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Tun work, atthoo^ based upon Chambers's EDcyc1opeBdi% whose distinguished 
nerit is widely known, differs from it in important respects. It could scarcely be 
expected that an Encyclopaedia, edited and published for a foreign market, would give 
ttmuch prominence to American topics as American readers might desire. To supply 
these and other deficiencies tbe American Editors have inserted about 15,000 titles* 
miDgiog the whole, including Chambers's Supplement, m a single alphabet The 
total Dimtber of titles is now about 40,000. The additions give greater fullness in the 
departments of biography, geography, history, natural history, and general and applied 
KJeoce. Scrupulous care has been taken not to mutilate or modify the original text of 
the edition of 1880; no changes have been made except such verbal alterations as are 
nqdied by the omission of the wood-cuts. The titles of articles from Chambers's 
Encydopadia, either from the main work or from the Supplement, are printed in bold- 
iiced tjrpe— AHEBICA. The titles of the American additions, whether of new topics or 
of enlaigements of the old, are printed in plain capitals— AMERICA. Should it appear 
that an article from the English work and its American continuation disagree in any 
pointa, tbe reader will readily refer the conflicting statements to their proper sources. 

Tbe labor of consultation will be much reduced by the catch-words in bold-faced 
tnw at tbe top of the page, being the first and last titles of the pages which fa^^e each 
other; and by the full title-words on tha back of the volume, being the first and last 
titlea oontainad therein. 

The woffd mni$ refers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, as represented in this issue. 
Whenever the word {ante) follows a title in the American additions, it indicates that 
tha article is an enlaigement of one under the saoM title in Cliambers's £ncydop«ii»-> 
MaDy to be found immediately preceding. 


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LISB-BOAT, a boat adapted to " live'* in a stormy sea, with a view to the saving of 
life from shipwreck. Its qualities must be buoyancy, to avoid foundering when a^ 
sea is shipped; strenfi^th to escape destruction from the violence of waves, from a 
rocky beach, or from collision with the wreck; facility in tuniiug; and a power of 
righting when capsized. 

A melancholy wreck at Tynemouth, in Sept, 1789, suggested to the subscribers 
to the South Shields news-room, who had witnessed the destruction of the crew one liy 
one, that some specuil construction of boat might be devised for saving life from stranded 
vessels. They immediately offered a premium for the best form of life-boiit; and the 
first boat built with the express object of saving life was that constructed on this occa- 
sion by Mr. Henry Qreathead. It was of great strength, havinj^ the form of the quarter 
of a spheroid, with sides protected and rendered buoyant wiihin and without by the 
superposition of layers of cork. So useful was it in the first twenty-one years after ita 
introduction that WX) lives were saved throujeh its instrumentality in the mouth of the 
Tyne alone. Mr. Greathead received the gold medals of tho 6i)ciety of arts and royal 
Iiumane society, £1200 from parliament in 1802, and a purse of lOOpiineasfrom Lloyd's, 
the members of which society also voted £2,000 to encourage the building of life-boats on 
different parts of the coast. Although various other life-boats were invented from time 
to time, Greathead*s remained the general favorite until about the year 1851. and manv 
of his construction are still to be seen on different points of the coast. They faileo, 
however, occasionally; and several sad mishaps befell the crews of life-boats, especially 
in the case of one at South Shields, in which twenty pilots perished. Upon thia ti)e 

Section lengthwiM. 

duke of Northumberland offered a prize for an improved construction, and numerous 
designs were submitted, a hundred of the best of which were exhibited in 1851. Mr. 
James Beechmg of Yarmouth obtained the award; but his l)oat was not considered 
entirely satisfactory, and Mr. R. Peake, of her majestv's dockyard at Woolwich, was 
intrusted with the task of producing a life-boat which should coaibiue the liest (qualities 
of the different inventions. His efforts were very successful, and the national life-boat 
institution adopted his model as the standard for the boats they should thereafter estab- 
lish on the coasts. 

Sections of Mr. Peake's life-boat are shown above, one lengthwise through the keel,, 
the other crosswise in the middle. A, A, are the thwarts on which the rowers sit; BB. a 
water-tight deck, raised sufficiently above the bottom of the boat to l)e almve the level of 
the sea when the l)oat is loaded; C, C, are air-tight chambers runninar along each side» 
and occupying from 3 to 4 ft. at eiicli end the buoyancy afforded l»y these more than 
ftulflces to sustain the boat when fully laden, even if filled with water. To diminish the 
liability to capsize in a heavy sea, the life-boat has great beam (breadth) in proportion to 
her length, viz., 8 ft. l)eain to 80 length. In addition, the bottom is almost flat. As in 
her build it has been found convenient to dispense with cross- pieccn, gome means are 
required to preserve the rigidity of the whole stractiire amid the buffeiingsof a tempest. 
To achieve this, and also to serve the purposes of light ballast. Mr. Peake fills the space 
between the boat's liottom and the water-tight deck (BB) with blocks. tUhtly wedged 
together, of cork and light hard wood, D, D. These would form a fal.»*c Itottom. were 
a rent made in the outer covering, and, by their comparative wt-ight. counteract in some 
degree the top-heaviness induced* by the air-vessels, which are entirely above the water- 
line (H). This arrangement would be insufficient to maintain the equilibriunaiMif ^e 



t)oat, lioweyer, and especially under sail, so Mr. Peake has added a beayy iron keel (E) 
of from 4 to 8 cwt., which enectually keeps the boat straight. Som* builders object to 
this iron ballast: the Liverpool and Norfolk boats take out their plugs, and preferablj 
admit water until steadiness is secured; bat Mr. Peake has an additional object in vie^w — 
tliat of causing the bout to immediately right itself if turned upside down, as the best 
boats sometimes will be in heavy i^aies. It will be noticed that the ends of the boat rise 
above the center H to 2 feet. This, for one thing, facilitates turning, as tlie pivot on 
which her weight rests is shortened ; for another, if she capsizes and is thrown bottom 
up, these raised caissons are sufficient to sustain her by their buoyancy. So long, then, 
as she floats precisely in an inverted state, she will be steady; but the slightest motion 
to either side-*- which, of eourse, in practice ensues instantly— throws the iieayy keel off 
the perpend iculdr, in which its center of gravity was exactly over the line between bow 
and stern, and the boat must immediately right itself. There is a covered trougli over 
the keel to contain the tackle, sails, etc., when not in use; in service, it is also useful to 
receive any water that may penetrate among the cork and wooden chocks beneath the 
water-tight deck: this leakage is at times considerable when the outer skin of tlie boat 
has susained damage. The Irough may be fitted with a small hand-pump, to enable one 
of the sitters to clear it out when necessary. 

Perhaps the most beautiful contrivance in the life-boat is that for dischamng the 
water which she ships. This consists of relieving tubes, G, each 6 in. in diameter, 
passing through the deck, B, the ballast, D, and the bottom. The tubes, which are 
near the center of the boat, 8 on each side, have at the bottom a valve openings out- 
wards. As tlie deck, B, is always above the water-level, any water in the boat neces- 
sarily flows out through these tubes, so that if a wave bursts over her, and completely 
fills the boat, the relieving tubes free her, and she is empty again in a few minutes. 
The greater the height of water within, the faster will it run out. The advantages of 
the life- boat may be thus summed up. The air-chambers and the light ballast render 
sinking impossible; the keel nearly prevents capsizing, and rectifies It, if it does hap- 
pen; while the relieving tubes effectually clear off any water that finds its way within. 
With such precautions, the safety of the crew appears almost assured, and, in fact, loss 
of life in a life-boat is a very rare occurxince. 

The boat is kept on a truck — of considerable strength, as the life-boat weighs two 
tons--closc to the l)cach. and is drawn to the water's edge when ix^quired; the crew* 
are trained to their work, and, it need not be added, are among the hardiest of sea- 
men. Ordinary life-boats arc rowed bv 8 or 12 oars (of the best fir) double banked; 
but for small stations, whore it would bo difficult to collect so many men at short 
notice, smaller boats are made, rowing six oars single banked. 

The importance of the life-boat in savine life can scarcely bo over-estimated. Hun- 
dreds of vessels have their crews rescued through its use every year; and as the 
DdMonal life-boat institution obtains funds, this invention is beinff gradually extended 
all round the coast of the United Kingdom, while foreign nations have not been remiss 
in thus protecting their shores. 

The Boyal National Lifeboat InMuthn, after an unrecognized existence for several 
years, was formally incorporated in 1824. Its objects are to provide and maintain in 
efficient workiuji^ order lifc-lioats of the most perfect description on all parts of the coast; 
to provide, through the instrumentality of local committees, for their proper manage- 
ment, and the occasional exercise of their crews; to bestow pecuniary rewards on all 
who risk their lives in saving, or attempting to save, life on the coast, whether by means 
of its own or other l)oats, and honoraiy rewards, in the form of medals, to all who dis- 
play unwonted heroism in the noble work. It is supported entirely by voluntary' contri- 
butions. It saves aboui 900 lives annually, and is therefore eminently worthy of support. 
In 1875 it expended £36,186 on life-boat establishments, pecuniary rewiutis (£8,289), 
etc. The society has now a fleet of 256 life-boats stationed all round our shores. The 
coxswains of tlie boats alone are paid at the rate of about £8 a year. The members of 
the crew are paid for each service performed. From its formation up to the end of 1875, 
the society was instrumental in saving 28,789 lives, and gave rewards m cash to the extent 
of £48,000. besides 92 gold and 871 silver medals. 

The size of a common life-boat renders it inconvenient for stowage on shipboard. To 
obviate this, the rev. E. L. Berthon, of Fareham, invented a collapsing boat, which is 
readily expanded, possesses great strength, and at the same time occupies comparatively 
little space when out of use. Its sides are connected by various hingeSb This boat is 
extensively employed for ocean steamships. 

LITE-ESTATE, in English law, is an estate or Interest in real property for a life. The 
life may be either that of the owner or of some third party, in which latter case it is 
called an estate pur avtre vie. Life-estates in lands are classed among freeholds (q.v.). 
The tenant for life has certain rights in regard to the uses of the estate. He is entitled 
to cut wood to repair fences, to burn in the house, etc. He cannot open a mine on the 
estate, but, if it was already opened, he is entitled to carry it on for his own profit. Life- 
estates are created by deed, but there are certain estates created by law, as courtesy 
(q.v.), dower (q.v.), tenancy in tail after possibility of issue extinct. As to Scothmd, see 


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LIFE-QITABIMIi tbe two senior regiments of the moanted portion of the body<guard 
of tlie British sovefeii^n and garrison of London. They took tlieir origin in two Irooos 
of borse-grenadiers nused respectively in 1098 and 1702: these troops were reduced in 
1783, and reformed as regiments of life-guards. Although usually employed about the 
court and metropolis, tbe life-guards are not exempt from tbe liability to tureign service 
when required, having distinguished themselves in tbe Peninsula and at WaterToa Tbe 
men are all six feet high and upwards, armed with sword and carbiue» wear knee-boots, 
leather breeches, red coats, and steel helmets. They also wear steel cuirasses, tbe utility 
of which is considered very doubtful. With this unwieldy armor, they require powerful 
horses, which are uniformly bbick. Tbe two regiments comprise 868 men, with 550 
horses: their pay and personal allowances amount to about £50,000, 

LIFE INSURANCE. See Insusaitcb. 

UTE M0BTAB8 and B0CXET8. When a life-boat is not at hand, or a raging sea and 
a shoal coast render its use impracticable, a distressed ship may often receive belp from 
shore, provided tlie distance be not too great for the throwing of a rope. A small rope 
may draw a tbicker, and that a hawser, and Uie hawser may sustain a slinging apparatus 
for bringing the crew on sbore. For short distances, capt. Ward*8 ktamng-sttck uas been 
found useful : it is a piece of stout cane 2 ft. long, loade<l at one end with 2 lbs. of lead, 
and at the otber attached to a thin line. It is wbirled round vertically 2 or 8 times, and 
then let go; but it cannot be relied on for more tban 50 yards. Kites of various kinds 
have been employed, but are not found to l)e certain enough in action. The firing by 
gunpowder of some kind of missile, with a line or rope attached to it, is the method 
which has been attended with most success. In 1791 sergt. Bell, of tbe royal artillery, 
devised a mode of iiriug a shot and line from a distressed sliip to tbe shore. It was 
afterwards found to be more practically useful to fire from tlie sbore to the ship. In 
1807 capt. Man by invented his l^e-mortar (see Makbt>. His mortar was an ordinal y 
5i-in. 24-pounder cohorn, fixed at a certain angle in a thick block of wood. The missile 
discharged from it was a shot with curved bnrbs. something like the flukes of an anchor, 
to catch hold of tbe rigging or bulwarks of a ship. How to fasten tbe sbot to tbe rope 
was at first a difiiculty . chains were not found to answer; but at length strips of raw -hide 
were found suitable. To assist in descrying the exact position of a distressed ship on a 
dark night, in order to aim tbe mortar-rope correctly, Man by used a cbemical composi- 
tion as a firework, which would shine out in brilliant stars when it had risen to a certain 
height A third contrivance f^f his for replacing the shot by a shell filled with combus- 
tibles, in order to produoe a light which would render the rope visible to the cxew, was 
not so successful. 

Many variations have been made in the line-throwing apparatus. Col. Boxer has 
recently substituted a bolt for the shot, with four boles at tbe end; fuses thrust into these 
holes abed a light which marks the passage of the bolt througli tbe air. Trengrove's 
rocket-apparatus, invented in 1821, consisted of an ordinary 8-oz. sky-rocket (see 
RocsBT). Certain practical difficulties, liowever, affected it, and it did not come much 
into use. In 1882 Dennett's apparatus whs invented. It nearly resembled the old sky- 
rocket, but with an iron case instead of a paper one, and a pole 8 ft. long instead of a 
mere stick; it weighed 28 lbs., was propelled by 9 lbs. of composition, and bad a range 
of 260 yarda A ship's crew having been saved by the aid of this rocket at Bembiidge, 
in tbe isle of Wight, the board of customs caused many of the coastguard stations to be 
supplied with the apparatus in 1884. Carte's apparatus, brouirht forward in 1842, 
depended on the use of a Congrere rocket (see Kockxt) instead of an ordinary sky- 
rocket It does not appear that tbis apparatus was ever adopted by tbe authorities. Mr. 
Dennett next sought to improve the power of his apparatus, by placing two rockets side 
by side, attached to the same stick; and it certainly did increase the range to 400 yards; 
but fts the simultaneous and equal action of the rockets could not be alwavs insured, the 
scheme was abandoned. Col. Del vigne, of tbe French army, invented a Ufe-arroto, to be 
fired from an ordinary musket. It b a stick of mahogany, shaped something like a bil- 
liard-cue; the thicker end presses on the powder; while the thinner end, loaded with 
lead, is fitted with loops of string; a line or thin rope is attached to the loops, and the 
thin end of the stick projects beyond tbe barrel. The lerk, when the arrow or stick is 
fired, causes the loops to ran down the stick to the thick end ; this action has an effect 
like that of a spring, preventing the stick from darting forward so suddenly as to snap 
tbe line. The apparatus will send an arrow of 18 oz. to a distance of 80 yards, with a 
mackerel line attached. Another French contrivance, Tremblay's rocket with a barbed 
heaa, was soon adopted for the emperor's yacht; but as it is to l)e fired from the ship to 
the shore, it partakes of the same defects as sergt. Bell's original invention. 

The most effective apparatus yet invented is col. Boxers. Finding tbat Dennett's 
parallel rockets on one stick do not work well, he succeeded after many trials in a mode 
of plftcing two rockets in one tube, one behind the other. The head is of hard wood ; 
there is a wrought-lron case, with a partition between tbe two rockets. When fired, the 
foremost rocket carries the case and the attached line to its maximum distance, and tbe 
rearmost rocket then gives these a further impetus. The effect is found to lie greater 
than if the two rockets were placed side by side, and also greater than if the quanti^ 
of composition for the two rockets were made up into one of lar|^]^ si|^. v7|^R9$|$^ ^ 

fired from a triangular stand, and is lighted by fuse, port-flrc, or percussion-tube ; tke ele- 
yation is determined by a quadmnt or some similur insirument. 

Tlie lines used witli tliese several projectiles buve varied greatly'; but the best is found 
to be Italian hemp, spun loosely. It is very elastic, and when thick enough for the pur. 
pose, 500 yards weigb 46 lbs. In Boxer's rocket, the line passes through the tail of the 
stick, then throuj^ the head, where it is tied in a knot, with Indiiurubber washers or 
buffers to lessen the Jerk. The line is carefully wound on a reel, or coiled in a tub, or 
faked in a box provided with pins ranged round the interior— to enable the line to run 
out quickly without kiuldngor entangling. Dennett's faking box for this purpose is tho 
one now generally adopted. 

Lifebelts, jackets, and buoys of various kinds are used, made of cork, inflated India- 
rubber, etc. ; but one apparatus now employed in conjauctiou with the life^rockets is 
known by the curious name of petticoat-breeches, or more simply, ding Iffe-buoy. It is not 
strictly either a belt or a buoy, but a garment in wliich a man may be slimg clear out of 
the water. When a rocket nas been flred, and a line has reached the distressed ship» 
signals are exchanged between the ship and the shore; a thicker rope is pulled over to 
the ship by means of the line, and a hawser by means of the rope. When all is stretched 
taut, by fastening to the masts, etc.. articles can be slung and drawn to and fro. The 
petticoat-breeches, invented by lieut. Kisbee. consists ot a circular cork hfe-buoy form- 
ingthctop ring of a pair of canvas breeches; one of these is liauled over from the 
shore to the ship; a man gets into it, liis legs protruding below the breeches, and his 
armpits resting on the buoy; and he is hauled ashore by block-tackle. Tho crew of a 
wrecked ship can thus one by one be relieved. To prevent losing ihe hawser and other 
apparatus, when the last man has left the ship, an apparatus called a hawser-cutter is 
useil, working in the ship, but worked /it>m the shore. Other apparatus will be found 
noticed in Lifb-Presbrvers. 

After the destruction of the Narthfleet in 1878, oft Dungeness, an exhibition waa 
organized at tlie London tavern, to which the inventors of new life-saving appliances 
were invited to contribute. Among the apparatus were Hurst's life-raft, consisting of a 
double pontoon, brid.i^ed over, stowed outside a ship, and lowered by simply cutting tlie 
lashings; Chri^stie's l*fe-raft, a large rectangular framework, rendered buoyant by numer- 
ous air-tiglit spaces, some of which are available for stowing water and provisions; and 
Parratt's tubular life-raft, composed of cylindrical air-bags made of painted canvas, sup- 
porting a flooring of S2ul-cloth and netting, and rendered rigid by poles fixed in various 
directions. Many otiier novelties were displayed at the London tavern, and also at & 
similar collection in the annual international exhibition, in the forms of life-boats, rafts, 
^rments, belts, buoys, etc. Since then, notliing new and imp irtant has been introduced 
in connection with life mortars and rockets or their appendages. 

Lm-PRESEBYEBS, inventions for the preservation of life in cases of fire or ship- 
wreck. The fire life-preservers will be found treated of under FiRS-EBCAPBa. The 
other class includes the various contrivances for preserving the buoyancy of tlie human 
body, and for reaching the shore. Of these, the readiest and most effective are empty 
water-casks, well bunged-up, and with ropes attached to them to hold on by. It has 
been found that a 8d-g)il. cask so prepared can support 10 men conveniently, in tolera^ 
bly smooth water. Cook's and Kodger's patent life-rafts consist of square frames 
buoyed up by a cask at each corner. Among foreign nations, fnmies of bamboo, and 
inflated goat and seal skins, have been long employ^ as life-preservers: and in Cliina» 
it is customary for those living on the b:ink.s of the canals to tie gourds to their children, 
to buoy them up in case of their falling into the water. Since the introduction 
of cork, jackets and belts of that material in immense variety have been patented. 
It has been calculated that one pound of cork is amply sufficient to suppf)it a man of 
ordinary size and make. A few years ago, on the invention of india-rublier cloth, 
inflated belts of this material were made, and found to be superior in buoyancy to the 
cork belt, besides, when emptied of air, l)eing very portalxle. They are. however, much 
more liable to dam:ige by being punctured or torn, or to decay by being put awuy wliile 
damp. Some of these defects are remedied by having the interior of the belt divided 
into several compartments; so that, when one is damaged, the remainder may still suf> 
flee. Various forma of inflated mattresses, pillows, etc., have been made on the same 
principle, and been found very effective; one shown at the great exhibition of 1861 hav- 
ing sustained 96 11)S. for five days without injury. But the favorite life-buoy among^ 
sailors is composed of slices of cork neatly and' compactly ammge^l. so as to form a 
buoyant zone of about 30 or 82 in. in diameter, G in width, and 4 in Uiickness. It t>on- 
sequently contains about 12 lbs. of cork, and is generally covered with painted canvas 
to add to its strength and protect it from the injurious aotinn of the water. A buoy so 
constructed can sustain 6 persons, and it is generally furnished with a Ufe-Une (a cord 
runnin^^ n)und the outside of the buoy and fastened to it at 4 points) to afford a more 
convenient hold. This life-preserver is found on board all vessels. See Livb Mobtabs 


LIFE-RAFTS, structures made to serve the purposes of life-boats when the latter 
are lacking. They may be made of various materials, such as are at hand. Logs, 
boards, stools, broken timbers, bound together with ropes or)^|d^(3 ooff C%^ bark of 

^ life. 

trees when ropes cannot be fouDQ. are susceptible of being formed into rafts which may 
be managed by resolute aud experienced muu iu the saviug of life from a wrecked 8bip. 
But appui-atus is bometimes provided for the purpose of forming rafls to be u;ied m 
emergeucies. A number of cork hfe-preservers or inflated bag» c«)vered with canvas, 
and divided into two sections with a space between, may be used. Mr. H. B. Mountaia 
has devised a raft in which a water-^roof canvus sack has ils edges secured along the cen« 
ters of two mattresses so as to provide an open chamber between them in whidi persotis 
may be seated. It has been attempted to construct a vessel in such a way as to have 
cabins or structures removable, so that they may be floated away iu case of wrei-k, but 
all such iogeuious devices are probably much less useful and manageable than life-boats, 
which can be as easily provided. 

UXS-XEVT, in Scotch law, means a right to use a heritable estate for life, the person 
enjoying it being called a lifeorenter. The rights of a life-renter nearly resemble, though 
they are not identical with, those of a tenant for life iu England. Bee Lifk-£statb. 

UXS-SOCXST BXPABTKSVT, or, rather, that branch of the marine department of 
the boanl of trade whicli has the management of life-rockets, mort^irs, lines, buoys, and 
belts, divides with the national life-boat institution the labors connected with the pre- 
vention of shipwreck, and the rescue of shipwrecked persons. This has been the 
arrangement since 1855. Until that year the life-mortars in use were partiy under the 
control of the admiralty, partly under the board of customs, partly under the institu- 
tion just named, and paitly belonging to private individuals. The merchant shipping 
act. passed in 1854, and put in force in the following year, placed the whole under a 
different organization. 

To work out properly the rocket and life-saving svstem, a topographical organization 
is iu the first instance adopted. The coasts of the United Kiugdcm are classitied into 
59 coastguard divisions or wreck-registrars' districts; and the coast-guard inspector of 
each division or district has control over all the rockets, mortars, buoys, belts, aud lines 
kept at the various seaside stations in his district. There were in 1874 about 800 such sta- 
tions; some supplied with mortars, some with rockets as well as mortars, but the greater 
number with rockets only. Most of the mortars are Boxer's improvement on Mauby's; 
and most of the rockets are Boxer's improvement on Dennett's. Boxer's rockets, found 
more effective than mortars, are made at the royal laboratory at Woolwich, and are sup- 
plied by the war department to the stations, on requisition from the board of trade; as 
are likewise mortar-shot and shells, fuses, portfires, signal-lights, gunpowder, etc. At 
each station is kept a cart, expressly made to contain all the requisites for the rocket 
apparatus, ready fNacked. Eighteen rockets are supplied with each apparatus; and a 
new supply is obtained before thestf are exhausted. Between 1874 and 1880, the 8}*stem 
has extended year by year in the number of stations and of men; but while details of 
organization have clmnged, no new principle has been introduced. Simpler apparatus, 
consisting of life-belts and life-lines, is kept at a much greater number of stations. The 
system is worked by the coast-guard, the men being paid for perio<iica1 drilling, and for 
regular service. Special services are rewarded with gifts of money, medals, etc. 

LIFE SAYING SERVICE. The first mstance on record of a combined public effort 
in the direction of life-saving is that of tlie national life-boat association, in England, 
founded in 1824 under the name of the royal national association for the preservation of 
life from shipwreck. But as early as 1786, when the first patent was granted for a life- 
boat, the subject was attracting general attention; and a second boat, invented four 
years later, is said to have saved nearly 900 lives from vessels wrecked near the mouth 
of the Tvnemouth haven, during the following fifteen years. The life-boat association 
was eatabUshed "to grant funds for making life-boats, boat-houses, and life-buovs; to 
assist in training boatmen and coast-guardsmen to aid ships in distress; to interchange 
the fullest Information, with corporate bodies and local committees, concerning life- 
saving appliances; and to reward by money, medals, and votes of thanks, those who 
might render aid to ships in distress, or to persons escaping from such ships." Between 
1824 and 1877 Uiis institution saved 25.435 lives: in 1876 it had 2,541 life-boats. But 
this association had been already indirectly preceded in the United States in the s^ime 
direction, through the application of the machinery of the Massac'husetts humane society 
to live-saving, as early as 1786. This orgimization, formed for general benevolent pur- 
poses, and incorporated 1791, devoted attention to the dangers of the coast of Massachu- 
setts and to the succor of shipwrecked seamen and others, by erecting huts for their 
shelter on specially exposed portions, the first of these having l)een set up on Lovell's 
island, near Boston. The first life-boat station of the society was established at Cohasset 
in 1807. and was followed by the erection of a number of others. This movement at- 
tracted the attention of the government, whicli in 1847 appropriated |5.000 ** for furnif^h- 
ing the light-houses on the Atlantic coast with the means of rendering assistance to ship- 
wrecked mariners." In 1855 a second appropriation, of flO.OOO, was made by con- 
gress; In 1857, one^of $10,000; and in 1870, one of $15,000. This society is still in active 
service, having 78 stations. Other societies, designed to aid in the protection and safely 
of life, were organized from time to time in different localities, but accomplished little 
or nothing, excepting tlie live-saving benevolent association of New York, founded in . 
1849, and still in operation, but whoaie work has generally been in other directions from 

lAfU, 1 A 

Ugatore. ^^ 

that under considerntion. In the meantime the U. S. government bad frequently had 
the life-suviug qu(*8tiou under considemtiun. As early as 1807 an effort wus made to 
organize a coast survey, but it was unsuccessful; uud it was not until 1(;32 that this 
most imporumt department of the government was finally established; being followed 
by the organization of tbe lake survey in the bauds of the engineer corps of tbe U. S. 
army, lu 1848 congress appropriated $10,000 to provide surt'-boats and organize a life- 
saving service for the coast of New Jersey. With this sum eight buildings, f^uitably 
appointed, were erected; and when, in 184», congress appropriated (20.000 for the gen- 
eral purpose, a similar number of buildings was erected on the coai^t of Long island, and 
six additional ones on that of New Jersey. In 1850, $20,000 more a | preprinted by con- 
gress, enabled tbe establishment of stations at other points along the C(iast of the Atlantic 
and the gulf, provided with life-boats and other material. In 1862 tbe reformation of 
the light-bouse system gave a great impetus to the movement towards a suitable life- 
saving service; a system which now operates 1330 lights on tlie seacoa«>t and inland 
shores, besides fog-signals, buoys, and other machinery. In the two years following 
1852 congress appropriated $42,500 to the purposes of Jifesaving, and the sc*rvice, while 
being continued along the sea-coast, was also extended to the gieat lakes. In lb54 a law 
was passed by congress which increased the efficiency of this servic*e, and from that time 
slight improvements continued to Ije made. But it was not until 1871 that the present 
system may be said to have been fturly organized. On April 20 in that year, congresa 
appropriated $200,000, and the sei-vice was reorganized, under the general direction of 
Mr. tiumner I. Kimball, tbe present (1881) superintendent. New sUitions were appointed 
and provided ; the efficiency of the ptr»/nnfl of the service was improved ; and a suitable 
commission decided upon tlie selection of appliances for life-saving, which were adopted 
and procured. In 1873 the limits of this service were broadeneti, the sum of $100,000 
being appropriated by congress for this purpose. Finally, by the act of June 20, 1874, 
congress perfected its work. This act authorized the arranccment of the life-saving 
stations into complete stations, life-boat stations, and houses of refuge; created new dis- 
tricts with salaried officials; established a system of honors in tbe bestowal of medals; 
and arranged for the tabular collection of statistics displacing the efficiency of the serv- 
ice, and directing attention to places requiring protection at its hands. TiiQ storm- 
signal department of the signal service was now connected whh the life-saving Mations* 
through the use of an appropriation by congress of $30,000 specifically for that purpose. 
The record of this season showed how admirably the service had been adapted to the 
purpose for which it bad been organized: 1165 lives were saved on the three coasts cov- 
erea by its operations, while only two were lost The years following were maiked by 
constant and marked improvement in the scope and the woiking of the service. A valu- 
able code of signals to enable vessels in danger to communicate with tbe stations was 
adopted in 1878; a line of teleeraph between capes Henry and Hatleras. and in the 
vicinity of the .<«tations on the Korth Carolina coast, connecting with the head-quarters 
of the signal service in Washington, was applied to the uses of the life-saving service; 
and preparations were made which resulted in the adaptation of a system of telephones 
to the same purpose at twelve of the stations on that coast. The act of congress of 
Juno 18, 1878. organized the life-saving service into a distinct department; it having 
been previously associated with the revenue marine. This act also extended the annual 
term of service of the crews, doubted the pay of station-keepers, and authorized compen- 
sation for the voluntary life-boat service which had been established on the lakes.— The 
scene of the labors of the life-saving service covered, in 1871-72, tbe coast of Long Island 
and New Jersey ; the seasons of 1872-74, that of cape Cod in addition to these ; the season 
of 1874-75, the coasts of New England, Long island. New Jersey, and the coast from 
cape Henry to cape Hatteras; season of 1875-76, coasts of New England. Long island. 
New Jersey, coast from cape Henlopen to cape Charles, and that from cape Henrv to 
cape Hatteras; season of 1876-77, all the foregoing, with the addition of Florida and the 
lake coast; season of 1877-78, the coast of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts. Rhode 
island and Long island. New Jersey, cape Henlopen to cape Charles, cape Henry to 
cape Hatteras, eastern coast of Florida, lake coast, and Pacific coast: 1878-79, same as 
the last. Following is a general summary of disasters which have occurred within the 
scope of live-saving operations from Nov. 1, 1871 (date of introduction of present sys- 
tem), to close of fiscal year ending June 80, 1879: 

Total number of disasters • 797 

Total value of vessels $10,782,788 

Total value of cargoes 5.928,294 

Total value of property saved 9.610.408 

Total value of property lost 7,099,619 

Total number of persons on vessels •....• 8,892 

Total number of persons saved 8,080 

Total numl)er of lives lost 862 

Total number of persons sheltered 1,758 

Total number of day's shelter afforded 4,790 

Of the number of lives lost, 188 were at the disasters to the U. 8. steamer Huron, Nov. 
24, 1877, and that of the steamer MetropoUa Jan. 20, 1878.— At the close of the fiscal year 

1 1 I.lfU. 

^ «• UglfttllM. 

ending Jane 80, 1878, there were 12 life-saviQ)^ districts, coverinff 178 stations; 981 surf- 
nen emploved; net expenditures fortlie year $863,674.72; Imhiuce of uppropriutiona 
imexpendecf. $^.017.28. Tiie personnel of the service included one u-encral superiutend- 
ent, Sumner I. Kimball; one assistant general superiutcudent, William I). O'Connor; 
one inspector of life-SHving stations, capt. James H. Merry man; two superintendents of 
eonstnjction of life saving stations, ctipt. John McOowan, capt. James H. Merry man; 
13 assistant inspeetors. 2 lieutenants h, S. revenue marine on special duty, 12 districfc 
raperintendents, 1 assistant district superintendent. 

LUTBf ropes on shipboard for raising or lowering and maintaining in position the 
jraids. They pass from the deck over pulleva at the mast-head, and thence to near the 
extremities of the yard. The lift bears the designation of the yard to which it is 
sttached, aafore-l/ft, maintopi^aUantMfl, etc. 6ee Rieewo. 

JJOMMBttB are cords, bands, or membranous expansions of white fibrous tissue, 
which play an extremely important part in the mechanism of Joints, seeing that they 
pass in fixed directions rrom one bone to another, and senre to limit some movements 
of a joint, while they freely allow others. 

Todd and Bowman, in their Phyeiologieai Anaiom^, arrange ligaments in three clasws! 
1. Funicular, rounded cords, such as the external lateral ligament of the knee-joint, the 
perpendicalar lignment of the ankle joint, etc. ; 3. Pkueieylar, flattened bands, more or 
\e8s expanded, such as the lateral ligaments of the etbow-Joint, and the great majority 
of ligaments in the body; 8; Capsular, which are barrel-shaped expansions attached by 
their two ends to the two bones entering into the formation of tlie joint, which th^ 
completely but loosely invest: they constitute one of the chief characters of the ball-ana- 
socket Joint, and occur in the shoulder and hip Joints. See Joint& 

LIGAMENTS (ante). See Skeleton. 

LIO^N. See Flctsaic, ante, 

lMATn"SLLf an Italian term in music, meaning binding, frequently marked hv a 
fliur, thus '"— *«^ which is placed over certain notes for the purpose of showing that they 
are to be blended together; if in vocal music, that they are to be sung with one breath; 
also used in instnimentai music, to mark the phrnaing. 

LIOATmKB, tlie term applied, in surgery, to the thread tied round a blood-vessel to 
ftop bleeding. The ligatures most commonly used consist of strong hempen or silk 
threads; but catgut, horsehair, etc., have been employed by some surgeons. A ligature 
should be tied round an artery with sufficient tightness to cut through its middle and 
internal walla. Although the operation of tying arteries was clearly known to Rufus of 
Ephesus. who flourished in the time of Trojan, it subsequently fell into desuetude, till 
it was rediscovered by Ambrose Par4, in the 16th century. 

LIGATURE (ante). The ligature had been partially applied by the Roman surgeons, 
but it fell into disuse during the dark asres, ana was not revived till 1686-87, when the 
celebrated Ambroise Pnr6 (q.v.) introduced it while in Italy with the army of marshal 
Rene de Mont-Jenn. This example did not, however, sufHce to make the pmcticc gen- 
eral, and it was long before it was introduced into England, where, as late as 1761, it 
needed advocates in cases of wounded arteries. Thirty years after this, John Hunter 
employed the ligature in the treatment of aneurism in a new way, viz., by tying the 
artery at a considerable distance from the aneurysmal sack, and where it was in a healthy 
coodition. But this great improvement was coldly received. 

Ligatures are applied chiefly: 1. For removing tumors of various kinds,- such 
as hemorrhoids of the rectum, and fibrous, fleshy, and erectile tumors* in various 
parts; 2. For arresting hemorrhage in arteries, either at the time of nn amputation, or 
any operation in which an artery is divided, or when an artery is wounded by accident; 
3. For arresting the flow of blood, to diminish either the supply of blood going to a part, 
or the^eo of blood in an aneurismal or otherwise weakened arterv. 

Ligatures are of various materials, as linen thread or twine, silk, animal membrane, 
such as the gut of the silk-worm, deer-skin, catgut, gold, silver, platinum, or lead wire. 
The principles indicating the use of these various materials vary with circumstances. It 
is often desirable, instead, of keeping a wounc. oi)en, to close it immediately, in which 
case the ligature must be of such material that it can be left in the wound and allow of 
the flesh to heal over it. Linen thread or silk will not then answer, because of the irri- 
tation they would create. Fine gold and silver wire has been successfully used in such 
cases, the ends of the ligature being cut ofif short After a while the small piece of liga- 
ture will make its way to the surface, after having fulfil led its ofllcc, or it may lK»conie 
covered with a cellular capsule. The older surgeons used animal membranes, but with 
mdifferent success. Wararop used the gut of the silk-worm, and catgut was employed 
by sir AstleyOooper. with a view to absorption of the ligature. In one patient of 
Cooper's, 80 years of age, the wound healed in four days; another in twenty, and it 
was supposed that the material was absorbed. Other surgeons who attpmpte<l to imi- 
tate the process failed; the catgut was often found too weak, or wanting in flrniness; 
and sir Astley himself, after having some unsuccessful cases, abandoned the use of this 
material and returned to that of the ordinary hempen thread. The wire ligature now 
ao much used, and which in many modern operations is absolutely necessary for sue. 

Digitized by VjiOUV IC 

ligature. 13 

cess, is an American invention. It originated with Dn. Pliysick and Levert, who per- 
formed several operations with threads of gold, silver, platinum, and lead. When the 
ends of tlie ligature were cut off close to tlie vessels thev usually became imbedded in a 
cellular capsule, and did not occasion irritation. But this practice also fell into disuse, 
to be revived in recent times with certain modifications which render it almost one of 
the neces^ry adjuncts of modern surgery. The use of the catgut ligature has also 
recently been revived with the very important improvement of treating it with a solution 
of carbolic acid. 

The immediate effects on an artery of a ligature applied with sufficient force are the 
division of the internal and middle coats and the constriction of the outer one. See 
Aktkrt, ante. An examination of the vessel a few days after will reveal tlie formation 
of a pyramidal coagulum, composed of plastic matter at its base and a fibrinous clot at 
its apex. The vessel at this point will also be surrounded by coagulable lymph. At the 
expiration of two or three months the end of the artery will be converted into a fibro- 
cellular cord as far up as the first branch above the ligature. 

The principles involved in the application of ligatures to wounded arteries may be 
brieflv stated in two axioms: 1. Cut directly down on the wounded ptart, and tie the 
vessel there; 3. Apply the ligature to both ends of the wounded vessel if it be divided, 
or. if it lie only punctured, to both distal and proximal sides of the puncture; or, in 
other words, in either case tie the artery in two places. The principles are: if we wish 
to ffci at both ends of the vessel conveniently, we should cut directly down to tlie point 
of injury; we tie both ends of the divided vessel, or on both sides of the wound in it, 
because if the i)roximal side (that towards the heart) alone is tied, vascular connections 
which may exist between the distal portion of the artery and other vessels may cause 
recurrent hemorrhage. If ii does not take place soon after the application in the form 
of arterial blood, venous blood will be likely to make its appearance in the course of two 
or three days. 

At first ligatures were applied to arteries, in operations for aneurism, near the sack, 
and on the proximal side (that nearest the heart). The vessel so near the aneurism rarely 
being healthy, generally soon gave way, and the operation proved fatal. John Hunter, 
as above mentioned, made the improvement of tying at a distance from the tumor, and 
also on the proximal side, and that is still the most favorable position; butBrasdor after- 
wards conceived the idea of tying on the distal side, because the flow of blood may be 
arrested in this way, and consolidation effected in the usual way by the laminated 
deposit of fibrlne. The proximal operation is, however, preferable wlisn anatomical dif- 
ficulties do not prevent or greatly interfere. The immediate object of applying a liga- 
ture for aneurism is to cause consolidation in the parts, thereby producing a condition 
which will prevent the rupture of the vessel by the heart's action. This consolidation it 

I)roduces by producing coagulation of blood within the vessel, and a deposit of plastic 
ymph arounn it. In successful cases, after consolidation and formation of tissue have 
advanced sufficiently, the tissues give way which are included in tlie ligature, and this 
mny be easily removed. The success of "the operation depends upon the re-establish- 
ment of the circulation in those parts which are supplied by that portion of the vessel 
which is severed from its connection with the heart. This is effected by nature in 
establishing anastomosing circulation with collateral branches. The bleeding which 
may result after the ligature of an artery is called secondary hemorrhage, and may arise 
from tlie giving way of the coats of the vessel, because it may not have been properly 
tied, or liecause the condition of the patient is not such as to allow of natural coagula> 
tion of the blood. 

The great operations in arterial ligature are the tying of the subclavian, innomi- 
nate, carotid, and iliac arteries. See CracuLATiON, ante. The axillary, brachial, 
femoral, and smaller arteries of the limbs are frequently tied for various reasons; but 
sometimes succea«« is rendered difficult, even in these minor operations, from liability to 
^ngrene of the limb, in consc<juence of the deprivation of circulation; and the opera- 
tion is justified where an aneunsm has burst or a ligature of an already tied artery has 
given way. Life is sometimes prolonged for manjr hours and even several days, which, 
under some circumstances, is a matter of great importance. The lipition of arteries 
often demands the greatest dexterity, skill, and surgical knowledge. Tissues which lie 
at considerable depths require to be divided by the knife; much of the work has to be 
done without the aid of the sight 

Tfie abdominal aorta has been tied in seven instances. The first operation was per- 
formed by the great Engli^^h surgeon, sir Astley Cooper, in 1817. the patient surviving 
48 hours. The next was by James of Exeter, in 1829, the patient living only a few 
hours afterwards. Murray, at the cape of Qood Hope, in 1884. performed the next 
operation, which terminated fatally in 24 hours. Monteiro of Rio Janeiro, in 1842, 
had the most n*markable prolongation of life under this operation, the patient living 10 
days. South of London performed the fifth operation in 1856, with 43 hours* lease of 
life. McOuire of Richmond, U. S. A., performed the sixth operation in 1868, the 
patient surviving 12 hours. Stokes of Dublin tied the artery in the seventh instance in 
1869. with a fatal issue in 13 hours. 

JVie commfrn iliae arfrrj/, according to statistics of Dr. Stephen Smith of New 
Tork, has been ligated 40 times, with 10 recoveries. Of 14 cases in which this vessel 

Digitized by VjiOOV IC 

^3 Ugatar«. 

was tied for hemorrbage, 18 proyed fatal. The majority of the recoveries took place 
liter ligature for aQeurism, which constituted abuut one-half of the cases. The first 
time a ligature was ever placed around this artery in the living subject was by Dr. Wil- 
liam Oibson of Philadelphia, in 1812, in a case of gun-shot wound. The pniient died 
on the 18th day of periumitis and secondaxy hemorrhage. It was tied in lb27 by Dr. 
Valentine Mott, with a successful result. The operntiou lasted less than one hour. It 
was performed on Mar. 15, and the ligature was removed on April 8 following. On 
May 20 the patient made a journey of 25 miles. Tlie internal Uiae artery wns li^tured for 
the flrsi time in 1812 by Stevens of St. Croix, since which it hits been tied 19 times, in 6 
cases with success — viz., by Arndt, Dr. White of Hudson, N. Y. (on a tailor 60 years 
old). Valentine Mott, Syme, Morton, and Gkillozzi. The external iUac artery was first 
tied by the celebrated Dr. Abemethy of London, in 1796, in a case of fcmonil aneurism 
(Power). Durinff the following 50 years the operation was performed in 100 recorded 
cases for inguinal aneurism (Norris), with a result of 78 cures and 27 deaths. In one 
remarkable case both external iliacs were tied, with a successful result, by Tait (Erich- 
sen). Ib 1814 sir Astley Cooper had performed the operation seven times, witli burcess 
in four cases. In 1860 it baa been tied for aneurism of the femoral artery 48 timet 

Ligatfire cf <^ tnn&mMata, or ^raehw^eephaUe artery. — ^From a table in an essay 
awarded the second prize Uy the American medical association in 1878 to Dr. John A. 
Wyeth of the university of^ Louisville, Ky., there are recorded 16 cases of ligature of 
this artery, the lareest of the branches of the aorta, and which divides into the right 
subclavian and rignt common carotid. One of these operations was attended with suc- 
cess, that by Dr. A. W. Smyth of New Orleans, in 1864, in a case of aneurism of the 
subclavian arteiy. The following note is taken from the table: *' Aneurism resulted 
from violent stretching of the arm; three mouths later innominate and carotid were tied 
simultaneously; did well until the 14tli day, when hemorrhage (16 oz.) occurred, which 
was controlled bv compress; 15th and 16th days, continued slight hemoirhaee; 17tli day, 
wound was filled with small shot; 51st day, terrible hemorrhage: 54th chiv, vertebral 
artery tied; 55th day, shot removed from wound; patient continued to do well, and 
recovered." The man died 10 years afterwards of hemnrrhaee from the original sack of 
the aneurism. The first ligation of this artery was by Valentine Mott, in 1818, and 
marked an era in surgery. The patient survived till the 26th day. Four years later 
Von Graefe of Berlin performed the operation, and the patient lived till the 67ih day. 

Ligature cf the anbclatian artery, — In a report made to the American medical associa- 
tion in 1867 by Drs. Willard PArker, George W. Norris, J. H. Armsby, and William U. 
Mussev. there are tabulated 157 well-authenticated cases. The first operation was per- 
formed by Eeate, in 1800, for traumatic axillary aneurism, four months after the inlury. 
The patient recovered. The next operation was by Ramsden, in 18(19, also for axillary 
aneurism. The patient died on the nfth day. Four other fatal opc^rations followed, till, 
in 1815. Chamberlayne was successful, llie eighth case was by Dr. Wright Post of 
New York, in 1817, which also terminated favorably, the patient recovering. The 
ninth and tenth cases were by the celebrateii French surgeon, Dupuytren, both in 1819, 
one being successful and the other fatal. These early and pioneer operations are sur- 
rounded withjnreat interest. They were careful steps in the art of For^ry, taken by 
great men. The second American operation for ligature of the Fubclavian artery was 
by Valentine Mott. in 1880, for axillary aneurism, and was successful. Dr. Mott's 
second case, in 1881, was fatal on the 18th day. The first distal ligature of the sul>- 
clavian artery was by Wardrop, an English surgeon, in 1827, for aneurism of the inno- 
minata. This distal operation on arteries was conceived by Brasdor, but fir^t carried out 
by Deschamps. See Brabdor's Operation, anU. The next operation on the distal 
sfde of the aneurism was performed by Dupuytren, in 1829, but did not result in 
recovery, the patient dying of exhaustion on the 7th day. There were 10 distal cfk9C9, 
8 of which died. The two successful ones were by Wardrop and Heath. Between 
1831 and 1844. not inclusive, ligature of the subckvinn artery was performed 41 times, 
with 16 favorable and 25 unfavorable results. Dr. Mott's third operation for ligature 
of the subclavian was in 1888, and resulted in recovery. Drs. John 0. Warren of Bos- 
ton, Valentine Mott and A. C. Post of New York, each tied the artery with successful 
results in 1844. all of the patients recoveriuk:. Dr. Mott's fifth case, m 1850, was also 
successful, making a recorn of five cases of ligature of the subclavian artery, two being 
upon the left, the most difiScuU side, with only one fatal result. Dr. Willard Parker 
has also tied the subclavian artery five times, with but two ftital results, in one of which 
the patient survived till the 42d day. Of the whole 157 cases. 79 were succosFful and 
78 fatal. The committee reported 89 additional cases, with 28 fatal results. They also 
remark that the subclavian artery, in its first division, has been tied 18 times without a 
single recovery; in Its second division, 9 times, with 4 deaths; and in its third division, 
174 times, with 89 deaths. 

In the essay of Dr. Wyeth, above quoted, there is a tabulated collection of 286 
ca.«e8 of ligature of the subclavian, which he comprises in three sections: those in 
which the ligature was applied to the first division of the artery; those in which it was 
applied in the middle ptut of its coivse; and those in which the third division was the 
ieat of operation. This report agrees with the preceding m regard to the 18 cases of 


ligature in the first division of the. vessel. One of thefse cases, that of Rossi, in 1844^ 
possesses iincommon interest, from the faet that the autopsy showed thut the only artery 
goin<; to the brain which was not obliterated, and therefore capable of carrying bloocf^ 
was tlie left veriel>ral, and yet tlic patient survived six days, dying of cerebral aDsemia. 
In its second division, the subclavian has been ligated 18 times, with four cui-es, the 
first hy Dupuytren in 1819; the second by Nichols of Norwich, England, in 1882; the 
third by J C. 'Warren of Boston in 1844; and the fourth by T. G. Alorton of Phila- 
delphia in 1866. The sul)clnvian has been tied in its third division, that next the axilla, 
in 254 cases. Tlie first was Ranosden's case in 1809. Recovery followed in 120 caaee, or 
nearly 50 |)cr cent 

LigfUioti of tlu eomman carotid artery, — Dr. Wj-eth, in an essay on the surgical 
anatomy and history of the common, external, and internal carotid arteries, and wliicli 
was awiirded the first prize by the American medical association in 1878, reports 794 
cases of ligature of the common carotid artery, 18 of the internal, and 91 of the exter- 
nal carotid. These are collected from all parts of the world, and embrace many in 
military surgery furnished during the late American and European wars, the records of 
which, until recently, have not been accessible. The cominon carotid artery was first 
tied bv Aberiicthy m 180B. the patient surviving 80 hours. The operation was per- 
formed[ six times by Dr. Gordon Buck of New York between the years IbSd and 1857. 
All recovered from the operation but cme; ami three were cured. Five operMtiuns were 
performed hy Dr. Detniold of New York, with four recoveiics, two cures, and one 
checking of malignant growth for seveml months. Dr. Frank II. Hamilton has tied 
the common carotid U times, with 8 recovej'ies, one cui-e, and one improvement. The 
case of cure was for aneurism. Most of the other cases were of malignant disease* in 
which only temporary relief was expected. Three cases were hy Dr. J, C. Hutchison 
of Brooklyn, two of 'which were cured. One of these was a wound, and Ujc other a 
case of severe neura'gia. for which many teeth and portions of the alveolar process had 
been removed. The fatal case was one of aneurism of the innominate artery, and the 
patient survived till the 41st day. Five oper.itious were by Yon Langenl>eck, with two 
recoveries, including one cure. Pour were by Listen, with one temporary recovery. 
Three were by Dr. Qeorge McClellan of Philailelphia, one for erectile tumor of orbit, 
one for erectile tumor of cheek, and one for Viibcular fungus of the dura-raater. All 
were cured. Thei-e are 31 cases of ligature of the common carotid given in Dr. WyetU*s 
table, |)erformed by Dr. Yalentine Mott, with 26 recoveries, including 9 cures and 6 
improvements. Dr. A. B. Mott, son of Valentine, has performed the operatitm 11 times, 
with 10 recoveries, including 7 euros. Nunneley has tied the artery six times for aneu- 
rism of the orbit, with five recoveries, including two cures, and one decided improve- 
ment. There are 13c;ises hy Dr. Willard Parker. The first, in 1848, was one of epilepsy. 
The patient lijid h:ul a portion of skull removed by tlie trephine, with tem|M)rury 
improvement; but. Uie attac:ks recurring, the carotid was tied. Tlie patient dieil of some 
other affliction 27 years after. Of the other 12 cases, 10 recoverecl, including 8 cured, 
and 8 benefitetl. In four there was no benefit, but they were cases of malignant dis- 
ease, which demanded interference. Pirigoff has tied the artery 12 times, with 6 recov* 
eries, iut-luding 1 cure, but they were dimcult cases; three for aneurism of the innomi* 
nata, others for shot- wounds and tumors. Preston, in India, tied the artery six times, 
with recovery in all. One Wiis for epilepsy of 6 years' standing. TherQ was no return 
of the attack for 5 months, and mudi improvement of the ^neral health. Dr. Sands 
of New York has ligated the artery 8 times, with 5 recoveries, including 2 cures, one 
of which was in an operation for the removal of the lower ]jiw-l)one. Syme has tied 
the artery 6 times, with 4 cures. Dr. John C. Warren of Boston tied the artery 9 
times, wiih 8 recoveries, including 8 cures. The first operation was in 1827, for aneur- 
ism of 4 years* standing, and was successful. Dr. James R Wood of New York has 
tied the artery 9 timo% with 6 recoveries, including 2 cures and 2 improvements. 
The other casus were of a malignant nature, and incurable. Of 27 cases tabulated by 
Erichsen of ligature of both right and left common carotids, 19 recovered. There was 
an interval l>etwecn the two operations of a few months; in one case of a year; and in 
one case of 88 years; tlie right carotid Jutving been tied bv Dupuytren in 1819, the left 
by Robert in 1857, tlie latter operation being soon followea by death. 

In nigard to tlie effects upon, the brain of ligation of the carotids, it may be mnarked 
that ligature of one carotid causes cerebral disturbance in more than one-fourth of the 
cases, and of tbescmore tlian one-ludf are fatal. The tying of botli carotkls. with an 
interval of several days or weeks» appears not to cause D»oro cerebral disturbance than 
when iMit one is tied The oerebral symptoms caused bv ligature of one or both carot- 
ids somptimes depend opon a -dimimshed 6U]>p]y of blood, and consist of convulsive 
movements, syncope, and paralysis. In other oases there will >be increased pressure 
upon tlie bndn, followed by drowsiosssi stu|>or, conn, and apoplexy. Inflaaamation is 
also one of the effects, usually coming on in a few hours after the operation. The 
lungs are also frequently affoctad i^ter ligation of the earoUds, as has iieen q^ecially 
pointed out by Jobert and Miller, becoming congested, with ^ .tendency to « low form 
of infl}imraatioQ, In consequence of deficient innervatioB. 

UOXT is the eutiject of tlie science of optics (q.-v.). We here just notice iteprincipal 
pheuNBeim» and tlie iLjpetiwseB advanced to explain them. Svery one knows that light 


diTCiges fmin a luminous oeuter in all directioos, and that its transmission in any direo- 
WonUttnught, It travels with gi-eat velocity, wliicli has beeo ascertained, by observa- 
doos on the ec1ip^e8 of Jupiter s satellites and other means, to be 186,000 miles i^er 
second. Shadows (q.v.) are ii result of its stniiglit transmission; and it follows fmm its 
diTciging in all direc-titius from a luminous center that its iiifeusity diminishes inversely 
IS the souare of tiie distance from the center. When it fulls on the surfaces of bodies, 
it is reflected frum them regularly or irregularir, totally or partially, or is partly or 
wholly transmiitcd or refracted through them. The phenomena of the reflection and of 
the n'fruction of light arc tn*nted of respectively under the heads catoptrics (q v.) and 
dioptrics (q.v.). The facts of observation on which catoptrics is founded are two: 1. 
In the reflection of light, the incident ray. the normal to the surface* and the reflected 
ray arc in one plane; 2. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. 
Similar to these arc the phvsical laws on which dioptrics is founded. When a ray of 
homogeneous light U incident on n refmcting «urfuie, 1. The incident and refracted 
nj lie in tlic same plane ns the normal at the point of incidence, and on opposite sides 
of it; 2. The sine of the angle of incidence, whatever that angle may be, bears to the 
angle of refraction a ratio dependent only on the nature of tiic media between which 
tlicn fraction takes place, and on the nature of the light. In stalling these laws, we 
have hinted at light being of dififcreut kinds. At one time it was not supposed that 
color hud anything to do with light; now, there is no serious dispute but that there ara 
lights of different colors (sec Chromatics and Spectrum), with different properties, 
though olK*ying the same general laws. Among the most striking phenomena of light 
are tliosc treated of under the head Polnrizatiou (q.v.). Next to these in interest are 
the pbenoniena of double refraction. See Refraction, Doubije. For an account of 
the chief chemical properties of light, see Photoorapht and Spectrum. Bee also for 
phenomena not noticed above, the articles Aberration, Difvbactiov, DisPSBatON, 


Two hypothcs;cs have been advanced to explain the different phenomena of light, 
Tiz.. the theory of eminion, or the corpuscular theory, and the tlieory of vibration^ or 
tlie undulatory theory. According to the former, U<:ht is nn attenuated impondernble 
substance, whose colors depend on the velocity of its transmission. It rc^rds reflection 
83 aiialagous to the rebounding of elastic bodies; while, to explain refraction, it assumes 
that there are interstices in transparent bodies, to allow of the passage of the particles 
of light, and that these particles are attracted by the molecules of bodies— their 
attraction combining with the velocity of the particles of light to cause them to devuite 
in their course. The nndulatory theory assumea that light is propa^ited by the vibra- 
tions of an imponderable matter termed ether (q.v.). On this view light is somewhat 
simiLir to t-oaud (see Intkbferkncic). Kewton was the author of the former theory, 
and Huygens may lie regarded as the author of tha latter. The theories were long 
rirals, but now no doubt remains tliat tlie theory of undulations has tnnmphed over 
tile other. Its soundness may be said to rest on similar evidence to that whicn wa have 
for the theory of gravitation: it had not only satisfactorily accounted for all the pheno- 
mena of light, but it has been tJie means of discovering new phenomena. In fact, it 
ha3 supplied the philosopher with the power of prescience in regard to its subject. 
Those who wish to study the theory may advanttigeoualy consult its popular expoMtion 
by Young (/.Pterin o/h Natural PkUotofky, London, 1645), and Lloyd's Wai9e Theory 
<fLfght (Dublin, 1866). Tke maihematioal theory ii very fully investigated in Airy's 
MaUtmatieitl T^cuiM. 

LIGHT. In point of law. the rieht to light is one of the rights incident to the owner- 
ship of land and houses. When it is claimed in such a way as to interfere with a 
neighbor's absolute rights, it is called in £ngland and Ireland an easement (q.v.), and 
m Scotland a servitude (qv.l In England and Ireland the right to lij^t, as between 
oeisrhbors. is qualified in this wnv, and forms a subject of frequent dispute in towns 
uid populous places. If A buihf a house on the eage of his ground with windows 
looking into B's field or garden which is adjacent, B mi^ next dav, or any time within 
20 years, run up a house or screen close to A*s windows, and darken them all, for one 
has as jmod a right to build on his own land as the other. But ff B allow A's house to 
^aDd20 3'ear8 without building. B is forever after prevented from building on his own 
land 60 as to dark(*n A's lights, for A then acquires a prescriptive right to an easement 
oyer B's lands. In the I&roan law a person was entitled not only to a servitude of 
li^ht, but also of prospect; but in this country the right of prospect, or of having a fine 
^ew. is not recognized by the law, except so far tliat the lights, after 90 years, must not 
^aenaibly darkened. In Scotland a servitude of light may exist in like manner, but it 
cannot be constituted except bv special grant; whereas in England, if nothing is said, 
^ right is acquired by prescription, or mere lapse of time. In Scotland a neighbor, 
B,in&y, after iO. years, or any atstanoc of time, build on his own land, and darken A's 
Endows, provided he do not act wantonly, emulously, or so as to cause a nuisance. 

LIQHT («i»l^ . Anom; the latest conclnsione with regard te the velocity of light 
ue those which are pnbliahed in tlie Annaiee de C Obtertatair^ de /^m, vol. xiii.. beinjg 
u aooouDt by ML Comu of the experiments made between the observatory of Paris 
ttd the tower of HamUMry. Tiie Ksult of these experiments gave, for the velocity of. 



light, 800.400 kfloineters per second. Foucault's experiments, made in 18(13, placed it 
at 288,000 kilometers, or 185,000 miles; and the investigattous made at the naval acad- 
emy. Aunnpolis. 1879, gave a mean lietween these two conclusions— 180,805 miles, or 
299,951 kilometers. 

LIGHT {afite). Bee Undulatory Theory of Light, ante. 

LIOHT, Aberration of. See Aberration of Light, ante, 

LIGHT, Zodiacal. See Zodiacal Light, ante, 

LIOHTEB, a large flat-bottomed barge or boat, usually propelled or gnided by two 
heavy ours, aud used for conveying merchandise, coals, etc., between ships and portions 
of the shore they cunnot reach by reason of their draught. 

LIOHTFOOT. JoH^, one of the earlier Hebrew scholars of England, was b. in 1603 
at Stoke-upon-Trent, in Staffordshire. He studied at Christ's college, Cambridge, and, 
after entering into orders, l)ecame chaplain to sir Rowland Cotton, who, being himself 
a good Hebrew scholar, inspired Lightfoot with a desire to become one also. In 1627 
appeared his EmbJUm, or Miscellanies Christian and Jvdaical, which were dedicated to 
sir Rowland, who, in 1631. presented him to the rectory of Ashley in Stafifordshire. 
Subsequently, he removed to London, that he might have better opportunities for the 
prosecution of his favorite study; and in 1642 he was chosen minister of St. Bartholo- 
mew's, to the parishioners of which he dedicated his Handful of Gleanings out of the 
Book of Exodus (London, 1643). His most important work is Bora Hebraicce et Tal- 
mudicm, etc. (Cambridge. 1648), recently re-edited by R. Gandell (4 vols., Oxford, 1859). 
Lightfoot was one of the assembly of divines who met at Westminster in 1643. and in 
the debates tliat took place there, betrayed a decided predilection for the Presbyterian 
form of chunh government. In the same year he was chosen master of Cntharine 
hall, Cambridge, and in 1655 vice-chancellor of the university. At the restomtion he 
complied with the terms of the act of uniformity. He died at Ely, Dec. 6, 1675. 

LIOHTFOOT, The Rev. Joseph Barber, d.d., bishop of Durham, a distinguished 
English scholar and theologian. Bom at Liverpool in 1828. he was educated at Cam- 
bria^, obtained numerous distinctions there, and in 1857 became a tutor of Trinily. 
In 18(51 he was made professor of divinity; in 1871, canon of St. Paul's; and in 1879, 
bishop of Durham. His best known works are revised texts, with introduction and 
noti-s. of St. Paul's epistles to the C^latians (4th ed. 1874). Philippians (3d ed. 1873), 
and Clolossians (1875), and of Clement's epistles to the Corinthians. He has also written 
on the Gnostic heresies and on the canon of Scripture. 

LIOHT-HOtrSE, a building on some conspicuous point of the sea-sbore, island or rock, 
from which a light is exhibited at night as a guide to mariners. The light-houses of 
the Unit^ Kingdom now numl)er, with harbor- lights, upwards of 500 stations, and 
include some of the finest specimens of engineering, such as Smeaton's Eddvstone, 
Roliert Stevenson's Bell rock, Alan t^tevenson's Skerryvore, and James Walker's 
Bishop rock. Moi^ recently, somewhat similar structures have been erected on the 
Wolf rock in the English channel by Mr. Douglass, aud on the Dubeartach rock, 
Argyleshire, and on the Chickens, oflf the isle of Man, by Messrs. D. & T. Stevenson. 
As mformation will be found under their respective heads regarding Fonie of these 
interesting works, we shall restrict ourselves in the following short memoir to the most 
approved means of pn)ducing a powerful light for the use of the mariner. 

Caiopfrie or Eefleetinff System.^AW of those raj'S of light proceeding from the focus 
of a pnraboloid which fall upon its surface are reflected panillel to the axis so as to form 
a solid beam of light. When a scries of such reflectors are arranged close to each other 
round a cylinder in a liirht-house, they illuminate constantly, though not with equal 
intensity, the whole horizon. As the property of the parabolic reflector is to collect the 
rays incident upon its surface into one beam of parallel rays, it would be absolutely 
impossible, were the flame from which the rays proceed a mathematical point, to pro- 
duce a light which would illuminate the whole of the horizon, unless there were an infinite 
number of reflectors. But as the radiant, instead of being a mathematical point, is a 
physical object, consisting of a flame of very notable size, the rays which come from the 
outer portion of the luminous cone proceed, after reflection, in such divergent directions 
as to render it pmctically possible to light up, ihougli unequally, the whole horizon. 
The useful divergence profVuced in this way by a burner of one inch in diameter, with 
a foeal distance of four inches, is in the horizontal plane about 14* 22'. The whole hori- 
zon may thus be illuminated by reflectors. 

If, for the purpose of distinction, it is desired to show a retdving light, then several 
of those reflectore are plnced with their axes parallel to each other on each of the faces 
of a four sided frame, which is made to revolve. In such a case, the mariner seoa a 
light only at those times when one of the faces of the frame is directed towards him, 
but at other times he is left in darkness. The rotation of the frame upon its axis thus 
produces to his eye a succession of light and dark intervals, which enal)lofl him to dis- 
tinguish it from the fixed light which is constantly in view in every azimnth. The dis- 
tinction of a red light is produced by using a chimney of red instead of white glass for 
each burner. 'The flashing or scintilkting light, giving b^ S^P&13T^^^^ ^* **** 


fnme, flashes once every five seconds, 'wbicli is one of the most striking of all the dis- 
tinctions was first introducetl by the late Mr. Kol)ert Stevensou, tJic cirjiiiieer of the 
D<»rthi.*rn Itgiit-Uouscs, in 1822, nt lUiinns of Islay, in Argyleshire. The same engineer 
al>o inlruduceil what hus been catleil the intermittent liglit. liy which a stationary frame 
with reflectors is instantaneously eclipsed, and is again as suddenly revealed to view by 
the vcrticsil mfivement of opaque cylinder in front of the reflectors. The iiitermitteut 
is distinguished from the revolving light, wbicli also appears and disappears successively 
to the view, by ilie suddenness of the eclipses and of the reappesuances. whereas in all 
revolving lights there is a grsidual waxing and waning of the light. -The late Mr. Wilson 
introduceti at 'Iroou harbor an intermittent light which was produced by a beautifully 
simple contrivance for suddenly lowering and raising a gas-flame. Mr. Robert Louis 
Stevensfm has proposed an intermittent light of unequtU pritnU by causing unequal 
sectors of a spherical mirror to revolve between tile flame and a fixed tlioptric appara- 
tus (sQch as thai shown in flg. 1). The power of the light is increased by the action of the 
spheric2il mirror, which also acts as a mask in the opposite azimuths. The number of 
distinctive light-house characteristics has not yet been exhauste<l in practice, for various 
other distinctions may he produced b^ combin ition of those already in use?; as, for 
example, revolving, flashing, or intermittent lights might be made not only red and 
white alternately, but two red or white, with one white or red. Similar combinations 
could of course be employed where two lights are shown from the ssinie or from sep- 
arate towers. 

Dioptric System. — Another method of Ijending the diverging rays proceeding from a 
lamp into such directions as shall be useful to the mariner is that of refraction. If a 
fhmie be placed in the focus of a lens of the proper form, the diveri^ing rays will be 
bent parallel to esich oihei*, so as to form a single solid beam of light. ]\I. Augustin 
Fresiiel was the first to propose and to introduce lenticular action into li.irht-house illu> 
nilnation, by the adoption of the annular or built lens, which hod lieen suggested ns a 
burning instrument by Buffon and Condorcet He also, in conjunction with Ara^o and 
Mnthieu, used a large lamp having four concentric wicks. In order to produce a 
revolving light on the lenticular or dioptric system, a different arrangement was adopted 
from that which we have descril)ed for the catoptric system. Tiie large lamp was now 
made a flxtui*e, and four or more annular lenses were fitted together, so as to form a 
frame of glass which surrounded the lamp. AVhen this frame is made to revolve round 
the lamp, the mariner gets the full effect of the lens whenever its axis is pointed toward 
him, and thi-i full light fades gradually into darkness ns the axis of the lens passes from 
him. In order to operate upon those rays of light which i):i83ed above the lens, a 
system of doubU optical agents was employed by Fresnel. These consisted of a pyramid 
of ]eu.se8 with mirroi*s placed al)ove at the proper angle for rendering the rays passing 
upward parallel to those which came from the annular lens. But Fresnel did not stop 
here, for, in order to make the lenticular .system suitable for fixed as well ns revolving 
lights, he designeci a new optical agent, to which the name of eylindrie refractor \\f\s\min 
given. Tliis consisted of cylindrical lenses, which were the solids that would be gen- 
erated wei^ the middle veriicatl profile of an annular lens made to circulate round a vertical 
axis. The action of this instrument is obviouslpr, while allowing the rays to spread 
naturally in the horizontid plane, to suffer refraction in the vertical plane. The effect 
of this instrument is, therefore, to show a light of equal intensity constantly all round 
the horizon, and thus to form a better and more equal light than that wlii(;h was for- 
merly produced for fixed lights by pambolic inflection. It i^ obvious, however, from our 
description that the diverging rays which were not intercepted by this cylindric hor)p, 
or those which would have passed upwnrd and been uselessly expended m illununating 
the clouds, or downwaixl in uselessly illuminatinjj the light-room floor, were lost to the 
mariner; and in order to repder these effective Fresnel uUimatelv adopted the use of 
what has lieen called the internal or total reflection of glass; and here it is necessary to 
explain that one of the great advantages of the action 'by glass over reflection by metal 
is the smaller quantity of light that it absorbs. It has l)een asci'riained that there is a 
gain of nearly one-fourth (.249) by employing glass prisms instead of metallic reflectors 
for llght-houst? illumination. There were, therefore, introduct*d above and below the cylin- 
dric refracVng hoop which we have described, separate glass pnsms of triangular sec« 
tion, the first surface of each of which refracted to a certain extent any ray of light that 
fell upon it. while the second surface was placed at such an angle ns to rcflect. by totid 
reflection, the ray which had before been refracted by the first Mirface; and the last or 
ouler surface produced another refraction, which made the rays finally pass out parallel 
with those refnicted by the central cvlindric hoop. The light falling above the cylin- 
dric hoop was thus by refractions and. reflections bent downwanl, and that falling below 
was bent upward, so as to be made horizontal and parallel with that proceeding from 
the refnicting hoop. Fig. 1 represents in vertical section thi«, which is the most perfect 
of Fresnel's inventions in light-house illumination, especially when made in pieces of the 
rhomboidal form, and used in connection with the diagonal framing introduced by Mr. 
Alan Stevenson. In the fig., p shows the refracting and totally reflecting prisms, and 
R the cylindric refractor. 

From wliat has l>ecn stated, it will be readily seen that, in so far ns regards fixed 
lights, which arc required to illuminate conetantly the whole of ^i^fJ^Z(^^|^^f|MJ 
U. K. IX,— •« ^ 



intensity, the dioptric light of Fresnel with Mr. Alan Stevenson's improvemcDts is a 

perfect iustrument. But the case is.diit'erent as regards 
revolving lights, or those where the whole rays have to 
be concentrated into one or more beams of parallel rays. 
To revert to the paraL)olic reflector, it must be obvious 
that all rays which escape past tlie lips of the reflector, 
never reacli the eye of the mariner, while, if we return 
to the dioptric revolving light of Fresnel, we find that 
those rays which escape past the lens are acted on by 
tico agents, both of which cause loss of light by absorp 
tion. The loss occasioned by the inclined mirrors, 
and in passing through the pyramidal incHned lenses, 
WHS estimated by Fresnel liimself at one-half of the 
whole incident rays. In order to avoid this loss of 
light, Mr. Thomas Stevenson proposed, in 1849, to 
introduce an arrangement by which the use of one of 
these agents is avoided, and the employment of total 
Fig. 1. reflection, which had been successfully employed by 

Fresnel for fixed lights, was introduced with great advantage for revolving lights. 

"This effect may be produced in the case of metallic reflectors by the combination 
of an annular lens, L (fig. 2); a parabolic conoid, «, truncated at its parameter, or 
between that and its vertex; and a portion of a spherical mirror, 6. The lens, wben at 
its proper focal distance from the flame, subtends the same angle from it as the outer 
lips of the paraboloid, so that no ray of 
light coming from the front of the flame 
can escape being intercepted either by the 
paraboloid or the lens. The spherical reflec- 
tor occupies the place of the pambolic con- 
oid which has been cut off behind the 
parameter. The flame is at once in the cen- 
ter of the spherical mirror, and in the com- 
mon focus of the lens and paraboloid. The 
whole sphere of rays emanating from the 
flame may be regarded as divided into two 
hemispheres. Part of tl;e anterior hemi- 
sphere of rays is intercepted by the lens, and 
made parallel by its action, while the remain- 
der is intercepted by the paraboloidal surface, 
and made parallel by its action. The rays 
forming the posterior hemisphere fall on the 

Fig. a. 

spherical mirror behind the flame, and are reflected forwards again through the focuM 
in the same lines, but in opposite directions to those in which they came, whence pass- 
ing onwards they are in part refracted by the lens, and the rest are made parallel by 
the paraboloid. The back rays thu^ finally emerge horizontally in union with the 
light from the anterior hemisphere. This instrument, therefore, fulfills the necessary 
conditions, by collecting the entire fpJiere of diverging rays into one beam of parallel 
rays mthout employing any unnecessary agents." 

What has been just described is what Mr. Stevenson terms a catoptric hdlophote. 
What follows is a description of his dioptric holophote, in which total reflection, or the 
most perfect system of illumination, is adopted. The front half of the rays is operated 
upon by totally reflecting glass prisms, similar in section to those applied by Fresnel for 
fixed lights; but, instead of being curvilinear in the horizoi^l plane only, they are also 
curvilinear in the vertical plane, and thus produce, in union with an annular lens, a 
beam of parallel rays similar to what is effected by the parabolic mirror. The rays 
proceeding backwards fall upon glass prisms, which produce two total reflections upon 
each ray. and cause it to pass back through the flame, so as ultimately to fall in the 
proper direction upon the dioptric holophote in front, so that the whole of the light 
proceeding from the flame is thus ultimately parallelized by means of the smallest num- 
ber and the best kinds of optical ajgents. it is a remarkable property of the spherical 
mirror that no ray passes through it, so that an observer, standing l^ehind the instru- 
ment, perceives no light, though there is nothing between him and the flame but a screen 
of transparent gl-iss. 

Where the light is produced by a great central stationary burner, the apparatus 
assumes the form of a polygonal frame, consisting of sectors of lenses and holophotal 
prisms, which revolves round the flame, and each face of which produces a l)eam of 
parallel rays. Hence, when the frame revolves round the central name, the mariner is 
alternately illuminated and left in darkness, according as the axis of each successive 
face is pointed toward him or from him. In the revolving holophotol light one agent 
is enabled to do the work of two agents in the revolving liffht of Fresnel, as total refiec* 
tion, or that by which least light is lost, is substituted for metallic reflection. The 
dioptric holophotal system, or that by which total reflection is used as a portum of the 
revoking apparatus^ was first employed on a small scale in 1850 at the Horsburg light- 
Digitized by VjjOUV LC 



bonae, and on the large scale in 1851 at Nortli Roonldslinv in Orkney. Since tliat dater 
tills system has Itcen all but universally introduced into Europe and America. 

Aiimut/i€U Condeiudng Light,— -'Thvi above is a description of the general principles on 
which light-houses are illuminated. In placing a light in some situations, regard, how- 
ever, must be liad to the physical peculiarities of the localities; the following plans of 
Mr. Thomas Stevenson may be cited as examples. In tixed lights of the ordinary con- 
struction, the light is distributed, as already explained, equally all round the horizon, 
and is well adapted for a ruck or island surrounded by the sea. Dut where it is only 
necessary to illuminate a narrow sound, it is obvious that the reouirements are very 
different. On the side next the shore, no light is required at all; across the sound, a 
feeble light is all that is necessary, because the distance at which it has to be seen is 
small, owing to the narrowness of the channel; while up the sound and down the sound 
the sea to be illuminated is to be of greater or lesser extent, and requires a corresponding 
intensity. If the light were made sufficiently powerful to answer for the greater dis 
tance, it would be much too powerful for the shorter distance across the sound. Such 
an arrangement would occasion an unnecessiiry waste of o'il, while the light that was 
cast on the landwartt side would be altogether useless. Fig. 8 represents (in plan) the 
condensing light, by which tJie light proceeding from the flame is allocated in the different 
azimuthM in pi'upcrtwn to the distances at which the light nquires to be seen by the mariner in 
those (mmutfis. Let us suppose tliat the rays marked a require to be seen at the greatest 
distance down the sound, and 

those marked p to a somewhat .ii^i^k^tM^tip 

smaller distance up the sound. 
In order to strengthen those arcs, 
the spare light proceeding land- 
wards, which would otherwise 
be lost, is intercepted by portions 
of holophotes, B and C, sub- 
tending sphericid angles propor- 
tioned to the rehitive ranges and 
angular spaces of the arcs a and 
fi. The portions of light thus 
intercepted are parallelized by 
the holophotes, and fall upon 
straigfU prisms a, a, and b, 6, 
respectively, which again refract 
them in the horizontal plane 
only; and, after passing through 
focal points (independent for 
each prism), they emerge in 
separate equal beams.and diverge 
through the same angles as a 
fknd /^ respectively. In this way, 
the light proccHsdimr up and down 
the sound is strengthened in the 
required nitio by utilizing, in the 
manner we have described, the 
light which would otherwise 
have been lost on the land. These instruments were first introduced at three sound 
lights in tl)^ w. of Scotland, in 1857, where apparatus of a small size, combined with a 
small burner, was found to produce, in the only directions in which the gix*at power 
was required, l)eam8 of light equal to the largest class of apparatus and burner. The 
saving thus effected in oil, elc., has been estimated at about £400 or £500 per annum 
for these three stations. 

Apparent Light, — At Stornoway bay, the position of a sunk rock has been sufficiently 
indicated l^ means of a beam of poraflel rays thrown from the shore upon certain optical 
apparatus nxed in the top of a beacon erected upon the rock itself. It was suggested 
that the light-house should be built on the outlying submerged reef, but the cost would 
have been very great, and Mr. Stevenson's suggestion of the apparent light was 
adopted. By means of this plan the expense of erecting a light-house on the rock itself 
has been saved, and all the purposes of the mariner served^ It has been called an 

apparent light from its ctppearing to proceed from a flame on tJie rock, while the light in 
reality proceeds from the shore, about 660 ft. (" 
placed on the beacon. 

reality proceeds from the shore, about 650 ft. distant, and is refracted by glass prisms 

Floating lights are vessels fitted with lights moored at sea in the vicinity of reefs. 
Prior to 1807 the lantern was hung at the yard-arm. The late Mr. Robert Stevenson 
then introduced the present system of lanterns, having a copper tube in the center capa- 
ble of receiving the vessel's mast, which passed through the tube, the lights being 
placed all round. In this way proper optical appliances can be employed, and the Ian 
tern can be lowered on the mast so as to pass through the roof of a on the deck, 
where the lamps are filled or trimmed. In 1864 six floating lights were constructed for 
the Hoogly under the directions of Messrs. Stevenson, in which the dioptric principle 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 



was applied. Eiirht half-fixed light apparatus of glass with spherical miiTors behind 
were placed in tiie laiitoru round'the mast, so as to show in every azimulU i-ays from 
three of them vt once. 

Differential Lem. — This is an anniikr lens, curved to diflfercnt radii on both sides, 
so as to increase tlie divercjence in any given mtio. The snuitl arc of about 6*, which 
is unequally iihiininated by the lens as presently constructed, may be made of equal 
intensity throughout by tlic differential form, or by means of separate 6trai«>;ht prisms 
placed at the sides. 

Sovi-ces of L'ght. — ^The descriptions which have already been given have all had 
reference to the best means of employing a given light. Many attempts have f rona lime 
to lime been made to increase the power of ihe radiant itself. 

Magneto-electric Light. — The electric light, which has of late l)een greatly developed 
and improved, ami especially adapted to light-house pui*poses, was introduced under the 
-auspices of the Trinity house of London. 

Oaa. — The uncertainly and other objections attending the manufacture and use of 
gas in remote an(i inaccessible places have, with some exceptions, as yet prevented its 
adoption at light-house stations, but it has been successfully used at many harbor-lights. 

Oil and Parafflne, — The oil which is chiefly employed in Great Britain is that which 

foes by the name of colza, and the quantities annually consumed at the northern light- 
ouses mny bj stated at 40 galls, for an argand 1 in. in diameter, and 800 iralls. for the 
four-wick burner, which is used in dioptric lights of the tirst order, Capt. Doty's burner 
for parafflne, which is the best which has as yet been suirgested, has been introduced into 
the French and Ute Scotch lighthouses. Parafflne has i)een found to give a more intense 
light than colza at half the cost. 

Vinibility of LighUf.-^Tlie distance at which any light can be seen, of course depends 
on the heir^ht of the tower, and varies with the state of the atmosphere. Tiie greatest 
recorded dislancc at whicli an oil light has been visible is that of the holophoial light of 
AUepey at Travancore, which has been seen from an elevated siiu:ili(m at a distance of 
45 miles. The holophotal revolving light at Baocalieu, in Newfoundland, is seen cveiy 
night in clear weather at cape Spear, a distance of 40 nautical miles. 

Power of Lighi'house Apparatus. — The reflector (25 in. diani.) used in the northern 
light-houses, with a burner of 1 in. diam., is considered equal to about 860 argand 
flames. The cylindric refractor, used in fixed lights, with a four-wick burner, has 
been estimated at 250; while the annular lens in revolving lights, with the same 
burner, is equal to about 8,000 argand flames. See LiOHrrNG of Beacons and Buots 
AT Ska. 

LIGHT-HOUSE (ante). Light-houses were not constructpd until sonje advance- 
ment was made in navigation, but beacon-tires were lighted for tlie guidance of the 
early mariners. The most celebrated ancient light-house was the Pharos (q.v ) of Alex- 
andria, built upon a rocky point of that name which had been an islet, but was con- 
nected by Alexander the «:reat with Alexandria by a roadway c»lle<i the seven-mile mole, 
or Iieptastadiam. The light house was comrtienced by Ptolemy Soter, and finished about 
280B.C., and was regarded as one of the wonders of the world. It was about 400 ft. 
high, and the light which was kept burning on its top could 1)e seen, according to 
Josephus, at a distance of 40 miles.- It is thought to have been destroyed by an earth- 
quake after'having stood ICOO years. It was constructed in the form of the frustram of 
a square pyramid, having an immense base whose dimensions are not known. The 
lower of Cordouan, at the mouth of the Garonne, in the bay of Biscay, is f^iothcr cele- 
brated lighthouse, but of modern date and still standing. 'It was commenced in 1584 
and finished in 1610 by Louis de Poix. It stands upon a rocky ledge, which is under 
water except at low tide. The base is the frustrum of a cone. 135 ft. in diameter at the 
bottom, 16 ft. high, and 125 ft. in diameter at the top; built solid of cut stone, with the 
exception of a chamber io the center. 20 ft. square and 8 ft. hiirh, containing a water 
cistern. A wall 12 ft. high and 11 ft. thick stands upon the margin of the upper surface 
of the base. The tower is 50 ft. in diameter at its base, is 115 ft. hiirh, and is the 
frustrum of a cone, surmounted by a lantera dome. I'he entire height from the rock is 
16*3 ft., the whole height of the tower, including the dome, being 146 feet. The first 
Fresnel lens ever manufactured was placed in this light-house in 1823. The Eddystpne 
light-house in the English channel is described under Ihe title Eddtstone {ante). The 
Bell rock light-house, off the e. coast of Scotland, is built upon a reef or rocks in the 
German ocean, 11 m. from the coast, nearly opposite the Tay firth. The rock upon 
which it stands is a red sandstone, from 12 to 15 ft. below spring ti<lc, with from 2 to 4 
ft. exposure at low tide. The structure is also of sandstone, but the outer tiers for 30 
ft. high are of granite. It was designed by the celebrated Scotch engineers, Robert 
Stevenson and John Kennie. and constructed by the former. The erection of the second 
Eddystone light-house had given Smeaton much study, and his experience was t«ken 
advantage of by Stevenson in the structure at Bell rock. In form it resembles the 
Eddystone. The diameter at the base is 42 ft., while at the top, beneath the cornice, it 
is iS feet. The stone-work U 102^ ft. high, and the whole structure, inclttdinir the Inn- 
trrn, 115 feet. Sec Brli. Rock, ante. The Skerryvore light-honsc. built upon the 
Skerry vore rocks, which lie in the tracks of vessels going around the north of Ireland 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

21 ughu 

or Scotland from the Clyde and Mersey, wns constructed by Alan Stevenson, the son of 
Robert. See !Skekryvi>ue. ante. TIili-l* are nianv very tine light houses in the United 
Stales, the most noU'd of which was erected up«»u Minot*s Ictigc, off ihe town of Cohas- 
set, Massachusetts b:iy. nhout 20 m. e.s.e. of Boston, uiid one of tlie most dangerous 
places in the woi Id without a signal. The ditllcuhk'S in the coui^truclion of a light-house 
upon this rock were iraiucua*. An iron structure was erected, being completed in 
ia49, which stood till April, 1831, when it was demolished by a lirritic storm. The 
iron piles. 10 iu. in diameter and sunk 5 ft. into the rock, were twisted off near the sur- 
face. Iu lyo2 money was appropriated by congress for a new liglit-liouse. and v\ork was 
commence<i in IBoo, but it was not till the laTter part of 1857 thai the first stone was 
laid. Four stones were Ldd in thi>i year; sl.x courses were, however, laid in 18")8; and 
in 1859 the stone-work was completecf. The whole was tinifi^hed in I860. It is a granite 
tower in the form of the frustrum of a cone, having a base 80 ft. in diameter, and a 
height of stone-work of 88 ft., the lower 40 ft. being solid. The courses are dove- 
taik'd, and are fastened logetlrer with wrought-iron dowels. The defect in the iron 
Mintil's ledge light house w as owing to tlie stinted outlay. Had three or four times as 
much money been ( xpcnded on it, so that it could have l)een much broader at the base 
as well as liigher. it would doubtless liave been standing to-day. The present stone 
structure is a fair mcxlt 1 of engineering, and will probably resist the waves for centu- 
ries. It possesses the advantage, which nil solid or almost solid stone structures must 
have over iron framework, of a vastly greater amount of inertia, an important element 
of resistance to the waves. Its construction is said to have offered a more difficult 
problem than that of Bell rock or Skerryyore, one reason lH*ing that its foundation is 
deeper beneath the surface. Tl'e liuht-house at Spectacle reef, in the northern part of 
lake Huron, was built not only to resist waves, but ice-fields, often covering thousands 
of acres and moving at the rate of 2 or 3 m. per hour. That the structure should be 
able to withstand this force it was so designe<l as to cause the Ice to be broken and piled 
into a protecting barrier. The tower is the frustrum of a cone, 32 ft. in diauieter at 
the Ijase, and 18 ft. just beneath the cornice at a height of 80 feet. The whole height of 
stone-work is 93 ft. al)ove the base, which is 11 ft. below the surface of the water. The 
tower is solid as high as 84 ft., above which it contains 5 stories, each 14 ft. in diameter. 
The work was commenced May 1, 1870, and the light was first used June 1. 1874. The 
cost was f875.000. The first aift-iron liylit-honse ever erected was at Point Morant, 
Jamaica, in 1842. The tower is built of 9 tiers of plates three-ouarters of an in. thick and 
10 ft. high, held toirether liy bolts and flanges on the inside. The tower is filled in with 
masonry and concrete to the height of 27 feet. It rests upon a foundation of granite 
and risers to a hei.irlit of 96 feet. It is 18^ ft. in diameter at the base, and 11 ft. at the top. 
A modern form of light-house is constructed on what is called the ''screw pile" system, 
an invention of Alexander Mitehell, who, with his son, laid the foundation of the light- 
house on Maplin sand, at the mouth of the Thames, England. Two similar structures 
followed. Chapman head in 1849 and Gunfleet in 1850, also near the mouth of the 
Thames. Other wrrew-pile lights were afterwards erected in different parts of the king- 
dom. The great feature of the screw-pile is that the piles upon which it resU^ arc in the 
form of screws an<l are driven in the sand or soil to a sutlicient depth in the manner 
of a corkscrew. The first screw-pile light-house erected in the United States was l)y 
by col. Harlnian Bach. U. S. E., at the mouth of Delaware bay, 8 m. from the ocean, in 
1847-50, where it stands at the present time in pood condition, although in an exposed 
place, lieinir often acted by immense cakes or fields of ice which coine down the 
Delaware j^id move 10 and fro with the ebb antl flow of the tide. It is surrounded by 
an ice-breaker composed of screw-piles driven independently of the tower. The screw- 
pile light-honsc at Sand Key, Florida reefs, is supported on 16 piles, with an auxiliary 
pile iiTlhe center to support the staircase, making in all 17. • They are 8 in. in diameter, 
with a screw of 2 ft. in diameter at the lower cuds, which arc bored 12 ft. into the reef. 
The framework of the tower consists of cast-iron tubular columns framed together, hav- 
ing wrought-iron ties at each joint, and bmced diagonally on the faces of each tier. 
The keeper's house is supported by cast-iron ginlei-s and joists 20 ft. above the founda- 
tion. The structure is 12() ft. above the level of the water. The foundation is 60 ft. in 
diameter. Over 50 such light-houses have been erected in various parts of the United 

LIGHT-HOUSE BO.\RD of the U. S., a body organized in accordance with an 
act of congress, approved Aug. 81, 1852, and having the control and manairement of 
all lights, buoys, beacon.s. etc., on the coasts of the United States. It consists of eight 
persons, viz., t«o officers of high rniik in the navy, two oflicers of the corps of engi- 
neers, two civilians of high scientific attainments, an officer of the navy, and an officer 
of the corps of engineers — the? two latter serving as secretaiies. The board as thus con- 
stituted is attached to the office of the secretary of the treasury, who is (X officio presi- 
dent of the .«ame. A clnnrman, elected by the memlxTs from their own 'number, is 
chosen ?o preside in the ahst^nce of the president ex-offlch. The board is required to 
meet four times a year, and the scf rctary of thetreasuiy is empowered to call it together 
whenever, in his judgment, the exiirencies of the service may require a meeting. It 
actually meets almost every wetk in the year. The coast and the waters of the country 
^ .7 ^ Digitized by VjiUUglC^ 

arc divided into districts, each of which is served by an officer of the army or the navy 
in the capacity of light liouse inspector, and other officers are employed from time to 
time, according to the exigencies of the service. The different subjects requiring attcn 
lion are first referred to ^timding committees, whose duty it is to investigate and report 
to the board what action, if any. is required. The two secretaries perform all routine 
and general administrative duties under tlie ordere and regulations of the board. 

LIOHTIKG OF Bbacons and Buoys at Sea. The plan hitherto generally in use 
for illuminating a rock or reef where no liglit-house could be liuilt is uy means of an 
"apparent light," as in the case of a reef at Stornoway (see Lighthouse). Of late, 
trial has extensively and successfully been made of electricity for this purpose. At 
various times, since the discovery of the electric light by sir H. Davy in 1813, sugges 
tions have been made pointing out the advantages which might be derived from its use 
upon light-houses. It has long been plain, indeed, tha.t for a purpose of this kind it 
had pi operties which placed it far in advance of all other lighto — Ruch as its near 
approach to sunlight in brightness, its great power of penetrating fogs, and its total 
independence of atmospheric air, which enables it to be produced in a vacuum or under 
"Water. Unfortunately, its production is attended with great trouble; it also requires 
rare skill to keep it in perfect order, and, even where this is at hand, we cannot yet place 
absolute reliance upon its steadiness. It has nevertheless l)een in use at Dungeness, in 
the s. of England, since 1862; and has been introduoed with success at Souter point, 
Tynemouth (1871). at South Foreland (1873), and at the Lizard light-house (1878). It is 
used also at three French light-houses, at Odessa, and at Port Said at the entrance of the 
Suez canal. At Souter point the rearward rays of the light are reflected downwards, 
and used as a light in a different direction on a lower level. Whether or not the electric 
light is to be ultimately adopted for properly constructed lighthouses, there can be little 
doubt that for the illumination of beacons, where no light-keeper is on the spot, elec 
tricity would be a most desirable agent to produce the light. As far as can beat present 
seen, the ordinary electric light (q.v.) may be dismissed as unsuitable for beacons. It 
will at least reauire to be greatlv simplified before it can be used for such a purpose. 
In the article Induction op Electric Currents will be found a description of the 
method of producing sparks by means of an induction coil. These sparks can be made 
to follow each other so quickly as to appear like a flash surrounded by a luminous 
haze. Taking advantage of this power of electricity, Mr. Thomas Stevenson proposed 
in 1866 to apply it to the illumination of beacons, and in that year a series of interest- 
ing experiments were made at Newhaven pier, with the aid of "instruments constructed 
by Mr. Hart of Edinburgh. Although up to this time no further steps have been taken 
to make practical application of this suggestion, the proposal merits attention for its 
ingenious application of a scientific fact which had not as yet l>een successfully put to 
such a use. In the experiments referred to, the electric current passed through a wire 
800 ft. long. Suppose a beacon to be situated at some distance from the shore, as sliown 
upon the annexea diagram. A galvanic battery consisting of, say, six Bunsen cells, 
is placed at B in a house upon the shore. From this the electrical current is con- 
Teyed along a submarine cable to the beacon, and returns by earth-plates at £, £, in 
the usual manner to complete the circuit; its course being indicated on the diagram by 
arrows. The induction cod is placed upon the beacon at C, and properly connected with 
the conducting wire of the cable, so as to make the current generated by the battery 

traveiTse its primary coil. A wii-e 
from each end of its secondary 
coil is then conveyed to the focus 
of the optical apparatus, the ends 
of the two wires beins^ here 
brought within half an inch of 
each other, and furnished with 
indestructible points of platinum. 
The induced or secondary current, 
in ct ossing this narrow space, pro 
duces the succession of sparks 
which constitute the light, but, as 
explained under the head Induc- 
tion OP Electric Currents, it only does so at the moment the current is interrupted 
or broken. It is consequently necessary to have some means of completing and break 
ing the galvanic circuit in rapid alternations, so as to produce the flashes in quick sue 
cession. The break for this purpose is placed at I, near the battery. 

In the experiments now described a great deal was found to depend upon the pecu- 
liar way the current was broken. None of the breaks in use giving a successful result, 
Mr. Hart devised a new one of an ingenious construction, which produced a more con 
stant and powerful light. The difference between it and other mercury or spring breaks 
lies in the fact that with them the current is off and on for nearly equal spaces of time; 
but this one is so contrived that the wire is three times longer in the mercury than it is 
out of it; consequently, the current is three times longer on than it is off, and so allows 
the soft iron core of the induction coil to be more fully magnetized. The result of this 

04 Lighting. 

is a eecoDdary current of comparn lively hi^h intensity, and of course the production of 
more brilliant sparks between its two terniinals. We may explain tliat tlie luoment the 
wire touches the uiercury tlje current passes, and the moment it is removed llie cuirent 
stops. The wire alternately dips and rises by the action of an ordinary elect lo-niagnet. 
By the use of more than one induction coil the li^ht could be niuterially increased, so 
that there seemed a likelihood of being able to produce it [>owcrful enough to be seen 
at the distance of a few miles. Another method of lighting buoys as well as beacons 
without the aid of electricity has lately been shown to be practicable. Coal or other 
inflammable gas can Ix; so compressed tiint a buoy may be made to receive at once and 
store tip as much condensed gas as will suffice to keep a steady flame burning for a 
month or more. Gas for this purpose can be economicully manufactured from some of 
the waste products of shale-oil works. Mr. Stevenson has also suggested tlie employ- 
ment of electricity to ring bells, so as to give warning to sailors in foggy weathtr. 

LIORTimO (Fr. Sdair, Ger. Blitz), the name given to the sudden discliarge of elec- 
tricity between one group of clouds and another, or between the clouds and the ground. 
It is essentially the same, though on a much grander scale, as the spark obtained from 
an electric machine. Clouds* charged with electricity are called thunder-clouds, and are 
easily known by their peculiarly dark and dense appeanmce. The height of thunder- 
clouds is very various; sometimes Ihey have been seen as high as 25,700 feet, and a 
thunder-cloud is recorded whose height was only 89 feet above the ground. According 
to Arago, tliere are three kinds of lightning, which he names lightning of tlie flrst, sec- 
ond, and thinl classes. Lightning of the tirst class is familiarly known as forked light- 
ning (FV. e^atr en ug-Eog). It appears as a ■bt'oken line of light, dense, thin, and well 
defined at the edges. Occasionally, when darting between the clouds and tlie earth, it 
breaks up near the latter into one or two forks, and is then called bifurcate or tri furcate. 
The terminations of these branches are sometimes several thousand feet from each other. 
On several occasions the length of forked lightning has been tried to be got at trigono- 
metrically, and the result gave a length of several miles. Lightning of the second class 
is what is commonly called slieet-ligUtning (Ger. Fldchenblitz), It lias no definite form, 
but seems to be a great mass of light. It has not the intensity of lightning of the first 
dass. Someiirac'S it is tinged decidedly red; at other times, blue or violet. When it 
occurs behind a cloud, it lights up its outline only. Occasionally, it illumines the world 
«f clouds, and appears to come forth from the heart of them. Sheet-lightning is very 
much more frequent than forked-lightning. Lightning of the third kind is called ball' 
lightning (Fr. globes de feu, Ger. KvgelMUz), This so-called lightning desciibes, perhaps, 
more a meteor, which, on rare occasions, accompanies electric discharge, or lightning 
proper, than a phenomenon in itself electrical. It is said to occur in this way: After a 
violent explosion of lightning, a ball is seen to proceed from the region of the explo- 
sion, and to make its way to the earth in a curved line like a l)omb. When it reaches 
the ground it either splits up at once and disappears, or it rebounds like an elastic ball 
several times before doing so. It is described as being very dangerous, readily setting 
fire to the building on which it alights; and a lightning-conductor is no protection 
against it. Ball -lightning lasts for several seconds, and, in this respect, differs very 
widely from lightning of the first and second classes, which are, in the strictest sense, 

The thunder (Fr. tonnerrey Gkr. Donner) which accompanies lightning, as well as the 
snap attending the electric spark, has not yet been satisfactorily accounted for. Both, 
no doubt, arise from a commotion of the air brought about by the passage of electricity; 
but it is difllcult to understand how it takes place. Suppose this difiSculty cleared, 
there still remains the prolonged rolline of the thunder, ana its strange rising and fall- 
ing to account for. The echoes sent between the clouds and the earth, or between 
objects on the earth*s surface, may explain this to some extent, but not fully. A person 
in the immedUte neighborhood of a flash of lightning hears only one sharp report, 
which is peculiarly sharp when an object is struck by it. A person at a distance hears 
the same report as a prolonged peal, and persons in different situations hear it each in a 
different way. This may be so far explained. The path of the lightning may be 
reckoned at one or two miles in length, and each point of the path is the origin of a 
separate sound. Suppose, for the sake of simplicity, that the path is a straight line, a 
person at the extremity of this lino must hear a prolonged report; for though the sound 
originating at each point of the path is produced at the same instant, it is some time 
before the sound coming from the more distant points of the line reaches the ear. A 
person near the middle of the line hears the whole less prolonged, because he is more 
equidistant from the different parts of it. Each listener in this way bears a different 
peal, according to the position he stands in with reference to the line. On this suppo- 
sition, however, thunder ou^ht to begin at its loudest, and gradually die away, because 
the sound comes first from the nearest points, and then from points more and more dis- 
tant Such, however, it is well known, is not the case. Distant thunder at the l)egin- 
nin^ is just audible, and no more; then it gradually swells into a crashing sound, and 
agam grows fainter, till it ceases. The rise and fall are not continuous. lor the whole 
peal appears to be made up of several successive peals, which rise and fall as the whole. 
Some have attempted to account for this modulation from the forked form of the light- 
Digitized by VjOUV IC 

IJffhtnlnii;. •'^ 

ning. which makes so many different centers of sound, nt different nngles with each 
oUicM-, llie waves coming from which iuleifcre witli eacli oilier, alone l.uic moving in 
opposite (lircc;lions tnid ohliteratiiig the sound, ut uuotiier ia \\m same way. and tiien 
strc'Ugihcning tiie sound produced by eucli. Thunder hus never been heara more lliaa 
14 m. from the tiiu^li. The report of uitiilery has been iicard at much gieuler ilisUiiices. 
It is Kaid that tlie cunuonmiing at the battle of Waterloo wa:i heard at the tovvu of Creil, 
iu the u. of France, about 115 m. from the field. 

LIGHTNING (ante). The abbe Nolet is Faid to have been the fii-st to remark the 
similurity of phenomena in discharges of lightning and of the electrical nmciiiue. but 
there was no expeiimental deteriuination of the hientiiy of their nature until Beu jamin 
Franklin made his celi brated investigutiou of the subject by the use of a kite at Fliila- 
delphia in 1753. Tliree years previous to this, however, he made some ititerestine 
remarks upon the subject in his Obsercations on Kecti'-icitj/, showing that his uiiiui liud 
comprehendejl the causes even before he made his demonstrative experiments Ho says: 
" Wlicre there is a great heat on the laud in a particular region the lower air is rarebed 
and ri>es: the cooler, denser air above it descends; the clouds iu the air meet from uJi 
sides and join over the heated place; and if some are elcciritied. others not, lii^htuiu^ 
and thunder succeed and showers fall. Ucnce» tlmtder gusts after heats, and ctiol uir 
after gusts. As eleclricul clouds pass over a country, high hills, irt»e8, lowers, cliiniiieys, 
etc., dniw the electric fire, and it is therefore dangerous to ttike shelter under a tree dur- 
ing a thunder gust It is safer to be iu the open fields for another reason. Wticn the 
clothesare wet, if a flash, in its way to the ground, should strike your head it may run in 
the water over the surface of vour body, whereas if your clothes were ihy it would go 
through the body." Again : " Now, if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the 
same, as I have endeavored to show in a former p^iper. and a tube of only 10 ft. lon^i^ 
will discharge its tire at 3 or 3 iu. distance, an electritieil cloud of perhaps 10.000 acres 
may strike and discharge on the earth at a proportionally greater distance." ISpeakiDg 
of the discharging power of points he sstys: "May not a knowledge of this power o/ 
points be of use to mankind iu preserving houses, churches, ships, et^... from the stroke 
of lightning by directing us to fix, on the highest parts of those edifices, upright rods of 
iron nnide skirp as a needle, and gilt to prevent rusting, and from the fool of the rods a 
wire down the outside of the buihting into the ground, or down round one of the shrouds 
of a ship, and down her sides till it reaches the water? Would not the pointed roda 
probably draw the electric fire silently out of the cloud before it came near enough to 
strike, aiul thereby secure us from tlie most sudden and terrible mischief?" He pro- 
posed various experiments, and. acting under his instructions, Dahbaid had drawn 
electric sparks fn>m an iron rod 40 ft. high at Marly In France, and had charged Leyden 
jars with the appanitus, May 10, 1752. Franklin did not make his kite-experiment till 
more than a month later, viz.. June 15. It was natural that these experiments should 
be rei)eated all over the civilized world. Prof. Riclnnan of 8t. Petersburg was killed, in 
the summer of 1758. by a bolt of lightning in the form of a blue ball as large as a man's 
fist which leaped from the insulated conductor to his heiid, which was about a foot 
distant. His companion was struck senseless and a d or wan torn from its place by the 
stroke. In the experiment of M. Romas of Nerac. France (-^ee ante), which has been 
said by some to antedate Franklin's, he used a kite of about surface, with in 
copper wire wound around the string, and an insulating silk cord at the irround end. 
near which an iron tube was placed as a secondary conductor. When the Kite was nt a 
height of 550 ft. durinir a storm, flashes of fire darted to the earth attended by loud 
explosions «nd all light bodies in the vicinity wtre alternately, positively and negatively, 
electrified and propelled in various directions. 

It has lieen shown by Cavallo, De Saussure, and others that the electrical condition 
of the atmosphere, in comparison with that of the earth, i-* positive; also, by Lar 
place. Lavoisier, Volta, an<i De Saussure that the cause of atmospheric electricity is 
evaporation from the surface of the earth; but. according tf) theexperinn nts of Pouiliet. 
evaporation does not produce opposite electrical conditions unless accompanied by 
chemical decomposition or separation of vapor from sjUine solutions, or from oxidizing 
surfaces or the leaves of growing plants. Currents of wind rushing over opposing 
objects, occasioning <listurbance of electric cquilibiinm, are among the chief causes of 
atmospheric electricity, the electricity pa-^sing with the wind to elevated n-gions; or, on 
the two fluid hyiotlicsis, positive electricity being carried upwards, while the negative 
passes to the earth. In regJird to the priMluction of the various kinds of lightning and 
thunder, they may be explained accoiding to a variety of circumstances. To account 
for the variations in tone and intensity of a thunder-dap as heard nt a certain point-- 
that is to say. to explain what conditions were present and what form or dimensions the 
discharjie had— would be very difticult, perhaps impossible, from the fact that it is 
impossible to appreciate the extent of the process and the ilirection of the dischniy:eor 
discharges. The reverberation of sound may be the n^sult of one discharge, which is 
echoed from peak to peak or from crag to crag and probid)iy fiom cloud to cloud, 
although the power of c'ouds to reflect sounds has not been determined. There may be 
a succession of discharges from different portions of different clouds to those of olhcrH, 
one explosion being succeeded by another in consequence of changes of electrical con^ 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

2^ laffhinlns. 

ditions hi various parts of the celestial nod terrestrial apparatus. The increased intensity 
of a roll of tliuuder is probably to be uccouutcd fm* in this way. The tirst souuds may 
be produced by su<•c.•t•s^ivc mine a* discharges. c;»usiiig t-U'Cirical conditions between iwo 
large musses of clouds, or between a iurge niatss and ilie earth, which result in tlieexcliango 
of large quantities of electric tluid, orllic descent of a powerful bolt toilie earth. Abhongh 
many piieuomena of electricity are well known, and tlie electricity of ehendcal batteries 
can be meiisured and rendered serviceable, still its real nature is not known. It i:^ not 
positively determinetl whether it is an imponderable body, an imponderable force, or 
merely u phenomenon resulting from the conditions of the nnitter with whit h it is con- 
Decled. Uiilil its nature lie determined it cannot be said whether a ball of lightning is a 
moving mubtt of electrical matter, or of other matter in a peculiar electrical state, 'i here 
is something wonderfully interesting and inexplicable in S(mie of tluse moving ma.^^scs 
of apparent fire. The ordinary laws of electrical attraction and repulsion will .^^caicely 
serve to explain their various freaks. They often seem as if ))roiX'lkd from behind, in 
the manner of an ordinary projectile; and the manner in which they pass into dwellings 
and demolish walls may mdicate that they are driven against bodies, and not aiiracted 
by them. 

UOHTHIHO, AccTOENTS fbom. According to the rrgistrar-generaVs report of births, 
deaths, anil marriages for the year 1871. it ajipears that during that year 28 iKMSons 
were killed in Euj^land by lightning: none in Loudon, 5 in the southeastern division, 
in the south midland, 1 in the eastern, 1 in the south-western, 2 in the west midland, 
6 in the north midland, 4 in the north-western, 2 in Yorkshire, and 1 in the m rihern 
division- AH except 5 were men, and chiefly laborers in the open air. In lt<75 17 per- 
sons were killed; in 1877 only 10. Of i?4 deaths from this cause in a previous report, 
11 look place in summer, 10 m spring. 2 in autumn, and 1 in winter. Out of 103 deaths 
m 5 years (1852-56), there were 88 in July, and 22 in Aujj. 

A person struck by lightning is more or less stunned and deprived of consciousness 
for a time, often, no doubt, by mere fri;:ht, in which ca^e the (fleet is transient; but 
sometimes in consequence of a shock given to the brain, in which latter ca^e there is a 
certain amount of paralysis of motion and sensation. In a Qise lecorded by Boudin in 
his Qeographie Medicate^ 1857, a gentleman who liad been struck by lightning reiuained 
for an hour and a qmirter apparently devoid of any Judication of life; and the paralxsis, 
which usually alTects the lower limbs, may last for many months. Mr. llolnus, in' his 
article on "Accidents from Lightning," in hi^ ^ntem of Surgci-y, ^\Qfs the following 
list of other affections caused by lightning: *' Burns, more or less extensive; eruptions 
of erythema or of urticaria, which are said by one author to have reappeaied with each 
succeeding thunder-storm; loss of hair over parts or the whole of the bo<ly; wounds; 
bemorrhauc from the mouth, nose, or ears; loss of sight, smell, opeech, healing, and 
taste; or, in rare cases, exaltation of these special senses; cataract, iuibecilily, al.ortion." 
Another curious effect of lightning is that descril>ed luider the head of Lightnino- 
pRiSTa In reference to the occasional loss of hair, l\. Boudin {op. eif.) relates that the 
capt of a French frigsite, who was struck by lightning on board his ship, could not 
shave himself on the following day, the r.izor not cutting but tearing out his hair. Fiora 
that day the lieard (iisappeared, and the hair of the scalp, eyebrows, etc., gradually fell 
off. leaving him entirely bald. The nails of the fingers ulso scaled aw^ay. iSir B. Hrodie 
tells a curious story of two bullocks, pied white and red, which were struck in different 
storms; iu both cases the white hairs were consumed, while the red ones escaped. As 
a genenil rule, it seems that persons not killed on the spot usually ncover. The burna 
present every degree of intensity; in some (probably exaggeiated) cases we hear of men 
and animals being reduced to ashes, while in ordinary cases they vary from deep burns, 
difficult in heiding. to mere vesications: they must be treated in the ordinary method. 
It was believed until recently that the burns are est used by the ignition of the dot lies; it 
appears, however, from various cases collected by Dr. Taylor (Afed, Jurinp., ]865, p. 
73i), that burna. at all events- in some cases, are the direct result of the electricity. (Jue 
case is so singular that we shall give a few details regarding it. Mr. Fisher of Dudley 
was railed in to see a man who 16 hours previously had been struck by lightning while 
milking a cow. The cow was killetl on the spot, and the man wt»s much injured, tbero 
bein:; a severe burn extending from his right hip to his shoulder, and covering a large 
portion of the front and side of the body. His mind was wanderirg; there were symp- 
toms of infliinimatory fever, and he was confined to bed for 17 days, at the end of which 
time the liealini; process was not complete. On examining bis diess. it was f(»un(l that 
the right sleeve of his shirt was burned lo shreds, but there was no mateiial burnii'g of 
any other part of his dress. Hence it is obvious I hat the dress may be burned \\ ithoul 
the surface of the body being i^imultancously injured; and, further, that a set ions burn 
may be produced ou the body although the clothes covering the part may have e8cai»ed 

The appearances after death vary extremely. The body sometimes retains the posi- 
tion wiii'^h it occupied when struck, while in other cases it may be dashed to a < cusid- 
erable distance. The? clothes are often burned or torn, and have a peculiar sin^red 
imell; and metallic sultfitances about the person present sicns of fusion, while such as 
are composed of steel become magnetic. There are generally marks of contusion or 

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laceration, or, if tliey are absent, extreme eccbymosls (q.v.) at the spot where the current 
entered or emerged. In addition to wounds and burns, fractures have also been 
noticed. • 

The treatment must be directed to the special symptoms, which are liable to great 
variations. Sir B. Brodie's advice is as follows: "Expose the body to a moderate 
warmth, so as to prevent the loss of animal heat to which it is always liable when tlic* 
functions of the brain are suspended or impaired, and iuHate ilie lungs, so as to imitate 
natural respiration as nearly as possible." . These means should be fully tried, as respira- 
tory action has l>ecn restored after more than an hour's suspension. Mr. Holmes addi- 
tionally recommends cold allusion, stimulating enemata, and stimulants by the mouth: 
and recovery (he states) is apparently hastened by the administration of tonics, especially 
quinine, and gentle action on the skin by means of baths. 

