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VOL la 


Tribune Building. 


Digitized by VjjOOQ IC 






FEB. 26, 1934 


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MULREADY, Williara, R. A. was horn nt Enni?, Id Irelniul, nbont Hie year 1786. 
"When a Imy, lie went to Loudon with his part-nts ; at the age of fifteen entered art 
a Btndeut iu the Royal Academy, and made good prt^reee, aimiiig at first at the 
cluBi^ic style, or what, according to the notions of the dav, was called high art. Fol- 
lowing the l>fnt of his genius, however, he soon rellnqnished this course, and 
devoted himself to the study of nature and the works of those artistfi who attainec| 
bigh reputation in a less pietentious walk of art. His first pictures were landscapes 
of limited dimension and subject, views iu Keusiuctou gravel-piit*, old houses at* 
Lambetli, and interior of cottages. He next esstiyed figure-subjects of incidents iu 
every-day life, such as **A Roadside lun," *• Horses Baiting," "The Barber's 
Shop," and " Punch '» (painted iu 1812), " Boys Fishing " (1818), " Idle Boys " (1816). 
H. was elected au Associate of the Royal Academy iu November 1815, and an Acad* 
emician io Februaiy 1816; a Kroug proof of the high estimatiou iu which his tal- 
ents were held by his brethren, for the hiirher diguity is rarely conferred till after a 
probatiou of several years as Associate. £veu in his earlieht time, his works were 
charaiCterised by much elaboration ; but thot^e he executed about the middle period 
of his career exhibit an extraoixilnary amount of fiuish and greater brilliancy of 
coloring, qualities that he carried further and further as he advanced in years; and 
though he lived to a great a^e (he died on July 7, 1863), he continued to work with 
nudimiuishcd powers till withiu a day of his deaili. A great number of M.'s best 
works now belong to the public, as portions of the Vernon and Sheepshanks' coUec- 
tious. In the first-named, there are four pictures, one of these ** The Last in, or 
Truant Boy," exhibited iu 1835, being one of the most elaborate works of his middle 
period ; while hi the Slieepshanks' collectioo there are no fewer than 28 of his 
works, aino'ig which, " Firi*t Love," exbibited in 1840, is a remarkable example of 
refiiieineiit in drawiug, and deli<-acy of feeling and expression. ** 'i he Sonnet," ex- 
hibited in 1839, is perhaps his highest effort in point of style ; and by ** The Butt- 
Shooting a Cherry," exhibited in 1848, is best exemplified the remarkable minute- 
ness of his fiiiish and richness of his coloring. An tdiiion of the *• Vicar of Wake- 
field," pnblislied in 1840, by Van Vooi-st, embellished with 20 wood-cnta from M.'s 
drawings, is a very fine work. '* Women Bathing *' was exhibited in 18^ ; and, iu 
1852, *Blacklieath Park." ** The Toy Seller," a large picture exhibited the year 
before he died, was unfinished, aud not at all equal to etirlicr and smaller ones, bnt 
. remarkable as the work of a man wlioae artistic efforts iiad beeu landed sixty years 

MULTA'N (or JfooZten), an ancient and important city of India, in the Punjab, 
on a mound consisting of the ruins of ancient cities that occupied the same site, 
three miles from the left bank of the Ohenab — the inundations of wRich sometimes 
reach M.— and 200 miles south-west of Lahore. It has railway communication with 
til the principal towns of India-Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Peshawar, &c The 
1 - - — - 

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city is feurroimded by a dilapidated waJl, from' 40 to 60 feet in height. TJie vidoitr 
aboniida in mo^qaes, tombs, ehriiieB, &c., arte&tiD^ niike tlie antfqnity and nia^i- ' 
flcenceof the former cities ; and theconntry aroiiud is remarkable for its feriifity. 
M. is a military station, with a small redonbt iu the rear of the cantonmcDt. Its 
bazaars are iinmeroas, extensive, and well stocked ; and its bh0|>8, 6000 in onmber, 
are well supplied with European and Asiatic comraoditieo. Mnnnfuctnres of Bilk^:, 
cottons, shuwisi, scarfs, brocades, tissues, &c., are carried on, and there is an ex- 
•tensive banking trade. The merchants of M. are proverbially esteemed extremi^ly 
rich. Steanuira ply between this city and Hyderal)a<l, a distance of 570 miles ; and 
the Indus Valley Railway opens up a commercial outlet from Central Asia, the i*nn- 
iab, and tlife North-west Provitices, to the Arabian Sea by Hyderabad and Kiiraclii. 
Iu 1849, M. was taken by the British troops nnder General Whish, and annext-d with 
its territory to ilie Brilish possessions. The population of M. in 1868 was 56^8:26. 

MULTIPLE-POINDINQ is a well-known form of actiop in Scotland, by which 
competing claims to one and the same fund are set at rest It means double poind- 
ing or double distrcs.^. suggesting that » person whohasfnnds in his possession is 
liable to be harassed by doable distress; and hence he commences a suit called the 
action of muUiple-poiuding, by which he alleges that he ought not to be made to pay 
the sum more than once ; and as he does not know who is really entitled to payment, 
he cites all the parties claiming it, so thiit they may fight ont their claims amongf 
theinselves. The suit corresponds to what is known iu England as a bill or order 
of interpleader. 

MDLTI PLICA 'TION, the third and most important of the four principal pro- 
cesses of arithmetic, is a compendious mode ot addition, when a number is to be 
added to itself a given number of times. The Ibret; tcrii^ of a multiplication are 
the multiplieand, or number to be multiplied ; the multiplier, or number by which 
it is to be multiplied ; and the prodttct, giving the amount which would Ik? obtained 
if the multiplicand were added to itself llie number of times denoted by the multi- 
plier. The ^mbol of mnltii>ncation is x ; and in aritlimetic, the numbers are placed 
above each other as in addition^ with a line drawn under them ; in algebra, the quan- 
tities are merely plactid side by side, with or without a dot between i hem— e.g., rhc 
multiplication of 2 by 4 may be written 2 x 4, and of ahy b, a x b, a.b, or ab. For 
multiplication of fractions, see Fbaotions. 

The operarion of multiplication has been much abbnwiated by the use of JjOga- 
ritlnus (q. v.), and has been rendered ajnere mechanical process, by the invention 
of Napier's Bones, the Sliding Rule, Qunter's Scale, Ac. 

MU'LTI VALVE SHELLS, or Multi valves, are those shelly coverings of mol- 
luscs ' which are formed of more than two distinct pieces, in systems of Con> 
choiogy (q. v.), the term is one of primary impoi'tance ; hut since the study of the 
living animals has led to arrangements very different from those foimded on their 
mere shells, a very subordinate place has bwn assigned to it, as indicating a dis- 
tinction, much less important than was at first supposed. Thus, Chitons (q. v.), 
which have mnltivalve shells, are now placed iu the same order of gasteropods with 
Limpets (q. v.), of which the shells are univalve; and PAo/a« (q. v.) and Teredo 
(q. v.), which have two princiiml valves and some>»mMll accessory valves, the latter 
also a long shelly tube, are placed among lamellibranchiate molluscs, along with 
most of the bivalves of conchologists. In conchological systems, barnacles and 
ac.oru-shells were also generally included, and ranked among mnltivalves; but these 
are now no longer referred even to the same division of the animal kingdom. See 


MU'LTURES, in Scotch Law, mean a quantity of grain either manufactured or 
in kind deliverable to the proprietor or tacKsman'of a mill for grinding the com sent 
there. Some persons living in the neighborhood are bound to send their corn to l)e 
ground at a particular mill, in which case the lands are said to be astricted to the 
mill, and form the thirl or sucken, and the tenants or proprietors of the land are 
called insucken multnrers. Those who are not l>ound to go to the mill are called 
out-sucken multurers. Thirlage is thus classed amoiig servitudes, being a kind 
of burden on the lands. Such a right is unknown iu i^glaud, except Bometimes la 
old manors, _ — - -- — — - - i 

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*^ Miiiicnhai»«n 

MUM, a pecnliar kind of beer, formerly oaed In this conntry, and still need in 
Gernittiiy, especinlly in Brunswick, wh#i-e*it inuy be a!ni08t n-jrarded as the national 
drink. Ineteud of only mult Wmg usfd, it 1b mudu of mall and wheat, to wbicli 
some brewers add oats and beuu-meaL It is uelther so wholesome nor so agreeable 
as tlie common ale or Ixjer. 

MUMMY. See Bmbal^hnq. 

MUMMY- WHEAT is said to be a variety of wheat produced from grains foand 
in an E^piiau mummy. Bat no ^ood evidence of this origin lias been addnced— in 
fact, it 18 as good as proved to be impossinle ; and the same variety has long been in 
geni'ra) cnltivatiou in Egypt and neigbltorintf conntriep. The pplke is compound— a 
diHtinguishini? character, by which it is retidily known, but wliicii is not altogether 
piTinunent. It is occasionally cultivated in Britain, but seems more suitable to 
warmer region?. 

MUMPS, the, is a popular name (»f a pppciflo infliimmntlon of the salivary glands 
dest-ribt'd by noso1ogi^ts as Cynaiiche Parotidaea, or Parotitis. In Scotland, itls fre- 
qntntJy termed The Branka. 

The disorder nsunlly begins with a feeling of stiffness about the jaws, which is 
followed by pains, heat, and swelling l>eneath the exr. The f welling begins in the 
parotid, bnt the other salivaiy glands (q. v.) usually poon txH^ome implicuted, so that 
the swelling extends along the neck lo\\ard8 ihe chin, thutt givinj; the patient a de- 
formed and somewhat grotesque appearance. One or both sides may be affected, and, 
in general, the disease appeara first on om* side and tht-n on the other. There is sel- 
dom much fever. ITie inflammniion is usually at iis h ghcst point in three or four 
days, after which it begins to decline, suppuration of iht* glands scarcely ever occur- 
ring. In most cnees no treatment further than antiphlogistic regimen, due attention 
to the bowels, and protection of the parts froni c» Id, by the app ication of flannel or 
cotton- wool, is reqiiir»'d, and the pntient eoujpleiely recovers in eight or ten days. 

The disease often originates from epltleniic or endemic influences, but there can 
be no donbt tlnit it spreads by contagion ; and, like most contagious diseases, it 
seldom affects the same person twice. It chiefly attacks children and young per- 

A f inirnhir rircumstance connected with the disease is, that in many cases the 
snbi»idei c.^ of the swelling is immedi.Mtely followed by swelling and pain in the teatea 
in the nnile s- x, and in the manivice in the female. The inflanimation in these 
land?* Is si'ldoin very painful or long continued, bnt occasionally the infl.immatioa 
- transfer •••d from these orgttns to the brain, when a comparatively trifling disorder 
1> converted into a most j>erilons diseube. 

MCNCHHAUSEN, Knrl Friedrlch Hieronymus, Baron von, a meml>er of an 
aneienr and noble German farailv, who attained a remarkable celebrity by false and 
ridiciilonsiy exaggerated tales of bis exploits and adventures, fo that his'name has 
be<'oinb He was born in 1720, at the family estate of Bodenwerder, in 
Hanover, sei-ved as a cavalry officer in the Russian campaigns against the Turks iu 
T73T— 1789, and die<l in 1797. A collection of his marvellons stories was flrst pnb- 
Ii.4|ied in En<rland under the title of ** Baron MQnchhausen's Narrative of his Mar- 
vt-llous Travels and Campaigns in Russia" (Lond. 1785). The compiler was one 
Kndolf Erich Raspe, an expatriated" countryman of the baron's. A second edition 
appiared at Oxford (1786) under the title of ** The Singular Travels, Campaigns. 
Voyages, and Sj.oriing Adventures of Baron Munnikhoupen, commonly pronouncea 
MiuK'hansen ; as he relates them over a bottle when snrroujided by his friends.'* 
Several other editions rapidly followed. In the same year (1786) appeared the flrel 
German iniition, edited by the poet BQrger; the latest — entitled "Des Preiherrn vou 
Munchhauseiij wunderbare Reiseu und Abonteuer" (1849 and 1856)— is enriched by 
till admirable mtroduction by Adolf Ellisen, on the origin and sources of the famous 
book, and on the kind of literary flctiou to which it belongs. Elliseu's father knew 
the splendid old braggart in his latter days, and used to visit him. Nevertheless, 
although Raspe may have derived many of his narra.tlves from M. himself, he ap- 
pears to have drawn pretty largely from other sources. Several of the adventures , 
^scribed to the baron are to be found in older Iwoks, particularly in Bebel's •' Faco- 
Ite" (Siraeb. 1608) ; others iu Castiglioue's ♦» Corteglauo," aud Bildermauu'a " Uto- 


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Mundane A 

MuaicH * 

pla," wliich are included in Lange^s "Deliclae Academlcffi" (Heilbronn, 1T66). M.'a 
stories still retain tlieir popularity, es|^ecially with tlie young. 

MU'NDANE EGG. In uiauy heathen cosmogonies, tlie world (Lat. mundtu) is 
represented as evolved from an egg. The production of a young animal from what 
neither resembles it in form nor in properties, seems to have Aeen regarded tis 
jitlordiug a good figure of the production of a well-ordered world out of chuos. 
Thus, in tiie Egyptian, Hindu, and Japanese systems, the Creator is repreiwuted iis 
producing an eg?, from which the world was produced. The same notion is found, 
in variously modified forms, in the religions of many of the ruder heatlien nations. 
Sometimes a bird is represented as deposiriuo^ the egg on the primordial waters. 
There are other modiflcations of this notion or belief in tiie classical and other my- 
thologies, according to whicli the inhabitants of the world, or some of the gods, or 
the powers of good and evil, are represented as produced from eggs. The egg ap- 
pears also in some mythological systems as tlie symbol of reproduction or renova- 
tion, as well as of creation. The Mundane Egg belonged to the ancient Phoenician 
system, and an egg is said to have been an object of worship. 

MUNQO. St, tlie popular name of St Kentigern, one of the tliree, great mission- 
aries of the Christian faith in Scotland. St Niniaii (q. v.) conv rted tlie tribes of the 
t*outh ; St Coluniba (q. v.) was tlie apostle of the west and north ; St Kentiffern re- 
stored or established the religion of the Welsh or British people, who field the 
country l)etwcen the Clyde on the north, and the furthest Iwundaties of Cumberland 
on tlie soiith (see Bbbtts and Scots). He is said to have been the son of a British 
l»riuce, Owen ab Urien Rhej^ed, and of a British prin *ess, Dwyuwen or Tiienaw, the 
daughter of Llewddy n Lueddo": of Dinas Eiddyn, or Edinburgh. He was born about 
the year 514, it is believed at Culross, on the Forth, the site of a monastery tlieu 
ruled by St Serf, of whom St Kentigern became the favorite disciple. It is said, 
indeed, that he was so generally beloved by the monastic brethren, that his baptis- 
mal name of Kentigern or Cynduyrn, signifying ^'ctiief lord," was exciiangcni iu 
conunou speech for Mnngo, signifying "lovable" or **dear friend." Leaving 
Cu:r>)ss, lie planted a monastery at a place then called Cathnres, now known tui 
Glasgow, and became the bishop of the kingdom of Cumbria (q. v.). The 
nation would seem to have been only partially converted, and the accession of a new 
k|ng drove St Kentigern from the realm. He found refuge among the kindred 
people of Wales, and there, upon the banks of anothe^ ClydCj he founded another 
monastery and a bishopric, which still bears the name of his disciple, St Asaph. 
Kecjilled to Glasgow by a new king, Rydderech or Roderick the Bountiful, Kentigern 
renewed his missionary lal)ors, in which he was cheered by a visit from StColumba, 
and dying al>onttiie year 601, was buried where the cathiidral of Glasgow now stands. 
His life iias been often written. A fragment of a memoir, comiKJsed at the desire 
of Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow, between 1147 and 1164, has been printed by Mr 
Cosmo Innes in the •' Registruiii Episcopatus Glasgiiensis." Tlie longer life by 
Joceliiu' of Furness, written about U80, was pnl)lished by Pinkerton in his "•Vii» 
Aiitlquae Snnctorum Scotise." It appeals to two still older lives. The fame of St 
K<.'utigern is attested by the many churches which still bear his name, as well in 
Scoitand as in the north of England. The church of Crostliwaite. where Southey is 
buried, is dedicated to him. Tiie miracles which he was believen to have wrought 
were so deeply rooted iirthe popular mind, that some of them sprung up again iu 
the 18th c. to grace the legends of the Cameraniau martyrs. Otiiers are still com- 
memorated by the armorial ensigns of the city of Glasgow— a hazel-tree whose 
froz.Mi branches he kindli^ into a flame, a tame robin which he restored to life, a 
hand-bell which he brought from Rome, a salmon which rescued from the depths of 
the Clyde the lost ring of the frail queen of Cadyow. Nor is it St M. only whose 
m-mory survives at Glasgow ; the parish church of '* St Enoch " commemorates his 
mother, St Thenaw ; and it is not many yeara since a neighboring spring, which still 
bears her name, ceased to be an object of occasional pilgrimage. 

MUNI, a Sanscrit title, denoting a holy sage, and applied to a great number of 
distinguished personages, supposea to have acquired, by dint of austerities, more or 
less divine faculties. 

MU'NICH, (Ger. MHjiohen)^ the capital of Bavaria, is situated in 48® 8' n. lat., 
9Dd 11^ ^' e. long., in the midst -of a barren and flat elevated plain, at a height oC 

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abont 1700 feet above the level of the sea. Pop. (1871), 109,478, about 90 per cent 
beiiis; Romau Catholics, 9 per cent. Proteatants, aiid 1 per cent, Jews: (1876) 198.024. 
H. lies on the left bank of the I^er, and cousiBts, in andition to the old town, ot five 
anbnrbs, and of the three coutiguoas districts of An, Haidhansen. and Obergiesiug. 
Fy the efforts of King Lndwig f, who spent nearly 7,000,000 (balers on the Improve- 
nient« of the city, M. has been decornted with bnildings of almost every style of 
architecture, and enriched with a larger and more valuable collection of art- 
trt'iisnrfs tlian any other city of Qerinauy. It possesses 4% churciu'S, of which 
all Imt two or three are Catholic, and of these, the most wortl»y of noic are: the 
c^itliednil, which Is the see for the archbishopric of Munich-Frei'>ing, bnilt be- 
twe^'U 146S — 1494, and remarkable for its iwo nqnare towt-rp, with their octagonal 
upper ston«e, cupped by cupolas, and its 30 lofiy and hlglily-decorated windows ; 
the chnrch of the Jesuits, or 8t MichaePs, which contains a monument by Thor- 
"v^aidsen to Eugene Beanharuals; tlie Thetuiner Kirche, completed in 1767, and 
conttiiuing the bnryiug-vaults of the royal tamlly ; llie bvautifnl modern cliurch 
of St Mariahilf, with its gorgrons painted fflai^s and exquisite wood-carvings; 
the round church, or Basilica of 8t BouTiace, with its dome resting on 
64 monoliths of gray Tyrolean marble, and resplendent wiih gold, frescoes, and 
noble works of art; the cruel form-Htiaped Ludwie Kirche, emoellislied with 
Cornelina's fresco of the Last Judgment; and lastly, the Court Chapel of All 
Sahits, a perfect casket of art-treasares. Among the other numerous public build- 
ings, a description of which wouid fill a volume, we can only briefly refer to a few 
of tiie more notable; as the theatre, the largest in (Germany, and capable of ac- 
commodating 2.400 spectators; the post-office ; the Ituhmes-halle ; the new palace, 
includtue the older royal residence, the treasury and chapel, antiquarian collections. 
Ac.; and the Koiiigsbtm, desiu:ned by Klenzuin imitation of tiie Pitti Palace, and 
built at a cost of 1,260,000 thalers, containing J. Schnorr's frescoes of the Nibelun- 
geu ; the Banquet lug Halls, rich in sculpture by Schwauthaler, and in grand fresco 
and other paintings. In the still incomplete suburb of Maximilian are situated the 
old Piunkothek, or picture [lallery, erectetl in 1S36 by Klenze, containing 800,000 en- 
gravings, 9,000 drawings, a collection of Etruscan lemains, &c.; and immediately 
opposite to it, the new Pinakothek, completed in 1863 and devoted to the worki« of 
recent artists; the Qlyptotiiek, with its twelve galleries of ancient sculnture, and its 
noble collection of the works of the great modern sculptors. asCauova, Th(»nvaldf»en, 
Sciiadow, &c Among the gates of M., the mostlx'autiful are the Siegesthor (**The 
Gate of Victory'* > designed after Coustuntiue's triumphal arch in ihcFoin.n, i.nd 
the Isarthor with its elal)oratA frescoes. In addition to the>e and many other build- 
ings intended either solely for the adornment of the city, or to serve as depositories 
for works of art, M. prtssesses numerous scientiflc, literary, and b;uevo!cnt iiii-titn- 
tious, alike remarkable for the architectural and artistic beauty of their external aj)- 

Iieantnce, and tlie liberal spirit which characterises tlieir internal organisation. 1 he 
lt)rai'y, which is enriched by the biblical ti*eahUi-es of numerouti supprefsed monas- 
teries, contains about 800,000 volumes, of wliich 1,300 are incunabula, with nearly 
22,000 MSS. TJie university, with which that of Landsiiut was incorporated in 1826, 
and now linown as the Ludwig-Maximillan Univeivity, con prices 5 faculties. vilU 
a titixtt of 116 professors and teachers. In 1876 the number of malricalated students 
attending the university was 1208. In association with it are numerous medical and 
other schools, a librarj' containiuff 200,0(0 volumes, and various museums and cabi- 
iHits. M. has an ably-conducted oi)8ervatory, supplied with firs^t-rate instruments by 
Frannhofer and Reichenbach ; 8 gymnai'ia, 4 Latin, 1 normal, various military, 
professional, polytechnic, and parisn scliools, of which the majority are Catholic ; 
institutions for tlie blind, deaf and dumb, and crippled, and for female orphans, 
besides numerous hospitals, asylums, infant schools, &c. ; an academy of sciences ; 
royal academies of painting, sculpture, music, &c. ; a botanic garden, parks, public 
M'all^, and gardens, adorned with historic, patriotic, and other monuments, and 
designed for the celebration of annual and other national faii-s and festivals; spa- 
cious cemeteries, &c. M. is mainly indebted to Lndwig I. forits celebrity as a seat 
of tlie fine arts, as the jireater nnral)er of the huildinys for which it is now lamed 
were erect«"d between 1820 and 1850, althougli, under his successors, Maximilian II., 
and Lndwig IL (af»cended the in 1864), the progress of the cmbellisliments < f 
the city has been continued on au equuily liberal scale. M. Is eomewhat beh* 

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Mnnlcipal ^ (• 

ManicipaUtjr ^ 

many lesser towns of Germany In regard to literary advancement and freedom of 
epeculation, while its inda!«tridl activity is also inferior to its state of bigli artistic 
development. It has, liowever, some emineiiliy goo«l iron, bruuze, and hell foun- 
diles, and is famed for its lithoi^raphers and engravers, ana lis optical, matbemati- 
cut, and mochanical instrnment-makei'S, amongst whom Uizschneider, Frauuiiofer, 
and Ertl have acquired a world-wide renown. M. is noted for its enurnious brew- 
eries of Bavarian beer ; and has some jjood raunutactones lor coitou, wool, and 
damask goods, wax-cloth, leather, paper-haugiugs, carriages, pianos, gold, silver, 
and steel wares, &c. 

The present name of this city cannot be tr.iced further than the 12th c, when 
Henry the Lion raised the Villa Munichen from ili* pivviona obscurity, by estnblish- 
iug a mint within its precincts, and making it the chief em|>oriiim fur the t<alt which 
was obtained from Halle and tht; nei^'hb xuig dist.ricn*. In ihc 13lli c, the dukcwof 
the Wittelsbach dynasty selected M. for their, residence, bniU tlie Ludwij^sbarg, some 
parts of whose original strnctnre still exi^t. and snrrwuiided the town with wallt< and 
other fortified defences. In 1321. thi^ old town was nearly destruyc d by fire, and re- 
built by the Bmperor Lndwig of Buvnria very mucli on ihe plan which it stili ex- 
hibits; but it was not till tbo clo-'e of iatut century, when tlie fortifications were raZvHl 
to the ground, that the limits of the town were enlarged to any extent. The huit 
fifty years indeed comprise the true hi^tcn-y of M., -ince within that period tdl its fin- 
est buildings have been erected, it* character as a focus of artit«tic activity lias been 
developed, ita population lias been more tlian doubled, and its material prosperity 
augmented in a proportionate di'gree. 

MUNI'CIPAL ARCHITECTURE, the style of the buildings used for innnicipa 
purposes, Huch as town-halls, guild-halL«», Ac Tliese were first used whiu tlie «o»vu8 
of the middle ages rose in importance, and assert^^d their freedom. Those of Norili 
Ira y and Belgium were the firs^t to m<)ve, and consequently we find in these coiiu- 
trie.-i the earliest and most importnnt -p.^cimjn^ of man cipal archit -ct^ire during the 
middle a^e-*. It is only in tlie *• free citltss" of tinit. epoeli that town-hails nro 
found. We therefore look for them in vain in Prance or England till the devi-Iop- 
m*int of Industry and kuowl^rdge had inadelhe citiz mis ot the large towns so wealthy 
and important as to enable them to raise the municipal power into an institution. 
Wjien this became the case in the 15th and 16th centuries, we find in these countries 
abundant instances of buildings erected for the use of the guilds and corporations 
and the municipal courts. Many of these still exist alon^ with the corporate bodies 
they belong to, especially in London, where the halls are frequently of great mag- 
nificence. Many of these corporation halls have recently been rebuilt by the 
wealthy bodies they belong to, such as the Fishmongers, Merchant Taylors, Go d- 
smiths, and other tompauies. Municipal baildings on a large scale for the use of 
the town coancils and magistrates have also been r cently erected in many of our 
large towns, which Inid quite outgrown their original modest bnildiugs; and now 
DO town of importance is complete without a great town-hall for the nse of the in- 

Municipal buildings always partake of the cbaract'»r of the arbhitecture of the 

Seriod when they are erected; thus, we find in Italy that thev are of the It^ilian- 
^othlc 8ty'v» in Oomo, Padua, Vicenza, Venice, Florence, &c., during the ISth, 14th, 
and 15th centuries. In Belgium, during the same period, they are of the northern 
liothic styl.^ and are almost the only n^ally fine specimens of the civil an hitecture 
of the middle ages? we possess. The Cloth-hal! at Ypres, and the town-hulls of Brus- 
pels, Lou vain, Bruges, Oudenarde, &c., the Exchange at. Antwerp, and many other 
nuirkets, lodges, halls, &c., testify to the early importance of the municipal institu- 
tions in Bvilgium. 

It is a carious fact, that in France, where the towns became of considernble im- 
portance during the middle ages, so few municipal buildings remain. This arist-s 
from the circumstance, that the resources of the early municipalities of France were 
devoted to aid the bishops in the erection of the great French cathedrals, and tt»e 
town8peo])le used these cathedrals as their halls of assembly, and even for such pur- 
poses as masques and amusements. 

Of the English corporation halls, those whicli remain are n earl j' all subseqnent 
to the 14th c, from which time to tlie present there are very many examples. The 
'^•lild-hall of Loudon ia one of the earliest. The present building was begun in 1411, 

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Manioipa ity 

and WRS built chiefly by coiitribntions from the trades " companies " of Loudon. Of 
the towu-halla receutly erected, those of Muucbester, Liverpool, and Leeds are 
amongst tlie most important. 

MUNICIPA'LITY, Municipal Coiporation (from Lat. municepf, from munua 
and capio^ one who eujoys the rights of a fi-ee citizen), a town or city possessed of 
certuiu privlie^'es of local self-government; the goveruing l)ody in such a town. 
Municipal iubtitationsorigiuattd in the times of ttie Roman empire. The provin- 
cial towns of Italy, which were from the first Roman colonies, as also those which, 
afttT having): an independent exi^t^uce, became members of the Roman state, 
though subjected to the rule of an imperial governor, were allowed to enjoy a right 
of rejfulating their internal affairs. A clast* of the inhabitants called the ctma, or 
decuriones, elected two officers, called duumviri^ whose functions were suppoi-ed to 
be analogous to those of tne cousul.'Of the imperial city, and who exercised a limittd 
jurisdictiou, civil and criminal. Thei-e was an impoitaut functionary in every mn- 
niiupality called the de^emor civitatis^ or advocate for the city, the protector of the 
citizens against arbitrary acts on the part of tlie imperial governor. In thtf later 
aa:es of the empire, the Decurions were saljjtjct to heavy burdens, not compeuMited 
by the honor c* the position, which led many to endeavor to i»hun the office. The 
municijml system declined with the decline of the empire, yet it retained vitality 
enongi: to be afterwards resuscitated in nn:on wiili fendalism, and with the Saxon 
instil atioHS of Britain. Some cities of Italy, France, and Germajiy have indeed de- 
rived their present magisti:acy by direct succession from the days of imperial Rome, 
as is notably the aise with Cologne. The bishop being a shield between the con- 
querors and the conquered, in many cases discharged the dnties or obtained the 
lunctious of the defensor ctvilatis. 'Jo the north of the Alps, nnder the feudal sys- 
tem, he became officiailv the civil governor of the city, as the count was of the rural 
district In Sontiiern Europe, where feudalism was less vigorous, the municipalities 
retained a large share of freedon» and self-government. 

Of the cities of the middle ages, some were entirely free ; they had, like the ] ro- 
viuciai towns of Italy l>efore the extension of the Roman conquests, a confii uiitm 
independent of any other powers. Venice. Genoa, Florence, Hamburg, aid Lu- 
. beck, all stood in this position. Next in dignity were the free iraperlin cites in 
Germany, wtiich, not being comprehended in the dominions of any of the princ4S, 
Were in immediate dejien^nce on the empire. Mo^t of these cities rose into mij'or- 
tunce in the 18th c; and their liberties and privileges were fostered by the Frnnco- 
Diau emperors, to afford some counterpoise to the gi owing power of the immediate 
nobility. NHmberg was especially celebrated for lis stout resistance to the House 
of Brandenburg, aiidMhe successful war which it waged with the FrancOnian no- 
bility. In Bngland, the more important cities were immediate vassals of the crown ; 
the smaller municipalities sometimes owned a subject superior, sometimes a greater 
municipality for iheir overlor^. 

Under the Anglo-Saxons, the English burghs were subject to the rule of au 
elective officer, called the **Porireve," who exercised in burgh functions similar to 
those of the hh ire-re ve in the shire. The Norman conquerors reiognized the al- 
ready existing privileges of the towns by granting them charters. Instead of a 
sliire-reve, a viscount was placed by the king over each shire, and a bailiff inslcjid 
of the former elective officer over each burgh. In the larjrer towns, the baiiiff was 
allowed to assume the Norman appellation of Mayor. The municipal franchise 
seems to have been vested in all the resident and trading inhabitjmts, who shared 
in the payment of the local taxes, and performance of local duties. Titles to free- 
dom were also recognised on the grounds of birth, apprenticeship, marriage, and 
sometimes free gift. 

In all the larger towns, the trading population came to be divided into guilds or 
trading companies, through membership of which companies admission was ob- 
tained to the franchise. Eventually the whole community was enrolled in one or other 
of the guilds, each of which had its property, its by-laws, and its common hall, and 
the community elected the cliief officers. It was on the wealthier and more influ- 
ential inhabitants that municipal offices were generally confeiTed ; and the practice 
gradually gained ground of thes« functionaries i)eip<?tuating their authority without 
appealing to the popular suffrage. Contentions and disputes arose regarding the 
rigbt of election, and eventually the crown threw the weight of ItsinfloeuceJnto th*^ 

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Mnn ment Q 

scale of self-eTectlve nUins bodies. As the greater mnnicipalities grew in etrengtb, 
we find tbeir right recoiruTsed lo ap])ear iu parliaineut by luuaiis of representatives. 
Tlie sheriffs were considered to have a discretiouary power to determiue which towns 
should, and which should not have this privil^e of represeutalion. The sovcrbigiis 
of the House of Tudor and Stuart acquired the habit of extending the right of par- 
liamentary representation toburgbanot Iu the enjoyment of it, while at the same 
time, l^ granting or renewinu: to them mauicipal charters, they modelled the consti- 
tution of these burghs to a self-elective type, and restrictea the liglu of voting in the 
choice of a representative to the governing body. During the reign of Witllam III., 
Anne, and the earlier Georges, tiie iudueuce of, the crown was largely employed in 
calling new municipal corporations into existence, with the view of creatnig addi- 
tional parliamentary support for the ministry in power. The burghs of Scotland 
had a history much like that of the burghs of HUiglaud; their earlier charters were 
mere recognitions of already existing rights, and were sruuted to the inhabitants at 
large. In the course of the 14th and 15tn centuries, themnnlcipal suffrage fell gmd- 
ually more and more into the hands of restricted bodies of men, until act 1469, c. 5. 
gave to the councils the right of appointing their successors, the old and new council 
together electing the ofBcer-beurers of the corporation. This etoite of things 
continued till 188S, not without much complaint. In Ibe Scottish burgiin, 
the several trades poss'ssed a much more exclusive monopoly than in England. 
Along with the outcry for parliamentary reform arose an outcry for municipal re- 
form ; and a separate municipal reform act putting an end to the clo!*e system was 
passed for each part of the empire. 'I'ho Eiigiish act (5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76), en- 
titled "An act to provide for tho regulation of Corporations In Bngland." 
conferred the francbise on the owners and occupiers of property within burgh, with 
certain qnaliflcaii<ms as to pnjp -rty, residtMice, Ac. This cont<tiinency elected the 
councillors, and from the body of the councillors, tlie mayor and aldermen were 
chosen. Act 88 md 88 Vict. c. 55, limited the requisite period of residence to one 
year's occupation, and the ballot was introdnceil by 35 and Bi Vict c. 33, in munici- 
pal as in parlianient.iiy elections. Act 8 and 4 Will. IV. made an entire chnnge in 
the modii of electlng-couniils iu Scottish burghs which already had a council, and 
conferred councils on burghs which had none. A vote was given to every one wha 
had resided six months in the burgh, or within seven miles of it, and possessed the 
requisite qualification to exercise the parliamentary franchise ; a property qualifica- 
tion similar lo what conferred the parliamentary franchise being required in but'ibrhs 
that did not send or contribute to send a member to parliament. The Municip>il 
Elections Amendment Act (Scotland) 1868, has placed tlie municipal fnmchiseiu the 
Inmds of all registered voters to return a member of parliarocut, and in the case of 
boughs not represented In pirlianient, in the hands of all iiersons possessing similar 
property qualmcatious : and act 83 and 34 Vict, c 92 has provided for the establish- 

ment of a municipal register in burghs not represented in parliament. An exemp- 
. tion, under 8 and 4 Will. IV. c 76, of nine small burghs from the operation of the 
new system has been done away with. Town-councllloi*a must be electors residing 

in or carrying ou business in the burgh. 'Iliey remain in office tirree years, and elect 
from their own number the provost and bailies. 'J'he EngHsh act of Will. IV. al>ol- 
islied the exclusive privileges of the guilds, but these monopolies continued in Scot- 
land till 1839, when they were swept away oy 9 and 10 Vict, c 17. The Irish munici- 
pal system, which had ooen imported remiy-made from England, was assimilated to 
the altei-ed English sy.-tem by 8 and 4 Vict. c. 108. 

