected is similar to that 
adopted by Mr. S. W. Silver, to whom I am greatly indebted 
for many hints, as well as to Mr. E. A. Petherick, the compiler 
of the York Gate Catalogue, which, in my opinion, is the most 
suitable and at the same time simple for so distinct a collection 
as that of the Royal Colonial Institute. Whilst it facilitates 
research, it shows at a glance all the works which the library 
contains upon any particular Colony, with the additional ad- 
vantage of a chronological arrangement. And not only will 
the catalogue contain the titles and authors of the various 
books and pamphlets, but it will also embrace the contents of 
the collections of voyages and travels, as well as the titles 
of all papers bearing upon the Colonies which have been 
read before societies scattered over all parts of the world, 
magazine articles, and special reports contained in parliamen- 
tary papers, all of which have been carefully extracted and 
placed under the subject, or Colonies, to which they imme- 
diately refer. With regard to the magazine articles, it is a 

2o6 The Library. 

well-known fact that the deepest thinkers and most able writers 
frequently seek a medium of communication with the public 
in the leading magazines, and in many instances an article 
will be read when a volume cannot be touched, a reason 
which induced me to include in the catalogue the titles of such 
articles as relate to the Colonies, all of which are carefully in- 
dexed, and so rendered easily accessible. It will thus be seen 
that the catalogue embraces the present contents of the library, 
arranged in such a manner as will show the full titles of books, 
pamphlets, &c., upon each Colony in the order in which they 
have been published, together with an index of authors and con- 
tents which makes it historical, as well as illustrative in its 
character. In conclusion I will only say that, with such a 
record as it has been my privilege to submit to you, the Royal 
Colonial Institute can look back with pride on its work in the 
past, and with hope for that of the future, especially as regards 
its library, which, I uphold, is the most comnlete and valuable 
of its kind in existence, as representing that which it has for 
so many years advocated, and is so forcibly expressed in the 
two words of its motto " United Empire." 


A Plea for a Closer Connection between Public 
Libraries and other Public Educational Institutions. 1 

T T is not my fault that I have to throw myself into the breach 
* this evening and help to fill up the programme with 
something of my own. When a Secretary reads a paper it is 
generally to be regarded as a dernier ressort, and I trust the 
fact that a non-public library man finds an opening to talk 
about public libraries will give such an impetus to the more 
lethargic members of the Association that you will have no 
need to listen to me again for a very long time. 

We have been hearing a good deal of late of the connection 
between libraries and education, but though much has been said, 
the real need, from my point of view, has not yet been touched 
upon. Most of those who have dealt, and dealt very ably, with 
the subject seem to think that the proper development of a 
library is to end in a sort of " omnium gatherum " of technical 
classes, lectures, and books ; and, no doubt, if our forefathers 
had been far-seeing enough to have established national educa- 
tion on a broad and comprehensive basis, we should have had such 
institutions instead of libraries, pure and simple. If Parliament 
itself had been sufficiently educated, and the people had been 
willing to find the money, no doubt it would have been a grand 
thing to have established in every community such compre- 
hensive institutions as that which has been established at 
Nottingham and developed out of the Library at Wolver- 
hampton, but we have travelled by a different road and we 
cannot go back. It seems to me peculiarly characteristic of 
the English that the forces of progress should be marching in 
isolated companies, bound for the same goal, but along different 
roads. And it is only when these diverging roads begin to 
converge and come within sight of the goal that these inde- 
pendent companies recognise each other, and perhaps before 
the end, join forces. In the recent talks on this subject, both 

1 Read at a Monthly Meeting of the Library Association, January 8th, 1894. 

2^8 The Library. 

at Oxford and elsewhere, we have had Carlyle regularly trotted 
out, and his somewhat hasty description of a library as a 
" People's University " much enlarged upon, but I cannot help 
thinking that we are guilty of something like humbug, when we 
tell the horny-handed that they are enjoying a university, when 
they have only a library; or when we tell them that the 
useful but somewhat dreary looking building in the east end is 
a "palace." The thoughtful working man who has been through 
Windsor Castle or Buckingham Palace, and who knows that 
one swallow does not make a summer, nor one princess* make 
a palace, gently veils one of his eyes when he is told that Mr. 
Besant's dream in the Mile End Road is a palace ; and an 
intelligent artisan who has enjoyed University Extension Lec- 
tures and been present at a Summer School in Oxford will not 
deny a mild scepticism when he hears of the "University" of 
Clerkenwell over which Principal James Duff Brown so ably 

I am a firm believer in the gospel of the cobbler sticking 
to his last, and I believe that a library which is a library 
pure and simple, is for its purpose a more efficient machine 
than a hybrid institution where, at one hour of the day, the 
principal is wrestling with the organisation of technical classes, 
and at another, trying to order aright his catalogue and other true 
library work. But no good University exists that has not a library, 
and so / should like to see the public libraries aim at becoming, not 
"people's universities" in themselves, but essential and invaluable parts of 
a university. A hundred years hence, when our descendants shall 
spend the sums they now lavish on battleships and Tommy 
Atkins, upon the intellectual development of the race, no doubt 
fully equipped people's universities will spring up all over the 
land, but although we may not hope to enter into such an inher- 
itance, we might at least do something to realise it in a 
tentative way, if we could draw together into a harmonious 
working scheme the various educational agencies of the day. 

At Nottingham it has so fallen out that the local college 
and the public library are under one authority and they have 
wisely brought them together, so that under one roof is to 
be found a true people's university, save in the matter of 
degree granting, fully equipped in every branch of education 
likely to be of use to the good folks of that enterprising town. 

* Since this paper was read even the " one princess " has abdicated. ED. 

Libraries and Education. 209 

There the library, while fulfilling admirably all the needs of 
the people as a public library, is also an integral part of 
the college machinery, and the students of the technical classes 
regard the library as their own, just as a student in any of our 
ancient universities regards the university library. 

In course of time, libraries, as well as other educational 
agencies, will no doubt, be placed under one Government depart- 
ment ; and while I admit that there may be many objections to 
this, it will bring with it one very great advantage, viz., a con- 
centration of energy and a more economical management all 
round. At the present time much money and much labour is 
wasted in consequence of different people, in different places 
doing the same thing over and over again, which under a central 
organisation could be done in one place, by one, for all. But in 
the meantime, I think public libraries could do much to secure 
some of the benefits, without any of the disadvantages, by a 
voluntary co-operation with other educational institutions. 

To take that which lies nearest my hand, I would propose that 
the librarians of London should meet together and divide London 
among them, and make, as it were, a sort of industrial map. 
One library, the nearest, would undertake to supply the technical 
literature useful for the leather-dressers of Bermondsey, another 
would concentrate its energies on the metal-workers of Clerken- 
well. Chelsea would cater for the arts, and so on. I may be 
wrong in detail, but it does not affect the principle I am hinting 
at, when I say that a book on leather-dressing would be abso- 
lutely wasted at St. Martin-in the-Fields. In this way each 
library would come to be regarded as a special one, which, 
while providing the general and catholic library supplies for the 
ordinary reader, would concentrate its energies on those technical 
subjects which belonged to its district. 

The next step in my programme would be for each public 
librarian to invite the professors and masters of the educational 
institutions in his neighbourhood to confer with him, and to arrange 
a practical working scheme, by which the students of the district 
should be led to regard the library as a place for study and for help 
in the subjects being dealt with, from time to time, by their lecturers. 
The lecturers would furnish the librarian, from term to term, with 
his syllabuses, and the librarian would collect together for the 
use of the students all that his library contained on the different 
subjects, and if important books were wanting, they should be 
procured. Where possible an earnest effort should be made to 

2io The Library. 

set apart a special room for the use of students, and in this 
should be suspended subject -lists of books and articles to 
guide the student in his reading. I do not think such a plan 
would add really very much to the work of the already over- 
worked and under-paid librarian. In the preparation of the lists 
he would be cordially assisted by the lecturers ; and I believe, that 
as a matter of fact, he would find that the doing of this work 
systematically and periodically would, in the long run, even 
prove a saving of time, as it would render unnecessary the many 
desultory enquiries that are made at the desk by students, in 
libraries where no attempt is made to meet their needs. 

I did not mean to write a " paper," and you will freely admit 
that I have not done so, my object being rather to set forth a 
text which might be profitably discussed by those more competent 
to deal with it than myself. 


The Living Tennyson. 

As when a painter poring on a face, 
Divinely thro' all hindrance finds the man 
Behind it, and so paints him that his face, 
The shape and colour of a mind and life, 
Lives for his children ever at its best 
And fullest ; so the face before her lived, 
Dark-splendid, speaking in the silence . . 


I hear thee, and the music breath of Thought 
Stirs as a South wind, waking fruitful strife, 
With deepened echoes of harmonious life. 

I see thee, and Truth's virgin face, long sought, 

Dawns thro' a mist of dream ; while inly fraught 
With procreative motion, full and strong, 
Thought germinates to Form, and with thy song 

Of Flesh and Spirit is a conflict fought. 

Thou shap'st the soul's fair bride in sentient clay, 
Clothed in the sensuous vesture of desire, 
Cleaving to that which ever is the higher, 

Not counting life the drama of a day, 
But seeing it, and making it to be, 
The kingly triumph of humanity. 


The Dawn of a New Epoch. 

A HUNDRED years hence the authorities of the greater 
municipal London, which will then be carrying on the 
work now only attempted by the present congeries of village com- 
munities, will pass a resolution ordering a tablet to be fixed to the 
wall of a quaint three-cornered building in Clerkenwell, to com- 
memorate the fact that here, in 1894, ^ e revolution had begun 
which in a few years had changed the entire system of public 
libraries throughout the land. For here in Clerkenwell had been 
found, for the first time, the liberality combined with courage 
which enabled the administrators of a public library to throw off 
the traditions of the past, and to submit to the test of actual 
practice the theory that the British democracy was honest enough 
and enlightened enough to use its own books without abusing 
them or stealing them. Up to May ist, 1894, m spite of all the 
fine things that have been said to the British working-man by 
the promoters and adminstrators of libraries as to the elevating 
influence of literature, they have in practice shewn that they 
considered it necessary to keep the British working-man at a 
distance, and to treat him, indeed, with that suspicion and care 
which is only excusable on the part of bankers in dealing 
with strangers at the change counter, or on the part of railway 
companies in giving out tickets to the public. 

In several cases the experiment of allowing the public free 
access to the shelves of a reference library has been tried ; but 
although, so far as I am aware, in no single instance have the 
authorities been compelled to revert to the old system on ac- 
count of damage or loss, no committee, until that of Clerkenwell 
has had the courage to be logical, and extend the same hospital- 
ity to the borrowers from the lending library as had been given 
to the users of books in a reference library. 

At Clerkenwell, the system in vogue in other libraries is 
simply reversed, for the public are now inside the counter, and 

The Dawn of a New Epoch. 213 

the attendants outside. Each borrower, who is provided with 
the usual ticket entitling him to borrow books, instead of being 
invited to wade through a catalogue, and then to pore over an 
indicator in search of the many books that are " out," is asked to 
walk inside, and select a book from those that are " in." A very 
simple and business-like method of registration has been adopted, 
which for all practical purposes seems as perfect as any system 
can be. And if any books are stolen, they will be stolen by the 
deliberate and cunning thief, who will steal, no matter what check 
may be used. The librarian and the commissioners have, however, 
counted the cost of all this, and although they are sanguine that 
the library will suffer little or nothing from depredations, they 
have decided that any loss likely to be suffered in this way will 
be a very small price to pay for the enormous advantage offered 
to the honest public by the new system, and there can be no 
doubt of the verdict of that honest public upon the commissioners' 

Feeling that the occasion was the beginning of a new epoch 
in library work, I paid a visit to Clerkenwell on the first day 
of the great experiment, and remained for a considerable time 
in the library ; and although it may be objected that a single 
day's experience is not of much value, it may be remarked that 
in all probability the first day of such an experiment would 
prove to be the most trying, as not only had the library been 
closed for some time to admit of the structural alterations ren- 
dered necessary by the new plan, but there was a wide and very 
natural curiosity on the part of the ratepayers to try the library 
under its new conditions, and the consequence was a quite ab- 
normal rush of borrowers. Yet, in spite of the strangeness of 
the work to the assistants, everything worked smoothly and 
without a single hitch, and at the close of the day an issue of 
nearly i ,000 books was recorded, the greater part of these being 
issued between one and two and between seven and eight 
p.m. I very heartily congratulate Mr. Brown upon his enlight- 
ened courage in proposing this departure, and I equally congratu- 
late his commissioners upon their intelligent sympathy with Mr. 
Brown's aims, and upon the cordial way in which they have 
supported him in carrying through a scheme which would have 
been regarded as impossible and Utopian five years ago, and is 
still regarded with suspicion and mistrust by many who ought to 
know better. 


association TRecorfc* 


BY the kind invitation of the Council of the Royal Colonial Institute a 
SPECIAL MEETING of the Library Association was held in the library of 
the Institute, Northumberland Avenue, on Tuesday, May 29th, at 8 p.m. 
The chair was taken by Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G., a Vice- President 
of the Institute. 

The following letter had been received by Mr. Boos from the Rt. 
Hon. Sir George Grey : 

7, Park Place, 

St. James's, S.W., 

1 9th May, 1894. 

My Dear Sir, It is with sincere regret that I write to say there is no hope of 
my being able to attend the meeting of the Library Association of the United 
Kingdom on the evening of the 29th, when you are to read a paper on " The 
Library of the Royal Colonial Institute." 

I take a deep interest in the formation of libraries, and should, I am sure, have 
benefited very much by hearing your paper on the occasion alluded to ; but I 
hope your paper will be published and that my loss may then be repaired for it is 
essential to those engaged in the formation of Public Libraries that all information 
collected by those employed in this duty should be widely promulgated. 

Faithfully yours, 

J. R. Boose*, Esq. 

SIR FREDERICK, in welcoming the Association on behalf of his Council, 
said : 

It is with peculiar pleasure that I take the chair at this meeting. As one 
of its Vice-Presidents I wish on behalf of the Royal Colonial Institute, to give 
a very hearty welcome to the gentlemen of the Library Association of the United 
Kingdom who have honoured us with their presence this evening. We are very 
happy to see within the walls of the library of our institution representatives of 
this very distinguished society. Gentlemen, you belong to a most honourable 
calling. You are the guardians and custodians of the enormous collection and the 
vast amount of "written ancient and modern mental work " which constitutes 
the most valuable portion of the intellectual life of nations ; and of the 
progressive civilisation of mankind. You live amongst books, and the con- 
slant contact and association with literature in all its forms (the very atmosphere 
you breathe) cannot fail to exercise a deep influence on your minds, tending to 
elevate you above the range of thought of those whose more ordinary avocations 
destine them to fulfil less attractive pursuits in the daily routine of their lives. It 
is my duty to introduce to you my young friend Mr. Boose, our talented librarian, 
who has undertaken to give us an account of the progress of the Library of the 
Royal Colonial Institute. In doing so I may mention that many years ago, during 
the infancy of the Institute I always declared that I should never be satisfied until 

Royal Colonial Institute. 215 

it possessed the best and most complete Colonial library to be found in the Empire, 
always of course excepting our great National Library at the British Museum. 
My earnest wishes that this should be the case have been always admirably seconded 
by Mr. Boose, who with great ability and indefatigable perseverance, has exerted 
himself ever since to endeavour to fulfil, as far as possible, the hopes I long ago 
entertained. Of course no library can ever be said to be complete ; but this I do 
say that I think to-day we possess a library to which we are constantly making 
additions of such extent and value that we have the greatest reason to be proud of 
it. It is to give you some account of its history and progress that we are 
assembled here to-night. 

He then called upon the Hon. Secretary to submit any official business 
that it was necessary to transact. 

The HON. SECRETARY stated that he had received a letter from Mr. 
Borrajo giving notice that he would move a resolution of congratulation 
to Sir William H. Bailey on the honour conferred upon him by the 
Queen. Mr. Borrajo not being present, Mr. MacAlister asked to be 
allowed to move the resolution in his stead and to include in it the 
name of Sir Richard Tangye, of Birmingham, another member of the 
Association who had received a similar honour. 

The following resolution was then carried by acclamation : 

"That the very cordial congratulations of the Library Association be offered 

to Sir William Henry Bailey and to Sir Richard Tangye upon the honours recently 

conferred upon them by Her Majesty the Queen." 

The CHAIRMAN then called upon Mr. James R. Boos to read a paper 

Upon the conclusion of the paper the Chairman invited discussion 
and the following fellows and members spoke : 

Mr. JAMES BONWICK : I am very glad to be present this evening, if only to do 
honour to one who has done honour to our Institute. Mr. Boose has proved a 
most industrious and devoted librarian. He has been well sustained by the officers 
and Council of the Institute appreciating the worth of his services. Some had pre- 
dicted our early extinction as an independent society, but judging from the 
marvellous growth and excellence of the library we are convinced there is a 
deal of vitality left in our Institute. We, Fellows, may urge upon the Council and 
committee the necessity of aiding as far as possible the worthy efforts of Mr. Boose 
to add to the convenience of Fellows and others in the use of our noble library. 

Mr. E. A. PETHERICK, F.R.G.S. : I have much pleasure in adding my 
testimony to that of Mr. Bonwick as to the manner in which the Library of the 
Royal Colonial Institute is conducted. I have visited the Institute for sixteen 
or eighteen years and remember when two small rooms served as offices and 
library rooms scarcely large enough to allow of half-a-dozen people turning round 
in them ; and a few shelves held all the books. More than half of them 
were blue books, gazettes and parliamentary papers. Anyone in search of 
information in 'hat collection would probably have gone away unsatisfied, for 
the most important books upon any of the colonies were conspicuous by their 
absence. From the two rooms the Institute has steadily grown and now occupies 
this palatial building. From the few shelves the books have been constantly 
added to until they more than fill the extensive shelving in this large room, and 
the parliamentary papers, blue books and newspapers are relegated to another. 
Among the twenty thousand around us Mr. Boose points out seventy-five on one 
small island colony. When I first visited the library, not half that number could 
have been shown on the largest of our colonies. The Institute has been very 
fortunate ; fortunate in possessing funds available for such a library, fortunate in 
having an energetic committee, not sitting once a year, or once a quarter, but 
(assisted and advised by an intelligent librarian) always on the look out for 
suitable books, and I might add still more fortunate in receiving so many presents 
of valuable books. In its early days funds were limited and I know that of the 

216 The Library. 

most desirable books more had to be rejected than could be purchased. Now that 
the library has become so extensive and important, no less attention will 
have to be given to the selection of books in the future. The Colonies grow 
fast and the latest information must be found here. In this and old continental 
countries it is different, guide books are not so soon out of date In the 
Colonies the British Colonies, progress is so rapid, that a guide book soon 
Incomes obsolete. I feel sure that when the Council see that the library is held 
in so high estimation all over the world, and that their efforts are appreciated, that 
it will be an incentive to them, and that they will continue to add to the shelves, 
and so keep the library up to date. 

I should like to say a word or two upon the services of Mr. Boose. I did not 
know before he read it what form his paper would take. I congratulate him upon 
it, and I congratulate the Council upon possessing so active and intelligent a 
librarian. His whole energies are devoted to his work, and I am sure that the 
catalogue when it is printed will add largely to the value of the library : without a 
comprehensive and detailed catalogue so extensive a collection would largely lack 
in usefulness. 

Mr. F. P. DE LABILLIERE : Having been a member of the library committee, 
and having missed but few of its meetings for nearly the same time as Mr. 
Boose has been connected with this Institute, I have much pleasure in testifying to 
the value of his services in the library, about which I should also like to say 
something. Mr. Boose has told us that in 1873 the collection consisted of 300 
volumes. He might have added that the number of Fellows of the Institute was 
then also about 300, so that there was just one book for each of them. But how 
different is our condition now ! Mr. Petherick has said that of the books offered 
to us for purchase only a very few were taken. He must remember, however, 
that we were obliged to cut our coat according to the cloth, and that in our earlier 
days we had not much money to spend. Mr. Boose has referred to the valuable 
gifts of their official books, for which we are indebted to the various governments 
of the Empire. But we could not thus have obtained the works of different 
kinds, relating to all the British possessions, which now fill our shelves. They 
had for the most part to be procured by purchase, although we have to thank 
donors for many contributions ; and as the financial condition of the Institute 
improved, the Council increased its annual votes for the purposes of the library. 
Mr. Boose, in his very interesting and valuable paper, has really taken us 
round the Empire this evening, in taking us round the shelves of this library ; 
and he has strikingly illustrated what the aims and objects of this Institute are 
and what it really is. Its library contains works bearing on every part of the 
United Empire. Care has always been taken not to favour any particular portion 
of it, but fairly to embrace all. This has been the steadfast policy of the Council, 
whether as regards the stocking of the library, the reading of papers at the meet- 
ings, or the nominations to seats on the Council. Our desire always is to diffuse 
information as widely as possible, respecting all our British dominions, so that the 
people of the different parts of them may become intimately acquainted with 
each other, and may take a large and enlightened interest in each other's concerns 
and countries, and that thus a fraternal, national, imperial feeling may be culti- 
vated and strengthened among them. By going on adding, as we have been doing, 
to the contents of this library, we shall soon make it the very best if it is not 
so already -collection of literature on the Colonial Empire in existence, and the 
name of Mr. Boose will always be honorably mentioned in connection with it. 

Mr. THOMAS MASON : I have listened to Mr. Boose's paper with very 
great pleasure. He has given a bright and exceedingly interesting account of the 
library under his charge a library that is of great interest to librarians of the 
Free Public Libraries as a special collection. Special collections go so far 
beyond what a Free Library can, and in most cases ought to do, that it is of 
value to know where a subject can be exhaustively studied, and I would like to 
ask Sir P'rederick Young whether we may send bond fide students of Colonial 
subjects to the library of the Royal Colonial Institute. If we can do so it 
may occasionally be of great service. 

The CHAIRMAN : In reply to Mr. Mason, I will at once say that the Council 
of the Royal Colonial Institute are most desirous of giving any information in 
their power, and more especially of rendering the contents of the library 
available to all properly introduced persons. 

Royal. Colonial Institute. 217 

Mr. F. B. CAMPBELL : May I be permitted to add my thanks to those 
already expressed, for the very interesting paper to which we have listened. It 
is a subject of intense interest to me, and I am sure that it is impossible to over- 
estimate the influence which the Colonial Institute has exerted in this country, in 
disseminating information concerning our Colonial Empire. And it is because 
the Institute has done much in the past that I am ambitious for it to do more 
in the future. It may sound enigmatical, and at first ungracious, when I say 
that I am anxious that the Institute should use its powerful influence so to 
organise the bibliography of the colonies that it may eventually render us in- 
dependent of its own existence. The Chairman in his opening remarks conferred 
upon librarians the honourable epithet of " Guardians of Literature," and it is 
a term of which librarians must be proud. At the same time, however, while, 
in one sense, we must ever remain the " Guardians of Literature " in so far 
as we may have collections of books entrusted to our charge yet, it should 
ever be the highest ambition of librarians not to be the willing guardians of the 
contents of books, but as much as possible to render the world independent of 
our personal presence and knowledge, by the due supply of the necessary lists, 
bibliographies and catalogues. The Library of this Institute, as we have just 
heard, is rich in stores of colonial literature, but, gentlemen, the Colonial Institute 
exists only in London. There are thousands of men throughout the country (at 
least we hope so) who are interested in the colonies, and who wish to keep them- 
selves informed on colonial matters, but they cannot all come to London some 
may be living in the most inaccessible wilds of Scotland and how are they to 
inform themselves under the circumstances ? Now, at the present moment, the 
bibliography of the colonies is in a most disordered state, both in regard to 
general literature and official "state-papers" and this in spite of the praiseworthy 
efforts of many private individuals, some of whom are in the room at the present 
moment. And why? Simply because it is not a matter in which private enter- 
prise alone ever can succeed : it is essentially the work of governments, and 
governments alone can perform it. One of the speakers has just alluded to the 
value of supplying information relative to the Colonies. But how is it possible 
for us to obtain such information if the Colonies omit to publish lists and 
catalogues, and to keep them up to date ? At the present moment, with a few 
minor exceptions, the colonies do nothing in the matter. It is true that there 
are a certain number of isolated works of reference of a kind, but they are 
neither continuous nor complete (points on which all bibliography hinges), while 
in the great and important division of " state papers," there is only a handful of 
indexes, which are not compiled in the right manner, and which cannot atone 
for the absence of proper catalogues. Only recently, a very considerable 
Australasian Bibliography has been published at Sydney. But, although this is 
a most useful work, representing much labour, yet it does not fully satisfy our 
wants, and such a publication never can and never ought to satisfy us. It is 
radically wrong that Sydney should attempt to do the work of Melbourne, 
Brisbane and Adelaide and other Colonial centres for the simple reason that it 
never can perform the work completely. Each Colony can alone do its own 
work, and it is to each Colonial Government separately that we should look. 
And as to the whole question, the remedy is so very simple, and merely a 
matter of common-sense. All that we desire is that the several Colonial Govern- 
ments should each issue periodical printed registers, containing entries of every 
work published during a given period, with full titles of the same, and that this 
should be done, not only in reference to general literature, but similar lists should 
be issued every year, containing separate entries of the titles of each individual 
"state-paper" published. If this be accomplished, then we shall all be able 
to purchase complete reference lists of the literature of any Colony for any 
period of time, and our present difficulties will vanish. 

Mr. PETHEKICK : With your permission, Sir Frederick, I should like to reply 
to some of the remarks of the last speaker. Some Colonial Governments might be 
willing to publish the titles of local publications, but it would scarcely be practic- 
able for thirty or forty governments in different parts of the world. It must be 
remembered that while the publication of large volumes in the Colonies is infre- 
quent a volume of 300 or 400 pages is an event ! pamphlets issued from nearly 
every printing press in the principal towns and cities are very numerous. Colonial 

2 i8 The Library. 

copyright requires that copies shall be deposited in the public libraries, but copy- 
right is rarely claimed, and I do not think that the Colonial Governments burdened 
as they are, not only with the expenses of ordinary government, but with so much 
other work which is here carried on by private enterprise are likely to spend 
much at present on bibliography. In a work known to all of you, 1 I attempted a 
catalogue of publications issued in all the Colonies, and I am sorry to say that 
English public libraries, for which Mr. Campbell desires this information, have 
not, so far, given me much encouragement. Among them how many could I 
reckon as subscribers? Not twelve. After five years, owing to the recent 
financial troubles and lack of funds, I have had, for the present, to suspend the 
publication. Knowing the difficulties attending the compilation of such a work, 
I do not think it likely to be undertaken by the various Colonial Governments. 

Mr. MACALISTER : Before you close the discussion, Mr. Chairman, I 
should like to add my tribute of thanks to the reader of the paper. Only yester- 
day I was lamenting and blaming myself that, although I had passed the Institute 
so often, I had never carried into effect my often-made resolution to visit its 
library, of which I had heard a great deal ; but after hearing Mr. Boose's paper, 
I rather congratulate myself, for now I shall be able to learn more of it in an 
hour than I might have learnt in a week. I have never listened to a better 
paper, either as regards the historical portion of it, or the practical and descrip- 
tive part of it, which seems in a few sentences to bring before us the varied 
contents of the Library. 

It was said by a cynic, whose name I forget, that "gratitude is a lively 
sense of favours to come," and I am sure that Mr. Boose will take it rather as a 
compliment than otherwise, if I confess frankly that my gratitude is tinctured in 
this way, for I am going to ask him a favour which I feel quite sure he will grant, and 
which I feel quite sure his Council will regard as a practical carrying out of one of 
their most important objects, viz., the diffusion of knowledge about the Colonies 
and Dependencies. 

I want him to draw up a list, or rather two lists, of the best books on colonial 
subjects. I shall gladly print them in our magazine for the service of public libraries 
throughout the country. One list should be a rather generous one and contain 
such books as should be within the means of comparatively wealthy libraries, 
like those of Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester ; and another a more 
modest list which might be adopted by the smaller public libraries. It is no 
reflection upon our zealous public librarians to say that they cannot know the best 
books on these subjects. It is beyond the reach of any general librarian to know 
them, unless circumstances make him such an expert as Mr. Boose has become. 
I hope, and believe, that I am not asking a thing that will entail great labour upon 
Mr. Boose\ as I am quite sure he has the material at his finger ends. I am sure 
that Mr. Boose will understand that this request is really a proof of my high 
appreciation of his admirable paper. 

Mr. F. H. DANGAR : I share in the gratification which I am sure is felt 
by all present, at what Mr. Boose has told us about the Library of the Royal 
Colonial Institute, and I have great pleasure in congratulating him on his able 
and instructive paper. As a Member of the Library Committee of the Institute, I 
have many opportunities of appreciating the zeal and ability which Mr. Boose has 
shown in the administration of his office, and to him in a great measure the Fellows 
of the Institute are indebted for the very excellent library we possess. The meet- 
ing will no doubt be interested in knowing that I have been fortunate enough to 
secure a very valuable book, viz. : Captain Cook's Journal of his Voyages in 
the Endeavour," 17681770, when he discovered Port Jackson, and which it 
is my intention to present to my old colony of New South Wales, where I have 
no doubt it will be regarded with great interest. I believe that two other copies 
of the journal exist, one being in possession of the Queen, and the other of the 
Admiralty. I shall be very glad to leave the book here, for a short time, where 
Fellows and their friends may be able to see it. 

1 The Torch and Colonial Book Circular. 

Royal Colonial Institute. 219 

Mr. J. S. O'HALLORAN (Secretary Royal Colonial Institute) : In the paper 
which he has read this evening, Mr. Boose has favoured us with an able and in- 
teresting record of the growth of this library, which I well remember as far back as 
1872 in the days of its infancy. All who have had a share in its management are 
naturally proud of its expansion, and we rejoice in having had the privilege of 
assisting in the nurture of a once tender and delicate plant, which has since developed 
into a healthy and vigorous tree. The process has of course been a gradual one, 
seeing that the Royal Colonial Institute is a self-supporting Society without endow- 
ments or subsidies. It presents a notable example of the result of a policy of self- 
reliance and faith in the future qualities which have been the mainspring of success- 
ful British colonisation in every quarter of the globe. While relying solely on the 
Fellows for financial support our doors are open to all enquirers who seek special 
information or advice on subjects relating to the Colonies ; and the authors of many 
useful works declare that they could hardly have been written but for the help 
afforded them here. It sometimes happens that demands are made upon us that 
are quite beyond our means and outside our scope, such as the supply of wall-maps 
and Colonial literature to National Schools ; but we are ever ready to offer sugges- 
tions as to the best text-books, and this Institute has done good service to the cause 
of education in directing public attention to the great importance of a better know- 
ledge of our Colonies. A considerable sum has just been voted by the Council for 
the publication of a new and up-to-date catalogue of this library, which has been 
prepared by Mr. Boose, and must prove of the greatest value throughout the 
British Empire as an aid to the study of Colonial literature. 

The CHAIRMAN : It is now my pleasure and privilege to propose a hearty vote 
of thanks to Mr. Boose for his admirable paper. I thought I was pretty well 
acquainted with the value of our library, but I certainly had no conception that we 
possessed one of such extent and importance until I had the opportunity of hearing 
the details which Mr. Boose has presented to us in his paper. Reference has been 
made to the forthcoming catalogue which has not only entailed an immense amount 
of work upon Mr. Boose, but the cost of which will be very considerable, amount- 
ing to nearly three hundred pounds. I am sure we are deeply indebted to Mr. 
Boose for the admirable manner in which he fulfils the duties of librarian, and I 
think we have a good illustration of the way in which those duties are performed 
in the paper which he has given us this evening. 

Dr. GARNETT : I desire to express the gratification with which I have 
listened to Mr. Boose's paper, both individually and as aa officer of the British 
Museum. The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute is evidently extensive, 
progressive, and well administered. The proverb says, " ex ungue leonem" and by 
hearing from Mr. Boose how many publications it possesses relating to such a 
colony as Hong-Kong, it is possible to form an idea of its extent and probable 
development as regards the growing empires of Canada and Australasia. The 
British Museum has always taken a lively interest in Colonial literature. Its 
founder, Sir Hans Sloane, laid the foundation of his fame by a work on what was 
then the most important British colony Jamaica. A copy of this book, 
copiously annotated by himself, is exhibited to the public as a treasure in the 
King's Library, where are also to be found the first books printed in New South 
Wales and the Cape Colony. A new room has recently been fitted up for the 
reception of Colonial and Indian state papers, the construction of which presents 
many features of interest, and which I shall be happy to show to any here present. 
The Museum is under very special obligations to the Royal Colonial Institute for 
the donation of Colonial newspapers which have now been made annually for 
several years. It is of the greatest importance to collect and preserve such docu- 
ments which reflect the daily life of society with a truth which no other form 
of literature can, but which the resources of the Museum and the numerous other 
claims upon them will not allow it to assemble in any degree approaching com- 
pleteness. By the generous aid of the Institute, however, the Museum is form- 
ing what will one day become a noble collection of priceless advantage to the 
historian. I am sure it will be borne in mind that the utility of such a collection 
depends upon its indefinite continuance. The files of a few consecutive years 
can but constitute a mere isolated fragment of little worth, but perseverance 
will, in course of time, build up a great national collection in which every Colony 


TJu Library. 

will be represented. Respecting the shortcomings of Colonial Governments in the 
dissemination of Colonial literature, I must express my concurrence with the 
remarks of Mr. Campbell. I cannot but think that if these governments were to 
recognise the importance of the people of the Mother Country being well informed 
on their affairs, they would take more pains to make the productions of their press 
accessible at home. I presume that Colonial publications are registered by some 
public authority, and if so, I can see no insuperable difficulty in making them 
known by an official publication, if only an occasional page of the Government 
Gazette. It is remarkable that the disposition to carry out the Imperial Copyright 
Act seems to be, generally speaking, in inverse proportion to the importance of the 
Colony and the liberality of its institutions. Many Crown Colonies have passed 
ordinances entitling the Museum to receive their publications, and thus preventing 
the Copyright Act from remaining a dead letter. The Indian Government, 
unsolicited, has included the Museum in their own Copyright Act, but no self- 
governing Colony of the first rank has adopted either of these courses except the 
Cape of Good Hope. I hope that the influence of the Royal Colonial Institute 
may be judiciously exerted to procure an amendment in this respect ; and I desire 
to express once more my appreciation of what has been done already, and the 
interest with which Mr. Boose's paper has inspired me. 

The CHAIRMAN : It is a source of great gratification to me that this vote of 
thanks has been seconded by one so distinguished as Dr. Garnett, who has 
afforded us an opportunity of hearing from him so many interesting details and 
valuable remarks regarding the British Museum, with which he is so prominently 
connected. Dr. Garnett has referred to the fact that the Royal Colonial Institute 
is in the habit of presenting to the Museum a large number of Colonial news- 
papers, and he has expressed a hope that those contributions may be continued. 
I can only say on behalf of the Council that they will in future have great pleasure 
in forwarding similar files, which, I am glad to hear, are considered of such value, 
and are so much appreciated. 

Mr. JAMES R. BOOSE : I am very much obliged to you for the kind way in 
which you have received my paper. It is especially gratifying to me that both 
the Chairman and Dr. Garnett, as well as other speakers, have referred to my 
services in such appreciative terms. The speakers having been so unanimous in 
their praise little remains for me to say. I would, however, emphasise the reply 
of the Chairman to Mr. Mason, by stating that the Library is open to all appli- 
cants regarding any subject relating to the Colonies, and that almost daily 
numerous enquiries for information are received both personally as well as by 
letter from all parts of the United Kingdom, which are promptly answered by 
means of the very complete collection of works of reference contained in the 
Library. Mr. Campbell has referred to Mr. R. C. Walker's Bibliography of 
Australasia as being a somewhat incomplete work, but I would point out to him 
that Mr. Walker has not put it forward as a complete bibliography, but as a 
catalogue of such works upon the Australasian Colonies as are contained in the 
Sydney Public Library only. With respect to the suggestion, with which I 
entirely agree, that the Colonial Governments should embody the titles of all 
works published in their respective Colonies in the Government Gazettes, as 
regards Australia, such a list is published annually in Greville's Year Book, an 
example which might be followed with advantage in other instances. In reply 
to Mr. MacAlister, who has suggested that I should supply periodically for the use 
of public librarians, lists of works regarding the various Colonies, I can only 
say that I shall be most happy to do anything in my power to assist the numerous 
public libraries of the United Kingdom in selecting such works upon the Colonies 
as may be required for the dissemination of information regarding all parts of the 
British Empire. 

The vote was carried by acclamation. 

Mr. S. W. SILVER : Speaking as a very old Fellow of the " R.C.I." as 
well as a Member of the Library Association, I feel our thanks are due to the 
Chairman for the particulars entered into by him bearing on the progress of the 
Colonial Institute, of which the library, the object of our meeting, might be taken 

Library Notes and News. 221 

as a favourable evidence, commencing in a modest way, having risen to its 
present proportion, and offering the facilities it does to all in search of information 
relating to the Colonies. It affords me great pleasure to have the privilege of 
proposing a vote of thanks to Sir Frederick Young, and I am sure all present 
will agree with me that such is due to him for his conduct in the chair. 

This was seconded by Mr. MACALISTER and carried, bringing to a con- 
clusion one of the most interesting meetings that the Association has held 
for a long time. 

IFlotes anfc 1flews. 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ABINGKDON. A plan has been formulated by the Free Library 
Committee for the establishment of a library and reading room, in- 
cluding a building to be provided out of funds to be granted by the 
Governors of Christ's Hospital and the Town Council. The building 
is expected to cost ,2,000. 

BIRMINGHAM. Mr. Richard Tangye, for years a member of the 
Public Library Committee, and of the L.A.U.K., has received the honour 
of Knighthood. 

BOURNEMOUTH. Mr. Charles Riddle, sub-librarian of Clerken- 
vvell Public Library, has been unanimously elected librarian of the Public 
Library, out of a very large number of candidates. 

CLOUGHTON, YORKS. On May iQth Mr. Lockwood, Q.C, 
M.P., opened a new reading and recreation room here and delivered 
an amusing address. 

HA WICK. Mr. George M'Nairn, assistant librarian, Edinburgh, 
has been elected librarian of the Public Library out of 140 applicants. 
He succeeds a lady librarian. 

LIVERPOOL. At the recent half-yearly meeting of the Court of 
Governors of *he Liverpool University College it was stated that all the 
shelves in the galleries of the library were now stocked with books. 
These have been purchased with the sum generously presented to the 
College by Mr. Henry Tate. 

LIVERPOOL. It is not generally known that in St. Peter's Church, 
Liverpool (now the Pro-Cathedral), there is a very valuable library of 
books. Although they consist principally of works on ancient divinity 
and early Church history, there are many volumes such as Bacon's 
Reign of Henry VII., Camden's History of the Princess Elizabeth, 
Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, and similar works on the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. 

222 The Library. 

LONDON. For some years there has been an agitation among a 
section of the members of the London Library with the object of securing 
the presence of ladies on the committee. At the annual meeting held on 
June 14, the committee successfully proposed the election of Mrs. J. R. 
Green to their body. 

LONDON : BROMLEY. Though the Public Libraries Act was 
adopted in Bromley some time back, very little outward work has been 
done. At Tuesday night's meeting at Bromley Vestry a rate of id. in 
the pound was voted by the Commissioners, this amounting to nearly 
^950. The Commissioners have been working hard to secure a site for 
a library, and will be in a position to make a satisfactory announcement 

LONDON : FULHAM. Mr. Franklin T. Barrett, one of the senior 
assistants in the Mitchell Library, Glasgow, has been appointed librarian 
of the Public Library here, in succession to Mr. Henry Burns. 

LONDON: PADDINGTON. The libraries in the workhouse and 
infirmary have recently been improved, and additional books provided, 
bringing up the total to 416 books in the workhouse and 496 in the 
infirmary. The Library Committee reported to the Guardians last week 
that the inmates had eagerly availed themselves of the facility for 
reading, and with most satisfactory results. 

OXFORD. On June 2nd, the extension to the Indian Institute was 
opened in the presence of a distinguished company. The Vice-Chancellor 
presided, and there were also present Sir Monier Monier- Williams (Pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit), Sir William Markby, Sir Charles and Lady Aitcheson, 
and Sir William Hunter. The new portion gives a much needed addition 
to the library, and provides a large lecture room beneath, and with this 
enlargement the exterior portion of the building is complete. The Vice- 
Chancellor said that it had seemed almost impossible that the large 
sum required for the building should be got together ; but Indian princes 
and English noblemen had poured out their treasures, and he was pleased 
to be able to announce that Sir Monier Monier- Williams was going to 
present his large and valuable collection of books to the library, which 
would, indeed, be then well furnished. 

Sir M. Monier- Williams said the library was unsurpassed by any 
other room in Oxford in respect of the convenience of its arrangements 
and the beauty of its proportions. He even ventured to assert that 
owing to the valuable grants and gifts from various donors it was likely to 
become one of the most important Oriental libraries in the kingdom. As 
to the museum, it was still only half finished. Happily he was able to 
announce that his Highness the Thakore Sahib of Gondal had intimated 
that he would grant the money needed for the finishing of the museum. 
Sir William Hunter afterwards delivered an address on " Indian Educa- 

PENZANCE. The Free Library has recently gained an addition 
of 1,050 volumes, of which 1,000 were from Mr. Passmore Edwards. 

PETERHEAD. The lending department of the Public Library 
was opened on May 26th with a stock of 7,000 volumes. 

SALFORD. Alderman W. H. Bailey, Mayor of Salford, member of 
the Public Library Committee, and of the Council of the L.A. U.K., has 
received the honour of Knighthood. 

IRecorb of BfblfograpbE anb SLtbrars ^Literature, 

Erhard Ratdolt and his work at Venice. A paper read before 
the Bibliographical Society, November 2Oth, 1893, by 
Gilbert R. Redgrave. London : Printed for the Biblio- 
graphical Society at the Chiswick Press, April, 1894. 4-to, 
pp. 50. [Issued only to members of the society.] 

The first of the " Illustrated Monographs issued by the Biblio- 
graphical Society" is now before us, and augurs well for the work 
that the society proposes to accomplish in the future. We are glad to 
learn that the number of members in the British section at the time 
of the closing of the Roll had risen to 228, and that it is expected that 
America, France, and Germany between them will bring up the total 
membership to 300 by the end of the year. The society will thus be 
amply provided with funds ; and if all of its authors will choose as 
interesting fields of research and work them as thoroughly as Mr. 
Redgrave has done in this account of Ratdolt's career at Venice, a 
successful future is assured. Mr. Redgrave's monograph consists of 
two parts ; the paper which he read before the society in November of last 
year, and an elaborate bibliography. In the paper he briefly reviews 
some incidents of the history of printing at Venice up to the publica- 
tion, by Ratdolt and his partners, of the Kalendars of 1476 (the first 
books with ornamental title-pages), and then hazards the interesting 
conjecture that Ratdolt may have employed part of the two years 
between his disappearance from Augsburg in 1474, and his first Venetian 
publications, in studying printing under their author, the celebrated 
astronomer, Johannes Regiomontanus (Johann Miiller), who from 1472 
to his summons to Rome in 1475, was printing at Nuremberg. Mr. 
Redgrave mentions, on the authority of a correspondent, that "the 
Roman type, used by Miiller at Nuremberg, resembles, in certain 
respects, that employed by Ratdolt, and that the ornament found in the 
works of Miiller is distinctly in the pen and ink manner, and bears 
traces of Italian rather than German influence." It is a pity that the 
rarity of the books he printed makes it difficult to establish this fully, 
as it would be interesting to set the point at rest. At present there is 
little more than the undoubted fondness of Ratdolt for the works of 
Miiller in favour of -the hypothesis, as' most fifteenth century printers 
seem to have taken a considerable time in getting their types cut and 
their presses in order, and we must, therefore, not make too much of 
the two years' interval between Ratdolt's leaving Augsburg and issuing 
his first book at Venice. 

In tracing Ratdolt's career during his ten years' residence in Italy, Mr. 
Redgrave passes in review his more important books commenting on 
their points of interest. He alludes to the now exploded theory that his 
partner in 1476, Bernhardus Pictor, or Bernhard Maler, may have been the 
b of the woodcuts in the Hypnerotomachia of 1499, the initial being now 
generally regarded as belonging to an engraver, or school of engravers, 
and not to the artist. Another theory easily disposed of is that of Butsch, 
who argued from the occurrence of the same ornamental initial on the 


224 The Library. 

two sides of a leaf in the splendid Appian of 1477, that Ratdolt must 
have been possessed of the art of making cliches, as if the two sides of a 
leaf could be printed at the same impression, so that the same block could 
not be used on both without duplication ! Of more importance is Mr. 
Redgrave's decisive proof that in the case of the editions of Pomponius 
Mela by Ratdolt and Renner of Hailbrun, that it was Renner and not 
Ratdolt who was the imitator. Mr. Redgrave shows, also, that Zapf, the 
chronicler of the Augsburg Press, was mistaken in assigning Ratdolt's 
death to 1516, as he continued to pay his taxes until 1527, and according 
to Mr. Weale actually printed a Coutances service-book two years after 
Zapf's date for his death. 

In the bibliography, a list is given of no less than sixty-seven books 
printed by Ratdolt, alone or with his partners, at Venice, about half as 
many again as are to be found in Hain. For these and for those not seen 
personally by Hain, the titles and collations are displayed in full ; for those 
for which he vouches there is a reference to his number. References are 
also given to copies in the British Museum, the Bodleian and the Cam- 
bridge University library, and, wherever possible, it is stated in which of 
Ratdolt's ten Venetian types the book is printed, and which of his ten sets 
of initial letters and seven borders are used as ornaments. The ten illus- 
trations are worthy of the excellence of the text, the frontispiece, from the 
Appian of 1477, being so well reproduced as almost to surpass the 
original. Other plates show the borders of the Cepio of 1477, and Ars 
Moriendi of 1478, the title page of the Kalendario, Ratdolt's first set of 
initial letters, his Augsburg device and the type-sheet which he issued 
on his return to Germany, about half of the types in it being brought from 
Venice. The monograph is finely printed at the Chiswick Press, and 
is in every way a credit to its author and the Society. 

Bibliographica. A quarterly magazine of bibliography in twelve 
parts. London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1894. 
Parts I. and II. 

The history of periodical literature is strewn with the bones of so 
many magazines of bibliography that the publishers of Bibliographica 
have, perhaps, been well-advised in boldly facing the fact that the goods 
they have to offer are esteemed only by a scanty handful of readers, who 
may therefore be expected to pay a reasonably high price for their hobby, 
so long as they get fair value for their money. In the point of externals 
Bibliographica plainly aims, not altogether unsuccessfully, at magnificence. 
The type is large and clear, the margins ample, and the paper good of 
its kind, though a trifle thick and stiff for a volume which will claim for 
itself a good binding. Too much praise can hardly be given to Messrs. 
Constable for the excellence of the press-work, and the majority of the 
numerous illustrations are also well printed. The initial letters and tail- 
pieces, specially designed by Mr. Laurence Housman, on the model of the 
ahan strap-work of the fifteenth century, are unusually happy, and alto- 
gether the "get-up" is distinctly imposing. As regards the letterpress, 
in the first of the two numbers before us the publishers showed a certain 
inclination to compromise. There is a masterly and very thorough 
article (concluded in No. 2) by Mr. Gordon Duff, in which he traces the 
istory of a firm of stationers at the sign of the Trinity in St. Paul's Church- 
yard from 1506 to 1515, and again from 1518 to 1539. The earlier mem- 

rs of the firm were Henry Jacobi and Joyce, or Jodocus, Pelgrim, and 

the industry of Mr. Duff has unearthed no less than twenty books printed 

them, three by Thierry Martens at Antwerp, most of the rest at Paris, 

! four earliest by Wolfgang Hopyl. The books are all ecclesiastical or 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 225 

educational, the most noteworthy being the splendid folio edition of 
Lyndewode's Constitutions Provinciates of 1506. After 1518 the busi- 
ness of the firm was carried on by Henry Pepwell, of whose publications 
Mr. Duff has traced thirteen, eight in 4to and five in 8vo, most of them 
school-books, or works of popular morality or devotion. 