IIOHTKIKO-COKBUCTOB (Fr. paratomierre, Gter. Blitzahleiter). The principle of the 
lightning conductor is that electricity, of two conducting passages, selects the better; 
and that when it has got a sufficient conducting passage, it is disarmed of all destruc- 
tive energy. If a person holds his hand near the prime conductor of a powerful electric 
machine in action, he receives long forlied stinging sparks, each of which causes a very 
sensible convulsion in his frame. But if he holds In his hand a ball, connected with the 
ground by a wire or chain, the above sensation is scarcely, if at all, felt as each spark 
occurs, for the electricity, now having the ball and wire passage to the ground, prefers 
it to the less conducting body. If, instead of a ball, a pointed rod were used, no sparks 
would pass, and no sensation whatever would be felt. The point silently discharges 
the prime conductor, and does not allow the electricity to accumulate in it so as to pro- 
duce a spark; and the quantity pas-sing at a time, even supposing the rod disconnecled 
with the ground, is not sufficient to affect the nerves. If for the prime conductor of 
the machine we substitute the thunderclouds; for the body, a building; for the convul- 
sive sensation, as the evidence of electric power, heating and other destructive effects; 
for the ball, or rod, and wire, the lightning-conductor, we have the same conditions 
exhibited on a larger natural scale. It is easier, however, to protect a building from the 
attacks of lightning than the boiiy from the electric spark, as the rod in the one case is 
a much better conductor, compared .with the building, than it is compared with the 
body, and, in consequence, more easily diverts the electricity into it. 

The lightning-conductor consists of three parts: the rod, or part overtopping the 
building; the conductor, or part connecting the rod with the ground; and the part in 
the ground. The rod is made of a pyramidlil or conical form (the latter being prefera 
ble), from 8 to 80 ft. in height, secureh'' fixed to the roof or highest part of the building. 
Gay-Lussac proposes that this rod should consist, for the greater part of its lengtn 
below, of iron; that it should then be surmounted by a short sharp cone of brass; and 
that it should finally end in a fine platinum needle, the whole being riveted or soldered 
together, so as to render perfect the conducting connection of the parts. The difficulty 
of constructing such a rod has led generally to the adoption of simple rods of iron or 
copper, whose points are gilt, to keep them from becoming blunt by oxidation. It is of 
the utmost importance that the upper extremity of the rod should end in a sharp point, 
because the sharper the point the more is the electrical action of the conductor limited 
to the point and diverted from the rest of the conductor. There is thus less danger of 
the electricity sparking from the conductor at the side of the building into the building 
itself. Were the quantity of the electricity of the clouds not so enormous, the pointed 
rod would prevent a lightning-discharge altogether; but even as it is. the violence of the 
lightning-discharge is considerably lessened by the silent discharging power of the point 
previously taking place. According to Eisenlohr, a conical rod, 8 ft. in height, ought 
to have a diameter at its base of 18.3 lines, and one of 80 ft. a diameter of 26.6 lines. 

The part of the lightning conductor forming the connection between the rod and the 
ground is generally a prismatic or cylindrical rod of iron (the latter being preferable), 
or a strap of copper; sometimes a rope of iron or copper wire is used. Iron wire 
improves as a conductor when electric currents pass through it; copper wire, in the 
same circumstances, becomes brittle. An iron rope is much oetter, therefore, for con- 
ducting than a copper one. Galvanized iron is, of all materials, the best for conductors. 
The conducting-rod ought to be properly connected with the conical rod either by rivet- 
ing or soldering or both. Here, as at every point of juncture, the utmost care must be 
taken that there is no break in the conduction. The conducting-rod is led along the 
roof and down the outside of the walls, and is kept in its position by holdfasts fixed in 
the building. There must be no sharp turns in it, but each bend must be made as 
round as possible. Considerable discussion has arisen as to the proper thickness for the 
conducting-rod. If it were too small it would only conduct part of the electricity, and 
leave the building to conduct the rest, and it might be melted by the electricity endeavor- 
ing to force a passage through it as an insufficient conductor. The Paris commission, 
which sat in 1828. gave the minimum section of an iron conductor as a square of 15 
millimeters (about three-fifths of an inch) in side, and this they considered quite suffi- 
cient in all circumstances. A rod of copper would need to be on*ly two-fifths of this, 
OB copper conducts electricity about six times more readily than iron. This calculation 
is very generally followed in practice. In leading the conductor along the building it 

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Bhould be kept as much apart as possible from masses of conducting matter about the 
building, such as iron beams, machinery, etc. These may form a broken chain of con- 
ductors communicating villi the ground, a^d divert a portion of the electricity from 
the lightiiin*^- conductor. If such took place, then at each interruption electricity would 
pass in a visible and dangerous way, and tlie efl3cacy of the conductor would be lost 
if the conductor cannot be properly insulated from these masses of metal, the necessary 
eecurity is got by putting them in' connection with the conductor, so as to form a part 
of it Water-runs, leaden roofs, and the like, must, for this reason, all be placea in 
conducting connection with the conductor. 

The portion of the lightning-conductor which is placed in the ground is no less 
worthy of attention than the other two. Should the lower part of the conductor end in 
dry earth, it is worse than useless, for when the lightning, atti acted by the prominence 
and point of the upper rod, strikes it, it finds, in all likelihood, no passage thmugh the 
unoonducling dry earth, and, in consequence, strikes off to a pail of the ground where 
it may easily disperse itself and be lost. Wherever it is practicable, a lightning-con- 
ductor should end in a well or large body of water. Water is a good conductor, and 
having various ramifications in the soil, offers the best facility to the electricity to 
become dispersed and harmless in the ground. The rod on reaching the ground should 
be let down a foot and a half, or 2 ft, into the soil, and then turned away at right 
angles to the wall from the bui]din|f in a horizontal drain filled with charcoal, 'for about 
from 12 to 16 ft, and then turned into the well so far that ite teimination is little likely 
to be left diy. Where a well cannot be made, a hole 6 in. wide (wider, if possible) 
should be bored, from 9 to 16 ft, the rod placed in the middle of it and the intervening 
space closely packed with freshly heated charcoal. The charcoal serves the double pur- 
pose of keeping the iron from rusting, and of leading away the electricity from the rod 
into the ground. 

Lightning-conductors, when constructed with care, have been proved beyond a doubt 
to be a sufficient protection from the ravines of lightning. The circle within which 
a lightning-conductor is found to be efficacious is very hmited. Its radius is generally 
assumed to be twice the height of the rod. On large building, it is Ihercfoie necessary 
to have several rods, one on each prominent part of the building, all being connected so 
as to form one conducting system. In ships, a rod is place<l on every mast, and their 
connection with the sea is established bv strips of copper mlaid in the masts, and attached 
below to the metal of or about the keel. 

UOHTVDfO-PBIVTS are appearances sometimes found on the skin or clothing of 
men or animals that are either struck by lightning, or are in the vicinity of the stroke, 
and currently believed to be photographic representations of surrounding objects or 
scenery. The existence of such prints appears, from a theoretical point of view, hij^lily 
improbable, as the essential conditions of forming a photographic image are wanting; 
still, several apparently well-authenticated instances have been recorded, which have led 
scientific authorities to give at least partial credence to them. One or two instances may 
serve to give a general idea of what are meant bv lightning-prints. At Caudclaria 
(Cuba), in 1828, a young man was struck dead by lightning near a house, on one of the 
windows of which was nailed a horse-shoe; and the image of the horse-shoe was said to 
be distinctly printed upon the neck of the young man beneath the right ear. On Nov. 
14, 1830, lightning struck the ch&teau of Benatonni^re, in La Vendee; at the time, a lady 
happened to be seated on a chair in the saloon, and on the liackof her dress were printed 
minutely the ornaments on the back of the chair. In Sept, 1857, a pensant-^rl.. while 
herding'a cow in the department of Seine-et-Marne, was overtaken by a thunder-storm. 
She took refuge under a tree; and the tree, the cow, and herself were struck with light- 
ning. The cow was killed, but she recovered, and on loosening her dress for tlie sake 
of respiring freely, she saw a picture of the cow upon her breast These anecdotes are 
typical of a great mass of others. They tell of metallic objects printed on the skin; of 
clotiies, while being worn, receiving impressions of neighboring objects; or of the skin 
being pictured with surrounding scenery or objects, during thunder- storms. One object 
very generall}r spoken of as being printed is a neighboring tree. This maj^ be accounted 
for bv supposing that the lightning-discharge haslaken place on the skin in the form of 
the electric brush (see Electricitt), which has the strongest possible resemblance to a 
tree, and that this, being in some way or other imprinted on the skin, has led observers 
to confound it with a neighboring tree. Of other prints, it would be difficult to give a 
satisfactory account. However, observers have done something in imitation of them. 
It has been shown, for instance, by German observers, that when a coin is placed on 
glass, and a stream of sparks poured on it from a powerful electrical machine, on the 
glass being breathed upon, after its removal, a distmct image of the coin is tmced out 
by the dew of tlie breath. Mr. Tomlinson, by interposing a pane of glass between the 
knob of a charged Leyden jar and that of the discharging-tongs. obtained a perfect 
breath-figure oi the discharge on each side of the glass, which bore the most striking 
resemblance to a tree. With all due allowance for the probable printing-power of light- 
ning, the accounts given of it, in most cases, l)car the stamp of exaggeration: and such 
of them as have been inquired into have been found to dwindle to a very small residuum 
of fact in which there remained little that was wonderful. 

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UffuUftte. ^^ 

LIGHTS, Use of, in Public Worship, a practice which prevailed in the Jewish 
(Exodus XXV. 81-39) ami in most of the ancient relii^ons, and whicli is retained both in 
the Koman and in ilie oriental ciiurches. The use of lights in the night-services, and in 
Bubterituican churchi's, such as those of the early Christians in the cataconibB, is of 
course easily intelligible; but the praciice, as be:n-ing also a symbolical allusion to the 
"Light of ill e world " and to the "Light of faith"'wa8 not confined to occasions of 
necessity, but appeai*s to have been from an early time an accompaniment of Christinn 
\i'or8lii[>, especially in connection with the sacraments of baptism and the eticliarist. 
The time ot the service in which lights are uschI has varied very much in different ngcs. 
8t. Jenime speaks of it onl^' during the reading of tlie gospel; Ainalarius. from the 
beginning of the mass till the end of the gospel; Isidore of Seville, from the gospel to 
the end of the canon; and eventually it was extended to the entire time of tho mass. 
In other services, also, lights have been used from an early period. Lighted tiipere 
were placed in the hand of tiie newly-baptized, which St. Gregory Nazianzen interprets 
a^emtiiemsof future glory. Indeed, in the Roman Catholic chuVch, the most profuse 
use of lights is reserved for the services connected with that sacrament. The ustige of 
blessing the paschal light is described elsewhere. See Holy Week. The material used 
for liglits in churches is either oil or wax. the latter in penitential time and in services 
for the dead being of a yellow color. In the Anglican church, candlesticks and, in 
some instances, candles themselves are retained in many churches on the commnnloD 
table, but they arc not lighted. The retention of them is greatly favored by the ** high 
church" party, and much disjipproved by the *• low church or '•evangelical " party. In 
the Presbyterian and Independent churches of Britain, America, etc., the syniboJicai 
use of lignts and candlesticks is rejected as superstitious. 

LIGNE, Ohahles Joseph, Prince de, 1785-1814; b. in Brussels, and descended 
from a wealthy and powerful Belgian family; entered the Austrian army in 1752. where 
he K'rved with disiinction through the seven years* war. In the rei»fn of Joseph II. he 
held high mllitai*y and diplomatic positions, arid was a great favorite ni nil the European 
courts. During the reign of Leopold he fell into disgrace, owing largely, no doubt, to 
his son's participation* in the Belgian insurrection of 1700, after which event lie was 
never again in the public service, but lived in retirement at Vienna, employing himself 
in literary nursuits. Of his miscellaneous works in 84 volumes, which appeared in 
1795-1811, Alalte Brun has given selections in 2 volumes. His memoirs and letters have 
considenible historic value. 

LICl NINE (derived from the Latin word lignum, wood) is the incrusting matter con- 
tained within the cellular tissue, which gives hardness to wood. Like cellulose, of 
which the cellular tissue is composed, it is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and dilute 
acids, and its chief chemical characteristic is, that it is more readily soluble in alkaline 
liquids than cellulose. Its exact composition is uncertain, but it is known to consist of 
carbon, hydrogen. ai:d oxygen, and to differ in its composition from cellulose in con- 
taining a greater perceuUigc of hydrogen than is necessary to form water with its oxy- 
gen. When submitted to destructive distillation, it yields acetic acid; and that it is 
the source of the pyroligneous acid (which is merely crude acetic acid) obtained bv the 
destructive distillation of wood, is proved by the iact that the hardest woods (those, 
namely, which contain the greatest proportion of llunine) yield the largest amount of 
acid. Lignine is identical with the matihre incrustante of Payen and other French 

LIGNITE, fossil wood imperfectly mineralized, and retaining its original form and 
structure much more completely than the truly mineral couls, and therefore not improp- 
erly described as intermediate between peat and coal. Brawn coai svriin brand, and jet 
are generally regarded as varieties of lignite. The fossil plants of lignite are always 
terrestrial: palm.s and coniferous trees are amongst them. Remains of teiTcstrial mam- 
malia are al<o found in it. 

LIGNITE (anU), named from k'gnvm, wood, a kind of coal, resembling, probably 
the condition of hani coid when in a state of transiticm or process of manufacture. It 
has no definite chemical composition. Some beds present a decidedly ligneous stnicture 
in the upper layers, and a true coal character below. When w ood is burled in water 
or earth, it decomposes by the slow process of oxidation, or eremacansis, with the for- 
mation of carbureted hydrogen, carbonic acid, carlwnic oxide, water, petroleum, etc., 
after a lime leaving a den.««er, darker substance. After a lonjr time it becomes black 
and exhibits a pitchy, somewhat conchoidal fracture. It is then lignite. This kind of 
coal i*« chiefly ffmnd in the cretaceous and tertiary formations, and in some localities 
ff)rms immense beds, equal, perhaps, in extent to the beds of the carhoniferons period. 
Lignite occupies an intenncdiale po.«;iiion iK'tween peat and hard and Idtnnnnous 
coal, and in favorable conditions in the process of ages peat will become lignite, and 
the latter will be convertcMl into bituminous coal or anthracite. It is probable that most 
of the coal in China and India is more or less lignitic in its nature, as is the 
case of that of western America. Ligniie is found also in Greenland and arctic 
America, and also in Central and South America. In Europe -lignites ha^c been 
mined for a long time, and are used not only for heating dwellings and other d*>mrFtic 
purposes, bui for generating steam in locomotives and furnaces. Tho following: 

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BB&lyses indicate the variable composition of lignite. One specimen from France 
contained, in round numbers, the following^ proportion of con»(tituents: C»rl)on, 70; 
hydrogen, 6; oxygen, 18: nitrogen, 1; ashes, 5. Another specimen, also from Fmncc, 
coolaiued, carbon. 6^4; hydrogen, 4.6; oxygen, 17; nitrogen 1; iishes, 13.4, Another 
specimeo from Swilzerlar.d contiiined, carbon, 70: hydrogen, 6: oxygen. 20.5; nitrogen, 
1.3: aslies, 3.2. Another specimen from Siberia contained, carbon, 47 5; hydrogen, 45; 
oxygen, 3*3; nitrogen, 1; ashes. 15. Another specimen from (Jermiiny containLii, car- 
bon, 70; hydroceu. 3.2; oxygen. 7.6; nitrogen,!: aslies, 15.6. The last ^pici men shows 
a considerubly Te^ proportion of oxygen than the others, but that of laruoii is scarcely 
greater than in the other .specimens. It is to be presumed that its healing power does 
not differ much from theirs. The principal deposits of lignite in the United Stales are 
in New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California, Oregon, Wyoming, and Alaska. 
In New Mexico'the l)eds are all in the cretnceons formation, and ciiietly in tiie lower 
portion. In Colorado and Wyomingthe beds occupy a space not less t linn 50,000 sq.m., 
the strata varying in thiclcnesa'^from 1 to 30 feet. Many of these lignites are now mined in 
Colorado, and they resemble in quality the best brown coals of the old world. Some 
lignites, as in Trinidad, and in Utah, near Salt Lake City, are capable of being coked and 
vaed in smelting. The lignites of California are cretaceous, and many of them find 
their way to San Francisco. On the coast of Oregon the lignites belong to the tertiary 

Siriod, and have been mined for several years. An analysis of a specimen of coal from 
ount Diablo, Cal., by H. 8. Munroc of the N. Y. school of mines, gave the following 
results: Carbon, 59.724; hydrogen, 5.078; oxygen, 15.697; nitrogen, 1.008; sulphnr, 
8.916: water. 8.940; ash, 5.637. A lignltic anthracite from Sonera gave, carbon, b4.103; 
hydrogen, 0.852; oxygen. 2.137; nitrogen, 2.80; sulphur, 0.229; waUr, 5.191; ash, 
7.204. This is evidently a superior coal, considered as a lignite, 'ihere are occasionally 
seiims of lignite along the Atlantic coast in tertviry formations, mingled more or less 
with clay. " 

JJB'AoM BHODITTK, a kind of wood which occurs as an article of commerce, having 
a pleasant smell resembling the smell of roses. Il is brought to Europe in strong, thick, 
and rather heavy pieces, which arc cylindrical but knotty, and someiimes split. They 
are externally covered with a cracked gray bjirk ; internally, they are yellowish, and 
often reddish in the heart. They have an aromatic bitterish tuste. and, when rubbed, 
emit an agreeable rose-like smell. This wood comes from the Canary islands, and is 
produced by two shrubby and erect species of convohulw, with small leaves, G. seopa- 
rim and C. floridtu. It is the wood both of the root and of the stem, but the latter is 
rather inferior. An essential oil {ml of lignum rfuxiium), having a stronir smell, is 
obtained from it by distillation, and is used for salves. embrocati(ms. etc., and also very 
frequently for adulteration of oil of roses. — Besides this lignum rhodium of the Canary 
islands, an American kind is also a common article of commerce; it is produced by the 
ampru bakamtffra, a native of Jamaica, and yields an essential oil, very similar to the 
former. The lignum rhodium of the Levant is now sciircely to be met with in com- 
merce. It is the produce of liquidambar orientate. From this, however, the name has 
been transferred to the other kinds. 

LIG'innC-TI'TJE, the wood of ffuaiaevm officinale (nat. ord. syffopJiyUaceai), and 
probably of some other species, natives of Jamaica and St. Domingo. The hardness and 
exceeding toughness of this very usiiful wood was shown by prof. Voigt to depend 
upon a very peculiar interlacing of the fibers. The heart-woml. which is the part used, 
» very dense and heavy, of a dark, greenish-brown color, rarely more than 8 in. in 
diameter; the stem itself seldom reaches 18 in. in diameter, and grows to the height of 
about 80 feet. The wood is much valued for making the wheels of pulleys and other 
small articles in which hardness and toughness are required; large quantities are con- 
sumed in making the sheaves (see Pullet) of ships* blocks. Besides these uses, the 
wood, when reduced to fine shavings or raspinj^, the bark, and also a greenish resin 
which exudes from the stem, are mnoh used in medicine, being regaroed as having 
powerful anti-sypbiiitic and anti-rheumatic properties. See Guaiacum. 

LIGHT, a village in Belgium, in the province of Namur, about 10 m. n.e. of Charleroi, 
famous on account of the l>attle fought here by the French, under Na))oleon, and the 
Prussians under Bladier, June 16, 1816, the same da\' on which the French, under 
marshal Ney, were engaged with the British, under Wellington, at Quat re-Bras. Na- 
poleon had formed a plan for overpowering his antagonists in detail ere they could con- 
centrate their forces; and contrary to the expectations both of Wellington and Bldcher, 
began his operations by assailing the Prussians. Tlie battle took place in the afternoon. 
The possession of the villages of Li<fDy and St. Amand was hotly contested; but the 
Prussians were at last compelled to give way. The Prussians lost in this battle 12.000 
men and 21 cannon; the French 7,000 men. A mistake prevented a corps of the French 
army, under Erlon, from takins the part assigned to it in tlie battle, and led to Ney's 
eacountering the Belgians and British at Quatre-Bras(q.v.), instead of uniting his forces 
with those engaged against the Prusskns at Ligny. 

Lltt'VlATB (Lat UgtUa, a little tonmie), a term used in botany to descril)c a corolla of 
one petal split on one side, and spread out in the form of a tongue or strap, toothed at 
the extipmity. This form of corolla is very common in the eompotitm, appearing in all 

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l^'- 30 

tlie florets of somo. as the dandelion, and only in the florets of the ray of otherSp as the 

daisy und uster. The term, however, in of general application. 

LIGITLE. Sec Grasses. 

LIOTJOBI, AiiFONZO Mart A db, a saint of the Rom'an Catholic churchy and founder 
of the order of Liguorlans or Redemptorists. He was b. of a Doblu family at Naples, 
Sept. 27, 169(5, aim embraced the profession of the law, which, however, he suddenly 
relinquished for the purpose of devoting himself entirely to a religious life. He received 
priesrs orders in 1725; and in 1732, In cod junction with twelve companions, founded 
the asi>ocinti(ni which is now called bv his name. See Liguorians. In 17(52 be was 
appointed bishop of Sant' Agata del Goti, in the kingdom of Naples, and his iife, as a 
bishop, is confessed by Protestant as well as Catholic historians to have been a model 
of the pastoral character; but, shrinking from the responsibilities of such an oiBce, he 
resigned his see in 1775, after which date he returned to his order, and continued to live 
in the same simple austerity which had characterized his early life. Having survived 
his retirement twelve years, he died at Nocera dei Pagani, Aug. 1, 1787, and was 
solemnly Ciiuonized in the Roman Catholic church in 1889. Liguori is one of the mcst 
voluminous and most popular of modern Catholic theologicid writers. His works, 
which extend to 70 volumes bvo, embrace almost every department of theological learn- 
ing — liivinity, casuistry, exegesis, history, canon law, hagiography, asceticism, and even 
poetry. His correspondence also is voluminous, but is almost entirely on spiritual 
Bubjeits. The principles of casuistry explained by Liguori have been received with 
much favor in the modern Roman schools; and in that church his moral theology, which 
is a modification of the so-called '* probabilistic system" of the age immediately before 
his own, is largely used in the direction of consciences. See Probabilibm. It would 
be out of place here to enter into a discussion of the exceptions which have been taken 
to certain portions of it on the score oT morality, whether in reference to the virtue of 
chastity or to that of justice nnd of veracity. These objections apply equally to most 
of the casuists, and have often been the subject of controversy. JLiguori's Tluologia 
Moralia (8 voKs. 8vo) has been reprinted numberless times, as also mo2>t of his ascetic 
works. The most compUte edition of his works (in Italian and Latin) is that of Monza, 
70 volumes. They have been tnmslated entire into French and German, and in great 
part into English, Spanish, Polish, and other European languages. 

LIGUO'KIAKS, called also Redemptorists, a congregation of missionary priests 
founded hs Liguori in 1782, and approved by pope Benedict XIV. in 1750. Their 
object is the religious instruction of the people and the reform of public morality, by 
periodically visiting, preaching, and hearing confessions, with the consent and under 
the direction of the parish clergy. Their instructions are ordered to be of the plainest 
and most simple character, and their ministrations are entirely witlmut pomp or cere- 
monial. The congregation was founded originally in Naples, but it afterwards extended 
to Qermany and Switzerland. In the Austrian provinces they had several houses, and 
were by some represented as but establishments of the suppressed Jesuits under another 
name. Nothing, however, could be more different than the constitution and the objects 
of the two orders. Since the restoration, and especially since the revolution of 1880, the 
Liguorians have effected an entrance into France, and several houses of the congregadon 
have been founded in England, Ireland, and America; but their place is in great measure 
occupied by the more active congregation of the Lazarist or Vincentian fathers, whose 
objects are substantially the same, and who are much more widely spread. See Paul. 
Vincent db, and Vincentian Congrboation. 

LIQURIA (LiGURiAN Republic, ariU\ in ancient geography, a part of n. Italy. As 
defined in the time of Augustus it embraced the territory from the Ligurian sea across 
the maritime Alps to the ro in the n., and from the Varus in the w. to the Macra in the 
east. At a very early period the Ligures possessed a larger territory, extending far into 
Gaul, on the western side of the Rhone. Their origin is unknown, but they were a 
warlike and cnterpiising people. They were subjugated by the Romans about 125 b.c., 
Liguria forming the nucleus of the Roman province of Gaul. 

LIOTTBIAH BEFTTBLIC, the name given to the republic of Genoa in 1797, when, in 
consequence of the conquests of Bonaparte in Italy, it was obliged to exchange its aris- 
tocratic for a democratic constitution. See Genoa. The name was chosen bNM^ause the 
Genoese territory formed the principal part of ancient Liguria. 

LILAC, Syringa, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order oUaeea, and con- 
sisting of shrubs and small trees, with 4-cleft corolla, 2 stamens, and a 2Hce]Ied, 2- valvu- 
lar capsule. The Common Lilac {8, vuigarU) is one of the most common ornamental 
shrubs cultivated in Europe and North America. It is a native of the n. of Persia, and 
was first brought to Vienna by Bu8l>ecq, the ambassador of Ferdinand I., to whom we 
also owe the introduction of the tulip into European gardena From Vienna it soon 
spread, so that it is now to be found half wild in the hMges of some parts of Enrope. 
There are many varieties. The flowers grow in larse conical panicles; are of a bluish 
" ULic'* color, purple or white, and have a very delicious odor. The leaves are s fav- 
orite food of cantharides. The bitter extract of the unripe capsules has very marked 
tonic and febrifugal properties. The wood is fine-grained, and is used for inlayfaig, 

Digitized by VjO^JV IC 

31 K5S^ 

tonuDg* and tfae making of small articles. A fragrant oil can bo obtained from it by 
disiillation. The Chinese Lilac (3. ChinensU) bus larger flowers, but with less power- 
ful odor, and the Persian Lilac (.S. Penica) bus narrower leaves. Both arc often 
planted in gardens and pleasure-grounds. There are several other 'species. 

LIL'BURNE, John, 1618-1657; a Protestant agitator of England. Imbibing opinions 
in opposition to tlie English church, at the age of 18 he went to Holland to procure the 
printing of a ptimphlet aguiust the bishops. This he aided to circulate secretly, was 
exposed to the authorities, tried in the court of the star-chamber, condemned in Feb., 
1637, to receive 500 laches, to be pilloried and confined in prison, lined £500, and required 
to give security for good behavior. His bold courage before tlie judges gave him the 
wbriqaet of '•Freeborn John," Given his liberty in 1640 he placed himself at the 
head of his sympathizers and demanded that lord Stratford should be arraigned. He 
was again arrested and taken before the house of lords; but such was the pressure of 
public opinion in his favor that the parliament (" long parliament") released him, and 
subsequently declai-ed his punishment to have l)een illegal, barbarous, and tyrnnnicnl; and 
recompensed him for his imprisonment and injuries by a payment to him of £8,000. He 
joined the army of the parliament against Charles I., was taken prisoner, and would 
have been hung, had not the parliament's genenil, the duke of Essex, thretitened to hang 
royalist prisoners in retaliation. He soon became dissatisfied with the Presbyterian 
leaders, and published charges and denunciations even against Cromwell. The latter 
procured bis trial before a commission, by whom he was acquitted. Emboldened by 
this, he beg^m a violent agitation against Cromwell, read in public a pamphlet entitled 
EnglaruTs New Chains, and in consequence was committed to the Tower. Thence 
he poured out political pamphlets which gave him great popularity with the people. 
He was aguin brought to trial, but the pressure of popular opinion \n his favor deter- 
mined his acquittal. But Cromwell soon after secured his condemnation and banishment 
for a vicious attack on Kaslering. He then resided in Brussels and Amsterdam. After 
the dissolution of the "long parliament," he returned to England without permission, 
and Cromwell sought to imprisop him in the Tower; but it ended in his remaining in Eng- 
land as a prisoner at large. Towards the close of his quarrelsome life he espoused the 
doctrines of the Friends, or Quakers. Judge Jenkins said of him: ** Were John Lil- 
borne the only man living on the earth, Litbume would dispute with John, and John 
with Lilburne." An account of his trials, entitled Truth's Victory ater Tyrants, was 
published in 1649. 

LILIA'CSJB, a natural order of endogenous plants, containing about 1200 known 
species. They are most numerous in the warmer parts of the temperate zones. They 
are mostly herbaceous plants, with bulbous or tuberous, sometimes fibrous, roots; rarely 
shrubs or trees. The shrubby and arborescent species are mostly tropical. The stem is 
simple, or branching towards the top, leafless or leafy. The leaves are simple, generally 
narrow, sometimes cylindrical, sometimes fistular. The flowers are generally large, 
with 6-cleft or 6-toothed perianth; and grow singly or in spikes, racemes, umbels, 
heads, or panicles. The stamens are six, opposite to the segments of the pcrinnth; the 
pistil has a superior 8-celled. many-seeded ovary, and a single style. The fruit is suc- 
culent or capsular; the seeds packed one upon another in two rows. This order contains 
many of our finest garden, green-house, and hot-house flowers, as lilies, tulips, dog's- 
tooth violet, lily of the valley, tuberose, crown imperial, and other fritillaries, hyacinths, 
ghriosa tuperba; many species useful for food, as garlic, onion, leak, and other species 
of aUium, asparagus, the quamash or biscuit root (canuusia eseulenta) of North America, 
the ti (draatna (erminalis or cordyline ti) of the South seas, etc. ; many species valuable in 
medicine, as squill, aloes, etc. ; and some valuable for the flber which their leaves yield, 
as New Zealand flax, and the species of bowstrine hemp or sanseviera. — This natural 
order has been the subject of a number of splendid works, among which may be par- 
ticularly named Redoute's Le$ IMiaeies (8 vols. Paris, 1802-16). 

LILLE (formerly LTsxis. 'Hhe island;" Flemish, Byud)^ an important manufacturing 
t and fortress in the n. of France, chief town of the department of Nord, is situated on 
the Deule, in a level, fertile district, 140 m. n.n.e. of Paris, and 62 m. s.e. of Calais. The 
streets are wide, the squares imposing, and the houses, which are mostly in the modern 
style, well built The principal buildings and institutions are the medical school, the 
lyceum, the bourse, ana the palace of Richelx)urg. now the Hotel de-Ville, in which is 
&e school of art. with a famous collection of dmwings by Raphael, Michael, and other 
masters. Lille derives its name from that of the castle around which the town orlgi- 
Dally arose, and which from its position in the midst of marshes was called Isla. It was 
founded in 1007 by Baldwin, the fourth count of Flanders, and has suffered greatly 
from frequent sieges. Of these, the most recent, and perhaps the most severe, took 
place in 1708 and 1792. On the former occasion, during the war of the Spanish succes- 
sion, the garrison capitulated to the allies, after a bombardment of 120 days; on the 
latter, the Austrians, after a terriflc bombardment, were obliged to raise the siege. 
Lille is an important military center. It is also the seat of extensive and thriving manu- 
factures^ The goods principally manufactured are linen, hosiery, gloves, blankets, lace, 
IMk thread, and tulle. The town contains many spiuning-mUls, bleach-flelds, sugar- 
Digitized by VjiOuyTc 

Lfllebonne. qO 

refineries, distilleries, tan-pits, dye-houses, etc. In the vicinity are numerous oil-milla, 
porcelain -fact<irics, and ghi^s and pottery works. Pop. *7G, 137,560. 

LILLEBONNE, a small t. of norlijern France on tlie river Bolbec, 40 kilometers e. 
of Havre; pop. 4,B00; has manufactures of thread, cotton, and linen fabrics. William the 
conqneror gave it importance by the construction there of a ehateiiu-foft. Old Koman 
roads diverge from it to Kouen. Paris, Evreux, and Dreuz. It was a city of importance 
under the liomaus, as attested by considerable ruins, among which are those of u llieater 
340 ft. long. 

LILLEUS. a small t. in the n. of France on the river Mare; pop. 6,600. Principal 
industries, the manufacture of shoes for exportation, of linens, and of beer and distilled 

LHiLIBURLERO, the refrain of an Irish ballad, which appeared before the revolu- 
tion of 1688. and is said to have exercised a profound influence, going far to precipitate 
that outbreak. The words '* lilliburlero ana bullen-a-lah" (Irish) are siud to have been 
employed by the Irish Roman Catholics during the Protestant massacres of 1641. The 
ballad in question, alleged to have been written by lord Wharton, took up these words 
and employed them to tire the hearts of the king's soldiers. 

LIL'LIPUT, the name of a fabulous kingdom described by Swift in GulUter^s IVavels, 
of which the inhabitants are not greater in size than an ordinary man's finger. The 
term Lilliputian has come into conmion use as a designation of anything very diminu- 

LIL'LO, George, 1693-1739; an English dramatist of vigorous style and of a moral 
tendency in advance of his time; the representative of the domestic manners and tastes 
of the middle classes. His plays otJSilvia and George Barnuell both appeared in 1781. 
The latter was extremely popular, and greatly delighted queen Caroline. It was imitated 
bv Saurlu and plave«l in France under the title of Beverly. His oilier works are the 
C.'irUUaa Hero; manna; and Elmeriek. These works were collected and published in 
2 vols. 12mo. in 1773. 

LILLY, John. Sec Lyly, ante. 

LILLY, WiLiJAM. an English astrologer, b. at Diseworth, in Leicestershire, in 1603. 
Whilst yet a young man, he was employed as book-keeper by a merchant in London, 
who could not wriUs and on his emplo3'er's death married his widow, with whom he 
obtained a fortune of £1000 sterling. He betook himself to the study of astrology, par- 
ticularly the Ara Noioiia of Cornelius Agrippa, and soon acquired a' considerable fame 
as a Ciister of nativities, and a predictor of future events. In 1634 he is said to have 
obt:nned permission from the dean of Westminster to search for hidden treiisure in 
Westminster abbey, but was driven from his midnight work by a storm, which he 
ascribed to hellish powers. From 1644 till his death he annually issued his Mfrlinus 
Anglicus Junior, containing vaticinations, to which no small importjince was attached 
by many. In the civil war he attached himself to the parliamentary parly, and was 
actually sent in 1648, with another astrologer, to the camp at Colchester, to encourage 
the troops, which service he performed so' well that he received a pension for it, which, 
however, he only retained two years. Nevertheless, he made a small fortune by his 
"art" during the commonwealth, and was able to purchase an estate. After the restora 
tion, he was for some time imprisoned, on the supposition that he was acquainted with 
the secrets of the republicans; but being set free, he retired to the country. He was 
again apprehended on suspicion of knowing something of the causes of the great fire of 
Lonilon in 1666. He died June 9, 1681, at his estate at Hersham. Lilly wrote nearly a 
score of works on his favorite subject. They arc of no value whatever, except to illustrate 
the credulity or knavery of their author. 

LILY, a genus of phints of the natural order liUaeea, containing a number of species 
much prized for the size and beauty of their flowers. The perianth is liell .«(h»ped, and 
its segments are often bent back at the extremity. The root is a scaly bulb, the stem 
herbaceous and simple, often several feet high, bearing the flowers near its summit.— 
The White Lilt (L. candidum), a native of the Levant, has been long cultivated in 
gardens, and much sung by poets. It has la|;ge, erect, pure white flowers, as much 
prized for their fragrance as for their l)eauty.— The orange lily {L. bulbiferum), a native 
of the 9. of Europe, with large,' erect, omnge-colored flowers, is a well-known and vcrj' 
showy ornament of the flower-garden.— The mfirtagon or Turk's cup lily {L. martagon), 
a nntiveof the s. of Europe, and allied species with verticillate leaves and drooping 
flowers, are also common in gardens. The tiger lily (L. tigrinum) is a native of China, 
remarkable for the axillary buds on the stem; and some very fine species are natives of 
North America, as L. stfperbum, which grows in marshes In the United States, has a 
stem 6 to 8 ft. high, nndreflexed orange flowers, spotted with black; L. Oanadense, etc. 
Several very fine species have been Introduced from Japan, as L. Japanteum, L spe- 
eiosum. and L. laneifoUum. — The bulbs of L. pomponium. L. martagon, and L. Kamt- 
sefiaoenae, arc mastc(t and eaten in Siberia. Tliat of L. candidum]oBcs its acridity by dry- 
ing, roasting, or boiling; when cooked, it is viscid, pulpy, and sugary, and is eaten in 
some parts of the east. — Lilies are generally propagated by offset bulbs. A single scale 
of the bulb will, however, suffice to produce a new plant, or oven part of a scale, of 

Digitized by VjOLJ V IC 

QQ I«tI]ebOBB«b 

wbicli skillful gardeners nrsW tliemselveft. — The name lily is ofteo popularly extended to 
floMcrs of otiier geucra of llie same order, and even of allied onlei-s. 

LILY, GiOAifTfc, Doryanihes excelm, of Austnilia. a plant of tbe natural order 
amaryUddeiB, with flowcrhi*; 8teai 10 or 14, sometimes d6 ft. high, Ix^aritig at lopacluster 
of largj crimson blossoms. The stem is leafy, but the hu'gebt leaves are uetir the root 
This plant is found both on the mountains aud the sea-coast of New South Wales. It 
is of splendid bcrauty. The fiber of its leaves has been found ezcellcut for ropes and 
for textile fabrics. 

LLLTBiE'UM. See Harsajua, ante, 

LILYE, or LILLY, Wilmam, 1466-1523; a celebrated English grammarian ; gradu- 
ated ut Oxford, and immediately afterwards traveled in the orient to perfect his knowl- 
edge of the Greek language, he passed five yeara at the ancient city of Kliodes, then 
resided in Rome, and returned to London in 1509. There he opened the first public 
school for teaching the dead languages. He became, soon after, tlie first master of 
St. Paura school aud in the intervals of his duties edited and published a work known 
as IaBi^9 Oramnuir; to which dean Colet, the great Erasmus, and cnrdinal Wolsey 
each contribtited a p:irt. It was a qimrto volume, published in London in 1518, and is 
said to have passed through more editions than any similar work. 

LTLT OF THE VALLEY, ContaUaria, a genua of plants of tlie natural order Uliaeem, 
having terminal racemes of flowers: a white, bell-shaped, or tubular 6-cleft or 6-toothed 
perianth; a ^'elled germen, with two ovules in each cell, and a succulent fruit. — The 
species commonly known ns the lilv of the valley {C. majulut), the Maiblume or May- 
flower of the Germans, ^rows in bushy places and woods in Europe, the nortli of Asia, 
aud North America, and has a leafless scape, with a niceme of hmall flowers turned to 
one »de. It is a universal favorite on account of its pleasing appearance, the frugnmce 
of its flowers, and the early season at which they appear. It is therefore very often 
cultivated in gardens, and forced to earlier flowering in liot-houtes. Varieties are in cul- 
tivation with red, variegated, and doulile flowers. The berries, the root, and the flowers 
have a nauseous, bitter, and somewhat acrid taste, and purgative and diuretic effects. 
The smell of the flowers, when in large quantity and in a close apartment, is narcotic. 
Dried and powdered they become a sternutatorv. The esteemed eau d*or of the French 
is a water distilled from the flowers. — Allied to lily of the valley is 8olomon*s seal (q. v.). 

LX'riA, the capital of the republic of Peru, stands on the Rimac, from name its 
own is corrupted, in lat. 1^* 8' «.. and long. T3" 5' west. It is 6 m. distant from its port, 
on the Pacific, Cnllao, with which it is connected by a railway. Including its suburban 
villages, ten in number, it contains (76) 100.078 inhabiiants. Lima is of Spanish origin, 
and its generally magnificent public buildings entitle it to rank as the handsomest city 
of South America. At one time the grand enirepdt for the west const of the continent, 
it still carries on a large trade, importing cottons, woolens, silks, hardware, wines, and 
brandy; and exporting silver, copper, bark, soap, vicuna wool, chinchilla skins, niter. 
sugar,' etc. The tem|>emturo is agreeable, averaging 6S.1* in winter and 77.6* in sum- 
mer; and the climate is comparatively salubrious, abundant dews making up for the 
want of rain. 

LOTA {ante). The approaches to the city are by six gates; and the principal ala- 
meda, an avenue of great beauty on the read to Callao, is one of the most striking and 
impressive thoroughfares on the continent. The general impression m>ide by the city 
on nearing it is more in its favor than on a closer examination. At a distance, its spires 
and domes glitter in the sun, and its architecture. Moorish in character, gives it a very 
pioiuresque ajjpcarance. But, excepting the public buildings, the houses are low, and 
irregularly built, though the streets are regular and attractive. The plnza mayor, or 
great squnrc, has a handsome fountain in the center, and is the principal business 
locality. Here arc the palace of the president of Peru, the cathcdnil. and the arch- 
bishops palace; the old palace of Pizarro is on the south side, and on the west is the town- 
hall. An immense amphitheater for bull-fighting is a feature of one of the alamedjis. The 
longest side of the city, which is in the form of a triangle, extends along the bank of the 
river Rimac. Through the middle of almost every street a stream of water is turned 
cnch morning, designed to carry away whatever refuse collects from the houses; and 
this process, combined with the service of the buzzards, comprises the public scavenger- 
ing of the city. The monasteries and convents of Lima, of which tliere were at one 
time a large number, have nearly all been suppressed. The convent of San Francisco, 
however, is a large monastic establishment, covering nearly seven acres of ground : there 
are also many parish churches and 23 chapels. The university of Lima was the first 
educational estal)]ishmcnt of the kind in the new world. It has fallen into decay to 
some extent, but contiuns a valuable library of about 20,000 volumes. Lima was founded 
by Pizarro in 1586, and called Ciudad de los Reyes. It has been frequently visited by 
eaithqunkt's, one of which, in 1746. destroyed many buildings. The city has recently 
(Jan., 1881) been captured by the Chilian forces in the process of tho lamentable war 
between Peru and Chili. 

U. K.IX-« ^ _ 

Digitized by 


Um*. QA 

Ume. O* 

LIICA WOOD, A name of the dye-wood also called Pernambuco wood, Nicaragua 
wood, aud peach wood, the heart-wood of OoBsalpinia echinaia. Bee Brazil Wood. It 
is extensively used for dyeing red and peach-color. 


LIMB, the border or edge of the disk of a heavenly body, particularly the sun and 
moon. The name is applied to the graduated circle of an instrument for measurlDg 
angles. A concentric urc used for subdividing the spaces or degrees on the limb, is 
called a vernier. There are two limbs on a theodolite, one for measuring horizontal and 
another for measuring vertical angles, called respectively the horizontal and the vertical 
limb. The gra.lnateU staff of a leveling rod is often called a limb, the graduated line 
on the vane being called the vernier. 

LIXBEB U half the field-equipage of a cannon or howitzer. The one half consista 
of the caiTiiige. itself, with the gun ; while the limber, a two-wheeled carriage, fitted with 
boxes fur the field-ammunition of the piece, and having shafts to which the horses are 
harnessed, forms the remainder. At the back-part, the limber has a strong hook, to 
which, on the march, is attached the foot of the gun-caiTiage by a ring. This constitutes 
at once a four-wheeled frame, which, while easier for transport than a gun on two 
wheels only, has the advantage of keeping together the gun and its ammunition. In 
marching, the gun points to the rear; but in coming to action, the artillerymen, by a 
rapid evolution, wheel round, so that the gun points to the front. It is then unltm- 
bered, or unhooked, and the liml)er conveyed far enough to the rear to be out of the 
way of the men working the piece. To limber up agam and retreat or pursue is the 
work but of a few moments. 

LIMBO. See LtiCBUS, ante, 

LIM'BORCH, Philippus van, 1683-1712; b. Amsterdam; was educated in theology* 
and in 1657 made minister at Qonda, and ten years later professor of theology at the 
Remonstrant college of Amsterdam. He was a careful student of the doctrines of 
Arminius. and wrote Theologia Christiana, an elaborate and profound analysis of them, 
published 1C80 and highly praised by Hallam. lie was in frequent correspondence 
with John Locke. 

LDI BUBO, an old province of Belgium, which, after having formed part of Belgium* 
France, Holland, and Austria, was. m 1889, divided between Belgium and Holland.— 
Belgian Limburg, or Lhibourg, in the n.e. of the kingdom, is separated from Holland 
by the Meuse up to lat. 51® 9' n., and thence by a line running e.n.e. to the northern 
boundary of the kingdom. The surface of the province is flat, and a large portion of it 
is occupied by barren heath; but in the s. and center there is good arable laud. There 
is excellent pasturage along the banks of the Meuse, and large herds of cattle and swine 
are here reared. Ine manufactures include soap, salt, pottery, paper, tobacco, straw - 
hats, beet-sugar, etc. The area of the province is 928 English sq.m., aud the pop. '76, 
206,187. The capital of the province is Hasselt (q.v.). 

LDCBITBG, a province of Holland, which was once also a duchv in the (Germanic con- 
federation, forms the s.e. corner of the kingdom, being contiguous to the Belgian 
province of the same name. Its surface is generally level, and the soil is poor, a great 
part of it consisting of moors and marshes. However, in the valleys of the Meuse and 
Its chief tributaries, excellent crops of grain, hemp, flax, oil-seeds, etc., are raised, and 
cattle and sheep reared. There are many manufactories of gin, tobacco, soap, leather, 
paper, and glass. The capital is Maestricht (q.v.). Area, 848 English sq.m.; pop. '75, 

LIMBUR€r-ON-THE-LAHN. A t. in the duchy of Nassau annexed to Prussia in 
1866; seat of the Catholic bishopric of Fribourg; pop. about 6.000. It is one of the 
most ancient cities of Gkrmany. The *' Chronicles of Limbourg," in one of its libraries, 
is one of the oldest and most important historical manuscripts of Europe. The cathedral 
of St Gkorge, built in the 18th c. on a crag overlooking the valley of the river, is remark- 
able for its picturesqueness. Near this town the French gen. Jourdan was defeated 
by the Austrians in 1796. 

LnC'BTTS (Lat. Hmlnis, s border), the name assigned in Roman Catholic theology to 
that place or condition of departed souls in which those are detained who have not 
offended by anv personal act of their own, but, nevertheless, are not admitted to the 
divine vision. They distinguish it into the UnUna patrum and tlie Umhus infantium. By 
the former name they understand the place of those just who died before the coming of 
the Redeemer, and of whom it is said (1 Peter iii. 19) that he preached to those spirits 
that were in prison. By the latter is meant the place or state of the souls of infants who 
die without baptism. See Hell. Regarding the nature of both theseplaces of deten- 
tion, great variety of opinion prevails in Roman Catholic schools. See Wctser's KircJienr 
Lexicon, art. " Hollenfahrt Chrisli." 

LIXS is the oxide of the metal calcium (q.v.), and is known in chemistry as one of 
the alkaline cartha. Its sj^mbol is CaO, its equivalent is 28, and \U specific graviiv is 
8.18. In a state of purity it is a whit« caustic powder, with an alkaline reaction, and so 
infusible as to resist even the heat of the ozhydrogen jet See DBUHMoaD Light. It 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

«>«> Ume. 

is obtained by heating pure carbonate of lime (as, for instance, Carrara marble or Ice^ 
Un<l spar) to full redness, when the carbonic acid is expelled and lime is left. Com- 
mcrcial Iime» which is obtained by burning common limestone in a kilo, is usually very 
far from pure. Tliis compound (CuO) is known as quicklime, or. from the ordiuary 
method ot obtaining it, as learned Ume, to distinguish it from (he hydrate of Unie or ulakeS 
iifM, wliicli is represented by the formula CaU,HO. On pouring water on quicklime, 
iliere is an augmentation of bulk, and the two enter into combiuatiou ; and if the pro- 
Dortion of water be not too great, a light, white, dry po>\der is foimed, and a great heat 
is evolved. On exposing the hydrate to a red heat, the water is expelled, and quicklime 
is left. 

If qaicklime, instead of being treated with water, is simply exposed to the air, it 
slowly attracts both aqueous vapor and carbonic acid, and becomes what is termed air- 
daked, the resulting compound in this case being a powder which is a mixture (or pos- 
sibly a combination) of carbonate and hydrate of lime. 

Lime is about twice as soluble in cold as in boiling water, but even cold water only 
takes up about ^iir of its weight of lime. This solution is known as lime-tcater, and is 
much employea both as a medicine and as a test for carbonic acid, which instantly 
readers it turbid, in consequence of the carbonate of lime that is formed being more 
insoluble even than lime itself. It must, of course, be kept carefully guarded from the 
atmosphere, the carlionic acid of which would rapidly afiect it. If, in the preparation 
of slaked lime, considerably more water is used than is necessary to form the hydrate, a 
white semi-fluid matter is produced, which is termed miUcofUme. On allowing it to 
stand, there is a deposition of hydrate of lime, above which is lime-water. 

The use of lime in the preparation of mortars and cements is described in the articles 
on these •subjects. Lime is also largely employed as a manure (see below), and in the 
purification of coal gas. in the preparation of hides for tanning, for various laboratory 
processes (from its power of attracting water), etc. Its medicinal uses am noticed 

The following are the most important of the salts of lime. Sulpliate of lime (CaO, SOs) 
occurs free from water in the mineml anJiydrite, but is mucli more abundant in combi- 
nation with two equivalents of water in aelenite, and in the different varieties ot gypsum 
and alabaster. Bee Qtpsuu. 

Oarbonaie of lime (CaO,CO0 is abundantly present in both the inorganic and orgjinic 
kingiioms. In the inorganic kingdom it occurs in a crystalline form in Iceland spar. 
Ara.:^ontte, and marble — in which it is found in minute granular crystals — while in the 
amorphoas condition it forms the different varieties of limestone, chalk, etc. It is 
always present in the ashes of plants, but here it is, at all events, in part the result of 
the combustion of citrates, acetates, malates, etc., of lime. It is the main constituent of 
the shells of crustaceans and moUusks, and occurs in considerable quantity in the bones 
of man and other vertebrates. Carbonate of lime, held in solution by free carbonic acid, 
is also present in most spring and river waters, and in sea- water. Stalactites, stalagmites, 
tufa, and travertin are ail composed of this salt, deposited from calcareous waters. 
Certsiin forms of carbonate of lime — the Portland and other oolites, some of the mag- 
nesian limestones, etc. — are of extreme value for building purposes, and the various 
uses of the finer marbles (q.v.) are too well known to require comment. 

There is a combination of lime with an organic acid, viz., oxalate of lime, which is 
of great importance in pathology as a freqnent constituent of urinary calculi and sedi- 
ments; for a description of it see Oxalic Acid. 

The soluble salts of lime (or, more accurately speaking, of calcium) give no precipi- 
tate with tunmonia. but yield a white precipitate (of carbonste of lime) with carbonate 
of potash or of soda. These reactions are, however, common to the salts of barium, 
strontium, and calcium. Solution of sulphate of lime produces no maiked effect when 
added to a salt of calcium, but throws down a white sulphate with the other salts. The 
most delicate test for lime is oxalate of ammonia, which, even in very dilute neutral or 
alkaline solutions, throws down a white precipitate of oxalate of lime. 

There are several compounds of -phosphoric acid and lime, of which the most impor- 
tant is the batie phosphate ofUme, sometimes termed bone phosphate, from its being the 
chief ingredient of bones. The baiiic phosphate is represented by the formula 8CaO,POft, 
and not only occurs in bones, but also in the minerals apatite and phosphorite, and in 
the rounded ooduk» termed coprolites. which are found in the Norfolk cntg. It forms 
four-fifths of the ash of well-burned bone, the remaining one-fifth being carbonate of 
lime. This ash is known as bone-earth, and is employed as a manure and in the prepa- 
ration of phosphorus, etc. 

The substance commcmly designated as chloride ofUme has been already described in 
the article BLBACHmo Powder. 

Lime ae Manure. — This mineral substance has been used for many centuries as a 
means of increasing the fertility of land. All crops require a certain amount, as is found 
by analyzing the ash which remains after combustion. It is sometimes supplied, with- 
out previous preparation, in the form of marl and dtialk, but in most cases is first cal- 
cined and reauced to a fine powder by slaking with water. The quantity of calcined 
lime applied varies from three to eight tons to the acre. The smaller quantity may be 
tofficient for light land containing little vegetable matter, while the larger may be 

Digitized" by VjOUV IC 

I'ime. Oft 

Limerick. ^^ 

required for strong Lind. or for land holding much organic matter in an Inert state. The 
large quantity of hine applied shows that its manuiial^ffect is due more to its producing 
a certain ciiemical effect on tlie land than to its affording nutriment to the crops. Lime 
promotes the decomposition of all kinds of vcgetahle matter in the boil, and, further, it 
corrects any acidity in the oi^anic matter, and thus destroys those weeds which are 
favored iiy sucli a condition oftlie soil. It assists in the decomposition of certain salts 
Avhose bases form the food of plants, and in this way it may be said to digest or prepare 
their food. On ceitaiu liinds of land, the liner grasses do not thrive untU the land has 
been limed, and in these cuses its use becomes all-important. Lime is the only cui^, too, 
that C2m l)e relied on for **liuger-and-toe " in turnips, and its use is, from this cause, 
becoming more general. 

JJjnt-Compouu(U in Materia Mediea, — Quicklime, in association with potash, either as 
i)i<Qpoiw»a cum calce, or as Vtenna pttste, is occasionally used as a caustic. JJme-vHtter, 
mixed with an equal quantity or an excess of milk, is one of our best remedies for the 
vomiting dependent on iriitabilily cf the stomach. From half an ounce to two or three 
ounces may be thus taken three or four times a day. Its use as a constituent of carron 
oil in burns is noticed in tlie article Likimbnts. Cfuslk, or carbonate of Ume^ when freed 
from the impurities with which it is often associated, is used as a dusting-powder in 
moist excoriations, ulcers, etc. ; and in the form of cJmlk mixture and eomptncnd powder 
of chalk, iBa|H)pular remidy in viirious forms of diarrhea. A mixture of an ounce of 
precipitated carbonate of lime and a quarter of an ounce of finely powdered camphor, is 
sold as campJwrated cretaceous tooth-^icder. 

LIXE, Citrvs acida, a fruit similar to the lemon (q.v.), but much smaller, being only 
about 1^ inches in diameter, and almost globular, with a thin rind, and an extregiely acid 
juice. It is rc^rded by many botanists as a variety of the same species with the .citron 
and lemon. The plant'does not attain the magnitude of a tree, but is a shrub of about 
8 ft. in lieight, with a crooked trunk, and many spreading prickly bnmclies. It is a 
native of India and China, but has long been cultivated in the West Indies, the s. of 
Europe, etc. In the West Indies, it is planted both for the stike of its fruit and for 
hedges. The fruit ia used for the same purposes as the lemon; but its acid is by many 
reckoned more a^rreeable. Lime-juice is imported into Britain like lemon-juice for the 
manufacture of citric acid, ahd it is itself used as a beverage. — The sweet lime (67. limetta 
of Bisso), cultivated in the s. of Europe, appears to bs a mere variety, probably the result 
of cultivation, with a sub-acid pulp. 

LIKE, or Linden, Tilia, a genus of trees of tho natural order tHiacea, natives of 
Europe, the n. of Asia, and North America. The species are very similar; graceful, 
umbrageous trees; with deciduous, heart-shaped, serrated leaves, and cymes or panicles 
of rather Finall vcllowisii flowers: each c^ine or panicle accompanied w^th a lar^, 
oblong, 3'ellowish. membranous bractea, with netted veins, the lower part of which 
adheres to tlie flower-stalk. The wood is light and soft, but tough, durable, and partic- 
ularly suitable for carved work. It is much used l)y turners, and for making pill-hoxes. 
The charcoal made of it is often used for tooth-powder, for medicinal purposes, for cray- 
ons, and for the manufacture of pinpowder. The use of tho fibrous inner bnrk for 
making ropes, mats, and other plaited work, is noticed in the article Bast. It is also 
used as a healing appliciition to wounds and sores, being very mucilaginous, and nliound- 
in^ in a l>land sap. The leaves aro in some countries used as food for cattle, but cows 
fed on them produce luid butter. The fiowers have an agreeable odor, nnd abound in 
honey, much sought after by bees. The celebrated Kownohoney, much valued for medi- 
cinal use and for making liqueurs, is the produce of ^reat lime forests near Eowno, in 
Lithuania. The infusion and distilled water of the dried flowers are gently sudorific and 
antispasmodic. The former is in Fnmce a popular remedy for catarrhs. The seeds 
abound in a fixed sweet oil. — The European Limb, or Linden {T. Eurnptfn), often 
attains a large size, particularly in rich alluvial soils. 8omo Imtnnists distinguish a 
small -leaved kind (71 parvifoUa or microphylia) and a large-leaved (21 grandifotia) ns dif- 
ferent species; othei-s regiird them as mere varieties.. The Hooded or Cafuchtn Ltmk 
is an interesting monstrous varietv. The lime tree is often planted for shade in towns: 
and the principal street of Berlin is called Unter den Linden, from tho rows of lime trees 
which line it. The lime is a very doubtful native of Britain, althongh indigenous on 
the continent from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. In Britain, the lime tree is gen- 
erally propagated by layers. — The American Limb (T, Americana, or T. glabra), com- 
monly called BABSWdoD in America, has larger leaves than the European species. It 
abounds on the shores of lakes Erie and Ontario. Other species take its place in more 
western nnd more southern regions. 

LIM EBICK, an inland co. of the province of Munster. in Ireland, separated by the 
Shannon on the n. from Clare, and bounded on the e. by Tipperary, on the s. by Cork, 
and on the w. l»y Kerry. Its extreme length is 86 m., its broadlh 54 m. ; area, 1064 
sq.m . or 680, 84i acres. Pop. 71. inclusive of tlie city of Limerick, 191,986; of whom 
liT.S'^O were Roman Catholics. The county returns two memlHTs to pnrlinmcnt. The 
surfnce of Limerick is an undulating plain, which forms part of the c<'ntnd carbonifer- 
ous limestone plain of Ireland. A mountainous district on the w. lielongs to the great 
coaUtract of Munster, but the coal is of an infeiior quality, and is chiefly used for the 

Digitized by VjOOV VC 

37 Lime. 

< Lliu«rlek» 

burning of lime. Within a sliort distance of the city of Limerick is a ouarry wliich 
pn>duces a redd isli- brown marble of fine quality, as well ns a black niurblc of inferior 
Tslue. More than one of the districts contains mm. copper, and It ad ores; but at pres- 
ent no miniug operations are carried on. The soil in gt-ncral is very rcriile, especially 
the district called the Golden Yale, which comprises upwards of lAO.OOO acies; us also 
a portion of the left bank of the Shannon below Linunck. Of the entire i.cri iiiie of the 
county. 526.876 acres are arable, and 121,101 unsuited to cultivation. In iiinual Iho 
soil is equally fitted for tillage and for pasture. In 1876 172,i)4l acres weie under cropB 
of various kinds, only 858 being reported fallow. In the same year the number of cjit- 
tlewas200,a08; of sheep. 70.000: and of pigs. 66.180. The national schools in 1875 
were attended by 37.444 pui)ils, of whom 36,682 were Roman Catholics. 

The prineipjii towns of Limerick are the city of that name, Newcastle, and Rath- 
kealc. Of the secondary rivers, the Deel and the Naigue are the most in poitant. '\ he 
gnat highway of water-communication, however, is the Sluniron itself, tLe navigation 
of which has been much improved, and in which the harbor ( f promi.^'es to form 
the nucleus of an extended foreign trade. Limerick cimmunicates by railway with 
Dublin, Wuterford, Cork, and Eunis. The popuLttion is cirutiy occupied in a.uricul- 
tare, hardly any manufactures existing outside the cit}'. Limerick anciently formed 
part of the temtory of Thomoud. the princi] ality of the O'Briens. Alter the English 
mvasion, it fell, through mimv vicissitudes, in great part to the Desmond Fitzgeralds — 
the confiscated est^ites of the last earl in Limerick coi.tair.rd no fewer thnn 96,165 acres. 
On the forfeitures after 1641 and 1690, it was paiceled out to new proprietors. Lim- 
erick is more than U2»ually rich in antiquities, both ecclesiastical nr.d civil, of the Celtic 
as well :is of the Anglo-Norman period. There weie at one time nearly 40 religious 
foun^tions of the O'Briens alone, and the ruins of about HO castles are still in exist- 
ence. The ecclesiastical remains of Adare are exceedingly' iniensting, two of the 
ancient churches having been restored, one as the Piotestaut, the other as the Catholic 
parish church. Two other monastic ruins, in very good preservation, form a group of 
ecclesiastical remains hardly surpassed, in number and picturcsqueuess, even in tho 
most favored districts of England. 

LDIEBICX, city, capital of the county just dcFcribcd, is situated on the river Shan- 
non, 120 ui. W.S.W. from Dublin, with whi(h it is connected by the great Southern and 
Western railway. Pop. in '51, 58.448; in '01. 44.026: in '71, 89.U58, of whom 18.022 
were males, and 21.831 females. More than 90 per cent were Roman Catholics. Lim- 
erick is a parliamentary and municipal borough, and returns two menibeis to parliament. 
It occupies both sides of tie Shannon, toccther with a tiact called King's island, vvhich 
Ucs on a bifurcation of the river; and is (Tivided into the English town, the oldest part 
of the city (and connected with the extensive suburb called 1 h< mond Gate, on the Clare 
side of the Shannon), and the Irish town, which, within the present century, has extended 
on the s. bank of the river into what is row the best part of Limeric k, called the new 
town, or Kewtown Pery, one of tlie handsomest towns in Ireland. Limerick is a j)laco 
of great antiquity. From its position on the Shannon, it was long an object of oesire 
to the Danes, who occupied it in the mi()dlc of the 9ih c, and held possession till 
reduced to a tributary condition by Brian Boroimhe. in the end of the 10th century. It 
was early occupied by the English, and in 1210 king John visited and fortified it. It 
was afterwards assaulted and piutially burned in 1814 by Edward Bruce. Its later his- 
tory is still more interesting. It was occupied by the Catholic party in 1641, but sur- 
ienden»fl to Ireton in 1651. At the rcTolntion. it was the last siton.airold of king James. 
Having been unsuccesstully bcsiegi'd hv William after the victory of the Boyne, it was 
reffularly invented in ^''Cl'bygen. Ginkel, and after a vigorous"^ and biilliant defense 
of several weeks, an ami 1st ice was propose<l, which led to the well-known ** treaty of 
Limerick,'* the alleged violation of which has been the subject of frequent and acrimo- 
nious contn>versy between political parties in Ireland. The so called "treaty stone" 
still marks the spot, near Thomond bridgt*. at the cntranre of the suburb of Tlioinond 
Gate, where this treaty was signed. The modern city of Limerick is more tasteful in 
its general character, and possesses more of tho appliances of c< mmcrcial cnterpriFO 
and social culture than most towns of Ireland. Its public buildings, esp< cially the new 
Roman Catholic cathedral and church of the Redcmpiorist order, are imposing, and in 
exct»llent taste. Its charitable and religious establishments are truly niuuificc nt for a 
provincial town. It possesses several ^national sehj>ols, as well as many other educa- 
tional institutions. Tho Shannon at Limerick is still a noble river, navigable for ships 
of large burden. The docks and quays are on a very extensive and cr nimc dious scale; 
and the export trade is conducted with consid'-nible'^enterprise. The Welle>hy bridge, 
over the harbor, cost £85,000. The inland navigation is by means of a canal to Killaloe, 
where it enters lough Derg, and thence by the upper Shiinnon to Athhrnc. and by tho 
Grand canal, which issues from the Shannon at Shannon liarbor. to Dublin. Tho 
manufactures of Limerick arc not very extensive, but some o'f them enjoy rot merely 
an Irish, but an imperial reputation — such are the manufactures of lace, of gloves, and 
of fish-hooks. There arc several iron-foundries, flour-mills, breweries, disiilleres. ard 
tanneries, and of late ^-ears the shipbuilding trade has been extended. In 1875 576 
vessels, of 138,456 tons, entered, and 354, of 88,811 tons cleared ^J^j^ii^g^Jl; VjOUVIC 

Ijlmestone. OQ 

Limits. ^^ 

LIM£8T0KE, the popular as well as technica. name for all rocks which are composed 
in whole, or to a large extent, of carbonate of lime. Few minerals are so extensively 
distributed in nature as this, and in some form or other, limestone roclvs occur in every 
geological epocii. Carbonate of lime is nearly insoluble in pure water, but it is reu- 
dercd easily soluble by the presence of carbonic acid gas, which occurs in a variable 
quantity in all natural waters, for it is absorbed by water in its passage through the 
air as well as through the earth. Carbonale of lime in solution is consequently found 
in all rivers, lakes, and seas. In evaporation, water and carbonic acid gas are given off, 
but the carbonate of lime remains uninfluenced, becoming gradually coucentmted. until 
it has supersaturated the water, when a precipitation t^'lces place. In this way are 
formed the stalactites which hang icicle-like from the roofs of limestone caverns, and 
the stalagmites which rise as columns from their floors. Travertine (Tiber-stone), or 
calcareous tufa, is similarly formed in running streams, lakes, and springs, by the 
deposition of the carbonate of lime on the beds or sides, where it incrusts and binds 
together shells, fragments of wood, leaves, stones, etc. So also birds' nests, wigs, and 
other objects become coated with lime in the so-called petrifying wells, as tliat at 
Knaresborough. From the same cause, pipes conveying water from boilers and mines 
often become choked up, and the tea-kettle gets lined with "fur." 

While water is thus the great store-house of carbonate of lime, very little of it, how- 
ever, is fixed by precipitation, for in the ocean evaporation does not take place to such 
an extent as to permit it to deposit, besides there is five times the quantity of free 
carbonic acid gas in the water of the sea that is required to keep the carbonate of lime 
in it in solution. Immense (quantities of lime are nevertheless being abstracted from 
the sea to form the hard portions of the numerous animals which inhabit it. Crustacea, 
mollusca, zoophytes, and foraminifera are ever busy separating the little particles of 
carbonate of lime from the water, and solidifying them, and so supplying the materials 
for forming solid rock. It has been found that alar^e portion of the bed of the Atlantic 
between Europe and North America is covered with a light-colored ooze, comj^osed 
chiefly of the perfect or broken skeletons of foi-aminifera, forming a substance, when 
dried, which, in appearance and structure, closely resembles chalk. In tropical regions, 
corals are building reefs of enormous magnitude, corresponding in structure to many 
rocks in the carboniferous and other formations. The rocks thu* organically formed 
do not always occur as they were originally deposited; denudation has sometimes 
broken them up to redeposit them as a calcareous sediment. Great changes, too, may 
have taken place through metamorphic action in the texture of the rock, some lime- 
stones being hard, others soft, some compact, concretionary, or crystalline. 

The chief varieties of limestone are: chalk (q.v.); oolite (q.v.); compact limestone^ a 
hard, smooth, fine-grained rock, generally of a bluish-gray color; cryttdUine limestone, a 
rock which, from metamorphic action, has become granular; fine-grained white varie- 
ties, resembling loaf-sugar in texture, are called saccharine or statuary marble. Magne- 
sian Umeatone or dolomite (q.v.) is a rock in which carbonate of magnesia is mixed with 
carbonate of lime. Particular names are given to some limestones from the kind of 
fossils that abound in them, as nummulite, hippurite, indiisial, and crinoidal lime- 
stones; and to others from the formation to which they belong, as Devonian, carbonif- 
erous, and mountain limestones. 

LIMESTONE, a co. in n. Alabama, having the state line of Tennessee for its n. 
boundary, the Tennessee river for its s., and for its s.w. the Elk river, flowing across 
the n. w. portion to enter tlie Tennessee; is drained by various other affluents; 650 sq.m.; 
pop. 'SO, ^1,600—21,523 of American birth, 9,962 colored. It is intersected centrally 
from n. to s. by the Nashville and Decatur railroad, and crossed in the s.e. section by 
the Memphis and Charleston railroad, Joining at the Tennessee river. It contains vast 

auantities of limestone rock, from which the countjr is named. Its surface is hilly, par- 
cularly in the n., and equally divided into prairie and woodland. Cash value of 
farms in 70, $1,816,510, numbering 1363. Its products are live slock, every variety of 
grain, tobacco, cotton, wool, sweet potatoes, honey, sorghum, and the products of the 
dairy. Seat of justice, Athens. 

LIMESTONE, a co. in e. Texas, intersected from n. to s. by the Houston and Texas 
Central railroad; 950 sq.m.; pop. *80, 16,246— 15.959 of American birth, 3,171 colored. 
It is drained by the heaif waters of the Navasoto river. Its surface is undulating, spread- 
ing in sections into bfoad prairies, with little limber. It has immense quantities of lime- 
stone rock, hence its name. Its soil is strong and fertile, producing oats, com, cotton, 
wheat, sugar cane, wool, sweet potatoes, and live stock. Cash value of farms in 70. 
(1,121,890, numbering 488. Seat of justice, Groesbeck. 


LIKITATIOK, in English law, is the limited time allowed to parties to commence 
their suits or actions, or other proceedings, so as to shorten litiffation. In all civilized 
countries, some period is prescribed by statute (called statutes of limitations, or prescrip- 
tion) with this view, though few countries adopt the same limit, and Scotland differs 
much from England and Ireland in this point. In England, suits to recover land must 
generally be brought within 20 years, and to recover debts (including bills of 

• Ki Umentone. 

•*^ Limits. 

exchange) and damages within six years. Actions for assault or battery mast be brought 
within four years, and for slander within two years. In Scotland, prescriplioti is the 
word generally used for limitation, and actions to recover land geneniliy must be 
brought wilhin 40 years fur many ordinary debts witliin three year$, but for bills of 
excbunge within six years. There are many other differences of detail. See Paterson's 
Compendium of EttglM and Scotch Law, 

LIMITATION, in law (ante). The "statute of limitations'* was passed in the 28d 
jear of James I. (1623). and its provisions have been substantially incorporated into the 
statutes of the American states. Actions in regard to real propci ty must be brought 
within 20 years after the ri^ht of entry or of action accrues. If the person having such 
right be under any disability at the time such right accrues, the statute will not run 
till such disability be removed. An uninterrupted adverse possession for20 years under a 
ckim of right will bar the real owner of his rights in the property. Such possession 
must be known to the real owner, either actually or constructively, and must be with- 
out his consent; and the claim must be well known, and of a definitely bounded and 
2k»certiiinable estate. Properly speaking, a mortgager's possession is not adverse to that 
of the mortgagee, as the relation between them is more m the nature of a tcnaucy ; and 
such possesion is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, supposed to be permissive. 
But where either mortgager or mortgagee has been in possession for the sttUutory time, 
without any interest being paid or account rendered, and without any acknowledg- 
ment of or reference to the rights of the other, the right of the mortgager to redeem or 
of the mortgagee to foreclose will generally, in the absence of fnuul, be barred. The 
limitation to most personal actions is six years, so that an adverse possession of personal 
property for six years creates a good title. In the case of slander for words actionable 
without proof of special damage, the statutory limitation is two 3'ears. Tlio statute 
in all cases begins to run from the time the action accrues; which is, iu contracts, upon 
breach of the same; in trover, the time of the tortious conversion, etc. On a promis- 
sory note, the statute begins to run at the expiration of the days of grace if grace be 
allowed, or on sight, notice, demand, or so many days after, according to the terms of 
the note. But on a note payable so many days from demand, etc., the demand, etc., 
must be made within six years. An action begins upon tho reception of the writ by 
the sheriff or deputy, and if the service of the writ he deficient through such officers 
fault, or any inevitable accident, an additional time of a year or thereabouts is generally 
allowed by statute to the plaintiff to bring his action again. In libel, and assault anci, 
as has been seen, in slander, the period of limitation is ^xed at two years. In many of 
the United States this latter limit is fixed also for actions against executors and adminls- 
tratoi-s, though in general equity exempts trust, from the operation of tho statute. A 
new promise to pay a debt taKes it out of the statute, but such a promise will not 
prevent the application of the statute to the interest on the principal of sudi debt. 

LIMITED LIABILITY. See Joint-stock Companiss^ ante; and LiABfiiiTT. 

LI1IIT8, Theoby op. The importance of the notion of a limit in mathematics can- 
not be over-estimated, as many branches of the science, including the dififercntial 
calculus and its adjuncts, consist of nothing else than tracing the consequences which 
flow from this notion. The following are simple illustrations of the idea: The sum of 
the series 1 + i + i+i'l' ^^^^ approaches nearer and nearer to 2 as the number of terms 
is increased; thus,' the several sums are li, If, 1|, 1|{, etc., each sum always differing 
from 2 by a fraction equal to the last of the terms which have been added ; ana since each 
denominator is double of the preceding one, the further the series is extended, the less 
the difference between its sum and 2 becomes; also this difference may be made smaller 
than any assignable quantity — say, TinAnrv> — ^^y n[terely extending the series till the last 
denominator becomes greater than 100,(X)0 (for this, we need only take 18 terms; 8 terms 
more will give a difference less than T&vTtnnr> ^^^ ^ ^^)'* ^S^^^> ^^^ sum of the series 
can neYer be greater than 2, for the difference, though steadily diminishing, still sub- 
sists; under these circumstances, 2 is said to be the limit of the sum of the series. We 
see, then, that the criteria of a limit are, that the series, when extended, shall approach 
nearer and nearer to it in value, and so that the difference can be made as small as we please. 
Again, the area of a circle is greater than that of an inscribed hexagon, and less than 
that of a circumscribed hexagon; but if these polygons be converted into figures of 12 
sides, the area of the interior one will be increased, and that of the exterior dimin- 
ished, the area of the circle always continuing intermediate in position and value; and 
as the number of sides is increased, each polygon approaches nearer and nearer to the 
circle in size; and as, when the sides are equal, this difference can be made as small as 
we please, the circle is said to be the limit of an equilateral polygon the number of 
whose aides is increased indefinitely; or. in another form of words commonly used " the 
polygon approaches the circle as its limit, when its sides increase without limit," or 
sfliin, " when the number of sides is infinite, the polygon becomes a circle." 
When we use the terms *' infinite" and "zero " in mathemati(!S, nothing more is meant 
than that the quantity to which the term is applied is increasing without limit or diminish- 
ing indefinite^; and if this were kept in mind there would be much leas confusion in the 
ideas connected with these terms. From the same cause has arisen the discus- 

sion concerning the possibility of what are called vanishing fractions (i.e.. fractions 

Umina. a(\ 

Uucoln. *^ 

whose numerator and denominator become zero simnllaneously) having real values; 
thus 7=7^. when a: = 1 ; but by division we find that the fraction is equal to a? 4- 1. 

which = 2, when a; = 1^ Now, this discussion could never have arisen had the question 

** — 1 
been interpreted rigli I ly, as follows: ^ — — -r approaches to 3 as its limit, when x con- 
tinually approaches 1 as its limit, a proposition which can be proved trueby Rubslituting 
successively 8, 2, li. If, 1^^^, J Tin. etc., wlu*n the corrfspoiiding values of I lie frjiclion 
are 4 8, 2^, 2^, 2A. 2jJ^. etc. The doctrine of limits is employed in the diff'trcntial 
calculus (q. v.). The lK*st and most complete lllustraticins of it nre found in Nowion's 
Pnndpia, atul in the chapters on maxima and minimn, curves, summation of series, and 
integration, genemlly, in the ordinary works on the calculus. 

LIH'MA, an interval which, on account of its exceeding Fmnllnoss, does not nppc^r 
in the prac ice of modern music, but which, in the mathematical calculation of the pro- 
portions of different intervals, is of the greatest importance. The limma makes its 
appearance in three different magnitudes— viz., the great limma, which is ihe difiference 
between (he Inrgu whole tone and the small semitone, being in the proportion of 27 to 
25; the small limma. which is the diffi-rcnce U'tween the great whole tone and the great 
semitone, being in the proportion of 185 to 188; and the Pythagorean limma, wliicli is 
the difference hetwecu the great third of the ancients (which consisted of two whole 
tones) and the perfect fourth, the proportion of which is as 256 to 248. 

LIMNJE'A (Gr. llmne, a swamp), a genus of gastcropodous mol]nsl<8 of the order pul- 
ftumata., giving iis rame to a family, UmnottdtB, allie<l xohdicidm (snails), liwacufce (slugs), 
etc. The species of this family are numerous, and almund in fresh waters in all parts of 
the worhl. They feed on vegetable substimces. They all have a thin, delicate.*. Ijorn- 
colored shell, capable of containing the whole animal when retracted, but vaiying very 
much in form in the diffeient genera: being produced into a somewhat clnngalccl f^pire 
in the true i<'m/i«B (Pond-snatls). whilst in pianoi-innihc spire is coiled in the same plane^ 
and in aneylas (IhvKR Limpets) it is limpet-shaped, with a somewhat produc-ed and 
recurved tip. Many of the Umnceadahxvm a habit of Doaling and gliding shell down- 
wards at the surface of the water, as may readily be observed in a fresh-water aquarium, 
in which they are of givaluse in prventing the excessive growth of confervoids, and 
removing all decaying vegetable matter, lijey serve the same purpose in the economy 
of nature in lakes, ponds," an<i rivei-s, nnd furnish food for fishes; They are heniiapliro- 
dite. They deposit their eggs on stones or aquatic plants, enveloped in masses of a 
glairy suhstance. The development of the young mollusk may eawly be watched in the 
aquarium, the membrane of the egg being perfectly transparent. 

LIICKO'BIA., a genus of ci-ustjicea of the order i8r>poda, containing only one known 
specie.**, which, however, is important from the nuschief it does to piers, ilock-gates, and 
other wooil-work immersed in the water of the sea. on the coasts ot Britain, and of some 
parts of con tine ntjd Europe. It is only about a sixth of an inch in length, of an ash- 
gray color, with black eyes, which ani composed of numerous ocellf, placed clo^e 
together. The head is broad. The legs are short. The general appearance u senibles 
that of a small wood-louse, and the creature rolls itself up in the same manner, if seized. 
The contents'of the stomach consist of comminuted wrod, and food is the <ibjeet of the 
perfonition of wood for which the linmoria is notable. Mr. Stevenson f<»uiid it very 
troublesome during the operations connected Av it h the buildiig of the Boll rock liiiht- 
house. The piers at Soutliampton have suffered gn»atly from it. The kyanizing of wood 
and other expedients have been resorted to, to prevent its ravages. 

LIMOGES, cnpitnl of the department of Haute-Vienne, in Firnce, nnd of the former 
province of Limousin, picturestjuely situat<'d on a hill in the valley of the Vienna*, 67 m. 
s.e. of Poictiers. It is an ancient city, and the seat of a bish(»p. It hns a cathedral, begun 
in the 13th c. but still incomplete*: a number of .teientitlc and benevolent institutions 
and public buildings; considerable manufactin-es of porcelain (eni]iloying 2,()(»0 hands), 
of druggets, of a kind of pack-thread known asLimo<res, etc. It Mas the Augu^toiitum 
of the Uomans, and afterwards received the name of Lemovica. wlunee the prefcnt 
Limoges. Before the French revolution it had more than 4tJ convents. Pop. *70, 

LIM'.OXITE. See TTematite, ante. 

LIMOUSIN, a small province of old France, now comprised in the departments of 
the Hauie-Viennc and Correze, Limoges l>eing the principal town of the fornierniMl 
Tulle of the latter. It U a hilly. elevute<l plateau, about 1700 ft. above the sea. traversed 
by spurp or ridges branching from the mountains of Auvepj-ne. and furrowed by numer- 
ous small streams having their sources in the hills, and fl<»wing to the bay of Kiscny. 
The siirface is mainly gnmitic, ofien sterile. The elimsite Is moist and changCMble. The 
poverty of the .soil luis always enforced continual migrations of its iuhabiiants, whoso 
peculiar hmguage, allied to the Spanish, always marks their nativity. 

LIMOUX (ancient fAmottum), a t. of France, in the department of Aude, in the center 
of a fertile valley, on tho left bank of the Aude, 52 m. s.e. from Toulouse. There are 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

^^ /Uaoola. 

mamifftctarcs of fine brondcloths, yarn factories, tanneries. dye-irork«. etc. The neigh- 
horbcjoci pnMtures a much esteemed white sparkling wine, known ns Uiniquette de 
Limoujr, which rivals champagne in excelleuce. Diligences ply regularly to Toulouse, 
CoFcassoiiuc, and Foix. Pop. '76, 6,037. 

LIMPET, P.iielin, a genus of casteropodous raollusks, of the order eye^obranchiata, 
the ty|)c of tlic family pateUidm. in all this family the siiell is nearly conical, nol spiral, 
ftnil has a wide mouth, and the npex turned forwards. The animal has a large round or 
oral muscular foot, by which it adheres firmly to rocks, the power of creating a vacuum 
being aided b^ a viscous secretion. Limpets* live on rocky ooasts, lietween tide-marks, 
and remain lirmly tlxed to one spot when the tide is out, as their gills cannot bear 
exposure U) the air, but move about when the water covers them; many of them, how- 
ever, it would SL*em, remaining long on the same spot, which in soft calcareous nicks is 
found hollowed to tueir exact form. They feed on algse, which they eat by means of a 
k>ng ribbon-like tongue, covered with numerous rows of iiard teeth ; tlie Common Limpet 
(P. valgarU) of the British consts having no fewer than 100 rows of teeth on its tongue, 
12 in each ro\v — 1920 teeth in alL The tongue, when not in use. lies folded deep in the 
interior of tlie animal. The gills are aiTanged under the margin of the mantle, between 
it and tlie foot, forming a circle of leaflets. The sexes are distinct. — The power of 
adherence of limpets to the rock is very great, so that, unless surprised by sudden .seizure, 
tliey are not easily removud without violence sufficient to break the shell. The species 
are'numerous, and exhibit many varieties of form and color. The common limpet is 
most abundant on the rocky coaists of Britain, and is much used for bait by tiehermen; 
it U also used for food. Some of the limpets of warmer climates have very beautiful 
shells. A siiccics found on the western coast of South America has a shell a foot wide^ 
which is oft'U used as a basin. 

miPOFO. See Oobi. 

iniA'€E£. Bee Flax. 

LIN' ACRE, Thomas. 1460-1534; b. Canterbury; studied ntOxfonl; becnmo fellow 
of All SouU' college in 4484; went to Florence atid studied Qreek and Latin with the 
ablest te;ichers; removed to Rome and applied himself to natural philosophy ami medi- 
cine, studying chiefly the works of Aristotle and Galen, and transhiting some of Galen's 
tresitises. Returning to England he received the degree of d.d. and the ap;K>iMtment of 
professor of physic from Oxford university; was "called to the court by Henry VII. 
and made physician and tutor to prince Arthur; was subsequently physician to Henry 
VII., Henrv VlIL, and princess Mary. He founded two lectures on physic in the reign 
of Henry VlII. at Oxford, and one at Cambridge. In 1518, through his influence, the 
college of physicians in London was founded, and he was its first president, holding the 
office till his death. With Colet. Lily, Grocyn, and Lalymer he restored classical learn- 
ing in England. Lute in life he studied divinity, and was in 1509 rector of Mersham and 
pa»ljend of Wells; in 1518 was prebend and in 1519 precentor in the churc". of York. 
His most celebrate<l works are his Latin tntnslations from Galen, among wiiich are De 
Temperaments; De tuend/i Sanitate; Da Methodo Mederuli, His other works are a 
tninsLition of Proclus de Spltmra; De Emeiidata Structura Latini SermonU LibH Sex. 
He was buried in St. Paul's cathedral, where Dr. Cains erected a monument to his 
memory. In his literary character he held a very high rank, and as a physician his skill 
was unsurpassed. 

LIHA'BES, a t of Spain, in tlie province of Jaen, 24 m. n.n.e. from Jaen. The neigh- 
borhood was celebi-ated in ancient times for its mines of copper and lend, which arc still 
very productive. A fine fountain which adorns the town is supposed to be Roman. 
Pop. 15,000 to 18,000. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s.e. Arkansas, having the Arkansas river, near its confluence 
with tiie MissisMppi. for its n.e. Imundary, is traversed diagonally by the biiyou Barthol* 
omew; GOOsq.m.; pop. *80. 9.255— 0.198 of AmericjUi birth. 5.044 colored. Its surface 
b level: the rich, nutritious gross of its prairies, being shaded for long distances near the 
water-courses by groves of ash ami cypress, affords good pastunige; and the soil produces 
otton and corn. It is intersected by the Little Rock, Mississippi River and Texas rail- 
way in the n.e. seclion. Seat of justice. Star City. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s.e. Dakotah, having the Big Sioux river for its e. boundary, sep- 
arating it from Iowa, and for its s.w. boi-dcr the Vermilion river; nliout 560 8q*m.; pop. 
*80, 5,807—4,118 of American birth. It is thinly timbered; its plains producing buck- 
whesit, barley, the ])roflucls of tlie dairy. oaU*. corn, and wheat. Some attention is paid 
to the raising of live stock. Seal of justice, Canton. 

LINCOLN, a co. in n.e. Georgia, having the Savannah river for its north-eastern 
border. sep;iraiing it from the stiue of South Carolina, and Broad river, a tributary of the 
Savantmh. for its northern Ixnindary; is also drained by Little river, itssoutliem and 
southeastern lioundary Ibie; 300 sq.m.; pop. '80, 6,413-— 6,405 of American birth, 4,157 
colored. Its surface is hilly, comprising large tracts of woodland; the quality of the 
•oil varying in different sections, producing in the most favoralile Icxsalities wine, sweet 
potatoes, wool, oats, wheat, cotton, and Indian corn, and offering flue pasturage for 

Digitized by VjOC^LC 

UaoolB. ^-^ 

Stock. It prodaced in 70. 1865 lbs. of honey. It contains vast qtinntities of granite; 
gold is found, iron ore. and u kind of slate used for liones. It had in 7^^, 1 g<»l<l quarts 
mine, employing 11 men, with a capital of $30,000 and annual product of $7,000. Seat 
of justice, Lincoiuton. 

LINCOLN, a co. in n. Kansas, watered by the Saline river, an affluent of the Kansas 
river, is also drained by Wolf creek and affluents of the Soloman river; 720 ; pop. 
'80, 8,582. Its surface spreads out into limitlej^ fertile plains, in many portions coy- 
ered with timber, in others sinking into stilt marshes or rising into low liilU. Mn^i^ncsia 
is a component piu't of the limestone that forms the foundation of the soil, which pro- 
duces corn, wheat, wool, dairy products, and affording fine paslui-age is well adapted 
to the raising of stock. Seat of justice, Lincoln. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s. Kentucky, watered by Dicks river, an affluent of the Ken- 
tucky, and the head-waters of Green river, is intersected by the Knoxvillc line of the 
Louisville and Nashville railroad, forming a junction at its county seal, in the n.o. sec- 
tion, witb the Richmond and Stanford branch; also the Cincinnati Southern in the w. 
and 8.; 400 sq.m.; pop. '80. 16, 079—14, 992 of American birth, 3,908 colored. Its surface 
is hilly and lUinly timbered ; its soil, of a calcareous formation, producing the blue pjrass 
of the prairie, flax, maple sugar, sorghum, sweet potatoes, tobacco, wool, corn, rye, 
wheat, and the products of the dairy. It produced in '70, 10,780 lbs. of honey. Cattle, 
sheep, and swine are raised. Cash value of farms in 70, $4,002,549, numbering 597, 
including one of 1000 acres. It had in '70, 64 manufacturing establishments, wIlIi a 
capital of $90,350, and an annual product of $258,677. Among its industries are the 
manufacture of woolen goods, saddlery, and harness. It has distilleries, saw mills, and 
steam giist mills. Seat of justice, Stanford. 

LINCOLN, a parish in n.w. Louisiana, formed 1873; is drained by the head-waters 
of the Dugdemona river, the Saline bayou, tlie bayou d'Arbonne, ana numerous afflu- 
ents of the Washita river; about 550 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 11.075—11,048 of American birth, 
4,900 colored. It is composed of portions of the counties of Bienville, Jackson, Union, 
and Claiborne. Its surface is uneven, and its soil has all the elements of fertility. Seat 
of justice, Vienna. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s. Maine, having numerous inlets of the Atlantic ocean, which 
lies on its s. boundary, has the Kennebec river, navigable 44 m. from its mouth, for its 
8.W. border; 500 sq.m.; pop. '80, 24,809—24.830 of American birth, 46 colored. It ia 
drained by the Sheepscot river, flowing through it from n. to s., emptviug into the ocean 
not far from Bath. It has also Damariscotta lake, smaller lakes in the extreme n., 
Damariscotta river, the outlet of the lake, navigable by tlie largest ships, and the bays 
of its southern border. Its surface rises into long, high hills that sink into deep valleys. 
It is thinly timbered, and the soil under cultivation is very fertile, prod^icing every 
variety of grain, wool, dairy products, honey, and maple sugar. Cattle, 8hc*ep, and 
swine" are raised. Its commercial facilities arc unsurpa.ssed, its harbors being spacious, 
safe, and accessible. Much attention is paid to fishing, steamboats being used, with 
which large quantities of fish are taken with the seine, and pressed into oil in establish- 
ments for that purpose. It has also curing and packing establishments. Among its 
industries arc ship-building and repairing, the manufacture of machinery, bricks, 
matches, lumber, sails, and wool; it has also wool-carding and cloth-dressing mills, and 
steam saw and flour mills. Cash value of farms in '70, $4,488,419, numbering 3,197. 
It had in '70. 309 manufacturing estiiblishmenis, employing 1382 hands, with a capital of 
$587,280. and an annual product of $1,018,705. It is traversed near the coast by the 
Knox and Lincoln railroad from Rockland to Bath. It has an active coast trade, and 
ice is largely exported to southern ports. Seat of justice, Wiscassett. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s.w. Minnesota, having the state line of Bakotah for its western 
boundary, is intersected in the extreme n.e, by the Winona and St. Peter railroad: about 
640 sq.m ; pop. '80, 2,945—1876 of American birth, 2,942 colored. It is watered by the 
Yellow Medicine river, other tributaries of the Minnesota river, by lake Benton, 8 m. 
long, in its southern section, and a few smaller lakes. Its surface is level in the n., and 
rough and hilly in .the extreme south. It has a fertile soil. Seat of justice, Marshfield. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s.w. Mississippi, drained by the head-waters of the Boguc Cliitto, 
a confluent of Pearl river, is intersected centrally by the Chicago. St. Louis and New 
Orleans railroad; 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 13,547 — 13,407 of American birth. Its surface is 
level and* is diversified by fertile plains and immense forests of magnolia, beech, and 
useful timber. Its soil is adapted to the production of live stock, rice, oats, com. 
tobacco, cotton, wool, sweet potatoes, wine, honey, sugar cane, and the products of the 
dairy. It had in '70, 44 manufacturing establishments, employing 175 hands, with a 
capital of $92,332, and an annual product of $152,787. Seat of justice, Brookhaven. 

LINCOLN, a co. in e. Missouri, having the Mississippi for its eastern boundary, 
separating it from Illinois, is drained by the Cuivre river; 600 sq.m. : pop '80. 17,443-- 
16,606 of American birth. 2,144 colored. It is watered by Eagle fork and Big creek. 
Its surface is hilly and liberally supplied with building timber. Its soil, iiaving an 
understratum of limestone, is very fertile in the valleys, l^ing adapted to the nusing of 
live stock, tobacco, every varietv of grain, wool, sweetpotatoes, dairy product.s. sorglium, 

Digitized by k30L> V l\C 


maple snimr, nnd flaxseed. It prodnrcd in '70, 17,172 lbs. of honey. Cash value of 
£inii9in *70, f5J83.786. numbering 2,129, including 4 of 1000 acres nnd over. Value 
of live stock in '70, $1,887,573. Il bad in '70, 94 munufacturing establishments, with a 
capital of $111,120, and an annual product of $270,285. Among its manufactories are 
flour nnd saw mill:», tiinneries. leather currying establishments, plow factories, tobacco 
factories, wool-curding and cloth dressing mills. Beat of justice, Troy. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s. Nebraska, having the North Platte river for its northern 
boundary, is traversed by the Kepublican river; about 2.592 sq.m ; pop. '80, 3,632 — 
8,032 of Ajnerionn birth. 6 colored. Its surface is level and pouny timbered. The soil 
of the fanions Platte valley is light nnd eminently proiiuctive. affording excellent facili- 
ties for stock raising. It is intersected l)y tlie Union Pacific railroad. Among its man- 
ufactories are breweries, cheese factories, and the railroad repair shops. S^t of justice, 
North Platte. 

LINCOLN, a co. in 8.e. New Mexico, organized 1869; having the state line of Texas 
for its e. Ix)undary; tm versed by the Pecos, the Rio Bonito, and numerous small 
streama: 13.000 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 1803—1686 of American birth. Cash value of farms in 
*70, $180,770, numbering 368. none under 10 acres or over 600. Its surface is equally 
divided into mountain and prairie, with few trees, the eastern portion being a part of 
the great Staked Plain and the w. occupied by ranges of the White mountains and the 
Gaudalupe. Its soil when irrigated is fertile, and produces wheat, Indian corn, barley, 
and oats.' It is lai^ly taken up by Indian reservations^ but has much tillable land. 
Seat of justice, Lincoln. 

LINCOLN, a co. in w. North Carolina, having the Catawba river for its eastern 
border, is intersected centrally by one of its branches called the Little Catawba; 250 
sq.m.; pop. '80. 11,061—11,051 of American birth, 2.881 colored. Its surface is uneven 
and equally divided into tillable lands, and hard-wood forests. It contains valuable 
dtposits of iron ore. Gold is found in the eastern poition and on the banks of the 
Little Catawba. Its soil is fertile and adapted to the raising of buckwheat, oats, corn,, 
rye, wbeiit, tobacco, cotton, wool, sweet pofatoes, wine, honey, sorghum, flax, live 
^ock, and the products of the dairy. It had in *70, two mining establishments of iron 
ore, employing 40 hands, with a capital of $43,000, and an annual product of $8,800. 
It had in '70, 65 manufacturing establishments, employing 294 hands, with a capital of 
(184.625, and an annual product of $319,025. Its industries are represented by manu- 
factories of paper, cotton goods, pig iron, etc. Beat of justice, Lincolnton. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s. Tennessee, having the state line of Alabama for its southern 
boundary, is traversed by the Elk river, and has the terminus of the Dccherd to Fay- 
etteville line of the Nashville. Chattanooga, and St. Louis railway, at its co. sent: 720 
sq.m. ; pop. '80. 26,960—20,900 of American birth. 6.316 colored. Its surface is uneven, 
well wooded with locust, poplar, and tulip trees, and bard-wood useful for building pur- 
poses. Its i<oil is fertile, producing maple sugar, sorghum, wool, sweet potatoes, 
tobacco, cotton, every variety of grain, and the products of the dairy. It produced in 
70. 1,233,960 busliels of corn, and 44,838 lbs. of honey. Cash value of farms in '70, 
$6,521,190, numbering 3.393, including one of 1000 acres. It had in *70, 185 manuTac- 
turing establishments^' employing 507 hands, with a capital of $223,236, and an annual 
product of $772,9.'59, utilizing its valuable water-power. Among its industries are the 
manufacture of cotton yarn, woolen goods, saddlery and harness, and leather, and it 
has saw and flour mills.' 8eat of justice, Fayetteville. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s.w. West Virginia, having^ the Coal river, an affluent of the 
Kanawha river for its eastern boundary, is drained in its western portion by the Guyan- 
dotte river, the Caney fork in the south-western, and other affluents of the Ohio and 
Kanawha rivers; 400 sq.m.; pop. '80. 8,739—8,723 of American birth, 52 colored. Its 
surface is mountainous, well provided with building timber and presents scenery of 
great beauty. It is watered by the Mud river, running at the base of the mountains, 
and parallel with them. The soil of the river bottoms is very rich, and is generally 
founded on carboniferous rock. Iron is abundant. Its products are buckwheat, oats, 
corn, rye, wheat, flax, maple sugar, tobacco, wool, honey, and sorghum. Cattle, sheep. 
&nd swine are raised. Seat of justice, Hamlin. 

LINCOLN, a co. in s. Ontario. Canada, having lake Ontario for its n. boundar}-; 
intersected in tlie eastern section by the Welland canal ; bounded on the e. by the 
Kiaflara river and the Erie and Niagara railroad, running parallel with the river for 28 
m. from the town of Niagara to the International bridge, and is intersected by a branch 
of the Great Western railroad, running along the border of the lake, nnd crossing tlie 
canal to connect with the line to Ntagnra Falls; 321 sq.m.; pop. '71, 29,547. Its manu- 
factories consist of foundries and machine shops, sewing-machine factories, soap and 
candle works, tanneries, woolen mills, breweries, flour and saw and planing mills. 
Ship building and repairing is among its industries, its ports having excellent ship- 
yards. Seat of justice, St. Catherines. 

LOfOpLH (called by the Romans Lindum; from which, with Colonia subjoined, 
comes the modern name), a city of England, capital of the county of the same name, a 
parliamentary and municipal borough and count3' of itself, is situated on the Witham. 
f o J Digitized by VjrUUVlC 



140 m. n.n.w. of London by railway. Built on the slope of a liill, -which is crowned by 
the cutbedral. the city is iniposing in effect, uud cuii be seen from a very coiisidenible 
distiuice. It is very ancient, is irregularly laid out, and contains uiauy interesting 
specinicus of early architecture. The cathedral, one of tlie finest in KD!j;laud, is the 
principal building. It is surmuunted by three towers, two of which. 180 ft. in height, 
were tormcrly conliuued by spires of 101 feet. The cenlnd lower, 08 ft. bqnare, is 300 
ft. high. The Ulterior length of the cathedral is 482, the width 80 tcet. The famous 
bell called Turn of Lincolu was cast in 1010, and was hung in one of the w. towers of 
this editif.e. It was broken up, however, in 1834. and, totrether with six oihcr bells, was 
recast to form the preseut large bell and two quarter bells. The present bell, which 
hangs in the central tower, is 5 tons 8 cwt. in weigiit; and is 6 ft. lOJ in. in diameter at 
the mouth. The style of the cathedral, though various, is chiefly early English. Lin- 
coln also contains many ether interesting religious eiiiflces, among which are three 
churches, dating from before the reformation, etc., numerous schools, and beuevoient 
institutions. Several iron foundries and mnnufactories of jtortable stetun-engines and 
agricultural machines, as well as large steam flour-mills, are in operation lierc, and there 
is an active trade in flour. Brewing and machine-making, witu a trade in coru and 
wool, are also carried on. Two members ate returned to the house of cumnious for the 
city. Pop. '61, 20.9d9; 71, 26,706. 

Lincoln, under the Romans, was a place of some importance, and under the Saxons 
and the lianes it preserved a good position. It was the seat of an extensive and 
important trade at the time of the Norman conquest; but its advanc^^ment since that 
time has not bren equally rapid. It contains some very interesting antiquitits, as llie 
Roman gate, the remains of the palace and stables of John of Gaunt, and the towu-halL 

LINCOLN, the capital t, of Logan co.. Ill, near Salt creek, on the Chicago and 
Alton railroad, where it crosses the Indianapolis, Bloomington and Western railroad; 
also, on the Rkin branch of the Wabash railroad; 28 m. n.n e. of Spriuglield, and 157 
m. s.s.w. of Chicigo. Pop. 6,000. It is the seat of Lincoln university (Cumberland 
Presbyterian), and of the state institution for feeble-minded children. The place con- 
tains 11 churches, 2 or 3 banks, a high school, a court-house, and nntnufactories of 
farm implements; also 1 daily and 4 weekly newspapers. Coal is mined in the neigh- 

LINCOLN, a city, the capital of Nebraska and of the co. of Lancaster, situated at 
the junction of several hranches of Salt creek; lat. about 40"* 50' n., long. 06' 45' west. 
It is 63 in. a.w. of Omaha, and 168 m. n.w of Leavenworth, Kansas, and lies upon the 
Nebraska or Midland Pacific, where it crosses the Burlington and Mis-souri river railroad, 
and is besides the n.w. terminus of the Atchison and Nebraska railroad. It was made 
the capital of the state in 1867; pop. about 10,000. It is surrounded by beautiful 
undulatini^ prairies, and fine building sites alK)Uud in its neighborhood. It is regularly 
laid out; tlie 17 avenues runninfi^ n. and s. bear numerical names, while the cross-streets 
bear tiie names of the letters of the alphabet. The avenues are 120 ft. and the streets 
100 ft. wide. Among the public buildings are the state-house (built of li.uht colored 
limestone), the state a.s^lum for the insane (built of sandstone, and costing $136,000), the 
penitentiary (built of limestone at a cost of |>312.000), the slate library, an opera-house, 
a high-school, the Nebraska state university and agricultural college («)pcn in all depart- 
ments to students of both sexes), and 10 churches. The eity has two national and 
several other banks; two daily, one semi- weekly, and three weekly newspapers. In the 
near vicinity are abundant saline springs, from which large supplies of salt are obtained. 

LIKC0L9, Abr.\ham, sixteenth president of (he United Stales wna b. in Kentucky, 
Feb. 12, 1800. His grandfather was an emigrant from Virginia; his father, a poor 
farmer, who. in 1806, removed from Kentucky to Indiana. In the rude life of the 
backwoods, Lincoln's entire schooling did not exceed one year, and he was employed in 
the severest agricultural labor He lived with his family at Spencer co., Indiana, till 
1830, when he removed to Illinois, wlnre. wiih another man, he perlormed Iho feat of 
splitting 8.000 rails in a dav, which ;rave him the popular Mfbrigiiet of ** the rail-split- 
ter." In 1834 he was elected to the Illinois legislature. At this period he lived by sur- 
veying Imd, wore patched homespun clothes, and spent his leisure hours in studying 
law. Hj was three limes re-elected to the legislature; was admitted to practice law in 
1886; and removed to Springfield, the state capital In 1844 lie canvassed the state for 
Mr. CI ly, then nominated for president. Mr. Clay was defeated, but the popidarity 
ginned by Lincoln in the canvass secured his own election to congress in 1846, where be 
voted against the extension of slavei^; and in 1854 was a recognized leader in the newly 
formed republican party. In 1855 he canvassed the state as a candidate for Uidted States 
senator auainst Mr. Douglas, but without success. In 1856 he was an active supporter of 
Mr. Fremont in the presidential canvass wliich resulted in the election of Mr. Buchanan. 
In 1860 he was nominated for the piesidency by the Chicago convcntit^n over Mr. Seward, 
wlioexpecti'd the nomination Ihe non-extension of slavery to the territories, or new 
states to l)e formed from them, was the most important principle of his party. There were 
three other candidates — Mr. Douglas of Illinois, northern Democnti; jMr. Bn*ckenridge 
of Kentucky, then vice-president, and afterwards a general of the confederate arniy, 
southern democrat; and Mr. Bell of Tennessee, native American. \Vith this diviaioQ, Mr. 

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Lincoln received a mnjority of votes overnny of the other cnndidates, though n million 
sbori of au absuluie lUiijunty ; ev<;ry scmtbera and one nortliern t*tato voted against him. 
He was instulicU iu the presideuVs chair, Mtir. 4, 1861. His cleciiou by a seciiunal vote 
and ou a sectionsd issue hostile to the south, was followed by the secession of 1 L southern 
states, and a war for the restoration of the union. As a military measure, he proclaimed, 
Jan. 1, 18(K{, the freedom of nil slaves in the i-eljel states; and was I'e-elected ti> the presi- 
dency iu 1864. The war was brought to a close, April 3, 1865; and on the 15th of the 
same month, Lincoln was cut off by the hand of an assassin. Bee the Lives by Lamon 
(vol. i. 187C) and Leland (1879). 

LINCOLN. Abkaham (ante), the 14th elected president of the United States, serving 
the 19th terra of 4 yeai-s; b. iu Hardin co., Ky., Feb. 12, 1809; his father being Thomas 
Lincoln, who married Nancy Hawks. The family was of English de^^cent, and early 
among the settleia of Virginia. Whether the family was connected with the Liucolns 
of Has8achu£>eits is not liuown. The birtliplace of the war-president was no paradise. 
Kentucky was the rendezvous of tories, runaway conscripts, deserters, delitors, and 
criniinaU of all kinds. Tbomas Lincoln was a restless, thriftless man. living by jobs of 
carpentry and other work, until finally, deciding to try farming, he settled do^^n in a 
wn-icheii cubin near a spring of good water, but in a barren region. In that humble 
cabin Abraham was bom. The hay was fond of fishing and li anting, but at an early 
age he began to gniw serious, and of himself to develop the moral training which became 
fio conspicuous in after-life. With his sisUT he traveled to a humble school four miles 
away. In 1816 Thomas Lincoln had a serious difficulty with a neighbor, the result of 
which was his emigration to Ohio in the autumn of that year, transporting his house- 
hold goods ou a rude flat-boat, and losing almost everything by the capsizing of the 
craft. Siiving a few tools and the greater portion of his whisky, ho brought up in 
Posey CO., Ind., sold his boat, and cho<e a location in the wilderness In Perry county. 
With much difficulty he brought his family there, consisting of his wife Nancy, a 
daughter years old, and Abnihnm, aged seven. Here in Oct., 1818, Abraham's mother 
died. The widower 18 months afterwards married a widow with whom he had been in 
love before he married Nancy Hawks. The new wife was a good step-mother to litllo 
Abraham and his sister (whose name was change<l from Nancy to Sandi), although she 
brought a son and two daughters of her own. Blie fou'-d her step-children dirty and 
poorly clad, for tliey had lx?en sadly neglected; but, l)eing a woman of energy, a speedy 
snd thorough reformation followed her advent. Bhc took kindlv to Abraham, and her 
love continued to the day of his death. 8he encouraged him in his studies, and all was 
harmonious and happy in the mixed family. It was not to his real mother but to his 
step-mother that Linctiiln, in after years, so often referred as "saintly" and an "angel,** 
who first made him feel like a human being, whose goodness first tonched his childish 
heart, and taught him that blows and taunts and degradation were not always to Ix: his 
portion in this life. He had but little cliance for schooling, but that little was well 
improved. He p^w in height amazingly, and before his 17tli hirthday was at his maxi- 
mun^ of ft. 4 m., wiry and strong, with enormous hands and feet, -greatly dispropor- 
tionate lenirth of legs and arms, and over all a nither small head; his skin was yellow 
and shriveled, and his complexion swarthy. He wore coarse home-made clothes, and 
a coon-skin cap; his trousers, owing to his rapid growth, were nearly a foot too short. 
But this awkwanl, oversown boy was always in good humor, and alwnj'S in g<)od 
health. While at school he was noted as a good speller, but more particularly for his 
abhorrence of cruelty— his earliest composition being a protest against putting coals of 
fire on the backs of captured terrapins. His last attendance at school was in 1S26, when 
he was 17 years old. He worked at o<ld jobs, and one of his employers says *• Abe was 
awful Inzy; he would laugh and talk and crack jokes and tell stories all the time; he 
didn't love work.*' He would lie under a tree or in the loft of the house, and at night 
sit in the firelight to read, cipher, and scribble on tbe wooden fire-shovel. He read 
everything readable within his reach, and copied passages or sentences that especially 
attracted liim. His reading, however, included little more than Bobinaon CniMe, Pa- 
grim* 9 Progress^ Weems*» Life of Washtngton, and a Jlistory of the United States. His step- 
mother said that the Bible was one of his favorite books. His first knowledge of the 
law. in which he afterwards tiecame eminent, was through reading the statutes of 
Indiana, borrowed from a constable. He had a strong memory and a taste for {^peaking 
in public. In 1825 he worked 9 months on a ferry over the Ohio river, receiving a saP 
ary of $6 per month. His first venture in the great outside world was as assistant navi- 
gator of a flat.1)oatdown the Ohio and the Mississippi to New Orleans, returning in June, 
1JB8. In 18B0 the Lincolns emigrated to Illinois, Abraham l)eing the driver of a wagon 
hauled by 4 yoke Of oxen. A few days after their arrival at their destination near 
Decatur, "Lincoln became of age, and at once determined to make his own way in the 
world. The story of his making rails is fixed at this period, but it is apocryphal, and 
the **nilnois rail-splitter" was a misnomer. In this period Lincoln got a tolerable 
knowledge of grammar from a borrowed book, studied by the llglu of burning shavings 
in a cooper's shop. In 1882 came the Black Hawk Indian war, and Lincoln enli.«*ted in 
a company at Sangamon. and was chosen captain; but there were no remarkable acts 
doae by mm daring the campaign. 

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In 1833, the year of Jackson's second election as president, Lincoln made bis flret 
appearuuoe in puliiics as a candidate for tbc state a.sseiubly on ilie iollowiui^ plailorni: 
'*! presume you all know who 1 urn; lam humlile Abraliam Lincohi. i liiive been 
soliciied by many friends to become a candidiite for the legisluiure. My politics are 
short uud sweet, like the old woman's dance. 1 am in favor of u uaiio^^jd bank; I am 
in favur of internal improvements, and a high protective tariff, 'ihe^iaie my senti- 
ments and political principles. If elected I siiall be thankful; if not, it will im all the 
same/' This was straight whig doctrine. Lincoln made a good canvass, but lie was 
not elected. His next venture was as a partner in a dry goods and giccerv store at Kew 
Salem, but the concern failed, the partner fled, and Lincoln was left to 8ittle up a losing 
business, paying all he owed in 1849. Having no faculty for trade, Le now l^guii to 
read in law, studied hard, and made rapid progress. Ihen he buddeuly studied survey- 
ing, and tried his hand with compass and chain. In May, 1833, he wi.s a| pointid 
master at New Salem— compensation, next to nothing. He was not able lo hire a loom, 
and was said to have *' carried the post-office in his hat." The mails came once a ^cck, 
and their burden was light. Ir 1834 Lincoln's persoual picperiy was alout to be sold 
by the sheriff to satisfy a judgment; but a new Iriend, James bhort, bid in the property 
and gave it over to him. In 1834 he was again a candidule for the legislatuie, unci w as 
elected, running far ahead of his ticket. The party now had assumed the mime of 
whi^, and he so(3n bectune a whig leader. His liist love episocle was painfully Fad. 
While boarding with James Rutledge, in New Salem, he became ccamcretl of Auu, his 
landlord's daughter, a well-educated girl of 17, who had at the time another lover, Avho 

Eromised marriage, but did not keep his word. Lincoln nod Ann KutUdge were 
etrothed in 1835, but the girl's health failed, and in August she died of brain fever. 
Her loss made Lincoln almost insane, and he nived pit(>oiisly. ''I can revcr bear to 
have snow, rain, and storm beat upon her gntve," and **in her grave my licnrt lies 
buried," he cried out. It was at the time of Iter death that he took a liking lo tlie poem 
by on English writer, the rev. Vicesimus Enox, commencing ''Oh, why should the 
spirit of mortal be proud," lines that he was never weaiy of quoting; indeed, he 
repeated them so often that man^ people supposed him to be the author. 