MU'NIMENT-UOUSE, a strimg fire-proof apartment or building suited to con* 
tain archives, papers, and other valuables. 

MU'NJEET {Rubia cordifolia or Tnunjista)^ a species of Madder (q. v.), of which 
the root yields an excellent red dye. The ptant diff^M-s from the common madder in 
its more distinctly quadrangular stem, its cordate-oblong leaves commonly in fours, 
aud its red lierries. It is a native of India, China, Japan, Central Asia, and Siberia. 
The root has long been used in India as affording a rtd dye ; aud is now an article 
of export to Europe, as a substitute for madder. 

MUNKA'CS, a market-town of Hungary, situated on an affluent of the Theiss, 

178 miles north-east of Pesth. The inhabitants are mostly artisans, and the chief 

"oductiou Itilioaicry. There are also alum manufactories, saltpetre- works, aud in 

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the Vicinity, Iron-works, and mines of rock-crystal, cnlled Hunsrarfan diamondB. A 
short diBtauce east from the towu is the fortress (foanded in 1859) of M., built upou 
&B isolated height, which, although Buiall and iusi^nificunt-looking, yet, from its 
Btroug wulls aud advantag^ns positiou, has, for the last few centuries, withstood 
many a siege. Since the Deginuiug of the preaeut century, it baa been used aa a 
•tate-prison. Pop. 0S69) 86<^ 

MtJ'NSTER, the largest of the four provinces of Ireland, occupies the south-west, 
and is bounded on the n. by Connuught, on the e. by liclnster, niid on the w. aud s. 
by the Atlantic. It conthins* tlie six cottni ies of Olare, Corlt, Kony, Limerick, Tippo- 
rary, and Waterford, and the country is described under tlies^e heHd«<. Area, 6,0<i4,- 
679 statute acres. The population of tlie province, which in 1S41 was higher than 
thnt of any of the other provinces, wat^ sliewn to be, iu 18(1, l,'o98,486, or 4S9,7iB lesa 
than that of Ulster, now the most populous of the provinces. 

MCNSTKR, cl»ief town of the dlftrlct of the s.ime name, as well as capital of all 
Westphalia, is situated in 6lo 55' n. lut., aud 1^ 40' e. long., at the confluence of the 
An with the Mfm^ter Canal. 65 miles iiorth-eat-t of Diisi^eldorf. The populaiiou in 
1871 was 24^815; iu 1876, 35,683. M.» which Is a bibliopric, and the peal of « military 
council, n higii court of Hp|>eal, and otlier governmental tribunals, is one of the 
liaudsomest towns of Wesiplialia, retaining numerous remainsof medieval architec- 
ture, whose cjinaint picturesqueuess is enhanced by tlie immerons trees and shady 
al]^({8, by whicli the squares and streets are ornamented. Among its 14 churches, 
of whicli tht^ majority are Catliolic, tlie n»08t notewortliy are tFie cathedral, built be- 
tween the 18th and 15th centurie:;!, and despoiled of all its internal decorations by 
the Auat)aptists ; Our Lady's <J)ini-ch, with its noble tower; the splendid Gothic 
chmxjh of St Lambert^ in the market-plare, flnished in the 13th c, on the tower of 
wliich may still l)e seen the tliree iron cnjres in whi< h the bodies of tlie Anabaptist, 
leaders. John of Leyden, KnipperaoUing. and Krechting, were f'Ui'pended, after they 
had suffered the mo^t horrible martyrdom ; and the church dedicated to St Ludge- 
rus, the first bishop of M., witli its singular round tO" er, surmonnted by an octa- 
gonal lantern. The Gotliic town-hall possesses historical interest in being the spot 
at which, iu 1648, the I'eace of Wef>tpha Ma was signed in a large hall, which has 
lately been restored^and which contains portrults'of all the amhaPSJidorH who were 
parties to the trejity. The palace, built In 1767, is surrounded by fine pleasnre- 
gi-ouuds, including horticultural and botanical gJirdeiie, connected with the academy ; 
and these, with the rampai-ts, which, since the Seven Years' War. have been eon- 
Verted into public walks, form a gieat nttraction to the city. M. is well provided 
With institutions of charity and benevolence. The old Catholic university of M. 
was diamembered in 1818, and its funds apportioned to other educational establish- 
ments ; and the present academy, wliich comprises a Catholic theo'ogical and philo- 
sophical faculty, is now the principal school. It has a library of 60.000 volumes, a 
natural history innsumn, and vtu*loU8 collections of art aud antiquity connected witli 
it M. has one gymnasium, a normal school for female teachers, and a numl>er of 
town schools. Tiie industrial products of M. include leather, woollen fabrics, thressd, 
starch, and sugar, besides which thei-e are pood carria^'C manufactories, b«-eweries. 
and distilleries. The trade is limited to the produce of the country, the principal 
of which are the noted Westplialian ham aud sausages. 

M. was known under the name of Aiindgardevoi^e in the time of Charlemagne, 
who, iu 791, appointed it as the see of the new bishop of the Saxons. St Ludgerus. 
Towards the middle of the lUh c, a monastery was founded on the spot, which in 
course of time derived its pscsent name from its vicinity to the minster, or mona.<«- 
tery. In the 12th c, the bishopric wat* elevated into a principality of the empire. 
Iu the Idth c, the city was incorporated in the Hansealic League; and in 1532, it 
declared ite adhesion to the Reformed faith, notwithstanding the violent opposition 
of tlie chapter. During the years 1535 and 1586, M. was the scene of the violent 
poiitico-religfous movement of the Anabaptists^, when the excesses of these preteiuU d 
reformers worked a violent reaction in the minds of the people, which had ihc elf^-ct 
of restoring the prestige of the episcopal power ; aud although the citiKens ocra- 
Fionally made good their attempted acts of opposition to their stnritual rukis, 
they were finally reduced to submission nnder Bishop Christopher Bernhard of St 
Qal', who having, iu 1663, built a strong citadel within the city, transferred the cpis- 

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Mnrat ' J-U 


copnl place of residence thither from Koesfeld, where It had beon'establifhed by 
earlier bishonsi. In the Seven Tears' War, M. was repeatedly besieffed and taken by 
both the belhgerent parties. The bishopric of M., which since 1719 had l)een merged 
in the archbisliopric of Cologne, althongli it retained a special form of government, 
was secalaHsed in 1803, and divided among various royal houses ; but subsequently 
shared in the common fate of other GermuH provinces, and was for a time incorpo- 
rated with France. Tht? Congress of Vienna gave tlu* greater part of tin? principality 
to Prussia, a small portion being nuportioncd to the House of Oldenburg, while 
Uunuver acquired poss^ssiou of the Miiuster iciTitorius of the mediatised Ditlces of 

MU'N TJAK {Cervtis muntjac, Cervnlua vaginalis^ or Stylocerua mun^ac), a 
sp Ties of de«T, ahnndnnt in Java, Sumntra, and other islands of th<' same region. 
It is about oue-flfth larger than jhe roebuclc, Which it considerably resembles in 
form. The liorns are remarkable, as there spdngs from tlio common base ot each an 
additional liorn, which is aliont an inch and a half in leu{|th; the principal horn, 
whicli is simple, curved, and nointed, l)ein«j about five luchos in lengtli. The 
female has nO horns. The male has larg.? caniiie teeth or tusks, which also ate want- 
ing in the female. -^Allied species are found in India and China. 

MCNZER, Thomas, one of tlie leaders of the Anabaptists (q. v.), was bom at 
Stoiberg, in the Harz. took his degree at Wittenberg as Master of Arts, and for some 
time preaclied the doctrines of the Reformation in Zwickau and other places. Ere 
long, however, he adopted mystic views, and di^'claimed against what he culU-d the 
"servile, literal, and half" measures of tlie reformers, rei^tiiring a radical reforma- 
tion Ijoth in churcli and state according to his ** inward light" He proclaimed an 
entire commuuily of goods, and Incited the populace to plunder tlie houses of the 
wealthy. Mi'ihihaasen fell for a time under Itis sway, and that of another fanaiic 
named Pfeifer, who joined liim. He took an active part in the Peasant War, and in- 
flamed the spirits of the insurgents by the wildest speeches and songs; bat they 
were utterly defeated on 15lh May 1626, after a severe conflict, at Fran ken huusen, b/ 
the Elector John and Duke G«orge of Saxony, the Landgmve of Hesse, and the 
Duke of Brans wiclc M. fled, but was taken and carried to M&hlhauseu, where he 
was beheaded along with Pfeifer and a number of oth«^rs. He sliewed no dignity or 
courage in the closing scenes of his life. See Strol)el*fl *»Lebeu Sclirift-n nhd 
Lehren Thorn. Manzer'8"(Nurnb. 1796): Seidemann's "Thoin. Munzer" (Dresd. 
nndLeips. 1842); and Heinrich Leo in the ** Evangelische Kircheuzeituug " (Bcrl. 

MURiE'NA, a genus of mnlacopterons flshes, of tho«e to which the name Eel is 
commonly given, the whole of the eels being sunetiines included in the family 
Mur^7iidce. See Ebl. The trne Murcenm have nr) fins, except the dorsal tmd anal, 
which are low and fl-^shy. They have one row of sharp teeth in each jaw. The 
head is very large, and the jaws are moved with gr.^at power. The M. of the Ro- 
mans, or MURRT {M. helena), abounds in the Mediteranean, and is sometimes of 
large sizs four feet or more in ength, golden yellow in front, and purple towards 
the tjrt!, beautifully band.'d and mottled. It -is much thicker in proportioti to its 
length than any of the fresh-water eels. Irs flesh is white and highly esteemed. It 
prefers salt-water, but can acc^mm«)date it^if to a fresh-water pond. The ancient 
Romans kept and fed it in vivaria. The story of Vedins Pollio fecd-ng his munenas 
with offending slaves is well known. This M. has been caught on the British sliores, 
but very rarely. 

Allied to the genus M. is the genus Sidera^ found In flie Pacific. 

MURAL CROWN, in Heraldry, a crown in the form of the top of a circular 
tower, masoned and embattled. It is me m» to repn'sent the crown which was given 
by the Komans as a mark of distliiciicm to the soldier who first nmunted the walls 
of a besieged town, and fixed there the standard of the «rmy. A mural crown sup- 
porting the crest, in place of a wreat:i, occurs in the achievements of several of the 
English nobility, and in various grants of arms made in the early part of the pres- 
ent century to ofllcers who had distinguished themselves in the war. Viscount 
Beresford, in consequence of his gallantry at the battle of Aibnera, obtaln<d as 
crest, iasniug oat of a mural crown, a dragon's head with its neck pierced through 

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-^-^ Murat 

by a broken spear, the head of the spear point downwards being held in the mouth 
'Of thedragoh. 

MTJRAT, Joachim, king of Naples, was the son of an 1niikee|)er at La Bn^tide- 
Fortunidre, near Oahonk In Fi-ance, and was born there S6th March 1767 or 1768. lie 
was at first intended for t lie priesthood, and actaaliy commenced the study of theology 
and canon law at Toaiouse, but entered the army, and being threntened with pnnish- 
ment for insubordiiiatiou, deserted, and after siiendiug some time at iiomo, pi'o- 
ceeded to Paris, where, it is ^aid, he wh» for some time a \vnit<*r at a cuf^ but toon 
obtained admission iuto the Ooiiotitntioual Gnai-d of Louis XVI. On the outiirenk 
of the RevoliiMoii, la; was mude u sul)-lieuienaut in a CHTaliT regiment. Hit* 
l^ullautry und extrenierepabliciuiisui soon won him the rank of colont*!. Hent^ 
ladled liimwlf closely to Bonaparte, uiidur whom he served in Ilalv and in Kjryi't, 
cignalisiug himself in many hatilett ; rose to the rank of a ox divihiuu (liOO) ; 
returned with Bonaparte to France; and rendered him moat luinortant as>ist}iii<'o 
on the IStli Bruniaire, hy dispersing the Oonncii of Five Hanared at St ('loud. 
Bonaparte now inirnst^^ him with the command of tlie Consular Quard, and ir.-ive 
liim his yoHugest si.>«tv'r, Carjiino, in marriage. M. commanded the cavaliy at 
Marengo, where he greatly distinguished hiuiwlf. Oh the estahlishni<>nt of the 
French Empire, he was lo d'?d with honors. He continued tooommaiKl ti>e cavalry 
in the armies led by the Eniperor, and coniriluitid noi a little to the victory i.t 
Ansterlitz, and to many otin r victories. In 1806, the n vly-^rected gi^ml dueiiy of 
Berg(q. v.) was bestowed u^ion him. On 1st Amru?*! 18 8, he was i)rocl:iime<l ki»^ 
of tire two Sicilies hy the stjle\>f Juucliim I. Na^iolion. He took pof Si^sion c£ 
Naples, but the Bourbons, through thesuppoit of Britain, retained Sicily. 

M. po8:^ssedthe qualities req^i^ite fur a general of cavali-y rather than those of a 
king. He was very deficient in political skill and energy ; but by the moderation of 
his govenmient, he won the henris of his subjects. Even his love of pomp and 
show, and the theatrical splendor of hs equipment, which were a subject of mirth 
in France and Germany, rather gratified the Neapolitans. He enduretl with dif- 
ficulty the yoke of Napoleon, which left him little but the outward show of 
royalty. In the ezi»editiow against Knssia, hecommmided the whole cAvalry, but 
on its falluFC^ he returned to l^aples, aiiziouH and discontented. He joined the 
French army again in 18U% but after the battle ot Leipzig, witiidrew to his own do- 
minions, determined on breaking the French fettei-s with which he was bound. 
He concluded a treaty with Austria, and a truce with the British aduiiral, and 
promised the alHe»* an auxiliary corps. He hesitated, however, even after liis 
new course seemed t^ have been decisively adopted \ and finding his position 
jnsecureaft^r Njipoleon'soveitluow, he enteied into private communications with 
Inm at £iba. On the Einp<»roi'B return to France. M. placed himself at the head of 
an army of 40.(M)0 men, and convmenced a hacty war against Austria. He was 
defeated at ^errara, 12th April, 1815, and a?a;u at Toleiitino, 2nd May. With a 
few horsemen he fled to Naples, where all was insurrection i.nd cojumot.on ; thence 
to the island of lochia, and found hb way to France, whilst his wife and children 
took refuge in the British fleet. After NuiKjleon'.- final overthrow, he found refiij-e 
in Corsica, from which he proceetled in a fooMmrdy h^anner with a few followers to 
the coast of Naples, and proclaimed himself king and libejtitor, but was presently 
taken prisoner, and after trial by a court-martial, was siiot in a hall of the castle of 
Pizzo, on ISth October 1815. See Leonard Gallais, "Histoire de Joachim Mu- 
rat" (Paris, 1828), and Coletta, "Histoire des Sixd'-miers mois de la Vie de Joa- 
chim Mnrtct " (Paris. 1821). His widow assumed the title^of Conntess of Lipona, and 
resided in the neighborhood of Trieste, where she <lied in 1839. His two sons went 
lo tlie United States, where the elder. Napoleon Aohille Murat, settled in Phirida, 
and published a number of works on the constitution and politics of his adopted 
country. He died 15th April, 1847. The younger, Napoleon Lucien Charles, 
married an American lady in 1827, bnt sufEen?d several reverses in fortune, ami 
Madame Murat was obliged to open a boarding-scliool for the support of herself and 
iter husband. Twice he aiten^pted to return to France secretly (m 183T and 1844), 
but failed on both occasions. The Revolution of 1848, however, opened the coun- 
try to him. He attached himself closely to Prince Louis Najwleon ; and was in 1849 
French Ambassador Extraordinarv at Turin. In 1S52 he was made a senator; and 
iu 1633 h« received the title of p«ucu. The Italian revolution appeai-ed to present 

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Mnrstorl .10 

Mnrcia AJ _ 

Bome chauces for him, bnt nothlog cam<! of these. He WM made prisoner by the 
Germanti at Metz iu 1870. 

MURATORI, Lndorico Antonfo, a celebrated antiqaarr and historian, was bom 
at Viguoia, in the dachy of Modena, October 8t, 1678. From a rery early period, 
liis prodilectioii for liistorical and literary parsalts began to mmiifest itself; and, 
liaviug entered into lioly ordeiv, witltont, iiowever, accepHJjg any eccleeia9t{cal 
office, liis life was devoted partly to the literature of bis profe»«lou, bnt mainly to 
reaenrclies in hit)tury, both aacred and profane, especiulfv tlie liintory of his native 
country. In hiii 82d year, he was appointed one of the librarians of ttie Ambro^iao 
Library at Milan, a post which has since received equal celebrity from a sncceseor 
not nuworthy of the fame of M., the il ustriuus Angelo Mai <q. v.). Here he pwe 
to tlie world his ili-st pnblicatiou, a collection of inedited Greek and Lsitin tn«K- 
nients, ander the titles of *'Anetrdota GniBca*'and " Anecdota Lritina." Bat his 
most imporrjuit labors were ref^irved for the capital of his native duciiy, whither, in 
1700, he was r called bv the Duke of ModcMisi, to take charge of tiie celebnited 
D'E^te Library, and of the dncal arcliives; liis only ecclesiastical preferment bciii:; 
lliat of provost of the chnrch of 8t Mary, at Fomposa. From the date of in's retnru 
to Miidena, M. began to devote himself more exclusively to Italinn history, e9p<;ci- 
ally to tlie history of medieval Italy ; and bis lal)ors in this department extended 
over the (Greater purt of his life. It was not until the year 1728 that the first volume 
of his great collection, *^ Reram Italicarum Scriptores," appeared, and thu work 
proceeded at regular intervals for nearly thirty years, the last of the twenty-.ighc 
folio volumes which compose it bearing the date of 1751. Tiiis immense publication, 
which was produced by the joint contributions of the princes and higher nol>iljt^ 
of Italv, embraces a range from the 5tli to the 16th c, and contains aU the cliront* 
cles of Italy during that vast period, illustrated with commentaries and critical no« 
tices. It was accompanied by a collection of dij^serlations llInHtrative of the reli- 
gious, literary, social, political, military, and commercial relations of tiie several 
states of Italy during the period, in 6 vols, folio, 1788—1742, a work 
which, although far from beintf exempt fi*om errors, Is still regarded as 
as a treasure-house ot medieval antiquities. Wliilo engtiged in these pro- 
digious labors, M. carried on an active literary correspondence with tlie 
scholars of the various countries of Europe, and contributed eswiys not uufreqnently 
to the principal historical and literary academies, of most of which lie was a mem- 
l>er. He was the first-, moreover, to nndertako a general History of Italy from tiie 
commencement of the vulgar era down to his own time, it is in 12 vols. 4to, and 
still retains its value as a book of reference, having been continued by Coppi clowii^ 
to the year 1819. In his capacity of arcliivist of the l>nke of Modona, lie compiled,^ 
in two vols, folio, the ** AnMqulties of the d'E-^te Family" ^1710-1740), as well as a 
series of historical and polemical treatises on certain territoriil questions in dispute 
between the House of Modeua and the court of Rome. To tlie d partnient of classi- 
cal scholarship, M.'s collection of "Inscriptions" (6 vols, folio, i78»— 1748), whicli, 
in tills point of view, was a necessary supplement to tlie collection of Gmter and tiie 
other antiquaries wiio had preceded him, is still acknowledged as a most import4Uit 
contribution ; and he has also left woriss of standard merit in tlie departments of 
jurisprudence. Of literary criticism, of poetry, of biography, and even of the history 
or medical science. In the studies of his own profession, ns well liturgical and 
liistocjcal, as dogmatical and even asceiical, M., altliou^h he did not follow the 
method of the schools, was hardly less distinguished than if he had made these the 
pursuit of his life. Soaie of liis opinions were regarded with disfavor, if iioi direci ly 
condemned; bnt his vindication of himself, addressed to tlie learned Pope Benedict 
XIV., drew forth a warm and honorable testimony to the upriglitness of his motives, 
wliich, without approving of the opinions to which exception had l>een taken, de- 
clared tliem free from the imputation of being contrary eitlicr to the doctrine or to 
the discipline of the church. Although M.'s life was essentially that of a scholar, 
yet his exactness in discharging the duties of a parifh priest was beyond ail pr:i:se, 
and several of the existing cliaritable institutions of Poinposa were founded by iiim. 
He died at Modena. January 28, 1760, in his 78th year. His works, wiiich it would 
be tedious to enumerate in full detail, flii 46 volumes in folio, 84 in 4to, 13 in 8vo, 
and many more in 12mo. Sjme of these are posthumous, and were published by 

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lff« nephew, Q. F. Mnratorl, from whom we also hare a life of hiB ditttiugaiaUed 
Uide, m 4to, piinted at Omer, 1768. 

MURCHISON, Sir Boderick Iiupey« geologist and geographer, was born at Tar- 
rad^le, Ro88-6hire, iu 1792. He whs educated at tbe Grainmar-schooi, Durham, aud 
haviug a bias for military life, next stndicd at the Military Coliei>:e, Murlow. He 
cntei^ the army at no early age, aud served as au officer in the 86th Ui'giraetit in 
8puii.aiid Porlugiil. He was placed on the staff of UIh ancle, Qeueral Sir Alexander 
llilackeuzie, aud then obUdnea ii captaincy iu tbe 6th Dragoons. Quittiug the army 
in 18U, he devoted liims*elf to scieuce — more especially to geology. He afterwards 
travelled iu various parts of the globe. He fouud the same sediu^utary stnita iyiug 
in the earth's crn.«t beneath the old red sandstone in the mouiitainons regions uf 
Norway and Sweden, in the vast and distant provinces of the Russian empiru, aud 
aK-o iu America. The result of his investigations was the discovery and estublish- 
nicnt of the Silurian system, which won for liim the Copl. y Bfedal of the Royal 
Society, and £ui'0|)e:in reputation as a geolo^st. His subsequent exposition of the 
Devonian, Permian, aud Laurentiau systems increased and cuntlrmed his reputation. 
He explored several parts of Getmany, Poland, and the Carpathian!* ; and iu 
1840 he commenced a geological sui*vey of the Rnssiau empire, under the counte> 
nance of the imperial government. M. de Verneuil was associated with him in this 
great work, comuletedin 1845. Struck with the resemblance in geological structure 
between the Ural Mountains and the Australiau chaiu, M., iu his anniversary address 
in 1844, first predicted the dis^rovery of gold in Australia. In 1846, f^ix years l)efore 
that metal was practically worked, he addressed a letter to thePresideut of tlie Royal 
Geological Society of Cornwall, inciting the unemployed Cornish tin-miners to 
emigrate and dig forgokifn Australia. He was elected President of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Scieuce in 1846 ; President of the Royal Geographical 
Society iu 1844 aud 1845 ; was re-elected in 1867, and coutlnn« d to hold that post 
till 1810, when he was compelled to resign it by paraly^i8. His nnniversary ad- 
dresses to the geographers were of great interest and value. Perhaps no man of 
the present century has done more to promote geographical science at home, and 
kindle a spirit of adventure among those engaged iu Arctic exploration on the one 
hand, and Africjin discovery on the other. In 1856, ho succeeded Sir H. De la Beche 
in the office of Director of the Mus4*um of Practical Geology. He was a D.C.L. of! 
Oxford. LL.D. of Cambridge, and a Vice-president of the Royal Society. He was 
knighted iu 1846, made K.C.B. iu 1853, and a barouet in 1863. From the Bmpercr 
of Russia he received the Grand Cross of St Anne, and also that ot St Stanislaus. 
He (lied 22d October 1871. The greater portion of his coutributious to scieuce were 
published In the "Transactions" of the Geological and other Societies. His princi- 
ml works were " The Silurian " (1836) ; "The Geology of Russia iu Euro|)e and the 
IJral Mountains," iu 1845 (2d ed. 1853;. He also puniislied [volumes on the ** Ter- 
tiary Deposits of Lower Styria," &c. (1830), the "Geology of Cheltenham" (1834), 
Ac— See »« Life of Sir Roderick M." by Anh. Geikie, LL.D. (1875), and obituaiy 
notice by Sir Hen 17 Rawliusou In ^' Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Soci- 
ety," vol. xvi. No. 4. 

MURCHJSO'NIA, a genus of fossil gasteropodous mollusca belonging to the 
fauiiiy HcUiotidcBj and so nauted in honor of Sir R. L Murchison. The geuus con- 
Bisisof atl(a«>t50 species, all which are characteristic of the Palaeozoic rocks, 
occurring in the series from the Lower Silurian up to the Permian. The shell dif- 
fers from the large genus Pleurotomaria only in beiu^ very much elongated. Like 
it, the whorls are sculptured aud zoned, tbe aperture is chaunelled in front, and the 
outer lip is deeply notched. 

MU'RCIA, ft former province of Spain, now suMivlded Into the smaller provinces 
of Albacete and Murcia, Is situated in the south-east of the |)eninsula. It is bounded 
on the u. by New Castile, on the e. by Valencia, on the s. by the Mediterranean, an<l 
on the w. by Granada, Andalusia, and New Castile. Area, 10,811 sq. m. Pop. (1870) 
660,040 (of modern province, 439,067). In the u.-e., the province is partly level ; but 
iu the s.-w., it is composed of vreat valleys, high plateaus, aud mountain ranges. The 
coast comprises stretches of desert. The principal river Is the Seguni^ which f[o\v8 
through the middle of the province from w. to e. Ou the whole, Ift* 'f not vtiy pro- 
ductive, aud never will be, ou accouut of the failure of yi^\^Xi Pftrily caused by the 

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Muro'a 1 A 

, MoricUe ^^ , 

destrnction of the forests. The only fertile districts nn? tlio Tiinejrf* of the S-jnini, 
and tbe Bide-vaU«ya of Lorca, Alhacete, Chinchilla, and Aln)an>a. Tlie E-p.-dlo 
wa»t«s have reinaiued uucultiviited shice the bauuishnient of the Moriscoes in idIO; 
and the auml of M., which is intended to irripite tlie arid Catupo dc Carttigenu, is - 
not vet finished. M. is one of the most thinly peopled districts ot Spain. The north 
yields wheat and barley; the south, maize, fruits, wine, oil, silk, and liemp. Qoutn, 
sheep, and swine are reared in great unnibers. In metals, salt, and mineral springs, 
M. is abundant; it has also many snieltiug-works for iron, lead, and cppper ores, 
brimstone and alum. The roads, however, are in the most wrelchid condirion, aud 
industry in general is still in a backward stat«. The-province was frightfnlly4leva»- 
tAted bv a great earthquake^ 18—21 Marcii 1829. M. was conquered by the Arabs in 
TU ; after tlie fall of Hie califate of Cordova, it became an independent Arab king- 
dom, but, six years afterward*, was subjugated by King Ferdinand IlL of Castile 
in 1241. 

MURCIA (the Roman JHurffi), a 1ar};;e, important, and ancient town of Spain, 
capital of the province of the same name, oa the left bank of the Segara, and near 
the junction of that river with the Sangonera, 60 miles south-west of Alicante. It 
stands in tbe midst of a beautiful and luxuriantly productive huerta or garden, 16 
miles In length, and from 7 to 8 miles wide. This huerta foijus a portion of what 
Is called the vale of M. ; is well watered, has a bright gr»en appearance evc;u 
in winter; produces wheat, flax, pulse, aud vegetables, and giown innumerable mnl- 
l>erry, orange, fl^, and palm trees. The streets of M. are nanow but clean, and the 
houses are gandny painted in pink and yellow. Its squares are filled with cypret^s, 
orange, lemon, and other southern trees. It is the see of a bishop suffragan to 
Toledo ; the cathedral is surmounted by a tower begun in 1522, completed 1766, 
and a'owned by a dome from which a magnificent view is obtained. The city con- 
tains few objects of fine art, u circumstance which is accounted for by tbe fact that, 
on the occasion of its siege by Sei>astiani, that general, after promising that persons 
and property should l)e respecttnl, enterod the town 2Sd April 1810, aud rifled it of its 
wealth and art-treasures. Silks, linens, baskets, mats, and cordage are nmnufac- 
tured, and oil-mills, tanneries, and other works are in operation. Pop. 80,000. 

MURDEK is the crime of killing a human being of malice aforethought, and is 
punishable with death. It is immaterial what means are employed to effect the ob- 
ject. Blackstone says that the name of murder, as a crime, was anciently applied 
only to the secret killing of another, which the word moerda signifies in the Teu- 
tonic language. And among the ancient Gtoths in Sweden and Diiimark, the whole 
vill or neighborhood was punished for the crime, if the murtlerer was not discov- 
ered. Murder is defined by Coke thus : ** When a person of sound memory and dis- 
cretion unlawfully killeth any reasonable creature in l)eing, and under the king's 
peace, witii nnilice aforethoiiirht, either «!xpres8 or implied." Almost every word in 
this definition has l>eeu the subject of discussion in the numerous cases that have 
occurred in tin; law-courts. 'Vha murderer must be of sound memory or discretion ; 
i. e., he must l>e at least 14 years of age, and not a lunatic or idiot. The >ict must l)e 
done niilawfnlly, i. e., it nmst not i>e in self-defence, or from other justifiable cause. 
The person killed must be a reasonable creature, and hence killing a child in the 
womb is not murder, but is punishable in another way (see Infanjtioide). The e:^ 
seutial thing in murder is that if be done maliciously and deliberately ; and hence, in 
cases of hot blood and scnfflin;;, the offence is generally manslaughter only. Kill- 
ing by duelling is thus murder, for it is delil)erate. It is not necessary, in onlcivto 
constitute mui'der, that the murderer kill the man he intended, provided he had a 
deliberate design to mui'der someone. Thus, if one shoots at A, and missi'S him, 
but kills B, this is murder, liecauso of the previous felonious intent, which the law 
tran!«fers from one to the other. So if one lays poison for A, and B, against whom 
the noisoner had no felonious intent, takes it, and Is killed, this is murder. For- 
merly, in England, the Benefit of (Tlergy (q. v.) was allowed in cases of murder, till 
it was abolished by 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c 28. The only sentence on murderers is now 
death, which is carried out l)y banging. Formerly, the murderer was directed after 
death to l>e hung on a gibl)et in chains near the place of the crime. Formerly, also, 
dissection was added as part of the sentence, and the execution was to take place 
on the day next but one after sentence. But now an interval of u fortnight usually 

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' ~ "I ?;: / Murda 

^ '^ Mar.da 

ttfces place, and the body is bnried in the precinct^ of the prison. Attempts to 
innnler were until receutly puuinhable in Eiigiuiid like capital ft- lony ; bnt now at- 
tempts to murder are punishable only with penal servitude fur life, or lor not lees 
than three years. 

MU'REX, a Linnsean ^eiios of gasteropodons moUnMS, of which has now been 
formed the family ifuricuto, beloneiug to the order Peetinibranchiata of Cuvicr. 
Tiie sexes are distinct; the aDimal has a broad foot, often mucli cxpande<l ; the 
eyed are not uu stalks; the shell has a straight canal in front, often prolonged 
through part of a very long beak ; no canal l>etiind. The Muricidoi mII prey on 
other mollusci), boring throuL'h the bhells with their hard-tootlied probo&cir. The 
name Rook-shell is often given to many species of M. ; and HOioe, from the length 
of the beak, are called Woodcook-sbell. Some have the shill beset with long and 
regularly arranged spineV. The whorls of the shell are niaikcd with ndj,'< s» «r 
varices. Some ppecies of M. nre found on the British coacts. Species are found in 
all parts of the world ; the largest are tropical. The ancients (ihUiincd their purple 
dye isc^TYBiAir Purple) from species of M., particularly M. ti'unculxis and Al. bran- 
daris. The Venus Comb uf the Indian seas is Jtf . tnWtM, a very deiicatt- and 
l>eaatifnl shell, with many long tliin spines. Fossil iffin'etc^^e are nanieroos, but are 
scarcely found in any formation older than tiie eocene teriiaiy. 

MUHE'XIDE, Purpnrate of Ammonia, or Roman Purple, a curious coloring 
matter obtained from guano. It is similar to tl»e purple dye or Tyrinn purple of 
the ancl<!Uis, which was made from a specie? of Murex — hence \\a name. Mnrexide 
is a prt)duct of unc acid, and as this exists in abundance, and in a very free state, 
iu guano, that material has Ixien found one of the best sources from which to ob- 
tain it. One process usied by Mr Ruronoy of Manchei'ter, the chief manufnctun r 
of this material, to produce murexide, is to dissolve ufic acid in dilute nitric iicid, 
and after evaporating for some time at a temperature a little short of boiling, whilst 
still hot, to add a sliuht excess of ammonia. Two compoui^da are formed by this 
process, Alloxan and Alloxantin, and their mutual reaction on eacli other re.-ults in 
tlie formation of the i)eantiful minut(* green metnllic-lnstred crystals of murexide. 
which, in combination with some of the compounds of lead and mercury, yield 
most brilliant red and purple dyes. The use of murexide was becoming extensive 
until the discover}* of tlie aniline colors, the greater biilllancy of which has cliecked 
it-* t'mployment. Jtfntexide is used in printing both cotton tmd silk goods, wliich, 
under the luime of the ** Jcomau-pnrple style, '"has been broaght to great perfect ion 
by several large firms. 

MU'RGAB, a river of Central Asia, which rises on the northern border of 
Afgh.tnistan, in the Hindu Eush, immediately to the north of the sources of the 
Heri (q. v.). The M. flows westward, tlien uOrth-westward, and finally northward, 
passing from amongst the mountains in which it has its source into the desert 

itlains of Turkestan, where the volume of its water jrradcally diminishes, until it 
inally loses itself in a swamp in the sandy plain of Merv, after a course of about 
400 miles. In the upper i)art of it« course it receives many tributaries, but none iu 
the lower. Tlie most noteworthy place oii its I)ank8 is Merv, or Meru (anc Antio- 
eheia Margiana)^ & town of Independent Turkestan, abont 800 miles south-east 
from Khiva. Merv was an important town in the days of the Seijuk dynasty, of 
which it was the cjipital, but is now very ruinous. 

MXJRIA'TIC ACID. See Htdrochlorio Acid. 

MU'RIDJE, a family of rodent cmadrnp' ds, containing many genera and a very 
larce numl)er of si>ecies, distributed over all parts of the world, and of which rais 
and mice may l>e regarded as typical examples. ■ To this family belong also voles, 
lemmings, dormice, jerboas, marmots, Ac. The M. are of the section of rodents 
having distinct clavicles. They liave three or four molars on each side in each jnw, 
the molars at first furnished with round^ tubercles, which wear down till they 
exhibit mere roughened crowns. The typical M., and those most nearly allied to 
them, have scaly tails. Marmots, dormice, jerboas, Ac , have hairv tails. There 
are great diversities of structure and habits among the Muridee. All of them feed 
on vegetable food, bnt many of them are ready also to eat animal substances.— The 
limits of the family M. are very differently stated by different naturalists. 