Another very thorough piece of work in Part I. is Mr. Robert Proctor's 
account of the woodcut bearing the legend Accipies tanti doctoris 
dogmata sancti, and exhibiting a master, with a dove perched on his 
shoulder, instructing some very attentive young disciples. Ten different 
varieties of this cut, falling into five groups, have been distinguished, and 
they enable us to identify the various printers, Quentell, at Cologne, 
Schonsperger and Froschauer at Augsburg, Hans Reger at Ulm, 
Heinrich Gran at Hagenan, and others, by whom the books in which 
they occur were printed. The cut is only found on educational books, 
and its popularity seems to have lasted from 1491 to about the end of the 
century. In yet a third learned article, Dr. Sommer finally disposes of 
the theory maintained by M. Paulin Paris, that the authorship of the 
Recueil des histoires de Troye should be assigned, not to Raoul Lefevre, 
but to Guillaume de Failly, whom he proves to be identical with 
Guillaume Filastre, Bishop of Tournai, adding some interesting 
particulars, gained from a collation of eleven different manuscripts, as to 
the changes of plan during the compilation of the Recueil by Lefevre. 
Side by side with these heavy guns we have ranged a contribution by 
Mr. Andrew Lang in his lightest vein on " Names and Notes in Books," a 
long and fascinating article by Mr. Charles Elton which tells us a great 
deal about Queen Christina of Sweden and a little about her library, 
and a most heretical article by M. Octave Uzanne, tracing the history of 
the collecting and production of fine books in France during the present 
century, and predicting the speedy discarding of the worship of 
Incunabula in favour of the books reflecting the art of the day, 
which he himself has helped so largely to bring into fashion. 
Undoubtedly the value of most classes of Incunabula (illustrated 
books are a conspicuous exception) is slightly on the decline, 
while the prices fetched by some modern French books, extra- 
illustrated and beautifully bound, are very considerable. But a 
glance at the totals and averages of the Lignerolles sale, to which M. 
Uzanne rashly appealed while it was yet in the future, and of the best 
books at M. Uzanne's recent disposal of the superfluities of his own 
library, suffices to show that, however the values of modern books may 
be creeping up, they have as yet hardly come within sight of those 
realized by the masterpieces of ancient printing. 

In Part II. the contents are more uniformly solid than in its pre- 
decessor, and almost all of the articles are of permanent value. The first 
place is given to Dr. Maunde Thompson's first instalment of his promised 
series of papers on English illuminated manuscripts, the present article 
embracing the years A.D. 700-1066. Part of the ground for this period 
had been already traversed by the late Professor Westwood in his 
Facsimiles of the Miniatures and Ornaments of A nglo- Saxon and Irish 
Manuscripts, but by including in one survey the Southern manuscripts 
under classical, i.e., Roman, or Greco-Roman influence, and the Northern 
noes which mainly followed the Irish school, Dr. Thompson brings out 
several new points and treats the subject with much greater completeness. 
His article is illustrated by eight full-page plates, some of them of great 
beauty, while those of which it would be flattery to assert this are in- 
teresting as typical examples, or, as in the case of the drawings from the 
Paraphrase of the Pentateuch (MS. Claudius, B. iv.), as showing by their 
unfinished condition the method in which the draughtsmen went to work, 
the colours of the dresses being first daubed on in patches, without any 

226 The Library. 

previous outline, and the heads, limbs, details of dress, &c., being afterwards 
sketched in. Another masterly article is contributed by Mr. R. C. Christie, 
having as its subject the Chronology of the early Aldines. " On no 
point," he tells us, "are the historians of Aldus and his press in more 
absolute accord than in the assertion that he used the legal Venetian 
computation in the dates contained in his books, and consequently that 
those dated in January and February in any year, did not in fact appear 
until a year later, according to our mode of computing the year from the 
first of January, and consequently that a book dated February, 1495, was 
not issued until February, 1496, new or common style, and nearly a year 
after one dated March, 1495. O n tms point Renouard, Firmin-Didot 
and Castellani are all in accord," and on this point Mr. Christie demon- 
strates with delightful conclusiveness that they are all three wrong. It is 
the weakness of bibliographers that they so often object to reading any- 
thing save title-pages and colophons, and Mr. Christie, who is not used 
to limit his studies in this way, is able to make short work of his pre- 
decessors, largely by quotations from extant letters of Aldus. Thus 
in the dedication of the Juliux Pollux of April, 1502, to Elias 
Capreolo he writes of having, " superioribus diebus? dedicated his 
edition of Stephanus De Urbibus, dated January, 1502, to an- 
other Brescian professor, Giovanni Taberio. Yet in the face of 
this statement, which they duly print, both Renouard and 
Didot insist that the January, 1502, of the De Urbibus really means 
January, 1503, and bibliographers have followed them in this absurdity 
like a flock of sheep. The case of several other books is as simple and 
clear as this, in others it has to be demonstrated by rather more complex 
arguments ; in one case it is so doubtful that Mr. Christie is willing to 
leave Renouard's date undisturbed. But for nineteen out of the one 
hundred and thirty books printed by Aldus he is able to show that the 
dates usually assigned to them are exactly a twelvemonth too late, and 
having regard to the importance of many of these works in the history of 
the classical renaissance it is difficult to over-rate the value of the 

Of the other contents of this number we have not left ourselves much 
space to speak. Mr. Madan contributes an annotated list of twenty-four 
different representations of printing presses taken from books printed 
between 1499 and 1600, with especial reference to an engraving by 
Stradanus, on which the antiquary, Hearne, has left some notes. Dr. 
Kristeller writes on an instance of an Italian wood-engraving, designed as 
a cover for a fifteenth-century book, and Mr. Wheatley and Mr. Austin 
Dobson contribute notices of the libraries of two English bookmen, 
Samuel Pepys and Henry Fielding. The articles which we have singled 
put for mention show that the publishers of the magazine are anxious that 
its contents should be for the most part of permanent bibliographical 
importance, and if they can maintain the same standard for the ten 
remaining numbers they will have accomplished an excellent work. 

Index to the Periodical Literature of the World (covering the 
year 1893), 4 to - Review of Reviews Office, 1894, 5 s - 

It is almost unnecessary to direct attention to the value of this work, as 
it is now considered indispensable to any library, public or private, and we 
are confirmed in this opinion by the testimonials to its merits from well- 
known librarians printed in it. It is published at such a remarkably cheap 
rate that the cost of printing, much less the labour involved in its compila- 
tion, can hardly be represented by the publishing price, and therefore, 

The Second Slimmer School. 227 

the public spirit which continues the work annually and promises 
improvements in the future cannot be too highly commended. Those 
libraries which cannot afford to purchase the volumes of Poole's Index 
require this, and those already possessing Poole must have it to keep them 
up to date, and indeed it would be surprising to know that any library is 
yet without the volumes. The classified list of periodicals is alone worth 
the money. Great praise is due to Miss Hetherington, the compiler, and 
her assistants, not only for their industry, but for the exactness and care 
exercised in producing the index. It may be perhaps necessary to add 
that the indexing in this Annual Index is altogether apart from the lists 
which appear monthly in the Review of Reviews. 

Xegal IRotes anb CJueties. 


Is it legal (in Scotland) to make any charge for readers' cards in a 
library under the Public Libraries Acts ; and, if illegal to charge rate- 
payers, can a charge be made to non-ratepayers ? Of course, I know 
that some libraries charge, while others do not ; and that while there 
seems little doubt that ratepayers may not be liable to be charged, it may 
be legal to impose a charge on non-ratepayers, as it seems an optional 
thing to admit non-ratepayers to the advantages of the lending library. 


The only power to charge for readers' cards is by virtue of a Bye-law 
duly made under the Public Libraries Consolidation (Scotland) Act, 
1887, section 22. If you have no such Bye-law you have no power to 
make the charge ; and I may add that I have very grave doubts whether, 
if such a Bye-law was contested, it would be upheld, bearing in mind 
section 32 of the Act, which provides that the institutions are to be open 
to the " public " free of charge, though it might be contended that, as 
the section goes on to provide that no charge is to be made for the 
use of "books or magazines" issued for home reading, this would not 
prevent (but rather authorises by implication) a charge for the issue 
of a reader's card. Your Bye-law might make a distinction between 
ratepayers and non-ratepayers resident in the borough ; but, in my 
opinion, they are both included in the term " public " used in section 32. 

ZTbe Seconb Summer Scbool, 1894. 

THE Second Summer School was opened on the evening of 
Tuesday, June igth, and was continued until Friday afternoon, 
during which time the following programme was carried out : 

TUESDAY, JUNE iQth, at 7.30 p.m. 

Reception by the Council of the Association ; and Exhibition of 
Library Appliances in the rooms of the Association, 20, Hanover 

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 2oth, at 10 a.m. 

The School will gather in the Entrance Hall of the British Museum. 

An address will be delivered by Dr. Garnett, and this will be fol- 
lowed by visits to the Departments of MSS. and of Printed Books. A 
visit will also be paid to the Book-binding Department. 

228 The Librayy. 

At 2 p.m. a visit will be paid to the Chisvvick Press in Took's 
Court, Chancery Lane, when the party will be conducted, and the 
processes explained, by Mr. Jacobi. 

At 4 p.m. a visit will be paid to the atelier of Mr. Zashnsdorf, 
Cambridge Circus, who will himself explain the different processes of 

THURSDAY, JUNE 2ist, at 10 a.m. 

The works of the Linotype Company will be visited. 

At 11.30. Messrs. Cassell & Co, have invited the School to visit 
their works in La Belle Sauvage, Ludgate Hill, E.C. 

FRIDAY, JUNE 22nd, at 10 a.m. 

The party will visit the Library of Sion College, where the system 
of Classification will be explained by the Rev. W. H. Milman, the 

At 2.30 p.m., the party will assemble at the Wandsworth Public 
Library, and from thence, at 2.45, proceed to visit the Royal Paper 
Mills. After visiting the Mills, the members are very kindly invited 
by Mr. Cecil Davis, the librarian, to return to the Library, where tea 
will be provided. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES. It was found last year that visits paid to 
these libraries by large parties did not admit of detailed examination 
of methods, and in consequence, this year it has been arranged that 
the members of the School shall visit the libraries independently. 
They will be received by the librarians, or their assistants, and every 
facility offered to them for a careful examination of the various 
libraries. The libraries, of which a list is appended, will be open to 

NOTE. The Proprietors of the Times have kindly offered to admit 
a party of six to see the printing of a First Edition. Those members 
of the School who would like to join this party should give their 
names at once to the Honorary Secretary. The party will then be 
selected by lot. 

The attendance was considerably better than last year, and 
included members from such distant places as Glasgow and 
Cardiff. On this occasion the number of lady members was 
larger; as many as nine being present. 

The Exhibition of Library Appliances arranged by Mr. J. D. 
Brown, hon. curator of the Association's Museum at Clerkenwell, 
was an excellent one and evoked keen interest among the mem- 
bers who had the opportunity of examining the exhibits. 


As intimated in the Yearbook, the editor of THE LIBRARY 
renews his offer of a prize of three pounds for the best report on 
the proceedings at the Summer School of 1894. He regrets that 
he is not able to offer a second prize of a set of THE LIBRARY, as 
many of the earlier numbers are now out of print. Prize essays 
must be received by him not later than July 3ist. Joint reports 
will be eligible for the prize. 



Darwen Public Library. Catalogue of School Libraries. 

Lists of books in twenty school libraries containing from 50 to 150 
volumes, and much the same books in each. 

Warrington Museum. Catalogue of the lending department of 
the Library. Supplement, second edition, 1894, pp. 93, 
advts., i6mo. 

Dictionary catalogue, printed across page. The library is kept well 
supplied with technical books. 

Dumbarton Free Public Library, Catalogue of the (lending and 
reference departments), compiled by the Librarian, 1894, PP- 
x., 143, advts. 
Dictionary catalogue, with class-list of fiction, printed across page. 

The London Library. Report and additions, May i, 1893 

March 31, 1894, 8vo., pp. 83. 

The report chronicles satisfactory progress under the new librarian, 
Mr. Hagberg Wright. Changes in the method of registering delivery of 
books, and in other ways, has entailed extra labour on the staff, which has 
been augmented, with increased salaries to the assistants. The list of 
additions is a good one. 

Xfbrarp Bsaociation 

SEASON 1893-94. 

THE LAST MONTHLY MEETING of the season was held at 20, Han- 
over Square on Monday, June 11, 1894, at 8 p.m., Chancellor Christie in 
the chair. 

On the motion of Mr. MacAlister, seconded by Mr. Tedder, Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie was unanimously elected an honorary member of the 
Association in recognition of his munificent benefactions to public libraries 
both in the United States and in Great Britain. 

Mrs. Clarinda A. Webster, L.R.A.M., Principal^ the Aberdeen Music 
School, read a paper entitled 


The paper was discussed by Messrs. Burgoyne, Humphrey, Foskett, 
Quinn, Courtney, Gilburt and Inkster, and Mrs. Webster replied. 

A vote of thanks to the author of the paper was carried, on the 
motion of Mr. Humphrey, seconded by Mr. Foskett. 



June 2%th, 1894. 

DEAR SIR, I have before me a copy of the last examination papers, 
I understand that, as on previous occasions, the number of students who 
entered for the (preliminary) examination was exceedingly small. From 
the dissatisfaction which I have heard expressed I have good reasons 
to believe that the meagre number was due to a lack of confidence in 

230 The Library. 

the special ability of the gentlemen advertised as examiners. If it is 
thought satisfactory to have only one examiner for each subject the 
students should at least be fully assured that the gentlemen so appointed 
have distinguished themselves in the particular subjects of which they are 
examiners. This, unfortunately, is not the case. I do not wish to make 
invidious references to individual examiners, as my object is not to hurt 
the feelings of any gentleman, who may have had the honour of being 
an examiner thrust upon him. That examiners should be " From bias 
free of every kind" is most important to anyone sitting for examination, 
and on such subjects as library methods and management, on which 
so many opinions exist, I certainly think it would have been much 
more satisfactory if at least three examiners had been appointed. This 
induces me to ask by whom the examiners are appointed and what 
are the necessary qualifications to place them in that position ? 

At the annual meeting of the Association, held at Nottingham in 1891, 
it was proposed that before librarians were appointed as examiners, they 
should first undergo an examination themselves in order to qualify them 
for that position. Important as that proposal was, it was negatived, and 
as far as I know, some of the gentlemen appointed examiners have not 
yet even passed the examination for library assistants. 

Any information as to the modus operandi and results of examinations 
already held will, I am sure, be greatly appreciated by both librarians and 
their assistants. 


NOTE. (r) Certificates are not awarded by the examiners, but by the 
Council. (2) Upwards of twenty candidates entered for the Preliminary 
Examination. ED. 


DEAR SIR, Your editorial remarks with above heading are dis- 
appointing. I trust you will re-consider the decision arrived at. The 
numerous reviews of library catalogues appearing in the magazine are 
necessarily of great use to all administrators, "librarians, and others 
engaged in library management. Constant hints are obtained as to what 
is worthy of adoption and what to avoid. If librarians and committees 
be so thin-skinned I can hardly believe the instances are many that they 
cannot put up with any criticism which is not favourable, then for the sake 
of honesty and freedom of opinion, let us do without such weak-kneed 
brethren, and refuse to permit THE LIBRARY to become a mere trade list, 
or what might be even worse, the organ of a sort of mutual admiration 
society. I hope other librarians will speak out on this matter. 



[We are grateful to Mr. Folkard for his letter, and shall be very glad to receive 
other communications on this important subject. ED.] 


SIR, Is it necessary or desirable that criticisms by librarians, of 
methods of working public libraries should appear in papers like London 
while there is a recognised organ of librarianship? The pages of THE 
LIBRARY, one would think, would have been the proper place for the dis- 
cussion recently opened in London by "A London Librarian," or should 
I say " The London Librarian " ? regarding the progress of Clerkenwell. 


The Librarian's Dream. 

day lately I called on a learned friend, and found him 
very sad. He said he had had a sad dream : he had 
dreamt of a Social War, and a bloody triumph of Philistine 
Demos over leisure and learning. Culture became almost a 
crime. "Now," said I in reply, "you have got a glimpse of 
the nightmare which has haunted me for ten years. It is the 
mainspring of all my work. I have always had a longing to see 
literature condensed ; so that when the crash comes, there will 
be some monumental work (of which the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica ' gives an idea) to rise above the wreck. It ought not to be 
on paper, but graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for 

After an evening's talk I went home melancholy, and in my 
turn dreamed a dream. I was projected into some future age, 
centuries ahead. The crash had come and gone. Social 
democracy had trampled upon learning; libraries had been 
burnt in the convulsions, and universities turned into manual 
training schools. Then the Asiatic nations had burst their 
bounds, as predicted by Charles H. Pearson, and there had 
been a world-wide mingling of races. The infusion of Gothic 
blood into the Roman Empire amid the wrecks of ancient states 
and learned capitals, was merely a provincial foreshadowing on 
a small scale of what had now happened on a cosmic scale. At 
last, after centuries of Philistinism, there had come a revival of 
learning. Thanks to the art of printing, though it had fallen 
into desuetude (for the Orientals had taken us back to primitive 
copying), the gigantic researches of the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries had not perished. Away in remote corners of 
the earth chiefly in Scandinavia vast libraries had been pre- 
served, which elsewhere had vanished. It was also found that 
thousands of good books had been kept as heirlooms in families 
who could not read them, and who merely regarded them as 

2^2 The Library. 

relics of the past. And now there had been a hundred years of 
study and collection of the writings of the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries. It resulted in a congress of scholars, which 
really turned out to be a congress of librarians. The burning 
question was : How shall we digest and classify learning that 
we may not degenerate into the high-pressure night-work, the 
intellectual debauchery, and nervous tension which ruined the 
Great Civilisation ? We must allow specialists to accumulate 
all the details they want ; but we must have some state-pre- 
scribed method of digesting research, and abolishing the insanity 
of competition, with its wearisome individual repetition of the 
same facts. Then I saw in my dream that a board of scholars 
sat and prepared and revised, and were always preparing and 
revising, a standing cyclopaedia. It was the Cyclopaedia : it had 
no rival, and needed none. There were two editions, the long 
and the short. But I said that the congress of scholars resolved 
into a congress of librarians. This was because the plan of the 
Cyclopaedia was soon determined, and students were forthwith 
put to work on it. And they had the great Britannica for a 
prototype. But the librarians remained : they had a harder 
question to settle : how to classify a library ? A copy of 
Cutter's Rules had been unearthed, and that settled the cata- 
logue question ; but classification was the crux. Then I heard 
the din and gnashing of long debates : as a nineteenth century 
girl once put it, " theological language was used," but with no 
result to the cause of librarianship. But at last one of the 
quieter librarians, who had used no bad words, came forward 
and proclaimed that he had had a vision. The Oriental influx 
had re-established a healthy and non-morbid belief in (or rather, 
knowledge of) visions, and the wearied congress heard the an- 
nouncement like tidings of rain in summer. 

The seer then told how he had seen that no metaphysical, 
no scientific, nay, no " practical " system of classification was 
of any avail to gods or men. He saw in his vision, and so did 
I, an ideal library. There were two departments therein, and 
every book was duplicated one in each department. These 
departments were the geographical and the historical corres- 
ponding to the fundamental concepts of space and time. 
(Laughter, and cries of " Metaphysics ! ") But the seer went 
calmly on. Such a classification is an education in itself to 
every one walking through the library halls and reading the 
signs over the alcoves, especially when familiar enough with the 

The Librarian's Dream. 233 

system to compare the geographical and historical. The geo- 
graphical is mastered first. It combines museum and library. 
First, there are five immense halls for the five continents, and 
alcoves for every country. Pictures of landscape and models of 
buildings surmount the alcoves, while cases of botanical and 
other specimens radiate towards them from the great open 
space in the centre of the hall. The perplexities arising in the 
geographical department from the migration of nations and the 
scattered centres of learning (for in this department every 
science is classified under the country that best represents it) 
are solved in the historical. There all appears in series. The 
course of every race can be followed through the halls of the 
centuries, and in that of the latest age are gathered the standard 
works of science of the day, especially the Great Cyclopaedia. 
At the close of a century the Cyclopaedia is revised. Old 
editions are relegated to the crypts under each hall, together 
with all ephemeral books ; the century-hall is finally arranged, 
and thereafter remains unchanged. The geographical depart- 
ment, on the contrary, is being continually altered, enlarged and 
re-organised. This is why the perplexities of the geographical 
find solution in the historical. The student escapes from a chang- 
ing turmoil to a serene fixity, which explains so much that is 
chaotic in the geographical. In the historical he finds the pivots 
and landmarks of deed and thought. The century-halls, being 
more, are smaller than the continental halls ; but they cover an 
equal area, for they contain the same books over again. They also 
are museums, full of antiquities. The Greek statue, the Roman 
pilum, the Christian manuscript, the Gothic arch are seen in 
majestic perspective by the student who walks as in a dream 
from age to age. The antiquarian objects are the background 
upon which in his mind's eye are cast the images created by the 
books. The changing scenes of history are viewed in their 
appropriate environment ; abstract things become palpable ; 
and we see in concrete forms the ordered course of empires, 
philosophies and faiths. Between the century-halls are vesti- 
bules, containing books which bestride two centuries, like 
Shakespeare at the juncture of the sixteenth and seventeenth, 
and Goethe at the juncture of the eighteenth and nineteenth. I 
walked in my dream through the century-halls again and again, 
for I soon had wearied of the geographical, and abandoned them 
to globe-trotters, schoolboys, and Philistines. There was one 
thing, however, which compelled an occasional visit to the 

234 The Library. 

geographical ; for there I found the Sacred Books of the East and 
Triibner's Oriental Series (which had been recovered at the New 
Renaissance from the libraries of Trondhjem and Reykjavik) all 
together in complete sets in the Oriental vestibule, which stood 
in the centre of the geographical department, and toward which 
the halls of the five continents converged. Here was brought to 
a focus the sacred quintessence of the Nile, the Ganges, and the 
Jordan. There was, however, a short underground cut from the 
Oriental vestibule into the great hall of the Christian era. I saw 
the titles of strange scrolls lining the walls of that crypt, but I 
cannot remember any. At last, after a longer stroll than usual 
through the century-halls, I sat down in that of Scec. XIX., amid 
fragments of telegraph-poles and re-constructed locomotives, put 
together like specimens of palaeontology. (A specially good one 
had been dug up from an eminence, a little to the north of the 
ancient city of the Pennsylvanian Philadelphia, and which anti- 
quarians declare was right in the heart of the nineteenth century 
extension of it, and the site of vast locomotive-works.) My eye 
wandered along the titles of the books (though most of those 
belonging to this hall were in a cellar underneath its crypt the 
cellar is said to be very large and deep, but I did not visit it) ; 
and I could trace, in electric succession, the mad course of the 
age. I saw the opening decade and the terrific teens, loud with 
Napoleon and the wild notes of Byron and Shelley lighted by 
coal-gas and portentous with the figures of steamboats ; men and 
women huddled together in factories, Wordsworth protesting in 
vain. Then the brisk twenties and thirties, and the first thunder 
of the railway. Then the broadening forties, with their penny 
mails, their telegraphs, "march of intellect," revolutions and 
spiritualism the figure of CARLYLE titanic in the rising chaos, his 
lips foaming with prophecies of doom. Then the fiery fifties, 
with new ferments in Europe, and unknown craters opening in 
Asia and America ; India rousing old hates of Christian and 
Moslem, China torn with stupendous rebellion, the United 
States seething to the boiling-point ; the golden words of Tenny- 
son and Ruskin half-heard amid the bursting dams of literature; 
evolution announced by Darwin; and the mind of the age 
plunging from spirit into matter. Then the savage sixties- 
North America one fratricidal field from the city of Mexico 
to Gettysburg ; the States of ancient Italy shaken like a kaleido- 
scope ; the names of Lincoln, Garibaldi, Bismarck, pregnant 
with new ideals of dominion ; the very bowels of London dug out 

The Librarian's Dream. 235 

for subterranean trains. Then the tearing seventies, when the 
Great Civilisation went definitely mad the first gnashings of 
anarchy out of the ruins of magnificent Paris ; the heart of 
London dug out for railway termini ; third-class express trains 
and third-class ballot in one year ; snobs masquerading as 
patricians ; the United States drunk with victory and green- 
backs ; the august science of comparative theology wrested by 
prigs from the hands of scholars, to level the monarch religion 
beside folk-lore. Then the raging eighties, with their electric 
lights, telephones and type-writers, their mannish women and 
feverish men ; explosions of dynamite and shadows of coming 
anarchy ; Europe an armed camp ; literature swamped in news- 
papers. Then the insane nineties electric cars tearing through 
the streets of giant cities, maiming and killing the citizens ; the 
armed peace big with the great tribulation, a deadly hush before 
the hurricane ; a toy metropolis built of plaster for a summer 
show, crammed with the wealth of nations, and then demolished; 
the lights of learning clouded with whole trade- winds of literary 
dust ; the divine classics of the planet spit upon by novel-readers 
and ignorant ghost-hunters ; the Deity dethroned until at last I 
saw where the mad nineteenth century leapt alive into the 
maelstrom-cyclone of the twentieth. 

But the prodigious researches of its scholars had been 
refined in the crucible of time, and had come forth as gold. 
Even the snobs, vixens, ghost-hunters, demagogues and dyna- 
mitards were useful 

"To point a moral or adorn a tale." 

And I awoke. 


Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
March, 1894. 

New Ways of Keeping Down the Issues of Fiction. 1 

T BELIEVE that the briefly expressed opinions of twenty 
practical librarians, evoked during a discussion, are worth 
exactly twenty times as much as the opinion of one librarian 
expressed at length in a paper. For this reason, I have for 
some time urged that at our annual meetings, more valuable 
results would be obtained, if members would present to the 
meeting brief notes on any practical question that has come 
under their consideration, not so much to press upon the 
meeting the importance of their own notions, as to serve for a 
text for the notions of others. With this view, and as a mere 
outsider, I venture to place before the meeting a thought on 
the subject of the issues of fiction. Pray understand at the 
outset, that here and now I am neither an advocate for, nor 
against, the reading of fiction. I have my own strong views on 
the subject, but they do not concern the question now before 
you. The preponderance of fiction issues, whether in itself, a 
good thing or a bad thing, is undoubtedly used, oftentimes with 
sad effect, as a strong argument against the adoption of the 
Acts, and while I should repudiate any suggestion to deprive 
the ratepayers of the right of choosing freely their own reading, 
I would urge that any reasonable means likely to result in the 
diminution of the excessive percentages, so freely quoted against 
us, by the newspapers, is worthy of our attention. As an out- 
sider, the first thing that strikes me is that, all Public Libraries 
do their best to encourage and promote the excessive issues of fiction, 
while at the same time they profess to deplore the excess. That 
is to say, while they are perfectly content with one copy of 
Macaulay's History of England, when it comes to a sensational 
novel, they order copies by the dozen. When one lucky reader 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Associa- 
tion, Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

New Ways of Keeping Down the Issues of Fiction. 237 

asks for, and gets Macaulay, the next twenty applicants, or 
more, have to go away unsatisfied, or probably take with them 
a novel to fill up the time, until they get the book they really 
desire to read. But not only the first applicant, but the second, 
and up to the twentieth or more, go away rejoicing in the 
possession of copies of the same sensation novel. 

I would like to ask practical librarians whether it would not 
be worth trying, in a limited way, to reverse this order of things. 
I have not been able to make an exhaustive collation of cata- 
logues and issues, but I fancy that the issues of fiction bear a 
very close relation to the number of volumes of fiction upon the 
shelves, as compared with other literature. Would it not be 
possible in some libraries, particularly the newer ones, to try the 
experiment of getting half-a-dozen copies of the more popular 
non-fictional works, and only one copy of each of the novels 
chosen by the committee ? It seems to me certain that if this 
were done, the issues of fiction would go down rapidly, and 
moreover, in a perfectly legitimate way. 

I would further suggest as an encouragement to the more 
serious readers (and surely in these dreary days of struggle for 
existence, they do deserve some encouragement) that each 
reader on application should receive a second ticket, which could 
be used solely for non-fictional works. I think you would then find 
that the average novel-reader, on applying for his favourite 
novel, and finding it out, would very often be tempted to avail 
himself of his second ticket, and take with him something that 
might perhaps, do him no more good than a good novel, but 
would tend to bring down the exaggerated percentages which 
are made such baleful use of by adverse newspapers, and would 
indirectly help forward the movement we all have at heart, that 
is, the extension of Public Libraries throughout the land. 


Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and 
Circulating. 1 


" An old university town, betwixt the Don and the Dee, 
Looking over the grey sand dunes, looking out on the cold North Sea. " 

T F, as according to Dr. Arnold of Rugby, the eighteenth 
-* century was the seed-bed of modern history, then the nine- 
teenth century (practically and properly commencing with the 
French Revolution, when the seed first sprang into leaf) is the 
reaping time of modern history and discovery. Then the first 
nation to begin the reaping, was our own much loved country. 

While continential nations, either maddened by fiery drams 
of carnage and conquest, which in their frenzy they called Glory ; 
or, helplessly stupefied by opiate draughts of disaster and 
apparent ruin, lay exhausted and hopeless, then, Great Britain, 
strong, if not impregnable in its insular position, and in its 
resources of coal and iron, and immensely powerful in the practi- 
cal good sense of its population, in their pluck and perseverance, 
in their continual industry, in their never ceasing manufactures 
and ever extending commerce ; then, Great Britain, with hardly 
any of the evils, reaped in the next generation all the benefits 
which accompanied the advent of the new born Liberty. 

If it was a glory for men to have lived in the Elizabethan 
age, so is it with us in the Victorian age, for as in the days of 
good Queen Bess, discoverers were court favourites, so now all 
sorts of agencies are employed to extend our knowledge, and 
discovery is both fashionable and profitable. Christianity sends 
out missionaries like Moffat and Livingstone. Civilisation 
seconds it by sending travellers like Burton, Speke, and Stanley. 
Science comes in to help by its Challenger expedition. Our 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association 
Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

Aberdeen: Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 239 

very army which some think a waste substance (and the utilisa- 
tion of waste substances is the glory of the present age} in its inactive 
state measures base lines, and lays down trigonometrical surveys ; 
and when active conquers India, annexes Burmah, occupies 
Egypt, penetrates Abyssinian wilds and helps in their civilisa- 

To us adults, our army is the teacher of geography par 
excellence. No sooner is it in campaign than a battalion of news- 
paper correspondents tell to those who have to stay at home, 
all about the country invaded. Obscure, sleepy villages like 
that of Waterloo might have for ever remained so, but for 
our army operations, and so also might Tel-el- Kebir. Suddenly 
they are brought into prominence, figure in our maps adorned 
with two crossed swords as the site of a battle, become pilgrim- 
age places to Britons, and thus a source of wealth to the 
countries in which they are placed ; it is a wonder that both 
places, along with the whole of Switzerland have not been carried 
over to the Chicago Exhibition. 

SOj also, the marriages and inter-marriages of the members 
of our Royal Family teach us genealogy, heraldry, and con- 
tinental politics. The acquisition and accumulation of wealth 
by an ever insatiable commerce, is continually extending our 
knowledge, and so also is the spending of that wealth by the 
ever increasing number of tourists, globe trotters, sportsmen, and 
adventurers. When Pope enunciated his famous saying that 
" the proper study of man was man," the student's opportunities 
were few and far between as compared with the present, when 
everybody travels and knows every other body, when English 
students frequent continental universities, when Indian students 
take their degrees in Aberdeen, when Paris has been discovered 
to be the Yankee heaven, and when the highest study, aim, and 
ambition of all American lady millionaires is to marry an English 
nobleman, and in the matter of wealth to supplement his de- 
ficiencies. Their study is Noblemen. 

To a great many Englishmen the city in which you are at 
present is a veritable discovery of this century ; to bookish and 
learned Englishmen it is at best only a re-discovery. For, 
more than two centuries ago it was better known to many 
Englishmen than it was at the commencement of this century. 
Its reputation was an ancient one. According to John Major 
in his " De Gestis Scotorum," it was the original home of the 

240 The Library. 

Scottish monarchy, and down to the union of the crowns was the 
frequent and the favourite residence of many of the sovereigns. 
In the wars of Robert the " Brus," and also of Queen Mary, 
several of their most momentous conflicts took place in the 
county, and there the rebellion of 1715 originated. Charles I. 
had a warm regard for it, and bestowed on its citizens high 
privileges by his charters, because, alone faithful amongst the 
faithless Scottish burghs, it stood out on behalf of his divine 
rights. By his cavaliers and divines it was known as the Oxford 
of Scotland, and the reputation of its doctors, professors, and 
clergy was known to Clarendon, upheld by Archbishop Laud, 
and greatly praised and lauded by him. 

But if famous in England, the reputation of Aberdeen was 
infamous amongst the Scottish Covenanters. Samuel Rutherford 
called it " dreich and dry." It became the battlefield of every 
faction into which the distracted country was then divided, and 
was seized and plundered, its inhabitants murdered, and its 
houses burnt by each of the contending parties time after time 
as they got a temporary ascendency. 

The famous historian of the period, our clerk Spalding, 
who amongst annalists holds much the same position as Izaak 
\Valton does amongst fishers, tells the story in such quaint 
fashion, and in such minute detail, that it is not to be wondered 
at although he gave the name to a Book Club, and that his 
" Memorialls " should have been printed by two of them. After 
reading them, the surprising thing to the reader will be that any 
annals or records of the city should have escaped the severe 
plundering and the general havoc and conflagration in the city. 

Although not absolutely fatal to Aberdeen, yet the effects of 
the Civil War were extremely disastrous. After the accession 
of the Hanoverian dynasty the conservative inhabitants, cling- 
ing to the old .Scottish Stewart kings and to their favoured form 
of Church Government, fell from the high position they had 
formerly held at court. But 

"Then closed the age of sturt and strife, 
And better times sprung into life 
Whaur cannons smoked, noo houses reek, 
Whaur bullets whizzed, noo engines shriek, 
In peacefu' tilts the people strive, 
And at their simple labours thrive, 
Work blithely in the braid daylicht, 
And sweetly, soundly sleep at nicht.' 

Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 241 

So, at the close of last century Aberdeen was chiefly known by 
Londoners for its " salmon and Finnan haddocks," and on the 
continent for its worsted stockings and its pickled pork to such 
base uses had the intellects of Aberdonians been turned ! 

If Aberdeen appeared in Maps issued in London, all know- 
ledge of it seems to have disappeared in Gazetteers. Writing 
in the Aberdeen Almanack of 1838, Dr. Joseph Robertson says 
" Our fair city seems to have existed and (lamentable to say) to 
exist chiefly as a target for Gazetteers and Cockneys, from 
Ptolemy downwards, at which to shoot the blunt arrows of their 
ignorance." Whether the Devana of the Romans was Aber- 
deen as presently situated, or the Roman Camp at Culter, has 
been to antiquaries as good a subject for dispute as a Donny- 
brook fair is to Irishmen for a harmonious breaking of heads. 
As Dr. Robertson says " One writer will have it here, another 
there ; " one " in the vast Atlantic one in Ayrshire one 
somewhere north of the Forth, or in the bogs of Ireland. The 
Encyclopaedia Metropolitana locates it on the Banks of the 
Forth which is spanned by a noble arch through which 
bridge, says the Penny Cyclopaedia, that river, or the Dee 
magnificently flows its Town-house is said to be ornamented 
with two towers and spires " (a prophetic announcement, and 
long before it was so) having two places of worship in its West 
Church, two Roman Catholic Chapels, and one Episcopalian, 
two Universities in a village called old Aberdeen and near by, 
a river Don with " a fine Gothic arch of 67 feet square " over it, 
and at which a canal from the harbour terminated ; the whole 
overlooked by a mountain, surnamed the "Buck, or Cabrath, 
5,377 feet high." Another Gazetteer briefly describes it as a 
fishing village on the east coast of Scotland, the inhabitants of 
which live chiefly on fish and seaweed. That in the intervals of 
fishing the natives followed the noble Scottish profession of 
reivers cattle-lifters from the South in other words were 
simply thieves and robbers, was the universal English belief, 
and that all Aberdonians wore kilts was chronicled in the early 
and even later pictures of the Illustrated London News. 

Travellers in old times who have visited Aberdeen, vary in 
their accounts of it according to their varying moods of mind, 
the condition of the weather, or the parties they met. Richard 
Francks, the Englishman, visited it in 1658, and has nothing but 
praise to record. Dr. Johnson and his henchman, Boswell, came 
in 1773, and though the Doctor was handsomely treated and 

242 The Library. 

made much of, he is, as usual, not complimentary, but remarks 
on the reticence of speech of the Professors who cannie Aber- 
donians knowing the Doctor's eagerness for dispute, did not 
tempt him to growl. 

On his visiting Aberdeen in 1773, Burns called it " a lazy 
town near Stonehive " ; by which one is reminded of the parson 
of two little rocky islands in the Firth of Clyde the Cumbraes 
whose weekly prayer was " God bless the mickle and lesser 
Cumbraes, with the adjacent islands of Great Britain and 

If Aberdeen which had been quietly but very energetically 
improving itself for nearly fifty years was first brought into 
modern notice by the proposed introduction of a railway to it in 
1846, the real merit of the re-discovery of the city is due to Her 
Most Gracious Majesty and her Consort, Prince Albert, who in 
their yacht, and accompanied by a fleet of warships, visited it 
in 1848, on their way to Balmoral, which had been placed at 
their disposal by Sir Robert Gordon, the brother of Lord 
Aberdeen. By Her Majesty's purchase of this property, and by 
the erection of a palace thereon, the glories of dark Lochnagar 
once crowned in immortal poetry by Lord Byron were again 
materially crowned by Her Majesty acquiring it as her own pro- 
perty. One hundred and thirty-three years previous to this, the 
rebel and the rival standard to Her Majesty's dynasty had been 
uplifted on the Braes of Mar, and now the Royal Family locates 
itself in the rebel place, and not by the force of arms, but by a 
loving familiarity and a generous confidence entirely unprece- 
dented, captures every heart, and turns the rankest rebel 
Jacobites into devoted followers and trusted body-servants, who 
serve with a devotion which is characteristically faithful unto 
death, and was freely, frankly, and fearlessly appreciated and 
acknowledged as such. 

After this royal recognition of Aberdeenshire, its capital 
the entrance to Strathdee and the principal gateway to the 
Highland Palace suddenly sprang into recognition as a new 
discovery by the fashionable world. Crowds flocked into it and 
swarmed in the surrounding district ; in which the humble 
hostelries where the service was formerly given by Highland 
lassies, who though unadorned, were adorned thus most, and so 
would have delighted Wordsworth and all such true poets had 
to give place to flunkeyfied male waiters in regulation full-dress 
and white neckties ; with an entire absence of the comfortable 

Aberdeen: Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 243 

cosiness and the natural Scottish " couthiness " which was the 
distinguishing feature of the inns when Dr. Johnson visited 

Then, twenty-two years after its formation, the British Asso- 
ciation discovering that Aberdeen was possibly a tolerably 
civilised place, because Prince Albert resided near it and con- 
sented to be their President, visited it, and, pleased with their 
reception and with the profitable results of the large and suc- 
cessful meeting, revisited it in after years. 

Aberdeen was then discovered by the Social Science Congress. 
And now this year we have amongst us the Plumbers' Associ- 
ation, with the Lord Mayor of London ; the Carriage Builders' 
Association ; and the body of Librarians bookmen and book- 
lovers which I have the honour to address, and, as a citizen, to 
offer a cordial and hearty welcome. 

While bulking largely in the history of Scotland so long as it 
was a separate kingdom, it is not much to be wondered at 
although in early times Aberdeen was very much of a terra 
incognita to the invaders of the country. The Danes found it 
out, the Romans followed, and after that oor auld enemies the 
English. The last two found the range of the Grampians, or 
more properly " the passage of the Mounth," a formidable 
obstacle, but the bleak, cold climate, and the sterile soil still 
more formidable far less tempting than the fertile fields of 
Midlothian and Strathtay. Around Aberdeen and close up to 
the houses the low-lying lands lay in swamps and morasses. 
The steep banks and braes, which still bound Union Street 
gardens and the railway station, then outside the city, were 
thickets of broom and gorse; while for many miles beyond, the 
soil was invisible, being covered with weather-worn boulders of 
all sizes, deposited by ancient glaciers. Remains of these may 
still be seen by those who choose to keep their eyes open, in 
walls of eight or ten feet thickness to be found as the enclosures 
of many fields around the city, although for the purpose of 
macadamising the roads the stones have been materially re- 
duced of late years. 

Even so late as 1746 in the maps of the period, Aberdeen is 
represented as a place of some ten crooked, narrow, and steep 
streets, while all around it the country was lying waste and 
barren. Amid this howling wilderness there were patches laid 
out in pasture, where cattle picked up a scanty and miserable 
subsistence. The custody of the royal forest of the Stocket 

2 jA The Library. 

which extended some eight or ten miles around the city, had, 
with the reservation of the wood and game, been gifted to the 
citizens by King Robert in 1313 for an annual payment of 
ig 53. yd., which is still paid. But thegranthadto be strenuously 
defended against the claims of usurpers, who looked upon the 
ground as a kind of " no man's land." For 400 years it lay in 
its natural state, simply a covert for wild animals, but last 
century it was largely feued off at rents averaging about ten 
shillings an acre, and as population increased, the land has been 
taken up and so improved that it is now worth from thirty to fifty 
times the value at which it was given off. In these modern times 
many writers indulge in tirades as to the folly of our forefathers in 
so squandering the resources of the city at the time, alleging that, 
had the city rulers only retained their rights, Aberdonians might 
ever afterwards have sat tax free, but forgetting that by the 
stimulus thus given to industry they have given a character to 
Aberdonians of indomitable persevering industry and intelligence 
which is universally acknowledged in every colony, and indeed 
all over the world. 

A mixed race, deriving much of their stamina, endurance, 
and perseverance from the Norsemen and Scandinavians, the 
inhabitants of this north-eastern portion of Scotland could trace 
their ancestors far back even into pre-historic times by the 
monuments they had left behind them. The Standing Stones 
of Dyce are likely coeval with those at Stennis and Stonehenge, 
the Maeshowe and its Runic inscriptions, with the Newton 
Stone, and the Maiden Stone on Ben-na-Chie, the ancient under- 
ground Picts houses at Rhynie, the Barmekan at Echt, the 
vitrified fort on the Tap o' Noth, and the old chapel on the 
summit of Dunnideer are all pre-historic, and existed long before 
the Roman invasion. 

The Romans, bent on mere material conquests, found their 
way across the wild and rude Grampian mountains, and have 
left some slight traces of their occupation north of them, but 
recalled by troubles at home, they soon relinquished these, and 
abandoned their conquests. St. Columba (521), the apostle of 
the Scottish Highlands, on the other hand, bent on spiritual 
conquests more lasting than material ones, found his way as far 
north as Inverness, penetrated Aberdeenshire, and has left 
numerous traces of his personal presence, and also that of his 
followers, in tradition, in names of places connecting them with 
religious worship, but also in the erection of abbeys, monasteries, 

Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 245 

chapels, and cells, the existence of which are all authenticated by 
historical records. 

So much then for Aberdeen, in which I have endeavoured to 
give you many of you strangers to the district a brief resume 
of the position which our city holds in the general history of the 

(To be continued.) 