On taking his place in the legislature, Lincoln first saw Stephen A. Douglas, with no 
idea that he would be his competitor for the highest cffice in the nation. In 1886 Lin 
coin was agsiin a candidate for the legislature on the following characteristic platform: 
"I go for all sharing the privilege of the government who assist in beaiing its buideos. 
Consequently I go for admitting all whites to the rights of suffrage who pay taxes or 
bear arms, by no means excluding females." With tlie opposition candidate Lincoln 
stumped the district, as was then the custom, and by his vigorous speet hcs secured a 
whig victory, the first ever known in Sangamon county. Lincoln and Douglas were 
both chosen; but Douglas served only one session, and the next ytar was nominated for 
congress. In the presidential contest in 1886 Lincoln was for Hugh L. While of Ten- 
nessee, but the "hiurd cider'* campaign of 1840 found him vociferous for Harrison and 
Tyler. With the struggle of Jackson against the U. S. lank and the shifting 
policy of Van Buren, Lincoln had no interest, attending diligently to his duties as a 
legislator, and beginning that antislavery record upon which so much of his fame w ill 
ever rest. The abolitionists were in the highest activity. George Thompscm had Just 
gone back to England after stirring up the small but enthusiastic party in this country; 
Garrison's Ltbertitor waa intensely annoying to the supporters of slavery; there was a 

freat anti-abolitionist meeting in Boston; and president Jackson had. at the close of 
835, invited the attention of congress to the circulation through the mails of what were 
then called "inflammatory" documents. Henry Clay, Edward Everett, many of the 
governors of the northern states, and a large majority of the house of representatives 
strenuously opposed the agitation of the slavery question; all fetitions on (he subject 
were laid on the table without reading or debate, and all possible means were taken to 
prevent the discussion of the annoying subject. Illinois did not efcapNe, though none 
of her citizens desired to establish or even uphold slavery. On the night of rfo v. 7, 
1837. the rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy was mobl)ed and shot dead at Alton for persisting in 
publishing an abolition newspaper. At this juncture, w^hen the legislature was about to 
pass resolutions deprecating the antislavery agitation, Lincoln presented his protest, to 
which he could get but one signer besides himself, in which he dedans slavery to be 
founded on injustice and bad policy; but that abolition agitation tends to increase its 
evils; tliat congress cannot interfere with slavery in the stales, but might in the District 
of C-olumbia on the request of the people. This protest was meant to avoid extreme 
views, and so no mention was made of slavery in the territories, that point being covered 
by tlie Misi^ouri compromise, which was then in full force. Lincoln was never extreme, 
and probably till the war began he saw no hour when he would have altered a word in 
this protest When the state capital was removed to 6priDgfleld in 1889, Lincoln estab- 
lished himself there. He had been licensed as an attorney two years before, and being 
at the capital he could attend both to his duties as a member of the legislature and his 
legal practice. His business grew rapidly, and he took into partnership John T. Stuart, 
a prominent whisr, who had been a kind frisnd in former years. Lincoln preferring to 
be the junior in the firm. Springfield was a poor village of about 1500 inhabitants; and 
Lincoln was poor, indeed much in debt. It ia said that his friend Bill Butler fed and 

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dothed bim for ecTeral years. In Jan., 1887. he delivered nn oration on ''The Perpetu- 
ation of our Free Institutions," whose eloquence greatly added to his fame. In Dec., 1839, 
Lincoln, ou behalf of the whigs. challenged ihe other side to a joiut debate, and Douglas 
and thn^e other democrats were pitted against Lincoln, Logan, and two other wbigs. 
Tiie intellectual sinigglc between Lincoln and Douglas is still known as "the great 
debate;** and Lincoln was ackuowledge<l to hare had the best of the arszuments. In 
I&IO Lincolu was uu elector un the Harri>on ticket, and made speeches in all parta of the 
state. Bat one-sided speeches were not suited to his temper; he preferred joiut debates, 
where he could employ his masterly skiK at rejiort. For twenty years (1838 to 1858) he 
followeil Douglas, who was nearly always ready to accommodate him with a discussion. 
They fought Uieir battles over and over," until one became president of the United States 
and the iILssippointment of the other hnd l)een buried in ihc grave a few months after 
Lincohrs iuatigu ration. About 1889 Lincoln made the acquaintance of Mary, the 
daughter of lion. Uobert S. Todd, of Lexington, Ky. They were engaged to be mar- 
ried; the day was set. and the supper made ready, but Lincoln failed to appear; he had 
gone quite crazy, and remained so for a year. His friend Speed took him to Kentucky, 
where be was kept until he had recovered his reason. In honorable fultillmeut of his 
promise he married Miss Todii. Nov. 4^ 1842. Mrs. Lincoln was a politician and a satir- 
ical writer of rare power. She wrote for the local papers and veiy soon involved her 
husband in a duel with Mr. Shields, then state auditor. Shields challenged Lincoln and 
they met io Missouri, but afifairs were explained and the fight did not come off. In 1844 
Lincoln was again an elector on the Clay (whig) ticket, and labored bard, but in vain 
for tliat great statesman. A handful of votes cast in New York for Birney. tlio alioli- 
tion aindiilate. beiuff a subtructioii from the whig strength, ^ve the vote of that state 
to Polk and defeated and politically killed Cky. In 1^ Lincoln was elected to con- 
gress by 151 1 majority in a district which, two years before, gave him only 914. He look 
his seat at the opening of the 80th congress, Kobert 0. \Vinthrop being speaker. In 
that bt)usc be was the only whig member from Illinois, with such democrats to watch 
bun as John Wentworth, William A. Richardson, John McClernand; and Stephen A. 
Doughis in the senate. ** There were giants in thone days" in conxresa, such on the 
whig side as John Quincy Adams, Horace Mann. Washington Hunt, Jacob C. Collamer, 
Joseph R^ Ingersoll, John M. Botts. Caleb B. Smith, Alexander H. Stephens, Robert 
Toombs. Samuel U. Vinton, and Robei-t C. Schenck; of democrats, Wilmot of Penn., 
UcLsme of Md.. McDowell of Va., Rhett of S. C. Cobb of Ga., Boyd of Ky., Thomp- 
son of Misii., and George W. Jones and Andrew Johnson of Tenn. In'the senate were 
Webster, Calhoun, Benton, Berrien, Clayton. Bell, Hunter, and W. R King. Lincoln 
was put on the committee ou post-offices and posi-roads. He was opposed to the Mexi- 
can war. but voted for supplies to carry it on. In 1848 be favored the nomination of 
Taylor (whig) for president^ and made a strong politiod speech in the house for that 
purpose, subsequently speaking in various parts r)f the country. In the second f>cssion 
of the 30th congress he made no especial mark. His law partnership with Stuart ended, 
April. 1841, when he united in pi-act ice with ex- judge Stephen T. Logan, and soon after- 
wards formed a partnership with his best friend, William H. Hernaon. Dec. 8. 1889, 
Lincoln was admitted to practice in the federal courta. on the same day with Stephen 
A Dougliia Many curious anecdotes are told of the great story-teller, of his power, 
his energy, hi^ oddities, and his generosity. He was for a time counsel for the Illinois 
Central railroad compiuiy, by whom he was badly treated. In 1859 he went to Cincin- 
nati to argue the McCormick reaper case and found Edwin M. Stanton one of his col- 
leagues; but Stanton treated him with such discourtesy that it seems remarkable that 
Lincoln ever made the haughty Edwin a member of his cabinet Lincoln wanted to be 
commissioner of the ^nerai landofflce, but did not get the appointment. He was 
offered the governorship of Or^on territory, but his wife declined to go there, and he 
would not accept. For two years after leaving oongress he was not publicly prominent. 
In 1850 he refused a nomination for congress; July 1, 1853, he was selected at a meeting 
of citizens to deliver a eulogy on Henry Clay. The bill offered by Douffias, Jan. 4, 
1854. to establish a tcrritoruu government in Nebraska reopened the anti^avery war, 
tad Lincoln was forced to take decided ground against the extension of slavery into 
the territories, which he did at the state fair at Sprinefleld in Oct. in a speech of 
great power. Douglas was there, chafing like a tiger under the scathing remarks of his 

rt opponent. He endeavored to reply, but was too much excited to ppenk coherently, 
promised to conclude in the cvenmg. but did not appear. Other contests between 
the two followed, but they finaliy agreed to give up joiut discussion. In Nov., in 
spite of bis positive declination, Lincoln was again elected to the IcgisUture. At the 
same time he wns very desirous to succeed Shields (dcmocmt) in the U. S. senate; 
but Lyman Trumbull carried off the prize. During the Kansas excitement Lin. 
coin's sympathies were all in favor of the free-state side, but he discountenanced the use 
of force. In 1856 he said to the force party: " I agree with you in Providence; but I 
believe in the providence of the most men, the largest purse, and the largest cannon. 
Tou are in a minority — a sad mii^.-^ritv— and cannot hope to succeed, reasoning from all 
homzui experience. You would rebel against the government, and redden your hands 
in the blood of your countrymen. If you are in the minority, as you are, you cannot 
ncceed. Your attempt to resist the law of Kansas by force is criminal and wicked, and 

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all your feeble attempts will be follies, and end in brining sorrow on your heads, and 
rum ilie cau^ you Wduld fixjtly die to presei-ve/* 

It was at tlie sttite convention at Bluotniugion in 1856 tliat tho rcpuliHcon pnrty in 
Illinois was formed, and there Lincoln made what is considered by many the greatest 
of all his speeches. Up to this time he laid argued the slavery question t»n tlie i^ouud 
of policy, never reaching to the radical right of the matter. At Bloouiington lie was 
bnptizcd to freedom; he was newly b<irn, and had all the feryor of a fre^h convert; his 
heart was alive to the rii^ht; he felt justice; the flame, smothered for years, broke out; 
his sympathies burst forth, and then and tliere he unburdened his penitential souL A 
hearer said of the speech: " It was fresh, new, odd, original, filled with fervor and enthu- 
siasm ; it was full ot tire, energy, and force, of great truths and the sense of right ; it was 
Justice and equity set abluzc liy the force of the soul; it was hard, heavy, knotted, 
gnarled, and heated." From that hour to the night of his murder slavery had uo more 
persiiutent opponent tlian the man whom slavery assassinated. On Juno 17, 1856, iu the 
nrst Republican national convention at Philudelphia, Lincoln's name was put forth for 
vice-president, and was received with considerable favor; but Wm. L. Dayton was 
selected, having 259 votes to 110 for Lincoln and 180 8C;ittenng. This year, for the third 
time. Lincoln was on the electoral ticket, now as a republican, and spoke and worked for 
Fi^mont*8 success. All this time the Kansas question was prominent, and in the close 
of the long struggle it became to Lincoln the passport to the presidency through the per- 
tinacity of Douglas in sticking to his idea of ** squatter (or popular) sovereignty." Tliis 
split the democnuic party in 1860, and made Lincoln s success certain. In 1858 he made 
a speech at the i-epublican state convention for the purpose of securing a nomination for 
U. 8. senator. His friends were surprised, and nearly all nffroed that the speech 
was injudicious and would ruin ids prospects. In this speech he foreshadowed Seward's 
"irrepa^ssi bio conflict." Qncdf Lincoln's nearest friends says: **I think the speech 
was intended to take the wind out of Sowarrrs sails" (for the nomimition for president). 
The state was thoroughly canvassed by Douglas and Lincoln; tho democrats csirried 
both branches of tho legislature; Douglas was re-elected U. 8. senator, and Lincoln was 
bitterly disappointed. When asked how he felt, he said 'Mike the boy who stubbed his 
toe; it hurt too bad to Inugh, and he was too big to cry." 

In the winter of 1858-^ Lincoln appeared as a lecturer, starting with Adam and Eve 
for subject, and coming down to the *' invention of negroes and tho present mode of 
using them." Paits of the lecture were wittv or humorous, but on the whole it was 
commonplace: fds friends were mortified, and he soon gave up the lecturing businesa 
In April. 1859, the people of his own town began to tolk of Lincoln as a proper can* 
didate for i^resident, but he discouraged tho idea. In Sept. he made speeches 
in Ohio in tho tnick of Douglas; in Dec. he spolco at several places in Kansas. 
He was more and more talked of for a pr(«identiai nomination, and finally author- 
ized his fiiends to work for him. Feb. 25, 1860, on invitation, he appeared in 
New York to deliver a speech. Ho spent that day (Saturday) in revising the speech; 
on Sunday went to hear Mr. Deecher pi:each; on Monday wandered over the city, 
and finally delivered his speech in Cooper Institute. The additsss was warmly praised 
in most of the city journals, and was in fact highly successful. After this ue spoke 
in many cities in New England. He was present, though not a delegate, at the 
Illinois state convention. May 9, 1860, where he received the most flattering evidences 
of his great nopularity. which was fully assured l)y the adoption without dissent of 
a resolution aeelaring him the choice or the republicans of Illinois for president, and 
instructing tho delegates to the Chicago convention to use all honorable means to 
secure his nomination. 

On May 16. 1860, the republican national convention met at Chicago. The city 
was full of political workers, and no previous convention had half the numlier of " out- 
side delegates." Two days were spent in organization and tlte adoption of a platform, 
and balloting came on the third day. Up to tlie previous evening Seward's nomination 
seemed certain; but the outside pressure for Lincoln was powerful, for his friends were 
chiefly men of Illinois, and the convention was heM in their state. On the first ballot 
the vote was: Seward, 1784; Lincoln, 102; Cameron, 50|; Chase, 49; Dayton, 14; 
McLean. 10; CoUnmer, 10; and six scattering. On the second ballot: Scwanl. 184^: Lin- 
coln, 181 ; Chaso, 4^; Bates 85; Dayton. 10; McLean, 8. On the third trial Lincoln got 
the nomination, and in the afternoon Hannibal Haniiin of Maine was nominated for 
vice-president. Lincoln was at Springfield, evidently very nervous. When he learned 
the result of the second ballot he felt sure of success. Then came news of the triumph, 
which he receive<l without special emotion, and after shaking hands with a few friends 
said: ** Gentlemen, there is a little short woman at onr house who is probably more 
interested in this di<«patcli than I am; if you will excuse me I will take it np and let her 
sec it." On the fi»llowing day a committee of the convention made a formal tender of 
the nomination, which Lincoln accepted in a very brief speech: 

*' Imploring the assistance of divine providence, and with due reirard to the views 
and feelings of all who were represented in the convention; to the rights of all the states 
and territories, and the people of the nation; to the inviolability of the constitution and 
the perpetual union, harmony, and prosperity of all, I am most happy to co-operate for 
the praciicai sucoess of the principles declarecl by the oenventiox" 

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The democratic national conyentlon at Charleston split on the slavery question. The 
Sooth totally repudiated Douglas and liis squatter sovereignty, while Douclas was 
<^ually determined lo stick to it. Most of the Southern delegates withdrew and organ- 
i«d a separate convention. Those who remained voted 57 times for a candidate, Doug- 
las always having the highest number, but not the two-thirds required by democratic 
precedent They adjourned to meet at Baltimore June 18.* The seceders adjourned to 
meet at Richmond on the first Monday of June, but on that date further adjourned to meet 
June 28 in Baltimore. The result finally was the nomination of three presidential can- 
didates; Douglas by his convention, BrecWnridge of Kentucky by the seceders, or extreme 
southerners, and Bell (formerly a whig) of Tennessee by the " constitutional union" 
pQrt3% composed for the most part of " know-nothings" and old-time whigs. The can- 
vass was warm on all sides; and Douglas, encouraged by the result of the spring elec- 
tions, felt certain of victory. Election day was Nov. 6, when by far the larcest vote 
ever cast in the union was given. Lincoln got 1,857.601; Douglas, 1,291,574; iBrecken- 
ridge, aiO.082; and Bell, 646,124; Lincoln lacked 980,170 of a majority, but the electoral 
vote told a different story, being 180 for Lincoln, 72 for Breckinridge, 80 for Bell, and 
only 12 for Douglas. 

Lincoln felt deeply the responsibility of his great trust, and still more keenly the 
difSculty of administering the government for the sole benefit of an organization which 
had no existence in one-half of the union. He was anxious to take prominent southern- 
ers, such as Alexander H. Stephens, and Gilmore of North Carolina, into his cabinet; 
but they refused all such advances. Secession was determined upon, and events tending 
to that end followed rapidly. Nov. 10, only four days after the election, a bill was pro- 
posed in the South Carolina legislature to equip 10,000 volunteers, a U. B. senator 
from that state resigned, and a state convention was ordered to consider the question 
of secession. During that month and the next, senators and officers of the army resigned ; 
secession meetings and conventions were held ; the South accumulated arms and enlisted 
troops; and Dec. 20 the South Carolina convention unanimously adopted an ordinance 
seceding from the union. The year closed in gloom, and 1861 opened with no hope of 
peace. On Feb. 4 a peace congress met in Philadelphia; on the same day delegates met 
at Montgomery, Ala., to form a southern confederacy, and on the 18th the work was 
done, and Jefferson Davis was inaugurated president. In the mean time Lincoln was 
making his way towards Washington. After an affectionate parting with his mother 
who said she was sure she would never see him again, he put his house in order, handed 
over the law business to his partner, with a request that the old sign should remain for 
four years at least, and on Feb. 1 the arrangements for the journey were completed. He 
bade farewell to his life-long friends in a brief and touching address, and turned his face 
toward the mighty responsibilities soon to be thrown upon him. Everywhere the people 
were anxious to see ana hear him, and he made brief addresses at Indianapolis, Columbus, 
Cleveland, Pittsburg, before the New York legislature, in New York (in response to 
the mayor), in Trenton, Philadelphia, and Harrisburg. While at Pliiladelphia there 
came rumors of a threatened attack upon his life; bridges were to be burned, tracks torn 
up, torpedoes exploded, and all manner of weapons were to be drawn against one of the 
most x>eaceful men in all the country. The great mass of this menace was sheer bra- 
vado, yet his friends (not himself) deemed it proper to take extra care. On the morning 
of Washington's birthday Lincoln raised the old flag over Independence hall in Phila- 
delphia, and immediately proceeded to Harrisburg. Here he was taken in charge by 
a few picked friends and the leading railroad officers, and early the next evening quietly 
went fromf his hotel to a special train for Washington. He wore no disguise; but 
changed his stiff hat for a soft one, and threw on a shawl to conceal his features if 
necessary. At Philadelphia he was quietly transferred to the Baltimore railroad, reached 
Baltimore at 8i a.m., passed unnoticed, and was safe in Washington at 6 o'clock. His 
family followed in another train. His secret and safe arrival caused much comment, 
and he himself quickly regretted that he had not traveled openly in sight of all the peo- 
ple: he felt that he had laid himself open to the charge of cowardice. Almost the first 
news he heard was the surrender of gen. Twisgs in l^xas, a great gain to the secession- 
ists. Lincoln was inaugurated on Monday. >far. 4, and delivered an elaborate address, 
full of the best qualities of his nature. 'Ex-president Buchanan accomp;^nied him to 
the White House and invoked peace and happiness for his administration. The appear- 
ance of the new president is thus described by Ward Lamon in his Life of Abraham 
Lincoln : "He was 6 ft. 4 in. high, the length of his legs beins out of all proportion to 
that of his body. When he sat on a chnir he seemed no taller than an average man, 
measuring from the chair to the crown of his head; but his knees rose high in front. 
He weighed about 180 lbs., but was thin through the breast, narrow across the shoul- 
ders, and had the general appearance of a consumptive subject. Standing up. he 
stooped slightly forward; sitting down, he usually crossed his long legs or threw them 
over the arms of the chair. His head was long, and tall from the base of the brain and 
the eyebrow; his forehead high and narrow, inclining backward as it rose. His ears 
were large and stood out; eyebrows heavy, jutling forward over small sunken blue eyes; 
nose long, large, and blunt ; chin projecting far and sharp, curved upward to meet a 
thick lower lip, which hung downward; cheeks flabby, the loose skin falling in folds; a 
mole on one cheek, and an uncommonly prominent Adam's apple in his throat. His hair 
U. K. IX.— 4 Digitized by VjjUU^IC 



was dark brown, stiflP, and unkempt; complexion dark, skin yellow, sbriveled, and leath- 
ery. Every fciiture of the man— the hollow eyes, with the dark rings beneath, I be long, 
sallow, cuujiverous face, intersected by lliosv peculiar <leep lines, his whole air. his walk, 
his long an(l silent reveries, broken at intervals by sudden and startling exclamations, as 
if to confouml an observer who might suspect the nature of his thoughts— showed that 
he was a man of sorrows, sorrows not of to-day or yesterday, but long-treasured and 
deep. Iwariui; with him continual sense of weariness and pjain. Yet this strangely sor- 
rowful man clearly loved jokes, puns, and comical stories, and was himself worJd- 
fainou.-? for his inimiuible narrative powers. Ue drank very little, and was in precept 
and example a temperance man; and at table always ate sparingly. He was never a 
member of a church; he is believed to have hail philosopUical doubts of the divinity of 
Christ, and of the inspiration of tiie Scriptures as these are commonly stated in th3 sys- 
tems of doctrine called evangelical. In early life he read Volney and Paine, and wrote 
an cs<iiy in which he agreed with their conclusions. Of modern tliiukers be was 
thouffht to a<rree nearest with Theodore Pairker. 

Mr. Lincoln took the executive chair in a dark and stormy time. Vast preparations 
for war had been made in the south, and, except with him and a few still liopeful men, 
a contest was looked upon as inevitnble. In his inaugural address he said that he should 
'*take care that the laws of the union be faithfully executed in all the states;" adding, 
" I trust this will not be regJirded as a menace. There need be no bloodshed or violence, 
and there shall be none unless it be forced upon the national authority. The power 
confided to me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess the properly and places belong- 
ing to tiie government, and to collect the dfuiies and imposts; but, beyond what may be 
necessary for these objects, there will be no inva.sion, no using of force against or among 
the people anywhere. Physically speaking, we cannot separate, we cannot remove our 
respective sections from each o"lher, nor build an impassable wall between them. A 
husband and wife may Ikj divorced, and go out of the presence and beyond the reach of 
each oihcr; but the different parts of our country cannot do this. They cannot but. 
remain face to face; and intercourse, either amicable or hostile, must continue between 
them. Is it possible, then, to make the intercourse more advantageous or more satisfac- 
tory after separation than before? The chief mngistratc derives all his authority; from 
the people; and they have conferred none upon him to fix terms for the separation of 
the stales. His duty is to adnn'nlster the present government as it came into his hands, 
and to transmit it unimpaired by him to his successor. In your hands, my dis.satisfied 
fellow-countrymen, and not in mme, is the momentous issue of civil war. You can have 
no cjmfliet wifhoul being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in 
heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, 
protect, and defend it." In fact he denied the right of any state or number of states to 
go out of the union. The confederates considered this address to amount to a declara- 
tion of wMir, and hastened their preparations. In the north the address united and con- 
solidated the people in support of its views. Less than six weeks afterwards, j^en. 
Beauregard, on behalf of the confederate government, demanded the surrender of Fort 
Sumter in Charleston harbor, then garrisoned l>y a small force under maj. Robert Ander- 
son. The .surrender being refused, the fort was attacked April 12, 1861, and thus actual 
hostilities begun. That act united the people of the north; party lines were broken 
down, nnd, w ith the exception of a few extreme proslavery men (afterwards known as 
" copperhcuis"), the whole people echoed tiie words of Jackson when South Carolina 
made her first attempt at secession— " The union must and shall be preserved." Maj. 
Andercion aljandoned the fort on the 14 Ih. The next da}' president Lincoln called a 
special session of congress to meet on the 4th of July; at the same time he called for 
75,000 militia. The response was instantaneous. Massachusetts, with her sixth rerfinent, 
was tirst in the field. This regiment was attacked while goin^ through Baltimore, 
and a n<nni)er of its members were killed. On April 19 the president proclaimed the 
blockade of all the ports of the seceding states. The south was even more inflamed 
than the north; three days after the fall of Sumter the Virginia legislature voted to 
join the confederacy, and a few days later North Carolina followed her example. The 
confederates had raised 100,000 men, and made no secret of their design to capture the 
national capital and invade the north. On May 80 anoihcr call for men was issued by 
Lincoln, and both the army and the navy were speedily and largely reinforced. In a brief 
message to congress the president rehearsed the acts of rebellion, and said: ** This issue 
embraces more than the fate of these United States. It presents to the whole family of 
man the question whether a constitutional republic or democracy — a government of the 
people by the same people — can or cannot mainttiin its territorial integrity against its 
own domestic foes." Some opposition was made in congress by members who thought 
it unconstitutional to *' coerce a sovereign state," but the l<>yni sentiment overwhelmed 
them. July 15 a democratic member (.ncClernand of 111.) offered a resolution pledging 
the house to vote any nmount of money and any number of men necessary to suppa'ss 
the rebellion and restore the authority of the government. There were only five opposing 
votes in a house of nearly 3U0 meml)ers. On July 21 the union forces were very badly 
defeated at Bull Kun, and driven in a panic back upon Washington. The newsgrive 
the northern people a terrible shock, but it was only njomentary, "and its ultimate cnect 
was to rouse to the highest pitch the patriotism and courage of the loyal states, and 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 



Tolunteers came bv thousands and thousands without waiting for a call. Up to the last 
of Oct. gen. StTOit' retained his position as commander of llie arniv; but he wasgrow- 
iog feeble, and wjis retired, gen. McCIeliau taking his place. The array was reor- 
ranized. new troops were drilled, and the whole force was soon in good discipline. 
But McClellan was loath to light; though entirely loyal, he inclined to act witl» Ihe^ 
moderate men on both sides, and whenever it seemed necessary to strike directly at 
fllftvcry in order to 8Ui>tain the republic he waa not the man or tlie officer to do ft, 
McClellan remaining inactive until near the end of Jan., 1862, the president, on the 27th 
of that mouth, onler^ that on Feb. 22 a general movement by land and sea should be 
made against the confederates. McClellan objected, and nothing was done until at a 
ooancil of war, held Mar. 13, it waa decided to move against Richmond fix>m fortress 
Monroe. Here asain McClellan waited and hesitated, complaining that he was not 
properly supported at Washington, and after a number of battles, in which the unionists 
vere generally lieaten, he was forced to abtuidon the campaign and retreat. The close 
of the summer of 1862 was a dark period for loyal men, but no one suffered so keenly 
or worked so faithfully as did president Lincoln. The confederates now to(»k the 
aggressive; Lee invaded Maryland, but wa.s soon driven out after the firat union victory 
at Antietam. To follow up this victory, McClellan was ordered to follow Leu and fight 
him or drive him southward. Again McClellan del.iyed. and finally broke the lou^- 
eDdurioe patience of Lincoln, who removed him from command. Burnside taking hta 
place. Battles with Lee followed nt Frederick.sburg and Chancel lorvi lie, in both cases 
unfortunate for the unionists. The people of the north beg^n to feel that it wus time to 
strike the rebellion in a vital part, and the emancipation of the slaves in the soulh was 
urged upon Lincoln, not only as a legitimate, but aa a vitally necessary war-measure. 
Hcbesiiated; thought such an act would drive the border slave states, still nominally 
loyal, into the confederacy. Again, what if the tmancipated negroes should be ttiken 
into the confcdcnite army? He said to the men who were urging Uic emancipation idea 
and adding that they felt sure it was the will of God: ** I hope it will not be irreverent 
forme to say that, if it is probable that God would reveal hrs will to others on a point 
Eo conoecteu with my duty, it might be supposed he would reveal it directly to me, for, 
unless I am more deceived in myself than 1 often am. it is my earnest desire to know 
the will of Providence in this matter; and if I can learn what it is, I will do it." In 
reference to the position of the slave-holding &t:ites still in the union he said: ** There 
are 50.000 bayonets in the union army from tJic bonier slave states. It would be a 
serious matter if, in consequence of a proclamation such as you desire, they should go 
over to ihe rebels." Lincoln carefully sought the opinion of the northern people ir\ the 
matter, and soon found that he would be sustained in the action questioned. Thus 
fortified he issued, on Mondiiy. Sept. 22, 1802. the most important ofiicial document, 
the declaration of independence only excepted, known in Americim history; declaring 
that on and after Jan. 1, 1863. all slaves in slates or parts of states then in rebellion 
should be free. Two years afterwards Lincoln stud of the proclamation: ''As affairs 
have turned it is the central act of my administration, an<l the great event of the 19th 
centur}'." After the conflict at ChanccUorvillc the current of success seemed to fnvor 
the union arms, leading on to the great e/ent of July 4, 1863— the capture of Vicksburg 
by gen. Grant. At the same timo the three-days* luit tie between the unionists under 
Meade and the confederates under Lee Avas going on near Gettysburg, resulting in a 
decisive union victory. Lincoln soon saw in Gnmt the man for the occasion, nnd in 
Mar., 1864, in compliance with the recommendation of congress, the captor of Vicks- 
burg was appointed lieut.gcn. of the armies of the United States. This sealed the fate 
of the rebellion. The rebels had fought long and bravely; but their resources failed, 
their losses were enormous, and those who lived were worn out. Sherman, almost 
unopposed, marched through an empty country to the sea; Grant, who knew no such 
word as fail, had set himself to the capture of Richmond, and would "fight it out on 
this line if it takes nil summer." We need not follow details when the catastrophe is so 
near. On April 2, 1865, Lee wns forced out of Richmond (then the confederate capital), 
and seven days afterwnrds wns compelle<l to surrender his whole army to Grant at 
Appomattox. On the ITth. eight days later, gen. Joe Johnston surrendered to Sherman 
and the great struggle was ended; in fact, it ended with the surrender of Lee. Grant 
reached Washington on the IStli. met the president and secretary of war. and orders 
were prepared to stop the rni-^ing of recruits. The war was over and every loyal heart 
was n'ioicing. Lincoln's praise was on every tcmgue; the patient man who had 
suflFered the pain of a thoustmd deaths during the war; who had been misunderstood, 
maligned, and condemned, by friends as well ai enemies, now shone conspicuous in 
popular affection. He had lilieratcd a nice; he had s;ived his country. On the evening 
of April 11 the White House was illuminated, and Lincoln made a short address 
expressing his acknowh^dgmenrs to the army, and his gratitnde to God, nnd then turn- 
iQg his remarks to reoonstniction, the caj-dinal points of which he thought would be to 
grant universal amnesty on condition that tlie stales lately in reliellion should frrant 
universid suffrage. Lincoln and Gnmt were the idols of the hour. On the mornin«r of 
the 14tb they were invited to visit Ford's theater in the evening. Grant left the city, 
but the president, though not at all inclined, attended with his wife, and maj. Rnthl>one 
aud Miss Harris. They went into a private box, and Lincoln was soon ab^rbed in,the 

Xlnooln. ;rO 

JUndtey. 0^ 

play {Out American dm^n). At about 11 ;30 o'clock the box was suddenly invaded by 
John Wilkes Booth, an actor and a furious pro-slavery man. In an instant he put a 
pistol to the back of Lincoln's head and fired; then leaped from the box to the stage, 
crying, '* Sic acmper tyrannis! The south is avenged!' and fled through the stage 
door, mounted a horse, and escaped. The president did not stir; the ball had gone 
through his brain, and he had no further consciousDess. He died the next morning 
about half-past seven. On the same evening an attempt was made to murder secretary 
Seward, who was confined to his house in consequence of an accident. It would 
be vain to attempt to describe the sorrow that spread over the nation, and even other 
nations, on hearing of this awful tragedy. The assassin was captured and executed, and 
some of his confederates shared the same fate. It is satisfactory to know that this act 
•of infamy was the work of a gang of private men, and that the confederate government 
imd leaders had no hand in it. Thus, when Lincoln 

Had mounted fame's ladder so high, 
From the rouid at the top he could step to the sky, 


the great president passed to his rest. Twice elected to his high ofiSoe— the last time 
(in Sov., 1864) over gen. McClellau by a popular majority of more than 400,00<V— he was 
torn from it in the moment of triumph to be placed side by side with Washington, the 
one the father, the other the savior of the union ; one the founder of a republic, the 
other the liberator of a race. 

LINCOLN, Benjamin, 1788-1810; b. Hingham, Mass. Until the age of 40 he was 
a farmer, but had filled the positions of local magistrate, representative in the colonial 
legislature, and col. of militia. In 1774-75 he took an active part in orgHuizing the 
provincial militia for active resistance to the mother country, and was appointed maj.gen. 
of the Massachusetts militia. At the siege of Boston Wa&ington put him in command 
of an expedition to force the British fleet out of Boston harbor. He commanded the 
Massachusetts militia at the battle of White Plains in the fall of 1776; reinforced Wj\sh- 
inffton by a fresh levy of Massachusetts militia at Morristown, N. J., Feb., 1777; and by 
Washington's request was made a maj.gen. in the continental arm^, Feb. 19 of that year. 
He co-operated with gen. Schuyler in the summer campaign agamst Burgo3'ne in New 
York, and again organized reinforcements of New England militia for the army. In 
Sept. he joined gen. Gates as second in command, and was disabled by a wound Oct. 8 
at the battle of Bemis Heights, near Saratoga. He resumed service in Aug., 1778, 
and in Sept. was assigned to the command of the southern army. His command of this 
division of the army was rather to strengthen the faltering allegiance of the Carolinas 
and Georgia to. the cause of the states by a show of strength than for offensive operations. 
D'Estaing, admiral of the French fleet, was to co-operate with him near the coast. He 
arrived at Charleston Dec. 4, 1778, and maintained a defensive watch of the English 
forces. His army met with reverses at Brier creek and Stone ferry in Mar. and June, 
and, acting in conjunction with D'Estaing with a view to retake Savannah from the 
British, the combined forces met with a sanguinary repulse Oct. 9; and the following 
spring his army was besieged in Charleston and forced to capitulate May 12, 1780. He 
returned to his home prisoner on parole. Exchanged in the spring of 1781, he joined 
Washington before Yorktown, and was chosen by Washington to receive the sword of 
lord Cornwallis on his surrender. He held the ofiflce of secretary of war .for three 
3'ear8, and retired to his farm at Hingham in 1784. Gen. Lincoln after this held various 
temporary positions of trust under the state of Massachusetts and the United States. In 
1789 he was made collector of the port of Boston, which position he held till his death 
at the age of 87. He was a man of simple earnest character; and the persevering zeal 
and disinterestedness of his public service gave him ^eat popularity in his native slate 
and in New England. His services in organizing and drawing opportunely into service 
the militia of the several states were of great value, and so recognized by Washington. 

LINCOLN, Enoch, 1788-1829; son of Levi Lincoln (1749-1820); b. in Worcester, 
Mas.<5. ; studied at Harvard college; entered the legal profession in 1811, and settled at 
Prycburg, Me., from which place he removed to the neighboring town of Paris in 1819. 
He was a member of congress from 1818 to 1826, and governor of Maine in 1827-29. 
During his residence at Frveburg he described the beautiful scenery of that forest- town 
in a poem entitled The Village. He also delivered a poem at the centennial celebration 
of the fight at Lovewell's pond. He left historical manuscripts of value, some of which 
have been published in the first volume of the Maine Hiticrical CoUecHaiu. 

LINCOLN, John Larkin, b. in Boston, 1817^rofesBor of Latin in Brown uni- 
versity; editor of Selections from Livy (1847); the Worke of Horace (1851); and Cicero's 
Ik Sefiectute. 

LINCOLN, Levi, 1749-1820; b. at Hingham, Mass., and graduated at Harvard in 
1772; became a lawyer and settled at Worcester in 1775; was judge of probate in 1776; 
and served in the constitutional convention of 1780. In 1798 he was elected to congres>«i 
us a political disciple of Jefferson, serving but for a single term. From 1801 to 1805 he 
was attorn ey-general of the United States; in 1807-6, lieutenant-governor of Mas- 
sachusetts; and acting-governor in 1809. He declined an appointment as judge of the 
supreme court of the United States. Died at Worcester.^jgj^j^ed by VjUUV IC 

&Q lilnMUu 

. LINCOLN, Levi. li..d.. 1782-1868; son of Levi Lincoln (1740-1820); b. in Wor- 
ester, and ^duated at Harvard in 1803; entered the legal profession in 1805; served 
la the coDstituiional convention of 1820; often a member of the legislature, speaker of 
tlie house in 1822, president of the senate in 1845; elected lieutenant-governor of Mas- 
iBcfausetts in 1823^ and was governor from 1825 to 1884; was a member of congress from 
1335 to 1841 ; a judge of the state supreme court in 1824; collector of the port of Boston 
from 1841 to 1848; and first mayor of Worcester in 1848. 

UHCOLH COLLEGE, Oxford, was founded iu 1427 by Richard Flemiug. bishop of 
Lincoln, for a rector and 7 fellows, and afterwards greatly augmented by Thomas 
Kotherham, bishop of Lincoln, archbishop of York, and lord high chancellor of Eng- 
land, who added 5 fellowsliips, and gave a new body of stututes in 1479. in which tho 
declioQ of fellows was limited to the dioceses of Lincoln, York, and Wells. Theso 
Umiiaiions were abolished, however, by an act of parliament, 17 and 18 Vict. The 
foundation at present consists of a rector, 10 fellows, and 14 scholars. Other scbolai:- 
ships are added from time to time from the proceeds of two suspended fellowships; Id 
were founded by Dr. Hutcliins, lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, and Dr. Radford, rec- 
tors. The patronage consists of 9 benefices, iu the counties of Oxford, Lincoln, Essex, 
Dorset, and Bucks, of the annual value of £5,414. This college has usually between 250 
and 300 members on the books. 

UHCOLVBHIBE, a maritime county of England, and, after iYorksh ire, the largest in 
the coimtry, is bounded on the n. by Yorkshire, and on the e. by the North sea. Area, 
i. 767,962 statute acres; pop. '71, 486,599. The coast, from the Uumber— which separates 
the county from Yorkshire on the n. — to the Wash, is almost uniformly low and 
marshy; so low, indeed, in one part — lietween the mouths of the Welland and the Ken 
—that the shore here requires the defense of an embankment from the inroads of ihfi 
0es. Lincolnshire has long been divided into three districts, or '* parts, "as they are 
called— viz.. the parts of Lindsey, an insular district, forming the north-eastern portion 
of Lincolnshire, and including the Wolds or chalk hills, which are about 47 m. in length 
b^ 6 in. in average breadth; the parts of Kesteven, in the s. w. ; and the parts of Holland^ 
in the 8.e.. including the greater part of the fens. Chief rivers, the Trent, the Ancholme, 
the Witham, and the Welland. The surface is comparatively^ level, with the exception 
of the Wolds in the north-east. The soil, though very various, is on the whole very 
fertile. It includes tracts of grazing-ground unsurpassed in richness, and the **warp' 
lands" (see Warpino) along the side of the Trent produce splendid crops of wheat, 
beans, oats, and rape without the aid of manure. No other county in England has 
finer breeds of oxen, horses, and sheep. Horncastle and Lincoln horse-fairs are fre- 
quented by French, German, Russian, and London dealers for the purpose of buying 
superior hunters and carriage-horses. The climate, though subject to strong westerly 
windij, is much the same as that of the other central counties of England. Six members 
are returned to parliament. 

iniCOLH'S INK, one of the four English inns of court, having exclusive power to 
call persons to the bar. It is so called because it belonged to the earl of Lincoln in the 
reign of Edward IL, and became an inn of court soon after his death in 1810. 8eo 
bss OF Court. 

LIVD, Jbnnv. See €k>LDflCHiiTDT, Madamb. 

LINDAU, a t. of Bavaria, built on islands in the lake of Constance; pop. about 
5,000; the center of a small commerce in hop.s, wine, fish, and cheese. Its manufac- 
tures are mechanical and musical instruments, carriages, etc. In the 7lh c. it was a 
well known Roman town, and a free imperial city until 1808. 

LIN'DE. Samckl Bogumil, 1771-1847; of Swedish descent; b. at Thorn, Prussia; 
studied at Leipsic; spent several years in Dresden and Vienna; and in 1803 was 
appointed director of the Ijrceum of Warsaw, where he died. His Dictionary of the 
Pofi^h lAingmige, in 6 vols., is highly esteemed. 

LINDEN (tree). See Limm, anU. 

LINDLEY, Dakiel, d.d., b. Penn. ; graduated at the Ohio university, of which his 
iather was president; taught school to pay his way through the Union theological semi- 
nary of Viiginia, where he graduated in 1829: was immediately licensed to preach by 
the presbytery. For three years he preached in Charlotte, N. C, and saw several hun- 
dred added to the church. When an appeal was made by the Americnn board for settled 
pastors to become missionaries, he offered his services. He mRrried Lucy Alien of 
Richmond. Va., and sailed in 1884 for the cape of Good Hope. From Cape Town they 
Kmmeyed by wagons 500 m. to Griqua Town, thence the next year 500 m. farther to 
Mosika, the country of Mosilikatse. After encountering great peril and suffering in 
the war between the Dutch and Mosilikatse, reduced almost to starvation, they reached 
PortXatal. whence shortly they were driven by war between the Dutch and'Dingaan, 
?peat-uncle of OetTwayo. In June, 1839, he returned to Port Natal, where he labored 
amoD^ the Zulus for about thirty-five years. Not only did he make known to them Jesus 
^ iirist, but when the nativ? Christians wished to improve their mod<»s of life, though 
"ot a mechanic, be could show them how to make brictk, to build houses, to construct a 
few implements and pieces of furniture. In sickness he ministered to them; if a tiger or ' 

Digitized by VjL>LJy iC 

XJadley. K4 

LindMij. *^* 

a lion threatened, his rifle never missed its aim; though he was neither phTsician noc 
sportsman. The Zulus honored and loved him. The Dutch Bocrn, wliose wnuderines 
he had shared when war drove hint from his home und work among the nntives, said. 
*' If there lie a human name that war.ns the heiirt of a Natai Tecli B^r, it is the ever-to- 
be-rememl)ered name of Daniel Lindley." lie died at Morristown. N. J., Sept. 8, 1880. 

UHDLEY, John, a distinguished botanist, was b. Feb., 1799, at Cat ton, near Norwich, 
where his fatlicr, who was the author of A Guide to OrcJiard mid Kitchen Gardene, 
owned a large nursery garden. Botany seems to liave early attracted his attention, as, 
in 1819. he published a translation of Richard's Analyse da Fruit, und in 1820 his 
Monagraphia Boearum appeared. Amongst his most important worlij are his Introduc- 
tion to tlie Natural System of Botany (1830); Introduction to the Structure and Physiology 
of Plants {% vols. 1882); FUrra Mediea (1838); and Tlu Vegetable Kingdom (1846). which 
is a standard worlc on the subject of classification, and is an expansion of liis Introduc- 
tion to the Natural System, which Imd previously (in 1886) l)ccn remodeled under the 
title of A Natural System of Botany. Lindley did a great deal to popularize the study 
of liotany by the publication of his Ladies Botany, School Botany, ** botany" in the 
Uhrary of Useful Knowledge, and the botanical articles as far as the letter R in the 
Penny Cydopadia, In his Theory of Horticulture, which has passed through several 
editions, and in the well-known periodical, Tfie Gardener's Chronicle (the horticultural 
department of which he edited from its commencement in 1841), lie showed the great 
practical value of a knowledge of vegetable physiology in the common operations of 
the field and garden. In conjunction with Mr. button he pulilished The Fosnl Flora of 
Great Britain, which consists of descriptions and figures of all the fossil plants found in 
this country up to the time of the commencement of this publicati(m in 1838. Our 
limited space prevents us from noticing his other works, or his numerous contributions 
to scientific transactions. In 1829, at the opening of the London university, he was 
appointed professor of botany, and he continued to discharge the duties of the chair till 
1860, when ho resigned. From 1823 he acted as assistant secretary to the horticultural 
society, and not only edited their Transactions and Proceedings, but took an active part 
in the miuiagemcnt of their g:irdcns at Turnham Green. He was a fellow of numerous 
learned societies at home and abroad. He died Nov., 1865. 

LINDSAY, county-seat of Victoria co., Ontario, Canada, on the Scugog river, and 
on the line of the Canada Midland railway, 56 m. n.c. of Toronto; pop. about 4,000. 
Its commerce is principally in lumber, gram, and flour. Its manufactures are doors, 
sash and blinds, iron-works, beer, and extracts of hemlock bark. It contains the county 
buildings, and several fine churches and schools. 

LIHDSAT, The Family op. Tliis Scottish historical house is of Norman extraction. 
One of the race obtained lands in England from the Conqueror; another, sir Walter de 
Lindsay, settling in Scotland under David I.^ acquired Ercildoun, and Luftness in East 
Lothian. The descendant of the latter, William Lindsay of Ercildoun, high iusticiary 
of Lothian in the latter half of the 13th c, acquired the lands of Crawford in Cl}'desdiUe, 
which the family continued to hold till about the close of the 16th century. He married 
princess Marjory, sisier of king William the li(m, and had three sous. The eldest 
inherited Crawford; and the descendants of the second were the house of Laniberton, 
who for a time eclipsed their elder brethren; but the line of both ended in heiresses; and 
Crawford eventually came to the descendants of William of Luffness, third son of the 
justiciary, who, in the 14th c, added largely to their estates by man'iage with a coheir- 
ess of lord Abernethy. Sir James Lindsay of Crawford was one of the most notable of 
the Scotch barons engaged in the battle of Otterburn. 

Eakls of Crawford and Duke of Montrose. — Sir Alexander Lindsay, younger 
brother of sir James of Crawford, the hero of Otterburn, acquired large estates in the 
counties of Angus and Inverness by marriage with the heiress of Stirling of Glenesk and 
Edzell; and his son David, who, on failure of the line of his uncle, I)ecamc chief of the 
family, married the sister of Robert III., and was raised by that king, in 1898, to the 
dignity of earl of Crawford. In the 15th c. the earls of Crawford were among the most 
powerful of the Scotch nobility: they assumed a regal state, had tlieir lieralds, and were 
attended by pages of noble birth. Their domains were widely extended over Scotland, 
but their chief seat was Finhaven, in Angus. David, third earl, entered into an alliance, 
offensive an<l defensive, with the eighth earl of Douglas and Macdonald of the Isles, 
carl of Ross, and wielded for a time, during James II.*8 minority, an authority far 
exceeding that of royalty. He was slain at Arbmalh in a private feud with the Ogilvies. 
His son, nicknamed "Beardie," or the "tiger earl," renewed the league with Douglas. 
On James having treacherously stabbed Douglas at an interview at Stirling, he rose in 
rebellion; and the earl of Huntly, lieutgen. of the kingdom, who had aided the Ogll- 
vies at Arbroath, took up arms against him. Earl Beardie was defeated at Brechin, and 
forfeited; but he was afterwards restored to his lands and dignities, and to royal favor, 
and entertained James at Finhaven, who flung down a loose stone from the cimtle battle- 
meet in fuitillment cf a vow which he had taken to make the highest stone of the castle 
the lowest. The family attained their climax of power and wealth under David, fifth 
earl, a faithful friend of James III., and employed by him in his most important foreign 
embassies, who was made duke of Montrose in'l488, a title which had never before been 

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^^ BindMij. 

bestowed in Scotland but on princes of the blood-royal. On the accession of James IV., 
an act rescissory was passed of all CTaDts and titles conferred by his predecessor during 
tlie last eight months of his re'.gn; but soon afterwards, a new charter of the dukedom 
of Montrose \^an granted on a recital of the duke's good services to the king and his pre- 
deeesor. David, eighth earl of Crawford, nephew of the duke of Montrose, had the 
misfortune to have a son known for his ciiiucs and enormities as ** the wicked master", 
bis conduct led his aged father to consent to a transfer of the earldom to David Lindsay 
of Edzell, the next heir. The ninth earl, wlio succeeded under this conveyance, moved 
vith pity for the rightful heir, son of the "wicked muster," obiained a reconveyance 
of the earldom to him after his own decease. From that time the fortunes of tlie family 
bcgsiu to decline. The 12th earl was imprisoned by his rehitives as a spendthrift. The 
16tbearl. a companion in arms of the great Montrose, having no issue, through ihe influ- 
ecce of a i^wenul cadet of the family, lord Lindsay of the Byres, a new pate nt of the 
earldom was obtained from Charles L, bringing in his bmnch of the house before the 
descendants of the uncle of the 16th earl, who had been created lord Spynie, or the inter- 
mediate cadets of Edzell and BalcaiTcs. 

Lord Lindsay of the Byres, Viscount Garnock.— Sir William Lindsay, younger 
brother of the first carl of Crawford, acquired extensive estates with his wife, a daugh- 
tcr of sir William Mure of Abercom. lie was hereditary bailie and seneschal of the 
regality of the archbishopric of St. Andrews, an oflBco which remained in his family till 
tbe middle of last centuTY. His grandson was made lord Lindsay of the Byres, county 
Haddington, in 1445. The lords Lindsay of the Byn^s were sturdy champions of popu- 
lar rights and of the Presbyterian faith; their principal residence was Struthers castle in 
Fife. The fonrlh lord endeavored in vain to dissuade James IV. from his fatal expe- 
dition to England In 1518; in c<msequenee of which. James vowed that, on his return, 
he would bane him on his own gate, a threat, of course, rendered futile by the fatal 
result of Flodden. The fifth lt)rd was one of the four, noblemen to whom the charge of 
the infant queen Mary was committed on the death of her father. The sixth lord, the 
fiercest and most bigoted of the lords of the congregation, was deputed by the rest to 
obtain Mary*8 compulsory resignation at Lochleven, an office whicn he is said to have 
discharged in a severe and repulsive manner; and the seventh lord bearded James VI. in 
the presence-chamber rcgjirding the changes he was effecting in ecclesiastical j^olily. 
The tenth lord Lindsay of the Byres was in 1644 created earl of Lindsay; and in virtue 
of Charles L's above-mentioned patent, he became 17th earl of Crawford, a dignity 
enjoye<l by his descendants till their extinction. He held the offices of high tix^asurer of 
Scotland, and an extraordinary lord of session; and though a warm partisan of the cove- 
oant, he was a loyal and consistent adherent of the Stuarts. In lo48 he entered with 
leal into tbe proposal to raise an army to effect the king's rescue; and in 1657, .while for- 
warding Charles XL's plan of marching into England, he was arrested, canied to Lor 
doD, and detained a prisoner in the Tower and Windsor castle. He was released by the 
'Mong*' parliament in 1660, on the recall of the secluded membei*s, and was reinstated in 
his offices and dignities at the restoration. We find him afterwards making a strong 
effort to dissuade Charles from introducing episcopacy in Scotland. The treasurer's 
frmndson by a younger son was created viscount Garnock in 1703. The fourth viscount 
Oarnock succeeded as 21st earl of Crawford; his son. the 22d earl, was the last of the 
direct line of the Byres; and at his decease in 1808, the Crawford earldom returned, in 
terms of the patent of Charles L, to the line of Balcarres, while the Crawford Lindsay 
estates went to heirs-female. A claim by an alleged descendant of this branch of the 
bouse to both peenige and estates, was long a matter of public interest and notoriety; it 
eventually colf:ipsed from the discovery that the principal documents founded on were 
ingeniouwy contrived forgeries. 

Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, lion king of arms, the courtly knight, poet, and 
philosopher, and friend of the reformation in its earlier stages, was descended* from a 
natural son of the first sir William Lindsay of the Byres. 

Earl of Balcabres and Crawford. — The Lindsays of Balcarres, in Fife, were a 
branch, and eventually the representatives of the Lindsays of Edzell, who, as already 
seen, had temporarily possessed the earldom of Crawford on the attainder of the 
"wicked master." llie first of them was lord Menmuir, a lord of session and secretary 
of state to James VL, posses.scd of accomplishments and cultivation rare in his age. His 
son David was created lord Lindsay of Balcarres in 1638. and his grandson, Alexander, 
earl of Balcarres, in 1651, in reward of their steady support of the royal cause. The 
sixth earl of Balcarres became dejure earl of Crawford on the death of the 22d earl, the 
last of the Byres line; and that title has been recognized by the house of lords to belong 
to bis son, James, seventh earl of Balcarres, and 28d earl of Crawford, father of the 
present representative of the family. The earl of Crawford further preferred without 
Buccess a claim to the dukedom of 'Montrose, conferred by James IIL Alexander Wil- 
^am Crawford, since 1869 earl of Cniwford and Balcarres, is author of Sketches of ilie 
HUXorycf Chrigtian Art (1847); Skepticitm (1861); On tlie Theory of the EngUsh Ilea-anieier; 
(Ecumenteity in relation to the Church of England (1870); and (1849) Lives of the Lindmys, 
» family memoir, combining to a rare extent genealogical research with biographical 
interest, to which reference is made for further particulars regarding the Lind8a3's.— 
See also Jenrise, Land of the Lindsays, 

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I.iuen. ^" 

LITTOSAY, William Schaw; b. in Ayrshire. Scotland, in 1816; went to sea as 
cabin-boy at 15 years of age; was second mate in 1834, cliief mate in 1835, and com- 
mander of a merchantman in 1836; became agent for the Castle-Eden coal company in 
1841 ; took an active part in opening the port of Hartlepool and providing it with wharves 
and docks; in 1845 went to London, where in a short time he was recognized as one of 
the '* merchant princes " of the city; was a candidate for parliament in 1832, and defeated ; 
but in 1854 elected for Tynemoutii and North Sljields, and re-elected without opposition 
in 1857; two years later was elected for Sunderland. He distinguished himself in par- 
liament by earnest, careful attention to commercial and shipping interests, and took 
part in organizing the administrative reform association. Besides numerous pamphlets 
on mercantile and political topics he has published Ow Namgation, MeixarUUe, and 
Marine Laws Considered; OunMercfiant Shipping; and T lie History of Me^'cJianttSlUppiiig, 
the latter a work in 2 volumes. 

LINDSAY, or Lyndsay, Sir David, op thx Mount, one of the best and long the 
most popular of the older Scottish poets, was the son of David Lindsay of Gannylton, 
in East Lothian, whose grandfather was a son of sir William Lindsay of the Hyres. 
The poet is said by Chalmers to have been born at the Mount about the year 1490l but 
Laing in his recent edition of Lyndsav (1871) notes the absence of evidence on this point, 
Chalmers having apparently assumea it as a consequence of his supposition that the 
poefs father was ** David Lyndsay of the Mountlil," while Laing has shown tliat this 
was the poet's grandfather. The name "Da Lindesay " occurs in the list of "incor- 
porated students in St. Salvator's college, St. Andrews, for the year 1508 or 1509. It 
may be that of the poet. We cannot tell when he entered the ro} al service, but in Oct., 
1511, he is found taking part in a play acted before the court of king James IV. In the 
following spring he was appointed "keeper" or "usher "of the prince, who. when 
little more than a twelvemonth' old, became king James V.; and his verses preserve 
some pleasing traces of the care and affection with which he tended the king*s infant 
years. His wife, Janet Douglas, had long the chaise of the royal apparel. In 1524 the 
court fell under the power of the queen-mother ana the Douglases, and Lindsay lost his 
place; but four years afterward, when the Douglaj^es were overthrown. Lindsay was 
made lion king at arms, and at the same time received the honor of knighthood. In 
this capacity he accompanied embassies to the courts of England. Fnmce, Spain, and 
Denmark. He appears to have represented Cupar in the parliaments of 1542 and 1543; 
and he was present at St. Andrews in 1547, when the followers of the n- formed faith 
called Knox to take upon himself the office of a public preacher. He died childless 
before the summer of 1555. 

The fl^st collection of Lindsay's poems appeared at Copenhagen about 1553. They 
were republished at Paris or Rouen in 1558; at London in 1566, 1575. and 1581; at Bel- 
fast in 1714; in Scotland in 1568, 1571, 1574, 1588, 1592, 1597, 1604. 1610, 1614. 1634, 
1648, 1696, 1709, 1720, and 1776. This mere enumeration of editions might be enough 
to show the great popularity which Lindsiiy long enjoyed. For nearly two centuries, 
indeed, he Wiis what Burns has since become — the poet or the Scottish people. His works 
were in almost every house, his verses on almost every tongue. Like Burns, he owed 
part of his popularity, no doubt, to his complete mastery of the popular speech. But, 
like Burns, Lindsay would have been read in whatever language he chose to write. 
His verses show few marks of the highest poetical power, but their merits oiherwise are 
great. Their fancy is scarcely less genial than their humor, and they are full of good 
sense, varied learning, and knowledge of the world. They are valuable now, if for noth- 
ing else than their vivid pictures of manneis and feelings. In the poet's own day, they 
served a nobler purpose, by preparing the way for the great revolution of the 16tli cen- 
tury. It has been said that the verses of Lmdsay did more for the reformation in Scot- 
land than all the sermons of Knox. Like Burns. Lindsay shot some of his sharpest 
shafts at the clergy. The licentiousness that characterizes his verses must be attributed 
in part to the age m which he lived. The earliest and most poetical of his writings is i?uf 
Dreine; the most ambitious. Tlie Monardiie; the most remarkable in his own day, per- 
haps, was IVie Satyre of the Thrie Efdaitis; but that which is now read with most 
pleasure, both for the charm of its subject and for its freedom from the allegorical fashion 
of the time, is Tke Ilistorie of Squyer MeldrunK An admirable edition of Lindsjiy's 
works is that of Chalmers (Lond. 1806. 3 vols.); but in points of detail it is less accurate 
tlian that of Laing (Edin. 1871, 2 vols.). 

LINDSLEY, Philip, d.d., 1786-1855; b. at Morristown, N. J.; graduated at 
Princeton in 1804, where he was tutor in 1807-9 and 1812. professor of languages in 
1813. and vice-president in 1817, at which time he was ordained as a minister of the 
Presbyterian church. Between 1820 and 1839 he was offered the presidency of 10 dif- 
ferent colleges, and in 1824 accepted that of the university of Nashville, Tenn.. which 
he held till 1850. when he resigned, after a very successful career. He subsequently held 
the professorship of archaeology and church polity in the Presbyterian theological semi- 
nary at New Albiiny, Ind. His complete works, comprising sermons and educational 
and other discourses and es.says, together with a memoir by Leroy J. Halsey, were pub- 
lished in 1865. Died at Nashville, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^> i lAnen. 

UR, an expression used in the army to distinguish ordinary cavalry and infantry 
from the guards, artillery, and engineers. It obviously takes its origin from the fact 
ttoi the troops in question constituted the usual *' line of battle." 

LIl^E, in military or naval rank (ante). The line-officers of the navy and army in 
the United States are divided into eleven grades, and their comparative rank on the 
active or retired list is as follows: 

The admiral of the navy ranks with a general of the army. 
The vice-admiral " '* lieutenant-general of the army. 

10 rear-admirals of the navy rank with major-generals '* 

25 commodores *• '* brigadier-generals •* 

50 captains " " colonels ** 

90 commanders " *' lieutenant-colonels " 

80 lieutenant-commanders " " majors " 

280 lieutenants *' " captoins " 

100 masters " " first lieutenants " 

100 ensigns " " second lieutenants. ** 
— midshipmen 

All staff officers are appointed by the president with the sanction of the senate. He 
also appoints for vessels in actual service all warrant officers, such as boatswains, gunners, 
flail-makers, and carpenters, that may be required. All officers not entitled to hold war- 
rants are called petty officers. All officers of the army above the grade of sergeant hold 
their authority by commissions, and are therefore termed commissioned officers, to dis- 
tioguish them from non-commissioned officers. 

UVE, Mathematical, denotes a ma^itude having only one dimension. Euclid 
defiuei it to be " that which has length without breadth." 

LINE. Mathematical {ante), may be straight, curved, or mixed; a straight line is 
defined by Euclid as ''one which lies evenly between two points." To this, it is 
objected, the idea of straightness is presupposed in the definition; it is said, also, by 
some mathematicians that the order of definitions is reversed by Euclid from the 
order of comprehension; that the mind conceives first the solid and then successively 
the surface, line, and point. The definition now generally given is that a straight line is 
the thortest path between any two given points; a curved line is one not rtraight, i.e. 
between an^ two geometrical points m its extent a shorter line may be drawn; the term 
mixed line is used to denote a union of the two in extent, but is hardly a pure geometri- 
cal concept. Straight lines may be produced both ways without limit; may-& drawn 
through any two points in space, ana any two coincide throughout indefinite extension 
if two points in the one coincide with two points in the other. If we admit the idea of 
motion, we may define a line as the path of a moving point, a surface as the path of a 
moving line, and a solid as that of a moving surface. Thus if a straight line revolves 
about one extremity as an axis, it will describe with the other a circle of which it is 
itself the radius; and a semicircle revolving about its diameter will produce a spherical 

LmAL DEBCEKT, the descent in a right line, as from father to son, grandson, etc. 

UHSK AKD LIHEK KAHUTACTXTBEB, fabrics manufactured wholly from flax or 
lint (Lat. linum). The manufacture of linen has reached its greatest perfection in France 
and the Netherlands, where the stimulus to produce fine yarns (see Spinning) for the 
lacemakers has given rise to such care and attention in tlic cultivation and preparation 
of flax that in point of fineness of fiber they have been unequaled. Consequently the 
linens of France, Belgium, and Holland have long enjoyed a well-deserved reputation, 
and in the article of lawn, which is the finest kind of linen cloth made, the French are 
unrivaled. In the ordinary kinds of linen our own manufactures are rapidly improv> 
ing. and will soon equal in quality the productions of continental competitors. Those 
of Ireland, especially, are remarkable for their excellence, and this trade has lx*come a 
very important one in that country; whilst in Scotland a large trade in the coarser and 
inferior kinds has located itself. The export of linen manufactures and linen yarns from 
the United Kinsrdom in 1876 was in value £7,070,149; and the amount produced for 
homeconsumptlbn may be reckoned at £10.000.000. 

The chief kinds of linen nmnufactures, besides yam and thread, which will be 
described under Sftnntng, are . Lawn (Fr. linon), the finest of flax manufactures, for- 
merly exclusively a French production, but very fine lawns are now made in Belfast, 
Armagh, and Warringstown ; cambric (q.v.); damask (q.v.); diaper (q.v.). Of the finer 
plain inhrXcB. sheetings nre the most important in this country. The chief places of 
their manufacture are Belfast, Armagh, and Leeds. C(»mmon sheeting and toweling are 
very extensively manufactured in Scotland, particularly at Dundee, Kirkcaldy, Forfar, 
and Arbroath. Ducks, knekiibacks^ osnafmrgs, cf-ash, and tick (corrupted from ticken and 
dekken, Dutch for cover) are very coarse and heavy materials, some fully bleached, 
others unbleached or nearly so. They are chiefly made in L«cotlan(l, the great seat of 
the naaoufactore being at tlie towns just mentioned, although much is made in the 
amaller towns and villages, lUso at Leeds and Barnsley in England. Some few varieties 
^ JO Digitized by VjUUVIC 

IJnen. xo 

Uttimento. ^^ 

of yelvet and yelveteen are ttlso made of flax at Manchester, and much linen-yam is 
used us warp for other materials. 

Liueu is one of the most uncient of all textile manufactures, at least it is one of the 
earliest mentioned The cerecloth, in which the most ancieut mummies are wrapped, 
proves its early and very extensive use among the £g}'ptians. It formed also parts of 
the garments of the Hebrew as well as the Egyptian priests. Panopolis was the Belfast 
of the ancients, as, according to Btrabo, it was there the manufacture of linen was chiefly 
conducted. The wonderful durability of linen is evidenced by its existence on mum- 
mies, and by the remarkable fact mentioned by the German write/, Seetzen, and referred 
to by Blumenbach, that he hud found several napkins within the folds of the covering 
on a mummy which he unwrapped, and that he had them washed several times without 
injury, and used with great veneration ** this venerable linen, which had l>cen woven 
more than 1700 years." From the time of these ancient Egyptians up to the present 
period, the use of linen for clothing and other purposes has been continuous; and 
although the introduction and vast development of the cotton manufacture checked its 
consumption for a time, it has fully regained, and has indeed exceeded, its former pro- 
portions as one of out great staples. 

LINEN AND LINEN MANUFACTURES (anU). Linen was first manufactured in 
England by Flemish weavers under the protection of Henry III., in 1258; it was not 
until 80 years after, that a colony of Scots planted themselves m the n.e. part of Ireland, 
and estaolished there the linen manufacture. In 1696 hemp, flax, linen- thread, and 
yarn were permitted to be exported from Ireland duty free: it was not before 1860 that 
the duty was taken off imported linen. — The introduction of the linen manufacture into 
the United States took place in 1834, when a mill was set up at Fall River, Mass. As 
late as 1870 there wei-e but 10 establishments for this manufacture in the United States, 
their product being set down at $2,178,776. The importation into the United States in 
the year ending June SO, 1879, of flax :md manufactures of flax, Jute and its manufac- 
tures, and hemp, amounted to $33,157,769. 

LIHO, Lota molta^ a flsh of the family gadida, abundant on most parts of the British 
coasts, and elsewhere throughout the northern seas, and in value almoFt rivaling the 
cod. In form it is much more elongated than the cod, and even more than ilie hake, 
with which it agrees in having two dorsal fins and one anal fin, the anal and second 
dorsal long; but the genus differs in the presence of barbels, of which the ling has only 
one at the extremity of the lower jaw. The ling is generally 8 or 4 ft. lon^. sometimes 
more, and has been known to weigh 70 pounds. The color is gray, inclining to olive; 
the belly, silvery; the fins edged with white. The tail-fin is rounded. The gnpe is 
large, and the mouth well furnished with teeth. The ling is a veiy voracious fish, feed- 
ing chiefly on smaller fishes. It is also very prolific, and deposits its spawn in June, in 
soft oozy ground near the mouths of rivers. It is found chiefl}' where the bottom of the 
sea is rocky. Great numbers are caught in the same manner as cod, by hand-lines and 
long lines, on the coasts of CornwaTl, the Hebrides, the Orkney and Shetland islands, 
etc.; and are split from head to tail, cleaned, salted in brine, washed, dried m the sun, 
and sent to the market in the form of stoek-flsh. They are largely exported to Spain and 
other countries. The air-bladders or sounds are pickled like those of cod. The liver also 
yields an oil similar to cod-liver oil. w*hich is used for the supply of lamps in Shetland 
and elsewhere. — Other species of ling arc found in the southern seas. — The burbot (q.v ) 
is a fresh-water species of the same genus. 

LING. See Hbath (anU). 

LING, Pkter Henrik, 1776-1889: b. in Sweden; of an adventurous spirit, he 
traveled as a youn,!^ man through Germany and France; was fencinc-master at the uni- 
versity of Lund in 1805. in 1813 teacher of fencing at the military school of Carlesbcrg, 
and in 1816 director of the cymnastic institute of Stockholm, where he died. He 
hcstowed much thought and labor upon his profession, developing gymnastic exercises 
as a form of medical treatment, leading finally to what is now extensively known as the 
** Swedish movement cure." His poetical works, which appeared from time to lime, 
were addressed to the patriotism of the Swedes, and well calculated to inspire in them a 
deep love of country and a heroic determination to defend it at all hazards. 

LIVOA (a Sanskrit word which literally means a sign or .<:ymbol) denotes, in the sec- 
tarian worship of the Hindus, the phallvs, as emblem of the male or generative power of 
nature. The Linga-worship prevails with the Sai'vas, or adorers of Si'va (see Hindu 
Religion under India). Originally of an ideal and mystical nature, it has degenerated 
into practices of the grossest description ; thus taking the siimc coui-sc as the similar wor- 
ship of the Chaldeans, Greeks, and other nations of the east and west. The manner in 
which the Linga is represented is generally inoffensive — the pistil of a flower, a pillar of 
stone, or other erect and cylindrical objects being held as appropriate symbols of the 
ffenerativc power of Si'va, Its counterpart is Toni, or the symbol of female nature as 
iructiHed and productive. The Sl'va-Purfina names 12 Liugas which seem to have been 
the chief objects of this worship in India. 

LINGAN, James Maccubin, 1752-1812; b. in Maryland, and took an active part in 
the war of the revolution, rising to the rank of brig-gen.; was one of the prisoners at 

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gQ lilnmi. 

foft Washington, and kept for a lon;t time in the piison-ahip; after the Trar, waa collector 

of ibe port of Qeorgeinwn, Md. ; resided in Baltimore in 1813. where he wus killed, July 
S8^ by a mob wliile bravely defending the printing-office of the FecUfrai RepyMkan. 

USQAXDf JojBDX, D.D., a member of a humble Roman Catholic family, was b. at 
fJDchester, Fab. 1, 1771; aod being destined for the priesthood of that *church, waa 
xnt U) the Eogliah college of Douai, in Fmnce, where he remained till that college, in 
common with most of the relio-ious establishments of France, was broken up by the 
troubles of the revolution. The act called the Catholic relief act enabling Catholics to 
open schools in England, the Douai community was transferred to Crookhail, and ulti- 
matelj to Ushaw, in the county of Durham. Linspird continued attached to the college 
in its several migrations, altliough not always resident. In 1798 he accepted the office 
of tutor in the family of lord Stourton; but in the following year he returned to com- 
plete his theolos^ical studies at Crookhail, where he entered into priest's orders, and in 
vbich he continued as professor of philosophy, prefect of studies, and vice-president, 
until 1810. when he was named president. In 1811, however, he accepted the humble 
ciire of Hornby, near Lancaster, in which he continued to reside till his death, July 18, 
1851. lingard's first important work was the Antiquity ofths Anglo-Saxon Chvreh (8vo, 
1806), reprinted in 1810, and afterwards, in a much enlarged edition (3 vols. 1845). This 
was bat tlie pioneer of what became eventually the labor of his life — a Hitiory of Bng- 
tom{(6 vols. 4to), published at intervals, 181^35; and afterwards in 14 vols. 8vo, 182$- 
SI. This work, before the death of the author, had passed through six editions, the last 
of which (10 vols. 8vo) appeared in 1854-65. From it* first appearance, it attracted 
much attention, as being founded on original authorities and tlie result of much new 
research. It was criticised with considerable asperity in its polemical bearings; but the 
tuthor. in his replies, displayed so much erudition, and so careful a consideration of tho 
oririoal authorities, that the result was to add materially to his reputation as a scholar 
aDdacritia It won for itself a place as a work of original research, and although it 
bears unmistakable evidence of the religious opinions of the author, yet Uiero is also 
erideoce of a sincere desire to investigate and to ascertain the truth of history. In 
reoi^ition of his great services, many honors were offered to him; and he received a 
pension of £300 from the crown in reward of his literary services. liis remains were 
iQterred in his old college of St. Cuthbert, at Ushaw. 

mOATEH', a t of the island of Luzon, Philippine islands (q.v.), on a bay of the 
nme name. Pop. 28,008, who export rice and sugar. 

LINQUA FRANCA, a kind of corrupt Italian, with a considerable admixture of 
French words and idioms; spoken along the shores of the Mediterranean. 

LIHGIJAGBOS'SA, a t. of Sicily, in the province of Catania, on the north-eastern slope 
of Ml Etna, 172o ft. above the sea, 87 m. s.w. from Messina. The name is also fre- 
quently spelt Linguaglossa. The pop. of the town at the census of 1871 was close on 


LINGUISTICS. See Philologt, anto. 

inrO'lTLA, a genus of brachiopodous mollusks, exhibiting the remarkable peculiarity 
of a long fleshy pedicel supporting a bivalve shell, and passing between the beaks of the 
valves. They live attached to rocks in the seas of warm climates, purticulariy of the 
Indian archipelago and Polynesia. The genus is interesting, because, although few 
recent species are known, fossil species are numerous, and are found in the fossillferous 
beds of Britain and other countries, the seas of which now produce none of their 

UHDIBHTfi (from the Latin word linXre^ to besmear) may be regarded, in so far as 
their physical properties are concerned, as ointments having the consistence of oil, 
while, chemically, most of them are soapf— that is to say, compounds of oils and alka- 
lies. In consequence of their slighter consistence, they are rubbed into the skin more 
readiiy than ointments. Among the most important of them are: Liniment (ffammtmia, 
popularly known as hartshorn and oil, which is prepared by mixmgand shakmgtogetirer 
wlution of ammonia and olive-oil, and is employed as an extcrmd stimulant and rube- 
facient to relieve neuralgic and rheumatic panis, sore throat, etc.: Soap liniment, or 
<9odeldoe, the constituents of which are soap, camphor, and spirits of rosemary, and 
wbich i» used in sprains, bruises, rheumatism, etc. : LinimeiU of lime, or cnrron oil, 
vhich is prepared by mixing and shaking together equal measures of olive or linseed oil 
tod lime-water; it is an excellent application to burns and scalds, and from its genend 
emplovment for this purpose at the Carron iron-works, has derived its i)opular name: 
Campfior Uniment, consisting of camphor dissolved in olive-oil, which is used in sprains, 
bruises, and glandular enlargements, and which must not be confounded y^'wh compound 
^nj^ liniment y which contains a considernbie quantity of nnimouia, and is a power- 
iDlstimuUnt and ruliefacient: Opium liniment, which consists of soap liniment and tine- 
tare of opium, aud is much employed as an anodyne in neuralgia, rheumatism, etc. . 
udthc timple liniment of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, which is composed of lour 
parts of oLve-oil, and one part of white wax, aud is used to soften the skin and promote 
ibe healing of chaps. 

Digitized by VjOUV iC 

Unk. (^0 

Xlnnmu ^^ 

LINK, a unit of measure in land surveying, T^Vi in- in length. 

LIKKOFIHO (old Norse Longakopungar, iater Liongaldaping), one of the oldest towni 

in Sweden, capital of the Isen of the same name, is siiuated on the Stftnga, 'wiiich here flow 
in 10 lake lloxen, 110 m. s.w. of Stockholm. It is regularly built, with fine market 
places and public squares, but the houses are mostly of wood. LinkOping has ihre^ 
churches, of which the cathedral — a Qothic edifice of the 12th c, containing monument 
of many illustrious personages — is one of the most beautiful in Sweden, it also posses 
ses a library of 30,000 vols. Its trade is considerable. Pop. 76, 8,373. In old heathei 
times, LinkOping was a place of sacrifice. 

LINLEY. Thomas, 1725-95; b. Wells, Eng. ; was the pupil first of Chilcot, organis 
of the Abbe)r at Bath, and finished his studies under Paradies, an eminent Venetiau 
established himself in Bath, teaching music, and giving concerts, his two dau^ters Airs 
Sheridan and Mrs« Tickell contributing greatly to the attraction b^ their superior slug 
i..g; Removed to London, to conduct the oratorios, first in connection with Stanley, thei 
with Dr. Arnold. Christopher Smith having retired from the management of tb< 
London oratorios, Mr. Linley succeeded him m connection with Mr. Stanley, the blin< 
composer, and on his death with Dr. Arnold. In 1775 he set the music to 8heridaii*i 
opera Tkg Duenna, which had unparalleled success, having been performed 75 time 
that season. He united in 1776 with Sheridan in purchasing an interest in tlie Dnirj 
Lane theater, Liulcy having direction of the musical department, which he conduct e< 
for 13 years. Among other pieces he produced Carnival of Venice; SeUma and Aza\ 
frrtm the French. His Six JSlegies, written early in life, were original, simple, and beau 
tiful, and did much for his fame and fortune. His twelve ballads and a madrigtil hav< 
great merit. The death of his son Thomas by drowning at the age of twenty >tw< 
affected him so deeply that he never recovered from the shock. The son had mad* 
great proficiency in music with the best mastera of Italy and Germany, ana lived in tiit 
closest intimacy with Mozart. 

LINLEY. William, 1767-1836; son of Thomas; educated at Harrow and St. PauV 
schools. For several years he was in the service of the East India company at Madra 
and Calcutta. He returned from India early with a competence, and devoted tlii 
remainder of his life to literature and music. Of music he was passionately fond, an< 
produced a number of glees which evinced much originality ana taste. ^He pabli8he< 
also a set of songs, two sets of canzonets, and many detached pieces, and compiled 
Dramatic Songs of ShaJcespeare, 2 folio volumes, a work of much research, in which an 
several of his own elegant compositions. He wrote also tw^o novels, and two coini* 
operas which were performed at Drury Lane. He wrote besides an elegy on the deal] 
of his sister Mrs. Sheridan. 

LmxITH'OOW, or West Lothian, a co. in Scotland, is bounded on the n. by tht 
firth of Forth, having the counties of Mid-Lothian, Lanark, and Stirling on thee., s. 
and west. Its length, n. to s., is20 m., and e. to w. 15 miles. Its area is 127 sq.m., o 
81,114 acres. The surface of the ground is irregular, but the hills are inconsiderabl* 
with the exception of one eminence 1500 ft. high. The climate is changeable, bu 
healthy. The soil is very varied, and, except along the borders of the firth, there ii 
little land of first quality. In some of the high grounds there is good pasture, also i 
considerable breadth of unreclaimed moss. Excellent farming prevails here as in Edin 
burghshire and Haddingtonshire. There are few streams of any note, the Almond an< 
Avon being the principal. The minerals are of considerable value. The freestone usc< 
in building the royal institution, national gallery, and other public buildings in Edin 
burgh, was got at Binny. There are several collieries in full and profitable operation. 

There are two royal burehs — Linlithgow, the county town, and Queensferry. Tin 
other principal towns are Batligate and Borrowstounness. This county is intersected witl 
railways, and the Iklinburgh and Glasgow Union canal traverses it for upwards of 1< 
miles. In 1674 the valued rent was £5,078. In 1811 the real rent was £88,745; and it 
1878-79 it was, excluding railways and canals, £197.623. 

The following are the agricultural statistics for 1876: acres under a rotation of cropi 
and grass, 58,878, of which there were 1362 acres of wheat, 5,146 acres of barley, 10,76] 
acres of oats, 916 acres of beans, 2,210 acres of potatoes, and 4,683 acres of turnips. O] 
live-slock, the numbers were — horses employea in sgricnlture, 2,140; cattle, 10,902 
sheep. 19,906; swine, 1858. Salt is made in the county; and in the towns are tanneries, 
breweries, distilleries, and chemical works. This countv contains several remains o1 
Roman antiquities. Pop. '71, 40,965. Constituency in 1^76-77, returning one mcmbei 
to parliament, 1198. 

LINLITHGOW, a market-town, and royal and parliamentary burgh of Scotland, chicl 
t. of the CO. of the same name, is situated on a small lake, 16 m. w. of Edinburgh. It h 
one of the oldest towns in Scotland, and, though it has been much modernized, still cou 
tains many antiquated houses, and some ruins rich in historicnl association. The 
church of St. Michael's (built partly in the 15th and partly in the 16th c), a portion ol 
which is still in use, is a beautiful specimen of the latest Scottish Gothic, The palace 
strikiniiiy situated on sui eminence which Juts into the lake (of 102 acres), dividing il 
into two almost equal paris, is heavy, but imposing in appearance; was frequently the 

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resdence of the Scottish moDarchs, and was the birthplace of Manr Queen of Scots, and 
of h?r father, James V. The earliest record of its existence is of the time of David I. 
(1151-^). and fragments of various ages are easily detected. Tlie latest work is of the 
tisie of James YI. Linlithgow unites with several other burghs in sending a member to 
jiaHament Pop. '71, 8,090. 

LINN, a CO. of e. Iowa, intersected by the Cedar and Wapsipinicon rivers, and 
drained in part by Buffalo and Prairie creeks; traversed by the Chicago and North- 
western, the Dubuque and South-western, and the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Min- 
D«oi4 railroads; 720 sq.m.; pop. '80, 87,285. The surface is undulating, and diversified 
¥i:b prairies and forests, the latter filled with hard timber. The soil is fertile and well 
witered, and rests partly upon a limestone foundation. Wheat, corn, oats, hay, butter, 
caule, and pork are staple products. The city of Cedar Rapids is in the county. Valu- 
^on of real and personal property, $15,412,2^48. Capital, Marion. 

LINN, a CO. in e. Kansas, bordering upon Missouri; intersected by the Psage river, 
snd drained in part by Biff Sugar and Nbrth Sugar creeks; traversed by the Mississippi 
Kver, Port Scott and Gulf railroad; 680 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 15,299. About 90 per cent of 
ti» surface is prairie, while forests grow alon? the streams. The soil is fertile, produc- 
in; excellent crops of wheat, coro, oats, and hay. Large numbers of cattle are raised, 
aod batter is a staple production. Limestone and bituminous coal abound. Valuation 
of re«l and personal property, $6,002,050. Capital, Mound City. 

LINN, a CO. in n. Missouri, intersected by Locust and Yellow creeks, and drained 
by Muscle river, and several affluents of Qrand river, which touches the s.w. corner of 
the county; traversed by the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad; 648 s(].m. ; pop. '80, 
^,016, of whom 14,499 were of American birth. The surface is undulating, and much 
•if it is covered with forests. The soil is fertile, and the chief staples are corn, oats, 
wheat, cattle, and pork. Valuation of real and personal property, $6,500,000. Capital, 

LINN, a CO. in w. Oregon, bounded n. by the n. fork of the Santiam river, and 
w. by the Willamette; drained by the Calapooya river and the s. fork of the Santiam: 
inteiiected by the Oregon and California railroad; 2,850 sq.m.; pop. *80, 12.675, or 
whom 8,474 were of American birth. The surface is diversified with mountains, prai- 
ries, and extensive forests. Mount Jefferson, a high peak of the Cascade range, covered 
Tirh perpetual snow, stands on the e. border of the county. The soil of the valleys and 
prairies is reir productive. The chief productions are wheat, oats, butter, hay, lumber, 
indwool. The quantity of wheat raised in 1875 was 998,626 bushels. Valuation of 
real and personal property, 5,500,000. Capital, Albany. 

LINN, John Blaib, d.d., 1777-1804; b. in Shippensburg. Penn., but removed in 
cliildhood to New York; graduated at Columbia college in 1795, when but 17 years old, 
ud was afterwards a stuaent in the law office of Alexander Hamilton. A ' ' serious 
•irama," written by him and entitled BaurviUe CastU, or the Gallic Orphan, was brought 
iHii at the John street theater, in 1797, but was not successful. Not long after this he 
abADdoned the law and studied theology under the rev. Dr. Homeyn at Schenectady. 
la June, 1799, he became assistant pastor of rev. Dr. Ewing's church in Philadelphia. 
Id I^ he wrote a poem on the Death of Wa^Iungton, and in 1802 published The Powers 
iGeniiu, a poem of about 600 lines, which was well received, soon reaching a second 
edition, and being reprinted in England. In 1803 he entered into controversy with Dr. 
Priestley, occasioned by the latter's comparison of Socrates with Jesus. He conducted 
hU side of ^e debate so well that the university of Pennsylvania conferred upon him 
liie title of d.d. Died in Philadelphia of consumption. 

LINN, WiLi*iAM, D.D., 1752-1808; b. near Shippensburg, Penn. ; graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1772; studied theology with the rev. Dr. Cooper of Middle Spring, Penn., and 
licensed to preach in 1775. He served for a time as a chaplain in the revolutionary war, 
ifterwards taught an acadamy at Somerset, Md., became pastor of a church in Eliza* 
^tthtown, N. J., in 1786, and a few months later, one of the pastors of the collegiate 
Oatch reformed church in New York, where he remained until 1805, when the state of 
Ills health compelled him to retire. He was distinguished as an eloquent and successful 
preicfaer. He published IHscourses on Soripiure mstory; TJie Signs of the limes, a series 
of essays in favor of the French revolution; a Funeral Eulogy of Gen, Washington, and 
^uy separate sermons. Died at Albany. 

LINN^A, a genus of plants belonging to the order caprifoliacese or honeysuckle 
familv. It contains only one species, L, boreaHs. It was found by Linnaeus in Lapland 
in 17& and named after him by Gronovius. Calyx 5-pointed, oval-shaped, deciduous. 
<orolla narrow, bell-shaped, flve-lobed Stamens four, two shorter, inserted towards the 
W of the corolla. Pod, three-celled, but having only one seed, the other two cells 
aaving abortive ovules. It is a slender creeping and trailing little evergreen, somewhat 
l^iry. rounded oval leaves contracted at the base into short petioles, and thread-like 
^prizht peduncles having two pedicels at the top, each bearing a delicate and fragrant 
Qodding flower. Corolla purple and whitish, hairy inside. It inhabits the more north 
wnpftrtaof Europe, Asia, and Amenca— found in moist, mossy woods and cold bogs; 

Digitized by VjiOUV IC 

Linnceaa. AO 

LlnMMd. ^^ 

British America and northern United States; and grows somewhat rarely In New Jersc 
and in tlie inountaiuous parts of Maryland. 

LlNN^'Ua See Linn6, ante. 

LINn£. ICarl von, often called Linkaus, one of the greatest of naturalists, was I 
May 4. 1707, iit Rjishult, in Smaland (Sweden), where his father was a country parso 
in very poor circumsttmccs. His parents intended him for his father's pn>fe^:siou, bi 
he made little proticieucy in the necessaty classical studies, manifesting, however, froi 
his very boyhood, I be greatest love for botany. His father, disiippointed. proposed t 
apprentice htm to a shoemaker; but Dr. John Rothmnnu, a physician at WexiO, 
friend of his father, undertoolc for a^'ear the expense of his education, and guided hli 
in the study of botiiny and of physiolpgy. In 1727 the young naturalist went to siud 
medicine at Lund, and in the year following he went to Upsala, but during his attenc 
ance at the university he endured ^at poverty. Olaf Celsius received him at last int 
his house, and availed himself of his assistance in preparing a work on the plants of th 
Bible. He 'also won the favorable regard of Olaf Uudbeck, the professor of botany a 
Upsala, hy a paper in which he exhibited the first outlines of the sexual system c 
botany, with which his name must ever remain connected. Kudbeck appoiuted hln 
curator of the botanic garden and botanical demonstrator. In his 24th year be wfote 
Ilortuui Uplandicus. From Mav to November, 1732, lie traveled in Laplanil, at th 
expense of the government. The fruits of tliis tour appeared in his Ftora Ijappomc^ 
(Amst. 1737). He afterwards spent some time at Falilun, studying mineralogy 
and there he became acquainted with the iady whom he afterwards married, th 
daughter of a physician named M-jr&ns, who supplied him with the means of going ti 
Holland to take liis degree, which he obtained at Harder*vyck in 1735. In Holland hi 
became the associate of some of the most eminent scientitic men of the time, and woi 
for himself a high reputjitiou as a naturalisr, developing original views which nttractcc 
no little attention, while he eagerly prosecuted his researches in all departments of nat 
ural history. During his residence in Holland Linne composed and published, ii 
rapid succession^ some of his gre:itest works, particularly his 8y9Uina N(Uurm (Lev d, 
1735). Km Fandamenta Jhtanica (Leyd. 1736), his Genera Plantarum (Leyd. 1737), hij 
Corollariam Oenerum PUtrUarum (Leyd. 1737), etc. He visited England and France, 
and returned to Sweden, where, after some time, he was appointed royal botanist and 
president of the Stockholm academy. In 1741 he was appointed professor of medicine 
m Upsala, and in 1742 professor of botany there. The remainder of ills lifo waf 
mostly spent at Up.«tala in the greatest activity of scientific study and authorship. He 
produced revised editions of his earlier works,. and numerous new works, a F!or<i 
Siiecicfi (174.")). Fauna Suecica (1746). Hortu^ UpsaUensis (1748), Maieria Mediea (1749- 
52). his famous PhUosophia Botanica (1751), and the Speciei^ Plantarum (1753). in some 
respects ihe greatest of all his works. He died Jan. 10, 1778, the last four year? of hifi 
life having been spent in great mental and bodily infirmity. Linn6 was not only a 
naturalist of most accurate observation, but of most philosophical mind, and upon this 
depended in a great degree the almost unparalleled influence which lie exercised upon 
the pro.ijress of every branch of natural history. Among the important services which 
he rendered to science, not the least was the introduction of a more clear and precise 
nomenclature. The groups which he indicated and named have, in I lie great majority 
of instances, been retained amid all the progress of science, and are too natuniV ever to 
be broken up; while, if the botanical system which he introduced is artificial. Linne 
himself was perfectly aware of this, ana recommended it for mere temporary use till 
tlic knowledge of plants should be so far advanced that it could give place to a natural 
arrangement. See Botanv. 

LINNELL, John. b. London, 1799. In 1805 he wns pupil of John Varley, father 
of the present school of water-color painting. In 1807 he exhibited at the academy 
••Fishermen, a Scene from Nature." The same year he received a medal at the Roval 
academy for a drawing from the life, and in 1809, at the British institution, the prize of 
50 guineas for the best landscape. He painted many views in Wales and elsewhere, and 
in 1821 exhibited landsctipe and portrtuts. His paintings in earlier years were portraits, 
but subsequently he devoted himself to landscape and figure painting. His chief works 
are: ••The Morning Walk," ••The Windmill," " A Wood Scene." -Eve of the Deluge," 
••The Return of Ulysses." ••Christ and the Woman of Samaria," " The Disol)edicnt 
Prophet," **The Timber Wagon," ••Barley Harvest." ** Under the Hawlhorn," "Cross- 
ing the Brook." ••The Last Gleam before the Storm," *' Harvest Showers." ** A View 
in Windsor Forest " Among his numerous portraita are " A Family Group---tbe Artist's 
Children." those of several fellow-artists, sir Robert Peel, and Thomas Carlyle. Lin- 
neirs portraits are in a unique style, deeply Btudied in character, simple and real, and 
he ranks among the best landscape painters. 

LINHXT, TAnota, a genus of small birds of the ihmWy fringiUidm, nearly resembling 
the true finches, goldfinches, etc. The bill is short, stndght, conical, and pointed; the 
wings long and somewhat pointe<l; the tail forked. The species are widely distributed 
in the northern, temperate, and arctic regions, but much confusion has ansen concern- 
ing them, from the difference between the plumage of the breeding season and that of 
the greater part of the year. The Comhok LmNBT {L, eannabina), or Gbbateb Red> 

Digitized by VjiJUV IC 

AQ Unnaova* 

^*^ UnMMd. 

FOLK (qu. rn^Krfl), |g oommon in almost everjr part of the Brilisb islands and of Europe, 

iod eiteods over Asia to Jnpan. In size it is about equal to the chatlincli. In its 

wjflter plumage its prevailing color is brown, the quill and tail feuthei-s black ivith 

vbite edges; iu the nuptial plumage the crown of the head and the breast are bright vc>r- 

Bilion culor. and a general brightening of color takes place over the rest" of the 

Blamage. This change of plumage causes it to be designated the brown, gray, or rose 

iflBet,\cconUug to the season of the year and tlie sex. It is the UrUie of the Scotch. 

Thesweetoess of its song makes it everywhere a favorite. It sings well in a cage, and 

lodily breeds in confinement; but the brightness of the nuptial plumage iiever appears. 

TJie linnet abounds cbietiy in somewhat open districts, and seems to prefer unculiivated 

sod fune covered grounds. Its nest is very often in a furze-bush or bawthom-hedge; 

is formed of small twigs and stems of grass, nicely lined with wool or hair; the eggs are 

foarorfive in number, pale bluish white, speckled with purple and brown. Linnets 

congregate in large flocks in winter, and in great part desert the uplands, and resort to 

tbesett-coa^ — ^The Mealy Redpolb (L. eaneacentt) is also a widely distributed sper-ies, 

ud 18 found in Korth America, as well as in Europe and Asia, chiefly in very northern 

RfioDS. Il is rare in Britain. In size it is nearly equal to the common linnet. By 

tcm it is r^;arded as a larger variety of the Lesser liKDPOLB or Common Kbdpols 

{L Unarin), which is common in Britain, although in the south of England it is chiefly 

kDowo as a winter visitant. The forehead, throat, and lore are black; in the spring 

plumage, the crown of the head is deep crnn.<^>n; the general color is brown of various 

sbad«. The species is common in all the northern parts of the world, enlivening with 

ite pleasant twitter and sprightly habits even the desolate wastes of Spitzbergeu.— The 

oalyotber British species is the Mountain Linnet, or Twite (L. montium), chiefly 

fouad iu mountainous or very northern districts. It is smaller than the preceding, has 

t yeliowisli tiill, and never assumes the red color which marks the; nuptial plumago of 

ocher species. 

UfOXElTM is. as its name is intended to denote, a peculiar preparation of linseed oil. 
Id 1^9 Nicies and Hochelder independently discovered that chloride of sulphur will 
wiidify oil. and render it usable in many new ways. In 1859 M. Perra communicated 
^otbt academic des sciences the details of a mode of effecting this by mixing and raelt- 
icgibe ingredients, and pouring the mixture out in a thin laver. By varying the pro* 
portions the resulting substance assumes varying degrees or consistency. Thus. 100 
iio$»'<i oil -f 25 chloride of sulphur produces a hard and tough substance; 100 oil-^ 15 
dbridc, a supple substance like india-mbbcr; and 100 oil + ^ chloride, a thick pasty 
Basa. This third kind dissolves well in oil of turpentine. Mr. Walton afterwanis 
fouod thnt, by the application of heat, linseed oil will become hard without the additicm 
of chloride of sulphur. He conceives that it is not a mere drying, but a real oxidizing. 
linsEtd oil. first lioiled, is applied as a Icyer to a surface of wood or ghw»s, then dried; 
tlieo anntlter layer; and so on till the required thickness is produced. The sheet is then 
lemovt'd, and is found to be very much like india-nibl)er in ehiRticity; in fact, the pro- 
dnction of a layer by this means is analogous to the smearing o*f clay-molds with 
•3ouicliouc juice to produce india-rublwr. as practiced in South America. See Caout- 
CHOcc. The drying is a little expedited by adding a small portion of oxide of lead. 
Tlie solid oil is crushed, and worked thoroughly i etween healed rollers; and when 
tre&tal either with shellac or with naphtha, it l)ecoine6 applicable in various mnnufactur- 
is? forms. The tc»rm Unoieum pmperly applies to lh« hardened or oxidized oil itself, 
bat it is chiefly used as a designation for one of the substances made from or with it, a 
kind of floor-cloth. When the oxidized oil is rolled into sheets it l>ecomes a substitute 
'oT iD(iia- rubber or gutta-percha. When dissolved as a varnish or mastic and applied to 
cioih it is useful for water-proof textiles, felt ciirpets, carriage-aprons, wagon and cart 
sheets, nurBinf^-aprons, water-beds, tank linings, table-rovers, etc., according to the 
iBode of treatment. When used as a paint, it is useful for iron, for wood, and for 
sliipe' bottoms. When ust'd as a cement it possesses some of the useful properties of 
narineglue. When vulcanized or rendered quite hard by heat it may b»^ filed, planed, 
tamed, carverl, and polished like wood, and used for knife and fork handles, mold- 
ings, etc. When brought by certain treatment to the coiisistencvof dough or putty, it 
pay be presaefl into embossed molds for ornamental articles. When used as a grind- 
JDg-wbeel. touched with emery, it becomes a good cutter. Lastly, when mixed' with 
ground cork, pressed on canvas by rollers, the amvas coated at the back with a layer of 
ibesanaeoil in the state of paint, and the upper or principal surface painted and printed, 
c bewmes the linoleum floor-cloth, for the production of which a factory has been 
established at Staines. Dunn's patented fabric for similar purposes has no oil in it: it 
ffia mixture of cork-shavings, cotton or wool filters, and caoutchouc spread upon a 
couoQ or canvas back, and embossed with patterns; it is a kind of kamptulicon (q.v.). 

LUSEED, the seed of flax, largely imported from the continent and India, for making 
^^ed (ta Md nH'Cake; in order to which the seeds are first bruised or crushed, then 
P^nind. and afterwards subjected to pref>8urc in a hydraulic or screw press, sometimes 
*i'.hoat heat, and sometimes with the aid of a steam heat of about 200* Pahr. Unnefd 
t^isusiully amlier-colored, but when perfectlv pure it is colorless. It has a peculiar 
Kid rather disagreeable odor and taste. It is chiefly used for making varnish^, P^it\\5F,p 

etc. That made without heat {cM-drawn Unseed inh\& purer, and less apt to becomi 
rancid, ihan that in making which heat is applied. By cold expression, the seed yield 
from 18 to 20 per cent, and with heat from 22 to 27 per cent of oil. Linseed oil, boiler 
either alone or with litharge, white lead, or white vitriol, dries much more rapidly oi 
exposure to the air than the unboiled oil ; and bailed or drying ail is particularly adapter 
for many uses. — The oil-cake made in expressing linseed oil is very useful for feedin] 
cattle, and, besides what is made in Britain, it is largely Imported from the continent 
See Oll-gak£. Linseed itself is excellent food for Cattle'and for poultry. The seed coat 
abound in mucilage, which forms a thick jelly wUh hot water, and is very useful fo 
fattening cattle. — Z^nseed meal, much used for poultices, is generally made by grinding 
fresh oil-cake, but it is better if made by grinding the seed itself. 

LINSLEY, Joel Hakvey, d.d.. 1790-1868; b. in Cornwall, Vt.; graduated at Mid 
dlebury college in 1811, and was tutor there three years; studied law, and practiced ii 
Middlebury until 1822, when he was ordained as a Congregational minister; spen 
some time in South Carolina as a missionary; was pastor of the South Congregations 
church in Hartford, Conn., from 1824 to 1832, and of Park street church, Boston, fron 
1882 to 1885, when he was elected president of Marietta (O.) college, a post which h 
held for 10 years. In 1847 he became pastor of the Second Congregational church ii 
Greenwich, Conn., and remained there until his death. 

LIN 'STOGXy an iron-shod wooden staff used in gunnery, for holding the lighted mate) 
in readiness to be applied to the touch-hole of the cannon. In old pictures, the linstoc) 
is seen planted in the ground to the ri^ht rear of each piece, with a match smoking i] 
each of the ends of the fork in which it terminates. 

IIHT. See Flax. 

LIHTEL, the horizontal bearer over doors, windows, and other openings in walls 
usually either of stone or wood. 

LII»lTON, Eliza Lynn, wife of W. J. Linton, b. at Keswick, Cumberland, Eni^. 
1822. She is the author of a series of papers, Tlie Oirlofthe Period, which attracted widi 
attention several years ago while they were passing through the Saturday B&oieu}. Sh* 
has published several novels, among them Azeth, the £kfyptian; Amymone, a Bornance oj 
Vie Days of Pericles; Realities, a romance of modern life ; Lizsde Lorton of Qreyrigg; Satt 
ing the Wind; I7ie True History of Joskiut Davidson; Christian and Communist; PatricH 

LINTON, William James, b. London, 1812; apprenticed to Mr. G. W. Bonner ii 
1828; was partner in 1842 of Mr. Orrin Smith, the distinguished wood-engraver, an< 
with him was engaged in the first works published in the illustrated London News. Ii 
his younger days he was a zealous chartist, intimate with the Italian, French, and Polisl 
refugees, in whose meetings he took an active part; was deputed bv the British work me i 
to carry to the French provisional government their first congratulatory address; was ii 
18C1 one of the founders of the newspaper, the Leader; became in 1855 the editor an( 
manager of Pen and Per^l; and for several years was a regular contributor to the Nation 
He contributed papers to the Westminster Review, Eaeaminer, and Spectator. As ai 
en^aver on wood he holds the first rank. He prepared and illustrated The History a 
Wood Engraving; 2 he Works of Deceased British Artists; several volumes of Tfte Englif*) 
Republic. He published also Claribel and other Poems; Life of Thomas Paine, In 186' 
he came to the United States, resided several years in New York, executed man] 
superior works, and removed to New Haven, where he has a large engraving establish 

LIK-T8EH-8U, Chinese imperial commissioner, was b. in 1785 at Hing-hwa, in th^ 
province of Fuh-keen, and his Chinese biographers have not failed to find that his birtl 
was attended with supernatural indications of future eminence. Till he reached liii 
17th year, he assisted his father in his trade of making artificial flowers, and spent iiii 
evenins:s in studvin^ to qualify himself for the village competitive examinations, a 
which he succeeded m obtaining successively the degrees analogous to bachelor of arts 
and master of arts. His ambitious mind, not satisfied with these triumphs, pointed i< 
Pekin as the fitting sphere of his talents, but poverty barred the way. Happily^, how 
ever, a wealthy friend, who was filled with admiration for Lin-tseh-su's merits and vir 
tues, invited him to become his son-in-law, and he was now in a position to push hii 
fortune at the capital. He became a doctor of laws and a member of the Hanlin college, 
which latter honor qualified him for the highest official posts. When 80 years of ago^ 
he received his first official appointment as censor; and by displaying the same zeal and 
industrv, combined with irreproachable probity, which he haa shown in private life, ht 
gradually rose into the favor of the emperor and his ministers. He was sent to super 
intend the repairing of the banks of the Yellow river; and on the termination of hi*! 
mission, two years after, was highly complimented by his sovereign for his diliffencc 
and energy, and, as an evidence of imperial favor, was appointed to the post of nnan- 
cial commissioner for Eiang-nan, in vvhich province a famine was at that time decimal 
ing the population. Lin-tseh-su exhausted all his private resources and emoluments ii] 
providing food for the sufferers, and by careful management succeeded in restoring tlu^ 
prosperity of the province. He wa.s next appointed viceroy of the two provinces of 

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65 JiZir^ 

Sheo se and Ean-su, where, as in Klang-nan be 80on gained the affections of tbe people 
and the oommendations of the emperor. On his reception by tlie emperor after his 
retan, new titles were showered upon liim, and he obtained the signal honor of entering 
the imperial precincts on horseback. But now his brilliant progress was to be checkeoT 
He had lone urged upon his sovereign the adoption of stringent measures towards the 
importers, aealers, and consumers of opium, the bane and scourge of his native land: 
ana on the commencement of difficulties with Great Britain^ he was appointed to deal 
with tbe growing evil, and. If possible, put a stop to the obnoxious traffic. He arrived 
atCantOD, invested with unlimited authority; but his unwise though well-fcaeant meaa- 
ores excited a war with Britain, and brought down upon himself the vengeance of his 
inoensed sovereign. He was banished to the region ot Elc, where he employed himself 
in improving the agriculture of the country, by introducing more scientific methods of 
cultivation. He was soon recalled, and restored to more than his former boners, and 
did jrood service by crushing a rebellion inYun-nan. His health now began to fail, and he 
obtained permission to retire to his native province; but f^hortly afterwards, while on 
his way to attack the Tai-pings, he died, Jan., 1850. His death was the signal for 
general mourning throughout China, and the emperor ordered a sacrificial prayer to be 
composed, recording the illustrious deeds of the departed; a signal favor, only conferred 
upon persons of extraordinary merit and virtue. 

Lin tseh-su, besides thoroughly mastering the statistics and politics of China, devoted 
much of his time to studying the geography and history of foreign countries, and to 
private literary study. He is ranked as one of the chief among Chinese poets; and the 
style, literary merit, and logical order of his public documents form a strange contrast 
to tiie usual diffuse, rambling, and incoherent style of Chinese state-papers. 

LIN-TSING, a l^rge and populous t. of China in the province of Shantung at the 
junction of the imperial canal and the £u-ho river, 200 m. s. of Pekin. It has an 
octiigonal pasoda of nine stories, built of porphyry, granite, and varnished bricks; and 
aeTeral temples, in one of which is a colossal idol of gold. The town has a large trade 
bf tbe canal. 

LDTTS, the capital of the crown-land of upper Austria, is situated in a pleasant di8i> 
trict on the right bank of the Daoulie, which is here crossed by a wooden bridger 888 it. 
long. 100 m. w. ot Vienna. Pop. '69, 80,588. It is a strongly fortified, quiet town, and 
a bishop's seat, with numerous churches, benevolent institutions, and government 
offices. There are large imperial factories for carpets and other woolen goods; and 
doths. cottons, cassi meres, fustians, leatiier, and cards are also made. The navigation 
of the Danube occasions a lively trade. Steamboats ply daily up the river to Ratisbon, 
ind down the river to Vienna. The women of Lintz are celebrated for tlieir beauty. 

LINUM, the genus of plants of which common flax is the most important variety, 
the others being cultivated not for their fiber, but for ornament. Among these is the 
perennial flax of the western states, which grows to a height of 18 in., with tufts of 
slender stems with delicate blue flowers. Other varieties are found in Algiers and 

LINUS, a Christian at Rome, known as one of those who sent salutations by Paul to 
Timuthy. Irenseus. in the latter half of the 2d c, says that " Peter and Paul, when 
they founded and built up the church at Rome, committed the otEice of its episcopate to 
Linos." Eusebius in the first half of the 4th c, followed by Theodorel in the 5th, 
Baronius in the 16th. and Tillemont in the 17th, states that Liinus became bishop of 
Rome after the death of Peter. 

HOT, FtUaLeo, the largest and most majestic of ihefeUda and of carnivorous quad- 
rapeds. It is, when mature, of a nearly uniform tawny or yellowish color, paler on the 
nnder-parts; the young alone exhibiting markings like those common in the felidse; the 
male has, usually, a great shnggy and flowing mane; and the tail, which is pretty long, 
terminates in a tuft of hair. The whole frame is extremelv muscular, and the fore-parte, 
in particular, are remarkably powerful; giving, with the large head, bright-flashing eye, 
ud copious mane, a noble appeamnce to the animal, which, with its strength, has led 
U) its tjeing called the "king of beasts." and to fancies of its noble and generous dis- 
position, having no foundation in reality. A lion of the larg3st size measures about 8 
ft from the nose to the tail, and the tail about 4 feet. The lioness is smaller, has no 
mane, and i? of a lighter color on the under-parts. The strength of the lion is such that 
he can carry off a heifer as a cat carries a rat. 

The lion is chiefly an inhabitant of Africa, although it is found also in some of the 
wilds of Asia, particularly in certain part««of Arabia. Persia, and India. It was anciently 
much more common in Asia, and was found In some parts of Europe, particularly in 
Macedonia and Thrace, according to Herodotus and other authors. It has disappeared 
also from Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, in which it was once common. The lion is not, 
m general, an inhabitant of deep forests, but rather of open plains, in which the shelter 
of occasional bushes or thickets may be found. The breeding-place is always in some 
nrnch secluded retreat, in which the young — two, three, or four in a litter — are watched 
U K. IX.— 5 

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a;|L 66 

over with great assiduity by both parents, and, if necessary, are defended with great 
courage — ^althougb, in other circumstances, the lion is more disposed to retire from man 
than to assail him or contend with him. When met in an open country, the lion retires 
at first slowly, as if ready for battle, but not desiroua of it; then more swiftly; and 
finaUy by rapid bounds. If compelled to defend himself, the lion manifests great 
courage. The lion often springs upon his prey by a sudden bound, accompanied with 
a roar; and it is said that u he fails in seizing it, he does not usually pursue, but retires 
as if ashamed ; it is certain, however, that the lion also often takes his prey by pursuing 
it, and with great perseverence. The animal singled out for pursuit, as a zebra, may be 
swifter of foot than the lion, but greater power of endurance enables him to make it his 
yictim. Deer and antelopes are perhaps the most common food of lions. The lion, like 
the rest of the feUdm, is pretty much a nocturnal animal; its eyes are adapted for the 
night or twilight rather than for the day. It lurks generally in its lair during the dav. 
and issues as mght comes on, when its tremendous roar begins to be heard in the wil- 
derness. It has a horror of fires and torch-lights; of whidi travelers in Africa avail 
themselves, when surrounded by prowling lions in the wilderness by night, and sleep in 
safety. Lion-hunting is, of course, attended with danser — a wounded and exasperated 
lion becoming a most formidable adversary— but besloes the necessity of it to farmers 
in SouUi Africa and other countries where lions abound, it has been found attractive to 
mere sportsmen from the excitement attending it. The rifle has proved too mighty for 
the lion wherever it has been employed against him, and lions rapidly disappear l)efore 
the advance of civilization. In India, they are now confined to a few wild districts; 
and in South Africa, their nearest haunts are far from Cai>e Town and from all the long 
and fully settled regions. 

The lion is easily tamed, at least when taken youne; and when abundantly supplied 
with food is very docile, learning to perform feats which excite the admiration of the 
crowds that visit menageries. Exhibitions of this kind are not, however, unattended 
with danger, as too many instances have proved. Lions were made to contribute to the 
barbarous sports of the ancient Romans: a combat of lions was an attractive spectacle; 
and vaat numbers were imported into Rome, chiefly from Africa, for the supply of the 
ampbitiieater. Pompey exhibited 000 at once. — ^Lions have not unfrequently bred in the 
menageries of Europe, and a hybrid between the lion and the tiger has occasionally been 

The mane of the lion, and the tuft at the end of the tail, are not fully developed till 
he is 6 or 7 years old. The tail terminates in a small prickle, the existence of which 
was known to the ancients, and which was supposed by them to be a kind of goad to the 
animal when lashing himself with his tail in rage. The prickle nas no connection with 
the caudal vertebree, but is merely a little naU or homy cone, about two lines in lengtu, 
adhering to the skin at the tip of the tail. 

There are several varieties of the lion, slightly differing from each other in form and 
color, but particularly in the development of the mane. The largest lions in the s. of 
Africa are remarkable for the large size of the head and the great and black mane. The 
Persian and other Asiatic lions are generally of a lighter color and inferior in size, 
strength, and ferocity to the African lion. Guzerat and the s. of Persia produce a some- 
what smaller variety, remarkable as being almost destitute of mane. 

LIOH, in heraldry. The lion holds an important pUce among the animals borne in 
coat-armor. As early as the 12th c, the king of beasts was assumed as an appropriate 
emblem by the sovereigns of England, Scotland, Norway, Denmark, the native princes 
of Wales, the counts of Flanders and Holland, and various other European potentates. 
Lions occur in different positions. 1. The earliest attitude of the heraldic lion is ram- 
pant, erect on his hind legs, and looking before him, the head being shown in profile, 
as he appears in the arms of Scotland, and originally did in those of England. This was 
the normal position of a lion; but as the royal animal came to be used by all who claimed 
kindred with royalty, and to be granted to favorite followers by way oi augmentation, a 
diversity of attitude was adopted for distinction's sake. 2. ^^ampani gardant, erect on 
the hind legs, and affront^ or full-faced. 8. Bampant regardant, erect on the hind legs, 
and looking backwards. 4. Passant, in a walkiue position, with the head seen in profile. 
6. Passant gardant, walking, and with the head affront^. 6. Passant regardant, walk- 
ing, and with the head lookmg behind. 7. Statant, with all the four legs on the ground. 
8. Saliant, in the act of springing forward on his prey. 9. 8aant, rising to prepare for 
action. 10. ^Se/an^ ajfhmZe, as in the crest of Scotland. 11. CSwi^aTi^, lying down, but with 
his head erect, and his tail beneath him. 12. Dormant, asleep, with his head resting on 
his fore-paws. 18. Ckmard or caue, with his tail hanging between his legs. The lion 

Eassant gardant is often blazoned as the lion of England; and at a time when terms of 
lazonry were comparatively few it was confounded with the leopard (q.v.), and hence 
the lion passant and rampant gardant came to be called respectively the Uonrleoparde and 
leopard-lumnS. Two lions may be depicted ramvant combatant^i.e,, face to face— or 
rampant addossi, placed back to back. Among leonine monsters we have two-headed 
lions, bicorporate and tricorporate lions, lion-dragons, and lion-poissons. Therms is also 
the Bohemian lion, with two tails, and the more celebrated winged lion of St. Mark, 
adopted by the republic of Venice. The island republic bore, azure, a lion winged or 



HkDt, holding between his fore-x>aw8 a book open argent, in vrMch are the wordB Flam 
aiMvrce Evanffditia meus. Two or more lions borne on one shield are sometimeB 
(though never when on a royal coat) blazoned UohmU, 

LIPANS, a warlike, uncivilized tribe of Indians, found in Texas and parts of 
Mexico. A few of the tribe were reported to be living in 1872 upon the reservation of 
the MsBcalero Apaches in New Mexico. 