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Murray aO 

MURILLO, Bartho1om6 Estfeban, was bom at Seville-, and baptised Jnn. 1, 
1618: aud after receiving some education, was placed with liis reiutive, Juan del 
Castillo, to Btndy painting. Having saved a little money, which he made by paint- 
ing religioas pictares for exportation to South Aroeriui, he went to Madrid in 1641, 
being then in his 24th year, wa8 favorably noticed by hi-5 celebrated townsman, 
Yelasqnez, and through his influence, was enabled to study the efui/B-d'oBtwre of 
Italian and Flemish art in the royul collections. In 1645, he determined to return 
to Seville, though advised to proceed to Rome by Velat^quez, who oflEered him leitera 
from the king. After Settling in Seville, lie i-eceived numerous important commis- 
sions, aud was soon acknowled;;ed as the head of the school tiiere. In 1648, M. 
married a lady of fortune ; he now maintained a handsome establishment, aud his 
lionse was the resort of people of taste and fashion. The Academy of Serville wns 
founded by him in 1660, but he filled the oflke of presidentjDtily during the first year. 
He felt from a scaffold when painting in Cadis on an altar-piece for the Church oC 
the Capuchins, ndurned to Seville, aud soon after died from the Injury he received, 
April 8, 1682. In early life, he painted many pictures illustrative of Immble life ; iu 
these, the manner was daikerand less refined than that exhibited in his liter Vic- 
tures, which are mostly scrinturai or religioui* pieces. In the Louvre, and in Eng- 
Jatid, there are ubout forty or his works. Sir David Wilkie, who greatly admired and 
carefully studied the Spanish school, baa remarked, iu reference to It: ** Velasquez 
and Murillo are preferi-ed, and preferred with reason, to all the others, as the most 
original and characteristic of their schooL Those two great painters are remarkaiile 
for having lived in tiie same time, in the same school, painted for the sanitf people, 
and of the same age, and yet to have formed two styles so different aud opposite, 
that the most unearned can scarcely mistake them; Murillo being all BOttness, 
while Velat^quez is all sparkle and vivacity." 

MU'RO, an episcopal to^^'n of South Italy, in the province of Poteuza, 17 railea 
north-west of the town of Potenz:u Its cjistle, built on a heiglit overlooking the 
ravine, was the scene of the murder of Joaniia I., queen of Naples. Pop. 8388. 

MURO'M, or Mooroin, a town in the south-east of the governnientof Vladimir, 
in European Russia, 70 miles east-s-outh-east of Vladimir, and situated on the right 
bank of the Oka, a tributary of the Volga. Pop. (IS67) 11,286. The chief indnstriid 
establishments are tanneries and sail-cloth and linen factories. The fisheries on the 
Oka supply the surrounding country. M. i>' also noted for its orchards and kitchen- 
gardens, the latter of wliich supply a great portion of Russia with cucumber-seed 
of the first quality. Gypsum quarries In the neighborhood are extensively worked 
during winter. There is a large trade in wheat, flux, linseed, and timber. M. has a 
very nicturesqHo appearance, and was formerly surrounded by impenetrable for^'stj*. 
It is frequently mentioned iu the old national ballads, aud is one of the most ancient 
towns of Russia. 

MU'RRAJN is the generic term loosely used to designate a variety of diseases 
of domestic animals, but more correctly restricted to the vesicular epizootic, popu- 
larly known as the mout'a and foot disease. It is a contigious eruptive fever, affect- 
iui; cattle, sheep, pig?, and poultry; but rarely communicable to hoi-ses or men. It 
is characterised by the appearance of little bladdia's or vesicles iu the month, on the 
lips, gums, and tongue; on the udder, and in the Intel-digital space; causing inability 
to eat, and drivelling of saliva, heat and swelling of the udder, and lameness. Thvj 
disorder runs a fixed and definite course usually in eight or ten days. Good nursing, 
comfortable lodgings, and a liberal supply of soft, easily digestible food, are tne 
chief requisites for si>eedy recoveiy. A laxative may be given if needed. The 
mouth may be washed out twice daily with a mild astringent eolntiou, which may be 
made with half an ounce of alum, oxide of zinc, or sugar of lead, to the quart of 
water. The udder in milch cows, iu wliich the complaint is usually most serious 
should be bathed with tepid water bc:fore aud after milking, which must be attendi d 
to very regularly ; aud the feet kept clean, and washed occasioually with the lotiou 
used Cor the moutht 

MURRAY, or Moray. James Stewart, Barl of, sometime called the "Good 
Regent," was the natural sou of James V. of Scotland, by Margaret, daughter of 
John, fourth Lord Erskiuc, afterwards wife of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochlevcu. 
He was born about 1631, made Commeudator of the priory of St Audrews iu 1688, 

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, f^ Mnnllf 

. ; •"■' _ , Marwf 

andsabe^qneutly of the priorv of MAcon (in France). He Joined the Reformers i0 
1566, and alraost immediutely became tbe chief of the Protestnnt pariy iu Scotland; 
In 1661, be was sent to France, to invite Queen Mary to retnrn to her kinsdom ; and 
on her arrival, be became her prime minister and adviser. In February 1562, he wa* 
created Barl of Mar; but that earldom having been claimed by Lord Erekiue, th€ 
title of Earl of Moray was conferred npon hfm InateHd" a few months nfterwarda. 
Strongly opposed to the marriage of Mary with Lord Daniley4 29th July 1666, he en- 
deavored to oppose it by nn appeal to armt> ; but he was easily put to flight by tlM 
queen, and obliged to take refuge in Etiglaiid. Ue did not return to Edinlmrgh til 
the lOtli March 1666, the day alter the assussiustion of RIccio. in which he was an 
accomplice. In April 1567, he went to France, but was reca'ied in August of the 
same year by the lordrf in arms aga'.nst the queen, when he found Mary a pnt«ouei 
in Ix)chleven, and himself appointed regent of the kingdom. After iheescnpe of tli« 
queen, he defeated lier forces, May i8, 1663, at Ltiugside, near Glasgow, and \vm 
afterwards one of tiie coniniisi>ioners sent to Eiiglimd to conduct tli'negotiationa 
against her. By his prompt and vigorous measures, seal, and prudence, he succeeded 
iu securing the peace of the. kingdom, and settling tlie nffairs of the church, but was 
assnssinnted at Linlithgow by Hamiltun of Bothwellhaugli, January 21, 1570. 

MURRAY, John, the name of three generations of English publishers, will for 
ever remain associated with the pnhnie^t days of EuKlit^h literature in the ISMi and 
19th centuries. The founder of the house, Johi*M'Muiray, was born in Edinburgh 
about 1745. He obtained a commission iu the Royal Marines in 1762, and in 1168 
was still second-lieutenant, when, disgusted with the slowness of promotion, and 
panting for a more active career, he purchased the bookselling business of Mr 
8Audl)y, opposite St Dunstan's Church, London ; and, dropping the Scottish pn-flx, 
became a iTOokseller and publisher at '* 82 Fleet Street." He brought out tiie '* Eng- 
lish Review, ** and published the elder Disraeli's "Curiosities of Literature," Ac 
Ho could himself wield the pen, as some pamplilets remain to testify. Ue died 
November 16, 1793, and was succeeded in due time by his son John, who wap left a 
minor of fifteen at his father's death. One of the earliest hits of John the second was 
Mrs Rundell's Cookery-book, which proved to t>e a mine of wealth— more produc- 
tive, nttrhsns. than ** Childe Harold " itself. He heciiine connected with Thonins 

CarapWl and Sir Walter Scott, and in 1808—1809, projected the *♦ Quarterly Review," 
a Toi-y organ, in opposition to the Whig " Edinburgh Review," then in the height 
of its influence. The fli-st unml)er was published February 1, 1809, under the editor- 
ship of William Giffoi'd. The new j)eriodical was completely successful, and 
brought M. into communication not only with the chief literati, but also with the 
Conservative statesmen of the time. A still more fortunate acquaintance was that 
with Lord Byron, whose " Childe Harold " was published by M. in 1812. M. now 
removt^ from Fleet Street? to AHwmarle Street, where the business is still car- 
ried on. Here Byron and Scott first met, and here Southey made the acquaint^ince 
of Crabbe. Almost all the literary magnate? of the day were " four o'clock visitors " 
in Albemiirle Street. Byron's pleasant verae has described the scene : 

** The room's so lull of wits and bards, 
Crabbes, Campbells, Ci-okers, Freres, and Wards." 

M.'fi dinner-parties included politicians and statesmen, as well as authors, artists, 
and dilettanti. M. paid Byron nearly jC20,000 for his works, and his dealings with 
Crabl)e, Moore, Campbell and Irving, were princely. The second John M. died in 
his 66th year, in 1843, and was succeeded by his son, John M. ihc ihiitl. Burn in 
1808, he was educated first at the Charr^r flouse, and afterwards at Jiklinbnrgh Uni- 
versity. The age of Byron had gone by, when, hi 1843, he succeeded to the hnslness 
of Iris father and grandfather. A more prartical and realistic nge iiad succeeded, and 
the " Home and (>)k)nial Library," issued to beat off foreign and American piracies, 
was the precursor of the cheap railway and other literature of the present day. A 
lively and vigorous competition, arising out of the wants of anew era, hMS somewhat 
altered the relation of tlic great publishing houses. That of Albemarle Street no 
longer ranks first iu the extent and vaiiety of its transactions, but many of tlie great- 
est works in history, biography, travel, art, and science have issued fnan the Albe- 
marle Street press under the regime of the third M urrny. A inong his later successes 
may be mentioned Dr Livingstone's " Tmvels " and " Last Journals," Smiles's ** Lite 

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of George Steplieii«on,*' and Clmrles Darwin's " Origin of Species by Nntaral Selec- 
tion." Uis baudbuoks of coiitlueutat travel have lately been »uppleineiited by hand- 
books of Bnglish counties, and tiiese, it is understood, owe ranch to the personal 
assistance and superintendence of the present head of the fainons lionse of Manay. 

MURRAY, Lindley, an Bnglish grammarian, was bora at Swatara, Lancaster 
County, PennsylTuola, U.S., in 1745w He was enncated at an academy of tlio Soci- 
ety of Friends, Mud, on his father's removal to New York, waspiuct-d hi ii cotintiiie 
house, from which he escaped to a school in N«w Jerm-y. He then studied law, and 
wa^« admitted to the bar at the age of 21, and connneiiced u good practice. During; 
the revolutionary war he engaged in niercantiie imrsnits with puch saccess b» to 
acca<nulat43 a handsome fortune. His liealih failing, he came to Biiglnnd and 
piirchasud the estate of Holdgate, near York, where h« d voted hiuiseU to litertiry 
pursuits. In 178T, he published his "Power of U«'ligion on tht* Mind," which passed 
throuifh seventeen editions. His ** Qraminar of the Bnglish Language " was issuRd. 
in 17»5, an<f was followed by *♦ English Exercises," the ** K- y." the "Bngliali 
Reader," "Introduction and Sequel,'' and a " Si>elling Book." There can be uo 
stronger indication how entirely the systematic study of tliK English language waa 
— ^nntil reci'nt years — neglected by scholars, than the fact, that M.'s Grammar was 
for half a century the standard lext-bouk throughout Britain and Anieiica. M. 
wrote an autobiography to the year 1809, which was published after his death, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1826. 

MU'RRAY RIVER, the principal river of South Aastralla. See Australia. 

MURSHEDABA'D, a town of India, capitil of a British dhstrict of the same 
name iu Bengal proper, is situated <M) the left hank of the Bhagratti, a brunch of 
the Gauge:<, about 124 m. n. of CalcntUu On the opposite side of the river slanda 
Mahinagar, usually reckoned a i>art of M. The town occupies u great space, lieius 
several miles both in leus^th and breadth, but the buildings are for the mo-^t part (^ 
mud. It contains two palaces; the one, old and gloomy; the otiier, constructed 
after the European style, and of great heanty, wag coiuplet+tl in 1840. Situated on 
the most frequented route by water from Cilcntta to the North- West Province.*, the 
trade of M. is important. Formerly, it was the capibil of Bengal, and so wealthy, 
that Clive compared it with Lindon. Pop. (1871) 46,182, of whom aboat 60 per cent, 
arc Hindus, and 40 per cent- Mohammedans. 

MURVIE'DRO, a small town of Spain, in the province of Valencia, and 18 
miles north-north-ettstof the city of that name on the left bank of the Palancia, 
and two miles from its mouth. Pop. about 6000. It stands on the site of the 
ancient Sagnntum (q. v.). 

MURZU'K. See Fbzzan. 

MUSA'CE^, a natural order of endogenous plants, the largest of herbaceous 
plants, generally destitute or almost destitute of true stems, yet resemblinjf trees im 
appearance, and sometimes rivalling palms in stateliness; i lie long t«heathmgba^e8 
of the leaf-stalks combining to form a false stem. The »»lade of the leaf has many 
fine parallel veins proceeding from the midrib to the margin. Tlie flowers are con- 
gregated on spadices, which are protected by S])athes. The fruit is either u 8-valved 
capsiule or fleshy. — The species are not numerous ; they are natives of warm 
climates, in which they are widely distributed, and are of great value to the 
inhabitants of tropical countries; the fruit of sonLe, particularly of the genuA 
Muaa^ l)eing much used for food, whilst the fibres of the leaves are employed 
for coidage and for textile pnr|)0.«es. See Plantain. Banana, and Abaoa. A 
very interesting plant of the order M. is the Tbayxllbr's Tbek (q. v.) of Mada- 

MUSAUS, Johann Karl August, a German writer, Iwrn in 1787 at Jenti, whero 
he studied theology, was nominated to a country church, but prevents d from enter- 
ing upon the cure committed to him In consequence of the opposition of the i>e!isan- 
try of the parish, who i*efiised to receive him on the ground tliat he had beeu once 
seen to dance. In 1763, he received the ap|>ointment of tutor to the pages at thu 
ducal court, and in 1770 he became professor at tlie Weimar gymnasium. His flr^t 
lit^iary prodnetion, which appeared in 1760, was a parody of Richardson's **Sir 
Charles Qraudisou," which was at that time extravagantly admii-ed iu Germany. 

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10 Monr«y 


The Bnccees of thfs satirical sqnib was complete; bat as literary fame did uot bring 
with It a correspoDdiug amouut of pecuniary reward, M. was com))elled to gain hi? 
living bv other meaoa than writing ; uud au iuteryal of more thau eighteen yearf^ 
elapt^ before he found leisure to reMpi>eur as an author. In 1778, he pubii8bed iiil 
** Fliyeiognomischen Reisen," in which lie endeavored, by good nutorea yet ptrilcind 
satire, to counteract the absurd uses to wliich the Oermans of his day Itad tiinn J 
L«vater*8 system. This, like his previous work, was preeminently siicceHsfnl, ai d 
encouraged l)y tlie marks of popn ar favor witli whicli it was received, lie laid asid* 
Ills incognito, ^nd coiitlnued to a>^vote himself to authorship. In 1782, appeared hit 
channing version of Qerinsm folk-lore, under the title of ** Volksmftrchen der 
Deutschen," which profH^^e<l lo be merely, a collection of popufar tales iiotxtl down 
from the lips of illiterate old country i>eople; hut tliooe tales were tinctured with 
such a hlending of genial iminor, quaint fancy, and t^trung s<>iise, tbat tiiey havf 
1>ecome u classical work of their kind, popular among persons of every use and 
class. His satirical sketeiies, entitled " Fr» und Heiim £rt«heiiiungeu iu Holbein's 
Manier," (Winterthiir, 17S5), maintained his reputation as one of the sprigbtli< i*t 
and mo^t genial satirists ot bis country. Under the name of Schellenberg. he l)e- 
gaii a courts of tales, " Straussfedern " (Berl. 1787), which, however, lie did not 
five to complete. He died in 1787. His "Morallsche Kinderklapper"api)eared ihe 
year after hisdeath, while his other po^thnmous writings were edited in 1791, wiih 
an interesting notice of the author, by his relative and pupil. A. V. Kotz< hue M.'m 
style was at once conect and elegant, adapting itself with lingular flexibil?ty to 
the various subjects which he handled: wliile the unaffected geniality and liunk 
loving nature which are reflected in all lie wrote, have deservedly made him one 
of the most popular writers of his day in Germany. 

MUS-fi'US, one of the ancient Greek po<?ts of the mythic period, is said to have 
been the son of Enmolpus and Selene; aec<»rdiiig to others, the son and pu|>il of 
Orplieus. To him was ascribed the introduction of the Eleusinian and oilur myn- 
teries into Greece, and the ordering of many religious rites. He was among the 
ancients also the reputed author of a unjjiher of poems, oracles, purlfleatory verses, 
a war of theTitans,*a theogony. hymns, &c. ; but of the few verses which remain 
the authenticity is very doubtful.— A later Mus^us, who probably floiirished about 
the end of t'le sixth c. of the Christian era, wus the author of a very pleasing ama- 
tory poem, iu Greek, entitled "Hero and Leander," discovered in the ISth c. of 
"whicn the first edition was published by Aldus Mauutius about 1^4, and of which 
there have been many suhi*( qiient ediiiouti. 

MU'SC^ VOLT TA'NTES Is the term applied to ocular 8pf>ctra, wliich appear 
like fli. s on the wing, or floating black spots heforf the eyes. There are two icinds 
of muscse volitantes — the one a {perfectly harmless kind, while the other is sympto- 
matic of one of the most serious diseanes of the eyes, viz., amaurosis. 

Whoever will look through a minute pin-hole in a card at the clear sky may see 
floating l)efore bis sight a number of translucent tubes or flbres, and many little 
beads, of which some are separate, some attached to thetul)es, and some apparently 
withhithem. Some of the tubes or fibres are ntraight, other:< looped or twisted, and 
others again forked. All these objects are briuht hi the middle, and bounded by flne 
black liuis, beyond and parallel to which may be seen an appearance of colore<l lines 
or fringes. The doublings and crossings of the loops or knots in the twisted fibres 
appi'ar as black points. Though the eye be fixed, these l)odies change their |K)- 
sitioii with greater or le.-s rapidity. Now, in ordinary light and vision all these ohj etg 
are imperceptible, unless the knots or fibres hai>pen to be larger than usual, wIm'U 
they constitute the harmless kind of musc« volitantes. The lilack lines and fringes 
are phenomena of the inflexion or diffraction (q. v.) of light, which are never seen 
except in divergent raysj^and all muscse volitant^» having sucii fringes must be 
situ .ted at a greater or less distance from the retina ; and there are conclusive rea- 
sons for believing that th-y occupy the vitreous humor, and cannot therefore por- 
tend amaurosis ; whereas those black spot« which have no fringes, and which do 
not move, or which move only with the motions of the eye, .are points in tiie retina 
which are insensible to light, and are therefore to '>e dr.aded as symptomatic of 
danger to vision. To decide, then, whether the iniiPCie volitantes arc or are lot 
iudfcativo of danger, the patient should fix his eye ou a white surface (as a sheet of 

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Ite"^"* 20,. 

letter-paper) after a Btiddeti »liake of the head ; if they sink gently dowiiwafdi, 
they are lunoceut. It should perhaps be added, that thougli they seem to descend; 
they must In reality be ascending; floating tip in the vitreous htimor as far as the 
cellular partitions formed by tlie hyaloid membrane will permit See EtU* Fof 
further iuformatlon on the differencei between tlie innocent and the daugerona 
forms of musccB voUtantes, tlie readef is referred to an article by SirDatidBrewstet 
in the " North British Keview " for November 1866. 

MU'SOARDINB, or 8llk-worni Rot iBotrytU JkL89iana)i a fungus <pee BoTRTTis) 
which grows on silk-woriuS) and often kilL-t them in great nnm1>ert>. It consists of 
erect branching threads, wiih clusters of spores at the end uf shoi't lateral brHnches. 
I'he s})ore8 of this fungus germinate eveu on healthful silk-worms, and In circuni- 
stances otherwise most favorable to their healthfnlness. They germinate also on 
the caterpillars of othei" lepldopterous inspects. When tlii^ pc.-t ijtjpenrs among silk- 
worms, its progress* cannot be checked by any meaiifi known. For preveutiuu, It is 
most important that the siik-wurms be not overcrowded. 

MUSCAT, or Maskftt, an independent Arab slate, forming the sea-cbftst of OmAii, 
in Eastern Arabia. It <'Xtjnds from the Strait of Ornuis to the Island of Moseirali, 
nnd now liere exceeds 160 miles in width. The coast ^id intirior arc both ett^rilei 
but the country is studded with veiy feriile oa?cs. Thi; Cnpltal is Muscat (popula- 
tion, 60,000), on the Persian Gulf, a foi-tlfled town, snrroundfd with pHrdens and 
date-palms. It luis a very good liarbor, which, in the winter njonllis, is reckoned 
tlie best refuge in the Indian Ocean, and is a most important centre of trade, where 
the productions of Europe, of Africa, and of the East are exchanged. Tlie princl- 

Sal exiTorts are Arai)ian coff -e and pearls obtained from the Persian Golf; but wheat, 
ates. raisins, salt, sulphur, drugs, nnd horses ure tdso exported. Tlie ludcpendenco 
of Oinftn dates from 761, wnen the people elected a povereign of their own. For IWO 
years the Imaums wei**? elected for personal merit, and afterwards from meml)er8 of 
par.sonal merit, and afterwards from mtnnljers of a ruling family. M. was taken by 
Albuquerque in 1507, and remained in the hands of the Portoiruese till 164S, when 
the Arabia recovered possession oti it. Tlie Imatims nfterwn ds made extensive 
conquei»tjs in Ensteni Africa, including Zanzibar, Moinbas, Qnlioa, Ac. In 179S. 
they acquired possession of the coastsof Laristan nnd Mogisian, the islands of El 
Kishim and Ormns, and the town of Bender Abbas in Persia, paying to the Shah 
a rent or tribute of 6000 tomans. The state was yery prosperous under the wise and 
miid sway of Said Seid. the late Imaum. He ascended the throne in 1808, ut the 
age of 16, and reigned till his death in 1866. Re was long a ftilthrnl ully of Eng- 
land. In 1854, the Imaums were driven from their Persian dependencies, which m 
their opinion belonged to them in i)erp3talty so long as they paid the rental. They 
recaptured BcJiider Abbas, but in consequence of English interference, they were 
compelled to conclude a treaty with Persia in April 1866. This is said to have 
broken the h^urt of the old Seid, who died on 19th Oct, 1856. He iippoluted his 
son Majid to succeed hlin in Zanzibar, and liis son Thuwany to succeed him in 
Muscat. The latter was murdered by bis son Salim in 1868, who reigned for a 
short time, but was driven' out by his uncle, Sayed Tnky. Inconsequence of the 
unsettled state of aflahs in M., Persia has assumed the irovtrnment of Bender 
A-bbas and the Persian coast territory. See Zanzibar nnd Wahabis.— See "His- 
tory of the Imaums and Sen-ids of Oman," by Sahib-iUp-Razik, from the Arabic, by 
Rev G. P. Badger (1871); Markham's "History of Persia" (1874). 

MU'SCATEL (Ital. moeoado, musk), the name given to many kinds of sweet and 
strong French and Italian wines, whether white or red. Amongst the finest nre the 
white Rivesalt and red Bagnol wines from RoQssillon, and the Lunei from the Py- 
renees, the LiicrymflB Ohristi and Carigliano of Naples, 4tc. 

MtJSCATI'NE, 8 city of Iowa, V. 8., is on the west bank of the Mississippi, 
100 miles above Keokuk, and 82 south-east of Iowa city. It has a large trade by 
the river, and several railroads, three steam flour-mills, planing-machines, fonrlnrgo 
saw-miKs, which annually produce about 80,000,000 feet of timber, besides shingles, 
&c. There are 14 churches, schools, newspapers, &c. Pop. (1870) 6718. 

MU'SCHELKALK (Qer. shell-lime), the middle member of theTriassic, or New 
"Red Sandstone period, the beds of which ore entirely absent from the British strata. 

Digitized by 


Q 1 Mnsoard'ne 

-^ ■*• Mascio 

Being tj-pically developed in Germauy, the foreign name has been univerenlly 
adopted to designate them. They consist of (let) a serieH of compact, grayish, regu- 
larly-bedded limefltoue, more thnn 800 feel thick ; and <2d) alteriiutions of limestone, 
dolomite, marl, gypsum, and rock-salt, nemiy 800 feet thick. The limeBtoue abounds 
in the remains of Mollnsca. The pulBBOzoic Qoni.ititeB ai*e rephiced by the Ccratites, 
a remarkable link between them nnd ihe Secondary Ammonites. Ceratitesare di-- 
tingnished by the few small denticu)ati(m»( ol the inner lobes of the sntnre. The 
heads and stems of Lily eucrlnhes {Enerinus) are also abundant in these struta, aud 
the remains of ganoid fish have also been met with, 

MXJ'SCI. SeeMossBS. 

MUSCICA'PID^, a family of feirds of the order InsesBorea and tribe Dentiros- 
treSf of which the greater uninber receive the popular name Fly-catcher (q. v.). The 
limits of the family arc, however, very variously defined by different omlthologisis. 
The M. are mostly inhalntants of the warmer jiarts of the world, in which they are 
very widely diffused. The species are very numerous. 

MU'SCID^, a family of dipterous insects, having a short, thick membranous 
proboscis, genlculated ut the ba^e. entirely retractile so as to be concealed within 
the mouth, and terminated by two large lobes (see House-Fly) ; the antennae three- 
jointed; the thorax with a transverse suture. The species are very numerous, and 
universally distiibuted. More than 800 an- found in Britain, among whi<h are the 
well-known House-fly, Blow-fly, &c. The lat vjb are Maggots (q. v.). Although 
some of the M. are troublesome, none of them are so much so as species of some 
other allied families. 

MUSCLE AND MUSCULAR TISSUE. Muscular tissue is s|)ecia]ly distinguished 

by its contractile power, and is the instiumeut by which all Ihe sensible movemenis 
of the animal body are performed. When examined under a high magnifying 
power, the fibres of wlilch it is composed are found to exist under two forms, which 

can be distinguished from one another by the presence or absence of very dose and 
minute transverse bars or stripes. The fibres of the volurUarp muscles — or those 
whose movements can be influenced by tlie will— as well as the fibres of the heart, 
are striped; while those of the invofuiUary mmcleB — Ihe muscular structures over 
which we have no control— as, for example, the muscular fibres of Ihe intestinal 
canal, the uterus, and the bladder, are uiistriped. 

On examining an ordinary voluntary nmscle with the naked eye (a muscle from 
one of the extremities of any animal, tor example), we observe that it presents a 
fibrous appearance, and that the fibrt s are arniugcd with great regularity in the di- 
rection in which the mn.*cle is lo act or contract (for it is l)y their inherent power 
of contracting that muscles act). On clo8< r examination, it is foimd that these 
fibres are anunged In /(WCTCi*/?, or bundles of various sizes, enclosed in sheaths of 
areolar tissue, by which they are at the same time counected with and isolated from 
those adjoining them; and when the smallest /a«cicu/tt«, visible to the naked eye, 
is examined with the microscope, it is seen to consist of a number of cylindrical 
fibres lying in a parallel direction, and closely bound together. Tlmse primitive (or, 
as some writers term them, the ultirnate) fibres present two sets of markings or 
«irMB— viz., a longitudinal and a transverse set. The fibres, when separated from 
each other, frequcnily split longitudinally iuto Jib-rillai, Sometimes, however, when a 
fibre is extended, it separates in the direction of the transverse strise into a series of 
discs. Either cleavage ]S equally natnral,bnt the latter is the least common. Hence. o1)- 
serves Mr Bownnui, who hasajH-'cially inveslitrat*.d Ihe minute structure of the volun- 
tary muscle, '* it is as proper lo say tliat the fibre is a pile of discs as that it is a bun- 
dle of fibril'fe ; but^ in fact, it is neither the one nor the other, but a mass in whose 
structure there is an intimation of the existence of both, and a tendency to cleave in 
the two directions. If there were a general disintegration along all the lines in boih 
directions, there would result a series of ^)articles, which may be termed primitive 

varticles or sarcous eleTfteiUs, the union ot which constitutes the mass or tlie fibre. 
These elenienlai-y pai'ticles are arranged and united together in the two directions, 
- , .. .^,_ . ,. -, .... , ._ lother in size, r ' 

ose both. ^ To 
vice versa." '. 
m\a between tk( 

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and the resulting discs, as well as fibrillse, are equal to one another in size, and 
contain an equafnumbcr of particles. The san»e pnrticles compose both. ^ To dc- 
tadi an entire fibrilla is to abstract a particle of every disc, and vice versa." The 
fibres are aupplied with vessels and nci'VCB which lie in the intervals between tkcm, 



and are attached by their extremitlcB tliroagh the medinm of tendon or aponeuro-ia 
to tho parts which tliey are intended to move. Aggregated in parallel eeiiee, o£ 
greater or lesser size, and associated with nerves, vessels, tendinous structures, 
AC, tuey form the various MrrsoLES, which are for the most part solid and flou-* 
gated, but are sometimes expanded (as in the diaphragm) into a membranous shape. 
The length of the fil)ro8 is usually about that of the muscle in whicli they may 
occur, and may vary from two feet or more (in the sartorius muscle) to less than 
two lines (in the stapedius muscle in the middle ear) ; while their width varies from 
l-60th to l-1500th of an hich, being largest in crustaceaiiS, fishes, and reptiles, wheie 
their irritability, or property of contracting under the action of tt stimulus, 
is moat enduring, and smallest in birdt*. where it is most evanescent. Their 
average width in man is about l-400th of an Inch, being about l-352d of 
an inch In the male and l-454th of an inch iu tl»e fen»ale. Tlie average 
distance between the strife, or the size of tiie sarcoas elements in the 
human subject is l-9400th of an inch, the extremes being l-15000th and l-6000tli 
of an inch, according to the contraction or relaxation of the fibre. The form of the 
fii)res i?< polygonnl, their sides being flattened against those of the adjoining fiores. 
Each fibre is enclosed in a transparent, very deMcate, but tough and elastic tnbuiar 
8 lea h, whivih cannot always be readily seen, but is dis iucfly t^hewn stretching be- 
tween I he separated fragments of a fibre which has been hrolcen within it, for its 
tDU'^hness will often resist a force before which its brittle contents give way. This 
tubular slieath is known as t\\e sarcolerriTna ov myolemma — ihe former term being 
derived from tlie Greek words sarx^ fl sh, and lemma, a skin or husk; and tlie latter, 
from the Greek words mus, a muscle, aud lemnui. 

It was for a loiig time believed tliat the contraction of a muscle was associatrd 
with a change in tiie direct iou of each fii)re from a straight line to a sinuoins or zig- 
zag course. The investigations of Mr Bowman have, however, shewn tlnit this view 
is erroneous. He has proved that in a sfcite of contraction there is an a))))roxium- 
tion of 'the trausvei-se strise, and a general shortening with a simultaneous thickening 
of the fibre, but that it is nev -r thrown out of the straight line, except when it has 
ceased to contract, and its extremities are acted on by the contraction of adjacent 

Muscles grow by an increase, not of tlie nnmber, but of the bulk of their elemen- 
tary fibres ; and Mr Bowman believes "that the numl>er of fibres remains through 
life as it was in the foetus, and that the spare or muscular build of the individual is 
determmed by the mould in which his body was originally cast." 

The structure of the involuntary or unstriped muscles must now be considered. 
This form of muscular tissue most commonly occurs in the shape of flattened bands 
of considerable length, but of a width not exceeding l-2000ihor l-3000th of an inch. 
These bands are translucent, and sometimes slightly granular, and are usually 
marked at intervals by elongated nuclei, which become much more apparent on the 
addition of acetic acid. Kolliker has shewn that every one of these bands or fibres 
is either a single elongated cell (a fibre-cell) or is a fasciculus of sucli cells. These 
fibres have not usually fixed points of attachment like tlie striated fibres^ but form 
continuous investments around cavities within th(ibo<Iv — such as the intestinal canal, 
the bladder, Ihe uterus, the l)lood- vessels, &c. — or are dis|)ersed through the subs ance 
of tissues, such as the skin, to which they impart a contractile properly. 

The chemical composition of ordinary (or volBiitfiry) muscle is described in the 
article Fu:sh. It is only necessary to add that the fibrii'ae, or the sarcous elemt-nts 
of wliich they are co i posed, consist of a substance termed Stntoninb (q. v.). 
which closely resembles the fibrine or coagulating constituent of the blood; and 
that the same 8:^ntoninc is also the main constituent of the unstripcd muscles, or at 
all events of their fibre-cells. Like tlie blood-fibrine, it exists iu a fluid form in the 
living tissue, and only coagulates or solidifies after death. 

Our limited spacp prevents even an allusion to the arrangement aud distribution 
of blood-vessels, nerves, and areolar-t Issues in muscular structures; and we there- 
fore pass on to the consideration of the muscles and their functions. 

Muscles vary extremely in their form. In the limbs they are usually of consider- 
able length, surrounding the bones and forming an important protection to tlio 
joints; while in the trunk, they are flattened and tnoad, aud contribute very essen- 
thtlly to form the walls of the cavities which they enclose. There is unfortunately 

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DO dcfiuite rule regardlDg: the noraenclutnre of muscles. Mnscles derive their names 
(1) from their situutiou— ns tlie temporal, pectoral?, gluteals, Ac ; or (2) from ibcir 
direction — as the rectns, obliqous, &v., of which there mny be pevcra) pairs — as, for 
example, reclns femoris, rectns abdouiiualis, rectus capitis, &c ; or (3) from their 
uses — as the masseter, 1 he various flexors, extensors; or (A) from tlieir f^hape — as 
the delioid, tra|»e2iuB, rhomiK)id, Ac. ; or (5) from the iiutuber of tiieir divisions— as 
the biceps and triceps | or (61 from their points of attjiclimeut— as tlie Ptemo-cl«ido- 
masioid, tlie genio-iiyo-glossus, tlie slemo-thyroid, Ac In tlie dcsrri|iliou of a 
muscle we express its points, of attschment by the words orinin and insertion; the 
former bein^ applied to tiie more fixed point or that towarcfrt wliich tbe motion is 
directed, while the latter is applied to the more movable point. 'Ui* anp]ic&tit)n of 
tiie^e terms is, however, iu mauv cases arbitrary, as many musctles pull equally to- 
wards bolli attachmenls. Muscles opposed in action are tqrnicd antagotiiats^ this 
autji<;onism being iu most cases required l)y the necessity lliat exists for an uciivc 
moving power iu opposite directions. Tlius, by one set of musclrs« tlie flexors, ih^ 
limbs iirc bent; wliile by a contrary set, tlie extensore^ they are straightened. One 
set, termed tbe mnscles of mastication, closes the juws, while another set opens 
them ; and probably every mn^le iu the body has its antagonists in one or more 
other mnscles. 