V > 

St, (3eor0e, ifcanover Square, public ^Libraries* 


THIS Library was opened on July 7 by the Right Hon. G. J. Goschen, 
M.P., accompanied by Mrs. Goschen, in the unavoidable absence of the 
Duke of Westminster (who is one of the Library Commissioners), through 
indisposition. Mr. R. C. Antrobus, chairman of the Commissioners, 
presided, and among the large company present were the Rev. D. Ander- 
son, rector of the parish, Mrs. Antrobus, Lord Walsingham, Sir William 
and Lady Flower, Rev. J. H. Ellison, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Tate, Colonel 
Bruce, Dr. Corfield, Rev. Dr. Hiles Kitchens, Captain Le Marchant, and 
the following members of the Library Board, Messrs. Adkins, Best, 
Burch, Cove, Lewis, Stirling, Mr. F. Pacy (Librarian and Clerk to the 
Commissioners), the Vestry Clerk, and many members of the Library 

The chairman in opening the proceedings expressed with regret the 
absence of the Duke of Westminster, and of Sir John Lubbock, who was 
at the last moment prevented from being present. In the course of 
further remarks, it was, he said, generally known that Public Libraries 
had been growing up around them, and about five years ago it occurred 
to some of them that St. George's should not be behind in securing such 
a good and useful institution. Subsequently, in June, 1890, a poll was 
taken, and resulted in a substantial and gratifying majority of votes in 
favour of the proposal; 3155 for and 2401 against the Act limited the 
expenditure to a penny rate, but he was glad to say that owing to the 
large ratable value of the parish a halfpenny rate would be sufficient to 
maintain their two libraries. They had been able to count upon a most 
noble gift from the Duke of Westminster, in the shape of the whole of the 
land upon which that building stood. (Applause.) They were therefore 
under great obligation to the Duke, who, by his generosity, had saved 
them from a very heavy outlay at the outset. After dwelling upon the 
many advantages and benefits which the Commissioners looked forward 
to the Library conferring upon the inhabitants, Mr. Antrobus concluded 
by giving a few details about the building and its contents. The whole 
of the departments, consisting of the Reference Library, Lending Library, 
Reading Room, Librarian's Office, c., would be found on the ground floor. 
12,000 volumes were placed in the Lending Department, including a good 
selection of music and musical literature, a small but well-chosen library 

St. George, Hanover Square, Public Libraries. 247 

of French and German works, and an excellent children's library, num- 
bering i, 600 volumes. The Reference Library contained six thousand 
volumes of important, and in most cases costly, works. There was another 
special feature which we must not forget to mention the Natural History 
Collection, which had been presented to the Commissioners by Mr. S. 
Prout Newcombe, of Chelsea. He trusted that this collection would prove 
of great educational value as a source of instruction to the parish at large, 
and if voluntary efforts were needed for its maintenance, that the Commis- 
sioners might obtain them. It was now his pleasurable duty to present 
the first copy of the Catalogue of the Lending Library to Mr. Goschen, 
and to ask the right honourable gentleman to formally declare the Library 

Mr. Goschen accepted the catalogue amid a round of applause. He 
said there was not one present who did not deeply regret the cause of the 
Duke of Westminster's absence. (Hear, hear.) The parish of St. 
George owed a deep debt of gratitude to his grace for the munificence 
he had shown in the presentation of the valuable site of their new 
Library. (Applause.) The Duke, as Mr. Antrobus had suggested, was 
a man of whom all London might be proud. With regard to the rate by 
which the new Library was to be maintained and eventually paid for, 
the Chairman had spoken of the reluctance of the minority of ratepayers. 
Well, he did not know that there was not some ground for the attitude of 
the ratepayer. Whenever any great social improvement was required 
the poor ratepayer alone had to find the money. (Laughter.) Now, he 
would suggest that as personalty was not at present rated, and it appeared 
to be escaping from its fair share of the burden, personalty should ease its 
conscience by making some substantial presents of books. (Hear, hear, 
and laughter.) In any case, however, the ratepayers would agree that 
they had in the Library something for their money. He had not so far 
been over the whole of the building, but it appeared to be a magnificent 
institution of the kind. (Applause.) He did not think that any parish 
of their number of inhabitants, could possibly wish for a finer building, 
for one better appointed, or for greater opportunities than this afforded. 
They had been a little behind in London with regard to public libraries. 
The provincial towns had been a good deal ahead in the movement, and 
as compared with other countries England as a whole had a deal of lee 
way to make up. (Hear, hear.) There were public libraries in some 
countries as far back as one hundred years ago, and their influence was 
such that the booksellers actually complained that through the institu- 
tion of the free libraries the sale of their books was restricted. He did 
not think the authors of the present day were disposed to look unfavour- 
ably on the public Library, but if they did regard it with jealous eyes, he 
did not think much of their opinions. For it was obvious that, the greater 
the literary sentiment in the mass of the population, the greater must be 
the demand for books as a whole. (Hear, hear.) There was one thing 
which he should like to say with regard to the social aspect of a library. 
It was a misconception that St. George's parish was composed exclusively 
of wealthy people. Of course, it had its essentially rich parts, but there 
were other parts inhabited solely by artisans and others who could not 
spare a great deal of money for books. To the smaller tradesman and 
the workman, therefore, institutions like that in which they were met were 
of inestimable value. A library like that, however, ought to suit the 
requirements of all classes, and he trusted that the Commissioners, who 
had worked so hard for the past four years, would always bear the fact 
in mind. He need not remind the company that a great responsibility 
rested upon the Commissioners, and upon their able Librarian, with regard 
to the selection of books. (Hear, hear.) The work of a librarian ought 


248 The Library. 

to be congenial. He had often thought that of all occupations that of a 
librarian should have the greatest fascination. To be able to range 
about a library like that, keeping records of the literature in hand, con- 
sidering what a limited amount would produce in books every year, 
and the claims of the different works upon public attention, was the 
pleasantest of occupations. He was not sure that they knew enough yet 
of the history and development of those institutions. How interesting 
it would be to them five years hence to know to what extent the advan- 
tages offered had been utilised ! Would it be the novel of to-day, the 
modern novel, that would be most taken up ? What part would the old 
classics of our literature, the Walter Scotts and others of that class, take 
in supplying the taste of the new generation ? Would the young read the 
same books they read when he and his hearers were young? What 
would be the attitude of the working-classes towards the great authors of 
the day ? He thought the ratepayers would be deeply interested to see 
to what extent the expenditure had been justified by looking to the degree 
of amusement on the one hand, or of learning on the other, which had 
been supplied. It was stated that of the funds only ,400 a year would 
be available for books ; but it was astonishing in these days how far a ^5 
note would go in the purchase of books. (Hear, hear.) To some ad- 
advanced student he would like to put this question : " Here is $ to 
spend on books, what books will you buy for it, and how many books can 
you buy for it ?" He understood that a great many of the library books 
were secondhand, not from the lending libraries where fashionable fingers 
had played too much havoc with the pages, but from the second-hand 
dealers. On looking through booksellers' catalogues he was astonished 
at the low prices. A book issued in all the glory of 305. came down to 
45. 6d. " uncut and perfectly fresh." He was afraid, however, that the 
student of literature must have the spirit of independence, and not form 
judgments according to those whose business it was to excite a " boom." 
(Hear, hear.) There were many of those ill-fated works ticketed 45. 6d. 
in the secondhand shops which were worth attention, and it had been 
ever so in the history of literature. Many of the greatest works in the 
English and other languages had not been "boomed" on their appear- 
ance, but their worth had nevertheless been great. (Hear, hear.) Many 
a cheap book, therefore, was also a useful book. And now he had only 
to express the hope that their Library would be so supported that it 
would be a credit to the parish of St. George, Hanover Square ; that it 
would ever have a purifying and ennobling influence on those who 
entered its walls ; that it would, in short, prove a benefit to all classes of 
the community. (Applause.) With feelings of the greatest pleasure he 
declared the Library open. (Loud applause.) 

Sir William Flower, Director of the Natural History Museum, in an 
address dealing more particularly with the Natural History Collection 
presented by Mr. Newcombe, said in that direction he would not echo a 
wish expressed by Mr. Goschen with regard to the books that many 
would be induced to contribute to the Library, or he was afraid in course 
of time the attention of visitors to the Natural History Room would be 
directed to a notice : " Rubbish may be shot here," but with proper 
acquisitions and arrangements, the museum would be one of which the 
parish might well be proud. He asked them to accord a most hearty 
vote of thanks to Mr. Goschen for the most eloquent speech he had 
made on the subject of that Library. The resolution having been 
seconded by the Rev. J. H. Ellison, and supported by Lord Walsingham, 
was put and carried unanimously. Mr. Goschen replied, and after a 
vote of thanks to the Chairman and Commissioners the proceedings 
terminated, and the visitors present were conducted over the Library. 


ZTbe BoMeian IReport for 1893. 

THE annual report of the Bodleian Library published in the supple- 
ment to the Oxford University Gazette of May 8th, records the largest 
numerical total of additions to the library in any year, 1891 excepted. 
The total number of items, printed and manuscript, thus added, is 57,206, 
of which 39,619, or more than two-thirds, have been contributed under 
the Copyright Act. By far the most important acquisition is the muni- 
ficent donation of MSS. by or relating to Shelley, from Lady Shelley, 
widow of the late Sir Percy Florence Shelley, Bart., the son of the poet. 
A portion of them are at present only permitted to be inspected under 
stringent conditions, but ten volumes of autograph MSS. are at the free 
disposal of students, and are for the most part publicly exhibited. There 
is probably no other great poet whose MSS . exist in so undeveloped a form 
as Shelley's, or, consequently, reveal so much of the growth of the piece 
in the author's mind, or of his habits of composition in general. Com- 
pared with this splendid acquisition, the other accessions of MSS. seem 
insignificant, yet several are of considerable importance, especially, per- 
haps, an Aramaic marriage contract of the year 956, if this be indeed 
" the earliest known dated specimen of cursive Hebrew writing." The 
collections of Dr. Shipper, 1685-1734, and of Dr. Bliss, ought to be of 
considerable importance for the history of Oxford and Oxfordshire. One 
would like to know more about the Irish MSS. described as "consisting 
of volumes of Ossianic poems and romantic stories." More important, 
perhaps, than any of the actual MSS. is a photographic facsimile of one 
in Earl Fitzwilliam's collection, presented by his Lordship. It is another 
recension of an anonymous English poem of the fifteenth century, a metri- 
cal rendering of Palladius De Re Rustica, which already existed in the 
Bodleian in a different form, and has been published by the Early Eng- 
lish Text Society. Earl Fitzwilliam's copy, however, is the identical copy 
dedicated to Humfrey, Duke of Gloucester, and contains dedicatory 
verses which refer to the gifts made by the Duke to the library of the 
University. There are many other important differences between the 
two MSS., and it is hoped that a parallel text edition will be undertaken. 
Many curious printed books have been acquired, but none of the items 
separately enumerated appear of extraordinary importance. One is 
singular, a collection of 469 \&&xi&\zgrafskriptir, or obituary broadsheets, 
ranging from 1823 to 1892, "sent from Iceland with a consignment of 
ponies to a Glasgow merchant, who offered it to the Bodleian." The 
largest acquisition of recent books from remote countries is one of South 
American literature, due to the liberality of Ernest Satow, Esq., C.M.G., 
lately H.B.M. minister at Monte Video, now in Morocco. 

A considerable amount of cataloguing and other bibliographical work 
is reported, especially the completion of the catalogue of incunabula by 
Mr. R. G. Proctor, now of the British Museum. From a statistical table 
prepared by Mr. Proctor, it appears that in May, 1893, the Bodleian 
possessed 4,832 separate books printed in the fifteenth century, besides 
605 duplicates and 172 fragments. We also hear of preparations for a 
catalogue of British and Irish books printed between 1500 and 1641, and 
for a music catalogue ; also of progress with the subject index and of the 
binding of 17,000 ordnance maps in 340 volumes. More important still 
is the shelving of additional space recently acquired, to such an extent 
that " for the first time within the present Librarian's tenure of office, and 
probably for a much longer period, the Bodleian building contains suffi- 
cient proper shelving for the books within its walls." Room has also 

250 The Library. 

been provided in most cases for extension for a very considerable 
number of years ; and pressure has been relieved almost everywhere 
except as regards the sections of bibliography and palaeography, which 
must be kept in the reading" room. This enormous benefit, and the 
Shelley presentation, will render an otherwise uneventful year memorable 
in the annals of the Bodleian. 

iRotes ant) (Sluertes, 


Our Local Board being the Urban authority on the 22nd June 
last appointed a Committee, consisting of seven of its members with 
five townsmen, as the Library authority. At their next meeting on the 
6th July they rescinded their former resolution. Will you kindly inform 
me if the rescinding of the resolution is not out of order ? In appointing 
a Committee by an Urban authority, how long are they elected for ? and 
in what manner do they retire ? 


Before replying I should like to know whether there are any 
standing orders regulating the proceedings of the Local Board in ques- 
tion, and particularly is there a standing order to the effect that one 
month's notice must be given of any motion to rescind a resolution 
passed by the Board ? This is customary. I should also like to have a 
copy of the resolution appointing the Library Committee, and also of 
the resolution rescinding it. I wish to know whether the Committee 
was appointed for any specified period, and the terms of the appointment. 


I beg to send you copies of the resolutions as passed. There are no 
particular standing orders regulating the proceedings of our Local Board, 
but a fortnight's notice must be given to move any particular resolution, 
and also to rescind a resolution passed by the Board. The Committee 
were appointed with the idea that four would retire annually just the 
same as Commissioners, the vacancies being filled by the Local Board 
or District Council as the case may be. Is it usual for the Treasurer 
and Secretary of Public Libraries to have voting power ? Apologising for 
troubling you so much. 


22nd June, 1894. 

That this Board appoint seven of its members with five townsmen as a 
Free Library Committee, and delegate to it all of its powers and duties 
under the Public Libraries Acts, and this Committee shall be deemed to be 
the Library Authority. 

6th July, 1894. 

That the resolution passed at the last meeting appointing seven members 
of the Board with five outside gentlemen as a Public Library Committee, be 
and is hereby rescinded. 

Legal Notes and Queries. 251 


I reply to these questions with some doubt, as the resolutions of the 
Board have given rise to a very complicated state of affairs. In my 
opinion the resolution of 22nd June was inoperative until the whole 
number of the Committee had been appointed by the Board, and that 
until this is done the Local Board is the Library Authority and at liberty 
to rescind that resolution. 

If the resolution had been completed by the appointment of the 
members I should have no hesitation in saying that it could not be 
rescinded as the Board would (without reservation) have delegated all 
its powers to the Committee (Public Libraries Act, 1892, sect. 15 [3]). 
The resolution appointing the members should, however, state the period 
for which they are appointed. If this is not done then I think the Com- 
mittee would only continue in office until the date of the Annual Meeting 
of the Board when Committees are usually appointed, but this would not 
be the case if vacancies are filled up as they occur. Under the circum- 
stances (and if I am right) the resolution of 6th July purporting to 
rescind the previous resolution need not be considered, but it seems to 
me to be open to objections : (i) That the fortnight's notice of intention 
to move it was not given, and (2) it does not rescind the resolution ap- 
pointing the members of the Board on the Free Library Committee. 
The Treasurer or Secretary of a Public Library would only have the 
right to vote if he were also a member of the Committee. The practice 
varies ; in most cases these officers are paid officials. 


(a) Is it possible for the Library Commissioners to recover in Court of 
Law from the surety who signs the enclosed voucher, the value of any 
book lost or not returned, and fines incurred by the borrower ? 

(fr) Or, is it essential for the voucher to be stamped ? 


I am of opinion : (a) Yes. (b] Yes. I express the latter opinion with 
some doubt, as I can find no case on all fours. There is no question that 
the undertaking by the guarantor is an agreement, and to entitle you to 
use it in an action in the County Court without being stamped, the onus 
would lie on you of showing that it came within one or other of the 
" exemptions," and I regret to say that I cannot find any exemption 
which would cover such a document as this. If the liability upon the 
agreement was limited to a sum under $ you could claim exemption. 

I presume you have observed the note (c ) on page 20 of Public Library 
Legislation, where proceedings were taken against the borrower. Whether 
his undertaking requires to be stamped or not I am not prepared to say, 
but the whole SMbject is one of difficulty and importance, and if the 
amending Bill (which has been drafted, and is, I believe, in the hands of 
Sir John Lubbock) becomes law, I think your difficulties will be removed 
by the power to make bye-laws. 

252 The Library. 

Xtbrarp IRotes ant) IFlews. 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ASTON MANOR. A correspondent, having called the attention 
of Ouida to the action of the Aston Free Library Committee in 
excluding her novels, and the works of Fielding and Smollett, from the 
ending department, and having forwarded to her the correspondence and 
articles from the local press upon the subject, together with the speech of 
Mr. S. Fisher (the chairman of the Aston Local Board), who explained 
the absence of Ouida's novels to the limited finances at the disposal 
of the committee, and the desire to supply the library with English fiction 
before French writers were introduced, has received the following reply 
from the authoress : " Sir, I thank you for your communication. I am 
gratified to be excommunicated in company with Fielding and Smollett. 
I am more English than French by blood, but I do not suppose the wise 
chairman knew this. It is lamentable that such bigotry should exist. 
With compliments, yours, Ouida." 

BRIG-HTON. The Local Government Board Provisional Order Bill 
giving the Brighton Corporation extended powers to provide libraries and 
newsrooms in the Borough, has passed through the Committee stage in 
House of Commons, without opposition. 

BRISTOL. An account, with illustrations, of the Redland Free 
Library appeared in the Bristol Observer of June Qth. 

BROMLEY, KENT. Mr. John Harrison, sub-librarian of the 
Lewisham Public Libraries, and formerly chief assistant at the South 
Shields Public Library, has been appointed librarian of the public library 
about to be established at Bromley, Kent. 

CAMBORNE. On July 6th, the Local Board rescinded the resolu- 
tion passed at the last meeting that the Free Library Committee should 
consist of seven representatives of the Local Board and five from outside. 

CAMBRIDGE. The Athenaum says that the will of the late 
Professor Robertson Smith has just been proved. By it he leaves his 
Arabic and Syriac manuscript books, together with twenty early-printed 
or scarce books to be selected by the librarian, to the University Library, 
Cambridge. With this exception, the whole of his working library, 
which is very valuable, is left to Christ's College. A preliminary meeting 
has been held, at which it was agreed that there should be a memorial at 
Cambridge of the late professor, and it was suggested that this might be 
done by raising a fund for the maintenance and extension of his library 

Library Notes and News. 253 

at Christ's College for the benefit of all Oriental students, and for the 
purchase of further manuscripts for the University Library. A meeting 
will be held at Cambridge early in October. 

COLCHESTER. The Corporation have appointed as Librarian of 
the Free Public Library Mr. G. W. Atkinson, who for the past three 
years has been Chief Librarian of the Salisbury Public Library. 

COVENTRY. On May 23rd, at the City Petty Sessions, a man was 
summoned by the City Council for stealing an atlas of anatomy from 
the Reference Room at the Library. The case was admitted, but it was 
urged that defendant was a man of weak mind, and the bench dealt with 
him under the First Offenders' Act, and ordered him to come up for 
judgment when called on. 

DEWSBURY. The Corporation, on July 2nd, opened two free 
reading-rooms in the mansion at their new park at Crow Nest. 

DUBLIN. A description of the National Library appeared in the 
Dublin Saturday Herald of May 5th. 

The Four Courts' Library Act has received the royal assent. 

GLASGOW. At a meeting of the Libraries Committee of the Town 
Council, held on 25th June, it was announced that a legacy of between 
,3,000 and 4,000 had been left to the Mitchell Library by the late Mr. 
Edward Lewis Campbell, who resided at Hillhead, and who died in 
Edinburgh a month ago. 

G-RIMSBY. At a meeting of the Grimsby Corporation on June 8th, 
the Mayor (Alderman Doughty) proposed that the necessary proceedings 
be taken to establish a free public library in Grimsby under the provisions 
of the Public Libraiies Act, and the appointment of a committee for that 
purpose. The Town Clerk read a letter from the Mayor, offering to give 
1,000 volumes to start the library, and expressing the opinion that others 
would be found to present the remainder of the books required. It was 
estimated that the building would cost ,3,000. Mr. Pickvvell seconded 
the resolution, which was adopted. 

On June 25th, it was decided to erect one building for the purpose of 
technical education, and for the public library. 

HARTLEPOOL. On May Qth, a temporary newsroom was opened 
by Alderman Graham. 

LEICESTER. The police of Leicester have arrested three persons 
for a series of 35 robberies, including breaking into the Public Library and 
taking 8s. 6d. between 9 p.m. of the loth May and 7.15 a.m. of the nth. 

LEYTON. A series of articles is appearing in the Leytonstone, 
Express and Independent, on " How to use the Leyton Free Library." 
The first appeared on May 25th. 

LINCOLN. Colonel Seely, M.P., has given ,1,200 to the Public 

LONDON : CHELSEA. A complimentary leader upon the report 
of this library appeared in the Daily Chronicle of the I3th July, but in 
referring to the census of " A Day's Reading," contained in the report 
the writer says : " What the librarian understands by ' Kellogg's Light of 

254 Tht Library. 

Asia 'and 'The Light of the World,' we are at a loss to guess. The 
books that we know by these titles were written by Sir Edwin 
Arnold." This proves that even editors do not know everything, as the 
book referred to is the well-known one comparing Christianity and 

LONDON : DEPTFORD. The result of the voting in this parish 
for the adoption of the Public Libraries Act was as follows : Against 
adoption, 3,552 ; for adoption, 2,316 ; majority against, 1,236. This is 
the fourth time the adoption of the Act has been voted upon and rejected 
in Deptford. 

LONDON : FINSBURY PARK. Owing to the great want of a 
public reading-room in the north of London, a number of gentlemen have 
combined, and on April 3oth opened a house in the Blackstock Road, 
Finsbury Park, as a free reading-room and library. As far as funds will 
allow, the rooms will be stocked with papers, magazines, and books. 

LONDON: HAMMERSMITH. Mr. W. McDouall, assistant 
librarian at the Twickenham Public Library, was appointed, in June, sub- 
librarian to the Hammersmith Library. 

LONDON: HAMPSTEAD. On June I4th, Mr. Henry Harben, 
J.P., L.C.C., presided at the meeting of the Hampstead Vestry, and pre- 
sented a cheque for ,3,500 towards the cost of the erection of the pro- 
posed central library, a site for which has been secured in the Finchley 
Road. He further offered, on condition that none of the cost of the 
building falls upon the ratepayers, to defray the whole cost if the total 
amount does not exceed ,5,000. The offer was received with loud cheers, 
and a unanimous vote of thanks was awarded to Mr. Harben for his 
generous gift. 

A movement has been set on foot for establishing a permanent 
memorial of the late Professor Henry Morley, at Hampstead, where he 
lived for more than thirty years. It is proposed to purchase his library 
of about 12,000 volumes, so that it may be placed in the new central 
library about to be erected, the collection of books to be kept under the 
name of "The Henry Morley Library." 

LONDON : LONDON LIBRARY. Under the presidency of Mr. 
Leslie Stephen, the annual meeting of the subscribers was held on June 
I4th, at the library, St. James's Square. It was reported that the library 
had made satisfactory progress during the past year, there being an 
increase in the collection of books and in the number of subscribers. 
During the year 4,065 books and ninety pamphlets had been added 
and catalogued, and the number of volumes circulated was 120,847. To 
fill the vacancies on the committee Mr. R. C. Christie, Mrs. J. R. Green, 
the Rev. S. Lcathes, Mr. W. S. Lilly, Mr. St. George Mivart, and Mr. 
Herbert Spencer were elected, this being the first time a lady was placed 
on the committee. 

LONDON : PADDINGTON.-At a special meeting of the vice- 
presidents and committee, the following resolution was unanimously 
passed: "That the committee of the Paddington F>ee Public Library 
hereby express their deep regret at the loss which the country has sus- 
tained by the death of Lord Chief Justice Coleridge, president of this 
library from its foundation in 1888, and they beg to tender their sincere 

Library Notes and News. 255 

sympathy to Lady Coleridge and other members of the family in the sad 
bereavement they have suffered." Miss Salusbury, daughter of the late 
Mr. E. R. G. Salusbury, M.P. for Chester, was unanimously appointed 
librarian and secretary in succession to Mr. Caddie, who has secured 
another appointment. 

LONDON : ST, GILES'S DISTRICT. The Duke of Bedford, on 
July loth, laid the foundation stone of the new public library in High 
Holborn for the St. Giles's district. There is at present a temporary free 
library in Southampton Row. The site of the new building to be erected 
in High Holborn is between the District Board's Offices and Messrs. 
Kent's premises. A tender for the erection of the building for the sum of 
,6,440 has recently been accepted. The work of building will be 
immediately commenced, and the commissioners hope that it will be 
completed within twelve months. 

LONDON : ST. PANCRAS.-The result of the poll in this large 
parish on the question of adopting the Public Libraries Act, was declared 
on July 3 ist, as follows : Against adoption, 6,248 ; for adoption, 4,574 ; 
majority against, 1,674. 26,000 voting papers were issued, but a very 
large number were returned blank. 

MAIDENHEAD. On June 3rd, the Town Council, by a majority of 
five, decided that " the present is an inopportune time for the adoption of 
the Public Libraries Acts within the borough. It was suggested that the 
guarantors, who had promised ,1,000, be thanked, when one of the 
councillors replied, " I don't thank them for wasting my time ! " 

MANCHESTER. A new branch library was opened on July 7th, 
at Openshaw, by Mr. R. C. Christie. This is the eleventh branch 
library in addition to four public reading-rooms which has been 
established by the Corporation, and is one of the largest and best 
appointed. The buildings, which have been erected from the designs of 
Messrs. J. W. and R. F. Beaumont, embrace a free public library and read- 
ing-room, boys' reading-room, public hall, and technical class-rooms. 
A new feature is added in the form of a coffee tavern, with billiard- 
room and smoking-room. The Public Libraries Committee have been 
enabled to provide for the wants of the district of Openshaw largely 
through the generosity of the legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth. 

quarterly meeting of this Association took place at Manchester on June 
1 5th, and comprised visits to a large number of the public and other 
libraries of that city, the Openshaw new library building (described above) 
being the chief point of interest. The business meeting, preceded by tea, 
took place at the Public Reference Library, King Street, the principal 
feature being the reading of a paper by Mr. A. Lancaster, librarian, St. 
Helens, on " Book Exhibitions and the Purchase of Expensive Books for 
Free Libraries." There was a large attendance, numbering nearly forty, 
including several lady chief librarians and assistants, and librarians of 
fifteen libraries in the district, with large contingents from Liverpool and 
Manchester, including Mr. P. Cowell, chief of the Liverpool libraries, and 
Mr. C. W. Sutton, chief of the Manchester libraries, the latter gentleman 
presiding in his usual courteous and able manner. The very interesting 
meeting concluded with visits to three of the fine series of branch 
libraries and reading-rooms of which Manchester citizens have reason to 

256 The Library. 

be proud. At the present time there are thirteen of these, and they are 
being rapidly added to. The usual votes of thanks and acknowledgments 
for hospitality and attention received concluded a very pleasant and 
profitable meeting. 

meeting of this association was held at Peterborough in July. Visits were 
paid to the free library and the cathedral, where the Rev. Canon Clayton 
courteously acted as guide. In the evening a meeting of the association 
was held in the Guildhall, under the presidency of Mr. Crowther, chief 
librarian, of Derby. There were also present : Messrs. Kirkby (vice-presi- 
dent) and Herne (Leicester), J. T. Bradford (secretary), Briscoe, Easom, 
Moore, Gerring, Carlin, and several ladies (Nottingham), Jastrzebski 
(Peterborough), Gouk (Mansfield), Baker and Pratt (Midland Institute, 
Derby), and others. Several matters of interest to librarians were 
discussed, especially the experiment of free access to the shelves, now 
being tried at Clerkenwell Free Library. Mr. Gerring read "A Note 
on Three-Volume Novels," advocating their abolition in favour of cheaper 
issues. Messrs. Crowther, Herne, Briscoe, Moore, and others took part 
in the subsequent discussion. Votes of thanks to the Mayor for the use 
of the Guildhall, to the Dean for permission to visit the Cathedral, to 
Canon Clayton for acting as cicerone, and to Mr. Jastrzebski for the local 
arrangements, concluded a very successful and pleasant meeting. 

READING-. The Town Council, in June, decided upon the draw- 
ings and plans for the proposed art gallery, and extension of the 
library and museum. The property was bought by Mr. George Palmer 
and other members of the family ot the late Mr. W. I. Palmer, and pre- 
sented to the town. Messrs. Cooper and Howell are the successful 

RICHMOND, SURREY. It has been decided to open the library 
on Sunday from six till nine in October ; the regular assistants to receive 
2s., and an extra one, is. 6d. for Sunday duty. 

ST. HELENS. It has been decided by the Library Committee, 
that " persons not being ratepayers or residents, but employed or attend- 
ing school in the borough should be entitled to become borrowers on the 
payment of an annual subscription of 55., payable in advance." 

SHEFFIELD. Mr. Samuel Smith, chief librarian at Worcester, has 
been appointed chief librarian at Sheffield out of forty-six candidates. 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA. In July a poll of the burgesses was taken 
as to whether the Public Libraries Act should be adopted. Only 201 voted 
in favour of the adoption of the Act, and 787 against, leaving a majority 
of 586 against. 

TODMORDEN. A discussion is being conducted in the Todmorden 
Advertiser, on the question of adopting the Public Libraries Acts in this 

TRURO. On May 8th, at the meeting of the City Council, the 
following letter was read : "51, Bedford Square, W.C., April 28th, 1894. 
Dear Mr. Mayor, As Truro is joint participator with Falmouth, Cam- 
borne, and Rcdruth of the Ferris bequest, and as, in answer to repre- 
sentations from each of these places, I have undertaken to provide a 
suitable free library building ; and as I am informed that your library is 
'cabined, cribb'd, confined,' and altogether inadequate for public pur- 

Record of Bibliography and Libmry Literature. 257 

poses, I beg to state through you that I would willingly and cheerfully 
act towards Truro as I have towards the three mentioned places, and on 
the same condition which accompanied them that is, I would provide a 
building to cost ^2,000" (applause) "or, in other words, I would treat 
the four towns alike, or as they are treated in the bequest. If this offer is 
accepted, I think it would be well to begin the work as soon as con- 
venient. I am, my dear Mr. Mayor, yours faithfully, J. PASSMORE 

WIDNES. On July 6th, Mr. T. Sutton Timmis, J.P., laid the 
foundation stone of a free library and technical school for Widnes. 

WAKEFIELD, On July i6th, the Provisional Committee on the Free 
Library question at Wakefield, unanimously decided to send in a requisi- 
tion to the Mayor asking him to take a poll of the ratepayers on the ques- 
tion of adopting the Free Public Libraries Act. 

IRecorfc of JBfbliograpbp an& Xtbrars ^literature, 

A Catalogue of a portion of the Library of Edmund Gosse, Hon. 
M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge. By R. J. Lister. 

Privately printed for the subscribers at the Ballantyne Press, London. 
1893, 4 to - Only 65 copies printed. Pp. xxi., 195. 

We are afraid that Mr. Gosse's catalogue is another book which ought 
to have been noticed sooner, though in this case the extremely small 
number printed has made it difficult of access except to the fortunate sub- 
scribers. The catalogue is the work of Mr. R. J. Lister, who helped Mr. 
Frederick Locker in compiling the catalogue of the Rowfant Library, and 
is an excellent piece of work, to which the Ballantyne Press has done full 
justice in the matter of print and paper. The collection itself is of great 
interest, and one which many much wealthier bookmen than Mr. Gosse 
might well envy. There are no books in it, unless we have overlooked 
them, earlier than 1600, and very few earlier than 1660. But the array of 
first editions of the Restoration Dramatists is very notable, and Mr. Gosse 
is probably justified in his boast that no other library, not even that of the 
British Museum, possesses so many. Some idea of its wealth in this 
respect may be given numerically by noting that there are no less than 
forty-one first editions of works by Dryden ; twenty-four of James Sher- 
ley ; and eighteen of Aphara Behn ; while Congreve, Farquhar, Otway 
and other less prolific writers are equally well represented. To the editors 
of these playwrights Mr. Gosse's help is thus well nigh indispensable, 
and it has already been given in several instances. Except to their 
editors, however, the first editions of these later dramatists are not very 
interesting ; and most collectors will be more inclined to envy Mr. Gosse 
his unique array of presentation copies of the rarer books, often privately 
printed, of some of the best known writers of the present day. Messrs. 
A. H. Bullen, Robert Bridges, Sidney Colvin, Austin Dobson, W. H. 
Henley, Henry James, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Rudyard Kipling, Andrew 
Lang, Frederick Locker, Walter Pater, Coventry Patmore, D. C. Rossetti, 
W. B. Scott, R. L. Stevenson, Swinburne, and Lord Tennyson, have all 
contributed to enrich Mr. Gosse's library in this way, and the commonest 

2^8 The Library. 

books they have printed, enriched with their autograph inscriptions, and 
sometimes with charming verses, would become interesting to the literary 
collector. But the books they have presented have, in most instances, an 
interest of another kind, and few of them can now be obtained either for 
love or money. Thus, besides the other privately printed books, Mr. 
Bridges has made Mr. Gosse his debtor by the gift of the Carmen 
Elegiacuns, which he wrote while a student at St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; 
from Mr. Henley he has received the first editions, printed in the hopes of 
attracting an enterprising manager, of the plays written in collaboration 
with Mr. Stevenson, from Mr. Lang, the trial versions of his Theocritus, 
and of the sixth book of the Odyssey, made ere yet the help of Mr. 
Butcher had been secured for the better rendering of the Greek. Mr. 
Stevenson's gifts are too numerous to be recorded in full, for here is the 
first essay of his pen, The Pentland Rising, printed in 1866 ; The Charity 
Bazaar, a delightful squib, covering four pages of ribbed quarto paper ; 
all the Davos Platz books ; and one single sheet, containing, "A Martial 
Elegy for some lead soldiers," at the foot of which is written: 

The verse is mine, the printing done by Sam, 

The Boss of printing Bosses ; 
This copy, of the first edition last, 

I testify is Gosse's, 

the " Sam " of the first line being Mr. S. L. Osbourne, Mr. Stevenson's 
son-in-law, and collaborator in The Wrong Box and The Wrecker. Among 
other desirable sets we may single out for special mention the little collec- 
tion of Edward Fitzgerald's works, the Euphraner of 1851 ; Polonius of 
'52 ; the Salaman and Absdl of '56 ; and The Two Generals [1868?], in 
addition to the translations of Calderon, Omar Khayyam, and the 
Agamemnon and QLdipus, which are comparatively common. Books 
printed by Mr. Daniel at Oxford, and the publications of the Grolier 
Club of New York are among Mr. Gosse's newer treasures. An edition 
of the Poems of J. R. Lowell deserves mention for its imprint, " C. E. 
Mudie, 28, Upper King Street, 1844." It represents Mr. Mudie's single 
essay as a publisher before he turned his attention to starting the circu- 
lating library in which his interests and those of the trade with which he 
here experimented, are by no means identical. Another interesting little 
book is the Catalogue of the exhibition of the pictures of Mr. Ford Madox 
Brown in 1865, tne first of the "one man" exhibitions which have since 
become so popular. But of such pleasant rarities Mr. Gosse possesses 
many more than we have space to chronicle. 

Specimens of Royal, Fine and Historical Bookbinding, selected 
from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. 152 plates, printed 
in facsimile by W. Griggs. With an introduction and notes by 
R. R. Holmes, F.S.A., Librarian to the Queen. London: W. 
Griggs and Sons, Limited, 1893. Fol. Price ^"5 53. 

We must apologize to our readers for the accident by which we have 
hitherto delayed noticing this handsome book, which is magnificent 
enough to deserve a better treatment. In the matter of the cover, indeed, 
and of the decoration of the margins of the preliminary leaves, it may be 
questioned whether magnificence is not carried rather too far. The 
designs for these decorations are taken from Persian manuscripts of the 
Shah Nameh, now at Windsor Castle, and though very splendid in them- 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literatim. 259 

selves, do not accord well with English paper and print. In the repro- 
ductions of the bindings, Mr. Griggs has on the whole done slightly better 
than in the illustrated catalogue of the bindings at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club, but his work is continually improving, and we hope to see even 
better plates by him than these. The majority here are excellent, but the 
two great difficulties in all such illustrations, the avoidance of flatness and 
the attainment of the real colours of the leather, have occasionally 
triumphed over the artist's skill. Of the choice of the bindings to be 
illustrated there is not very much to be said. The Royal Library has been 
twice depleted for the enrichment of the British Museum, once when the 
old Royal collection was transferred to the nation by George II., and a 
second time when George IV., not without value received, handed over 
the present " King's Library" formed by George 1 1 1. Thus the books now 
at Windsor, with one or two exceptions, have all being acquired, mostly 
by purchase, since 1830. That so many interesting bindings have been 
brought together speaks well for the skill and alertness of the Royal 
librarians, but the number of examples here reproduced is certainly 
greater than the wealth of the collection warrants, and it may be doubted 
whether some of the bindings, if sold, would fetch as much as the cost of 
the illustrations of them. It must be owned, however, that most of the 
poorest specimens are wanted to fill gaps in the sequence of examples of 
special bindings for the successive Kings and Queens from Henry VIII., 
onward, and their presence is therefore excusable. As it is, Mr. Holmes 
is able to boast that only one English sovereign, Queen Mary, is un- 
represented, and if we accept the theory that a binding with the royal 
arms is a royal book we do not see on Mr. Holmes' showing, why this 
exception should be made. Plate 5 shows a copy of Paynell's transla- 
tion of The Conspiracie of Catiline, printed by John Waley, and bound in 
vellum with large gilt stamps in the centre and sides. The plate is fool- 
ishly lettered " Bound for Henry VI 1 1.," but in the description it is said to 
have been " Printed and bound about 1557," though it preserves an earlier 
dedication to Henry. The Museum copy is actually dated 1557, and if we 
agree with Mr. Holmes that the book was bound in the same year, the 
royal arms in the centre would be those of Mary. To our thinking, how- 
ever, the binding is probably some ten or fifteen years later. 

The discrepancy which we have noticed in this case between the under- 
line on the plate and the formal description exists in several other instances. 
Thus three blind stamped bindings bearing the royal arms (plates 2 to 4) 
are all lettered " Bound for Henry VIII.," though Mr. Holmes in his pre- 
face admits the absurdity of this theory so beloved by booksellers, the 
truth being that the arms of the reigning sovereign were stamped on 
bindings by certain stationers, possibly in gratitude for royal favours, but 
certainly with no intention of indicating that the books they enclosed were 
intended for the royal library, or even, as Mr. Holmes tries to argue, that 
such particular care had been spent on their production that they were 
not unfit for its shelves. How far the same state of things prevailed later 
on with gilt stamps is a more difficult question. We are quite certain that 
we are at liberty to doubt whether the copy of the Eikon Basilike, shown 
on plate 34, was really bound for Charles II., as stated. It is much more 
probable that the royal arms were merely stamped on the covers in 
sympathy with the subject of the book, and this principle may probably 
be extended to a good many other cases. 

Turning over the leaves of the book the first really notable binding we 
come to is the fine cover, bearing on labels the inscriptions "The Kynges 
Revenues," "Anno Quinto Regis Edwardi Sexti." In the centre are the 
king's arms, and there is a handsome fillet round the margins in the 
Venetian style. Plate 2 shows a delightful vellum binding tooled in the 

260 The Library. 

style attributed to the Eves, and executed for Queen Elizabeth. Unless 
we are mistaken it is the same binding which attracted great attention 
when exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. After this we have a 
long series of the common calf bindings, made hideous by the emblems 
of Henry, Prince of Wales. Those bound for Charles I. after he succeeded 
his brother as Prince of Wales, and during his reign show much better 
taste. A copy of Fuller's Holy State (1642) in olive morocco (?), with 
some light tooling in the corners, is a really graceful piece of work. The 
" Poesie Latine" of Cardinal Barberino, bound for Henrietta Maria in the 
same year (plate 27) reminds us how sadly Italian taste had deteriorated 
since the days of Aldus. Two Eikons (plates 35, 36) are interesting for 
their silver clasps and medallion bearing the King's portrait. A Bible of 
1660, in blue morocco, with gold foliage, is a splendid specimen of ornate 
English work, and we are glad to see that a special plate is devoted to its 
back. The cover of Wright's Account of Lord Castlemaine 1 s Embassy to 
Rome, 1688, in red morocco, with Le Gasconesque tooling, is another fine 
piece of English work, and the same may be said for a List of Ships of 
the Royal Navy, bound in 1715, for George I. But the decadence was 
now approaching, and the Tasso of 1745 and Bible, bound in the reign of 
George II., with inlaid leathers, are only worthy of the Great Exhibition. 
The last royal binding shown is a Persian cover, enclosing a translation 
of the Queen's More Leaves from our Journal in the Highlands, a fine 
modern specimen of oriental work. 

Among the other bindings of which illustrations are given we may 
note especially characteristic examples of French work, executed for 
Henri III. and IV., and Marguerite de Valois, also a decree of Frederick, 
King of Sicily, dated 1484, in a Venetian blind-tooled binding, with a few 
points of gold, and a special receptacle for the seal. Bindings for English 
collectors of the seventeenth century, bearing the arms of Smythe, Town- 
ley, Edwards, Sir Christopher Hatton, Strafford, Sheldon, Dering and 
others, form a very interesting series, and encourage the hope that we 
may one day see an English Guigard, which, though it may be a poor 
thing beside the French, will probably show that there have been more 
English collectors accustomed to place their arms on their book than is 
generally suspected. Plate 100, an edition of the Psalms printed at Edin- 
burgh in 1615, shows a Grolieresque design of such striking excellence 
that we can hardly believe it to be Scotch work of that date. Of English 
bindings of the palmy period, from 1680 to 1730, there are several fine 
specimens, notably a Pearson on the Creed, dated 1723, which is really 
splendid. No examples are given of the second great period of English 
work, that of Roger Payne and Lewis, nor does the Windsor Library 
appear to possess any example of bindings executed for Grolier, Maioli or 
De Thou. A Canevari book is shown, but only a very poor one. At the 
end of the book are some fine examples of Persian work, most wonder- 
fully reproduced. 

Hieroglyphic Bibles, their Origin and History ; a hitherto un- 
written chapter of Bibliography. With facsimile illustrations. 
By W. A. Clouston. And a new Hieroglyphic Bible told in 
stories by Frederick A. Laing. Glasgow: David Bvyce and 
Sons, 1894. Pp- xvi., 316. i8f. 

Mr. Clouston has written a rather needlessly large book on a very small 
subject. The largeness, it is true, is mainly a matter of thick paper and 
wide margins, plus the impertinent introduction of the " New Hieroglyphic 
Bible" by Mr. Laing. This may be welcome to children, but it is quite 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literatim. 261 

possible to take an interest in an old form of literature (if the word is here 
appropriate) without any desire to see it revived, and we grudge the 
addition to the weight of Mr. Clouston's book of these twenty-three thick 
leaves. The first English Hieroglyphic Bible was issued, it would seem, 
about the year 1780 by T. Hodgson. No copy of the first edition is known 
to exist, but the title-page of the second edition, an example of which is in 
the British Museum, runs as follows : 

A CURIOUS HIEROGLYPHICK BIBLE ; | or, Select Passages | in 
the | Old and New Testaments, | represented with | Emblematical 
Figures | for the | Amusement of Youth ; | designed chiefly | to 
familarize tender Age, in a pleasing and diverting | Manner, with 
early Ideas of the Holy Scriptures. | To which are subjoined, | 
a short Account of the Lives of the Evangelists, | and other 
Pieces, illustrated with Cuts, j The Second Edition | with the 
Addition of many remarkable Parts of | Scripture, and other great 
Improvements, j LONDON : Printed for T. Hodgson, in George's 
Court, St. John's Lane, Clerkenwell, I mdclxxxxiv. [Price One 
Shilling Bound.] Entered at Stationers' Hall, agreeable to Act of 

On a proof of the cover in the British Museum John Bewick has 
scrawled the statement that "T. Hodgson has sold three thousand Hiero- 
glyphic Bibles since Sept. last, and is going to print another edition, 
1787 . . . 3,000 printed since Sept., 1781," and the further note, " Cover 
of the [Hieroglyphick Bible] 1776." This proof of the cover confirms the 
tradition that Thomas Bewick had some hand in the book, but, as Mr. 
Clouston justly observes, the cuts are very inferior to Bewick's work, and 
as he was only in London from October ist, 1776, to June 22nd, 1777, we 
must either suppose that the first edition of the book was issued or pre- 
pared six or seven years before the second, which from the quickness with 
which the third and fourth were called for, is unlikely ; or else that Ber- 
wick was working for a London publisher while at Newcastle. Mr. 
Clouston decides against the cuts in the text, but in favour of the frontis- 
piece, the value of which, we think, he overrates. No less than twenty 
editions of Hodgson's Hieroglyphic Bible were called for, the last being 
issued in 1812 ; after which its reputation was traded on for five spurious 
editions, called the 2ist to 25th, which have no connection whatever, 
except their title-page, with the original work. In 1794, a " New 
Hieroglyphic Bible" was published by G. Thompson and J. Parsons. 
The cuts in this were poor, and the book in its original form met with 
little success. It was copied, however, and improved on by Dean and 
Munday, Arliss, and other firms, and thus became the parent of a long line 
of editions. 

When Mr. Clouston has described for us all these English editions he 
harks back to 1686, and shows us that the real home of the Hieroglyphic 
Bible is Augsburg, where, in that year, a certain excellent Melchior 
Mattsperger, with the aid of an engraver of some cleverness, Johana 
Georg Bodeneho, produced the first hieroglyphic version known. He 
had broken his leg, it seems, and the compilation of the book was a means 
of employing his enforced leisure. Despite the hope he expressed that he 
might be allowed the copyright of his invention, his work was imitated in 
Germany and Holland, and Mr. Clouston has no difficulty in showing 
that Hodgson's English version was also greatly indebted to it. 

The rest of Mr. Clouston's book is devoted to an account of a I5th 
century Latin MS., now in the possession of the Earl of Denbigh, the 
idea of which is somewhat akin to that of the Hieroglyphic Bibles, and 
after this to a brief description of block books, rebus verses, emblem 

262 The Library. 

books, and other classes of illustrated literature which throw light on his 
main subject. A word should have been said as to the rebus verses 
which sometimes appear at the end of Horce, specimens of them being 
given by Bounet in his list. The majority of Hieroglyphic Bibles, how- 
ever, do not use rebuses (in which the different syllables of a word are 
pictorially represented by symbols which need have no connection with 
the whole), but simple hieroglyphs, in which the word is represented by 
the picture of the thing itself. Exceptions occur Mr. Clouston quotes a 
terrible one in which and is represented by a hand\ but the extreme 
irreverence of the rebus is too obvious for it to have been widely adopted. 
Whether the hieroglyph is more than one degree better may perhaps be 

public libraries (Scotland Hct, 1894, 

[57 & 58 VlCT.] [CH. 20.] 

Chapter 20. 

An Act to amend the Public Libraries Consolidation (Scotland) 
Act, 1887. [20th July, 1894.] 

BE it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice 
and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present 
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

1. This Act may be cited as the Public Libraries (Scotland) Act, 1894, and 
shall be construed as one with the Public Libraries Consolidation (Scotland) Act, 
1887 (in this Act referred to as the principal Act), and these two Acts may be 
together cited as the Public Libraries (Scotland) Acts, 1887 and 1894. 

2. (i.) In burghs the principal Act may be adopted by a resolution of the 
magistrates and council of the burgh, and such resolution shall be substituted for 
a determination of the householders of the burgh in any case where such 
determination is required under the principal Act. 

(2.) Sections four, five, and six of the principal Act are hereby repealed, so far 
as they relate to burghs. 

3. (I.) A resolution under this Act shall be passed at a meeting of the 
magistrates and council, and one month at least before such meeting special 
notice thereof and of the intention to propose such resolution shall be given to 
every person included in the collective expression " magistrates and council," 

(a) in the mode in which notices to attend meetings of the magistrates and 
council are usually given ; or, in the option of the chief magistrate, 

(b) by forwarding a notice by post in a prepaid letter addressed to the usual 
or last-known place of abode of every person entitled to notice under this 

(2.) The resolution shall, after the passing thereof, be published at least once 
by advertisement in one or more newspapers circulating in the burgh, and shall 
come into operation at a time to be fixed in the resolution itself, being not less 
than one month after the publication or first publication of the advertisement 
thereof herein-before provided. 

(3.) A copy of the newspaper or newspapers containing the advertisement 
shall be conclusive evidence of the resolution having been passed unless the con- 
trary be shown; and no objection to the effect of the resolution on the ground 
that notice of the intention to propose the same was not duly given, or on the 
ground that the resolution was not sufficienly published, shall be made after three 
months from the publication or first publication of the advertisement. 

A New Method of Arranging a Lending Library. 1 

'T'^HE Lending Departments of Free Libraries are as a rule 
-* arranged on either the "Stack" or the "Wall" system. 
That is, the book-cases are at right angles to the serving 
counter, or against the walls. The stack system is by far the 
most economicaliin regard to space, and is superior to the other 
arrangement in that the books are all close at hand, a most 
important particular. 

The general adoption of the stack system has incidentally 
accentuated a belief, which some of us hold, that the work of a 
Free Lending Library is in a great measure mechanical. The 
use of indicators is a further proof of this. 

Readers now consult the indicator, and apply by number for 
a book which they need not name. The assistant supplies the 
book asked for, and the transaction is over. The reader makes 
his own selection, and all he requires from the staff is quick and 
accurate service. There has been a good deal of fine language 
used, and many lofty sentiments uttered on the relation of the 
Librarian to his readers ; but it seems difficult to see what 
influence the Librarian's assistants (for the Librarian rarely 
attends the Lending Library himself) can exert on a public 
which does not ask for their opinion, but demands a book very 
much as it does a railway ticket. 

The indicator has done much to bring this about, and I 
have frequently observed that the visitors to a Library who 
most admire the indicator are those who do not use it. 

The regub.r reader has long ago discovered that the indi- 
cator throws the work of finding out what is in upon the reader, 
instead of, as formerly, upon the assistant. I am not grumbling 
at indicators, and I see no probability of a return to the old 
confidential relations between Librarian and reader, which pro- 
bably more concerned the weather and other people's affairs 
than the choice of books. 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 
Aberdeen, September, 1893. 


264 Tlie Library. 

My desire is to render the reader more able to help himself, 
and without unnecessary trouble, and with this view I ask your 
attention to a method of arranging a library which I believe 
would attain this object. 

I do not say that the scheme is new, although I have never 
seen it described anywhere. 

The arrangement might be called the " star " Library. 
The book-cases are inside the rays of the star, and are placed 
with their backs to the outside, so that the public may see 

The books may be protected on the outside by wire or glass. 

The staff is in the centre, and at the places marked C there 
are counters where readers may return or apply for books. At 
one or more of these counters ingress for the staff would be 

I have premised a room sixty-two feet by sixty-two feet, but 
of course the size or even the form of the room does not materi- 
ally affect the principle of the scheme. The clear space between 
the end of each prong and the wall is six feet. The length of 
each side of the prongs is fourteen feet, and the diameter of the 
centre is twenty-two feet. The width of the prongs is four feet 
at the entrance and three at the point. The height of the book- 
cases would be seven feet, and the book-cases would go as low 
as thirty inches from the floor. This would provide for, say, 
six shelves ten inches high. 