UP' All ISLAHIM, a group of volcanic islands in the Mediterranean, 12 in number, 
are situated between lat. 88* 2ff and 88* 66' n., long. U* 16' and 16° 16' e., on the n. 
coast of Bioily, and comprised in the department of Messina. The intense volcanic 
gctioa induced the ancient classical poets to localize in these islands the abode of the 
fieiy god Vulcan — ^hence their ancient name, Vuletni^, Insula. Their collective popu- 
btioD is (1871) 12,020, 7,671 of whom are found in ih ^ island of Lipari, which, for extent 
and produce, is much the most important of the group. Lipari is about 18 m. in cir- 
cult. Its finest products are grapes, figs, olives, and corn, ft has a larse export trade 
in pumice-stone, sulphur, niter, sal-ammoniac, soda, capers, fish, and Malmney wine, 
which is largely manufactured both for home and foreign trade. The warm springs of 
this island are much resorted to. The climate is delightful. Lipari, its chief town, is 
a bishop's see, possesses two harbors, an episcopal palace, hospital, gymnasium, and a 
castle built on a fine rock. Pop. '72, 6,047. Tne island is almost wliolly composed of 
pumice-stone, and supplies all parts of the world with that article. Besides Lipari, the 
principal isLands are Vulcano, Btromboli, Salini, Panaria, Felicudi, Alicudi, and Ustica; 
btromboli and Vulcano are actively volcanic. 

UTETZK, a t. in the s.w. of the government of Tambov, European Russia, on the 
right bank of the Voronetz, a tributary of the Don, was founded in 1700 by Peter the 
great, but only began to flourish at the commencement of the present century, when the 
admirable qualities of its chalybeate springs became known. At present it has a large 
annual influx of visitors during summer, for whose accommodation a bathing establish- 
ment and a splendid garden have been formed. Lipetzk has woolen manufactures. Pop. 

UFQQiRAM (Gr. leipo, to leave out, and grtunma, a letter) is a species of verse char- 
acterized by the exclusion of a certain letter, either vowel or consonant. The earliest 
anther of lipogrammatic verse was the Qreek poet Lasus (b. 688 B.C.); and it is recorded 
of one T^rphiodorus, a Gresoo-Egyptian writer of the eiame period, that he composed an 
Odyssey in 24 books, from each of which, in succession, one of the letters of the Qreek 
alphabet was excluded. Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius, a Christian monk of 
the 6th c, performed a similar feat in Latin. In modern times the Spaniards have 
been most addicted to this laborious frivolity. Lope de Vega has written five novels, 
from each of which one of the vowels is excluded ; but several French poets have also 
practiced it. See Henry B. Wheatley's book on Anagrams (1862). 

IIFFE, or, as it is generally called, Liffb-Dbtmold, a small principality of northern 
Germany, surrounded on the w. and s. by Westphalia, and on the e. and n. by Hanover, 
Brunswick, Waldeck, and a detached portion of Hesse-Cassel. Area, 486 sq.m. ; pop. 
75, 112.442, nearly the whole of whom belong to the Reformed church and are very well 
educated. The present constitution of Lippe dates from Mar. 16, 1863; capital, Det* 
mold (q.v.); other towns, Lemeo and Horn. The famous Teutoburg-Wald {Salttis 
Teuioburg^TMs), in which the legions of Varus were annihilated by Armmius ^see Gs&- 
MAXicus Cjbaab,), runs through the southern part of the principality, which is on the 
whole rather hilly, but has many fertile vaUevs. Th& largest nver is the Werre, a tribu- 
tarv of the Weser. The principal occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture and the 
rearing of cattle, sheep, and swme; much pains is likewise bestowed on the cultivation 
and management of forests, as Lippe is perhaps the most richly wooded district in Ger- 
many. Linen-weaving is the chief manufacturing industrjr of the country. Among the 
mineral products are marble, iron, lime, and salt. The princes of Lippe are one of the 
oldest sovereign families of Germany, and were in a flourishing condition as early as the 
12th century. The first who took the name of Lippe was Bernhard von der Lippe, in 
1129. The family split into three branches in 161^Lippe, Brake, and Schaumburg. 

LIPPE-8CHAUMBURG. See Schaumbubg-Lippb, ante. 

IIPPI, Fra Filifpo, a Florentine painter of great talent, the events of whose life 
were of a very romantic kind. Bom about 1412, left an orphan at an early age, be spent 
his youth as a novice in the convent of the Carmine at Florence, where his talent for 
art was encouraged and developed. Sailing for pleasure one day, he was seized by cor- 
airs and carried to Barbary; after some years* captivity he regained his liberty, and is 
next found, in 1488, painting in Florence. Filippi) was much employed by Cosmo de* 
Kedici, and executed many important works for hisxL While painting in the convent of 
8ta. Margarita at Prato, a young lady, Lucrezia Buti, a boarder or novice, who had been 
aflowed by the nuns to sit for one of ttie figures in his picture, eloped with him ; and 
though strenuous efforts were made by her relations to recover her, he successfully 
Insisted their attempts, supported, it is thought, by Cosmo; and she remainedj^%i^^ 



hod a SOB by bim, who became an artist i>erhaps even more celebrated than Filippo 
himself He died at &>oleU>, Oct. 8, 1469. being at the time engaged in painting tae 
choir of the cathedral along with Fra Diamante, one of his pupils. 

IiIPPI, PiLippiNo Fjooppo, commonly called FiLiPPmo Lippi, the son of Fra Filippo 
and Lucrezia Buti, was b. at Florence in 1460. It is said tliat his father left him to the 
care of Fra Diamante, his pupil. He afterwards studied under Sandro Botticelli, also a 
pupil of his father's, and one of the most celebrated of his school. He soon acquired a 
high reputation, and executed various works in Florence, Bologna, Genoa, Lucca, and 
ai Rome, where, in 1492, he painted some frescos for the cardinal Caraffa, in the church 
of Sta. Maria Sopra Minerva. But the liigh position he attained is proved principally by 
his works in the Brancacci chapel in the church of the Carmine at Florence. The fres- 
cos in this chapel have alwavs been held in the highest estimation; they have been 
studied by the most celebratea painters, among others by Raphael and Michael Angelo; 
and though long believed to be entirely the work of Masaccio, are now ascertained to 
have been commenced by Masolino, continued by Masaccio, and finished by Filippino; 
the works of the last bemg — '* The Restoring of a Youth to Life," part of which was 
painted by Masaccio; " The Crucifixion of St. Peter;" " St. Peter and St. Paul before 
the Proconsul." and "St. Peter liberate(l from Prison;" also, according to some, •'Bt. 
Paul visiting St. Peter in Prison," in which the figure of St. Paul was adopted by 
Raphael in his cartoon of " Paul preaching at Athens." Filippino died at Florence on 
April 13, 1505. 

LIPPINOOTT, Sara Janb (Clarke), b. at Pompey, N. Y., 1828; educated at 
Rochester, N. Y.. and removed in 1843 to New Brighton, Penn. She began to write at 
an early age under the 7wm de pliune of '* Grace Greenwood." In 1853 she was married 
to Leander K. Lippincott. soon after wliich she traveled extensively in. England and 
upon the continent. Among her works are Oreenioood Lewces; Hiatof-y of My Pets; 
Poe/ns; Haps and Mishaps of a Tour in England; Merrie England; Stoiesfram Famous 
Bfillads; Becords of Five tears; and. Life in Nexo Lands, She established in 1854 The 
LitUe Pilgrim, a paper for children, which for several years had a wide circulation. She 
has appeared extensively upon the platform as a lecturer and dramatic reader, and mnoi- 
fested a deep interest in the movement for the enlargement of woman's opportunities for 
education and remunerative work. She has also been a correspondent at Washington 
and other places of a number of the leading journals of the country. It is understood 
that she is deterred from literary labor at present by ill health. 

LIPP'BTADT, a t of Prussian Westphalia, on the left bank- of the Lippe, 78 m. n.e. 
from Cologne. Formerly belonging to Lippe, it became finally Prussian in 1851. It 
has a very considerable grain trade, and some manufactures of starch, brandy, woolen 
cloth, etc. Pop. '75, 8,1«0. 

LIPSCOMB, Andrew A., d.d., ll.d., b. in Georgetown, D. C, Sept. 6, 1816. His 
father's family removed to Virginia, and, in 1842, he went to Montgomery, Ala., where 
he won great distinction as a minister of the Methodist Protestant church. In 1860 he 
became chancellor of the university of G^orsia, where he continued until 1874. In 1875 
he accepted a professorship in the Vanderbilt university, Nashville, Tenn. 

LIPSIUS, Justus, 1547-1606; b. at Isquc, near Brussels; educated at Brussels, 
Louvain, and the Jesuits' college at Cologne. The Jesuits, in view of his talents and 
learniog. endeavored to draw him into their order, but were defeated by his removal, 
through the influence of his mother, to the university of Louvain. There, to his favorite 
studies of philology and philosophy, he added jurispnidence. His talent was precocious, 
and at the age of 19 he published in 1567 his first work, Varia Lectiones of some of the 

grincipal Roman authors. This he dedicated to cardinal de Granville, who appointed 
im his Latin secretary. Accompanying the cardinal to Rome, he remained for two 
years, associating with learned men, and studying the MSS. in the Vatican and other 
libraries. In 1577, leaving Italy, he settled at Jena as professor of history and eloquence, 
and tiecame a Protestant. In 1579 he became professor of historv at Lieyden, where he 
was held in high repute. Resigning in 1591 he retired to Spa and afterwards to Mentz, 
where, in the same year, he returned to the Roman Catholic church, and published two 
treatises in defense of the worehip of saints and of their miraculous powers. While at 
Spa and Liege he was offered preferments by princes and dignitaries of the church : but 
he rejected the offers and returned to Louvain, where he was made professor of history 
and eloquence, remaining there till his death. Of his numerous works the most 
important are: De Gonstantia Manvductia ad Phihsophiam 8loicam; P/tysiologuB Stoicorum 
Ubri tres; De MiHtia Romatia Ubri quinque. His commentary on Tacitus was the work in 
which he chiefly distinguished himself. His works were collected under the title of 
Opera Omnia. At his death he was historiographer to the king of Spain. 

LIPSIUS, Justus Hermann, b. atLeipsic, May 9, 1884; in 1866 became rector of a 
gymnasium in that city, and has published critical remarks on Sophocles and Lysias. 

LIPSIUS, RicHAKD Adklbert, b. at Gera(Reuss}, Germany, Feb. 14, 1830; studied 
at Leipsic, and became professor of theology there m 1859; in 1861 he was appointed 
professor of theology at Vienna; in 1865 at Keil. He has published The Pauline Doctrine 
of Justification; The First Epistle of Clement of Rotne; ^^'^Ot^t^^'^J^ the Sources cf 

69 gg£^ 

A« Wrilingg cf Bpiphaniut; The OaUOogMeof Popee in EuseHut; Ohronotogp af ihe Bu^iopi 
^Bom$ to the MtdiUe of the Fbur^ Century, and numerous articles in Qerm&n periodical^ 

LIPTO', a CO. of n, Hungary, drained by the Wang, aii affluent of the Danube*; 
^ sq.m.; pop. in 70, 79,278, mostly Slavs. The inhabitants are enga^^ed cbip^^ in 
agriculture and tbe raising of cattle ; but there are mines of gold, silver, copper, and 
iron. Capital, 8zent-Mikl6d. 

LIQUATION, or ELiquATioir, a method of reducing silver ores by means of a triple 
alloy of copper, silver, and lead, which, beinj^ cast into dislt'Shaped masses, are placed 
on edge in a furnace on an inclined plane of iron, containing a small channel, and raised 
to a red beat; the lead, on melting out, by its attraction for silver, carries that metal with 
it, lf»nng the copper as a reddish-black spongy mass. 

UQOSUJL This name is giren to any alcoholic preparation which is flavored or per- 
famedand sweetened to bo more agreeable to the taste; there is consequently a large 
class of liqueurs, of which the following are the principal : anieeed cordial, prepared by 
fiaroriog weak spirit with aniseed, coriander, and sweet fennel seed, and sweetening 
with finely clarified B3Tup of refined sugar. Aheinlhe is sweetened spirit flavored with 
the young tops of certain species of artemisia (q.v.). CUyoe cardial, much sold in the 
London gin-shops, is flavored with cloves, bruised, and colored with burned sugar. 

Kummel, or doppel-kOmmel, is the principal liqueur of Russia; it is made in the ordi- 
oaiy way with sweetened spirit, flavored with cumin and caraway seeds, the latter 
Qsuftily so strong as to conceal any other flavor. It is chiefly made at Riga, and there 
are two qualities: that made in Riga is the sort in common use, and is not the finest; the 
better sort is only manufactured in smaller quantities at Weissenstein, in Esthonia; the 
chief difference is in the greater purit^r of the spirit used. Maraschino is distilled from 
cherries brui&ed, but instead of the wild kind, a fine, delicately flavored variety, called 
marasqnes, grown only in Dalmatia, is used. This cherry is largely cultivated around 
Zara, the capital, where ihe liqueur is chiefly made. Great care is taken in the distillar 
tioD to avoid injury to the delicate flavor, and the finest sugar is used to sweeten it. 

Noffau, or creme de noyau, is a sweet cordial flavored with bruised bitter-almonds. 
In Turkey, tbe fine-flavored kernels of the Mahaleb cherry are used, and in some places 
tbe kernels of the peach or the apricot. Peppermint, a common liqueur, especially 
amongst tbe lower classes of London, where ve'ry large quantities are sold; it UHualiy 
consists of the ordinary sweetened gin, flavored with the essential oil of peppermint, 
which is previously nibbed up with refined su^r. and formed into an oleosaccharum, 
which enables it to mix with tlie very weak spirit. 

Cwagoa and kirechtoaeter are described under their own names. 

LIQIJID. a consonant pronounced by a closure of the vocal organs greater than is 
required in llie utterance of the closer vowels, but less than is demanded by the mute 
consonants. The liquid consonants are /, r, to, y, which are all subject to whispered 

LK^inSAX'BAS, a genus of trees of the natural order aUingiaea, and the only genus of 
the order, having fiowers in male and female catkins on the same tree, the fruit formed 
of two-celled, many-seeded capsules, and the seeds winged. They are tall trees, remark- 
able for their fragrant balsamic products. X. etyradjlua, the Ahkrican Liquidambab, or 
Sweet Gum tree, is a beautiful tree with palmate leaves, a native of Mexico and the 
United States. It grows well in Britain. Its wood is of a hard texture- and fine gruin, 
and makes good furniture. From cracks or incisions in the l>ark, a transparent, yellow- 
ish balsamic fluid exudes, called liquid liquidambar, oU of tiguidambar, Atnerican etorax, 
tapalm baleam, and sometimes, but erroneously, white balsam of Peru. It gradually 
becomes concrete and darker colored. Its properties are similar to those of storax. 
That of commerce is mostly broujo^ht from Mexico and New Orleans. — L, orientale, 
a smaller tree with palmate leaves, is a native of the Levant and of more eastern regions, 
and yields abundantly a balsamic fluid, which has been supposed to be the liquid storax 
unponed from the Levant, but on this point there is diversity of opinion. 

LIQUIDATED DAMAGES. The amount of damages fixed beforehand by the 
terms of an agreement as the definite sum to be paid by the party to such agreement who 
violates such agreement. The courts, which construe strictly and will relieve against 
penalties, will in general support a stipulation for liquidated damages for a breach of 
contract, bat they will hold any particular stipulation to lie either a penalty or liquid- 
ated damages, according as they determine the Intent of the parties aa evidenced bv the 
^nor of the whole instrument. If that intent be still ambiguous, the stipulation will be 
declared a penalty. But if it appear that there is no means to properly find, out the 
<iUDage8 sustained, the stipulation will be held to be an agreement for liquidated dam- 
Hea, even if it be called a penalty in the agreement itself. 

LIQVIBIL See Heat, HTDHOflTATics, and Fubino ahd Fbxbziko Ponrrs. 

UlA (Lat. Ubra; see Livhb), an Italian silver coin of greater or less value, according 
to time and place. The Tuscan lira was equal to 80 French centimes; the Austrian lira 
wnoanmr was about the same vhIuc. The present lira Itallana, or lira nuova, of the 
Italiaa kingdom is equal to the French franc, and is divided into 100 centimes. 

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IJ'BIA, a t of Spain, in the province of Yakncia, and 13 m. n.w. from Yalencuu 
The plain in which it stands is luxuriant with vines and olives. On the summit of a 
hill in the vicinity is the eoOegio de San Miguel, an ancient and venerable monastic pile. 
Pop. 8.500. 

LIBIOnEVDEOV. See Ttlip Tbeb. 

LISAINE, Battle of, a famous engagement in the Franco-Prussian war, which 
raged for three days on the small French river Lisaine. which rises at the southern 
termination of the VoMea, flows w. of the fortress of Belfort, and enters the Savoureuse 
at Montb^liard. The German gen. von Werder retreated before the French under Bour- 
bai&i, and took a position along the Lisaine, in order to prevent the French from attack- 
ing iheQerman troops before Belfort, or from making an invasion at that point into 
Germany. Von Werder, with a force of 48,000 men, well supplied with heavy guns, held 
a distance of about 10 m. on the left bank of the river, which commands the right bank. 
The villages along the stream were barricaded. Bourbaki, with 120,000 men, made 
desperate efforts to drive the Germans from their position, but the latter were so strongly 
fortified that these efforts were without avail. It was one of the severest engagements 
of the wiu:. The German loss in killed and wounded was 81 officers and 1847 men; the 
French loss was 6,000. 

LIB'BOV (Portug. LUboa; called by the ancient Lusitanians Oluipo or UUsippo^ and by 
the Moors iMfUmna), the capital of Portugal, is situated in the province of Estremadura, 
on the right bank of the Tagus, which is here about 6 m. wide, and about 18 m. from 
the mouth of the river. Pop. 224,068. The city is built partly on the shores of the 
Tagus, and partly on three larger and four smaller hilla Its appearance is wonderfully 
picturesc^ue; and its resemblance, in point of situation and magnificence of prospect, to 
Clonstantmople, at precisely the opposite extremity of Europe, has been frequently 
remarked. Including its suburbs, it extends about 6 m. along the river. The harbor, 
which is safe and spacious, is protected by strong forts, but the city itself is unwalied 
and without any fortifications. The eastern and older part, which lies around the Cas- 
tle-hill — an eminence crowned with an old Moorish castle, destroyed by earthquakes- 
is composed of steep, narrow, crooked, badly-paved streets, with hi^h, gloomy, wretched- 
looking houses; but the newer portions are well and regularly bum. The most beauti- 
ful part is called the New Town — it stretches along the Tagus. and is crowded with 
palaces. Among the places or squares, the principal are the Pm^ do Commercio, on 
the Tagus, 505 ft. long, 520 broad, surrounded on three sides with splendid edifices; the 
iVapo do Boeio, in the new town, forming the market-place, 1800 ft. long and 1400 
broad; and the Passeio Publico, The whole of the new town, and the district round the 
royal castle, is lighted with gas. Lisbon has 70 parish churches, 200 chapels, numerous 
monasteries, hospices, and hospitals, 6 theaters, and 2 amphitheaters. The most con- 
spicuous public buildings are the church of tlie Patriarch, the monastery of the Heart 
of Jesus (with a cupola of white marble), the church of St. Roque (built of marble), the 
Foundling hospital (receiving annually about 1600 children), St. James*s hospital (capa- 
ble of receiving 1,600 sick persons), the royal palaces of Ajuda, J^ossa aenhara das 
NeeesHdadeSf and Bemposta, the custom-houses, the arsenal, and the National theater, 
on the site of the old inquisition. The city has numerous educational and scientific 
institutions, and a national library containing 160,000 vols. Among notable objects, the 
most important is the Alc&ntara acjueduct, Os Ai'cos or Agwu Uvrts, finished in 1748, 
which supplies all the public fountains and wells of the city. It is 18 m. in length, and 
in one place 260 ft. high, and remained uninjured at the great earthquake. It is the 

greatest piece of bridge-architecture in the world. Lisbon has a royal arsenal, ship^ 
uilding docks, and powder-mills, besides private manufactories of silks, porcelain, 
paper, and soap; also iron-foundries, and jewelry and trinket establishments. Its chief 
exports are oranges, citrons, wool, oil, and leadfier. The shipping accommodation is 
extensive and commodious, and the trade with Africa is an important and flourisiiing 
one. The imports in 1875 were valued at £2.880.205; and the exports at £1,839.507. 
About SO, 000 €kilegos (Qalicians) earn a subsistence here as porters, water-carriers, and 

Lisbon is said to have been founded by the Phenicians, a ndwas a nourishing city, 
the capital of Lusitania, when first visited by the Romans. It was taken by the Moors 
in 712, from whom it was recaptured by Alfonso I. in 1147. It became the seat of an 
archbishopric in 1890, and of a patriarchate in 1716. Lisbon has been frequently visited 
by earthquakes; that of 1755 destroyed a great part of the city and 60.000 inhabitants. 
It was captured by the French in 1807, but given up to the Bntish in 1808, after which 
it was protected by the lines of Torres Vedras. 

LIS'BVSK, a market t. and pariiamentary borough, situated on the river Lagan, partly 
in the county of Antrim, pnrtly in the county of Down, Ireland. It is distant from 
Dublin 97 m. n.n.e., and 8i 8.s.w. from Belfast, with both which places it is connected 
by the Dublin and Belfast Junction railway. The pop. in 1871 was 9,82t; of whom 
4,708 were Protestant £pi.«copalians, 2,146 Roman Catholics, 1841 Presbyterians, 869 
Methodists, and the rest of other denominations. Lisburn originated in the erection of 
a castle, in 1610, by sir Fulk Conway, to whom the manor was assigned in the settle- 
ment of James L ; but its importance dates from the settlement of a number of Hugue- 

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sot familieB, who, after the revocation of the edict of Kantes, eslabUahed thenxaehres at 
IjfllHirn, where they introduced the manufacture of linen and damask, after the method 
and with the machinery then in use in the Low Countries. It is a dean and well-ordered 
town, with a convenient market, and considerable manufactures of linens and damasks; 
besides which, bleaching, dyeing, flax-dressing; flax-spinning, etc., are carried on. Its 
ptrish church is the cathedral of Down and Connor, and is interesting as the buriij- 
plaoe of Jeremy Taylor, who was bishop of that see, and died at Lisbum in 1607. 
Lisbam retams one member to parliament. 

IJBISUX (ancient Ifomomagut Lescatium), a t. of northern France, in the dep. of 
Calvadoe, on the Touques, 27 m. e.B.e. of Caen, at the entrance of a beautiful valley. 
The principal building is the church of St. Pierre (formerly a cathedral^ belonging to 
the 13th c, and built on the site of an older edifice, in which Henry II. of Engumd 
married Eleanor of Guienne. Lisieux is the center of an extensive manufacture of 
coarse linens, woolens, flannels, horsecloths, ribbons, etc., which gives employment to 
more than 8,000 workmen. Pop. 76, 18,896. 

TiTHKEAUT), a municipal and parliamentary borough in Cornwall, is situated in a 
well-cultivatea district, on the Looe, 16 m. w.n.w. of Plymouth. Two miles to the s. of 
the town is a famous spring, said to have been presented to the inhabitants by St. Keyne, 
and the virtue of whose waters is set forth in Southey's well-known ballad, The WeU of 
8i, Kegjie, There are manufactures of serge and leather, and considerable traflSc in tlie 
produce of the tin, copper, and lead mines of the neighborhood. Liakeard retums a 
member to parliament. Pop. 71, 6,575. 

LISLE, OuiLLAUiCB DB, 1675-1726; son of Claud de Lisle, geographer and historian; 
b. in Paris. At an early age he devoted himself to historical and geographical studies, 
and when but 9 years old constructed several charts of ancient histor^r. He completelv 
reconstructed the system of geography current in Europe at the beginning of the 18th 
c by the publication of maps in which he corrected errors inherited from the time of 
Ptolemy. He also constructed a celestial and a terrestrial globe. He was admitted to 
the academy of sciences in 1702, and afterwards appointed tutor in geograiphy to Louis 
XV., who created for him in 1818 the title of "first geographer to the king," with a 
pension of 1200 livre& He is said to have drawn no less than 184 maps. A corrected 
edition of his map of the world appeared in 1704. He contributed several memoirs to 
the OoBmUoiu of the academy of sciences. 

L18LET, a s. co. of the province of Quebec, Canada, bounded s.e. by Maine 
and n w. by the St. Lawrence; traversed by the Grand Trunk railroad; 798 sq.m. ; pop. 
Tl, 13,517, of whom 18,875 were of French descent. Capital, St. Jean Port Joli. 

LI8X0SE, an island of Argyleshire, 6 m from Oban, is situated in Loch Linnhe, and 
is 10 m. in length, with an average breadth of 1^ miles. It contains the remains of 
several interesting buildings, as Achinduin castle — formerly the residence of the bishops 
of Arg^le — an old cathedral, and castle Rachal, a Scandinavian fort, now very ruinous. 
The island is for the most part under cultivation. Pop. 71, 708. 

LIS PENDENS, a pending suit. Pendency of a suit begins^ at law, as soon as an 
attaciiment is made under the writ; at equity, with the service of the subposna on the 
defendant. Every one who takes any step in regard to the property affected by the 
pending suit is presumed at equity to have notice of such suit, and his rights will be 
correspondingly affected; thus, a purchaser of such property, though never made party 
to the suit, iSkea subject to the decree made in it; and a suit pending, brought by a 
prior mortagee wliose mortgagee' has never been put on record, is held sufficient notice to 
a following mortagee of the existence of the prior mortgage. Though these applications 
of lU pendens occur only in courts of equity, the legal doctrine, that a vendee holds by 
Uie same title as his vendor, and no better, amounts to much the same thing. 

LIS8A, anciently /«a, an island in the Adriatic, off the Dalmatian coast, and belong- 
ing to Dalmatia; 10 m. long, 5 broad; 48'' 10' n. lat., 88** 51' e. long.; 88 sq.m.; pop. 
7,000. It was long known to the ancients, and is mentioned by Scylax as a Qreek. 
colony. In Casar's time it was styled nobilmiinum earum regionum oppidvm, and Pliny 
Bays the inhabitants were Roman citizens. It is often referred to by Polvbius in hu 
account of the Illyrian war. When besieged by Teuta, the siege was raised on the 
appearance of tlie Roman fleet, and the inhabitants placed themselves under the protec- 
tion of Rome. It was afterwards a station for the Roman ^lleys in their wars with the 
kings of Macedon. Its shores are steep and rocky, and it is accessible only at a few 
bays. The soil is not fertile. The chief products are wine, oil, almonds, and anchovies. 
The island is noted in modem times for two victories, that gained bv the British over 
&e French in 1811, and that by the Austrians under gen. TegethofT over the Italians 
under admiral Persauo. Its two harbors are strongly fortified. Lissa or San Giorgio is 
the principal town and seaport on the n.e. shore, with a population of 2,800. 

LI8SA. (Pol. Les9na), a t. of Prussia, in the province of Poeen, and the circle of 
Praustadt, 44 m. saw. of Posen. Pop. '76, 11,069, of whom nearlV one half are Jews. 
Lissa has a fine town-house, a castle, one Roman Catholic and three Protestant churches, 
with manufactures of woolens, leather, and tobacco. This place became for a time the 
chief Beat of the Bohemian brothers. . .,.,... .^ 

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USX. fieeFiLLBT. 

LIST, Fmedrich, 1789-1846; b. Reutlii^n in WOrtembcrg; was for tiro or Chioa 
years professor of political economy at the uuiversity of Tabingen; was elected member 
of the diet of WUrtemberg, but was expelled in 1822 for bis censure of the acU of the 
governmeDt, and condemDed to tea montlis* imprisonment He fled to Switserlaod and 
Alsace, but returniug in 1824 was imprisoned in the fortress of Aspeig. Havioj^ received 
a pardon he emigrated to America and settled in Pennsylvania. & 1827 he published 
his OutUnes of a New System of PoUticdl Eeonomy which attracted much attention. He 
became a large land-holder, and in connection with others settled the two towns of Port 
Clinton and Tamaqua in Schuylkill county. On the latter he discovered a valuable 
deposit of anthracite. At this time he was much interested in the establishment of rail- 
roads. In 1830 he was appointed U. 8. consul at Hamburg, but soon came back 
to Pennsylvania, and in 1882 returned to Europe, acting for a while in 1833 as American 
consul at Leipsic. In 1887 he went to Paris, where he wrote several letters for the 
Augsburg AUaemeine Zeitung, which were afterwards published In a volume under the 
title of iMu NaUonaU System der FoUUschen Oekorumie. In 1848 he established at Augs- 
burg the ZoUv&remsblatt, in which he advocated a national commercial system and a 
nationail fleet. He visited Austria and Hungary in 1844, and England in 1846 for the 
purpose of forming a commercial alliance between Germany and that country, in which 
his efforts were not successful. Depressed by the failure of his plans, the loss of his 
health and property, he shot himself in a fit of insanity. His works, with a biography, 
were published in 3 volumes in 1850 at Stuttgart. 

LI8T0N, John, 1776-1846; b. London; educated at Dr. Barrow's school; l)ecame 
second master of St. Martin's school, founded by archbishop Tenison. For acting in 
theatrical plays with the large boys he was expelled from the school, and went upon the 
stage, excelling in low comedy. He acted at the Haymarket theater in 1806, and after- 
wards at Coven t Garden, Drury Lane, and the Olvmpic. He was greatly praised by 
Lamb, Hood, and others. He left the stage in l837, having acquired a considerable 

LI8T0H, Robert, a celebrated surgeon, was b. at Ecclesmachan, in the county of 
Linlithgow, in 1794, and was the son of the rev. Henry Liston, the minister of the 
parish. After studying anatomjr under Barclav in Edinburgh, and following the usual 
course of medical study in that city, he proceeded to London in 1816, where be attended 
the surgical practice of the Blizards at the London hospital, and of Abernethy at St 
Bartholomew's. After becoming a member of the royal college of surgeons of London, 
he returned to Edinburgh, and m 1818 was elected a fellow of the royal college of sur- 
geons of that city. 

Liston now commenced his career as a lecturer on anatomy and surgery, and soon 
became remarkable for his boldness and skill as an operator. In conseouence of his 
performing many successful operations on patients who had been dischargea as incurable 
bv the surgeons of the Edinburgh infirmary, he was requested by the managers to refuse 
his assistance to any person who had been a patient in that institution, and to abstain 
from visiting the wards. He naturally declined to accede to these extraordinary propo- 
sitions, and in consequence was expelled, and never entered again its wards, until in 
1827 he was elected one of its surgeons. His surgical skill, and the rapidity with which 
his operations were performed, soon acquired for him a European reputation; and in 
1885 he accepted the invitation of the council of University college to fill the chair of 
clinical surgery. He soon acquired a large London practice; in 1840 he was elected a 
meml)er of the council of the college of surgeons; and in 1846 he became one of the 
board of examiners. In the very climax of his fame, and apparently in the enjoyment 
of vigorous health, he was struck down by disease, and died Dec. 7, 1847. 

His most important works are his Elements of Surgery, which appeared in 1881, and 
his PraeUeal Surgery, which appeared in 1887, and has gone through four editiona 
His uncontrollable temper, and the coarseness of language in which he frequently 
indulged, involved him in various quarrels with his professional brethren; yet, not- 
withstanding these defects, he always succeeded in obtaining the regud and esteem of 
his pupils. 

II8ZT, Frakz, pianist, was b. at Raiding, in Hungary, Oct. 22, 1811. His father, a 
functionarv employed on the estates of prince E^^terhazy, was himself possessed of some 
musical skill, and carefully cultivated the wonderful talent which Liszt showed even in 
his infancy. In his ninth year, the child played publicly at Presburg, and excited uni- 
versal astonishment By the assistance of two Hungarian noblemen — counts Amadi and 
Saparjr — Liszt was sent to Vienna, and placed under the instruction of Czemy and 
Balieri. He studied assiduously for eighteen months, after which he gave concerts in 
Vienna, Munich, and other places, with brilliant success. In 18SSS ho proceeded with 
his father to France, Intendmg to complete his musical education at the conservatoire; 
but he was refused admission on account of his being a foreigner; nevertheless, his 
genius maile a way for itself. He played before the duke of Orleans, and very soon the 
clever, daring boy became the favorite of all Paris. Artists, scholars, high personages, 
ladies— all paid homage to his marvelous gift, and it v^qi9|||7bv^^i^^^^ father^s 



ftiict snpemsion that young Llflzt wu not entirely fpoiled. Id the course of the next 
three yean, he vinted "England thrice, and was warmly received. In t8d7 bis father 
died at fioulo^e, and UuX became his own master at tlie age of sixteen. For some 
yean after this, his life sufficiently proved (hat he had become independeDt too soon. 
Alternations of dissipation and religious mvstScism induced his admirers to fear that hia 
artistic cdurse would end in disastrous failure. Fortunately, he lieard the famous vio- 
linist, Paganini, in 1881, and was seized with a sudden ambition to become tbe Paganini 
of tiie i£uko; and one may say that on* the whole he has succeeded. Up till 1847 his 
career was a perpetual series of triumphs in all the capitals of Europe. He then grew 
tired of hia itinerant life, and became leader of the court concerts and operas at Weimar. 
In 1865 he took sacred orders and became a monk, in the chapel of the Vatican, Rome; 
and in 1871 returned to his native country, which granted him a pension of £600 a year. 
In 1875 he was named director of the Hungarian academy of music. Liszt has also been 
an industrious and original contributor to musical literature. 

UTAHT (6r. lUaneia, a Bupi>1ication), a word the specific meaning of which has 
Taried considerablv at different times, but which means in general a solemn act of sup- 
plication adilressea with the object of averting the divine anger, and especially on occa- 
sions of public calamity. Through all the vaneties of form which litanies have assumed, 
one characteristic has always been maintained — viz. , that the prayer alternates between 
the priest or other minister, wbo announces the object of each petition, and the congre- 
gation, who reply in a common supplicatory form, the most usual of which was the 
well-known "Kyrie eletsonl" (Lord, have mercy!) In one procession which Mabillon 
describes, this prayer, alternating with "Christe eleison," was repeated 800 times; and 
in the capitularies of Charlema^e, it is ordered that the "Eyrie eleison" shall he sung 
by the men, the women answenng '* Christe eleison." From the 4th c. downwards, the 
use of litanies was seneral. The ArUii^onary of St. Gregory the great contains severaL 
In the Roman Catholic church three litanies are especially in use — the *' litany of the 
saints" (which is the most ancient), the "litany of the name of Jesus," and the " liiany 
of Our Lady of Loretto. " Of these, the first alone has a place in the public service-boou 
of the church, on the rogation*days, in the ordination service, the service for the conse- 
cration of churches, the consecration of cemeteries, and many other offices. Although 
called by the name of litany of the saints, the opening and closing petitions, and indeed 
the greater part of the litany, consist of prayers addressed directly to Ood; and the 
prayers to we saints are not for their help, but for their intercession on behalf of tbe 
worshipers. The litany of Jesus consists of a number of addresses to our Lord under 
his various relations to men, in connection with the several details of his passion, and 
of adjurations of him through the memory of what he has done and sunered for the 
salvation of mankind. The date of this form of prayer is uncertain, but it is referred, 
vith much probability, to the time of St. Bernardino of Siena, in the 15th century. The 
litany of Loretto (see Loretto) resembles both the above-named litanies in its opening 
addresses to (he holy Trinity, and in its closing petitions to the "Lamb of Goa, who 
taketh away the sins of the world;" but the main body of the petitions are addressed to 
the Virgin Mary under various titles, some taken from the Scriptures, some from the 
language of the fathers, some from the mystic writers of the medieeval church. Neither 
this litany nor that of Jesus has ever formed part of any of the ritual or liturgical offices 
of the Catholic church, but there can be no doubt that both have in various ways received 
the sanction of the highest authorities of the Roman church. 

In tbe prayer-book of the English church the litany is retained, but although it par- 
takes of ancient forms, it differs from that of the Roman church, and contains no invo- 
cation of the Viigin or the saints. It is divided into four parts— in vocations, deprecnt ions, 
intercessions, and supplications, in which are preserved the old form of alternate prayer 
and response. It is no longer a distinct service, but, when used, forms part of the 
morning prayer. 

LITCHTIELD, a co. of Connecticut, forming its n.w. corner, and bounded n. by 
Massachusetts and w. by the state of New York; intersected by the Housatonic, Farm- 
ington, and Kaugatuck rivers, and by the Housatonic, Naugatuck, and Connecticut 
Western railroads; about 900 sq.m. ; pop. in *80. 53.048. of whom 44.009 were of Ameri- 
can birth. The surface is hilly, ana extensively covered with forests. The soil is for 
the most part fertile; hay, butter, cheese, tobacco, cattle, oats, and corn being the staple 
productions. The quantity of hay and butter produced in this county in 1870 exceeded 
that of the same articles in any other county of the state. The production of staples in 
1870 was: 6,823 bush, of wheat, 60,444 of rye. 286,900 of corn, 257,606 of oats, 27.561 
of buckwheat, 819,497 of potatoes, 1,048,569 lbs. of tobacco, 51,769 of wool, 1,617.850 
of butter, 1,807.896 of oheese. and 109,415 tons of hay. There were in the county at the 
lame time 6,076 horses, 33,514 miteh cowa, 6.483 working oken, 17,477 otiier cattle, 
17,834 sheep, and 7,383 swine. Water-power is almndant, and there is in the county a 
great variety of manufactures, including auch articles as agricultural implement^ brass 
aod braaa-wara, pins, carriages, cotton goods, cutlery and edge-tools^ hardware, hats 
and caps, iroa and machinery, needles, paper, plated ware, silk goods, tin, copper and 
8beet-ut>n ware, woolen and worsted goods, leather, flour, and lumber. Capital, Litch- 

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LITCHFIELD, a t, the ccmnty seat of Litchfield co., In o.w. OonnecticiEl; pop. '80, 
8'410. Aboat 1800 ft. above the level of the flea, it is noted for the invicorating parity 
of its flummer climate, and has become a favorite reeort of sammer boarderB from New 
York. It is on hjgh ground, between the Naugatuck and fiUiepaag rivers, near a beauti- 
ful lake, the largest in the state. The noble elms of the cAA. streets and pictareeqae 
surrounding scenery have loug made it celebrated. In 1784 a law school was established 
here by judge Tapping Beene, and conducted bv judge James €k>uld from 18S8 to 1888, 
which was at the time the most celebrated in the United States. Many of the moat eminent 
jurists and statesmen of the country graduated ttiere. The first ladies' seminary in the 
United States was established in Litchfield. The town had social refinement and culture; 
and Dr. Lyman Beecher gave celebrity to its pulpit (Congregational). Water-power from 
its lake has made it the seat of many manufacturing indusmes, including mills, for mak- 
ing paper, oil, satinets, and smelters for reducing and refining nickel ores found in the 
vicinity. The town is subdivided into five postal districts, viz. : Litchfield, Bantam 
Falls. East Litchfield, Milton, and Northfield. It has a private lunatic asylum, and the 
usual quota of public schools, churches, newspapers, ana business houses. 

LITCHFIELD, a city of Montgomery co., 111., on the Indiantmolis and SL Louis 
railroad, where it crosses the Wabash railroad, 45 m. s. of Springfield, and 60 m. n.e. of 
St. Louis. It 13 situated on a fine rolling prairie, and is the most populous town in the 
county. It has 7 churches, an Ursuline convent and academy, a high school, a Boman 
Catholic hospital, 2 newspapers, 2 banks, 2 steam flouring mills, workshops of the 
Indianapolis and St. Louis railroad, and several grain elevators. Pop. about 5,000. 

LITCHI, or Lbb-Cheb, NepheUum Litchi, one of the most delicious fruits of China 
and of the Malayan archipelago. The tree which produces it belongs to the natural 
order lapiTidaeeof, and has pinnate leaves. It is extensively cultivated in the southern 
provinces of China, and in the northern provinces of Cochin-China, but is said to be 
unpatient of a climate either much more hot or much more cold. The fruit is of the 
size of a small walnut, and grows in racemes. It is a red or green berry, with a thin, 
tough, leathery, scaly rind, and a colorless semi- transparent pulp, in the center of which 
is one large dark-brown seed. The pulp is slightly sweet, subacid, and very grateful 
The Chinese preserve the fruit by drying, and in the dried state it is now frequently 
imported into Britain, still preserving much richness of flavor. — The laiman and rambur 
tan are fruits of the same genus. 

LITER, the unit of the present French measures of capacity, both dry and liquid. 
It is the volume of a cubic decimeter (see Mbtbr), and is equal to 0.2200967 Bntish 
imperial gallon. It is subdivided decimally into the dectUter, eenUliter, and mUUUter 
(respectively Ath, yj^th, and j^th of a liter). Ten liters are a decaliter; 100, a hecto- 
liter; 1000, a hloUter, The hectoliter is the common measure for grain, and is equal to 
0.8489009 British imperial quarter, or nearly 21 imperial bushels. 

LITER See Metric System. 

LITERARY PROPERTY (aside from copyright, trade-mark, and patent), the 
ownership by an author of his writings, apart from any connection with their publi- 
cation or promulgation. In this sense the Utle is in the material and form of its subject, 
and not m any quality predicated on its market value; as, for instance, the abstract 
property which the author has in his unpublished play, and which, in this sense, is 
neither more nor less than that which inheres in the authorship of a letter. But it is to 
be observed that this property is not mere ownership; as in the case of an article which 
is a gift, a purchase, or a bequest. The title rests on the fact of creation, and is more 
akin to the interest which a father has in the productive capacity or earning faculty of 
his children than to anything else. To illustrate the specific distinction which character- 
izes this species of property, it may be observed that the author who inscribes and pre- 
sents a written copy of verses to his friend does not, by these acts, part with tbis 
geculiar title. The recipient may give away the copy of verses, that being his; but if. 
y any chance, incident, or collusion, those verses are made public, the one to whom 
they were given becomes liable to prosecution therefor. The law holds this property to 
be transferable, by bequest, or by regular order of succession, or absolute ^ft, clearlv 
stated. It cannot be seized by creoitors for publication, and Its unauthorized publi- 
cation will be restrained in equity. Literary property is held at common law, but in the 
United States the copjrright act recognizes the right of property in any manuscript wha^ 
ever, including private letters. 

LITERATURE, American. See Americak Literature. 

LITHASOS. See Lead. 

LITHGOW. William. 1588-1614; b. Scotland; a traveler, who began by traveling 
on foot through central Europe, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, and Palestine, and pn- 
sented a collection of relics to James 1. and the queen on his return to Eng^nd. His 
next tour was through the states of northern Africa, and through Hungary and Poland 
on his return. On his third Journey he bore letters from king James commending him 
to all the royal heads of the countries which he might visit At Malaga he was arrested 
on suspicion of being a spy, and subjected to shameful lortures. Hu Ado&fituret were 
published in 1614. 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 


UXHIA. Bee Lithium. 

UtHZC ACID. See Ukic Acn>. 

LXTHIC AGB) DIATH'E8I8 is the term employed in medicine to designate the condition 
in which there is an excess of lithic (or uric) acid, either free or in combination, or both, 
in the urine. The urine of persons who have the lithic acid diathesis is usually ot a 
dark golden color, like brown sherry, and is more acid, of higher specific gravity, and 
less abundant than the urine in health. When the urine cools, there is usually a deposit 
or sediment of lithates. The sediment is usually spoken of as one of lithate (or urate) of 
ammonia, but in reality it consists mainly of lithate of soda mixed with lithates of 
ammonia, xx)tash, and lime. Its color vanes according to the amount and nature of the 
urine-pigment which tenaciously adheres to it, so that its tints vary from a whitish yel- 
low to a brick-dust red, or even a deep purple. Persons seeing these deposits in their 
urine when it has cooled are very apt to believe that they may aggregate and harden in 
the bladder, and form a stone. Such fears may, however, be relieved by heating the 
urine containing the sediment to the temperature of the interior of the body (about 100*), 
when the fluid will resume its original clearness, and the sediment will disappear. 

The color of the deposit is of considerable importance in determining its value as a 
morbid symptom. Tawny or reddish sediments of this kind are frequently the result of 
mere indigestion or a common cold; the yellowish -white ones deserve more attention, as 
they are believed frequently to precede the excretion of suffar through the kidneys. 
The pink or brick-dust sediments are almost always associated with febrile disturbance 
or acute rheumatism; and if these sediments are habitual, without fever, there is most 
probably disease of the liver or spleen. If the urine is very acid, a portion of the lithic 
acid is separated from its base, and shows itself, as the fluid cools, in a free crystallized 
state, resembling, to the naked eye, grains of cayenne pepper, but appearing under the 
microscope as rhombic tablets. This free lithic acid is far less common than the lithates, 
and does not dissolve on the application of heat. 

The persons who suffer from this diathesis are chiefly adults beyond the middle age, 
and of indolent and luxurious or intemperate habits. As the formation of lithic deposits 
is due to over-acidity of the urine, alkalies are the medicines most commonly prescribed, 
and the preparations of potash are far preferable to those of soda, because lithate of 
potash is perfectly soluble, and will pass off dissolved in the urine, while lithate of soda 
is a hard, insoluble salt. 

Regimen is, however, of far more use than medicine in the lithic acid diathesis. The 
patient should dine moderately and ver>r plainly, avoiding acid, saccharine, and starchy 
matters and fermented liquors. The skin should be made to act freely by friction, and 
by occasional warm or daily tepid baths. Warm clothing must be used ; plenty of 
active exercise must be taken in the open air; and the healthy action of the bowels and 
liver duly attended to. It must be recollected that the lithates are sometimes thrown 
down, not from undue acidity of the urine, but simply from that fluid not containing 
the due quantity of water to hold them in solution. In such cases a tumbler of cold 
spring-water taken night and morning will at once cause the cessation of this morbid 

LXTHIUX (symb. Li; equiv. 7.0; sp. gr. 0.5986) is the metallic base of the alkali 
Utkia, and derives its name from the Gre& word Utho», a stone. The metal is of a white 
silvery appearance and is much harder than sodium or potassium, but softer than lead. 
It admits of being welded at ordinary temperatures, and of being drawn out into wire» 
which, however, is inferior in tenacity to leaden wire. It fuses at 856^. It is the lightest 
of all known metals, its specific gravity being little more than half that of water; it 
decomposes water at ordinary temperatures. It burns with a brilliant light in oxygen, 
chlorine, and the vapors of iodine and bromine. It is easily reduced from its chloride 
by means of a galvanic battery. Lithium forms two compounds with oxygen, viz., 
lithia (known al«> as lithion or lithon), which is the oxide of lithium, and a peroxide at 
lithium whose formula has not been determined. 

Liihia, in a pure and isolated state, cannot be obtained. Hydrate of lithia (LO,HO) 
occurs as a white translucent mass, which closely resembles the hvdrates of potash ana 
soda. The salts of lithia are of sparing occurrence in natur& The minerals petal ite, 
triphane, lepidolite, and tourmaline contain lithia in combination with silicic acid, while 
triphyline and amblygonite contain it as a phosphate; it is also present in small quanti- 
ties in many mineral wateiis. 

Carbonate of lithia (LO,COt) is precipitated when carbonate of ammonia is added to 
a strong solution of chloride of lithium, and occurs as a white mass with a sliirht alkaline 
reaction. At a dull red heat, it melts into a white enamel. It requires 100 parts of 
water for its solution, but is more soluble in water charged with carbonic acid. The 
solution of the salt has been stronsiy recommended in cases of gout and gravel, in con- 
sequence of the solvent power which it exerts on uric acid. '&ie sulphate,, phosphate, 
and nitrate of lithia are of no special importance. Chloride of lithium (LCl+4 flqO te 
readily prepared by dissolving the hydrate of lithia in hydrochloric acid, and evaporat- 
ing. It crystallizes in octohednK and is one of the most ddiquescent salts known. It 
is of impoortanoe as being the souroe from whence lithium and carbonate of lithia vn 

Digitized by VjOtJy IC 



Litiila was discovered in 1817 by Arfvedson. The metal lithiau was fimt oblidned 
in 1822 by Brande, but nothing was known regarding its properties imUl tB50, vben 
Bunsen and Matthiessen discovered the present method of obtaining it, iimi e^efuily 
investigated its physical and chemical characters. 

LJTHOD'OMUS, a ^enus of stone.boring raoUusks belonging to tae family of mus- 
sels, the type of which is the MytUus liVwpagm of Linnsus. 

UTHOO'EAPHT (Gr. WJios, a stone), the art of printing from stone, was invented by 
Alojrs Senefelder, at Munich, about the end of the 18th century. It consists, first, in 
writing and drawing on the stone with the pen and bmsh, with the graver, and with tlie 
crayon or chalk; or in transferring to the stone writings and drawings made with the 
pen or brush on transfer- pa per, or impressions from copper, steel, and pewter plates, 
taken on a coated paper, and then in printing off from the stone the writings or draw- 
ings ihus made upon it. The principles of the art are these: an unctuous composition 
havim^ been made to adhere to a calcarco-argillaceous stone, those parts covered by it— 
i.e., the writing or drawing— acquire the power of receiving printing-ink, whereas those 

Earts not containing tlie writing or drawing are prevented from receiving ink from the 
iking roller by the interposition of water; and lastly, an absorbent paper being laid on 
the stone, and subjected to strong pressure, copies are obtained. 

The best lUfvographic atones are found at Kelheim and Solenhofen, near Pappenheim, 
on the Danube, in Bavaria; but they have been found also in Silesia, England, France, 
Canada, and the West Indies. These stones are composed of lime, clay, and siliceous 
eaith, and are of various hues, from a imle yellowish-white to a light buff, reddish, 
pearl-gray, light-gray, blue, and greenish color. Those of uniform color are the best. 
The yellow-buff ones, being soft, are adapted for lettering and transfer; the pearl -gray 
ones, being harder, for chalk-drawings and engraving. They are found in beds, com- 
mencing with layers of the thickness of paper, till they reach the dimensions of one 
and several inches in thickness, when they are easily cut, being yet soft in the quarries, 
to the sizes reouired for printing purposes. The stones are ground plane with sand, and, 
when required for the pen, the brush, the paver, or transfer, they are polished with 
pumice ana water-of-Ayr stone; and for chalk-drawings and graduated tints, an artificial 
grain is given by ground glass or fine sand. 

When any writing or drawing has been finished on stone, it then requires to be etched, 
thus: a mixture of 2 parts of nitric acid, and from 40 to 60 parts of dissolved eum- 
arable, is poured over the stone once or several times, according to the nature of the 
work. The etching changes the surface of the stone, raising the work on it to a degree 
scarcely perceptible to the naked eye. The writing or drawing, which has been effected 
by greasy ink or chalk, remains protected from the action of the acid, and those pro- 
tected parts retain the natural pro|>erty of the stone, which is the qualification of receiv- 
ing printing-ink; and, when the printer wets the stone before applying the inking-roller, 
the water enters only those parts of the stone which have been affected by the acid, 
while the ink adheres only to those parts, however fine, on which the acid could not 
operate, owing to the unctuous composition of the ink or chalk with which the drawing 
or writing has been done, and which, being greasy, rejects the water. Thus it is called 
4ihemic€U piinting. 

The chemiecU ink, for writingn and drawings in line, is composed of 2 parts of white 
wax, 2 shellac. 1 hard soap, i tallow, i carbonate of soda, and 1 of powdered lamp, or 
better, Paris black. The chemical chalk (crayon) is made of 8 parts of white wax, 2 
liard soap, 1 shellac, i •* drops of" mastic, 1 tallow, i old lard, i Venetian turpentine, 
i Brunswick black, ^ carbonate of soda, and li of Paris black, properly melted and 
burned together. 

When the drawing or vyriting ioith ink on a polished stone is completed, the etching 
is proceeded with, and a portion of the etching composition allowed to dry on the stone. 
The- printer then adjusts his stone in the press, washes off the dried gum, removes the 
whole drawing or writing with turpentine, wets tlie stone with a sponge or damping 
eanvas, then applies his roller containing the printing-ink, and rolls it several times over 
the stone till the lines appear again. When suflacient ink has been applied to tlie lines, 
the paper is laid on the stone, drawn through the press, and the impression effected. 
The damping and inking of the stone are renewed for every impression. 

ChathdrofwingB are done on the grained stone with the chemical chalk with the stump 
and scraper, and sharp lines with ink; so that, if boldly and systematically treated, by 
giving the effect first, and detail afterwards, there will be produced richness and soft- 
ness of appearance and freedom of manipulation, and a great many impressions will be 

Tinted drawings, chromchHikograpky, and colored map$req\An as many stones— grained 
or polished, as the case may be-^as there are various tints or colors, one stone bemg 
printed after the otber, and so fitted and blended together as to produce when complete, 
the effect desired. 

Great Britain is famed for writing$, plans, aind drawings^ done with transparent quillB, 
•teel-pens, and small cameUfaair brashes, on ydUm trofufsr-paper, prepared as follows: 1 
part best flake^white, 1 isinglass or gelatiae, with a little gamboge to give it color, are 
dissolved in water over a slow fire, then sifted through double muslin and spread once, 

Digitized by VjiOUV LC 

' f IililioiitripttM* 

m • mrjf icarm 9UUe, with a large, flat cameMuir bruah on tme Bid« of good-sized, 
smooth, thin paper, which, when dry, requires to be passed frequently, over a heated 
stooe, throu^ the press. The paper being drawn or written upon with lithographic 
ink is, when finished, put for a few minuies between damp blotting-paper; a warmed 
stone is put in the press, the sheet is placed with the coated side upon it, and then 
passed several times through the press; the back of the paper, now adhering to thp 
stone, is then sponged with water; the stone Is. turned and passed several times again 
through the press in the opposite direction, after which the slieet is softened with water, 
and rubbed with the fingers until it can be easily removed from the stone. Some gum 
is then put upon it, and a linen rag dipped in printing-iuk, and with the aid of a little 
water, passed in all directions over the lines till they appear black and clean. The stone 
is then allowed to cool, inked up with the roller, then very slightly elohed, and after 
being cleaned is ready for use. 

Autkoffraphp is the name given to a writing or drawing done with the chemical ink on 
one side of any plain — not eoatedr^pAVGr; for example, bankers' circularsr the transfer 
IS done in the same manner as already described, wit)^ the difference that the sheet, when 
laid on the stone, is passed only anee through the press. 

Thinrferring of any writinffs, map$, dramng$ in line or mtmc, done on copper^ steel, and 
pewier-platee, and retransferrinq of any line- work already on the Hone, form an important 
part of Uthographjr, as an unlimited number of impressions can be produced at a very 
moderate expense without wearing out the original plates or stones, and as parts of various 
plates, stones, and letterpress can be transferred to, and printed from, the same stone* 
The best transfer-paper for this purpose is the following: mix 8 parts of shoemakers' 
paste (without alum) with 1 part of best ground plaster of Paris, a little dissolved patent 
elue, and some tepid water; strain the mixture through double muslin in a common 
Jar, and, when cooled, spread it with a large, flat camel-hair brush over half -sized 
thickish paper. The ink for taking transfers is a composition of two table-spoonfuls of 
printing varnish, li parts of tallow, 8 brown hard soap. 4 brown wax, 6 shellac, 5 black 
pitch, and 2^ parts of powered lampblack. The various ingredients are melted for 26 
minutes, and set fire to the mass for other 15 minutes; afterwards formed in sticks. When 
the impressions have been made on this coated paper with this titinsfer-ink, the transfer 
is accomplished on the stone as already described. 

With regard to engraving and etcning on eione, photo-Uthography, the application of 
tHeetrotyping to lithography, the working of the nUing-mac^iine for skies and ornaments, 
the Utnographic steam-press, etc., we must refer the reader to special works on lithog- 
raphy; and see under Photogba.pht. 

It may not \» out of place to mention that in the field of lithography Germany occu- 
pies the nrst place for cartful execution, France for rich and artistic effect, Britain for 
transferring, tint-printing, and ehromo-printing, 

Strixner, Hohe, Hanfstftogl, Rlotv. Loehle, Locillot, Aucr, Leon Noel, MouiUeron, 
Engelmann, Sabatier, Calame, Lasalle, Haglie, Ghlmar, Hullmandcl, Day, Hanhart, 
Bn)oks, Lemercier, may be mentioned, from among many others, who have helped to 
perfect lithography. 

UTHOL'OOT (Whos, a stone) is that division of geology which considers the consti- 
tution and structure of rocks, apart from their relations in time or position to each other. 
See Geology. 

UTH'OKABGS, an earthy mineral, sometimes called mountain marrow (Gtr.Steinmark), 
consisting chiefly of silica and alumina, with oxide of iron and various coloring sub- 
stances. I'i is soft, greasy to the touch, and adheres strongly to the tongue. It is gen- 
erally white, yellow, or red. often exhibiting veir beautiful colors. It is fpund in 
Germany, Russia, etc., also in the tin-mines of Redruth in Cornwall. 

LITHOKTXIF'TXOS (from the Greek words lithos, a stone, and tribo, I wear out) is 
the term which is applied to those remedies which, whether taken by the mouth or 
injected into the bladder, act as solvents for the stone. 

Various medicines have at different times been recommended and employed as sol- 
vents for the stone. Rather more than a century ago, limewater and soap, when swal- 
lowed in sufacicnt quantities, had a hi^h reputation as solvents for urinary calculi. 
These were the only active ingredients in Miss Stephens's Receipt for the Stone and Oravel, 
which was reported on so favorably by a committee of professional men that parliament, 
in 1789. purchased the secret for £5.000. The treatment doubtless afforded relief; but 
there is no evidence that any calculus was actually dissolved, for in the bladder of each 
of the four persons whose cure was certified in the report the stone was found after 
death. At present no substance which, taken by the mouth, has the power of dissolving 
calculi is known ; but as Dr. Prout remarks in his well-known treatise, On the Nature 
and TrecUment of Stomach and Urinary Diseases, remedies of this class are to be sought 
" among harmless and unirritating compounds the elements of which are so associated 
as to act at the same time, with respect to calculous ingredients, l)otli as alkalies and 
acids." Solutions of the supercarbonated alkalies containing a great excess of carlionic 
idd — as, for example, the natural mineral waters of Vichy — approach most nearly to 
what is required. The relief which, in many instances, has followed the admir'""-^^- — 

» rf » Digitized by * ^^ 

jUlllQp1l»i^id». ^g 

by the mouth of substances supposed to be lithontriplics has been derived not from the 
solution of the calculi, but from the diminution of pain and irritation in the bladder. 

On ihe other hand, considerable success has been obtained by the direct Injection of 
solvents Into the bladder, especially when the nature of the calculus Is suspected; Vk-enk 
alkaline solutions have apparently caused the disappearance of uric-acid calctili, while 
phosphatic calculi have unquestionably been dissolved by the injection of vvrj weak 
acid solutions. It is reported that a weak galvanic current has been recently found 
successful in the hands of an Italian surgeon. 

LITHOFHA'OIDX (Gr. stone-eaters), a term sometimes applied to the mollusks which 
bore holes for their own residence in rocks. See PB01.A8. 

IITH'OPHAHE (Gr. phano$, clear, transparent), a peculiar style of ornamental porce- 
lain chiefly adapted to lamps and other transparencies; it consists of pretty pictures 
produced on thin sheets of white porcelain by stamping the porcelain, whilst stni soft, 
with raised plaster-of -Paris casts of the pictures intended to be produced. By thu 
means an intaglio impression is obtained; and when the sheet of porcelain baa been 
hardened by fire, the impression gives a picture, owing to the transparency of the porce- 
lain, whicl^ has the lighta and shadows correctly shown, if viewed by transmitted li^ht. 
Lithophane pictures are common in Germany, where the art has been more favorably 
received than in France, its native country. They are usually employed to form the 
sides of ornamental lamps and lanterns, and are sometimes inserted in decorative 

IITHOT'Omr (Gr. Uthos, a stone; Hkni, the act of cutting), the technical name for 
the surgical operation popularly called cutting for the $Ume. 

As most of the symptoms of stone in the bladder (which are noticed in the article 
Calculub) may be simulated by other diseases of the bladder and adjacent parts, it is 
necessary to have additional evidence regarding the true nature of the case before resort- 
ing to so serious an operation as lithotomy. This evidence is afforded by tounding the 
patient — a simple preliminary operation, which consists in introducing into the bL.dder, 
through the natural urinary passage (the urethra), a metallic instrument, by means of 
which the stone can be plainly felt and heard. 

Lithotomy has been performed in various ways at different times. The earli(*6t form 
of lithotomy is known as cutting on the gripe, or Celsits*s method. It received the former 
name from the stone, after being fixed by the pressure of the fingers in the anus, Iwing 
directly cut upon and extracted; and the latter, from its having been first describedL so 
far as is now known, by Celsus, although it had probably been practiced from time 
immemorial. At a later period this operation received from Marianus the name of the 
apparaius minor (from a knife and hook being the only instruments used), to distinguish 
it from his own method, which he called the apparatus major, from the numerous 
instruments he employed. The Marian method was founded on the erroneous idea tliat 
wounds of membranous parts would not heal, while their dilatation was comparatively 
harmless. The object was to do as little as possible with the knife, and as much as 
possible with dilating instruments; and the necessary result was laceration and such 
other severe injury, tliat this became one of the most fatal operations in surgery. 
Nevertheless, it was the operation mainly in vogue for nearly 2(X) years, till Frdre 
Jaqi^es, in 1697. introduced what is essentially the method now in use. 

The ^-ateral operation, so called from the lateral direction in which the incision is 
made into ihe neck of the bladder, in order to avoid wounding the rectum, is that which, 
with various minor modifications, is almost universally employed at the present day. 
Frdre Jaques, a priest, seems to have learned the method from a provincial surgeon 
named Pierre France, and to have practiced it with much success, and in 1697 he came 
to Paris in order to make it publicly known. The advantage of this operation, by which 
a free opening, sufficiently large for the extraction of a stone, can be made mto the 
bladder without laceration of the parts or injury to the rectum, was immediately recog- 
nized by the leading surgeons of the time, ana the Marian process was at once univer- 
sallygiven up. 

We can only very briefly indicate the leading steps of the operation. The patient 
being laid on the table, and chloroform being administered, an instrument termed a 
curved staff, with a deep ^oove, is passed into the bladder. An incision is then made 
on the left side of the mesial line, about an inch and three-quarters in front of the anus, 
and extending downwards to midway between the anus and the tuberosity of the left 
ischium. The incision should be sufficiently deep for the operator, on introducing a 
finger of the left hand, to feel the groove of the staff. The knife, directed by this 
finger, is now fixed in the groove, and sliding along it towards the bladder, divides the 
membranous portion of the urethra, the edge of the prostate, and the neck of the 
bladder. The knife is now withdrawn, as also is the staff, and the surgeon introduces 
the forceps over the finger of the left hand into the bladder, feels for the stone, and 
draws it out. 

It is unnecessary to enter into any of the details of the after-treatment. At first the 
urine escapes through the wound, but in favorable cases it is voided by the natural pas- 
■age in a week, and the wound heals in the course of a month. 

From tiie shortness of the female urethra and the ext^ti|9^^^]4c|i|Ju^^ dilated. 

^Q IJthopluMrldi*. 

and, additiomlly, from the comparative rarity of calculous affections in women, the 
operation of Kthotomy is ezclusivdy restricted to the male sex. 

The danger of the operation seems to vary with the a^ of the patient Out of 186 
cases oollected by Mr. Hutchinson of the Liondon hospital, 187 were under the age of 
SO, and of these, 123, or nearly 00 per cent, recovered; while of the 49 who were over 
20 years of age, 26, or more than 58 per cent, died. 

UTHOT'BITT (Gr. stone-crusbing), the surgical operation of breaking up a stone in 
the bladder into such small fragments that they may readily be expelled by the urethra. 
Although the importance of such an operation has been recognized from the earliest 
time, a French surgeon, Civiale, who commenced his researches in 1817, but did not 
perform his first operation till the beginning of 1834, is entitled to be regarded as the 
discoverer of lithotrity. The instrument by which the disinteffration of the stone is 
effected is introduced in the same manner as a catheter or souna into the bladder, and, 
after catchins the stone, either bores, hammers, or crushes it to pieces. 

Crushing is now generally preferred, the stone being grasped by the blades of the 
instrument, one bhufe acting on the other by means of a screw. 

The process seems, at first sight, so safe, as compared with the operation of lithot- 
omy, that it is necessary to distinguish those cases in which it may be resorted to and 
thoae in which it la contra-indicated. It may be raorted to when the patient is an adult, 
and the urethra full-sized and healthy, so as freely to admit the passage of the instru- 
ment; when the prostate is not much enlarged, which is verv often the case in old men, 
and when the bladder is not thickened or very Irritable: while it must be avoided in 
children, in consequence of the smalhiess of the urethra; when there is great irritation 
and thickening of the bladder; when there is mat enlargement of the prostate, which 
hinders the manipulation of the instrument and the escape ot the broken fragments of stone ; 
when the stone is of larse size, as, for example, of a greater diameter than 3 in. ; and 
when there is reason to helieve that the concretion is a mulberry calculus, which, from 
its extreme hardness, cannot readily be broken. Great care must be taken that no frag- 
ment remains in the bladder, as such f n^ments are almost sure to form the nuclei of 
fresh calculi. 

LITHVA'VIA, a former grand-duchy, holding of the crown of Poland, which, before 
the partitions of that country, was composed of three groups of territory: 1. Lithuania 
proper, or Litiva, which formed the governments of Wilnaand Troki; 2. The duchy of 
Bamc^tia; 8. Russian Lithuania, comprisins; Polesie, Black Russia or Novogrodek, 
White Russia or Minsk, Meislav, Witeosk, Smolensk, Polotsk, and Polish Livonia. 
This country contained about 185,000 English sq.m., and was partitioned between 
Russia and Prtwsia, the latter receiving what is now denominated the government of 
Gumbinnen, in e. Prussia. The Lithuanians, a race to whom belong the Letts of 
Livonia, the Cours of Courland, and the ancient inhabitants of e. Prussia, are probably 
a Slavonic people,- whose original characteristics have been much modified by time ana 
the intermixture of other races. According to Latham, the Lithnaniau language 
approaches nearer to the Sanskrit than any other member of the Aryan group. 

Lithuania was at first suoject to Russia, bu* shook off the yoke about the end of the 
12th c. and became an independent power. Their rulers, who bore the title of grand- 
duke, conquered the neighboring Russian provinces, and even carried their ravages to 
the very gates of Moscow. The grand-duke of Lithuania, Jagellon, was in 1886 elected 
king oirolsaid, and issued an edict of union between the two countries, and in 1669 the 
two were declared to be one country. 

LITIZ, a borough of Lancaster co., Penn., on the Reading and CJolumbia railroad, 20 
m. S.W. of Reading. It has 8 churches; Linden hall, a well-known Moravian school for 
girls; a bank; a newspaper; and manufactures of beer, flour, coaches, machinery, cigars, 
etc. The town is an ancient settlement of the Moravians, who are still the chief ele- 
ment in its population and social life. 

LiraXTS is a well-known coloring matter which is obtained from several lichens, but 
chiefly from lecariara iarta/rea. The lichens are powdered and digested with ammoni- 
acal fluids (urine, for example) till they underfi^o decomposition. Alum, potash, and 
lime are then added, and the mixture is allowed to stand till the maximum degree of 
color is observed. Sand and chalk are added, to give a due degree of solidity, and the 
mass is then dried in cubes, and is ready for the market. The exact nature of the changes 
which ensue is not altogether known ; it is, however, certain that the pigment is origi- 
nally red, and that it only becomes blue on the addition of alkalies or of lime. This 
blue color is again changed into a red on the addition of a free acid. 

The use of litmus-paper and tincture of litmus for the purpose of detecting the 
acidity of fluids, etc., is known to every student of chemistry. See Test-Paperb. 

LITTA, PoMPBO, Count; 1781-1852; b. Italy; in early life an officer in the French 
army, and participant in the battles of Ulm. Austerlitz, and Wagram. In the revolu- 
tionary epoch of 1848 in Italy he was for a short time secretary of war of the provi- 
sional government. His tame, however, rests on the authorship of a superb work on the 
celebrated families of Italy— Fam^^ie eddyri d*ItaUa^yf\i\c\i is commended equally for 
the fuUnesB and accuracy of its biographies, the beauty of its t^gr^ph^^^j^^e- 

LlitolL Qf) 

lattorale. ^V 

ffance of its style. Its first publication was by subscription in 1819. At the time of 
his deatli it embraced the history of 118 families. Others have been added aiooe by 
Oderici and PasserinL 

LITTELL, Eliakim; 1T97-1870; b. Burlington. N. J. ; in 1819 began to publish and 
edit at Philadelphia the Naiitmal Recorder, afterwards the Saturday MaffaHne, In 1829 
he established the Mwieum of Foreign LiUrature, and in 1844 founded LUtOPs Living 
Age in Boston, a periodical which is still continued, and greatly valued forHeJadicious 
selections from the current periodical literature of Europe. He drew up the Clay com- 
promise tariff of 1838. Died in Brooklinc, Mass. 

LITTLE, Gborob; 1754-1809; b. Marshfleld, Mass.; was commander of tlie armed 
yessel, Tfte Boiton, belondns' to Massachusetts at the beginning of the Tevolutionary 
war; was first lieut. on ne l*roteetor in 1779, when it was captured by a Britiah frigate, 
and he was taken toEnelandas a prisoner; having made his escape, he subsequentiy took 
command of the sloop Winthrop and cruised successfully till the end of the war; com- 
manded the national frigate BoHon in 1798; was made capt. of the navy in 1799; retired 
to his farm in Weymouth in 1801, and lived there until his death. He wrote The Ameri- 
can Cruiser and Life on the Ocean, 

LITTLE CHRISTIANS, a new sect formed in 1868 by members of the Bu8ao*Greek 
church living at Atkarsk in the province of Saratoff , Russia. There were at first but 16 
members. They claim that Chnst commanded them to form the new church. Before 
doing it they were immersed, and fasted, and changed their names. They condemned 
worship of saints and altar*pieces as idolatrous, and abandoned the use of bread and wine 
in the Lord's supper. Dixon in his Free Russia says: " They have no priests, and bardlr 
any form of prayer. They keep no images, use no wafers and make no sacred oil. 
Instead of the consecrated bread, they bake a cake, which they afterwards worship, as 
a special gift from God. This cake is like a penny bun in shape and size, but in the 
minds of these LiUle ChriaUans it possesses a potent virtue and a mvstic charm." They 
gave themselves the name they bear. They have been persecutecf by the government, 
but have increased in numbers. 

LITTLEDALE, Richard Frederick, b. Dublin, 1888; graduated In Trinity college, 
Dublin, 1854; was ordained in the church of England, 1856; and after a few years of 
parochial service in London, devoted himself to authorship on ecclesiastical questions, 
making a special studv of liturgies and of the relations between the national church and 
dissenting bodies. He is author of Platosophy of Revivals ; Officee of the IMy Sastem 
Church; CatMic Ritual in th^ Church of England; and many other works. 

LITTLE FALLS, a village of New York, on the Mohawk river, 91 m. n.w. of Albany, 
on the line of the Erie canal, and New York Central railroad. The Mohawk here 
passes through a romantic defile of 2 m. in length, with falls of id ft., givine water- 
power to several papcr-mills, woolen factories, flou ring-mi I Is, etc. The village has 
numerous churches, a bank, newspapers, and manufactures of starch, shoes, etc. Pop. 
in. 70, 5.387. 

LITTLE FALLS (anU\ a t. and village of Herkimer co., K. Y., on the Mohawk 
river the Erie canal, and the New York Central railroad, 78 m. w.n.w. of Albany. Pop. 
of the town, '80. 6,911. The river here passes through a narrow gorge, and has a fall 
of more than 40 ft. in three-fourths of a mile, affording abundant water-power. The 
Erie canal passes by a deep cut 2 m. long in solid rock, presenting a most picturesque 
appearance, and the feeder crosses the river by an aqueduct with an arch of 70 ft. span. 
Many of the dwellings in the village stand upon steep declivities, commanding views 
of attractive scenery. The place contains 8 churches, a bank, 2 newspapers, an academi^, 
and manufactories of cotton, paper, starch, axes, woolens, boots and shoes, etc. It is 
also the center of a considerable trade in cheese. 

LITTLE HUMBOLDT RIVER, in Humboldt co., Nev. ; a tributaiy of the Humboldt 
river from the n.w., flowing from an elevation of 4,500 ft., through the fertile Paradise 
valley, where large areas of excellent bench-land and bottom-land are subject to easy 
irrigation from it. It is about 250 m. by sea n. from San Francisco. 

LITTLEJOHN, Abram Nbwkirk, d.d., i.l.d., b. N. Y., 1824; graduated at Union 
colle/^e in 1845; ordained deacon in the Protestant Episcopal church in 1848; admitted 
to priest's orders in 1849; was rector of Christ church, Springfield, Mass., in 1860. of St. 
Paul's church in New Haven 1851-60, and of the Holy Trinity church in Brooklyn 
1860-09. He declined the offer of the presidency of Hobart college in 1858, and the 
appointment as bishop of central New York in 18o8. In 1868 Long Island was made a 
separate diocese, and Dr. Littlejohn was elected its bishop and consecrated in 1869. He 
was appointed by the presiding bishop in 1874 to take charp) of the American Episcopal 
church in Europe. His contributions to periodicals, especially the Church Review, have 
been numerous. In 1854 he delivered a course of lectures on the PliHoeophyof Religion 
in Philadelphia. He has published also sermons, charges, and addressee His diocesan 
administration has shown high executive ability. 

LITTLE KANAWHA RIVER, of western Virffinia; a tiibutary of the Ohio river, 
emptying at Parkersburg, and having its source in Upshur county. It u in the coal-oil 

Q1 UtUlL 

^^ I.lttoi«l«. 

dstrict, and for the transportntion of oil Bnd other commodities, slack-water navigation 
htf been created up tbe river 38 m. to Burning Springs by means of three dams and 
heki. It flows through a hilly country well suited to sheep growing, and is bordered by 
lich bottom-lands. Logs for lumber were formerly the principal product of its region. 

LriTLE RIVER, a co. of s.w. Arkansas, bordering upon Texas and tbe Indian terri- 
toi7,iod lying between Little and Red rivers; 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 6,404, of whom 
8.343 are colored. It has a diverftified surface and a fertile soil. Cotton, corn, and pork 
are staple products. Valuation of real and personal property, $1,289,241. Capital, 

IITTIX BOCX, the capital of Arkansas, is^tuated on the s. bank 6f the Arkansas 
rirer, 900 m. from its mouth, on the first bed of rocks bounding the alluvial valley of 
(be MiasiasjppL It contains the state ca^tol, an arsenal, penitentiary, and the- usual 
Dumber of churehea Founded in 1820. Pop. in '70, 12,880. 

LITTLE ROCK (ante), capital and chief city of Arkansas; pop. '80, 18,185; so 
Darned in antithesis to Big Rock, an elevation on the opposite side of the Arkansas river, 
Dearly 500 ft in height; that on which the dty stands being not more than 40 or 50 ft. 
aborethe shore. It is haodsomely laid out, with broad streets; the business blocks of 
brick, and the residences surrounded by ornamental ^rdens and shade-! rees; reached by 
the Little Rock and Fort Bcott, the Memphis and Little Rock, and the St. Louis, Iron 
KouDtain and Southern railroads. The state-house and 8t. John*s college are prom- 
inent pablic buildings; and there are a U. B. arsenal and land-office, state penitentiary, 
iDd state institutions for deaf mutes and for the blind. Steamers on the Arkansas river 
touch at Little Rock, and it is a considerable commercial center. The city is considered 
remarkably healthful. 

LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR, a Roman Catholic sisterhood originated by 
H. Le Pailleur at St. Servan. France, in 1840. Their function is to care for the poor and 
old. They have several houses in the United States. 

LITTLETON, an agricultural and* manufacturing t. of Grafton co., K. II., on Am- 
moooosuc river and the Boston, Concord and Montreal railroad. As it is but 28 m. 
from Mt Washington, it is also a summer resort. It is well supplied with hotels, banks, 
cliurcbes, and schools; and has a newspaper, a woolen mill, and several factories, the 
mking of stereoscopic views being a specialty. Pop. 2,446. 

LriTLETON, Adam, d.d., 1627-4Mr; b. at Hales-Owen. Shropshire, Eng.; educated 
at Christ <:hurch, Oxford, where he took a higii rank in the classics; was successively 
lector of Chelsea, chaplain to king Charles II., and in 1674 prebendaiy of Westminster. 
Hevasadtstlngaished oriental scholar, and made a collection of rare books and man- 
Qscripts so ItLVge that it brought him to bankruptcy. He wrote much on recondite sub- 
jects and pumuhed a number of sermons; but his principal work was the IHetionary of 
tk Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Englitih Languoffea, of which several editions were pub- 
iished. He was a descendant of sir Thomas Littleton. Died at Chelsea. 

IITTIETOir, or XYTTXETOHf Sir Thomas, a celebrated English jurist, was b. early 
ia tbe 15th c. (the exact year is not known), studied— it is thought probab1e~at Cam- 
bndge, after which he removed to the inner temple. Henry VI. appointed him steward 
or judge of the court of the palace, and in 1465 king's sergeant, in which capacity he 
traveled the northern circuit. In 1466 he wns made one of the judges of the court of 
common pleas; and in 1475 he was created knight of the bnth. He died Aug. 23, 1481. 
Litilelon's fame rests on his work on Tenures, which was originally written iu Norman- 
French, and first published about the time of his death. It went through a multitude of 
eiiiiion;;. The first translation into Enorlish was made in 1539, and in the course of tiie 
next 100 years it went through no loss tlian 24 editions. The chaogus in the laws relative 
to property have greatly diminished its value, and it is now little studied by lawyers; yet 
it is considered a model from the clear and logical manner in which the subject is 

LITTLE TURTLE, d. 1812; an Indian chief of the Miami nation, distinguished for 
Lis intelligence, shrewdness, and courage; date of birth unknown. He commaodcd iu 
the battles which resulted in the defeat of gen. Harmar on the Miami in 1790, and of 
m. St Clair at St Mary's iu 1791; was present, though not in command, at the battle of 
jbumee Rapids in 179C when the Indians were defeated by gen. Wayne; was one of the 
Mgnera of the treaty of Greenville in 1795, which closed tlie war and secured to the 
whites large tracts of land in Ohio. In 1797 he visited pres. Washington in Philadelphia, 
ca ^hich occasion he had an interview with Volney, the French philosopher, and 
received from Eosiusco a pair of pistols, elegantly mounted. Died at Fort Wayne. 

LITTLE VALLEY, a t. in Cattaraugus co., N. Y. ; pop. 70, 1108; situated on the 
Erie railroad, and near the Alleghany river. The leading business interest is farming 
uid dairying, though there are also steam mills, stores, ivnd a generally active condition 

LITTORA'LE, of Litoralk, a province of the Anstro-Hungarian monarchy, sit- 
latcd on the n. shores of the Adriatic sea, and including the neighboring islands. It 
comprises the counties of G5rz and Gradisca, the margraviate of Istria. ana ^J4ft4|^9|- 
U. E. IX — 6 ^ 

of Trieste; 8,085 sq.m ; pop. 600,525. In former times the name was appfied to Vvv 
strips of land on the n. shores of the Adriatic, the eastern one of which has figared i 
Hungarian history. It was once a part of the Croatian military territory, was made 
civil district of Hungary by Maria Theresa, formed a part of the French province c 
lUyria under Napoleon, was recovered by Austria in 1814, reannexed to Hungary in 1821 
occupied by Croatia in 1848, and attached to that province by Francis Joseph in 184f 
The principal towns of the province are Buccari and Porto Re. 

LITTB^, MAitDCiUEN Paul Emilb, a French journalist and philologist, member c 
the academy, was b. in Paris, Feb. 1, 1801. He distinguished himself in his studies 
uid obtained vtCrious honors at the grand competition. He began the study of medicine 
and pursued it so far with distinction ; he did not, however, take the degree of doctor, nc 
enter on practice, but gave himself up to researches in philology, mastering the piincipi 
ancient and modem languages, and in the history of medicine. At the same Ume tha 
Littr6 took an active part in editing various journals and literary coUectinoa, he prepare 
an edition and translation of the works of Hippocrates ((Ehii>re8 ^Hippoerate, 1889-61 
10 vols. 8vo), a publication wliich immediately opened for him the doors of the academ 
of inscriptions (Feb., 1889). 

Littre, who held democratic opinions, and had distinguished himself among the codb 
batants of July, became afterwards connected with the National, and was one of th 
principal editors of it till 1851. When M. Auguste Comte's new philosophical and socin 
doctrine appeared under the name of positive philosophy, Littre, attracted 1^ the sciei] 
tiflc character of the doctrine, took it up with great ardor, and in 1845 wrote a \\xch 
and clever summary of it (De la PhUosopkU Positive), and afterwards defended it in pais 

ghlets and in journal articles. He looked upon the revolution of 1848 as the advent o 
is opinions; but soon undeceived, he retired from active politics in Oct., 1848, resign idj 
even nis office of municipal councilor of the city of Paris. He had ere this declined thi 
decoration of the legion of honor. Returning to a life of study Littr§ continued hi 
researches in medicine, at the same time working ardentlv at the history of the Frencl 
language. Already master of the old forms of (he French language, he published in thi 
Bemie ae$ De^tx Mondes^Xjor^hich. he has contributed at different times several paper 
equallv ingenious and learned — an article called, The Homeric Poetry and the Ancien 
French Poetry {La Poem Homeriqus et VAndenne Poesie Franpaise, July 1, 1847), whicl 
attracted greaX attention. In it he attempted the translation of the nrst book of th^ 
lUad in the style of the Trouvdres. The academy of inscriptions chose him, in plao 
of Fauriel (1844), to be one of the commission charged with continuing JJH%tsbokre IMU 
raire de France (The Literary History of France), and he is one of the authors of vols 
xzi., zxii., zziii. In 1854 he was appointed editor of the Journal dee Sacante, and h( 
has since contributed manv articles to that collection. Littr6'8 principal work is hi 
Dietiannaire de la Langue iran^aiee, containing, in addition to the usual information ii 
French dictionaries, examples of the several meanings of the words, with exact reference 
to the classical works from which they are taken, besides the history of the usage of eacl 
word in documents anterior to the 17th centurv. Not onlv are all questions of ^nimai 
and lezicography (including etymology — ^a subject in which French dictionaries hav< 
hitherto been singularly deficient) fully discussed, but historical allusions are explained 
and numerous details given regarding the arts and sciences, rendering the work a kinc 
of cyclopedia. In preparation for manv years, it began to appear in 1868, and was com 
pleted in 1873. This splendid work, which .is the real theeaurus of the French language 
so long a desideratum, did not prevent the French academy in 1868 from rejecting tn< 
author, whom M. Dupanloup denounced publicly as holding immoral and impious doc 
trines. Littr6 has also published an excellent French translation of Strauss's Ufe oj 
Jesus (1839-40, 2d ed. 1855); and a translation of Pliny's Natural History. In 1882 b< 
published a paper on cholera. As editor or coUaborateur, Littr^ was connected with thi 
JHetionnaire de Medecine, the Gazette Medieale de Paris, and the surgical journal called 
L' Experience. We may also notice from his pen — Histoire de la Langue Fran^ise (1862, 
2 vols. 8vo); Paroles de PhilosopMe Posiiiw (1859) ; Auguste ConUe et la Philtmphie PosMti 
(1863); and Auguste Comte et Stuart Mill (1866). He published in 1867 the (Euvres Com 
pUtes dArmund Carrel. In 1870 he contributed to the BemLe Positimste an article Da 
Origines organ iques de la Morale, which attracted great notice, and furnished with new 
argument the Catholic theologians, who accused him of atheism. Three months before, 
Littre had opposed the publication of M. Comte's later works as being unworthy of him, 
Just before the siege of Paris, Littre*s friends compelled him to ouit the capital. In 
Jan., 1871, M. Gambetta appointed Littre professor of historjr and geography at the 
ecolc polytechnique. Next month he was chosen representative of uie Seme depart- 
ment m the national assembly, where he sat with the party of the left. At Its sitting of 
Dec. 30, 1871, the French academy at last admitted him to membership, choosing; him to 
fill the place of M. Villemain. On this occasion, M. Dupanloup, bishop of Orleans, 
thought fit to resign his connection with the academy. In 1875 he was made a doctor 
of literature by Leyden universitv. and member of the Austrian academy. Mededne et 
Mededns was published by Littre in 1872. 

LIT'TROW, Joseph Johann von, 1781-1840; b. Bohemia. First a professor of 
astronomy at Cracow; afterwards at the university of Kazan, in the city of the same 

CO Uttr0* 

OO Utiurgy* 

Bflme, 490 m. e. of Mobcow. In the later years of his life he became professor of astron- 
omy in the university of Vienna, and director of the observatory, in the management of 
whicb he became eminent. His lectures were extremely popular. His published works 
are: Die Wunder d6$ JSiwmeU, which has passed through several editions; Theoretuche 
nnd praciuehe Atdromomie; and AiUu des gesUmten HimmeU, Died in Vienna. 

UT1FB0Y (Gr. leUaurgia, a public service), in general, si^ifies a form of prajrer and • 
ceremonial established by ecclesiastical authority, to be used in the public services of 
the church, but is especially applied to that usea in the celebration and administration 
of tbe eucharist The very earliest historical records of Christianity plainly show that 
such forms were in use in the primitive times, but it seems highly probable that for a 
coasiderable period they were not reduced to writing; and hence even those of the 
extant liturgies which represent the earliest forms differ considerably from each other, 
if not in the substance of the rite, at least in the arraneement even of those parts which 
are common to them all. A theological discussion of the subleet of the liturgy, though, 
of course, most important in a doctrinal point of view, and most interesting for the 
study of Christian antiquities, would be out of place in a popular cyclopaeaia. The 
liturgies form the great stronghold of the Catholic controversialists on the subject of the 
real presence and of the eucharistic sacrifice; but we must confine ourselves to a brief 
historical account of Uie various liturgies now eztant, and of their connection with the 
Tarious ancient Christian communities, whether of the east or of the west. Liturgies 
may, indeed, best be distributed into two classes, those of the east, and those of the 

1. Oriental IMurgiM, — The oriental liturgies are six in number, four of which are 
derived from the ffreat churches in which they were used ; the fifth from the Armenian 
church, which eany formed a distinct liturgy ; and the sixth from the great Syrian sect 
of Kestorius, by which the liturgv was modified to suit its own peculiar tenets. These 
liturgies are severally known as the liturgies of Jerusalem, of Antioch, of Alexandria, 
and of Constantinople, the Armenian, liturjgy, and the Kestorian liturgy. The diversi- 
ties of these liturgies, although very great in appearance, vet can hardly be said to be 
substantial. Certain leading; parts tCre conunon to them all, and are found in all without 
substantial variation; but they are arranged in a different order, and. except in the 
form of the eucharistic consecration, the hymn Trisagion, and a few other details, the 
form of words is often entirely dissimilar. The liturgy of Jerusalem, although ascribed 
to St. James, is of uncertain origin and date; nor is it well ascertained whether its origi- 
nal language was Syriac or Greek. The latter is the language in which it is now found, 
and the present liturgy closely corresponds in the main with that v^ich formed the text 
of St. Cyril of Jerusalem in his well-known mystagogical lectures. The liturgy of 
Antioch exists in Syriac, but it is evidently only a free translation of the liturgy of 
Jerusalem. The ancient liturgy of Alexandria is ascribed to St. Hark; but the existing 
liturgy has received numberless additions at later dates, and has been modified \)j both 
the great sects of this patriarchate to suit their peculiar doctrines. Several other litur- 
gies are in use among the Copts, under the Qame of St. Basil, St Gregory, and St. Cyril; 
and the Abyssinian Christians have no fewer than ten, which are distmct, at least in 
name. The church of Constantinople has two different liturgies, both of great antiq- 
uity, that of St. Basil and that of St. Chrysostom. These, however, are not indiscrimi- 
nately used, each being emplo^red on social occasions or on certain defined festivals. 
The liturgy of Constantinople is the original of the Slavonic liturgy, which is used in 
the Russian and Russo-Greek church, and in its various branches. The Armenian lit- 
MTfj dates from the introduction of Christianity into Armenia under Gregory the illu- 
mmator. It is in most respects derived from that of St. Chrysostom. The Nestorians 
have three liturgies— the liturgy of the apostles, the liturgy of Theodore of Mopsues- 
tia, and the liturgy of Nestonus. These, however, are all combined into one, each 
being assigned to a particular season, or used on special occasions. The language of 
all is Syriac. 

2. Western lAturgiee,— The liturgies of the west present much less variety, and indeed 
are all derived either from the eastern liturgies or from a common source. The Catholic 
liturgies may be reduced to four— the Roman, the Milanese or Ambrosian, the Gothic or 
Mozarabic, and the Gallic liturgies. The oldest forms of the Roman liturgy are to be 
found in three so-called sacramentaries — that of Leo, that of Gelasius, and that of 
Gregory the great It is the last that has left its impress most clearly on the modern 
Roman missal, which was brought to its present shape by a commission ordered by the 
council of Trent, after a careful revision and collation of all the liturgical forms in use 
in the west in the 16th century. The first revision look place under Pius V., and two 
subsequent revisiofis were niade by Urban VIII. and Clement VIII. The Ambrosian 
liturgy is used only in the diocese or Milan, and is popularly traced to St Ambrose. It 
bears a close analogy to the Roman liturgy, but it has many peculiarities, some of which 
are highly interesting, as illustrating the history of the details of Christian worship. Its 
ceremonial, which .is observed with great solemnity in the cathedral of Milan, is in some 
parts highly striking and characteristic. The Gothic or Mozarabic is of still more 
limited use, being now confined to a single chapel at Toledo, founded and endowed for 
the purpose by tbe celebrated cardinal Ximincs. It is the old liturgy of the Gothic 

church of Spain ; and after the infusion of the Arabic element, which followed the 
Mourisli invasion, it was calYeii by the name of Mozarabic, a word of dii^puted etymol- 
ogy. This liturgy is certainly of oriental origin; but its history, and the time and cir- 
cumstances of its introduction into Spain, have furnished matter for much speculation. 
Some parts of the rite are exceedingly curious, especially those whicli accompany the 
breaking of the host. The Galilean liturgy has no precise modern representative, 
and is only known from ancient forms, more or less complete, which have been edited 
by Mabillou, and recently by Mone. The older Gallicau forms bespeak an oriental ori- 
gin, and are probably derived from the Greek Christian colony whicli settled at Mar- 
.^eilles, Lyons, and the other churches of the south. The later forms approximate more 
to liic Roman. Neither of these, however, is to be confounded with tlie more modem 
missals in use in several of the French dioceses, which do not differ from the Roman 
except in minor details, and most of which have now l)een displaced by the Roman 
missal. Of Protestant communities, the Anglican church alone professes to follow the 
ancient liturgical forms (see Common Prayer, Book of). See Rcnaudot's Orien- 
taliuin Liturgiarum CoUectio, 1740, 2 vols. ; A^^semanni's ^Bibliothcea OrienUtlis; Palmer's 
Antiquities of tlie English Liturgy; B interim's DenktcHrdigkeiten der Christ^Katlu/luchen 

XITTTEGT, Jewish, in the narrower sense of a ritual of fixed prayers, chiefly for pub- 
lic worship. The Mosaic records contain an ordinance respecting the "confession of 
sins" (Lev. v. 5; xvi. 21), without, however, prescribing a distinct form for the purpose. 
Three formulas only are fixed — the benediction of the priests (Nnm. vi. 24r>26), the 
praver of tlianksgiving on the occasion of the first offering (Deut. xxvi. 5-10), and that 
which was to accompany the offering up of the third year's tithe, beginning: "Ihave 
brought away the hallowed things out of my house" (ib. 13-15). Although prayers are 
often mentioned before the exile, yet they do not seem, except in the cases mentioned, 
to liave been introduced as yet as a regular element into the service of the temple. The 
songs of the Levites (1 Chr. xvi. 4; xxiii. 8), and occasional prayera, such as are to be 
found in the Psalms, or like that of Solomon at the inauguration of the temple, are all 
we find recorded. Private devotions w^ere common (cf. 1 Kings, viii. 80, etc. ; Is. i. 15), 
but cveiy one prayed when his heart prompted him in the words inspired by his joy or 
sorrow. Not before the time of Daniel is a fixed institution of three daily praj-ers men- 
tioned (Dan. vi. 11). The task of compiling a liturgy proper, and of fixing the times 
and seasons of prayer, was probably first undertaken by the men of the great synago^e. 
Two chief groups around which, as time wore on, nn enormous mai« of liturgical 
poetry has cluMere^, are distinctly discernible— the one, the Shnnah ("Hear, Israel," 
etc.). being a collection of the three biblical pieces (Deut. vi. 4-9; xi. 13-21; Num. xv. 
37-41), exi)res8ive of the unity of God and the memory of his government over Israel, 
strung together without any extraneous addition ; the second, tlie TeftUah, or prayer, by 
way of eminence (adopted into Islam as Salavat, Sur. ii. 40; cf. v. 15). consisting of a 
certain numb( r of supplications with a hymnal introduction and conclusion, and fol- 
lowed by the priestly blessing. The single portions of this prayer gradually Increased 
to 18, and the prayer itself received the name Shtmonah Eme (eighteen). The first 
additions to the Shemah formed the introductory thanksgiving for the renewed day, in 
accordance with the ordinance that every supplication must Iw precetled by a prayer of 
thanks, called t/^^rfr (Creator of light, etc), to which were joinea the three holiea {Ofan), 
and the supplication for spiritual enlightening in the divine law {Ahaba). Between the 
Sliemah and the Teflllah was inserted the Qevlah (liberation), or praise for the miracu- 
lous deliverance from Egypt and the constant watchings of Providence. A Kaddifih 
(sanctitication), and certain psalms, seem to have concluded the service of that period. 
This was the order of the ahaharith, or morning prayer; and very similar to this was 
the Maarlb, or evening prayer; while in the Minna, or afternoon praver, the Shemah 
was omitted. On new moons. Sabbath and feast days, the general order was the same 
as on week days; but since the festive joy was to overrule all individual sorrow and 
supplication, the intermediate portion of the Tefillah was changed according to the 
special significance and the memories of the day of the solemnity, and additional prayers 
were introducbd for these extraordinary occasions, corresponding to the additional 
sacrifice in the temple, and varying according to the special solemnity of the day {Mfin- 
mf, J^'cilah, etc.). The first compilation of a liturgy is recorded of Amram Gaon (870- 
80 A.D.); the first that has survived, is that of Saadja Gaon (d. 942 a.d.). These early 
collections of prayers generally contained also compositions from the hand of the com- 
piler, and minor additions, such as ethical tracts, almanacs, etc., and were called JSid- 
durim (orders, rituals), embrMciug the whole calendar year, week-days and new moons, 
fasts and festivals. Later, the term was restricted to the week-day ritual, that for the 
festivals being called Machmr (c^'cle). Besides these, wc find the Selichoth, or peniten- 
tial prayers; Kinoth, or elegies; Hoshanahs, or hosannahs (for the seventh day of the 
feast of tabernacles); and BakanJiotk, or special supplications, chiefly for pi-ivate devo- 

The public prayers were for a long time only said by the public reader (Gliasan, 
Sheliach Zihbur), the people joining in silent responses and nmens. These readers by 
degrees— chiefly from the 10th c— introduced occasional_ji^f[^^^ {Pivtim) of their own, 

85 litarcyw 

oTeraod above those lued of yore.' The materials were taken from Halacba (q t.) as 
well as from Hagg8da(q.v.); rengious doctrine, history^ saga, aiigelology, and mysticism, 
iDierspersed with biblical verses, are thus fouDd put together like a mosaic of the most 
origiual and fautasiic, often gmiHi and brilliant, and often obscure and feeble kind; and 
the pure Hebrew in many cases made room for a corrupt Chaldee. We can only point 
out be re tlie two chief groups of religious poetry— viz., the Arabic on the one, and the 
Fiench-GterDiau school on the other hand. Tiie most eminent representative of the 
Fsjtanic age (endins c. 1100) is Eleazer Biribi Kalir. Among tlie must celebrated poets 
in Ilia mauner are Meshulam b. Kalonymos of Luccss Solomon b. Jehuda of Babylon, 
K Qeraon, Elia b. Menahem of Mans, Benjamin b. 8erach, Jacob Zom £lem, Dliezer b. 
Samuel, Kalonymos b. Moses, Solomon Isaaki. Of exclusively Spanish poets of this 
period the nioet brilliant are— Jehuda Halevi, Solomon ben Oabirol, Josef ibn Abitur, 
Isaac ilm Giat, Abraham ibn Esra, Mose b. Nachman, etc. When; however, in the 
beginning of the ISth c, secret doctrine and philosophy, casuistiy and dialectics, 
became the paramount study, tbe cultivation of the Pint became neglected, and but few, 
and fur the most part insignificant, are the writers of litui^cal pieces from this time 

According to the different countries, the order and even the contents of the cycle 
differed, since not all liturgical pieces had been incorporated uniformlv. We have 
thus— to name a few out of many — the rituals of Germany (Poland), of I*rance, Spam, 
and Portugal (Sefkrdim), Italy (Rome), the Levant (Komagna), and even of some special 
towns like Avignon, Carpentras, Montpellier. Tbe rituals of Barbary (Algiers, Tripoli, 
Oran, Moroooo, etc.) are of Spanisli origin. The Judeeo-Chinese liturey, it may be 
observed by tlie way. consists only of pieces from the Bible. Tbe Jewish liturgy has, 
ia its various forms, very frequently been commented upon, and has been translated into 
nearly every modern language. 

We may add, in conclusion, that liturgy forms at this moment the center of a great 
contest ¥#Uiin the pale of Judaism. The "reformers " of more or less advanced tend- 
encies are intent upon shortening the pmyers, and principally upon abrogating the 
greater part of the Pint, as an aititicial excrescence hurtful to true aevotion. 

LITURQY {ant^, I. In the modem church of Home several books are Sn use, some 
of them by the members generally, others restricted to particular ranks and orders. 
1. Ike Breviarp contains the daily service of the church of Rome, consistine of the 
matins and lauds, with variations for different davs and canonical hours. "R may be 
employed in all places, but on the model of it other books have been formed for the 
special use of thie Benedictine, Carthusian, Dominican, Franciscan, Jesuit, and other 
orders. At first it contained only the Lord's prayer and portions of the Psalms, to 
wbich Scripture lessons were afterwards added. In ages called, according to the point 
of view from which Judgment is formed, ages of superstition or ages of faith, legendary 
lives of the saints were inserted, which led to a frequent revision and correction of the 
breviary, particularly by the councils of Trent and Cologne, by popes Gregory IX., Nicolas 
HI., Pius v., Clement VIII., and Urban VIII., and cardinal Quignon, by whom it was 
brought Bearer to the simplicity of primitive times. At present it consists of services for 
seven hours, to correspond with David*s declaration, ' * Seven times a day do I praise thee.*' * 
The obligation to read this book every day, at first imposed on all, was gradually 
restricted to the beneficiary clergy, who, if the3r neglect the duty, incur the guilt of mortal 
sin, and forfeit a part of their revenues proportion^ to their delinquencies. It is recited 
in Latin in Roman Catholic churches everywhere, except among the Syrian Maronites, the 
Armenians, and other oriental churches who, submitting to the pope's jurisdiction in 
other respects, are allowed to use the service in their own language (see Eastekn. 
OR ORncMTAL RiTE). 2. The Missal, used in celebrating the mass and ascribed by 
Roman Catholic tradition to the apostle Peter. The canon of the mass, first reduced to 
writing in the 6th c, was afterwards enlarged, especially by Gregory the ^at. It is 
in general use throughout the Roman Catholic church. 3. T?ie Geremamale, having 
special reference to the pope, is divided into three books, the first of which treats of the 
election, consecration, benediction, and coronation of the pope; the canonization of 
saints, creation of cardinals, tbe form and mode of holding a council; various public 
ceremonies to be performed by the pope as a sovereign prince; and funeral solemnities 
for cardinals and popes: the second book contains the divine offices which the pope 
celebrates, and the days devoted to them: the third prescribes the reverence due to 
popes, cardinals, bishops, and other persons intrusted with sacred duties; the order in 
which tljey are to be seated in the papal chapel : the sacred vestments and ornaments of 
popes and cardinals ; and the offering of incense at the altar. 4. The Pontiiicale describes 
the functions of Roman Catholic bishops: the conferring of ecclesiastical orders; bene- 
dictions on abbots, abbesses, and nuns; coronation of sovereigns; consecration of 
churches, cemeteries, and sacred vessels; the expulsion and reconcilement of penitents; 
the holding of synods; suspending, reconciling, dispensing, deposing, and degrading 
priests, ana restoring them to orders; excommunication and absolution. 5. The liiiuale, 
named ako the Pastorale, treats of the functions of priests or inferior clergy in their 
public services and private pastoral duties. 

n. At the reformatioD the existing liturgies were modified in doctrine and translated 

into the common languages of the people for use in the reformed churches. 1. Among 
these reformed liturgies those of Luther led the way. Different offices were prepared 
by him between the years 1538 and 1584 These were afterwards collected into a volume. 
In his " Order of Service" provision was made for morning and evening service; con- 
sisting of reading the Scriptures, preaching or expounding, with psalms and responses* 
and mass or communion for Sundays. Other leaders, also, in Lutheran churches, dre^w 
up liturgies for themselves. These were afterwards changed as cireumstanoes required. 
No one form has been made obligatory in all Lutheran churches, yet there is substantial 
unity of life and spirit in them all. The rationalists of the last centunr neglected and 
mutilated the old liturgies, and strove to introduce others in place of them. But witli 
the return to orthodoxy a salutary reaction followed, which has been shown in the study 
and use of the old forms and in the construction of the union lituigy, first published in 
1822 under the auspices of ttie king of Prussia, and twice revised since then. The 
object of this last book is to unite the worship of the Lutheran and reformed churches 
in the Prussian dominions. 2. The liturgy of the renewed Moravian church is chiefly 
the work of count Zinzendorf, who compiled it from the services of the Greek, Latin, 
and reformed churches. It consists of a church litany for the usual Sunday mornia^ 
service; a litany for the morning of Easter-Sunday, containing a brief confession of 
faith; offices for the baptism of aaults and of children; litanies for funerals; offices for 
confirmation, the communion, and ordination; the Te Deum and various doxologies. 
There is also a choral with musical responses, a prayer of betrothal, a form used in the 
church-yards on Easter for expressing the hope of the resurrection conoemii^ the 
brethren departed during the preceding year. The daily service, held in tlM evening, is 
a simple prayer meeting in which, as in the Sunday service, the prayers and exhorta- 
tions are extemporaneous. 3. In the liturgy of Calvin the service began with a general 
confession, followed with a psalm, a second prayer, the sermon, prayer, the apostle's 
creed, and the benediction. There was also a long prayer for times of war and of other 
troubles. In the administration of the Lord's supper there was an introductory prayer, 
followed with a practical exhortation, the distribution of the elements, psalms, appro- 
priate passages of Scripture, and the closing prayer. There were also simple, but lon^ 
offices for baptism and marriage. The present liturgy of Geneva has been taken from 
Calvin's, with some modifications. It contains no responses, but has several additional 
prayers. It provided a service for each day of the week, for the principal festivals, and 
several special occasious. The Calvinistic churehes of Holland, Neufchatel, and France 
have liturgies similar to that of Geneva. That of the chureh of Scotland was drawn up 
at Frankfort by John Knox and others on Calvin's model, and was first used by Knox 
in the congregation of English exiles at Ckneva. Introduced by him into Scotland, its 
use was enloined in 1564, and was continued after his death. Having a general order 
like Calvin s, it also gave a clearer discretion to the minister to use prayers of his own 
composition, either extemporaneous or written. It contained various offices and alter- 
nate forms. A new book, somewhat modified, was provided in 1644. In the directory of 
the Westminster assembly, the discretionanr power allowed to the minister is greatly 
enlarged. The Lord's prayer is recommend.ed as the most perfect form of devotion. 
Private and lay baptisms are forbidden. The communicants are to sit, instead of kneel- 
ing, at the Lord's table. 


CaatM** WoBiM ov I tunnvna m, 

Apoilolk NvdOTU of • Litaifj. [8m Lord's Pnyvr sad Lord*t Sappor.] 

Litatf7 of St. JftmM. Antioeh, LUorgirorSU Mttk, Utvrnr of St. Ptter, LItaisy of ^ J«Li, St. Paol, 



Lttwrr of 8t> BMH. Syrlac Lttarnr ftmrntUtngfti Anbrwiui SMrMMBlwy Lltngyof L^wk 

of8t.4am«. EfTP^ 

Umn^] efbloMMofMiKa. ofGolailMu' Utaigrof.LHnfjef 

IMvrgy of St. Cknrt- [MoBophyiltc Pratrnt Litntvy Sacnunmitanr 

ortou. LltBiilM.1 enHoeMofMOM. ofGola^M. Litiu«T«_ _. 

BriUb. Toan. 

PvMmlLitUKrofOriMtal SMnnrntary Aq|astSM'« rarlMd 

•ad Rttu&n Chorek. of St. Gragorjr. Utarfjr of Britain. 

I Salkbary, York, aad 

PKMBt LltoiKj of ether ninala of 

Cknich of Roino. Bagllik Gkaick. 


Aaf Uoan Gkorek. 

LHnfyofSoettfahEpteeopidCkiiRh. UtSfy of AmOTleMi 

LIU-KIU, or Lxu-TcHitr. See Loo-Choo, ante, 

LIUTPSAin), or Luitprakd, an author to whom we owe much of our knowledge of 
the history of the 10th c, was b. in Italy about the year ^22. He was educated at the 
court of king Hugo, and entered into the service of hi<( ^"c<i^|^|d ^^^^^^l^^* ^^^ ^^^' 

iflz into disgrace at court about 955, resided for some years at Frankfort-on-the Main, 
flowed tlie emperor Otto I. to Italy in 961, and was made bishop of Cremona, and 
afterwards sent on an embassy to Constantinople. He died about 970. His Antapodasis 
treats of tlie period from 886 to 948. He wrote also De lUbus QtstU OOonis Magrd 
Iv^peraioris, and De Legatione Consiantiiwpolitand, The best edition of his works is in 
the Monutnenta Qermarua (1839, separately published in 1877). See KOpke, De VUa 
Uutjn-a ndi ilS^), 

LITASrA (ancient Lebadeia), a t. of Greece, about 60 m. n.w. of Athens. Pop. 
5.000. From this place the northern part of the present kingdom of Greece used m 
Turkish times to be called Livadia. 

LITADI'A, an estate and palace- villa on the s. coast of the Crimea which belongs to 
the empress of Russia, and is the favorite summer residence of the imperial family, 
livadia, which stands near the site of an old town so called, is charming by reason of 
its climate, its picturesque situation, and the magnificent parks and gardens which sur- 
round it. 

LITE OAK. See Oak, ante. 

LIVE OAK, a s. co. of Texas^ intersected by the Rio Nueces; 1200 sq.m.; pop. 
in '70, 8S2, of whom 28 were colored. The. soil for the most part is best adapted 
to stock-raifiing, but there is considerable tillable land in the valleys. Rains in summer 
are infrequent. In 1870 there were in the county over 5,000 horses, more than 600 milck 
cows, 62,177 other cattle, 6,024 sheep, and 681 swine. Capital, Oakville. 

LlVJSli, Thb, is the largest gland in the body; it weighs from 8 to 4 lbs., and meas- 
ures about 12 in. from siae to side, and 6 or 7 in. from its anterior to its posterior 
liorder. It is situated in the rijrht hypochondriac region, and reaches over to the left; 
being thick and indented behind, where it crosses the convex bodies of the vertebras; 
convex on its upper surface, where it lies in the concavity of the diaphragm; and con- 
cave below, ^here it rests a^inst the stomach, colon, and ri^ht kidney. This lower 
sorface presents a fissure dividing the organ into a right and a left lobe. 

The fiver is retained in its position by five ligaments. Besides the right and left lobe, 
there are three smaller lobes. The great bulk of the organ is, however, made up of the 
right lobe, which is six times as large as the left. 

The vessels of the liver are the hepatic artery, which comes off from the coeliac axis 
(q.v.). and supplies the organ with nutrient blood; the portal vein, which conveys to the 
liver the venous blood of the intestines, spleen, and stomach, and from which (after the 
vessel has ramified like an artety) the bile is secreted;* the hepatic veins, which convey 
ihe blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava; the hepatic duct, which carries off 
the bile from the liver; and the lymphatica 

The Hver, both on its surface and internally, is of a dark reddish tint, which is so 
well known that the term Hwr-eolored is universally recognized. The substance of the 
organ is composed of lobules held together by extremely fine areolar tissue, and ramifi- 
cations of the minute branches of the various hepatic vessels. Each lobule is composed 
of a mass of hepatic cells, of a plexus of biliary ducts, of a portal plexus (from the con- 
tents of which the cells obtain the biliary matters that are found in their interior), of a 
branch of the hepatic vein, and of minute arteriea The exact mode in which the bile 
formed in the cells makes its way into the origin of the ducts, is not known with cer- 
tainty. The numberless minute ducts gradually run into one another, i)ntil, as thev 
emerge from the lower surface of the liver, they are reduced to two large trunks, which 
soon unite to form the hepatic duct. Into the hepatic duct, the cystic duct from the 
neck of the gidl-bladder (presently to be described) enters, and the two combine to form 
the common duct {dueiu% eommuni» eholedochus), which opens into the duodenum (see 
DiOEsrriON). This common excretory duct of tlie liver and gall-bladder is about 8 in. in 
lenstb, and of the diameter of a goose-quill. 

The chemical composition of the liver has been studied by Dr. Beale, who finds that 
the organ in health contains 68.6 per cent of water, and 81.4 per cent of solid constitu- 
eDt9-H>f which 8.8 are fat, 4.7 albumen, while tlie rest is made up of vessels, salts, and 
extractive matters. (In the diseased condition known as fatty degeneration of the liver 
—which, by the way, is artificially induced in the geese which contribute to the forma- 
tion of Strasburg pie, or pate defoi$ graa^ihe fat is enormously increased; in one remark- 
able case analyzed by Dr. Beale, it amounted to 65.2 per cent of the whole weight of the 
orean.) Sugar, varying in amount from 1 to 2 per cent, is also found; and inosite, uric 
acid, sarcine. xanthine, and leucine usually occur in traces. 