The skeleton, whicii may be termed the locomotive framework, may be re^rded 
as a series of levers, of wliich the fulcrum is, for tiie most part, in a joint— vi«., iit 
one extremity of a bone— the resistance (or weiglit) at the further end, and the force 
(or muscle) iu Uie intermediate portion. In most cases, in order to preserve the 
necessary form of the body, muhclesare applied at a great meciianical disadvantage 
as regards the exercise of their power ; that is to say, a much larger force is employed 
tliau would suffice, if differently applied, to overcome t^e resistance. The two main 
sources of this disadvantage lie iu the obliquity of the insertion, and consequently pf 
tiie action of most muscles, and in tiie miu^cles being usually inserted very near tbe 
fulcrum. Tlie first of these disadvantages is in many cases diminished by the en- 
largements of the hones at tlie joints. Theteudonsof the muscles situated above 
the joint are usually inserted immediately below the bony enlargement-, and thus 
reach tlie bone thai is to l)e moved in a direction somewliat approaching tlie per- 
pendicular. If this enlargement did not exist, the contraction of tiie muscle, instead 
of causing the lower bone to turn upon the upper one with comparatively little loss 
of power, would do little more than cause tlie two ends of tlie bones to press upon 
euchothw. llie second mechanical disadvantage is compensated for by gain in the 
exteut and velocity of movement, and by tiie avoidance of the great inconvenience 
of having the mnscles extended in straight lines bitween theeudsof jointed con- 
tinuous levers. Thus the bones of the forearm are bent uiion tlie bone of the arm 
by the biceps muscle which arises close to tlie head of the latter, atid is iuserted at a 
sJiort distance from the elix>w-joiut, wliicii acts as the fnl<rum of the lever. Bjr this 
arrangement, a contraction of u single iucli in the muscle moves -the hand, in the 
same time, through the extent of about 12 inches, hut then the hand moves through 
every inch witli only about the twelfth part of tlie power exerted by the muscle. By 
file junction of two or more levers in one diiectioii. as in the different segments of 
the extremities, the extent and velocity of their united actions are commnnicated to 
tlie extreme oue. Thus a blow of the fist may bt* made to include the force of all 
the muscles engaged in extending the shi^iUlder, eibow, and wris<t. 

Tbe great ana characterii«tic property of muscular ti-siie— tiiat of shortening 
Itself ill a particular direction when stimulated— is called contractility. 'J he stimulus 
may be direct irritation by mechanical means, or by Kalvaulsm, or by some 
chemical substance, but iu the living i)ody tlie muscular nlires are, in most c:ises, 
made to contract by the immediate influeuceof the nerves distributed among them, 
which are consequently termed wotor nerves (see Nervous 8tstem>, and are 
under Jhe influence of the will. By an exertion of volition, we can contract more 
or fewei- mpscles at once, and to any degree, within certaiu limits; and as a matter 
of fact, there is hardly any ordinary movement performed in whicli several mnscles 
are not called in play. But every voluntary muscle is also subject to other in- 
fluences more powerful iu their operation than the will. The movement of the 
featuies under the impulses of passion and emotion ai-e more or less iuvoluniary, 

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as is shewn by the very partial power the will has of restraiuing them, and the ex- 
treme difficulty of iraitatiDsr them. 

Many movements ensue involuutarlly when certain impressions, which need not 
necessarily be attended with conscioasuess, are mude on tlie surface of the body, or 
on any part of its interior, either by external or internal causes. Such movements 
are termed re/lea;, and are noticed in the article I^ebtous Ststek. Our space pre- 
cludes us from noticing the individnai groups of moKcle.'^ in tlie human body. 
Several important groups are, however, noticed under Abm, Ets, Foot, Hand, 
Leo, &c 

MU'SCULAR FORCE, Orijnn of. The recent and decisive investigation of 
Professor Fick and VVislicenus* of Znricii, of Professor Fr.inkJaud and of Prof* ssor 
Parkes, have completely overthrown the physiological views on this subject held 
previous to the year 1866. While the inference from previous ex|)erimenta was, that 
the effect of exercise wjis to cause a very large increase in the elimination of carbon, 
and a much smaller, but very perceptible increase in the elimination of nitrogen, 
Fick and Wisliceims ^rom observations made on the excretion of nitrogen during 
the ascent of the Faulhorn) deny altogether the increase of the nitrogen^ 
and come to the conclusion, that the force generated in the ma.-^cleB is the 
result of the burning (oxidation) of nou-nitroeenous substances (futs or carbo-^ 
Ijydrates), and not of the burning of the albuminous constituents of mus- 
cular tissue; and they conclude, that the nitrogenous constituents of muscles 
are rather to be regarded as forming the machine in wliich these fats or 
carbo* hydrates are burned, than as the nubjects which are burned. Dr Frankland 
.(** Philosophical Magazine," Septemb3r 1-66) arrives at the conclusion that the nou- 
nitrogenous constituents of the food, such as starch, fat, &c., are the cliief sources of 
the actuid energy wiiich l>ecome8 partially transformed into muscular work. He 
does uot, however, deny to the albuminous matter a co-operation in the prodnctioa 
of muscular power, but he regards their chief use as being to renew the muscular 
tissue. The muscles are thus the source lK)th of animal heat and of muscular force. 
One of the latesf mvestigators of this important subject is Professor Purkes, wiio 
communicated the result of his inquiries to the Royal Society (t^ee " Proceedings of 
the Royal Society," No?. 89 and 94, 1867). Two series of experiments were made on 
soldiers at Netley. Two men were kept on ordinary diet ami on usu.d work forf«)ur 
days; were then keut in perfect rest for two days, on a diet free from nitrogen; 
then finally returned for four dtiys more to their usual for)d and work. In the s-^ 
cond series, tlie same course was adopted, except that thronsrhout tlie whole i)eriod 
the men took a constant quantity (302 grains) of nitrogen dai'y. 

The conclusions deduced by Dv Parkes from these exueriments were, that Pro- 
fessors Fick and Wisliceiius a.e quite correct In staling thjit there is no increase of 
nitrogen eliminated during the period of exercise. There ip, on the contrary, u 
sliglit decrease. They are not cori*ect in slating that there is no increase after ex- 
ercise, for there is a perceptible, thouch not a very large increaHC. ** Without going 
into an analysis of the experiments, which would occupy too much space, I believe," 
says Dr Parkes in his Sanitary Reiiort contained in the last volume of the Army 
Stati?»t5cai, Sanitary, and Medical ltepor% 1867, p. 846, "my results indicate that our 
idiiis of the orl'jin of muscular force and of nnlrition generally, must be modiflHd ; 
that during action, muscles appropriate nitrogen, and grow ; and that they do not 
give it off and waste,' as was formerly supposed, or undergo no change, as Fick and 
Wislicenus believe. In ot ler words*, formation of nitrogenous tissues goes on dur- 
ing action, and removal of nitrogen goes on during rest. The mechanical force 
manifested during muscular action is, however, probably derived from changes in 
the carbo-hydrates, e>pecially the fats, which changes are connected with the ap- 
propriation of nitrogen by the muscles." 

The theory of muscular action which he proposes for consideration is this. Dur- 
iug Action, the muscles ap()ropriate nitrogen ; this act is accompanied by changes 
In the carbo-hydrates, which lead to the manifestation of mechanical force; these 
changes lead to effete products (lactic acid, &c.) in the muscles, which, as appears 
from Rauke's experimeuts, stop their contraction. Then ensues an action of oxy- 

•A translation of their Memoir may be found in the ** Philosophical Magaaiue* 
for June 1866 (supplementary number). 

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pen nnon the nitrojsrenons framework of the mnscic, and a removal of the effcto 
producU of the carbo-liydratep^ eo that the muscle I>ecoine6 Hijaiu capable of ap- 
propriatiug nitrogen, and of actiuir. The amonut of truth in this theory mn^t be 
decided by the investigations of others; it seems the only oue which cao explain 
the facts, if these have bees correcily made oat. 

Aithongh it is mainly to the above-named physiologista that wo owe onr recently 
acquired knowledge, it deserves inuotiou that previous invei*tieations undertaken 
on different bnt nlllwl subjects by other pliysiologicul chemists, as, for exHmpie, Dr 
Edward Smyth, Lawes and Gilbert, Playfair, and UunghtOD, are entirely in accord- 
ance with our views. 

MUSES, in tlie Clnssic Mythology, divinities ortginnlly Inclnded nroongst the 
NympiiH, but afterwards ri>garded as quite dbtinct from them. To them was as- 
cribed the power of inspiring song, and poets and mat*iciaus were t herefore regarded 
as their pupils and favorites. They were at first honored amongst the Thriiciaus, 
and as Pieria around Olympus was the original seat of that people, it came to be con- 
sidered as the native country of the Muses, who were tlierefore called Pierides. In 
tiie earliest period their number was three, though Homer sometimes speaks of a 
single muse, and once, at Iga^t, alludes to nine. This last Is the number given by 
Hesiod in his ♦* Theogoiiy," who also mentions their namet^— Clio (q. v.), Euter|>e 

(q. v.), Thaleia (q. v.), Melpoaiene (q. v.), Terpsichore (q. v.), Erato, Polyhymnia 
(q. V.) Urania (q. v.), and CalliojMS (q. v.). Their origin is differenlly given, but the 
most widely-spread account represented them as the daughters of Zens tmd Mnen.o- 
syne!. Homer speaks of them as the goddesses of song, annas dwelling on the summit 
of Olympus. They are also often represented as the companions of Apollo, nnd os 
singing while played upon the lyre at the banquets of the Immortals. Various 
legend^ ascribed to them victories in musical competitions, piirliculiiriy over the 
Sirens (q. v.). lu the later classic times, particular provinces were ass^igned to them 
in connection with different departments of literature, science, and the fine nrts; 
bnt the invocations addressed to them iippear to have been, as in the case of modern 
writers, merely formal ffhitatious of the early poets. Their worship amongst the 
Romans was a mere imitation of the Greeks, and never became truly national or 
popular. Among the places sacred to them were the wells of Aganippe and Hippo- 
creiie on Mount Helicon, and the Castaliau sprins on Mount Parnassus. 

MUSE'UM <Gr. tnouteton), originally the name given by the ancients to a temple 
of the Muses, and afterwards to a buiidhig devoted to science, learning, and the fine 
nrts. 1'he fii'st nmseam of this kind was the celebrated Alexandrian Museum (see 
AOADEXT). After the revival of learning in Europe, the term mnseum was some- 
times applied to the apartment in which any kind of philosophical apparatus was 
kept and used; but it has long been almost exclu!*ively appropriated to collections 
of the monuments of antiquity and of other things interesting to the scholar and 
man of science. In this sense it began to be first used in Italv, and probably in the 
case of the famous Florentine Museum, fotmded by Cosmo de Medici, which soon 
became a great and most valuable collection of antiquities. Nothing analogous to 
the museums of modem times existed amongst the ancients, the greatest colfecliona 
of stutoes and paintings which were made in the honses of wealthy Eomans having 
been intended for splendor rather than for the promotion of art. Tlie name soon 
ceased to be limited to collections of antiquities, and scniptures, and paintings ; col- 
lections illustrative of natural history and other sciences now form a chief part of 
tlie treasures of many of the greatest museums, and there are museums devoted to 
particular branches of science. Of the museums of Britain, the British Museum 
(q. V.) is the greatest; that of Oxford, founded in 1679, is the oldest. — The inut«eum 
of the Vatican, In Rome, contiiins immense treasures in scniptures and paintings, 
and also In l)ooks and manuscripts. — The museum of the Louvre in Paris, that of St 
Petersburg, and those of Dresden, Vienna, Munich, and Berlin, are amongst the 
greatest in the world. The usefulness of a museum depends not merely upon tho 
amount of ita treasures, but, perhaps, even in a greater degree npon their proper ar- 
rangement ; and whilst great collections in the chief capitals of the world are of in- 
calculable importance to science, its interests are also likely to be much promoted 
by those local museums, still unhappily not numerous, which are devoted to the 
illustration of all that belongs to particular and limited distilcts. Museums appro- 
prhttad to the illustraUon of the iudostrlal arta— their raw material, their machines. 

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and their prodacts — and of everything economically vnlnnWe, are of recent origin, 
^ut tlieir iinportauce ig nuquestioiiably very great Pre-eminent among liistitntions 
Of this kind in Britain are the Soutti Kensiugtou Moiieum iu London, and the Ma- 
senra of Science and Art in Edinburgh. 

MU'SHROOM, or Agaric (Agariciis)^ a genus of fnnei, of the Bul)order Hymen- 
omycetea^ having a hjrm^nium of unequal plates or gills on the lower side of tlie 
pileus. The species are very numerous. Man v of them are poisouon^, many are ed- 
Iblet, and some are among the most esteemed funzi. The species ntost esteemed in 
Britain is the Common M. {A. campestris), a native also of must of tiie temperate 
regions both of the nortiitm and of the sontiiern hemispliere, and of which a very 
large and floe variety occurs in Basrern Australia. It is found during summer anil 
antumn (but chiefly in autumn) in pastures, orcliards, vineyards. &c. Its pileus i» 
regularly convex, becoming almost fiat when old; fiv'shy, dry, white with a ting(; of 
yellovr or brown ; of a silky Bmoothuess on the upper surface, or somewhat 8c:ily. 
nut never warty ; thickly set on the under side with very unequal ^ills, which in a 
yonug state are pink, and afterwards l>ecome dark l)rown. The piieus is attached 
by its centre to the top of the stem. The stem is of a firm fleshy text ure,,and towards 
the top is surrounded by a more or less distinct white mnmbmnons rins:, the remains 
of the curtain or vail {indiisium.)^ which in a young state extends to the pileus, and 
covers the gill:*. This M. is gathered for the table when young, being preferred when 
the vail is still unbroken, and the nnexpanded pileus has the form of a ball or bnt- 
ton ; but both ii» this slate, and afterwards, whilst it shews no symptoms of dec««y, 
it is used for makiiij; Ketchup (q. v.). It has a very pleasant smell and taste, and 
the flrtsli, when bruised, assumes a reddish-brown color.— Very similar to il, and often 
sold instead of it in Lond(m and elsewhere, but rejected by all skilful honsekeeiiers 
as nnfit even for making ketcimp, is the St Geoboe*s Aoabic {A. Georgii)^ some- 
times called whUecaps, frequent in moist pjistures and near buildings in all parts of 
Britain. This s|>ecies is easily distjignlshcd by its larger size — the pileus being some- 
times 18 inches broad— its coarser appearance, its rather disagreeable smell, the yel- 
low color which its flush assumes when bruised, and the lighter color of ils gills. — 
Care must bt^ taken not to confound f lie Common M. with the white variety of 
AgaricuH pJialloide^, a species not uncommon in Britain, chiefly in woods and on 
the borders of woods, whicli is very poisonous. Perhaps it is the possibility of 
this mistake which has led to the prohibition of the Common M. in Koine, wbero 
many kinds of esculent fungi are brought In great abundance to the market, and 
where a special officer supiiiintends the sale of tiiem. A. pkalloides is, however, 
easily distinguished by the ring at the bottom of the stem, the white color of the 
gills, the warts on the upper surface of the pileus, and the powerful smell, which 
becomes extremely disagre- "able as the M. grows old. — Another species of M. much 
in use for the table is the Faiby-rino M. (A.uyreadea), sometimes called Scotch Bon~ ^ 
netd—tUe Champignon of lite French. It is common iu pastures in Britain and 
most parts of Europe, often formimr Fairy Kings (q. v.). It is much smaller than 
the Common M., the pileus being seldom more than an inch broad, the j*tem taller 
in proportion. The stem if solid, fibrous, and tough, with i>o ring; the pileus 
smooth, fleshy, tougii. convex, with a more or less distinct l)08s (wmfto) in the centre, 
of a walery-brown color, tlie flesh white. The odor is strong, but agreeable. Tliis 
M. Is used for ketchup, and is also dried and powdered for use at taoU? as a savory 
addition to sauces and stews. It is constantly brought to market in England. It 
is liable, however, to be confounded with several poisonous species ; but only one 
of them, A. dcalbcUiiSy forms fairy rings, and this may be readily distinguished by 
its disagreeable (Klor, »)y its becoming grayish-brown in zones when soaked 
iu water, by the margin of the pileus being at first rolled Inwards, 
and by Its very fine dingy whitish gills. — The other edible species of 
M. or agaric are numerous, but they are chiefly used on the continent 
of Europe, and scarcely at all in Britain, although some of them are 
commoif British plants.— The Oranob-mii.kbd Aoabio (il. delieumu)^ wlilch 
grows chiefly in fir-woods and among junipers, has a viscid pileus, four 
Inches or more broad, at first orange, afterwards pale, the gills and juice orange, 
the gills running down the stem, the smell and taste agreeable.— The Mousberon 
(,A. prunulua) is common in woods and pastures, particularly on sandy soils. It 
|ia« a pileuB about 2—4 iuches broad, couvex, yellowish-white when young, the gills . . 

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at first white, and aftenvards fleph-colored. The mlor 1b a^n^ceable. It is much es- 
teemed ou the coutinent as an aiiicle of food.— The Parasol Agaric {.A.procenis) 
Is found in pastures, especially under trees. It loves sand^ eolls. It is reninrknblo 
for its long stem, 8 — 12 inches high, with u thick t-pongy ring. The pileus is 8— T 
Inches broad, at fiipt obtusely conic, then bell-eliniH'd, covered with brown scales. 
ThQ. taste and smell are plensiint.— The WniTi Field Aoarig {A. virginew*) is one 
of the most common of British species, growing in pjintures, wiih viscid or satiny 
white or whitish convex pileus, fully nu nuh broad, stem nearly two inches long, 
and light chocolate-colored distant ^ills, which run down the stem. It grows either 
singly or in groups.— The Anise M., or Sweet-scented Aoario (A. odortw), grows 
in sh.-idy woods nod dells among moss and decaying leaves. It has a sli^hily con- 
Tez piicns, about three inches broad, with ))ale gills. The odor is like that of anise. 
— Tiie IvoRT M. {A. ebur7ieus) is found in wojjos, with pileus 2—3 inches l>road, of 
a gr.iyish-yellow color, broad gills, and a rather long and scaly stem. — 
Tlie Smoky M. (A./umosus), with piltjus smoke-gray above, the gills and stalk yel- 
lowish, is common in fir-woods.— All these arc e<libl«, and more or Irps pleasant 
and nutritious. Finer than most of them is the Imperial M. {A, eafsarituf)^ tho 
Kaiaerling of the Germans, a Fpeciea found in loamy f^oils in some parts of Europe, 
with orange pileus and lighter yellow stem and^ilis ; but, unhappily, it is apt to be 
confounded with the very poisonous ^ImantYa (q. v.) mttscaria. 

The Common M. is frequently cultivated both in tbe open garden and in houses 
or sheds. To grow it in the open garden, be<l8 are prepared, generally of earth 
, mixed with horse-dung, pai-tiy fresh and partly from Oid hotbeds, and are raised into 
ridges almost as high as broad. To grow it in hon!<es, boxes are filled with alter- 
nate layers of half-rotten horse-dung and of straw, with a surface layer of fine 
mould. But of each of these methods there are many different modifications, none 
of which can here be' detailed. - In both, the production of mushrooms is sometimes 
left to the cliauce— oft^n almost of a certainty— of spawn {myceliuvi) or spore? exist- 
ing in the dung or earth; sometimes, to incM-ease the probability of a speedy and 
abnndaut crop, earth is introduced into the bed or box from a pasture known to be 
rich in mushrooms, and M. spawn is al.<°o frequentlv planted, which 
is either collected where mushrooms grow, or produced by arlificiat means, 
often appearing and being propagated extensively without the develop- 
ment of the M. itself. The almost certain production of M. spawn in heaps 
of slightly-fermenting horse-dung, straw, and earth, has heen often urged as an 
ai-gnraent in favor of the equivocal generation of fmigi, but the minuteness and 
multitude of tlie spores may more reasonably be urged on the opposite side. 

MUSIC (6r. moitmkey from vwtimj muse ; Lat. mitsica), a combination or succes- 
sion of sounds having the property of pitchy so an-anged as to please the ear. The 
pleasure deiived from music arises from its exciting agreeable sensations, and rais- 
ing pleasing mental images and emotions. Apart from words, it expresses passion 
and sentiment, and linked to words, it loses its vagueness, and becomes a beautiful 
iilustratiou of language. 

The doctrine of nmsical sounds is based on the principles of Acoustics (q. v.). 
Somid is conveyed througli elastic media by waves, not of altt mate elevation and 
di-pression, but of alternate condensation and rarefaction, in which it is the form, 
the condition of the jrroups of particles that progresses, not each individual particle. 
When a series (5 vibrations recur on the ear at precisely equal intervals of time, 
following each other po closely that each cannot be separately distinguished, the re- 
sult is a musical sound or note. The sound ceases to have a musical character when 
each pulsation is individually audible, as is the case when there are fewer than about 
sixteen beats in a second. The gravity or sharpness of the sound is called its pitch, 
and depends on the number of vibrations in a given time. A succession or progres- 
aion of musical sounds following each other constitutes melody; the difference in 
pitch i)etweeu any two of them is called an interval. Where two or more musical 
sounds, whose relative pitch is properly proportioned, are heard simultaneously, tho 
result is a chord, and a succession of chords constitutes hatmony. 

When a vibration is communicated to a string stretched between two points, the 
reanlt Is a musical note, whose pitch is dependent on the length of the string and 
the degree of tension applied to it ; tbe shorter the string, and the greater the ten- 
irtou, the higher Is the pitch. If the string be divided in the middle, the tension re- 

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xnaining the same, the note produced is twice as high iDipitch, and is called the octave 
to the note produced by the whole string. Every vibration of the one corresponds 
to two of the oilier, and there is between a not-e and its octave a fur closer relatiou 
than between any two other notes ; they go together almost as one sound, and are 
considered to a great extent us one musical sound. In the diatonic sciile, familiar 
to every correct ear, thei-e are six notes, bearing certnin harmonic relations to the 
fundamental note, interposed between it and its octave ; and as we ascend, the 
tiotes arrange themselves in similar successions of sevens, euch set an octave higher, 
or double the pitch of that which preceded ii. The seven notes are designatea by 
the names of the ftist seven letters of the alphabet, the same letter being used for 
any note and iis octave. For another notation also in use, see Souiization. Talk- 
ing C for the fundamental note, we have for our scale 

The scale may 1>e extended up or down indefinitely, so long as the sounds ob- 
tained continue to be musical. The satisfaction and sense of completeness whicli. 
the diatonic scale gives the ety, arise from its being founded on correct harmonic 
principles. The quality called harmony is produced oy a coincidence of vibrations : 
notes are more harmonious the ofteuer their waves coincide. Besides the octave, 
two of whose waves coincide witli one of the fundamental, there are other intei-vals 
harmonious, though in a less degree. Dividing our string nito three parts instead of 
tveo, we have a note higher than the octave, which may be lowered by an octave by 
making the string two-thirds of the original length, as.d produces a wave of which 
three coincide with two of the fimdameutal. Next to the octave, this note stands in 
the most intimate relation to the fundamental ; it is called the dominant. Dividing 
the string by five, and lowering the note two octaves, another harmonic is got, called 
the mediant. In contmdistinction from both these, the fundamental note (or any of 
Its octaves) is called ttie tonic or key-note. C being taken as the key-note, E is the 
mediant, and G the dominant. These three notes, when struck simultaneously^ form 
the harmonic triad, and stand to each other in the relation of 1, 6-4, 3-7 (numbers 
indicating the number of vibrations, which are inversely as tlie length of the string) 
or. reducing fructions to Integers, in the relation of 4, 5, 6. When a musical string is 
viorating, these sounds are heard on close observation more or less distinctly vibrat- 
ing along with it, the cause being a spontaneous division of the string into aliquot 
parts, producing subordinate vibrations simultaneously with the principal vibrations. _ 
But the dominant may in its turn be the tonic from which another triad of tonic, 
juediant, and dominant is taken, forming a scale of triads extending indefinitely up 
and down, and it is from three such adjacent triads that the diatonic scide originates. 
Its elements are the triad of the tonic united with the triads which stand iu the must 
intimate relatiou to it— via., those inimed ately above and below it— 
F A C, C E G, G B D. 

F is the note whose dominant is C (the tonic), and therefore. In respect of C, it is 
called the subdominant. A is the mediant of tlie ^ubdominant F, and therefore 
called the submediant. D is the dominant of the dominant, and is culled the super- 
tonic. B, the mediant of the dominant, is called the leading note. We have «»en 
that the notes of each triad stand to each other in the relation of 4, 6, d. Preserving 
this proportion, and multiplying to avoid fractions, we have 
F A C E G B D 
as 16, 20, 24,30, 36, 45, 64 

We must multiply F and A by 2, and divide D by 2, to bring them within the com- 
pass of an octave, and then we have 

as 24, 27, 80, 82, 86, 40, 46, 48 

These are the degrees of the Diatonic Scale, wliich are indicated by the white keys 
of the pianoforte, as in the following figure. 

The Interval CD is commonly called a second; CE, a third ; CF, a fourth; CG, 
a fifth ; CA, a 6ixth ; and CB, a seventh ; CC being, as already seen, an eighth or 
octave— names corresponding to the position of the notes on the key board or iu the 

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diatonic scale, but baying no relation to the proper proportional unmbera already 
^veu. The int«rval8 ot the third, fifth, and sixth (counting from the key-note), 
owine to the more intimate harmonic relation of the notes between which they lie, 
afford more satisfaction tq the ear tlian ilie otliers, or are, as it is called, 
the most perfectly cousouaut iutervali*. Intervals may be connted from any note 
as well as tlie tonic DF )« called a tiiird as well as C£, although those intervals 
are nneanal. We may have intervals Injyond the octave : they, are, however, 
snbetantially but repetitions of those below, CD, a ninth, being also, a second, 
and ^80 on. 

It is often desirable in the conrse of a musical* composition to change the key- 
note, which involves the formation of a diatonic scale on some Other note than C, 
in which case we are said to modulate from one key into another. As the Intfrvald 
CD, DE, EP, &c., are by no means all emnil, the notes which we have already got 
will not do for a scale lounded on nny other tonic than C. 'i'be ratios of the iuter- 
Tals in the diatonic scale, expre:>8ed in numbers by lo&:aritbms, are : 

E P 


51 46 28 61 46 61 28 

At first sight it would appear that in keyed instruments there must be a'scparate 
row of keys for each tonic, but practically tliit» is found not to l)e in;ce«8ary» If D 
instead of C he taken as key-note, E, G, and A are some approach to the correct 
is>ccoud, fourth, and fifth, bnt P and C are greatly too low in pitch for a proper third 
and seventh. With some notes taken as key-note, the correspondence is greater, with 
others it is Iej»s. The difficulty is overcome by a system of compromises called 
Temperament (q. v.). Roughly speaking, we have in the diatonic scale an alter- 
nation uf two long intervals, a short interval, three lung intervals, and a short inter- 
val. The long intervals 61 and 46 are styled tones, and the short interval 28 a 
semitone. Were the tones all equal, and the semitone exactly half a tone, a note 
interposed in the middle of each tone, dividing the seven mtervals into twelve, 
would make it immaterial where the scale bt gan. A system founded on this sup- 
position is the remedy actually adopt-od in most keyed instruments, and the 
uiaccuracy produced by this compromise is not sufficiently great to offend the ear. 

The interposed notes indicated by the black keys of the pianoforte (see fig.), com- 
plete what is called the chromatic scale, consisting of twelve iutei-vals approximately 



The notes of music are represented in ordinary notation on a series of five paral- 
lel liiif!*, called thn staff. On these lines, and in the fonr spaces lierwecn thniu. 
marks are placed indicating the notes, which are counted upwards, bej^iuuiug with 

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the lowest line. Erery line or space is called a degree, the staff consisting of nine 

When more than nine notes are required, the spaces below and above the staff are 
nsed, and the scale la extended by means of short added lines, culled leger lines. 
The pitch of the notes ou the scale is determined by a flgnre called a clef, (eZaris, a 
key), placed at the begiDuinK.of the Btaff on a particular note, from whicli all the 
others are counted. The clefs most in use are the bass, tonor, and treble clefs, re- 
presented on the iiotes P, C, and G i-espcctively (see Clef). The treble and bass 
clefs only are used in music for keyed instruments, and when a siaff is required for 
each hand, they are joined together by u brace, the upper staff for the right hand, 
the lower for the lefL The asceddiug scale in these clefs is us follows : 








These notes correspond with the white keys of the pianoforte or the dfatonic 
scale when C is key-note, no allowance l)eing nind « for the black keys, which, as 
we have seen, divide the ton«*s into semitones. Those semitones which do not 
occur with C as k<y-note are represented by the signs J (sharp) undt(flar). The 
pig" $. prefixed to a note, elevates it a semitone In the scale, raining, tor exanii)le, 
F to F sharp. |t lowers the uote by a semitone, deprt;s8:^inir B to B flit. When a 
note which has betiu elevated by a sharp, or depressed by a flat, is to be restored to 
its origiual place, the character t] (natural) is prefixed to It 

The names of the Intervals corre9|>ond to the degrees of the staff, but it ha-* 
been seen tiiut intervals of thj ^anie name are not necess:irily equal. If the sign of 
a flat or a sharp be pi-efixed to either note of an interval, it still preserves its name 
of a third, a fifth, &c. ; but to distinguish intervals of thu same degree, the qnali- 
fyins^epitliets of major and minor, augmented and diniinislied, are used. 

The different keys in music are ^st understood by ntvertlng to the scale of 
triads, ou which the diatonic ttcale is foundt'd. Taking a series of triads, of which 
the dominant of each is the key-note of the next, we obtain the following scale, 
extended both upwards and downwai-ds from C: 

Each triad is com|)osed of the key-note, its mediant, and dominant, and the 
scale of each key is composed of the triad of the key-note, with the triad immedi- 
ately preceding and that immediately following it. Each key is pucceeded by the 
key of its dommant, and if we begin with the key of C (in the midtlh^ of the scale), 
each key acquires an additional sluirp till we reach the key of Fj( with six sharps. 
These are the sharp keys. If, beginning aeain with the k^y of C, we go back m- 
stead of forward in the scale of triads, we obrain the flat keys; each key has an ad- 
ditional flat to that above it^ till we come down to the key of Gt^ with six flats. 
This key in in8trnmciit.s with t^Mnperament is exactly the same with that of Y%^ and 
on this account it is not generally found couvenieui to extend the keys beyond six, 
or at most seven, sharps or flats. GJJ with seven sharps is the same as Dft witli flve 
flats, and C|jr with seven flats is the same as B with Ave sharps. In music written in 
these keys, double sharps and double fl its occur, which are indicated by the char- 
acters X and l)k respectively. In writing music in any key with sharp-* or flats, 
it is usual, instead of prefix! njg^ the sharp or flat to each note when required, to 

Slace the sharps and flats belongiiiir to the key together aft^er the cUi, on the 
etrree to which they belong, and such collections of sharps ou flats are culled the 
fignuture. « 

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^ ■ 

- 1 



r ^ 



f ■ 


i D 



Key of Bfe, two flute Key of D, two shai-ps 



L § 


















■ 1 



• .•^• 





//- s. 



Mos'c 09 

Siohatubbsof thb Siiarf Ksm. 

G D A £ B F$ 


S ^fa^-=jlfeJ3SfegEt#fej 

F Bb Et Ab Dk Gb 

A Rhnrp or flat, introduced in a compoaitioD wliicli does not appear iu the si<:niatnrey 
is prefixed Iu the note, and called »n accidental. 

The diatonic scale and keys above described i>elong to what is called the major 
mode ; there is also another mode in use called the minor mode. In the minor, as 
iu I he major mode, the diatonic scale and the keys are based on the scale of triads. 
Each of the triads already considered consists of two unequal intervals, called a 
major third and minor tliird. Supposing we begin with the minor instead of the 
major third, we Imve a succession of chords taking their minor third from one triad 
and their major third from another. These compound cords are called minor triads. 
Their proiK)r(ioii is as 10, 12, 15, and out of three such consecutive miuor Iriado the 
sctUe of the miuor mcxle is constructed. 

D P A C E Q 6 

80, 98, 120, 144, 180, 216, 270 

Multiplying D and F by 2, and dividing B by 2, to bring the whole within the com- 
parts of au octave, we have : 


120, 135, 144, 160, 180, 192, 216, 240. 
The scale here representetl is what is known as tlie descending scale of the mi- 
nor mode. When the seventh of tlie scaic ascends to the cigiith, it becomes sharp, 
as the proper leading note or sliarp seventh to ttie tonic. Tliis sharp is, however, 
always omitted from the sigmiture, and placetl accidentally before the seventh 
which it is to elevate. In order to avoid th.c harsh interval of the augmented second 
(from F to G$), it is usual iu the ascending scale to make the sixth sharp also, iu 
order to accomodade the seventh; thus the ascending or accidental scale of the 
miuor mode has two notes altered from the biguature. 

Ascending Scale,. Descending Scale. 



a r^-^" ' \A,< —'; ;=£ 

Each minor scale is called the relative minor to the major scale on it« right hand 
. in the scale of triads, with which it has the same sigimtnre : thus the rellitive miuor 
' scale to C major is that of A miuor. 

I C major ^ A C E 6 B l5 

A minor D F A C E G fe 
Each minor scale is also called the tenia minor to the major scale on the same key 
^ote, from which it differs iu flattening the third of ito touic, and iu the dcsceudiug 

Digitized by 


0cn1e also the third of its eabdomiiuuit and domloant. Tho tonic minor »cale to C 
umji;r ia C minor. 



- ^— ^g- 



C MmoR. 



As the descending scale resrnlates the pfpnatnrc. cncli tonic minor has Ihrcc d-M^ 
more, or thre<» shar|)8 li*88 In lin siguatorc than iiB tonic nuijur. • 
F Major. r> • F Uinok. 





A Major. A Mixob. 



G Major. GMixor. 