The highest row of books would not be out of sight, nor the 
lowest entail uncomfortable stooping. 

Dividing the fourteen feet of the prong into five divisions 
would give you thirty shelves each about thirty-two inches long. 

Taking an average of ten volumes to the foot it follows that 
the two sides of the prong would hold 1,620 volumes. The eight 
prongs would therefore accommodate 12,960 volumes. This 
number of volumes is amply sufficient for a Lending Library of 
a moderately sized town, or a Branch Library in a larger place. 
Every Librarian who has formed a Library must have had it 
forced home upon him that without duplicating it is difficult to 
make a list of 10,000 volumes suitable for a Lending Library. 

For a larger Library it would be easy to add to the shelf room 
by lining the walls with book-cases, and having an attendant in 
uniform outside the counter to open the cases and bring the 
books to the counter to be recorded. This on three sides of a 
sixty-two feet room would give 1,302 feet of shelving, and room 
for other 13,000 volumes. 

A New Method of Arranging a Lending Library. 265 

To preserve a neat appearance I would make the shelf of 
two strips of wood instead of one, and have a travelling book 
support fixed in each shelf. On the removal of a book the sup- 
port would be pushed up and the books made tight. 

The staff would be in the centre, and would be at hand 
wherever the borrower made his appearance. The lower por- 
tion of the cases would be available for stores of stationery, &c. 

This method would necessarily mean the adoption of a 
charging system, and the one I would propose would be this : 
have a card with a pocket and flap for each book, numbered 
boldly on both sides. 

On issuing a book to a reader, the reader's ticket would be 
placed in the pocket of the book card, and the card placed in a 
tray containing the day's issues. These would be arranged 
numerically at the end of the day, and kept together. The 
date, stamped on the label inside the cover of the book, would 
lead to the position of the card on the return of the book, and 
the member's ticket would then be restored to him, the book 
placed on the shelf, and the card replaced in its order. 

The advantages of these schemes would be that the books 
would take the place of the indicator, that readers would have 
the valuable privilege of selecting books from the shelves a 
great privilege when all the books on a reader's list are out 
many excellent books not now read because not known would 
be taken out, and the reading more evenly distributed over the 
stock. The public knowledge of books would be widened by 
the constant sight of the whole of the books of the Library, and 
the work of the Library would be furthered. 


[NOTE. This paper was illustrated by diagrams when read at Aber- 

Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and 


" Appelles stareing long did look upon 

The Learning, Policy, and Generous Mind 
Of that brave City, plac'd 'twixt Dee and Done ; 

But how to paint it he could never find, 
For still he stood, in judging which of three, 
A Court, A College, or A Burgh it be." 


T N speaking of the Literature and Bookmaking of Aberdeen, 
I cannot, I dare not, treat the members of the Library 
Association as a general audience in which the wisest course is 
to take it for granted that the auditors know nothing of the 
subject, and that it is necessary to tell everything ab ovo. 

My subject being mainly historical, I am pressed down by 
the thought that I am not at present addressing an audience of 
common globe-trotters, of mere tourists, or those of the gad- 
about order, in simple search of new sights, other librarians, and 
novel experiences. Believing that each of you when seated in 
your several spheres, whether public or private, are the monarchs 
of all you survey, and that if all the contents of all the multi- 
tudinous books within your reach are not at the instant call of 
your brains, yet holding your court there, the wise men of the 
east, west, north, and south, are ready at your call to offer you 
homage and come with their precious gifts of wisdom, learning, 
and of bibliographical knowledge, with which we are presently 

As far back as history can definitely speak, or tradition can 
whisper and suggest to us, we find that Churchmen were the 
first bookmakers, and in a secluded parish in Aberdeenshire, in 
an Abbey founded by St. Columba " The Book of Deer," con- 
taining the Gospel of St. John, and portions of the other three 

Aberdeen: Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 267 

gospels, with copies of grants to the abbey (written in Gaelic) 
carries us as far back as the ninth century. The original was 
found in Cambridge in 1715. Then in the eleventh century we 
have evidence of charters granted to the church of S. Nicolas in 
Aberdeen; and long after we have the celebrated Aberdeen 
Breviary, regarding which it is interesting to know, that in order 
to get it printed, Bishop Elphinstone (1431-1514), was the means 
of getting the art of printing introduced into Scotland, and the 
Breviary was the second work printed by Chapman in 1509-10. 
When re-printed in 1852-53, Dr. Lee, the editor says, there was 
then not more than one complete copy in Scotland. 

Next to the Churchman as bookmakers, Librarians must give 
credit to the Civic, Burgh, Municipal Corporations ; and here 
you are on interesting ground. For of all places in Scotland, 
Aberdeen has, amidst much turmoil by civil war, and loss by 
fire, managed to preserve the most complete records of civic rule 
to be found in Scotland ; dating almost continuously from the 
fourteenth century down to the present year. 

From 1398 to 1814, of the ninety-five volumes of the Council 
Register, only one (vol. iii.) is missing. As a contribution to 
history, local and general, as a picture of Scottish society, 
manners, laws, and customs, the Council Register is recognised 
as a mine of wealth. . It has been already tapped, but not more 
than tapped, by the Spalding Club, who have published two 
volumes of extracts, while other two were published by the 
Burgh Records Society. 

As Mr. P. J. Anderson states (and what he states may be 
thoroughly relied on), the 1537 printed pages of these four 
volumes is only about one thirteenth part of the contents of the 
register, and that only down to the year 1747. The old Spald- 
ing Club had thus ample materials to work upon, but the 
workers had got tired, and partly owing to the keen religious 
controversies of the time, and deep, if not loud grumblings 
against them of making the glorification of one Church their 
main object in their publications, the Club came to an end, 
leaving an enormous mass of material untouched, with a period 
of nearly one hundred years almost unexplored virgin soil. I 
say almost, because Kennedy in his " Annals of Aberdeen," 
made use of the Register up to the date of his publication, but in 
a somewhat careless and unsatisfactory manner, and nothing has 
been done since. 

One good thing done by the old Spalding Club was that it 

268 The Library. 

brought to light the richness and value of our town records. 
Bailie Lewis Smith who was, perhaps, the most literary man 
in the town council when he served at various periods from 1836 
to 1877, in all eighteen years made many attempts to induce the 
council to, at least, print their wonderful collection of charters, 
and, by a translation, to give the citizens an idea of the rights 
which they possessed but unsuccessfully. 

It was my good fortune, when elected to office as convener 
of the law committee, to plead for this before a more intelligent 
council, and get them to agree to this proposal. And when the 
town council agree to do anything, the officials may safely be 
trusted to do it well and handsomely. We had the good fortune 
to select as editor and translator, Mr. P. J. Anderson, the learned, 
accurate, and accomplished secretary of the New Spalding Club, 
ably seconded by Mr. A. M. Muriro, of the city chamberlain's 
office. The result is a volume which does credit to the city and 
all concerned in its production. 

In this volume there is a complete inventory of the books and 
MSS. in the town house, and explorers and enquirers will thus 
be able to lay their hands on the necessary material for any 
particular period of history wanted. 

It was also my good fortune, aided by the intelligence of the 
council, to get another valuable improvement adopted, which 
makes the council register not only more safe, but, in future, 
much more accessible. Down to 1884, the register was in 
MSS., and, of course, unique. After 1883, on a proposal of 
mine, the minutes of council are now printed and bound in one 
volume yearly, and all members are furnished with slip copies of 
the previous minute, and a complete copy annually. Thus the 
future historiographer of the city annals may have his own copy 
for handy reference, and thus his work made easier by my 

In any notice of Aberdeen Literature and Book-making, the 
influence of its two universities naturally has an important 
place, but treated already by Mr. Robertson, my notice must 
be of the briefest. 

So eager were Aberdonians for guidance and instruction 
that, as a local writer says : 

Oor fathers then socht for their bairns 

As much o' lear as cud be gi'en ; 
Sae Colleges they biggit twa 

Thae braif, bauld men o' Aberdeen. 

Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 269 

But not content with the " twa " colleges, each of which 
claimed to be a university, and with the right of granting degrees, 
they actually aspired to have three such, so keen free-traders 
were they in the matter of education. For John Farquhar, a 
native of Crimond in Aberdeenshire (born 1751, died 1826), 
having acquired an immense fortune in India (leaving at his 
death one million and a half), offered to appropriate ^"100,000 
to found a college in Aberdeen, on the most enlarged plan of 
education, with a reservation on points of religion; for his 
admiration of the simplicity and purity of the lives of the 
Brahmins had deeply influenced him. But parliamentary 
sanction being refused, the scheme was dropped. 1 

King's College and University was a pre-Reformation one, 
founded by a bull from the Pope in 1494 ; and in the course 
of the next half-century, had sunk into the position of a con- 
ventual school, and when Protestant doctrines had permeated 
the community, Earl Marischal founded a rival institution in 


Two universities so close to each other was a singular 
phenomenon in so poor a country, and necessarily led to some 
amount of rivalry, which, if in some respects unwholesome, was 
highly approved of, and fostered by many of the inhabitants, and 
notwithstanding the benefits of an extended curriculum in a 
united institution, the union, in 1860, was long keenly resisted. 

As separate institutions they were the seed-bed of book- 
makers, of numerous volumes of dry-as-dust theses, of students 
and readers ; and have largely helped to give a distinct character 
to the men of the northern counties, helping to make model men. 
If, as was said of some universities, they got rich by " degrees," 
ours did not, but got rich by benefactions, which, managed by 
cannie, prudent Scotchmen, developed into rich bursaries, which 
attracted students from all quarters ; the Highlanders frequent- 
ing King's, and Lowlanders Marischal College. They gave such 
a tone to the whole district teaching, that pupils from the 
parish schools could enter directly into the Greek and Latin 
classes at the universities. 

They created in the city such a demand for books, that 
in relation to its size, Aberdeen has from then till now borne 
a most favourable comparison with any other place as to the 
number of booksellers maintained by it, and the high character 

'See Anderson's Scottish Nation^ vol. ii., p. 191. 

270 The Library. 

of its readers. Connected as I was with a bookselling firm 
which commenced one hundred and eight years ago, the great 
number, the high-class character, and the large size of the 
libraries of the district which passed through their hands on 
the death of the owners was remarkable; and volumes now of 
the greatest rarity, such as would put Mr. Quaritch into 
raptures, were constantly appearing in the most unexpected 
places; not only in the manses of the parochial clergy, but 
even in the humble homes of peasants, whose highest ambition 
generally was to dedicate at least one son to the service of the 
church and give him a classical and theological education. 

To book-lovers, like those before me, is not the very sight and 
perusal of a catalogue of old recherche books a treat of the very 
highest kind ? but how much more of a treat is it to handle and 
examine the very books themselves ? Then indeed they become 
personal acquaintances. Twenty-three years ago it was my good 
fortune to be asked to give assistance in the cataloguing of a 
collection of books, the property of a deceased Aberdeen Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew, and the fruit of his indefatigable book-hunting 
for many years. It proved to be one of the most extraordinary 
moraines which any glacier had ever deposited, for the glacier 
professor in his extensive travels all over Europe, had collected 
everything he could lay hold of, and in all out of the way places, 
buying anything rare, and specially books printed in the place 
visited, while so eager was he in search of rarities, that he would 
have travelled a hundred miles for the chance of picking a rare 
book up cheap. And on his death in 1870, the collection, stowed 
away in boxes which had never been opened by him, was 
brought to the hammer, and this had to be arranged and 

With little Latin, and less Greek, my early training had given 
me perhaps a larger acquaintance with old books than any other 
bookseller in the city at the time. Conjoined with an ex- 
perienced auctioneer like Mr. Alex. Brown, we had little diffi- 
culty with the great mass of material, speedily and satisfactorily 
we catalogued the books in the modern languages, but then 
there were hundreds of MSS., tracts, and volumes in Persian, 
Russian, Syriac, Arabic, Romansch, and other languages and 
dialects, &c., quite beyond our power of decyphering their titles 
or even their language. A brilliant idea occurred to us. We 
asked the assistance of Professor W. Robertson Smith, then in 
Aberdeen, and than whom could we possibly have got a more 

Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 271 

competent person within the bounds of Britain ? He most 
gladly accepted the task ; very speedily cleared a mass of the 
debris, and made short work with many of them. " This MS. " 
said he, "is a Persian classic ' Tooti Nairn,' the well-known 
' Tale of a Parrot.' " Ah, me ! how very ignorant we felt our- 
selves ; but after that any unknown thing was always char- 
acterised by us as " Tooti Nami," because we knew as much 
about it as the parrot. But, and this is a dead secret, and as 
the advertisements say, not to be repeated, even Professor 
Robertson Smith was baffled by some of the languages which 
he had not then mastered, and had to confess his ignorance ; and 
the gloomy prospect of us having to sell these volumes like " pigs 
in a poke" loomed before us, and was very unsatisfactory. We 
were in a quandary, stranded, and utterly helpless, when the 
sharp, quick-witted acuteness of the Professor lifted us out of 
the bog. " Turn up," he said, "the article 'Alphabets' in the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, and also that in the Penny Cyclopedia," 
and this was done. " Now then," he said, " we can spell out 
letter by letter, get the kernel of the book, and can, at least, give 
its title." The catalogue appeared ; was a source of unbounded 
astonishment to the citizens, and of their admiration at the 
learning of the compilers, and it was facetiously proposed in the 
newspapers to confer on them the title of " Doctorus Cata- 
logorum," which would have been equivalent to dressing jack- 
daws in eagles' feathers. 

How little Professor Andrew Scott, the collector of this 
library, valued these titles may be inferred from the fact that 
when offered the degree of LL.D. by the University of St. 
Andrews he never replied. Three weeks after, being again asked 
if he would accept, he then replied that " if they dared to dub 
him so, he would prosecute them for libel." 

It is a pleasure to think that by his acquisition of many of 
these volumes at the sale, Professor Robertson Smith's library 
was enriched, and that they fell into the hands of one who could 
make good use of them. 

As Bishop Elphinstone of Aberdeen helped to introduce 
printing into Scotland in 1509, so, but a hundred years later in 
1622, Bishop Patrick Forbes helped to introduce the art into 
Aberdeen, inducing the Provost and Magistrates to offer such 
valuable privileges to Edward Raban then at St. Andrews, that 
he began to exercise his craft as a printer here, and when the 
man came the time was propitious, for, although he lived in 

272 The Library. 

troublous times for Scotland, yet he got Edinburgh work to do 
(the Book of Canons) in addition to his local work, and the 
number of volumes issued by him shows him to have been a busy 

Since his time, down to 1859, there has been a regular suc- 
cession of town's printers entitled to use the city arms, and 
inheriting all the types and curious old wood blocks cut and 
inherited from Raban's time. 

So far back as 1858 I had issued in the columns of the 
A berdeen Herald a series of nine articles, descriptive of Raban's 
publications. These having attracted the favourable notice of 
Drs. Robertson, John Hill Burton, and Grub, I was asked to 
re-print them, and thought of doing "so, decorating the publica- 
tion, and giving it an antique flavour by the use of the original 
wood-cut borders, the head and tail] pieces which were so quaint 
and characteristic, and of which some ten years previous, I had, 
seen two large boxfuls in the office of the printer, Raban's 
successor. It may be imagined with what grief I heard, and with 
what deep sorrow the intelligent printer related, that in the days 
of his predecessor, the printer's devils had lighted the office fires with 
them. The shock was so severe, that I have felt an old man ever 
since. The want of my purposed publication has been much 
more than supplied by that of " The Aberdeen Printers," by 
Mr. J. P. Edmond, who got full liberty to the use of my articles. 

To you, and with my limited time, it is not necessary to even 
enter on the ground occupied by him. And I simply remark that 
while all the volumes issued by Aberdeen printers are valuable to 
such an institution as the British Museum, yet when duplicates 
are acquired by them, or by other libraries, these duplicates 
would be more highly valued and cherished if, in their old age, 
they were permitted to live in their native air, the best known 
elixir for long life yet known. 

Amongst the many Aberdonians whose names are on the rolls 
of fame, I mention, amongst many others, only John Barbour, 
Hector Boecejohn Leslie, Bishop of Ross, Bishop Patrick Forbes, 
Dr. Arthur Johnston, whose Latin translation of the Psalms is, on 
the continent, more esteemed than that of Buchanan, George 
Jamesone, the first Scottish painter (with able successors in 
Dyce, Cassie, and John Philip), Bishop Gilbert Burnet of 
Salisbury, Dr. John Arbuthnot, the wit in Queen Anne's time, 
and the friend of Swift and Pope, Alex. Cruden of the "Con- 
cordance," Dr. James Beattie, Dr. Hamilton, Alex. Chalmers, 

Aberdeen : Its Literature, Bookmaking, and Circulating. 273 

of the " Biographical Dictionary," Dr. John Abercrombie, James 
Gibbs, the architect of St. Martin's, London, and of the Radcliffe 
Library, Oxford ; Dr. Thos. Reid, the founder of the Scottish 
School of Metaphysicians, and Dr. John Ogilvie, of dictionary 
fame. These all stand out singly, and bulk as eminent men ; 
but there are whole families from the place the Barclays and 
Burnetts ; the Forbeses and Fordyces ; the Gerards and Jaffrays ; 
the Gordons and Grants ; the Gregorys and Keiths ; the Menzies 
and Skenes ; who figure in the annals of literature, and were 
potential influences in producing and circulating it in their native 
place and elsewhere. Coming down to modern times we can 
boast of Dr. Joseph Robertson, of Dr. John Stuart, of John Hill 
Burton, who has left a successor, of Dr. George Grub, and of 
the late lamented Professor Minto, who promised to become 
a star of the first magnitude. 

It is with great pleasure, but in the softest whisper for, 
living amongst the men I am greatly restrained in my otherwise 
outspoken speech I mentioned that, nurtured by the spartan- 
like fare of the first Edinburgh Reviewers " Tenui musem 
meditamur avena " by good Scotch oatmeal, and influenced 
by the Shorter Catechism, we have still amongst us as 
bookmakers such men amongst others as Sir Wm. Geddes, 
the learned editor of the Musa Latina Aberdonenses ; Dr. 
Wm. Alexander, the photographer and preserver of our local 
dialect in Johnny Gibb ; Dr. John Mclntosh, the historian, and a 
brilliant example of Scottish pluck and perseverance in the 
attainment of fame ; Dr. Alex. Cruickshank, a voluminous 
writer, but whose modesty has shrunk from publicity or even 
recognition ; Principal Brown ; Dr. Cooper of the East Church ; 
and the Rev. Robert Lippe. I might mention others 
biographers of Aberdeen Doctors Apologists of Queen Mary 
erudite writers on Jiist Intonation, and a whole host of local poets, 
but I spare their blushes. 

And now both time and space, and also your interest all 
failing me, I conclude, by saying that amongst the most eminent 
of modern men, Professor W. Robertson Smith worthily main- 
tains the honour and credit of Aberdeen nurture, both in 
England and abroad ; and that shining brilliantly in our northern 
firmament yet educating and illuminating the world, by works 
having to my knowledge a larger circulation than those of almost 
any living author have we not still amongst us, and long may 
he so continue Dr. Alexander Bain. 



abstracts of public OLfbrars IReports, 

Aston Manor. Librarian, Robert K. Dent. 

Quiet progress, with little calling for special mention. Catalogue of 
music (22 pp.) issued, price id. 

Barrow-in-Furness. Librarian, Thomas Aldred. 

Branch Library at Roose opened. Over 1,000 fines unpaid 
during the year ; 2,750 fines have been paid amounting to ^35 is. 5d. 

Battersea. Librarian, Lawrence Inkster. 

In spite of difficulties which are described, the Commissioners have 
been enabled to issue a balance sheet, showing a cash balance in hand 
sufficient to meet outstanding liabilities without seriously affecting the 
efficiency of the various libraries in the district. In every department 
considerable additions have been made. Indicator key to fiction at 
Central Library published. 

Blackburn. Librarian, R. Ashton. 

Reading room to be enlarged, and the ventilation improved. Strike 
in building trades has hindered completion of the extension. The Rich- 
mond Terrace frontage to be enriched by sculpture of appropriate design. 

Bradford. Librarian, Butler Wood. 

Museums Act of 1891 adopted by Council in October, and a rate of 
|d. levied for the current municipal year. Turnstiles at entrance dis- 
continued after being in use for fifteen years. Supplementary catalogue 
of reference library issued. A grant of ^300 from the fund in aid of 
technical instruction received. One hundred and fourteen water-colour 
drawings of Old Bradford, presented by Aid. E. W. Hammond. 

Cambridge. Librarian, John Pink. 

Cost of printing new edition of lending department catalogue has pre- 
vented the usual outlay on books. Electric light introduced into Central 

Chelsea Librarian, J. H. Quinn. 

Chelsea Public Libraries. Seventh annual report of the Com- 
missioners, 1893-94, year ending 3ist May, 1894, 8vo - 

This report is one of exceptional interest. The total number of 
borrowers' tickets now in force is 7,271, an increase on the previous year 
of 754. A new feature is the issue of extra borrowers' tickets " for music 

Abstracts of Public Library Reports. 275 

only" with the result that from November last to May, 216 persons have 
taken advantage of this arrangement, and the collection, which was pre- 
viously used but to a very limited extent, is now proving inadequate to 
meet the demands. This is an idea that deserves to be widely followed. 
Total number of volumes in the library 24,466, being a net increase on the 
year of 1,907. Worn-out books are sent to the Parish Infirmary and 
Workhouses for the use of the inmates. In November and April, 
exhibitions of books were held in the Central Reference Library, and 
about 800 persons attended. The electric light has been installed. 
University extension classes have been held in the Central Library and 
many gifts of unusual value and interest have been received, including the 
Death Mask of Carlyle taken for the statue, by Sir J. E. Boehm ; an 
autograph letter of the Duke of Wellington, addressed to the Chelsea 
Churchwardens ; and many other items of especial interest to Chelsea. 
An interesting experiment has been made and is referred to as follows in 
the report : A Day's Reading: " With the object of showing an average 
day's work of the Central Library, a detailed record of the books issued 
was taken on Thursday, the 24th May, 1894. The number of persons 
who entered the reading rooms was 1,101, including 168 women and 24 
boys, but excluding those coming to the Lending Library ; 46 persons 
referred to the directories lying on the reading room tables." We wish 
we could give the details, for they are most instructive and afford an 
excellent answer to those who charge public libraries with being mainly 
purveyors of fiction. 

Clapham. Librarian, J. Reed Welch. 

Opening of reading rooms on Sundays successful. Upper Hall lent 
to Clapham Vestry and other local bodies. 

Clerkenwell. Librarian, James D. Brown. 

Extra tickets issued for non-fictional works. Free access to shelves 
foreshadowed. Exhibition of prints, &c., relating to Clerkenwell open 
for six months. Mr. C. H. Benn, senior assistant from the opening of 
Library in 1888, appointed librarian of Penzance in May. 

Ealing. Librarian, Thos. Bonner. 

Revised edition of catalogue issued. Mr. H. S. Newland, sub-librarian 
for more than eight years, appointed Librarian at the Harlesden Branch 
of the Willesden Libraries. Mr. C. Baker, assistant librarian at Chiswick 
succeeded him. 

Hereford. Librarian, J. Cockcroft. 

For the first time the committee have received the income from the 
penny rate without deduction. A unique collection of local pictures 
exhibited. Police have charge and oversight of fire extinguishing 
apparatus on the premises. Reading room opened on bank holidays. 

Hove. Librarian, John W. Lister. 

History of the movement given. Eighteen books from infected houses 
destroyed, the value of them ^3 33. rod. Electric light installed. Com- 
mittee hope to have a permanent building soon. 

Leamington. Librarian, David B. Grant. 
Better accommodation required for all departments. Sunday opening 

276 The Library. 

Leeds. Librarian, James Yates. 

Emigrants' Information Office not proved so successful as expected. 
No grant from Technical Instruction Committee for books. Central 
lending department now open from 10 a.m. to 8.30 p.m., instead of 9 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. ; 33,237 fines yielded ^251. Slot cut underneath each indicator 
with this label : " borrowers wanting an additional copy of any book 
shown as out, will please put a memorandum, with the class letter and 
number in the slot below." 

Leeds Blind Institution granted 20 for the purchase of embossed 
books. Headingley Branch and Lower Wortley Branch re-opened. 
New branch at Pudsey Town End. Twelve more juvenile libraries 
established in Board Schools. 

Norwich. Librarian, George Easter. 
Review of history of library. 

IFtotes ant> (Queries. 


Answer. I think Bazalgette's Municipal Law was published before 
the passing of the Public Libraries Act, 1890. There is no definition 
in the new Act of "Ratepayers" (as in the repealed Statutes), the term 
being dropped in favour of " Voters." The definition mentioned in 
Public Library Legislation is correct : see section 27, Public Libraries 
Act, 1890. Compound householders are entitled to be registered as 
voters. They are also "ratepayers," and are entitled to have their 
names entered in the rate book, even though the owner pays the 
rate for them. They are certainly " inhabitants," and, therefore, entitled 
to the free use of the lending library, under section II. (3) of the Act 
of 1890. I think there is nothing to prevent your Commissioners making 
a regulation to the effect that all borrowers shall be guaranteed, but 
there should be no distinction between ratepayers. To save stamp duty 
the guarantee should be expressly limited to a sum under ^5. 


Answer. Unless you can prove that your public library comes within 
the provisions of the Literary and Scientific Institutions Act, 1843, *he 
building is rateable (see Public Library Legislation, page 17). I gather 
that it is supported out of the rates, and not partly or wholly by annual 
voluntary contributions, and, therefore, I think in view of the case of 
"Andrew v. Mayor, &c, of Bristol" (referred to on the same page), you 
would not be entitled to the certificate of exemption. 

The question as to the principle upon which the rateable value should 
be arrived at is not one on Public Library Law ; but having recently had 
this subject before me as to the rating of the Town Hall, I may say that 
to arrive at the rateable value of the premises the statute and cases direct 
that you are to estimate the rent at which the premises may be reasonably 
expected to let from year to year. There is no case in which it has been 
held that the rateable value is to be arrived at by calculating the equiva- 
lent of four per cent, on the cost of the building. 

Legal Notes and Queries. 277 

In " Regina v. The London School Board" (50 J.P., 419) it was sub- 
mitted that the fair and reasonable interest upon the necessary outlay, was 
evidence of the rent the occupiers would be willing to pay for the premises, 
and a fair test of the rateable value. In the Queen's Bench, Mr. Justice 
Cave said that where occupiers were also the owners this might afford a 
" rough test " of the value of the house ; but neither that case, nor the 
recent cases in the House of Lords, go the length of saying that this is the 
only way in which the rateable value of public buildings is to be calcu- 
lated. In the School Board case, four per cent, on the land, and five per 
cent, on the buildings was reckoned : and the Quarter Sessions having 
practically approved of that rateing, it was not disturbed by the High 
Court or Court of Appeal. 

I think four per cent, on the value is not unreasonable. If your build- 
ing were mortgaged you might get a deduction (at least from property-tax) 
on this account. As you cannot resist the legality of the rating, it would 
not be worth the expense of fighting the question of the rate per cent, at 
which the rateable value is to be arrived, if four per cent, is taken by 
the Overseers ; but I think you will be serving your best interests by 
asking the Overseers, as a matter of favour, and on the grounds set 
forth at page 17 of Public Library Legislation to assess the building 
at a nominal amount only. The fact that the building was a gift makes 
no difference to the liability to be rated. 

As regards the penny rate, I am of opinion that you are entitled 
to the yield of a penny rate upon the property actually capable of pro- 
ducing and yielding a rate ; and that the cost of collecting it cannot 
be deducted, as it is collected either as part of the Borough Rate or 
Poor Rate. I can find no authority in support of the contention that 
the cost of collecting may be deducted. 


Answer. The adoption of the Act in Ireland is regulated by section 
4 of the Act of 1855 and the Public Libraries Amendment Act, 1877, 
cap. 54 (see page 73 Public Library Legislation). It is for the Council 
to direct the holding of the public meeting or the distribution of the 
voting papers. The requisition by ten ratepayers to the Mayor does not 
extend to Ireland. I take it that in March the Council will direct that the 
public meeting shall be held or the voting papers delivered. They may 
do either the one or the other. If a public meeting is held two-thirds 
majority is required, but I am inclined to the opinion that if voting papers 
are delivered a mere majority is sufficient. If a public meeting is held it 
must be limited to male occupiers entitled for the time being to vote at 
elections (see Public Library Legislation, p. 72) and, as I read it, that 
means that they must be on the Burgess roll. If voting papers are 
delivered, every " ratepayer " is entitled to vote, z>., every inhabitant (male 
or female) who would have to pay the Free Library Assessment, and this 
whether his or her premises are rated under or over .10. The Irish Acts 
badly need amendment. 


Answer. I thought I made it clear that in my opinion there should 
be no difference in the conditions upon which inhabitants borrow books 
whether they are "compound" or "respectable" householders, and 
whether on the Burgess roll or not. Your regulations made may provide 
if your commissioners think proper that compound householders may 
guarantee themselves and that the others may not, but in my opinion all 
borrowers should be guaranteed by a stranger and not themselves. Your 

278 The Library. 

regulations may give you a discretion to refuse any proposed guarantor, 
but unless the regulations so provide, " lodgers" are not prohibited from 
guaranteeing others, though their security is not the best, as they are less 
likely to stay in the town. I think your regulations should provide that a 
guarantor must be a resident householder in the district. This subject is 
entirely one for regulation, and is not affected by the statutes. 

As regards the charge for tickets, I presume the charge is made under 
a regulation. I do not go the length of saying it is illegal, but I am 
certainly of opinion that any inhabitant who refused to pay the charge 
would still be entitled to the free use of the books in the lending library. 
Possibly the court might hold that it was a reasonable regulation, but I 
think not, and can hardly see how it can be made out that this complies 
with the statute which provides that inhabitants may use the library with- 
out charge. 


Answer. I know nothing of the opinion of Counsel on the Wigan 
question, to which you refer me. The use of a lending library is limited 
to the inhabitants of the district, but the library authority may, if they 
think fit, grant the use of a lending library to persons not being inhabi- 
tants of the district either gratuitously or for payment (see section n (3) 
Public Libraries Act, 1890). This provision, as pointed out in Public 
Library Legislation (p. 15), is new. 


Answer. The Parish Councils Act changes the method for adopting 
the Act in a Parish only, namely by ballot instead of by voting papers. 
I am preparing an article upon its whole effect which I shall probably 
read at the Annual Meeting of the Association, of which I presume you 
are a member. It is impossible for me to go into greater detail at 


Answer. i. The requisition is to be delivered to the Overseers (see 
section 3(1) (6) of the. Public Libraries Act, 1892). 

2. There is no time fixed by the Act within which the poll must be 

Hffafrs at 

NEARLY a quarter of a century has elapsed since Leeds determined 
in the face of much selfish and unreasoning opposition to adopt the 
Libraries Act. The great work now accomplished should be regarded 
with pride by the citizens for, in addition to a large collection of books, 
a Fine Art Gallery and a Museum have been established. And yet the 
penny rate has never been exceeded. But it must be increased, lest 
the Library, the Art Gallery, or the Museum, be seriously curtailed. 
The committee finds itself in this difficulty : Leeds covers so great an 
areano less than eight miles across that no fewer than twenty-one 
branch libraries have been opened to meet the demands of the citizens. 
In addition libraries of 200 vols. have been supplied to 31 Board 
Schools, and (just recently) 100 vols. have been placed in six church 
schools. Other extensions and improvements have also been effected in 

'Library Affairs at Leeds. 279 

the Library system, and now the committee is, and has for some time 
been in debt. The Chairman of the Committee (Aid. Frederick R. 
Spark, J.P.), at the July meeting of the City Council, laid the whole 
question before that body, and asked for powers to increase the Library 
rate. The figures he gave were remarkable, and entirely set at rest the 
croakings of those and there are many who assert that for novel- 
readers, almost wholly, are the libraries maintained. The Chairman 
stated that in the Central Lending Library there were 46,000 volumes. 
Under the head of fiction, which included poetry and the drama, there 
were 19,000 volumes, leaving 27,000 books of a solid and educational 
character. In addition, there were in the Reference Library, in which 
the works were entirely of an educational kind, 47,000 books. That 
made a total of 74,000 educational volumes, as against 19,000 classed as 
fiction. Then, as to the issues. Last year there were lent from the Central 
Library 370,000 volumes. Of these issues, 220,000 were books of fiction 
and 150,000 educational volumes. Adding to the latter total, as it was 
proper to do, the issues in the Reference Department, the number of 
educational works issued was 285,000, compared with the 220,000 of 
fiction. It should, however, be also borne in mind that whereas a novel 
could be read in three or four days, the educational books were often out 
for six weeks at a time. The branches showed the same tale. Then, if 
they took the visits to the newsroom and he would remark that that at 
the Central Library was in a back street, and far too small in 1874 they 
numbered 217,500, but last year the total was 1,627,600. In addition 
250,000 visits were paid to the Art Gallery. The borrowers of books 
comprised people of every class, and he had undeniable testimony of the 
value of the library to students. Dr. Forsyth, the Head Master of the 
Higher Grade School, wrote stating that it was of inestimable value to 
his pupils, whose reading was guided by the teachers, but the Doctor 
added this sentence, " I regret I cannot speak in such laudatory terms of 
the scientific books." That, said Aid. Spark, was simply because the 
committee had not been able to keep abreast of the times owing to want 
of funds. So much for what had been done. As for the work that 
needed doing, he would instance the abolition of the penny fees for 
vouchers, which last year realised 100. There was needed an ex- 
tension of the system of school libraries. There were about sixty schools 
in the city in which no libraries were to be found, thirty-one Board 
schools and six Church schools being supplied. More branch libraries 
were required, there was an outcry for a musical library, and the plan of 
giving lectures, tried with such success last year, might be carried 
further. The proposition book kept at the library contained numbers 
of entries which the committee could not at present consider, because of 
the lack of means to purchase the volumes, and many thousands of 
works now in circulation were in such a bad condition that they ought to 
be at once destroyed. In spite of every endeavour to economize, the com- 
mittee were now face to face with a debt of ^400. Aid. Spark, in con- 
clusion, appealed to all the members of the Council to consider the 
resolution favourably. There was no treasure so good and so abiding as 
knowledge. Of the 81 pennies which made up the total rate at present, 
none produced more good than the one which was devoted to library 
purposes, and none was more appreciated by the public at large. 

In the discussion which followed, the opponents confined themselves 
mainly to attacks on the Art Gallery, and the " outsiders " who form 
part of the art committee. 

The vote was against any increase in the rate, by 23 to 17 ; and now 
the Library committee will consider in what direction to curtail the 
good work which has been done. 


280 The Library. 

Xtbrarp Iftotes ant> 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " -will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ABERDEEN. The Lending Department of the Public Library was 
closed for a fortnight in July for the purposes of stock-taking, and to 
enable the staff to take their annual holiday all together at a time when 
the public generally were holiday-making. The innovation may be said 
to have proved a success. July is a month in which invariably the fewest 
issues occur, and accordingly the closing of the Department then caused 
little inconvenience to the public, while it was a boon to the staff, and 
from an administrative point of view an advantage to the Library. 

ABERYSTWYTH. In August, Miss M. A. Jenkins was appointed 
librarian and hall-keeper in the place of her late father, who had held 
those offices since March, 1886. 

AIRDRIE. On August 4, the new Free Public Library in Airdrie was 
formally opened by Bailie Connor, convener of the Library Committee, in 
place of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, the donor of 1,000, who was unable to 
be present. Bailie Connor was presented by Provost Arthur, architect of 
the building, with a silver key, with which he formally opened the door of 
the lending department. A cake and wine banquet was held in the 
museum room, at which Provost Arthur presided, when a life-size portrait 
of Mr. Thomas Jeffrey, painted by Mr. Ramsay Russell, Edinburgh, was 
presented in recognition of his services as honorary secretary of the library 
for the last 2 1 years. 

ARBROATH. A movement is on foot in this town with the object 
of having established a Free Public Library. A meeting was recently 
held of delegates from over thirty organisations of working people, and a 
Committee was appointed to obtain as much information as possible 
(previous to approaching the authorities on the matter) as to the working, 
cost of management, c., and generally the results of the adoption of the 
Libraries Act in towns of a similar size to Arbroath (23,000). 

ASHTON. As a means of encouraging those students and readers 
who wish to follow a course of reading in the higher branches of litera- 
ture, and with a view to diverting the tastes of those readers who have 
confined their reading exclusively to fiction, the Public Library Com- 
mittee have resolved to adopt the following recommendation of the 
librarian : That an extra ticket, stamped with a distinguishing mark, be 
issued to any borrower on filling up the usual application form, and that 
works of fiction be in no case issued on such tickets. 

Library Notes and News. 281 

AYR. At a recent general meeting of the Carnegie Public Library 
Committee it was reported that through Mr. Birkmyre, the member for 
the Ayr Burghs, a gift was to be made to the library of about 200 volumes 
of Record Office Publications. Mr. Quintin Blane (clerk) submitted a 
financial statement for the year ending May 31. The total income 
(including a balance of ^276 145. nd. from last year) was ^850 133. 3d., 
being 163 135. 4d. in excess of the expenditure for that period. The 
building account showed a balance against the library of about ,1,520. 
The librarian (Mr. G. B. Phillips) reported that for the nine months 
ending May 31 (end of library year) which is since the library was 
opened, 81,544 books had been in circulation in the Lending Library, or 
a daily average of 392. The library had been open 208 days, the lowest 
issue on one day being 113, and the highest 745. Over 4,000 readers had 
now being enrolled. The books on the whole had been fairly well used ; 
not a book had been lost. Since opening 569 volumes had been added, 
there were now over 11,000 volumes in the lending department. Per- 
centage of works read : Religion 1 1.4 ; Science and Art 3.1 ; Fiction 74.3 ; 
Biography, History and Travel 8.5 ; General Literature 3.3 ; Poetry 1.4 ; 
Bound Magazines 8. 

CHELTENHAM. The Public Library has been enriched by a legacy 
of ^500, bequeathed by the late Miss Grace Isabella Buchanan. The 
conditions attached to the gift are that the money be spent in books of a 
standard nature for the Reference Library. 

COLCHESTER. The new Public Library is to be lighted by 

DUDLEY. On July 24, the Countess of Dudley opened the branch 
libraries at Woodside and Netherton. 

EDINBURGH. In the Architect of July 20, appear the elevation 
and detail of entrance of the Edinburgh Public Library. 

ENFIELD. On July 24, Mr. F. A. Bevan opened the Public 

GRANTHAM The books forming the well-known "Chained Library" 
at Giantham have recently been repaired, re-arranged, and catalogued. 

GRAVESEND. During the month of June, 2,671 separate works 
were issued from the Lending Library, or an average of 103 a day. Since 
the opening of this department in January, 14,555 books have been issued 
for home reading to borrowers, the number of tickets issued by the libra- 
rian amounting to 1,202. Cancels through borrowers leaving the town, 
however, reduced the number of actual borrowers to 1,168. The present 
library stock consists of about 4,000 volumes. 

GRIMSBY. A site for the Free Library and Technical Schools, con- 
sisting of 1 1 ,000 square yards has been decided upon. Subject to the sanc- 
tion of the Local Government Board to the lease for ninety-nine years, the 
erection of the combined institutions will be proceeded with very shortly. 

282 The Library. 

HAWICK. At a special meeting of Hawick Town Council on August 
8, the Public Library Committee submitted a recommendation in favour of 
a new bye-law to make a charge not exceeding 2d. for each reader's card 
issued. One argument in support of the proposal was that since the 
charge had been discontinued there had been a considerable destruction 
of books by young people. There was a long and animated discussion, 
it was contended on the one hand that as there was a doubt as to the 
legality of such a charge it should not be made ; and on the other that 
there ought to be a charge, and if it was illegal, the Sheriff, by whom the 
bye-laws had to be confirmed, would give his decision on the point. 
Eventually the motion in favour of a charge being made was carried by 
nine to two. 

HULL. On July 12, an oak chime clock was presented to Mr. Alfred 
Ansell, late librarian of the Lyceum Library. He has been appointed an 
assistant librarian under the Hull Public Libraries Committee. 

LEICESTER. A portrait of Mr. C. Vernon Kirkby, public librarian of 
Leicester, together with a professional sketch, appeared in J^he Wyvern, 
a local "topical, critical, and humorous journal." It is a good portrait, 
and the sketch is highly complimentary. 

LINCOLN. The late Dean Butler's valuable library has, by the 
generosity of his family, been divided between the Lincoln Chapter 
Library and the Diocesan Theological Lending Library. The fine 
carved oak book-cases, presented to the Dean, have been given to the 

LONDON : CHELSEA. A description of the Relics of Keats on 
view at the Public Library appears in the Westminster Gazette of 
August i. 

LONDON : HAMPSTEAD. Mr. W. E. Doubleday, who for the last 
five years has been connected with the Free Public Library movement in 
Marylebone, and who has occupied the position of chief librarian and 
secretary to the voluntary libraries of the parish, has been appointed out 
of a number of candidates principal librarian and clerk to the Com- 
missioners of Public Libraries and Museums. 

LONDON : KENSINGTON. The Commissioners have decided 
not to open on Bank Holidays, as the small attendance of the public 
shows there was no real demand for the opening. 

LONDON: LINCOLN'S INN. On July 6, Mr. John Thomas 
Nicholson, the librarian, was found dead in his room at 228, Peckham Rye, 

LONDON -. NEWINGTON, S.E. The Commissioners have re- 
ceived from William Saunders, Esq., M.P., a valuable gift, including a 
fine marble bust of Shakespeare, from the celebrated Carrara studios; 
a portrait of Beatrice Cenci, after Guido ; and a collection of standard 
works numbering upwards of one hundred and sixty volumes. 

Other important presentations so far have been a cheque for ^100 
from Lord Llangattock, and one for ^20 from Lord Ashcombe. These 
sums are being expended in the purchase of standard comprehensive 
works of reference, which will be available for use in the lending depart- 
ment pending the opening of the reference library an event which, it is 

Library Notes and News. 283 

to be regretted, is delayed by want of funds. When fully equipped, there 
is good reason to believe that the library will become one of the most 
popular in South London. It is centrally situated in a district with a vast 
population, principally of the working classes. Since the opening of the 
library by Her Royal Highness Princess Christian, in November last, the 
entire stock of the lending department, numbering 9,600 volumes, has 
practically been issued five times over. There are already over 4,000 
regular borrowers, and 2,000 copies of the catalogue have been sold. The 
daily average issue for the quarter ended March 31, was 733. The 
building is shelved for 50,000 volumes and could accommodate twice that 
number ; but at present it contains less than 10,000; and, owing to the 
necessarily heavy capital charges upon the only source of income the 
penny rate the supply of books must remain inadequate unless material 
help from friends of the library movement is forthcoming. Newington is 
a first-rate field for the work of a well-stocked free library. 

LONDON : PENGE. The Local Government Board have declined 
to sanction the proposed loan for building the Public Library. 

LONDON : ST. MARYLEBONE. A requisition signed by fourteen 
ratepayers, requesting the vestry to ascertain the opinion of the rate- 
payers with regard to the adoption of the Public Libraries Acts, was 
received at the meeting of the Vestry held on July 26. It was decided 
to acknowledge its receipt and to take no further steps. 

LONDON : STOKE NEWINGTON.-On Sunday, March 17, Mr. 
Alderman and Sheriff Dimsdale visited the Stoke Newington Library 
and unveiled the portraits of two former Commissioners the late Mr. 
Joseph Beck, and Mr. John Riintz. The portraits were painted by 
Mr. J. R. Dicksee, the expense of painting the former being defrayed 
by public subscription, the latter being presented to the library by 
the family of the late Mr. Riintz. 

The question of opening the Reading Rooms on Sundays and 
Bank Holidays has been raised, and the Commissioners have decided 
to open them on Bank Holidays, but not on Sundays. 

MANCHESTER. In the British Architect of August 10, appear 
the elevation and plans of the Free Library and Municipal Building at 
Openshaw. Messrs. J. W. and R. F. Beaumont, of Manchester, are the 

NOTTING-HAM. The last of the fourth season's " Half hour Talks 
to the People about Books and Book-writers," in connection with the 
Nottingham Free Public Libraries and Reading Rooms was given on 
Monday evening, April 9. This was the twenty-fourth " Talk " of the 
season, and approaching the hundredth given under the scheme 
originated by Mr. Briscoe. They have all been well attended by the 
working classes, have been highly appreciated, and have had the effect 
of bringing before the masses the best authors in the various depart- 
ments of literature. Similar " Talks " have been given at Peter- 
borough, Loughborough, and Hucknall Torkard with equally satisfactory 
results. The Nottingham addresses were given both by ladies and 
gentlemen, including the librarian ; and those there and elsewhere by 
Mayors, alderman, councillors, clergymen, and other gentlemen. 

Plans for the erection of a new lending library and reading 
Room for the Hyson Green district have been prepared. The Notts, 
and Derbyshire Notes and Queries, a monthly antiquarian and scientific 

284 The Library. 

magazine, is now solely edited by the public librarian, who also 
edits The Ensign, and the "Local Notes and Queries" column of 
The Nottinghamshire Guardian. Mr. Briscoe is preparing a new 
edition of the poetical works of Henry Kirke White. He recently 
visited the Royal Library at the Hague. 

OXFORD. Mr. John Lancaster Mowat, M.A., librarian, Pembroke 
College, Oxford, committed suicide on August 6. A verdict of " Suicide 
during temporary insanity " was returned. 

RAMSG-ATE. The following motion was carried at a special meet- 
ing of the Town Council held on July 19 : "That the Public Libraries 
Act, 1892, be, and is hereby adopted for the Urban District of the 
Borough of Ramsgate, subject to the condition that the maximum rate to 
be levied for the purposes of the said Act in the said district in any one 
financial year, shall not exceed one halfpenny in the pound ; and that this 
resolution shall come into operation on and after the 27th day of August, 

REDRUTH. An elevation with plans of the Passmore Edwards 
Free Library at Redruth, as designed by Mr. Jas. Hicks appeared in the 
Building News, August 3. A sketch of the same appeared in Western 
Weekly News, of August n, and is accompanied by two plans showing 
the arrangement of rooms. The building is described, and the founda- 
tion stone will be laid by Mr. Passmore Edwards on September 6. 

SHEFFIELD. On August 10, a new branch library was opened at 
Attercliffe, by the Mayor of Sheffield (Aid. E. S. Foster). Mr. Batty 
Langley, M.P., also addressed the meeting. 

WIDNES. In the Widnes Weekly News of July 21, is an account 
of the Free Library. 

WIG AN. The Earl of Crawford has presented a fine set of the 
Grands et Petits Voyages of the brothers De Bry to the Wigan Refer- 
ence Library, and a specially carved oaken case has been made to hold 
the collection. His Lordship has also given to the same department six 
large folio volumes containing original specimens of Persian and Arabic 
handwriting, arranged chronologically, showing the progressive develop- 
ment of oriental penmanship. The boys' reading room and reference 
library, presented by the member for Wigan, Sir Francis Sharp Powell, 
Bart., is now in course of erection. 

WORCESTER. On August 22, the Public Library Committee 
decided to expunge betting news from the daily papers in the news 
room. Mr. T. Duckworth, of Blackburn, has been appointed librarian at 
the Public Library. There were forty-eight applicants. 