The gall-bladder may be regarded as a divertieulum or off shoot froqi the hepatic duct. 
It has somewhat the shape of a i>eftr, and lies in a depression on the under surface of the 
liver. Its use seems to be to serve as a reservoir for the accumulation of the bile, when 
its flow into the intestine is interrupted, as it is always found full after a lone fast, and 
empty when digestion is goins on. That the gall-bladder is not an essential appendix 
to the liver, is &own by the fact that it is absent in many genera of mammals. Thus, 

* Recent hivwittgattons throw doubt on this view, and there are reasons fOr believing that the bile 
iseecreted from the capillaries of the hepatic artery, while the portal blood contributes the material 
from wUch the llver*sugar or glycogen is formed or secreted. 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

it is preseDt in the ox, sheep, and goat, but absent in the horse and many other herb- 

It was formerly believed that the liver served merely for the separation of the biliaij 
secretion from the blood; but there is now abundant evidence that the blood itself is 
changed by its means, in such a way as to show that this gland possesses an €U9ifnilating 
as well as a depurating action. Thus, the albuminous matter contained during digestion 
in the blood of the veins which pass from the intestine to the portal vein (the meseDteric 
veins), is very different from the albuminous matter contained in the hepatic TCiDfl; the 
blood, before reaching the liver, containing a crude albuminous product, while the 
hepatic veins contain only true blood-albumen. That the liver possesses an aBsioiilating 
power on albuminous substances is also shown by the ex]>eriments of Claude Bernard, 
who found that, if a solution of egg-albumen be injected into any part of the systemic 
circulation, albumen speedily appears (like other soluble substances which are foreign to 
the body) in the urine, and is eliminated as an extraneous matter; but if it be injected 
into tlie portal vein, it does not appear in the urine, but becomes a normal constituent of 
the blood (blood-albumen), through the agency of the liver. It is now also known that 
if the liver does not secrete a true sugar, as Bernard supposed, it at all events secretes a 
substance closely allied to, and readily convertible into sugar — viz., glycogen (q. v.) — 
which must be regarded as a respiratory or heat-formid? food. Further, it appears from 
Bernard's researches that fattv matters are elaboratea in the liver— the blood of the 
hepatic veins which leave the liver containing considerably more fat than that of the 
portal vein which enters it. Some of this fat is doubtless burned off in the lungs; but 
if a deficient supply should be introduced by the lacteals, some of it would doabfcless be 
applied to the formative processes. Lastly, during tlie last three days of incubation of 
the chick, the liver is miuie bright-vellow by the absorption of the* yelk, which enters 
the branches of the portal vein, and is then converted partly into bloodr^orpwtclM^ which 
enter the circulation, and partly into bile, which is discliarged into the intestine. Hence, 
there Lb distinct evidence, from several points of view, that the liver is an aMunilaUng 
orgim. The depurating action of this organ is exhibited in the secretion of bile (q.v.), 
by which the hydro-carbonaceous portion of the effete matters of the blood is removed, 
just as the nitrogenous portion is eliminated by the kidneys. The use of the bile in the 
digestive process is sufficiently explained in tlie article Dioestiok. 

Our limited space does not allow of our noticing at any length the comparative anat- 
omy of this important ghind, which first shows itself in the form of yellowish-brown 
cells in the polypes, and gradually becomes more concentrated and developed in the 
echinoderms, annelides, nudobranchiate gasteropods* insects, crustaceans, air-breathing 
mollusks, cephalopods, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Till we arrive at the verte- 
bi-ated classes, it consists of tul)es or follicles containing cells, which stand to them in 
the relation of an epithelium, and its structure is easily made out; but when, as in the 
vertcbrata, it is mainly composed of a solid parenchyma, made up of lobules, each of 
which is comi^osed of aggregations of cells surrounded by the alternate ramifications of 
the ducts and other vessels, it presents an anatomical complexity which it is almost 
impossible to unravel. 

LIVER (ante). The physiological anatomy of the liver may be briefly stated as fol- 
lows: The lobules mentioned in the preceding article are about ^ of an in. in diame- 
ter and of an ovotd shape. They are surrounded by a plexus of blood-vessels, nerves, 
and ramifications of the hepatic duct, comprising what are called the interlobular ves- 
sels. These are all inclosed by a sheath which is a prolongation of the proper coat of the 
liver (capsule of Glisson), but attached loosely by areolar tissue. This sheath follows the 
vessels to the subdivisions within the interlobular spaoes (spaces between thelobulesX hut 
does not extend to the capillary vessels toitMn the lobules. In a few animals, as the pig 
and polar bear, the lobular structure can be seen with the naked eye, but in man and 
most raammuls it cannot. The lobules are intimately connected with each otlier, 
branches of the interlobular vessels being each distributed to several of the lobules. 
Any one lobule, however, may be considered as representing the physiological anatomy 
of the whole liver, and the study of its anatomy and functions will answer for the study 
of the whole gland. The lobules receive blood at their surfaces from the capillary ter- 
minations of the portal vein, these vessels having received the terminations of the hepatic 
artery before passing into the lobules. It is very important to bear in mind this peculi- 
arity of distribution, which is often overlooked. The branches of tlie hepatic vein, 
the vessel wliich carries the blood from the liver to the ascending great vein (ascending 
vena cava), by which it is returned to the heart and lungs, have their origin leUhin 
the lobules. '^Their capillary extremities arise from* the capillary ramifications of the 
portal vein, and, passing toward the center of the lobule, converge into three or four 
radicles, which, uniting at- the center, form the intralobular veins, which is tlie com- 
mencement of the hepatic vein. These intralobular veins, which are in the center of 
each lobDle, are from ^^ to ^^ of an in. in diameter, and they follow the long axis 
of the lobule, receiving vessels in their course till they empty into larger vessels situated 
at the base of the lobules. These latter vessels have been called by Klernan suh-lobu- 
lar veins. They collect the blood from all parts of the liver, and, increasing in size by 
union with one another, they at last form the three hepatic veins which discharge the 



blood from the liver into the ascending vena cava ITow, these hepatic veins are a lon^ 
way from the iofluencc of the heart's action, lying as they do between llie porttil 
dicDlaiioa and the veins going to the heart; but a provision \n\a been made to assist in 
the propulsion of their coutents. and they are supplied witli a muscular coat, composed 
of unstrtated muscular fibers. The miuute anatomy of the liver lias ooly recently been 
satisfactorily investigated, and it is to the laboi-s of Beale, £. Wagner, Qarlach, fiudge, 
Andrejevic, Koelliker, MacGillavry, Frey, Eberth, Heriug, and others that we owe 
nearly all the knowledge we have upon tbe subject. The most essential elements of 
the lobale, or of tbe liver, remain to be described. They are the hepatic cells, which 
are the true secreting elements of the gland. They are minute, polygonal-shaped bodies 
about Yjf^ <>i &Q i^i- iu ^^^^ longest and yitTi i^ ^^*^^^' shortest diameter, having one 
nucleus, or sometimes two nuclei, with some granular matter. See Cells. It Inis gen- 
erally been supposed that these hepatic cells were held within a net- work of the capilla- 
ries of the ported and hepatic veins, but, according to the investigations of the above 
named microscopists, this is not the case. They are surrounded by an independent net- 
work of extremely minute vessels tv^v of an in. in diameter, of uniform size through- 
ont, called the biliary capillaries, and in which tbe bile tirst makes its uppearance. 

We must pause here to refer to the fact that the liver is an organ which has no ana- 
logue 10 any of the other organs of tbe body. It has two distinct functions, and a cellu- 
lar arrangement entirely unlike that seen m any other gland. It is excretory ou one 
hand and secreting on another, and it is its secreting function which has l>eeu so long 
overlor>ked, and the knowledge of which has also thrown so much light on the physiology 
of what are called ductless glands, like the spleen (q.v.) and the lymphatic glands. The 
liver, in one of its functions, is a ductless gland. It secretes (that is, not merely separates, 
but forms) a substance which is not carried away by any excretory vessel, but which is 
imm^iately returned to the blood, when it is washed away as soon as formed. The other 
function of the liver is the production of bile, which, although a true excretion, aiiswei*a 
a salutary purpose in the economy. Let us now return to the cousidenition of the lu-patic 
cells and the lately discovered netrwork of vessels which surrounds them, adled th^* bil- 
iary capillaries, it is with the utmost difficulty that they have been made out, a:ul it is 
owing to this that so many hypotheses luive been formed in regard to the histology and 
physiology of the liver, only to be successively abandoned. The meshes which are 
formed by the passing round the hepatic cells of these minute capillaries are arran^r^^d in a 
cubical manner, very much as if they had been woven around them. The question has 
been whether these biliary capillaries possessed independent walls or whether theV wcri; 
simply lacunar passages; but the manner in which tbey have been found to interlace with 
the blood capillaries decides the question in favor of considering them as vessels having ^ 
walls, although their caliber is only t^^vv of an in., which would require the membrane , 
which forms the tube to be inconceivably thin, and perhaps destitute of any cellular 
structure, as \s generally found in lining membranes of most organs. The precise rela- 
tions of the hepatic cells and the biliary ducts have been more particularly determined 
hy the investigations of Eberth and Ilering; and they find that they vary in diffen^nt 
classes of vertebrata, being simpler the farther we descend in the scale of being. In 
amphibia, for instance, the lobular form is altered, and the bile duct passes through a 
tubular arrangement of hepatic cells. In reptiles the arrangement approaches more 
towards that of mammals, but is still far behind in development; and it is only when 
ascending to birds that a structure is reached capable of performing the excrementitious 
functions of active, warm-blooded animals. The biliary and blood capillaries never 
come into actual contact, but are always separated from each other by a distance some- 
what less than the diameter of an hepatic cell, or about Y^x^f of an inch. The biliary 
capillaries are undoubtedly the commencement of the finer nepatic ducts. In some dis- 
eases they become so distended with bile as to become easily discernible with a good 
microscope. The livers of animals dying of Texan-cattle disease were examined by the 
late Dr. li, C. Stiles a few years ago, and the observations of the German anatomists were 
completely verified. The finest bile ducts and capillaries in the livers of these animals 
were found filled with bright yellow bile, and their relations to the liver cells were easily 
distinguishable. Favoring the view that they are lined by an excessively thin mem- 
brane^ Dr. Stiles found m his examinations what appeared to be detached fragments of 
these capillaries. Between the lobules the bile ducts are still very minute, the smallest 
being only ^J^ to ^^ of an in. in diameter, and composed or a very delicate mem- 
brane lined with pavement epithelium. When they reach a size of yAf^ ^^ ^^ ^^' in 
diameter, they are supplied with a fibrous coat, composed chiefly of inelastic, with a few 
elastic fibers; but the larger ducts, as afore-mentioned, are supplied with non -striated 
muscular fibers. 

We came now to speak of another anatomical element in the structure of the liver. 
As the bile ducts increase in size they contain numerous follicles and cluster-like glands 
which are called racemose (the biliary acini of Robin), and they continue to occupy 
the biliary passages as far as the duetit* communia choUdochus^ or the common bile duct 
.which empties into the intestinal canal. Those which are found in the smallest ducts 
are simple follicles from ^ to xJn of an in. hi length. The larger of these glands are 
formed of groups of these follicles, and are from ^ to y^ of an in. in diameter. The 
natrition of the liver is provided for by the hepatic artery, distribution is exceed- 



ingly interesiijig. It bas three sets of branches. As soon as it enters the sheath formed 
by the capsule of Glisson, it sends off very fine branches, called uassa f>aMorufn, to the 
ivalls of the portal vein, to those of the hepatic vein, to its own branches, and an 
exceedingly rich and beautiful net -work of branches to the hepatic duct. When the 
hepatic artery is well injected it almost Completely covers the duct with its ramifications. 
The hepatic duct proper, or that single vessel so called lying outside of the liver, is 
formed hy the union of two ducts, one from the ri^ht and one from the left lobe of the 
liver. It is about an inch and a half long, and joms the duct from the gall-bladder, 
called the cystic duct, to form the common duct, or ductus communis choledochus, which 
is about three inches long and of the size of a goose-quill, and empties, in common with 
the pancreatic duct, into the intestine, a little below the middle of the duodenum, 
or about 5 in. below the stomach. The sail-bladder is an elongated, pear-shaped sack 
about 4 in. in length and one in breadth, having a capacity of about one and a half fluid 
ounces. The cystic duct, connecting it with the hepatic duct, is the smallest of the 
three larger ducts, and is about one inch in length. In the gall-bladder there are also 
numerous small racemose glands similar to those above mentioned as existing in 
the biliary ducts generally. They consist each of from 4 to 8 follicles lodged in the 
submucous tissues. They secrete mucus mixed with bile. The idea has been 
entertained by some that these biliary racemose glands found in different parts of the 
biliary ducts were the bile-producing glands, while the hepatic cells were the oi^ans for 
secreting sugar, or, in other words, for the conversion of the glycogenic matter of the 
liver into glucose, or erape-sugar; but this view has not been found tenable. The 
nerves of the liver are derived from the pneumogastric, the phrenic, and from the solar 

Elexus of the great sympathetic. They all penetrate the gland at the great transverse 
ssure, and follow the blood-vessels in their course of distribution to the various parts of 
the organ, but their terminal distributions are not yet well understood. The lymphatic 
vessels of the liver are numerous and consist of two lavers. The outer or superficial 
layer is situated immediately beneath the serous or peritoneal covering. The inner or 
deeper layer forms a plexus surrounding the lobules, having entered the liver along with 
the portal veins, hepatic arteries, and bile ducts, enveloped in sheaths of Olisson's 
capsule. In their course they invest the branches of both aucts and blood-vessels with 
a aelicate net-work of tubes, and on arriving at the surface of the lobules they enter 
them and form another remarkable net -work of lymphatic passages, traversing the lobule 
in every direction. Every blood capillary is enveloped in a lymphatic ^eath in very 
much the same manner that the interlobular vessels are enveloped in the sheath of 
Glisson's capsule. These lymphatic sheaths surrounding the other vessels are other- 
wise called the perivascular lymphatic spaces, and are similar in structure to those 
which are found in various other parts of the body. See Lymphatics. 

The two distinct functions, that of the production of bile and the formation of sugar, 
which are now generally recognized as being performed by the liver have led some 
physiologists to suppose that tnis gland is composed of two distinct portions or anatomi- 
cal elements, and nobin has adopted this theory and calls one portion of the liver a 
biliary organ, and the other a glycogenic or sugar-forming organ. The lobules and 
hepatic cells, with their different vessels, he regards as periorming the glycogenic func- 
tion, and the little racemose glands which are attached to the biliary ducts along their 
course as the bile-producing organs; and others have entertained ideas of the independ- 
ence of the sugar-making and bile-producing portions of the organ. But from the fact 
that bile is commonly found in the lobules, and that the biliary capillaries are connected 
with the excretory biliary ducts, the conclusion seems to be unavoidable that the bile 
is formed in the lobules, and, moreover, by the hepatic cells. It, therefore, becomes a 
question as to what are the functions of the little racemose glands attached to the larger 
bile ducts. They have much the form of mucous glands in other portions of the body, 
and from the examinations of Sappey, who has found the bile to be viscid in proportion 
to the number of these glands in the ducts containing it, they appear to be really mucous 
glands. In the rabbit, an animal in which these glands are not found in this situation, 
the bile is quite fluid, and free from it« ordinary viscidity. It has generally been 
thought that the bile is secreted exclusively from the blood which has been brought 
from the intestines by the portal vein, and that, indeed, the principal ofQce of the liver 
was to separate- effete matter from this portion of the venous system; but many experi- 
ments which have been made since Bernard discovered the glycogenic fuqction of the 
liver go to show this idea erroneous. It has also been thought that the hepatic 
artery may furnish material for the secretion of bile, while the portal vein fur- 
nished that for the production of sugar; but these views again are quite overthrown by 
many well-established facts and experiments. It has been found that, after the ligation 
of the hepatic artery, bile has been secreted from blood furnished by the portal vein; 
and again, according to the experiments of Ore, who has succeeded in gradually obliterat- 
ing the portal vein without immediately producing death, it has been found that bile Is 
secreted from blood furnished by the hepatic artery. In one instance in which a patient 
died of dropsy the portal vein was obliterated, and yet the gall-bladder was full of bile. 
Anomalous cases have been reported where the portal vein, instead of passing through • 
the liver, emptied into the ascending vena cava, and where also there was found no 
deflcicncy of bile. These facts point to the conclusion that the secretory elements of 

Digitized by VjUUglC 



the liver have an elective power, and that this gland may elaborate its products either 
from venous or arterial blood. The only conclusion, therefore, is that the liver pro- 
daces bile from both the portal vein and the hepatic arterv, and that the secretion may- 
be kei>t up if either one of these vessels be obliterated. The natural color of bile is vari- 
able; in the pig it is bright yellow ; in the do^, dark brown; and in the ox, greenish yel- 
low. In general, it may bie stated that it is dark green in carnivorous, and greenish 
yellow in herbivorous animals. Its specific gravity u variouslv stated. Some author- 
ities place it at 1026; others from 1020 to 1026; and again o'thers from 1026 to 1081. 
These differences are considerable, but the numbers were probably the result of exact 
observation, as the bile is found to differ under different circumstances. See table. 
Fresh bile is nearly inodorous, but after being taken from the body of an animal it 
fioon undergoes putrefactive changes. It has been generally thought to be invariably 
alkaline, and this is true of that which is found in the hepatic duct» but it often has an 
add reaction after it has passed into the gall-bladder. 


Water W6. 00 to 819.00 

Taurocholate of soda 66.50 " 106.00 

Glycocholate of soda traces. 

Cliolesteiine 0.62 to 2.66 

Biliyerdine 1400 " 80.00 

Lecithene ^ } 9 9t\** m on 

Margarine, oleine. and traces of soaps \ ^'^ ^*"" 

Choline ; traces. 

Chloride of sodinm 2.77 to aSO 

Phosphate of soda 1.60 ** 2.50 

Phosphate of potassa 0.75" 1.60 

Phosphate of lime 0.50 ** 1.86 

Phosphate of magnesia 0.46 " 0.80 

Balteofiron 0.16" 0.80 

Salts of manganese traces" 0.18 

Silicic acid 0.08 " 0.06 

Mucosine traces. 

Loss • 8.48 to 1.21 

1000.00 1000.00 

The bile contains two classes of constituents, one of which are true secretions, and 
destined to re-enter the system and perform certain functions. They contain, with other 
matters, some that are formed in the liver, and are no doubt elaborated from materials 
furnished by the blood. These are the salts included in the above table under the 
names of taurocholate and glycocholate of soda. Biliverdine, the coloring matter of the 
bile, is probably a mixture of different coloring principles which undergo rapid chan^ 
on exposure to the air. It has some analogy to the colorinff matter of the blood, and it 
is also, like the biliary salts, supposed to be formed in the liver. This coloring matter 
has intense power, and in cases of obstruction of the biliary passages will give the skin 
and oonjunctivs a decidedly vellow color. Like hem<M;lobine, it contains a portion of 
iron« but the relative amount has never been ascertained. The other constituent of the 
bile is truly excretory, being composed of effete matter brought by the blood-vessels 
from the various paits of the system. This excretory constituent is eholesterine, a sub- 
stance which has long been known as a constituent of the bile, whose chemical and 
physical characteristics were well recognized, but whose physiological relations were 
not understood. It was reserved for Dr. Austin Flint, 1r., of New York, to discover 
these and make them known in the American Journal of Medical Sciences in 1862. 
Cholesterine is a normal constituent of various of the tissues and fluids of the body. It is 
found in the blood, liver (probably as contained in the bile), crystalline lens, spleen, 
meconium, and in the nervous tissue in all parts of the body. It is also found in an adtered 
condition, as stercorine, in the fecal matter, and as unchanged cholesterine in hibernating 
animals. It is naturally a crystalline solid, but in the fluids ox the body it is held in solution. 
For the form of tlie crystals, composition, and other characteristics, see Cholebtekine. 
This body is found in the largest quantity in the substance of the brain and nerves, and 
the blood coming from the brain contains a much larger percentage of it than is found 
in that coming from any other organ. From this and various other experiments. Dr. 
Flint has demonstrated that cholesterine isadisassimilative product of nervous function, 
and that one of the offices of the liver is to separate it from the blood. He found amon^ 
other thin^ that it is produced in much greater quantity under active conditions, and 
that it is also produced in all parts of the nervous system. Sometimes the liver fails to 
separate it from the blood, when it collects, and produces a condition to which Dr. 
Fhnt has given the name cholestcrcBmia, a species of blood-poisoning having an analogy 
to uremia, or blood poisoning from accumulation of urea consequent upon diseflfie of the 
kidneys. In regard to the glycogenic function of the liver, it may be stated that nearly 
all physiologists admit that Bernard demonstrated it completely. althoughiriifJCraiPilg 

Liver. OQ 

Uverpool. ^-^ 

time many apparcutly well-made experiments seemed to throw great dovbt on the sub- 
ject, some believing tlmt the sugar found by Bernard was a product of post-mortem 
chnnges. It is a fact that it is difficult to find sugar in the liver which may not be said 
to be'produced after death; consequently, demonstrative experiments are exceedingly 
difllcult. On examining the blood which comes from the lungs in animals upon which 
vivisection has been peirormed it is found to contain no sugar. Other experiments iiare 
left no doubt of the fact that, to serve some purpose in tne animal economy, sugar is 
destroyed in its passage through the lungs, the most generally received view being tliat 
it is converted into lactic acid, which unites with the alkalies in the blood to foim 
luctiUes, which again are converted into carbonates. It is thought that among the causes 
of the disease diabetes is an abnormal performance of the function of respiration (q.v.). 
The glycogenic matter of the liver, in composition, reactions, and particularly in its 
readiness to be transformed into sugar, has considerable resemblance to starch, and Ls 
called by some authors amyloid matter. On account of its insolubility in water it may 
be extracted from the liver after all the sugar has beea washed out 

LIVBB, Diseases of the. Cangeition of the liver is one of the most frequent of its 
morbid conditions. It is most commonly caused by obstruction to the pa&a^e of the 
blopd from the hepatic veins, arising fr-om thoracic disease impeding the circulaiion 
through the right side of the heart. The congestion may be relieved at this stage, or 
may, by its obstructive action, cause congestion of tlie portal branches, in which case 
we have the liver much enlarged, the complexion dusky, the urine high colored, sedi- 
mentary, and scanty, and oftien more or less dropsy of the abdomen or lower extremities. 
The treatment must be left entirely to the physician. 

InflammaUon of the liver has been already noticed in the article Hepatitis. 

Another important affection of the liver is that which is known by the name of cir- 
rhosis (Or. kirrhos, yellowish). It begins as an inflammatory affection, in which lyni]>h 
(see Inflammation) is effused in the areolar tissue surrounding the branches of l\w. por- 
tal vein. The smaller branches become obliterated by the pressure, and as the I\ nii>U 
subsequently contracts, larger branches of the veins and ducts become strangulated, and 
the surface of the organ assumes the uneven or bossed appearance known as hobnailed. 
In this affection, the liver is at first somewhat enlarged, but as the contraction of the 
effusion goes on, it at length becomes considerably smaller than the natural size. The 
ordinary cause of this disease is spirit •drinking, and it is popularly known as the gin- 
drinker s liver. The obstruction to the portal circulation occasions the effusion of serum 
into the peritoneal cavity; and this effusion often goes on so rapidly as soon to force up 
I the diaphragm and impede respiration. The lower extremities soon become anasarcous. 
I but the arms and face are never affected. The portal obstruction often also gives rise to 
hemorrhage from the bowels or stomach. 

In a fully developed case of cirrhosis, the liver is so altered in structure that pallia- 
tive treatment is all that can be attempted. This must be directed to the relief ot the 
dropsy, and if medicines fail to remove or diminish it, temporary relief may be obtained 
by tapping. The disease is at best a very hopeless one. 

Amongst the other affections of this organ are the faUp Uoer. The liver in this case 
is much enlarged, of a white color, and rounded at the edges; it is most commonly 
found associated with phthisis. Closely allied to this is the lardaee&us or waa^ liver, in 
which the deposited matter is not fat, but something between fat and albumen; it 
chiefly occurs in scrofulous young persons. Tubercle, different forms of cancer, and 
hydatids (q.v.) are not unfrequently found in this organ. In connection with the pres- 
ent subject, the reader is referred to the article Jauitdice. 

LIVERMORE, Abibl Abbot, b. Wilton, N. H.. in 1811; graduated at Harvard 
college in 1838; in 1857 removed to Yonkers and became editor of the Ofiri8tian£nqvirer, 
a Unitarian paper in New York; since 1868 president of a theolo^cal school at 
Meadville, Penn. Besides contributions to magazines, Mr. Livermore is author of A 
Commentary on the Four QmpeU; A Gormnentary on the Acta of the AposHen; Tfi^ Marriage 
Offering, a prize essay on the Mexican war; and several other works. 

LIVERMORE, George, 1809-65; b. Cambridge, Mass.; received his education at 
the public schools; after being carefully trained for a mercantile lif ehe entered into busi- 
ness in Boston as a wool- commission merchant, and was very successful. From early 
life he devoted his leisure hours to historical and antiquarian researches, in regard to 
w^hich he became a recognized authority. His collection of editions of the Bible in dif- 
ferent languages is believed to have been the finest in America. He was honored by an 
election to the Massachusetts historical society, the American antiquarian society, the 
American academy of arts, and the Boston athenoeum. He frequently wrote upon 
biblio^aphical and historical subjects for newspapers and reviews, his contributions 
being invariably marked by a clear and vigorous style, and showing the results of exten 
sive and accurate research. Among these contributions was a senes of papers on the 
New England Primer, written for tne Cambridge Chronicle, and an article in the North 
American lleriew on Public Libraries; but the most important of all his essays was An 
Historical Research respecting il\e Opinions of the Founders <tf the Republie on Negroes ca 
Sfaves, as Citizens, and as Soldiers, read before the Massachusetts historical society, Aug. 

0^ Urer. 

14. 19S2, and published not only In the Proceedings o2 that society, but in a separate vol- 
ume of 215 pages During the war of the rebellion Mr. Llvurmorc was a firm and gen- 
eroos supporter of the govern tnent, sparing neither time, strength, nor money in ef^rts 
toaplraJd the union. Died in Cambridge. 

LIYERMORE, Mary Ashton; b. Boston. 1831; daughter of Timothy Rice; edu- 
atfd in the Baptist seminary for girls at Charlestown, Mass. ; married D. P. Livermore, 
a UBiversalist clergyman, aud assisted him for some time in editing a Universalist paper 
io Chicago; dlstiuguished herself during the war of the rebeliion by her labors for the 
Mkhers, under tiie direction of tlie sanitary commission; of late years has stood in tlie 
front rank of popular lecturers upon moml and social questions, and taken a very prom- 
ioxfDt part in the total-abstinence cause, and in the movement to secure suffi-age for 
«oman. She was for several years one of the associate editors of the ^>Hon Woman*s 

LITEKPOiKi, situated on the n. bank of the Mersey, Lancashire, is, after London, the 
hj^est t. in the United Kin|;dom, and, taken in connection with Birkenhead, on the 
opposite side of Che Mersey, it ranks in maritime importance before the metropolis itself 
—A circumstance due to its position on the w. coast of England, not only as a port for 
the adjacent manufacturing districts, but for the traffic with America. It is situated at 
<ine hour's distonce by railway from Manchester, live hours from London, six hours 
from Edinburgh, and eight hours by steam from Dublin. The rise of Liverpool is 
mnarkable. In the middle of the 14th c. it contained only 840 inhabitants and 168 
riAiages; whilst in 1561 its population was only 690. It was not until 1647 that it was 
niade a free port (having been subject down to that date to the Chester officers); whilst 
it; distinct individuality as a parish was not declared until 1697. when its popuhition 
oombered about 5,006 souls, and its shipping about 80 vessels. Between 1710 and 1760 
ii^ population increased from 8.160 to 25,780. and its commercial navy from 84 vessels 
TO ido vessels. In 1700 its first re^lar dock wa^ built, on the site where the custom- 
hnose stands at the present day. From 1760 to 1800 the population advanced from 
tTTOO to 77,700 inhabitants; the shipping from 1200 vessels to 5,000 vessels; and the 
amount of dock dues collected, from £2.8(W to £28,800; nearly two-thirds of the increase 
Uking place during the last 15 jcbts of the period. The rapid pro.i^rcss of the cotton 
Tnde was the chief cause of this almost sudden improvement. Simultaneously with 
the mechanical revolution brought about by Hargreaves, Arkwrlght, Crompton, and 
oihers, there came an increased foreign trade, and an augmented inland business, owing 
v* the ripening of the Bridge water canal in 1778. About the same period, too, a great 
rtart was given to the ship<Dutlding trade of the port by several extensive orders received 
f.-om the government, some 15 vessels of war being launched between 1777 and 1782 of 
rery considerable tonnage, and ranging between 16 and 50 guns. By this time Liver- 
pool had far outstripped Bristol in commercial importance, the trade of the latter port 
tring in process oi rapid transference to the former. Tlie following statement will 
fifiow how far Liverpool was benefited by the cotton trade: 


fiawOotton. ' 
























But this progress, important as it was, has been far exceeded by the subsequent 
increase of business, ana at the present time, as regards exports, Liverpool stands at the 
i«ead of British commercial ports, and is excelled by London alone in its imports. Its 
rkpid growth will be seen from the following table: 





Dock Dues. 











The following table will show the comparative importance of the export and import 
tiade of Liverpool: 

Wwt Derby and Birkenbead, the pop. in 1871 reached 660,510, against 667,0871nl8l£c 

liTerpooL qa 

lAwworiJL. «7^ 


EzportB. Import& 

Liverpool £72,fi64,W8 £99.lfe.818 

London 59.985,826 140,890,888 

Hull 17,816,719 18,966,885 

i Grimsby 7,509,439 4,076.796 

Glasgow 8,829,253 10,718,587 

I Allothers 81,877,185 121,126.763 

£198,888,065 £394.419,682 

This gigantic trade has given bein^ to the magnificent system of docks, extendine 
along the margin of the river for a distance of about 5 m., containing 54 docks and 
basins, covering an area of over 260 acres, and having nearly 19 m. of quay space. The 
whole of tliese docks have, with the exception of the Salthouse, King's, part of the 
George's, and part of the Queen's, been built since 1812. They were erected chiefly 
under the superintendence of the late Jesse Hartley, esa., and are considered by all who 
have seen them to be one of the greatest engineering triumphs of the present century. 
Several of the docks are inclosed with large warehouses: the erection of those round the 
Albert dock cost £858,000, and the dock itself £141,000. In addition to the usual pier 
approaches, there are two large floatinff landing-stages, one of which is 1002 ft in length. 
80 ft. in width, and 4.500 tons in weidat. In the general traffic of Liverpool, that carried 
on by large steamers with United States, Canadian, South American> MediterraneaD. 
Australian, and other ports, has deservedly attained celebrity, and draws large numbers 
of passengers to the town. 

The approaches to the town on the land sides are the Lancashire and Yorkshire, 
East Lancashire, London and North-western, Great Northern, Midland and Man- 
chester, Sheffield and Lincoln railways. There are four tunnels under the town in con- 
nection with the London and North-western railway, and one in connection with the 
Midland railway, taking different directions, varying from a mile and a half to two miles 
and a half in length. The passenger stations in Lime street, Ranelagh street, and Tithe- 
bam street are large and handsome buildings. 

The architecture of the town has been wonderfullv improved within the past thirty 
or forty years, and especially during the latter half of the period, and it now possesses 
many fine thoroughfares, thronged with numerous splendicl edifices. There are several 
large and elegant sauares in the e.. or fashionable part of the town, and a number of 
thoroughfares, Unea with the private residences of the merchants and tradesmen ; while 
the outskirts of the town are studded with the mansions of the conunercial aristocracy. 
Of what may be termed the official buildings— the town-hall. St. George's hall, public 
offices, custom-house, sailors' home, police-offices, workhouses, baths and wash-houses, 
waterworks, and gas offices, are the most noteworthy; next follow the various literary 
and educational edifices, such as the free library and museum, presented to the town by 
sir William Brown, at a cost of £40,000; the Walker art gallery, presented by A. B. 
Walker, esq., at a cost of £30.000; botanic gardens, observatorjr. the Liverpool college. 
Liverpool institute, queen's college, medical institute, royal institution, the various 
schools attached to the national and other churches, academy of fine arts, the exchange, 
lyceum. and atheneum, news-rooms and libraries, and numerous associations devoted to 
commercial, political, and religious affairs. That the inhabitants are not niggardly is 
proved by the fact that there are about 100 charitable institutions in the borough devoted 
to the alleviation of the various evils that flesh is heir to. Among the more prominent 
are the royal infirmary, northern and southern hospitals, industrial schools, blue-cost 
orphan schools; male, female, and infant orphan ssylums and church; school work- 
shops, and church for the blind; deaf and dumb, and eye and ear institutions; homeo- 
pathic and other dispensaries: lying-in and other hospitals. Visitors will find no lack 
of hotel accommodation, with such immense establishments as the North-western, 
Adelphi. Washington, Queen's, Alexandra. Royal, Angel, and a score or two of minoi 
importance. The buildings dedicated to amusements are quite in keeping witli the 
other characteristics of the town. Under this head there are the Philharmonic hall, 
capable of accommodating 3,000 people; the Alexandra theater; the amphitheater, 
calculated to hold 5,000; the two concert-rooms of St. Gteorge's hall, before alluded to, 
the larger of which is acknowledged to be one of the finest rooms in the kingdom; St. 
James's hall, the Queen's hall, the Theater-Royal, Prince of Wales's theater. Rotunda 
theater, Adelphi theater, circus, etc. The relipous wants of the community are sup- 
plied by about 187 churches and chapels, of which 78 belong to the established church. 
21 to Roman Catholics, 21 to Presbyterians, 18 to Wesleyans, 16 to Independents, 16 to 
Baptists, and 27 to miscellaneous non-conformists, including 8 Unitarian, 2 Jewi.«ih, 1 
Overman, and 1 Greek. There are 8 cemeteries, one only of which is situated within 
the town, namely, St. James's. Duke street, the remainder being laid out in the suburbs. 

The buildings devoted to commercial pui-suits are also very fine and numerous, and 
not the least interesting to the stranger. Amongst thes^g^jij^^ep^hange, the Albany, 

QX UverpooL 

*^^ JLiver worts. 

Apsley, BrowQ^B, Richmond, Hargreaves, Liverpool and London insurance chambers. 
Royal insurance, and Queen insurance buildings (all local companies), Manchester, 
Knowsley, Walmer, Drury, Tower, India, and Brunswick buildings, and many others. 
There are 12 banks in thetown, and several of them are possessed of very large and 
handsome business premises. Amongst these may be named the branch of the bank of 
England, and the Liverpool, Union, District, Commercial, National, and North and 
South Wales banks. In the principal streets there are also several very extensive trade 
establishments, devoted to every department of business, wholesale and retail Of 
monuments, the chief are those of the queen, prince Albert, Nelson, Wellington, Hus- 
kiBiM>n, and William lY., besides several in the town-hall, Bt. (George's hall, free library, 
and parks. The parks are four in number, the Stanley, the Sefton, the Prince's, and 
the Botanic. 

The stated market days are Wednesday and Saturday, for general agricultural prod 
nee, and Tuesday and Friday for com. The fairs for horses and cattle are held July 
25 and Nov. 11. The com trade transacts its business in the com exchange,. 
Brunswick street, and there is an extensive market for the cattle-dealers in Kensington. 
For agricultural produce there is the northern hav market. For edibles of all kind» 
there are St. John's market, 188 yards long, 48 yaras wide, and lighted bv 186 windows; 
St. James's, QiU street, and St. Martin's markets; there is also a nsh market, and several 
fancy bazaars* There are 6 daily and 7 weekly newspapers, besides the DaiSy Telegraph 
and BiR cf Bntry, exclusively devoted to shipping matters, and three weekly literary 
periodicals. Liverpool has several extensive ship-building vards, iron and brass foun- 
dries, chain-cable and anchor smithies, engine-works, tar and turpentine distilleries, rice 
and flour mills, tobacco, cigar and soap manufactories, breweries, sugar refineries, 
roperies, glass-woiks, alkali-woiks, chronometer and watch manufactories. It retuma 
8 members to parliament. 

LIVERPOOL, a t in Nova 8cotia» on the river Mersey, 70 m. s. w. from Halifax ; pop. 
8,103. It is a port of entry, has a fine harbor with lieht-house and revolving light, and 
is an active commercial and manufacturing center, maKiuff castings, machines, boots and 
shoes, and edge-tools, besides beine engaged in ship-building. The inhabitants are also 
largely employed in lumbering ana fishing; and considerable quantities of the product 
of these inaustries are exported to Europe and the West Indies. 

LIVERPOOL, Charlbs jBNxnraoK, first earl of, 1727-1806; b. Oxfordshire, Eng.; 
educated at the charter-house school, London, and the imiversity of Oxford. In early 
life he published Venee en the Death of Frederiek, I\^nee of Walee; a Dissertation on Vie 
EMfUshmeni ef a Ifationdl and ConstitiUional Force in England Independently of a 
Standing Army; and a Dieeotirse on the Oonduet ef Qowmment respecting Neutral Nations. 
In 1761 he became one of the under-secietaries of state, and the same year was elected to 
parliament; in 1788 was appointed loint secretary of the treasury; in 1766, made lord of 
the admiralty by the Grafton adnunistration; in 1772 appointed one of the vice-treas- 
urers of Ireland; in 1776, minister of the mint; was secretary of war, 1778-82; in 1788 
was appointed by Pitt a noember of the board of trade. In 1786 he published a CoUeetion 
ofaUme Treaties of Psaee, AUianee, and Commerce between Chreat Britain and other Powers, 
from the Treaty ofMuneter in 1648 to the Treaties signed at Paris in 1788. In 1786 he wos 
nuide chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, created baron Hawkesbury, and appointed 
president of the board of trade; in 1796 was made earl of Liverpool. After this he with- 
drew mostly from public life. 

LIVERPOOL, RoBBRT Baihcbb Jenkinson, second earl of, 1770-1828; educated at 
the charter-house school and Christ^hurch college, Oxford ; traveled on the continent, 
and was in Paris at the breaking out of the Frencn revolution and the destruction of the 
bastile. Returning to England he was elected to parliament in 1790, but did not take 
his seat till the f^lowing year as he had not yet attained his majoritv. In 1792 he 
opposed Mr. Wilberforce^ motion for the abolition of the slave trade, in 1798 he was 
appointed one of the commissioners of the India board of trade. In 1796, his father 
being created earl of Liverpool, he took his Utle of lord Hawkesbury, and was mode 
commissioner of Indian affairs. On the retirement of Mr. Pitt in 1801 and the appoint- 
ment of the Addington ministry, he was appointed secretary of state for the foreign 
department, and negotiated the treaty of Amiens. On the return of Pitt to power. Liv- 
erpool was home secretary 1805-7, and, on the death of Pitt, was offered the premier- 
ship, but declined. In 1808, on the death of his father, he became earl of LiverpooL 
Upon the dissolution of the Fox and Grenville administration in 1807 he again refused 
the premiership, but accepted the home department under Percival, on whose assassina- 
tion in 1812 Liverpool became prime minister, with the title also of the first lord of the 
treasury. His administration extended from 1812 to 1827. His opposition to parlia- 
mentary reform, to Roman Catholic emancipation, to the abolition of the slave trade, 
and the emancipation of the slaves in the West Indies, his severe measures to repress 
internal disturbances, and his introduction of the bill of pains and penalties against 
queen Caroline, rendered him very unpopular, especially in Scotland. He was attacked 
with paralysis, and during the last three months of his life was helpless and imbecile. 

LIVERWORTS. See Hepatic^, ante. Digitized by \jUU^ lC 

Itlrery. Oft 

LIV EBT, in English law, denotes the act of giving or taking possession. It is most 
frequently used in the phrase ** livery of seisin,** corresponding to the Scotch infeftment 
or sasiue. 

LIV £BT .(from Lat. UberaUif), a word applied in its origin to the custom which pre- 
vailed under the Merovingian and Carlovingian kings, of deliverin^^ splendid habits to 
, the members of their households om great festivals. In the days of chivalry the wearing 
of livery was not, as now, confined to domestic servants. The duke*s son, as page to 
the prince, wore the prince's livery, the^earl's son bora the duke's colors and bacige, the 
sou of the esquire wore the livery of the kaight, and the son of the gentleman that of the 
esquire. Cavaliers wore the livery of their mistresses. There was also a large class of 
armed retainers in livery attached to many of the more powerful nobles, who were 
en^iged expressl^r to use the strong hand in their master's quarrels. By the colors and 
badge of the re tamer was known &e tnaster under whom he served. The livery colors 
of a family are taken from their armorial bearings, being generally tlie tincture of the 
field and that of the principal charge, or the two tinctures of the field are taken instead, 
where it has two. They are taken from the first quarter in case of a quartered shield. 
These same colors are alternated in the wreath (q.v.) on which the crest stands. The 
royal family of England have sometimes adopted colors varying from the tinctures of 
tlie arms. The Plantagenets had scarlet and white; the house of York, murr^ and 
blue; white and blue were adopted by the house of Lancaster; white and ereen by the 
Tudors: yellow and red by the Stuarts, and by William III. ; and scarlet and blue by the 
house of Hanover. An Indispensable part of the livery in former times was tlie bSodge 
<q.v.) The church of Home has its liveries for apostles, confessors, martyrs, virgins, and 

The freemen of the 91 guilds or corporations which embrace the different trades of 
London, are called liver^'men, because entitled to wear the livery of their respective 
companies. In former times the wardens of the companies were in use yearly to deliver 
to the lord mayor certain sums, 20 shillings of which was given to individuals who 
petitioned for the money, to enable them to procure sufficient cloth for a suit, and the 
companies prided themselves on the splendid appearance which their liveries made in the 
civic train. The common Councilmen, sheriffs, aldermen, and some other superior 
officers of the city are elected by the liverymen of London; and till the reform bill in 
1832, they had the exclusive privilege of voting for members of parliament for the city. 

LIVERY COMPANIES, or GmLDs. See Guilds; Livery; ante, 

LIVERY OF SEISIN. See Feoffubmt, ante, 

LI VI A DRUSILLA. B.c. 56-.\.d. 29; married eariy to Tiberius Claudius Nero, by 
whom she had two sons— Tiberius and Drusus. While pregnant with tlie latter she met 
Augrustus, whom she so fascinated by her beauty that he compelled her husband to sur- 
render her to him, at the same time divorcing tiis own wife, Scribonia. The married 
life of Augustus and Livla is said to have been in most respects happy ; but it was marred 
at the close by the suspicionsof the husband that the wife, in spite of her apparent devo- 
tion to his person and Interests, bad plotted the overthrow of the natural heirs of his 
. throne. One by one the members of the large and brilliant family of Augustus had been 
ruined, and the aged emperor found himself alone in the palace with Livia and her son 
Tiberias, whom he was constrained to adopt and make his heir. The Roman people 
execrated her, and her son Tiberius, after his ascent to the throne, showed her no favor 
or respect. He even refused to visit her in her dying moments, or to take any part in 
the funeral rites. She survived Augustus 15 years, dying at Roma 

LIVINGSTON, a ca in n.e. Illinois; 1036 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 38,458. Traversed by 
the Vermilion river, and by the Chicago and Alton; Toledo, Peoria, and Warsaw; and 
Illinois Central rai broads. The soil is fertile, the surface generally level. Productions: 
Indian corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, and hay; other staples are wool and butter. There 
arc A number of nuinufactoriesof carriages, metal goods, saddlery and harness, etc. Co. 
seat, Pontiaa 

LIVINGSTON, a CO. in w. Kentucky, having the Ohio river on the n. and the Ten- 
nessee on the s., and intersected by the Cumberland; 275 sq.m.; pop. '80, 0,1^. The 
soil is fertile. Productions: wheat, Indian com, oats, tobacco, and potatoes. There are 
a few flour and saw mills, but n<»<ither important manufactures. Co. seat, Smithland. 

LIVINGSTON, a s.e. parish of Louisiana, having the Amite river on the s. and w., 
and the Tickfah intersecting it; 050 sq.m.; pop. '80, 6,258. The surface is level and the 
soil fertile, producing cotton, Indian corn, rice, sweet- potatoes, and sugar-cane. Co. 
seat, Springneld. 

LIVINGSTON, a co, in s.e. Michigan, traversed by the Red Cednr, Huron, and 
Shiawassee rivers, and hy the Detroit, Lansinz, and Lake Michigan railroad; 576 sq.m.; 
pop. '80, 22,251. The soil is fertile, and proauces heavily of wheat, Indian com, oats, 
and potatoes; wool, butter, hay, and hops arc also staple products. Co. seat, Howell. 

LIVINGSTON, a CO. in n.w. Missouri, traversed by the Grand river and crossed by 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph and a branch of the St. Louis, Kansas City, and Northern 
railroads; 510 sq.m.; pop. '80, 20,205. The productions i^^.J^<|ia^j^^^ats, wheat. 

97 I4iv«T* 

• toteeoo. haj, potatoes, butter, and wool. Tbere are a number of mills and manufacto- 
ries of flour, lumber, metal wares, sash, doors, and blijida, etc. Co. seat, Chillicothe. 

LIVINGSTON, a co. in w. New York, intersected by the Genesee river and canal, 
dnined by Honeoye and Canaseraga creeks, and traversed by the N. Y. Central and 
Erienilnisds, and branches of the latter; <MK) sq.m.; pop. '80, 39,578. The surface is 
mied, beinc hilly in parts, and is generally well wooded. The fertile and beautiful 
GeDcsee Yalley lies in this county and is one of its chief features, the soil being highly 
productive. The principal agricultural products are Indian corn, wheat, barley, hay, 
iod oats; hotter and wool are also haportant staplas. The Avon saliLe-sulphurous 
springs are in this country, and are much frequented by persons suflc ring from rheu- 
matism and from cutaneous diseases, as to which the waters are believed to exercise a 
specific remedial influence. This county has valuable quarries of sandstone. Go. seat, 

LIVINGSTON, Bbockhoc^, ll.d., 1767-1828; b. N. Y.; son of William; educated 
at Princeton, and in 177^ entered the army on gen. 8chuy]er*8 staff. He was afterward 
with Arnold, and was brevettcd maj. and col. In 1779 he became secretary to John 
Jay. After the war he studied law, and in 1802 was appointed a judge of tiie N. Y. 
supreme court. For the last 17 years of his life he occupied the eminent posUion of 
judge of the U. S. supreme court, and died at Washington. 

LimroSTOH, Edward, an American jurist and alateeman, was b. on May 26, 1784, 
at Liviiipton (afterward Ciaremont), in the state of New York. He belonged to a family 
wbicli, fior nearly a century, bad been of the greatest weight and distinction in the 
colony. Liviuffston was the son of Robert Livingston, judge of the supreme court of 
New York, and the youngest of a very numerous family. After leaving the college of 
Princeton, he studied law under his brother Robert, 18 years his senior (see below), 
and devoted special attention to Roman jurisprudence. On being called to the bar, he 
soon obtainecf an extensive practice. He had spent his vouth among the founders of 
American independence, all of whom he had known as visitors of his father, and he at 
oQce attained a prominent position. He was elected a member of congress in 1704; 
federal attorney and mayor of New York in 1801; and he would probably have been 
known only as a prosperous lawyer had not a great misfortune at this period befallen 
him. Livingston, as federal attorneyi was intrusted with the collection of debts to the 
state recovered by legal proceedings. He had the greatest aversion to accounts, and 
intrusted this part of uis duty to a clerk, a Frenchoiao, who appropriated the funds to 
his own purposes. Wlien Livingston discovered what had happened, he at once ascer- 
tained the balance due to the state, handed over his whole property to his creditors, 
threw up his appointment, and resolved to quit New York. No entreaty on the part of 
his fellow-citizens could induce him to remain. Louisiana had just been annexed to the 
United 8tates, thanks to negotiations conducted b^'his brother at Paris, and he resolved 
to settle in Uie new state. He joined the New Orleans bar in 1804, and at once obtained 
lucrative practice. He had great difflculties to encounter. The business had to be con- 
ducted partly in French ancTSpanlsh. The law administered was a strange compound 
of municipal regulations, Spanish and French law, and the Roman Iftw of the civilians. 
A proposal was made to introduce the common law of England, and this would have 
been much to the pecuniary advantage of Livingston, but he opposed the scheme in an 
eloquent and convincing speech to the Louisiana chambers, ana it was decided that the 
law of the state should remain based upon the civil rather than the common law. In 
the dispute with England in 1814 and 1815, Livingston became aid-de-camp and secre- 
tary to gen. Jackson, and attracted much notice by the admirable bulletins he wrote 
during the campaign. In 1820 he was appointed to draw up a code of civil procedure 
for Louisiana. It was the simplest known up to that time, was found to work admirably, 
and received the warmest approval from Bcntham and other jurists. Livingston was 
then employed in reducing to system the civil laws of Louisiana. He had to aid him in 
tlie task the French and other modern codes, the nomenclature of Scotch law, and a 
familiar acquainUmce with all that is mostvaluab! in English iurisprudence, and the 
work produced, the " Civil Code of Louisiana," is undoubtedly the most successful 
adaptation of the civil Uw to the conditions of modern society. It was adopted in 
Louisiana in 1828, and has since become the law of many other states. Livingston was 
then emploved to prepare a new criminal code, and in a preliminary treatise he laid down 
the principles on which he was to proceed. lie piopc^d the abolition of the punishment^ 
of death, and a penitentiary sj'stera, which at ouce drew general attention to his labors. 
His book was reprinted in London, translated into French, and made a sensation all over 
Europe, and the author received the congratulations of the most eminent publicists 
and politicians of England, France, and Germany. His code of crimes and punishments 
vas completed, but not adopted without modifications. Livingston was elected in 1829 
member for Louisiana of the American senate, and in 1881 appointed secretary of state 
for foreign affairs. Two years later he went to France as minister plenipotentiary to 
support a demand of a million sterling made by the U. S. government for Indemnity on 
account of French spoliations, and he succeeded in securing payment. He had married 
a lady of New Orleans, of French family and education, had been long conversant with 
the French language, in which he had l)e'cn accustomed to plead before the courts of 

U. K. IX. 7 Digitized by VjiJOVlC 

New Orieaus, and b« be«amo iDtimately acquainted wiCh the leading Jaristo and poll* ' 
ticiaud of Ttinoe, He was admitted an associate of the academy of moral and political 
sciences, andreceiTcd tbq warmest tribute of respect as oneol tUe greatest pbiioMpU^cal 
lawyers of i^is time. alUiough bis distinction at Ii,bme bad been chiefly woa aa a caref ui 
and painstaking maifi of business. Livingston died oii If^y 98, lbl$0„ at bis own e&Ute 
on tjie Hudson, ia conscience of drinkina cold wat^r wlien very i>ot.-*-8ee npticesol 
bis life in French by M. Taillandier and by jK^ Hign^t, and j^ long bio^phy l^ JliU-. E 
Hunt, wjith introductiou by S. Bancroft. 

LIVINGSTON, HSKRY Beekmajt, ITSO-lSSl; b. at Livin^on manor, N. Y.; eon 
of judge Robert R Raising, a military company in 1775, he Jomed Montgomery's expe- 
dition to Canada. For gallant conduct at the capture of ChamUy, congress voted liim 
a sword of honor. In 1776 he became aide-d^-camp to gen. Schuyler, and later in the 
same year col. of the 4th battalion of New York volunteers, resigning in 1779. Bred to 
tbelaw, he sucoessiyely filled the posts of attorney-gen., jodge, and cKi^^justict of ttie 
supreme .court of New York. He was also presiaefit of the New York society of Cia- 
cinnati; and; during the war of 1813 he received the appoiatarantof brig^eou Died at 

LIVINGSTON, John. See LnrmosTOK, Rohbrt R, ante. 

LIVINGSTON, John Henry, d.d., 1746-1825; b. N. Y.; graduated at Yale college 
in 1762^ studied theology at Utrecht, Holland; ordained at Amsterdam in 173^; received 
the title of d.d. from Utrecht; returning to the United States^ became pastor of the 
I)utch church in New York, and during the war preached in Albany, Kingston, and 
Poughkeepsie; appointed professor of divinity by the general synod of America in a 
semuuury opened under his direction at Bedford. L. I., in 1705. which being united id 
X807 with queen's (now Rutger*s) college. New Brunswick, he became its president and 
professor of theology. He spent the remainder of his life ia New Brunswick. 

LIVINGSTON, Philip, 1716-78; b. Albany, N. Y.; grandson of John Livingston, 
to whom grants of land on the Hudson river were made by George I. A graduate of 
Yale college in 1737, he became a successful merchant In New York, a member of its 
city council^ and a member from the city to the colonial assembly of New York from 
1758 to 1769. He was elected to the continental congress, apd is best known as one of, 
the signers of the declaration of independence. He was in service in that congress then 
in session at York. Penn., at the time of his death. He was distinguished, like all the 
family, for resolute patriotism in aiding the cause of the colonies m their struggle for 

LIYIKCIBTOK. Robert R, brother of Edward, an eminent lawyer and politician, was 
b. in New York m 1746. He was one of the five members of the commiilee charged with 
drawing up the declaration of independence. WhcA the constitution of the slate of New| 
York was settled, he was appointed chief judge, a dignity'he retained till 1801. He 
was then sent to Paris as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate the cession of Louisiana 
to the United States, a duty he discharged with rare ability. He enabled Fulton to 
construct his first steamboat, and introduced in America the use of sulphate of lime as a 
manure, and the merino sheep, and in many other ways distinguished himself as a national 
benefactor. He died Mar. 26, 1818. 

The Livingstons, whose lives have lust been recorded, belong to an American family 
remarkable for hereditary talent and the large number of its members who have distin^ 
guished themselves in the United States as eminent men of letters, magistrates, lawyers, 
and divines. They descend lineally from the fifth lord Livingston, wno was intrusted 
with the guardianship of Mary queen of Scots, and from the Rev. John Livingston^ 
minister of Ancrum, in Teviotdale, the grandson of the nobleman, one of the mosj 
distinguished of the Presbyterian divines. John Livingston was born at Kilsyth, on 
June 21, 1603. preached with great success in Ireland, and was one of two commissioni 
ers sent by the Scotch kirk to Breda, in Holland, to treat with Charles II. Refusing 
to take the oath of allegiance, he was banished, and in 1663 went to Holland, when*, 
as pastor of the Scotch kirk at Rotterdam, he spent the last years of his life. He wns 
the author of several works, the best known of which Is his autobiography. His soil 
Robert was bom at Ancrum in 1654, and while still a lad emigrated to America, and 
settled in the Dutch village of Albany, in the region of the upper Hudson. He l)ou<;hl 
from the Indians a vast tract of land on the banks of the river, embracing upwards 
of 160,000 acres; and this property he had erected into the lordship and manor oj 

LIVINGSTON, WniJAM, LL.D., 1723-90; b. Albany; brother of Philip (q. v.); ^ad 
nated at Yale. 1741; governor of New Jersey, 1776-90. He waa elected to llie continen 
tul congress of 1774, was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1787, and th< 
author of a number of legal and political treatises. His life was one of patriotic devp 
tion as jurist, legislator, and magistrate. 

LIYIH08T01IS, David, African traveler and missionary, was a native of Scotland 
and was Itorn at Blantyre, in Lanarkshire, in the year 1817. At the age often he became 
a *' pieoer" in a cotton-factory, and for many years was engaged in bard work as ai 
operative. An evening-4School furnished him with the opportunity of acquiring som< 

^^ livingatattla.. 

Icnavledge of Lfttin andGreok, and fimliy, after attendinff a coune of mediciM al 
Olnsgow uQiYcroity, and tiie theological lectures of the late Dr. Wardlaw, professor of 
tbeohigjr lo. the Si'Otcfa Ibdepeiideiiui. be olEered himaetf to the London niiflsiouaiy soci- 
ety, by whom he was) ordained as a medical missiouary in 1840. In the summer of tliat 
jiw he landeil at Fort J^atal ia s. Africa* Circumslimces made him. acquuiiited with 
the ref . Kobert Moffat, himself a diHtiuguishtsd mist^ionary, and wUotie daughter he 
sttbseqoeutly married. For 16 years Livingstone proved himself a faithful aud^ zealous 
serraiu of the London missionary socie^. The two most important results a^ihieved by 
him iu this period were the discovery of lake Ngami (Aug. 1, lM9)f and his crustting 
the continent of a. Africai. from the Zarobe^i (or Leeambye) to the Congo, and thence 
to Loundo, the capital of AngoU, which took him about 18 month^i (from Jan., 18o3, to 
Juiie^ 1854). In Sept. of the same year he left Loando on his return across the couti- 
oent, reached Linzaoti (in lat. 18'' 17' s.. and long. 23" 50' e.), the capital of the great 
Makololo tribe, and from thence proceeded alooff the banks of the Leeambye to Quili- 
maae on the Indian ocean, which he reached May 20, 1856. He then took slup for 
Eagland. In 1857 Livingstone published his MMoiiary Trav$U and JienearcJies in iSouth 
Africa, a work of great interest and value. Returning in 1858 as British coubul at Quill- 
mane, he spent several years in further exploring the Zambesi, in ascending the Sliir6, 
and discovering lake Shirwa and lake Nyassa — the Maravi of the old map*. A uurrar 
tive of these oiacoveries was published during a visit he paid to EuglanJ in 1864-65. 
Ia the mean time, lakes Taugany ika^ Victoria Kyanza, and Albert Myauza had been dis- 
covered by Burton, Speke, and Baker, but the true source of the l^ile was stilJ a prob- 
lem. With a view to its solution, Livingstone, in 1866, entered the interior, and nothing 
was heard of him for two years. The communications received from him afterwaras 
describe his discovery of the great water-system of the Chambeze in the elevated region 
to the s. of Tanganyika. It Sows first w. and then turna northward, forming a succes- 
sion of lakes, lying to the w. of the Tanganyika. To determme its course atier it 
leaves these, whiether it joins the Kile or turns westward and forma the Cougii, was the 
gmod taak which Livingstone seemed resolved to accomplish or perish. He was much 
bafiaed by inundations, the hostility of the slave-dealers, and by the want of supplies, 
-which were habitually delayed and plundered by those who conveyed them. When 
nothing certain had been heaiid of him for some time, Mr. 8Uinley, of the New York 
H€r<dd, boldly pushed his way from Zanzibar to Ujiji, where, in 1871. lie found the 
traveler in great destitution. On parting with Mr. Stanley. Livingstone started on a fresh 
exploration of the river-system oi the Chambeze or Lualaba, convinced that it would 
turnout to be the head-waters of the Nile. In May, 1878, however, he died at ilala, 
beyond lake Bemba. His body was brought home in April, 1874, and interred in West- 
minster abbey. His Laei Jaumala were preserved, and published in Dec, 1874. 

LIVINGSTONE, David, ll.d. {ante). When left by Mr. Stanley at Unyanyembc 
in Mar., 1872, it was his intention to remain in Africa only about a year longer, and 
then to return to England for permanent rendence. In the following Aug., having 
received men and supplies from Zanzibar, he led an expedition toward the e. side or 
lake Bangweolo and the supposed sources of the streams which' form the Lualaba. 
From this time no news of his explorations was received from his own hand, and accu- 
rate detfiils of this last Journey are entirely wanting. An expedition, under the auspices 
of the royal geographical society, and commanded by lieut. Cameron, was sent to the 
relief of the explorer early in 1878. Leaving Zanzibar on Mar. 18, this relief -party 
be«^an its quest. Having reached Unyanyembe in Aug., lleut. Cameron fir*t heard of 
Livingstone's death. On Oct. 16 the intelligence was confirmed by the arrival tliere of 
a body of natives bearing the remains of the explorer, and bringing a letter from his 
negro servant, Wainwright. It appeared that the explorer, after enduring jrreat hard- 
ships, had been attackea with dysentery, from which he died after a fortnigi)t*s illness. 
The party in charge of hw remains encountered great difflcuUies and endured much 
suffering, but by the aid of lieut. Cameron they succeeded in reaching the coast. The 
Last Journals of David Livinggtonef indnding his Wanderings and Diseorerifs in Ennlem 
Mrieafrom 186fl to wthin afsto days of his Death, in 2 vols., edited by the Rev. Horace 
Waller, appeared in London in 1874; and The Personal Lifeof Datid /Avinffstone, LL.I)., 
D.O.L.; chiefly from his Unpublished Jowrruds and Correspondence in the Possession, of his 
Family; by William Garden Blaikic, D.D., ll.d., was published in London in is79. 
Both these works have l>een republished in New York, Dr. Livingstone was tlie recip- 
ient of honors from most of the geographical societies of the world ; the academy of 
sciences in Paris elected him a corresponding membcT, and in 1871 the British govern- 
ment granted to his family a pension of £300. See Africa. 


UVmOfiTOVIA mSSIOK, of which the chief wttlement is nt cape ]^Tnr1oar at the s. 
end of lake Nyassa (q.v.). was based on a suggestion made by Dr. Li . inu^tone that this 
lake was the best position for the <«tabli9hment of a mission with a view to ilie annihilar 
tion of the Portuguese and Arab slave-trade on the c. of Africa. Acting on this sugsres- 
tion, an expedition, costincj about £6.000, wns equipped in 1875 by the Scotch Presby- 
terian cburchcB for establishing a mission here. Another stiition called Blantyre hsa 
been planted in the 8hir€ highlands, within easy distance of the liUce. As yef ' 

Digitized by ^ir 




industries are iron manufacture, basket-making, and cloth manufacture from the bark 
of trees and cotton. With the exception of the 70 m. of the Kurchison falls, there 
exists unbroken water communication between the head of Nyassa and the Indian 

Liynrs, Trrus, the most illustrious of Roman historians, was b. at Patavium 
(Padua), in 61 b.c. according to Gato, but according to Varro in 59 B.C.. the year of 
the great Caesar *s first consulship. We know nothing of his early life, except that he 
practiced as a rhetorician and wrote on rhetoric. There is internal evidence which 
makes it probable that he did not commence his great history till *ie was drawing near 
middle age. He lived to see his eightieth year; and having been b'>rn under the repub- 
lic, died under Tiberius. Hid fame was. so thoroughly established and widely spread, 
even during his lifetime, that a Spaniard traveled from Gades to Rome onlv to see him. 
Quintiliai), in claiming for the Uomans equal merit in the department of nistory with 
the Greeks, compares Livius to Herodotus, and there is no doubt taat his countrymen 
regarded him as their greatest historical writer. The story that Asinius PoUio preti'nded 
to discover a certain provincialism or patavinity in his style is probably false; but even 
if it be true, modern criticism is unable to discover In what the peculiarity consisted; 
for Livius's work is one of the greatest masterpieces of Latin or of h jman composition. 
Oririnally the Roman history of Livius was comprised in 142 books, divided into tent 
or decades; but only 80 books, with the greater part of 5 more, now exist. Instead of a 
complete narrativcfrom the foundation of the city to the historian's )wn time, we have 
detailed portions, the most valuable of which are the first decade, containing the early 
history, and the third, containing the wars with Hannibal. Among the surviving frng- 
ments of what is lost is a character of Cicero, preserved in the Stia9oria of Seneca, the 
execution of which makes us deeply regret that time has not spared Llvins's account of 
the transactions of his own period. 

In classing Livius in his proper place among the great historians of the ancient and 
modern world, we must not think of him as a critical or antiquarian writer — a writer 
of scrupulously calm Judgment and diligent research. He is pre-eminently a man of 
beautiful genius, with an unrivaled talent for narration, who takes up the history of 
his countiy in the spirit of an artist, and makes a free use of the materials lying 
handiest for the creation of a work full of grace, color, harmony, and a dignified 
ease. Prof. Ramsay has remarked that be treats the old tribunes just as if they were 
on a level with the demagogues of the worst period; and Niebuhr censures the errors 
of the same kind into which his Pompeian and aristocratic prepossessions betrayed 
liim. But this tendency, if it was ever harmful, is harmless now, and was closely 
connected with that love of ancient Roman institutions and ancient Roman times 
which at once inspired his genius and was a part of it. And the value of his his- 
tory is incalculable, even in the mutilated state in which we have it, as a picture of 
what the great Roman traditions were to the Romans in their most cultivated period. 
The literarv talent most conspicuous in Livius is that of a narrator, and the English 
reader perhaps derives the best idea — though it is but a faii^ one — of his quality 
from the histories of Goldsmith or the Tales of a QrandfatTier of sir Walter Scott. 
Ag does not rival Tacitus in portraiture or in tragic power, but no writer has ever 
surpassed him in the art of telling a story; and the speeches which, according to the 
antique fasliion, he puts into the mouths of his historic characters are singularly 
ingenious, pointed, and dramatically real. There is also something in a high depee 
winning and engaging about what we may call the moral atmosphere of Livius's 
historv, which nobody can read without feeling that the historian had a kindljr ten- 
der disposition— a large, candid, and generous soul. The editio princeps of Livius, 
which did not contain all that we now have of the work, was published at Rome 
about 1469, and MSS. of parts of Livius were existing in that century which have since 
disappeared. The most celebrated editions arc those of Gronovius, Crevler, Draken- 
borch, and Ruddiman; and, in recent times, esteemed recensions of the text have been 
issued by Madvig, Alschefski, and Weissenborn. 

LIY'IUB ANDBOHIGITB, the father of Roman dramatic and epic poetrv, was a Greek 
by birth, probably a native of Tarentum, and flourished about the middle of the 8d c 
B.O. He translated the Odyssey into Latin Saturuian verse, and wrote tragedies, come- 
dies, and hymns after Greek models. Mere fragments are extant, of which a collection 
may be found in Bothe's JPoetm seenid Laiini (vol. 5, Halberst, 1823) and Dantzer'a 
LitU Andronid Fragmenta CoUecta ct lUuairaia (Berlin, 1885). 

LIT VY, an ancient district t. of Great Russia, in the government of Orel, in lat. 52* 
25' n., long. 87" 37' east. Pop. '67, 18,470, who carry on an extensive trade in com, 
cattle, and honey. 

LIYCKIA (Ger. lAefoUind), one of the three Baltic provinces of Russia, to which belong 
also the islands of Oesel, Man. and Runo, contains an area of 18,088 sq.m., with a pop. 
of (1870) 1,000,876. Thecouotry ismostly flat, and one-fourth of it is covered with wood. 
The soil is only of moderate fertility; but nevertheless agriculture and cattle and sheep 
breeding are brought to a high degree of perfection. Livtmia has many extensive fac- 
tories and distilleries belonging to the government^ also some cloth manufactories, one 
c9f which, situated near Pernau, is very extensive. The inhabitants of the counlsy ara 

Digitized by VjiOOV IC 

101 tet 

of Finnish and Lettish descent; those in the towns are chiefly Gertnans, with a swiik- 
liog of Russians, Poles, and Jews. Livonia, up to the 17th c, included the three Baltic 
proTinces of Courland. Lironia. and Esthouia. 

LITOSVO. See Lbohohn. 

IITXX, the name of an ancient French coin, derired from the Roman Ulfra, or cu 
<q.v.)- There were livres of different values, tlie most important heing the Uvre Tour- 
iwii (of Tours), which was considered the standard, and the litre Parisut (of Paris), 
•which was equal to flve-fourtlis of a livre Tournois. In 1795 the livre was superseded 
by the franc (80 francs -= 81 livres Tournois). — Lrvus was also the ancient French unit 
of weight, and was equal to 17.267 oz. avoirdupois; the kilogram (see Gram) has 
taken its place. 

LIVY. See Linus, ante. 

UXXYIATIOK (Lat. Ux, ashes), a term employed in chemistry to denote the process 
of washing or steeping certain substances in a fluid, for the purpose of dissolviug a por- 
tion of their ingredients, and so separating them from the insoluble residue. Thus, 
wood^Mh is lixiviated with water to dissolve out the carbonates of soda and potash iram 
the insoluble parts. The solution thus obtained is called a Uxivium or lys. 

LIXIF'BI, a t. of the island of Cephalonia, on the w. shore of the gulf of ArgostolL 
It is a Greek bishop's sea Pop. 7,000. 

LIZABD, Lacerta, a genus of saurian reptiles, the type of a numerous group, in which 
monitors (q.v.), etc.. are included, and to which the megalosattrus and other large fossil 
saurians are referred. The name lizard is indeed often extended to all the saurian rep- 
tiles; but in its more restricted sense it is applied only to a family. laeerUdcB, none of 
wiiich attain a large 8i2e, whilst most of them are small, active, brilliantly colored, and 
bright-eyed creatures, loving warmth and sunshine, abounding chiefly m the warmer 
parts of the old world. They have a long, extensile, forked toneue; the body is gen- 
erally long, and terminates in a rather long tail ; the feet have each five toes, furnished 
with claws; the upper parts are covered with small, imbricated scales; the scales of the 
under parts are larger; a collar of broad scales surrounds the neck; the bones of the 
skull aavance over the temples and orbits; the back part of the palate is armed with 
two rows of teeth. They feed chiefly on insects. Britain produces only two well-as^rer- 
tained species: the Sand Lizabd (L. offHU or L. etirpium\ alK)ut 7 in. long, variable 
in color and marking, but generally sandy brown on the upper parts, blotched with 
darker brown, and having a lateral series of black, rounded spots, each of which has a 
yellowish-white dot or line in the center; and the Common Lizard, or Vivifakous Liz- 
ard (zootoca vivipara), smaller, more slender, very variable in color, a dark-brown gener- 
ally prevailing on the upper parts. The former species is comparatively rare; it inluibits 
sandy heaths: the latter is abundant in dry moors and sand-banks. They differ remark- 
ably in the former being oviparous, the latter viviparous, or, more strictly speaking, 
ovoviviparous. Both are harmless creatures, as are all the rest of this family. Larger 
species are found in the more southern parts of Europe. Some of the lizarcfs are quite 
susceptible of being tamed. They are remarkable for the readiness with which the end 
of the tail breaks off; the flinging of a glove or handkerchief on one when it is trying to 
make its escape is often enougl> to cause the separation of this portion, which lies wrie- 
ling whilst the animal hastens away. The lost portion is afterwuxls reproduced. Lizaras 
become torpid in winter. 

TiTZAUT), in heraldry, means either (1) the reptile usually so called or (2) a beast 
eomewhat resembling the wild-cat, and said to be found in several countries of northern 
Europe, represented with brown fur and large spots of a darker shade. 

TilZATil) POnrT. See Cornwall. 

LIZARD'S TAIL, the saururut cemuus (Lin.), of the natural order tauracea, a 
perennial plant growing in marshes and along the edges of ponds and slow streams in 
New York and westward and northward. Its stem is about 2 ft. high and rather weak; 
leaves alternate, petiolate, heart-shaped, entire, pointed, convergingly ribbed, slightly 
hairy, and pale green underneath. The flowers are in a slender, crowded, termiiml, 
spike-like, gracefully< curved raceme, about 4 in. long, having no calyx or corolla, the 
pistils. 6 or 7 in number, standing in the axis of a bract. Fruit rather fleshy, wrinkled, 
and composed of three to four pistils united at the base. The entire plant has an aro- 
matic but rather unpleasant odor and a somewhat acrid taste. The root has been used 
for making poultices for abscesses and other painful swellings. 

LLAMA, Auehenia lama, a most useful South American quadruped of the family 
tameHdm. It is doubtful whether it ought to be regarded as a distinct species, or as a 
mere domesticated variety of the huanaca (q.v.). It was in general use as a beast of 
burden on the Peruvian Andes at the time of the Spanish conquest, and was the only 
beast of burden used by the natives of America before the horse and ass were introduced 
by Enropeans. It is still much used in this capacity on the Andes, the peculiar confor- 
mation of its feet (see AvcflSKiA) enabling it to walk securely on slopes too rough and 
8tem> for any otber animal. The working of many of the silver mines of the Andes 
<ouid scarcely be carried on but for the assistance of llamas. The burden carried by the 

llama should not exceed 126 iKkunds. When too beavUy loaded the animal lies down 
and refiuies to nioye> nor ^'iU either coaxing or severity overcome its resolution. It is. 
eenerully. very patient and docile. Its rate of traveling is about 12 or 15 m. a day. The 
llama is about 3 ft. in height at the shoulder, has a longish neck, and carries its head 
elevated. The females are smaller and less strong than the males, which alone are used 
for carrying burdena The color is very various, generally brown with shades of yellow 
or black, frequently speckled, rarely Quite white or black. The flesh is spongy, coarse, 
and not of a very agreeable flavor. The hair or wool is inferior to that of the alpaca, 
but is used for similar purposes; that of the female is finer than that of the male. The 
llama has been introduced with the alpaca into Australia; but it is only for steep moun- 
tuin regions that it seems to be adapted. 

LLAITDAIT' (jUan Taff, the place of a church on the Taff)> & city of s. Wales, in the 
CO. of Qiamorgan, is situated on the right bank of the Taff, 3 m, above Cardiff, in a dis- 
trict remarkable for its beauty. It is the seat of a bishopric, the revenue of which is 
£4,200. Pop. about 700. 

LLAVDVB'KO, a very fashionable watering-place in the co. of Caernarvon, n. Wales, 
is situated between the Great and Little Orme's Heads, 40 m. w.s. w. of Liverpool. The 
air is described as " delicious," and there is every facility for sea-bathing, and extensive 
healthy rambles. Pop. in 71, 2,762. 

LLAHEL'LYia parliamentary borough, manufacturing town, and seaport of s. Wales, 
in the co. of Caermurthen, and 16 m. s.e. of the t. of mat name. The mineral wenlth 
of the vicinity, and the easy access to the sea, have raised the town to considerable com- 
mercial importance. The Cambrian copper-works employ a great number of the inhabi- 
tants; but there are also silver-, lead-, iron-, and tin-works, and a pottery. Coal is laigely 
exported. In 1877, 2,935 vessels, of 207,251 tons, entered and cleared the port. Pop. of 
parliamentary borough in 1871, 15,281. 

LLAKOOL'LEH, a small t. of n. Wales, in the co. of Denbigh, picturesquely situated 
on the right bank of the river Dee, 22 m. s.w. of Chester. It is visited by tourists on 
account of the beauty of the famous vale of Llangollen, and for its antiquities, among 
which is the fragment of the round inscribed pillar of EKsy. 

IIAH'IBLOEB, a municipal and parliamentary borough of n. Wales, in the co. of 
Montgomery, 19 m. w.s.w. of the t. of that name. Its church is one of the most 
beautiful in Wales. Considerable manufactures of flannel and other woolen fabrics are 
carried on. Llanidloes unites with several other boroughs in sending a member to par- 
liament. Pop. 71, 8,428. 

LLA'NO, a w. central co. in Texas; bounded by the Colorado, and intersected by the 
Llano and its affluents; 900 sq.m.; pop. 70, 1879. It is arid and stony the inhabitants 
being devoted chiefly to stock-ruisina:. The minerals abound, including gold, lead, iron, 
silver, and antimony. Salt and building-stone also are found. Co. scat, Llano. 

LLANO ESTACA'DO, a desolate plateau of n,w. Texas and s.e. New Mexico, 
having an area of more than 40,000 sq.m., and an elevation of from 8.200 to 4,700 ft, 
with a general slope northward. It has but a scanty supply of water, and is covered 
with a sparse coating of grass in* the wet season. Its scanty shrubs have large roots, 
which are used for fuel. Attempts made by gen. Pope in 1852 to obtain water by 
means of artesian wells met with little success. 

LLA'HOB are vast steppes or plains in the northern portion of Bouth America, partly 
covered with tall luxuriant grass, and partly with drifting sand, and stocked with 
innumerable herds of cattle. They resemble the more southern pampas (q.v.) and the 
North American savannas (q.v.). The inhabitants, a vigorous race of shepherds, are 
called Uaneros. 

LLAN'QUIHUE. a district of the department of Valdivia in southern Chili, lietween 
the river Buena on the north and the gulf of Ancud; 8,350 sq.m. ; pop. about 43.000. It 
is mostly a fertile plain drained by the river Maullin, and largely peopled by Germans 
engaged in agriculture and grazing. The climate resembles that of Ireland, though the 
winters are less severe. It is the favorite part of Chili with emigrants from Europe, 
because more nearly resembling the northern coast of Europe in soil, production, and 
climate than other portions of Chili. Three volcanoes are among the Andes upon its 
eastern side. Port Montt, on the gulf of Ancud, is the principal town. 

LLEBE'KAi a t. in the Spanish province of Badaioz, and 68 m. s.e. of Badajos. The 
inhabitants are mostly employed in agriculture. Pop. 6,000. Near Llerena lord Com- 
bermere with his cavalry routed, on April 11. 1812, a French force of 2,500 oavalry and 
10,000 infantry, the rearguard of Soult, under Drouet, retiring after the capture of 

LLEWELLTN AP GRIFFITH. Prince of Wales, d. 1282. He succeeded David, 
1246; revolted from his allegiance to the Eni^lish in 1256, but made peace with Henxy 
III. in 1268. Edward I. summoned him to attend parliament at Westnuai^ter both io 
1274 and 1276, but he reused to appear. His wife, Eleanor de Montfoct, was captured 
by the English in the channel in 1275, and his offers of a ransom for her were declined. 
The English invaded his tenitory and were successfully repelle^^ li^i^^j^'^^^e strreii' 


dered jdadMmiWMd WW tAlDtii toWtsUniaaler. He snimqim^^y i 

tad, after being reeonciled to his l»rotber David, renewed the war with the ] 

WM surprised ai|d killed by Mortimfir in 1282. 

JXOBEHTI, Ji7AN ANTomo, a &MtiiBh hisloriflti, Wis b. ftt Rinpon del 66to, adsr 
Oilaborra, 'Msr. 80, 1^60. He wuls taudated by his natemal uncle, and reoeired orders 
in 1719. He took Ins- degree In eonoh law, and wtts • named sueceasivefy advocate of tikto 
council of Castile in 1781, vicar-general of CalaUori^ (17^, and ftzwlly secretary of the 
inquisition in 1780. Llorente was from an early period attached to the liberal iMtrty. 
On die fall of Jovcllanos he was deprived of liis emplpymcdts, and remHined id dis- 
grace till 1805, when he recovered favor as the reward of a literary service of a very 
questionable character which he rendered to Godoy, by a historical essuy against the 
liberties of the Basque provinces. On the intrusion of the Kapoleon dynasty Llorente 
became a zealous partisan of the French, and an aciive instrument of the French policy, 
to which he lent all his support at the press, as well as in office; and being obliged to 
fly, on the restoration of Fezilinand, he fixed his residence in Paris, where he published 
the work to which his celebrity is chieflv due — his Critical History of tJie Inqtimtion. 
This work, which professes to be founded on authentic documents, although throwing 
much light on a subject previously inaccessible, has, in the Judgment of impartial his- 
torians, as Prescott, Ranke, and others, lost most of its value by its plainly partisan 
character, and by the exaggerations in which it abounds. See Ikquisitioiy. Written 
by Llorente in Spanish, it was translated into French, under the author's eye, by Alexis 
Peliier (Par. 1817-18), and has been translated into most of the European languages. 
Llorente published, during his residence in Paris, several other works, some literary, as 
bis Critical ObterwUiom on Oil Blat; some polemical, as bis iVrfraiO^ Poltiifv^ des 
Papes; and others, it is alleged, of a more qnesiionable ciiaraecerin a moral point of 
view. His work on the popes led to his being compelled to quit Paris in 1822, and a 
few days after he reached Madrid he died, Feb. 6, 1828. He was also the author of 
Memoirs of the Spani^ Mevoihttion, 8 vols. 8vo, 1810, and an Blmajf on a Bek'ffious 
CorutituUan, 1819. Most of his works were published both in Spanish and in French. 

LLOYD, Thomas. 1649-04; b. at Dolobran, north Wales; educated nt Oxfoi-d, but 
was converted to Quakerism, and, as a preacher of that sect, suffered much pei-secution; 
in 1684 accompanied William Penn to America, and was acting-governor and president 
of the council of Pennsylvania, 1684-86, and deputy governor, 1691-98. 

LLOYD. William, j>.d., 1627-1717; bishop of Worcester; b. Tilehurst, Berkshire; 
educated at Oriel college, Oxford; became fellow of Jesus college in 1646; ordained 
deacon in 1648; was tutor in a gentleman's family: rector of Bradwell in 1654; ordained 
priest in 1665, and made chaplain to Charles II. ; received the title of doctor of divinity 
in 1667. Passing through several of the lower grades of church preferment he was 
made dean of Baugor in 1672, bishop of Exeter in 1676. and of St. A^aph in 1680. He 
took an active part in the troubles between the Komanists and Protestants in 1678. In 
1688 he, with six other bishops, presented a protest to the king against the publication 
of his declai*Htiou of indulg^^nce to Romanists and dissenters, and was with the others 
soon after imprisoned in the Tower. When tried they were acquitted. He was a warm 
supporter of the revolution, and was appointed almoner to William and Mary soon after 
ibeir arrival in Enghmd. In 1693 he was transferred to the see of Coventry, and pro- 
moted in 1699 to the bishopric of Worcester. He furnished valuable materials to 
bishop Burnet's Histoid/ of Ilis Own TirrieSf and besides many pamphlets on the Boman 
Catholic controversy, a few tracts on ecclesiastical subjects and several sermons, pub- 
lished A Chronological Account of His Life of Pythagoras and of his famous Contemporart€s; 
A Disseiiation on Daniets Seventy Weeks; and A %stem of Chronology. 

LLOYD'S, a set of rooms on the first floor of the royal exchange, London, freouentwl 
by merebants, shifMJwners, underwriters, etc., for the purpose of obtaining shippug 
mtelligence, and transacting marine insuranoes. One latige room, with small rooms 
attached to it, is set apart for the use of the undenMters, and there two enormous ledgers 
lie constantly open, the one containing a list of vessels arrived, the other recording die- 
asters at sea. In the same series of rooms there is a self-registering anemometer and 
anemosrope for the use of the tinderwritc»r8; also a valmble collection of chaxt£ ior con- 
sultation. See iNflUKAKCB. Mariwu. The extent of business transacted here may be 
imagined when we consider tliat the value annually insured amounts to above £40,000,000. 
None but members of Llovd's, who haye duly paid the fees, are alk>wed to tranaact busi- 
ness tbtre elfher as insaranoe-bwAers or underwriters. The shipping intelMgence is 
famished by agents appointed for the purpose, and there is scarrely a port of cnnscQuenoe 
where one is not slatiDned. The agent receives no salary, his lal»r being amply coto- 
pensated by tlie advantaires he derives from the connection. The intelligence contaimea 
in the ledgers is also diffused over tlie country every afternoon by the publication of 
Day^s List, There are two other room»^the reading room, which is merely an extensive 
Dewa^room; and the cof/itain^ room, where auctions of ships are carried on, and where 
csptahM and merobante ekn meet to^rether in a sociable manner. The society of Lloyds 
is managed by m committee of twelve, selected from among the members, who also 
appoint the agente and officials of the establishment. The expenses are defrayed hy fees 
and annual iutacriptknis. Digitized by VjUUV ic 

issr^ 104 

1X0^9 Beffkiter tf BrUMk mnd Foreign 8hippifn§ is a volume publiflbed nmniil] j, sad 
containing iDforraation respecting resBels, their age, materials, repairs, owners> captains, 
etc. Tliis iuformation is supplied by salaried agents at the different ports. The office 
of the RegigUr is quite dlstitict from Lloyd's of the excbange. 

The name lMyyd'%^ which is now generically applied, arose from the drcumstanoe 
that tlie head-quarters of the London underwriters waa originally Lloyd's coffee-house. 
Bee Martin's iJSMory qf IA&yd\ 1876. 

LLOTD'8, Austrian, an association for general, commercial, and industrial purposes, 
was founded in Trieste by baron Bruck in 1888, to supply the want, experienced by the 
maritime insurance companies of that port, of a central administration to attend to their 
common interests. This association, like its London prototype, has agents in all the 
principal foreign ports, whose duty it is to collect all information of a nature to affect 
the commerce and navigation of Trieste, and to keep a list of all entrances and clearances 
of ships at their respective ports. This information is published in the Giamale del 
LUn/d Austriaco, This company has established regular communication between Trieste 
and all the important seaports in the Adriatic and Levant, b^ means of a large fleet of 
steamers, which also carry the Austrian mails. The society of Austrian Lloyd's includes 
three sections: the first is composed Of insurance companies, the second of steamboat 
companies, while the third or scientific department (established in 1849) has a printing- 
press, an engraving-room, and an artistic establishment for the perfecting of engraving 
on copper and steet This last section has issued a great number of literary and scientific 

LLOYD'S BOVDfly the name given to a species of securities introduced by Mr. John 
Horatio Lloyd, the eminent barrister, and much employed by railway and other com- 
panies, whose power of borrowing money on mortgage or bond is derived from and 
limited by acts of parliament. A Llovd's bond is an admission under seal of a debt being 
due by the company issuing the bona to the person in whose favor it is executed, with 
a covenant to pay the sum due at a time fixed, and to pay interest at a certain rate from 
the time of issue until payment. The covenant is made by the company, iheir successors 
and assigns, with the obligee, his executors and administrators; so that a Lloyd's bond 
on the face of it is not assignable, and is not, properly speaking, a negotiable instrument. 
The value of it consists in its converting a simple contract or ordinary debt into a spe- 
cialty debt, by which the holder gains a preference over ordinary creditors; and in its 
enabling the holder, armed with tliis preference, to raise money upon the faith of the 
debt, either by assignins; his interest in it, or by depositing the bond as a security 
for advances. A valid Lloyd's bond, as a security, appears to be inferior to a deben- 
ture issued under statutory authority in no respect except that its validity can be put in 

As railway and other companies which have come into existence under parliamentary 
authority have no powers except those which parliament has conferred upon them, their 
power of borrowing is limited to the amounts and must be exercised in the manner 
which parliament has prescribed. By the act 7 and 8 Vict. c. 85, s. 19, it is declared 
illegal for them to grant any loan-notes, or other negotiable or assignable instrument, in 
security of money advanced, except so far as they are authorized by statute. In general, 
they have statutory authority to borrow only when a certain portion (usually the whole) 
of their capital has been subscribed, and a certain portion of it has been paid up. And 
the statute 8 and 9 Vict. c. 16 (the companies' clauses consolidation act) provides that 
their power of borrowing must be exercised under the authority of a general meeting. 
Previous to the introduction of Lloyd's bonds, these restrictions upon borrowing really 
limited the liabilities of companies. They were severely felt by companies whose worM 
were being made or being extended; which often were in need of money, which it was 
impoasible or impolitic to raise by means of calls, and whose borrowing powers bad not 
oome into operation, or could not conveniently be resorted to. Mr. Lloyd relieved such 
companies from their difficulties, and to a certain extent defeated the intentions of par- 
liament by taking advantage of the faqt that companies, if they were prevented from 
borrowing, were not prohibited from getting into debt in any other way, and granting 
acknowledgments of their indebtedness in any form except perhaps that of a negotiable 
instrument. For work done, for goods delivered, for anything except money advanced, 
the directors of a company might ^nt admissions of indebtedness; and Mr. Lloyd sup- 
plied a form in which such admissions would become almost as binding on a company as 
a statutory debenture, in which they could be sufliciently marketable, in which they could 
be conveniently granted by directors on account of all the important objecu for the sake 
of which they could desire to borrow to any extent, without the sanction of a general 
meeting of the shareholders. The only drawback upon the usefulness (for their porpcee) 
of Lloyd's bonds has been, that they have only been negotiable at high rates of discount; 
but this has not prevented companies from using them, in many cases to a dangerous 
extenu There ara instances in which lines have l:^en, for the moet part, made by means 
of Lloyd's bonds; and tfaey lutve constantly been used simply as m colorable means of 
eluding the statutory restrictions upon borrowing. On the other hand, they have been 
of considerable service to companies in the first period of their existence: and that, on the 
whole, they are thought to have been useful may perhaps 1^ in^^:iq|d^f^i|ljheir implied 

105 S2?*- 

under this act, every company requires to prepare half-yearly. 

It results, from what has been stated, that a Lloyd's bond cannot be granted for 
money lent, but can be gninted for any other antecedent debt. It cannot be granted for 
money lent, though the money has actually been used in paying off debts for which 
bonds miglit have been granted. The bond should state the origin of the debt on 
account of which it is granted, but this is not essential. The courts will in no case 
assume that a Lloyd's bond has been issued in breach of statutory provisions; but evi- 
dence of an intention to defeat such provisious will invalidate a bond. If there have 
been no actual debt (as ma^ happen when a company's accounts with a contractor are 
unsettled), the instrument will not create one; and in that case, the obligee or holder 
will not be able to recover, even though the obligee bond fide believed that a debt existed. 
Directors are not personally responsible upon a Lloyd's bond improperlv issued. The 
leading case upon this subject is that of Chambers «. the Manchester and Milford-Haven 
railway company (5 Best and Smith's Rep., 588), decided by the court of qaeen's bench 
in June, 1864. A review of the whole series of cases on this subject up to the date of 
the decision will be found in the case of In, re Bagnalstown and Wexford railway com- 
pany, 1870 (Irish Reports, 4 £q. 505). The form of this instrument (which must be duly 
stamped) is as follows: **The A. and B. railway company do hereby acknowledge that 
thev stand indebted to C. D. in the sum of £1000 for money due and owing from the 
said company to the said C. D., in respect of work and labor done for the said company 
by the said C. D. And the said company for themselves, their successors and assigns, 
hereby covenant with the said C. D^ his executors and administrators, to pay to him, his 
executors, administrators, and assigns, the said sum of £1000 upon the 1st day of May, 
1869, and also interest thereon at the rate of 5 per cent per annum from the date hereof 
until payment; such interest to be payable half-yearly, on the 1st day of January, and 
the 1st day of July in eachye^ir. — Given under the common seal of the said company, 
tlielst day of May, 18^6.— X Y., Secretary:' 

LLUXATOB', or. Lluch-Mator, a t. of the island of Majorca, in an inland situation, 
among mouniains, 15 m. s.e. from Polma. It has manufactures of linen and woolen 
fabrics. Wine and brandy are also produced. Pop. 7,000. 

LOACH, OobitU, a genus of fishes of the familv cyprintda, having an elongated body, 
covered with small scales, and invested with a thick mucous secretion; a small head, a 
small toothless mouth surrounded with 4 to 10 barbules; small gill-opening, and three 
branehiostegous rays. One species, the Common Loach {C. barbatufa), called in Scot- 
land the beardie, is common in rivers and brooks in Britain. It seldom exceeds 4 inches 
in length; is yellowish-white, clouded, and spotted with brown; feeds on worms and 
aquatic insects; and is highly esteemed for the table. It generally keeps vei7 close to 
the bottom of tlie water. — ^The Lakb Loach (O.foss&ie) of the continent of Europe, is 
sometimes a foot long, with longitudinal stripes of brown and yellow. It inhabits the 
mud of stagnant waters, coming to the surface only in stormy weather. The flesh is 
soft and has a muddy flavor. 

LOABSTOHZ, or Maoketig Ibon Ore, a mineral consisting of a mixture of peroxide 
of iron and protoxide of iron; sometimes occurring in grains, as %r<m sand, in trap rocks, 
sometimes in beds in primitive rocks, as in Scandinavia, where it is a valuable ore of 
iron. It is remarkable for its highly magnetic quality; and indeed magnetism was first 
known as belonging to it. It is of a black color; and occurs in concretions, and crystal- 
lized in octahedrons and rhomboidal dodecahedrons. 

lOAX {Qer. Lehm, allied to Lat. limue, mud, and to lime, BUmeYtLierm much employed 
by agriculturists and others to designate a soil consisting of a mixture of clay, sand, and 
lime, with animal and vegetable matters in a state of intimate mixture. The clay varies 
from 20 to 50 per cent; the proportion of lime is generally not more than 5 per cent. 
Loamv soils are among the best and most fertile of soils. They are not stiif and tenacious 
like clay soils, and they are much more fertile than sandy soils. Even in mere mechani- 
cal properties, they are superior to both. The "clay" used for making bricks is often 
really a loam in which the proportion of true clay is large. In Italy, France, and otlier 
countries, walls are made of loam beaten down between planks placed at the requisite 
width; and these walls become very solid, and ladt for centuries. 

LOAN, in law (Loak of Money, aiite), siEcnifies either the delivery of money or 
any personal chattel by one person to another for which an equivalent return is to he 
made; or the bailment of a personal chattel to be returned in kind. In the case of the 
ban fint mentioned, if the thing loaned be other than money, and its equivalent be not 
returned to the lender, he may recover its value with interest, if so specified, and costs, 
in a suit at law. But the spcdflc article Itself cannot be recovered at law, since th(» award 
of damages offers the lender, as a rule, a sufficient remedy. Yet equity will sometimes 
enforce specific performance of such a contract. But equity will not enforce, for 
instance, a contract for the delivery of a stock of which shares are easily procurable. 
The most ordinary contract of loan f6r which an equivalent is to be returned is a loan 

•ftK: 106 

for money. This loan makes the parties to it debtor^itid credKor, iDit«ad of Mlor anu 

bailee. If there have been no express contract of loan, the law will imply oim, with 
interest to be computed from the time tbe loan was made. The second class of loaas 
belongs to the class of gratuitous bailments, the delivery of an article to the bailee, for 
his use» without compensation, and on condition of its return to the bailor. As this 
kind uf bailment is entirely to the advantage of the bailee, he is bound to use extraor- 
dinary care, and is responsible for slight negligence, in the use of the bailment. He is 
not responsible for the natural deterioration by ordinary wear and tear of the article 
delivered, but with that exception must return tbe article to the bailor in as good con- 
dition as when it was received. The diligence to which the bailee is held in the care of 
the property depends upon its character and value, and tbe circumstances to which it is 
exposed, if the bailee refuse to deliver the property when the bailment has expired, 
after demand made, he may be sued in trover or replevin. 


LOAN'DA, ST. PAUL DE. See Saint Paul db Loanda, anie, 

LOAH'OO, a maritime kin^om of s.w. Africa, extends on the coast from cape 
Lopez, in lat. 0"* 44' s., to the nver Congo or Zaire, ^hich separates it on the s. from tne 
country of Congo. Forests cover a great portion of the country, which is mountainous 
towara tbe B.e. On the coast the surface is level and fertile; the interior is not yet 
•well known. Formerly, the chief trade was in slaves; ivory and wax now form the 
chief exports. The inhabitants are skillful in the manufacture of baskets, variously dyed 
mats, grass cloth, wooden spoons, figures, etc. At the town of Kabinda, near the n. 
bank of the Congo (pop. from 10,000 to 18,000), boats and canoes, the former almost 
equal to those of English make, are built. Trade is free to all nations. The king is 
considered a divinity, and the government is an absolute despotism. Polygamy prevails, 
and a man's wives are, at his death, handed down by inheritance, like the rest of his 
goods. The religion is an idolatrous superstition. Loango, the chief town, is situated 
180 m. n. of the mouth of the Congo river, near the coa^t. The pop., including the 
villages in the vicinity, amounts to about ^.000. 

liOAV OF XOITET is an implied contract, by which B, the borrower, agrees to pay 
L, the lender. There are various modes by which B gives an acknowledgment for a 
loan, as by giving a bond or a promissory note, or 1 O U (q. v.), the last of which requires 
no stamp. But no writing is necessary to constitute the contract, which may be proved 
by parole, and often is proved by the lender's oath, confirmed by circumstantial evi- 
dence or letters of tbe borrower. The debt must in general be sued for in six veaxs in 
Eoglaud and Ireland. In Scotland, a borrower is much more favored, for there are 
only two ways of proving the loan If it exceeds £S 68. 8d., viz., bv some writing of the 
borrower, or by staking the truth as to whether the money is really due on the borrow- 
er's oath. Hence, if a hundred witnesses saw the loan advanced, but there was no 
writing, or the borrower, when put to it, denied it on oath, he can escape liability 

LOAflA'OEJBi a natural order of exogenoos plants, natives of America, and chiefly 
from the temperate and warmer parts of it. There are about seventy known species, 
herbaceous plants, hispid with stmging hairs. They have opposite or alternate leaves, 
without stipules, and axillary 1 -flowered peduncles. The calyx is 4 to 5 parted ; the petals 
S, or, by an additional inuer row, 10; often hooded. The stamens are numerous, in several 
rows, sometimes in bundles. The ovary is inferior, 1-celled; the fruit capsular or suc- 
culent. — Some of the species are frequently to be seen in hot-houses and flower-gardens. 
The genus U>asa sometimes receives the popular name of Chili Nettle. 

LOBAU, an island about 5 ra. below Vienna, in the Danube; is noted for its connec- 
tion with the battle of Aspern. between Napoleon I. and the Austrians under archduke 
Cliaries, May 21-2, 1809. Napoleon connected it by bridges with both banks, and 
crossed to the left bank on the 21st. On the night of the 22d, the defeated French 
regained the island and held it until July 4. when the river was again crossed and the 
battle of Wagram won on July 6. The title count Lobau was bestowed on gen. Mouton 
for conduct in the first attempt. 

LO'BAn, a t. of Saxony, 40 m. e. of Dresden. Near it are mineral springs and bathing 
establishments. It has tanneries, mills, and bleaching-fields. In the ancient Eaihhaui, 
the deputies of the six towns of Lusatia met from 1310 to 1814 " Lobau diamonds" are 
crystals found here. Pop. 75. 6,226. 

LOBAU. Gborgbs Mouton. Comtede, 1770-1888; b. France. A favorite and impetu- 
ous soldier in the campaigns of Napoleon, and by him made count of Lobau, in com- 
pliment for his valuable service in the Austrian campaign of 1809. He was taken by 
the English at Waterloo; returned to France in 1818; and was in obscuritv until tbe 
revolution of 1880, when on the resignation of Lafayette he was made commanding general 
of the national guard of Paris. Hedistlnguiphed himself at this time by suppressing a 
series of gatherings on the streets of Paris intended to organize a revolution in favor of tbe 
Bonaparte dynasty, by deluging the mob with water from fire-engines. The success of 

the experiment was the theme of innumerable caricatures. . ,.,,,, ,.^ 

*^ Digitized by VjOOV IC 


LOBEIRA, or LOYEIRA, Yabco ds, -a Portugaese writer of the 1401 c.; d. 14M. 
Sducated to the profession of arms» he was eminent only as the author or sappoaed 
author of a romance that has survived the centuries^ and which appeared under the title 
of Lm qucUro$ Ubrod del Cacallero Amadis de Gaula. It is known in the French trans- 
hition as UAmadii de Gaul. 

IX>BBL, or D£ L'OBEL, MArmiAB, 1688-1616; b. Lille. France; educated as a 
phyaictan. He traveled through Europe, and was at one time physician to William of 
Orai^e; afterwards given a position as botanist in England under James L He was a 
doee student of vegetable pbysiol(>gy, making new classitications by means of evident 
analogies of growth. The class of plants called LobeUa was named in compliment to him. 
He was author of Stirpium Adversaria Nana, London, 1570; Plantarufn seu Stirpium Ilu' 
toria, Antwerp, 1576; and leone* Stirpium^ Antwerp, 1581. 

L0BSXIA, a genus of exogenous plants of the natural order lobeliacea. This order is 
nearly allied to eampanuUtceoB, one of the most conspicuous differences being the irregu- 
lar corolla. It contains almost 400 known species, natives of tropical and temperate 
climates, abounding chiefly in damp woods in America and the n. of India. They are 
generally herbaceous or half -shrubby, and have a milky juice, which is often very acrid, 
and often contains much caoutchouc. A poisonous character belongs to the order, and 
some are excessively acrid, as tupafuiUeiy a Chilian and Peruvian plant, of which the 
very smell excites vomiting; yet the succulent fruit of one species, ceritropogon gitrina- 
nienmtt^ is eatable. — The genus Lobelia is the only one of this order of which any species 
are British. TheWATBB Lobbua {L.dortmanna) is frequent in lakes with gravelly bottom, 
often farming a green carpet underneath the water with its densely matted, sub-cylin- 
drical leaves. The flowers are blue, the flowering stems rising aliove the water. — To 
this genus belong many favorite gardeit flowers, as the beautiful Cardinal Flowers 
{L. eardinalu, L. fulgem, and L. epUndene) and the Blue Cardinal {L. sypkilUiea), 
natives of the warmer parts of North America, perennials, which it is usual to protect 
during winter in Britain. To this genus belongs also the Indian Tobacco of North 
America (Z^. injUUa), an annual, with an erect stem, a foot h^h or more, with blue flow- 
ers, which has been used as a medicine from time immemorialby the aborigines of Noith 
Auierica, and was introduced into this country in 1820 by Dr. Kecoe. Both the flower- 
ing'herb and the seeds are iniported. It is the former, compressed in oblong cukes, 
which is chiefly employed. The chemical constituents of Lobelia are not accurately 
known. A liquid alkaloid, lobelina, and a peculiar acid, to which the term lobeiie acid 
has been applied, have been obtained from it. 

In small doses, it acts as diaphoretic and expectorant; in full doses (as a scruple of 
the powdered herb), it acts as a powerful nauseatinff emetic; while in excessive doses, 
or in full doses, too often repeated, it is a powerml acro-narcotic poison. It is the 
favorite remedy of a special class of empirics, and consequently deaths from its admin- 
istration are by no means rare. Physicians seldom prescribe it now, except in cases of 

In a case of poisoning by this drug, the contents of the stomach should be withdrawn 
as speedily as possible. If the stomach pump is not at hand, an emetic of sulplmte of 
zinc or of mustard should be administered. 

LOBIPE'DIBf, a family of birds of the order grdQa, nearly allied to ralUdm (rails, 
crakes, gallinules, etc.), but differing m having the toes separately margined on both 
sides with a scolloped membrane, thus forming an interesting connecting link with tha 
weh-fooied birds, or order palmipedes. The geneml appearance of many of the lobipedidft 
also approaches to that of the anatidm. Coots and phalaropes are examples of this 
family. They are all aquatic, some of them frequenting fresh, and others salt water; 
some often found far out at sea on banks of sea-weed. 

LOBLOLLY BAY. Bee Gordonia, avie. 

LdBLOUT-BOT. the name applied on board ship to the man who assists the medical 
oflScers in tlie •* sicfc-bay," or hospital. 

LOBO. Jeronimo, 1505*1678; b. Lisbon; Joined the <^er of Jesnf ts in 1609; was 
made in 1621 professor in the Jesuits' eoUi)|!;e at Coimbra. but ordered to resdignand repair 
as a missionary to India, embarked in 1622, and arrived in Goa the same year. In 1634 
he left India and went to Abyssinia to Christianize ilmt country, whose ruler bad been 
converted to the Roman Catholic faith by father Paea in 160ft. Disembarking on the 
coast of Mombas and vainly attempting to enter Abyssinia bv land, be returned, and 
the next year, renewing the attempt, he landed on the coast of the Red sea with Mendez, 
the patriarch of Ethiopia, and eight missionaries, and reached Fremona, where was the 
missionary Settlement. Here he remained for several years as superior of the missions 
in the state of Tlgre, and was very successful. The death of the emperor Segued leaving 
the Roman Catholics without a protector, Lobo and all the Portuguese, numbering 400. 
with the patriard). bishop, and 18 Jesuits, were expelled by his successor from the 
country. All fell into the hands of the Turks at Massowah, and Lobo was jsent to India 
to procure a ransom for his imprisoned associates. He accomplished bis object, but 
Was tinsuccessful in his endeavor to induce the Portuguese viceroy to send an army 
against Abyssinia. He then embarked for Portugal, was shipv^^je^k^ ^BfJ^?^ ^ 

Katal atid captured bv pirates. Reaching Lisbon ho was sent to Madrid, as Portugal 
was then under the King of Spain, and endeavored to enlist tlie government in his 
8cheme to convert Abyssinia to the Roman church by force. But neither at Lisbon, 
Madrid, nor Paris did his plan meet with favor. He then set out for Rome to lay his 
favorite idea before the pope, but here also he received no encouragement. He returned 
to India in 1640, and became rector and afterwards proviociai of the Jesuits at Qoa. 
Returning to Lisbon in 1656 he engaged in literary pursuits, and in 1659 published the 
narrative of his journey to Abyssinia, entitled ifi^^ria de Ethiopia, which was translated 
into French by the abbe Legrand, who added a continuation of the Roman Catholic 
missions in Abyssinia after Lobo's departure, and an account of the expedition of 
Poncet, a French surgeon from Egypt. This is followed by some dissertations on the 
history, religion, government, etc., of Abyssinia. The whole was translated into Eng- 
lish by Dr. Johnson in 1785. Lobo was remarkable for enterprise and perseverance. 

lO'BOS ISLAKD8, two small groups of rocky islands on the coast of Peru, famous 
for the great quantity of guano which they produce. The southern point of the 
northern group, Lobos de JHerra, is in s. lat. 6° 29'; the southern group, Lobo» de Affuera, 
is 25 m. farther south. The northern group is about 12 m. from the mainland. The 
principal inland of this ^oup is about 6 m. long and 2 m. broad. The southern group 
consists chiefly of two islands separated by a narrow channel, the largest being about 
2 m. long. 

LOBSTEBi HoTnarus, a genus of crustaceans of the order decapoda, suborder maeroura 
(see Ckayfish), differing from crayfish (astaeu9\ to which, in general form and char- 
acters, they are very similar, in havmg tlie rostrum in front of the carapace not depressed 
but straight, and armed with many teeth on each side, and the last ring of the thorax not 
movable but soldered to the preceding one. Th6 Coicmon Lobster (H. mUgaris), found in 
creat plenty on rocky coasts of Britain and most parts of Europe, is too well known to require 
description. It sometimes attains such a size as to weigh 12 or 14 lbs. when loaded with 
spawn, although a lobster of 1 lb. weight, or even less, is deemed very fit for the market. 
It is needless to say how highly the lobster is esteemed for the table. It is in best season 
from Oct. to the beginning of May. Its beautifully clouded and varied bluish-black 
color changes to a nearly uniform red in boiling. It is found In greatest abundance 
in clear water of no great depth, and displays great activity in retreating from danger, 
using iis powerful tuil-fin for swimminsr, or almost springing through the water and 
thrusting itself into holes of the rocks winch seem almost too small to admit its body. 
The claws are powerful weapons of defense; one is always larger than the other, and 
the pincers of one claw are knobbed on the inner edge, those of the other are serrated. 
It is more dangerous to be seized by the serrated than by the knobbed claw. Lobsters 
are sometimes caught by the hand, which requires dexterity; but they are more fre- 
quently taken in traps of various kinds, sometimes made of osier twigs, sometimes a 
kind of nets, sometimes pots, but always baited with animal garbage. The supply of 
lobsters sent to market, chiefiy to London, from the coasts of all parts of Britain has of 
late years greatly fallen off from over-fishing. Lobsters are very voracious; they are 
also very pugnacious, and have frequent combats among themselves, in which limbs 
are often lost; but the loss is soon repaired by the growth of a new limb, rather smaller 
than the old one. Like crabs, they frequently chance their shelly covering, and for a 
short time before their molting are very languid and inert. Their growth takes place 
during the time when the shell is soft, and with extraordinary rapidity. — The American 
Lobster (//. Amerieamul) has claws much larger in proportion than the common lobster. 
— The Norway Lobster {nephrops NorvegiciLs) is frequently taken on the British coasts, 
and appears in the markets. The eyes are kidney-shaped, and not roimd as in the 
common lobster. The claws have bIbo a more slender and prismatic form, and the 
color is a pale flesh-color. It is said by some to be the most delicate of all the crusta- 
ceans; by others, to be inferior to the common lobster.— The Spiny Lobster, or Sea 
Crayfish {palinurus vulgaris), is not uncommon on the rocky coasts of Britain, particu- 
larly in the south. It is believed to be the karabos of the Greeks and the loeusta of the 
Romans. It attains a length of about 18 inches. The shell is very hard, and the whole 
body is rough with short spines. The antennee are very long, much longer than those 
of the common lobster. There are no claws or pincers, the first pair of &et being very 
similar to the othera The spiny lobster is brought to market in London and elsewhere, 
but is inferior to the common lobster. — Other species of these genera are found in other 
parts of the world. 

LOBSTER {ante). A mere inspection will show that a lobster is composed of two 
principal parts. These are commonly called the head and the tail. That which is 
called the head is really the head and the thorax combined, and is technically called the 
cephalothorax; while the part called the tail is the abdomen. Like all annulosa (artic- 
ulata), the lobster is composed of a number of annular segments, or parts representing 
cuch, with members — legs, jaws, claws, feelers, etc. — attaclied to them, the whole being 
inclosed in a chituous shell. See Chitin, anU. These segments may be separated one 
br one, with the members attached to them, and examined. Each segment is composed 
ox a convex upper plate called the tergum. and closed beneath by a flatter plate called 
Ihe sternum, while the side of the m^gment is called the bleuron. TI\9Sf;^ figments are 



ttiiBnlidiTided into parts which ara amalgamated, but it is suffldent for the purposes 
^tkis article to give only a general description, lliere are dl segments in the Tvhole 
bod/. 7 in the heui, 7 in the thorax, and 7 in the abdomen. The cephalothorax, or the 
pirt called the head, is covered with a shield or carapace, sometimes called the cephalic 
bockler, composed of an enormous development of tergal or dorsal pieces. The first 
ttgrneot of the head is provided with long, movable eye-stalks or peduncles, bearing 
apon tbeh ends the compound eyea The next six segments of the head, from before 
bickwsrds, are furnished with: first, the antennules or fimaller antennee, each composed 
of a basilar piece called a protopodite, and two somewhat elongated feelers or antenofle; 
next, the hu-ger antenn», each composed of a protopodite, and a single, greatly elon- 
gated feeler; next, the biting jaws or mandibles between which is the aperture of the 
DOQih, bounded behind by a forked process called the labium, and in front by a broad 
piate called the labrum or upper lip. The next two segments after this are provided 
vUk appendages called, respectively, the first and second pairs of maxillae, each situ- 
itfid upon a protopodite, with terminal joints, which in the first pair are rudimentaiy, 
but in the second are provided with spoon-shaped joints, called scaphognathites, whose 
d&xx is to cause a current of water to pass through the gill-chamber bv constantly bailinpc 
water oat of it The next and last segment of the head (according to Huxley this belonga 
to the thorax) bears one of the three pairs of modified limbs, called maxillipedes, or 
fodt-jaw]?. These are legs with the ordinary structure of a protopodite, and three other 
joJQta added, called exopodite, endopodite, and epipodite. These limbs are modified so 
IS to aid the purposes or mastication. This description applies to the next two pairs of 
segmeDts, and which belong to the thorax, according to the usual division. The third 
pair of appendages of the thorax (the fourth according to Huxley) are the great claws, 
orcfaels. The next two pairs of th(»«cio limbs are also provided with nippers or chelae, 
'mt they are much smaller. The last two pairs are similar, except that they are termi- 
nated by simple, pointed joints, and not chelae. These last two pairs, however, dilPer, in 
Uiat the next last pair has attached to its protopodite a process which serves to keep the 
gills apart Of the segments of the abdomen, seven in number, five-^all except the first 
and laat— are provided with appendages called swimmerets. Each swimmeret consists 
of a bsfial joint and two diverging joints. The basal joint is the protopodite, the outer 
of tht diverging joints the exopodite, and the inner one the endopodite. In next to the 
last segment (the last one which has appendages), the swimmerets are greatly expanded, 
so aa to form powerful paddles. The last segment of the abdomen is called the telson; 
i: bag no appendages, and for this reason some authorities do not regard it as a segment, 
Irtit as an azygos appendage, or, in other words, an appendage without a fellow. The 
Sist segment of the abdomen will be seen to be consiaerably modified from those bear- 
.3g swimmerets. — An esophagus leads from the mouth into a globular-^nped stomach, 
coutaioing a calcareous apparatus for grinding food. This kind of mill is called the 
isd^ in the U)b$Ur. The intestine passes without convolutious in a nearly straight course 
U)the aoal aperture, which is situated on the under-side just in front of the telson. The 
obster has a well developed liver, consisting of two lobes, which enter the intestine by 
separate ducts. The heart is a muscular sack situated in the back just beneath the cara^ 
place, and opens by valvular apertures into a surrounding venous sinus, called (improp- 
erly) the pericardium. The gills are pyramidal, lance-shaped bodies, situatea imme- 
diately beneath the heart and attached to the bases of the legs. Each consists of a 
(mxrii stem supporting numerous laminse. and they arc unprovided with cilia. Water 
is propelled through them by the movements of the legs ana by the spoon-shaped joint 
'^f the second pair of maxillse above-mentioned, which is constantly in motion, bailing 
oat water in front of the branchial chamber, thus allowing the entrance of fresh water 
tlimagfa the posterior aperture. The nervous system is situated along the ventral sur- 
face of the body, and consists of a series of eanglia united by commissural cords. Two 
compound eyes, two pairs of antennas or feelers, and two ears in the form of sacks com- 
rm the special organs of sense. The arrangement of the muscular system is in general 
-ike that of lUI articulates. 