In this l.iet example, Ff, Bt]. and Et] arc all considered sharps in contrast with Ft] 
1%, and Eb of the minor ecjile. * 

Rhffthln.—lu musical nolation, tlio relative dnratiou of notes is indicated by their 
fonn. Notes may be op<?n or close ; they may consist of a head only, or of a heatl 
and stem. Where there is a stem, it may be tnrucd ap or down, according to con- 
venience. The senjihreve, the lonjjjest note in ordinary mni*!c, is open, and con- 
eiets of a head only (fi'). The minim is an open note with a stem, half the length 
of a seinibreve ^ ; the crotchet is & close uute with a fctem, half the length of a 
minim P ; the quaver is a close note with a stem and hook, half the length of a 

crotchet [.; a quaver is fmt her divided into two semiquavers with two hooks 5 ; 

four demi-semiquavors with ti.r^ hooks y ; and eight semi-demi-eemiqnavers with 

four hooks {^. In slow religious music, au open square note, called a breve la 

sometimes occurs. The semibreve is equivalent in time to two minims, four 
crotchets, eiirht qnnvers, sixte<Mi semiquavers, thirty-two demi-semiquavers, and 
sixty-four feemi-dcmi-:jcmiquavers. Tho notes formed with hooliii may be groni>ed 

together -Jk^f^ — ! — i ^t " ' i . ^ • I" vocal music this is not done except 

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when a group is to be song to one syllable. When a dot Is placed after a note 
^ * it is lengthened by oue-half ; when two dots, ^ ** it is lengthened by three- 

Bvery piece of mnsic is divided into portions eqaal in time, called measnres, 
wiiich are sepanited from each other by vertical linos called bun^ The term bnr is 
often loosely n^ed to denote the measure as weH as the Hue. Tl.fe (>xact l«Migtli of the 
measure Is indicated by a sign at the beginning of the movement In common 

time, indicated by the sign : 

', each measure includes a semibreve, or its eqni- 


- All 

valent made up in notes of lower value 

other measures of time have for their signatures two figures placed as a fraction, 
one over the other. The figures of the denominator are either 2, 4, 8, or 16, which 
stand for minims, crotchets, quavers, and semiquavers respectively (i. e., halvet*, 
fourths, &c. of a semibreve) ; the numerator iumcates the number of these frac- 
tional parts of a semibreve contained in each measure. There is another form of 
common time besides that already noticed, which is called half-lime, has a minim or 

two crotchets in the measure, and is known by the signature "^ - L e., two 






When there are three minims, crotchets, or quivers in a measure, the piece is said to 
be in triple time, its signature being -g — -¥ - ^ -g- • 




When two or more measures of triple time are united in one measure, the move- 
ment is said to be in compound common time. Its usual forms are iudlcated by 

the signatures " g *Dd Ij" • In the first, there are three submeosuies of three 

*ssz ~tr: 

jBTOtchetg \ in the aeoondi two submeasures of three quavera-. . 

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Componiid triple time occars where tlu-re iire iiiue notes in a ineneinre, eltlirt 
crutcUets, quavers, or Hemiquavers, grouped lu three. Its siguutures are-' 


and ' 


A variety occasionally occurs in simple or triple tlma 

by the menpure note being divided Into three, or evn five or seven, instond of two 
parts', wUicIi are grouped together, souietiUK^ with the figure 3, 5, orJT, placed 

above ihem 

,.K JJ?.« ?^^ ?i **® diyi?ion of mnsical passages Into measures is to Indicate their 
v*?iJ?:*^»3Il*-'^^Ti£°^'"^"? ^ essential element In Ihe pleasure derivtd from munic. 
^^i^ff ^! S"*'*^**"*^*! ""S*"'? ^' *y"ables, are accented or unaccented. The prli.cjpal 
S?^ .^i^^Tf^^i^lH®*^,'""^®®/*^™®*"**'®- Of '»»e fowr measure notes in coni- 
Si?!i« JSIS ^^n^^'^ *"" *^^^.* subordinate accent, as lias the third measure note iu 
f .sS «i ♦!. • ^i^^ ^^ occasions when a strong accent, or emphasis as it is cjilled, is 
Ssli? i ^?*'t.°f. '^® measure wjiich is usually unaccented; thin the composer in- 
dicates by the Italian terras rinforzando, ^orzato, abbreviated n«/., «/. 
u^T^. ? '" the course of a movement silence is requlrtd for a time, this is indicated 
byarestorr^ts corresponding to that time; the breve, semibreve, minim, &c., 
liave each their respective rests, which are represented as folows :— 

Sreve. Semibreve, Minim. Orotehet Quaver. Semiqua- Demi-mni- Semvdemi 

ver. quaver, setniqtiaver 


A rest may, liJte a note, be dotted to indicate the addition of half to its length. 


The doable bar • 

consists of two strong vertical lines, placed at the end of 

a musical composition, and also at of her parts (not necessarily coincident with the 
w2 i? >neasure) whtre a strain or rhetorical division of a movement'S. 
JJlPf'^r ^.^".^"®, side, all the measures on the side with the dots are to be re- 
^ A ♦« 4 "' beginning, or from the antecedent double bar. 
i««^H i? fi" y^'* P'"P®*^ between two notes on the same degree, to indicate th:it 
w1lSr*?^f *'^^? uotes written, one note is to be played of the length of both, 
wiieu the last note of one measure is thus connectetlwlth the first of the next ineas- 
nre, lue lormer, though naturally the unaccented note, acquires the emphasis— 




When the Bamc arch is drawn oyer two or more notes not In the same degree, it la 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



called a slar, and merely ii:dicate8 that Uiey are to be played smoothly or flacntly 


When notes are to 1)e playwl nhort, distinct, and detached («to«eato), a dot Is 
placed over tliem. A dush implies u greater, and the union of dot and slar a less de- 
gree of staccato— 







The pansc O placed over a note indicates a delay in the time of the movenieut, 
and a continnance of the sound made o:i that part of the measure. 

The various ^eijroes of softness and Ioudne*»8 which occur in a piece of music 
are indicated l>y the letter ^ for forte, -ioad ; p for piano, Foft, al^o pp (or jn'anifi- 
8imo, very soft; mftot mezzo foite^ rather loud, and ff fov /oi-tiseimoy very loud. A 
gradual increase of loudness is denoted by the word crescendo^ or the sign -<; and a 
diminution from loud to soft by the word diminueiidoy or the contrary sign >. Many 
other expressions are used in tlie l>ody of written music, indicating nlowuess, quick- 
ness, and the character of execution. The most important of them are explained 
under separate articles — as are the variooe musical graces or eml>eUishinent8 kuowu 
pnder the names of the Appogiatura, Beat, Shake, and Turn. Among abbreviations 
in frequent use are a line drawn over or under a semilireve, or through the stem of 
a minim or crotphet, to divide it into quavers ; or a double line, to divide it into 
flemiqHavei*8. Two miuiiuB may be connected to indicate their repeiiiion aaqnaverd. 
Thus— . 







Hctrmony,—We have mentioned tliat when a string is struck, its harmonics ara 
more or less distinctly heanl along wiih it. This arises from the string spouta- 

133456789 10 





neonsly dividing itself Into aliquot parts— as one-hnlf, one-third, one-fourth, one- 
filth, one-sixth, one-seventh, Ac, of the string. The numbers 2, 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, expres- 

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sinfT the relntive number of Tibratlone lu a given time, are fl meaBnre of the pitch of 
the iiote, and placed proportiotially to one another, or in the form of a fraction, tliey 
are a measure of ilie interval. The prime uunihers 2, 8, 6, and 7, and their com- 
]>ounds, con8Titnte the harmonics of a mnRical Aound ; no division by a hi^lier prime 
iinmber is tolerable to the ear along with the fmuiumental note, and no sound corrcs^ 
ponding to sncli division is andible in the vibrntions of a string. 

Tlie degrees of the harmonic scale consist of intervals decreasing in a geometric 
cal ratio from the octave to the minor tone, viz. — 

1 : 2 Octave. 6 : 7 Grave third. 

2 : « Fifth. 7 : 8 Tone mnzimus. ' 

5 : 4 Fourth. 8 : 9 Tone mujor. 
4 : 6 Major third. 9 : 10 Tone minor. 

6 : 6 Minor third. 

Other intervals more or less consonant ore to be found in the harmonic scale, of 
which the most important i8 4 : 7, the grave seventh. From this scale is derived the 
triad, wliich we have seen to be the foundation of the diatonic scale, and also the 
whole theory of chords. 

The first five notes of the harmpnic scale are the component parts of the major 
common chord, by far the most consonant chord that can be proaucod by five notes, 
neglecting octaves, its essential notes are the major triad, C E 6, or 4, 6, 6, which, 
as tUready seen, consists of a fifth divided harmonically into major third and minor 
third. The root on which a chord is formed, or th«! note by whose division into 
aliquot parts l;he m^s of the chord are produced, is called its fundamental bass, and 
the fundamental bass of the triad C E G is C. The common ch<.rd is the triad with 
the addition of the octave of the root ; its proportions are 4, 6, 6, 8. Every key con- 
tains within itself two other triads besides that of the key-note—viz., those of the 
pubdominant and dominant, which have the subdominant and dominant of the 
k«*y-not.e respectively for their fundamental basses ; and the feeling of satisfaction 
produced by the diatonic scale arises out of the fact, that its notes belong to a pro- 
gression of chords formed on a fundamental bass suggested by the ear. This fuudop 
mental buss is here indicated on the lower staff-r- 



The relative position of the notes of a chord, and consequently its Intervals, may 
be alteri'd by raising one oi; more of them an octave ; and, on the whole, the nearer 
tlie Intervals approach to their position in the harmonic scale, the purer is the har- 
mony. Clope, in contradistinction to dispersed harmony, is when the notes of a 
chord are so near that no component note could be ]>laced botwccn t.hcm. Wln'n 
the fundamental bass of a chord ceases to be ltd lowest note, the chord is said to ho 

inverted. Thus , 


are inversions of the common chord, 

but not 

Wu — <g^ — < where the fund 

fundamental bass is still the lowest note. 

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The minor triad In, as we have ^een, a componnd chord, whose ratio Is 80, 84. 80, 
tnking Us minor thiixl from the triad below, and it? major third from the triad above 
Its fundamental bass is the key-note. The minor mode lias, like the major, three 
triadrt in each key— those of the tonic, snlxlomlnant, and dominant ; and the minor 
common chord admits of tiie same inversions as the major, by making the third or 
fifth the lowest note. 

Tlie first seven notes of the harmonic scale contain the chord next in consonance 
to the common chord, tlie chord of the seventh or dominant harmony. Rejecting 
octaves, it is the harmonic triad with the addition of the grave seventh. 4, 6, 6, 7, 
C E G Bj^, or G B D P, and admits of three inveri«ions, according as the third, fifth, 
or seventh is t-aken instead of tlie root as the lowest note. Tlii6 chord belongs to 
the key of which its note is the dominant ; and in order to satisfy the 
ear, it requires tp bo followed by a rcsolntion into the common chord of the key, or 
one of it!« inversions, the major third rising a semi-tone to the key-note, and the 
seventh descending one degree — 





The domi iiant seventh note is flatter by an interval of 68, 64 than the snbdomi- 
nant of the key, thougli the two are not distingnishableon k«'yed inptrnmehts. The 
chord of the dominant seventh is the SMme in the Ionic minor as in the major mode^ 
bat differs in its resointiun, in respt:ct that it descends a tone instead of a semiione 

' G I 

The dominant harmony affords nnmerons means of 

modiilatiiig from one kny to another. For example, the addition of a dominant 
seventh, to the common chord of a key, effects a modulation into the key of the 

sub-dominant ' 

pf=i=N -- 

modulating hito the key of the 

dominant, the supertouic beur^ the dominant harmony, and becomes dominant of 

the new key 






For other modulations we mnst- refer to 

works on the theory of music. 

The following more complex harmonies are also in general use — 


1. the chord of the added ninth, consisting of the dominant harmony (Its root 
g(;neraHy omitted) with the fifth of the adjaceiitWiad above. 2, 8, and 4. thediffijr- 
ont f«»rni8 of tlie added eix'li, or chord of the pnbdomlnant. 2 is the irijid of the 
subdominaiit, with the third of the adjacent triad below, or rather its octave; 3 is 

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the triad of the enbdominant, minor mode, with the third of the adjacent triad l>e- 
low ; aud 4, the eaiiie triad witli the third of the tonic major to the adjacent triad 
below. 5, tlie diminished seventh, a componnd of the chinacteri^ic notes (B F) of 
tlie dominant harmony of the major mode with tliose (G |D) of the relative minor. 
6, 7, aud 8, the aogmenred sixths, all dominant harmonies, resolving into the major 
tonic. 6. called the Italian sixth (F A Df), Is a componnd of the ciiaracteristic uotea 
(A Dip of harmony of the minor moae (B DS F A) inverted, with the 
dominant seventh note (F) of the major triad (C E G) below for a buss; 7, the 
French sixth (F AB D$), the pnme as the last. wHh the addition of the octave to 
the fnndamental bass ; 8. the German sixth (FAG D$), componnded of the char- 
acteristic notes of the dominant harmony of the minor mode inverted, with the 
dominant sevenths of the major triads below and above. 

AH classical hannoniea can be ndnced to the chords enumerated, varied by inver- 
sion:*, omissions, saspensionf, and pedal bashes. A pt dal l<a»8 or urgnn-point is a 
bass note snstained through a progression of chords, to only the first aud last of 
which it is the proper basal The )^al bass of the tonic is often used with the 
chord of the dominant seventh, the added ninth, and the diminifhed seventh, aud 
occasionally with other chords: sometimes the pedal harmonies an* taken on the 
dominant instead of the tonic, and the holding note sometimes occupies an upper 
part instead of the bass— 




















A mujiical composition consists of a succession of notes or of chords subject to 
c*»rtaiu laws. Like discourse, mnsic has its phrases, periods and punctuation. 
When a piece of music continues in the same key, it is said to move by progression, 
a term used in contradistinction to modulation, where the key is changed. Progres- 
sion iu music of two parts is of three kinds— oblique, when one part repeats or holds 
on the same note, while the ol her moves up and down ; direct, where both i>arta 
move in the same way; and contrary, where one moves up, and the other down. 
Consecutive chords should in {reueral be connected, either as having some note in 
common, or as l)eing the chords of closely connected keys. Theni are certain chords 
which require a special resolution— i. e., they must be followed by certain other 
chords ; and there are certain progressions which, from harshness, are in ordinary 
cases to be avoided, more particularly consecutive fifths, and congecutive octaven, 
the lattor, however, i)eing admissible when used merely to strengthen a part Modu- 
lation is generally eff«,'cted by Introducing the chords common to both keys, and the 
secret of good modulation consists In the skilful choice of intermediate chords. 
Every regular piece of music is composed iu a particular key. iu which it beelusand 
ends, and which predominates over all the other keys Into which it has modulated. 
The keye into which a key most readily modulates, are those most nearly related to 

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It— vi« , the dominnnf, the snbdomtnant, and the relative and tonic major or minor. 
We have seen how modulation may take place by introducing the dmninunt har- 
mony of tlie new key or one of its inversiuns, and in this way thu entire harmonic 
circle of the keys can be matle, either by ascending or descending llfths; but in order 
to effect this cliauge, it will be necessary, on reacliing the key of CJ, with seveu 
sharps, to substitute, by what is called an Buharmonic (q. v.) cliangc, 1% wiUi five 
flats, or vice versd^ wnich on instruments with temperament produces no real change 
on tne pitch, Imt merely on tl»e names of the notes. 

The arrangement of chords which the ear naturally expects at the close of a 
strain is c&Um a cadence ; it corresponds in music to the period wliich closes a sen- 
tence in discourse. It is perfect when the harmony of the dominant precedes tlie 
liarmony of the key-note, and imperfect when the harmony of the key-note precedes 
that of the dominant without its seventh. 

The imperfect cadence is the most usual termination of a musical phrase, or 
Bliort succession of measures containing no perfect musical ideiu A portion of 
melody formed of two re<;ular phrases, and containing a perfect musical idea, iii 
called a section, and its regular termination is the perfect cidenc-e. 

Perfect Imperfect. 










Itfnsic is produced by the hntiHUi voice, and by a variety of nrtlflcial instruments. 
For the application of the voice to musical purposes, see Singino. Musical in- 
struments are classified as stringed instruments, wind instruments, and instruinents 
of i)ercns8ioii. In some stringed instruments, as the pianoforte, tlie sonnd-^ aro 

Produced by striking the strings by keys ; in others, :is the Imrp and gtiitar, by 
rawing them from the position of rest. In a third class, including the violin, viola, 
violoncello, and double bass, the strings are put into vibration with a t)OW. In wind 
instruments, the sound is produced by the agit^ition of an enclosed coiunm of air ; 
some, as the flute, clarionet, oboe, ba.'Msoon, flageolet — instruments of wood, and the 
trumpet, horn, comet-a-piston, &c., of metal, are played hy the breath ; in others, 
as the orgim, harmonium, and concertina, the wind is produced liy other me:ins. In 
the two last-named instraments, the sound is prodttced by the action of wind on free 
vibrating springs or reeds. Instruments of pc-rcussiim are such as the drum, kettle* 
drum, cymoal», &c The ciiief peculiarities of the more important musical instru- 
ments are noticed in special articles. 

Musical compositions are either for the v Dice, with or without instrumental ac- 
companiment, or for instruments only. Of vocal music, the principal forms may- 
be classed as church music, chamber music, dramatic music, and popular or national 
music. The flrst inclndes plain song, fanx-bourdon, the chorale, the anthem, tho 
sacred cantata, the mass and requiem of tlie Roman Catholic Church, and the ora- 
torio. Vocal chamber music includes cantattis, madrigals, and their modern succes- 
sors, glees, as also recitatives, arias, duets, trios, quartetts, clioruses, and eeneruliy- 
all forms, accompanied or unaccompanied, are chiefly intended ^r small 
circles. Dramatic music comnrehends music united with scfiiic representation in 
a variety of ways, in the l)allet, the melodrama, the vaudeville, and the opera, iu 
which last, music supplies the place of spoken dialogue. Instrumental music may- 
lie composed for one or for more histrnments. The rondo, the concerto, the sonata, 
and the fantasia generally belong to the former class; to the latter, symphonies and 
overtures for an orchestra, and instrumental chaml)er music, including duets, tiios, 
quartetts, and otiier compositions for several instruments, where each takes the 
lead Id tnrii, the other parts l)eiug accompaniments. These and Other forma of 
composition will be found noticed separately. C^ r^r^ni\r> 

Digitized by VjOUy IC 



History of Mwic-^A c«»rtain »ort of mnnc Beem» to have existed in all countriea 
and at all tiuus. Even hiftrnineiitul mn»ic is of a ver>' early dale: reprei»eutation.<4 
of mnnical iiistruinenta occur on the Egyptiaii obeiiaks and toniba. The innaic oi 
the Hebrews is siippoaed to have had a di^flned rhythm and melody. The Greeks 
lanubered raudic ninouj; the acienceB, and studied the iimthematiciil proportioua oi 
pounds. Their music, liowever, was but poetry e«ng, a sort of ninaical recitation or 
intoning, in which the melodic part was a mere acce880i7. The Komana borrowed 
titoir music from the Blroacana and Gi*eek^, and had both stringed iustramenta and 
wind instmmeuta. 

The music of modem Europe is a new art, with which nothiuj; analo}^na aeems 
to have existed amou); the nations of antiquity. The early music of the Christian 
Church wasprobublv in |)art of Greek, and in part of Hebrew oricin. 'J'be chorale 
was at first anng in octaves and unisons. St Ambrose and Grejjrory the Great 
directed tlieir attention to its improvement, and under them some sort of liamiony 
or counterpoint seems to have found its way into the service of the church. Fur- 
tlier advances were made I)y Guido of AreuKO, to whom notation by lines and spaces 
js due, but the ecclesiastical music had stilt an uncertain tonality and an uncertain 
riiytlim. Franco of Cologne, in the ISih c, first indicated the duration of notes 
by diversity of form. The invention of the organ, and its use in accompanying 
tlie chorale, had a large share in the development of harmony. Along with the 
music of the church, and iudi-pendently of it, a secular music was making gnidual 
advances, guided more by the ear than by science; it seems t») have had a more 
decided rhythm, though not indicated as yet by bars. The airs which have become 
national in different countries were developments of it, but it had its chief scat in 
BolgicGaul; and the reconciliation of musical science with musical art Iwpnn in 
Flanders by Josquin Deprda in the 15th c, was completed in the ITlh c. bv Pales- 
trina and his school at Rome, and reacted eventually on the « ccleslastical style. The 
opera, which aupeared nearly contemporaneously with the "Reformation and revival 
OI letters, greatly enlarged the domain of music Italy advanced in melody, and Ger- 
many in harmonv. Instrumental music occupied a more and more prominent plnce. 
Corelli'b composltious exalted the violin. Lulli and Rameau, with their hallf t-like 
music, seized the characteristics of French laste, fill the German GIGck drove them 
out of the field. The scientific and majestic fugue reached its highest perfection un- 
der J. 8. Bach. The changes introduced in ecclesiastical music in England at the 
Restoration gave birth to tlie school of Purcell ; and a little later, Eneland adopted 
the German Handel, who was the precursor of Haydn, Mozart, Btethoven, Spohr, 
and Mendelssohn. The principal fact in recent musical history is the movement 
with whicli the name of Wagner is connected, having for its aim the production and 
])erfrction of a true musical drama, in wliich, unlike the opera, the words and music 
shall be of equal importance. 

See Pepusch's *• Treatise on Harmony," Calcolt's "Musical Grammar," Hawkins' 
and Bunjey's *♦ History of Music," Marx's " Allgcmeine Schnlc der Musilv," Bn wn*8 
** Elements of Musical Science," and Chambers's '•Information for the People," Nos. 
96-97 (1875). 

MUSIC RECORDER. Many forms of apparatus hav«l>een invented for writing 
down iriU'«ic in a legible form by the veiy act of playing it on a keyed instrument, 
such Its the pianoforte or organ. Beginning witn 1T47, various attempts had been 
made to elfect this object, when, in 1863, Mr Fen by invented and patented his FhO' 
nograph, in which he brought in the aid of electro- nniguetism. His chief aim, as an 
improvement on previous apparatus, was to devise a method of denoting the length 
of the notes, as well as their pitch and the interval between them. On pressing 
down any key of the instrument, a stud on the under side touches a spring ; the 
spring sets inaction a small electro-magnetic apparatus, wliich causes a tracer to 
pass against a strip of paper moving onward at a uniform rate by means of a cylin- 
der and clockwork. Tne paper is chemically prepared, so as to receive a brown 
stain whenever the tracer passes along its sui-face. The length of each note ia 
expressed by horizontal dashes of greater or less length, made by the tracer; and 
the arrangement is such as to denote the lines of the stave as well as the character of 
the note. By subsidiary adjustments, the apparatus is made to express accidental 
sharps and n;iti», chan<;es ot time, &c. . . 

The Abb6 Moiguo'a PhonauUjgraphf introduced to the British Astocialion "- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1860, la a contrivance— not for noting down sonnds In any kind of ronsieni notation 
— bnt for ciiQ9iitg a vibr.iting surface to tell its numlter and character of vibrations. 
A kind of Bp!»eroidai dnnn is covered at one end with a diaphragm or stretched 
membrane ; a slieet of paper is carried along this drnm-liead by means of clock-* 
work ; and a system of small levers moves a pen. A tuning-fork, an organ-pipe, 
or the voice is sounded in proximity to the drnro, the body or air within wliich acta 
as a reinforcement of the fonud ; the membrane vibrat<'B in a manner whicli can be 
felt by the p«m, although not seen l)y Iho eye ; and the pen makes zigzag niarkingfi 
on the paper. Wiien the sound is produced by a tuning-fork or an organ-pijH*, th.i 
zigzag lines are so regular ttiat they serve to connt the nnml>er of vib-atiou:^ 
belini^ing to each particular note. When the sound is that of a singing voice, tlid 
nmrkiiigs become very peculiar, especially in such words as contain the gutim'ula 
r, flr, &c. 

MUSK, or Musk Deer (^owhvM nioHchcUus)y a rnminnnt qnadrnp-^, the type of 
tho family Moschidce. Tins family difEers from Cei'videe (De«;r) in the want of horns, 
and ill the long canines of the males, proj cting beyond tlie lips. The M. is an 
inliabitant of the elevated mount^iiiions regions and table-lands of Central Asia. 
The habits of the M. are very similar to those of tlm Chamoi;*. Its favorite haunts are 
the tops of pine-covered momitain**, but its summ«?r range extends far above the 
region of ni^es. Its liabits are nocturnal and solitjtry, and it is extremely timid. 
It is much pursued by liuntors on account of its odoriferous secretion, wiiich lias 
been known in Europe since the 8th c, and is much valued as a i>erfnme. This se- 
cretion, nitisk, is produced in a glandular poucli situated in tlie iiinder part of the 
abdomen of the males; and its naMiral use seems to l>e that of increasing sexual at- 
tractiveness. The musk-bag is formed by an unfolding of a portion of the skin of 
the belly, witliin whicli a number of membranes are contained, and between these 
membranes are glands by which the musk is secreted. When newly taken from the 
animal, musk is sofr. and almost resembles an ointment; it is' reddish-brown, and 
has an excessively powerful odor. Very little of it reaches Europe unadult.erat<*d. — 
Musk is usually imported either in the form of grain-musky that is, the musk which 
bus been coll^jcted chiefly from stones upon wliich it has been deposited by the ani- 
mal, in which sta,te it is a coarse powder of a dark-brown color; or in the'jjod, that 
is, in the musk-sac, which is cut altogether from the animal, and dned witli the musk 
Inside. Of both kinds the annual importations are^ibout 15,000 ounces per annum, 
chiefly from Cliina and India. Small quantities arc used in medicine, but the greater 
portion is employed l)y the perfumers. It is imported in small lK)xes or catties, often 
covered with bright-colored silk, and each containing 25 pods. The kinds generally 
known in trade are the Tonquin or Chinese, which is worth two guineas an oniico in 
the pod, or £3, 10«. per ounce in urain ; and the Cahardine, Kabardine, or Sil)eriaii, 
whicli is always imported in ixw, and is very inferior, being only wortli about 15«. 
an ounce. 

The flesh of the M. is sometimes eaten, but has a very strong flavor. Tlic season 
of migration from the liigliest and cohfcst to more temperate regions, is that ut 
whicli the M. is chiefly purtsned.— No other animal of tlie family Moschidce yields the 
perfume called musk, or has more than a rudimentary musk-bag. Tlie other species 
r)f Moschidce belong to the genus Tragulus, and receive the populkrname Chevrotain, 
I'licy have a very elonirated muzzle ; and the acc-ssory hoofs assume the form of 
oppressed conical claws. TUey inhabit the thick woody copses or jungles of the 
Indian islands, and are the smallest of ruminant quadrupeds. Some of them are 
not larger than a hare. Their tusks are not so long as those of the Musk. One 
of them, the Napu of Java and Sumatra, has the siiiallest blood corpuscles of any 
known animal. 

MUSK DUCK {Cairina moschata). a species of duck, of the non-oceanic section 
of Anatidce (see Duck) ; of a genus characterised by an elevated tubercle at the base ' 
of the bill, the edsres of the mandibles sinuated, the face and lores covered with a 
' bare tuberculated skin, the wings furnished with a knob or spnr at the bend. The 
M. D., or Muscovy Duck — so called, however, through mistake, and receiving its 
name M. D. more appropriately from its musky smell — ^is a native of the warm parts 
of America. It is very plentiful in Guiana, in that part of the year when winter ; 
reigns in the north, it is a larger bird than tUe common duck, in Us wild state ' 

Digitized by 




almoBt black, with glowiw (rf bine nnd grocn, and white wing-covcrti*, but varioB 
consklerably in domepticatimi. It in often to be seen \n poDttry-yardB in Britain, but 
is rather cnrious than profitable. It hybridisea readily with the common daik. bat 
the hybrid is Pterile. — The M. D. of Aastralia is a yeryuifFereiit epecies belonging to 
Ibe genns Biziura, 

MUSK OX (Bos moachahis^ or Oviboa mo9ehattts)y an animal of the family Bmridcey 
regarded as a conuectiiig-liuk hetween oxen nnd phern. It inhabits the niosi norili- 
ern parts of America, enduring the winlt r even of Melville Island nnd Banks' Land ; 
but, like many other animals, it is partially migratory, some individuals or herds 
seeking more Ponthem regions and l>etter paplures on tlie approach of winter, 
whilst some remain in the furthest norih. It is not found in Gre<Miland. Spitz- 
be rjren, or Siberiju The M. O. Is scjircoly equal in size to the smalloHt of Highland 
cattle, but appeal's lareer from the profusion of long matted woollen hair with which 
it is coverea, and which hangs almost to the ground. The head is covered with 
long hair as well as the body, the face alone having short hair. Beneath the long 
hair there is a thick coat of exquisitely fine wool. The head is large and broad ; 
the forehead convex ; the extremity of tl e muzzle Iwtiry. Tlie horns are very broad 
at the haw, and in the male meet on the forehead ; they do not rise but bend down 
on each side of the head, and curve outwards and upwards towards the tip, which 
tapers to a sharp point. They are about two feet long measured along the curvature ; 
and about two feet in girih at the base ; a pair of them sometimes weighing sixty 
Tiounds. The limbs are ehorr, the le^ have short hair. The tail is very short, and 
Is covered with long hair, so that it is undistinguishable to the eight The general 
color is brOM'U. The female is smaller than the male, has shorter hair on the chest 
and throat, and smaller horns. The frosr of the hoof is short, and partially covered 
with hair ; the foot-marks are very similar to those of the reindeer. 

The M. O. feeds on gra^s, twigs, lichens. &c. It is fleet and active, very snr^ 
footed on rocky ground, and ascends or descends very steep ^Is with great ease. 
It is gre«:arious ; the herds generally number thirty or forty. The powerful horns 
are exc<^llent weapons oi defence against wolves and bears, which are often not 
only i-epell<-d but killed. When mu^k oxen are assailed by firearms, however, they 

Seiierally huddle more and more closely together, and do not even seek safety by 
Ight, »o long as the assailants are unseen. I'be flesh is much prized by the Esqui- 
maux, but retains much of the strong musky odor which characterises the living 
animal. The horns are used for various purposes ; particularly the wide base for 
Tessels. The fine wool has been spun and woven into a fabric softer than silk. No 
attt^mpt has yet been made to domesticate the M. O.; which, however, seems worthy 
of it, and suitable for all cold regions. 

MUSK PLANT, Musk Boot, Musk Tree. Musk Wood. Different parts of a 
number of plants smell more or less strongly of musk. Among these are the com- 
mon little Musk Plant (see MiMUiiUs), the Musk-tree of Van Diemen's Land (see 
AsTSR), and the Musk Ochlo (see Hibiscus) —The musk-tree of Jamaica (Mot- 
ehoxylum Swartzii) belongs to the natural order Meliacecu, It emits from all parts 
a smell of musk. — All parts of Ouarea grandifolia, another tree of the same order, 
a native of the West Indies, sometimes called musk wood, also smells strongly of 
musk, but pairticularly the bark, which is used in perfumery. — Tlie drug called 
Musk Hoot or Samhul is brought from t he East^ aua is the root of a plant sup- 
posed to be of the natural order Umbelli/ercB ; but the plant is unknown, nor is it 
certain whether its native country is Persia, or some more remote region of Cen- 
tral Asia. It has a pure musky odor, and is used as a substitute for musk. 

MUSK BAT, or Desman {Mygale or Galemys)^ a genus of insectivorous quadru- 
peds of the Shrew (q. v.) family (Sorecid/s)^ differing from the true Shrews {Sorex) 
in haviug two very small teeth between the two large incisors of the lower jaw, and 
the upper incisors flattened and triangular. Behind these incisors are six or seven 
small teeth (lateral incisors or false canine teeth) and four jagged molars. The muz- 
zle is elongated into a small flexible proboscis, which is constantly in motion. The 
eyes are very small ; there are no external ears; the fur is long, straight, and di- 
vergent ; tlie tail long, scaly, and flattened at the sides. All the feet have five toes, 
fallv webbed; and theaniunds are entirely aqnntic, inhabiting lakes and rivers, and 
luaking holes iu the banks with the entrance from beneath the surface of the wat^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IVC 

Ma«k ' A A 


Only two species are known, one (Jf. or G. Pyrenaiea) nljoat eieht Inches long, with 
tail as long as the body, a native of tbe sfreuuis of the Pyrenees ; another laflger 
ppecies {M. or O. moachata), very plentifnl in the Volga and other rivers and laiies 
nf the south of Rassia, nearly eqaal in size to tlie common liedgehog, with tail tilmnt 
thne-fourfhs of the length of the body. The Ruj^sian desman is bhickish above, 
whitish beneath ; it has long silky hair, with a softer filt beneath, and its fur is held 
in some esteem. Desman skins, however, are chiefly valued on account of the 
musky odor which therlong exhale, and which is derived from a fatty secretion 
jjroduced by small follicles under the tail of the animal. 'J'he desman feeds on 
JiMHihes, aquatic larvae, &c., searching for them in the niTid by means of its fli?xible 
prol)08ci8. It seldom, if ever, voluntarily leaves the water, except iu the interior 
of its burrows, which are sometimes twenty feet long, 

MUSK RAT {Swex murinw)^ an Indian sfiecies of Shrew (q. v.), in size about 
equal to the common brown rat, iu form and color much resemt)Iin£ the common 
shrew of Britain, but remarkable for the powerful musky odor of a seci-etion which 
proceeds from glands on its belly and flanks. This odor adheres most prtlnacloosly 
to any object with which the annnal may cmne in contact, and provisions are often 
utterly spoiled by it. Even wine and beer are said to l)e spoiled by it, iu spite of 
the glass and cork of the bottle ; although the probability is much ^eatcr that it 
adheres to the outside of the Iwttljj, and that the liquid is spoiled us it is i>oured out. 
One of the Indian names of this animal is Sondelt 

MUSK RAT. See Musquash. 

MUSKET, or Musquet (Fr. niausqitet ; from moucheU a sparrow-hawk ; in the 
same way that other shooting implomenta wen; named falcon, fcUconet, &c.), the 
firearm for infantry soldiers, which Huccoeded the clumsy harquubnss, find in 1851 
gave way before the Enfield rifle, which, in its turn, was converted into Snidcr's pa- 
tent l>reech-lo(uling rifle, now known as the Snidcr-Bnflcld ; the latter arm, so far as 
the regular in infantry is concerned, has been replaced by the Martini-Hen 17 breech- 
loader, but the navy, cavali-y, and auxiliary forces still retain the Snider. The first 
muskets were matchlocks ; after which came wheel-locks, asnaphann or sunphance, 
and flint muskets; and lastly, percuHnion nmskeis, whicli were a vast imnrovement, 
both for accuracy and lljrhtness, on all which had gone before. Coroparea, however, 
to either the Bufiuld or Martini-Henry rifle, the musket, familiarly known as Brown 
Bess (po<*sibly a corruption of Ger. buchse. a hollow iulye or gun) — was a heavy 
ugly, and ineffective weapon. The following is a table of tlie ranges attained, on uu 
ou average, by the musket, the Bufljld, and the Martini-Heury : 

MnslcPt Enfield Martini- 
Musket, jjjgg^ jj^jj^ j^jfl^ 

yds. yds. yds. 

Accurateflre. .' KK) 600 1200 

Effective against detached parties 160 800 1500 

Effective against troops iu column 200 1000 1800 

M USKETOO'N, an obsolete weapon, was a short musket of very wide bore, 
carrying a. ball of five ounces, and sometimes bell-mouthed like a blunderbuss. 