RUSSIA. A report of the Russian Naval Library at Cronstadt shows 
that on January i, 1894, it included 46,304 works, in 78,138 volumes, 
whereof 28,370, in 50,576 volumes, were Russian, and 17,934, in 27,607 
volumes, foreign. Of newspapers and serials the library receives 102 
Russian, 18 French, 18 German, 16 English, i Polish, and i Italian. 
The receipts and expenditure in 1893 exceeded 10,000 roubles (over 
1,000 sterling.) 

28 5 

ttbe Olibrars Bssociation of tbe ZHnitefc 


G.C.B., &c. 

will be held in THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE, BELFAST, on the 4th, 
5th, 6th and 7th September, for the transaction of the annual 
business of the Association, and of such other business as may 
be lawfully dealt with. The Meeting will begin at 12 o'clock 
on the morning of TUESDAY, 4th September. 


I. The names of candidates proposed at, and since, the last 
Monthly Meeting, will be submitted for immediate election. 

II. His Excellency the President will address the members. 

III. The Report of the Council with the Treasurer's audited 
accounts will be submitted for adoption. 

IV. The *Election of Officers and Council for the ensuing 
year will be held. 

V. The following Amendments of the Constitution will be 
proposed : 

By the Council : 

(1) That in Chap. IV., Sec. i, lines 9 and 10 (see next page], 
the words " and Vice-Presidents " be struck out. 

(2) That Chap. VI., Sec. 2, which at present reads as 

follows : 

"The election of Officers and Council shall be 
" conducted by ballot upon a list which shall include all 
"nominations sent to the Secretary at least 10 days 
"before the annual meeting. Each nomination must 
" be assented to in writing by at least three members of 
" the Association," 

* Nominations must be signed by three members, and be in the Hon. 
Secretary's hands not later than August 24th. 

286 The Library. 

be amended so that it shall read as follows: (Changes are underlined.) 

"The election of Officers and Council shall be 
"conducted by ballot upon a list which shall include all 
" nominations sent to the Secretary at least 10 days 
" before the annual meeting. The President and 
" Vice-Presidents shall be nominated by the Council 
" but the other officers and members of Council maybe 
" nominated either by the Council or by the members 
" at large. Nominations by members must be signed 
" by at least three members of the Association." 

(3) That the following rule be added to the Constitution : 

" The Council may appoint sectional Committees, 
"the members of which may be selected from the 
" Council or from the general members of the Asso- 
"ciation, to deal with various departments of the 
" Association's work under such conditions as shall 
" be fixed from time to time by the Council." 

(4) That Chap. IV., Sec. 3, which at present reads as 
follows : 

"The President shall be capable of holding office 
" for a continuous period of not more than one year," 
be rescinded. 

By Mr. J. J. Ogle: 

That Chap. IV., Sec. i, which at present reads as 
follows : 

" The whole affairs of the Association shall be 
" conducted (subject to the control of annual and special 
" general meetings) by a Council, consisting of a Presi- 
" dent, twelve Vice-Presidents, aTreasurer, an Honorary 
" Solicitor, a Secretary, and thirty-two others, of whom 
" twelve shall be London and twenty country members. 
" The above shall be elected at one annual meeting, 
" and shall bear office until the close of the next. To 
" these shall be added all Past Presidents and Vice- 
" Presidents who shall intimate their wish to serve on 
" the Council," 

be amended so that it shall read as follows : (Changes are underlined.) 

" The whole affairs of the Association shall be con- 
" ducted (subject to the control of annual and special 
" general meetings) by a Council, consisting of a Presi- 
" dent, twelve Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, an Honorary 
" Solicitor, a Secretary, and thirty-two others, of whom 
" twelve shall be London and twenty country members. 
" But the Council may remit portions of its work to a 
"Committee which shall meet as often as is necessary 
" in the intervals between successive Council meetings, 
" and this Committee shall submit for confirmation, or 
" otherwise, a report of its proceedings at each meeting 
" of the Council. The officers and other members of 

The Library Association of the United Kingdom. 287 

" Council shall be elected at one annual meeting, and 
" shall bear office until the close of the next. To these 
" shall be added all Past Presidents, and Vice-Presi- 
" dents who shall intimate their wish to serve on the 
" Council." 

That Chap. IV., Sec. 8, which at present reads as 
follows : 

" Meetings of the Council shall be called by the 
" President, and shall be held at such time and place 
" as he shall appoint. It shall be lawful for the Secre- 
" tary to submit any resolution to each member of the 
" Council in writing, and to receive written answers ; " 

be amended so that it shall read as follows : (Changes are underlined. ) 

" Meetings of the Council shall be called by the 
" President or by the Secretary, and shall be held at 
"such times and places as may be decided at a Council 

meeting immediately after the election of the officers 

and Council, or at any subsequent Council meeting. 

It shall be lawful for the Secretary to submit any 
resolution to each member of the Council in writing, 
and to receive written answers." 

VI. Papers and Discussions. The Draft of a Bill to amend 
the Public Libraries Acts, 1892 and 1893, wil1 be considered. 
The discussion will be opened by Mr. H. W. Fovargue, Hon. 
Solicitor to the Association. Early notice of proposed Amend- 
ments should be addressed to Mr. Fovargue, at the Town Hall, 


Hon. Secretary. 

288 The Library. 

flDr. Carnegie an& tbe %ibrarg 

THE Hon Secretary of the L.A.U.K. has received the following in- 
teresting letter from Mr. Andrew Carnegie, in acknowledgment of the 
announcement that he had been elected an Honorary Member of the 
Association : 


June 30, 1894. 

Yours of the 23rd instant received. Will you please convey to your Asso- 
ciation my most grateful thanks for the great honour it has seen fit to confer 
upon me. 

There is no movement of our time with which I am so glad to be connected 
as that which establishes FREE LIBRARIES. A friend sent me for perusal an 
old scrap-book, made by one of the lending men of my native town of Dun- 
fermline. This volume was filled with things pertaining to its history. The 
item which interested me most was, one setting forth that my father was one 
of the committee of three among the weavers, who associated and formed the 
first collection of books in Dumfermline for public use. He began the first 
public library, and his son has been privileged to give his native town the last. 
I come by heredity to my free library work. The action of your Committee 
is, therefore, peculiarly gratifying. With renewed thanks, I am always 

Yours very truly, 


J. Y. W. MCALISTER, Esq., 

Hon. Sec. Library Association of the United Kingdom^ 
20, Hanover Square, W. 


AT the meeting of the Municipal Corporations Association in London, 
Sir Albert Rollit distinctly laid down that it was most important that 
boroughs should be very careful in spending money for libraries and 
museums, and that it was illegal to spend money for a library out of the 
half-penny rate for a museum. The two accounts should be kept 

DURING the recent session the following Acts of Parliament relating 
to libraries have received royal assent : British Museum (purchase of 
lands) ; Law Library (four Courts), Ireland ; Public Libraries (Scotland) ; 
Public Libraries (Ireland). 

mond, Surrey, has advised the local library Committee to return to the 
finder a bracelet picked up in the public library. Notices had been posted 
in the library and no one had claimed the article. 

GENERAL GRANT WILSON, in the course of a lecture he delivered 
recently, said that within the last half century sixty Americans had given 
sums varying from $30,000 to $2,500,000, to establish or aid public 
libraries. The most important of these gifts, amounting to $16,750,000, 
were made by eleven persons whom he enumerated. The list included 
three Scottish-Americans, the late Mr. John Crerar, Chicago, being at the 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 289 

top with $2,500,000, the late Mr. James Lennox, of New York, coming in 
next class as one of four who gave $2,000,000 each, and Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie being credited with $1,100,000. Of the total sum contributed by 
the eleven persons referred to, New York received $6,500,000 ; Illinois, 
$4,500,000 ; Maryland, $2,625,000 : Pennsylvania, $2,600,000 ; Minnesota, 

SOME years ago it was stated by a curious investigator of literary 
history that one of the oldest, if not the oldest, circulating library in 
England was that started by William Hutton, the historian, of Birming- 
ham, in the year 1751. A more correct research brought to the light the 
fact that this honour is due to an ancestor of the late Bishop of Durham. 
One Joseph Barber, of the High Bridge, Newcastle, had lent books in 
1746 ; and in 1757 at Amen Corner, near St. Nicholas' Churchyard, he 
had, we are told, 1,257 volumes on loan. Mr. Charnley, of Newcastle, 
started a circulating library in 1757. Barber thereupon announced that 
his annual subscription would be ios., and the quarterly payment half-a- 



MR. SAMUEL SANDARS, of 7, De Vere Gardens, Kensington, and 
Chalfont Grove, Bucks., the only son of the late Geo. Sandars, Esq., of 
Little Chesterford Park, late M.P., for Wakefield, was born April 25, 
1837, and educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. He took 
his B.A. degree in 1860 and proceeded to his M.A. in 1863. He was 
called to the Bar at the Inner Temple, was a Fellow of the Royal 
Geographical and Royal Historical Societies and a member of the 
L.A.U.K. and of the Bibliographical Society. Mr. Sandars, as a member 
of the Reception Committee, took a prominent position in connection with 
the last London meeting of the L.A.U.K. He was J.P. for the county of 
Bucks, andhadjust entered upon the office of High Sheriff for that county 
when he died suddenly on June 15. 

1Recort> of BtblioGtapb^ anfc Xtbrarg ^Literature. 

Libraries in the Medieval and Renaissance Periods. The Rede Lecture, 
delivered June 13, 1894. B Y J- w - Clark, M.A., F.S.A., 
Registrary of the University, and formerly Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. Cambridge, MacmiUan &> Bowes, 1894, 
2s. 6d. 

This is a brief, but valuable and interesting account of the interior 
arrangements of ancient libraries, tracing the development of book storage 
from the reading desk to which books were chained, to the comparatively 
modern wall case. The evolution of the modern book case may be traced 
in the following extracts from Mr. Clark's useful work : 

" When books were first placed in a separate room, fastened with iron 
chains, for the use of the fellows of a college, or the monks of a convent, 
the piece of furniture used was, I take it, an elongated lectern or desk, of 

290 The Library. 

a convenient height for a seated reader to use. The books lay on their 
sides on the desk, and were attached by chains to a horizontal bar above 

As libraries increased in size and books were multiplied, tiers of 
shelves had to be provided in addition to desks, and the system of laying 
books flat on their sides had to be abandoned in favour of standing them 
upright on shelves above or below reading desks. As Mr. Clark states : 

"The system of chaining, as adopted in this country, would allow of 
the books being readily taken down from the shelves and laid on the desk 
for reading. One end of the chain was attached to the middle of the 
upper edge of the right hand board, the other to a ring which played on 
a bar set in front of the shelf on which the book stood. The fore edge 
of the books, not the back, was turned forwards. A swivel, usually in 
the middle of the chain, prevented tangling. The chains varied in length 
according to the distance of the shelf from the desk. The bar was kept 
in place by a rather elaborate system of iron work attached to the end of 
the bookcase, and secured by a lock which often required two keys that 
is, the presence of two officials to open it." 

A typical example of this arrangement still exists in Hereford Cathe- 
dral. The great increase of books consequent upon the invention of 
printing led to greater economy of storage being forced upon library 
owners, while the necessity for chaining books was obviated because of 
their value being reduced through the multiplication of copies. Hence 
arose the wall case with the ledge or desk running all round the room at 
about three feet from the floor. The Mazarin Library at Paris, which 
many librarians will remember, is an excellent example of this arrange- 
ment, and there are many old libraries in England similarly treated. 

" So far as I have been able to discover, the first library arranged in 
the way with which we are familiar, namely, with the bookcases set 
against the walls instead of at right angles to them, is that of the Escurial. 
These cases were made by Herrera, the architect of the building, in 1584. 
There is no indication of chaining, but, in conformity with ancient usage, 
the fore edge of the books, instead of their backs, is turned outwards, 
and the desk is represented by a shelf, carried all round the room at a 
convenient height." 

Mr. Clark's lecture was illustrated by many lantern slides showing 
interior views of old libraries and bookcases, and some of these are re- 
produced in the present volume. The book is one of remarkable interest 
and value to present day librarians, not only for its careful treatment of 
a somewhat neglected subject, but for the light it sheds on the primitive, 
but fairly practical, arrangements, which obtained in ancient monastic 
and collegiate libraries. 


To the Editor of " THE LIBRARY." 

DEAR SIR, I write in the hope that you will allow me one word on 
this subject. As one whose previous catalogues have been noticed in your 
pages, I, like Mr. Folkard, deplore your decision. Faults in my work 
have been pointed out, but I have found in this no matter for tears on 
the contrary, I have been grateful to the reviewer who has mingled blame 
with praise, and, recognising the blemishes to which he has drawn atten- 

Correspondence . 29 1 

tion, have tried to avoid similar errors in subsequent work. Your 
criticism, if occasionally you must forgive me for saying it of a micro- 
scopic nature, has never approached the " slashing style," but has always 
been marked by kindliness and absolute fairness. Why, therefore, this 
hypersensitiveness which I, for one, am surprised to learn exists in the 
minds of some members of the Library Association ? Surely each one of 
us must realise that " we are none of us infallible, not even the youngest 
amongst us" not even the youngest generation. I send you, herewith, a 
catalogue of a portion of the books in this library, in case you should 
think fit to alter your determination, and in the full hope and expectation 
that if you find it faulty in construction, you will not hesitate to " cut it 
up." In conclusion, let me say that I think the good effected by your 
criticism has been incalculable. 

I am, yours faithfully, 

Saint George, Hanover Square, 

Public Library, 

Buckingham Palace Road, S.W. 
July I4/A, 1894. 


DEAR SIR, I was much interested in the article in a recent number 
of THE LIBRARY (p. 317 and following), about the Gazette de Leyde, in 
which my family played such an important part, but would you do me the 
great favour and draw Mr. Robert Harrison's attention to the fact that he 
is entirely wrong in saying " that the family of Luzac is represented by 
the widow of Louis Caspar, the brother and fellow labourer of John 
Luzac. Louis Caspar Luzac (Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Thorbecce 
Ministry, of 1848) was a nephew of Prof. John (Johan) Luzac, and having 
been born in the year 1786, he never had (and could not have had) any- 
thing to do with the Leyden Gazette. He died in the year 1860 or 1861, 
and his widow survived him about 10 years only, and has been dead, 
therefore, about 23 years. 

Prof. John Luzac was my great-grandfather, and I myself, my only 
brother's widow, and her little infant son, are the only ones left of the 
name. She and her son are living at the Hague. I am a publisher and 
oriental bookseller here in London, but am still a Dutchman. The 
family copy of the set of the journal is in my possession, and another, 
not quite so complete a set, too. I also have got the important corres- 
pondence between my great grandfather and John Adams, Washington, 
Pinckney, W. V. Murray, and other well known Americans. 

I shall be very glad if Mr. Harrison would kindly correct, in the 
next issue of your periodical, that the widow of Louis Caspar, who died 
so many years ago, is the representative of our family. 

If Mr. Robert Harrison wants to have any more particulars or likes to 
see me personally, I shall be very pleased to give him as much infor- 
mation as I possibly can. 

I am, yours faithfully, 


46, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
April 1 2th, 1894. 

292 The Library. 


SIR, There are one or two matters which I think might be advan- 
tageously taken up again at the meeting, though they don't require to be 
introduced by papers, e.g., the supply of Stationery Office Publications 
free of charge to such libraries as apply for them, also those of the Science 
and Art Department, and public documents in general. Of course I re- 
member the deputation who waited on the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
some years ago, and the valuable concession (!) made of allowing 25 per 
cent, off the published price to libraries. There is also the arrangement 
(very little known, I fear) that papers presented to Parliament may be had 
for the asking. Then there are the occasional distributions to the larger 
libraries of duplicates from the British Museum. 

Again, as to details of administration and distribution in Public 
Libraries. Of course our hand-books are admirable guides in this respect, 
but still I think much good would be done by collecting and distributing 
details as to the various plans adopted in every library, which could then 
be compared and amended from each other, and hints given how certain 
difficulties were got over. The information collected for the Chicago 
Exhibition must contain a great deal of valuable information, could a 
digest of it, or copies of it be got. 

I always feel that our meetings are too much devoted to papers which 
are better adapted for study at home, and which appeal more to the 
antiquarian or bibliographer, and, while I do not wish to undervalue these 
I think it is a pity that the joint experience of so many able and 
enthusiastic library administrators yields so little for the information 
and assistance of the tyro in such work. It is all very well for those 
gentlemen who have smoothly working and well arranged libraries to 
discuss the higher phases of the profession, but for learners and inex- 
perienced folk, who are plodding on under difficulties, let us have "more 

Yours truly, 


Hillside Cottage, Hawick, 
\yhjuly, 1894. 


SIR, I observe that in connection with the Library Association Pre- 
liminary Examination Mr. J. D. Brown acted as examiner in the subject 
of " Library Management." 

I have all due respect for Mr. Brown, but would like space in your 
magazine to advance reasons why I consider him unfitted to examine in at 
least two of the questions submitted to the candidates for certificates. 

The first of these questions runs as follows : " What are the differences 
between the Elliot and the Cotgreave indicators ?" Now it is well known 
that Mr. Brown has used the Cotgreave indicator in the Clerkenwell 
Library for some years past and until a very recent date, and in the paper 
London of a few weeks past Mr. Brown writes of the " freely expressed 
detestation of the mechanical indicator formerly in use." This criticism, 

Correspondence. 293 

i t must be borne in mind, refers to the Cotgreave indicator, and I leave it 
t o all fair-minded persons whether it is right for Mr. Brown to sit in judg- 
ment on an indicator which he has already prejudged and so emphatically 

The second question is : " Is it an advantage or otherwise for a library 
staff to be brought into frequent contact with readers ? p Give reasons in 
support of your opinion." 

Mr. Brown, by abolishing the indicator, has brought his staff into 
frequent and direct contact with readers. In the article already quoted 
from London he lavishes unqualified praise on his new system and refers 
to " the wisdom of my commissioners in making the change." It must 
then be perfectly obvious to any disinterested looker-on that Mr. Brown's 
mind is quite biassed in favour of his own system of " bringing the staff 
into frequent contact with the readers," and I contend therefore that Mr. 
Brown is utterly out of place in acting as examiner on such questions. 

I am, yours truly, 


[We have printed this letter because the pages of THE LIBRARY are open to all 
librarians for the airing of grievances, as well as for pleasanter communications, 
but we strongly deprecate both the tone and the matter of Mr. Frowde's letter, 
which, had good taste been considered to say nothing of proper professional 
feeling should have been addressed to the Council of the L.A.U.K. ED.] 


SIR, The Act which you printed in THE LIBRARY for August, amend- 
ing the Public Libraries Consolidation (Scotland) Act and which extends 
to Scotland the provision contained in Sir Francis Powell's Amending Act 
for last year which transferred the power to adopt the Acts from the rate- 
payers to the " library authority " raises a doubt in my mind as to whether 
it would not have been better, while giving the " authority " the power of 
spontaneous adoption, to have left to the ratepayers the power they held 
as an alternative to be used in cases where reactionary authorities refuse 
to adopt the Acts. 

Now that the power is in the hands of the " library authority " there 
no longer exists any reason why Parliament should restrict the rate to id. 
any more than it should restrict the water rate or the Sewer rate. The 
only reasons for the limitation of the rate originally were(i) to give com- 
munities some kind of incentive to the adoption of the Act, and (2) not 
to give the voters at large the power of assessing an unlimited tax ; but 
the transference of the power to local authorities has completely obviated 
the necessity for such optional conditions. If a town or district has so 
much regard for its own public library as to wish to spend on it a larger 
amount than Parliament allows there seems no logical reason why it 
should not do so. In view of the proposed amendments on the law, 
particularly as regards exemption from rates, I should be glad to see in 
the pages of THE LIBRARY opinions from library authorities as to the 
propriety of introducing further legislation to abolish the limitation of 
rating powers. 

X. Y. Z. 


The Library. 



June 20, 1894. 

SIR, I have been awarded a special diploma for merit at the Industral 
Exhibition held here, for a new newspaper reading stand that I have in- 
vented, a description of which I append as I think it may be of interest 
to the readers of THE LIBRARY. 

Yours respectfully, 




c , B 1 




.--- ^iiMiNGhAm Dwl/ro'f '*' 




c r 

It is a hanging stand fixed on the wall by a beam, from which is hung 
a brass rod, with clasps top and bottom, into which the edges of the papers 
are put. The rod running down the centre works on a ball head and 
revolves, whereby the paper can be moved so as to facilitate the reading 
and also for the light, it has several great advantages over the old upright 
stands, viz., a great saving can be made by purchasing these, as they can 
be bought at a fourth the usual cost ; they do not take up a quarter the 
space, and both sides can be read at the same time by a larger number of 
readers, and with greater comfort. This invention will be a great boon 
to library committees in small towns where the funds are low and the 
space at their disposal very limited. This has been acknowledged by 
librarians all over the country to be a very valuable addition to the 
already very large assortment of reading stands. 

An Address delivered by the Marquis of Dufferin 
and Ava, as President of the Library Associa- 
tion, at the Opening of the i7th Annual Meet- 
ing at Belfast, September 4th, 1894. 

TV /T Y Lord Mayor, Ladies and Gentlemen, When the Library 
** Association conferred upon me the signal honour of 
selecting me as its president for the current year I felt bound 
from conscientious scruples to stipulate that I should not be 
called upon to pronounce what is conventionally denominated the 
inaugural address, for the simple reason that I was quite incom- 
petent to treat the subject-matter of your deliberations, which 
are in some respects of a very technical character, in such a way 
as would satisfy the distinguished specialists who constitute the 
majority of the present meeting. I knew, moreover, that my only 
title to the occupation of this chair was my fortunate connection 
with Belfast and its neighbourhood that I was, in fact, merely 
a geographical expression, the unlearned but enthusiastic mouth- 
piece of those outsiders who are aware, indeed, of the great 
benefits your Association is conferring upon the world at large, 
who sympathise intelligently with your efforts, but are only im- 
perfectly acquainted with the more abstruse arcana of your pur- 
suits. In their name, then, I bid you heartily welcome, and I 
assure you that this welcome proceeds not only from a very 
warm-hearted community, but also from those whose watchword 
from earliest times has been " Progress," who have always been 
eager to assist every movement which is calculated to promote 
the intellectual advancement of mankind, and whose industry 
and energy have created the mighty and prosperous city in 
whose midst we stand. Nor, indeed, do I know of any associa- 
tion, amongst the many that have been established during the 
course of the present century, more worthy of the respect and 
gratitude of thoughtful people than your own. Our libraries are 

296 The Library. 

the treasure-houses of the past, treasure-houses in which are 
deposited all the wisdom, the experience, the art, the wit, the 
poetry, the philosophy, the recorded achievements, the fears, the 
hopes, the gropings after truth which have been accumulating 
amongst mankind through countless generations. But not only 
are they the treasure-houses of the past, they are also the 
arsenals of the future. They furnish the " TTOU ?Tc5," the fulcrum 
through whose instrumentality the world of the centuries to be 
will be lifted to a higher level. They supply to its destined 
benefactors the tools with which they will have to work. But 
to what use could we put these vast legacies of our fore- 
fathers, these huge, unmanageable Babylons of the pen, if 
their contents were not analysed, co-ordinated, tabulated, 
subdivided, and each item placed within our reach at a 
moment's notice, to every man according to his need, by 
your learned and laborious assistance? I believe that every 
year Great Britain alone is overwhelmed by a recurring deluge of 
7,000 new books. What would become of suffocated humanity 
under this visitation if you did not reach us out a helping hand ? 
It is you who evoke order out of chaos, who convert a mob into 
an army, and what would otherwise be an undistinguishable 
heap of rubbish into well-ordered jewel chambers of lucent and 
clear-cut gems. Not only so, but it is you who take charge of 
the new-born product of the author's labouring brain from the 
moment when it first presents itself in the repulsive form of an 
illegible manuscript. It is you who teach us on what paper it 
should be couched, in what type it should be swaddled, in what 
binding clothed. You instruct us as to the arrangement of its 
future domicile ; how our book-shelves may be best arrayed, 
ventilated, and kept dry ; how space can be economised, and 
the volumes which soar to the ceiling rendered as accessible as 
those on the ground floor. And here I may mention that I 
have at Clandeboye a chair which was invented by the late Sir 
William Sterling Maxwell of Keir, a most deviceful bookman, 
which is not only a light and ornamental piece of furniture, but 
also serves as a ladder and a desk without change of form or 
ceasing to be a chair. But, rising above these minor details and 
mere mechanics of your craft, you have also solved that most 
difficult of problems, the construction of a good catalogue of a 
catalogue which at a glance enables an inquirer, without taking 
a wrong turn, to wander through the devious and complicated 
labyrinth of whatever subject may be occupying his attention. 

Address by Lord Du/erin. 297 

Everything that has been said or written upon the matter from 
the remotest ages to the present day is brought as com- 
modiously within his reach as the keys of a piano meet the 
finger tips of a young lady. Nor does your intervention 
stop here. Not only do you keep watch and ward over our 
citadels of learning, you also have concerned yourselves and 
this perhaps is the most useful of all your achievements with 
the distribution of books and the dissemination of their contents 
amongst the population at large through the powerful stimulus 
you have applied to the establishment of free and public libraries 
from one end of the country to the other. As a collateral con- 
sequence, you have created a new and now well-recognised pro- 
fession namely, that of the public librarian a profession most 
honourable in its nature, most useful in its functions, which 
embraces in its ranks gentlemen of the highest attainments, and 
which is especially distinguished by the promptitude and courtesy 
with which it assists its clients along the multifarious lines of 
research they may be respectively following. Gentlemen, I only 
wish that I could think that I were at all worthy to sound the 
praises of your Association. But, although a bibliophile, which 
is the polite term for a bibliomaniac, like most of my tribe, I am 
not an erudite person. But, indeed, in these days who can lay 
claim to such an appellation ? Formerly there were universal 
scholars who knew everything that is to say, the sum of human 
knowledge was so restricted that it was possible for an industrious 
man in a long life to range through its utmost limits ; but the 
" pond " of sixteenth-century learning has now become an ocean, 
as boundless as it is unfathomable. The distinction, consequently, 
between the ignorant and the well-instructed man has grown 
more benign ; for it has become merely a question of degree 
between our respective ignorances. The walking encyclopaedias 
of former times have disappeared. Every branch of human 
endeavour and research is getting more and more specialised. 
Even professions have become fissiparous, in France almost 
every organ of the body has its own physicians. In short, the 
experts have tumbled omniscience from his throne. But on that 
very account it is the more necessary that we should have the 
means of knowing, through your intervention, where information 
in regard to any particular subject is to be found. Though we 
cannot sail over every sea or visit every shore, you provide us 
with the charts which facilitate our navigation, and give us at 
least a notion of the general configuration of the world of letters. 

298 The Library. 

The late Lord Derby had probably some such idea as this 
in his mind when he said, with his usual shrewdness, that a 
library in a country house should merely consist of books of 
reference. But, however that may be, a reverence for books, 
even by the unlearned, is a feeling worthy of due cultivation, 
and you as its priesthood should be held in the greatest 
honour. Nor is the world of to-day indifferent to either of these 
sentiments. In every country in which I have resided I have 
found philobiblion societies and book collectors held in the 
highest esteem. Nay, I myself have sometimes been treated 
with unwonted honour merely because I am the happy owner of 
what is alleged to be the smallest book in the world ; while 
many years ago I knew in Africa a young lady who was reputed 
a great heiress, and was wooed and triumphantly won in that 
capacity, though her sole fortune consisted in the possession of 
a rare, or rather unique, Egyptian manuscript. On the other 
hand, the absence of bibliographical knowledge has sometimes 
led to strange results. A non-literary but obviously intelligent 
gentleman a self-made man, in fact having accidentally come 
across a copy of Shakespeare, ordered his bookseller to send 
down in his next parcel of new publications whatever fresh work 
might appear from the pen of the same author, as, in his opinion, 
he was a very entertaining fellow ; while a continental capital 
was thrown into an uproar by one whom we all love and revere 
inquiring by telegraph whether her daughter, who was recovering 
from her confinement, had seen " Barchester Towers," for the 
whole afternoon had been fruitlessly spent by chamberlains and 
aides-de-camp in a search for Dr. Towers, M.D. Had they 
known their Trollope properly they would not have mistaken the 
title of one of his novels for the name of some eminent physician 
on tour. And now, with these very imperfect observations, 
I propose to give place to one who will far more properly than 
myself inaugurate the due commencement of the business of 
the meeting. 

An Address delivered by Richard Garnett, Esq., 
LL.D., Ex-President of the Library Association, 
at the Opening of the i;th Annual Meeting at 
Belfast, September 4th, I894. 1 

SUPPOSE it can but rarely have happened that an address 
has been delivered before the Library Association under 
circumstances of such embarrassment as attend the delivery of 
mine. We know the fate of the inferior performer who follows 
the well-graced actor. But this unfortunate mime has at least 
these circumstances in his favour his part is prepared for him ; 
he has it by rote ; and the responsibility rests in a measure 
upon the author. I am my own author, and am, moreover, 
suddenly called upon to fulfil the task, difficult enough at the 
best, of supplementing the polished eloquence of one of the 
most accomplished speakers of our time. I will not say that 
this position was entirely unforeseen. When you, my Lord 
Marquis, after rendering the Paris meeting a success by your 
genial sympathy and ready assistance, conferred upon the 
Association the yet higher honour of accepting its presidency, 
it was of course perceived that public duties of far higher 
importance might prevent you entering into the affairs of 
libraries with the fulness of a professional librarian, or might 
even prevent your attendance altogether. That the latter 
calamity has not befallen us is a subject for deep satisfaction, 
and I desire to express the gratitude of us all for the courtesy 
and public spirit which have brought you here. The misfortune 
is that the task of addressing this assembly on library matters, 
with the briefest notice and most inadequate preparation, should 
have devolved upon me. But I was President last year, and I 
feel that the last holder of the office is the person justly liable for 
undischarged accounts. May a similar state of things exist 
next year, and may your Lordship, recognising the obligation as 
I do, give the Association such an address as I cannot ! 

1 As Secretary of the Library Association I have received a letter from Mr. J. 
B. Martin in which he states that he " forbids " me to publish that portion of this 
address which refers to the case of his wife against the British Museum. I have 
replied, offering to print any reasonable statement Mr. Martin may send me but 
I decline to obey his dictatorial and unreasonable command, and as the Library 
Association cannot be consulted in time for this issue I publish Dr. Garnett's 
address on my sole personal responsibility. 


300 The Library. 

There is, indeed, one observation, if only one, which may 
come with grace from the lips of a stranger, and could not have 
been made by your Lordship. You, as an Irishman, can, and do, 
welcome the Association to Ireland, but cannot express on its 
behalf the gratification which it feels in finding itself there. 
This, I can assure all present, is very sincere. Most of us have 
the most agreeable recollections of our Dublin meeting, when 
we enjoyed the hospitality of that nobie seat of learning, Trinity 
College, and which was the last public appearance of one of the 
most illustrious of our profession a man partly of Irish extrac- 
tion Henry Bradshaw. It is with no less satisfaction that we 
now find ourselves guests of the prosperous and public-spirited 
metropolis of Northern Ireland ; and great indeed would be 
our pleasure if we could find reason to believe that our visit 
would in any way tend to promote the library movement in the 
sister island. This is the point to which I should have pre- 
ferred to have chiefly addressed myself had it been possible ; 
but it is one in which I am to learn and not to teach. I have 
seen and admired the noble national library in Dublin, which, 
in extent, architecture, and management would do honour to 
any city; but how far anything like a free library movement 
exists in Ireland I have yet to be informed, and I see with great 
pleasure upon our agenda a paper on the Irish library movement 
in general by Mr. Dixon, and special papers on the Belfast 
Public Library by Mr. Elliot and Mr. Gray. I should not be 
surprised to understand that in most districts the movement 
had not yet begun to move from obvious difficulties, partly 
the " eternal want of pence," which, when libraries are the 
theme, vexes the most opulent cities of Great Britain, and 
which cannot but be a most formidable difficulty in a country 
in general by no means wealthy partly from other causes on 
which I had better not touch on this occasion ; nor need I, for 
they are visible to everybody. Certain I am that an indisposi- 
tion of the Irish mind to knowledge and literature is not among 
them. The Irishman loves knowledge, and for its acquisition 
needs nothing but access to literature. Men of letters, science, 
and art have always been held in the highest honour in this 
country. Without indulging in any exaggerated visions of 
early Irish civilisation, there undoubtedly was a time when the 
pictorial art, then extinct almost everywhere else, attained one 
of its most elegant developments in Ireland, and when Irish 
scholars and missionaries bore the lamp of learning into thick 

Address by Dr. Garnett. 301 

adjacent darkness. To a certain extent this is still the case. 
Missionaries, indeed, no longer go forth from Erin ; but Carlyle 
admonishes us that the man who, under an earlier dispensation, 
would have been a preaching friar, now goes upon the Press, 
"and sets up his pulpit, which he calls newspaper." Now, 
it is matter of notoriety how largely the Press, not only of 
Ireland, but of Great and Greater Britain and the United 
States, is written and directed by Irishmen. Well, if Ireland 
can produce editors, she can produce librarians, and if she can 
produce librarians she can produce libraries. The obstacles 
which may oppose the general extension of public rate-sup- 
ported libraries throughout Ireland are not of a kind which 
our Association can remove, or, indeed, prudently deal with 
in any way. All we can hope is that its visit may both serve 
to express its own sympathy with the cause, and may en- 
courage Irishmen to follow the example set in Great Britain. 
I do not mean to follow it with servility. It is quite possible 
that an attempt to copy the English system exactly would 
result in failure. 1 have read with great pleasure in this 
morning's paper of the steps now being taken to establish a 
free library in the flourishing town of Newry, but we must 
remember that not all Irish towns are like Newry, and that the 
deficiency of population and of rateable property prohibit any 
considerable outlay in sites, buildings, and salaries. Under 
such circumstances, if I may venture to speak of what I have 
yet to learn, something analogous in its way to the trams and 
light railways now opening up the poorer and remoter districts of 
Ireland would seem to be desirable. The collections of books 
in individual towns might be small, the library buildings might 
be hired or of the most inexpensive character, the librarian's 
duty might be combined with other more remunerative occupa- 
tions all this would not matter so long as the books were 
systematically circulated from town to town, and no collection 
in any member of the federation contained duplicates of the rest. 
Take a village with only twenty books by themselves, therefore, 
scarcely worth having but let the village be a member of a 
federation of twelve similarly provided, and making a regular 
monthly exchange with its neighbours, and each village will 
have two hundred and forty volumes to read in the course of the 
year. Without some such machinery it will evidently be far 
from easy to introduce rate-supported libraries into the majority 
of Irish districts ; but by such a system of mutual aid as now 

302 The Library. 

suggested the incidence of the rate might be made almost 
imperceptible. When we come to the large towns, I am by no 
means sure that Galway or Sligo, for example, presents a 
hopeful field for the advocates of municipal expenditure for 
intellectual purposes. Even Edinburgh could not be induced 
to rate itself until it received very substantial consideration from 
the munificence of an enterprising Scotchman, who had made 
a fortune abroad. I hope Irishmen will not wait for such 
windfalls, but will consider the serious injury which the country 
is receiving from being outside the main current of British 
civilisation. This remark, I well know, has no application to 
the city where I now am, or to the North of Ireland in general, 
but it is impossible to be elsewhere in the country without 
becoming sensible of an estrangement from the higher culture. 
Some consciousness of this fact seems to be evinced in the efforts 
recently made to cultivate a peculiar type of literature in Ireland, 
which, so far as they merely contemplate the recognition and 
conservation of the peculiarly Celtic aspects of our literature, 
have my warmest approval. I subscribe to every word that 
Matthew Arnold has said of " Celtic magic " and its happy 
influence as an element in English literature. But whatever 
it may have been when a Celtic language was its vehicle, it 
is now not a literature, but a literary element. The only Irish 
literature now is British literature, adorned, ennobled, spiri- 
tualised by this Celtic factor, but still British, and the need of 
the Irishman is that this rich possession should be made his own, 
not that an artificial literature should be manufactured for him. 
Literature follows language, even if the language be dead, much 
more when it is a living and growing organism, daily expanding 
more and more to the airs of heaven above, and striking deeper 
and deeper root into the soil of national life below. Let us there- 
fore realise that the choice for the Irishman lies between his 
heritage in the national literature of the United Kingdom and 
no national literature ; and let us, by bringing that literature 
to as many Irish homes as possible, provide lest a people 
naturally as little inclined to provincialism as any in the world, 
should be provincialised by estrangement from the best produc- 
tions of the language in which they themselves think and speak 
and write. We must remember that " Irish " and " Milesian " 
are not convertible expressions. 

Passing from the reflections naturally suggested by our Irish 
visit to the affairs of our Association, I have to express my 

Address by Dr. Garnett. 303 

regret that from want of time, composing as I am on the eve of 
departure, with one foot on sea and one on shore, I am unable 
to say anything upon the ample list of agenda before us. I feel, 
however, that they may be safely entrusted to the wisdom of 
the meeting. There is one perpetual topic, which it would be 
inexcusable to omit on this occasion of all others, seeing how 
very seldom we have an opportunity of treating it in the hearing 
of a legislator. I am sure that, as concerns our President, our 
cause is won already, and that he must deeply sympathise with 
the disadvantages under which free libraries labour from the in- 
sufficiency of the funds available for their support from rates. 
In America, I see, public opinion has progressed so far that a Bill 
has been actually introduced into the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature to compel all towns with a certain amount of population to 
provide for public libraries whether they like it or not. This 
raises questions on which philosophers are not agreed. I should 
say myself that if States are not justified in compelling citizens to 
be vaccinated, neither are they justified in bringing the means 
of self-instruction within their reach, and vice versa. I must 
acknowledge, however, that it is added that this Bill is not likely 
to be enacted just yet. Whether our President would be pre- 
pared to go so far I do not know, but I am sure that his advocacy 
will never be wanting to any practicable proposal for removing 
restrictions upon the growth of the free library system. More 
effectual, however, than even that eloquent voice will be the aid 
we can bring ourselves by showing that our aims and ideals are 
high; that we are actually doing a great work, and that " if the 
bowl were stronger the song would be longer." In a word, that 
whatever the community may please to grant, it may be sure of 
getting value for its money. This can only be done by proving 
that libraries are extensively disseminating useful literature. 
The high percentage of the issues of fiction is a great stumbling- 
block to many sincere friends of libraries. It, as well as the 
betting nuisance, of which I hope we shall soon make an end, is 
constantly brought forward by an antagonistic class the ene- 
mies of libraries. As these persons are generally the enemies of 
education too, I do not believe in the sincerity of the argument 
as coming from them, for they must surely think that if people 
do read, the less they improve their minds thereby the better. 
But, sincere or insincere, the argument has much plausibility 
and some justice. Every librarian has a strong interest in 
diminishing its weight by keeping down the percentage of the 

304 The Library. 

issues of fiction as much as possible not of course by dis- 
couraging the perusal of the great masters the Scotts, the 
Kingsleys, the George Eliots whom all allow to be invaluable 
agencies in their building up of character but by abstaining 
from trashy novels which may happen to be in demand for a 
season, and by employing his personal influence to assist the 
demand for instructive books. It has been stated that the 
demand for novels is sometimes stimulated by numbers of 
copies of such as are popular for the moment being procured 
simultaneously. I can hardly believe this, if so the practice 
is most objectionable. If the books are borrowed and returned 
the library becomes to that extent a circulating library, which 
was never contemplated by the Act. If they are bought there 
must be great waste of money, for in a year or two they will be 
worth nothing to keep, and can only be parted with at a heavy 
loss. This is so evident that I cannot believe that the practice 
has prevailed to any extent. Besides the personal influence of 
the librarian, there are other means of creating the public senti- 
ment which is needed to put libraries into a satisfactory position, 
which may mostly be summed up in the precept of an intimate 
alliance with other educational agencies. Do not be isolated. 
Help the School Board as far as possible, and the voluntary 
schoolmaster too. Give their pupils, present and past, every 
facility for resorting to the library. If the structure of the 
library permits, encourage lectures and exhibitions under its 
roof, and make it an instrument for encouraging those that may 
be given elsewhere. By these and similar measures on the part 
both of librarian and committee-men the needful public senti- 
ment will be created in time, and when once the community has 
made the development of libraries its affair, no man can predict 
how far this development may go. 

The address I delivered at Aberdeen last year was mainly 
retrospective, and I do not know that subsequent events in the 
library world call for especial remark, except one legal question 
which has arisen, and which, I think, deserves the attention of 
the Council of the Association. This is the action brought by 
Mrs. Victoria Woodhull Martin against the trustees of the 
British Museum. Mrs. Martin, a lady of such distinction in 
the United States that she has twice been a candidate for the 
highest office in the gift of her countrymen, was libelled years 
ago in a very contemptible pamphlet. This pamphlet acciden- 
tally found its way to the British Museum, where, after reposing 

Address by Dr. Garnett. 305 

for sixteen years, it was read by one of Mrs. Martin's friends. 
Mrs. Martin forthwith brought an action, not against the friend, 
but against the British Museum. The pamphlet had been with- 
drawn the moment its character was pointed out ; the trustees 
expressed their regret, but because they would not give up the 
name of the vendor of the book and publish an apology in the 
newspapers, Mrs. Martin would have the law of them. I 
mention this in no unkindness to our fair adversary, but to 
show the risk to which you may be exposed should you have to 
deal with a litigious, or, let us say, a highly sensitive person. 
To show the difficulty you would have in protecting yourselves, 
I may mention that Mrs. Martin's friend had to read through 118 
pages (I think that was the number) before he could find the libel. 
And, most important point of all, although this wretched pam- 
phlet was the only publication brought prominently forward at 
the trial, Mrs. Martin's complaint embraced books of real his- 
torical importance, such as a library like the Museum was abso- 
lutely bound to have upon its shelves, but in which she was 
disrespectfully mentioned. Now, it is impossible to write con- 
temporary history without making statements which must hurt 
or offend individuals, and it is impossible to say in what corner 
of almost any book something may not lurk which may con- 
ceivably be actionable. Mrs. Martin's case certainly did not 
afford much encouragement to similar proceedings. She lost 
her cause, and I may add that the immunity of booksellers in 
similar cases, which seems to imply that of librarians, was laid 
down most distinctly by Mr. Justice Wills in the remarkable 
action of Mrs. Weldon against certain booksellers for vending 
libels upon her. Still, we have all heard of the glorious uncer- 
tainty of the law, and one successful, or even unsuccessful action 
of this kind would do great harm to free libraries by intimidating 
gentlemen of standing from acting upon their committees. I 
therefore think it would be well if all libraries were once for all 
protected by a short Act exempting them from proceedings in 
similar cases, and especially enacting that books in which the 
matter complained of was casual and not the very stuff and 
substance of the production, should never be liable to be with- 
drawn ; neither should bond-fide controversial tracts in which 
feeling might be carried too far. Libellous attacks on private 
character should undoubtedly be excluded, but even there the 
complainant should be required to institute proceedings against 
the author or publisher, pending the result of which the book 

306 The Library. 

should be withdrawn. If our Council will draft a measure 
calculated to effect these objects, I may very safely promise it 
the support of our President, and of every scholar and thinker 
who is sensible of the preciousness of the historical record and 
of the mischief of allowing it to be tampered with to gratify the 
sensitiveness of individuals. 

And now, though I have disclaimed any retrospective pur- 
pose in this address, I cannot but, in conclusion, remark upon 
the combination of agreeable recollections which our meeting in 
this city inevitably brings before us. We have met in the metro- 
polis of Ireland ; we now meet in her second city. We have 
met in Manchester and in Liverpool ; we now meet in a city 
uniting the manufacturing greatness of the one with the marine 
pre-eminence of the other. We have met in the venerable 
colleges of Oxford and Cambridge ; we now meet in a seat of 
learning of the modern time, equipped with every instrument of 
culture, conspicuous among which is to be reckoned a noble 
library, owing its existence to the civilising and conciliatory 
thought of a great statesman an English graft on an Irish stem, 
in whose flourishing condition, hospitable as it is to every sect 
and every party, we may discern the emblem and the earnest of 
the perfect fusion of the people of these islands in language, now 
nearly accomplished in blood, becoming more intimate day by 
day in interests, which the course of events is irresistibly work- 
ing out in literature, which, in our humble way, we are met 
here to promote. 

Parish Councils and the Libraries Acts. 

T HAVE been requested by several members to read a paper 
* on the Legislation which has taken place since we last met, 
affecting Public Libraries and their management, and particularly 
on the effect of the Parish Councils Act. Before dealing with 
that important statute, our English friends will not object, I am 
sure, to a reference to the new Irish and Scotch Acts, which are 
really the only Acts of the past Session exclusively relating to 
Public Libraries. 

The Public Libraries (Ireland) Acts Amendment Act, 1894, 
is not all that might have been expected for the fair sister isle. 
True, it makes important changes, but if Consolidating Acts 
were requisite for Scotland in 1887, and England and Wales in 
1892, Ireland in 1894, was > I think, fairly entitled to an Amending 
and Consolidating Act, and not a mere amendment of the old Act 
of 1855. 

Section 4 of that Act is repealed by the statute now under 
consideration. That section provided for the adoption of the 
Act in any incorporated borough or town having a population 
of 5,000 persons, by two-thirds of the householders present at a 
public meeting. The Amending Act of 1877 (which, by the way, 
does not appear to be repealed) authorised the adoption, either 
by the public meeting or by the issue of voting papers to the 
ratepayers, and the decision of a mere majority was to be suf- 
ficient. The area for the adoption of the principal Act is to be 
the urban district, and this is defined as meaning an incorporated 
borough or a town, as defined by the principal Act. The Com- 
mittee appointed to consider the Bill appear to have had con- 
siderable difficulty in adopting a suitable area, and though it 
rejected the proposal to extend the Act to rural districts, it 

1 Read before the 1 7th Annual Meeting of the Library Association, Belfast, 
September, 1894. 

308 The Library. 

would appear that the population limit in the towns has been 
removed. The old method of adoption goes with the repeal of 
section 4 of the Act of 1855, and henceforth the urban authority 
may adopt the Act by passing the necessary resolution in accord- 
ance with the regulations, and subject to the publication, pre- 
scribed by the new Act. This is the principle adopted for urban 
districts in England by the Act of 1893, but the Irish Act con- 
tains a necessary and useful proviso to the effect that if the urban 
authority fail to pass a resolution adopting the Act, any twenty 
or more ratepayers in the district may require the mayor or 
chairman to ascertain the opinion of the voters on the question 
of adoption, or the limitation of the rate, and this is to be ascer- 
tained not by voting papers but by ballot, the Local Government 
Board being authorised to make any rules for carrying into effect 
the object of the Act. The poll will be taken of the voters in the 
district, i.e., the Parliamentary voters (owners, occupiers and 
lodgers), and freemen (in boroughs). The majority of answers is 
to decide any question. It is unnecessary to refer in detail to 
the Act which will, no doubt, ere long be in the hands of all the 
members ; but some points call for observation. Thus, if a poll 
is taken and the Act is adopted, the urban authority is to carry 
it into execution. Should they fail in their duty, the Local 
Government Board, on the application of ten or more voters, 
are to appoint from among the voters five Commissioners to 
carry the principal Act into execution, who will have all the 
powers of the urban authority under the Act. The authorities 
of two or more neighbouring (not necessarily adjoining) districts 
may, after the adoption of the Act, combine for any period for 
carrying the Act into execution, or they may make an agreement 
to share the cost of the purchase, erection, repair and main- 
tenance of any library (including a museum, school of science, 
art gallery, or school for art) situate in one of the districts. 
There is a power to let any part of the premises not required 
for the Act, which may prove useful where it is necessary to 
provide a source of income from rents for portions let for business 
or other purposes. Section 9 authorises an authority to accept 
any grant from the science and art department towards the pur- 
chase of the site, or the erection, enlargement, or repair of any 
school of science or art, or other purpose for which a grant may 
be made. It is to be hoped that this short but useful measure 
will result in an extension of the free library movement in 

Parish Councils and the Libraries Acts. 309 

The next Act to be noticed is the Public Libraries (Scotland) 
Act, 1894. This Act relates entirely to the adoption of the 
principal Act in burghs. Sections 4, 5, and 6 of the Consolidat- 
ing Act of 1887 prescribe that its adoption shall only take place 
by a majority of the householders voting to be ascertained by 
means of voting papers. Section 5 enacted that if a majority 
determined against the adoption, the question was not to be 
raised for two years. Henceforth in burghs the magistrates and 
Council are alone authorised to adopt the Act by a resolution 
to be passed after due notice, and published as prescribed. If 
the proposition is not adopted, there is now no limit of time 
within which it may not again be brought forward. A copy of 
the Act has already appeared in the LIBRARY, and has been cir- 
culated among the members. 