LOB- WORM, a species of dorsibranchiate annelid belonging to the genus a/renieola, - 
irder errand. It has the specific name a pmatorium from oeing used by fishermen 
for bait It lives in deep canals, which it hollows out of the sand on the sea-shore, eat- 
Dff its way and passing the sand through the alimentary canal to extract whatever 
autrinient it may contain. It has a large head without eyes or jaws, and a short pro- 
boscis, and 13 pairs of gills, placed on each side of the middle of the body. See Inyek- 


LOCAL PREACHERS. An order of lay preachers in the Methodist churches, their 
iame distinguishing them from the itinerant or traveling preachers. They are not, as 
'■iic regular preachers are, members of annual conferences, nor are they, like them, 
ujpointed by the bishops or stationing committees. They are licensed, and are sub- 
jettKl to the direction of the pastor or presiding elder in whose charge they reside, 
^mctimcs a local preacher, by special arrangement and by the authority of the presiding 
tl^cr, is appointed a pastor for a specified period. For appointment as a local preacher 
& perH>n must be recommended by the leader's meeting of the church to which ht 
l^ioDgs, and must be elected by a Quarterly conference before which he has been exam- 

^ "^ Digitized by VjUUVIC 


iuoii as to doctrines nod dtseipliM. As proof at his sppolotmsnt he reosrresi^Jiasiifle 
sigiiCMi by the prctddent of the cooiereiice* ^hich is for oae year only, and maMhe 
reuc WL<1 tivery year af terwards* For ^ordination, a local preacher must h«v^ heM a Ideal 
preacher's license for four conseculive years, must havs been examined in the <|Uariei1y 
coufereoco on doctrines and discipline, must have received a ''testimonial "from the 
qiiurterly conference siened by the president and secretary, and must pass an examina- 
tion as to character and attainments beforS'tlie annual conference. 

The office of local preacher -was instituted by W^ley< These preachers are laymen 
who Kupport themselves by their secular business during the week, and preach on tbe 
Lord's day, mostly in poor or new churches, receiving, with rave exoeptions, no fee or 
reward for their services. Their number in tbe United States in all the Methodist bodies 
is about 22,000. A national local preaohers' association has been formed, which meets 
annually for counsel and the discussion of questions pertaining to their work. Branch 
associations have been formed in various parts of the United States. In fioglnnda Local 
Frea4uufnf Maffemne is published. 

LOCARNO. See Lago Magoiorb. 

LOCHABEB AU, an a^e with a curved handle and very broad blada It was the 
ancient weapon of die highlanders, and was carried by the old, city guard of Edinburgh. 

IiOCH^HIi a picturesque t, of Franco, in the department of Indr&«trLoire, on the 
left bank of the ludre, 25 m. s.o. of Tours. Pop 7^ 8,689. The castle of Locdtts (now 
a niin) acquired a fearful reputation during, the reign of Louis XL as the- scene of those 
deedd of crucltv which were so horrible thAt they had to be done in utter darkness and 
secrecy. At a later period, James V. of Scotland was married in this castle to Magdalen 
of France; and stf 11. later, Francis L received here, in splendid state, the emperor Charles 
y. on his way from Spain to Ghent 

LOCHRANE, Osbornb A., b. Middletown, Armagh, Ireland, 1839. Before com- 
pleting his education he had indulged in such violent denunciations of the British 
government that his father, in order to place him beyond the reach of prosecution, sent 
im to New York, where he arrived Dec. 21, 1846. He soon afterwards went to Georgia, 
where his fluency as a public speaker attracted the attention of an eminent citizen, by 
whose advice he studied law. Having been admitted to the bar in 1849 he opened an 
ofllce in Savannah, but soon removed to Macon, where, from 1861 to 1865, he was judge 
of the circuit court In the latter year he removed to Atlanta, and in 1870t was made 
judge of that circuit. In 1871 he was appointed chief-justice of the state supreme court, 
but resigned at the end of that year to resume practice at the bar. 

LOCK of a gun is that apparatus bv which the powder is fired. Muskets, in their 
earliest use, were fired by the hand applying a slow match to the touch-hole. Towards 
the end of the 14th c, the first improvement appeared in the matchlock. This consisted 
of a crooked iron lever, in the end of which the match was fixed. By a pin-gear of a 
simple nature, pressure on the trigger brought the match accurately down on the powder 
pan. of wiiich the lid had previously been thrown forward by the hand. This mode of 
firing involved the carrying of several y^ards of slow match, usually wound round the 
body and the piece; rain extinguished the match, and wind dispersed the powder in the 
pan, so that the matchlock, clumsy withal, was but an uncertain apparatus. 

Superior to tbe matchlock was the whed-lock, introduced at Nuremberg in 1517, in 
which fire was produced by friction between a piece of flint or iron pyrites and a toothed 
wheel. The mechanism which generated the sparks simultaneously uncovered the pan, 
so that the dangers from wind and ruin were averted; but, before firing, the apparntus 
required to be wound up like a clock, and therefore the charsres could not be frequent. 
The wheel lock continued for a long period to be used in Germany, and partially in 
France. In the Spanish dominions, however, its place was 8upplie(l by the simpler 
contrivjince called the Snaphaunce, Snapphahn, or Asnaphnn Iock, of nearly contempo- 
raneous invention, which, acting by means of a spring outside the lock-plate, produced 
fire through the concussion of a fiint against the ribbed top of the powder-pan. Its posi- 
tions of half and full cock were obtained by the insertion of a pin to stay the operation 
of the main-spring. In the middle of the 17th c. iheJUni-iock was invented, combining 
the action of the wheel-lock and the snaphaunce, while it was incontestably superior to 
either. After combating much prejudice, it was universally adopted in the armies of 
western Europe by tbe commencement of the 18th century. Muskets embracing it 
obtained the name of " fusils, "a French adaptation of the Italian word facile, &fi\nL With 
successive improvements, the fiint-iock continued in general use until the introiluction 
of the percussion-lock almost in our own da]^; and among eastern and barbaric nations the 
flint-lock is still extant. Its great superiority over the snaphaunce consisted in the 
** tuml»ler "* (of which presentl}) and the **sccar," appliances still retained in the percus- 
sion lock, wiiich enabled the positions of half and full cock to be taken up without the 
intervention of pins, always uncertain in their action. 

The principle of the percussion-lock is the production of fire by the falling of a 
hammer upon detonating powder, the explosion of which penetrates to the charge m the 
barrel of the mm. The first pr clical applicaticui of this principle to fire-arms is due to 
the rev. Mr. Foreyth of Belhelvic. in Ahrrdeenshire. Various forms in which to ii^ite 
the detonating powder have be en deviled, but that generally accepted until within the 

Ill KIT"?- 

Mfew yesn was A» copperHoap, fitting tightly on the nipple of the gnn, diarged with 
a dotonating compound, &nd esploded by the hammer falKng upon it. The miiia-spriog 
communicatee through tiie swivel with the tumbler, which tonaentrically with the 
btmmer moivea on t£e tnmbler-oaiL After the hammer has detivered its strotie, its f ur* 
tb«r progress in tlss dirsotiOQ rfiq«ii«d by the spring is barrsd by the nipple. On pulling 
back the faamour to the posilian of iiakf-cock the tumbler tvrus with it, and the pointed 
end of the soear (which moves on tkescear-nHit as center), Influenced by the scear-spring 
falls into a* notch in the tumbler. On forehig back the hammer to full-cock, however, 
the scear will move down to a shallower notch ; and on the lever end of the scear being 
raiaed by the trigger, it brings down the liammer with a heoivy blow on the cap. To 
keep the works irm^ in thfiir saveml places, a "bridle'' is screwed over them Which 
includes the pin through the tumbler hi its width. 

8ince the adoption of breech-loading arms, the action of the lock is so far varied that 
the hammer usually falls on a movable pin, which is impelled against a detonating 
cbaige phkced in the body of the cartridge itself. A spiral spring around the pin brings 
it tnck to the position necessary for another blow. The advantage of this arrangement is 
that one operatibn of loading is substituted for the double processof loading and capping. 

LOGS! on a river or canal, is an arrangement of two parallel floodgates^ by which 
communication is secured between two reaches of diHerent levels. When locks weiQ 
first introduced, is not known within a hundred years, nor is it clear whether Holland 
or Italy can claim the distinctifui of, having, first employed them. This much, however, 
can be affirmed with certainty, that at the beginning of the 17th c. locks existed in both 
countries, and it is probable that, the v were arrived at gradually by successive improve- 
ments in the mode of rendering snallow rivers navigable. Obviousljr, the first step 
would have been to dam the stream across at intervals, leaving gates in the dams for 
the passage of vessels. This measure would have divided the river into reaches or steps, 
each, as u,e source was ^preached, being higher above the sea than the one last passed. 
But the passage up or down— and especially up— such a stream must be extremely 
slow, as at each dam a vessel must wait until the gate has been opened, and the level 
equalized in the reach it is in» and that on which it is proposed to enter. Where the 
reaches were far apart, a large body of water would require to be raised or lowered, 
and the process could not but be. tedious. The medissval engineers next tried to place 
the dams as near together as possible, but expense limited this. The course then was 
to build two dams, with floodgates, just far enough apart to allow a vessel to float 
within. Under this arrangement, only the section between the dams had to be raised 
or lowered. The cost of thus doubly damming a wide river, however, was very great, 
and it was an easy transition of idea to remove the passage from the main stream al to- 
gether and construct a lock with double gates which should open at one end above and 
at the other below the dam or weir. The economy of money in building, and of time 
and water in working, was obvious; and on this principle all locks are now made, 
wherever there is trafflc of any importance. The arrangement consists of two pairs of 
gates, opening up the stream, and offering, when shut, a salient angle to the stream or 
upper pressure. The effect is that the weight above only tends to close the gates still 
tighter. When a vessel is to be brought from one level to the other, it is floated into 
the '' pound." as the space between the upper and lower gates is called. The gates are 
then shut, and a sluice in the lower part of the upper gate raises the surface of the 
pound, or the sluice in ihe lower gate depresses it in a few minutes to the level of the 
upper or lower reach, as the case may oe. These sluices are worked by racks in 
the gates, and the ponderous gates themselves are moved with the aid of long and heavy 
levers. Of course, one pair of gates must always be shut,, or the two reaches would 
speedily assimilate their levels. 

On canals where water is scarce, a reservoir, equal in size to the lock, is formed at 
its side. When the pound is to be emptied, the water is run into the reservoir until it 
and the lock are at the same level, which will be half height The reservoir is then 
closed, and the remaining water in the lock run off tjhrough the lower sluices in the 
usual way. On refllling the lock, before opening the upper sluices, one-quarter the 
quantity required can be obtained from the reservoir, thus effecting a saving of many 
tons of water at each filling. 

On rivers advantage is taken of islands for the formation of weirs (q.v.) and locks. 
On the Thames the locks are from 2 to 8 m. apart, and the river is locked by upwards 
of 50 locks from Teddington to Lechlade. On canals, to economize superintendence, 
the locks are usually constructed in " ladders" of several close toficether, like a flight of 
stepa Aa the pressure on lock-gates is very great, and varies with the height of water 
above, the rise in one lock is rarely more than 8 or 9 ft., although in some instances 12 
ft have been accomplished, and in a very few cases even more. 

LOCK, a contrivance for securely fa<^tening the door of a building, the lid of a box, 
etc. Amongst the earlv Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, locks were used, but their 
construction evinced little skill, and they were usually made of hard wood; in fact, they 
were little piore than wooden bolts, requiring only the hand to unfasten them. The 
first advance upon this was a remarkable one, invented bv the ancient Egyptians; it 
contained the principles of the modern tumblerlock; but although still in use amongst 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 



the modern Egyptians and Turks» it has never, in their hands, made any advance^ Tbia 
lock consiists of a case, which is nailed to the door; through the case passes a large 
wooden bolt, the end of which enters the staple, whilst the opposite end is left exposed. 
In the iower part of the holt is a square groove, which has certain round or square holes. 
When the bolt is pushed home into the staple, these holes come ezactlv under oorre- 
•ponding little cavities in the case, in each of which is placed an upright wiioden pin 
with a kuob, which prevents its falling too low: these little pLas consequently fall into 
the holes in the bolt when it is pushed far enough, and the door is looked. In order to 
unlock it, a bar of wood is passed into the groove in the bolt, aad on the bar there are 
the same number of pins of wood placed upright as tliere are holes in the holt and 
loose piuB in the chambers of the case; and these upright pins are placed to as to corre- 
spoud exactly in size and position to the holes; therefore, when the (Hus reach the holes^ 
tiiey slip into them and push up the loose pins into their r^pective cavities, and the 
boU is then easily pulled back by means of the bar or key. This is simple and ingeni- 
ous, but it is very clumsy, and« as usually made in Turkey, is not secure. KevertuSees, 
it has been in use longer than any other 'form of lock in existence. 

During the middle ages, very complicated and ingenious locks of various kinds were 
made, aud as much artistic taste was expended upon the ornamentation of their exter- 
nal metal work as there was skill in the interior mechanism. Such locks, however, 
were not adapted to general use, and they were only found on the caskets of the wealthy. 
The ordinary ward and spring locks were the only ones commonly employed up to the 
beginning of the present century, even for important purposes, and this kind of lock is 
still in very common use. It consists of a bolt of metal, to which a spring is attached, 
and it is moved backward or forward by means of a key, which by raising the bolt com- 
presses the spring in the slot, through which it works, and so lets it pass on until out of 
the range of the key's action, which turning on a pivot is regulated by the length of its 
wards and the depth of a curve cut in the under side of the bolt. In order to prevent 
any key of the same size opening all such locks, little ridges of iron are placed in circles 
or parts of circles, and wards are cut in the keys so as to correspond with them; hence, 
only the key which has openings or wards which will allow the ridges to pass through 
them can be used. The bolt has at the end opposite to that which enters the staple a 
small piece slit, bent outwards, and tempered hard; this forms the spring; below are 
two notches, divided by a curved piece of the bolt; there is another notch, which if the 
key entei-s and is tur/ied round it draws the bolt forward or backward in locking or 
unlocking, and the spring makes the end of the bolt either drop into one of the notches 
or rise up the cui-ve, according to the distance to which it is pulled. The ridges are so 
placed as to allow the wards of the key to move freely, and to prevent the entrance of 
another key of different arrangement. 

The tvmMerloek is the type of another class, and is an advance upon the last; the 
two principles are, however, m most cases combined. The principle of the tumbler- 
lock will be readily understood by a lock nearly like the former, to which' a description 
of the simplest form of tumbler has been added. The bolt has neither the string- 
piece nor the notches and curves on the under side, but it has two notches on the upper 
side, which are exactly as far apart as the distance moved by the bolt in locking or 
unlocking. Behind the bolt is the tumbler, a small plate moving on a pivot, and having 
projecting from its face a small square pin, which when the bolt Is locked or unlocked 
falls exactly into one or the other of the small notches. There is in the key a notch 
which corresponds to the outline of the tumbler. This acts upon the tumbler when 
the key is turned, and raises it so as to lift the pin out of the notch in the bolt, and 
allow the laiter to be moved freely forward until the other notch comes under the pin, 
when the latter falls into and immediat jly stops its further progress, and the action of 
the key must be reversed in order to relieve it again. This very simple applicatioa 
of the tumbler is sufficient to explain the principle which may be and is varied to an 
almost endless extent. Chubb*s justly celebrated lock carries it out most fully, the bolt' 
itself being only a series of tumblers, with a notch on the key for each. Brarnah's lock, 
patented in 1788, has enjoyed immense reputation, chiefly for cabinets, desks, and other 
similar applications; it is very different in principle from those before-mentioned, con- 
sisting of a number of movable slides or interior bolts working in an internal cylinder 
of the lock, and regulated by the pressure upward or downward of the key acting on a 
Epiral spring. For ordinary purposes it is very secure; but when the most perfect 
security is required, the beautiful lock invented by Mr. Cotterill of Birmingham, and 
the still more ingenious one of Mr. Hobbs of America, must be preferred. These beau- 
tiful and complicated pieces of mechanism cannot be described within-the limits of this 
article; but ample information upon them and others can be found in Mr. Denison's 
Treatise on Locks, and in 27ie Rudimentary Treatise on the Oonstruetion ef Locks, by 
Charles Tomlinson. 

LOCK (arUe), An important class of locks are what are called permutation and dial 
locks, and are used upon burglar-proof safes. One of the principal devices in them is 
the employment of a number of wheels, placed near together, on an axis on which they 
move independently. These wheels do not interfere with the motion of hach other 
except when certain pins are brought in contact, the pins being movable at the will of 

Digitized byVjiJUV IC 

113 KS;. 

the peraon adjusting the lock. In this way one having knowledge of the combination may 
arrange the wheels so that certain slots in their peripheries will not coincide, and can- 
not be made to coincide, by any one not in possession of the arrangement. The peraon 
having such knowledf^e may, however, reaaily place the slots into line and pass a key 
throQgh them, by which means alone the bolt of the lock is moved. An ingeniously 
arranged dial is placed on the outside of the safe door, through which a bolt passes 
attached in the lock to a wheel. This fixed wheel can be turned one way or another, 
and, being provided with a pin, the first of the movable wheels may be turned so that its 
slot will correspond to any number on the dial. This first movable wheel, being also pro- 
vided with a pm upon its disk, is made to turn the second wheel to a certain position, 
and so on to Uie last wheel, when, the slots being all brought into line, the key is intro- 
ducecL There are a great many varieties of these locks, each possessing various advan- 
tages. As burglars often compel the person having the knowledge of the combination 
of a lock to reveal the secret, it is often the practice to employ for bank- vaults locks 
with a clock-work attachment by means of which the bolt is liberated at a certain hour, 
until which time, nobody, not even the person possessing a knowledge of the combina- 
ation, can open the lock. 

LOCK, or GowTEN, in Scotch law, is the perquisite paid by custom to the miller's 
man for grinding corn. See Thirlage. 

LOCK, Matthbw, 1685-77; b. Exeter, Eng. ; received instruction in the rudiments 
of music from Wake, organist of Exeter cathedra, and completed his studies under 
Edward Gibbons. When Charles II. made his entry into Lonoon after the restoration, 
Lock was employed to write the music for the occasion, and was afterwards appointed 
composer for the kin^. The first piece that bore his name was A LitUe Consort of Three 
Parts, for viols and violins. He was the first musician of England who composed music 
for the stage; and he wrote the instrumental music in the Tempest and Macbeth. In 1675 
he composed the overture and airs to ShadweU's Psyefve, He wrote several sacred pieces 
found in the Harmonia Sacra, and in Boyce's OoUeetion of Cathedral Mtisic, which show 
him a master of harmony; but his fame rests chieflv on his music in Macbeth, which his 
biographer says is ** a lasting monument of the author's creative power and judgment." 
He wrote also some controversial musical treatises. A few years before his death he 
became a Roman Catholic. 

LOCKE, John, was b. at Wrington, near Bristol, on Aug. 29, 1682. His father was 
steward to col. Popham, and served under him as capt. in the parliamentary army dur- 
ing the civil war. Locke was sent for his education to Westminster school, where he 
continued till 1651, when he was elected a student of Christ church, Oxford. There he 
went through the usual studies, but seemed to prefer Bacon and Descartes to Aristotle. 
His tendency was towards experimental philosophy, and he chose medicine for his pro- 
fession. In 1664 he went to Berlin as secretary to the British envoy, but soon returned 
to bis studies at Oxford. In 1666 he made the acquaintance of lord Ashley, afterwards 
earl of Shaftesbury, and on his invitation went to live at his house. In 167S, when 
Shaftesbury became lord chancellor, Locke was appointed secretary of presentations, a 
post which he afterwards exchanged for that of secretary to the board of traiie. He was 
employed to draw up a constitution for the American province of Carolina, but his arti- 
cles on religion were deemed too liberal, and the clergy got a clause inserted, givine; the 
favor of the state exclusively to the established church. In 1675 he took up his residence 
at Montpellier for the benefit of his health. He had all his life an asthmatic tendency, 
which at that time threatened to pass into consumption. At Montpellier, he formed the 
acquaintance of the earl of Pembroke, to whom his JSssay is dedicated. In 1679 he 
rejoined the earl of Shaftesbury in England ; but in 1682 the earl fled to Holland, to 
avoid a prosecution for high treason. Locke bore him company, and so far shared with 
him the hostility of the government of James as to have his name erased, bv royal man- 
date, from the list of students of Christ church. Even in Holland he was demanded of 
the states-general by the English envoy: but he contrived to conceal himself till the 
English court ceased to trouble itself on his account. In 1687 his Mlssay on the Under- 
standing, begun 17 years before, was finished; and an abridgment of it was published 
in French (1688) by his friend, Le Clerc, in his BibUoth^eSj in which Locke had pub- 
lished two years before his Method of a Gommonplaee Book. In 1689 appeared (also in 
Holland) his first letter on Toleration. But in 1688, the year of the revolution, he came 
back to England in the fleet that conveyed the princess of Orange. He soon obtained 
from the new government the situation of commissioner of appeals, worth £2(X) a year. 
He took a lively interest in the cause of toleration,^ and in maintaining the principles of 
the revolution. In 1690 his Essay on the Understanding was published, and met with 
a rapid and extensive celebrity; and also a second letter on Toleration, and his well 
known Treatises on Government. In 1691 he was engaged upon the momentous ques- 
tion of the restoration of the coinage, and published vanous tracts on the subject. In 
1692 he brought out a third letter on Toleration, which, as well as the second, was a 
reply to the attacks made on the first In 1698 was published his work on JEklueaiion. 
In 1695 king William appointed him a commissioner of trade and plantations. In the 
same year he publishea his treatise on Ths Beasonableness of Christianity, which was 
written to promote William's favorite scheme of a comprehension of all the Christian 
V. K. IX.— 8 

l<ockb. 1 1 J. 

X«o«omotlv«. -^ ^ * 

sects in one national cliurch. He maintained a controversy m defense of this book; he 
had another controversy in defense of the JSsMp on the UnderHandinff, against StiUing- 
fleet, the bishop of Worcester. His feeble health now compelled him to resign his office 
of commissioner of plantations, and to ouit London; and he spent the remainder of his 
life at Gates, in Essex, at the seat of sir Francis Masham. His last years were vety much 
occupied with the study of the Scriptures, on which he wrote several dissertations, 
whicn, with his little work, entitled On the Conduct of the Uhdentanding, were pub- 
lished after his death. He died Oct. 38, 1704. 

Great as was Locke's services to his CQuntry, and to the cause of civil and religious 
liberty, his fame rests on the E$say on the Understanding, which marks an epoch in the 
history of philosofjhy. His purpose was to inquire into the powers of the human under- 
standing, with a view to find out what things it was fitted to grapple with, and where it 
must fail, so as to make the mind of man "more cautious in meddling with things 
^exceeding its comprehension, and disposed to stop when it is at the utmost extent of its 
'tether." This purpose led him to that thorough investigation of the constitution of the 
human mind, resulting in the most numerous and important contributions ever made by 
one man to our knowledge on this subject. He institutes a preliminary inquiry, in the 
sub;ject of the first book, as to the existence of innate ideas, theoretical and practical, on 
which the philosophical world has been so much divided. See Common Seitsb. Locke 
argues against the existence of these supposed innate conceptions, or intuitions, of the 
nund with a force and cogency that appear irresistible. Having thus repudiated the 
instinctive sources of our knowledge or ideas, he is bound to show how we come by 
them in the course of our experience. Our experience being twofold, external and 
internal, we have two classes of ideas — ^those of sensation and those of reflection. He 
has therefore to trace all the recognized conceptions of the mind to one or other of these 
sources. Many of our notions are obviously derived from experience, as colors, sounds, 
etc. ; but some have been disputed, more especially such as space, time, infinity, power, 
substance, cause, mere good and evil; and Locke discusses these at length, bv way of 
tracing them to the same origin. This is the subject of book second, entitled *'0f 
Ideas.^ Book third is on language considered as an instrument of truth, and contains 
much valuable material. The fourth book is on the nature, limits, and realitv of our 
knowledge, including the nature of demonstrative truth, the existence of a God, the 
provinces of faith and reason, and the nature of error. 

LOCKE, David Ross, more widely known by his nom de plume of Petroleiim V. 
Nasby; b. Vestal, Broome co., K. Y., 1888. He became a printer in the ofiice of the 
Cortland Detnoorat, and subsequently publisher and editor of the Fiymouth Advertiser, 
the Mdn^/ield Herald, the Bwyyrus Journal, the Mndlay Jeffertonian, and the Toledo Blade, 
all in Ohio. In 1860 he begaai the publication of the Kasby letters in the Findlay Jeffer* 
BOTvUm, and soon after continued them in the Toledo Blade. They were designed to thro^ 
ridicule on the fiimsy logic then in vogue to bolster or shield the institution of slavery. 
The keenness and pungency of the satires were instantlv recognized wherever read 
They soon gained wide circulation, and became a powerful auxiliary to the administra< 
tion of Lincoln in aiding to paralyze the efforts of northern sympathizers with the south* 
ern cause. In 1866, when president Johnson was seeking popular support for his policj 
by traveling in the west with his cabinet, Locke, under the same lunn de plume, made tb( 
■expression of ''swinging round the circle" as ridiculous and notorious as possible, bj 
grotesquely journalizing the daily doines of the cortege. As an editor ]klr. Locke v 
remarkable u>r terse ana vigorous thought and diction; and whether humorous or seri< 
ous is always a trenchant writer. It is his misfortune, however, to have courted popui 
larity among men of low tastes, and the tendency of his writings has been of late to f 
lower grade of subjects. In 1875 he published The Morale ofAbou Ben Adhem; anc 
in 1879 a coarse comic drama entitled the Widou> BedoU, simply an adaptation of th< 
comic story of that name written by Mr. Frances M. Whitche in 1854, and of no credi 
to Mr. LocKe in conception or adaptation, thougli it has proved popular with a certau 
grade of theater-goers. Mr. Locke is still publisher and editor of the Toledo Blade. 

LOOKED-JAW. See Tetanus. 

lOCKHABT, JoHK Gibson, was b. at Cambusnethan, in Scotland, in 17M. His fathe 
was a minister of the established cliurch of Scotland. Lockhart received the first stage 
of his education at Glasgow, and afterwards proceeded to Oxford, where, in 1818, h 
took first-class honors. In 1816 be became an advocate at the Scotch bar. He appears 
however, to have wanted the qualifications necessary for success in this profession. an< 
besides the bent of his mind was more toward literature than law. He and Wilsoi 
were lone the chief supporters of Blackwoode Magazine. Here he began to exhibit tha 
sharp ana bitter wit that was his most salient characteristic and made him the terror o 
his enemies. It was this connection which led to his acquaintance with sir Walte 
Scott. In 1819 appeared Peter^s Letters to his EtntfcUc. In 1820 he married Miss Scott 
eldest daughter of sir Walter. In 1821 he published Valerius, and in 1822 Adam Blair 
Both of these works, especially the latter, show him to have possessed, at least, a thoi 
ough acquaintance with the rules of art in fiction-writing. In 1828 appeared his liegi 
nald DaMon, a tale of English university life, and in 1824 his Ancient. Spanish Balladi 
perhaps the most popular of all his writings. In the same year he published his la^ 



novel, m&kn^ cf JUdtthew Wold. From 1828 to 1858 he edited the Quaritrltt Benew. 
From 1887 to 1889 appeared his L(f8 of Seott, a work of undoubted ment, but which has 
giren rise to much bitter coatroyersy. In 1887 hia wife died, liaying been predeceased 
by their eldest son, Hugh. His second son died at a later period. In 18^ Lockhart was 
appointed auditor of the duchy of Cornwall, with a salary of £800 a year. In 1847 his 
only remaininff child, a daughter, the sole surriTing descendant of sir Walter Scott, 
married J. R. Hope, Esq. 8he died in 1858, leaving an only daughter, who inherited 
the estate of Abbotsford. Lockhart died Not. 35, 1854. 

LOCK HAVEN, a city in Pennsylvania, capital of Clinton co., on the s. bank of the 
w. branch of the Susquehanna river, at the mouth of Bald Eagle creek, and ou the w. 
branch canal and the rhiladelphia and Erie and the Bald Eagle division of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad; 70 m. n.n.w. of Harrisburg; pop. 70, 6.98o. It is the center of an 
extensive lumber trade, contains 13 churches, 2 national banks, 3 weekly newspapers, 
and graded public schools. 

LOGK'POBT, a city of New York, U. S., on the Erie canal and the Rochester and 
Niagara Falls railway, 55 m. w. of Rochester. The canal here falls 80 ft., with 5 com- 
bine double locks, and its surplus water gives power to 5 flouring-mills, 7 saw-mills. 5 
stave and shingle factories, machine-shops, ana foundries. There are 18 churches, 4 
banks, 2 daily and 8 weekly newspapers, and tanneries, manufactories of* agricultural 
implements, glass, etc. Pop. 75, 12,624. 

LOCKPORT (ante) was incorporated as a city in 1865. The railroad crosses the 
canal by a bridge 500 ft. long and 60 ft. above the water; the surplus water of the Erie 
canal, after being raised 60 ft. by 5 double combined locks, is distributed through a 
hydraulic canal three-fourths of a mile long to the various manufactories of the city, 
fhis immense water-power is the dhief source of the city's prosperity, affording as it 
does almost unexampled facilities for manufactures of every kind. 

LOCKROY, Joseph Philiffb, a French dramatist, b. Turin, 1808. His true name 
is Simon. He excelled as an actor of the C&medie Fran^aise, but left the sta^e and 
devoted himself to writing for it with Scribe, Anicet-Bourgeois, and others. His most 

nular plays are Pituie MnuU; Les IMb Epiden; Le ChemUer du Chiet; and Chotrlot et 
tdUre d'JSJeole. He wrote in connection with Alexander Dumas a drama entitled Qm- 
tdence. He wrote also the librettos for La Beine Tapaae, and other operas. 

LOCK-VP H0UIE8, the name given to the houses of bailiffs of the sheriff, to which 
debtors arrested for debt are first taken, until it is seen whether they will settle their 
debt without being taken to the ordinary Jail. See Exbgution; iMPBiBoiniBNT. 

LOCKYER, JoflBFH NoBMAK, b. Enff., 1886; received his education at private schools 
in England and on the continent. In 1857 he was appointed to a position in the war- 
oflSce, and in 1865 became editor of Army BegulaUtm$, He was appointed in 1870 secre- 
tary of the royal commission on scientific instruction and the advancement of science, 
fromwludi he was afterwards transferred to the science and art department of the same 
organization. He is best known for his services in astronomy and physics : he discovered 
a method of observing sun phenomena, in commemoration of which the French govern- 
ment caused a medal to be struck in 1872. He has held the position of chief of several 
government expeditions for astronomical observation. In 1874 he received the Rumford 
medal from the royal society. He has published Contrib^itions to Solar Physics, 1873; 
The Spectro^opeand its Applications, 1878; Star Gaeing, Past and Present, 1878; and other 

1.0' CLE, a frontier t. of Switzerland, canton of Neuchfitel, and 10 m. n.w. of the 
town of that name. Pop. 70, 10,884, who are engaged chiefly in watch-making. Up- 
wards of 80,000 watches are annually manufactured. 

LOCO, in music, indicates that the notes are to be played exactly as they are 

LOCOMOTIVE, Compressed Air. The attention of engineers has for a few years 
past been directed to the construction of locomotives using compressed air instead of 
steam. Compressed air for driving stationary engines for rock-drilling in tunnels has 
been in use for some time, but in these the compressed air was directly furnished by a 
pump driven either by steam or water-power, the latter being preferred where conve- 
nient. At the present time the application of compressed air to locomotives is thought 
practical only for short lines and where steam is objectionable, but it is possible that in 
the future long lines of railway may be furnished with pneumatic pipes, or with pump- 
ing-stations, and receive their motor power in this manner. Compressed air street-motors 
have been used in Glasgow, Paris, and New York; and two Scottish engineers, Robert 
Hardie and John James, have been and still are engaged in this country upon the prob> 
lem. It is said that the pneumatic engines devised by them, which have been running 
at intervals on the Harlem portion of the Second avenue surface road, between 96th ana 
18Qth streets, have proved so satisfactory that no doubts are entertained by the pneu- 
matic tramway company that before many years this mode of propelling passenger cars 
on comparativelv short distances will be generally adopted. It is believed that the prop 
erties of atmospheric air have not been utilized to anything near their natural limits, j 

The first problem in compressed-air locomotion is to compress and store air in a 
resevoir of suitable dimensions to be carried on a street-motor or car. In order that such 
car may be driven several miles and make numerous stops, a conmderable amount of 
energy must be stored at the commencement of the trip, unless pneumatic pipes be laid 
along the line. In any case a certain distance has to be run before the compressed air 
reservoir can be replenished. The reservoir Of compressed air may, therefore, be com- 
pared to tlie fuel of a steam-engine, although the air derives its energy from the fuel 
which supplies the compressing steam-engme. This comparison may Bhow the impor- 
tance of furnishing the motor with a conveniently disposed air-chamber filled with highly 
compressed air, and also of maintaining an equable pressure upon the driving pistons, 
while the compressed air is constantly diminishing in tension by its escape in 
its work. It is said by engineers who have given practical attention to the subject that 
it will be desirable to use an initial pressure of about 500 lbs. to the, which is the 
equivalent of about 83 atmospheres. A pressure of 300 lbs. to the, or 20 
atmospheres, has been found practicable, and most motors have hitherto been run with 
this pressure. Of course, the compression of the air converts a vast amount of latent 
into sensible heat. See Heat, ante; Latent Beat. This energy is lost because there is 
no way to prevent the sensible heat from being conducted away or dispersed. If the air 
be introduced into the motor reservoirs in the heated and dry condition which it attains 
in the pump cylinder, it would not be fit to perform its duty in the driving cylinders of 
the motor. It would not, however, retain its expanded volume in the motor reservoir 
without being kept heated. Before entering these reservoirs it must be cooled, and it is 
not improbable that the heat with which it parts on cooling may be utilized in produc- 
ing a part of the steam for the pumping engme. The methods of cooling are various; 
those employed m compressing-engines for furnishing air directly to stationary air- 
engines have the pump cylinder surrounded by a cold-water jacket, or have a circula- 
tion of cold water in the cylinder head, or have sprays of cold water forced into the 
pump cylinder. The air for a store cylinder from which motors take their compresst^d 
air may, however, be more conveniently cooled by passing it through a tank of cold 

In using a pneumatic motor there are three different machines all receiving their 
energy from the boiler steam. 1. The engine which drives the compressing machine; 
2. The compressing machine itself; and 8. The engine which drives the locomotive. It 
is estimated that the loss of power in all these amounts to about one-half of that con 
tained in the steam boiler of the pumping engine. One of the earliest compressed air 
locomotives was devised by M. Ribourt, the engineer at St. Gothard (see Tukkbl), for 
hauling debris from the tunnel. M. Ribourt's method for equalizing tlie pressure uix)n 
the driving pistons was the employment of a sliding cylinder inside of and concentric 
with the cylinder in which the driving piston moves. This inside cylinder is controlled 
by a spiral spring which is connected with the piston rod. Compressed air at the 
initial pressure enters the cylinder between the piston heads. Within this space it 
therefore has no effect, but it passes from this chamber through orifices into an outer 
jacket, and thence again on the further side of one of the piston heads, that one opposite 
the end to which the spring is applied. These orifices pass through both inside and out- 
side cyiindei-s, and their capacity depends upon the relative positions of the two cylin- 
ders. The adjustments of the different parts of the apparatus are so made that, when the 
air passes through the jacket to the outer surface of the piston head upon which it acts 
at its initial pressure the orifices in the cylinders do not exactly coincide, and their 
capacity is therefore diminished. As, however, the tension of the air diminishes, the 
spiral spring, acting against the pneumatic pressure, forces the inside cylinder farther 
back, at the same time increasing the capacity of the openings in the two cylinders by 
making them more nearly coincide. This increase of capacity of orifice is in the inverse 
ratio to the pressure, and the action is reciprocal and continuous. Considerable modifi- 
cations have been made in motors i*unning upon tramways in Glasgow, Paris, and Kew^ 
York. M. Mekarski has successfully propelled motors in France with compressed air 
at 450 lbs. per, or 30 atmospheres. The ordinary hieh-pressure locomotive engine 
is the form used, but the compressed air before reaching the cylinders is forced through 
a tank of hot water at about 220"" F., by which means it becomes saturated with 
steam. An equalizing throttle- valve is placed on the top of the hot- water reservoir, for 
the purpose of regulating the pressure upon the pistons. Two of the locomotives were 
exhibited at the Paris exposition of 1878, one a car motor, the other a separate motor. 
The latter could draw a car containing 30 passengers from 10 to 11 m. on a level, and 
could ascend a grade of 5 to 100. Further improvements, it is said, have been intro- 
duced on motors which have been running on the Second avenue railroad in New York. 
One of the improvements is the passing of the compressed air through water heated to 
about 328''. It is claimed that the motors have worked successfully, and at a less cost 
than when horses are used for the same amount of work. Some engineers, however, do 
not accept these estimates, and it is declared that the experience at Glasgow, where both 
compressed air and steam motors have been used, indicates that the pneumatic motor 
requires more than four times the expenditure of steam to perform the same work that 
the steam motors do; and a leading French engineer says that at Paris it is estimated 
that the cost of motive power on streoi mil ways, calling J^Q^ieaRO^C^vi^JW^^^^ ^» ^^^ 

11^ I^ooomotlTe. 

ctKopressed air, 64, and for steam power, 20, making compressed air a little more than 
three times aa expensiye as steam. It must, however, be understood that but a short 
dflK has elapsed since the first trials were made, and yet that considerable progress has 
beeD made — perhaps n-eater than has ever attendee! the development of any similar 
ioTeotiozL A pamphfet issued by the pneumatic tramway engine company of New York 
cootaiDS a letter from gen. Herman Haupt, its consulting engineer, in which he says 
'that although one-half the power of the stationary engine is lost in compressing air, yet 
the economy of fuel can be made so great that a given amount of power in compressed 
air is secured at one-half the cost of the direct application of steam to motors. The 
Merence in specific heat of water and of air also is important as regards the advantage 
b economy of air. See Hkat, arUe; Specific Beat. Gen. Haupt again says: *'By a 
simple device of heating the air by passing it through a tank of water it is claimed as 
the result of constant practice in Paris, confirmed by recent experiments on the Second 
areoue railroad, that the capacity for work is doubled, or the gain 100 per cent, making 
ibeecoDomy of power, as compared with the direct application of steam to street motors, 
measured as it should be by the coal consumed, four to one in favor of compressed air." 
Agiin: '' The motor cylinders are so arranged that in descending steep grades they act as 
ftir pumps, and at the same time as brakes, by which means it is found, as stated by the 
company's engineer, Mr. Hardie, that in running down grade on the Second avenue 
railroad, pumping back against a pressure of 300 lbs. in the receiver, the pressure was 
increased 7 lbs. in a distance of four-tenths of a mile." 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. See Steam-carriage ; Steam-enqinb, ante. 

LO'CRI, or LocRi EpiZBPHT'Rn, a t. of the Greek Locrians in Italy, on the s.e. coast 
of the Brattiao peninsula. The name seems to indicate that it was a colony of a Locrian 
iiettlement at cape Zephyrium (capo di Bruzzano), on the Ionian sea. The date of its 
foundation is uncertain, some putting it b.c. 710, and others 688. The Locri Epizephyrii 
are said to have been the first Greek people who had a written code of laws. This code, 
dnvn up by Zalcucus about b.c. 664, was so excellent that in the time of Demosthenes 
Locri is cited as an example of good government ; and to the institutions of Zaleucus 
this city owed its prosperity and fame. In the battle at the river Sagras 10,000 Locrians 
defeatea with great carnage 130,000 Crotoniats. After 205 B.C. Locri declined in impor- 
taace, and after the 6th c. no author makes mention of it. Its site has been found about 
J m. from the modern Gkrace, containing, among other remains, the fragments of a 
Doric edifice supposed to have been the temple of Proserpine. Several aistinguished 
poets and philosophers were natives of Locri. 

LO'CRIS — LOCRIANS, an ancient Grecian race, in later times merged with the 
Achaians, deriving their name from Locrus, a king of the Leleges, from whom they 
descended. In historic times two distinct tribes were known. The eastern Locrians, 
diTided into the Opuntii and Epicnemidii, dwelt opposite the island of Euboea on the e. 
coast of Greece, and were said by Homer to be followers of Aiax son of Oileus to Troy. 
The western Locrians were called Ozolae, and lived on the Corinthian gulf, w. of Phocis. 
From the first tribe were probably descended: 2. Locri Epizephyrii, who not far from 
TOO B.c. founded a city in Magna Grecia on cape Zephyrium, now capo di Bruzzano. 
The Locrians were engaged in many wars with neighboring tribes, were held in subjec 
lion by the younger Diouysius after his banishment from Syracuse, B.c. 356, and during 
toe wars of Rome with Pyrrhus and Carthage the city was alternately occupied by the 
cpptsing parties. The first code of written laws ever adopted by any people is said to 
bkre been that of Zaleucus, a Locrian king. Locris is said to have been destroyed by 
the Saracens as late as a.d. 600. In the existing century explorers have discovered 
rains near the modem town of Ckrace, thought to be those of a celebrated Locrian 
:emple to Proserpine. 

I0CI78, in geometry, denotes the line or surface traversed by a point which is con- 
strwned to move in accordance with certain determinate conditions. Thus, the locus of 
u point which must always preserve the same uniform distance from a fixed point is the 
^irface of a sphere; but if the motion be at the same time confined to a plane, the locus 
in this case will be a circle: this is an illustration of the division into solid and j^nc loci 
which prevailed among the ancients. The Greek geometers made their geometrical 
tsalysis depend much upon the investigation of loci, but no specific records of their 
progress in this branch of geometry now exist. What would appear to have been their 
aethod was restored by Dr. Simson of Glasgow, whose work, De Lods PianU (1749), is 
a model of elegance. In modem geometry, plane loci are treated under the name of 
«nve8 (q.v.). 

LOCVB DELICTI, the place where a crime was committed, is a phrase used in crimi- 

LOCUS PCBHITSVTLB, the time to withdraw from a bargain— a phrase often used in 
^tch law. The general mle is that until the contract is finally settled either party may 
Rtiact; but if Tti intcrventui has intervened— -i.e., if some act has been done by the other 
^itj on the faith of the agreement, and by which his position has been altered— the lo&a$ 
miienluB is barred. Much depends on the circumstances of each case as to the applica- 
tion of the rale. Digitized by VjUUV IC 



WCUVmiocuita of some entomoloffists, tLndaerifdium of othen), the type of a family 
(locustidcB or tLcrydida^ of the order ortfioptera and section saUatoria (pee Gbtllub). Lo- 
custs differ from fi[ra8shoppei*8 and crickets in their short antennas and in the greater robust- 
ness of their bodies and hmbs. The head is law, with two projecting oral compound 
eyes, and three stemmatic eyes on its summit. The wings when folded meet at an angle 
above the back; the abdomen is conical and compressed. Their hind-legs are laige, 
and they possess a great power of leaping. They make a stridulant noise by the friction 
of the rough hind-legs against the wing-covers. The wing-covers are leathery, narrower 
than the wings, but equal to them in length; the wings are large, reticulated^ fold like a 
fan, and are often beautifully colored— red, pink, brown, green, or blue. The power of 
flight of locusts has been the subject of much dispute, some asserting that they can fly 
to great distances, others that they have little power of flight and are merely carried 
before a gale of wind. The truth seems to be between these extreme opinions: locusts 
fly well, but they aio sometimes wafted by winds where their power of fli^t would 
never have carried them. Their food consists of the leaves and green stalks of plants; 
the mandibles and maxillae are strong, sharp, and toothed, and in eating they use their 
fore-feet to bring their food to their mouths. They generally quite consume any stalk of 
grass or other ^reen thing which they have selected and cut. The terrible ravages of 
locusts are owing to the vast numbers in which they appear, filling the air like flakes of 
snow; darkening the sky, so that object casts no shadow; seeming, in the distance, 
like a thick smoke; advancing with a sound like the rushing of chariots or of waters, 
or, in the words of the prophet Joel, " like the noise of a flame of flre that devoureth the 
stubble;" whilst, as he also says, "the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and 
behind them a desolate wilderness." They eat up every green thing, and after the grass 
and leaves they devour in their hunger the bark of trees and shrubs. Ripe grain, how- 
ever, may escape, as being too hard and dry. These multitudinous swarms of locusts 
do not appear annually; it is only after the lapse of a number of years that they are 
again so great and so destructive; and particular years are marked in the history of 
some countries as years of their extraordinary abundance, and of consequent famine and 
pestilence. When driven by a strong wind into the sea, they have sometimes been flung 
back on the beach in such quantities as to produce a stench intolerable to a great 

Locusts are found in almost all parts of the world except the coldest regions, but 
they abound chiefly in tropical and subtropical countries, and most of all in Arabia and 
Africa. The eastern and southern parts of Europe are occasionally visited by their 
destructive hosts, and in the s. of France rewards are paid for the collection of locusts 
and of their eggs. The eggs are found cemented together in little masses in the ground. 
The insects themselves are taken by means of a stout cloth, the edge of which is made 
to sweep over the surface of the ground, and the locusts thus thrown together are 
quickly gathered into sacks. A similar mode of diminishing the nuisance is adopted in 
North America; but before an invasion such ns districts of Asia and Africa are occasiou- 
ally subjected to all human effort fails. 

Locusts are eaten in many countries, roasted or fried in butter. They are also pre- 
served in brine or dried in the sun. They thus appear in the markets of Arabia, Syria, 
Egypt, Madagascar, etc., and are even exported as an article of commerce. 

The most noted species is locuata migratoria (or aerydium migralorium) about 2^ Id. 
in length, greenish, with brown wing- covers marked with black. It is this species 
which is most frequently seen in Europe. It is a rare visitant of Britain. Other species 
belong to other parts of the world. Some of them, forming the genus truscdUSy and 
inhabiting the warmest countries, are remarkable for their elongated conical head. 

The little chirping "grasshoppers" most common in Britain, differing from true 
grasshoppers in their short antennae, belong to the genus teirix and family loeustida. 

LOCUST {ante) and GRASSHOPPER (anU) are here considered together because 
of the confusion in the popular mind in regard to them. Their similarity in form and 
habits is considerable, and by some of the fest authorities they are placed in one division 
under the name of grasshoppers, including two families, the acrididse and locustidse, the 
acrididae forming the family of locusts, while the locust idae fonn the family of grass- 
hoppers. There has long been a popular error in regard to the identity of the locust, 
the idea having been very widely spread that a species of hemipterous insect, the 
seventeen-year cicada, allied to the dog-day harvest-fly, is the true locust. As classified 
by the U. 8. entomological commission, probably the best authority for the general 
reader, the section of orthoptera called saUatoriu is divided into three families, acrididae, 
locustidae, and gryllidae, the latter family including the crickets. The acrididae and 
locastidae form a subsection or group called grasshoppers, for the insects comprising 
both these families are really grasshoppers, and the locust is quite as much of a grass- 
hopper as any of the members of the other family; indeed, he may be regarded as the 
grasshopper par exeeOmee. The principal distinctions between the two families are given 
m the article Locubt, ante. 8ee also Criokbt; GBAemoPFBR; Cicada, ants. Both the 
old-world and new-world locusts belong to the family acrididae, but are in many cases 
of different genera, which, however, are said to shade off into one another, so that it is 
difficult to tell in which group to place some of the mem^^^^^^^^^^e old-woild 

119 w-*. 

locusts belong to the geDus pathf/tyliu, the more devastating species beins P. m^atcrivs, 
bat io south-western Europe the more common genus is calovtenui, uie name of the 
Rocky-mountain senus; but the species is not the same. The locust of Algeria belongs 
to the genus acryaium, A. pmregrinvm. The old-world locusta are much Isjger than the 
Rocky-mountain locust, and probably a more formidable animal More minute dassifi- 
cations are made, not needful here; as, for instance, the family acridide, containing as 
it does a very large number of species varying considerably in form and character, has 
been afain divided into three subfamilies, fro^oopincBy aericUnm, and teUtginm, the acrididce 
includiDg the migratory locusts. The Alps form a dividing barrier or partition to the 
two difi^rent genera of European migratory locusts. There are many species of 
acrydium senera spread over the world, but as the most of them do not have tne multi- 
plying and migratory power of the few species which are among the world's historical 
scooiges, they are not popularly known as locusts, but pass under the name of grasshopper : 
mftoy of them may be seen in various localities, hopping along the fences, roadsides, mown 
mesdowB. and pastures, and can be distinguished by their much shorter antennse and 
more robust bodies. Most of the facts in this article in regard to locusts are taken from 
the first annual ''Report of the U. S. Entomological Commission for the year 1877, relat- 
in? to the Rocky mountain locust." This valuable work is the record of investigations 
chiefly by profs. C. V. Rilev, A. S. Packard, and Cyrus Thomas. According to Ororius, 
"in file year of the worla 8,800 certain regions of n. Africa were visited by mon- 
strous swarms; the wind blew them into the sea, and the bodies washed ashore 'stank 
more than the corpses of a hundred thousand men.' " According to St. Augustine, 
another locust plague, causing famine and contagious diseases, occurred in Numidia, 
resulting in the death of 800,000 men. Pliny states that locusts came over in great 
swarms from Africa to Italy in his time. Great invasions of locusts have occurred in 
Germany: one in 1838, lasting till 1386; another in 1475; others in 1527, 1543, 1636, 
1686. 1698-96, 1712-15, 1719, 1787, 1781-34, 1746, 1750-52, 1754, 1759-61, 1808, 1835, 
18dO. 1856-^9. In 1878-74 small numbers appeared in swarms about Qenshagen, near 
Berlin; they laid their e^gs, and in the middle of June, 1875, the larvae appeared in mil- 
lions, becoming fledged in July. EOppen has published an elaborate memoir on the 
mi^tory locust of southern Russia, and comes to the conclusion th&i pcnihytylus tnigra- 
tonui and P. eineroicons are onlv varieties of the same species, and that another genus, 
ttipoda^ is the same also. The form which he met witli as most abundant in southern 
Russia is the true paehytyUis migrcUorius. He describes minutely the development of the 
insect, the eggs of which are deposited in little nests of 60 to 100 tosether, surrounded 
by a membranous envelope. The eggs are laid in the autumn and hatched in the fol- 
lowing spring. Kdppen says the larvae molt four times, the fourth molt producing the 
winged insect. The eegs taken from the ground showed the eyes, antennae, segments, 
unpegs of the larvae distinctly. A little while before hatching, the larva might be seen 
moving within the egg. He notices the eahptenus ituUictis. tlie congener of the American 
calopteniu apretiu, as occurring in southern Russia. Other locusts which are occasionally 
devastating are paehytylus stndidu9, (wUpoda dewMtators stauronottu vastator, S. crueiaiu$, 
and pezatettix alpina. 

The genus to which the principal species of locusts of the United States belong is 
(dJapienu*, and it comprises 29 species, as described by various authors, but it is thought 
that several of these upon further examination will l)e found mere varieties of closely 
allied species. Of these nearly all are local and not greatly destructive; for instance, 
C.flondan$ has been found only in Florida; C. griae^M, only in Ohio; (3. repUtus and 
C. teriptus only in the n.w. portion of Washington territorv. and others in other regions. 
Only three species are so nearly allied as to require careful examination for their dis- 
tinction from one another; viz.. the Rocky-mountain locust, calopUnus 9pretus; the 
lesser locust, ealoptenw cUlanis, of the eastern states as well as western states and terri- 
tories: and the red-legged locust, ealoptenus femur ntbrum. Some of the general charac- 
teristics of the genus ealoptenus are as follows: head subglobular, front vertical or 
nearly so; vertex narrow between the eyes, being a little less than the eye itself; sides 
parallel, flat or slightly concave, and nearlv perpendicular; dorsal surface nearly flat; 
the elytra and wings extend to or beyond the tip of the abdomen, the elvtra being nar- 
row, with one exception ((7. UvitatxM), and the wings transparent in all the American 
^ecies, with sometimes a bluish tinge. Abdomen usually subcylindrical, having no 
distinct keel above; that of the male enlar^d at the tip and curved upwards, the last 
segment being sometimes truncated, sometimes notched. Posterior thighs strong and 
much enlarged near the base; the external surface more or less convex, and in the female 
generally lopger. Most of the American species have the upper portion of the inner face 
of the posterior thighs marked with three oblique dark banas, the one at the base less 
distinct; antennae filiform and slender, much shorter than in the family loeiuiUdtB or so- 
called true grasshopper. The following are approximate measurements of the insect 
taken from an extensive table made by prof. Riley. Female : whole length to tip of elytra^ 
H to liin., the elytra projecting from 0.13 to 0.28 in. beyond the tip of the abdomen. 
Length of male to tip of elytra, lA to li in. ; projection of elytra beyond abdomen, 0.!^ 
to 0.3 inch. The spiscies most closely allied to &. spretvs of Thomas is C. atkmii of 
Riley, which is at once distinguished from C. femur rubrum by the notched last joint 
of the abdomen of the male, an^ by greater relative length of wings, which ex ' ' 

I««a.t. 120 

one-third their length beyond the tip of the abdomen in dried specimens, and also hy 
the larger and more disiinct spots on the wings. From both species it differs by ita 
smaller size, and also by the more livid color of the dark, and paler yellow of the light, 
parts. Measurements of the male to tip of elytra, 0.84 to 0.98 to 0.95 to 0.98 to 1 inch. 
C, femur rubrum is larger than C. atlania, but the elytra are shorter in proportion, some- 
times in the female not reaching beyond the tip of the abdomen, the whole length to 
tip of elytra being from 1.04 to 1.32 inch. The C femur rttbrum is generally called the 
common red-legeed locust, and G. ^pretus is known by the several names hopper, army 
grasshopper, red-legged locust. Mormon locust, western locust, hateful grasshopper, 
and Rocky-mountain locust, which latter is the most appropriate name. The history 
of the Rocky-mountain locust, the specially destructive species, is much like that of the 
old-world locust. It breeds over vast areas and often migrates in immense swarms for 
hundreds of miles beyond its usual habitat, but the American locust prefers rather cooler 
latitudes than the old-world insect, a large portion, nearly one-thira, of its permanent 
breeding grounds lying in British America about the head-waters of the tributaries of 
lake Winnipeg. !Not much can be said about the movements of the Rocky-mountain 
locust previous to 1864, and it is questionable by the commission whether it may not 
have increased in some regions since the settlement and improvement of the country, 
which has given them more subsistence. Neill's history of Minnesota mentions the 
invasion of that district of country by vast swarms of grasshoppers in 1818-19. which 
devastated the country and often covered the ground 3 or 4 in. deep, and in 1820 they 
ravaged the western counties of Missouri. In 1842 locusts again appeared in Minnesota 
and Wyoming, and in 1845 in Texas, and again in 1849. They have appeared in Utah 
from 1851 to 1877, except in 1878-74, and a portion of this territory forms one of the per- 
manent breeding-grounds. From one year to another they have visited various portions 
of the territories and states. A notable locust year was 1866, when the insects swarmed 
over Kansas, Nebraska, the western counties of Missouri and n.e. Texas, and in Iowa, 
Minnesota, Colorado, and Utah. They often delayed the railroad-trains in these parts 
by lubricating the rails when crushed. In 1870 locusts were not plentiful, but in 1870- 
71 they began to increase, and in 1878 they again wrought serious ravages; but the most 
disastrous locust ^ear which has been known in the country was 1874, vast destruc- 
tive swarms invading settled portions of the Mississippi valley w. of the 94th meridian. 
Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, Dakotah, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, New 
Mexico, Indian territory, and Texas were overrun by swarms from the n.w., from 
Montana and British America. The loss in this region was estimated at $60,000,000. 
In 1875 the young insects hatched in immense numl^rs over an area embraced by atK>ut 
800 m. of latitude and 250 of longitude, embracing portions of Nebraska, Kansas, and 
Missouri, the two western tiers of counties of Missouri and the four tiers of counties in 
Kansas w. of Missouri suffered the most, about 750,000 people becoming destitute or 
suffering. In Missouri alone prof. Rilev estimates the loss to have been $15,000,000. 
In Mar., 1877, prospects were bad, but there was an unusual rain-fall in April, May, 
and June, and much of the country along the Missouri river was flooded, and the weather 
was cool over Colorado, northern Utah, Montana, and British America. The young 
insects died in vast numbers when they hatched, and few of them lived to acquire 
wings. South of 40^ of latitude, late in M^y and early in June, they flew toward the n.w. 
to Dakotah and Montana, whence their progenitors came. 

The permanent breeding-grounds of the Rocky-mountain locust were not defined 
until the U. S. entomological commission made their investigation. Vague ideas were 
entertained, and it was known that many of the swarms came from the n.w., but there 
was no definite information. It was ascertained that the area in which the locust breeds 
each year is-about 800,000 miles. They do not cover this area in breeding, but may breed any 
year in any part of it. It is the permanent habitat, but the most favorite breeding-grounds 
within the area are the river-bottoms and sunny slopes of uplands, or the grassy regions 
among the mountains, rather than over the more elevated, dry, and bleak plains. In 
central Montana the breeding-grounds are in the valleys of the Yellowstone, the upper 
Missouri, Gallatin, Madison, and Jefferson rivers and the grassy plains along their tribu- 
taries. These levels lie below 6,000 ft., mostly between 8,000 to 5,000 feet. The per- 
manent area principally liese. of the main Rocky-mountain range, between meridians 102 
and 114 w. of Greenwich and between lat. 40* and 50° north. Farther w., between lat. 42* 
and 45** and long. 114"* and 118% there is a strip of 60 m. wide by 200 long at the head- 
waters of the Snake river, a tributary of the Columbia, which is a permanent breeding, 
ground. A subpermanent region, in which the insects breed more or less continuously, 
extends to the e. of the permanent region from 200 to 400 m., between parallels 89** and 
58** of latitude. A temporary region Extends to the valley of the n. Mississippi, passing 
through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, and the north-western counties of 
Arkansas, and through Texas to the gulf of Mexico, thence n.w., passing through New 
Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, thence n. through Oregon and Washington territories to the 
main Rocky-mountain range in lat. 49**. 

The locust is the only truly migratory insect, although swarms of butterflies have been 
known to fly short distances m the Mississippi valley. The locusts of the old world have 
been known to fly into central Europe from their permanent breeding-grounds in cen- 
tral Asia. In North America thev often extend their flights over a distance of 1000 to 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 


2,000 m., or from Montana to Missouri, and even to Texas. The flight generally takes 
place durinj^ tUe day, commencing early in the forenoon and ending for that day at 
about five ox:lock in the afternoon. The rate of travel varies from 3 to 20 m. an hour, 
depeodiog on the \vind. Bometimes those wbich commence to fly in Montana the mid- 
dle of July may not reach Missouri till Aug. or the fore-part of September. The swarms 
are designated, according to their origin and direction, inwutina swarm*, or those which 
come in vast numbers from their permanent breeding-grounds; retwrning noarms, or 
Uiose which, having hatched in an invaded district, return, as by instinct, to the per- 
maoeDt breeding-grounds; and local JUgfU$, or those to-and-fro movements of insects 
hatched in au invaded district. 

The height in which the migrating swarms move has been the subject of observation, 
and differs according to locality, vastness of numbers, and direction and height of air- 
currents. The signal-service officer at Bismarck observed a swarm moving above the 
cumulus clouds. One observer states that in 1868, when upon the snowy ranges e. of 
Middle park, and on Long's peak, there were daily flights of full-grown grasshoppers 
ad far as the eye could readi from the loftiest summits. Another, from Arry's peak, 
in 1672, speak^ of them as filling the air like snow-flakes, far above the summit, 18,883 
feet It has been observed that a sudden change of wind generally brings a flying 
swarm to tbe ground. When the wind returns to the direction in which they were 
soiug they will again rise and pursue their flight. Repeated observations have con- 
nrrned this statement. A fall of temperature always brings a swarm to the ground, and 
this is thought to be the chief reason of their alighting in the evening. Flights, how- 
ever, have been known to take place at night, or to continue during the night when the 
weather is warm. The opinion has been formed by some that the locust 'has but little 
power of flight except when aided by the wind, while others think it capable of sus- 
tained flight even against a gentle wind. The truth lies between these extreme views. 
The migratory locust has considerable power of flight for so small an animal, but would 
make comparatively little progress, ana not prove to be the devastator that he is except 
for the wind. It has been observed that locusts are most numerous, whether by immi- 
gration or otherwise, in warm, dry seasons. Cold and wet prevent hatching, and do 
great injury to the young that are hatched. 

Destructive Ftmer of Loeusts. — ^Prof. Riley remarks: ''No one who has not witnessed 
the ravaging power of locusts can fully conceive of or appreciate it. Muscular, gre- 
garious, with powerful jaws and ample digestive and reproductive systems; strong of 
wing, and assisted by numerous air-sacs that buoy — all these traits conspire to make it 
the terrible engine of destruction which history shows it to have been under conditioiiK 
favorable to its excessive multiplication. Insignificant iDdividuallv, but mighty col- 
lectively, locusts fall upon a country like a plague or a blight. The harvest is at hand; 
the day breaks with a smiling sun, and all the earth seems glad. Suddenly the sun*8 face 
IS darkened and clouds obscure the sky: the day closes, and ravenous locust swarms 
have fallen upon the land. The morrow comes: the fertile land of promise and plenty 
has become a desolate waste, and the sun shines sadly through an atmosphere alive with 
myriads of glittering insects. Falling upon a corn-field, they convert in a few hours the 
green and promising acres into a' desolate stretch of bare, spindling stalks and stubs. 
Their flight may be likened to an immense snow-storm extending from the ^ound to a 
height at which our visual organs perceive them only as minute, darting scintillations, 
leaving the imagination to picture them in indefinite distances beyond. When on the 
highest peaks of the Snowy range, 14,000 or 15,000 ft. above the sea, Mr. Byers has seen 
them filling the air as much higher as they could be distinguished with a good field- 
glass. It is a vast cloud of animated specks glittering against the sun. On the horizon 
they often appear as a dust-tornado, riding upon the wind like an ominous hkil-storm, 
eddying and whirling about like the wild dead leaves in an autumn storm, and finally 
sweeping up and past you with a power that Is irresistihle. They move mainly with 
the wind, and when there is no wind they whirl about in the air like swarming bees. 
If a passing swarm suddenly meets with a change in the atmosphere, such as the 
approach of a thunder-storm or a gale of wind, they come down predpitatelv, seeming 
to fold their wings, and fall bv the force of gravity, thousands being killed by the fall, 
as if upon stone or other hard surface. Col. H. McAllister, of Colorado Springs, Col., 
in 1875 saw a swarm suddenly come down in that place with a rain' ' The ground was 
literally covered 2 or 8 in. deep. In rising the next day, by a common impulse they would 
circle in mvriads about you, beating against everything animate and inanimate, driving 
into open doors and windows, heaping about your feet and around your buildings, their 
laws constantly at work biting and testine all things in seeking what they might devour. 
In the midst of the incessant buzz and nrnse which such a fiiffht produces, >in the face of 
unavoidable destruction everywhere going on, one is bewildered and awed at tbe col- 
lective power of the ravaging host, which calls to mind so forcibly the plagues of Egypt. 
The noise which their myriad jaws make when engaged in their work of destruction can 
be realized by any one who has fought a prairie-fire or heard the flames passing before 
a brisk wind.' " The eggs are laid in many kinds of soil, because choice cannot always 
be made b^' such almost illimitable hosts. Dry meadows, pastures, bare sandy places, 
and roadsides are overrun with the procreating swarms. The female when about to 
lay her eggs forces a hole in the ground by means of the two pairs of ^(^fMT^Yff 


1 WW 

which open and shut at the tip of her abdomen, and which from their peculiar struc- 
ture are admirably fitted for the purpose. With the valves closed she pushes the tips 
into the ground, and by a series of muscular efforts and continued opening and shutting 
of the valves she drills a hole until, in a few minutes, the whole abdomen is buried 
The abdomen stretches to its utmost for this purpose, especially at the middle, and the 
hole is generally a little curved and always more or less oblique. Now with the hind 
legs hoisted straight above the back, and the shanks hugging more or less closely the 
thighs, she commences ovipositing. When the hole is once drilled there exudes from 
the tip of the bpdy a frothy mucous matter which fills up the bottom of the hole and 
bathes the horny valves. This is the sebific fluid which is secreted by the sebific or 
cement gland. An egg is laid and deposited in its place hy a piece of admirable appa- 
ratus. Then follows a period of convulsions, during which more mucous material is 
elaborated until the whole end of the body is bathed in it, when another egg passes 
down and is placed in position. These alternate processes continue until the full com. 
plement of eggs is in place, the number ranging from ^ to 86. The mucous matter 
binds all the eggs in a mass, and when the last is laid the mother devotes some time to 
filling up the somewhat narrowed neck of the burrow with a compact and cellular mass 
i of the same material, which, though light and easily penetrated, is not easily permeable 
by water and forms an excellent protection. The examination of one of these egg- 
masses is full of interest. No more perfect arrangement is found in a bee-hive; the 
eggs are arranged in perfect order, having a beautiful spiral appearance in one aspect 
ana showing a quadrangular arrangement in another. The time for drilling the hole 
and completing the process of making the egg-mass varies with the weather, in the 
warmest days taking from 2 to 3 hours, but longer when the mornings and evening are 
cool. The ground is often covered by the egg-laying females during the day. It has 
been thought by some that when the young begin to migrate they are led by kings or 
queens, and this idea has been formed from seeing a few members of a larger genus of 
aericUum (A. Americana) with them, and also the coral-winged locust. 

The Rocky-mountain locust takes about seven weeks from the time of hatching to 
attain its full size. As the transformations in the orthoptera are incomplete, there is 
very little difference in the general appearance of the body, except in size, between the 
young and the adults. The most noticeable difference is tlie want of wings in the 
, young, as well as the narrower prothorax. The complete development is accomplished 
I through a series of five molts, during the first four of which the wing-pads become more 
' and more apparent, and during the fifth the insect more rapidly gets its full wings and 
ceases growing. The first three of the larval skins are shed on or near the ground, 
under the grass or other cover, and their dry, cast-off shells are often mistaken for dead 
i locusts. The last two molts are made while the insect fastens itself to some elevated 
object. Mr. Riley says: '* When about to acquire wings the pupa crawls up some post, 
weed, grass-stalk, or other object, and clutches it securely with the hind-feet, which are 
drawn up under the body. In doing so the favorite position is with the head down- 
wards, though this is by no means essential. Remaining motionless in this position for 
several hours, with antennse drawn down over the face, and the whole aspect betoken- 
ing helplessness, the thorax, especially between the wing-pads, is noticed to swell. 
Presently the skin along this swollen portion splits right along the middle of the liend 
and thorax, starting by a transverse, curved suture between the eyes and ending at the 
base of the abdomen. As soon as the skin is split the soft and white fore-body and 
head sweU and gradually extend more and more by a series of muscular contortions; 
the new head slowly emerges from the old skin, which, with its empty eyes, is worked 
back beneath, and the new feelers and legs are being drawn from their casings, and the 
future win^ from their sheaths." This all occupies about 15 minutes, and the newly 
formed Insect now turns round and clambers up the cast-off skin, and there rests w^hile 
the wings expand and every part of the body hardens and gains strength. In 10 or 
15 minutes from the time of extrication the wings are fully expanded, and hang down 
like dampened rags. From this point on the broad hind-wings begin to fold up like 
fans beneath the narrower front ones, and in another 10 minutes they have assumed 
the normal attitude of rest. Without careful inspection one would be puzzled to know 
how the now stiff legs had been drawn out of their old cases; but they were exceedingly 
fiexible and capable of bending at every part over the flexed knee-joint of the case. 
The whole operation, from the bursting of the skin to the full development of wings, 
occupies from one-half to three-cjuarters of an hour. 

The locust has many enemies, or animals that prey upon it. One of the most 
remarkable is the arUfumyioi ang\i*tifron%, or egg-parasite, tlie most widespread of all the 
egg-feeders. In 1876 this parasite destroyed about one-tenth of all the eggs laid in 
Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska; many were seen also in Iowa, Minnesota, Colorado, 
and Texas. The larva of this insect is a little less than a quarter of an inch lone, and 
sometimes a dozen or more are found in the same locust -K^gg- pod, where they suck the 
juices of the eggs. The winged insect is about the length of the larva, with a spread of 
wing about twice as great The larvae of the common flesh-fly also feed upon locust- 
eggs, and many species of ground-beetles also feed upon them, sometimes settling in 
Kwarms in fields where locust-eggs have been laid, and often completely devouring them. 
They also devour the full-grown locusts. The locust naite f^i9f;|M[^ttm Joctt^toruin, 


Rikyi prejB upon the adult locust. In the spring the female of this parasite lays from 
i/i.O to 400 minute eggs about 2 in. beneath the surface of the ground in the locust-fields. 
jlioate oiaoge^olored mites hatch from these eggs, crawl upon the locusts, and fasten 
Miu^Tes at the base of the wings. The digger-wasps {farada semirufa) also catch 
k<asts, sting them, and bury them in their nests for the sustenance of their newly 
lulcbed young. But the birdls are the great natural destroyers of tJie locusts, and flocks 
d \hem have been known to clear a field in a few minutes. 8ee IJisBcnyoROUS Birds. 

Various methods have been devised by the farmers to destroy locusts or prevent 
'Jieir depredations. One method which has been successfully practiced to save a small 
crop is to dn^ ropes over the surface of the grain, repeating the operation until the 
iiNfCts are driven to other parta The encouragement of the fly-catching birds is one 
cf tiie effective nteasures, and the commission advise the offering of rewaMs for hawks. 
Tbis has been done with beDeficial results in Colorado and other states. The destruc- 
lioa of the eggs may be accomplished on a great scale by harrowing, plowing, and 
inigaiioD, the latter method sometimes being much the most economical. Young 
k>cu>L<:, before they are winged, may be destroyed by burning the fields when this is 
fta^ibie. The older locusts are destroyed in various ways by different kinds of appa- 
ratus. Some crush them between rollers, some gather them in nets, bags, and other 
receptacles mounted on wheels and pushed about by hand or driven by horse-power. 
Hneof the most efficient pieces of apparatus is the coal-tar pan, known as "Robbius's 

General Anatomy. — This has much in common with other insects, but the proportions 
vaiT. A superficial inspection of the locust will show that its body is covered with a 
aiti, articulated shell which protects the internal organs, the articulations having tlie 
general form of rings, many of which are again subdivided into pieces. There are 17 
(>i these rings or segments, disposed in three regions, four segments composing the hea<l, 
Iree the thorax, and ten the abdomen. The legs consist of five well-marked joints, the 
ui^i or feet having three joints, and the third joint having tAvo large claws, with a pud 
l^etween them. Tne so-called true grasshoppers have tarsi with four joints, and also 
drilling oreans at the base of the wings, which the locusts have not. The hind-legs, 
especially me thigh and shank, are very large and well adapted to hopping. The 
r^roum is broad and large. The head in the adult locust is chiefiy composed of a 
siagle piece called the epicranium, and carries the compound eyes, the ocelli or simple 
eyes, and the antennse. While there are in reality four primary segments in the head 
(fill winged insects, corresponding to the four pairs of appendages in the head, the 
posterior three segments, after early embryonic life in tiie locust, come to be represented 
calrby their appendages and small portions to which the appendages are attached. 
Tne epicranium represents the antennal segment, and most of the piece represents the 
terirum, or upper portion of the semiient. The antenme, or feelers, are situated in front 
'jf ibe eyes, and between them is me anterior ocellus, while the two posterior ocelli are 
situated above the insertion of the antennce. In front of the epicranium is the clypeus, 
a piece nearly twice as broad as long, and to this is attached a loose flap covering the 
jaws when they are at rest This is the upper lip or labnim. There are three pairs of 
mouth appendages: 1, the true jaws or mandibles, situated on each side of the mouth; 
2 the mazillse, divided into three lobes, the inner armed with spines, the middle 
uianned and spatula-shaped; while, 8, the outer lobe ia a tivegoiuted feeler, called the 
maxillary palpus. The floor of the mouth is formed by the labium, which is composed 
if two second mazill«, fused toother in the middle line. Within the mouth the tongue 
i placed upon the labium, and is a large, membranous, hollow expansion of the latter 
jrgan (Packard). The internal anatomy of the locust is really marvelous, althovigh not 
^ry<^iDplox- "^o esophagus terminates at the center of the head, where the crop 
ccmmences, and where there is a slieht constriction with oblique folds armed with 
^ine-like teeUi. After leavine the head the folds in the crop become longitudinal, upon 
which the teeth are arranged in rows, each row, composed of groups of from three to six 
t^th. pointin^^ backward, so as to push the food into the stomach. It is in the crop 
that the substance known as "molasses" is produced, and which is the partly digested 
f'xxl. mingled with the secretion of the crop. The true or chyle stomach commences a 
.ittle behind the insertion of the middle pair of legs. It is paler than the crop, which is 
f a fiesh color. Between the crop and stomach, externally, there are six remarkable 
C'Teans, called gastric cseca. They are of a sacculated, spindle shape, placed longitudi- 
uulj side by side, surrotmding the posterior part of the crop and the anterior part of the 
^rue stomach, and when dilated touching eadi other at the middle. The anterior ends 
sre attached to the latter third of the crop, while the posterior and more pointed extrem- 
aes float freely in the body cavity, and jpour into it the chyle of the stomach, insects 
a»Ting no system of lacteal vessels. These cceca are. true dilatations of the chyle 
STjfnach. Tne uriniferous tubes are situated at the junction of the posterior extremity 
vhh that XHyrtion of the intestinal canal called the ileum. These tubes are arranged in 
>0 groups of about 15 tubes each, which, when stretched out, are about as long as 
*^ body, and are convoluted around the alimentary canal. There is an ileum, a colon, 
ttd a rectom, the latter having six large rectal glands on the outside, held in place by 
ax muscidftr bands. The nervous system of the locust consists of a series of nerve* 
cesten eonnected by bands. These centers or ganglia nre: 1, supra-esophageal gan-^ 

glioQ, or brain, which furnishes the eyes and the ocelli with nerves; 2, infra-esophageal 
ganglion; 8, three thoracic ganglia connected by double cords; and 4, five aboomiDal 
ganglia connected by single medial cords. There is also a sjrmpathetic system, com 
posed of three principal ganglia, and a not otherwise complex system of nerves. The 
respiration is much like that in other insects. See Insects. In the female the ovaries, 
immediately before ovipositing, occupy a considerable portion of the abdomen, and con- 
sist of two masses of tubes, with air-sacks and trachess ramifving among them. There 
are from 17 to 22 tubes in each ovary in C. fdmvr rubrum, and more in u, 9pretu9, some- 
times as many as 50 in each, or 100 in both. Indeed, the mouth, crop, stomach, and 
reproductive system of the migratory locust may be said to practically occupy the whole 
of the body cavity, the whole physical energy being spent in devouring and multiplying. 
As to the organs of sense they have two large, well-developed compound eyes, and three 
ocelli or simple eyes, which, no doubt, very well serve the purpose of vision. The 
antennse are probably organs of taste as well as of touch, but it is not known whether 
the tongue has any fustatory sense. The ears are well developed, and there is no doubt 
but that the sense or hearing is acute from the fact that drums and kettles are efiicient 
means of disturbing these insects. 

LOCtJBT TBEE, a name given in different parts of the world to different trees of the 
natural order leguminosa. — The carob tree (eeritonia giUqua) is often so called in the 
countries bordering on the Mediterranean, and its pods are the locust beans of our shops. 
See Carob. A kind of effervescing beer, made from locust or carob pods, has been sold 
in London. — The Locust Tree of America {robinia pseudaeada), also called the False 
Acacia, or Thorn Acacia, and on the continent of Europe and in Britain, very gener- 
ally the Acacia, is a valuable and extremely beautiful tree. See Robinia. The wood, 
known as locust wood, is useful for all purposes in which great strength, and especiallv 
toughness, is required ; this latter quality, which it possesses preeminently, makes it 
very valuable for trenails used in shipbuilding, and large quantities are imported for 
this purpose. It is also valuable for makingthe cogs of wheels. — The Honet Locust 
(q.v.) Tree of America is a gledUsehia.-^The Locust Tree of the West Indies is 
hymenoRa eourbaril, a gigantic tree, whose pods also supply a nutritious matter, a mealy 
substance in which the pods are imbedded. It is sweet and pleasant, but apt to induce 
diarrhea when recently gathered, which property, however, it loses when kept for a 
short time. A decoction of it, allowed to ferment, makes a kind of beer. The bark of 
the tree is anthelmintic; it yields a kind of resin called anime (q.v.), and it is valuable as a 
timber-tree, the timber (also known as locust wood) being close-grained and tough, and in 
request in England for trenails. It is very generally imported in the form of trenails. 

LODE, a miner's term for veins (q.v.) in which minerals occur. They are crevices, 
more or less vertical, produced by contraction, or the mechanical disturbance of the 
rock, which have subsequently been filled with metallic ores. 

LOBEVE (ancient Luteva in OaUia Narhonenm), a t. of southern Fi-ance, in the 
department of Herault, situated on the Ergue, in a beautiful valley, 82 m. n.w. of 
Montpellier. It is inclosed by walls, has a cathedral, with manufactures of woolen 
cloths. Pop. 76, 10,108. Lodeve is the birthplace of cardinal Fleury. 

LODGE, Thomas, 1656-1625; b. Lincolnshire, Eng.; studied at Oxford, but left 
without taking a degree, and went to London; became an actor and began to write for 
the stage about 1580, producing his Defend of Stage Plays, In 1684 he studied law at 
Lincoln's inn, and soon after accompanied Clarke and Cavendish as a soldier on their 
expeditions. Some time afterwards he studied medicine, and took a degree at Avignon. 
Returning to London he practiced with success, and published in 1608 a TreatiM of (he 
Plague. As a dramatist he occupies a high rank. His extant plays are: Tlie Wounds cf 
(Ant War lioeiy set forth in the True Tragedies of Mwrius and ayua; A Looking-glass for 
London and England, In 1810 a collection of his pastoral and l^c poetry was pub- 
lished. His novel Bosalynde: Euphues Golden Legaete, found in his cell after his death 
at Silexedra, gave Shakespeare the framework of the plot in his As Tou Like It. In its 
prose deficriptions and narratives, as well as in the interspersed verses, the novel is often 
finely poetical. A Margarite of America, written probably during his voyage with Cav- 
endish, was published in 1596. He translated Josephus and Seneca. While a student 
at Lincoln's inn he published Alarum against Usurers. He is said to have died of the 

LODGED^ in heraldry. A beast of chase, as a stag, is said to be lodged when lying 
down with its head erect; a beast of prey in the same position is said to be couchant. 

LODGIHG-HOVET is an allowance, in the British army, granted to officers and 
others, for whom suitable quarters cannot be provided in barra^s. Married sergeants 
and private soldiers who are married "with permission," are entitled to lodging-money 
at various rates up to Ss. a week, when separate rooms in barracks cannot be spared for 
the accommodation of each couple. The total charge for lodging-money in the army 
estimates amounts to about £100,000. 

LODOIHCIB, or the use of part of another person's house, when occupied, constitute 
the relation of landlord and tenant between the parties. Lodgings being generally 
taken by the week, or month, or quarter, it is not necessary, 1^1^ ^i^_^|^^|^ould be 


by writing, though it is expedient, especially where any particular stipulations are 
made. Bat where a furnished house is let, and a written agreement or lease is used, it 
is abwlntely necessary that there should be a stamp on such writing, which must be 
canceled by the parties under a penalty of £5 besides stamp-duty; and house-agents 
who let furnished houses above £25 for hire, must now take out an annual license, and 
pay duty. In England,' the chief points of law which arise are as follows: One of the 
risks which the lodger runs is that, if his landlord, L, is himself a tenant to A, some- 
body else, then, if L*s rent is in arrear, the lodger's goods may be taken by A to pay 
this, for the rule Is, that all goods found on the premises, to whomsoever belonging, 
may be seized to pay arrears of rent, and it is^ immaterial whether the landlord A, who 
distrains, knows they are not L's, but the lodger's goods. The only remedy in such 
a case for the lodger is to deduct the amount oi loss from the next rent he pays to L 
for lodgings. Hence, in order to learn whether the above risk is impending, a lodger 
frequently inquires beforehand at the landlord of the house. A, and the tax collectors, 
whether rent, etc., is in arrear. A lod^ng- house keeper, even where he keeps a board- 
inff-honse, which nearly resembles an inn, is not liable for the safe custody of the 
lodger's goods. He is merely liable for ordinary care; but he does not warrant at all 
ha2ards that the goods will not be stolen, as an innkeeper (q.v.) does. Even if the 
lodger's goods are stolen by a servant of the house, the lodging-house keeper is not 
liable. The notice to quit depends on how the lodgings were taken. If they were taken 
by the week, a week's notice is sufficient; if by the month, a month's; and if by the 
quarter, a quarter's notice, unless some other agreement was made. Hence, if the 
lodger quit without notice, he is liable for one week's, or month's, etc., rent, even 
though the landlord put a notice in the window. The lodging-house keeper may distrain 
the lodger's goods for unpaid rent. When a lodger refuses to quit the lodgings after a 
notice has expired, he cannot be put out by force, but in many Cases a summary remedy 
is given for recovering possession. In Scotland, the lodger's goods cannot be taken by 
the landlord of the lodgmg-house keeper for rent. A lodger, whatever rent he pays, yet 
not being rated to the poor, etc., is not entitled to vote for members of parliament; though 
it is said that in Scotland a different practice prevails in some places (Burton's Law of 
Scotland, 88). Common lodging-Tuyuues, where poor people lodge by the night, have recently 
been subjected to state interference; and by statutes 14 and 15 Yict. c. ^, and 16 and 17 
Vict. c. 41, the keepers of such lodgine-houses must register them. They are liable to 
be inspected by an officer of the board of health for sanitary purposes, and the keepers 
are bound, on notice, to report to the local authority every person who resorted to tneir 
houses during the preceding day or night. The keepers are bound to thoroughly cleanse 
all the rooms, stairs, etc., as often as by-laws shall direct, and to keep a proper supply 
of water. If fever break out, notice must be given to the local authority. These duties 
are enforced by means of penalties. These statutes were extended to Ireland by the 
statutes 23 and 24 Vict. c. m, 

LO'DIf a flourishing t. of north Italy, in the province of Milan, stands on the right 
bank of the Adda, 19 m. s. of Milan, on a gentle slope in the midst of a highly fertile 
district, and contains 20,000 inhabitants. It is protected by walls and a strong castle, 
erected by the Visconti, but lately appropriated as a military hospital. Lodi is a 
bishop's see and the seat of a college, and contains many flne buildings. Its chief 
inanufactures are linens, silks, chemical products, and Majolica porcelain, for which it 
is famous. Its great trade is in cheese, especially the famous species knpwn as Par- 
mesan, which, instead of being manufactured at Parma, as one might infer from the 
name, is exclusively made in the vicinity of Lodi, where 80,000 cows are kept for the 
purpose. — Lodi Vecchio, or Old Lodi, is a ruined village about 5 m. w. of the modern 
town; it was founded by the Boii, and colonized by the father of Pompey the great, 
hence its name. Lata Pompeia, which was gradually corrupted into the modem name of 
Lodi. Lodi is celebrated for the victory of the French, under Bonaparte, over the 
Austrians, on May 10, 1796, when the long and narrow bridge was carried by the 
French columns, notwithstanding a tremendous fire from the Austrian batteries. 

LODOME'RIA, the Latin name of a principality annexed by Russia in the 11th 
century. At the partition of Poland, 1772, Austria gave the name Qalicia and Lodo- 
meria to her share of the spoils, though Russia retained the old province of Lodomeria. 

LODZ (Russ. Lodu), a t. of Poland, in the government of Piotrkow, and 75 m. s.w. 
from Warsaw. It is situated in a level fertile country, on a small feeder of the Ner, a 
branch of the Vistula. After Warsaw itself, Lodz is the largest town in Poland, and is 
remarkable for the activity with which different branches of industry are prosecuted, 
particularly the manufacture of cloth and other woolen stuffs. There is also a consider^ 
able trade, which is likely to be much promoted by a branch railway opened in 1865, 
connecting Lodz with the great Warsaw and Vienna line. The inhabitants of Lodz are 
mostly Germans, or of German origin. Its population has of late increased with great 
rapidity. At the beginning of the 19th c, the town had only a few hundred inhabitants; 
In 185< the pop. had increased to 28,302; in 1860, to 81,564; and in 1867 it had risen to 

L01S88, a loamy deposit of pleistocene age, occurring in the valleys of the Rhine and 
the Danube. It consists of a pulverulent loam of a yellowish-gray color, made up prin- 

cipally of argillaceous matter, combined with a sixth iwrt of carbonate of lime, and a 
sixth of quartzose micaceous sand. In the Rhine, it apparently once covered the whole 
valley and its tributaries, reaching to a considerable height up the bounding mountains. 
It has subseauently been g^eatlv abraded, a fnng^ only of the deposit being left on the 
mountain-sides, and occasionally some outliers in the widest parts of the valley; the 
materials have been carried down by thd river, and rearran^, as a newer loess or 
alluvium, in Belgium and Holland. This continuous deposit of fine sediment suggested 
the notion to the original observers of an enormous lake, whose barrier was at Uie nar- 
row gorge of the Rhine at Bingen. But the loess occurs further down ; besides the con- 
tain^ fossils are not lacustrine, but those of land-animals {elep^uis and r/anoeeros), and 
lund-shells (hslie, pupa, and auccinea). It is now believed to be the moraine mud of the 
Alpine glaciers, which was spread out gently in the valleys of the Rhine and Danube. 
as the land gradually emerged frotn the sea. The loess is generally from 30 to 60 ft. in 
thickness, though sometimes as much as 200 feet. Fossils are not generally distributed 
in the strata, but they are sometimes locally abundant. They consist chiefly of land- 
shells of species now inhabiting the same region. 

LOFO'DEHi Loffo'den, or Lofo'ten, a chain of islands on the n. w. coast of Norway, 
between lat. 67* and 69** 15' n., and stretching s.w. and n.e. for 175 miles. The largest 
of the islands-are HindOe, AndOe, and LangOe, Ost Yaagen, West Vaagen, and Flagstadoe. 
All of them are rugged and mountainous; indeed, some of the eminences in Vaagen 
attain an altitude of 4,000 ft., and are covered with perpetual snow. The glens near the 
coast possess a temperature mild enough to allow of the cultivation of oats, barlev, and 
potatoes. The permanent pop. is estimated at 4,000. The islanders chiefly dcpeud 
upon the fishery which was established some time previous to the lithe, and has always 
attracted a large number of the inhabitants of the mainland. The average number of 
boats is 4,000, manned by 20,000 fishermen; and the produce of the cod-fishery is esti- 
mated at 9,000 tons of dried fish, 22,000 barrels of oil, and 6,000 barrels of roe. After 
the cod-fishery has terminated (in April), the herring-fishing season comes on, and con- 
tinues throughout the summer, forming also an important branch of national industry. 
Several other kinds of fish are caught, and lobsters and oysters in abundance. The fish- 
ing is attended with considerale danger, on account of the sudden and violent storms 
from the w., and of the strong currents which set in between the islands. See Mael- 
BTKOM. The inhabitants are a ndxed race, partly of Scandinavian, partly of Lappish 

LOFTUS, William Kennett, 1820-58; b. England. From 1849 to 1852 he was a 
resident of Turkey, and, devoting himself to archaeology, made extensive explorations 
on the sites of the ancient cities on the Tigris and Eupmnites. He made renewed exam- 
inations in the same field under the auspices of the Assjrrian society of London in 1853. 
and a few years later published a volume of his TraveU and Besearehes in ChaMea and 
Sfm'ana, with illustrations. His contribution of specimens of ancient Assyrian sculpture 
to the British museum are highly valued. 

LOO is the instrument by which a ship's rate of motion through the water is measured. 
Its simplest form is a triangular piece of light wood, leaded so as to swim vertically; this 
is connected with the log-line so that its fiat surface is at right angles to the ship's course. 
When thrown out — attached to the log-line (see Knot)— the log meets with such resist- 
ance that it theoretically remains stationary in the water, and the log-line passing freely 
out shows the speed of the vessel. There are, however, many improved logs, which have 
complicated apparatus, for marking the way made, changes of direction, etc. The log 
and line are known to have been used as early as 1570 a.d., and were alluded to by 
Bourne in 1577. Computing by the log is an uncertain operation, allowance having to 
be made for numberless contingent circumstances. In ships of war, it is usual to heave 
the log every hour; in merchantmen, every two hours. The log-board is a board on 
which the hourly results of the log-heaving are recorded in chalk, with the wind's direc- 
tion, and other particulars, for the guidance of the officer in charge. The contents of 
the log-board are entered daily in the log-book, with all particulars essential to the historj' 
of the voyage, as ships spoken, icebergs seen, land sighted, eta The log-book thus 
becomes a rough journal ; and it is compulsory upon everjr master of a vessel to keep it 
properly, and to have it ready for inspection by any ship of war of his own nation 
whose captain may require its production. 

LOGAN, a central co. of Dakotah; 1800 sq.m. ; formed since the census of 1870. It 
includes a large portion of the Plateau du Coteau du Missouri, elevated prairie land, dry 
and thinly settled, lying between 98° and 99° w. long., and 45*" and 48'' n. lat. 

LOGAN, a central co. of Illinois, 574 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 25.041 ; watered by Salt. Kick- 
apoo, and Sugar creeks. It is traversed by the Pekin division of the Wabash, and the 
Chicago and Alton, and Oilman, Clinton and Springfield railroads. The soil is very fertile, 
mostly prairie land; productions: wheat, oats, hay. catlle, and pork. In 1870 this 
county produced 4,221,640 bushels of Indian com, being more than any other county in 
the United States, except Sangamon co. in the same state. Timber is very scarce, but 
there is an abundance of coal. Co. seat, Lincoln. Digitized by VjOUV IC 

LOGAN, a co. in Kentucky, immediately n. of the Tennessee state line; 600 sq.m. ; 
pop. '80, 24,856; traversed by the Memphis, Clarksville and Louisyille railroad. The 
aanace ia varied, the soil fertile; productions: tobacco, wool, cotton, and grain. Go. 
seat, RnsaellTiUe. 

LOGAN, a w. central co. in Ohio; 415 sq.m. ; pop. *80, 26,628; undulating surface and 
productive soil. Live stock, wool, and gram are the most important productions, and 
there are manufactures of flour, furniture, lumber, etc. The Cincinnati and SandudiLy, 
and the Cleveland, Cincinnati and Indianapolis railroads traverse this county. Co. seat. 
Belief ontaine. 

LOGAN, a co. in West Virginia, n.e. of the Kentucky line, from which it is sepa- 
rated bv a fork of the Big Sandy river; 825 sq.m.; pop. '80, 7,829; watered by the 
Guvandotte river. The surface is varied, chiefly hilly, and the soil is productive. 
This county possesses great mineral wealth, yielding coal and iron, salt and petroleum. 
Co. seat, Logan Court-House. 

LOGAN, 1720-80; the name adopted b3r the Indian chief Tah-gah-jute, in honor of 
his friend gov. Logan of Pennsylvania. Prior to 1770 he lived in Pennsylvania, where 
his father, a chief the Cayu^, had lived before him. He was well known on the Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia frontier, a brave chief, of noble presence, always friendly to the 
whites,' and endeared to them by his many good qualities. In 1770 he removed to the 
shores of the Ohio river with his family, and there fell iuto intemperate habits. In 1774 
Logan's family we^ murdered by a marauding band of whites. This cruel and cowardly 
act roused the chief to a determination for vengeance, and he devoted himself to stimu- 
lating the tribes to rise against the white settlers. In this he was completely successful, 
and a savage war bc^n, which lasted six years, with the most terrible cruelties, in the 
performance of which Logan himself was pre-eminent. He is said to have token thirty 
scalps with his own hands. The war closed with the defeat of the IndiaDs, but Logan 
refused to join the other chiefs in begging for peace with the whites. Instead of any 
sQch act of submission, he sent an address to lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, first 
, published by Thomas Jefferson in his 2fate$ on Virginia. Its authenticity has been ques- 
tioned, but it has popularly been accepted as a gemiine instance of Indian eloquence. 
Although often reprinted in school readers and otlier ephemeral works, it is sufQciently 
characteristic and pertinent to deserve permanent preservation. " I appeal to saxy white 
man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if ever 
he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course of the last long 
and bloody war Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my 
love for the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, Logan is the 
friend of the white man. I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the inju- 
ries of one man. Col. Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all 
the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and children. There runs not a 
drop of my blood in the veins of any livmg creature. This called on me for revenge. 
I have sought it; I have killed many; I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my 
country I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the 
ioy of fear; Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. ©Who 
is there to mourn for Logan? Not one." It is doubted if the oflScer to whom Logan 
refers was concerned in the mixssacre of his family. The chief now fell a complete vic- 
tim to intemperance, became quarrelsome and dangerous, and was eventually killed by 
a relative in self-defense. 

LOGAN, CoRirasLius A., b. Baltimore, 1800; of Irish descent; after sailing as super- 
cargo, became a iournallst, tlien an actor and dramatist. He had three daughters, Olive, 
Eliza (Mrs. Geo. Wood, 1830-72), and Cecilia, all actresses of talent; of whom the first is 
also a lively writer. A poem entitled The Mississippi was one of Mr. Logan's well-known 

LOGAN, George, 1753-1821; b. Stenton, Penn.; educated in England, and after 
three years' study at the medical school in Edinburgh made the tour of Europe. Returrv- 
ing to America in 1779, he spent some time in applying science to agriculture, and sub- 
sequently was a member of the legislature for several terms. At the commencement of 
the French revolution he joined the party of Jefferson and the republicans against the 
federalists. In 1798 he went to Europe as a private citizen to use his influence to pre- j 
vent a threatened war between France and the United States, having received letters of • 
introduction from Jefferson instead of passports from the secretary of state. Though 
successful in inducing the French government to annul the embargo on American ship- , 
ping, and in preparing the way for a negotiation resulting in peace, he was denounced as [ 
the treasonable envoy of a faction by the federalists, who afterwards had an act passed * 
by congress, called the Logan act, making it a high misdemeanor for a private citizen to 
interfere in a controversy between the United States and a foreign country. He was a 
member of the U. S. senate 1801-7, and in 1810 went as a volunteer to England for the 
purpose of settling difficulties between Great Britain and the United States, but the mis- 
sion was fruitless. He was a member of the philosophical society and of the board of 
agriculture. He published Mtperiments on Oypsum, and on the Botation of Crops, In 
religion he was a member of the society of Friends. Digitized by V^OUV IC 


LOGAN, Jambs, 1674-1751; b. Lurgan, Ireland, of Scotch Quaker gtock; was well 
educated, and entered into business as a merchant; in 1699 accompanied William Penn 
to Pennsylvania, where he held various public offices, such as provincial secretary, chief- 
justice, president of council, acting ^vernor, etc. He wrote msperimenta de Fiantarum 
Oeneratione, a translation of Cicero's x)e Seneetute, and other wofkisin Latin and in English 
prose and verse. Died at Stenton, near German town. 

LOGAN, John, 1748-88; b. Midlothian, Scotland; educated atEdinburp^h university, 
and settled as minister of Leith in 1773. His first literary work was a senes of lectures 
on the philosophy of history, followed, in 1781, by a volume of hymns and odes. It is 
claimed that the Ode to the Cuckoo^ by far the best of these, was stolen from the papers 
of Michael Bruce, a deceased friend. The other poems, however, possess some merit. 
They may be found in Anderson's collection. Of his tragedies, Runnamede (1783) is 
alone worthy of note. A review of the charges against Warren Hastings caused the 
prosecution of the author. Logan lost his position at Leith through his play- writing, 
and charges of immorality, and died in London. In 1790 a collection of his sermons was 
published. They have great vigor and earnestness. 

LOGAN, John A., b. Jackson co., 111., 1826; received a limited common-scbool 
education; at the outbreak of the war with Mexico enlisted as a private, but became 
quartermaster of his regiment , with the rank of first lieut. ; after the close of the war 
was elected clerk of the court of his native county; in 1852 graduated at the Louisville 
university, and afterwards was admitted to the bar; was a member of the state legisla- 
ture in 1852-^8 and 1856-57, and prosecuting attorney from 1868 to 1857; was elected to 
congress in 1858 and again in 1860, resiening his seat in 1861 to enter the army. He 
was made colonel of the 31st lUinois volunteers, and led the regiment in the battles of 
Belmont and fort Donelson; was wounded in the latter engagement, and in Mar., 1862, 
was appointed brig. gen. of volunteers, and a few months later, maj.gen.; in the 
Yicksburg campaign was in command of a division of the 17th corps, distinguishing 
himself at Port Gibson, Champion hills, and in the siegpe and surrender of Yicksburg. 
In 1863 he was put in command of the 16th corps, which he led with valor until the 
death of McPherson, when he took command for a time of the army of the Tennessee^ 
On being relieved by gen. O. O. Howard he returned to the command of his corps, which 
he led until the fall of Atlanta, when he obtained leave of absence to engage in the 
effort to re-elect Abraham Lincoln for president. He afterward rejoined his corps^ 
leading it in the march through the Carolinas, and until he succeeded gen. Howard in 
command of the army of the Tennessee. Having resigned from the army in Aug., 1865, 
he was in the following Nov. appointed minister to Mexico, but declinea. He was sub- 
sequently elected to congress for two successive terms, and in 1871 to the senate of the 
United States, of which he is still (1881) a member. He is an earnest advocate of the 
principles of his party, and is a strong and ready speaker. 

LOGAN, Sir William Edmond. ll.d., 1798-1875; b. Montreal, Canada; graduated 
at the university of Edinburgh in 1817, and in 1818 became partner in a mercantile house 
in London; 1829-38, manager of a mining enterprise at Swansea, Wales; in 1841 became 
head of the geological survey of Canada; represented that country in the expositions of 
1851 and 1862 at London, and in that of Paris in 1853; was made a knight of the legion 
of honor in 1855, and a knight-bachelor by the queen in 1856. Died in Wales. 

LOOASriA'CEJE, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees, shrubs, and 
herbaceous plants, with opposite entire leaves, and usually with stipules, which adhere 
to the footstalks or form sheaths. The calyx is 4-5-partite; the corolla hypogynous, 
regular or irregular, 4-5- or 10-cleft. The stamens arise from the corolla. The ovaiy 
is generally 2-celled; there is one style. The fruit is a capsule, a drupe, or a berry. A. 
few species of this order occur in Australia and in the temperate parts of North America; 
the rest are all tropical or subtropical. There are about 162 known species. No natural 
order of plants is more strongly characterized' by poisonous properties. It includes the 
genus strychnos (q.v.), of which nux vomica (q.v.) is one of the products, and another 
is the woorali (q.v.) poison. Sfrvehnine (q.v.) is a prevalent and peculiar characteristic 
principle of the loganiaceae. Some of the order, however, are of use in medicine, as 
certain species of spigelia (q.v.). 

LOGANSPORT, a city in Indiana, capital of Cass co. : at the junction of the Wabash 
and Eel rivers; pop. 70, 8,950; reached by the Detroit, Eel river, and Illinois; Logans- 
port, Crawfordsville, and South-western; Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis; and 
Toledo, Wabash, and Western railroads. It is the center of a productive region, well 
wooded, and rich also in building-stone. There is a Universalist college and public- 
school buildings, 14 churches, banks, etc. The city is handsomely laid out and well 
paved, with fine residences and stores. It has important manufacturing industries, 
employing more than 1000 operatives. 

LOOAUITHKIC or Logistic CUSVES are curves whose absciss® are proportional to 

the logarithms of the corresponding ordinates; consequently, if the abscissae increase in 

arithmetical progression, the ordinates will increase in geometrical progression. The 

• dx 

equation to these curves being x = a log. y (a being constant), y-^ — a, showing that 

Digitized by ^OUV IC 


ftenbUiDfent has tbe same value for all points of the curve, and is the modulus (q.v.) 
of Uie system of logarithms represented by the particular curve. This curve has nnother 
icflorbible property, viz., that the area contained between any two ordinates is equal 
to the diif erence of the ordinates multiplied by the constant subiangent. 

LOOABITHXIG or Logistic SPIBAL is a curve described by a point which moves 
uniformly along a uniformly revolving straight line. This curve has several remarkable 
pperties, some of which are analogous to those possessed by the logarithmic curve. 
Its inroluto and e volute are the same with itself. Newton showed that if the force of 
HBTitj had varied inversely as the cube of the distance, the planets would have shot off 
from the sun in logarithmic spirals. The equation to the curve is r = ea^. 

L06ASITHM8, a series of numbers having a certain relation to the series of natural 
QoaiberB, by means of which many arithmetical operations are made comparatively easy. 
Tbe nature of the relation will be understood by considering two simple series such as 
tbe following, one proceeding from imity in geometrical progression, the other from 
in arithmetical progression: 

Geometrical series— 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 82, 64, 128, 256, 512, etc. 
Arithmetical series— 0, 1, 2, 8. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc. 
Here the ratio of the geometrical series is 2, and any term in the arithmetical series 
(ipresscs how often 2 iias been multiplied into 1 to produce the corresponding term 
of tbe geometrical series; thus, in proceeding from 1 to 82, there have been 5 steps or 
ffloldplications by tbe ratio 2; in other words, the ratio of 82 to 1 is compounded five 
umesof the ratio of 2 to 1. It was this conception of the relation thnt led to giving 
ihe name of logarithms to the arithmetical series, the word LogaHtlim (Gr. logon arith- 
mta) meaning " the number of the ratios." As to the use that may be made of such 
series, it will be observed that the sum of any two logarithms (as we shall now call the 
bwer series) is the logarithm of their product; e.g., 9 (= 8 + 6) is the logarithm of 512 
{= 8 X 64). Similarly, the difference of any two logarithms is the logarithm of the quo- 
lient of the numbers; a multiple of any logarithm is the logarithm of the corresponding 
Tiumlter raised to the power of the multiple; e.g., 8 (= 4 X 2) is the logarithm pf 256 
<= 16^; and a submultiple of a logarithm u the logarithm of the corresponding root of 
is number. In this way, with complete tables of numbers and their corresponding loga- 
ziUiins, addition is made to take the place of multiplication, subtraction of dividion, 
auliiplication of involution, and division of evolution. 

lo order to make the series above given of practical use, it would be necessary to 
complete them by interpolating a set of means between the seventl terms, as will be 
eipLiined below. We have chosen. 2. as the fundamental ratio or base, as being most 
onreoicnt for illustration; but any other number (integral or f ractionnl) might be taken; 
iGil every different base, or radix, gives a different system of logarithhis. The system 
aowr in use has 10 for its base; in other words, 10 is the number whose logarithm is 1. 

The idea of making use of series in this way would seem to have l^en known to 
Archimedes and EucHd, without, however, resulting in any practical scheme; but by 
'•ht end of the 16th c, trigonometrical operations had become so complicated that the 
wiis of several mathematicians were at work to devise means of sliortening them. The 
real invention of logarithms is now universally ascrilwd to John Napier (q.v.), baron of 
Merchistoun, who in 1614 printed his Can^n Mirabilis Logarithmorum. ■ His tables only 
dre logarithms of sines, cosines, and the other functions of angles; they also labor under 
liie three defects of being sometimes -{- and sometimes —, of decreasing as the cnrre- 
sp>Dnding natural numbers increase, and of having for their radix (the number of which 

ihe logarithm is 1) the number which is the sum of 1 + 1 + -r-:,- + tito +» ^^ 

Tliese defects were, however, soon remedied: John SpNeidell, in 1619, amended the 
tibles in such n m'mner that the logarithms became all positive, and increased along with 
till ir corresponding natural numbers. He also, in the sixth edition of his work (1624), 
constructeil a table of Napier's logarithms for the integer numbers, 1, 2, 8, etc., up to 
10(K), with tU'^r differences and arithmetical complements, besides other improvements. 
Speideirs tables are now known as hyperboUc logarithms. But the greatest improvement 
vas made in 1615 by prof. Henry Briggs (q.v.), of London, who substituted for Napier's 
inconvenient *' radix" tbe number 10, and succeeded before his death in calculating the 
logarithms of 80,000 natural numbers to the new radix. Brij;gs's exertions were ably 
seconded; and before 1628 the logarithms of all the natural numbers up to 100,000 had 
Icen computed. Computers have since chiefly occupied themselves rather in repeatedly 
::TiMng the tables already calculated than in extruding them. 

ConHruetion of Tables. — The following is the simplest method of constructing a table 
f'f I'Jirarithms on Brig^rs's system. The log. of 10 = !• ; the log. of 100 (which is twice 
C'-mpounded of 10) = 2- ; the log. of 1000 = 3'. etc. ; and the logarithms of all powers 
cf lOcan be found in the same manner. The intermediate logarithms are found by con- 
tiaually computing geometric means between two numbers, one greater and the other 
less than the number required. Thus, to find the log. of 5, take the geometric mean 
between 1 and 10, or 8-163..., the corresponding arithmetic mean (the lo«r. of 1 being 0, 
tad that of 10 being 1-) being -5; the geonietric mean between 8-162... and 10, or 
^623..., corresponds to the Jtrithmetie mean between *5 and 1-, or *75; the geometric^ 
H. K. IX.— 9 


mean between 8-162... and 5-6^..., or 4-216..., has it« logarithm = i(-75 + 5). or -686; 
this operation is con tinned till the result 18 obtained to the necessary degree of accuraey. 
In this example, the twenty-first result gives the geometric mean = S* 000,008, and the 
corresponding arithmetic mean = -698,970, which is in ordinary calculations used as the 
logarithm of 5. Since division of numbers corresponds to subtraction of logarithms, 

and since 2 = y , the log. of 2 = log. 10 - log. 5 = 1 698970 = -301080. tRic loaa- 

rithms of all prime numbers are found in the same way as that of 5; those of componte 
numbers are obtained by the addition of the logarithms of their factors; thus, the log. 
of 6 = log. 2 + log. 8 = -801080 + -477121 = .778151. This method, though simple in 
principle, involves an enormous amount of calculation; and the following method, 
which depends on the modern algebraic analysis, is much to be preferred. According 
to this method, logarithms are considered as indices or powers of the radix; thus, 1^ 
= 1, 10»i«w = 2, 10*""» = 8, 10« = 100, etc.; and the laws of logarithms then become 
the same as those of indices. Let r represent the radix, y the natural number, x its 
logarithm; then ^ = r', or, putting 1 + ^ for r, y = (1 -|- a)'; and It is shown by the 
binomial and exponential theorems (see the ordinary works on aleebr*) that v = 1 X 

^ + -^ + j^+, etc., where 4 = r - 1 - K^ - 1)« + !<,.- 1)» -, etc., the former 

equation expressing a number as the sum of different multiples of its logarithm and the 

radix. If ~ be substituted for x, then y = r^ =1 + 14. JL ^.^^L^^., etc. = 

JL 1.2 1.2.8 

2-71828182..., which, as before mentioned, is Napier's ladiz, and is generally called 0; 

1 • 

then r^=r d, or r = e^, or A is the logarithm of r to the base or radix «. Then, refer- 
ring to the above-mentioned value of A, we have log. ,r (i.e., log. of r to. the base t) 
= r — 1 — Kr — 1)* -f le* — 1)' — f etc-f or, as before, putting 1 + a for r, log. ^1 -|- a) 

= ^ ^ o" + 7 ~f ^^-l A series from which log. J^.-^a) cannot be found, anless a be 

a* a* 
fractional. However, if we put — a for a, log. ,(1 — a) = — a — ^ — -^ — , etc. ; and 

subtracting this expression from the former, log. ,(1 + «) — ^og- JX — «) or log. 

L J_ ^ = 2(a + ~ -J- jT +, etc.), and, for the sake of convenience, putting ' • for 

7-^^. in which case a = s — r-7, we finally obtain log. ^"^ = 2 < ^ — r-^ -f- 
1— a 2u + l ^ •» <2tt4-l ' 

8^STi?+«^5Ti?+' '**'• \- "' '*«• .(«+!) = •<«•.«+ 2 lasVi + S^STi? 

+ fg/ftM I ix» +* eto- r • If 1 be put for u in this formula, the Napierian logarithm of 2 

ia at once obtained to any degree of accuracy required ; if 2 be put for u, the Napierian 
logarithm of 8 can be calculated, etc. Now, as logarithms of any system have always 
the same ratio to one another as the corresponding logarithms of any other system, no 
matter what its base, if a number can be found which, when multiplied into the loga- 
rithm of a certain number to one base, gives the logarithm of the same number to another 
base, this multiplier will, when multlpied into any logarithm to the first base,, produce 
the corresponding logarithm to the other base. The multiplier is called the modulus 
(q.v.), ana, for the conversion of Napierian into common or Briggs's logarithms, is 
equal to -4842944... ; so that to find the common logcmthm of any number, first find the 
Na/pierian logarithm, and mtiUiply it by -4842944... 

As in Briggss system the logarithm of 10 is 1*, and that of 100 is 2% it fdlows that 
all numbers between 10 and 100 have, for their logarithms, unity + a proper fraction; 
in other words, the integer portion of the logarithms of all numbers of two figures is 
unity; similarly, the integer portion of the loirarithms of numbers between 100 and lOOO 
is 2, and, in general, the integer portion of the logarithm of any number expresses a num- 
ber less by unity than the number of figures in that number. This integer is called the 
charaetertstie, the decimal portion being designated as the mantissa. 

As the logarithm of 1 =0, the logarithms of quantities less than unity would natu- 
rally be negative; thus, the logarithm of i would be— -80108, but, for convenience in 
working, the mantissa is kept always positive, and the negative sign only affects the 
characteristic; the logarithm of i or 5 would thus be 1 69897, the characteristic in this 
and similar cases expressing, when the fraction is reduced to a decimal, the number of 
places the first figure is removed from the decimal point; thus, the logarithm of *0005 is 


Directions for the use of logarithms in calculation will be found prefixed to any set of 
tables. Tlie history of the discovery is given in the preface to Dr. Hutton's Tables. 

The tables most distinguished for accuracy are those of Callet (who edited Gar- 
dener's edition of Sheitoin^s Tables, making several additions and improvements), to 
sevei) places of decimals (Pari^, 1821); Lalande, to five places (Pari&.lsaU; Button, to 

131 £31^ 

seven places (1849), issued in a more convenient form, with improTcments, by Mcssfs. 
W. &K. Chambers; the most accurate of all, however, are supposed to be those wbieh 
Mr. Babbage produced with the aid of his ingenious calculating-machine. 