MU'SKETRY, Schools of. When the introduction of the Minii rifle in the 
French service, and the sul)sequent armhig of the British troops with the still more 
delicate Enfield rifle iu 1861, brought the accuraty of a soldier's fire to be an impor- 
tant consideration iu estimating his value (which witii the old musket was not the 
case, as it was i^roverbial that the bullet n<!ver hit the point aimed at, however care- 
fully), the English government at once saw the necessity of providing instructiou iu 
the manipulation of the rifle. Accordingly, instructors of musketry were attached 
to the troops, one to each regiment: and a school was cstablishtkl at Hyth^ in 1854, 
under the late General (then Culouel) Hny, where le8S<ms on the theory of the arm, 
and practice in its actual employment, were the sole occupation of the d>iy. Oflicers 
and promising men were sent there as fast as the accommodation permitted ; and 
lUter a course of a few weeks were able to return to their corps, and bej-ome instruc- 
tors to their coniradi^s, So that the rthqotinj^ of the whole army soon rone in a sur- 
iirising degree. Whereas, before the e'stablishnjent of this school, the Eii;rll!«h stood 
*ow iu the scale of shooting, the competitions held during recent years at Wimble- 



don have demonstrate<l that no nation can now excel them as mnrkemen. The for* 
mation of the volniiteer corps, in 1859, led to a greatly iucrensed demand for mus- 
ketiy instruction, which the governmeul met by forming a second school of mns- 
ketry at Fleetwood (now abandoned), where the troo|)s and volanteero of Scotland, 
Ireland, and the northern Eugllsh counties, found the necespary teaching. The 
Hythe school is superintended by a commandant and inspector-general of musketry 
instruction, with subordinate instructors. The insiMJCtor-genenu Is re««ponsible also 
for the instruction throughout tlie regimenis all over the world, and to him the 
musketry returns from each regiment are sent annually. 

MU'SLTN, a cotton fabric of Oriental origin, is said to have derived it« name 
from the town of Mosul, in Mt sopotimia, wliere this material was ai one time very 
largely manufacturert. At present no such trade exists tliere; and for muslins, of 
the common kinds at least, the Indian market dejTends upon the manufactnres of 
England and France. But no European manufacturer has ever been able to rival 
the wonderfully fine mtiHlins of Dacca. This docs not arise so much from the fine- 
ness of the yaiii, although that too is very great, but from the marvellous flnenesa 
conjoined with a most delicate softness to tlie touch. The fineness of the yarn ia 
so great, that until lately no machinery could produce anything like \t\ a piece of 
Dacoi muslin, shewn in the luternationol Exhibition (1862), was 81 feet in length by 
S feet in width, and contained in a square inch 104 warp threads and 100 weft threads, 
yet the entire piece weigln d only B)4 ounces. A French manufacturer, M. Thivcl Mi- 
clion of Tavare, has made a muslin of English yarn spun by the Met^srs Houldsworth 
of Manchester, which surpassed the finest Dncca in the excessive thinness ol the yarn, 
but it wanted its delicate softness. Muslin is much le^^s compact in its texture than 
calico, iudee<l it more nearly resembles gauze in appearance ; but it is woven plain, 
without any twisting of the weft threads with those of the warp. Tlie manufacture 
of muslins in Great Britain and France is very extensive, especially printed muslins, 
ill which the patteras are produced by the same procei^ses as in calico-printing. See 

MU'SNUD, a Persian throne of state. 

MUSOPHA'GID^. See Plaintain-batbb. 

f7 MU'SQUASH, Mnsk-Rat, or Ondatra {Fiber zibethicwi)^ a rtdent quadruped, a 
native of North America. It is the only known spicies of the genus to which it 
belongs, which is characterised by denlit ion similar to that of the voles; in some 
other characters more nearly agi-eeiug with the beaver. The M. is in shape nearly 
similar to the brown rat ; the head and body are about 15 inches in length, the tail 
ten inches. The whole l)ody is covered with a short dawny dark-brown fur, inter- 
mixed with longer and coarser hairs. It Is common in almost all parts of North 
America, from lat. 80° to lat. 69°, except in the southern alluvial districts. It ia a 
Tery aquatic animal, seldom wandering from the rivers, lakes, or marshes in which 
it makes its abode. The fur is in demand, and forms an article of commerce — skins 
in large number being still ex|)orted from America to Britain and other European 
coQutries. The M. burrows in the bankit of streams and ponds ; the entrances of 
its burrows being always under wat»T, so that it must dive to reach them. In marshes, 
the M. builds u kind of hut, collecting coarse grasses and mud, and raising the 
fabric from two to four feet about the water. The flesh of the M., at those seasons 
when it is fat, is in some request among the American Indians, and is said tu be not 

MUSSEL (Mytilu8\ a genus of lamelMbranchiate molluscs, the type of the family 
MytUidcB, which, however, is much more restricted than the Linnseau genus MytiluB. 
The MpUlidcB belong to the division of Lamellibranchiata., called by Lamarck 
Dimyaria^ having two adductor muscles — muscles employed in closing the valves of 
the shell. The mantle has a distinct anal orifice ; the foot is small ; and there is a 
large Byatnis (q. v.), which is divided into fibres to its base. The valves of the shell 
are equal ; the hinge is destitute of teeth. Some, but few, of the sjMJcies are found 
in fresh-water, ^e Dbeissena. Some {Lithodomua) burrow in stone. How they 
do It is utterly unknown, but they do burrow even in the hardest stone ; and some 
small tropical species excavate for themselves holes In the shells of great limpets. 
The LUhodomi are sometimes called DaU-9h6tt9» Some of them are very beaatifm. 

y Google 

MuMelbvrgh Afi 

Mustard ^^ 

which is the case nlso with the frne ninnBel?, nfter the epidermis fs remoTccL Even 
tlie CoMXON M. {M. adults) then exliibiie beautifnl veins of blue. This 8|)ecies is 
very abnuduut on the British coasts, and is much Ofed as bait by fishermen. It is 
gregarious, and is found in vast beds, closely crowded, adlieriuK by the byssiis to 
rocks, &c Ttiesebeds are u&uully uncovered at low- water. The shell isoblonz; 
at its greatest size about three inches Ion;:, and an inch and a half broad. Mussels, 
when young, move about by means of the foot,. with which they lay hold of objects 
and drag themselves along, until they find some suitable spot to anchor themselves 
by a byssuB. If detached, they soon find another anchorage. In an aquarium they 
readily attach their byssus-th reads even to the smooth glass, and the threads may 
be broken more easily than separated from the t;lass. An ingenious and importaut 
application of the strength of tliese threads has. been made by the French, to render 
Cherbourg breakwater more secure by binding tlie loose stones together, for whicli 
purpose it wbb planted 'witU tons of mussels. The Common M. is much used as au 
article of food, and is generally found quite wholesome ; yet it sometimes proves 
poisonoufi, particularly in spring and summer, either causing blotches, swellings, 
and au erupi ion, accompanied with asthma, or a kind of paralysis, and even some- 
times producuig delirium and deatli. For the Fbbsh-watsb Mussel, sec tbtik 

MU'SSELBITRGH, a small seaport and royal and parliamentary burgh of Scot- 
land, in the county of Edinburgh, is situated at the month of the Esk, 6 miles east of 
Edinburgh. On the west side of the Esk is the fishing village of Fishecrow. Tau- 
Bing, leather-dressing, and the manufacture of sailcloth, nets, and salt are carried 
on. Tiie harbor of Fisln'rrow is frequented by coasting craft, and by small vessels 
from Holland and the Baltic. Timber, oil-cake, bark, seeds, and liides are im- 
ported ; coal is the chief export. On the ** links^" a famous golfing ground, the 
Edinburgh races tike place annually. M. unites with Leith and JPortobello iu send- 
iiig a member to Parliament Pop. (1871) T517. 

V MUSSET, Louis Charles Alfred de, one of the foremost of recent French poets* 
was born at Paris, 11th Nov. 1810. He studied in succession medicine, law, finance* 
and painting ; but finally, under the influence of the Romantic School (q. v.), de- 
voted himself to poetry. The first work that attracted notice was **-Les Con t^s 
d'Sspainie etd^talie " (1830), which by their elegant but audacious seusuousness gave 
deep offence. " Le Spectacle dans uu Fanteuil " (1632) is a strange medley of con- 
trasts. ^* Les Nuits " (1840). admittedly shew his lyrical power at itsbest. Many of the 
** Comedies et Proverbes " were popuhtr on the stage; and M. wrote several prose 
romances. In 1852 he was admitted to the French Academy. He died at Pans, 2d 
May 186T. The exquisite beauty, tenderness, and power of much of M.'s work is 
continually marred by the morbid pessimism of a man prematurely old, disillnstoned, 
blas^; on this very ground M. is often regarded as the representative poet of the 
modern Parisian. 


MUSTARD {Sinapia)^ a genus of plants of the natural order Cruei/ercn, having 
yellow flowers, and linear or oblong pods, which terminate iu a swoi^-shafied and 
compressed or 4-comered beak, and contain one row of seeds. The seeds areglobu- 
lar, and tlieir Cotyledons (q. v.)coudnplicate. — The most im)>ortant species is Black 
M. {S. nigra), au annual, which grows wild in flelds and by waysides* in the middle 
aud south of Europe, and is not uncommon in the southern parts of Britain. Its 
pods are bluntly 4-angled, smooth, erect, and lie close to the stem, their valves 
1-nerved ; the leaves are smooth, the lower leaves lyrate, the upper leaves linear- 
lanceolate. The seeds are brownish black. — ^Whitb M. (S. alba)^ also a native of 
most parts of Europe, and of the southern parts of Britain, is an annual, having diver- 
gent pods covered with stiff hairs, the valves 5-nerved, the seeds yellowish, the leaves 
pinnatifld. — Both these species are caltivated iu Eenglaud and elsewhere, fcMr their 
seeds, which are ground into powder and mixed with water, to make the well-knowu 
condiment ctUled Mustard. The powder of the seeds is also much used in medicine 
as a rubefacient. The use of M. as a condiment is often found favorable to diges- 
tion. M. seeds depend for their pnrgency on a principle which, when water is acUled 
to Black M., forms Volatile Oil of Mustard, (See next article.) Tliere is also iu the 
seeds a bland fixed oil, Oil o/M,, which is obtained from them by expression, aud 

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AH Massetbargh 

*• . Mtuitard 

constihites at)ont 28 per cent, of their welglit. The cake which remniiitf 
afUT the oil is expresw^d, is too acrid to be freely used for feeding cattle. It la 
Black M. which ii* chiefly cnltiv ted, it;* seed being more pungent and powerful 
than that of White M. ; but there is more difficulty iu removing the skin of its seed 
than that of White H., which is therefore olten preferred, but more in Euglund 
than on the continent of Europe. M. requires a very rich sdll. It is cultivated on 
the alluvial lands of the level eastern counties of England. Wiebeach, in Cambridge- 
shire, is the great M. market of England.— White M. is often sown in gardens and 
forced in hotlionses, to be used iu the seed-leaf as a small stilad, having a pleasant 
pungency. It is also sometimes sown for feeding sheep, when turnip or rape has 
failed, being of veiy rapid growth, although inferior m quantity of crop. — Wild 
M., or Charlock (S. anoensis)^ which is distinenished by turgid and knotty pods 
witli many angles and longer than-the two-edged beak, is a most troublesome 
weed in cornfields iu Britain, often making them yellow with its flowers in t>so 
beginning of summer. Its seeds are said to have yielded the original Durham M.^ 
and are still gathered for mixing with those of the cultivated species. The blMiid 
oil of the seeds is used for lamps.— Pekin M. (S. Pekinenais) is an annual, very 
extensively cultivated in China, its leaves beinir used as greens. It is quite hanly 
in the climate of Britiun.— Indian M. {S. raviona) is extensively cultivated iu India 
for its seeds, which are used as a condiment; as are those of S. aichoUmia and S. 

ftouca, also cnltivatecl iu India, 'i'he oil of the seeds is much used throughout 
ndia for lamps. HillM. is a different genns, J5i«m(w (q. v.).— Tlie M. Tree of 
Scripture is supposed to l)e Salvadma Perinea^ a Fmtill tree of the natural order 
Salvadoraeece^ a small or^er alii* d to MyrHinacece, It abounds in many narts of the 
East. The seid has an aromatic pungency, and is used like mustard. The fruit is 
a berry with a pungent taste. 

Manufacture.— ^hQ mannfr.ctnre of M. ns it was originally used in this country, 
and as it. still is on the continent, consisted in simply grinding tl e seed into very 
fine meal. A false tiiste, however, arose for having an improved color, and the flour 
of mustard was introduced, in which only the interior portiqn of the seed is used, 
tiie husk i)eing separated, as the bran is from wheaten flour. This causes a 
great loss of flavor, as the pnngent oil, on which the flavor chiefly depends, exis»t iu 
greiitest abundance iu the husk.— Hence other materials, such as capsicum powder, 
and other very pungent matters, are added to bring up the flavor, and wheaten flour 
and other substances are added to increase the bulk and lightness of color. Indeed, 
so manv sophistications have been added, that the M. of the En«rlish tables can no 
longer be regarded in any other light than an elaborately compounded condiment, 
for which each mauufactuier has his own particular recipe. 

MUSTARD, Oil of. The seeds both of the black and the white mustJird yield by 
expression a large qnantily of a bland fixed oil, but they do not contain any essential 
or volatile oil ready formed. It is only the black mustard which by distillation 
yields the compound usually known as the oil or essence of nmstard, and which is 
in reaTity snlphocyaiiide of ally (see Garlic, oil of) contaminated with a little browu 
resinous matter, from which it may he freed by simple re-distillation. 

When first obtained, it is a colorless fluid, which gradually becomes yellowish. 
It has a painfully pnngent odor and acrid laste; and when applied to the skin, it 
e|>eedily raises a blister. It is soluble in all proportions in alcohol, but dissolves 
very sparingly iu water. In the article already referred to, it has been shewn that 
this oil and oil of garlic are naturally convertible into one another; in combina- 
tion with ammonia it forms a compound which is termed thiosinnamine^ and wliicli 
combines directly with acids like a true organic base. Its mode of formatiou is ex- 
plained by the equation-^ 
. ^ Oil of Mustard. Ammonia. Thiosiunamiue. • 

C«H5,CaNS3 + NHa = CsHglSIaSa 
By digesting oil of mustard with alkalies, or with hydrated oxide of lead, we also 
obtain a feel>le base termed siriapoline, whose formula is CJ4H13NJ1O3. 

The <)il is formed in much the same way as the Volatile Oil ot Almonds (q. v.). 
The black mustard contains the potash salt of a compound termed myronic acid^ 
and a peculiar coagulable nitrogenous ferment, which, when the crushed 8e<;d is 
luoifiteQed with water, act upon each other, and develop the oil. It is the gradual 

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Mnstt Ida 4 o 

Mutinjr 4o 

formatiou of this oil, when powdered innBtnrd and warm water are mixed, that oc- 
casions the special actiou of tlie coiniiiou mustard poultice. The pnugeiicy of mus- 
tard as u condiuieut, of horse-rudisli, &C, Is mainly due to the presence of this oil. 

MUS'I'E'LID^, a family of digitignide Caniivora (q. v.), mostly forming tlie 
genus Mttstela of Linnteus ; uow divided into a number of genera, in which are 
raulced the weasel, ermine or stout, sable, marten, ferret. |)OlecaC, mink, skunk, &c 
The M. are distinguished by the eiongaied form of the body, aud the shortness of 
the limbs; also by having generally four or five molars ou each side in the upper 
jaw, and five or six in the lower. On each side of lK>th jaws there is a single tuber- 
culate tooth. AH the feet have five toes. The skull is much elongated behind the 
eyet*. The M. display great lithenoss aud suppleness of movement. They are very 
caruivorous. Otters are rauked among the muslelidiB. 

MUSTER (It mostrare, from Lat monstrare, to shew) is a calliitff over of tlic 
names of all the men compos. ng a regiment or a ship's company. Each man pre- 
sent answers to his name, tho5e not answering being returned as absent. -The mus- 
ter-roll from wliicli the names are called is the paymaster's voucher for the pay he 
issues, and must be signed by the coninnmdiug offlcir, the adjutant, and himself. 
The crime of signing a false master-roll, or of personating another individual at a 
muster, is held most severely punishable— by imprisonment aud flogging for a com- 
mon Soldier, by immediate cashiering in the case of an officer. lu regiments of the 
line, A muster is ttiken ou the 24th of eacii month ; in ships of war, weekly. The 
muster after a battle is a ra-lancholy proceeding, intended to shew the casualties 
death has wrought. In early times, before the anny was a standing force, and when 
each captiiiu was a sort of contractor to the crown for so many men, the muster 
was most important, as the only security tlie sovereign had that he really obtained 
the services of the number of men for whom he iwid. Accordingly, any fraud, 
as making a false return, or as musteriuiij with his troop men not actually 
serving in It, was by the Articles of War of Henry V. made punishable with death 
for the second offence, and by Charles I. with death '* without mercy " for even 
the first such crime ; while any person abetting in any way iu the fraud shared the 

MU'SULMAN, MosU^nan, a Mohammedan (from Arab. ScUama), equivalent to 
Moslem, of which word it is, properly speakiuij, the plural ; used in Pei-sian fahhlou 
for the singular. We need hardly add that this Arabic plural termination of '*&u," 
has nothing whatever to do with our word man^ and that a Cuither English plural 
in «icn, is both barbarous and absurd. 

MUTE, a small instrument used to modify tlie sound of the violin or violoncello. 
It is made of hard wood, ivory, or brass, and is attached to the bridge by nieims of 
a slit, a leg of it being interjectetl between every two strings. The use of the mute 
both softens the tone, and imp irts to it a peculiar muffled aud tremulous quality, 
wiiiuh is sometimes very effective. Its application is indicated by the lettei*s, c, «., 
or con sordino^ and its discontinuance by «. «., or senza aordvio. The mute is some- 
times used for the cornet, being inserted into the bell of the iustrtiment, thereby 
subduing the sound, and prodncitig the effect of great distiince. 
\ MU-^riNY (Fr. mutiner^ from mttthi^ ** riotous." " Mutiu " is connected with an 
' old French meute^ still seen in imetUe^ a ** sedition," and is therefore from the 
Latin moiiere, " to move " or ** btir up." The supposition that the word is derived 
from the Latiu mutiOy a '^ muttering,'^ is a mistake). The term is used to denote be- 
havior either by woixl or deed subversive of discipline, or tending to undermine su- 
perior authority. Till lately, mutiny comprised speaking disrespectfully of the sover- 
eign, royal family, or Ktyieral conimauding, quarrelling, And resisting arrest while 
quarrelling,but these offences have now been reduced to the lesser crime of ** mntin- 
ous conduct." The acts now constituting mutiny proper are, exciting, cimsing, or 
joining ih any mutiny or sedition ; when present thereat, failing to use the utmost 
effort to suppress it ; when, knowing of a mutiny or intended mutiny, failing to 
give notice of it to the commanding officer ; striking a superior officer, or using or 
offering any violence against him, while iu the execution of his duty; di8ot)eyiug 
tlie lawful command of a superior officer. The punishment awarded by the Mutiny 
Act to these crimes is, if the culprit be an officer, death or such other pnuishmcutas 

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. Mn&toUdA 

a gc^neral conrt-marshal shall award ; if a Boldier, deatli* ponnl scrvitnde for not Icra 
than four venrH, or 8nch otiier puiii»iuneui us a gciierni cuiirl-inartial ahall award. 
As tlie crime of mutiny liat< a tendency lo Inimediately destroy all antliorlty and all 
coljesion in the- naval or military body, commanding omcers liave strong nowers to 
Bfop it summarily. A drnm-ljead conit-umrtiul nmy sentence an offeniler. nnd if 
the case be nrgent, and the spread of the mutiny appreliendod,tl«e Immediate execu- 
tion of tlio mutineer may follow within a few mlnut* s of the detection of his crime. 
It, however, belioves commanding officers to exercise this extraoi-dintiry power with 
grejii caution, as tlie use of so absolute an antlmrlty is nari-owly and jealously 
watched. To prevent mutiny among men, the officers sliould be strict without hnrsli- 
ness, kind without familiarity, attentive to all the just rights of their subordinates, 
and, above all things, most particular iu the carrying out to the very letter of any 
promise they may have made. 

MUTINY ACT is an Act of the British parliament, paused from year to year. Invest- 
ing the crown with large {>owers to regulate the gooil government of the army and 
navy, and to frame the articles of war. By the Bill ot Riglits, the maintenance of a 
pta'.iding army In time of peace, unless by consent of 'parliament, was declared ille- 
gal, ana from tiiat time the number of troops to l)e maintained, and the cost of the 
different branches of the service, have l)een regulated by an annual vote of the House 
of Commons. But parliament iiossesses a further and very important source of con- 
trol over the army. Soldiers, in time of war or rel>ellion, being subject to martial 
law, may Imj punished for mutiny or desertion ; but the occurrence of a mutiny in 
ceruiin Scotch regiments soon after the Kevolution, raisid the question, whether 
iiiiiiiary discipline could be maintained in time of peace ; and it \p\» decided by the 
courts of law, that, in the absence of any statute to enforce discipline nnd punish 
juilitai-y offences, a soldier was only amenable to the common law of the country; 
if he deserted, he was ojily liable for beach of contract, orif he struck his officer, to 
an indictment for assault. The authority of the l^islature thus became indispensa- 
ble to the maintenance of militarv discipline, and parliament has, since 1C89, at the 
"boginnineof every session, conferred this and other powers in an act called the 
Mutiny Act, limited in its durution to a year. Although it. is greatly changed from 
the form in which it first pa?8ed, 175 years ago. the annniU alttiiations in thT>« act are 
uow very slight, and substantially it has a fixed form. The preamble starts with the 
above quoted declaration from the Bill of Rights, and adds, that it is judged neces- 
saty by the sovereign and parliament that a force of such a number should l)e con- 
tinued, " for the safety of the United Kingdom, the defence of the possessions of 
the crown;** while it gives authority to the sovereign to enact Articles 
of War for the control and government of tlie force granted. 'JMic act com- 
prises 107 clauses, of which the first five specify tlie i>ei>on8 liable to its pro- 
visions — viz., all enlisted soldiers or commissioned officers on full pay, and to those 
of the regular army, militia, or yeomanry, when employed on active service, and to 
recruits for the militia while under training. Clauses 6—14, treat of couits-martial, 
their procedure and powers. Clauses 15 — &, rel.ite to crimes and their punishment, 
the le:iding offences l)eing mutiny, des» riion, cowardici*, treason, insubordination, 
for each of which deatli may be the penalty ; frauds, embezzlement, &c., for which 
ptuial sei-vitnde is awarded. Clauses 29—33, provide far the government of military 
prisons, and for the reception of soldiers in civil jails, under the sentences of courts- 
martial. Clauses 34— 3T, enact rules to guide civil magistrates in apjjrehending de- 
serters or persons suspected of desertion. Clause 38 refers t« furlough ; 39—41, on 
the privileges of soldiers, enact that officers may not lie sheriffs or mayors ; tliat no 
person acquitted or convicted by a civil magistrate or jury be tried by court-martial 
for the same offence ; and that soldiers can only be taken out of tlie service for debts 
aliove jeSO, and for felony or misdemeanor. Clauses 42—59, have reference to Enlist- 
ment (q. V.) ; 60—74, to stoppages, billets, carriages, and ferries, providing for the 
coinpulsoiy conveyance and entertainment of troops by innkeepers. Clause 76 re- 
lates to the discharge of soldiers ; and the remaining 23 clauses advert to miscel- 
laneous matters, and the penalties under the act on civil functionaries who neglect 
to comply with Its requirements, Bv chinses 105 and 106 the militia, yeomanry, and 
volunteers, may, on emergency, be attached 1« the Kegnlar Forces. Clause 10» ren- 
ders a soldier liable to maintain his wife and children, and his bastard children. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Mntnal 'firri ' 

Mr.itta OU 

MUTUAL INSTRUCTION. See Mokitorial Ststbm. 

MU'TTRA, or Mathnrd, a town of British India, capital of a district in the n. 
w. Provinces, 97 miles 8.s.e. of Diliii, U situited on tlie ri^lit bank of the Jaintia. 
The fort was built bribe ct^lebrated aetroiioiner, Jey Singh (who l)ecanie Prince of 
Amber in 1693); ana on the roof uf one nf the ti}>artmeut« i» a rninous observa- 
tory, contain lug a great nninber of ast.ronoinicaJ ini^tniment?. Access is bad to 
tiie river— whiclj, along with the town, is considered sacred by the Hindas — by iia- 
inerons gh&ts, ornamented with little temples; and its banks are, every moniini; 
and evening;, crowded by devotees of all u^es and both sexes, to perform their reli- 
cions exercises. In Hindu Mythology, it is regarded as the birthplace of the diviuo 

ity Krishna. In honor of the nionk.^y-god Hanuman, monkeys are here protected 
and fed, l)ein^ allowed to swarm everywhere. There are also great numbers of parro- 
qnets, peacocks, and sacred hulls at large, without owner*. There is a very ext*Mi- 

sive military cantonment about a mile sontii of the town. M. appears at an earJy- 
. period to have been of much more importance than it is at present; and its enor- 
mons wealth and splendor made it an object of attack to the first Afghan invaders. 
Mahmnd of Ghnznee, in lOlT, gave it up to |)lnnder, breaking down a id burning 
all the idols, and amassing a vast quantity of gold and silver, of which the idols 
were made. After this calamity, it sank into comparative ol>scurity. In Oct. 1803, 
it was, without resistance, ocupied by the British troops. Pop. (1872) 59,281. 

MU'TULE, a plain block under the corona of the cornice of the Doric style, sim- 
ilar in position to the modallio of the Ooriuthian order, and having a number ot 
guttse or drops worked ou the under side. See Entablature. 

MU'TUUM is' a term used in Scotch Law, borrowed from the Roman law, to de- 
note a contract of loan of a certain kind of things, as corn, wine, money, which are 
consumed in the use, and as to which the borrower is bound to restore as much of 
the same kind at some future time. 

MUZA IBN NOSEYR, the Arab conqueror of Spain, was bom 640 a.d. He dis- 
played great bravery and high military talents in the contests of that turbulent perio<i, 
so much so that he was appointed by the calif general of the army which was raised 
lor the conquest of Africa in 698— <599. After an insignificant expedition into the 
interior of Africa, he set out in 707 for Mauritania, conquering the kindred tribes 
of Eastern Barbary, and enrolling their waiTiors under liis standard ; and by 709, 
the whole of Northern Africa, including the Gothic strongholds on the coast, acknow- 
ledged the authority of the calif. At tbis period the Gothic monarchy in Spain was 
in a state of complete disorganisation, and M.. seizing the favorable opt)ortunity 
thus presented, sent his lieutenant. Tarik Ibn Zeiad, in April 711 to make an incur- 
sion into Spain. Tarik landed at Gibraltar, marched inland to the lianks of the Gua- 
dalete, where he was met by Roderic the Gothic king. In the battle which ensued, 
the Goths were decisively vanquished, their king perished in the waters of the Gtm- 
delete, and the whole of Soutliern Spain lay at thd mercy of the victor. M., on hear- 
ing of these successes, sent orders to Tarik to halt for further instructions ; but the 
lieutenant, flushed with success, pressed ou to tbe very centre of Spain, and seized 
Toledo, the capital of the Gothic kingdom. M. immediately set out for Spain at the 
head of 48,000 men (June 712), took Seville, Carmona, Merida, and otlier towns, and 
tlieu marched upon Toledo, where he joined Tarik, whom he caused to be bastina- 
doed and incarcerated, but afterwards reinstated in obedience to an order from the 
calif. M. then marched first north-west and then east, suMning the country as he 
went ; lie then crossed the Pyrenees into France, but soon after retnnjed to Spain, 
where he and Tarik received messages from the calif, commanding their immediate 
presence at Damascus ; Tarik imm«liately obeyed, but M. delayed till a second mes- 
sage was sent to him. On reaching Damascus, he was treated with neglect^ and, on 
the acce&sion of the Calif Suleiman, was cast into prison, and mulcted in 200,000 
pieces of gold ; feis two sous were deprived of their governments of Kairwan and 
'1 angler ; and the third son, who governed Spain in his father's absence, was be- 
beacled, and his head sent to Muza. M. died soon after in the greatest poverty, at 
Hedjaz, 717 a.d. 

MYCE'LIUM, in Botany, a development of vegetable life x>eculiar to Fimgiy but 
"tpureutly common to all tbe species of that order. Tlie spaton of mushrooms is 

Digitized by 


'R1* Mnttud 

^^ Mfiiti* 

the Myceliam. The M. appears to he a proriflon for the propagation of the plant 
where its 8i>ores may not reacli, its extension in the poil or mau^ in wliich it ezisti*, 
and its preservation when circamstances are uufavurable to its farther development. 
Itconsistsof elongated filaments, simple or jointed, eitoated either within the matrix 
or upon its surface. It is often membranons or pulpy. The development of tlie 
fnngus in its proper form seems to be ready to take place, in proptr clrcamsitancut*. 
from any part of the Mycelium. Fungi often remain long in the state of M., and 
many liinds of M. have beoi described as distinct sptcies and formed into genera. 
Fries has rendered great service to botany in investigating these spurious speciis 
and cenera, and detcrmhiing their true nature.— Liquors, in which the flocculent M. 
of ainngus is spreading, are said to be niotbery, 

MYCE'N^, a very ancient city in the northeastern part of Argolls, in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, built npou a craggy height, is said lo have been founded by Persens. It 
Mas the capital of Agamenmon's kmgdom, and was at that time tlie principal city in 
Greece. About 468 B. c, it was destroye<l by the inhabitants of Arjros, and never 
roj?e again from its ruins to anything like its former prosperity. In 8tralK)'8 time its 
ruins only remained ; these are still t« be seen in tlie neiehborbood of Kliarvati. 
and are specimens of Cyclopean architecture. The most celebrated is the ** Gate ot 
Lions," the chief entrance to the ancient Acropolis. Excavations prosecuted at M. 
by Dr Henry Schlieniann, brought to light in 1876 ieveral ancient tombs, coutaiu- 
ing a large quantity of gold and silver ornaments, Ac. 

MYELI'TIS {myeloSf maiTOw) is the term employed to signify inflammation of 
the substance of the spinal cord. It may l)e either acute or chronic, but the latter is 
by far tlie most common affection. The chronic form l)egins \sitli a little nneasin<*S8 
in the spine, somewhat disordered sensations in the extremities, and unusual fatigue 
after any slight exertion. After a short time paralytic symptoms appear, and 
ftlowly increase. The gait becomes uncertain and tottering, and at length the limbs > 
fail to support the body. The paralysis finally attack? the oladder and rectum, and 
the evacuations are discharged involuntarily ; and death ta,ke8 place as the result of 
exhaustion, or occasionally of asphyxia if the paralysis involves the chest. In the 
acute form there is much pain (especially in the spinal region), which usually ceases 
when paralysis supervenes. The other symptoms are the same as tho^e of the 
chronic form, but they occur more rapidly and with greater severity, and deatii some- 
times takes place in a few days. 

The most common causes of this disease are falls, blows, and strains from over- 
exertion ; but sexual abuses and intemperate habits occasionally Induce it. It may 
also result from other diseases of the spine (as caries), or may oe propagated from 
inflannnation of the corresponding tissue of the brain. 

The treatment, which is much the same as that of inflammation elsewhere, mn^t 
1)e confided entirely to the medical practitioner ; and it is therefore unnecessary to 
enter into any details regarding it- When confirmed paralysis has set in, there is 
little to hope for, but in the early stage the disease is often checked by judicious 

MT'GALE, a genus of spiders, the type of a family called MygaXidae. They have 
four pulmonary sacs and spiracles, four spinnerets, eight eyes, and hairy legs. 
They make silken nests in clefts of trees, rocks, &c., or in the ground, sometimes 
burrowing to a great depth, and very tortuously. To this genus belongs the bird- 
catx;hing Spider (g. v.) of Surinam ; but it seems now to he ascertained that several 
of the larger species frequently prey on small vertebrate animals. They do not take 
their prey by means of webs, but hunt for it and i>onnce upon it by surprise. They 
construct a silken dwelling for themselves in some sheltered retreat Some of them 
make a curious lid to their nest or burrow. They envelop their eggs, wliieh are 
numerous, in a kind of cocoon. 

MYLA'BRIS. a genus of coleopterous insects, nearly allied to CarUharis (q. v.), 
and deserving of notice because of the use made of some of the species as blister- 
ing flies. M. eichorii is thus used in China and India ; and M. Fuesselini^ a native 
of the south of Europe, is supposed to have been the blistering fly of the ancients. 

MYLI'TTA (? corresponding to Heb. Meyleadeth, Genitrix, who causes to bear), 
a female deity, apparently first worshipped amon>;the Babylonians, who gradually 

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Mylodon ftn 

MfTTh ^-^ 

spread her worship throngh Assyria and Persia. She Is originally, liicc almost eyery 
otiier inytholoeical deity, u cusinic eymbol, and reprcHents the female pen ion of 
the twofold prniciDle tiirongh whicli all creation bni-st iut) extsteHce, and which 
alone, by its united active ami passive powers, upholds it. M. is to a certiilu degree 
tlie representative of E.irtli, the Mother who conceives from the Sun, Bel or Bsial. 
M. and Baal together are considered the type of the ♦' Gootl." Procreation thns being 
the basis of M.'h office in nature, the act itself became a Icind of worship to M., and 
was liallowed through and lor her. Tims it came to pass that every Babylouian 
woman had once in her life to give herself up to a stranger, and thereby considered 
her pei-son consecrated lo tlie great goddess. Tli«; sacrifice itself set^mo. especially 
in ilie early stage of Its introduction among the divine rites of the primitive Baby- 
lonians, to have had much less of the repulsiveness which, in tlie eyes of highly- 
cultivated nations, mnst be attaclied to it; and It wius only in later days that it gave 
ri:4e to the prov(>rbial Babylonian lewdness. Herodotus's account of this subject 
must, like almost all his otiier stories, be received witli great caution. 

MY'LODON (Gr. grinder- teeth), a genus of huge fossil sloths, whose remains 
are found in the Pleistocene deposits ot South America, aHsociated with the Mega- 
therium and other allied genera. A complete skeleton, dug up at Buenos Ayres, 
measured 11 feet from the fore part of the skull to the end of the tail. Although 
like the modern sloth in general structure and dentition, its immense size forbids us 
to suppose that it could have had the same arl>oreal habits, and the modifications of 
Uh structure seem to have fitted it for the uprooting and prostrating of the trees, the 
foliage of which supplied it with food. 

MY'NIAS, more accurately Minyas, was, in Greek mythology, the son of 
Cliryscs. He was king of Jolcos, and gave his name to the people called Minyce. 
He built the city of Orchomenus, where rites (named after him) were celebrated in 
his honor. His three daughters Clymene, Iris, and AlcithoS, according to Ovid, but 
Lenconofi, Leucippe, and Alcithoe according to other authors, were changed into 
bats for liaving coutemued the mysteries of Bacchus. 

MYNPURI. or Mainpuri, a town of British India, capital of a district in the N. 
W. Provinces, i"* situated on the banks of a small affluent of Ihe Ganges, 160 miles 
sonth-east of Delhi. It lies at an elevation of 6'm feet above the sea, and is a 
favorite station for troops, as provisions and water are abundant and good. M. 
imssesses a Jaiu temple. The rebels were driven from this place in 1851. Pop. 