Lastly, I must refer to the Local Government, or as it is 
popularly described, the Parish Councils Act, 1894. This 
statute has, by what may be called a side-wind, made some 
important changes in the English law relating to Free Public 
Libraries and Museums. At the risk of being wearisome, I 
must refer to this statute in detail, as I have seen no attempt to 
extract from its complicated provisions the effect which it will 
exercise in future upon library work. I shall, of course, be 
understood as referring simply to the relation of the Act to the 
Public Libraries Act, 1892. 

Section 7 declares that from the appointed day in every rural 
parish, the parish meeting shall exclusively have the power of 
adopting the Public Libraries Act, 1892, including any acts 
amending the same. The " appointed day " is a convenient but 
vague expression. In some parishes (i.e., such as are to have 
no Parish Council), this will be the 8th November next, or such 
later date in the present year as the Local Government Board 
fix. In others (i.e., where a Parish Council is to be elected), it 
will be the second Thursday next after the election of the Parish 
Council, on which day that body comes into office. I make this 
statement with hesitation, preferring to refer any interested 
members to section 84 of the Act, which is supposed to define 
the expression. I can say no more than that I hope I have 
interpreted the meaning of the section so far as it relates to the 
adoptive acts. 

The parish meeting is to consist of the parochial electors (an 
entirely new creation), who may be described as the County 
Council electors (occupiers), Parliamentary electors (owners and 

3io The Library. 

lodgers), and married women, i.e., such as have the necessary 
qualification to be enrolled on the parochial electors' list. Each 
elector has one vote and no more. The majority of the electors 
present and voting at the meeting decides the question in the 
first instance, and the chairman's decision as to the result is to 
be final, unless a poll is demanded, which may be done by any 
one parochial elector. Such poll is to be taken by ballot, and 
subject to rules to be framed by the Local Government Board. 
Presumably the chairman of the parish meeting is to cause the 
poll to be taken, but he does not appear to be directly required 
to do so, nor does he commit any offence should he fail. The 
expenses of the meeting and of the poll are to be paid out of the 
Poor Rate, but as regards the poll, they are not to exceed the 
scale to be adopted by the County Council, or on their default 
by the Local Government Board. Thus, by a few words the 
whole system of ascertaining the opinion of the voters by voting 
papers (approved so recently as 1892), is abolished as regards 
rural parishes, following its abolition in urban districts in 1893, 
and leaving it to flourish in metropolitan districts only. At the 
same time there is a reversion to the principle recognised by the 
Act of 1855, for the adoption of the Act by the inhabitants at a 
public meeting, as also a considerable extension of the electorate 
who are to decide the questions submitted to them. The sec- 
tion applies not merely to the question of adoption, but also to 
the limitation of expenditure. The result is most confusing and 
complicated ; thus, in London there will be one system for 
adoption, in urban districts another, and in rural parishes 
another ; the same observations applying to the same districts 
as regards the persons who are to vote. In the County of 
London they will be the County electors, in the urban districts 
the urban authority to the exclusion of the electors, and in rural 
parishes the parochial electors. 

Section 7, sub-section 4, provides that where under the Act 
the consent or approval, or other act on the part of the vestry of 
a rural parish is required, in relation to any expense or rate, the 
Parish Meeting is to be substituted for the vestry, and for this 
purpose the expression " vestry " shall include any meeting of 
ratepayers or voters. This effects a complete alteration of 
many sections in the principal Act and will raise considerable 
doubt. To explain it would necessitate the quotation of all the 
sections where vestries are referred to in the Public Libraries 
Act, 1892, e.g., section 5 (Constitution of Commissioners for 

Parish Councils and the Libraries Acts. 311 

executing Act in Parish), section 9 (power of neighbouring 
parishes to combine), section 10 (power to annex parish to 
adjoining district), and several others; but the chief difficulty 
lies in interpreting the sections where references are made to 
the voters. Is the Parish Meeting, or are the parochial electors 
to be understood in the future as the voters referred to in the 
principal Act ? Observe that vestry means any meeting of voters. 
Frequently the assent of the voters is required, but not at a 
meeting. These and other difficulties might have been obviated 
if the promoters had consulted those who have had practical 
experience of the Acts they propose to tinker, and at least the 
Council of the Association might have been approached on this 
part of the Act. 

Sub-section 5 of the same section puts an end to existing 
Commissioners in rural parishes, where Parish Councils are 
elected. It provides that where the area under any existing 
authority, acting within a rural parish in the execution of the 
Public Libraries Act is co-extensive with the parish, all powers, 
duties, and liabilities of that authority, shall, on the Parish 
Council coming into office, be transferred to that Council. And 
sub-section 7 is not less important. It enacts that when after 
the appointed day the Act is adopted for a rural parish, and the 
parish has a Parish Council, that Council is to be the authority 
for the execution of the Act. In rural parishes where Parish 
Councils are not elected, it would appear that existing Com- 
missioners continue to be the authority, and in case the Act is 
adopted in any such parish, the Parish Meeting would have to 
appoint Commissioners, but this is not at all clear, for while by 
section 7 the Parish Meeting has to adopt the Act, by section 
19 (3), it is provided that the meeting may appoint a committee 
of their own number for any purposes which would be better 
regulated and managed by such a committee, and the legal 
interest in all property, which, if there were a Parish Council, 
would vest in that Council, is to vest in the chairman and over- 
seers. On the other hand the sections in the Public Library 
Act authorising the appointment of Commissioners are not re- 
pealed. But these parishes will be few in number, as all 
parishes having a population of 300 must, and of from 100 to 300 
may elect a Parish Council, while even parishes having a popu- 
lation of less than 100, may obtain power from the County 
Council to elect a Parish Council. Whether the new Councils 
will be more suitable for carrying on library work in rural 

312 The Library. 

parishes remains to be seen. The multiplication of authorities 
for carrying various Acts into effect, is as a rule fraught with 
unnecessary expense, and in this respect the simplification 
effected by the Act is to be commended. It seems probable 
that the section will result in the wider adoption of the principal 
Act, especially if the scheme of travelling villa ge libraries were 
practically accomplished in each county. 

Section 1 1 is intended as a safeguard against extravagance 
on the part of the Parish Council. Thus before incurring ex- 
penses which would involve a rate exceeding threepence in the 
pound, they must obtain the approval of a Parish Meeting. If 
they wish to borrow money the County Council and Local 
Government Board must give their consent, and in any event 
their expenses must not exceed sixpence in the pound for any 
year. But this does not include expenses under the Adoptive 
Acts, which are to be shown separately on the demand note. In 
parishes where there is no Parish Council, the rate when added 
to the expenses under any of the Adoptive Acts is not to exceed 
sixpence in the pound. 

Section 57 authorises the appointment out of their respective 
bodies of a joint Committee by two or more Parish Councils. 

So far, we have been discussing rural parishes only. But 
the Act by no means stops at them. Urban districts, and even 
the metropolis, come within its scope. Section 62 provides that 
an Urban District Council may resolve that the powers, &c., of 
any existing authority acting in the urban district shall be trans- 
ferred to such Council, and thereupon the authority is to cease 
to exist. This is, perhaps, limited to a very few cases, since the 
Urban Authority as a rule executes the Act in urban districts, 
and the further provision that the Act is not to be adopted for 
any part of an urban district without the approval of the District 
Council is of no importance, as the Act cannot be adopted for 
part of such a district. In my opinion this does not apply to 
the metropolis. 

But section 33 applies to the administrative county of 
London, county boroughs, ordinary boroughs, and urban dis- 
tricts, and it authorises the Local Government Board on the 
application of the Council (or in the case of London of the 
Sanitary Authority), or any representative body, to make an 
order conferring on the Council, Sanitary Authority, or other 
representative body within the borough, all or any of the powers, 
duties, or liabilities of a Parish Council. 

Parish Councils and the Libraries Acts. 313 

This would include the transfer under section 7, sub-section 
5, of the powers, duties, and liabilities of any existing authority 
(e.g. t Library Commissioners), acting within the parish, and 
under sub-section 7, the execution of the Act where it is here- 
after adopted. That this was intended or contemplated by the 
promoters, seems to be very doubtful, and possibly the Local 
Government Board would not be disposed to grant such an 
application. At any rate, it may be presumed that no transfer 
will be made without consulting the existing library authority, 
but it must be pointed out and borne in mind that the tendency 
of legislation (and rightly so, I think) is in the direction of 
reducing the number of authorities exercising statutory juris- 
diction in a district, but it is open to the possible objection that 
the Committee would have to be composed entirely of members 
of the Council or Sanitary Authority to the serious loss, in many 
cases, of valuable service from co-optative members who are 
now appointed under the Public Libraries Act because of their 
interest in library work. 

Recent legislation has not been marked by that clearness of 
language and effect which in these days might reasonably be 
expected to prevail, and the Local Government Act, 1894, forms 
no exception to the rule. In some cases it is hopeless to attempt 
to understand or explain it, and I conclude this paper with a 
protest against tinkering Acts of Parliament by side-winds in a 
general Act relating to entirely different subjects, and without 
the slightest consideration of the effect it will have upon all the 
provisions of the Act it seeks to " amend." 


Town Hall, Eastbourne. 

flew Scbeme of Xfbrars Hssocfatfon Examinations. 

At the i;th Annual Meeting of the L.A.U.K. held at 
Belfast, the following report, recommending important changes 
in the Syllabus of Examinations, was adopted, and will take 
immediate effect. Those persons, however, who have already 
passed in two subjects under the old syllabus will be entitled 
to enter for the remaining subjects in order to complete their 
certificates if they send in their names before December ist, 


The list of Text Books will be published later. 


Your Examiners beg leave to recommend that the 
Preliminary Examination should no longer be held, and 
that all future Examinations be restricted to professional 
subjects only. All candidates (except those who have been 
engaged in library work during five years previous to the 
Examination) should possess a certificate of having passed 
some public examination from among the list of those 
accepted by the General Medical Council. 

The Examination should consist of three sections : 

(1) Bibliography and Literary History. 

(2) Cataloguing, Classification, and Shelf Arrange- 


(3) Library Management. 

Each section might be taken separately, and certificates 
pro tanto granted as heretofore. Handwriting, spelling, and 
composition should be taken into consideration by the 

The Honours Certificate should be dropped. 

The special object of the Examination as a test of the 
practical competence of the candidate should be held in 

New Scheme of Library Association Examinations. 315 

view by the Examiners in settling the questions ; and the 
candidate should be advised to bear in mind that no study 
of text-books is of value unless accompanied by a knowledge 
of books such as can only be acquired by actual experience 
in a library. 

July 2%th, 1894. 


(Two literatures to be taken, of which one must be English.) 

(a) Bibliography. Besides practical knowledge, the can- 
didate must show a fair knowledge of the matter dealt 
with in Text-books 5 and 6 of the present syllabus. He 
must have some acquaintance with the history of printing 
and the leading bibliographical works of reference. He 
must know the Latin names of the towns most frequently 
found in imprints. 

(b) Literary History, especially of the last hundred years. 
Each candidate must show that he has a thorough 

knowledge of the matter of the prescribed text-books, and 
an acquaintance with the editions and forms in which the 
works of leading writers have been published and of the 
literature that has grown up around those works. 


The candidate must be able to catalogue and classify a 
number of books in at least two languages (one of which 
must be Latin) besides English. He must be familar with 
leading systems of cataloguing and the best printed cata- 
logues produced in English-speaking countries, theories, 
and schemes of classification, size notation, shelf registers, 


This section of the Examination will be a test of the 
candidate's experience and his skill and readiness in dealing 
with the various practical problems which may come before 
him. He will be examined as to the methods in use in his 
own library. The chief subjects may be thus arranged : 

316 The Library. 

(1) Public Libraries Acts. History and leading pro- 

visions (only if the candidate is from a rate- 
supported Library). 

(2) Administration. Committees, staff, finance, business 

books, rules and regulations for the public. 

(3) Buildings. Plans and specifications, lighting, heat- 

ing, ventilation. 

(4) Fittings and appliances generally, but excluding me- 

chanical methods used in cataloguing. 

(5) Maintenance. Binding, stationery, periodicals, dona- 

tions, propositions, &c., and the various books of 

(6) Executive work. Charging and registration of books, 

lending and reference, registration of readers or 
borrowers, issue and other statistics. 

(7) General. Aid to readers, reference library work, 


Motes ant> Iftewe. 

The Editor earnestly requests that librarians and others will send to 
htm early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost value to the historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

ABERDEEN. Professor John Fyfe has resigned, through ill health, 
the Chair of Moral Philosophy in Aberdeen University. He was librarian 
of King's College from 1857 to 1876. At the University Court held on 
August 2 ist, to receive his resignation, the Principal said : " But above 
all, it was his great work in connection with the library which deserved 
special remembrance. It was under him, at that time, that the important 
work of cataloguing the University library took place, and those two 
volumes that formed the original nucleus of the University catalogue were 
a Herculean labour. It was a monument which would long remain a 
proof of his devotion and energy." 

BINGLEY. At a meeting of the Bingley Free Library Committee 
on September 6th, it was resolved that it be a recommendation to the 
Local Board " to black out all sporting tips and forecasts of races from 
the newspapers supplied to the Free Library." 

BIRKENHEAD. Two new branch Reading Rooms and lending 
libraries were opened on August 25th. 

BRECHIN. Several years ago, the handsome sum of ^5,000 was 
given to the town of Brechin for the purpose of building a public library 
for the city, on condition that the inhabitants should adopt the Public 
Libraries Act, but the name of the munificent giver was withheld. The 
offer was made to the town through Mr. Forbes Dallas, of Edinburgh, who 
had been engaged by the donor as agent. The offer was accepted by the 
town, and the library has been erected, and has been opened now for 
over a year and is largely used by the public. The giver, who has 
hitherto been designated the " anonymous donor," is now declared to be 
Mr. G. M. Inglis, the proprietor of the estate of Murlinden, about two 
miles from Brechin. Mr. Inglis is a native of Glenesk, who, at an early 
age, went to South America, where he became connected with the nitrate 
trade, in which, it is understood, he has been eminently successful. 

GLASGOW. MITCHELL LIBRARY. It has been decided to pur- 
chase the library of the late Mr. Morgan, of Bishopbriggs, for ^200. It 
consists of 11,300 volumes. 

GLASGOW. On September gth, at a meeting of the Town Council, 
Mr. R. Graham gave notice that at the next meeting he would move 
that " In the opinion of the Town Council the Free Libraries Acts should 
be adopted as from the beginning of the next financial year." He pro- 
posed to take the discussion next month, but not to take any vote until 
after the October ward meetings and the elections in November. 
Treasurer Gray said it was exceedingly disadvantageous to take the 

318 The Library. 

discussion without a vote, and he would, therefore, propose a motion 
which would bring up the question, and have a vote on it. He would 
propose that they should not adopt the Public Libraries Act until the 
sense of the citizens should be ascertained as favourable to adoption. 

HA WARDEN. In the Illustrated Church News of September 8th, 
is given an account of St. Deinol's Library, which Mr. Gladstone has 

KILMARNOCK. On September 8th, the Reading Room at 
Elmbank was opened by Provost McLelland. 

LONDON: BRITISH MUSEUM. In the Daily News of Septem- 
ber ist there is a leading article on the printing of the Catalogue of the 
British Museum. 

LONDON : HOUSE OF LORDS. A gentleman was summoned 
to attend an inquest at the Wandsworth Town Hall, on September 3rd. 
He asked to be excused from serving as he was exempt. In the con- 
versation which ensued it appeared that he was librarian of the House 
of Lords. The Coroner replied, " That is a good and valid reason." 
Mr. Jas. H. Pullman, who resides in Wandsworth, was forthwith excused, 
and the coroner ordered his name to be taken off the list. 

LpNDON : LEWISHAM. Mr. William W. Fortune, formerly sub- 
librarian of the South Shields Public Library, has been appointed sub- 
librarian of the Lewisham Public Libraries. 

LONDON : MIDDLE TEMPLE. The library is to be lighted by 

LONDON : PUTNEY. Harry Watkins, described as an artist, was 
charged on September 8th with stealing a dictionary of medicine from 
the Putney Public Library Reference Department, from which thirty or 
forty stamps had been removed. Mr. Sheil, the magistrate, ordered a 

LONDON : ROYAL SOCIETY Miss Lillian Gould, who won a 
First-Class in the Honour School of Natural Science, has received an 
appointment in the Library of the Royal Society. A portrait of her 
appeared in The Gentlewoman, September 8th, 1894. 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. The Thomlinson Library, which is now 
incorporated with the reference department of the public library, was 
opened for public use on September I3th, by Sir John W. B. Biddell, 
Bart. This celebrated collection of books was bequeathed to the public 
by the Rev. Robert Thomlinson, D.D., Rector of Whickham and Lecturer 
of St. Nicholas Church, Newcastle, in the year 1736. The books originally 
numbered 8,000, but at the time of the transfer there were scarcely 
4,500 volumes. 

REDRUTH. Mr. J. Passmore Edwards, on September 6th, laid 
the foundation-stone of the free library building at Redruth, in Corn- 
wall, to the cost of which he has contributed .2,000. A public luncheon 
was given in honour of the event. A sketch of the proposed building 
appeared in the Daily Graphic of September 7th, 1894. 

SALFORD. A reading room, in connection with the Salford Free 
Libraries, was opened at Weaste on September nth. 

Jottings. 319 

SALISBURY. Mr. Langmead, assistant librarian at Newport, Mon., 
has been appointed librarian. 

WAKEFIELD. The question of adopting the Public Libraries Acts 
has been referred by the Town Council to the General Purposes Com- 
mittee for consideration. 


IN the Sunday School Chronicle of August 23rd, is a list of 200 books 
suitable for a Sunday School Library. 

THE Sketch of September 5th contained portraits of Dr. Richard 
Garnett, Dr. Sullen, Mr. Charles Welch, Mr. Henry R. Tedder and Mr. 
J. Y. W. MacAlister, and Black and White, of September 29th, contained 
a copy of a photographic group, taken at Belfast, which included the 
Marquis and Marchioness of Dufferin, and several leading members of 
the Association. 

IN the prefatory memorandum of Mr. Gomme's County of London 
Loans outstanding, 1893-4. Return to order of Finance Committee dated 
February 14, 1894, he refers to Library Commissioners as one of the 
special bodies whose functions " except in one case," are limited to the 
parish area. The exceptional case is that of the Holborn Library Com- 
missioners. This would lead the reader to imagine that Holborn is the 
only district in London which has taken advantage of 55 and 56 Viet c. 
53. There are two others, St. Giles and St. George, Bloomsbury and 
Whitechapel. In this return Mr. Gomme has attempted to recognise 
those parishes which have adopted the Public Libraries Acts by putting 
in column n, the word nil where there are no loans outstanding. 
Lambeth, and St. Paul (Covent Garden), are omitted. The loans out- 
standing by the Public Library Commissioners are stated as follows : 

Percentage to total rate- 
able value of London. 

1892-3 I893-4 1892-3 1893-4 

; 1 34, 1 60 ; 1 56,669 -40 -47 

IT is important to know that each volume of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica is obtainable in four parts for 75. 6d. each ; consequently, 
anyone desiring to study a special article need not purchase a volume. 
For instance, the well-known article on " Libraries," by Messrs. Tedder 
and Thomas, may be had complete in Part 55. This article is prescribed 
as a text-book in the syllabus of the L.A.U.K. examinations. 

IN a well-known Educational Library, Der Meister, the organ of the 
disciples of Wagner, is regularly placed along with the Journal of 
Education and other pedagogic literature ! 

THE Daily Chronicle has published a series of letters on the " Classi- 
fication of Literature," beginning with a long communication on Sep- 
tember 1 8th from Mr. J. Taylor Kay, of Owens College, Manchester. 

IN the London Figaro for September 6th, appears a trenchant 
indictment of public librarians. Among other nice things it is said 
that their work is " almost entirely of a childishly simple and routine 
character " and that " they often receive ridiculously high salaries, to 
which a residence, with lighting and firing, is not infrequently added." 

IRecorfc of :Biblfo0rapbs an& OLibrars OLfterature, 

A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of 
London; 1554-1640 A. D. Volume V., Index. . . Edited by 
Edward Arber, F.S.A. . . Privately printed, Birmingham, 
i5th March, 1894, 4 to -> PP- cxi -> 2 77- 

This long-expected index volume to Mr. Arber's Transcript contains, 
besides his introduction : (i) a reprint, brought up to date, of the interest- 
ing paper by Mr. C. R. Rivington, on "The Records of the Worshipful 
Company of Stationers," originally read before a meeting of the London 
and Middlesex Archaeological Society in 1881 ; (2) "a list of London 
Publishers, 1553-1640," the trial issue of which we reviewed on its first 
appearance ; (3) a Bibliographical Summary of English Literature, 
1555-1603 ; (4) An index of the Mechanical Producers of English 
Books, 1553-1640. We regret to find that it does not include that index 
to the titles of the books registered for which all students of i6th and 
1 7th century literature have so long been waiting, and which it is to be 
feared they will now never obtain. At the risk of appearing ungrateful to 
the laborious editor, it seems a reviewer's duty to note that the language 
with which Mr. Arber closes his introduction is hardly warranted by the 
facts. He begins by remarking that as Milton promised his great poem 
twenty-five years before it appeared, and Prof. Froude devoted twenty 
years to the production of his History of England, some such period 
seems to be the " usual amount of one's earthly existence that must be 
offered up in the preparation of anything that is to last through the ages 
to come." Having devoted this period of his earthly existence to the 
task which he now regards as completed, Prof. Arber remarks that : 

"In parting we can most truly say, that no earthly consideration of 
money, ease or fame, has been allowed for an instant, to diminish or 
slacken the consecrated earnestness and thoroughness of this second 
attempt towards the ultimate Bibliography of this period. It has been, 
from first to last, a perfectly disinterested endeavour for the advance- 
ment of learning in this particular field of human knowledge." 

On a previous page Prof. Arber has written in a more business-like if 
less eloquent strain. He has been acknowledging the gift of various 
special bibliographies by Mr. Jenkinson, Mr. Madan and others, and 
continues : 

" While, however, fully appreciating the most valuable researches 
embodied in these lists, it was not in my power to avail myself of them. 
For it was imperative, in order to keep the expense within any reason- 
able limit, that not more than four pages should be allotted to each year 
of the Bibliographical Summary. At first, when the literature was 
scanty, this was ample space for all the books that could be found ; but 
by the time the University Presses began to work, in 1584 and 1585, the 
production of books in London alone had increased so much that the 
four pages allotted to each year was insufficient to record them. So not 
only were some London books thrown out, but also all other books 
printed in the British Isles, together with all anonymous and continental 
books relating to England. The fact is, that a complete national 
English Bibliography is beyond the financial power of any private 
individual, or any business firm, or even any literary society. It can 
only be accomplished by the State." 

Now we have no intention of hinting that Prof. Arber has not given his 
subscribers good value for the six thousand guineas, more or less, which 
the subscription list prefixed to this volume shows that he has received 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 321 

from them. But on the one hand it is certainly to be regretted that his 
method of saying that he has done all he means to do, should cause the 
impression to go forth that he has done all that is wanted; and in the 
second place, while, as we have said, he gives his subscribers reasonably 
good value for their money, it appears to us to be in a different class of 
commodities from that which most of them understood that they were to 
be paid in. This index-volume is really hardly an index at all. It is a 
record, and from its own standpoint one of the very greatest value. But 
its publication leaves the previous four volumes almost as clueless a 
labyrinth as before. Suppose, by good fortune we pick up a ballad 
beginning Rowe well Codes marynours. It is probably without date or 
name of printer, and we want to find out if the Stationers' Register will 
give us any help towards dating it. This so-called index-volume gives 
no help whatever. We are still left to turn over page after page of the 
records for any year which seems to us likely until our eye catches it on 
p. 360 of vol. i., and we find that it was entered to Alexander Lacy in 
1567-68. According to Mr. Arber's plan, if we turn to the index-volume 
and look under 1568 Lacey, we ought to find the numbers I., 360. By an 
oversight, which we do not think is typical, this reference in the present 
instance is omitted, but even were it duly given it is evident that it would 
be of no good whatever to the student of literature, since it presupposes 
the very information of which he is in search. Mr. Arber's index- volume 
is thus in the first place incomplete, since it stops at 1603 and has large 
gaps for the twenty years preceding that date, as is explained in the 
second of our quotations ; and in the second place it is not really an index 
at all, but leaves the four great volumes, to which it was hoped it would 
provide a key, absolutely chaotic for all literary purposes. We set this 
forth quite plainly, because great as the task is, if it be recognised that it 
is still to do, there is some chance that help may be forthcoming, and we 
gather from another passage in Prof. Arber's preface that he has accom- 
plished the greater part, if not the whole, of the actual work of indexing, 
though he has unhappily found himself unable to arrange and print his 

When we shift our point of view from that of the student of literature 
to that of the historian of the book trade, we have no longer to sigh over 
imperfections, but are rather filled with wonder at the greatness of the 
task which Prof. Arber has accomplished. After 1603, while the history 
of literature retains its interest, that of the book trade certainly dwindles, 
and under each year up to that date we have set forth in admirable order 
a complete list of all the London printers with their addresses, and sub- 
ject to the specified exceptions, under the name of each printer a list of all 
the books known to be extant printed by him during that year, with 
references to the entries in the register. This would have been a great 
task if it had been merely compiled from the previous four volumes of 
transcripts, but in place of this the entries have been made in almost 
every case from the books themselves. It is thus incomparably the 
fullest catalogue which has yet been printed of Elizabethan literature, 
and is of the very utmost interest. Where the books are no longer extant, 
Prof. Arber has contented himself for the most part with mere references 
to the pages of his Transcript on which their entry has been registered. 
On the other hand, his list contains many books of which the register 
has no record. It is thus, substantially, an independent compilation, of 
immense value for certain purposes, especially to the future historian of 
the English book trade, and is really an addition, made at the cost of 
great labour, to the original scheme. We cannot but regret that in order 
to make room for this addition the real index has been laid on one side, 
but our regret does not blind us to the interest of the substituted matter, 
or to the laborious work by which it has been compiled. 

322 The Library. 

Die Incunabela der Koniglichen Universitats Bibliothek zu 
Bonn. Ein Beitrag zur Biicherkunde des xv. Jahrhunderts 
von Dr. Ernst Voullieme. Mit einem Vorwort des Biblio- 
theks Direktors C. Schaarschmidt. xiii. Beiheft zum Cen- 
tralblatt fiir Bibliothekswesen. Leipzig, Otto Harrassowitz. 
1894, 8vo, pp. vi., 262. 

The 1234 Incunabula preserved at the University Library at Bonn 
cannot justly be described as of unusual interest. Unless we are 
mistaken they include among them not a single book printed in England, 
and only a mere handful printed in France. Italy and Holland are more 
adequately represented, but the great bulk of the collection consists of 
the commonest kind of religious and theological literature, printed at 
well-known presses. The catalogue is on the usual plan, with simple 
references to Hain for books registered by him after personal inspection, 
and fuller collations for those with which he was unacquainted. Its chief 
distinguishing feature is the excellent indexes of places and printers. 

Attempt at a Catalogue of the Library of the late Prince Louis- 
Lucien Bonaparte. By Victor Collins. 410, pp. xi., 718. 
Henry Sotheran & Co., 1894. Price 2 is. 

In forming the collection of books herein catalogued, Prince Lucien 
Bonaparte's object was originally to obtain works upon and representative 
of every European language and dialect, but eventually his collecting 
of philological works went further afield, until he came to gather 
works in all languages, in which books are known to have appeared. 
In this respect the collection is probably unique, and is of great value 
in consequence. We heartily agree with the opinions already expressed, 
that it would be little short of a disaster if such a collection were 
dispersed, as it represents the life's work of one who was not only a 
specialist in this branch of learning, but who was also aided by his exalted 
position, and in a measure by his means. It is to be hoped, therefore, 
that it will ere long find a permanent resting place in some public or 
other institution where its wealth will be available to philologists as well 
as students generally. No better way could be found than to adopt a 
suggestion that has appeared in the newspapers, that the collection 
should be purchased and presented as a testimonial to Mr. Gladstone. 
Of Mr. Collins' work in compiling this catalogue, and that in the 
short period of eighteen months, it would be impossible to speak too 
highly when the magnitude and difficulties of the task are taken 
into account. There are some 14,000 entries in no less than 275 
languages and dialects, and these entries, no matter what the form of 
their symbols, have all been converted or translated so as to allow of 
their being printed in roman type. Probably many of the entries are not 
so full as a very exact bibliographer might wish, but with the notes given 
in special cases they are such as will lead to the ready identification of 
the books, and certainly sufficient to enable possible purchasers to judge 
the value of the collection. The catalogue is, moreover, an important 
contribution to the bibliography of the subject, and philologists and 
librarians interested cannot afford to overlook it in this respect. The 
arrangement is classified, and is the only useful method which could be 
adopted for a work of the kind, but an index of authors and editors 
would have facilitated reference. However, as it is we appreciate the 
ability displayed in accomplishing such a task so successfully. Taking 
into consideration the fact that no individual was likely to possess in 
himself the requisite linguistic knowledge to deal with works in every 
language under the sun, we are surprised Mr. Collins did not find it 
necessary to call in even more expert help than that he acknowledges. 


September 14^, 1894. 


SIR, As there are many among your readers who do not know me 
and may, therefore, accept as accurate Mr. John Frowde's unprovoked 
attempt to discredit me, which appears in THE LIBRARY for September, 
perhaps I may be allowed to make these statements : 

1. I was appointed examiner in library management at a meeting of 
the Council from which I was absent, presumably because my colleagues 
considered me capable of fitly discharging the duties. 

2. Certificates are granted or withheld only by the Council. 
Examiners merely recommend. Every Examination paper I have 
drawn up has always been in accordance with the Syllabus of the 
Association and the text-books. 

3. I recommended for a pass, every candidate, in the two questions 
to which Mr. Frowde takes exception, both of them being on matters 
referred to in the text-books specified. 

4. The question of access of readers to shelves was not raised or 
even remotely suggested in any of the questions set, nor is it touched 
upon in any of the text-books. Every candidate when answering the 
question referring to the two indicators simply described their mechanical 

5. The relations between a librarian and his readers is a question 
which is distinctly laid down in the Syllabus of the Association, and 
has nothing whatever to do with the principles connected with open 
book-shelves. None of the candidates even hinted at open access. How 
could they? 

6. The candidates who failed, did so because they only attempted a 
few of the questions, and I, therefore, recommended to the Council that 
they should be asked to try again. 

Personally I am much obliged to Mr. Frowde for his disinterested 
and newly-found anxiety to see the Association Examinations conducted 
honestly ; but he has evidently not yet learned that in all public examina- 
tions, the prejudices or personal predilections of examiners are generally 
supposed to be governed by a certain regard for honour and good faith. 
This remark aoplies equally to the " faithful contendings " of that gentle- 
man of experience and authority signing himself "Z. Moon," who writes 
in quite a superior strain to THE LIBRARY for July, and quotes W. S. 
Gilbert with so much smug unction. 

After all, I might with equal reason object to Mr. Joseph Gilburt 
examining on English Literature because he is sure to favour the wits at 
the expense of the theologians ; or I might even impeach Mr. Tedder as 
unfit to examine at all on the ground that, being Treasurer of the Associa- 
tion, he is bound ex officio to grudge the cost of these examinations and 
must, therefore, have a prejudice against all the candidates ! 

Yours faithfully, 


324 The Library. 


SIR, Those librarians who, in the innocence of their hearts, imagined 
they were doing a public service by addressing a confidential circular to a 
paper called London, will now be delighted to learn that in reality they 
were serving Mr. Alfred Cotgreave, F.R.H.S., of West Ham, a dis- 
tinguished inventor and compiler of a cyclopaedian catalogue as big as 
the island of Guernsey. The replies to the circular mentioned have been 
tabulated and printed on a large folio sheet and, after being distributed 
at Belfast by Mr. Cotgreave, will no doubt in the future form a per- 
manent advertisement of the famous red and blue indicator with 
which most librarians have been made familiar. As a piece of com- 
mercial sharpness, the dodge of getting a number of testimonials 
under cover of information for a so-called "progressive journal" was 
clever, but whether it will be considered dignified or proper by those 
who were fooled into giving opinions, is quite another thing. It is most 
disgraceful that half the public librarians in Britain should be tricked 
into gratuitously advertising a piece of library furniture on the pretence 
that they were assisting in a plebiscite on a question of library manage- 
ment. After this, the action of London and those behind it who were 
responsible for the series of attacks on the Clerkenwell Public Library 
can be judged with considerable accuracy, and the value of the criticism 
assessed at its true value. 



SIR, I cordially agree with everything Messrs. Folkard and Pacy have 
written on the question of catalogue criticism, and beg to express my 
earnest hope that you will not discontinue it, though I should like to see it 
conducted on somewhat different lines. The truth is that the great 
majority of library catalogues, especially those compiled on the so-called 
" dictionary" plan for lending libraries, are no better in design than they 
were twenty years ago, though the idea seems to be widely prevalent that 
the high-water mark of perfection has been reached. It is, therefore, not 
only criticism that is wanted, but suggestion and instruction on points in 
cataloguing which are almost invariably neglected. Your critics have 
favoured us from time to time with remarks on what Mr. Pacy aptly 
terms " microscopic " deficiencies misprints, abuse of capitals, turned 
letters, misuse of the dash but they have very rarely spoken out on 
certain vital principles of cataloguing which closely concern the public. 
I refer to the matter contained in catalogues, the proper representation of 
important authors and subjects ; the characterization or explanation of 
misleading and obscure titles ; and due regard to accuracy of entry. I 
have little hesitation in stating that not a single lending library catalogue 
issued during the past twenty years will pass a close scrutiny on any of 
these points. I have before me various catalogues issued during 1893-4, 
every one being compiled on the lines of a wholesale grocer's price-list, 
and no more likely to aid the public with regard to the subject-matter of 
books than if they were devoted to an inventory of drugs. It is true that 
most of the books in the libraries are named in these catalogues, but not 
one tries to instruct readers in what the books are about. For example, 
what can an ordinary reader make of such entries under authors' names 
as : 

Lamont. Seasons with the sea-horses ; 

Warburton. Crescent and the cross ? 

A British Library Bureau. 325 

Does the former refer to a bathing machine proprietor, or to a tour round 
the music halls with a performing walrus ? Again, how very few, if any 
catalogues give information about the subject-matter of important novels, 
or even their proper sequence when part of a series ? Look at the extra- 
ordinary and indiscriminate muddle of entries usually found in alphabe- 
tical order only under such names as Balzac, Cooper, Dickens, Dumas, 
Scott, Trollope, &c. Although a librarian may know that Lytton's 
Harold is an historical novel, probably not one per cent, of his readers 
does. In the catalogue of a free library in a large west of England city, 
issued only a short time ago, I find Le Sage's Gil Bias under Smollett 
as the author ! This kind of ignorance of elementary literature prevails 
to a very great extent, and, with the utter lack of serious effort to assist 
readers in public libraries to understand what books are about, is the sort 
of thing which requires exposure in a journal like THE LIBRARY. But not 
on the lines of past attempts, which took almost a personal form by 
naming individual library catalogues. My proposal is that THE LIBRARY 
should publish lists of new catalogues giving such bibliographical details 
as may prove valuable as a record, and that comments on the whole batch 
be added, which could be made to embody all kinds of suggestions for 
improvement and references to defects, without singling out any library 
or individual. No librarian with the progress of the profession at heart 
could possibly object to such a course, which I am confident would have 
beneficial results both to librarianship and the public. 

W. A. 

H Brftfsfo OLfbrars Bureau. 

WE are pleased to hear that a Library Bureau will shortly be opened 
at 21, Bloomsbury Street, near the British Museum. Five or six years 
ago we strongly urged that an attempt should be made to establish a 
British Library Bureau, and we endeavoured to enlist support among the 
members of the Library Association, but as necessary funds could not be 
guaranteed nothing came of our efforts at the time. 

If conducted on proper lines, as we have every reason to believe it will 
be with Mr. Cedric Chivers as manager there can be no doubt the 
Bureau will prove of great value to the library world. 



THE members of the Association are invited by the Rt. Hon. the 
Lord Mayor to meet in the Mansion House, London, on Thursday, 
October 18, 1894, at 8 p.m., when a paper will be read by Mr. Charles 
Welch, Librarian to th Corporation of London : 


Richard Garnett, Esq., LL.D., Ex-president of the Association, will take 
the chair. Members and their friends who intend to be present are 
requested to send in their names to the Hon. Sec. of the Association. 


The Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, K.P., G.C.B. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Francis T. Barrett, Librarian, Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 
John Potter Briscoe, Librarian, Public Libraries, Nottingham. 
George Bullen, C.B., LL.D., late Keeper of the Printed Books, British 
Peter Cowell, Librarian, Public Libraries, Liverpool. [Museum. 

W. Ralph Douthwaite, Librarian, Gray's Inn Library. 
W. Lane Joynt, D.L., Dublin. 

J. D. Mullins, Librarian, Public Libraries, Birmingham. 
Alderman Harry Rawson, Public Libraries Committee, Manchester. 
C. W. Sutton, Librarian, Public Libraries, Manchester. 
Sam. Timmins, J.P., Public Libraries Committee, Birmingham. 
Charles Welch, Librarian, Guildhall Library, London. 
W. H. K. Wright, Librarian, Public Library, Plymouth. 1 
Hon. Treasurer. Henry R. Tedder, The Athenaeum, Pall Mall. 
Hon. Solicitor. H. W. Fovargue, Town Clerk, Eastbourne. 
Hon. Secretary. J. Y. W. MacAlister, 20, Hanover Square. 

Hon. Auditors. 

T. J. Agar, Chartered Accountant, 9, Bucklersbury, E.G. 
G. R. Humphery, Deptfoid. 

London Members of Council. 
J. B. Bailey, Librarian, Royal College of Surgeons. 

E. M. Borrajo, Sub-Librarian, Guildhall Library, London. 
J. D. Brown, Librarian, Public Library, Clerkenwell. 

F. J. Burgoyne, Librarian, Public Libraries, Lambeth. 
Cecil T. Davis, Librarian, Public Library, Wandsworth. 

H. W. Fincham, Commissioner of the Public Library, Clerkenwell. 

Joseph Gilburt, Day's Library, Mount Street, W. 

Lawrence Inkster, Librarian, Public Libraries, Battersea. 

Thomas Mason, Librarian, Public Library, St. Martin-in-the-Fields. 

Professor Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., Hon. Librarian Alpine Club. 8 

J. Henry Quinn, Librarian, Public Libraries, Chelsea. 

J. Reed Welch, Librarian, Public Library, Clapham. 

Country Members of Council. 

John Anderson, J.P., Linen Hall Library Committee, Belfast. 
W. E. A. Axon, 47, Derby Street, Moss Side, Manchester. 
Alderman Sir William H. Bailey, Public Library Committee, Salford. 
John Ballinger, Librarian, Public Libraries, Cardiff. 
Alderman W. H. Brittain, Public Library Committee, Sheffield. 
George Lamb Campbell, J. P., Public Library Committee, Wigan. 
Councillor Cedric Chivers, Bath. 
W. Crowther, Librarian, Public Library, Derby. 
R. K. Dent, Librarian, Public Library, Aston Manor. 

G. Hall Elliott, Librarian, Public Library, Belfast. 
H. T. Folkard, Librarian, Public Library, Wigan. 
T. W. Hand, Librarian, Public Library, Oldham. 
T. G. Law, Librarian, Signet Library, Edinburgh. 
C. Madeley, Librarian, The Museum, Warrington. 
W. May, Librarian, Public Library, Birkenhead. 

J. J. Ogle, Librarian, Public Library, Bootle. 

A. W. Robertson, Librarian, Public Library, Aberdeen. 

Councillor Southern, Chairman Public Libraries Committee, Manchester. 

Butler Wood, Librarian, Public Libraries, Bradford. 

J. Yates, Librarian, Public Library, Leeds. 

1 Mr. Wright was elected by the Council to fill the place of Mr. Archer, of 
Dublin, who declined to serve. 

2 Sir Frederick Pollock has resigned. The vacancy will be filled up on 
October i8th. 

The Vatican Library. 1 


/"ORIGINALITY can be claimed for this essay in no sense 
^-^ of the word. It had been for some years my wish to put 
into a presentable form the history of the great Vatican collec- 
tion, and when in Rome at Easter, 1892, I made considerable 
enquiries in the matter. The Preface of the late Commendatore 
de Rossi to the Catalogue of the Vatican Latin MSS. 8 seemed 
to me previous to that visit to be so exhaustive, that I had at 
first determined simply to translate his account. Permission 
was sought, and readily obtained, from the Vatican, and from 
the Commendatore himself. 

Subsequently, however, it was found that the particular re- 
searches of other writers upon the history of the Library, during 
the later periods, were so important, that they could not be 
overlooked ; and I determined to modify my original plan to the 
extent of incorporating the chief results of these. 

I have even, where it has been possible, adopted the actual 
words of my various authorities, giving full acknowledgment in 
footnotes, but not using inverted commas, which would in a 
short time have proved wearisome, and distracting to the eye ; 
judging that with such writers, each of whom had devoted a 

1 Communicated to the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 
at Aberdeen, September, 1893. 

2 See Miintz et Fabre, La Bibliothtque du Vatican au xv. Sttcl Paris, 1887, 
p. 300. 

3 De origine, historia, indicibus scrinii, et bibliothecse Sedis Apostolicse com- 
mentatio. Romse, typ. Vat., 1886. Cf. La biblioteca della Sede Apostolica edi 
catalogi dei suoi manoscritti. Roma, 1884. 


328 The Library. 

lifetime to his particular study, it was unlikely that more feli- 
citous phrases could have been invented by a casual foreigner, 
whose only claim to be heard consists in his interest in the 

I am gratefully bound to mention, at this early stage, the 
name of my friend, the Rev. Franz Ehrle, S.J., of the Vatican 
Library, whose own work in connection with its history will be 
mentioned in its right place. Without his assistance the follow- 
ing pages would not have been written. 


Dr. Lanciani remarks truly that the history of the public 
libraries in ancient and mediaeval Rome has not yet been written, 
and is only to be gathered in a fragmentary and imperfect way 
from isolated passages of the classics and from inscriptions. He 
himself, however, has done something in this direction, for in 
his Ancient Rome he devotes a chapter to the subject; 1 and to 
this in the first place I would direct attention. The essays on 
ancient libraries, he says, published between 1606 and 1876, by 
Lipsius, Saint-Charles, Lomeier, Struve, Liirsen, Petit-Radel, 
Michaud, and others, are not only incomplete, but almost worth- 
less, because we have gained more knowledge on this subject 
within the last few years, by the results of the excavations at 
Pergamon, Pompeii, and Rome, than the authors above-named 
could gather in the space of two centuries and a half. He 
devotes considerable space to the discussion of the form of these 
early libraries, into which I have no occasion here to enter. 
But a few lines may be devoted to recording the actual libraries, 
especially inasmuch as I shall only name those which can be 
designated as public ones. 

Records of libraries indeed at Rome we find as early as B.C. 
1 68, when ^Emilius Paulus brought back the library of Perseus, 
king of Macedonia, after his conquest. This was, however, not 
made a public one, nor is its site now to be traced. The library 

1 Ancient Rome in the light of Recent Discoveries, London, 1888, chapter vii. 
pp. (178-205). 

The Vatican Library. 329 

of Lucullus (B.C. 110-57), though really a private collection, may 
be termed justly a public one ; if we are to believe the authority 
of Plutarch, who distinctly says that it was open to all. 1 

The first public library in Rome owes its origin to none other 
than Julius Caesar. " His institution of a public library," Meri- 
vale remarks, " not offered to the citizens for their use, but sur- 
rendered to them for their own property, was a novelty in the 
career of civilization." There can be little doubt of the fact, 
though, according to Pliny, the first actually was built and 
opened about B.C. 36 by Asinius Pollio. It stood in the Temple 
of Liberty on the Aventine, one wing for Greek and one for 
Latin literature. 2 

Four years later Augustus founded the Octavian Library, in 
the porticos of Octavia, in honour of his sister. This was de- 
stroyed by fire, A.D. 8o. 3 He also built the Palatine Library by 
the Temple of Apollo, on the Palatine, arranged in the same 
way as that in the Temple of Liberty. This, too, was de- 
stroyed by fire, on the night between the i8th and igth of March, 
A.D. 363. It was in a secret chamber under the statue of 
Apollo here that the Sibylline books were preserved. Ammianus 
says that these survived more than one fire, and even this last 
one which destroyed the whole of this group of buildings. 4 

Tiberius gave up a wing of his palace for a similar institu- 
tion, which suffered the same fate in A.D. 191. It would seem 
that he also enlarged the already existing libraries of Augustus. 
Vespasian established a fifth in his Forum of Peace. But the 
most magnificent one was founded by the emperor Trajan, 
hence called the Ulpian Library, in Trajan's forum. Diocletian, 
in the third century, removed this to ornament his baths on the 

Librarians of various grades were appointed to the old Pala- 
tine Libraries, as may be seen from inscriptions still extant. 

1 Lucullus, 42. 

2 See Merivale, History of Romans under the Empire, new ed., i865 vol. ii. 
p. 403, for an important note relating to this priority. Dr. Lanciani, op. cit., p. 
184, accepts the claim of Pollio without further comment. 

3 Lanciani, pp. 184-6. 

4 Ammianus xxiii. 3 (Middleton, Rome in 1888, Edin., 1888, p. 107). 

5 Corpus Inscr. Latt., VI. ii., 5188, 5189, 4233, 5190, &c. Of these I produce 
two (Middleton, op. cit., p. 107). 


The Library. 









Finally the emperor Gordian II. (A.D. 237) founded a new 
library in the Palace of Pompey, but I am uncertain as to the 
extent to which it was a public one. 1 

Since doubt may exist in the minds of some as to the anti- 
quity of the free library movement I may perhaps be forgiven 
for recalling an incident, to which Dr. Lanciani calls atten- 
tion, who states that in his own mind there is no doubt that 
these libraries were certainly free. Aulus Gellius relates that 
one day he was the guest of a distinguished friend at Tivoli, and 
a discussion arose as to whether the use of iced water in warm 
weather was injurious to the health. Someone present quoted 
Aristotle's authority condemning it. As some doubt was ex- 
pressed in regard to Aristotle's real opinion, the speaker ran to 
the public library, fetched the volume and read it out. Gellius 
adds that the force of Aristotle's words was so great that they 
all decided at once to give up the use of so injurious a beverage 
for ever. 