LOQfllA, an Italian word signifyini^ an open arcade, inclosing a passage or cjpen 
apartment. It is a favorite clusa of building in Italy and other warm countries. The 
Lojsgia de' Lanzi at Florence is one of the finest examples extant; and the loggie 
of the Vatican, which are arcaded passages round the interior of tlie cor tile of the 
palace, ornamented with, beautiful paintings and arabesques by Raphael and his pupils, 
are well-known specimens. 

LOGIC. This name denotes the science connected with the forms and methods of 
reasoniDg, and the establishment of truth by evidence. The science has come down to 
us fnfm the Greeks, obtaining in great part the shape that wc find it in from Aristotle, 
although he did not apply to It the name '* logic." This name, signifying originally 
both thought and the expression of thought, must have been applied soon after t^e time 
of Aristotle. The most ancient name was * ' dialectic, " mean i ng li terally ' ' con versation, " 
"colloquy," or "dispute." (Hamilton's Logic, lect. 1.) *' But it appears that Aristotle 
possessed no single term by which to designate the general science of which be was the 
principal author and finisher. Analytie, and apodeietie with topic (equivalent to dddUctie, 
andincludinj^ tophigtic), were so many special names by which he denoted the particular 
parts or particular applications of logic." 

The definition of logic has never been, till lately, a matter of serious controversy. 
There was formerly a substantial unanimity, with some variations in the form of the 
phraseology Employed. We find it called usuallv the art of reasoning, or the science 
of reasoning, or both the one and the other. And by reasoning has be& always under- 
stood ^brmot reasoning; that is, inferences staited in such general language that thev 
apply to all kinds of matter alike, as when in arithmetic we say three times four is 
twelve, without considering what the numbers are numbers of. A modification of this 
view has been adopted bv sir W. Hamilton; he calls logic the " science of the laws of 
thought as thought." The introduction of the larger word "thought "is considered 
requisite, because ** reasonii^' is somewhat too limited, there being processes included 
in logic, and necessary to the establishment of truth, which that word does not cover; 
such, for example, are conception — the forming of general notions— and judgment, the 
statement of propoBitions (see JuDeMBirr). But the word "thought " having an accep- 
tation co-extenslve with all intelligence, including memory, imagination, etc., as well as 
the operations concerned about truth, must be held to its narrower meaning, bv which 
it simply includes the three great operations, constituting the distinct stages or divisions 
of lozic, conception, judgment, ana reasoning. 

Hr. John btuart Mill has propounded a radical innovation in the definition and 
province of this subject. According to him, logic "is the science of the operations of 
the understanding which are subwrvient to the estimation of evidence; both the 
process itself of proceeding from known truths to unknown, and all other intellectual 
operations in so far as auxiliary to this. It includes, therefore, the operation of naming; 
for language is an instrument of thought, as well as a means of conununicating our 
thoughts. It includes also, definition and classification." 

This definition has the merit of setting distinctly forth the end of the science, which 
is the essential point in everv pracUeal science, as logic is. That end is the e^Hmation of 
evidejiee; in other words,, it is not the ascertainment of (mU truth, but of those portions of 
truth that are authenticated b^ means of other truths, or bv infereTuse, The proper con- 
duct of the operation of inferring one thing from another is the final end of the whole 
science. And in laying down the true criteria of inference, a certain amount of study 
has to be bestowed upon some of the operations of the human understanding, not to the 
extent of converting logic into a system of mental philosophy, but simplv so far as will 
conduce to the purpose in view. It is not, therefore, the " laws of thoudbt as thought," 
bat the laws of thought as bearing upon the arts of inference, that Mr. >Iill would 
esteem the matter of the science. 

But inference is admitted on all hands to be of two kinds — deductive or formal infer- 
ence, and inductive or real inference. In the one, no more is inferred than is already 
contained in the premises; for example, "All men are mortal, therefore the present 
generation of Englishmen will die," is a formal inference; the conclusion is within, or 
less than, the J)remi8e8. This is the kind of inference treated of in the deductive or 
;^ynogistic logic, which was till lately the whole of the science. In the other kind of 
inference, a conclusion is drawn wider than the premises, so that there is a real advance 
upon our knowledge: from certain things directly ascertained we infer other things that 
have not been ascertained by direct experiment, and which, but for such inference, we 
'Should have had to determine in that manner. Thus, " This, that, and the other piece 
of matter, in which actual observations have been made, gravitates," therefore, " all 
ioert matter, existing everywhere, known and unknown, gravitates," is an inductive 
inference. Of this last class of inferences, all the inductive sciences, including physics, 
chemistry, physiology, mental philosophy, etc.. are made up. Accordingly, Mr. Mill 
treats this as coming within the province of loi^ic, no less than the deductive, fonaal. 

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trf>erlcr. 109 

fi^lloglstic, or necessary inference, which previous logicians had confined themselves to 


Sir W. Hamilton, in his system, admits the consideration of induction under wliat 
he terms ** modified logic," in contradistinction to ** pure logic," or formal inference; 
and It has not been unusujd for writers on tlie science to devote a chapter to induction, 
after expounding the laws of the syllogism. But Mr. Mill iias given to the inductive 
part the predominance over the other, as being the more fundamental, as well as pnic- 
tieally the more important of the two. Making logic coextensive with proof, he endeav- 
ors to allow that the establishment of the preniufeSf from which the formal logician 
takes his start, is, after all, the main iK)iut, and that the other is subsidiary and subordi- 
nate, although still important to be attended to, and susceptible of being well or ill done. 
He further shows that there are rules, or methods of procedure, which may be set forth 
and followed in the inductive operation; that mankind often break those rules from 
ignorance or inadvertence (as well as from other causes); and thai good may be done by 
ex])llcitly calling attention to them, and making them a branch of education, as the old 
logic has for a long time been. See Induction, Sylx.ogib>i. 

LOGIC (ante). Regarding the science as concerned directly only with the form and 
not the substance of reasoning, logic finds its starting point in human intuitions and 
thoughts, M'hich, by the processes of conceiving, judging, and reasonin:;, produce, 
respectively, concepts, Judgments, and arguments. These products, in turn, are ex- 
pressed in language by terms, propositions, and syllogisms. It is with the division, 
definition, olassificatiob, and contradistinction of these, and more especially with 
the truth or fallacy of all conceivable syllogisms, tliut logic priucj|)ally deals. 
Thus, concepts may be congruous or incongruous, may or may not be true, 
or valid, or distinct; judgments may be as to quantity, universal ^all M is P) or 
particular (some M is f ); as to quality, they may be affirmative (all M is P) or nega- 
tive (no M is P), they may be categorical or conditional, true*or not, and so on. Each 
judgment contains two concepts, which stand in Uie relation of subject and predicate 
and are connected by some verb of being; and it may be noted that predicables, or 
turms afflrmaUc of others, are grouped in five classes, as they denote genus, species, dif- 
ference, property, and accident. Either of these concepts is said to be distributed when 
it is taken a9 a whole, and undistributed when but part is taken. From the various 
atti'ibutes and varieties of the judgments and their elementary concepts are evolved 
rules as to opposition and distribution, such as: ''The truth of a universal implies the 
truth of a negiuive," and "All universals distribute the predicate." 

As concepts compose the judgments, so judgments or propositions compose the 
syllogism. For example, in tliis simple but complete syllogism: ** All M is P; all 8 is 
M; hence, all S is P," the first proposition is called the major premise, the second the 
minor premise, and the third the conclusion* Now, it has alroady be"i seen that every 
proi>ositiou may be aflilrmativeor negative and either universal or particular. We thus 
have the four primary propositions: universal affirmative, all S is P (A); universal nega- 
tive, no S is P (E); particular affirmative, some S is P (I); particular negative, some 8 is 
not P (O), which in all works of logic are designated by the capiUils A E I O, as above 
indicated. Combined In all possible ways to form syllogisms (three in each), we obtain 
04: conceivable forms, of which only 11 are found to be scmnd when tested by the laws 
of distribution, and othera which npply. These are called moods. Again, by changing 
the position of the middle term, each mood may be made to take four forms, which aro 
termed figures. But of the 44 resulting syllo.^sms, only 19 can be proven true under 
the usual tests. To designate these, there has long been in use a set of otherwise mean- 
ingless words, often aiTangod in mnemonic Latin verses, in which the vowels represent 
the propositions and their order. These are as follows: ' 

Fig. I. BArZ>ArA, c'ElA.rEnt, dXi'l I, /ErlO/yi/^, prioris: 
II. CE^ArE, cAmEstrEa, fEstlnO, bArOkO^ itecu7idm: 

III. Tertiii dArApil, din Amis, dAtlsl,fElAptOn., BOkArdO.fErlgOn habet: 

quarta iiisuper addit, 

IV. BrAmAntlp, cAmEnsEs, dlmArls, fEiApO, fvEslsOn. 

Ferio, for instance, stands fnv the syllogism E I O, as: " No M is P: some S is M; hence, 
some S is not P." The syllogisms of the last three figures may all be reduced to the 
form of the first for convenience in applying tests. One of the most interostinc discus- 
sions connected with the science of logic arose from the proposition of sir William 
Hamilton to substitute for these 19 universally accepted syllogisms, others arising from 
the fact that any affirmative proposition may or may not have its subject, and any nega- 
tive proposition its predicate, distributed. This would give eight propositions instead 
of four, and entirely overthrow the old method. Most modern treatises expound 
Hamilton's theory and notation, but the, system descended from Aristotle is more easily 
understood and applied. 

Syllogisms may be hypothetical, disjunctive (as: 8 is either P or Q; but S is V\ergo, 8 
is not Q), or dilem'matic, a combination of the two. Sometimes one proposition does not 
appear, forming the cnlhymeme; and again, several syllogisms maybe linked together. 

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133 Lovouumlm. 

the whole being termed the chain or sorites. Still another form is (he epichirema, -where 
the n*a8on for each premise is given with it. 

Fallacies are errore resulting from the improper use of words or mental processes in 
argument. The^ are variously classified. AmoD{^ the most important are: x^neraliza- 
tiou, or the attributing to a class individual limitations, as '*B isa clergyman and a 
hypocrite — ergo^ all clergymen are hypocrites;" equivocation, where a word is used in 
two senses; the non tera pro vera, where a premise is false; accident, where an acciden- 
tal prcipcrty is made to appear as a substantial attribute. For others and n more com- 
plete treatment of the subject, see Fallacy. An ancient Qrcek fallacy, which appears 
perennially as a modern joke, is the case of a man who says, ** I lie. ' Does lie lie or 
not? If be lie, he tells the truth; if he speak truly, he lies. 

The study of formal logic in the monastic .rchools and universities of the middle 
ages was carried to an extent more recondite than profitable, the result beine a not 
unmerited contempt for the science as then limited by the scholastic method. A classi- 
fication and discussion of syllogisms in which no attention is given to the origin of the 
concepts which form the premises or to the process of induction, resembles rather a 
series of mathematical permutations than fruitful intellectual investigation. In fact, in 
our day, prof. Jevons has constructed what he calls a logical machine, which will per- 
form many of the operations of syllogistic reasoning. In modern times the study has 
been in a measure reinstated; but it has been through the enlargement of the ground 
allotted it and the installment of induction as a most important factor. Thus widened 
in its scope, there mav be derived from it laws of reasoning of the greatest value as 
forming the basis of all investigation in physical, philosophical, and moral science. 

Among numerous authors who may be consulted on this topic are, besides Hamilton 
and Mill, archbishop Whately, Wallace, Jeremy Bentham (essays), Willram Stanley 
Jevons; and of American wnters, profs. Bo wen of Harvard, Wilson of Cornell, and 
Schuyler of Baldwin. 

LOOOOXAX (Gr. logos, a word, and gramma, a letter) is simply a complicated or 
multiplied form of the anagram (q.v.), where the puzzle-monger, instead of contenting 
himself with the formation of a sin^e new word or sentence out of the old, by the trans- 
position of the letters, racks his brain to discover all the words that may be extracted 
from the whole or from any portion of the letters; and throws the whole into a series of 
verses in which synonvmic expressions for these words must be used. The puzzle lies 
in ascertaining what the concealed words are, and, through them, what is the primarv 
word out of which they have all been extra^d. A specimen is given in Henry B. 
Wheatley's book on Anagrains (1862), in which, out of the word "curtains," no less 
than 93 smaller ones are framed. 

LOOOOSAPHSBfl, the name by which the Greeks designated their historians previous 
to Herodotus. The logographers described in prose the mythological subjects and tra- 
ditions which had been treated of by the epic poets, supplementing them by traditions 
derived from other quarters, so as to form, at least'in appearance, a connected history; 
their works, however, seeming to be intended rather to amuse their readers than to impart 
accurate historical knowledge. The term was also applied to those orators who composed 
judicial speeches or pleadings, and sold them to those who required them. 

LOGOMA'HIA, or Disbask of thb Facultt or Language. It frequently happens 
that, while the idea is clear and distinct, all trace of its representative sound has disap- 
peared; or another sign, or one conveying the converse of what is intended, is used. 
Such a condition is often associated with organic disease of the nervous structure, as in 
paralytics. In certain cases, there is an irresistible rapidity of utterance, or, apparently, 
an involuntarv utterance of certain words or phrases foreign to the character of the 
individual. In : uother class of cases, memory appears to be chiefly at fault; there may 
be the oblivion or aU words; the forgetfulness of certain classes of words, such as sub- 
stantives, while others are recollected and correctly applied; the forgetfulness of par- 
ticuhir words, as of the individuaVs own name; or of parts of words, as occurs in gen- 
eral paralysis, where the last or penultimate syllable escapes attention, and is generally 
omitted; or there may be confusion as to orthography, and this has been observed when 
limited to a single letter. Dr. Graves, Dublin, mentions a farmer who retained a 
knowledge of all parts of speech except nouns and proper names; but even of these he 
recollected the initial letter: he carried a pocket-dictionary, and when about to use such 
words as *' Oow "or *• Dublin," turned to the letters *' C " and ** D," and then recalled 
what he wished. Patients are found who impose upon themselves a mutism as to cer- 
tain phrases, and limit their vocabulary to particular expressions. In others, there is 
invariably a transposition of words; such as when, in place of saying, "the rose is 
beautiful" a paralytic recasts the sentence, " beautiful rose is," and all other sentences 
in a similar fashion. Fever, in Mezzofanti, is said to have swept away in an hour, his vast 
acquisitions in 60 languages; in other cases, it has recalled dialects forgotten for half a 
century; and mere excitement seems capable of inventing or inspiring a vast number of 
sounds assuming the aspect, and even the relations of a language so closely as to sugggest 
doubts as to whether they are creations such as those of Salmanazar, which deceived 
the tinguiflts of the royal society* or those eb uUitionB of devotional feeling designated 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

* ' unknown tongues. " In other forms of disease, the cries of animals or natural signs are 
resorted to in place of words; or the ordinary language is sung or chanted, or used rhyth 
mically; or a foreign language may be employ^ or imitated. The bearing of such- 
aiterations upon the pliiiosophy of mind, and upon any theory as to the origin of lan- 
guage, must be obvious; but they possess a still more intimate connection with tiie 
amount of intelligence and responsibility predicable in every case of disease of the 
nervous system. — Calmiel, De la ParcdyaU cormderee chez ies AlienSs; Phrenologicai 
JourruU, No. 47; Coleridge, Biographia LiUraria, vol. i. p. 112. 

LOGOS (Gr. from lego, " I speak ") denotes the act of speaking; that which is spokeo; 
the natural process gone through for the purpose of the formation of speech; the reason- 
ing powers themselves — ^all the attributes ana operations of the soul, in fact, as mani- 
fcdted by the spoken word. It thus occurs in the classical writers under the manifold 
significulions of word or words, conversation, onition, exposition, command, history, 
prose, eloquence, philsophical propositipn, system, reason, thought, wisdom, and the 
'like. Theologically, the word logc^, as occurring at the beginning of the gospel of St. 
John, was eany taken to refer to the ''second person of the Trinity, i.e., Christ." Yet 
what was the precise meaning of the apostle, who alone makes use of the term in a man- 
ner which allows of a like interpretation, and onlv in the introductory part of his gospel; 
whether he adopted the symbolizing usage in whicli it was employed by the various schools 
of his day; which of their widely differing significations he had in view, or whether he 
intended to convey a meaning quite peculiar to himself: — these are some of the innu- 
merable questions to which the word has given rise in divinity, and which, though most 
fiercely discussed ever since the first days of Christianity, are far from having found a 
satisfactory solution up to this moment. The fact, however, is, that the notion of a 
certain miinifestation or revelation out of the center of the (Godhead, as it were— which 
manifestation, as a more or less personified part of the deity, stands between the realms 
of the infinite and the finite, of spirit and matter — has from times immemorial been the 
common property of the whole east, and is found expressed in the religions of the prim- 
itive Egyptians, as well as in those of the Hindus and Parsees. This notion of an 
embodiment of divinity, as '*word** or *' wisdom" found its way, chiefly from the time 
of the Babylonian exile, into the heart of Judaism, which in vain endeavored to recon- 
cile it with the fundamental idea of the divine unity. The apocryphal writers chiefly 
pointed to the "wisdom" — of which Solomon (Pro v. viii. 22) says that it had dwelt 
with God from the beginning, and Job (xxviii. 20), that it had assisted in the creation-- 
as t/ie emanation of God. which emanation was supposed to be bodily to a certain, how- 
ever minute, degree. Thus, Sirach (xxiv. 1, 23) understands the '* spirit of God" (Gen. 
i. 2) to be a kind of veil or mist, and speaks (i. 1, 9) of the " w^isdom that is of the Lord 
emd is with the Lord, everlasting," ana that "it was created before all things, and knowa 
unto him "(ib.). 

This wisdom, or toord of creation, which, according to Sirach's view, formed and 
developed the chaos, further manifested itself — visibly — by a direct and immediate 
influence upon one select people, Israel, through which it wished further to influence all 
mankind. A nearer acquaintance with this doctrine in all its bearings at once solves the 
Qld riddle of certain Targumic interpretations, which have puzzled a host of investi- 
gators. Thus, versions like that of Targum Jerushalmi to Gen. i. 1, " with wisdom, God 
created heaven and earth," and the constant use of the term Memra (word) instead of 
€h>d or Jehovah, become clear at once (see Tabgum , Ybrsionb). No less must many 
passages in the Talmud and Midrash assume an entirely different aspect, if that prev- 
alent mode of thought and speech is taken into consideration. 

In the earlier Platonic schools, again, Logos, scil., of God, was the common term for 
'* plan of Uie cosmos " or "divine reason," inherent in the deity. The later schools, how- 
ever, more prone to symbol and allegory in philosophical matters, called Logos a ** hypos- 
tasis of divmity," a substance, a divine corporeal essence, as it were, which became out- 
wardly visible — a separate being, in fact, which, created out of the Creator, became 
" the Son of the Creator." 

But above all, we have, for the proper consideration of the usage in the days of the 
apostles, to examine the Judseo- Alexandrian views on this point. Philo, who is their 
best representative, makes the Logos the all-comprising essence of spiritual powers 
(daimons, angels), which alone acts upon the universe. In this sense, the Logos stands 
as the divine reason, the power of all powers, the spirit of Qod, and his representatiee, 
between him and all else. Nay, he goes so far as to call it the archangel, who executes 
the behests of God to man; tlie high-priest, who prays for man, and interferes on his 
behalf, before the throne of the Almighty; and he fiually speaks of Lo^os as "the 
' second Qod*' {DeSomn. i. 655), and the "providence" (fate, fortune) which watches 
over the destinies of mankind and separate nations {Quod Deus, i. 298). These con- 
ceptions, which, he says, came to him in a trance, he does not allow, however, to l>e in 
the least derogatory to the strictest belief in the oneness, invisibility, and pure spiritual- 
ness of God, such as it is taught in the Jewish creed. — ^This characterizes sufficiently the 
general vagueness and haziness of philosophical and theological parlance and specu- 
uition in the Alexandrine schools, which, obviously unconscious of the palpable con- 
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185 i2&. 

tndiodoos uttered in one iMreatli* mixed up pure thought and visione, Scripture with 
eastern and western philosopby and theosopby, monotheism and polytheism, heaping 
systems upon systems, and areams upon dreams. 

If the apostle did not himself, to a certain degree, stand under the influence of some 
of the popular ideas connected with the term unaer consideration, it would, at any rate, 
seem most natural that he made use of it, as of one conveying a certain vague, yet com- 
moDiy recci^nized transcendental notion of a divine emanation to the minds of his con- 
temporaries. This opinion, however, is far from being unanimously adopted. Thus, 
some investigators hold that John, irrespeclive of the parlance of his day, used the 
woid logos for Leffotne7Uf»t i.e., he of whom it has been spoken, the promised one; 
others identify it with ''doctrine;" while a third notion (held among others by Calvin 
and Luther) would malce it equal to monologue, conversation. 

For the person of Uie Logos as the m^iator (iEon, Demiurges, etc.)> and the re- 
speciive relation between him and the other persons of the divine trias, we must refer 
to the articles Cubibt, Gkobtigs, T&lnity. 

LOGRO'S^O, one of the six modern provinces which form the ancient province of 
Castilla la Vieja in Spain; 1945 sq.m. ; pop. 182,941. It extends alone the right bank of 
the £bro, and includes portions of territory which formerly belonged to the provinces 
of Burgos and Boria. It is a productive region, rich in wine and com, fruits and ve^- 
tables. Minerals also abound, and there are valuable mineral springs. Near the city 
of Logroflo, a few miles s. of the £bro, was fought, April 8^ 1867, a desperate battle 
between Henry, count of Trastamara. elevated to tne throne of Castile b^ the people of 
that country, and Bdward the black prince, who had formed an alliance with the 
detestable Charles II., king of Navarre, suruamed "the wicked," to replace Pedro the 
cruel on the thnme of Castile, from which he had been driven on account of his many 
enonnities. This battli was decisive, and resulted in returning to Pedro his throne. 


LOOBOirO (Let. Jviia Briga\ a t. of Spain, capital of the province of Logrofio, is 
situated on the £bro, 60 m. e. of Burgos. It is surrounded by walls, has several 
churches, convents, a theater, college, some manufactures, and a good trade In rural 
produce. Pop. 11,267. 

LOOWOOB, the dark red solid heart-wood of hamaioaylon eampeehianum, a tree of the 
natural order leguminasa, sub-order cosmlpinea. This tree grows in Mexico and Central 
America, and is perhaps a native of some of the West India islands; but is said to 
have been introduced into Jamaica in the beginning of the 18th c, although it is now 
naturalized there. It is the ovAy known species of its genus. It grows to a height of 
20 to 50 ft. ; the leaves are pari-pinnate; the racemes many -flowered, and longer than the 
leaves. The sapwood is yellowish, and being worthless, is hewed off with the bark. 
The lieart-wood is heavier than water, close-grained, but rather coarse. It has a slight 
smell resembling that of violets, a sweetish taste, is astringent, and contains a distin- 
guishing crystalline principle, called lumnaUxcyline (q.Y.), 

No aye-wood is imported in such large quantities as logwood; nearly 50,000 tons are 
annually sent to Great Britain. It was nrst introduced in the reign of ({ueen Elisabeth, 
but the color was found to wash out, and the dyers not knowing how to fix it, much 
dissatisfaction was occasioned by the sale of cloths dyed with it. and an act of parlia- 
ment was passed prohibiting its use. This act was repealed in 1661, since which time it 
has been constantly in use, science having shown means for fixing. Logwood is imported 
in larse billets or logs, usually about 4 ft. in length, 18 in. in diameter, and of veir 
irregular shape ; the laiger they are the greater their value; the color is a dark blood-red, 
becoming almost black after long exposure. Tlie infusion of the wood is also blood-red, 
which color it yields readily to boiling water; it is changed to light red by acids, and to 
dark purple by alkalies. In dyeing with logwood, an alum mordant gives various shades 
of purple ana violet — with the solution of tin, it gives violet, red, and lilac; with the 
sulphate or acetate of iron, it gives a black; but this is greatly improved in depth and 
softness, if ^11-nuts are also used, which is generally the case. It is also one of the 
ingredients in both black and red ink; but Brazil-wood is usually preferred for the 

LOHER, Frakz vow; b. Paderborn, Germany, 1818; after studying at several (Ger- 
man universities, traveled in Europe and visited Canada and the United States in 1846- 
47, and in 18^ established the WutfdlUehe ZeitungvX Paderborn. For political agitation 
he was imprisoned by the Prussian government, but was acquitted by the court. In 
1853 he was professor at the university of GOttingen, and in 1855 in the university of 
Munich, and secretary of the academy. His works are Des DeuUcTien VoUces JBedeu- 
tung in der WeUgeicMckU; Quchichte und ZuMnde der DeutscTUn in Amenka; the epic 
poem General Spork; Land und Leuie der aUen und netien Welt; Jaeobda mm Bayem; 
Aus Natur und Qetckic^te wm Elsan-Lothringen. 

LOIGNY, Battle of, Dec. 2. 1870, the Germans, under the grand-duke of Mecklen- 
burg, winning a signal victory over the French, led by pen. Chanzy. The €krmans lost 
m killed and wounded 3,000 men, the French nearly twice this number, besides 8,000 

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SK: 136 

prisoners and 7 guns. Loigny, the site of the battle, is a hamlet of France, in £aie^ 
Loir, 80 m. H.s.e. of Chartres. 

LOIR, a small river of France, having its source s.w. of Paris, and running thence 
in a generally s.w. course to its juuction with the Sarthe, a tributary of tiie Loire. 
Length about 200 miles. Navigable by means of 80 locks a distance of about 70 miles. 

LOntE (ancient lAger), the longest river in France, has its source in the Cevennes 
mouutaius, near Gerbier-des- Jones, in the department of Ard^che, at an elevation of 
4,550 ft., dows in a n.n.w. direction through the center of France as far asOrleaas, 
where it bends round to the 8.w. as far as Tours, and thence follows, in general, a west> 
ern course to its embouchure in the bay of Biscay. Entire length. 612 miles. It becomes 
naviG;able a little above Roanne, at a distiince from the sea of 450 miles. At one time, 
the diepth of the water at its mouth was 18 ft. at ebb-tide; now it is only from 6 to 9 feet 
The lower course of the IjoI re is adorned by wooded islets. In the lower part of its 
course, large dikes or Uvees have been built, to protect the ^surrounding country from 
inundations, from which, however, thev sometimes suffer terribly. It receives about 40 
affluents, of which the principal are the Loir, on the right; and the Ailier, the Cher, 
the Indre. and the Vienne, on the left. 

LOIBE, a department in the 8.e. of France, formerly part of the province of Lyon- 
nais, comprises the arrondissements of Montbrison, Roanne. and St. Etienne. Area, 
1,178,284 English acres; pop. *76, 590,618. The basin of the Loire, which flows through 
this department, is a rather unfruitful valley, but the mountains are rich in iron and 
lead, and the coal-fields of the department are the richest in France. Loire is also noted 
for the rearing of silk-worms, and for the excehence of its silk manufactures. Tbe 
weaving of hemp and linen is also largely carried on. Its mineral springs are in great 
repute, especially those of .St. Alban. Snil-sous-Couzan, and St Qalmier. The chief 
towns are St. Etienne, Roanne, Rivede-Qier, and Montbrison. 

LOntE, Hautb, a central department of France, bounded on the s. by the departments 
of Lozere and Arddchc. Area, 1,212,160 sq. acres; pop. 76, 313,721. The surface is 
mountainous; covered bv the Cevennes, the Cantal mountains, and the Margaride chain, 
whose slopes are clothed with forests, and whose peaks are during about half the year 
covered with snow. Chief rivers, the Loire and the Ailier. The soil of the plains is 
fertile, and the agricultural produce of the soil consisting of the usual crops with fruits 
is abundant. The climate is very various, owing to the irregularity of the surface. Tlie 
arrondissements are Le*Puy, Yssengeaux, and firioude; the capital, Le-Puy. 

LOIB£-IKP£si£TJBE, a maritime department in the w. of France, formed out of the 
southern portion of the old province of Brittany, and comprising the arrondisscmentd 
of Nantes, Anccnis, Paimboeuf, Ch&teaubriaiit, and Savenay, lies on both sides of the 
river Loire. Area, 1,697,979 English acres; pop. '76. 612,972. In the s. of the depart- 
ment lies Grand Lieu, the largest lake in France. The interior is, on the whole, flat, 
but the n.e. and s.e. are slightly hilly. The soil is fertile, producing wheat, rye. and 
barley, and forming in some parts rich pasturage. There are also some tine forests. 
Bait marshes are numerous in the west. The vineyards yield annually about 82,000,000 
gallons of wine. Ship-building is carried on extensively at Kantes. The coast-fisheries 
and general export trade of the department are extensive. Capital, Kantes; none of 
the other towns are large. 

LOIBET, a central department of France, formed out of the eastern portion of the 
old province of Orleannois, and comprising the arrondissements of Orleans, Montargis, 
Gien, and Pithiviers, lies on both sides of the river Loire. Area, 1,670,984 English 
acres; pop. '76, 860,903. Tlie country is, for the most part, an elevated and fruitful 
plain, abounding in com and wine — known as the plateau of Orleans; but the district 
along both banks of the Loire, called the Sologne, is a barren, sandy tract. Loiret con- 
tains several large forests. Cattle, sheep, and bees are extensively reared, and mineral 
springs ai*e numerous. 

LOIS-ET-CHEB, a department of France, l^ing on both sides of the river Loire, and 
formed of part of the old province of Orleannois. comprises the arrondissements of Blois. 
Vendfime, and Romorantin. Area, 1,568,677 sq. acres; pop. 76, 272,684. The depart- 
ment is almost a uniform plain, broken only by vine-hills of trifling elevation. Tlie 
northern part is more fertile than the south, three-fourths of which is occnpied by 
marshes, heaths, and forests — the last of which, indeed, cover one-sixth of the entire 
surface. The chief products are corn, fruits, hemp, wine, and vegetables of all sorts. 
The rearing of sheep, poultry, and bees is carefully attended to, and there are also 
manufactures of woolens, cottons, leather, glass, etc. Principal towns, Blois, Romo- 
rantin, and Venddmc. 

LO'JA, a t. of Spain, in the province of Gninada, is situated on the slope of a hill 
near the left bank of the Xenil. 81 m. w. of Granada, and 41 n.n.e. of Malaga. Pop. 
15,500. Loja is a thriving place, with 21 woolen factories, 8 paper-mills, and two hoB- 
pitab, and was once of great military importance, being the key to Grenada. . The 

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flummit of the dope on which the town is built is crowned with the rains of a Moorish 


LOJl, a city of Ecuador in South America near the Andes, lat. 4** s. ; pop. 13,000. 
It is the center of a great commerce in quiuine. The surrouudinj; country is elevated 
60 far above the sea that grains of the lomperato zone are produced as well as the fruits 
of the tropics. Manufactures of wool, cotton, and carpets are among the chief industries 
of tlie city. 

LCXESEV, a t. of Belgium, province of East Flanders, on the Dunne, 12 m. c.n.e. 
of Ghent. It is a station on the Ghent and Antwei-p railway. Pop. in 76, 17,400. 
Lokeren is a well-built town, with numerous schools, benevolent institutions, important 
manufactures of linen, cotton, and woolen goods, and large bleach-tields. 

LOKI, a demi-god in the Scandinavian mythology. He did not belong to the race of 
the Aesir (see Ases), but to an older dynasty. Still, we find him from the very first on 
terms of intimacy with Odin, and received among the Aesir. His appearance is beautiful, 
and he is possessed of great knowledge and cunning. He often brings the n<«i^ gods into 
diflBculties, from which, however, he again extricates them. Hence he is to be regarded 
as the principle of strife and disturbance in the Scandinavian mytliology; the "spirit of 
evil,'* as it were, mingling freely with, yet essentially opposed to, the other inhabitants of 
the Norse heaven, very much liae the Satan of the book of Job. By his artful malice, he 
caused the death of Bialder (q. v.), and was in consequence visited by the Aesir with most 
terrible punishments. He is sometimes called Asa-Loki, to distinguish him from 
Utgarda-Loki, a king of the giants, whose kingdom lies on the uttermost bounds of the 
earth; but these two are occasionally confounded.* It is quite natural, considering the 
character of Loki, that at a later period he should have become identified with the devil 
of Christum ity, who is called in Norwa}'' to the present day, Laake, 

LOKXAV (Abu Amah?), a fabulous persona^; the supposed author of a certain 
number of Arabic fables. He is by some Arabic writers called a nephew of Job or 
Abraham; by others a councilor of David or Solomon; others again identify him with 
BaUam, whose name signifies, like tliat of Lokmfin, the Dewurer, Equal uncertainty 
reigns respecting his native place and occupation. Thus, he is variously held to have 
been an fithiopian slave, conspicuous for his ugliness, a king of Yemen, an Arabic 
tailor, a carpenter, a shepherd, and the like. Most probably, the circumstances nnd 
Bayiugs of several men living at di£ferent periods have been fathered upon LokmAn, of 
whom Mohammed (Surah 81) says that to him " has been given thsw$dom" Then) is 
also a great likeness to be recognized between himself and his fables and uEsop and 
those current under the latter^s name. According to the Arabic writers, to Lokmdn, as 
the ideal of wisdom, the kingdom of the world was offered, but was by him declined — 
provided this was no offense against piety— because be felt much happier as he was; 
and that when asked what was the secret of the goodness and wisdom of all his deeds, 
he replied: **It is this: I always adhere to the truth; I always keep my word; and I 
never mix myself up with other people's affairs.'* 

The fables that go by Lokmdn's name are for the most part Indian apologues, which 
were first rendered into Qreek, thence into Syriac, and finally into Arabic. They are. 
in this last form, of a comparatively recent date, and thus unknown to all the classical 
writers. The language is very corrupt, and it is highly to be regretted that the book, 
for want of anything better, still holds its rank as an elementary book for Arabic stu- 
dents. Its first redaction is, according to a note to a manuscript in the imperial 
library in Paris (Suppl. No. 58). due to an Egyptian Christian, Barsuma, who prolmbly 
lived towards the end of the 18th century. The first edition, wiUi a Latin translation 
bv Erpemius, appeared at Leyden (1615). The book has been frequently translated into 
European languages— into French, by Tanneguy, Schier, etc.; into Spanish, by Miguel 
Garcia Ascensio, etc.; into Danish, by liask; into German, by Olearius, Schaller, eto. 
Recent editions are by Bernstein (Gdtt. 1817), Caussin de Perceval (Paris, 1818), Frevtag 
(Bonn. 1823), R5diger (Leip. 1830, etc.), Schier (Dres. 1881), Rasch (Copenh. 1^82), 
Derenburg (fieri. 1850), etc. 

A book, Amthdl (Parables), ascribed to Lokm&n, and supposed to contain more than 
a thousand apologues, maxims, parables, sentences, etc., has never been discovered. 
Lokman's supposed grave is shown at Ramlah, near Jerusalem. 

LOLA MONTEZ (Maria Dolores Porris), Countess of Landsfelt, 1824r-81 ; allesred 
by Mirecourt. author of Le9 Gontemporaines, to have been born in Montrose, Scotland, 
though she claimed Seville, Spain, as her birthplace. When quite young she married 
capt James of the East India service against the wish of her mother, and traveled with 
him in India. She also accompanied him during an expedition against the Afghans. 
About 1838 she obtained a separation from her husband, and traveled in Europe, leading 
w erratic life in the different capitals, at one time singing barcaroles in tlie streets of 
Warsaw, and again appearing as a danseuse in the theater of that city. She now adopted 
the stage as a profession, appearing usually as a dancer, and, though possessing little skill 
m that direction, achieved a certain degree of ponularitv by her graceful person and 
charmmg vivacity of manner. In 1847 she visited Munich.'and there attracted the atten- 

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tion of king Xiouis of Bavaria. She was at this time very attractive, haDdsome, and with a 
remarkable talent for political intrigue. The king gave her a residence in Municli and 
an income estimated at $25,000 per annum, and made her the confidant of his political 
schemes. She soon exercised a powerful influence, and, as is believed, for tbe interest 
of Bavaria. But slie made many enemies, the Jesuits, as she averred, being active 
-against her. A difficulty witb the students of the university of Munich at length pre- 
cipitated her downfall, and the king was forced by his counselors to consent to her 
arrest and deportation from the country. This act was followed by the abdication of 
the king himself, who afterwards vainly sought to renew his association with Lola 
Montez, who absolutely rejected his advances. During her stay in Munich, she was 
named by the king countess of Landsfelt, with the consent of the crown prince. Lola 
now visited England, and in 1849 was married to George Stafford Heald, esq., of the 
2d life-guards, a gentleman of family and position, with an income of £6,000 per annum. 
His family opposed the match, and on Aug. 6, 1849, through their instigatiou, she 
was brought before a London police court on a charge of bigamy; her former husband, 
capt. James, being still, living in India. Her defense (of a divorce) was not accepted, 
the law pfbhibitiug either party from manying again during the life-time of the other. 
Heald accordingly obtained a divorce, and Lola continued to lead her former wandering 
life. She sailed for New York in the autumn of 1851, on board the same steamer with 
Louis Kossuth, arriving on Dec. 5. She appeared at the Broadway theater in a piece 
called Lola Montez in Bavaria, and as a danseuse in most of the large cities. In 1855 
she took a company of players to Australia, and gave some of her characteristic perfor- 
mances in the principal towns. In 1858 she delivered a lecture on Beautiful Women in 
New York. The last few years of her life were passed in retirement 

LOLIGO, or Squid. See Galamary, ante, 

LOUmC. See Darnel and Rte-grabs. 

LOL'LABBS, or Loll'hards, a semi-monastic society, the members of which devoted 
themselves to the care of the sick and of the dead. It was first formed about the vear 
1800 in Antwerp, where some pious persons associated themselves for the burwl of the 
dead. They were called from their frugal life, and the poverty of their appearance, 
Matemant; also, from their patron saint, brethren of 8t, Aleaus; and, on account of their 
dwelling in cells, Fratres GelUtiB; whilst they acquired the name Lollards from their prac 
tice of singing dirges at funerals — the Low-Oerman loUen, or hUien. signifying to sing; 
softly or slowly. They soon spread through the Netherlands and Germany, and in the. 
frequent pestilences of that period were useful and everywhere welcome. The clergy 
ana the b^ging-friars, however, disliked and persecuted them, classing them with the 
heretical Beghard$ (see BsGUiNEa), till Gregory XL took them under his protection in 
1374. Female Lollard societies were formed in some places. The Lollards having been 
reproached with heresy, their name was afterwards very commonly given to different 
classes of religionists, sometimes to the truly pious, sometimes to the worst pretenders: 
and in England it became a designation of tlie followers of Wycliffe (q.v.), and llnis 
extended into Scotland, where the Lollards of Kyle (in Ayrshire) attracted attention, and 
became the objects of persecution in the end of the 15th century. 

LOLLARDS (ante\ a name at first, about the beginning of the 14th c, applied to the 
Cellites, who, at Antwerp, devoted themselves to the care of persons ill with pestilential 
diseases; and afterwards, durinj? the close of that centuiy and through the next, given 
to the followers of Wycliffe. Various explanations of tlie name have been suargested. 
one of which, favorea by many, is that derived from the Low-German word luUen, or 
kUen^ which means to sing low or softly; it was applied to the Cellites because they.siing 
low and plaintively at funerals. A later and more probable theory derives it from loL 
tardus, the Latin form of the old English "loller," one who lolls or lounges about, a 
vagabond. It was applied at first both to the besrging-friars and to the Wycliffltes; but 
afterwards being restricted to the latter, it occasioned, by its resemblance to the Latin 
**lolia," the punning accusation that they were tares among the wheat. Many of tlicm. 
sent forth by Wycliffe to carry the gospel into the remote villages, were called "poor 
priests" by the people, to large numbers of whom they preached in the fields, church 
yards, and market-places. 

After Wycliffe had taken the degree of d.d. at the university of Oxford, and had 
commenced there his earnest appeals against papal errors, he aroused the hatred of the 
bishops, and became prominent as an advocate and leader of reform. When he retin^d 
from the university to the little parish of Lutterworth, the work went on with unabated 
power. Those who bad been instructed by either bis preaching or writings were active 
m diffusing his doctrines abroad. His followers were found among all classes of people; 
some of the more distinguished being influenced somewhat perhaps by political motives, 
but the greater part chiefly by the power of religious truth. The judicial examinations 
of those who, in the next a^, were arrested for heresy show that they all cherislied, 
substantially, the doctrinal views which Wycliffe had taught. The principal of these views 
were: the supreme authority of the Scriptures as the rule of faith; the finished work of 
Christ as the only Savior: and the denial of transubstantiation. auricular confession, 
image worship, the papal hierarchy, and the priestly offices in the mass. At the Ume 

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of Wjdifle's death the number of his foUowen was Increasing rapidly, as vas indicated 
by tlie somewhat extravagant affirmatiou of Knighton that nearly every second man in 
Eogiaod was a Lollard. In 1382 a couuciU convened by archbisbop Courtney, con- 
demned 10 of Wy cliff e*8 articles us lieretical and 24 as erroneous. The archbishop pub- 
Med an order forbidding any man, of any estate or condition whatsoever, to hold, 
teach, preach, or defend the aforesaid heresies and errors, or any of tkem, or even allow 
them to be preached or favored either publicly or privately. Bishops and priests were 
exhorted to become inquisitOFS of heretical pravity, and were threatened with excom- 
mucicati(»D if they neglected their duty in this respect The chancellor of the univer- 
sity, chaiged with "being somewhat inclined to the errors aforesaid," was enjoined to 
allow DO one under his jiiriiidiction to teach or defend them. At length, violent perse- 
cuiioQ was commenced. Some of the accused recanted, and became Xitter persecutors 
of tbelr former friends. Others fled out of the country. In other parts, also, of the 
kingdom the Lollards were actively teaching tlieir doctrines. In Leicester and the 
yiciiiity thev u)ade great progress; and as the people hid their teachers, the whole city 
and all its churches were placed under interdict until all the Lollards of the town shoulci 
forsake their heresy and obtain absolution. To arrest their advance and break up their 
ineetiDgs, parliament resolved that if any persons, on conviction, refused to abjure their 
errors, they should be delivered over to the secular arm to be burned. William Sautre, 
"a good man and faithful priest, inflamed with zeal for true religion," was condemned 
aod committed to the flames in an open part of London. The "cruel constitution" of 
archbishop Arundel forbade any one to preach in English, either within the church or 
without, except by permission of the bishcp. Schoolmasters and teachers were for- 
bidden to teach anything contrary to what the church had declared. No book or 
treatise of Wycliffe was to be read anywhere. No person was allowed to write or print 
a translation of any text of Scripture into English or any other language. No one was 
to dispute upon articles determined by the church. No scholar or inhabitant of Oxford 
university was to propose or defend anything contrary to the determinations of the 

But all these measures proving insufficient to suppress the hated opinions, the active 
persecution also went on, and many persons were burned. The accession of Henry 
V. was signalized by his surrendering to the persecutors his friend sir John Oldcastle, 
who was arrested, condemned, and excommunicated. At first he contrived to escape 
from prison, but was rearrested, and in 1417 was burned at the stake. The parliament 
further enacted " that whatsoever they were who should read the Scriptures in the 
mother tongue, they should forfeit land, cattle, body, life, and goods from their heirs 
forever; and so be condemned for heretics to God, enemies to the crown, and most 
arrant traitors to the land." In case of relapse after pardon, they were to be hanged as 
traitors against the king, and then burned as heretics against God. The last executions 
took place in 1431. 

In Scotland, also, especially in the western districts, the Lollards were numerous, 
and suffered persecutions during different parts of the 15th century. Near the close of 
it 30 pefsons were summoned before king James lY. and the great council. Happily 
for tliem the king refused to sanction their condemnation, and they were released. 
After the opening of the 16th c. the Lollards gradually became incorporated with the 
reformed churches. . 

LOLL BAZAAB, an inconsiderable t. of northern India, in the district of Gush Behar, 
between the rivers Duriah and Tista, in n. lat. 26*' 4', and e. long. 89° 18'. It partly occu- 
pies the site of the ruined city of Eomotapur, a '* most stupendous monument of rude 
labor," the walls of which were 10 m. in drcumference in the inside of the inner ditch. 
Massive ruins are still to be seen. 

LOXBABD, Peteb (rather, Peter the Lombard), one of the most famous of the 
acboolmen, was b. at a village near Novara, in Lombardy. He was a pupil of Abelard, 
afterwards became a teacher of theology in Paris, and in 1159 was appointed bishop of 
Paris. Bayle says that he was the first who obtained the title of doctor of theolo^ in 
the university of Paris. He died at Paris in 1164. He was very generally styled 
magisfer sententiarum, or the matiter of ientences, from his work Sententiarum Libri IV., 
an arranged collection of sentences from Augustine and other fathers, on points of 
Christian doctrine, with objections and replies, also collected from authors of repute. 
It was intended as a manual for the scholastic disputants of his age, and as may be 
inferred from what has just been said, is a compilation rather than an original work. It 
was the subject of many commentaries down to the time of the reformation. The works 
of Peter Lombard were edited by Aleaume (Louvain, 1546). 

LOXBABD ABCHIT£CTUB£ is the style which was invented and used by the Gothic 
invaders and colonists of the n. of Italy, from about the age of Charlemagne till it was 
superseded by the importation of tlie pointed style from France in the beginning of the 
13tb century. The architecture of the Lombards was derived from the Komanesque 
iq.v.), or debased Roman stvle which the^ found in the country — the general plan of the 
churches, and the general form of the pillars, arches, etc., being almost identical with 
that of the Roman basilicas (q.v.). But in detail there is no such resemblance; the 

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Iiombftrdy. ^^^ 

Roman tradittms are entirely abandoned, and instead of the debased acanthus leaves 
and fraCTieots of entablatures, so characteristic of the Romanesque style, the Lonibai^ds 
adopted a freer imiUiMon of natural forms in their foliage, and covered their buildings 
with representations of the fights and huntin^^-expeditions in which they delighted, Oa 
their first arrival in Italy they used Italian workmen; but when their own people l>ecame 
more numerous they also laid aside the sword for the trowel. Accordingly, wherever 
in n. Italy the Lombards were numerous, their style prevailed; and where the Romans 
predominated, the Romanesque prevailed. The n. of Italy belonged naturally, at the 
time of Charlemagne, to the great German empire, and thus we find nearly the same 
style of architecture in Lom hardy and in Germany as far n. as the Baltic. 'See Rhen- 
ish .VRcmTECnniB. Few early examples of Lombard architecture exist. In the unruly 
times when the style originated, the buildings were no doubt frequently destroyed by 
fire; this seems to have led to tlie desire to erect fireproof structures, and thus the ear- 
lier as well as almost all the later examples are vaulted with stone, whereas the Roman- 
esque basilicas are generally roofed witli wood. This stone roof seems to have been the 
great desideratum in the new style. The earliest example is a small chapel at Friiin. 
built probably during the 8th c, and it is covered with an intersecting vault. Examples 
of this date are rare in Itidy; but in Switzerland, where the style is almost identical, 
several interesting specimens of early architecture remain, such as the churches of 
Romnin-Motier, Granson, Payerne, etc., in which the transition from the Romanesque 
to the round-arched Gothic is very clearly traceable. We there find the peculiar arch 
ornament so characteristic of Llombardy and the Rhine, and we can trace the timid 
steps by which the Goths advanced in the art of vaulting. 

The vaulting is the leading feature of Lombard architecture, and from it sprinj^ the 
other distinguisliing forms ot the style. Thus, the plain, round pillai*s, with a siniplc 
base and capital, which served to support the side-walls and roof of a basilica, are 
changed for a compound pier, made up of several shafts, each resting on its own base, 
and each provided with a capital to carry the particular part of the vaulting assigned lo 
it. This change is deserving of particular notice as the first germ of that principle 
which was afterwards developed into the Gothic style (q.v.). Buttresses are also inlro. 
duced for the first time, although with small projection. 

The cathedral of No vara is one of the most striking examples of Lombard architec 

ture. It belongs to the 11th century. It is derived from the old basil ican type, bavins 

at the w. end an open atrium, with arcade around, from which the church is entered m 

a central door. The interior is divided into central and side aisles, with vaulted roof 

. and terminated with an apsidal choir. At the end of the atrium opposite the church, i\ 

j situated the baptistery. At Asti there is an interesting example of the early Lombard 

I baptistery. The same general arrangement of plan afterwards became common in th^ 

German churches, the atrium being roofed over and included in the nave, and the bap 

tistcry forming the western apse of the double-apsed churches. The elevation of Novan 

is ornamented with those arcades and arched string-courses so common in Lombard aD< 

Rlienish architecture. 

San Michcle at Pavia and San Ambrojjio at Milan are also good early examples o 
this style. In both, the grouping of the piers into vaulting shafts, wall-arch shafts, etc. 
is complete, and that beautiful feature of the style, the arcade round the apse, is full] 
developed. The atrium and w. front of San Ambrogio form one of the finest groups o 
Lombard architecture. 

Lombard architecture is important as forming a link between the Romanesque q 
Italy and the Gothic of the Cisalpine countries. On the one hand, its origin cau b 
traced back to the Roman basilicas; while on the other it embodied those principle 
from the development of which sprang the great Gothic style of the middle ages. 

IiOICBABDS, a German people of the Suevic family, not very numerous, but of dii 
tinguished valor, who played an important part in the earl}'^ history of Europe. Th 
name is derived from £o7igobardi, or Langobardi, a Latinized form in use since the 12t1 
"C., and was formerly supposed to have been given with reference to the long beards g 
this people ; but it is now derived rather from a word parta, or harie, which signifies 
battle-axe. About the 4th c. they seem to have begun to leave their original seats (o: 
the lower Elbe, where the Romans seem to have come first in contact wiui them abet 
the be^nning of the Christian era), and to have fought their way southward and easi 
ward till they came into close contact with the eastern Roman empire on the Danube 
adopted an Arian form of Christianity, and after having been for some time tributary'' t 
the Heruli. raised themselves upon the ruins of their power, and of that of the Gepida 
shortly after the middle of the oth c. to the position of masters of Pannonia, and becam 
one of the most wealthy and powerful nations in that part of the worid. Under the) 
king Alboin (q.v.), they invaded and conquered the n. and center of Italy (5C8-69; 
The more complete triumph of the Lombards was promoted by the accession of strengti 
which they received from other tribes following them over the Alps— Bulgarians, Sarmi 
tians, Pannonians, Norici, Alemanni, Suevi, (^pldae, and Saxons — ^for the numbers c 
•the Lombards themselves were never very great. 

The Lombards, after the example of the Romans themselves in the conquests c 

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1 A-l liOmlNurdfl* 

former times, were for the most part coDtented -with a third of the iaod or of ita fniitsi 
One of tiieir kin^, Authari (584-90), assumed the title of Flavius, which hud beea 
borne hy some of me later Roman emperors, and asserted the usual chums of a lloman 
roler; ^hile the administration of tho Lombard kingdom was soon so superior to that 
vbicli then prevailed in other parts of Italy that to many the change of masters was a ' 
positive relief from unjust and severe exactions. While the higher nobUity, however, 
Id genenil retainexl some portion of their former wealth and greatness, the possessors of 
smull pro^rties became fewer in number, and sunk into the class of mere cultivators, 
to whom it was coniparatively indifferent whether the}' acknowledged a Roman or a 
Lombard superior. The rights of the municipal corporations also, although acknowl- 
edged, were gradually abridged, partly through the encroachments of the Lr)uibard dukes, 
and partly through those of the higher clergy, till few relics of their ancient self- 
government remained. These few, however, were the germs from which, at a subse- 
quent period, the liberties of the Independent Italian cities were developed. 

The Conversion of the Arian Lorn bawls to the orthodox faiih was brought about by 
tiie policy of Qregory the great and the zeal of Theodolinda, wife of Authari, and subse- 
quently of his successor, Agilulf (590-(515). 

Theodolinda persuaded Agilulf to restore a portion of their property and dignities to 
the Catholic clergy, and to have his own son baptized accordmg to the Catholic rites. 
She also built the magnificent basilica of St. John the baptist at Monza, near Milan, in 
which in subsequent times was kept the Lombard crown, called the iivn eroton (q.v,). 
The Lombards were ere long fully united to the Roman Catholic cburcli. The contests 
of the dukes prevented the firm consolidation of the king(h>m, or any very considerable 
extension of its boundaries. The edict of the Lombard king. Rothari (63d-54), declar. 
ing the laws of the Lombards, promulgated Nov. 22, 643, is memorable, as having 
become the foundation of constitutional law in the Germanic kingdoms of the middle 
ages. It was revised and extended by subsequent Lombard kings, but subeiated in force 
for several centuries after the Lombard kingdom had passed away. The Lombards, 
however, gradually became more and more assimilated to the iformer inhabitants of the 
land of which they had made themselves lords; their rudeness was exchanged for refine- 
ment, and the Latin language prevailed over the German, which they h^d brought with 
ibcm from the other side of the Alps. But of the original Lombard language little is 
known, nothing remaining to attest its certainly German character except a few words 
and names, the very ballads In which the stories of Lombard heroes were recoided hav- 
ing only come down to us in Latin versions. 

Liutprand (713-44) raised the Lombard kingdom to its highest prosperity. He 
quelled with strong hand the turinilence of the nobles, gave the fin^ioff lilow to the 
<:xarchate of Ravenna, and sought to extend his dominion over all Italy. But the popes 
DOW entered upon that Macchiavellian policy whidn they kmg Incessantly pursued, of 
laboring to prevent a union of all Italy under one government, iA order to secure for 
themselves the greater power in the midst of contending parties. This, with the dis- 
putes which arose concerning tho succession to the Lombara throne, led to the downfall 
of the Lombard kingdom within no long time after it had reached its utmost greatness. 
The popes allied themselves with the Prankish kings, and Pepin, who had been anointed 
by Stephen IL to the ^' patriciate," i. e., the governorship of Home, invaded Italy (754), 
and compelled the Lombard king Aistulf (740-54), who cherished the same ambitious 
designs as Liutprand, to refrain from further conquests, and even to give up some of the 
cities which had already yielded to his arms, which Pepin (755) bestowed upon the 
Roman cliurch and commonwealth. New ca^lses of hostility between the Frank and 
Lombard inonarchs arose when CHiarlemagne sent back to her father his wife, the daugh- 
ter of the Lombard king Desiderius (754-74), and Desiderius supported the claims of the 
children of Carloman, Charlemagne's brother. In the autumn of 773, Charlemagne 
invaded Italy; and in May of the following year, Pavia was conquered, and the Lom- 
bard kingdom, after an existence of 206 years, was overthrown. In 776 an insurrection 
of some of the Lombard dukes brought Cbarlemaene again into Italy, and the dukedoms 
were broken down into counties, ana the Lombard system, as far as possible, supplanted 
by that of the Franks. In 808 a treaty between Charlemagne, the western, and Niceph- 
orus, the eastern emperor, confirmed the right of the former to the Lombard territory, 
with Rome, the Exarchate, Ravenna, Istria, and part of Dalmatia; whilst the eastern 
empire retained the islands of Venice and the maritime towns of Dalmatia, with Naples, 
Sicily, and part of Calabria. Compare Turk's Dk Jjongobarden und thr Volktreeht (liosL 
1885); and rlegler*8 Da$ Konigreieh der Longobardm in ItaUen (Leip. 1851). 


LOVBABBT, the name given to that part of upper Italy which formed the " nucleus' 
of tlie kingdom of the Lombards (q.v.). It consisted of the whole of Italy n. of the 
peninsula, with the exceptions of Savoy and Venice, and after the fall of the Lombard 
kingdom, in 774, was incorporated in the Cariovingian empire. In 843 it was created a 
separate kingdom, but was not entirely severed from the Prankish monarchy till 888. 
From this time it was ruled by its own kin^s till 961, when it was annexed to the Ger- 
man empire. Out of the wrecks of the old independent kingdom now arose a number 
of independent duchies, as Friuli, Mantua^ Susa, Piedmont, etc., and soon afterwaids 

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London. ^^^ 

the republics of Venice, Genoa, Milan, and Pavia. These republics consisted of on< 
sovereign town, surrounded by, in many cases, a large extent of dependent territorr 
The Lombard cities declared themselves independent towards the commencement of thi 
12th c, and in 1167 were joined by their less powerful neighbors in the " first Lomban 
league,'* for the maintenance of their liberties, against Frederic Barbarossa. whom the; 
severely defeated in 1176. In 1235 they were compelled to form the ** second Lomban 
league' against Frederic 11., and with similar success. About this time, petty tyrant 
arose in most of the cities, and the country was distracted by internal dissensions, whici 
were carefully fostered by France and Cfcrmany. These two great powers and Spaii 
strove for the possession of Lombardy. The last succeeded in obtaining it in 1540 am 
held possession till about 1706, when, after another dispute, the duchies of Milan an 
Mantua (the country bounded by the Ticino, Po, Mincio, and Switzerland), which alou 
now retaincKl the name of Lombardy, came into the hands of Austria, and were desi| 
natcd '* Austrian Lombardy." In 1796 it became part of the Cisalpine republic, but 1 
1815 was restored to Austria^ and annexed politically to the newly acquired Venetia 
territory under the name of the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom. This union was dissolve 
in 1859 by the Italian war; Lombardy was given up to the new kingdom of Italy, Aui 
tria, however, retaining, for a time, her Venetian territory. There is now no officii 
division called Lombardy, the country having been parceled out into the provinces c 
Bersamo, Brescia, Oomo, Cremona, Milan, Pavia, ana Sondrio. Its total area was 8,26 
En^ish sq.m., with a population in 1862 of 8,261,000. 

The northern districts of Lombardy are alpine in character, but the rest of the count! 
is of extraordinary fertility, induced chiefly by the universal practice of irrigation. Tl 
country is celebrated for the products of its pasture-land and as much as 50,000,000 lb) 
of cheese is annually produced in the dairies of Lombardy. Agriculture is here in 
more advanced state than in any other part of Italy, wheat, rice, and maize being ih 
principal crops; melons, gourds, oranges, figs, citrons, pomegranates, peaches, plunu 
and other fruits of excellent quality are largely produced. The numerous mulberr 
plantations form another prominent feature, and vines are extensively cultivated, thoug 
the wine produced from them is of inferior quality. Various kinds of marble, some c 
them of great beauty, form the chief item in the mineral products of Lombardy; a fei 
iron mines exist in Como and Beigamo. The chief manufactures are silk, cotton, an 
woolen goods, flax, paper, glass, and pottery; the annual value of the silk exceed 
£8,000,000. Education is very generally diffused among the people, and they are we 
supplied with newspapers and scientific and literary journals. 

LOMBOK^an island in that crescent group in the Malsyan archipelago known as tH 
Sunda islanda It lies between BaU on the w., and 8umbawa on the e. ; lat. from 8"* II 
to 9** s., long, from 115° 44' to 116* 40' east. Area estimated at 1480 sq.m.; pop. i 
200,000, who are all Mohammedans. The n. and s. coasts are each traversed by a cbai 
of mountains, some of which are volcanic, bnt the interior is a fertile valley. Rice an 
cotton are largely cultivated, 20,000 tons of the former being exported annually. Th 
capital is Mataran; the principal seaport, Ampanam. 

LOMBRIZ, an epizootic disease which attacks young sheep in Texas and Nei 
Mexico. Great numbers of reddish hair-like worms infest the stomach and flesh of tli 
animals, destroying them in droves. It generally attacks those which are not well care 
for, or at least proves more fatal among them. The usual remedies which are said to I 
attended with success are equal parts o^8alt, sulphur, and sulphate of iron (green co] 

L0M|)NIE, Louis Leonard de, b. France, 1818; descended from eminent ancei 
tors, one of whom was a victim of the massacre of 8t. Bartholomew's. His first literar 
work was a series of biographical sketches, published under the title Qalerk des Canten 
poraines Hlvstres par iin Ilomme de Bien. In 1845 he obtained the chair of literature i 
the college of Frnnce. In 1871 he became a member of the French academy in the plac 
vacated by the death of Merimee. His Biograp/iies des Ilomme de 1789/ Beaumarclm 
et mn temps, etudes stir f/t Societe Fran^ise; La Comtesse de Boeh^ort et se$ Ainies; an 
Mirdbeau — are among his principal works. 

LOMONOZOFF, Mikhah. Wasttowitz, 1711-65; b. Russia; son of a poor flshei 
man, who in the midst of poverty and want exhibited sudi hunger for knowlcdg 
and instinct for poetry as to excite the friendship of a priest, who placed hina in 
school of Moscow. Thence his talents procured him entrance to the university c 
Kiev, and to the academy of St. Petersburg. His great learning in due time secure 
him the position of professor of chemistry and director of the mineralogical cabinets c 
the university of St. Petersbuip. He was sent by that institution to Gerraanj to acquir 
a practical knowledge of minmg and mineralo^, and while there familiarized himsel 
with the German poets. The range and variety of his studies and authorship ar 
remarkable. It embraces annals of the Russian sovereigns, a history of Russia, work 
on mineralogy and chemistry, a Russian grammar and rhetoric, original poems, and 
great nnmbe'r of translations. He is called the father of modern Russian literature, am 

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^^^ London. 

his grammar is said " to have drawn out the plan, and his poetry to have built up the 
fabric of his native language." The life of Peter the great was the subject of his main 
poem, a heroic epic in two cantos, said to be unsurpassed in the lang[uage. He became 
one of the counselors of state, and died in middle life, crowned with the esteem and 
admiration of his countrymen. 

LOMHTTUX. See Lbouhb. 

LO'KOHD, Loch, the largest of the Scottish lakes, lies between Dumbartonshire on 
the w. and the counties of Stirling and Perth on the east. It is 24 m. long, is 7 m. 
broad at the southern extremity, though the northern half is only about a m. in width, 
and has an area of 45 sq. miles. Its ckpth varies from 60 to 600 ft., and its surface is 
only about 22 ft. above the level of the sea. The waters of the loch are swelled by the 
contribations of many streams, the chief of which is the Endrick, from the s.e. ; the sur- 
plus waters are carried off by the Leven, an affluent of the Olvde. The lower portion of 
the loch is surrounded by a hilly but well-cultivated and ffnelv wooded country, and 
the character of the scenenr is in the highest degree rich and beautiful. Around the 
Dorlhern portion of fbe loch are piled high, wild, and picturesque masses of mountaina 
—Ben Lomond on the e., and the Arrochar hills on the west. The surface is dotted 
over with nunaerous islands, which are finely diversified in their general appearance, 
and contribute greatly to the exquisite beauty of the scene. Several steamers ply on 
the lake. 

LOMUS. in Hindu mythology— according to Vollmer— is the first created being 
formed by Brahma. Deciding to devote himself to the contemplation of divine things, 
in order to be undisturbed he ouried himself in the ground. This pleased the gods sa 
much that they loaded fajm with favors, increased and confirmed his power and pietv, 
and sasurod him a duration of life surpassing even that of Brahma. Lomus is said to be 
20 m. loiur, and covered with hairs, of which he draws out one during the lapse of each 
cycle of Brahma, and will die only after the last is drawn. 

LOMZA, a government of Russia, formerly a part of the Polish government of 
Qgostovo; 4,6Asq.m.; pop. 601,885. It is bounded' 
the e. and by e. Prussia on the n. w. Capital, Lomza. 

Aagostovo; 4,6A sq.m. ; pop. 601,885. It is bounded by the government of Grodno on 
~ • the -- . - ' 

LOVXA, a district t. in the government of the same name, in Poland, on the left of 
the Narev, a tributary of the Vistula, and 86 m. n.e. of Warsaw, played a prominent 
part in the history of Poland, but has never recovered from its sufferings during the 
Swedish wars. Lomza has a college, a gymnasium, an arsenal, and several paper-mills,. 
and cloth and Unen factories in its neighborhood. Pop. '67, 10,840. 

LONA'TO, a t. in n. Italy, province of Brescia; pop. 0,462. It is situated on a 
height about 8 m. from the southern shore of lake €k)naa, surrounded by walls, defended 
also by a citadel. It is in a fine silk district. The principal church is surmounted by 
a apl^id dome. The tovm is of Roman origin, was devastated by war and pesti- 
lence in the middle ages, and in modem times was the scene of two sreat battlea 
between the French and Austrians in 1706 and 1786, the French being in both victorious. 

LOnoV, the capital of the British empire, stands on both banks of the Thames, 
about 60 m. from the sea. The dome of St. Paul's is m lat. 51** 80' 48' n., and in long. 
5' 48' west. The river here varies from 900 to 1200 ft. in width. 

London, under the names Londinium, Londinttm, and Avgiista, was one of the chief 
stations of the Romans in Britain. Thev encircled a portion of what is now the c&y 
with a wall, which was rebuilt and iextended in later ages. In Stow's time, the remains 
of the Norman or Anglo-Norman wall were about 2 m. in extent, from the Thames at 
the Tower to the Thames at Blackfriars. The great fire of 1666 and continual recon- 
structions in later ages have nearly obliterated all traces of the old wall. The seven 
gates which pierced u are entirely gone. Temple Bar being merely one of the outer bars 
or suburban gates. 

It is almost impossible to say what is the siee of London, because there is no boundary 
wall, nor any definite number of surrounding villages and parishes included within it. 
"London within the walls," the original city, comprises only 870 acres; ** London with- 
out the walls" comprises 280 acres; then there are the city of Westminster and the 
borough of South wark; the *' Tower Hamlets," comprising Bethnal Green, Whitechapel, 
Stepney, Mile End, Poplar, Black wall, etc. ; the northern suburbs of Maiylebone, Port- 
land Town, Camden and Kentish Towns, St. Pancras, Hampstead, Islington, Dalston, 
Clapton, Hackney, etc. ; the western suburbs of Kensington, Chelsea, Pimlico, Tyburnia, 
Notting Hill, Bayswater, Westbourne, Fulham, Paddington, etc. ; many parishes in the 
center, but westward of the city; Bermondsey, Lambeth, Newington, Wandsworth. 
Kennington, Stockwell, Brixton, Clapham, Camberwell, Peckham, Rotherhithe, etc., in 
Surrey; and Deptford, Greenwich, Penge, Hatcham. Blackheath. Lewisham, Lee, etc., 
in Kent. The post-office London is larger than the parUatnentury London ,*• and the 
P0^ London is larger than either. It i8 usuul, however, now to take, as the limit of 

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London, tlic area under the operation of the " metropolis local goTernmeDt act," whic 
is also adopted by the regislrar-gcnernl for the census, and for the tables of mortalii) 
it is nearly identical with the ai-ea under the control of the metropolitan board of worki 
and with that under the control of the London school board (established by the educi 
tion act of 1870). The area of the metropolis, as thus defined, is about 78,200 acret 
equal to 122 so. miles. This area contained, in 1861, 859,421 inhabited bouses an 
2,808,034 inhabitants; and in 1871, 417.848 houses and 3,251,804 inhabitants. On censi: 
night, April, 1871, the exact population of the metropolis, under six different interpreU 
lions of that term, was as follows: 

City of London 74,782 

Parliamentary London. 8,008,101 

Kcgistrnr-generars London 8,251,804 

Local-manaf^ment London 8,264.580 

8chool-l)oard London 8,265,005 

Police London 8,888,092 

In ron\Hl numbers, the dimensions may be estimated at about 18 m. from e. to w., an 
9^ from n. to south. For partiamentary purposes, London constitates ten borough«- 
viz., city of London, Westminster, Southwark, Marylebone, Finsbury, Tower Hamleti 
Ilackuey, Chelsea, Lambeth, and Greenwich; the first sending four members, and th 
others two each. For poor-Iato purposes, London is divided into 40 unions, in som 
cases sin^rlc parishes, in others groups of parishes. The ''metropolitan buildings act" o 
1853 — which gives some kind OT official control over the ranging of houses in streets, ih 
removal of projections and sheds, the management of rebuilding and repairs, the com 
pulsory repair of houses in a dangerous condition, etc., divides the metropolis into 5* 
districts, of which 4 arc in the city of London, 5 in the city of Westminster, 30 in othe 
parts of the metropolis n. of th6 Thames, and 17 a. of the Thames. The city of London 
as it cannot increase in size, is rapidly dccreatdnfjin population, owing to'tlie substitutioi 
of large commercial establishments for dwelling-houscfi. Little over 70,000 persons tlee^ 
in the city at night, whereas nearly 700.000 enter and quit it every day. 

The Tljames at London is crossed by the following bridgea: Lonoon bridge, South 
eastern railway city brid^je. South wark bridge, Chatham and Dovep railway bridge 
Blackfriars bri'dge, Waterloo bridge, Charing Cross railway and foot bridge, Westmin 
ster bridge, Lambeth bridge, Yauxhall bridge, Pimlico railway bridge, Chelsea suspen 
sion bridge, Cadognn or Albert bridge, Battersea bridge. West Loo don railway bridge 
Putney bridge, and Hammersmith bridge. (Tlie bridges at Barnes, Kew, and Rich 
mond can scarcely be said to bo within metropolitan limits.) Xear and between thcs< 
bridges are about 20 steamboat piors for the accommodation of riv^r paasengcia. Th« 
Thames tunnel, formerly a footway under the river, 1200 ft. long, about 2 m. below 
London bridge, now constitutes part of the Eaut London railway. A little way belo>i 
London bridge is the tovoer wbway, a sma)! tunnel for foot passengers. For the accom 
modation of such shipping as cannot conveniently load and unload in the river, SL 
Katharine* B dockn, London docks, Lim^ehofise docks. West India docks; East India docks, and 
Victoria docks liave been formed on the northern shore; and the Commereial and GraM 
Surrey docks on the sonthem. The part of the Timmes just below London bridge, 
called the pool, is the great rendezvous for coal-ships; below that, as far as Blackwall, 
is the port, occupied by ships of greater burden. Of canals, the Paddington, Kcgeut'si 
and Grand Surrey are the chief. 

In matters of government London is under very varied jurisdiction. The lord mayoi 
and corporation exercise peculiar powers in the city in reference to tolls, dues, markets, 
the administration of justice, police, drainage, lighting, paving, and a variety of othei 
matters. The city is divided into 25 wards, each represented by an alderman; thfl 
aldermen are chosen for life, and aie magistrates bv virtue of their office. The eommm 
council conBiiiXB of 206 members, who, with the lord mayor and aldermen, form a kind 
of parliament for the management of city affairs. The Mansion Jvouse and OuHdhaA 
are the chief buildings for the transaction of corporate business. The metropolitan comr^ 
missioners of police and the metropolitan board of works have control over the wholly 
metropolis except the city. Westminster and Southwark are each under local authori- 
ties, but only in minor matters. The drainage is managed by two boards of worka, on^ 
for the city and one for the rest of the metropolis, and has been improved bv a vast and 
costly system of sewerage, paid for by the householders. Nearly all the drainage and| 
sewage enter the Thames at points 12 m. below London bridge instead of in tondoa 
itself: tlie expense of these great works has reached nearly £5,^)0.000. The gas supply] 
is in the hands of joint-stock companies; and so is the water supply: the water beingi 
obtained from the Thames, and from the New rivtr, one of its affluents. Both systcmsj 
are in some degree controlled by the boards, etc., above named. In /w&ctf jurisdictioa. 
the city of London is entirely distinct from the rest of the metropolis. In 1863 an 
attempt was made by the government to bring all under one jurisdiction; but the OPPJ: 
sition of the citizens was so strong that the attempt failed. The city police, about 700 
in number, are in 6 divisions, and have 7 stations; there are two police-offices or jufltice'| 

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noma, one al the Mansion house and one at Guildhall. All the rest of the metropolis 
is under the commissioners of metropolitan police, with head -quarters at Whitehall. 
There are 21 divisions, all hut one (the Thames police) denoted by letters of the alphabet; 
the fall force, officers and men, is about 8,600. There are 14 police courts, attended by 
23 police magistiateSy for taking cognizance of offenses within the metropolis, but out- 
side the eUif. 

The 9trtet$ of London, extending, with lanes and courts, nearlT 80,000 m. in aggregate 
length, depend mainly for their direction on the course of the Thames; the principal of 
them being nearly e. and west. One line of route extends from Hammersmith to Mile 
End and Bow, through Piccadilly, Strand, and Cheapside; another, beginning in the 
Uxbrid^ road, paMes thzou^ Oxford street and Holbom, and joins the former at 
Cheapside. Thti^ is still addldency of wide thoroughfares for the city traffic; but a 
new street has lately been made from Blackfriars bridge to the Mansion house — in con- 
nection with the northern or Vidcfia TlutmeB embanhmn^-'ih^ two together forming a 
wide and handsome avenue from Westminster abbey to the heart of the city. London is 
very deficient in wide convenient atreets running n. and SQuth. Most of the new streets 
fonned within the last few years are far superior in all respects to those formed fifty or 
a hundred years ago— except those at the outskirts, which are mostly poor and slight. 
Begent street and the Quadrant fonn the finest street in London for general effect; out 
the most palatial street is Pall Mall, owing to the number of ektb-kouaea situated there, 
most of which are fine buildings Of the 50 or 60 principal club-houses in London, the 
Armp and Navy, Quard^, ukweraitif, Ca/rUon, Etform, TratdeT$\ AtheruMum, United 
Sernise, and United Unitemity are in this one street. A continuous range of fine shops 
extends from Pall Mall to Cornhill. 

Among the buildings in London belonging to the crown or to the nation, the follow- 
ing are the principal: SL JometfM paiacey an irregular and inelegant cluster of buildines, 
used for court purposes, but not as the queen's residence. Bueidnffham paiace. Sic 
queen's London residence, a large but low quadrangular maas, with very inadequate 
court accomuKxlation. Marlboi^ngh hauM, residence of the prince and princess of 
WaleflL Kmeingtan palace, occupied partly by royalty, partly by recipients of court 
faror. Bounce qf parUament, a vast structure, which has cost £8,000.000; perhaps the 
fioestk and certain hr the laigest, Qothic building in the world applied to civil purposes; 
the river-front is 000 ft. long. We$tmin§ier MaU, a noble old structure, of which the main 
hall is 21K> ft. by 68, and 110 high. Som&net houee, a quadrangular structure with a river- 
frontage of 600 ft. ; it is mostly occupied by government offices. The admiraUy, notice- 
able chiefly for the screen in front of the court-yard. The hone guarde, the official 
residence of the commander-in-chief, with an arched entrance to 8t. James's park. The 
trtoKwry, the home ofioe, the prity council office, and the board cf trade occupy a cluster 
of buildings in Whitehall The foreign and India ojleee form a noble new group near 
Whitehall; and the colonial and other offices are bein^ built immediately adjacent. The 
icar oj/ke, in Pall 'iHall, a large but plain Inrick bunding. The BriHah museum (q.v.). 
The national gaUerp, devoted to a portion of the national picturesy in Trafalgar square. 
The museum of economic geoloay, in Jerm^n street, a small but well-planned building. 
Burlington house, appropriated by the nation to the roval academy and to several scien- 
tific societies. The Sotih Kensington museum, a medley of buildings more remarkable 
for convenience than for beauty, and filled with a miscellaneous but valuable collection. 
The guardii barrackSi Chelsea. The custom house, with a long room 100 ft. by 66, is 
finely situated on the river side. The general post-office, a noble mass in &t. Martin's-le- 
Grand. has a central hall 80 ft. by 60, and 58 high, with a vast number of offices all 
around it; and a large new block of buildings Just opposite* finished in 1878. The mint, 
on Tower hill, is a cluster of buildings in which the gold and silver coinage is managed 
(a new structure neai' the Thames embankment is in contemplation). The Tov)eT of 
London is a confused mass of houses, towers, forta, batteries, ramparts, barracks, armo- 
ries, store-houses^ and other buildings, included within a boundary of about 900 ft. by 
800, at the extreme eastern verge of the city. 

London is the seat of a bisliopric, which comprises about 820 benefices. The income 
of the bishop is £10.000 a vear. Bt. Paul's is the cathedral for the diocese ; it is situated 
at the e. end of Ludgate hill, extending to Cheapside, and was built by sir Chribtopher 
Wren (1675-1710) at a cost of £748,000. It is built in the form of a cross, is 514 ft. 
bng, by 286 wide; the cross, which surmounts the ball over the dome, is 866 ft. above 
the marble pavement below. St. Paul's contains many monuments to illustrious persons. 
(Phins are in progress for an extensive and costly restoration of the interior.) Westmin- 
fter abbey, siao cruciform, is 680 ft. in extreme outer length, hj 208 in width; the west 
towers are 225 ft hi^. Henry YII.'s chapel, at the e. end, is a beautiful example of 
eoricbed Gothic. The abbey has no special connection with the see of London, but is 
intimately connected with some of the court and parliamentary ceremonials. It was 
originally a Benedictine monastery, and is said to have been founded by Sebert, king of 
tbe East Saxons {circa 616); enlarged by kin^ Edgar and £dward the confessor; and 
rebuilt, nearly as we now see it, by Henry III. and Edward I. Here the kings and 
<iueens of England have beea crowned from Edward the confessor to queen Victoria; 
and here many of them have been buried. The poefs comer, with its tombs and mon- 

U. K, IX— 10 Digitized by VjjUU^LC 


uments of eminent men, is a well-known spot of the abbey. St. Sa^fior^s, in Sonthwar 
is the third in importance of the London cimrches. Tlie larsest Roman Catholic char 
is in St. George's fields. The largest dissenting chapei is Mr. Spurgeon's Baptist tain 
node, Newington Butts. There are in London nearly 1000 places of worships of whii 
those belonging to the church of England are rather less than onc4ialf; tne religio 
denominations are about 80. 

Of sekooU of all kinds, there are in London about 2,000, including private, parochu 
ragged, church and chapel, national, British, free, gi*ammar, and rate-payers' boa 
schools. Many small and inefficient private schools have lately been closed as a eoni 
quence of the opening of good public schools. The chief edAcatioiial esftablishmev 
are* London univei^ty, King't eoUege, University college, Gordon eoliege, Beffent's Parke 
lege. New college, Wedeyan college, Hackney college, training coUegee belonging to t 
national, British and foreign, and home and colonial school societies, Wee^imntter echo 
St, FauTe school, Charter-houee odiool, Ohriete HoepHalor the Blu&^oat school, the Gn 
and Oreen-coat schools, MerehanUtaHors* school, Mercerti gramma/t school. City ef Lond 
school, and two ladies' colleges. The new schools, which have been built by Ihe Londi 
school board, are large and handsome. 

There ara about 70 alma-houses in London. The societies, assodctions, and instit 
taons of a more or less permanent character, maintained for other than money-makii 
objects, are not less than 600 in number. Of the hospitals, the chief are ihiy\ i 
Thomas's, tlie London, the Poplar, the Westminster, the Charing Gross, 8L €horge"8, 1 
Mary's, Middlesex, King's College, University^ CoOsae, OrcA^ Northern, lhe^SinMJHXt,i\ 
Feser, the Consumption, the Lock, and the Royal jf^ree hospkals. 8t, Thomas's hoepiittL, 
magnificent pile, has lately been rebuilt on the Albert or souihem Thames embankmet 
opposite the houses of parliament 8t, Luke's, and Bethlehem (for insane persons), ai 
the foundling hospital are special in their obJecU. Of the 600 insUtutions above aliudi 
to, about 200 are hospitals, dispensaries, infirmaries, and asylums; while the remainii 
400 are religious, visiting, or benevolent institutions. 

There are law-courts, civil and criminal, of all degrees of dignity, and with varioi 
extent of Jurisdiction, scattered over London. For some of the more important of thei 
more worthy buildings are being erected near the Strand. There ai'e 7 seasions-houa 
(Old Bailey, Guildhall, Tower Hamlet^ Southwark, Kensinirton, Clerkenweh, ai 
Westminster). The prisons have undergone many changes within the last few ycai 
partly owing to the decay of old buildings, and partly to changes in the law of impriso 
ment. At present the buildings actually used as prisons are obout twelve In numhe 
the chief being Newgate, Holioway, Pentonville, Cold Bath Fields, Milbank, Gierke 
well, Brixton, Fulham, and Wandsworth. The chief buildings in London connects 
with law and justice are the following: the Westminster haU courts of law and equit; 
the Lincoln's inn courts of equity; the OuHdhatt courts; the central criminal court 
the Old Bailev; ecclesiastieal and other special courts at Doctors* Commons, etc. (Ne 
buildings designed to take the place of most of these are being erected on ground clean 
for the purpose between the Strand and Lincoln's inn.) What are called the iniu 
court are in some sense colleges for practitioners in the law; they comprise the inn 
temple, the middle temple, Lincoln's inn, and Cfray's inn; and there are others call( 
inns of chancery, comprising Thavies's, Fumivafs, Staple, BamanSPs, CUfforeTs, Ci 
menCs, Lyon's, New, and Se^eanfs inns. Connected incldentallv witli legal matters 
the record offiee, a large depository for official papers in Fetter fane. The legal praci 
tioners in London, besides Judges, etc., comprise about 4,000 BoHcltors uid attorney 
and 2,000 barristers. 

In connection with the shipping of London, and the import and export trade, tl 
docks above named contain more than 800 acres of water space, and a large amount < 
warehouse, shed, and vault accommodation — besides warehouses in various parts of tl 
city, awav from the docks. From 6,000 to 7,000 ships enter these docks nnnuall: 
Nearly all the sal linjf- vessels which come to London laden with coal, instead of enterii 
docks to unload their cargoes, lie in the stream of the river, and transfer their coal I 
lighters, which convoy it to the yards of coal-merchants, situated either on the banks < 
the river itself, or of the canals which run into it. One-fourth of the whole »hip tonna^ 
of England, and one-half of the large steamers belong to London. Of the ships th] 
enter the port of London, about 60 per cent are engaged in the foreign and colenU 
trade, 40 per cent in the coasting trade. About 100 vessels enter the port every da\ 
four-fifths British, the rest foreign. The value of all the merchandise exported frni 
the port of London is nearly one-fourth of that of the exports for the whole Unite 
Kingdom. The imports of wheat, flour, cotton, dye-stuffs, palm-oil. and some olb( 
articles, are greater into Liverpool than into London; but London takes the lead in tli 
imports of colonial produce, wines, and spirits. London receives about half of the tot< 
customs revenue of the kingdom, owing to the fact that duty-paying commodities coi 
stitute so large a proportion of its aggregate imports. 

The principal markets of London are the colds market at Pentonville, Covent Oarde 
(vegetable) market, BiUingsgafe (fish) market, and SmithJlM (meat and poultry) marke 
The Columbia market, Bethnal Green, presented to the corporation of the city by baronefi 
Burdett-Coutts, has not met the anticipated want. In Bermondsey is a oommercifi 

Digitized by VjiOOV IC 


Ai& and akin market. The esUiblishments for wholesale dealings are, of course, sta-' 
pendous in charocter. Of coal alone, London now requires more than 6,000,000 tons 
annually. The whole number of distinct trades or occupations in London is about 2,000. 
There are about 80 trade guUde or city companies in London, many of which possess large 
revenues; but they do not now exert much Influence on the actual course of trade and 
manufactures; the chief among them, called the twelve great companies, are tlie mercers*, 
groeera^, drapsn^t fi^mongen^, goldsmiths^, Mnnen^, merchanHailors\ haberdashers^, 
Salter^, ironmongenf, vintners*, and dothiDorkers' companies, all of which have /laUs, in 
which banquets are held. The gMemiths*, apatheearies^, and stationers^ companies atill 
exercise some active control over those trades. The hanks in London, either private or 
joint-stock, are about 100 in number, many of which have two or more banking-houses. 
There are about as man3r ineurance offices, some for life only, some for flre only, some 
for life and fire. The buildings for these banks and insurance offices are among the best 
in London. Tlie bank of Bnguind, one of sir John Soane's most successful works, gives 
employment to about 1000 clerks, etc. The rogd exchange is noticeable c^efly for sir R. 
Westmacott's sculpture in the pediment. The eom exchange, the eoal exchange, and ihe 
hop and medt esehanoe are convenient for their purposes. The stoek exchange, near the 
bank, is nearly hidden from view. The great warehouses for foreign and colonial pro- 
duce lie chiefly eastward of the city; whife the wholesale establishments for textile goods 
occupy enormous buildings in ihe neighborhood of Cheapside and Bt. PauFs churchyard. 
Most of the large manufacturing establishments lie either eastward or southward, the 
center and the w. of the metropolis being engaged in selling rather than in making. 
Large clusters of excellently arranged dwellings and lodging-houses for the working 
classes have been erected in various parts of London. 

The paseenger and goods trafflc in Xondon requires yast resources. There are 11 rail- 
way companies, having the termini of their lines in London, besides minor lines, more 
or less under the control of those companies. In addition to abotit 20 large passenger 
stations, there are at least 150 smaller within the limits of the metropolis. There is one 
railway n. and s. through the heart of London, and four extending nearly through 
it e. and west. The vastness of the local trafflc may be illustrated by the fact that the 
metropolitan and metropolitan district railways, working in concert, dispatch about 600 
trains per day, and accommodate about 80 stations, alfwithin the limits of the metrop- 
lis. ana all north of the Thames. There are in London about 140 booking-offices connected 
with inns, having relation to passenger and carrier trafflc. For water-traffic there are 
about 50 toharfs and guays on the Thames, besides a considerable number on the 
regent's and other canals. There are about 1700 omnibuses and 6,000 cabs. It has 
been ascertained that on an average day lOOOyehicles per hour pass through Cheapside; 
and, on an avenu;e day of 24 hours, 170,000 persons and 20,000 vehicles have been 
counted crossing London bridge. A great length of street tramway has been formed in 
London and the suburbs. 

Of the open places in the metropolis, the parks are the most Important J^fdepark, 
8t, Jameses park, the Oreen park, Begenf spark, Vtetoria park, Kenstngton park,PtnAury 
park, SoiUhtoark park, Kennington park, and Battersea park, all belong to the nation, and 
are purposely kept out of the builders' hands; they are most valuable as "lungs" to 
London. JMmrose MU and Hamipstcad heath may be included in the number. The Zo^ 
logiccU gardens, ffertieuUural gardens, and Botanic gardens are beautiful places, belonging 
to private sodeties. The eemeteries, substitutes for the old churchyards, are at Hlghgate, 
Finchley, Stoke Newington, Mile End, Kensal Green, Bethnal Green, Brompton, Nun- 
head, Oolney Hatch, Camberwell, Norwood, etc. Of places of amusement, there are 8 
opera-houses, about 80 theaters, 12 music-halls and concert-rooms of large dimensions 
(includiQg Albert haO), a much larger number of smaller size, and very numerous exhibi- 
tion-rooms of various kinds, of which the annuai intemational exhibitions building at 
South Kensington was opened in 1871. Of public columns and statues in open places, 
London contams a smaller number than is due to its size. The chief are the following: 
The Albert memorial, Hyde park; the Monument, Fish street hill; Nelson column, Trafal- 
gar square; Wellington statue, Hyde park comer; Achilles statue, Hyde park; Chtards* 
memorial. Pall Mall; Crimean monument, Westminster; York aAumn, Waterloo steps; 
Havetod^s and Napier's statues, Trafalgar square; OutTam*s statue and Cleopatra*s needle 
on the Thames embankment, etc. Of drinking fountains, which are numerous, the finest 
was presented to Victoria park bv baroness Burdett-Coutts. There are very cheap 
puiiUc hcUhs and wash-houses m Lonoon. 

London is now supplied with hotels in a manner adequate to its size and importance. 
The best of those belonging to the railwaycompanies are the Gfreat Northern, the Mid- 
land, the Victoria atid BusUm, the Qree^ Western, the Orosvenor, the Charing Cross, and 
the Cannon Street Of the others, the only one grand in appearance is the Langftam. 

LONDON {ante). Following is the table of population for the metropolis from the 
tables of the registrar-general for 1871 : 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Fast of Middudsex. 

West DittricU. 

Central JHatricta. 

East Districts. 

Pabt or fiuBiUBT AMD Kort. 

South Districts. 

KeDsington. 288,158 

Chelsea 71,069 

St. George, Han- 

OTer square 165,086 

Westminster..... 61,181 

North Districts, 

Marylebone 169,354 

Hampatead 82,281 

St. Pancras 221,466 

Islington 213,778 

Hackney ltM,»51 

St. Qiles. . .. 68,656 Shoreditch 

Strand 41 ,839 Bethnal Green . . . 

Holbom.... 168,491 1 Whlt«chapel .... 
London city 76,988 St. George In the 

Mile End, Old 





St. Saviour » oontli w»rV i ^75,049 
St. Olave f Bottthwark -j ^^^ 

Lambeth 206,848 

Wandsworth 125,060 

Camberwell 111,806 

Greenwich 100,600 

Lewisham 51,567 



48,052 Camberwell. 

98,169 Woolwich . 

InMiddleeez 2,286,568 

** Surrey 74S,165 

" Kent 225,587 

Total population 8,254,200 

LONDOK, chief city of the co. of Middlesex, Ontario, Canada, is situated at the junc- 
tion of the two branches of the river Thames, about 114 m. w.s.w. from Toronto, with 
which it is connected by the Great Western railway. The situation, whose fitness for a 
town was recognized by gen. Simcoe as early as 1784, only began to be cleared and laid 
out in 1825; but such has been the rapidity of the city's erowth that, in 1852, the popu- 
lation had risen to 7,124; in 1857, to 16,000; and although it had fallen at the census of 
1861 to 11,555, it has again (1871) risen to 15,826. With tbe suburbs, it is about 20,000. 
When the city was called London, the river, which had formerly been known by an 
Indian name, received that which it now bears; a Wesiminster and a Blackfriars bridge 
were thrown over it; and the names gjven to the principal streets and localities, still 
seem to indicate a desire to make the westernmost city of Canada a reproduction, as far 
as possible, of the capital of England. The Thames will probably be made navigable 
as far as Loudon, to give it a communication by water with the lakes, and it has alreadv 
an outlet by railway to every part of the American continent. The center of a rich 
agricultural district, London carries on a large trade in the produce of the country^ 
while there are also many foundries, tanneries, breweries; printing-offices, issuing thrte 
diiily and several weekly newspapers; and, outside the city, large petroleum refineries. 
Huron college, Hellmuth college, and Hellmuth ladies* college are educational institu- 
tions recently established. 

LOVDOK, Custom of, in English law, is peculiar in several respects^ and the laws 
there difi'er in those respects from the rest of the country. Thus, in the city (and by the 
city is meant only the city proper, or a small portion of the metropolia). a jaw of foreign 
attachnQeut exists, which resembles the Scotch law of arrestment, by which a creditor 
may attach or seize the ^oods or debts of his debtor, in the hands of third parties, to 
abide tho result of an action to be brought. The city of London also had a custom until 
recently which resembled the Scotch law of Legitim (q. v,) and Jus Edicta. (q.v.), by which 
a person at death could not by will disinherit his children, or leave his wife destitute. 
This custom was abolished by the stat. 19 and 20 Vict. c. 84 There is also a peculiar 
custom by which the common council elect their own sheriffs, instead of the croA^u 
electing them. There are also several other customs relating to local offenses of minor 

LONDON CLAT, or Lowier Eocbne Strata (q.v.). ««« a series of bede occupTingthe 
lower basin of the Thames from Hungerford to Harwich and Heme bny; and vJSo an 
extensive triangular region in Hampshire and the neighboring counties, whose base 
extends along the coast from Dorchester nearly to Brighton, while its apex reaches to 
Halisbury. The beds are arranged in three sections: London clay proper and Bognor 
beds, maximum thickness 480 ft. ; plastic and mottled clays and sands, maximum 
thickness, 160 ft. ; Thanet sands maximum thickness 90 ft. : total, 780 feet. 

The London clay proper Consists of tenacious dark-gray and brown clay, with layers 
of septaria; which occur in sufficient quantity in the beds near Harwich and along the 
coast of Harwich to be used for the manufacture of Roman cement. In Hampslnretbe 
clays are bluish, and have running through them bands of sand, sometimes compacted 
into hard stone, called Bognor rock. In both basins the clay rests on a thin bed of 
variously colored sand and flint pebbles. The London clay is rich in fossils. Many 
palm and other fruits have been described by Bowerbank from the island of Sheppey: 
masses of wood, often bored by the teredo, are not unfrcquent. The mollusca beloog 
to genera which now inhabit warmer seas than those of Britain, such as cones, volutes, 
nautilus, etc. About fifty species of fish have been described by Agassiz from Sheppey, 
among which are a sword-fish and a saw-fish. The remains of several birds and 
pachydermatous animals tell of the neighborhood of land^iii^nd^^the numerous turtles. 

1 J.Q I^ndonu 

•«-^v Londondanrir* 

with the crocodiles and gavialsy wliooe remains are attodated with them, no doubt 
infested the banks of the great river which floated down the Sheppey fruits. 

The plastic clays, or Woolwich and Reading series of Prestwich, are very variable 
io character, consisting chiefly of days and argifiaceous sands, which are used, as theur 
name implies, in the manufacture of pottery. They contain a mixture of marine and 
fresh- water shells, showing that they have been deposited in estuaries. Th^v attain 
their maximum Sickness of 90 ft. in the isle of Thanet, and thin ont westward, till at 
Windsor they are only 4 ft. thick— beyond this they entirely disappear. 

LOVBOH OOnSSEVCBB* The firsl diplomatic meeUng so designated was held in 
1826 and the following years^ for the regulation of the affairs of Greece; the next one 
was held in 1830, to arrange terms ol agreement or ot separation between Belgiym and 
Holland. The terms of agreement proposed not being accepted by the disputants, 
Holland nuide an appeal to arms; but the capture of Antwerp by the French, and the 
blockade of their coast by the ikiclish and French fleets brought the Dutch to agree to 
a treaty of definitive separation. May 31, 1838. A third conference was held in 1840, on 
the Turko-Egyptian question, in which France refused to take pert. In 1851 a protocol 
was signed in London by the representatives of all the ereat powers, declaring the indi- 
visibility of the Danish monarchy (inclusive of Sleswick and Hoktein). 

LOVBOmEBET, a maritime co. of the province of Ulster, in Ireland, 40 m. in 
length by 34 in breadth, bounded n. by the Atlantic, e. by the county Antrim, and in 
part by lough Neagh, s. by Tyrdne, and w. by Donegal. Its area is 816 sq.m., or 
522.315 acres, of which 91,759 are mountain, bog, waste, water, towns, etc. The pop. 
in 1871 was 173,906, of whom 77,358 were Catholicf?, 68,779 Presbyterians, 32,079 Epis- 
copalians, and nearly 1000 Methodists. The surface of Londonderry is irregular. From 
the eastern boundary it rises gradually toward the w. for a distance of about 10 m., 
where commences an elevated district, rising in several points to a considerable height; 
Sawell, on the southern border, being 2,236 ft. high. On the western side the surface 
falls gradually towards lough Foyle. The coast-line along the Atlantic is generally 
bold and precipitous. The shore of lough Foyle is in must places an unvarying plain. 
The county may be divided lonmtudinally into two great geological districts, separated 
from each other by the river Koe. In the western, which is mountainous, the mica- 
slate prevails, accompanied in some places by primitive limestone. In the eastern Uie 
mica-slate is overlaid by a succession of varying beds, capped, as in the adjacent Antrim 
district beyond the Bann, by a vast area of basalt, the dip of which, however, is the 
reverse of that on the opposite side of the river, and increasing in thickness towards the 
north, where in one place it reaches a depth of 900 feet. Many of tJie strata contain 
iron, and the ironstone of the mountain Ciuled Slieve Gallion was formerly worked, but 
the mining operations have been abandoned, from the failure of fuel. The soil is of a very 
mixed character, the greater part, with the exception of the alluvial spots on the banks of 
the several rivers, and of a considerable open district which stretches southward to 
Tyrone, being ill suited for wheat, or indeed for any cereal crop. In the year 1876, 
188,926 acres were under crops of all kinds. The number of cattle was 114,376 ; of sheep, 
34,822; of pigs, 88,161. The total value of cattle, sheep, and pigs was £1,594,359. The 
svstem of agriculture has been materially improved under the impulse given by the Lon- 
don society upon the laige estates which it holds in the county. The prhneipal rivers 
are the f^yle, the Faugban. the Roe, and the Bann. The first is navigable as far as 
Londonderry for ships of 800 tons burden. The Bann, besides being a great source 
of motive-power for the staple manufacture of Ulster, that of linen, is also celebrated 
for its salmon-fisheries, which are of great value. The chief towns are Londonderry 
city (q. v.), Coleraine, Newtown-Limavac^, and Mi^herafelt Londonderry was in ancient 
times the seat of the great septs of O'Loughlin and O'Neill, and of their tributary sept of 
0*Oahan, or O'Kane. At the immediate period of the invasion the English under 
John de Courcy attempted a settlement, but were forced by the O^Neills to withdraw. 
A small garrison within their colony was established near the Antrim border, at Cole- 
raine, upon the river Bann; but from the 14th till the 16th c. theur tenure was little 
more than nominal; and although a number of forts, witli a considerable garrison, were 
erected upon the river Foyle in 1600. it was not till the flight of the celebrated Tyrone and 
O'Donnefl that the English occuption of the district was consumnciated, their forfeited 
lands being granted by the crown to the corporation of London, who still retain them, 
the management being vested in a body, 26 m number, who are elected by the common 
council, one half retiring each year. The incorporation, by charter, oi this body in 
1619 led to the formation of the county, called, from this circumstance, Londonderry. 
Portions of the county were assigned to the several city companies, the unassigned por» 
tions being held by the society. The memory of the confiscation long rankled, and 
perhaps stul lingers, in the minds of the dispossessed Irish and their descendants; but 
in material prosperity the district underwent a rapid and marked improvement. The 
agriculture is in a condition considerably in advance of the majority of Irish counties, 
and the domestic manufacture of linen, in former times, added materially to the comfort 
of the population. Of late years, however, this manufacture, in all its branches, has 
been transferred for the most part to large establishments. There is considerable export 
aad import trade at the ports of Derry and Portrush, which is the seaport of Coleraine. 

Iioadoad^rry. 1 nH 

Ii«mgi ^^^ 

The former baa beoome a port of call for the Canadian steamers, which tottdi on their 
outward and homeward passage at the entrance of loagh Foyle. The number of 
national schools in Londonderry in the year 1861 was 888, attended by dO,<HM pupils. 
In 1876 there were 81,488 pupils. Londonderry returns two members to the imperial 

LaV'DOHBSBBTi Citt of, a seaport, and a corporate and parliamentary borough, 
capital of the above county, situated on the river Foyle, and distant from Dublin 144 
m. n.n.w. Pop. in 1871, 24,242. It returns one member to parliament. Londonderry 
arose under the shadow of a monastery founded here in the ^h c. by 6t. Oolumba. it 
was pillaged more than once by the Danes, and was occupied, but with many viclBsi- 
tudes, by the English at the invasion. The town formed part of the escheated territoiy 
granted to the London companies, and under their management, the city arose to some 
importance, and was stronglv fortified. In the Irish war of the revolution Londonderry 
threw itself earnestly into the cause of William of Orange, and closed it« gates against 
James II. The siege of Londonderry is one of the most celebrated events in modern 
Irish history, and lis memories are among the most stirring of the occasions of party 
animosity. Since that date the city lias steadily grown in extent and prosperity. It is 
beautifully situated on the left bank of the Foyle, upon a hill which overlooks the 
river. The walls are still preserved, and form an agreeable prom^ade; they sur 
round a part of the town one mile in circumference, but the buildings have extended 
beyond tliem. A square from which tlie four main streets diverge is called the Dia- 
mond. The left bank of the river is connected by an iron bridge, 1200 ft. in lengthy 
with an extensive suburb called Waterside. The cathedral dates from 1888. A hand- 
some Roman Catholic cathedral has been erected. The court-house also is a building 
of some pretensions, and the historical events above alluded to are commemorated by a 
triumphal arch erected in 1789, and a column in honor of the rev. George Walker, who 
was governor of the city during the memorable defense, of which he was himself the 
great organizer and inspirer. There are several important educational foundations, one 
of which, Gwyn's school, has an income of £1870; Hagee college, founded in 1865, is 
an important mstitution. The arrangements and appliances of the port are on a good 
scale. Vessels of 500 tons can discharge at the quays, and there is a patent slip capable 
of receiving vessels of 800 tons. Steamers ply to Xiverpool, Glasgow, and Belfast: there 
is railway communication with Dublin and Belfast, as well as a considerable advance 
towards direct communication with the western coast, and the lough Swilly line is car- 
ried north to Buncrana. In 1875, 1429 vessels of 278,392 tons entered, and 905 of 
204.240 tons cleared the port. The chief manufactures are flax-spinning, distilling, 
brewing, rope-making, ana tanning. There is also an extensive salmon-fishery. 

LONDONDERRY, Chahlbs William Stewart Vahb, Manmis of, 1778-1854, b. 
England. Distinguished both as a soldier and diplomatist in the £ns:]ish service from 
the beginning of the French revolution until the fall of Napoleon in 1815, and a memlier 
of the congress of Vienna the latter year. His surname of Vane was added on his mar- 
riage with a great heiress of that name. He is the author of a HutUiTy of the Pemruula 
War in Bpain; editor of the correspondence of his brother, lord Castlereag^; and con- 
structor of the harbor of Seaham, England, out of his wife's estate. 

LOKBOHBSBBT, RoBBST Btrwakt, second marouis of, b. at Mount Stewart, Down 
CO., Ireland, June 18, 1769, eldest son of Robert, first marquis, who represented the 
county of Down many years in the Irish parliament. Educated at the grammar-school. 
Armagh, and at St. John's college, Cambridge, he entered the Irish parliament in llSd, 
although then under aee. In 1796 he became viscount Castlereagli; and in 1798 he wa8 
made chief secretary for Ireland. It was the year of the insurrection and tlie French 
invasion, and some allowance must be made for the terrible severities employed by the 
Irish government. Tet the cruel part he acted or tolerated in Ireland, in the suppression 
of the rebellion, and effecting ttie union, always weighed upon his reputation. In 1802 
he was appointed president of the board of control, in the Addington administration. In 
1805 he was promoted to the seals of the war and colonial department, but resigned, with 
the whole of the cabinet, on Pitt's death in 1806. In the following year, he resumed 
the office of war minister, when he organized the disastrous Walcheren expedition. Mr. 
Canning, then foreign secretary, attacked lord Castlereagh on this account with much 
acrimony and personality. The result was that both resigned, and a hostile meeting > 
took place between them (Sept. 21, 1809). in which Canning was wounded. In 1813. 
after the assassination of Mr. Perceval; lord Cnstlereagh became foreign secretary, a 
post which he held during the period illustrated by tho militaiy achievements of the 
duke of Wellington. By this time the general direction of British policy was unalter- 
ably fixed by circumstances, and lord Castlereagh has at least the merit of having pur- 
sued this fixed course with a steadiness, and even obstinacy, which nothing could abate. 
He was the soul of the coalition against Bonaparte, and it was only by his untiring 
exertions, and through his personal influence, that it was kept together. He represented 
Inland at the congress of Vienna in 1S14, at the treaty of Paris in 1815, and at the 
congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818. While his foreign policy was favorable to the 
principles and policy of the "holy alliance" abroad, he constantly recommended arbi- 

trary and despotic measures at home. As the leader of the Liverpool government in 

I SI LttBdondeny* 

the lower bouse, he carried the suspeiwion of the habeas corpus act in 18i7, and the 
'«u acts" or '* the gagging bills," astbev were called, of 1810— measures which will for- 
ever sump his name with infamy. The retirement of Oanninj^ from the ministry 
ratlier than be a party to the prosecution of queen Caroline (IBS}), threw the whole 
weigiit of business on lord Castlereagh. By the death of his father in 1821 he became 
marquis of Londonderry; but his mind became deranged, and he died by his own hand 
ai his seat at Foot's Cray, Kent, Aug. 12, 1822. The populace witnessed the funcnl 
' procession in silence; but when the coffin entered the walls of Westminster, a loud and 
exulting shout rent the air, which penetrated Into the abbey, and broke upon the still- 
ness of the funeral ceremony. This statesman, looked upon by one party as a paragon 
of perfection, has been characterised by the other party as ' * Uie most intolerable mis- 
chief that e^er was cast by an angry providence on a helpless people." 

LONDON PIUD£, Sax^raga umbrosa, a perennial evergreen from southern Europe. 
It was brought to Great Britain and cultivated as a garden plant, but soon spread over 
the fields, especially in Ireland, where it is known as St. Patrick's cabbage. Flower 
Kiems, 6 to 12 in. high, bearioff a loose panicle of small pink flowers markea with spots 
of a deeper color. It is used lor making borders in gardens. 

UOiMOOM UHIVXBailT. When Umversity college, London, was first estaUiahed (in 
ld&5t\ it was known aa London, university, although a mere joint^tock undertaking. A 
change took place in 1886, when it received a charter as UfUterdty €plUifff, At the same 
time, by another charter, London university was established — not a building for teach- 
iog, nor a bodv of teachers and scholars, but a body of persons empowered to examine 
condklatea and, confer degcsea As this second charter waa onlv valid during ** royal 
will and pleasure," it required to be renewed at the deathof William lY., and the 
accession of Victoria; and a new charter was accordingly granted, Dec. 5, 1887. Addi* 
tional powers were given, July 7, 1860; and a whoUy new charter was signed April 9, 
1838, iiutituting many changes in the functions and arrangements of London university; 
ugain a wholly new charter, Jan. 6, 1863, with supplement (Aug. 27, 1867), admitting 
women to certain apecial examinations, trdtenitjf coUege, I/mdon, is still carried on in 
Gower street, the original spot; but the umwrfity of London^ or London university, 
after occupying different .apartments granted by government, is now established in a 
ftpedalbuUding in Burlington gardens (since 1870). The body consists virtuullv of a chan- 
cellor, vice-chancellor, 86 fellows, and an indefinite number of graduates. The chanetUr 
hr is appointed for life, or during royal pleasure, by the crown. The ttci-chaneeOor is 
unDually elected by the fellows from among their own body. The Z6feU&tM were named 
by the crown in the charter of 1858, for life; but as vacancies occur, the crown and the 
uoiversity fill them up in a mode that gives some control to each. The gradvaiet are 
those who, at any time since 1886, have had degrecsJftacMor, master, or doet<n' of certain 
faculties) conferred upon them by this university. The senate is composed of the chan- 
cellor, vice-chancellor, and fellows, and has the power of making the whole of the by- 
laws for tlie government of the university— within certain limits prescribed by the char- 
ier, and with the approval of the sccretaiy of state.' The conroeation is composed of all 
the graduates, except those who have taken the lower degrees within less than two years; 
it meets occasionally, to vote and decide upon several minor matters; but the charter 
seems to confine all real power to tlie senate. 

When the new charter waa given, in 1858, there were 47 colleges and collegiate 
schools in connection with London university— two in the colonies, and the rest in the 
United Kingdom. The number was later increased ; the secretary of state and the senate 
having the power of deciding what additional establishments sliall be included. But 
since 1868, it is no longer required that candidates for examination should be certificated 
scholars of any of these institutions: everything is thrown open, subject to pleasure of 
senate. JSraminerH are appointed by the senate, which also defines the extent and mode 
of examination. By the charter of the university, theology is entirely excluded. Yet 
there is an optional scriptural examination under by-laws. The degrees obtainable are 
those of bachelor and master of arts, bachelor Knd doetm' cfmedieiM, bachelor and doctor of 
lavs, bachelor and doctor of science, bachelor and master of surgery, bach^hr and doctor qf 
mvsfe, and doctor of literature. There are examinations for women, distinct from men's, 
in literature and science combined; and these first general examinations may be followed 
up, at will of candidate, by special examinations for certificates of higher proficiency in 
parricnlar subjects. 

The number of candidates for matriculation in 1876 was 1071, 486 of whom passed 
forB.A. {finals, 141; 59 passed: for m.a., 17; 11 passed: for b.bc. {final), 41; 22 passed 
for D.8C., 7; 6 passed: for ll.b. (final), 22; 18 passed: for m.b, ifinat}, 84; 28 passed 
forM.1)., 17; 11 passed. General matriculation examination must be undergone a cer- 
Uin time previously by candidates for any degree. — London uanverslty stands in no 
special relation to King's college (q.v.) in Ix>ndon. 

LONG. Eli. b. Woodford co., Ky., 1887; graduated at the Frankfort, Ky., roilitsiy 
school in 1855, and in 1856 was appointed a second lieut. of cavalry in the army of 
the United States; served for a time with his regiment in conflicts with Indians. In 
May, 1^61, he was promoted to a captaincy, and in 1868 became col. of the 4th 
Ohio cavalry- He waa actively engaged in the most important campaigns at the west, 

'' ' ' J 9 o Mr Digitized by VjjUUVIC 

mtich of the time commanding a brigade. In 1864 he was appointed brij^.f^jn., and In 
1865 lie led bis division of cavalry in the capture of Selma, Ala., receivmg a severe 
wound in the head. In 1867 he yras placed upon the retired list with the full rank of 

LOKQ, Geobge, M.A., a distinguished classical scholar, was b. at Poulton, in Lan- 
casliire, in 1800, educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he obtained the Craven 
scholarehip in 1821. Long became chancellor's medalist in 1822, and subsequently • 
fellow of his college. In 1824 he accepted Uie professorship of ancient hmguages in tbie 
university of Virgmia, United States; but returned to England in 1826, to become pro- 
fessor of the Greek language and literature in the London university. This office he 
resigned m 1831, when he conunenced to edit ihi& Journal of Editeaium, puhiished hj 
the society for the diffusion of useful knowledge; but probably the greatest labor— the 
magnum opus— of his life was his editing for eleven years (from 1882 to 1843) the Penny 
Gyd&pcBdia, to which he was also one of the most valuable contributors. At the con- 
clusion of the 27th volume, honorable mention is made by the society, and by the pub- 
lisher, Mr. Charles Knight, of Long, " by whose leaning, unwearied diligence and watch- 
fulness, unity of plan has been maintained during eleven years, and error, as far as pos- 
sible, avoided.'* In the midst of these arduous duties. Long loiued the inner temple, 
and was called to the bar in 1887. In 1846 he was chosen by the benchers of the middle 
temple to deliver a three years' course of lectures on Jurisprudence and civil law. In 
1840 he became professor of classical literature in the Proprietary coU^ at Brighton, 
which appointment he held till 1871. Long is one of the best classtcal editors that Eng- 
land has produced; he is also one of the first authorities on Roman hiw. His merits as 
a translator are no less great, as evinced in his SeleoUom from Plutareh*$ Jaw; Thoughts 
of Marcus Antonius, etc. Long has contributed extensively to Smith's Classical Diction- 
aries; and, besides editing Cicero's Orations and CeBsar*8 OaUic War, has published an 
Analifsis of Herodotus; France and Us EewhUions, etc. In 1878 he was granted a pension 
of £100. 

LOHG, Loch, a well-known loch in the w. of Scotland, extends northward from the 
firth of Clyde for about 24 m., between the counties of Argyle and Dumbarton. It has 
an average breadth of about a mile; and its banks, consisting, for the most part, of steep 
acclivities, abound in striking and picturesque scenery. At its head is Arrochar. 