MYOSO'TIS. See Fobqbt-mb not. 

MY'RCIA, a genus of trees of the natural order HfprtacecB, to which belongs the 
Wild Clovb or Wild Cinnamon of the West Indies (M. acn's) a handsome tree of 
20 or 30 feet high. Its timber is very hard, red, and heavy. Its leaves have an 
aromatic cinnamon-like smell, and an agreeable astringcucy, and are used iu 
sauces. Its berries are round, and as large as p<^as, have an aromatic smell and 
taste, and are used for culinary purposes. — The leavi'S, berries, and flower-l)uds of 
M. pimentoides have a liot taste and fragraut smell, and are also used for culinary 

MYRIA'PODA (Gr. myriad-footed), a class of Articulat€h resembling Atinelida in 
their lengthened form, and in the great number of equal, or nearly equal, segments 
of which the body is composed ; but in most of their other characters more nearly 
agreeing with insects, among which they were ranked by the earlier naturalists, and 
still are by some. They have a distinct head, but there is no distinction of the other 
segments, as in Insects, into thorax and abdomen. They have simple or compound 
eyes ; a few are destitute of eyes. They have auteriuae like those of insects. The 
mouth is furnished with a complex masticating apparatus, iu some resembling that 
of some insects in a larval state, iu others, similar to that of crustaceans. Reispira- 
tion is carried on through minute pores or spiracles, placed on each side along the 
entire length of the body, the air being disiributed by innumerable ramifying air- 
tubes to all parts, in most parts of their internal organisation the M. resemble in- 
s«'ct»s; although a decided inferiority is exhibited, particularly in the less perfect 
"oiu-entration of the nervous system. 'I'iie resemblance is greater to insects in their 

■'al tlian In their iierfect state. The body of the M. is protected by a hard chitin- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

53 5K,fr 


mu covering. The nnm1)er of poginents le varions, ncldom fewer than 24 •. oUboiigh 
iiiBOiiie of tlie higher genera they tire consolidaeed together in pnin*, t*o tbnl euch 
pair, auletiB cl08<'ly exuinined) ini{rht be cotipidered lui one 8«-gnieDt bearing two pairs 
of feet The legs of some of the lower kinde, as JuIhb (q. v.), are very uunierons, 
nud may be regarded us intermediate between the briftle-liiie appendages wliicli 
serve many annelids as organs of locomotion, and the distinctly articulated legs (if 
insects. In the higlier M., as 8col(mendra, the legs are mncli fewer, and articnlnted 
lilte tlioee of insects. None of the M. Iiave winss. Some of them feed on decaying 
organic matter, chiefly vegetable; those of liTglier orgnuisaiion are camivorons. 
Tiie M. do not amlergo cha>gc8 so givat as tliose of insects, but emerge from tlie 
egg more similar to what they are ultimately to l>ecome; altJiough fome of them are 
at first quite destitute of feet; and, contrary to wliat lakes place in insects, tlie body 
becomes more elongated as maturity is approached, the number of segments and of 
feet increasing. 

The M. are divided into two orders: the lower, Chilog^^atha (JuluSi Ac), havinc 
the body sulMjyIiudrical, the feet very nninerous, the head rounded, the mandibles 
thick and strong; the higher, Chil<^wda { ScolopetidrOy Ac), having the body flat- 
tened, the feet comparatively few, the head broad, the mandiblts sharp and curvid. 

The M. are found in all parts of the world, in the ground, among moss, under 
stones, in the decaying bark of trees, in decaying root**, and in many similar situa- 
tions. The largest 8i)ecie8 are tropical. They are all generally rejjarded with aver- 
sion. It is doubtful how far any of them are injurious to crops, although it is not 
improbalile that they accelerate rottenness already begun ; but some (Centipedes) 
have a venomous and painful bite. . 

MYRl'CA. See Camdlebebbt. 

MYRISTICA'CEuE. See Nutmeo. 

MYRl'STIC ACID (Ca8Ha,Oj,IIO) is a crystalline fatty acid, found in the seed" 
of the common nutmeg, Myristica mosclMtcu It occurs in the form of a glyceride 
in the fat of the nutmeg, or nutmeg butter. It has recently been foundln small 
quantity amongst the products of thu saponification of spermaceti, and of the fatty 
matter of milk; and hence this organic acid must be ranked amongst those which 
are common both to the duiinal and v^etable kingdoms. 

MYBMECOTHAGA. See Amt-batbr. 

MYRO'BALANS, the astringent fruit of cerfaiin species of Termiiialia, trees of 
the natural order Conibretaeeig, natives of tlie mountains of India. The genus Ter- 
mtno/ia has a deciduous l>ell-siia|>ed calyx and no corolla; tlie fruit is a juiceless 
drupe. T. Beleriait a species with alternate elliptical entire leaves, on long slalkM, 
produces great ^wirt of tb« M. of commerce ; but the fruits of other species often 
appear under the same name. Tonic properties are ascnbed to M.; but although 
once in great repute, tliey are now scarcely used in medicine. They are used, how- 
ever, by tanners and by dyers, and have therefore become u very considerable article 
of iini)ortation from India. They give a durable vellow color with alum, and, with 
the iiddition of iron, an excellent h\nck.--Emblie M. are the fruit ot Emblica 
ogieinalis, of the natural order EuphorbiacecB^ a native of India. They are used in 
Lidia as a tonic and aairhigent ; also in tanning and in the making of ink. — There is 
a kind of plum called the MyrobcUan Plum, See Plum. 

MYRKH (Heb. war), a gum resin produced by Balsamodendron (q. v.) mprrha^ 
a tree of the uuturul order kmvndao«eB, growing in Arabia, and probably also in 
Abyssinia. The M. tree is small and scrubby, spiny, with whitish-gray bark, lliinly- 
scattered small leaves, each cousistlni; of three obovate obtusely tootliletted leaflets, 
and the fruit a smooth brown ovate drupe, somewhat larger than a pea. M. exudes 
from the bark in oily yellowish drops, which gradually thicken and finally become 
bard, the color ut the same time becoming darker. M. has been known and valued 
from the most ancient times; it Is mentioned as an article of commerce in Gen. 
zxxvli. 26, and was amongst the presents which Jacob sent to the Egyptian ruler, 
and amongst those which the wise men from the East brought to the infant Jesuf. 
It was an ingredient in the ** holy anointing oil " of the Jews. M. appears in com- 
merce either in tears and grains, or in pieces of irregular form and various sizes, 
yeUow, red, or reddish brown. It Is brittle, and has a waxy fracture, often exhlbit- 

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Myrsinacea Ki 

Mysteries *^* 

ing whitish veins. Its smell Is balsnmic, its ti^iite nrorantic ntid bitter. It is nned In 
medicine as u tonic and stimuluut, in disorders of tlie dit^cstive oi'gniis, cxcesi<ive se- 
cretions from the mncous uiembruues, &c., aiso to cleuuse foal ulcers and promote 
their healing, and us a dentifrice, particular! v in a spongy or ulcerated condition of 
the gums. It was much used by the ancient Egyptians fii embalming. The best M. 
is known in commerce as Turkey M.^ l>eing brought from Turkish ports ; as the 
name Ea»t Iiidian M. is also given to M. brought to Europe from the Eaft Indies, 
although it is not pioduced there, but comes from Abyssinia. It is not yet certainty 
known whether the M. tree of Abyssinia is the same as that of Arabia, or an allied 

MYRSINA'CE^, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees and 
shrubs, natives of warm climates, and having simple leathery leaves, destitute of 
stipules; hermaphrodite or unisexual flowers, generally small, but often in nmi)cl><, 
corymbs, or panicles ; very similar in structure to the ilowers of the PriTnulacecb ; 
the fruit generally fleshy, with 1 — 4 seed.^. 'ITto flowers are very often marked with 
sublcen dots or glandular lines.— There are more tlnm S(H) known species. Many o£ 
them arc beautiful evergreen shrubs, particularly the genus Ardisia. Some havo 
peppery fruit, as Embelia ribes. * 

MYRTA'CEiE, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees and 
8hrubj», natives chiefly of warm, but i)artly tupo of teuiperiite countries. The ordor, 
as defined by tl»e greater number of boianisj^*, includes several suboitlers, which are 
regarded by some as distinct order?, pjirticniarly CHAMJELAUCiACEiB (iii which aro 
contained about 50 known si)eci(*s, mostly beautiful little l)U8hej«, often with fragrant 
leaves, natives of New Holland), BARBiNOTONiACEiB (q. v.), and LECYTHiDACEJi 
(q. v.). Even as restricted, by the separation uf these, the order cont4iins about 1300 
known species. The leaves are entire, usually with pelluci<l dots, and a vein ruiming 
para! lei to and near their mai^in. — Some of 'the ppccies arc gigantic trees, as tho 
jEucalypti or Onni Trees ot !New Holland, and different species of Metrovideros, bt 
which one is found as far south as Lord Auckland's Islands, in Int. 50>^o. 'iMie tim- 
ber is generally compact — Astriugeucy seems to be rather a preralent property in the 
order, and the leaves or other parts of some species are used in medicine as astrins- 
eutSand tonics. A flagrant or pungent volatile oil is often present in considerabTo 
quantity, of which Oil of Cajeput and Oil of Cloves are examplws. Ctove^and PimerUa 
are amongst the best known products oi tlie order. The lorries of several species 
are occasionally used as spices in the same way as the true Pimento. A considera- 
ble number yield pleasant edible fruits, among which are the Pohegbanate, tho 
GuAVA, species of the genus Eugenia, and some species of myrtle. 
- MYRTLE {Myrtus) a genus of Myrtaceoe, having the limb of the calyx 4—6- 
parted, 4—6 petals, numerous free stamens, and almost globose germen, and a 2— 
8 celled berry, crowned with the limb of the calyx, and containing kidney-sha{>ed 
seeds. IHie leaves are opposite and marked with pt'llucid dots; the flower-etalkri 
are axillary, and ireueralfy one-flowered. The Common M. (Jf. communis) is well 
known as a beautiful evergreen shrub, or a tree of moderate fize, with white flowers. 
It is a native of ail tlie countries around the Mediterranean Sea, and of the temperate 
ptirts of Asia, often forming thickets, which sometimes occur even witiiiu the reach 
of the sea-spray. The leaves are ovate or lanceohite, varying much in breadth. 
They are astringent and aromatic, containing a volatile oil, and were used in medi- 
ciue by the ancients as a stimulant 'I'he berries are also aromatic, and are used iu 
medicine iu Greece and India. A M. wine, called Myrtidanum, is made in Tuscany. 
M. bark is used for tanning in many parts of the south of Europe. Among the 
ancient Greeks, the M. was sacred to veiiuSj as the symlM)! of youth and beauty, 
was much used in festivals, and was, as it still is, often mentioned in poetry. The 
X. endures the winter.^) of Britain only in the mildest situations in the soutli. — ^The 
Small-leaved M. of Pern {M. microphylla) lias red berries of the size of a pea, of 
a pletisant flavor and sugary sweetness. Those of the Luma (if. luma) arc also 

palatable, and are eaten in Chili ; as are those of the Dowkt M. (M. tomentosa), on 
the Neilgheriy Hills; and tliose of the White-berried M. (If. lexicocarpa\ by 
some regaixled as a variety of the Common M., in Greece and Syria. The berries of 

the Neilgheriy Hills; and tliose of the White-bebried M. (If. leticocarpa), by 
some regaixled as a variety of the Common M., in Greece and Syria. The berries of 
this species or variety arc larger than those of the Common M., and have ft Teiy 

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KK Mfrtlnacea 


pteaeant taste and smeU.^A yeir humble species of M. (M. nummularia) spreuda 
over the ground in the Falklaud Islauds, na iliyine does in Britain. 


HT'SIS, a gennn of podothalmous (stalk-eyed) crnstaceans, of the order Stdmct- 
jpoda^ much resembling tlie common slirimps fn form, aithouffli differing from tlicni 
111 tlie external |>08ition of tlie gills, lliey are often called Oposgum Shriwpsy Ixs 
caufle the last two feet are furnished with an appendage, wliicn in the female forms 
a large pouch, and in this the eggs are received after tliey leave the ovary, and tire 
retained till the young acquire a form very similar to that of the parent, when the 
whole brood are at once st-t free into the ocean. Species of M. are found on tlie 
British shores, but they are far more abundant in the Arctic seas, where they form 
no small |Mirt of the food of whales, and of many fishes, particularly of different 
species of salmon. 

MYSO'RE, or Maisur, a raj or pilncipallty of Southern India, under the protec- 
tion of tlie British government, in lat. lio 86'— 15° n., and In long. T40 45'— T8o 45' e. 
It is bonudetl on tlie u. by the British collectorate of Dharwar, and otherwise sur- 
rounded by districts 1)eIonging to the Madras presidency. The area is 27,000 square 
miles ; the pop. In 1871—1878 was 6,056 412. M. is an extensive table-land, with an 
average elevation of about 20iiO feet, and with a slope principally toward the north 
and north-east. The chief rivers are the Cauvery, flowing south-east, and the Tun- 
gabhadro, the Hngri, and the Pennar flowing north and north-east. The clinnite of 
the higher districts is during a great portion of the year healthy and pleas;int. In 
1871—1872, the value of the exports, which consist of l)etel-nnt. coffee, cotton, car- 
damoms, ric, silk, and sugar, amonnted to jG1,100.000. The imports, con^is1ing 
mainly of iron, gold, pepper, salt; and pulses, were Xl,070,000. Since 1882, the con- 
trol of the conntry has been entirely fn the hands of the £nglish, and the povern- 
meut is administered by a British commissioner. Chief town, Mysore. For the 
history uf M., see articles Htder Ali, Tifpoo Sahib, and India. 

MYSORE, or Mnisnr, n city of India, the seat of a British residency, capital of 
the territor}', and of the subdivision of the same name, is situated amid piclnrepqne 
ecenery on a declivity formed by two parallel ranges of elevated gronud rnnnnie 
north and south. 245 miles west south-west of Ma'iras, lat. 12° !»' n., long., 76° 45? 
e. The houses are generally built of teak, and among the chief edifices are the 
British residency and church. The fort is quadranguhir in form, three of its 
sides being 460 yards in length, and the remaining side longer. The rajahV palace, 
occupying_three sides of the Interior fort, contains a magnificent chair or throno 
of gold. The climate is mild, but not healthy; fevers are of frequent occnrrence. 
Carpets are manufactured. Pop. (1872) 67,765. 

MY'STAGOQUE (Gr. tn«»te«, an initiated person, and agoj I load), the name in 
the Greek religions system of the priest whose duty it was to direct the prepiirations 
of the candidate? for initiation in the several mysteries, as well as to conduct the 
ceremonial of Initiation. It was sometimes applied by a sort of analogy Ui the . 
class of professional ciceroni, who in ancient, sb still in modem tinu»s, undertook to 
shew to strangers newly arrived in a city the noteworthy object« which it contained; 
but the former meaning is its primitive one. and formed thegroimd of the applica- 
tion of the same name in the Chrl!«t1an cnnrch. to the catechists or other clergy 
who prepared candidates for the Christian my fttericH, or sacraments, of baptism, 
confirmation, and the eucUjirist, especially the last. In thin sense, the word in con- 
stantly used by the fathers of the 4rh and 6th centuries; and in the well-known 
lectures of St Cyril of Jerusalem, although all were addressed to candidates for the 
mysteries, some for baptism, and some for the enchaiist, it is only to the lectures 
addressed to the latter that the name myatoffogie is applied. This distinction was 
connected with the well-known Discipline of the Secret; and it appears to have 
ceased with the abolition or gradnal disuse of that discipline. 

MYSTERIES (Gr. from wuo, to close the lips or eyes), also called Teletaiy Ortfiiu 
or, in Latin, iniUa, designjit*^ certain ritea and ceremonies in ancient, chiefly (iretft 
and Roman religions, only known to, and pracliscU by, congregations of certain 

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My»t©rle« Kg 

inUiated mon and women, at appointed ^eaoonfi, nnci in strict fieclofilon. Tho origin, 
ns welt ns the run] purport of IIiuho n>yf>terit;t), wbich take no uuUnportuiit jmico 
among the religions fesrivals of tlie classical period, and wliicli, in Iheir eyer-chaiij^- 
iiig nature, desigimte various pliasee of religiouB development in llie antique world, 
is all but nnlvuown. If does seem, indeed, as if the vague B|)eculatiou8 of modern 
times on the subject were an echo of the manifold interpretations of Uie various acts 
of the mysteries given by the priests to the inquiring disciple — ^according totheiights 
of the former or the latter. Some investigators, tiiemselves not entirely free from cer- 
lain mystic influences (like Creuzer and otliers), have hdd them to have been a kind 
of misty orb around a kcniel of imre llglit, tlie bri^lit rays of wlucli were too strong 
for the eyes of tlie multitude ; tluit, in fact, they hid under an outward garb of mum- 
mery a certain portion of the real and eternal truth of religion, the knowledge of 
which had been derived from some primeval, or, perhaps, the Mosaic revelation ; if 
it could not be traced to certain (ornncertaiu) Egyptian, Indian, orgenerallyEiist^jni 
Boui-ces. To this kind of hazy talk, however (which we only mention because it is 
still repeated every now and then), the real and thorough investigations begun by 
Lobeck, and still pursued by many competent pcholars in our own dliy, have, or ou<;Iit 
to have, put an end. There cannot bo anything more alien to the whole spirit of 
Greek and Roman antiquity than a hiding of abstract truths and occult wisdom under 
rites and formulas, songs and dances; and, in fact, the mysteries were anything but 
exclusive, eitlier witSi respect to sex, age, or rank, in ])oint of initiation. It was only 
tUe speculative tendency of later times, when Polytheism was on the wane, that tried 
to symbolise and allegorise these obscure, and partly imported ceremonies, tlie bulk 
of which had undoubtedly sprung from the midst ot the Pelasgian tribes themselves 
in pi-ehistoric times, and wliich were intended to represent and to celebrate cerlain 
natural phenomena in the visible creation. There is certainly no reason to deny that 
some more refined minds nniy at a very early period have endeavored to impart a 
higher sense to these wondrous performances ; but tuese can only l)e considered as 
solitary instances. The very fact of their having to l)e put down in later days as 
public nuisances in Home herself, speaks volumes against the occult wisdom incut- 
cate<l in secret assemblies of men and women. 

The mysteries, as such, consisted of purifications, sacrificial- ofiferings, proces- 
sions, song«, dances, dramatic ])erlormances, and the like. 'Ihe mystic tormula« 
(Deiknunieita, Dromena, Legoviena, the latter including the Litui-gies, &c.) were held 
deep secrets, and could only be communicated to those wlio had passed the last 
st}ige of preparation in the mystagogne's hand. The hold which the nightly secrecy 
of these meetings, together with their extraoi dinary worship, must naturally have 
takim upon minds more fresh and childlike than our advanced ages can boast of. 
was increased by all the mechanicai contrivances of the effects of light and sonua 
which the priests could command. Mysterious voices were heard singing, whisper- 
ing, and sighing all around, lights gleamed in manifold colors from above and be- 
low, figures appeared and disappeared ; the mimic, the tonic, tlie plastic— all the 
arts, in fact, were taxed to their very utmost to nnike these performances (the near- 
est approacli to which, in this country,. is furnished by transtfoiination-scenes, or 
pensation-dramas in general) as attractive and proftiabU; (to the priests) as could 
be. As far as we have any knowledire of the plots of these Mysteries as scenic re|>- 
rosentations, tlujy. generahy brought the stories of the special gods or goddesses bo- 
fore the spectator — their births, sufferings, deaths, antf resurrections. Many were 
the outward symbols used, of which such as the Piiallus, the Thyrsus, Flower Bas- 
kets, Mystic Boxes, in connection with special deities, told more or le^s their own 
tale, although the meanings supplied l>y later ages, from the Neo-platonists to oar 
own day, are varions, and often very amazing. The most important Mysteries wei*e, 
in liistorical limes, those of Elensis and the Thesmophorian, both i-epresen ting— each 
from a different i;x)iut of view — the rape of Proserpina, and Ceres's search tor her : 
the Thesmophorian mysteries being also in a Diauner connected witli the Dionysiaii 
worship. There were fuither those of Zeus of Crete— derived from a very remote 
period— of Bacchus himself, of Cyl)ele, and Aphrodite— the two latter with reference 
to the Mystery of Propagation, but celebrated in diametrically opposed ways, the 
former culminating in tlie ^el^-mUlilation of the worshipper, the latter in prostitu- 
tion. Further, the Mysteries of Orpheus, who in a certain degree was considered 
tuo founder of all mysteriea, I^or were the other gods and goddesses forgotten ; 

Digitized by 




Hera, Minerva, Biana, Hecate, Tiay, foreign gods like Mithras (q. y.), and tlie like, 
lja<l their due secret eolemiikies all over the clas(>ictil soil, and wtiithersoever Greek 
(and partly Koinaii) colonists took their Lares and Penates all over the autiqno 
world. The beginning of the reaction in the minds of thinking men, against this 
mostly gross and degenernled kind of veneration of natural powers and iustinclK, 
is marked by tlie period of the Uesiodic poems ; and when towards the end of the 
classical periods, the mysteiies were no longer secret, Iwit pnblic orgies of the most 
shameless kind, their days were numbered. The most subtle metaphysicians, alleg- 
orise and symbolise as they might, failed in revivins; them, and in resloriug thoiu 
to whatever primeval dignity there might have ouce been inherent in them. 

MY'STERIES and MIRACLE-PLAYS were dramas founded on the historical parts 
of the Old and New Testaments, and the lives of the 8niiit>«, perfornud during tlio 
middle ages, first in chnrchcy, and afterwards in the streets on fixed or movaMo 
stages. Mysteries wore properly taken from biblical and niiracle-|)lays from 
legendary subjects, but this diptlnctlou in nomenclature was not always t-trictly ail- 
hered to. We have an extant specimen of the ruligious \t\&y of a date prior to the 
beginning of the middle a^fos in the Christos P.iacliuii, asnigned, somewhat ques- 
tionably, to Gregory Nazianzen, and written in 4th c. Greek. Next come six Latin 
plays on subjects connected wiHi the lives of the faints, by Roswitha, a nun of 
Gandersheim, in Saxony, which, though not very artistically constructed, possess 
considerable dramatic power and intcret^t; they have been lately published at Paris, 
witli a French translation. The i)erformer8 were at first the clergy and choristers, 
afterwards any layman might participate. The earliest recorded pei-foruiance of a 
iniracle-nlay took place in England. Matthew Pari?* relates that Geoffroy, afterwards 
Abbot 01 St Albans, while a t'ccular, exhibited at Dunstable the miracle-play of St 
C^itherine and bon'owed copys from St Albans to dress his characters. 'J his nnist 
have been at the end of the 11th or beginning of tlie 12th centurv. Fitzstcphen, in 
his *• Life of Thomas iBecket," 1183 a. d., describe with approval the representation 
in London of the sufferings of the saints and miracles of the confessors. On the 
establishment of the Corpus Christi festival by Pope Urban IV. in 1264, njiraclc- 
plays became one of its adjunct.**, and every considerable town had a fiaternity for 
their performance. Throughouli the 15th and following centurit-s, they continued 
in full force iu Eughmd, and are mentioned, sometimes approvingly^ sometimes 
disapprovingly, by contemporary writers. Designed at first as a means of religious 
instraction for the people, they had long before the Reformation so far dnjiart- d 
from their original character, as to be mixed up in many instances with bnffooneiy 
and irreverence, intentional or unintentioinvl. and to be the means of inducing con- 
tempt rather than respect for the church and religion. Renuirkable collections exi^t 
of English mysteries and miracles of the 15th c, known as the Clie.*'ter, the Coven- 
try, and the Townley plays. The first two have been published by the Shakspeare 
Society, and th§ other by tho Surtees Society. The Townley mysteries are full of 
the burlesque element, and contain many curious illustrations of contemporary 

Out of the mysteries and miracle-plays sprang a Ihird class of religious i)ljiy 8 
called "Momlifie!*," i" which allegorical person ilications of the Virtues and vices 
were Introducetl as (?roma<w ^rsoncB. These personages at flr>t only took pjirt iu 
the play along with the scriptiu'al or legendary characters, but nfterwads entirely 
superseded them. The oldest known English compositions of this kind are of the 
time of Henry VL; they are more elaborate and less interesting than the miracle 
plays. Moralities contiimed iu fnshron till the time of Elizabeth, and were the im- 
metliate precursors of the regular drama. 

Miracles and mysteries were as popular in France, Germany, Spain, and Italy as 
iu England. • A piece of the kind yet extant, composed in France in the 11th c, 
is entitled the "Mystery of the Wise and Foolish Virgins," and written partly iu 
the Provincial dialect and partly in Latin. A celebrated fraternity, called the Con- 
frerle de la Passion, founded in Paris in 1850, had a liionopoly for the performance 
of mysteries and miracle-plays, which were of such a length, that the exhibition of 
each occupied several days. A large number of the French mysteries of the 14th c. 
are extent. In the alpine districts of Germany, miracle-plays were composed jind 
acted by the peasants ; Ihcsu peasant-plays had less regularity in their dramatic form, 

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Myateriei . ^58' 

were often interspersed with songs mid pi*ocePsion8; andlu their nnlon of simplicity 
with high-wfongnt feeliujj were most clianicteristic of the people iu whom the reli- 
gions and dramatic element are both so largely developed. In the early part of laet 
century, they began to partake to a limited extent of the barlesqae, which had 
bronght miracle-plays into dlsrepate elsewliere. 

It is a mistake to snpiiose tliatthe liosrility of the reformers was what snppressed 
these exhibitions. The fathers of ttie Reformation shewed uo nnfrieudly feeling to- 
wards them. Lnther is re|X)rted to liave said that they often did more gooa and 
produced more impression than sermons. Tlie most direct euconragement was 
given to them by tlie fonnders of the Swedisli Protestant Church, and by the earlier 
Lutheran bishops, Swedish and Danish. The authorship of one drama of the kind 
Is assigned to Qrotius. In England, the greatest check thej received was from the 
rise of the secular drama ; yet tliey continued to be occasionally performed in the 
times of James T. and Charles I., and It is well known thai the first sketch of Mil- 
ton's *' Paradise Lost " was a sacred drama, where the opening s{)eech was Saturn's 
Address to the Sun. A degenerate relic of the miracle-play may yet be traced in 
some remote districts of England, where the story of St George, tne dragon, and 
Beelzebub, is rudely represented by the peasauiry. Strange to say, it was in the 
Catholic south of Germany, where these miracle-plays and mysteries had preserved 
most of their old religious character, tlmt the severest blow was levelled against 
them. Even there, thev had begun to be tainted to a limited extent with the bur- 
let«que element, which had bronght t hem into cisrejiute elsewhere. In 1TTV>, a mani- 
festo was issued by the Prince-archbishop of Salzburg, coudeniuing them, and pro- 
hil)iting their performance, on tlie ground of their ludicrous mixture of tlie sacred 
and the profane, the frequent bad acting in the serious parts, the distraction of the 
lower orders from moreedifyinir modes of instruction, and the scandal arisiiijg from 
the exposure of sacred subjects to the ridicule of free-thinkerp. This ecclesiastical 
denunciation was followed by vigorous measures on the part of the civil authorities 
In Austria and Bavaria. One exception was made to tlie general suppression. Iu 
1633, the villagers of Oberammergan, in tlie Bavarian highlands, on the cessation of ji 
plague wliich desolated the surrounding country, had vowed to perform every tenth 
year the Passion of Our Saviour, out of gratitude, and as a means of religious in- 
struction ; a vow which had ever since been regularly observed. The pleading of a 
deputation of Ammergau peasants with Max. «Joset»li of Bavaria saved their inyftery 
from tlie general condemnation, on condition of everything that could offend good 
taste being expunged. It was then and afterwards somewhat remodelled, a^ is 
perhaps the only mystery or miracle-play which has survived to the present day. 
The last performance took place in 1870. The iuliabitauts of this secluded village, 
loiif^ noted for their skill in carving in wood and ivoiy, have a rare union of artisiic 
cultivation with perfect simplicity. Their familiarity with sacred subjects is even 
beyoud what is usual in the alpine part of Germany, and the spectacle seems still 
to be looked on with feelings much like those with which* it was originally conceived. 
What would elsewhere appear impious, is to the alpine peasants devout and edify- 
ing. The personator of Christ considers his part an act of religious worship ; he 
and tlie other principal performers are said to be selected for their holy life, and 
consecrated to their work with prayer. Tlie players, about 500 in number, are exclu- 
sively the villagers, who, though they have no artistic instruction except from the 
parish priest, act their parts with no little dramatic power, and a delicate apprecia- 
tion of character. The New Testament narrative is strictly adhered to, the only 
legendary addition to it being the St Veronica handkerchief. The acts alternate with 
tableaiKC from the Old Testament and choral odes. Many thousands of the peasantry 
are attracted by the ppectacle from all parts of the Tyrol and Bavaria, among whom 
the same earnest and devout demeanor prevails as among the performers. Plays of 
a humbler description, from subjects in legendary or sacred history, are not unfre- 
quentiy got up by the villagers around Innsbruck, which shew a certain rude dra- 
matic talent, though not comparable to what is exhibited at Aihmergau. Girls very 
generally represent both the male and female character. 

MY'STICISM (Gr. mttntikoay mystical), a term used with considerable vagnenesB, 
but implying that ^eperal tendency in'rellgion to higher and more intimate commu- 
nication with the Divine, to which, in most religious, ancient and modern, certain indi- 
viduals or classes have laid claim, Iu the Platouic phlloBophy, and iu the Eaeteru sy»- 

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terns, from which that philosophy ia derived, the hamnn sonlbeinp regarded q8 a por- 
tiou of the divine uainre, it is lield to Im the great end of life to fne tlie soul from 
tlie embarascmeut aiid ineutal durkuess in which it is held by tlie material tram- 
mels of the body in which it is imprisoned. In the par^ait of this end, two very 
opposite courses were adopted : the first, that of spiritual purification, partly by re- 
pressing the natural appetites and weakening the sensual impulses by corporeal 
austerities, partly by elevating the soul throus^h intense contemplation and with- 
drawal from the outward objects of sense; the other, that of regarding tlic soul as 
superior to the body, independent of its animal impulses, incapahle, from its higher 
origin, of being affected by its outward actions, or sullied by contact with the cor- 
ruption in which its lower nature might love to wallow. A similar element of M., 
which, in truth, must form in some sense, a constituent of every religions system, 
is traceable in the earl^ doctrinal history of Christiauity, and the career of Christian 
M. also divides itself mtothe fame twofold coursti. the early sects external 
to tlie church, we trace the first in the system of Tatian and of the Eucratites, 
while tiie second finds its parallel in the Svriau Gnostics, in Cnrpocrates, Bardi- 
sanes, and in one form at least of the Nicolaitic heresy. Within the Christian church 
there never has l)een wanting a continuous manifestation of the mystical element. 
The language of St Paul ii: GaL ii. 20, and in 8d Cor. xil. 2, and many expn^sions 
in the Apocalypse, may be taken as the exponents of Christian M., the highest 
aspiration of wliich has ever been towards that state in which the Christinu '* no 
longer liveth, but Chri&t liveth in him." And although no regular scheme of M. 
can be found in the enrly Fathers, vet the writings of Hermes the Sheplierd, the 
Epistles of St Ignatius, the works of St Clement of Alexandria, the Expositions of 
Origeu, and above all, the Confessions of St Auj^ustine, abound with outpourings of 
the true spirit of Christian mysticism. It is curious that the flrf>t systematic exposi- 
tion of its principles is said to l>e in the works of the pseudo-Dionysius the Areo- 
pagite; but it was not till the days of the Scholastics that It received its full devel- 
opment, when the mystic life was resolved into its three stages, viz., of Purification, 
of Illumination, and of Ecstatic Union with God and Absorption in Divine Contem- 
plation. It was upon the explanation of this third stage that the groit division of 
the medieval mystic schools mainly turned ; some of them explaining the union 
with God in a pantheistic or semipantheistic sense, and thereby annihilating the in- 
dividual will, and almost the personal action of man in the state of ecstasy ; others, 
with St Bernard, fully preserving both the individuality and the freedom of man, 
even in the highest spiritual communication with his Creator. Of the former, many, 
as the Hesychasts (q. v.) in the Greek Church, and the Brethren of the Free Spirit 
(q. V.) and the Beghards in the Latin, drew from these mystical doctrines the 
most revolting moral consequences ; in others, as Tauler, Rnysbroek, Ekkart, the 
error does not seem to have jrone beyond the sphere of speculation. The writings 
of Thomas h Kempis (q. v.), of St Catherine of Siena, of St John of the Cross, and 
of St Teresa, may perhaps tye taken as the most characteristic representations of the 
more modern form of the traditionary M. which has come down from the mystics 
of the middle ages. 

The later history of M. in the Boman Catholic Church will be found under the 
heads of Fenelon, Madame Guton, Mounos, and Quietism. The most remnrk- 
able followers of the same or kindred doctrines in the Protestant communions are 
Jacob BOhme (q. v.) of GOrlitz, Emmanuel Sweden borg (q. v.)» and the celebrated 
William Law (q. v.). 