Let us now turn to the history of the Vatican Library 

1 Gibbon states that this consisted of 62,000 volumes. 
1854, vol. i., p. 312.) 

(Decline and Fall, ed. 

The Vatican Library. 331 

II. FROM 1295 TO 1447. 



THE ASSEMANI, in 1756, trace back the origin of the Vatican 
Library to the gospel which, tradition states, St. Mark wrote 
at the bidding of St. Peter and gave to the Romans ; and 
to the books and parchments which St. Paul when captive at 
Rome told Timothy to bring him (II. Tim. iv. 13). J Though 
this is too far-fetched, it is evident that in each Christian 
Church a library must have commenced by the collection of 
MSS. of the sacred books, and especially those which were 
needed for daily use in public reading. Certainly Ignatius of 
Antioch, writing to the Philadelphians about some disputes 
which had already arisen about Christian doctrine, exclaims : 
" Unless I find it in the archives, that is, in the gospels, I will 
not believe." 2 To these archives there are other references. 

What the author of the Pontifical Book of the 6th century 
states, and the Assemani accepted, as to the city being divided by 
Clement, St. Peter's successor, into seven districts, and faithful 
notaries being appointed to inquire carefully into the deeds of 
the martyrs (which certainly was done later), many will allow 
has been rightly referred to this early date. Furthermore, the 
unknown author of the martyrdom of St. Clement makes 
mention of the poor, whose names that pope had written down, 
in each region, in order that he might feed them ; and that such 
lists of themembers of the Christian fraternity existed in the 2nd 
and 3rd century, if not in the time of Clement, in the chests of 
the Roman Church, has been most clearly demonstrated. 

The zeal of learned Christians for libraries is sufficiently shown 
by those which Origen and his pupils Ambrose, Alexander, 
Bishop of Jerusalem (212-281), and Pamphilus of Caesarea con- 

1 Catalogue bibliothecse apostolicae Vaticange codicum MSS. Ed. Steph. Evodius 
Assemanus archiepiscopus Apamensis et Joseph Simon Assemanus eiusdem biblio- 
thecse prsefectus. 3 torn. Romse, 1756-9. 

2 De Rossi, op. cit., p. xii. 

332 The Library. 

structed. A considerable number of books were used by the 
anonymous author of the Philosophumena and Hippolytus, 
(whose statue stood either in his own library or in that of the 
church, and was apparently the gift of his pupils and friends). 
The care which was taken at this early time, not only that 
the sacred books, but that books relating to Christian doctrine 
and history should be copied, is shown by those who have 
edited the epistle of the Church of Smyrna on the martyrdom of 
Polycarp; in Irenaeus of Lyons; by Origen, Lucian, Pamphilus 
and Antoninus, who continued occupied with the emendation 
of the sacred writings when they were already in prison and 
condemned to death. 1 

Concerning the libraries of the churches before the time of 
Constantine, express testimony remains in the acts of the magis- 
trates in Africa who carried out the commands of Diocletian and 
Maximian, that the meeting-houses of the Christians should be 
destroyed, and their books burnt. In the acts of Munatius 
Felix we read : " When we had come to the house in which the 
Christians met ... we came into the library, and found the 
lockers empty." Then Bishop Paul confesses that the readers 
have the books, from each of whom the manuscripts had to be 
sought singly. They found in all thirty-two, some large and 
some smaller, and four " quiniones " (sic). Alfius Caecilianus, 
the duumvir of the town, " came to the place where the Chris- 
tians held their sermons, and took from it the tribunal and 
letters of salutation." These were, no doubt, the letters of the 
bishops sent with the travelling brethren (fmtres peregrinantes), 
who are said to have been formed into a body in the 4th century. 
Lastly, in these acts mention is made of " MSS. precious, most 
precious," which a man had hidden lest he should be made to re- 
store, and said that they had been burnt. Mensurius, Bishop of 
Carthage (A.D. 311) wrote that " he had taken away and preserved 
the sacred MSS. lest they should be found by the persecutors, 
and had sent into the basilica certain infamous writings of the 
new heretics ; and that when the persecutors had found these 
and taken them off, they asked nothing more. But that certain 
Carthaginians had afterwards suggested to the proconsul, that 
those who had been sent to carry off and burn the scriptures of 
the Christians had been fooled, for they had only found a few 
things which did not belong to them ; that the MSS. were being 

1 De Rossi, xiii.-xiv. 

The Vatican Library. 333 

kept in the bishop's house, whence they ought to be fetched and 
burnt. But that the proconsul was unwilling to interfere." 1 
And so the library of the Church of Carthage escaped free from 
the flames. Another bishop, Secundus Tigisitanus, bore witness 
that men had been sent by the curator, together with a cen- 
turion, to find the sacred books and destroy them, but that they 
had been content with some rubbish or other, and that even 
this he had not given up. 

It is in this way that the church libraries, with but few ex- 
ceptions, were destroyed, by the edict of Diocletian, or perished 
through the very care by which they were preserved. What 
happened at Rome at this period is unknown. But it may be 
taken for nearly certain that all the documents and records 
relating to the history of the church before Constantine perished 
at the time of this calamity. How the library at Jerusalem, 
founded before the middle of the 3rd century, and the Caesarean 
library of Origen and Pamphilus escaped, is unknown. At the 
time of the 4th century, Euzoius, the bishop, endeavoured, as 
it is recorded, to have the books of this latter library transcribed 
on to parchment, probably on account of the wearing away of 
the papyrus. 

The mention of the office of readers or lector already indi- 
cates that the care of these libraries was in some way entrusted 
to them. That ordinarily the sacred books were preserved in 
the basilicas themselves, and in lockers and shelves at the side 
of the bema, that is, the chair and tribunal, may be inferred from 
the disposition of the libraries in the 4th and 5th centuries. On 
each side of the apse were lockers. On the one side were the fur- 
niture and sacred vessels, on the other the books and library. 
As proof of this may be mentioned the well-known couplet by 
Paulinus of Nola 

" Si quern sancta tenet meditandi in lege voluntas 
Hie poterit residens sacris intendere libris," 2 

and an inscription of the 5th century from the tribunal of the 
church, apparently of Seville, given by De Rossi in the second 
volume of the Christian Inscriptions, clearly proves this. 

There was also in each church a church chest, in which 
eventually the acts of the churches, and epistles of commendation 

1 De Rossi, xv. 

2 This was a favourite inscription in libraries. It was over that, for instance, 
in Rouen Cathedral. 

334 The Library. 

more particularly were kept, and these were entrusted to deacons. 
But to show how complete must have been the destruction 
carried out at Rome at the time of the persecution of Diocletian, 
it is only necessary to point out that Gregory the Great, in reply 
to a letter from Eulogius of Alexandria, asking about some of 
the acts of the early martyrs, wrote that he had found at Rome 
nothing except one martyrology, and this collected into one 
volume. (Epp. viii., 2g.) That the destruction of these may 
be traced to Diocletian is the opinion of Baronius, and nearly 
all subsequent writers. 1 

Concerning the epistles of the Popes, and their preservation 
in the form which afterwards came to be known as the 
" Regesta," nothing has been handed down earlier than the 4th 
century. But Tertullian (A.D. 160-240) mentions a MS. pre- 
served in the archives at Rome. The Epistle of St. Clement 
(the second Pope) to the Corinthians, at the end of the ist 
century, and similar early documents have come to us, not from 
Rome, but from the libraries of the east, Egypt and Africa. 

Coming down to the peace of Constantine (A.D. 325) we know 
that, with gifts of all sorts, books were certainly given to the 
Church, and the first actual existing example of a donation to the 
Church, that known as the Cornutian MS., expressly mentions 
sacred and liturgical books. 2 The Epistle of Constantine to 
Eusebius, and his answer, concerning the copies of fifty books 
which the Emperor gave for the use of the church at Constanti- 
nople, is well known, as well as St. Jerome's remark that instead 
of having books in uncial letters of gold and silver, written upon 
purple parchment, he preferred having work-day copies, well 
emendated. 8 

With regard to the lists of the poor and needy, and the care 
with which they were made, we have evidence from the 3rd 
century onwards, and in the gth century we have the statement 
of John the Deacon, that in the archives of the Lateran Palace 
there still existed the huge paper volume (prcegrande volumen) in 
which the names, and ages, and professions of all of both sexes, 
not only in Rome, but its suburbs and neighbouring cities, as 
well as among the cities on the seaboard for a great distance, were 
preserved. But it must be repeated that no documentary evi- 

1 De Rossi, p. xxi. 

2 The Cornutian MS. is of the year 471. De Rossi, I.e., xxxv. 
* De Rossi, xxxv. 

The Vatican Library. 335 

dence is in existence as to the actual preservation of the archives 
before the 4th century. 

In speaking earlier of the division of Rome into regions, I 
should have added that for the purposes of registration there 
were appointed, in each, notaries : so that we have now arrived 
at the point at which the work of organization had become 
crystallized. In charge of the books and documents of each 
church was the reader, or lector ; under him was an amanuensis, 
or scribe (exceptor), chosen at an early age, and advanced to the 
status of reader as he grew up. Superintending the registration, 
as early as the year 338, were the notaries, over whom eventually 
a superintendent (primicerius] was placed, possibly by Pope Julius 
(337-352), from whom the series of men were drawn who, in a 
later age, became known as the librarians of the Apostolic See. 

One of the earliest mentioned is Surgentius, to whom a book 
of Arator the sub-deacon On the Acts of the Apostles was handed 
over by Pope Vigilius in the year 544 to be placed among the 
archives of the Church. 

As early as. 526 we find one Boniface, superintendent of the 
notaries, searching by command of Pope John I., as to the date of 
Easter ; and he brought out of the archives of the Roman Church 
the letter of Pascasinus and Bishop of Lilybea, sent to Leo the 
Great in 444. 

An interesting confirmation of the fact that grades of work 
were already established is shown by the inscription placed by 
Pope Damasus (366-384) over the Archivum constructed by him, 
together with the Church of St. Lawrence, near the theatre of 
Pompey. He speaks of his father as in turn, amanuensis, 
reader, deacon, priest (exceptor, lector, levita, sacerdos}, and to his 
own rising in the same way and thence to the apostolic chair. 

Hinc pater exceptor lector levita sacerdos 
Creverat, hinc meritis quoniam melioribus actis 
H : nc mihi provecto Christus cui summa potestas 
Sedis Apostolicae volvit concedere honorem 
Archibis fateor volvi nova condere tecta 
Addere praeterea dextra laevaque columnas 
Quae Damasi teneant proprium per saecula nomen. 

And it is most probable, according to De Rossi, that in this 
basilica of St. Lorenzo, before the scriptorium instituted by Julius, 
and before the peace of Constantine, from expressions used, the 
treasury of the archives existed, which at the end of the 4th 
century had not yet been established at the Lateran. Even the 

336 The Library. 

shape of this scriptorium of Pope Damasus has in all probability 
been safely conjectured. And not only is thus much known, but 
it is certain that here were deposited the acts of the Council held 
by Pope Damasus in the year 369 at Rome, for to the acts is 
expressly added the note : " In the same way also 146 other 
oriental bishops subscribed their names, the authentic copy of 
which is to-day preserved in the archives of the Roman Church." 1 
Dr. Lanciani claims that some of this library of Pope Dama- 
sus still remains, in the Palazzo della Cancellaria courtyard a 
double tier of light columns of red Egyptian granite. " These 
are the very columns," he says, " which Pope Damasus carried 
from Pompey's theatre to his library, and which Cardinal Riario, 
in 1486, removed from the library to his palace." 2 

St. Jerome always speaks of the " chartarium " of the Roman 
Church. In the 5th century this came to be known more 
generally under the name of scrinium or scrinia. And this is the 
word used by Boniface I. (418), Caelestine I. (422), and Leo the 
Great (440-461), and others generally. There is no mention of 
the site, and as to the date at which the archives were transferred 
from the building of Pope Damasus to the Lateran, De Rossi 
confesses himself to be ignorant. 3 

The scrinium, shrine, or chest is familiar in appearance to 
most of my readers. As late as the middle of the i4th century 
(1341) a chest or case sealed with three seals and locked with 
three keys, containing some privileges and muniments affecting 
the Church of Rome, found its way somehow to Treviso, and was 
recovered by Benedict XII. 

These scrinia which subsequently became the " regesta " of 
the popes were early distinguished by a number, and German 
erudition has discovered proofs of this in the letters of Innocent 
I. (402-417). The words of St. Jerome with regard to the letter 
of Anastasius I. (400-1) bear out the fact that they could be easily 
referred to. " If you suspect that this letter has been forged by 
me," he asks, " why do you not look it out in the archives (in 
chartario) of the Roman Church ?" And we know that this 
method of filing and preserving decrees was exactly copied from 
that used for the rescripts of the Caesars, the acts of the Roman 
Senate, and the prefecture of the city. 

1 De Rossi, xliii. Cf. Lanciani, Ancient Rome (1888), pp. 187-190. 
- Op. cil., p. 190. For a completer description of the theatre of Pompey, 
see Middleton, Rome in 1888, pp. 295-6. 
P. xlv. 

The Vatican Library. 337 

The Liber Diurnus under Pope Hilary I. (461-8) speaks of the 
libraries founded by him at the Lateran. These may have been 
merely church libraries. 

We now come to the next library founded by the popes. 
Pope Agapetus (535-6) in founding a University at Rome, con- 
nected a library with it and gave up the private house of his 
family for it on the Cselian. The inscriptions which were put 
up in the building in commemoration of the fact are preserved to 
us only in the Codex of Einseidlen (given, of course, by De 
Rossi). 1 Agapetus seems to have been exclusive in his tastes, 
for he ordered one MS. to be brought from the treasury or chest, 
and publicly burnt. 2 The condition of libraries at this time may 
be known from that of Cassiodorius who retired to the Calabrian 
Monastery at Viviers, and there founded one, giving minute in- 
structions for the binders who were specially attached to it ; and 
for the lighting of it by means of lamps and the addition of 
water-clocks and sundials. 3 

The library of Pope Agapetus at Rome was enlarged and 
improved half a century later by Gregory the Great (590-604). 
Lanciani sees in the library of S. Gregorio at Monte Celio the 
lineal descendant of this time. 4 

The letters of Gregory the Great are full of references to the 
scrinia of the Roman Church. We may quote one instance. 
Gregory more than once made inquiries as to the authenticity 
of the acts of the Council of Ephesus ; and he did this by 
collating MSS. at Rome and at Constantinople, claiming those 
preserved by the Holy See to be the more correct. " Our 
Roman books," he writes to Narses, " are much more truthful 
than the Greek ones, because, as we are blessed with fewer 
brains than you, we are not such good hands at imposture." 
An interesting sidelight is thrown by a bishop of Saragossa, 
who by the command of King Chindaswinth 5 (642-9) had occa- 
sion to refcr to the Moralia. The book could not be found 

1 Op. cit. t pp. Ivi.-lvii. Cf. Lanciani, p. 190. 
2 De Rossi, I.e., p. li. 

3 Cassiodorius speaks of this library in his profoundly interesting De institu- 
tione divinarum literarum. Cf. De Rossi, Ixi.-lxii., and Lanciani, p. 198- 

4 Ibid., p. 198. 

5 See Mr. H. Bradley's delightful book, The Goths (Story of the Nations, Lond., 
1888, pp. 338-9), for this King. His great-grandson is the Roderic treated of by 
Scott and Southey. 

338 The Library. 

among the archives of the Holy See, owing to the number of 
other books there ; but a copy was found in the basilica of 
St. Peter " in scrinio" where a higher part was reserved for St. 

But the scrinium and the library of the Apostolic See ("bib- 
liotheca sedis apostolicae "), over which the superintendent of 
the notaries presided, in the yth century were certainly in the 
Lateran, for in the formulas used in that century and inserted in 
the daybook, the archives of the Roman Church and the sacred 
chest (scrinium) of the Lateran are manifestly one and the same. 
Cardinal Pitra believed that the famous decree of Pope Gelasius I. 
(492-496) at the end of the 5th century De libris recipiendis et 
non recipiendis referred to the Lateran library, and I have already 
quoted other references to it of an even earlier date. 1 In the 
council held at Rome against the Monothelites, which was held 
in the Lateran in 649, books and papers of every kind and in 
large numbers were brought out on request immediately from 
the treasury and library and shown, as from a place close by. 

We have even more precise evidence. By the command of 
Martin I., Theophylactus the superintendent made extracts from 
some of the writings of the Saints and of evidence on the heretics. 
When mention was made in one of the chapters of Cyrus, Bishop 
of Alexandria, of a saying by Dionysius, Bishop of Athens, in 
his epistle to Gaius, one of those then present said : " The book 
of these fathers must be brought." And Theophylactus found it 
and brought it, not from the chest, but from the venerable library 
of the See (de venerabili bibliotheca Sedis). From the books asked 
for and consulted at this Lateran council, brought out on request 
by Theophylactus, De Rossi has re-constructed some part of the 
catalogue of the Library of the Holy See in 649. Thirty-three 
authors are quoted (20 fathers and 13 heretics). We may learn 
from this how rich the library was of which these can necessarily 
have only been a small section, in Greek and Latin theological 
Literature, both eastern and western ; and also that heretical 
books were diligently preserved. 

The ninth chapter of his preface De Rossi devotes to the inter- 
change of books, in the yth century, between the Church at Rome 
and the nations converted to Christianity ; and in the very title of 
the chapter, it is gratifying to find he is obliged to mention 
England as the nation with which pre-eminently (presertim 

1 Isidore Carini, La Biblioteca Vaticana (Roma, tip. Vat., 1892), p. 9. 

The Vatican Library. 339 

Anglis) this interchange went on. He mentions the many books 
sent by Gregory the Great to St. Augustine, and in a footnote 
gives the localities, in which all that are still known, are to be 
found. 1 And he gives evidence for his statement that at the time 
the library of the Holy See was the centre from which sacred 
books were diffused through Northern Europe. He mentions of 
course the five journeys of St. Benet Biscop, from Bishopswear- 
mouth to Rome, in 653, 658, 671, 678, 684, and the books which 
he brought back on each occasion. The story of the discovery 
by De Rossi in the Laurentian Library at Florence of the copy of 
the Pandects, brought by St. Benet's successor from Rome, and 
then returned in a copy at his death to Rome ; and of his restora- 
tion, without any shadow of doubt, of the original inscription, is 
interesting to all Britons, but not germane to my subject. 

At the end of the 7th century or the beginning of the 8th, 
Pope Sergius I. took the charge from the superintendent and 
granted the care of the library to Gregory their sub- deacon, who 
afterwards was raised to St. Peter's Chair ; and from this time 
onwards the list of librarians is continuous. 2 

Great care was bestowed on the Lateran Treasury by Pope 
Zacchary (741-752) in the 8th century. The Liber Pontificalis 
records the structural improvements which he made ; and under 
Paul I. (757) and Adrian I. (772-795), we have, also in the same 
century, explicit references to liturgical books and books by 
Aristotle, mentioned in connection with King Pipin and Charle- 
magne in the same library. 

About the 8th century we first begin to hear of books and 
tabulated lists at St. Peter's ; while we also hear then of magnificent 
gifts to the Holy See. Charlemagne sends the psalter of his dead 
wife Hildegard to Hadrian I. in 783. Agnello of Ravenna about 
839 complains of a very fine volume, written by order of a bishop 
in the 6th century, having found its way to Rome. 3 

This vast treasure of books of inestimable value, of regesta, 
and charters gathered together before the nth century in the 
chests, library, and sacristy of the Apostolic See, in the " con- 

1 Op. cit. , p. Ixxii. The Cambridge Gospel is in the Library of Corpus Christi 
College, MS., No. 286. Engraved in Westwood's Palaeographia Sacra Pictona. 
De Rossi translates Cambridge by " Cambricensis. " 

2 Given by the Assemani in their catalogue, 1756. 

3 For many others, see De Rossi, Ixxxv. 

340 The Library. 

fessio" and among the archives of St. Peter's, as also of books 
more especially liturgical of both Latin and Greek rites, belong- 
ing to the various basilicas, titles, deaconries, and monasteries of 
the Eternal City, has altogether perished. It is now beginning 
to be understood and recognised that from this destruction 
scarcely anything has been saved. For the opinion used to 
prevail that a great or by no means despicable part at least of the 
ancient MSS. of the Roman Church had been received into the 
library and treasury of the Vatican Palace. Mabillon, Tiraboschi, 
and following them Blume, persuaded themselves that the 
libraries which were said to have been founded by Hilary in the 
5th century in the baptistry of the Lateran had been submerged 
among the Vatican collections, either by Pope Zacchary (741-752) 
who drew up the Lectionaries, or by Sixtus IV., who commenced 
the new library. But not one single MS. earlier than the 8th 
century came from the libraries either of Hilary, of Agapetus 
or of the Lateran, to the Vatican. Even the authentic regesta do 
not commence before the pontificate of Innocent III. (1178-1181). 
All earlier have perished. 

By what civil tumult, or hostile outbreak, fire, or other 
tale of calamities so complete a devastation of the chests and 
library of the Holy See, and of all MSS. earlier than the 8th 
century, and nearly all earlier than the nth, was caused at Rome, 
the annals of succeeding ages are silent. Gaiseric and his 
Vandals when they took, and pillaged, the Eternal City in 455 
left it, as we know, a mere shell. 1 And in 535, when the statues 
round the Mausoleum of Hadrian were used as missiles, there 
was little chance of things less perishable living. 2 The calamities 
which the city underwent especially in the nth century, certainly 
caused the greatest losses to the treasuries and libraries of the 
churches. But the library of the Lateran at the end of that 
century was still in existence. This is known from a book made 
by Deusdedit, a cardinal of the years 1086-7, which consists of 
excerpts from tomes, regesta, and privileges preserved in the 
chests of the Holy See. So careful and critical a judge as De 
Rossi, after weighing all the evidence, is satisfied that this is a 
sufficient proof of the existence of the library at this time. 3 

Deusdedit also mentions some volumes that he saw " by the 
Palladium," "in the muniment tower by the Palladium" (juxta 

See H. Bradley, The Goths, p. 115. 2 //,/,/., p. 241. 

* Pp. xc.-xciv. 

The Vatican Library. 341 

Palladium, in chavtulano juxta Palladium). This tower was 
situated by S. Maria Nuova, now S. Francesca Romana, and 
joined J the arch of Titus, under the Palatine hill and monastery. 
A watch-tower begun there by John VII. (705-7) was afterwards 
so fortified that in the nth and i2th centuries it was considered 
almost impregnable, and there Urban II. betook himself in io88. a 
The custody of this tower was given to the Frangipanni as 
vassals of the Roman Church and in some way chamberlains of 
this keep. 8 

At the beginning of the i2th century the regesta of the 
popes were no longer all kept in Rome. Some part of them, 
either for greater safety, or through the frequent change of 
residence on the part of the popes, began to be kept in the 
monasteries, outside the city. We know this from a con- 
troversy as to the boundary of two dioceses, which was only 
settled by the regestum of Alexander II. (1061) being brought 
from Soracte to Rome. But that the greater part was kept at 
Rome is known from the fact that copies of these regesta, which 
could only have been made during this time, are preserved, and 
preserved only, in MSS., one at the British Museum, one at the 
Vatican, and one at Cambridge. 4 Now, after Honorius III. 
(1216-27) no one makes mention of any regesta earlier than In- 
nocent III. (1198-1216.) Nor when the regesta at the beginning 
of the i4th century were moved to Perugia, and thence to Assisi 
and thence to Avignon was there any volume of them remaining 
earlier than the end of the I2th century. The loss, therefore, 
of the early regesta, took place after the pontificate of Honorius 
III., and before the end of that century or the beginning of the 

If, then, the cause of the destruction of these regesta is to be 
found, we must turn to the history of the muniment tower under 
the Palatine Hill. We know that documents were kept there, 
and that it was considered impregnable ; we know that Urban 
II., as we have seen, and his successors, especially Alexander 
III., betook themselves there for safety. It is, therefore, the 
highest probability that thither the regesta were removed. But 

1 De Rossi, xciv., Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 203. 

2 " Ideo dicitur Chartularium, quia ibi fuit bibliotheca publica," Mirabilia Urbis 
Roma. See Carini, p. 1 8. 

3 They derived their distinctive name "Da Chartularia" from it. Ibid. 
* Trinity College Library, MS., R., ix., 17 

342 The Library. 

the Frangipanni, after the death of Honorius III., the last pope 
who makes mention of the earlier registers, deserted the cause 
of the papacy, and at the command of the Emperor Frederick 
II., handed over whatever they held for the popes to the Anni- 
baldi. So that not only the muniment tower but all its contents 
fell into the hands of the enemies of the Church. 1 

De Rossi does not believe that the cause of destruction can 
to any considerable degree be attributed to the fact that a 
certain quantity of the early documents were certainly on paper 
and not parchment. 2 But that ignorance had a good deal to do 
with it he proves by a quotation from a catalogue made of the 
archives brought from Rome to Avignon in 1366. Among them 
was found " a roll written on paper in letters apparently illegi- 
ble, and written over on some leaf," a palimpsest in fact, " and 
on that account no entry is made of it." 

Of all these early Lateran libraries only one manuscript 
remains the famous Bible known as the Amiatina Laurenziana, 
now in the Lorenzian library at Florence. 3 

Innocent III. was the first to see the necessity of developing 
new offices at St. Peter's, and commenced the Vatican Curia, 4 
and it is thanks to him that through this we have practically 
an unbroken series of regesta from his date onwards. " Because 
he thought it not only honourable, but useful, that the supreme 
pontiff should have a dignified palace at St. Peter's, he built 
there entirely new houses for the cancellaria and chamberlains, 
etc." 6 

But the Papal collection in the i3th century, Carini, one 
of the prefects of the Vatican library, whose work upon that 
subject is the last authoritative statement that we have, can only 
describe as a travelling library. " The popes of that time," he 
writes, " from the perversity of the factions and the turbulence 
now of the people, now of the Roman nobles, were constrained 
to take with them the treasure (Thesaurum nostrum, et Ecclesia 
Romans) to Orvieto, to Viterbo, to Anagni, to Perugia," where 
we find it, for example, in 1304. For all that, under Boniface 
VIII. (1294-1303) the Apostolic library was the first of its time ; 

1 Carini, p. 19. Ibid., p. 21. Ibid., pp. 21-2. 

4 The Vatican Palace itself was begun by Nicholas III. (1277-1280). See 
Milman, Latin Christianity, fourth ed., vol. vi., p. 411. 

5 Carini, p. 23. Innocent III.'s codification of the regesta continued till 
Sixtus V. 

The Vatican Library. 343 

possessed books illuminated by the celebrated Oderisi da Gubbio 
and Franco Bolognese ; and possessed 33 Greek MSS. ; " a 
miserable number to-day, but remarkable then, though not if we 
consider the relations of Rome and Constantinople in the i3th 
century." l 

(To be continued.) 

Carini 245. 

The Clerkenwell Open Lending Library. 1 

SOME interest having been expressed in the experiment 
of throwing open the Lending Library book-shelves at 
Clerkenwell to enable readers to examine and choose books for 
themselves, it is proposed, in compliance with many requests, to 
briefly describe the method. In doing this, attention shall be 
directed chiefly to a description of its organisation and working, 
with the results so far as they have been observed in Clerken- 
well. Before proceeding to describe the system, it may be 
interesting to glance briefly at the historical aspect of the 
question. There is absolutely no novelty about the principle of 
open access, because it has been allowed in all kinds of libraries, 
both reference and lending, for some hundreds of years. As 
most librarians know, the libraries of mediaeval times were per- 
fectly open, but in keeping with the manners of the age, the 
books were chained to their places above or below suitable read- 
ing desks. Examples of such open libraries still exist, and 
reference may be made to the writings of Edwards, Blades and 
Clark, by those interested in the subject. In later times the 
open library was almost universal in collegiate, proprietary, 
subscription and commercial libraries, and still later, when 
public rate-supported libraries were established, was made a 
feature in quite a number of reference departments. Cambridge 
was early in the field, and in due course was followed by 
Liverpool, Wigan, Bradford, Birmingham, and other towns too 
numerous to mention. The State authorities were also very 
early in appreciating the valuable advantages of unrestricted 
access -to the books in their public libraries, and the British 
Museum, Patent Office and South Kensington libraries may be 
cited as cases in point. The colonial libraries gave similar 
privileges, especially at Melbourne, and, as is well known to you 
all, a carefully made selection of reference books, freely open to 
the public, forms part of every American library of any con- 

1 Read before the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Library Association, at 
Belfast, September, 1894. 

The Clerkenwell Open Lending Library. 345 

sequence. It can only be claimed, therefore, that the 
Clerkenwell experiment is just a little novel as regards the 
application of the open access principle to a popular lending 
library. So far as we are aware, the plan has never been tried 
on exactly similar lines anywhere, but there are well-known 
examples of open lending libraries in the United States at 
Cleveland in Ohio, Pawtucket in Rhode Island, and Minneapolis 
in Minnesota. The Cleveland method is somewhat like the 
arrangement suggested by Mr. Mason at Aberdeen last year, 
save that borrowers, on demand, are permitted to examine any 
book they see in the locked presses. Minneapolis gives unre- 
stricted access to borrowers as at Clerkenwell, but we are unable 
to say on what system. It must be evident, therefore, from the 
foregoing particulars that novelty cannot be, and is not claimed, 
as a distinctive feature of the Clerkenwell Open Library. 

When the work of changing the system was seriously con- 
fronted, several troublesome problems presented themselves. 
Among them were these our space was very small ; our book- 
shelves too high and too deep ; the light was badly distributed ; 
and our stock was not fresh. Then, difficulties cropped up con- 
nected with the classification and arrangement of books on the 
shelves, and the invention of a suitable charging system, not to 
mention minor matters ; but a little study overcame them all, 
and the methods now about to be described are the result. Like 
every other pioneer movement, this one suffered from a lack of 
models to copy and improve ; consequently, if some of the devices 
are crude and childish, it must be urged in extenuation that the 
whole scheme is only in its babyhood, though certain to become 
stronger and better with every fresh essay on similar lines. It 
will be more interesting and, perhaps, instructive if the succes- 
sive steps necessitated by the alteration are described in brief 
detail. We had accumulated a number of heavy and bulky 
works of more or less value from the source of donation, and as 
space was very limited, it became necessary to remove these to 
the reference department, especially as it was found that many 
of them had never been asked for during the five years of the 
library's life. This was the first thing done, and is an act of 
policy likely to be repeated in Clerkenwell because of the small 
amount of space, and in order that the library may be main- 
tained in a thoroughly up-to-date condition. Probably the 
pruning process will take place every five years, or when the 
general catalogue is reprinted. The next step was to write 

346 The Library. 

cards for every book in the library for use in the charging 
system. These are manilla slips, measuring five by two inches, 
ruled on both sides, for two columns of readers' numbers and 
dates of issue, and are kept in narrow trays in lots of one 
thousand, in strict numerical order. Simultaneously the work 
of re-writing the borrowers' cards was carried on. These are ex- 
actly the same as the book cards, but one inch shorter, and they 
are kept in alphabetical order of borrowers' surnames. Most of 
this work was done before the actual closing of the library, and 
in addition, the various circulars and other forms were drawn up 
and circulated. Every reader on returning his or her book be- 
fore the closing of the library was furnished with a " ticket- 
voucher" bearing the ticket number only, to prove bona-fides at 
the re-opening, and a copy of the descriptive circular which was 
issued as a specimen with the LIBRARY of March last. Every- 
thing being thus ready, the library was closed, and the book- 
cases were altered and re-spaced at once, to enable the staff to 
arrange the books. This re-arrangement of book-cases enables the 
assistants to completely overlook every passage, and so control 
the movements of readers among the books. The staffenclosure, 
from which the book-cases slightly radiate, was also formed, 
from the materials of the old counter, and with the screen, locking 
wickets, charging system, new gas fittings, &c., cost about 50. 
The books are classified much as they had been before, the 
main classes and their divisions of specific subjects being kept 
together, very similar to the open library classification proposed 
in another paper coming before this meeting. Fiction, books 
for young readers and poetry are arranged in separate alphabets 
of authors' surnames, with alphabetical initial guides on every 
shelf to show where any letter commences or ends. All other 
main classes are divided and arranged according to subjects, 
and these are shown on Japanned steel shelf-labels bearing sub- 
ject-words in white letters. In addition, every press bears a 
large classification label on the cornice above the books, and on 
its end as well, so that the reader in search of any particular 
class can see at once where it is placed. Thus, a division 
headed " FICTION A to H," contains novelists from Edmond 
About to Thomas Hardy, each shelf having a letter label 
A, B, C, D, or whatever the author's initial may be ; while the 
division headed " BIOGRAPHY " is divided according to sub- 
jects, by means of the metal labels aforesaid" Actors," 
"Artists," " Authors," "Musicians," " Monarchs," "States- 

. The Clerkenwell Open Lending Library. 347 

men," &c., each being kept in alphabetical order, according to 
subject of biography, e.g., all separate lives of Goethe, 
Wellington, Gladstone, or Queen Victoria will be found together. 
The same principle is carried right through every class, save in 
very small subjects or groups of subjects, when alphabetization 
is not attempted. To minimize the difficulty of detecting mis- 
placements every shelf has its books labelled a different colour, 
and opposing bookcases, having different classes, are further 
distinguished by having differently shaped labels. Nine shelf 
colours, and six class shapes are used, and the whole of the 
shapes are made from one square form by division, cross-cutting, 
&c. We are rather troubled by our book-labels peeling off, and 
should be glad to learn of any paste or glue which will stick thin 
labels firmly in place. In addition each shelf is numbered, and 
its number is carried on to the label on the backs of the books, 
as well as on to the label inside the books. The book-cases 
being too high, it was necessary to stop out two shelves in each 
tier, and re-arrange and compress the remaining nine shelves, so 
that the bottom one should not be close to the floor, while the 
top one should be within easy seeing and reaching distance by 
means of 1 8-inch steps. These, then, were the principal 
structural alterations made necessary by the change. 

The charging system is very simple and will be easily com- 
prehended by a brief description of the operation of first issuing 
a book to a new reader and discharging it on return. When the 
applicant presents himself at the barrier he finds that he cannot 
walk right into the library, as he may have supposed, on account 
of a wicket which is locked. He next finds, on giving his 
" ticket-voucher " to the assistant, that it was a very good thing 
he was not trying to personate someone else in order to get free 
access to the library, because he has to give his proper name, 
and the assistant makes sure that the number on the "ticket- 
voucher " agrees with that on the actual reader's card, which was 
made out from the voucher form and is now taken from the 
alphabetical sequence already mentioned. Having made certain 
that the reader is entitled to borrow, that his umbrella and hand- 
bag are taken in return for numbered tokens, and that his dog, 
bicycle and three companions remain outside, the assistant 
presses with his foot a small lever which draws back the spring 
bolt which locks the wicket, and the reader, empty-handed and 
alone, passes into the library : the wicket immediately shutting 
and locking again. These precautions are taken, not out of 

348 The Library. 

distrust of the readers, but for their convenience, registration 
purposes, and to save the public property from all danger of being 
looted by casual thieves. The assistant then goes to a little 
alphabetical rack on the charging side, and pops the reader's 
card into the small pigeon-hole lettered B as we will assume 
the reader's name is Brown destroys the now useless ticket- 
voucher, and is at liberty to attend on someone else, or perhaps 
to assist Brown, to whom the arrangement is new. However, 
to obviate the trouble of too much personally-conducting our 
readers, which some resent, and to instruct them in elementary 
classification and the art of finding books for themselves, a little 
" Readers' Shelf-Guide" is provided, which directs to the prin- 
cipal authors and subjects on the numbered shelves. Most of 
the readers very soon grasp the plan of arrangement, and when 
the few slow ones fail, the librarian or his assistants are always 
at hand to instruct and help. 

With the aid of the printed "shelf-guide" and the plainer 
guides on the shelves themselves, Brown selects a book which, 
for convenience sake, we shall say is " Hopkinson on the Indica- 
tor," No. 5010. He then, forgetting his umbrella and hand-bag, 
and with the " Indicator " under his arm, proceeds to the exit 
wicket, in order to quickly rejoin his dog and three friends. 
But he finds that the wicket is locked and that an assistant is 
demanding his name and book for registration purposes. On his 
giving up both, the assistant then selects Brown's card from 
the rack, and the book-card, 5010, from the proper tray, places 
both cards in a small loose pocket, and then, in a numercial rack, 
stamps the book with the date of issue, and allows Brown to pass 
out, after returning his umbrella and hand-bag. This takes a 
long time to describe, but in actual practice is extremely rapid 
any ordinary assistant being able to pass from 120 to 150 readers 
in one hour ; that is, at the charging desk, with another assistant 
presiding at the discharging side. Two quick, accurate assist- 
ants can pass in and out 200 readers in one hour without being 
very sorely put about. One quick assistant at Clerkenwell, on 
several occasions when the staff was short-handed, has marked 
off and charged fifty-five books in twenty-five minutes, including 
the taking of fines, &c., and assistance rendered to enquirers. 
But this is a small point, and only mentioned to make clear that 
business is accomplished in much " less time than it takes to 
tell." At intervals, throughout the day, the book and reader 
cards are taken from the rough numerical order in the rack 

The Clerkenwell Open Lending Library. 349 

where we left them, and carefully sorted, the book-numbers being 
carried on to the readers' cards, and the readers' numbers and 
dates on to the book cards. This is not absolutely necessary, as 
the junction of the two is quite sufficient to make a full charge, 
but for the sake of permanency of record we prefer to show both 
sides of every transaction in this way. When the day is done 
the cards representing issues, now arranged in strict numerical 
order with projecting guides at every thousand, are carefully 
counted by classes and placed in a tray which bears the date of 
issue on a metal projection. There they remain till the books 
represented are returned. Brown took the "Indicator" book 
out on the ist of May, and returned it on the I2th. He, as 
before, goes to the entrance barrier, where the assistant takes the 
book from him, turns up the date, May ist, proceeds to that 
tray and removes the number, 5,010, which is in the pocket along 
with the reader's card. The book is then placed on the counter 
available for re- issue or replacement by the staff; the reader's 
card and pocket put back in the pigeon-hole, letter B, the book- 
card placed at the back of the 5,000 tray, to be properly filed at 
leisure, and Brown is again permitted to pass the wicket. The 
card-charging system which we have adopted enables us to say 
whether or not a book is out, or if any given reader has a book 
out. It also enables us to detect overdues automatically. There 
is no reason why a condensed and slightly modified indicator 
should not be used as the charging method by those who prefer 

These, then, are the main lines on which the Clerkenwell 
Open Library are worked, and it now only remains to summarize 
the drawbacks and advantages which a short experience has 
taught us are elements in the working of the system, which may 
be modified or intensified as time goes on. 

First, as to the drawbacks ; which must be distinctly under- 
stood to refer to the Clerkenwell Library alone, and not to the 
system in its ideal working. These nearly all arise from the 
conversion of unsuitable fittings and inadequate space to pur- 
poses for which they were never intended. Our book-shelves 
being too high, bring about the necessity for short, obstructive 
foot-stools, which, in their turn, combine with the narrow parts 
of the passages, to cause an occasional tendency to crowd at 
these points in the evenings. The fact that two of the passages 
form blind alleys, and all the others are too narrow, also helps to 
increase this tendency. Our shelves, being nine inches deep 

350 The Library. 

instead of only six and a half or seven, cause the occasional 
pushing behind of little volumes ; but this is not a frequent 
occurrence. The height and arrangement of the book-cases make 
our light rather bad through the day, but, on the other hand, 
oversight is practically perfect. The temporary misplacement of 
books occurs chiefly in the presses devoted to prose fiction and 
juvenile literature. In other classes it occurs to such a small 
extent as to be unworthy of notice ; but when a book is mis- 
placed it is never farther off, as a rule, than the shelf above or 
below, and is instantly detected by the colour label. In fiction 
and juvenile literature the misplacements are more frequent, 
though seldom more serious than authors, whose names begin 
Bi being found among those beginning Bo. This is a small 
matter in reality, owing to so many books being out, and among 
the hundreds of readers who have been questioned or have 
written on the point, not one will admit that misplacement pre- 
sents a difficulty of any great moment. Nevertheless, it exists 
temporarily to the extent indicated, but a permanent misplace- 
ment likely to cause trouble is almost an impossibility for several 
reasons. The assistants are continually among the shelves tidy- 
ing them up and assisting readers, and as it does not take more 
than ten minutes for one to scan every press and put everything 
to rights, it will be seen that the discovery of a misplacement is 
inevitable. Besides this, the method of continuous stock-taking 
and morning checking leaves very little chance for a misplaced 
book to remain long out of its right position. On the whole, we 
are disposed to class misplacement as a drawback of no great 
moment. The final possible drawback is that of thefts, and on 
this point nothing definite can be said till after more time has 
passed. We are now taking stock continually in this way. Each 
assistant is responsible for about eighty shelves, for which he or 
she is provided with a complete shelf-register. A certain num- 
ber of shelves must be checked by each assistant every week, 
and the librarian notes the result in his special shelf -register, so 
that he can report to his commissioners monthly. The library 
will thus be overhauled several times a year without closing or 
loss of time, and the commissioners will be kept informed of 
losses as they occur. Up to August 31, 4,500 volumes had been 
checked in this way, with the result that no volumes were missing. 
Owing to certain economies likely to be effected and referred to 
later among the advantages of the system, it is very improbable 
that the losses will ever be so serious as to outweigh the 

The Clerkenwell Open Lending Library. 351 

valuable advantages to the public, or even the saving which can 
be made on various items. The Clerkenwell Commissioners are 
not disposed to distrust the people because tradition has it they 
must be careless and dishonest, as it has been their experience 
that every new concession of trust or freedom has been met 
with a degree of loyalty which repression utterly failed to call 
forth. Petty thefts will occur, of that there is little doubt, but 
unless the readers utterly betray the trust which the com- 
missioners have unreservedly placed in them, there is but little 
likelihood of any change of policy being made on that account. 
In libraries where thefts have occurred it has almost invariably 
turned out that they were committed by a very few persons. 
This will probably be the Clerkenwell experience, and the com- 
missioners are prepared to face it with equanimity. 

Coming to the advantages of the system, it is difficult to fix 
on any salient points among so many which claim prominence. 
The enormous benefit to the readers of direct contact with the 
books ; the power given of examination and comparison ; the 
educational value of permitting readers to go about in even a 
roughly classified library ; and the rapidity with which ordinary 
readers can suit themselves, are all advantages about which there 
can hardly be a difference of opinion. Perhaps the phrase of 
one of the readers will best convey the general outside view of 
the change : " It is just the difference between a lottery and a 
certainty." The previous method of issuing books at Clerken- 
well was somewhat hampered with this defect ; readers did not 
always get exactly what they wanted or what pleased them, but 
only what they thought would please them. It is absolutely 
impossible to tell from a catalogue entry what a book is about, 
while on the other hand a very cursory glance over the pages of 
a book will enable a reader to decide with certainty, and to make 
a selection which will prove satisfactory. As a great majority of 
public library readers are hard-working people who read mostly 
for recreation, it is of some importance to them that their time 
is not wasted withdrawing books altogether unsuitable, and not 
changeable till the following day. So it is with the student or 
reader for information. Not one catalogue in a hundred makes 
the slightest attempt to discriminate between what is good and 
what is indifferent, what is out-of-date and up-to-date on any 
subject, so that the power of examination to such persons is 
absolutely necessary if they are to make the best educational use 
of the library. The browsing habit has not been developed as 

352 The Library. 

yet in Clerkenwell, nor will it be encouraged because of our 
limited space, but there can hardly be a doubt that the casual 
dipping into books of various kinds has some value in the 
spread of information. Although we have given every oppor- 
tunity for readers to express their opinions on the system, so far 
nothing unfavourable has been brought forward ; everyone who 
has been asked or who has written having expressed nothing but 
appreciation of the system and the hope that it may always be 
continued. Even the few grumblers who have found fault be- 
cause they were unable at times to get particular books, make 
haste to declare that they have no desire for a return to the old 
system. It thus appears that the persons most concerned in the 
use and maintenance of the library, are those who are most 
anxious for the continuance of the open system. This being so, 
it is hard to resist the conclusion that, if those who maintain the 
library demand that it shall be worked in the manner which best 
suits their convenience and wishes, there is no alternative but 
submission to the public will. It may therefore be allowed that, 
from the important point of view of the public, there can be no 
question as to the advantage of the open system. The advan- 
tages from the staff point of view we shall briefly summarise as 
follows : 

(1) Economies will be effected in the staff, leading to the em- 
ployment of fewer, but better educated assistants, who will be 
able to render the greatest service to readers. The larger the 
library the fewer assistants will be wanted in proportion. 

(2) Elaborate cataloguing will no longer be necessary, as the 
labour now spent in making costly inventories will be available 
for properly indexing the contents of the books in the library. 

(3) The librarian and his staff being largely freed from the 
drudgery of finding books, and the loss of time arising in con- 
sequence, are able to devote more attention to the needs of 
borrowers, and to assist them in ways formerly found impossible. 
Incidentally it may be noted that junior assistants are enabled 
to learn rather more about the books in the library and their 
class relationships than before. 

(4) The constant and close contact of the borrowers with the 
books and intelligent assistants will no doubt gradually induce a 
superior class of reading ; or at least will tend to direct mere 
pastime reading into higher channels. 

(5) The freedom and absence of formality connected with the 
open library attracts readers, and tends to popularise the library 

The Clerkenwell Open Lending Library. 353 

There are many other points connected with the Clerkenwell 
Open Library which are worthy of attention, but we are not here 
as advocates of the system, and prefer to let library managers 
and librarians draw their own conclusions from what has been 
described, and from the literature which has been distributed. 
As far as the experiment has been tried, the commissioners and 
people of Clerkenwell have every reason to be thoroughly satis- 
fied, and as time goes on and methods are improved, we are not 
too sanguine in assuming that the library will become an engine 
of the utmost efficiency in promoting the educational and 
recreative pursuits of the public. What has already been done 
in Clerkenwell is full of promise for the future ; what remains to 
be done must certainly result in the attainment of a higher and 
closer relationship between the people and one of their own 
institutions than has yet been found possible. 

Since this paper was written we have learned that open access 
has been allowed for the past eight years to all borrowers in the 
City of Truro Free Library " much to the advantage of the 
public." Mr. William Gibson, the librarian, adds : " The losses 
have been of an insignificant character. Valuable volumes are 
under glass and a special application has to be made for them. 
On the whole the open system has worked very satisfactorily to 
myself, the committee and the borrowers." 


Free Lectures in Connection with Free Public 
Libraries. 1 

A S Manchester was the pioneer in the Free Library move- 
** ment, so was it also in the matter of free library lectures. 

After the opening of the first free library under the Act in that 
city, Professor A. J. Scott, of Owens College, wrote to Sir John 
Potter, as follows : 

" The people of Manchester have now, thanks pre-eminently 
to your exertions, a noble library. What can be done to direct 
them in using it ? Much groping and discouragement might be 
saved by sound advice. 

" It has occurred to me, and it is needless to say why it is to 
you that I first communicate the suggestion, that the end I have 
referred to might be attained by a series of bibliographical 
lectures. Let the most important subjects of knowledge be 
classified. Let each department be assigned to the most 
competent person willing to undertake it, and to each let four or 
six lectures be devoted, strictly confined to the literature of the 
subject, i.e., books relating to it embracing whatever informa- 
tion as to authors, topics, modes of treatment, and subsidiary or 
illustrative works, an earnest but uninformed reader would find 
most useful, and indicating a course of reading." 

As a result of this suggestion, several lectures were given in 
the Campfield Library during the year 1852, one of them on 
" The Literature of Poetry and Fiction," being delivered by 
Professor Scott himself. 