LONG, Stephen Harbiman, 1784-1864; b. Hopkinton, N. H. After graduating at 
Dartmouth in 1809, he became a teacher, but in 1814 was appointed 2a lieut. in the 
U.S.A., corps of engineers; was brevetted maj. in 1816, lleut.col. in 1826, and in 1861 
was made chief of topographical engineers, with rank of col. His explorations 
began in 1816, when he m&e under great difficulties a survey of the Mississippi and its 
branches, which at once brought him into public notice. Soon after he led an expedition 
from the Mississippi to the Rocky mountains, one of the noblest peaks of which bears 
his name. The results of these arduous undertakings are to be found in works on the 
subiect by Edwin James and W. H.. Keating (1823 and 1824). The introduction of rail- 
roaas furnished col. Long a grand opening for the exercise of his energy and ability. 
He was concerned in the construction of many of the principal roads of the south and 
west, and was especially successful in bridge-building. He was the first to suggest the 
application of the rectangular trussed frame to brid&;es. He was also extensively 
employed in the improvement of rivers and harbors. In 1863 col. Long retired from 
the U.S. army, but still engaged in many enterprises. The long record of remarkably 
varied and successful labor in every branch of his profession was closed by his death at 
Alton, m 

LONG ACRE, Jambs Babton, 1794-1869; b. Delaware co., Penn.; served an appren- 
ticeship with the eminent engraver, Murray, of Philadelphia, and was afterward for 
man^ years engaged in illustratinff American works. He was associated with James 
Herring in the preparation of the Jfaiional P&rtrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans, 
a work in 4 vols., published 1884-39. In 1844 he was appointed engraver of the U. S. 
mint, and retained that post until his death. He was the designer of the modem gold 
coinage of the United States, and superintended the work of remodeling the gold coin- 
age of Chili 

LOH'OAK, NephsUum, longan, one of the finest of fruits, of the same genus with the 
litchi (q.v.), but reckoned superior to it. The tree which produces it is a native of 
China and of other eastern countries, at least as far w. as the mountainous regions on 
the eastern frontier of Bengal. It is much cultivated in China. The leaves are pinnate, 
with few leaflets, the leaflets oblong, the flowers in lax panicles. The fruit is globose, 
or nearly so. It is imported into Britain in a dried state. It has been produced in 
Britain by the aid of artificial heat. 

LOV0-BOAT, a strong and seaworthy boat, formerly the largest carried by a ship, 
but now generally superseded by the launch (q.v.). 

LONG BRANCH, a village in Monmouth co., K J., includes the village proper, 
about a mile from the ocean, and the beach with its hotels and arrangements for bathing; 
pop. 5,000. It is one of the leading watering-places in the United States, and is annu- 
ally, in the season, the residence of as many as 80,000 visitors from all parts of the 

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coontiy. Among the principal hotels are the East and West Eud, United States, How- 
land^s, the Metropolitan, and Leland's. Here also are the summer residences of a num- 
ber of distinguished persons from New York, Philadelphia, and other cities. Commu- 
nicatioD is had with New York by steamboat and direct railroad, the latter opened la 
^75. The Yilhige is fully supplied with shops, in some instances branches of large estab- 
lishments in New YorL There are 6 churches, some manufactories, and 1 weeldy 
newspaper, which becomes a daily during the season. The beach is uneaualed in extent 
and convenience in this country; and, during the months of July ana August, when 
crowded with bathers in striking costumes, and Xhrongs of spectators in fashionable 
attire, presents a scene of singular brilliancy. 

LONGCHAMPS, a part of the Bois de Boulonie w. of Paris, for centuries the resort 
of the pleasure-seekers of that city; still one ox the most brilliant promenades in the 
world, and the site of the principal race-ground of France. It has an interesting history. 
As early as the 18th c. the abbaye of Lon^diampe was founded by Isabel, sister of Saint 
Lonifl. Monasteries, nunneries, and hospitals gathered round it as thev were founded 
and endowed in successive reigns of the kings of France, until the place at one time 
became the seat of fortv religious oroanizations. Before the time of Henry lY. they 
had become the scene of corrupt practioes, so that he seems to have had no difficulty in 
taking Catherine de Verdun, a nun of the age of d3, from the convent to be his mistress. 
Vincent de Paul, writing to cardinal Mazarin in 1652, says that "this convent for dOO 
years has been marching towards total depravity of manners to ruin. Its parlors are 
open to all, even to young gentlemen without parents; the brothers and rectors do not 
object. The lady r«l»gimm$ wear their garments immodestly and carry gold watches. 
When war forces them to take refuge in the city they lend themselves to scandal, and 
go alone and in secret where they are desired. " A century before out-door preaching 
Sad attracted great crowds from Paris to Longchamps, where, under cover of religious 
fervor, license found a cloak. In 1021 pope Leo X., by a bull, accorded to the religious 
organizations of Longchamps the duty of commemorating the miracles of the princess 
Isabel by services on tne last day of August of each year. This became a great f ^ day, 
attracting multitudes from Paris. On Mt Valerian there dwelt many hermits and 
other reH^ous persona. These also attracted crowds of people at all times who made 
Longchamps their meetine-place, going to and fro. Centuries before the revolution of 
1789 Longchamps was sudi a resort for the people of Paris that a French writer alludes 
to it as ''a fluxion of these people." In the reign of Louis XV. three days of holv-week 
were devoted by the rank and wealth of the court to pflgrimara to the abbaye of Long- 
chamxM. A French writer of that time remarks of these oocaMons: *' Pleasures and devo- 
tions first marched abreast, but pleasures soon stepped to the front.'* Religious sing^nr 
became the rase, because it brought together the beau monde of Paris, and the beautiful 
"redusee" of the convent. Crowds went from Paris to' hear the delightful singing 
there, and the training of the church was a school for the opera. Longchamps became 
the freouent theater of tumultuous crowds. Before the revolution archbishop Beau* 
mont of Paris ordered the church closed on the days when those pleasures of the holy- 
week had become a scandal to the church; bat the gay people from the city found 
means to continue their reunions elsewhere adjacent to the convent walls. 

Such was the character and the popularity of this place of resort when the ordinances 
of the revolution in 1781^90 confiscated the lands of such religious organizations to the 
state. The Lonn^amps properties were sold to speculators. The hammer of innova- 
tion destroyed all its monuments of that convent era, of which it had become the most 
conspicuous shame. There now remain no vestiges of all that history tells us of them. 
But the same gay throngs that for four hundred years have surged out from Paris to these 
fields now walk and ride to the race-grounds and park that have taken the place of the 
buildings and garden of the abbey of Longchamps. 

LONGET, Fbakcoib AcmLi4E, 1811-71 ;b. Bordeaux, France; studied medicine and 
surgery in Paris; became member of the academy of medicine in 1844, and since, professor 
of the faculty of medicine, member of PInstitut, and imperial surgeon of the legwn d^hon- 
neur. As early as 1886 he became eminent for his investigations, and later, pre-eminent 
for his studies of the spinal marrow and its functions, the action of electricity on the nerv- 
ous system, the mixed nerves, the classification of brain nerves, the laws governing the 
excitability of nerves, and their connection with the muscular fibers. He is credited with 
very interesting explanations of the action of the lungs, the voice, the saliva, and the 
effects upon the nervous system of the exhalation of sulphuric ether. His published 
works embrace treatises, reports, and essays on all the above, and many other subjects 
pertaining to medicine and physiology. 

LONGEVITY, prolonged life in plants and animals. This article refers exclusively 
to human longevi^. The subject has attracted attention in all ages, but especially since 
the more recent and systematic study of biology. It may be viewed with reference to 
individuals, to families, and to nations. There nave been many noted examples of great 
prolongation of life in individuals, in some of which the history of their progenitors is 
not given, but enough cases have been observed in which long-lived people have 
descended from a long-lived stock to show that longevity is a hereditary transmission ; 
Uieref ore, individual and family longevity are intimately con nected. Attention to hygienic 

XoBgmritj« 15-4 

laws to a greater degree than tluit which lias been .obserred by parents* wiU, aa a rule, 
prolong the life of an individual beyond that of the parents, but it will probably not 
materially alter the average number of years to which certain families attain. 80 also of 
nations, a certain number of generiitions is a measure of the longest span of life of the 
individual. The extreme limit seems to be five generations: that is to say, those who 
•attain the greatest age in a nation or race of men may live to see the fifth generation of 
their descendants. Among the Indo-European races this, as a rule, requires Uiat the life of 
the individual shall be prolonged to about 120 years. In China, men of less that 100 years 
of age often live to see their grandchildren to the fifth generation, and all races other 
than the Caucasian come to maturity sooner than that race, one generation following 
another more frequently; and it may be taken as a rule that the number of generations 
and fractions of gent^ratjons of a people is the Boeasure of the span of life among them. 
Some remarkable instances of longevity have been observed annrng African races, and 
there are many well-uuthenticated cases where individuals have lived coDaiderably 
beyond 100 years, but none of them reach the extreme age of the Caucasian. A person 
who exceeds the age of three-score and ten years may be sakl to have arrived at a period 
•of longevity. The average duration of life in Europe is from 26 to 8tf yeara, but it is 
found to be greater among thoee who are in comfortable circnmstaDces than among the 
poor. The cause of this is a question about which there is a difference of opinion. It 
18 held by some that the mode of living among the well-to-do increases the physical 
powers, thus tending to prolong existence. Others, again, although admittmg that good 
living, when not luxurious, tends to prolong life, niaintain that the poorer classes are nat- 
urally shorter-lived, and are poor because of. inherited qualities of mind and diepositioo 
whidb tend to place them in subordinate circumstances. The truth probably is between these 
two opinions. Many people, doubtless, are poor from 'natural improvidence and weak- 
ness of body and of character, and tliey are amon^ the short-lived. Others are poor fron) 
various circumstances; from want of desire f6r nches, or from a natural self-reliance, or 
absence of fear for the future as. regards temporal things, and some of these latter often 
furnish instances of greiU longevity. There ara certain classes of persons who, by for- 
tuitous circumstances, such as happy intermarriage with those living lives calculated to 
strengthen tbeu* constitutions, have produced a tendency to longevity, and who transmit 
tiiistandej^cy. to their descendants, but they are notexclueivery found in anj one social 

The chief physical characteristics of longevity may be enumerated as follows: 1. 
Medium weieht and medium height, although tfaia is subject to many exceptions. The 
limbs, especially the lower, ratJ^r less than half the length of the whole' stat- 
ure, which is the standard in art, and was instituted by the Greek sculptors. 2. Har- 
monious proportions (except as to the art standard of stature), rounded and firm joints 
and limbs, regular features, and a calm expression of countenance, a full cheat and a 
head and neck so placed as to give a graceful and easy bearing. 8. The chin and lower 
jaw, when full ana well formed, are signs of longevity, but not without many excep- 
tions, for prolonged life is often possessed b^' those who have retreating chins and rather 
defective lower jaws. The indication, however, holds^ good, as a rule, and whatever 
elements of longevity such persons have are probably inherited from ancestors who had 
well formed lower jaws. 4. The mouth is a feature of considerable importaooe as an 
indication of longevity. A firm, rather thin Up, at least one that is not pouting, or has 
not a wide red border, is a sign of firmness of fiber and vigor, especially of enduraDce. 
But there are many exceptions; and when a person has otlier strong characteristics 
of longevity this sign should not have too much weight. An ineurved or inverted 
rather than an everted upper lip, and having a firm expression. Is not an unfavor- 
able sign, even though rather thick. 5. A rather prominent and well developed no^e, 
in harmony with a capaoious respiratory apparatus nod a well-developed sensory 
organization, is a feature entitled to . consideration ; but it also has many exceptions, 
probably from inherited peculiarities on one side of the family, which, however, do 
not materially dim i nisi) the tendency to longevity in the majority of such inheritors. 
6. The ear, perhaps, furnishes the most important indications of longevity, and in its 
form, development, and position there may be traced more hereditary characteristics, 
as well as evidences of individual constitutional strength, than in any other feature. A 
small, ill-shaped ear is very rarely carried by along-lived person, if ever; never, if its 
center is placed much above the level of the wings of the nose. If such an ear is also 
thin and lias a weak look, its possessor certainly has a defective constitution, with strong 
consumptive tendencies. A yull. moderately fleshy ear, called a pulpy ear by artists, is a 
sign of a vigorous constitution, and also of longevity if placed rather low down and at 
a good distance from the eye, thus giving room for the various cerebral ganglia which 
are situated at the base of tlie brain and have much to do with X\\e harmoni;&ing of 
physiological flmctions. If tlie ear is rathet*' large, and with a well- developed lobe, held 
firmly to the angle of the jaw, the indications of vigor and long life are increased. 
Other indications, those of intellectuality, character, etc., are furnished by the forma- 
tion and size of the ear, but they do not particularly concern the subject of this article. 
In resrard to the complexion, long-lived people vary from light to dark, but the skin is 
usually smooth and healthy. 

Notwithstanding that an Inherited strong constitution is the foundation of a long 

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ifc, ezpcMnre to inclement wenther, <sr «ik ufthealtliful cUnuAe; or Turioiit hardshipeaiid 
priTatioDB. with Tiolatioos of hygienic laws, may produce decay of the physical powers 
and degeneracy in two or three generations the strong tendency to the recurrence of 
the original type of constitution will, under favorable circuinstaooes, cause a regenera- 
tioD of stock. It is also probable that continued breeding under favorable circam- 
stances of stock not in the hixhest physical condition, will tend to its impfovement. To 
what degree improvement of the human race might be carried, it is impossible to say 
with confidence. We do not know our physicad history with sufficient exactness to 
Tcoture far upon such speculations* but, if we take the opinions of a majority of the 
adenUilc world of the present day, the race has been constantly improving->in fact, has 
bees developing from some fonn much inferior. There are many, however, who 
believe that the Bible account* though perhaps too fragmentary for a scientific basis, is 
a revelation, and that we were created physically perfect. Accepting this view, to 
what age did our earliest progenitors survive T This is a question that has not been 
settled, even by theologians, and therefore will not be discussed here; but, if greater 
than at present, it miffht perhaps be recovered by an observance of mental, moral, and 
pbysiciu laws, as tending to the recovery of the normal type of constitution. It is pos- 
sible that, under any view of the creation of man, human life might be made to increase 
in length of days, ilthough history shows that its duration has varied but little in 4,000 

Moderation and regularity in eaUng, drinking, and sleeping are conducive to 
longevity, and those who observe proper habits may accomplish immense labors with 
no apparent injury to themselves. Scientific studies and philosophical contemplation, 
if not pursued with too much ardor, do not tend to shorten life. Clergymen in said 
CO be the longest-lived, as a class, of any in England. Poets^ as a rule, are not as long* 
lived as philosopbers, although Sophoides is said to have lived 90 yearn. Goethe was 
in his dith year when he died, and Wordsworth was 80; but these two poets were also 
philosophers, and spent much time in calm thought Of the old philosophers, Zeno 
died at 98. Demostlienes at 99, Isocrates at 98, while Hippocrates, the father of m^i- 
cine, lived to upwards of 100. Many medical men^ have lived to an advanced age, but 
it appears from statistics that physicians are, as a class, shorter^lived thian members of 
other professions. Moses lived to the age of 130, and Joshua to that of 110^ and their 
iires were lives of great activity. As an instance of hereditary longevity, may lie men- 
tioned that of Abraham, wlio lived to 175, Isaac to 180, Jacob to 147, and Josepli to 110. 
Some physiologists do not place reliance on records of longevity much beyond 100 
years. Many instanqes, however, seem to be too well attested to admit ci much doubt 
(hat individuals have lived to more than 140 years of age, and one of the cases given in 
some of the records which follow, that of Henry Jenkins, who is said to have lived to 
the a^'of 169, rests on evidence which many mtelligent men do not feel Justified in 
rejecting. The cases of tiie throe Hungarians may be regarded as doubtful, but they 
are accepted by the author of the article ** Age" in the Ammean CydopmMa, and they 
are given here, at all events, as interesting records. It must be admitted that therei are 
no valid reasons for denying that life may be prolonged to the extent tlMie claimed. 
Much of the evidence regarding the age to which individuals attain would, in most 
insUnces, be deemed insufllcient in a court of law. and, if absolute proof be required, 
the collection of instances of great age would be small 

Buffon says that every animal Ures six or seven times as long as the period of its 
growth, and Flourens remarks that this is very near the trutlt, he placing the relative 
terms of growth and perfected growth as 1 to 5. Both BulTon and Haller placed the 
normal term of life between 90 and 100 years. They afterwards, by the collection of 
instances, placed its extreme limit at a little less than two centuries, and Flouiiens 
adopts the idea that extraordinary extension of the term of life may go on to one-half 
more than the ordinary term. . The late sir Henry Holland believed that tbem was suffi- 
cient proof of the frequent prolongation of human life to llO and 140 years; but a recent 
writer, Mr. Thorns, maintains that any evidence that any human being ever attained 
the age, not of 140. but of 110 years, will be found upon examination to be untrust- 
worthy, and there are others who to a certain extent share this opinion. 

In a work called The Code of HeaUh and Longwity, by sir John Sindair (0th ed., 
Lond.. 1844), and which contains much interesting matter, there is tlie following: ''In 
a Dutch dictionary entitled Est Alg^meen Woandsrdok, there is an account of which the 
following is a translation. Petratsch (Peter) Czartan was bom in 1687 at Eofrok; a village 
4 m. from Temeswaer, in Hungary. When Uie Turks took Temeswaer from the 
Christians, he kept bis fatiier's cattle. A few days before his death ho walked with the 
assistance of a stick to Eofrok. He bad but little Fight, ahd bis beard was of a grtonish 
white color, like moldy breads and but few of his teeih remained. His son, 97 yedrs of 
age, was born of his father's third wjfe. Being a Greek in religion, the old man was 
a strict observer of fiists, and never Used any food but milk and cakes. He had 
descendants in the fifth generation, with whom he sometimes sported, cnrrying them 
m Ills arms. He died in 1724w at the age of 184 years. Count Wal'lis had « 

?>rtrait taken of this, old man when he fell in with him previous to his death. 
he Dutch envoy, then at Vienna, transmitted this account to the states<gen- 
end." There is ,a picture, of ,the old. man in sir .John*3 book, . probably i^^,l^p£. 

of the portrait of him which count Wallis had taken. The same "book, abo tcnUina 
portraits of an old niarri^sd pair, also natives of Hungary. The following^ is % transla- 
tion of the inscription on the picture: '* John Rovin in the 172d year of hi» agc^ and 
Soral), his wife, in the 164th year of her age. They have heen married 147 jearsy and 
both born and died at 8tadova. in the directory of Casanseber, in Temeawaer; their chil. 
dren, two son tf and two daughters, are yet alive. The youngest son is 116 years ol age, 
and has two great grandsons, the one in the d5th and the other in the 27tb year of bis 
age." Henry Jenkins, of Elberton, in Yorkshire, Eng., lived to the age of 160 years. 
At the age of between 10 and 12 he was sent to North Allerton with a horse kkd of 
arrows previous to the battle of Flodden. which was fought Sept. 9, 1518,. and as he 
died Dec. 8, 1670, he must have been of the age reputed. " He had of (en been sworn 
in chancery and in the courts to above 140 years of memory." Sir John further lemarks, 
'* Little is known of his mode of life, excepting that towards the last century of it iiewas 
a fisherman, and not only used to wade the streams, but actually swam rivers after he 
was past the age of 100 years.'' Thomas Parr was born in tlic parish of Allierbury, in 
Shropshire, in 1488, in the reign of Edward lY., and died in London in 1685. ''-He 
lived in the reign of ten kings and queens, and was buried in Westminster abl)ey.'' He 
is said to have been a man of very different stamina from the rest of mankind, for a 
person who had seen him describes him thus: *' From bend to heel of his body he had, 
all over, a quick-set, thick-set, nat'ral hairy cover" (Sinclair). Sir John's book also 
contains portraits of the countess of Desmond, as well as of Jenkins and Parr. The 
countess of Desmond lived to the age of 140 years. Sir John says ''she was a daughter 
of the Fitzgeralds of Drummond, in the county of Waterford, and in the rei^n of 
Edward lY. married James, 14th earl of Desmond." After his death, sir Walter 
Raleigh says, she held her jointure from all the earls of Desmond during her life. It is 
also said, on the authority of lord Bacon, that she twice renewed her teeth. In Bailey's 
Beeords of Longem^ (Lond. 1747). there are, among others, the following records: 
''Thomas Hill, of Flitton, Staffordshire, died in 1601, aged 1^8. He was head steward 
to ^hree successive earls of Kent. On the floor of the chancel, near the altar, is an 
efAgy in brass of tliis patriarch. The rev. Mr. Braithwaite, of Carlisle, died in 1754, aged 
110 years. He had been in the cathedral 102 ;^ears, having commenced as a singing boy 
in 1052, when eight years old." In a work entitled Human Longmiiy, by James Easton, 
published at Salisbury, Eng., in 1799, there are reoorded the ages of 1712 persons who 
were said to have lived upwards of ICK) years. Easton quotes a table from Huf eland, in 
which that author says that of lOO human beings who are bom, 50 die before the 10th year, 
20 between the lOth and 20th, 10 between the 20th and 80th, 6 between the 80th and 
j 40th, 5 between the 40th and 50th, and 8 between the 50th and 60th, leaving only 6 to 
I live above the 60th rear. He says, "Haller, who collected the greatest nuqil^r of 
instances respecting tne age of man, found the relative duration of life to be in the fol- 
lowing proportion: Of men who lived from 100 to 110 years, the instances have been 
1000; from 110 to 120 there have been 60; from 120 to 180 there have been 29; from 
180 to 140 there have been 15; from 140 to 150 there have been 6; and as high as 169, 
there has been 1 instance. But as this volume probably contains a much more extensive 
collection of long livers than any preceding work on the subject, I cannot den v myself 
the satisfaction of corapiline from it the following table, similar to Haller's. Of males 
and females who lived from 100 to 110 years, both inclusive, the instances have been 1310; 
from 110 to 120 there have been 277; from 120 to 180 there have been 84; from 180 to 
140 there have been 26; from 140 to 150 there have been 7; from 150 to 160 there lia^e 
been 8; from 160 to 170 there have been 2; and from 170 to 185 there have been 3 
instances = 1712." The following are among the names and ages mentioned by Easton : 
St Patrick, 122; Attila, 124; Lywarch Hfin, 150; St. Coemgene, commonly called St. 
Kelven, the founder, bishop, and abbot of Grandalock, or the seven churches in Wicklow, 
Ireland, 120; Piastus, king of Poland, 120; Lewis Cornaro, 104; St. Anthony the great, 
of Coma, in Egypt, 105; Jane Scrimshaw of the parish of Bow, 127; Alexander Ste- 
phens of Banffshire, 106; Donald Cameron of Kinnichlabar in Rannach, Scotland, 130, 
and who married at the age of 100; Mrs. Carter, of Waltham abbey, Essex, 101, who 
could walk five or six miles a day with ease till within a few months of her death; Dr. 
William Broughridge of Charles Street, Westminster, formerly one of the masters of the 
Charter house school, 112; Mrs. Keithe, of Newnham, Gloucestershire, "who lived mod- 
erately, and retained her senses till within fourteen dnys of her death, at 188 years, and 
who left three daughters, the eldest aged 111, the second 110, and the youngest 109; 
Peter McDonald lived to the age of 109 (his fatlier died at 116, and his grandfather 
at 107 years); Thomas Winslow, aged 146, of the county of Tip^rary, Ireland, a 
colonel in the armv and had held the rank of captain in the reign of Charles I.; 
he also accompanied Oliver Cromwell into Ireland; Mr. Dobson, of Hatfield, a 
fanner, who by much exercise and temperate living prolonged his life to the age 
of 189 years: ninety-one children and grandchildren attended his funeral; Elanor Spicer, 
of Accomac, Virginia, lived to the age of 121 and worked at sewing till within six 
months of her death; Andrew Vidal, a native of Brazil, lived to the age of 124; he had 
80 sons and 5 daughters, and in 1778 was living in the same house with his children and 
grandchildren, who numbered 149; John Weeks, of New London, Conn., died at the a^e 
of 114; married his tenth wife when he was 106 years old. she being only 16; it is said 

Digitized by VjXJUv IC 

1^' tA>ngeritj. 

that hia hair and te«t3i were partially renewed.'* Eaatoo also inciudes the names taken 
from Sinclair's book alcove mentioned. There died at Scottsville, Monroe county, N.Y., 
in the autumn of 1828, Mrs. Melissa Ganier, whose age is probably correctly given. She 
was married in 1789 at the age of 14, and removed in 1801 to the place where she died. 
She was, consequeully, about 104 years old. Her husband survived her, at the age of 
107. They had 95 descendants. At Norristown, Penn., Dec. 28, 1878, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thomas died in her 102d year. At West Gloucester, Essex county, Mass., Oct. 26, 1878, . 
Miss Mehitable Haskell died at the age of 89 years. She was the last of nine children = 
who lived beyond fourscore veara, one sister attaining the age of 96. The father, grand- 
father, great-grandfather and great-great-grandfather, all lived beyond 80 years. The 
influences affecting the loueevity of nieu appear to have been so balanced that the aver- 
age age of the human race has remained about the same for more than ^000 years. But 
in this balancing process there is a depressing and life-shortening influence which neces- 
sarily reduces the natural average. It must, therefore, be concluded that a removal of 
all physically depressing and noxious influences would increase the longevity of the humaji 
race. The degenerating influences appear to exist in the cities, chiefly in consequence 
of the production of poisonous malaria and of infectious diseases, and if it were not for 
the constant regeneration of the population of cities by accessions from the country the 
age to which men usually live would be soon greatly shortened and there would be 
de^neration of race unless considerable reforms were made in sanitary affairs. The 
registrar-general of Great Britain in a recent report, in alluding to the sanitary condition 
of that country', says, "Within the shores of these islands 28,000,000 of people dwell 
who have not only supplied her (England's) armies and set her fleets in motion, but have 
manufactured innumerable products and are employed in the investigation of scientific 
truths and the creation of works of inestimable value to the human race. These people 
do not live out half their days. A hundred and forty thousand of them die every year 
unnatural deaths; two hundred and eighty thousand are constantly suffering from dis- 
eases which may be prevented. Their strength is impaired in a thousand ways; their 
affections and intellects are disturbed, deranged, and dimmed. Who will deliver the 
nation from these terrible enemies? Who will confer on the inhabitants of the United 
Kingdom the blessings of health and lonsr life?" We will conclude this article with a 
condensed statement of the opinions of fir. Benjamin Rush (q.v.), surgeon -general of 
the American army of the revolution, contained in his Medical Inquiries and Obser- 
tatums, several editions of which were published at the commencement of this century. 
He reviews the circumstanceia which favor longevity, the condition of body and mind 
which attends It, and the peculiar difienses of old age, and their remedies. The most 
important circumstance is descent from long-lived ancestors. He says, "Ihave not 
found a single instance of a person who has nved to be 80 years old in whom this was 
not the case. In some instances I have found the descent was only from one, but in 
general it was from both parents. Dr. Franklin, who died in his 84th year, was descended 
from long-lived parents. His father died at 89 and his mother at 87. His father had 
seventeen children by two wives.*' Intemperance in eating, Dr. Rush found in his 
experience, was even more prejudicial to longevity than intemperance in drinking, for 
he met only one man 84 3'^ears of age who had been intemperate in eating, but four or 
five who had been intemperate in the use of ardent spirits. He considers that literary 
pursuits are favorable to long life. ' ' Business, politics, and religion, which are the objects 
of attention of men of all classes, impart a vigor to the understanding which by being 
conveyed to every part of the body tends to produce health and long life." In regard 
to the'married state he met with only one person over 80 years of age who had never 
been married. He makes particular mention of a woman, a native of Herefordshire in 
England, who was in the lOOth year of her age, and who had born a child at 60. She 
had suckled successive children at the same time. I>r. Hush remarked that immigrants 
from Europe erften acquired fre^ vigor from change of climate and occupation, and 
probably a prolongation of life. His observations did not indicate that acute or <Aronic 
diseases slkortened life, and mentions the fact that ''Dr. Franklin had two successive 
vomicas (cavities containing purulent matter) in his luues before he was 40 years old." It 
is not improbable, however, that his lung difficulty did shorten his life. He met witli 
one man 88 years old who had suffered all his life from syncope, but he met with but 
one person beyond the &ge of 80 who had ever had a disease of the stomach. Mr. John 
Strangeways Hutton, who died in Philadelphia, in the 109th year of his age, informed , 
Br. Rush mat he had never vomited in his life. *' He was bom," says Dr. Rush, "in 
New York city in the year 1664. His grandfather lived to be 101, but was unable to 
walk for 80 years before he died, from excessive corpulence. His mother died at 91. 
He had a fixed dislike of ardent spirits of all kinds; his appetite was good, and he ate 
plentifully during the last years of his life, but rarely drinking between meals. He 
married twice, having eight children by his first, and seventeen by his second wife. He 
was about 6 ft. 9 in. in stature, slender, and carried an erect head to the last years of 
his life. He says, " I have not found the loss of teeth to affect the duration or life so 
much as mi^t be expected. Edward Drinker, who lived to be 103 years old, lost his 
teeth thirty years before he died, from drawing the hot smoke of tobacco into his mouth 
through a short pipe." He makes the observation that "more women live to be old than 
men, but nM>re men live to be wry old than ^'omen. In regard to the characteristics of 

issgsr- 158 

the body and mind of old people he mentioDB their great sensitfyeness to cold, and says, 
"I met with an old woman who slept continually under three blankets and a covenet 
during the hottest summer months. The servant of prince de Beaufremont^who came from 
Mont Jura to Paris at the aee of 181 to pay his respects to the first national assembly of 
France, shivered with cold in the middle of the dog-days when he was not near a good 
fire. The late Dr. Chovet, of this citv (Philadelphia), who liyed to be 85, slept in a baize 
night-gown under eight blankets ana a coverlet, in a stove room many years before he 
died. " He remarks that death from old age is the effect of a gradual palsy, sbowing itself 
tirst in the eyes and ears, then in other parts of the body, reaching the brain the last. 

LOVOFEUOW, Hbnrt Wadbworth, an American poet, was b. at Portland, Mc.od 
Feb. 27. 1B07. At the age of 14 he entered Bowdoin college, Brunswick, and gradu 
ated there with high honors in 1825. For a short time he studied law in his father's 
office; but a professorship of modern languages having been founded in theBowduiD 
college, and offered him, he accepted it, and proceeded to Europe to (qualify himself for 
the discharge of his new duties. He returned to America in 1829. His first substantive 
work, Outre Mer, appeared in 1835; and in the same year he was appointed to the chair 
of modern languages and literature at Harvard university. He again spent a year in 
Europe, and made himself acquainted with the Danish and other northern literatures— 
an acquaintance which he has turned to noble account. In 1889 he published Hyperion, 

* a prose romance, and The Vcieen of the NiglU; BaUads and oiker Poems, in 1841 ; Poem 
ofh Slavery, 1842; The Spaninh Student, 1848; his Poets and Poetry of Europe, 1845; Bd 
fry of Bntiaes, 1846; BhangeUne, 1847; Kavana^h, 1849; The Seaside and the Mresids, 
1850; The Golden Legend, 1851; Hiawatha, 1855; MiUs Standish, 1858; Tales cf a Way- 
side Inn, 18d8; trans, of Dante, 1867; Aftermath, 1873; The Hanging t^ the Crane, 1874; 
Pandora, 1875; Keramos, 1878, etc. In 1869 lie was mode D.C.L. of Oxford. 

Of the American poets, Longfellow is the most popular in England, and, at the same 

; time, he is the most national. If his countrymen have not a national epic, EvanaeUne 
or Hiawatha is as yet the nearest approach to it. Some of his shorter lyrics are almost 
perfect ip idea and expression. His poetry is deficient in force, but full of picturesque- 
aess; and a certain quaintness of fancy is one of its most delightful attributes. 

LONGFELLOW, Hbnrt Wadbworth {anie^ was the son of Stephen, an enuaeni 
lawyer of Portland, Me. While a student in Bowdoin coHege he wrote some of the best 
known of his earlierpoemsy among tbem the .^mnqfthe Moravian Nuns; the Spirit (f 
Po^ry; Woods in Winter, and Sunrise on the PaXts. Ha held his professorship at Har- 
vard 17 years, resigning in 1354, but continuing to reside at Cambridge, in the house 
occupied by Washington when the revolutionary army was encamped in that neighbor- 
hood. He spent the summer of 1842 at Boppard on the Rhine. In 1868-69 he revisited 
Europe, and was everywhere the recipient of high honors, especially in England, where 
his writings are exceedingly popular. Men of the highest literary and social distinction 
sougiit his acquaintance and were charmed by his dignified, kindly, and unassuming 
deportment. The general verdict upon his poetry is that, while it fails to represent the 
deepest passions of human nature, it ia always kindled by the broadest sympathies, aod 
marked by a delicate appreciation of all that is beautiful in nature and noble in human- 
ity. Keenly sensitive to the imperfections and misdoings of men, he is never censori- 
ous, but always gentle and persuasive, appealing to the sympathies and motives which 
are common to people of every race, country, and clime. He exhibits the fruits of a 
broad culture, not in strained allusions to things beyond the reach of common readers, 
but in the clearness and simplicity with which he interprets to them the noblest thoughts 
of the noblest men of every age and couatry. Among his latest works are Poems of 
Piaaes, selected from a great number of authors and filling 81 small volumes; and 
UlUma Thule, a volume of original poems. 

LONGFELLOW, Samuel, b. Portland, Me., 1819; brother of Heniy Wadsworth; 

fradttated at Harvard college in 1889, and at the divinity achool in 1846; from 1853 to 
860 was pastor of the Seeond Unitarian church in Bi^ooklyn, resigning in order to go to 
Europe. After his return to America he resided many years at Cambridge, Mass., 
preaching frequently in Unitarian pulpits, but for most of the time devoted chiefly to 
literary pursuits. In 1878 he became pastor of the Unitarian church in Germantown, 
Penn., where he remaina He belong to wliat is called the ''left wing " of the Unitarian 
denomination, the section holding views most variant from the evangelical. In 1847, in 
association with the rev. Samuel Johnson and the rev. Samuel Osgood, he compiled A 
Book of Hymns, Jocularly called the " Sam Book,'' but very highly esteemed both upon 
literary and religious grounds, and which waa afterwards revised and published with the 
title of Hymns of the Spirit, In 1859 he published a book of Hymns and Tunes for Con- 
gregational Use. He has written a number of hymns marked by devoutness of feeling 
as well as a cultivated literary taste, and some of his fugitive poen^ are very highly 
esteemed. His published sermons and essays are remarkable for elovation of tone, for 
clearness of insight, and purity of style. 

LOVO'FOBD, an inland co. of the province of Leinster, Ireland, lying between Leltrlm 
and Cavan on the n., Westmeath on the e. and s., and Boscommon on the w. ; 29 m. 
long from n. to s., and 32 m. from e. to west. Its area is 269,409 acres, of which 191,828 
are arable; population in 1871, 64,601. The surface is for the mpst^pur^^ii^^Mt and flat. 

vith tlie ezoeption of a slightly elevated central range, tbe greatest elevation of which ia 
only 912 feet. Many small fakes pervade the county, and Uie river Shannon, or its 
nursing lakes, connect Longford with the county and city of Limerick. Its navigation 
is also connected with Dublin by the Royal canal, which traverses the county to 
the town of Longford, and ternunates in the river Shannon at Clondra; and there 
are two branches of the Midland Great Western railway which pass through the 
county, from Mulliogar to Longford and Cavan. The south of the county forms 
part of the central limestone district of Lreland. The north is a continuation of the 
clay-slate which prevails in Cavan, the two districts being separated by a belt of yel- 
low sandstone and conglomerate, which projects from the east of Lieitrim. Deep 
beds of marl are found in many of the lK>ggy districts. Marble of good quality ih 
also found, and ironstone, with coal, shale, and lead, of good (quality, but not in 
remunerative quantity. The limestone district of the south is suited to tillage, and 
produces excellent wheat. The north is chiefly devoted to pasture. The number of 
seres under crop in 1876 was 72,86d. In the same year, tnere were 59,938 cattle, 
33,221 sheep, and 2£,d54 pigs. The chief towns are Longiord (q. v.), Granard, and Bally- 
mahon. Longford returns two members to parliament. The number of national 8choois> 
in 1871, was 182, attended by 7,305 pupUs; In 1875 there were 14,060 pupils<18,232 being 
Catholics). Longford anciently formed part of the kingdom of Meath, and as such was 
included in Henry II. 's grant to Hugh de Lacy. It was erected into a county in 1564, 
but in the rebellion of 1641 it was recovered for a brief period by the O'Farrells, and, on 
the suppression of this rising, almost the entire county was distributed as confiscated 
lands to a new zace of colonists. The antiquities are of much interest. The islands of 
Lough Bee are espeoially rich in monastic remains. 

LOV6F0BD, capital of the above county, 76 m. w.n.w. from Dublin try the Midland 
Western railway, on a small river called the Camlin. It is a well-built town. The 
Roman Catholic cathedral, recently erected, is a veiy spacioiis, and, indeed, a magnifi- 
cent building, of the Ionic order. Pop. '71, 4,375, of whom 8,473 were Roman Cath- 
olics, 645 Protestant Episcopalians, and the rest Protestants of other denominations. 
The chiet commerce of Longford is in the agricultural produce of the district. No 
mannfacture of any imnortance exists in the town. It is connected with Dublin and 
with Sligo by the Mioland Western railway, as also with the former by the Royal 

LON'GHI, GiusErPB, 1766-1831; b. at Monza, near Milan; studied at the school of 
engraving there, became professor in 1798^ and subsequently for several years the head 
of the institution. In 1801, by invitation of Bonanarte, he took part in the Cisalpine 
council at Lyons, going afterwards to Paris. His cnief works are the "Vision of £r«- 
kieU" after Raphael; Uie "Mstfdalen*' of Correggio; the ''Madonna del lago," after 
Leonardo da Vinci; and "GaUtea,'' after Albana He engraved many fine heads, 
among them those of Washington, Michael Angelo, and Napoleon. The plates known 
as the " Facti di Napoleons il Grande " are among his masterpieces. His latest biography 
was published by Baretta in 1837. Died at Milan. 

LOVeiCOBUXS, a family of tetramerous coleoptera, containing a vast number of spe- 
cies, among which are manv of the largest and most splendid beetlea They are remark- 
able for the length of their slender antennsB, which are often longer tlian the bodv. 
They ail feed on vegetable food, some on leaves, some on roots, and are mostly inhabit- 
ants of forests; the females depositing their eggs, by means of a long, strong, homv 
ovipositor, beneath the bark of trees, on the wood of which the larvse feed. The longi- 
comes abound chiefly in warm conntries, and particularly in South America; the number 
of British species, however, is considerable, but some of those so reckoned have probably 
been imported from foreign countries in the larva state, in timber, to which they often 
do great injury. 

LOVOI'WB, DioirrBius CASsrus, a Platonic philosopher and famous rhetorician, was 
b., according to some, at Emesa, in Syria, and according to others, at Athens, about 213 
A.D. In his earlier years, he traveled a great deal in the company of his parents, and 
made the acquaintance of many celebrated scholars and philosophers. He studied Greek 
literature at Alexandria, where he was for a considerable time the pupil of Ammonius 
and Origen, and subsequently settled as a teacher of rhetoric in Athens, where he soon 
acquired a ereat reputation. His knowledge was immense: he was called a *• living 
library" and a "walking museum," but his taste and critical acuteness were no less 
wonderful. He was probably the best critic of all antiquity. In an age when Platonism 
was giving place to the semi-oriental mysticism and dreams, of NeoplatonUm, Longinus 
stancu out conspicuous as a genuine disciple of the great master. Clear, calm, rational, 
yet loftjr, he despised the fantastic speculations of Plotinus, who consequently would 
not admit that Longinus was a philosopher, but — since he stooped to criticise the diction 
and style of Plato— pronounced him a mere philologist. In the latter years of his life, 
he accepted the invitation of Zenobia to undertake the education of her children at Pal- 
myra: but becoming also her prime political adviser, he was beheaded as a traitor, by 
command of the emperor Aurelian, 278 a.b. Longinus was a heathen, but a generous 
and tolerant heathen. Of his works, the onlv one extant (and even that one only in 
part) is a treatise. Peri Hypmntt (On the Sublime). There are many editions of Longi- 


»^T 160 

bus's treatise, of which those by Moru8 (Leip. 1760), Toupius (Ozf^ 1778, 2d ed. 1780, 8d 
ed. 1806), Weiske (Leip. 1809), and Egger (Paris, 183'3), are among the best. See also 
Buhnkeo's JHs^ertatio de Vita et Scripiia Longini, 

LOKQIPEir'NES, in Cuvier^s ornithological system, that section of the order ^M/mtp^Zn 
oharacterized by long wines and great power of flight. The wings are often very nar- 
row. They are all sea-birds, and many of them venture to a ^at distance from shore. 
Their hind-toe is small and free, or wanting. They cannot dive and pursue their prey 
under water, but they swim well, and their movements in the air are very CTaceful. 
Petrels, shearwaters, guiUfl, terns, noddies, skimmers, and albatrosses are examples. 

LOKGIBOS'TBES, a tribe of birds of the order gralla, having generally a long, slender, 
feeble bill, and inhabiting seashores And marshv places, where they seek worms and 
other food in the mud or ooze. To this tribe belong snipes, woodcocks, curlews, god- 
wits, saudpipere. etc. 

LOKG- I8LAKD4 an island which forms three counties of the state of New York, 
between lat. 40^ dSf to 4^ 6' n. and long. 72** to 74' ^ w., bounded n. by Long Island 
sound, «. and s. by the Atlantic oceaa, and w. by the bay and harbor of New York. 
It is 115 m: long, and 12 m. in average width, with an area of 1682 sq. miles. On 
its s. shore is a bay 100 m. loDg, and fiom 2 to 6 m. wide, separated from the ocean 
by a narrow beach of sand, with several inlets. On this sliore are several light- 
Louses, and 30 life-boat stations. A line of hills rnns along the northern portion of the 
island, but the center is a plain, sloping to the sea. Villages, watering-places, and fertile 
farms line the coasts, but the interior is mostly waste land and forest. The principal 
towns are Brooklyn (opposite New York), Flushing, Jamaica. The shores are lined 
with watering-places for summer resort. This island was onoe inhabited by 18 Indian 
tribes. Aug. 22, 1776, sir Henry Clinton landed on Long Island with 9,000 British troopf;, 
defeated gen. Putnafi^ And compelled Washington to evacuate the island. Pop. 70. 

LONG ISLAND {ante\ an island belonging to the state of New York, embracing the 
three counties of BTmgs, Queens, and Suffolk. It lies between 40° 34' and 41* 10' n. hit., 
and between 71^ 51' and 74° 4' w. longitude. It is bounded s. and e. by the Atlantic 
ocean, n. by Long Island sound, aad w. by the bay of New York and the East river. Its 
length is about 125 m., its average width 14 m. ; area, 927,900 acres; pop. '80, 744,022. 
The coast is indented with many bays and inlets, abounding with shell and other fish. 
One of these is Peoonic bay, 80 m. long, which divides the eastern end of the island into 
two parts or projections, the one on the n. side terminating at Oyster Pond point, that 
on the s. terminating at Montauk point, 20 m. farther east. On the s. side of the island 
is a bay nearly 100 m. long and from 2 to ^ m. broad, fomied by the Great South beach, 
sstrip of white sand from one-fourth of a mile to a mile in width, with occasional open- 
ings to the ocean. Near the western end of the island are Jamaica, Hempstead, Oyster, 
and Huntington bays. Shelter, Gardiner's, Fisher's and Plumb islands, in the adjacent 
waters, are attached politically to Long Island. The coasts, bordering as they do on 
the track of an immense ocean commerce, are furnished not only with a lacge nunibcT 
of lighthouses, but with life-saving stations, provided with every means of rendering aid 
to vessels in distress. The surface, though pi^esenting considerable variety, is marked 
by no great elevatMm. A ranse of hills extends, with frequent interruptions, from 
the northern boundary of New Utrecht in Che w. almost to tti^ eastern extremity of the 
island on then, side of Peconic bay. These hills are considerably nearer to the northern 
than to the southern viargia of the islaod. North of them the surface is uneven and 
rough, while on the s. it has a gradual inclination toward the sea, and is broken here 
and there by wide «aady plains producing only coarse grass and stunted Bhrubs. Some 
of these plains, by the application of manures, have of late years been brought under 
cultivation. A considerable portion of the Island is in forest, from which wild game 
has not yet been wholly exterminated. There arc numerous springs and small 
streams, and many ponds, some of them quite large, while swamps and marshes 
abound. The largest stream is the Peconic, which, after a course of 15 m., empties 
into the bay of the same name. It furnishes numerous mill scats. Of salt marsh the 
island is computed to contain more than 100 sq.m. With the exception of tlie sandy 
plains above mentioned the soil is for the most part fertile, in some sections peculiarly 
rich. Much of it is in a high state of cultivation, being devoted to the proa uction of 
vegetables for the Brooklyn and New York markets. This is especially true of the 
two westernmost counties. Kings and Queens. The climate, on account of the influence 
of the sea, is milder and more equable than the same latitude in the interior, the mer- 
cury seldom falling below zero or rising above 90*, the average temperature being 
about 51°. The highest elevations on the island are Hempstead Harbor hill at Roslyn, 
and West hill in Suffolk co., both which are 384 ft. above the sea. On the s. side, 
Coney island, Rockaway, Quogue, Babylon, Fire island, Southampton, Easthampton, 
and Montauk point are watering-places, several of which are much frequented in the 
hot season. Coney island especially, which is but a few miles from New York and 
Brooklyn, and easily accessible b}" boat or rail, has within a few years become a place 
of resort for vast multitudes of people, for whose aocottmoKlfltwnlim^ have 

161 ronflaiand. 

fe?en erected. The Long Island railroad passes through nearly the entire length of 
the island, from Hunter's Point at the western to Greenport near the eastern extremity, 
flid connects by branches with various places at a greater or less distance from its 
mm track; while there are numerous other and shorter roads, connecting many towns 
with Brooklyn and New York. Among these are the North Shore, Southern, Flushing 
aad Central, Flushing and North Side, Smithtown and Port Jefferson, New York and 
fiockaway, Newtown and Flushing, Bay Ridge, Hempstead ^nd Jerusalem, Brooklyn 
sod Jiimaica, Brooklyn and Coney Island, etc. Steamboats also ply regularly between 
Xew fork and the principal towns on the n. side. 

The principal cities and towns on the island are Brooklyn, Long Island City, Garden 
City. Flatbush, New Lots, Flushing, Hempstead, Jamaica, Oyster Bay, North Hemp- 
itfiid, Huntington, Brookhaven, Riverhead, Southampton, and Southold. Brooklyn, at 
tin extreme weslern extremity of the island, is the third city of the United States in 
povdlstioa. It is connected with different parts of New York by eight or ten ferries, 
aod will soon be connected therewith by a magnificent wire suspension bridge, crossing at 
fwh a heiglit Uiat only the largest vessels will have to lower their topmost-masts in pass- 
iag under it. Garden City was founded by the late Alexander T. Stewart, a wealthy mer- 
chant of New York, on land formerly known as Hempstead plains, which, since the lirst 
diicoTery of the island had been regarded as almost worthless. Mr. Stewart purchased a 
tract of 12,000 acres, on a portion of which Garden City has been built, while other 
portions have been brought under successful cultivation. The city is as yet in an 
iDch'«te state; though it contains many fine buildings and a considerable population. 
One of the objects of the founder was to furnish economical and healthful homes for 
families of small means, whose heads might be employed in New York. An immense 
and costly cathedral, for the uses of the Protestant Episcopal church, is nearly com- 

Long island when first discovered was the abode of 18 tribes of Indians, of which 
the only remnants are some 200 Shinnecooks, a mixed breed of Indians and negroes in 
Souliiampton, and a few families of Montauks. The island was inclnded in the grant 
made to the Plymouth colony by James I. in 1620. In 1625 the first settlement was 
taade by some French Protestants under Dutch protection. In 1686 the Dutch made 
^venl settiements at the western end, near New York, but the larger portion of the 
:«UDtl^ and especially its eastern section, was settled by colonists from Connecticut and 
a\\tT parts of New England. The island was called " Lange Islandt " by the Dutch; in 
1683 the English changed it by law to the ** island of Nassau" — a name, however, which 
BeTer came mto popular use. In 1636 Jaques Bontyn and Adrianse Bennet purchased 
i^the Indians 980 acres of land within the present boundaries of the city of Brooklyn. 
)Ir. fieooet erected here the first house ever built upon the island, and which was burned 
by tke Indums in 1648. In the troubles which preceded the revolution the people of 
Uog Island were intensely patriotic, but the reverses of the American arms which 
;>bu»d the island in the power of the British during the war made it impossible for 
idem to do much for the cause of independence. One of the earliest battles of the war 
T»as fought in Brooklyn, Aug. 26-*28, 1776, when the Americans occupying the defen- 
^TB uaoer gen. Putnam were overcome by a greatly superior British force and com- 
;^'lled to retreat in boats across the East river under cover of a thick fog. The patriotic 
Ktion of the InhalHtants, left thus under British control, endured many privations and 
Bot a little persecution during the whole period of the war. 

LONG ISLAND CITY, a citv in Queens co., N. Y., at the n.w. extremity of Long 
tUnd; formed from a portion of the town of Newto'wn, and incorporated in 1870; pop. 
'74 about 16.000. It extends 8 m. e. and w., and 5 m. n. and s., and has a water front 
of 10 m. along Newtown creek, which separates it from Brooklyn, and thence n. along 
East river to Bowery bay. It is divided into five wards and has 8 post-oflaces, viz. : 
A-^toria, Ravenswood, ana Long Island City. The s.w. portion is called Hunter's Point, 
tliij being the w. terminus of the Long Island, Flushing, and other railroads. The n. 
portion is the most elevated, and in Astoria and Ravens wood are many fine residences 
^sd beautiful drivea The streets and avenues are wide, and provision is made for three 
piblic parks. Hunter's Point is connected with New York city by 2 ferries, Astoria by 
^oe and by the Harlem boats. Several lines of horse-railroad connect the city with 
Bnjoklyn.' Hunter's Point as a great depot for the storage and shipment of petroleum. 
It coot&ins extensive lumber-yaras, several oil refineries, granite works, a marine rail 
^•ly, and manufactures of chemicals, cabinet-ware, hammers, boilers, refrigerators, 
*.eain engines, asbestos roofing, mattresses, etc. Astoria has manufactures of piano- 
I'rtes, carpeta, carriages, jewelry, etc. The city has 14 churches, a fine court-house, 
oceiient school-buildings, and 1 daily and 5 weekly newspapers. The courts of the 
<^oQQty of Queens are held here, though the various county ofilces remain ^t Jamaica. 
^ former capital. 

lOMB TSLAJTB WUlVi^, a body of water between Long Island and New York and 
^nnneclicut, 110 m. long, and from 2 to 20 m. wide, commencing narrow at New York 
Hty. which it sepamtes from Brooklyn, and where it is called East river, Knd opening 
a iU! eastern extremity into the Atlantic ocean, by a passage called " the Race.'^ It is 
c^Tigated by an immense number of coasting- vessels and steamers, and is strongly forti- Z 
U. K. IX.— 11 

lionc: Island. 1 AO 

Loiisntreet. -'•"-' 

fied at Tbrog^s point, near New York. It receives the Connecticut, Housatonic^ 
Thames, and Mystic rivers on its northern shore. 

LONG ISLAND SOUND {ante), an arm of the Atlantic ocean, lying between New 
York and Connecticut on the n. and Long Island on the s. ; about 110 m. in length and 
from 2 to 25 m. in breadth. Its depth is generally alK>ut 70 ft. , scarcely anywhere exceed- 
ing 120 ft. It is connected with the ocean on the e. by a passive called the Race, and on 
the w. by the East river, ^New York bay, and the Narrows, u has many harbors mod- 
eratelv good, and one or two excellent The Connecticut shore is rocky and reefs 
impede navigation for a distance from the land: the Long Island shore is less broken. 
The principalrivers flowing into the sound are the Housatonic, Connecticut, and Thames. 
The sound is the route of an extensive commerce between New York and the prindpai 
cities and towns of New England, and is navigated bymany lines of steamers and sailiDg 
vessels. The narrow and rock-bound strait called " Hell-^te," at the western extremity 
of the sound, has made tliis route practically unavailable hitherto for vessels approadhing 
New York from the ocean, but measures are in progress for widening the channel by 
the removal of the rocks, and, when this work is fully accomplished, a new and highly 
advantageous channel for ocean commerce will be opened. 

LOVOITIIDX. See Latttudb. 

LONG LAKE, one of the series of Adirondack lakes, situated in the ilc. part of 
Hamilton co. ; 18 m. in length, and about 8 m. wide. It is remarkable for the beauty of 
the surrounding scenery, having Buck mountain on the right and the Blueberry moun- 
tains on the left, as one enters oy way of the Haquette river. From this point a fine 
view is obtained of Mt. Seward, 4,848 ft. in height, from which the lake is distant 10 
miles. The lake itself is at an elevation 1575 ft. above the level of the sea. Its position 
and its length make it an important part of the interesting and extensive line of travel 
through successive lakes and streams in the Adirondack region. 

LONGLAND, Robert. See Lanolandb. 

LONGLEY, Charles Thomas, d.d., 1794-1868; b. in Westmeathshire, England; 
educated at Westminster school and Christ-church college, Oxford, where he ranked as 
first-class scholar in classics. After his graduation he continued some time at the uDi- 
versityas college tutor, censor, and public examiner. He became perpetual curate of 
Cowley in 1828; rector of West Tytherly, 1827; head-master of Harrow school, 1829; 
bishop of Ripon, 1886; of Durham, 1856; archbishop of York, 1860; and of Canterburv, 
1862. In this last position, as primate of all England, he continued until his death. 
The vear before he died he presided at the sessions of the Pan-Anglican synod, composed 
of all the bishops of the church of England and of the churches in communion with it. 
By some persons archbishop Longleyhas been described as deficient in firmness and 
other positive elements of character required especially in his most exalted position, 
which he held at a difficult time. In person he was amiable, dignified, courteous, and 
devout Before his death he referred to words which had been used b^ bishop Hooker, 
expressive of his sense of guilt and of his reliance on the blood of Christ to cleanse him 
from sin, as containing the faith in which he wished to die. 

LONGMAN, Thomas, 1690-1755; b. England; having served an apprenticeship to 
John Osborne, a bookseller of London, was taken into partnership by him in 1725, in 
Paternoster row, establishing a business which has since been continued by his succes- 
sors, on the same site under various firm names — now Longmans, Green, Reader, & 
Dyer. The style of the firm at one time was Mesars. Longman, Brown, Green, Hnrst, 
Recs, Orme & Longmans. In 1728 he was concerned in publishing, by subscription, 
the CyelopcBdia of Ephraim Chambers in 2 large folio volumes, a second edition appearing 
in less than 10 years, and 5 editions in 18 years. It is, with one exception (the Lexicon 
Techmcum of John Harris, 1706-10), the first English encvclopsedia or general dictionarv 
of the arts and sciences, subdivided under suitable heads and alpha&tically arranged. 
It subsequently formed the basis of Bees^s CydopcBdia, 4 vols., 1781-86. He was one of 
six booksellers who undertook in 1747 to publish a dictionary of the English language 
in 2 folio vols., and employed Samuel Johnson to perform the work for the sum of 1500 

fuineas. out of which he paid his assistants. The dictionary was issued complete in 
755, but has been so altered by editors as scarcely to be recognized, in its present guise, 
as Johnson's. 

LONGMAN, Thomas, 1781-97; b. England; nephew of Thpmas (1699-1755), was 
received into the publishing company of his uncle in 1754, and was the pioneer among 
exporters of books to America. In 1776 he began to publish a new edition of Chamber^^ 
GydojHxdia, completed in 1786, 4 vols, folio, edited by Abraham Rees, who became one 
of the firm, and with whom he was associated in publishing Bee9'» OydapoBdia^ 1802-19, 
in 45 vols. 

LONGMAN, Thomas Norton, 1770-1842; b. England; for 50 years the head of the 

gublishing firm of Longman & Co. of Paternoster row, London, son of Thomas (1731- 
7), and grandnephew of the original publisher of that name. In 1792 he became a 
partner with his father in publishing and selling books, adding greatly to the influencOj 
and efficiency of the house as long as his connection with it lasted; admitting various 
partners during his long career as business manager. In the early years of the 19th c. 

1 i!0 lAmg IafaMd« 

thej held the copyright of Lindley Murray's Englith Orammtvr, and brought out the finst 
efforts of Coleridge, Southey, Wordsworth, and others of the lake poets. Prior to 1811 
tbey were Thomas Moore's publishers, with the exception of his life of lord Byron. 
Bcott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, and some of the Waverl^ novels were published br them ; 
also the works of Macaulay, Herschel, etc. In 1826 they assisted in publishmg the 
Edinburgh Beview, and issued 188 vols, of Lardner's Cabinet Oydopadia, 1829-46. He 
left the business to his sons Thomas and William, under the style of Longmans, Green, 
Reader & Dyer, who have sustained the distinguished character of the firm. — William 
(d. 1877) was the author of The History of the Life and Times of Edward IIL; Lectures 
on the mstory of Engiand, f^om the Earliest Times to the Death of King Edwaj-d IL ; and 
in 1856 his Journal of Six Weekt^ Adtmnture in Smtaierland, Piedmont, and on the Italian 
Lakes, was printed for private circulation. William also wrote a number of articles on 
entomology, attaining some distinction in>that branch of study. 

' LONGOBARDS. See Lombakds and Lombabdy, ante, 

LONG PARLIAMENT, the name given to the parliament of England summoned by 
Charles I. for the purpose of granting him supplies wherewith to carry on his war 
against his rebellious subjects. It assembled Nov. 8, 1640, and remained in session 12 
years, 5 months, and 17 davs, when it was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell, April 20, 1658. 
This parliament impeached and executed the earl of Strafford, abolished the star cham- 
ber, and provided against its own dissolution except by its own consent. Finally it 
drove out of the house of commons those members who remained faithful to the king, 
dismissed the house of lords, and established a high court of justice, before which the 
king was brought to trial and sentenced to death, beine beheaaed on the scaffold Jan. 
30, 1649. When Cromwell expelled the remains of the long parliament, he set up 
another assembly, of nominated membera, but in the tumultuous state of public feeling, 
neither this nor any other of his parliamentary experiments worked satisfactorily. 

LONG8TREET, Augustus Baldwin, ll.d., 17W-1870; b. Aueusta, Ga.; gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1818; studied law at the celebrated school in Litchfiela, Conn., and was 
admitted to the bar in Richmond co., Ga., in 1816; began his legal practice in Greens 
borough, Ga., and soon rose to eminence in his profession. In 1821 he was a member 
of the legislature, and in 1822 made Judge of the court in the Ocmulgee circuit, but 
soon resigned his Judicial honors, continued the practice of the law at Augusta, and 
established there the Sentinel newspaper, which in 1888 was consolidated with the 
Chronicle. In 1888 he abandoned the legal profession to become a clergyman, united 
himself with the Methodist conference of Georgia, and was at once assigned to a pastorate 
in Augusta. In 1889 he was elected president of Emory college, Oxford, Ga., holding 
the position until 18^, when he was made president of Centenary college, La., but was 
soon afterwards transferred to the university of Mississippi at Oxford. He was a mem- 
ber of the, general conference held in the city of New York in 1844, and took a con- 
spicuous part in the debates upon the case of bishop Andrew (involving the Question of 
slavery), which ended in a rupture of the M. E. church into the northern and southern 
bodies. He was an active |>oIitician of the state rights democratic school, and a sup- 
porter of slavery. Among his writings may be mentioned Letters from Georgia to Massa- 
chusetts; Letters to Clergymen of the Northern Methodist Church; and J. Hetiew of the Decision 
of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Case of McCuUoch v. The State of Maryland. 
His literary writings were of a humorous character, and among these were Ueorgia 
Scenes and Master WUUam MUten, or the Youth of Brilliant Talents who was Ruined by 
Bad Luck, Died at Oxford, Miss. 

LONGSTREET, Jambs, b. 8. C, 1820; appointed to the military academy from Ala* 
bama, and aft^r his graduation in 1842 stationed at various points on the Texan 
frontier until the breaking out of the Mexican war, in which he served with distinction, 
and was brevetted successively captain and major for gallantry at Churubusco and 
Molino del Rey. After the war he continued to serve in Texas, becoming paymaster 
with the rank of major in 1858. On the outbreak of the rebellion he threw up his com- 
mission, and enter^ the confederate service. He corbiliftndcd the 4th brigade of 
Beauregard's Ist corps, participating in the first battTd' of Bull Run. Promoted to a 
mnjor-^reneralship in 1862, he distinguished himself in the campaigns under Lee against 
Pope. McClellan. Burnside, and Meade. Aft«r the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 18, 
1862, he was made a•]ieutenan^j^neral. He led the confederate right at Gettysburg, 
and being sent by Lee to the relief of Bragg, carried the day at Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 
20, 1862. In Nov. of the same year he drove Burnside into Knoxville, to which he laid 
siege; but he was compelled to withdraw after the federal victory at Chattanooga, and 
join Lee in Virginia. He took a distinguished part in the operations in the Wilderness, 
till severely wounded, May 6, 1864, but recovered in time to resume command of his 
corps during the siege of Petersburg. At the close of the war, whose results he was one 
of the first southerners to accept, he devoted himself to tlie development of the southern 
railroad system. Afterwards separating himself from the majority of his former associ- 
ates, he accepted office under a repiiblicaH administration, becoming in 1869 surveyor of 
tlie port of New Orleans. In 1875 he removed to Georgia, and in 1880 was sent to 
Turkey as U. B. minister. Digitized by VjUUV IC 

Loo^Choo. ^ ^* 

L0NG8TREET, William, 1760-1814; b. N. J. Removing to Georgia, he con- 
ceived, as soon as, or before Fulton, the idea of propelling boats by steam, and in 1790 
applied to the governor of Georgia for means to carry out bis plan. *^His application was 
refused, but some time afterwards lie succeeded in building a small boat, which went 
up the Savannah river at a speed of 5 m. an hour. He was also the inventor of tlie 
** breast-roller" improvement of the cotton-gin, working by horse^power. He built two 
of these to run by steam at Augusta, hut Ihey were burned, as were the steam mills 
\vhich he subsequently built at St. Mary's. 

LOVO'TOK, a t. of StaSordsliire, England, !u the district of the Potteries. Longton 
was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1865. It is about 2 m. s.e. from Stoke, on 
u small stream, which falls into tbe Trent, and is on the line of the North Staffordshire 
railway. Part of the town is known as Lane-end. TJie growth of the town has been 
rapid, and is entirely due to the manufacture* of china and earthenware, in which the 
inhabitants are chiefly employed. Pop. '61, 16,6IK); 71, 19,748. 

LONGUEVILLE, Annb GiNEVi&VE de Bourbok-Oond£, Duchesse de, 1619-79; b. 
in the donjon of Vincennes, where her father, Henry HI. of Bourbon, was a prisoner. 
Her mother was Charlotte de Montmorency, sister of the great Oonde. Before ariiving 
at w*omanhood her beauty and grace, and a singularly sympathetic attraction, made her 
dSbut at the court a social event. She was at once a pupil and a star in tiie choice 
society gathered around the marquise de Rambouillet. In 1642, at the age of 28, she 
became wife of the due de Lougueville, an old f^oue, who deserved and received no love 
from his young wife. She was strongly attached to Coligny, who was killed in a duel 
by the due de Guise. In 1646, her husband being ambassador at Munster, the duchess 
was already so renowned for her charms that her reception was like an ovation to a 
monarch; but she speedily tired of the vulgar show, and returned to the more elegant 
and refined circles of Pans. The due de Rochefoucauld, author of the Maximes, became 
her ardent admirer and favorite. Up to this time she had exhibited on\>' tli« power to 
charm the most eminent men by asingular blending of languor and sweetness of manner. 
The internal troubles of France generated a strong animosity between the French par- 
liament and cardinal Mazarln, regent of Louis XIV., and developed into a civil war, called 
the war of the Fronde, The duchess participated in the popular hatred of Mazarin and 
espoused the other side. From this time she appears in &role which exhibits energy, powers 
of intrigue, and ability of a high order. La Rochefoucauld's ascendency over her heart 
and her mind awakened her to political ambition. She became the soul and bond of 
alliance between the various friends of the parliament, and supported the acts of the 
citizens of Paris, who rose against Mazarin and by barricades forced his flight from the 
city. With the duchesse de^Bouillon installed in the Hotel de Vilk, she aided to keep 
Paris in the possession of the insurrectionists against the regent. During this time slie 
gave birth to a child, aileffed to be a son of La Rochefoucauld. She was an active party 
to the treaty of peace with Mazarin in 1649. Soon after, her husband was imprisoned 
in Vincennes, and she flew to Normandy to effect a rising of the people against Mazarin, 
but failed. She then sought safety for herself and fled to Holland, ana thence to the 
great general, Turenne, at Stenau, and soon acquired an ascendency over him which 
for a time made him untrue to his government, and in the end led to the submission of 
the duchess to Mazarin and her return to Paris. For a short time she returned to the 
literary and social frivolities of the Hotel Rambouillet; but her uncle Cond6 and prince 
Conti, her brother, having again broken with the Mazarin government, she Joined them 
at Bourges and Bordeaux, where the democratic character of the supporters of their 
cause was like bitter water to her taste. Her party fell apart; her brother Conti and La 
Rochefoucauld made their separate peace with the sovernmont; Cond6 fled to Spain ,- 
and the duchess returned to Paris, pardoned through the efforts of her )iusband in her 
behalf. She immediately after went into retirement from society and politics, but w^ns 
soon required by her husband to join him in Normandy, where he was governor. Seek- 
ing to avoid publicity, as she then was, Mazarin was still suspicions of her, and in a 
conversation with the Spanish ambassador, who plead the cause of her brother Conde, 
he said: " You Spaniards can talk at your ease; your women only trouble themselves 
with affairs of love; but in France it is quite another thing, for wc have three who are 
quite capable to govern or to overturn three kingdoms — the duchesse de Longueville. the 
princess Palatine, and the duchesse de Chevreuse.'* The death of her husband in 1668 
only induced her to greater seclusion, and, though she lived in Paris, her presence was 
only felt in her occasional mediation to ameliorate the condition of the Protestants, and 
to avert the hostility of the Catholic power towards them. Her son, bom in 1649. had 
opened a brilliant career, and had even been called to the throne of Poland, when she 
had news of his death in battle. June, 1672. She retired to the convent of the Car- 
melites, but continued the friend of Uie Jansenists; and when their persecution was 
renewed, it was under her roof that " the grand Arnoult" was successfully hid. For 25 
years after this, Mme. de Lonffueville lived in tranquillity, rendering as obscure as 
possible th^e beauty which never left her, and performing the gracious acts of kindness 
which her life, in the midst of the reliffieuaes, ^ve opportunity to do. M. Victor Cousin 
has written \he Memoire^ de Madame dfi LongueviUe, in 8 vols., with a care that gives it 
one of the highest places in French biography. ^^^.^.^^^ ^^ ^UU^IC 

*^*^ Loo-Choo. 

LON'GUS, a Greek sophist of the 4th or 5th c. of the Chriatian era. author of a 
novel, Daphnis and C/Uae, which was translated into English by G. Thorn Icj, London, 
1857, and of which an edition appeared in Leipsic as late as 1835. 

L0H6 VAGATIOV, a period of the y«ar in England when suits cannot be carried on. 
but arc for some purposes suspended — viz., from Aug. 10 to Oct. 24 at common law, and 
to Oct. 28 in chancery in every year. Hence it is called tlie lawyer's holiday. 

LONGVI£W, a t. in Greeg co., Texas, on the Sabine river, at the junction of the 
Texas and Pacific with the iDteraatioiia) and Great Noithern railroad; 66m. w. of 
Shreveport, La. Pop. 2,000. It has 4 churches, 1 bankiDg-house, and a number of 
schools, and is a shipping-point of some importance. Cotton is the staple product of 
the region, and there are in the immediate vicinity over 40 saw-mills. Incorporated as 
a village in 1871. 

■ LONGWORTH. Nicholas, 1782-1868; b. N. J.; removed to Cincinnati, where he 
was admitted to the bar, and practiced for a quarter of a ceotuiy, when he retired, 
devoting himself to vine culture, in which he had become interested as early as 1828. 
He suc^eded in producing excellent varieties of native wine. He had early invested 
largely in Cincinnati real estate; the rise in the value of which caused a large part of 
the great fortune, estimated at (15,000,000, which he left at his death. 

LONGWY, a t. in the n. of the department of Moselle, France, near the left bank 
of the Chiers, a tributaiy of the; on a railway 40 m. n.'w. of Metz, and a mile 
from the Belgian frontier; pop. 4,197. It consists of an upper and lower town. The 
former is on a hill, where anciently stood a strong castle, which was destroyed and 
replaced in the time of Louis XIV*. by a town. This is fortified, well built, has a town- 
hall, churches, a hospital, a military prison, and several deep wells which supply it with 
water. The lower town has manufactures of calico, delft-ware, porcelain, table-covers, 
lace, and leather. Longwy was founded in the 7th century. It has sustained many 
sieges. In 1792 it was taken by the Prussians under the duke of Brunswick; in 1815 
by the allies under the nrince of Hesse-Homburg, after a vigorous resistance. Longwy 
was called by Louis XI v. The Iron Qate of France, 

LOVI'OO, a t of the Italian states, in the province of Vicenza, situated in a valley 12 
m. B.W. of the city of that name. It is protected by three strong towers, the antiquity 
of which is attested by the inscription they bear. The inhabitants, 6,786 in number, 
are chiefly devoted to agriculture and commercial industry. 

LONN'ROT, Elias* b. Fmland, 1802; at first followed his father's trade of a 
tailor, and was for a time apprentice to a druggist, but subsequently studied medicine, 
receiving the degree of m.d. in 1832. He practiced for a time, but in 1858 became pro- 
fessor of Finnish at the university of Helsingfors. In 1836 he published a collection of 
the popular songs of East Finland, under the name of KaUtala, and in 1842 a collection 
of popular proverbs. 

LONOKIi, a CO. in e. central Arkansas, formed in 1870 from portions of Prairie and 
Pulaski counties, and bounded n. by Cypress bayou. It is traversed by the Bt. Louis, 
Iron Mountain and Southern, and the Memphis and Little Rock railroads. The soil is 
fertile; much of the surface is in forest. Pop. '80, 12,147. Capital, Lonok6. 

LOKS-LE-SAuMIEB. a t. of eastern France, in the department of the Jura, at the con- 
fluence of the Seille, Valli^re, and Solman, about 55 m. s.e. of Dijon. It is situated in 
a beautiful valley, surrounded by vine-clad hills, and was founded as long ago as the 
4th c, when its salt springs were discovered, from which 20,000 quintals of salt are 
yearly extracted. Pop. 76, 11,265. Rouget de Lisle, the composer of the MarseilUme, 
was bom here. 

LOO-CHOOy or Lin-TcHiu, the native name of a group of islands called by the Chi- 
nese Lieu-kieu, and by the Japanese Riu-kiu. These islands, about 90 in number, lie in 
the Pacific ocean, about 400 m. off the coast of China, lat. 24' to 29° n., long. 127° to 
129" east. The largest and most southern, called Great Lu-tcliu, or Okinawu, is about 
65 m. lon^ and 13 broad. Its shores have a beautiful appearance ; fields and forests are 
clothed with a living green, pine-woods crown the siiinmits of the hills, and gardens 
and cornfields adorn their slopes. In loveliness and variety of landscape, as in the care- 
ful attention paid to agriculture, especially in the southern part of Great Lu-tchu, which 
looks like one vast enchanting garden, few places anywhere could surpass these islands. 
The principal products of the group are rice, millet, sugar, cotton, tobacco, indigo, and 
tea; of less importance, bananas, pine-apples, oranges, peaches, and plums. Domestic 
animals are very numerous— ducks, geese, swine, goats, cattle, and horses. The chief 
minerals are iron, coal, and sulphur, probably also copper and tin. Sugar, and a liquor 
called saki, distilled from rice, are exported to Japan. The manufacturiog industry of 
the inhabitants is as great as the agricultural. They make paper, cloths, coarse linens, 
earthen and lacquered wares, bricks, tobacco-pipes, and baskets. 

The people are partly Japanese and partly an aboriginal tribe closely allied to the 
Japanese stock, although the literature and customs of the islanders are Chinese. The 
population was in 1872 estimated to amount to 166,789. Their religion is chiefly a mix- 
ture of the doctrines and practices of Confucius with those of ^uddl^^. vJ'^^H^f^lfP' 

liopes. ADO 

meot, as in China, appears to bo in the bands of an aristocracy of learned men, and the 
king is said to be related to the imperial family of Japan. The islands (with an area of 
2,d58 sq.m.) are tributanr to Japan. In 1861 a Christian mission was founded by Dr. 
Bettelheim, a German physician, who has introduced Taccination. 

LOOBIA'VA, a district of British India, one of the three districts mto which the 
division of Ainbala, or Umballa, in the Punjab is divided. It lies in the 77tli degree 
of e. long., extending in n. lat. from 80** 84' to 81* 3'; and. with an area of 1850 sq.m., 
it contained in 1868 a population of 588,245 souls— an average of nearly 438 persons to 
the sq. mile. 

LOOBIA'VA, the capital of a district of the same name in British India, takes its 
name from the Lodi tribe of Afghans, and is situated 1,102 in. n.w. of Calcutta, in lat 
80** 55' n., and long. 75* 54' east. It stands on a navigable nullah or stream, which joins 
the Sutlej from the e., about 16 m. below the town. Pop. '68, 89,988. mostly weavers.' 
The principal manufactures are cotton-cloth and Cashmere shawls, the latter, however, 
being inferior in quality to those made in Cashmere itself. Loodiana is a military sta- 
tion of some importance. Over the Sutlej a bridge was opened in Oct., 1870, to connect 
the Delhi and Lahore railways. 

LOOP, the after-part of a ship's bow, or that portion where the planks incurvate 
towards the cut- water. The guns mounted in this portion of the vessel are styled * ' loof 

L00KIVO-OLA8S. See Mirror. 

LOOK, the machine by which weaving is effected. The art of weaving is coeval 
. with civilization, therefore the loom may be reckoned amongst the earliest of man's 
inventions; yet notwithstanding its vast age very little improvement was effected in it 
until the invention of Dr. Cartwrigbt in 1787, who, without ever having seen a loom in 
his life before, constructed one to work by machine-power. In its simplest form, the 
loom is worked bv hand, and notwithstanding the wonderful improvements which 
have l)ecn effected in the power-loom since its invention, there are still many fabrics 
manufactured by hand-looms in this and other countries. 

In India, which most probably is the native country of the loom, and wliere silks of 
almost unrivaled beauty are made, the natives continue to use this machine in its most 
primitive form ; two trees growing near together form their standing frame, and a few 
pieces of bamboo, together with some pieces of string, furnish all they want besides. 

As the use of the loom will be fully explained in the article Wbavino, the construe 
tion only will be given here; but it is necessary, in order to make this clear, to explain 
the principle of weaving, in order to show the work the loom has to do. In its simplest 
sense, weaving consists in passing one set of threads traverseiy through another set, 
divided into two series, working alternately up and down, so as to receive the trans 
verse threads in passing, and interlock them, forming thereby a united surface out of 
the threads. The loom is made to assist the weaver in this operation, and is of no other 
use than to hold the working parts in their proper position. The native of India sup- 
plies this usually by selecting, as before stated, two near-growing tree-stems, usually 
palms, in consequence of their straightness; these, with four stakes to support his warp, 
and two or three pegs to fix his heald-ropes, complete his arrangements. 

At each end of the frame, two rollers are placed, so that they will readily turn on 
their axes; and from one to the other, the threads of the warp are attached, and kept 
tight by weights. The warp-threads are wound round one roller, which is called the 
beam or yarn-roU, only as much of each thread being left unwound as will reach to the 
other roller, which is the eloth-beam, to which the enos are fastened, and upon which the 
cloth is wound as it is woven. 

The next step is to divide the warp-thread into two equal sets by raising up every 
alternate one, and inserting between them a smooth rod of wood, to prevent them 
entangling or returning to their former position. This separation takes place before the 
final fixing of the ends of the threads to the eloth-beam, because, previous to that, each 
thread must be passed through a small loop in a perpendicular thread called the heald, 
which hangs down from a rod. There are always two sets of healds in the simplest 
form of loom, often many more; and m the case of plain weaving, the threads of the warp 
are divided alternately by the loops of each heald, so that if one heald is raised, it lifts 
every alternate thread of the warp, and if the other is depressed, it pulls down the 
opposite set of threads; the united action of the two healds opens a space between the 
two sets of warp-threads. This space is called the shed, and through it is thrown the 
shuttle which carries the thread of the weft; when the weft has passed through, the 
• healds are reversed, and the lower warp-threads now become the upper ones. The 
threads, after each intersection, are driven up tight by the reed, which is a narrow frame 
with transverse wires set sufficiently far apart for a single thread of warp to pass 
through each ; it hani^ to the frame called the batten. The movement of the batten is 
produced by the hand of the weaver, whilst that of the healds is readily effected by the 

Many improvements have been made in this the simplest form of loom, but the chief 
has been in replacing the weaver'? hand in the necessary op^p,^^ <CftTOf5?? ^^® ^^"* 


tie by a mechanical arrangement. Without this, the po^eer-loam would not have suc- 
ceeded. The shuttle is usually made of box or some other hard wood, and the blunt 
points are covered with iron. Formerly, when used entirely by the hand, it was made 
mach lighter and smaller than at present. Those now in use are about a foot in length, 
and rather more than an inch square in the middle. The middle part is hollowed out 
into a small box, open on the upper side. In this box the bobbin, on which the yam 
or thread is wound, is placed, with its two ends on pivots, admitting of its being turned 
by the slightest strain on the yarn; the end of the yarn passes through a hole in the side 
of the shuttle, and as it is thrown backwards and forwards, the thread unwinds from the 
inclosed bobbin, and easily runs througli the hole. 

Id the improved looms for power, and even in those still worked by hand, in special 
cases the arrangement for projecting the shuttle backward and forward is very simple. 
On each «de of the loom, exactly in a line with the nAed, is a groove of about 18 in., in 
which the shuttle lies free; and there is a very simple arrangement by which a piece of 
leather and a strap are made to act like a sling on each side; and the grooves or shuttU- 
mee$, as they are called, guide the movement with such precision that the shuttle is 
sent flying tkrough the shed from side to side with unerring exactness. Great simplicity 
and compactness has now been attained in the power-loom, three of which can stand in 
the space occupied by one of the cumbrous machines formerly in use. There are few 
machines in use which liave had more mechanical ingenuity displayed in their improve- 
ment than the loom; but as it is not the object of this article to do more than give the gen- 
eral principles upon which the machine works, the reader is referred for fuller informa- 
tion to the thick volume of the Abstraei ofFaUnU for weaving published by the patent 

LOOMI8, EiiiAs, LL.D., b. in Connecticut in 1811, educated at Tale college, graduat- 
ing in 1830; was tutor there for three years, 1888-86; hpentthe next year in scientific 
investigation in Paris, where he made a careful study of astronomy, mcteorologjr, and 
higher mathematics; on his return was appointed professor of natural philosophy in the 
Western Reserve college, Ohio; from 186 to 1800 held similar positions in Columbia 
college and the University of T^ew York, and in the latter year returned to New Haven, 
where he has since resided, holding the professorship of natural philosophy formerly 
occupied by prof. Olmsted, in Tale, and pursuing his investigations in scientific and 
mathematical branches. He has published — besides many papers in the American Jour- 
nal cf Science, memoirs of his researches, in the Transactiom of the American PhUoio- 
phiaU Society, and other miscellaneous writings— a very complete set of text-books on 
mathematics, including treatises on arithmetic, algebra, elements of geometry and conic 
sections, analytical geometry and calculus, plane and spherical trigonometry, and tables 
of logarithms; also, a treatise on astronomy and one on meteorology. All of these are 
in constant use in schools and colleges throughout the country, and. are marked by the 
accuracy and precision which are characteristic of the author personally. He has also 
published a book of family genealogy, The Defendants of Joseph Loomie (1870). Both 
as an instructor and writer, prof. Loomis is remarkable for his clearness and directness 
in expression, and his contributions to the cause of education have not been confined to 
formulating truths already known, as he has made many important scientific discoveries 
and advanced many new theories. 

LOOMIS, GuBTAVUS, 178»-1873; b. at Thetford, Vt.; graduated from the U. 8. mili- 
tary academy in 1811; entered the army as 2d lieut. of artillerists, and, after doing 
garrison duty in the harbor of New York for two years, was ordered to the Niagara 
frontier; assisted in the capture of fort Dodge, May 27, 1818. and was made prisoner at 
f«rt Niagara in the following Dec. After the war with Qreat Britain he served in vari- 
ous capacities in different par^s of the country, especially in Texas and Florida, and on 
the western frontier against hostile Indians; was made col. of the 5th infantry in 1851; 
duiing the first years of the rebellion he was employed in court-martial and recruiting 
duty and as a mustering officer; retired from active service in 1868; made brig. gen. by 
brevet in 1865. Died at Stratford, Conn. 

LOOK. See Diybr. 

LOOPHOLES, in fortification, are small apertures in the walls, through which sharp- 
shooters may fire. The loophole should widen towards the outside, that the shooter 
may have a sweep with his rifle; and it is of importance, on that account, so to fashion 
the sides that a bullet may not penetrate, unless fired straight into the center. For this 
purpose, the stones are generally laid stepwise, although other forms are frequently 
resorted to. 

LOFE DS YE0A. See Vega. 

LO'PES, or LOPEZ, FernIo, b. Portugal about 1880; the oldest of the Portuguese 
chroniclers; was appointed chief archivist of the kingdom by Dom Joao I., and devoted 
his life to the collection of materials for the history of his country. He wrote a work, 
Chronica del Bey Dom Joao /., describing the great struggle between Portugal and 
Castile towards the close of the 14th c, which, as a picture of manners, has been com- 
pared with that of Proissart for accurate and dramntic rcalitv. His other works are 
Chronica do Senhor Bti Dom Pedro /.;• Chronica do Senhor bd Dom Fernando^ both 

printed in vol. iv. of the CoUec^a/> de Livros Meditos de ITistaria Portiigueea. These 
works are regarded by eminent scholars as of great literary and critical value. 

LO'PEZ, Cari«os Antonio, 1790-1862; b. Paraguay. After studying civil and canon 
law at the ecclesiastical seminary in Assuncion, he lived for a number of years in seclu- 
sion to avoid the hostility of Dr. Fraucia, then dictator of Paraguay. Upon Francia's 
death in 1840 he returned to the capital, and acted as secretary to the military Junta 
which had become the de facto government of Paraguay. In 1841 he was elected consul, 
with a colleague; from 18 i4 till his death he held the office of president, to which the 
congress had elected him for a term of ten years from 1844, of three years from 1854, 
and of seven years from 1857, with power in the latter case to name his successor by will. 
During his administration he began the orgsinization of an army and navy, opened 
Paraguay to foreign emigration and commerce, made commercial treaties with foreign 
powers, built a nulroad, and sent many Paraguayans to Europe to be educated. Ills 
arbitrariness and hostility to foreigners gave rise to many diplomatic difficulties between 
Paraguay and foreign states; and England, France, the United States, and Brazil came 
very near declaring war aj^nst him. But his administration, on the whole, was a 
penod of internal tranquillity and material prosperity to Paraguay, and at his death he 
was able to bequeath his power to his son, Francisco Solano Lopez. 

LO'PEZ, Francisco Solano, 1827-70; b. Paraguay; educated abroad, and in 184$ 
appointed commander-in-chief of the Paraguayan army. In 1854 he was sent to Europe- 
on a diplomatic mission, and negotiated treaties with England, France, and Sardinia. 
In Europe he made the acquaintance of a Mrs. Lynch, the Irish wife of a French officer. 
Lopez took her to Paraguay with him, and made her his mistress. She was a woman 
of considerable talent and force of character, and exercised a great influence over Lopez, 
He at once took the office of minister of war, and began to prepare secretly for a forcible 
annexation to Paraguay of parts of Brazil, the Ar\,iiti!ie Republic, and Bolivia. In 
1862 he succeeded his father in the presidency, and in 1864, under the pretense of pro- 
tecting the " equilibrium'* of the Plat^ river, he called on Brazil to withdraw her troops 
from Uruguay, where a civil war was in progress, in which Brazil had intervened. 
Upon the refusal of Brazil, he took possession of the Brazilian province of Matto Orosso. 
In 1865 he invaded the Brazilian province of Hio Grande do Sul, sending 8,000 troops 
through the territory of the Argentine Bepublic for that purpose, and, upon that gov> 
ernment protesting, he declared war against it. Congress now conferred upon him 
extraordinary powers, and he invaded the Argentine Republic before the declaration of 
war had reached Buenos Ayres. Brazil, Uruguay, and the Arcentine Republic entered 
into an alliance against him. and in 1866 invaded Paraguay. The war continued four 
years. Lopez reci*uiting his forces by a conscription of all persons between the ages of 12 
and 70. In 1868 the Brazilian fleet bombarded Assuncion, and the same year Lopez 
arrested and put to the tortiu-e many of the civil officers of the government and the 
foreign diplomatic corps on a charge of conspirac3^ A number were executed, and the 
lives of some of the members of the American mission were saved only by the tiniely 
arrival of an American squadron. Finally, Mar. 1, 1870, Lopez, who had gradually been 
driven into the n. of Paraguajr, was overtaken by the Brazilian cavalry at the Ajjuidaban 
river, and, while trying to swim across, was killed. His last words were, " I die for my 
country." His eldest son was also killed: his mistress, Mrs. Lynch, was spared, and 
returned to England. The remnant of his forces immediately surrendered. 

LO'PEZ, Narciso, 179^1851 ; b. Venezuela. After serving in the Spanish army, 
in which he attained the rank of col., he removed to Cuba upon the evacuation of 
Venezuela by the Spanish troops, and became a liberal leader. He was in Spain dur- 
ing the first"^ Carlist insurrection ; and sided with the royalists, receiving office from the 
crown. In 1849 he came to this country to organize an expedition against Cuba, where 
he landed in 1851, but was soon taken prisoner and put to death. 

LOPHIADJE. See Angler. 

LOPHI'ODON, an extinct ^enus of ungulate mammals, belonging to the family 
iapiridce, of which the genus tapirwi is the only surviving member. Their remains are 
found in the eocene tertiary formation of central Europe. Some 15 sjp^cies of lopbiodon 
are known. They much resembled the tapirs, but possessed distinctive dental charac- 

o o 1 1 Q g o g 

teristics, the formula being: i. , 5 — 5; e. , - — r ; ptn., - — - ; m., 5 — - = 40, — ^the tapir having 

o — o 1 — 1 o — o 6 — o 

i., 5 — s; C-, i — t; P^., 5 — 5; wi., - — ~ = 42, or two more molars than in lopbiodon. The 

o — o 1—1 o — o o — o 

limbs of the animal are still unknown. The genus has not been satisfactorily identi- 
fled in America, but the species, which abounded in Europe durine the eocene, varied in 
size from that of a rabbit to a rhinoceros. Other genera of tapiridae are hyracotiieriu'm, 
pachynolophus, plioU)phus^ tophiotherium, and pvopaUeotJiertum, found in European 
eocene. In North America the nearest allies of lopbiodon are hdates and ?iyraMiu8. 
The latter genus has four premolars in the upper jaw, resembling the true tapirs. The 
premolars resemble those of lopbiodon in being less complex tlian the molars. In the 
North American miocene the tapiridae belong to the genus tapiratus. See Pebisso- 


Digitized by VjOUV IC 



IQFROBXAH'CHn, an order of osseous fishes, having the ultimate divieions of the 
pills DOtpeciiuated, but arranged in small tufts in pairs along the branchial arches. 
foere is ootluDg like tliis in any other fishes. The fishes of this order are few, mostly 
of small size, angular form, and peculiar aspect. See Hippocampus and Pipe-Fish. 
The gill-coYer is large, and the gill-opening is a small hole. The snout is elongated 
lod Tubular. 

lOQVAT, Ehrioboifya Japanica, an esteemed Chinese and Japanese fruit, of the 
oatuml order nmtcemy sub-order ro$emy and of a genus closely allied to fna«pt2t^« (Medlar). 
Iikij been introduced into Australia, and is now abundant there, and is sold in large 
t|D&Dtiti€s, and at a cheap rate, in the markets of Sydney and other towns. The tree or 
shrub which produces it attains a height of 20 or ^ ft, but in cultivation is seldom 
allowed to exceed 12 feet It is a beautiful evergreen, with large oblong wrinkled 
laTes, and white flowers in terminal woolly panicles, having a fragrance like that of 
bawihorublossom ; the fruit is downy, oval, or pear-shaped, yellow, and about the size 
of a large goosebeiTy. The seeds have an agreeable flavor, which they impart to tarts. 
Tbe loquat lives in the open air in the s. of £ngland, and produces fruit; but a 
varmer climate is required for fruit of flne quality. It is not unfrequent in hot-houses. 
It my be grafted on any species of mefpUtis, — Tlie species of eriobotrya are all ever- 
^D. The CuiLA {K iliiptica) is a native of Nepaul, and produces an eatable fruit 

LORAIN', a n. co. of Ohio, bounded n. by lake Erie ; traversed by the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern, the Lake Shore and Tuscarawas Valley, the Cleveland and Toledo^ 
iQd the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroads; pop. 80,808. It has a fertile 
iml and the chief productions are live stock, grain, fruit wool, hay, butter, and cheese. 
There are manufactures of cheese, lumber, clothing, carriages, furniture, harness^ 
meiallic ware, etc. Capital, Elyria. 

LOXAITTHA'CEX. See Mibtletob. 

lOKCA (ancient Eiiocroca), a t. of Spain, province of Murcia, 40 m. B.w. of the cit^ 
cf ihai Dune, on the right bank of the Sangonera, is picturesquely situated on an emi> 
LCDce crowned by a fortified castle commanding a magnificent view. Next to Murcia, 
Lorca, is the most flourishing town in the province, possessing substantial houses. B 
ciiurches, 9 monasteries, many oil and flour mills, saltpeter and powder works, lead- 
mices, and manufactures of cotton, etc. Pop. 81,000. 

LOSD (Saxon hlaford, from Maf, loaf, and ord, r. beginning or cause— i.e., the origi- 
nator or supplier of food), a title given in Great Britain to persons noble by birth or by 
ereatioD. Peers of the realm are so styled, including such archbishops or bishops as 
ire members of the house of lords, who are lords spiritual. By coui*tesy, the title lord 
is giFeo to the eldest sons of dukes, marquises, and earls, prefixed to an inferior title of 
the peerage, and to the younger sons of dukes and marquises, prefixed to their Christian 
isame and surname. The following persons bear the title lord in virtue of their employ- 
T^ents: the lord-lieutenant of Ireland and lords-lieutenant of counties (see Lebtjtknakt, 
LobdX the lord chancellor (see Chakcei^lor), lord privy seal (see Privy Sbal), lords 
of the treasury (see Treasury) and of the admiralty (see Admiral), the lord high 
Kimiral, lord great chamberlain, and lord chamberlain (see Chamberlain, Lord), lord 
hieh constable (see Conotable), lord high almoner (see Almoner), lord high stew- 
ard (see Steward), lord steward of the household, lords in waiting, lords of the bed- 
chamber (see Bedchamber, Lords of the), lords justices (see Justices, Lords), the 
lord chief baron of exchequer (q.v.), the lord chief justice (see Justice, Lord Chief), 
^e lord lyon (see Lyon Kino at Arms), the lord mayor of London, York, and Dublin 
jee >Iayor8), and the lords provost of Edinburgh and Glasgow (see Provost). The 
-rjmmiitee of the Scottish parliament by whom the laws to be proposed were prepared, 
yere called lords of the articles. The favored beneficiaries, who, after the Scottish i 
nrfomiation, obtained in temporal lordship the benefices formerlv held by bishops and 
abbots, were called lords of erection. Persons to whom rights of regality were granted 
:a Scotland (ace Regality), were termed lords of regality. The representative of the 
-Tereign in the general assembly of the church of Scotland (see Assembly, General) 
* called the lord high commissioner. The judges of the courts of session and lusticiary 
a Scotland hare the title "lord" preflxed to their surname or some territorial designa- 
;:oo assumed by them; and throughout the three kingdoms, judges are addressed " my 
^'C*rd " when presiding in court. 

LORD, Elsazar, ll.d.. 1788-1871; b. Franklin, Conn., and educated at Andover, 
Miss.; removed in 1809 to New York, where in 1812 he entered the ministry of the 
Presbyterian church. He was among the founders of the American education society 
-*■•? assisting poor young men in their preparations for the Christian ministry, the New 
Tork Sunday-school union, and various other benevolent associations; was correspond- 
2? secretary of the New York Sunday-school union 1818-26, and president 1826-86. In 
iMShe left the ministry to engage in banking; founded the Manhattan insurance com- 
"inv, and served as its president 1831-84; was the first president of the Erie railroad 
pnmpany; removed in 1836 to Piermont, N. Y. ; was a prominent friend of the New 
T^JTk univereitv, and assisted in founding thooloeical seminaries at East Windsor, Conn., 
«»i Auburn, if. Y. His principal works are Pktieiples of Currency; Geology and Scrip- 

Digitized by VjOUV iC 

*ttr/iZ Cosmogony; and an edition of Lemprierc's Bioffraphieal Diethnary, with nmneroiiB 
additions. Died at Piermont. 

LORD, John, ll.d., b. at Portsmontli, N. H., 1810; graduated at Dartmouth college 
in 1833; was for some time an agent of the American peace society, and subsequently a 
preacher in New Marlboro*, Mass., and Utica, N. Y. A few years later be left the pul- 
pit to devote himself to historical research and popular lecturing. Beginning his new 
career in England and Scotland, he returned to the United States in 1846, since which 
time he has been engaged with great success in lecturing upon historical subjects in the 
principal cities and towns of this country. Destitute of the special gifts and graces of 
an orator, he yet crowds his lectures with information and delivers them in a manner so 
peculiar as to command the unflagging interest of his audiences. 

LORD, Nathan, d.d., ll.d., 1793-1870; b. in South Berwick, Me.; graduated at 
Bowdoin college 1809, and at Andover theological seminary 1815; was pastor of a Con- 
gregational church at Amherst, N. H., 1816-28, and president of Dartmouth college, 
1828-63. After the formation of the American antislavery society in 1838 he was for a 
time an abolitionist and even elected as an officer of that societv, but later changed 
his position, avowing his belief that "slavery is an institution of God according to nat- 
ural religion," and ** a positive institution of revealed religion." Although his opinions 
on this subject were very distasteful to the friends of me college in general, yet, on 
account of his many estimable personal qualities, be was for a long time undisturbed in 
his place at the head of the institution. Died at Hanover, N. H. 


LOBD OF THE HAVOB, the owner of a manor having copyhold tenants. See 

LOBD OBDIKABY. See Court of Session. 

LOBD*S DAY, in point of law, has been made the subject of several statutes. The 
chief statute in England is the Lord's-day act, 29 Ch. II. c. 7, which enacted that no 
tradesman, artificer, workman, or laborer should exercise the worldly labor, business, or 
work of his ordinary calling upon the Lord's day (works of necessity and charity only 
excepted^, nor any person should publicly cry. or expose to sale, wares, fruits, herbs, etc.; 
but nothing in the act was to extend to prohibiting the dressing of meat in families or 
inns, cook-shops, or victualing-houses, nor the selling of milk within certain hours. To 
these exceptions, selling mackerel and baking bread were added subsequently. These 
statutes have been construed strictly by the courts on the ground that they restrain the 
liberty of the subject, for, without a statute, ordinary work would be as competent on 
the Sunday as on any other day. Hence, unless a case comes within the jstrict letter of 
the statute, there is no disability. Thus, a horse may be sold on Sunday by one who is 
not a horse-dealer, for then it is not part of the seller's ordinary oedling. 8o a fanner 
may hire a servant on that day; Indeed, the statute does not apply to farmers, attorneys, 
surgeons, and those not incluaed in the above statutory description, and therefore those 

Sarties can do their work on Sunday as on other days. Irrespective of any statute, it 
as been the immemorial course of practice in courts of law not to do legal business on 
Sunday, and not to recognize the service of writs, warrants, etc., of a civil nature, if 
made on Sunday. Thus, no debtor can be arrested for debt on Sunday, and hence be 
may walk at large that day. free from molestation of bailifts. But if any crime has been 
committed, the party can be arrested on Sunday as well as other days. There is a special 
provision by statute as to ale-houses, beer-houses, and refreshment-houses being open on 
Sundays, the general effect of which is only to close these places during church hours. 
If any game is pursued on Sunday, whether by poachers or not, a penalty is incurred. 
There is also a statute of 1 Ch. I. prohibiting sports or pastimes of certain descriptions. 
(Except as above-mentioned, there is no difference made as to the validity of acts done 
on Sunday, though it is an erroneous popular impression that deeds or wills, bills of 
exchange, etc., dated or executed on Sunday are invalid. 

In Scotland, the law varies in some respects from that of England on this matter. 
There also contracts made on Sunday are not null at common law, but numerous stat- 
utes have passed prohibiting contracts, whether made in the course of one's ordinary 
business or not, and whether made by workmen, artificers, etc., or not. But there is an 
«xception of works of necessity and mercy. It is, however, doubtful how far these old 
statutes are in desuetude or not, and judges have said that they only apply to public, not 
private acts done on Sunday. In Scotland, the rule is acted on that the enforcement 
of decrees and warrants, poindings, and other process or diligenc>e in civil matters, are 
void ; but it is otherwise in criminal matters. It is sinffular that there is no distinct pen- 
alty imposed in Scotland, as there is in England and Ireland, by the eame acts, on per- 
sons sporting on Sunday. But Scotland outstrips England and Ireland in the strin- 
gency with which public- houses are prohibited from being open on that day. See Pubijc- 


LORD'S DAY, The {ant4i\ the first day of the week, on which Christ rose from the 
dead; synonymous in popular speech with Sunday or Sabbath. This name is generally 
used in the English and American statutes intended to secure the civil observance of 
the day. English legislation on this subject may be traced as far back as 1449, but it 

Digitized by VjrOU* V IC 

i • A Ixird's. 

nsMt until 1678 that the law was passed which may be regarded as the foundation 
ted model of all subsequent enactments of its class iu Great Britain and the United 
Sates. Bj this law it was enacted *' that no tradesman, artificer, workman, laborer, or 
sckf person whatsoever, shall do or exercise any worldly labor, business, or work of 
ibea onllnary callings upon the Lord's day or any part thereof (works of necessity and 
fiurity only except^);" and ** that no person or persons whatsoever shall publicly cry, 
si(m forth, or exi>o6e to sale, any wares, merchandise, fruits, herbs, goods, or chattels 
wbatsxver, upon the Lord's day or any pari thereof." In the American colonial days 
;i» state assumed jurisdiction of religious as well as civil affairs; hence much of the 
Suodaj legislation of that period has either been repealed or become dead from disuse. 
Ills now generally conceded that with the Lord's oay, regarded simply in its religious 
aspects, the state has no concern. It cannot require a citizen either to attend public 
Torsbip or to observe any religious ceremony on that day. But it is held that the day 
is iodi^nsable, needed by the community, upon purely secular grounds, and must, 
therefore, be maintained bv government. A day of rest from ordinary labors and cares, 
r€cuirin«^ not less frequently than once in each week, is held to be requisite to the gen- 
m\ welfare of body, mind, and estate; therefore, it is insisted that the government has 
the right and the duty to designate such a day and to enforce its observance. Moreover, 
cbose who observe the da}' upon religious grounds, making it a day of public as well as 
prirate devotion, are, it is conceded, entitled to protection from the noise and disturb- 
mit which would result from the general pursuit of business on that as on other days 
ofibe week. The laws upon this subject in the different states of the union, though 
letliig substantially upon common ground, differ in details, and the decisions of courts 
BpoD qaestions that have arisen under them are in some respects conflicting. The whole 
abject has been greatly complicated of late years by the introduction into the country 
of large bodies of immigrants from continental Europe, whose habits in respect of Sun- 
4t observance are much less rigid than those of the great body of our native popula- 
lio'o. It is probable that, on this account, the laws upon the subject may undergo some 
further modifications, but there is no reason to fear that the state will cease to maintain 
ue iDstitution of tiie Loi*d'8 day as a day of rest from business cares, or to protect from 
(bturbance those who hold it sacred on the highest grounds of morality and religion, 
r&enunifest tendency to increase greatly the lacilitiesof travel by railroad and steam- 
boat on the Lord's day is causing alarm of late, and awakening earnest protest. It is 
(dir-religion aaidc-^that this country cannot afford, either morally, physiologically, or 
pecanlarily, to los» its one day of peace. Though the protest against the degrndation 
of the day bases itself thus on secular considerations, and finds immense strength in 
these, it will probably be found that the real force of all successful efforts for the main- 
kasace of the day, on even civil grounds, must spring ultimately from a religious — a 
distinctively Christian — ^source. 

LOBBS, HOirn OF. See Parliament. 

L0BD'8-8UP|*J£B, The, is one of the sacraments of the Christian religion (sec Sacra- 
VEST). It is so called from its being instituted at supper by Jesus Cnrist, whom his 
disciples styled the Lord or Master. It receives also the names of eucharist and com- 
Eaaion (q.v.). With the exception of the Quakers, all sects of Christians, however 
difeient their views as to its nature, afljee in celebrating it as one of the most sacred 
ntt« of religion. The present article is written from the point of view of those who 
tdfflit more or less the idea of a historical development of the doctrines connected with 
tbcLord's-supper; the views of Roman Catholics, who hold that the doctrines of their 
aarch on the subject were delivered by our Lord and his apostles, and have from the 
im centuries been taught in substance in the church, will be found under other heads. 


The circumstances of sorrow amid which it was instituted, and its intimate relation 
to the crowning work of Jesus, his death, had, at the very outset, made a deep impres- 
%o upon the early church. Not only was the solemnity, in conformity with its 
origiiul institution, repeated daily in conjunction with the so-called Agapa (q. v.) (love- 
feiks), and retained as a separate rite when these feasts were set aside; but from the 
^ first it was believed to possess a peculiar efficacy, and soon ideas of the wonderful 
pi mystical became associated with it. The Lord's-supper was celebrated on every 
important occasion of life — when entering on marriage, when commemorating departed 
friends and martyrs, etc. ; to those that could not be present at the meeting of the con- 
iregation, such as prisoners, sick persons, and children, the indispensable food of heaven 
ns carried by the deacons, and in some churches — tliose of Africa, for instance — the 
^municants took part of the materials of the feast home with them, that they might 
welcome the gift of a new day with consecrated food. Heathens also and unwortliy 
IKsons were excluded from this holy mystery. As early as the 2d c, Ignatius, Justin 
Strtrr. and Ireneeus advance the opinion that the mere bread and wine became, in the 
^harist, sonaething higher — the earthly, something heavenly — without, however, ceas- 
5?io be bread and wine. Though these views were opposed by some eminent individual 
'feiian teachers, such as Oriiren (died 264), who took a figurative conception of the 
•raiment, and depreciated its efficacy; yet both among the people and in the ritual of 
ti^ church, more particularly after the 4th c, the miraculous or supernatural view-MlC 

Lord's. t^70 

l4>reiices. ^ • ^ 

the Lord's-supper gained ground. After the 8d c, the office of presenting the brea 
and wine came to be confined to the ministers or priests. This i)ractice arose from, au 
in turn streDgthened the notion which was gaining ground, that in tills act of present! 
tion by the priest, a sacrifice, similar to that once offered up in the death of Chrisi 
though bloodless, was ever anew presented to God. This stiU deepened the feeling c 
mysterious significance and importance with which the rite of the Lord's-supper wt 
viewed, and led to that gradually ina-easing splendor of celebration which, undc 
Gregory the great (500), took the form of the mass. See Mass. As in Christ two di 
tinct natures, the divine and the human, were wonderfully combined, so in the eucharu 
there was a corresponding union of the earthly and the heavenly. 

For a long time there was no formal declaration of the mind of the church on tl 
presence of Christ in the eucharist. At length, in the first half of the 9th c, a discussio 
on the point was raised by the abbot of Corvei, Paschasius Radbertus, and Riitraiiiiiui 
a learned monk of the same convent; they exchanged several violent controversial ^vri 
ings, De Sanguine et Gorpore Domini, and the most distinguished men of the time too 
part in the discussion. Paschasius maintained that the bi'ead and wine are, iu the a( 
of consecration, transformed by the omnipotence of God into that very body of Cliri] 
which was once born of Mary, nailed to the cross, and raised from the dead. Accoit 
ing to this conception, nothing remains of the bread and wine but the outward fom 
the taste, and the smeU; while Ratramnus would only allow that there is some chaiig 
in the bread and wine themselves, but granted that an actual transformation of thci 
power and efficacy takes place. The greater accordance of tlie first view with th 
credulity of the age, its love of the wonderful and magical, as well as with the naiun 
desire for the utmost possible nearness to Christ, in order to be unfailingly saved b 
him, the interest of the priesthood to add luster to a rite which enhanced their ow 
office, and the apparently logical character of the inference, that where the powci 
according to universal admission, was changed, there must be a change also of tL 
substance; the result of all these concurring influences was, that when the views c 
Ratramnus were iu substance revived by Berenfi^arius, canon of Toturs, in opposition t 
Lanfranc, bishop of Canterbury, and cardinal Humbert, the doctrine of transubstanlia 
tion, as it came to be called, triumphed, and was officially approved by the council c 
Rome in 1079. In the fourth Lateran council at Rome, 1215, under Innocent III., trai 
substantiation was declared to be an article of faith ; and it has continued to be so bel 
by the Roman Catholic church to the present day. The Greek Catholic church stiiu 
tioned the same view of transubstantiation at the synod of Jerusalem in 1672. 

, The reformation of the 16th c. again raised the question on the nature of the eucb^ 
rist. The Lutheran church rejected from the first the Catholic doctrine of transubstac 

I tiatlon, as well as of the mass, i. e., the constant rencw^al of the sacrifice of Christ, ant 
merely taught that, through the power of God, and in a way not to be explained, th 
body and blood of Clirist are present in, with, and under the unchanged bread and wine 
In opposition to this doctrine, it was laid down by Zwingli, that the Lord's-suppcr is 
mere commemoration of the death of Christ, and a profession of belonging to his church 
the bread and wine being only symbols: a view which is adopted in substance by ih 
Socinians, Arminians, and German Catholics. Luther bitterly opposed the symbolic u 
view^, csi)ecially towards the latter part of his career; Zwingli's doctrine was mor 
repugnant to him than tl)e deeper and moi*e mystic Catholic doctrine. See Im pakatuin 
Calvin sought to strike a middle course, which has been substantially followed h\ 
the reformed churches. According to Jiim, the body of Christ is not actually preseii 
in the bread and wine, which he also holds to be mere symbols. But the "faiiliful 
receiver is. at the moment of partaking, brought into union with Christ, througii \h 
_.-.i.. — -if .1- i_-i_- a_i_i^ --- J _^ .1 -. ,_ 1_. p^^.g|. (efficacy) which i 

iithon, in this controversy 

_ , thought a union might be effected by adopt 

ing the declaration that Christ in the eucharist is " truly and really '* present (not nierel; 
in faith). I'he endeavors of Melanchthon and his party, by arbitrary alterations of tli* 
Augsburg confession, and other means, to effect a public reconciliation, only served t( 
rouse among the partisans of Luther a furious theological storm, and the result was th* 
establishment of the peculiar views of Luther, and the final separation of the Lutherai 
and reformed churches. 

The whole controversy relates to the mode in which the body and blood of Christ ar< 
present in the Lord's-supper ; for it was agreed on all hands that they are present in somi 
way. The reformed theologians argued that preitenee is a relative term, opposed not t< 
distance, but to absence; and that presence, in this case, does not mean local nearness 
but presence in efficacy. Here they parted company both with the Roman Catholic 
church and with the Lutherans. They were willing to caUl this presence "real" (*'»■ 
they want words," as Zwingli said), meaning true and efficacious, but they would no 
admit corporal or essential presence. But while the reformed churches were at one ii 
holding that, by receiving the body and blood of Christ, is meant, receiving their virtu< 
and efncacy, there is some difference in their way of expressing what that efficacy is 
Some said it was their efficacy as broken and shed — ^i.e., their sacrificial efficacy; others 
in addition to this, speak of a mysterious supernatural efficacy flowing from the glorifiec 
body of Christ ' Digitized by VjUUV IC 


With regard to the reformed churches, it may be remarked that their confessions on 
this point were mostly formed for the express purpose of compromise, to avoid a breach 
with the Lutherans Hence the language of these confessions contains more of the mys- 
tical element than the framers of them seem, in other parts of their writing, to favor. 
And it is remarkable that the Anglican confessions, which were framed unaer different 
circumstances, lean more to the symbolical view of Zwingli than those of any other of 
tlie reformed churches. The thiriy-nine articles, after laying down that "to such as 
with faith receive the same» it is a partaking of the body of Christ," repudiate the notion 
of truDsubstantiatiou ; and add: "The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in ilie 
supper only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the body 
of Christ is received and eaten in the supper is faith." 

The Presbyterian church of Scotland adopted substantially the views of Calvin. The 
words of the Westminster confession arc: "That doctrine which maintains a change of 
the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood (com- 
monly called trausubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or ^y any other way, is 
repugnant not to Scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason. . . . Worthy 
receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament, do then 
also inwardlv b}' faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, 
receive and feed upon Christ crucified, <ind all benefits of his death: the body and blood 
of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or nnder the bread and wine: 
vet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the 
elements tliemselves are to their outward senses." 

This variety of do^atical opinion as to the eucharist naturally gave rise to variety 
in the ceremonials of its observance. The Catholic notion of a mysterious transforma- 
tioD, produced the dread of allowing any of the bread and wine to drop, and led to the 
Auhstitutlon of wafers {hostioB oblata) for the breaking of bread. The doctrine of the 
real union," which declares that in the bread as well as in the wine, in each singly and 
And by itself, Christ entire is present and tasted— a doctrine which was attested by wafers 
viiiibly bleeding — caused the cup to be gradually withdrawn from the laity and non- 
<»fficiating priests; this practice was first authoritatively sanctioned at the council of 
<Jonstance, 1415. All the reformed churches restored the cup: in the Greek church it 
Iiad never been given. From the same feeling of deep reverence for the eucharist, the 
eommunion of chikiren gnidually came, after the 13th c, to be discontinued. The 
<}reek church alone admits the practice. Grounded on the doctrine of transubstantia- 
(ion, the Greek and Roman Catholic churches hold tiie " elevation of the host" (hostia, 
victim or sacrifice) to be a symbol of the exaltation of Christ from the state of humilia- 
tim; connected with this is the "adoration of the host," and the carrying it about in 
Milemn procession. The use of leavened bread in the Gixiek church, and of unleavened 
in ihe Roman Catholic and Lutheran, of water mixed with wine in the Roman Catholic 
and Greek churches, and of unmixed wine in the Protestant churches, are trifline dif- 
ferences, mostly owin^ their origin to ac