Nothing further seems to have been done in this direction in 
Manchester until 1888, but in 1865 the committee of the Liver- 
pool Free Public Library turned their attention to this important 
adjunct to the library. A school of science had been carried on 
in the rooms of the library not, however, as part of the library 

1 A Report read at the Paris meeting of the Library Association, September, 

Free Lectures in Connection with Free Public Libraries. 355 

work, or out of the library funds but a want had been felt of 
popular lectures to supplement the instruction given in the 
school ; and the Library Committee, [considering that such a 
plan came legitimately within the scope of their commission, 
arranged for four courses of lectures one on geology, one on 
chemistry, one on geometry, and one on natural philosophy ; the 
admission to the lectures being gratuitous, and the audiences 
consisting chiefly of the readers in the library. Out of this small 
beginning has arisen that most important and successful develop- 
ment of free library work which is the subject of the present 

The Liverpool lectures were originally given in the Brown 
Lecture Hall, which held 400 people. When the Picton Read- 
ing Room was being built the lectures having in the mean time 
become immensely popular the happy thought occurred to the 
committee to construct underneath it a large lecture hall in the 
form of an amphitheatre, the galleries being formed in the solid 
rock of which the foundations of the great reading room consist. 
This was opened in January, 1882, and accommodation was thus 
provided for 1,100 persons, all comfortably seated, while, on 
occasion, nearly 2,000 persons could be packed within the area ; 
and the result of the increased accommodation was that during 
the winter season of 1882 the attendances, during forty lectures, 
averaged 1,032, whereas only the year before, in the old premises, 
the average attendance had been 370. This excellent movement 
has been carried on with the same spirit and energy in that city 
ever since, and few, even of the best of the subscription courses 
of lectures in connection with the leading institutes, have offered 
so excellent a programme as that which is arranged every 
winter at Liverpool, and open to all classes alike, without fee or 

In 1874 a movement was set on foot in connection with the 
Wolverhampton Free Library for the establishment of a series 
of Saturday evening popular lectures and entertainments, not 
altogether free, a small charge being made to cover expenses. 
They were at first held in the class-room, holding from seventy 
to eighty persons, this being the largest room available for the 
purpose but the experiment proved so successful that in a few 
years a large hall was erected, capable of holding 550 persons. 
The aim of the Wolverhampton Committee was frankly admitted 
to be the provision of an intellectual entertainment, and, as such, 
they felt that a small charge might fairly be made to cover 

356 The Library. 

expenses, whenever lantern illustrations or music formed part of 
the programme, but admitting freely on those occasions when the 
subject, or the lecturer, or both, formed the only attraction. 

I cannot find a record of the institution of any other course 
of free lectures in connection with a public library between that 
of Liverpool and the commencement of the free lectures at Aston 
in 1883. In that year a desire, which had manifested itself in 
my own mind with increasing earnestness on the perusal of each 
succeeding programme of the splendid courses of lectures at 
Liverpool, found vent in a recommendation to the Aston Free 
Library Committee that a course of free lectures should be tried 
in one of the board schools of the district, and I had the satis- 
faction of receiving instructions to make arrangements for such 
a course. 

I must ask you to pardon me if I dwell more minutely on the 
Aston free lectures than on those of other places of which I have 
to report, not, I beg to assure you, from any feeling of egotism, 
but because our experiences may be of some service to other 
districts where the income of the library is limited, and the 
establishment of a course of lectures seems almost out of the 

The Aston Free Library Committee, as an experiment, 
limited the amount to be expended on the free lectures to fifteen 
pounds for each season. We have, unfortunately, no public 
hall available for the purpose, so we had to go to the School 
Board and ask them to make favourable terms for the use of one 
of their largest schoolrooms, and succeeded in obtaining the 
largest and the most centrally situated of their rooms for the 
sum of six shillings and sixpence per night, inclusive of fee to 
caretaker, hire of platform, and other incidentals. 

It was, of course, necessary to obtain the help of lecturers 
without a fee, as we could not do more than defray the expenses 
incurred in travelling, hire of lantern and slides, materials for 
experiments, &c. Yet, notwithstanding this fact, we have had 
no difficulty in filling up our programmes, many lecturers of first 
class ability having cheerfully given their services, in evidence 
of which I need only refer you to the series of programmes 
exhibited in illustration of this report. 

A limelight lantern was needed, and this want was very 
willingly met by the raising of a fund, in small subscriptions, by 
the people who attended the lectures. The committee have 
since defrayed the cost of improved apparatus in connection with 

Free Lectures in Connection with Free Public Libraries. 357 

it, and apart from this special item, the expenses were for a long 
time kept within the amount fixed by the committee, and in no 
year has it exceeded twenty pounds for the course of fourteen or 
fifteen lectures. The average attendance has been about three 
hundred, but frequently the room, which is estimated to seat 
four hundred, has had an audience of nearer six hundred persons, 
while hundreds have had to be turned away from the doors. 1 We 
are in urgent need of a larger room, and we are not without hope 
that speedily a suitable public hall will be erected in connection 
with our public buildings. I may add that the only method of 
advertising adopted has been by means of one hundred window 
bills for each lecture. 

In 1884 the committee of the Birmingham Free Libraries 
had under consideration a scheme for the delivery of lectures on 
the contents of the reference library, and their use to students, 
by gentlemen specially qualified in the several departments of 
literature and science. The first of these lectures was given by 
the chairman of the committee, Mr. Alderman G. J. Johnson, on 
November 12, 1884, his subject being the books on law and 
jurisprudence. This was followed by lectures on the classics, on 
legal and constitutional history, on the Shakespeariana, botany, 
art, and other classes of books in the Reference Library, the 
first series being published in a volume which is probably well 
known to most members of this Association. The admission to 
these lectures was by tickets, which were freely distributed, but 
whether from a want of popularity or from some other cause, the 
second series of lectures was not long continued, and hence the 
printed reports of the two or three lectures after the issue of the 
first series were never, so far as I am aware, collected into a 
second volume, and can only be met with in pamphlet form. 

In 1886, as a result of the popularity of the Aston lectures, 
the adjoining district of Handsworth took up the question, and, 
tentatively, arranged for occasional lectures, at monthly intervals, 
during the winter of 1886-7. When the question came up at 
the beginning of the following winter season, of continuing the 
experiment, however, the proposal was negatived, as the com- 
mittee felt that the income of the library was " sufficient only 
for the necessities of book buying, and other strictly library 

1 During the session of 1893-4 "on every occasion, except one, large numbers 
had to be refused admission owing to the crowded state oi the room." Annual 
Report > 1893-4. 

358 The Library. 

requirements." However, several friends of the movement, 
unwilling that it should be allowed to drop, offered to meet the 
difficulty so far as funds were concerned if the committee would 
again undertake the work ; so the lectures were recommenced, 
and have been continued year by year. But, as the meetings 
have only been held once a month, and then not on one fixed 
day, the free lecture movement has never been a hardy plant at 
Handsworth, although large audiences have gathered whenever 
a popular subject, or an attractive lecturer, has been announced. 

In the same year as the Handsworth Library took up the 
movement, a very successful beginning was made at Oldham. 
There the free lecture movement was taken up with spirit, and 
with popular lectures and a varied range of subjects, they 
proved a great success. The crowds attending them have 
exceeded the accommodation provided, and the committee have 
received the sanction of the Town Council to extend the present 
building, in order to provide a special lecture hall. 

In 1887 the Bootle Free Library Committee arranged their 
first course of free lectures. Here, as at Aston, they felt the 
inconvenience of having to hire a lantern whenever the lectures 
had to be illustrated, and in 1888 they purchased a lantern and 
accessories at a cost of about 20. The popularity of the 
lectures increased, and the committee in 1891 found it desirable 
to follow the example of Liverpool and to pay a fee of two 
guineas for each lecture, inclusive of travelling expenses, and 
thus, as they hoped, to be able to obtain the services of lecturers 
not otherwise accessible, so that, as the librarian remarks, they 
now get up a better programme, and much more easily. A spirit 
of liberality was also manifested by the committee throughout 
the general arrangements for this branch of their work. They 
advertised largely, both by posters and in the columns of the 
newspapers, and free distributed a thousand programmes of the 
course of lectures, the total amount expended on the last year's 
course of eighteen lectures being about ^"50. 

In the autumn of 1888 the seed which had been sown at 
Manchester in the tentative attempts to arrange a course of 
lectures on the books in the library in 1852, sent forth new 
shoots, and once more a proposal was made to popularize the 
library by this method. Unlike the Birmingham experiment, 
where a whole class of literature was dealt with in a single 
lecture, the Manchester lecturers did not aim to be chiefly biblio- 
graphical, but were rather chatty popular talks about books, the 

Free Lectures in Connection with Free Public Libraries. 359 

subjects during the first course being : " General Reading for 
Busy Men," " Popular Religious Literature," " Books, Ancient 
and Modern," " Modern Fiction," " Ballad Literature," and 
"Books as Friends." In the second course the lecturers 
diverged somewhat from the original plan, the subjects being : 
" The Story of Manchester," " Reasoning," " The Ancient 
History of the Earth," " The Making of Geography," " George 
Eliot," and " Books for the Pocket." I have no doubt that 
these, although for the most part not ostensibly dealing with the 
books in the library, had the same result of sending their 
audiences to the library for books on the subjects treated of, as 
those which were specially designed for that purpose. In con- 
nection with these and subsequent lectures, the chief librarian 
issued brief lists of books bearing on the subjects chosen by the 

I should like to be able to say something about the Gilchrist 
Trust Lectures, but as I have had no personal experience as to 
these, the librarians of Wolverhampton and Norwich may, per- 
haps, add somewhat on this subject. In the last named place 'a 
course of lectures under .the Gilchrist Trust was arranged in 
1889, an d out of this appears to have grown a course of lectures 
by local gentlemen in 1890 and 1891. As at Wolverhampton, a 
small charge is made on these occasions when there are extra 
expenses in connection with the lectures. The librarian says : 
" When the lectures admitted of illustrations they were most 
successful, which shows that there is a great future in store for 
the lantern." That is my own belief, and accords with my own 
experience. There are various ways of " gilding the philosophic 
pill," but I believe the best is that of the optical lantern. If it 
be urged by objectors to the establishment of free lectures in 
connection with free libraries that this means providing a magic 
lantern entertainment merely, I would submit that a book which 
is adequately i'lustrated need not necessarily be a mere picture 
book, and that a book which is capable of illustration, and is not 
illustrated, is more or less an imperfect book. Many methods 
have been tried for illustrating the lecturer's subject without 
recourse to the lantern. Diagrams can only be seen by those 
near the platform. Photographs or engravings handed round 
among the audience not only disturb the proceedings, but leave 
the majority of the audience in the same position as in a. lantern 
lecture wherein the operator is three or four slides behind the 
lecturer. But the position of the limelight lantern to-day is 

360 The Library. 

sufficiently established as a powerful educational force, and does 
not need my advocacy, or that I should take up your time by 
discussing its merits. 

In districts where the population is chiefly of an artisan class, 
it is not of much use to arrange for a series of dry discourses 
on the higher branches of knowledge, or a course of oral biblio- 
graphy. It is necessary, as I have said, to gild the philosophic 
pill, and I have known occasions when the pill has been nearly 
all gilding, and I have not discovered that the audience has 
ound fault with that arrangement. If that be thought a crime, 
I fear not a few books must be weeded out of our libraries which 
would come under the same category. Once in a way, the 
lecture may give place to a musical or elocutionary entertain- 
ment, without detracting more from the dignity of the library 
with which it is associated than the issue of " Three Men in a 
Boat," or the works of Artemus Ward from that institution. It 
may attract some persons to the lectures who never came before, 
and some of these may ultimately be attracted to become 
borrowers from the public library, or students within the walls 
of its reference department, who might otherwise never have 
known the pleasures of reading, or fed on the dainties that are 
bred in a book. 

If only such a result as this can be occasionally brought about 
by the establishment of a course of free lectures, this step will be 
fully justified. But I believe that the lecture movement will be 
found to be the missing link between the long rows of little-used 
books which lie on the shelves of many libraries, and the large 
mass of people who have never yet learned how rich a treasure- 
house they possess in their free library. 


New Method of Arranging a Lending Library. 

NOTE. These illustrations, drawn by Mr. Beresford Pite, 
F.R.I.B.A., of 20, Hanover Square, are explained in the Septem- 
ber number of THE LIBRARY (pages 263-265). 

The height of the cases could be increased by two shelves 
by placing a step round the outside. With this additional accom- 
modation the library would be able to contain over 17,000 volumes. 


The Library. 


SLibrarp IRotes ant) Iflews. 

The Editor earnestly begs that librarians and others will send to 
him early and accurate information as to all local Library doings. The 
briefest record of facts and dates is all that is required. 

In course of time " Library Notes and News " will become of the 
utmost vahte to the. historian of the Public Library movement, and it is 
therefore of the highest importance that every paragraph should be 
vouched for by local knowledge. Brief written paragraphs are better 
than newspaper cuttings. 

. Bishop Macdonald, of Aberdeen, opened a two days' 
bazaar last month under the auspices of St. Peter's congregation, to raise 
funds for public library books. 

BURTON-ON-TRENT. By twenty votes to five the Burton Town 
Council, on October 3rd, resolved to adopt the Public Libraries Act of 
1892, subject to the conditions that the rate shall never exceed three- 
farthings in the pound in any one financial year, and that the resolution 
shall not come into force until March 25th, 1895. More than 3,000 adults 
memorialised for a public library. 

DARWEN. On October 8th, the Mayor of Darwen (Mr. J. Cocker), 
opened the new building intended for Public Library, Technical and 
Science and Art Schools. 

HAWARDEN. Mr. Gladstone's library is the subject of an interest- 
ing little article from the pen of the Rev. Frome Wilkinson, which appeared 
in the Manchester Guardian of September 29th. The library consists of 
some 25,000 volumes housed in a neat looking building of iron and wood, 
situated close to Hawarden Church, and not far from the Castle. Every 
volume, says Mr. Wilkinson, has been put in its place by Mr. Gladstone 
himself, and there are still some 6,000 volumes to come down from 
the Castle. 

JEDBURG-H. The Free Library was opened by Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie on October 4th. 

LEIG-H. Lord Derby, on September 26th, opened the new Tech- 
nical School and Free Library, which has been constructed at a cost of 
nearly ; 13,000. His lordship referred to the remarkable growth within 
recent years of technical education in Lancashire, which had now 
taken hold of all classes of the people. 

364 77^ Library. 

LEUCHARS. The parish library, given by Mrs. Pitcairn, of Pitcullo, 
was formally handed over to the library committee on October ist, when 
an address on <; Reading" was delivered by Principal Donaldson, of St. 

LINCOLN. Mr. Henry Bond, borough librarian of Kendal, has been 
appointed chief librarian of the Public Library at Lincoln. Colonel 
Seeley, M.P. for West Nottingham, has presented the committee 
with the sum of i, 200 for the purchase of books, and Mr. W. Crosfield, 
M.P. for the city, has given ,100 towards the expenses of fitting up the 

LONDON. On September 26th a young man was sentenced to one 
month's imprisonment for stealing books from the Kensington, Putney 
(see THE LIBRARY, September), and Wimbledon Public Libraries. 

LONDON : FINSBURY PARK. On September 29th, Mr. 
Charles Welch, F.S.A., the librarian of the Guildhall, opened the Free 
Library, which will be dependent on voluntary subscriptions, about ^150 
being required yearly. 

LONDON : POPLAR, Mr. W. Pelham Bullivant, chairman of the 
Public Library Commissioners, opened the Public Library on October 
3rd, which has been erected in High Street, at a cost of ^7,000. The 
site was purchased for ,2,000. 

NELSON. On September 2oth the technical section of the Free 
Library and Technical School, which had been erected by the Corpora- 
tion at a cost of about ,12,000, exclusive of site, was informally opened 
by Alderman Greenwood, the chairman of the Technical Instruction Com- 
mittee of the Corporation. 

NEWARK. Sir William Gilstrap, Bart., has promised to provide 
books for a juvenile department, and to pay an assistant to manage it. 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. The Library of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society, which was destroyed by fire on February 8th, 
1893 ( see THE LIBRARY, vol. 5, p. 56), was re-opened on October ist. 

NOTTINGHAM. The fifth season's half-hour talks about books and 
authors in connection with the public reading rooms commenced on 
Monday, October i$th, when the Rev. G. Bishop spoke on "The Study of 
English History." Other talks will be given weekly throughout the 
winter months. Among the subjects to be treated before Christmas are 
" Glimpses of Nottinghamshire Worthies," " Folk-lore," " Charles 
Kingsley," " Wordsworth," " Ruskin," " Dickens," " Charles Lamb," 
tk George Eliot," &c. 

OXFORD. In a letter in the Daily News of October loth Mr. E. W. 

B. Nicholson, Bodley's librarian, appeals for help for the Bodleian Library. 

Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith, eldest daughter of the late Toulmin 

Smith, author of The Parish, &c., has been appointed librarian of 

Manchester College. 

ST. HELENS. On October 2nd, Col. D. Gamble, C.B., laid the 
foundation stone of the new Library and Technical Institute which he is 
presenting to the town. 

WALTHAMSTOW. Mr. Passmore Edwards opened the Public 
Library on September 29th. The building has cost ,2,350. 

Record of Bibliography and Library Literature. 365 

IRecorfc of BfblfoGrapbs an& Xibrars ^Literature* 

Les Bibles de Gutenberg d'apres les recherches de Karl 
Dziatzko. [By Leopold Delisle.] Extrait du Journal des 
Savants. Juillet, 1894. Pp- x ^- With 4 plates. 

THE LIBRARY had the pleasure of noticing Dr. Dziatzko's interesting 
monograph on the 42- and 36-line Bibles at the time of its appearance, nor 
under ordinary circumstances would a review of the book, even by so 
learned a writer as M. Delisle, call for fresh comment. Since 1890, 
however, a new document of great importance has been discovered, which 
in the spring of the present year was acquired by the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, and by the aid of this M. Delisle is able to throw new light on 
the subject and to strengthen in a very forcible manner Dr. Dziatzko's 
conclusions, though curiously enough, Dr. Dziatzko had denied before- 
hand the possibility of this new evidence being forthcoming. To show 
the importance of the new discovery we may briefly quote from our 
earlier review (vol. ii., p. 435). We there pointed out how Dr. Dziatzko, 
without unduly depreciating the evidence of the chroniclers (about whose 
words previous investigators had been content to wrangle), had rightly 
concluded that the testimony of the first importance was that which could 
be extracted from the Bibles themselves. He had therefore made dili- 
gent examination and comparison of paper and watermarks, of various 
minute points of typography, and also of some portions of the text. The 
main results at which he arrived were that : 

" Gutenberg alone was the original promoter of the enterprise (i.e., 
the 42-line Bible) and remained responsible for the technical part of 
the printing ; his province included its preparation of the types and 
the rest of the printing materials, he instructed the composers and 
printers, and superintended the composing and printing even in 
details. Fust, as publisher, provided money and materials, and, 
with his employes, was concerned in the outlying departments 
of the printing, with the revision of the text and correction of the 

With the 36-line Bible, on the other hand, Fust had nothing to do. He 
would not be likely to print a second Bible to compete with the first, and 
after 1455 various indications point to the connection of the printer of the 
36-line Bible with Albrecht Pfister. That Gutenberg was concerned in 
the production of the 36-line, as of the 42-line Bible, Dr. Dziatzko held as 
certain. But with the exception of the earlier of the two recensions of the 
first nine pages, he showed by the testimony of various mistakes, &c., that 
its text was printed from the Gutenberg-Fust 42-line edition, which was 
thus confirmed in its claim to be the first complete printed book. 

We now come to the new evidence. As is well known, with the 
exception of the trial version of the first few leaves of the earlier sections, 
the rubrication of the 42-line Bible was left to be filled in by hand. 
To guide the rubricator in this task an " Index Rubricarum" was printed 
on a sheet of four pages, and issued with the Bible. When the rubricator 
had done his work the sheet would be useless, and would, therefore, not 
be included as a rule, in the bound copies. It. has, however, been pre- 
served in two instances, the examples in the Imperial Library at Vienna 

366 The Library. 

and the Royal Library at Munich, and by the courtesy of the latter 
institution M. Delisle is able to reproduce one of the four folio pages. 
That excellent bibliographer, Auguste Bernard, had conjectured from 
the appearance of the copy of the 36-line Bible in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale that it also had had an Index Rubricarum, but the leaves 
which appeared to 'be wanting were found in the Jena copy as blanks, 
and Dr. Deziatzko pronounced that the 36-line edition was " ohne 
Rubrikenverzeichniss" In the fourth part of the Heredia sale, how- 
ever, there turned up an Index Rubricarum (said, we should note, to 
have been found in a binding at Bamberg), which undoubtedly be- 
longed to the 36-line edition. This was acquired for the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, and furnishes M. Delisle with another illustration. A com- 
parison of the two indexes shows at once that the one is a verbally 
(though not a literally) exact copy from the other, an absolute proof 
of this being given by the heading in each Incipit epistola ad thimo- 
theum prima. Capitulum primum^ where the needless addition of the 
words Capitulum primum, in contravention of the custom elsewhere 
observed, could hardly conceivably have occurred independently to 
both printers. Another singular point in which both indexes agree is 
in beginning a new paragraph at such a point in the line that the end 
of the paragraph will coincide with the end of the line, e.g.) 

Explicit epistola ter- 
cia beati iohanis apl'i. Incipit 
argumetu 1 epl'am b'ti iude apl'i. 

A trick like this could hardly have been accidental, though in connection 
with it we need rather a clearer explanation of M. Delisle's remark that 
" the length of each rubric is exactly proportioned to the space left blank 
in the corresponding place in the text of the Bible," which looks as 
though this method of printing had a reason in it. However this may 
be, the identity of the rubrics puts the fact that one editor borrowed from 
the other beyond dispute, and as Dr. Dziatzko has given good reason for 
believing that the 36-line editor borrowed his text from the 42-line, his 
argument thus receives an important extension. 

Incidently M. Delisle brings out several interesting facts. Thus he 
shows that while the rubricator of the vellum 42-line Bible at the Biblio- 
theque Nationale followed his index rubricarum most religiously, Henricus 
Cremer, the rubricator of the paper copy, varied from it considerably, 
and that the rubricator of the copy of the 36-line edition took similar 
liberties. He also corrects a mistake of Dr. Dziatzko in his reference to 
the fragment in the Bibliotheque Nationale containing some of the 
Canticles in the 42-line type. Dr. Dziatzko imagined this to have formed 
part of some copies of the Bible, whereas M. Delisle has little difficulty in 
showing that it proves the existence of an independent volume, a Litur- 
gical Psalter of about 38 leaves, which must have proceeded from the 
Gutenberg-Fust press. From this leaf also M. Delisle gives a fac- 
simile, as well as of the well known dates of rubrication appended to the 
copies of the two Bibles in the Bibliotheque. Certainly the great French 
library is to be congratulated on (i) the possession of vellum and paper 
copies of the one Bible and a paper copy of the other, (2) the occurrence 
of the dates of rubrication of the two paper copies, and (3) the recent 
acquisition of two such important documents as the fragment of the 
liturgical Psalter and the unique Index Rubricarum of the rarer of the 
two Bibles. It is clear that whoever desires thoroughly to study their 
relations must go to Paris, though owing to the liberality of M. Delisle's 
illustrations the problems may now be very fairly understood even by 
the stay-at-homes. 

Obituary. 367 

late (Beorge HBullen, G.B., 3L3L5). 

WE greatly regret to announce the death, on October 10, of George 
Bullen, C.B., LL.D., a Vice-President of the Library Association, and late 
keeper of printed books in the British Museum. Considering his ad- 
vanced age, Mr. Bullen had been in remarkably good health until within 
a few weeks of his death, and the rapid termination of his illness was a 
severe shock to his family and friends. 

Mr. Bullen, it is stated, was born at Clonakilty in the county of Cork, 
November 17, 1816. His family must have settled in England not long 
after his birth, for he received, as we have been informed, a portion of 
his education at Chigwell Grammar School, and was afterwards one of 
the masters of St. Olave's School, Southwark. In January, 1838, he was 
appointed a supernumerary assistant in the library of the British 
Museum, and was at first employed in the removal of the books from 
Montague House to their places in the new building. This duty 
completed, Mr. Bullen was transferred to the Catalogue, and pre- 
pared for its first and only printed volume, published in 1841, 
the article Aristotle, with the exception of " Academies," the longest 
and most important contained in it. So long as he continued an 
assistant, Mr. Bullen was principally employed, first upon the pre- 
paration, and afterwards upon the revision of titles written for the 
catalogue. He was placed upon the permanent staff in 1849, and when, 
in 1866, Mr. Thomas Watts became Keeper of Printed Books, Mr. 
Bullen succeeded him as Assistant Keeper, and as Superintendent of 
the Reading Room. In 1875 ne was promoted to the Keepership of 
Printed Books, vacant by the retirement of Mr. W. B. Rye. He filled 
this post for nearly fifteen years, retiring in January, 1890, after fifty-two 
years' service. Many changes and improvements of great moment took 
place during Mr. Bullen's term of office ; the one with which his name 
will be chiefly associated is the publication of the Catalogue of Early 
English books, which he edited with a preface in 1884. Many important 
sales took place during his time, affording opportunities for valuable 
acquisitions. The most remarkable purchase of any was, perhaps, the 
great Chinese Cyclopaedia in upwards of five thousand parts, compiled 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century, now exhibited in the King's 

Mr. Bullen was a member of the Library Association from its founda- 
tion, and a frequent speaker at its meetings, nearly all of which he 
attended up to 1888 inclusive. He was also greatly interested in the 
Caxton Celebration, and took an active part upon its committee. He 
was an extensive contributor to the literary press ; his principal biblio- 
graphical works were his Catalogue of the Library of the Bible Society, 
and his edition, with facsimile reprint, of the British Museum's unique 
copy of the ' Sex quam Elegantissimae Epistolas," printed by Caxton in 
1483, a diplomatic correspondence between Pope Sixtus IV. and the 
Venetians. This he published after his retirement from the Museum. 
He was .the father of Mr Arthur H. Bullen, of Laurence and Bullen, 
so well known as the editor of Marlowe and other early dramatists, and 
the retriever of so many exquisite lyrics of the Elizabethan and Jacobean 
periods from oblivion. 

Mr. Bullen's affability and cordiality rendered him in general very 
popular with his staff, and on his retirement he was presented with testi- 
monials, both by the assistants and the attendants in the Library. 
Shortly afterwards the distinction of C.B. was conferred upon him. He 
had received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the University of 
Glasgow in the preceding year. 


368 The Library. 

Xtbrarp bureau* 

In a letter addressed to the editor of the Library Chronicle, in October, 
1888, I proposed the establishment in London of a Library Bureau, and 
roughly outlined the kind of work which I thought it might do 
Among other things I suggested the following features : 

(1) A permanent exhibition of models, of library fittings and ap- 
pliances, labels, forms, &c., c. ; specimens of library bindings, of 
leathers, and of other covering stuffs. 

(2) Lists of duplicate, surplus, and odd volumes from different 
libraries, the clerk of the bureau to carry out exchanges mutually pro- 
fitable to those concerned. 

(3) Libraries' lists of "Books Wanted," which booksellers would be 
invited to examine. 

(4) Plans and drawings of libraries would be kept, and copies sup- 
plied. Carefully compiled statistics of everything relating to the cost 
and management of libraries would be prepared and kept up to date. 

(5) Arrangements would be made with the publishers by which copies 
of new books and editions would be kept on mew. In addition to this, 
there would be a well-selected bibliographical library, and a collection 
of publishers' catalogues, thus enabling book-buying deputations and 
librarians to make up their purchasing lists on the spot, after seeing the 
books and with every convenience for reference at hand. 

It was a keen disappointment, not only to myself, but to the leading 
librarians throughout the country, that financial difficulties prevented this 
scheme from being realised, but I am delighted to find that what could 
not be done by librarians and amateurs, now promises to be a thorough 
success in the hands of capable business men, and that the financial 
stability of the founders of the British bureau now established at 10, 
Bloomsbury Street, London, is to be enforced by Mr. Cedric Chivers, as 
manager, who is well known to and trusted by the library world as a 
gentleman of energy and resource. 

There can be no question that the most important and valuable 
feature of the library bureau will be the exhibition of newly-published 
books. At present librarians and other book-buyers have to depend 
upon the very limited and almost haphazard stocks of their respective 
booksellers (who cannot, under the modern exigencies of trade, afford to 
keep large stocks), and consequently many books, which if they could 
only be seen, would be promptly bought, are now deferred until by 
chance a second-hand copy turns up which enables the librarian to judge 
of its merits. 

My original scheme provided that no books should be sold by the 
bureau, and I believe that this also will be the rule in the bureau 
now established. With this understanding the trade will promptly see 
that the bureau should prove an excellent friend to publishers and book- 
sellers alike, and I entertain the most sanguine hopes for its permanent 


Hon. Sec. L.A.U.K. 

Lambeth Libraries. 369 

Xambetb libraries Xiterar^ anfc Bebattng Society* 

We have been favoured with a copy of the sessional programme of 
this new Society, which we hail with pleasure as a step in the right 
direction, and one likely to benefit the assistants in the Lambeth 
libraries. Mr. Burgoyne is the President, and membership is by the 
rules limited to employes of the Lambeth Libraries Commissioners. 
Most of the papers arranged for the session, which extends from October 
ro, 1894, to April 17, 1895, are of literary interest, but there are 
several of a very practical nature. Mr. Burgoyne will contribute one on 
" Some of our Books of Reference and their History ; " Mr. Grewcock 
on " The Centralisation of Public Libraries in London ; " Mr. Robinson 
on " Some Different Methods of Issue for Lending Libraries," and Mr. 
E. Quinn on " The L.A.U.K. Summer School of 1894." We shall watch 
the progress of this Society with interest, and trust it may ultimately 
lead to the formation of a London Association of Library Assistants, which 
could act in connection with, or as an auxiliary to, the Library Associa- 
tion itself. 

Xonfcon ^Librarians at 

A PARTY of London librarians visited Cambridge on October 24, 
and although the weather was unfavourable, had a most pleasant excur- 
sion. Mr. Frank Pink met them at the railway station, and with Mr. 
Hawkes of the Holborn Public Library, acted as cicerone. Amongst 
other places, the party visited the Fitzwilliam Museum, the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and King's College Chapel, where they gathered round 
the late Henry Bradshaw's grave, and were glad to find that his memory 
is as affectionately remembered by the attendants as it is by the libra- 
rians who knew him. At Trinity College Library, Mr. White was good 
enough to give the party his personal attention, and show some of the 
more remarkable treasures of the library, notably the Canterbury Psalter, 
the Caxtons, and other rare early printed books, the Shakespeariana, 
and MSS. of Milton, Byron and Richard Person. At the University 
Library Mr. Johnson (in' the absence of Mr. Jenkinson), took the party 
through the building, and explained the systems of cataloguing and 
classification. Peterhouse, Jesus and Christ's Colleges were also visited, 
as well as other Cambridge institutions of interest. 

In the evening the Free Library was visited ; and Mr. Pink provided 
tea in the reference department, after which an impromptu conference 
discussed with him the plans of his new branch library, and noted with 
interest the use made of some 3,000 volumes of reference books, which 
line one side of the reading room, and can be used by any reader without 
application forms. Of this department Mr. Pink speaks with much 
enthusiasm, and the books certainly have the appearance of being used 
with appreciation and care. 

Hearty votes of thanks were accorded to Mr. Pink, sen., Mr. Pink, 
jun., and Mr. Hawkes, on the motion of Messrs. Inkster and Taylor ; 
to Mr. White, on the motion of Messrs. Burgoyne and Quinn ; and to 
Mr. Johnson, on the motion of Messrs. Brown and Fincham, for the 
kindly manner in which they had enabled the party to spend so enjoyable 
and profitable a day. 

370 The Library. 

a Xtttle Iknown OLambetb free 

WE believe comparatively few persons know that the splen- 
did library of Lambeth Palace is open for the use of the 
public under certain conditions. These conditions are set forth 
in the following " Regulations," which we reprint (by permission) 
for the benefit of our readers. 

i. With the exception of the periods named in Regulation No. 

2, the Library is open to the public on Mondays, Wednesdays, 

Thursdays, and Fridays, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. from April to 

July (both months inclusive) until 5 p.m., and during the forenoon 

of Tuesdays. 
2. The Library is closed during the week commencing with Easter 

Day, for seven days computed from Christmas Day, and for six 

weeks from the end of August in every year. 
3. Extracts from the MSS. or printed books are allowed to be 

made freely, but in case of a transcript being desired of a whole 

MS., or book, or copy thereof to be printed, the consent of the 

Archbishop must be previously obtained. 
4. Permission to copy illuminated MSS. and rare engravings can 

only be obtained on submission of the applicant's name to the 

5. MSS. are only lent out by an order signed by the Archbishop, 

and with a bond of ^50 or ^100 for their return within six months 

or on demand. 

Rules for Lending Books. 

6. Except under special permission, the loan of books will be 
restricted to the Clergy and Laity of the Diocese of Canterbury, 
and to persons residing within the parish of Lambeth, the borough 
of Southwark, and the City and liberties of Westminster. 
7. All applications for the loan of books must be countersigned by a 
beneficed Clergyman, who must certify to his personal knowledge 
of the applicant. 

8. Everyone desiring to borrow must obtain from the Librarian the 
prescribed forms, and all applications for the removal of books 
must be made to the Librarian in person, or by some trustworthy 
representative, authorised in 'writing by the applicant to receive 

9. Except by special permission, not more than TWO volumes to 
be borrowed at the same time, and such volumes must be returned 
to the Librarian within two months from the date of removal. 

10. If any volume or volumes of a set be defaced, injured or lost, 
such volume or volumes shall be replaced by others of equal value 
and in similar condition. 

n. Works of reference, books of prints, works of an earlier date 
than 1700 A. p., pamphlets and such books as in the discretion 
of the Librarian cannot be easily replaced, can only be consulted 
in the Library. 

12. Every one borrowing books shall sign, on behalf of himself or 
the person he represents, a declaration assenting to the foregoing 
Rules. Books can be lent out and returned only during Library 

The Vatican Library. 

FROM 1295 T0 J 447 

T3ONIFACE VIII. it was, in 1295, in the first year of his ponti- 
*~r ficate, by whose orders the first catalogue was made which 
has come down to us, of the Papal Library. From that date, 
through six centuries, there is a nearly continuous series of 
them, now published by F. Ehrle and others. So that from 
Boniface VIII. the history of the library can be made out, not 
from a comparison of evidence and the help of conjectures, but 
from actual library records. The library then consisted of 
nearly 500 volumes. Another hand has added, " and 160 

It has been left to F. Ehrle to discover that the library of 
Boniface VIII., which was so mysteriously dispersed in the i4th 
century, contained in 1311, those 33 Greek MSS., arranged 
in a separate division, and to his great work upon this subject 
we must now turn. 1 

It is only necessary here to point out that to the library of the 
Popes at Avignon, F. Ehrle has devoted his most exhaustive 
researches. The student will find in his remarkable volumes 
all that will probably for many years, perhaps ever, be known 
about them. 2 

In 1303 troubles began again. The tragic end of Boniface 
affords the historian ten of his most brilliant pages, and Dante 
one of his most burning lines. 3 Through such a storm no craft 
could live. One manuscript only, a Latin pentateuch apparently 
of the time of Nicholas III., now in the Vatican (Vatic. 7793) 
remains to us. For the rest, F. Ehrle in the course of his re- 
searches among the libraries of Rome, Assisi, and elsewhere, has 
never come across any trace of any of the books which occur in 

1 MUntz and Fabre, op. cit. , p. iii. 

2 Historia Bibliothecce Romanorum Pontificumtum Bonifatiance turn Avenio- 
nensis and narrata, et antiquis earum : indicibus, aliisque documentis illustrata. 
(Romse, typ. Vat.). Tom. i., 1890. 

* Milman, Latin Christianity, fourth ed., 1867, vol. vii., pp. 145-155. Dante, 
Purgatorio, xx., 89. 


372 The Library. 

the inventories from 1295 to 1339.* And by March, 1304, Benedict 
XI. had resolved to quit Rome. The treasury, library and 
archives were transferred to Perugia ; a and a catalogue of the 
books was made there in 1311. 8 It contains books brought from 
the Lateran, from the Church of St. Francesca Romana in 
Rome, and from the monastery at Casino. It is interesting in 
connection with the books from St. Francesca to point out that 
when it was joined to the muniment tower of the popes, the 
popes residing in the tower used to approach it by means of 
arches, and used the church for pontifical purposes, and as a 
subsidiary to the Lateran. 

By 1312 came orders for the treasures M. Faucon delights 
to point out that in the middle ages books were considered part 
of the treasury to be sent to Avignon ; and a cardinal was 
delegated to see to the transfer. The cardinal took them as far 
as Lucca, from which point transfer would be merely a matter 
of opportunity. But he died here on the 2yth of October, and his 
charge was put in the sacristy of San Frediano. In June, 1314, 
the town was seized by the Ghibellines of Pisa, who made short 
work with the more serviceable part of the Pope's property, 
estimated at a million florins. Pope John XXII. took nearly 
three years before he fulminated against them a bull of excom- 
munication (March, 1317); but all in vain. 4 

Marini says that the rest of the treasure and the library were 
carried to Assisi in 1320. There seems some room for doubt 
here, and the point is, after all, perhaps a minor one. But 
certainly the most negotiable part of the treasure was again 
seized, and an interdict was pronounced in 1321 against Assisi. 
This interdict lasted for 38 years. 5 

A more peaceful time had set in with the death of Clement 
V., 6 and the succession of John XXII. For John XXII. at least 
had made up his mind that he was going to fix his court definitely 
at Avignon, for the most prudential of reasons. He had for- 
merly been bishop here (1310-1312), and when he came back as 
pope he occupied, and occupied till his death, his old episcopal 

Carini, p. 25. 

M. Faucon, La Librairie des Papes d? Avignon (Paris, 1886), i., 5-6. 
1310 says Faucon, i., 18. 
M. Faucon, op. cit., i., pp. 7-9. 
Faucon, op. cit. i., p. 9, 
* For a full account of these troubles see of>. cit., pp. 15-17. 

The Vatican Library. 373 

palace. 1 Seventy years of age at the time of his election he held 
the papal chair for eighteen years (1316-1334). Of the intel- 
lectual activity of this court Petrarch has given us a glowing 
description, 2 and he was more or less acquainted with the lives 
of all the Avignon popes, for he did not die till 1374. 

One thing has been most satisfactorily established, namely, 
that the library of Boniface VIII. was not incorporated with, 
even if it ever reached, the papal library at Avignon. 8 

John XXII., crowned in 1316, on September 5, and installed 
at Avignon on October 2, we find already buying books on De- 
cember 21. We have year by year a record of the books pur- 
chased by that Pope, and in 1327 an inventory of the library was 
made, which has, unfortunately, been lost. 4 

It is interesting to find in 1333 our English book-lover, 
Richard de Bury, visiting Avignon; and an English priest, 
Henry of Harandone (?), dean of a church in the diocese of 
Lincoln, selling books to the papal librarian. 5 We have a por- 
trait of John XXII. receiving a book, in a MS. at Paris. 6 The 
payments made year by year to illuminators and copyists at this 
time, with their names, have all come down to us. 7 

Benedict XII. (1334-1342) built the Tower at Avignon, now 
known as the Torre degli Angeli, in which the Avignon Library 
was placed. It was constructed about 1335-7. 

Most important is the inventory of 1339 of the treasures left 
at Assisi. 8 An examination of the library was made by two 
canons, by order of the papal legate, during four days (Sep- 
tember 7-10). They were assisted by two other persons. M. 
Faucon declares this was the library of Benedict VIII., natur- 
ally enough with large gaps. The commissioners note two 
chests of Hebrew and Greek books. These they did not 
trouble to open, as also happened, as I shall show, thirty years 
later. When a volume had no title it was not considered worthy 
of a description of contents. 9 Other coffers contained MSS. 

1 Ibid., p. 1 8. 

2 Ibid., p. 23. It will be remembered that the MS. of Cicero's Familiar 
Letters was discovered at Verona in 1345. 

8 Mu'ntz and Fabre, p. 2. 
4 Faucon, op. cit. i., p. 9. 

3 Ibid., pp. 37-8. Richard de Bury was there also in 1330, ibid., p. 32. 
* Reproduced as frontispiece to Faucon's work. 

7 Cf. ibid., 41-42 et passim. 

8 MS. Arch. Vat. 

9 De Rossi, p. 105. 

374 The Library. 

bearing the arms of Innocent III. and Boniface, and one con- 
tained nothing but Innocent III.'s sermons. Other chests con- 
tained the archives. M. Faucon declares that all the archives 
of the Holy See were there. But the degree of precision exer- 
cised at this time may be again gauged by the fact that one chest 
is spoken of as containing letters of princes of the I2th and i3th 
century ; letters patent of the German emperors and kings of 
Hungary, &c. ; a copy, on silk paper, of all letters addressed 
by Frederick II. to Louis IX. on the excommunication pro- 
nounced by Innocent IV. ; these archives remaining at Assisi 
till 1362, when they were carried to Avignon, and where they 
are found entered in the catalogue of 1366.' 

Towards the end of the sojourn at Avignon the mention of 
books becomes more and more rare, 2 which is possibly attri- 
butable to the fact that the library by that time had become fairly 
well furnished. 3 Imbued with Latin as the Papal Court then 
was, it is interesting to find that the library of Urban V. con- 
tained no more than five or six small volumes in French or 
Romance, and in Italian, which already contained chefs-cTceuvrts 
in poetry, eloquence, and history, absolutely none. 4 The popes 
of Avignon had none of the leisure of the popes of the Renais- 
sance. 5 Petrarch writing to Nelli, the Prior of the Church of the 
Santi Apostoli at Florence, in a letter dated January 8, 1352, on 
the subject of his Pliny, says : " There is no Pliny here that I 
ever knew of except the popes'." The library was apparently a 
private one for the exclusive use of the popes. For all that it 
was not difficult of access. 6 

On January 28, 1353, a new inventory was commenced. 

Carini states that in 1354 tne offices of sacrist, librarian and 
confessor to the pope were reunited. He gives no authority 
(p. 29). 

By the year 1364 Urban V. had only one idea that of re- 
turning to Rome, and while he gave orders for the repair of the 
Vatican and of the churches, he also ordered, in 1369, a complete 
inventory of the possessions of the popes. 7 This inventory is the 
most complete of all those of the popes of the i4th century. 8 
But neither under Urban V., who returned to Avignon to die 
he died September 24, i37o 9 and under whom the library was 

1 Faucon, op. cit., pp. 10-11. - Ibid., pp. 51-2. 

3 Epp. famil.^ ed. Fracassetti, lib. xii., 5. * Tom. ii. 182. 5 Carini, 31-2. 

Ibid., pp. 54-5. 7 Ibid., p. 30. 

* Ibid. * Ibid., p. 30. 

The Vatican Library. 375 

in nine different places, 1 nor under Gregory XI. he ordered 
an inventory in 1375 2 who at last, at the instance of St. Catherine 
of Siena, went back to Rome in 1376, did the books return. 3 
For thirty years we hear nothing in particular of the library at 
Avignon. Then came the flight of Benedict XIII., on October 
n, 1403, and subsequently the transference of his library all 
he could get to Peniscola, in Spain, in 1408. The papal library 
at Peniscola contained a Dante, and a Latin translation to it 
also. 4 This library, as is well known, returned to Avignon, 
passed to the College de Foix, at Toulouse, thence to the 
library of Colbert, thence to the Bibliotheque Nationale, where 
it has received from M. Delisle that attention which a col- 
lection so interesting deserves. But of the Avignon library 
no part, speaking in the mass, can be said ever to have returned 
to the Vatican. 5 

During the Schism there was no thought of founding a new 
library at Rome. On the contrary, Gregory XII. in 1407, 
gave his consent for the sale of certain MSS. of the Church for 
the price of 500 florins as a subvention to the papal treasury. 
The regesta of the Bulls of that time, that is, from the return 
of Gregory XL to 1428, stood for a long time in the convent 
of S. Maria sopra Minerva. 6 

At the end of the schism, Martin V. in 1420 returned to 
Rome, 7 and wished that the books should be brought back 
from Avignon. Some few actually 8 came. And in 1428 he 
ordered those regesta just mentioned to be brought to the 
palace of St. Peter's and prepared halls for them. But it 
was Eugenius IV. who really in 1441, commenced the task 
of reclaiming the Avignon Library. He sent orders to 
Peter de Foix, the legate at Avignon, for the privilegia and 
books to be returned which had been carried off "from the 

1 Faucon, pp. 64-5. ' 2 Carini, ibid. 

3 Ibid., pp. 56-8. 4 Faucon, i., p. 85. 

s Ibid., 61, </. De Rossi, /. c., p. 105. Also Miintz and Fabre, p. 2. The cata- 
logue of the Avignon books at Peniscola is in Paris, Lat. MS. 5156 A. F. Ehrle 
found in 1887 nearly 300 vols. of the Papal Library of Avignon, in the Borghese 
Library at Rome. These Borghese MSS. have recently been acquired for the 
"Vatican by Leo XIII. (Carini, pp. 32-3). 

6 Carini, 33. 

7 Not 1418. See Miintz and Fabre, La Bibl. Vat. au XVe. Sttcle, p. I. 

8 Loc. cit., pp. 1-2. 

376 The Library. 

Lateran and the churches of St. Peter " to Avignon. 1 In 
1443 a catalogue was made of the books of Eugenius IV., 
and this has just been edited by Mtintz and Fabre. a It con- 
tains about 340 volumes of sacred and classical literature ; of 
which two are Greek, a Boethius and a Psalter. 

Muntz quotes as an example of the comparative ignorance 
and rarity of Greek in the first half of the I5th century, in Italy, 
the fact that in 1426 the famous Library of the Visconti, at 
Pavia, only contained four Greek MSS., an Iliad, a Plato, and 
two volumes described as written either in Greek or Hebrew. 
One is not far from the time, as he aptly remarks, when one said 
"Graecum est. non legitur."* 


WE now at last come to the Vatican Library proper, the 
beginning of which must be attributed to Nicolas V. (1447-1445) ; 
and which in his own day was spoken of as " the finest library 
of the world." 4 The catalogue of it, by Giovanni Tortelli, is 
not to be found. An inventory of the books of Nicolas V. 
is extant, made at his death, and from this we can estimate the 
increase made during twelve years. Nicolas had formed plans of 
a most magnificent library, but death prevented him (Carini, 39). 
At the death of Nicolas V. the numbers had reached 1,160 ; and 
of these 353 were Greek. 5 

Since De Rossi wrote his monograph in 1886, an important 
discovery has been made; indeed, in the following year, by M. 
Eugene Miintz, whose work on the history of the library in the 
fifteenth century, written in collaboration with M. Paul Fabre, is 
my third principal authority. M. Miintz has discovered a copy 
of the inventory of the Greek Library of Nicolas V. s 

Calixtus III., the immediate successor of Nicolas V., is said 
to have enriched " the library with many volumes saved from 
those of Constantinople, when that city fell into the hands of the 

1 Op. dt., p. 5. 

3 Ut supra. For other MSS. from this library still existing, see Carini, p. 36. 
1 Miintz and Fabre, op. cif. t p. iii. 

4 The phrase is Tortelli's. Carini, p. 40. 

* Miintz and Fabre, p. iii. * Muntz and Fabre, pp. 315-344. 

The Vatican Library. 377 

Ottomans" in I453- 1 But this is given on the authority of 
Assemani. De Rossi declares t