MYTH ANH MYTHO'LOGY. The word myth (Gr. mythoa\ originally signlfted 
tpeech or ducoursej and win* identical with the word logos. After the age of Pindar 
and Herodotus, however, it came to be synonymous with the Latin word fabula^ 
fable, or legend. According to the present use of our language, a myth is an idea or 
fancy presented in the historical form ; and though, of course, any fiction at any 
time in this shape might be called a myth, yet by usage the word is confined to those 
fictions made in the early periods of a people's existence, for the purpose of pre- 
senting their religious belief, and generally their oldest traditions, in an attractive 
form. The tendency to create myths in this way seems inherent in every people ; 
certainly there is no people so sunk into the brute as to be without them. A myth 
is not to be confounded with an allegory ; the one being an unconscious act of the 
popular mind at au early stage of society, the other a conscious act of the individual 

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Myth go 

mind at any Bt&ge of social progress. The parables of the New TestamMit are alle- 

f;or\t'A\ ; 80 are ^Esop's Fables ; no one mistakes them for realities ; they are Icnowit 
oliuvebeen invented for a npecial didactic purpose, and so received. Butthei>e- 
cnliarity of myths is, tlmt they are not only conceived In the narrative form, bnt 
generally taken tor real narrations by the people to whom they belong, so long at 
least as they do not puss a certain stage of futellectnal cnltnre. Even niytlis of 
wiilch the allegorical significance Is pretty plain, sach as tlie. well-known Greek 
myth of Prometheus and Epimetheus, were received as facts of early 
tradition by tlie Greek. Mvths may be divided into sevenil classes, of 
which the first and most imporbint is the tiieological and moral. Tiie 
oldest theology of all nations is in the form of mytiis; lience the great 
iniporlance of mytliological study, now universally recognised; for it is not oc- 
cupied merely or mainly with strange fancies and marvellous fictions, in- 
vented for the pake of amusement, but contains tlic fundamental ideas !>elongiiig 
to I lie n)oral and religious nature of man as they have l)een embodied by the imajri- 
nativo faculty of tiie ipost favored races. It is tills dominance of the imagination, 
BO cliHracterfstic of the early stages of society, wliicli gives to myth its peculiar dra- 
matic ('xpre^siou. and stamps the popular creed of all nations with the ciiaracter of 
a poetry of nature, of man, and of God. Prom the very nature of the case, tlie mytli- 
produciug faculty exercises itself with exuberance only under the polytheistic form 
of religion ; for there only does a euflScient nnml)er of celestial personages exist, 
>yliose attributes and actions may be exhibited in a narmtive form; tliere is notli- 
ing, however, to prevent even- a monotheistic people from exhibiting certain great 
ideas of their faith in a narrative form, so as bv prosaic minds to he taken for literal 
historical facts. But besides strictly theological myths, tlierc are pliysical myths, 
that is, fictions representing the nmst striking aj)i>earance8 and cliangcs of externni 
nature in the form of poetical history ; in which view, the connection of legends 
about giants, chimeras, Ac, with reidona nnirked by peculiar volcanic phenomena, 
has been often remarked. It is diflUcult Indeed, in jiolytheistic religions, to draw 
any strict line lietween physical and theological myths ; as the divinity of all the ope- 
rations of nature is the first postulate of polytheism, and every physical phenomenon 
becomes the manifestation of a god. Again, though it may appear a contradiction, 
there are historical myths ; that is, marvellous legends about persons, wlio may wiih 
probability be supposed to have actually existed. So int-Hrmingled, indeed, is fact 
with fable in early thnes, that there must always be a kind of del>atable land l»e- 
tween plain theological myth and recognized historical fact. This land is occup{o<l 
by what are callen the heroic myths; that is, legends al)OUl heroes, concerning 
whom it may often be doubtful whether they are merely a sort of inferior, and more 
huuian-Iike gods, or only men of more than ordinary powers wiioui tlie popular im- 
agination has elevated mto deuii-gods. 

The scientific study of mytliology commenced with the ancient nations 
who produced it, specially with the acute and 8i>eculative Greeks. The 
great mass of the Givrek people, indeed— of whom we have a characteristic 
type in the travaller Pausan las— accepted their oldest legends, in the mass, Jis 
divine and human facts; but so early as the time of Euripides, or even before hid 
day in the ease of tlie Sicilians, Bpichurmus and Empedocles, we find that pliiioso- 
pliers and pouts had begun to identify Jove with ilie upper sky, Apollo with tho 
sun, Juno with the netlier atmosphei-e, and so forth ; that is» they interpreted llieir 
mythologv as a theology and poetry of nature. This, indeed, may be regarded as 
tlie*prevalent view among all the more reflective and philoaophical heathens (wlio 
were not, like Xenoplion, orthodox believers) up from the age of-PtA*icIes, 450b. c, 
to tho establishment of Christianity. But there was an altogether opposite view, 
which arose at a later period, under le^»B genial circumstances, and exercised no 
small iiifiiience both on Greek and Roman writera. This view was fii*»t prominently 
put forth by Euhemerus, a Messeuian, in the time of the first Ptolemies, and con- 
sisted in the flat prosaic assertion, that the gods, equally willi the heroes, were orig- 
inally men, and all the tales about them only human facts sublimed and elevated 
by the imagination of pious devotees. This view seemed to derive strong support 
from the known stories about the birth and death of the gods, specially of Jove in 
Oret<i ; and llie growing sceptical teuilencies of the scientific school at Alexandria, 
were o£ course iavorabiu to the pj'omulgatlou of sach views. The work of EuUe- 

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mems accordingly obtained a wide circulation ; and hnving Iwen tranMated into 
Liitiiif \v(;iit to lioarisli tltat crass form of relit^iune scepticism wbicli wh» one of 
tlie iiiopt jiotable synipfonis of tlie decline of Roman jrenins at tlie time of tlie em- 
perors, llisioiinns, like Dioilurus, gladly adopted an interpretation of tlie popnlai 
mythology which promised to swell iheir stores of reliable material ; the myths nc* 
coidlngly were coolly emptied of the poetic soul which inspired them, and the early 
traditions of the heroic ages were Bet forth as. plain history, with a grave sobriety 
cqnally opposed to sound criticism, natural piety, and good taste. 

In modern times the Greek mythology hi\p again formed the basis of much specn* 
lation on the character of myths and the general laws of mythical interpretation. 
The first tendency of modern Christian scholars, following the track long before 
taken by the fatliers, was to refer all Greek'mythology to a corruption of Old Tes- 
tament doctrine and hintoiy. Of this system of interpreting mytljs. we have ex- 
anipUjM in Vos^ins, in the Kiarned and fanciful works of Bryant and Fabcr, and veiy 
recently, though with more pious and poetic feeling, in Qladstoue. But the GKm-- 
mans, who have taken the lead here, as in other i-egionsof combined research and 
speculation, have long ago given up this ground as untenable, and have inti'Odnced 
the rational method of interpreting every system of myths, in the first place accord- 
ing to the i)eculiar laws traceable in it« own genias and growth. Ground was 
broken in this department by Heyne, whose views have been tested, corrected, and 
enlarged by a great number of learned, ingenious, and philosophical writers 
among his own countrymen, especially by Bntlmami, Voss, Orenzer, MAIler. 
Welcker, Gerhardt, and Preller. The general tendency of the Germans is to start 
— as Wordsworth does in his ** Excurt^iou," book iv.— from the position of a devout 
imaginative coutempialion of nature, in which the myths originated, and to 
trace the working out of those ideas, in different places and at different times, with 
the most critical research, and the most vivid reconstruction. If in this work they 
have given birth to a large mass of ingenious nonsense and brilliant guens-work, 
there has not l)een wanting among them abundance of Fober judgment and ^onnd 
I«en8e to counteract such extravagances. It may be noticed however, as characteristic 
of their over- speculative intellect, that they have a tendency to bring the sway of 
tiM'ological and physical symbols down into a region of what appears to be plain his- 
torical fjict ; so that Achilles becomes a water-god, Peleus, u mud-god, and the whole 
of th*. "Iliad," according to Forch hammer, a poetical geology of Theesaly and the 
Tro.idl Going to the opposite extreme from Euhemerus, ihey have denied the ex- 
istence even 0/ deifieil heroes; all the heroes of Greek tradition, according to Us- 
chold, are only degraded gods ; and generally in German wiiters, a preference of 
transcendental to simple and obvious explanations of myths is noticeable. Crenzer, 
some of whose views had been anticipated by Blackwell, in Scotland, is espt^cially 
remarkable for the high ground of religious and philosophical conception on which 
lie has placed the interpretation of myths; and he was also the first who 
directed att^intlon to the oriental element in Greek mythology— not, indeed, wiih 
snfiicient discrimination in many cases, but to the great enrichment of 
mythological material, and the enlargement of philosophical .sui-vey. In the most 
recent times, by uniting the excursive method of Creuzer with the correction sup- 
plied by the more critical niethod of O. MQller and his successors, the science of 
comparative mythology has l)een launched into existence; and specially the com- 
))arison of the earliest Greek mvthology with tko. sacred legends of the Hindus, has 
been ably advocated by Max Mtlller in the " Oxford Ej»8ay8 " (1856). In France, the 
views of Euhemerus were proi)ounded by Banier (1739). By tiie Britii^h scholars, 
mytholo^ is a field that ha>« been very scantily cultivated. Besides those already 
named, Payne Knight, Mackay, Grote in the first volumes of his history, and 
Kelghtley are the only Jiames of any note, and their works can in nowise compete 
in originality, extent of research, in di::'criminating criticism, or in largeness of 
view, with the productions of the German school. The best for commou purposes 
j." Keightley ; tne most original, Payne Knight Recently, G. W. Cox, in a work on 
Aryan mythology, has pushed the sanscritising tendencies of Max MQIler to an ex- 
treme which to most minds seems abpurd. On the special mythologies of India, 
Koine, Greece, &C, infornujt ion will be found under the heads of the respective 
countries to wliich they belong. The more important mythological p«*r8onaged uro 
uoticed under their own names ; see Bacchus, Jupiter, Hercules, «fcc. 

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N«vio« 62 


N, the foarteenth letter of the Englfsh atphnliet, \b one of the nasnl llqnids of f lie 
linganl chiss. See Lbttbrs. , Irs Hebrew (uud Phoeuiciuii) uaiiic, Nun, »\g\ufied a 
Ash, which its ori^nal form was proUnbly meant to n-present N is interchangea- 
ble with L. (q. V.) and M, as in collect, cowimingle, confer; and in Ger. bodetij con»- 
]>ared with Eiifr. bottom. In Latin, tliis let-ter hud a fiiint, unceriaiu Honnd attneeiid 
of words and lu some other positions, especially before «. 'JMiis accounts for words 
in on having lost, the n in the nominative case, tliougii retaining it in tlie ohiiqne 
cases, as homo, hominis ; and for Greek names like JHaton l>eing written withunt 
the finui n in Latin. Tt»e dnll, mnffled prounnciation of ?», which is indicated itj 
snch words as consul, censor, testamento, being frt qncntly pj)elled cosuly eemtr, teata^ 
meto, was the fii-st stage of the modern French uusal n. Before a guttural letter, n 
naturally assumes the s )und of ng, as bank. 

NAAS, a market and ns^ize town of Kildare County, Ireland, 20^ miles south- 
west of Dnhlin, and, next to Athy, the largest town in the connty. The population 
in 1S71 was 3660. The principal street is alwnt half a mile in lengtli ; the couniy 
conrt-houfft is in the main street. Having l)een anciently the seat of the kings of 
Leinster, N. wjis early occupied by the English. A parliament, was held in it iu 
1419, and It obtained clmi*ters successively from Henry V., Elizal>eth, and Junuw I. 
At present, N. is a place of little trade, and is almost entirely without manufac- 
tures. It returned two members to the Irish p irllament, but was disfruncliised at 
the Union. It is the seat of a diocesan school, n«id of three national schools, one 
of which is attjiched to the Roman Catholic convent A newspaper, printed at 
Maryborough, is also published here. 

NA'BOB, or Nabab, a corruption of the word Nawdb (deputy), was the title lie- 
longing to the udmiuisU'ators, under the Mogul enipire, of t he seimrate provinces 
into which the district of a Subahdar (q. v.) was divided. The title was continued 
under the British rule, but it gradually came to be apjilied generally to natives who 
were men of wealth and consideration. In Europe, and especially in Bntain,\it is 
applied derisively to those who, having made great fortunes in the Indies, return to 
their native country, where they live in oriental splendor. 

NABONA'SSAR, Era of, was the starting-ix)intof Babylonian chronolojry, and 
was adopted by the Greeks of Alexandria, Bero.xus and othors. It l)e^an witn the 
accession of Nabonassar to the throne — an event ca leu 1. 1 ted (from certain astronomi- 
cal phenomena recorded by Ptolemy) to have taken place 261 h February 74T b.c. 

NABULU'S, or Nablu's (a corruption of the Gr. Neapolia^ New City, the name 
given to it in the reign of Vespasian), anciently cjillpd Shecheh or Sichem, in the 
New Testament (John iv. 6), Stghab ; is a town of Palestine, i^ssessing, it is said, 
"the only beautiful site from Dan to Beersheba." It lies between Mount Ebal and 
Mount Gerizim, on the south side of the valley of Erd-MAkhna, and has a population 
variously esiimafed at from 8000 to 14,000, of whom about 600 are Christians, 150 
Samaritans, and 50 Jews ; the rest are Mohammedans, fierce, turbulent, and fanati- 
cal. The houses are pretty good, but the streets (as usual in the East) are narrow, 
gloomy, and filthy. The chief productions are soap, cotton, and oil— the soap-manu- 
factories are large, and the oil i.* cont«idered the best in Syria. — See Porter's ** Hand- 
book for Syria and Palestine," and Stanley's " Pulei^tiiie." 

NACKE. See Mother or Pbabl. 

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63 ITeviiif 

NA'DIR, an AraWc word t*igiilfving that i)oiiit In (h« beitvems "wliich Is c1ianietri« 
caliy opposite to the zciiitb, tfo tlint the sctiiti), iindir, ai)dceiitr«> of tbe cnrth ore iu 
one firaigbt Hue. TUe zvuith aud nadir form tbo poles ot tlio Horizon (q. v.). See 

NADIU SHAH, of Perslji, belong<'d to tbe AfsbnTS, a TnrklsV. tribe, and was bom 
near Ke!af, in the ceiilre of Kliora.-s.iu, Persiji, in 1(5SS. When 17 yo;:r8 old, lie was 
taken prisoner by the UsbeUp, but escaped after fonr'ycnr« of cuptivity ; cnteretl tlio 
pervictt of tbe governor of Ebora^snn, and soon obuilned liigb promotion. Huxii.p, 
bowevor, been dijrrnded and piiuinbed for tome rt-al or supposed offenrc, he l)eloi;k 
bim^lf to a lawless bfo, and for several years was the dariiii; lender of n baud of 
3«)00 robbfi-ii, wIjo levied contril)ution8 from almost tbe wiiole of Kboi-assaii. An 
epporinnity having occurred. N. seissed the town of Kehit, and gradually extended 
bif« territbnal antliority. Porsii. was at this time ruled by Meiek Ashraf, an Afghan 
of the tril)e of Qhilii, whose grinding tyranny and crnelsy pro<lnced iu the mlid of 
every Persian a deadly hatred of tlie veiy name Afghan, whicli exists to the present 
day. N. having avowed iils intention of expelling tbe bated race from the counti*jr 
aud restoring tlie Snffavean dynasty, numbi rs flcrcked to his standifrd, and Meshed. 
Herat, and all Khofnssan were eiJeedily reduced. Aslirnf, signally defeated In t^everal 
engagements, fl'd before the avenger, who, v.iib a Celerity only equalled by Ita thor- 
onghness, purged tbe provincen of Irak, Pars, and Kei'nian of wen the semblance 
of ATgbtui domination. Tbe assassination of Ashraf, during his retreat, terminated 
the war. Tlie rightful heir, Tamasp, then ascended the throne, and N. received for 
bis 8i'rvic«;8 the govern mcnt of tbe provinces of Khorassan, Mazanderan, Scistan* 
and Kerman, asi^^uming at tbe same time the title of Tamas|)-kAli (tlie Slave of 'J'a- 
nias|\), the title 6f kimu being subsequently added. He was sent against the 
Turks in' 1T31, and defeat»d tmm at Ilaniidan, regaiuiiig the Armenian pro- 
vi4icc« which had been .«6ized by the Turks in the preceding reign; but 
bis sovereign having in his absence engaged utisuccessfuUy the same enemy, N. 
caused bim to l)e pot in prison, and elevated bis infant son. Abbas III., to tlie throne 
in 1738. The de:itb of this pupi>et, in 1786, opened the way tor the elevation of N. 
himself, who w^ crowned as A'adir Shah, February M 1736. He resumed tlie war 
with tbe Turks; and though totally defeated iu theftrst two b .ttles by the Grand 
Vizier Asman. tunied the ilde of fortune in tbe subsequent campaign, and granted 
peace to the Titrks on condition of receiving Georgia. He also' conquered Afglia« 
ni^itan. and drove back the invading Usbi'ks. His ambassador to tlie Great Mogul 
having buen uiurd<!red along with all his suite at JelalalMid, and satisfaction having 
bi.en refuseil, N. in revenge ravagixl the Nonb-wtst Pi(»vlnceB, and t»Jok Delh^ 
which he waf», by the insai}e-1)ehavior of the inhabitants, reduced to the necessity of 
l)illiiging. Vith booty to the amount of i:20,000.000, including the Koh-i-nfir (q. v.) 
diamond, he returned to the west bank of the Indus. He next reduced Bokhara and 
Khaurrzm. restoring to Persia her limits under the golden reign of the Sassauides. 
From this period, liis character underwent a sudden change: he was formerly open- 
liearted, liberal, and tolerant ; he now became et!.«Ricious, avartoious, and tyraunl- 
caL 'llie emjiire groaned und-r his extortions, and he was finally assassinated ou 
Ibe20ib June 174T. His only surviving son was carried to Constiuitinople, and 
thence to Vienna, wher/ he was brought up as a Cttbolte, under tbe surveillance of 
tlie Empress Maria Theresa, and died a major in the Austrian service, under the 
title of Baron Somliu. N.'s tyranny has now been forcotten ; and at tlie present 
d'ly, he is reg:irded with pride and gratitude as the ** Wallace " of Persia. 

NiE'VIUS. Cn, oneof the earliest Latin poets, was born, probably In Campa- 
nia, in the first half of the Sd c. B. c. In his youtli, be served in the first Funic 
war; but about the year 235 b. c, he made bis appearance at ROn:e as a dramatle 
writtT. Of his life, w-e know little ; but nt his character, rather more. He was very 
dccidwlly attjiched to the plebeian party; and in his plays, satirisicd and lampooned 
I lie Homan nobles with all the virulence aud indiscretion of a hot-blooded impetuona 
Campanlan— that Gascon Of and nt Italy 1 His rashness ultimately caused his 
bMnisJiment to Utica in Africa, where he died, 204 or 202 b. c. Besides his dhimatic 
writliigs, qomprisiug both tragedies aud comedies, he wrote an epic poem, *Dii 
B'jIIo rtiuico,'' in the old Saturuian metre. Of these, only a few very unimportant 
iragineufs are extant, which may be fouud iu Bolho'a '* Poet^rum Latinoruu Sceni- 

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lf»TtUI C4 

ITagpor ^* 

corum Fra^euta " (Hnlbtiratntit, 1834) : or KlKiimaiin'* collection of Hie eamo (Jena, 
1343), euricliud by a life of N., and nii eBSKiy uu kis poetry. Sue ul:<o SoUars's ** Poets 
of tiie Ro!naii Kepublic " (Ediu. 18J3). 

N^'VUS (known practlciiUy ns mother-spot or mole) !» n conurnnltsl iiiark or 
growl U oil rt part of the skiu. Soniel lines it i& iiierely a dark dJHCiiloiation of tlie 
surface sis described in tlie article Macule, in whicli case it is t*rm d a mole and 
ie perfectly harmless; but often it consists of a dense network of dilated blood- 
Tcpsels, forming a retldish or livid tumor, more or less el,3vated above the sai'facu 
of the Burroundin}? skiu. The most frequent situations of these vascuhir ua&vi 
are the skin and subcntaneons cellular tissue of the l»ead ; but they may occur else- 
where. The popular belief is. that i hey are ciused by the lont^Ing of the mother 
during lier prejjnaucy for a looster, or H^^^rawbeny or raspberry, or some other red- 
Colorcd article of food, and that the influence of her ndnd ha:5 impressed upon tho 
foetus n more or less vivid imasje of the Ihing *he long.d for; and hence tlie name 
of mother-tpot. Sometime'« these tumors wtiste n way spont4ineonsly, nud give no : 
trouble; but fivquently they increase rapidly, invade the adjacent tissues, and ulcer- 
ate or slough, and thuA become dangerous to life by hemorrhage. When these tn- 
mors do not sliew a tendency to increase, no treaiment is ne<'.es»ary. When thi-y 
are Obviously inci*easing in siz<*, the continual application of cold (by means o'f 
fl'eezin:; mixtures), with mo lerately firm pressure, is sometimes of survict? ; but a 
more certdn method is to tanploy means to produce such au amount of inflamma- 
tion as to obllter.ite the vessels; fortius purpose, tlie s-.tton, the applicaiioti of 
nitric acid, and vaccination of the tuiiu)r, b;ive been successfully applied. The in- 
jection of strong astrini;ents, with tlie view of coaguliiing the blo<jd, has 
times effected a cure. If all those nieanalail, extirpation, eiilierwith the lijfatnre 
or knife, must be resorted to ; the ligature bi-ing P's^arded as tlie safest and l)x>st 
Diethod. For the various methods of applyin*j the liijature, the reader is referred 
to any standard work on operative surgery. If the tumor is in an iiniccessibie spot, 
as ill the orbit of the eye, and is increasing nipidly, the only course is to tie the 
large vascular trunk supplying it. ,The common can) artery ho^iu sevenil iu- 
Btauces been tied with success for vascular nsevus iu tlie orbit. ^^ 

NA'FELS, a village of Switzerland, in the canton of Glnrus, and five milea north 
of the town of tinit name, in a d,;ep valley, is one of the most famous battle-fields 
In the country. Fop. (18T0) 2490. Here, iu 1388, 1500 men of Glarus, under Mat- 
thias am Buhl, overthrew au Austriau force of from 0000 to 8000 men. The event 
is still celebmted yearly. 

NA'FTIA, Lago, a curions small lake in Sicily, ai)oat two miles from Mlneo, iu 
Catania. It is situated in a plain, amidst craggy hills, and is of a circular form, com- 
monly sixty or seventy yards in diameter, and about fifteen feet deep, but iu dry 
•weather shrinking to a much smaller size, and being occasionally altoi'ether dried 
np. In the midst of it are three small cratcre, two of which iwrixjtumly scud np 
water in jets to the height of two or three feet ; the third is more intermittent. The 
water is gi-eenish, or turbid, and has an odor of bitumen. The whole lake resembles 
a boiling cauldron, from theescfipo of carbonic acid gas, rushing upwards wirh great 
ftjrce. The atmosphere is consequently* fatal to birds atteniptinj< to fly across the sur- 
face of the lake, and to small animals which approach it to satisfy their thirst r and an 
approach to itis attended with headacheand other painful circumstances to man him- 
self. The ancients regarded these phenomena with groat dread. Tliey puppo8t:d that 
Pluto, when ctirryingoff Proserpine, drove his fiery steeds through this lak?, ere his 
descent to t he lower regions. A temple was erected hen; to the gt ds of tlic i wo ciniters, 
the DiiPaHci, who were supposed to be twiu sons of Jupiter, by the nvmph Thalia. 
Pilgrims fl)cked to this Bhrino;.and it afforded an inviolable asylum to slaves who 
had fled liom their masters.. An oath by the Dii Pa lie! was never broken by the 
master, who found himself compelhMl here to come to terms with his runaway slave. 
No remains of the temple of the Dii Palicl are left, although it isd scribed as having 
been maguiflceuL 

NAGA Ifl, in Hindn Mythology, tlie name of deified serpents, which are repre- 
sented as the sons of the Mnni Kas'yapa and his Wife K.'.dt-fi, whei!C3 they are 
also called ESdravdyas. Their king is S'esha, the sacred serpent of Vishn'iu 

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^•^ iragpur 

NXGAPATA'M, a seaport o€ British Indin. on the Cbromaiidd coapt, io the 
proviuce of Tanjar, 16 miles south of Karikal. It was taken by tlie Dutch in 
1660, bat fell Ink) fh« huuds of the Eui:)i8h In 1781. its «>ite is an op<ii faiidy 
plaiiK (^levnted oiilj three or fonr tt^-t at)Ove sen-Ievd. The |X)rr i» visit.-d by 
t<mall vessels au4 caitiie» ou «omc trude wlUi Ceylou. Pop. at tiie ceunufi of 1S71, 

NAgARJUNA, or NAfnwaia, is the name of oi»« of the most celebrated Bucld- 
bistic teachers or patHarcha — the thirteontU — wbct, MOconliog to some, lived ahf)ijt 
400 years, according to otiiers, alwui 608 years, afierlhe death of the Buddlia S'-u- 
vamnui <i. e.. 14S or 4S b.o.). He was fbe foaitder of the Mfiilhyumika eciioo), and 
Lis principal dL^ciplvs w«re Aryadeva and Badhnuftlita. Accordlng^ tothe tradition 
of the Baadha£>, he was born iu the coutli of ladia. in a Brahmaiiicai family. Rwn 
as a child, lie studied aH the four Vedas ; later, be travelled through various coun- 
tries, aud becamu proficient in astrottomj, |;eograpliy, aud magiad' arts. By mcaua 
of the last, lie had several ainorona adveu tares, which ended in the denth of thren 
compauioua oi his, but in his own rcpenCauce, and, with tlie assistance; of a Bnddiiist 
mendicant^ in his conversion to Buddhism. Many miracles are. of c-ourse, attri- 
buted to ins Career as propagator of this doctrine, especinlly in the south of India, 
and tiis life is said to have lasted 300 years. — 8ee E. Burnonf, ** Introdaction h 
rUistoire du Bnddhisme IndivU " <Paris, 1844); Bp<;iice Haixiy, '-A Manual of 
Buddhism " (Lond. 18:8) ; W. Wassiijew, *' Dcr Buduhiamns, aeiue Dogiucu, Gce- 
chiohte uud Liierutnr ** (4C Peteri»burg, 1890). 

NAGAS A'KT, or Nanjrasiki, a city niid port of Japan, opr ned to foreign coni- 
iTiPi-ce l)y the treaty of 1858, ou the first July IB.';*, is situated in 82© 44' n. Hit., and 
129° 61' e. long., ou the western side of ajYvninsnia in tlic nort invest of tlie Island 
of Kinsin. Previonsly to 1850, it was tlie only ])ort in Japau op«'n to foreigners. Tho 
harl>or, wliicii is one of the most bauitifnl in the world, is aiiont six miles iu width, 
and threeor fonr in leii};th. To a person Insid'-s it app«'nrs coinplcttly land-Ioclved, 
and it is snrronnded by hills of about ISUOftct in lu-iglit. Th^se are bi-okfii into 
long rid-zes and deep valleys; while the more fertile spots are triract-d and under 
cuiOvntion. Tlie town of !N., which is al)out a mile in lentrth, and ihrce qnarters of 
a mile in wldtli, li<s ou tie north side of the bay; its population is estimated at 
70,000. The streets iu general are clean and well-paved, but the bourns are not par- 
ticularly ^oorl, excei)t those possessed by conitoi'ans, and known as* tea-lionses." 
Ou the lulls Ijehind the town are various temples, tliose dedicated to **Sinto," or th« 
worship of the snit godd'ss, which is the old naiioual r<-Hg':on of Ja|>au.and those iu 
which the Bnddliist c worship, ini])Oi'ted from Ciiina, is i()llowcd. The foieign set- 
tlement lies to the south of tlie native town, the British, French, Gh'.rman, Prusi^ian, 
and Portuguese, consulates occupying the hilly gi'ound back from the bay. On the 
opposite sido of the bay, the Jupaiiese have a steam-factory, under the diiVction of 
Dutch officers, and clofe by is the Russian aettleinent. The climate of N. V genial 
but variable. 'I he trade of N. is inferior to ihat of K'unagawa. Sea-weed, salt-fish, 
and other articles are exported to China. The exports to Enroj)e are mainly tea, to- 
bacco, coal, ginseng, vegetable wax, and copjier. The chief imports are cotton piece- 
goods, Moolleu good:*, sugar, oils. The total value of iini>orts iu 1875 amounted to 
1,617.000 dollars, and of llie exports to close on 2.000,000 dollars. The import trade 
suffers (according to the consular report of 1872) from the very confiiud outlet of 
this mftrket. the absence of we.-iUiiy native mercliants, and of all the baulting facili- 
ties, both foreign aud native, existing at Hiogo, Osaca, aud Yokohama. 

NA'GEIiFLUE, the provincial name for a bed of conglomerate belonging to tho 
Mollasse (q. v.), which forms a considerable poriion of tlie htrata in the etntial 
region of Switzerland, Ix^lweentbe Aljw and tlie Jura. It is said to ati.;in the 
enormous thickness of 600U uud 8000 feetiu the Rhigi uear Lucerue, and iu the 
Si>eer near Wesen. 

NAGKESUR, the name under which the blossoms of the Mesua /eirea are sold 
iu thj bazaars of India. See Guttifer.«. 

NAGPU.'R, a city of British India, capitjd of tbo province of the same iiaine, 
and situated near its north-west extremity, in an nnhealihy swampy hollow, 489 
miles iu a direct line east-uorth-east of Bombay. Inclusive or Its exieusivo suburbs. 

Digitized by 


KaUs ^^ 

U I» Beven mlloa In cIrcnmf(»reMCi% ItGOutains no Important cdiAcoe*. Tlie gre^ 
body of the Inbabitanta live in tliatche<l iniid-tcut'', inier£'|M»^)d with tre<;«» wUioli 
preveut thocircnintiouof Mir, mid »ccroru itioi>tnr<j, Um» rendcHu^ the to\vn4iQ- 
BecesMiily uiihetdthy. Theincnii temperatnreof N. foestiuinted ut ui>out 80*^ ^. Cot- 
ton clothe, courpe nnd fine cIiIiuzch, turbans, silks, brociides, blnnkHP, woolluim, 
feut-closhs, nnd articli'8 in copper and brnsp, are ninnuCactnred. Hem, ^ on the 
26th and 2Tth Novenib.T 1S17, a small British force of 135i) men, conunandeil by 
Colonel Scott, defeated a native army of 18,000 men. Pop. (1872/ 84,441. 

NAGPUR, an extensive inland province of BriH.'»li India, i* ander the chief com- 
missioner of the Central Provinces. Its area is 22^3sqnare miles, and its |K>|>al:s- 
tion in 18T2 was 2,280,081 ; but this dp.xi>;natiou has been uspd lo kiclode a miich 
grcatttr areju The north part of iho province is mountainous in character, b«jl4tg 
travei*sed by gpnrs of the great Vindhya ninge; the general slope of tbe^cufact! i* 
from north-weftt to soath-east, ami the piy ot Bengal rec^'ives the dKiinage of tho 
conntry chiefly thiongb ihei ivers Miimnadiff and WaUitbin^A— the lattur a tributary 
«f the God4vari. The climate i»,not healtliv, an<l is esix.'cially insMlubrioiiain t.u 
extensive tracts of low umrshy Jand wtiich abound in the province Tho Qonds <s 'O 
India), supposed to l>e the aliorigines, are the most remarkable class of tiie inhabit- 
ants. They rear fowls, swine, an<l iHiffaloi's; bnt their country, forming tbemnith- 
caeteru trapts— al)oiit one -third of the wiiole— is covered with a.dense jnu*?le, swarni- 
Ing withligers. In tlie more favored districts, where the inhabitants are imOTe,)li^ 
dnstrioi^s, rice, maize, oil, and other seed?, and vej^etuhles are exreneivelycullivttti'<L 
Tlie ra}alis of N., someilmes ctdled tlie rajahs of Berar, ruled over a state formed o?;t 
of at part of the gieat Mahnittii kingdom. The dyuastv, however, died put in 185^ 
and he territory cane into the possession of tho Britislu The province has five 
divisions — capital, Najrpnr. 

NAG'S HEAD CONSEORAnON. Tlds story, which was trst clrqnlatod hv the 
Roman Catholics forty years after the event, with respo t to Archbisliop Parker's 
consecration, was to the follmving effect On the passing of the first Act of IJn!- 
formity In the first yc:»r of <5t>i<^n Elizabeth, fourteen bishops vacated their see?, 
and all the other sees excepting that of LlandafC bein^ vacant, there was a dlflaculty 
in maintaining the hitherto unbroken succession of bishops from apo.-tolical lin)es» 
Kitchin of Llandatf refused to officiate at Parker's con8<H;rat!o!i, ai;d consequently 
tlie Protestant divines procured the help of Scory, a deprived Uinljop of the reign of 
£dward VI,, and all haviuir met at the Nag's Head Tav<rn in Cheap-lde, th<»y kn^-'lt 
%eforo ScOi^f wlio laid a Bible on their heads or shoulder-*, saying: **Take thou 
authority Jo preach the word of God sincerely:" nnd they rosse up bishops of tho 
New Churcit of Buirland I The story is discredited by the Roman Catholic historian 
Liugard, and Is carcfnlly refuted by Strype in his life of Parker. The facts of thu 
CJ»se are, tlmt tlie election took place in the cha|)ter-house at Canterbury, tlie confir- 
mation ut St Mary le Bow's Clinrch in Cheaps^ide, and the consecnition in the chapcil 
of Liimbeth Palace. Scory, then elected to the see of Herefoi*d; Barlow, formerly 
Bishop of Wells, then elect* d to Chlche.^tiT; Coverdalo, formerly of Exeter, ana 
never rcai^pointed to any see; and Hodgkie, s-iffrairan of Hereford, officiated at tho 
consecration. The Naj^'s Head Mtory probably arose from tlie company hayiirjrpoa 
slbly goije from Bow Church, after the rontirmation, to take a din; er together - 
the tavern hard by, according to the prevailing' eusloju. The due succession of bish- 
fl^ in the English Church has never i»een broken. 

N AG Y, a Hungarian word, meanino^ *' great." It is prefixed to tho names of 
many towns in Hungary anci Transylvania. In the present work, many of lUe 
towns that take this prefix are given under the name that conges after it. 


NAGY ENYE'D a small town of Transylvania, on the Maro«, 17 miles north* 
north-cast of Karlsburg. It contains a fa'uions Calvinistic college. Pop. (1869) 

NA'QYKARO'LY (I. e., (Jrest Ka'<51y>, a town of Hungary, capital of the 
county Sziitiiinar. SZ miles east-north-<?ast from Debreczin, on a smull fi.'eder lif 
the Thpiss. It has several important ainioal fairs, and a trade in corn and &ittld» 
]?0p. (1869) 12,754. 

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67 . gS" 

NA'HUM, one of the twelve minor prophets, wa8 a native either of Elkosb. fa 
Galilee, or thei*ou(>fu mnn named Eikosh. The ideiitllictttioH of bis birib|imco 
witli Capernanm (XalunnV Villa;?e) or a place c lied Eiko««li, on the ea*t fJde of Iho 
Tigri?, not far from Nineveh, is ihc reenli of v.igue sp<*<'ulaiiou. He wan jmibahly a 
contemporary of Isaiah, and flwunshid about 718-711 B.C. The bniden of his 
*' vision" (in 8d chilp.) \» ihe <iedtrticlion of Nineveh and the downfall of the As- 
syrian iciugdoin. Hia iftyle is full of animation, fancy, and oii^nality, and at th.} 
sttuie time clear and roundeil. Hia language tliroui^hout'ia cluarical, and iu the 
pnrest Hebrew, beloning totlio e«cond half of Hezekuih's reijrn, or lo the tinte im- 
mediately foUowins^ tlie def<fat of Sennacherib before Jerusalem (2 Klnj*!* xix. 8S, 
Ac). A corinui-ntary on N:, with apecial rt-ferenco to tlie At^syriau nionuuienla 
lately discovered, has Iwen written by O. Strauss (Berlin. 1853). 

NA'IA. See Asp aud Cobka. 

NA'IADES, Nalnda'ceae, or Potjim»'ie, a natural order of endogoucns plants 
divided by Honie bOfaniyrs into several oider>« {Juncoffiuere, ^osfejafra", &c.), eon 
taining in all not quite 100 known species, all ac^natic t^ant><, t^ome of tin ni inhabit 
ing tlie ocean, ?onie found in lukrs and ])onds. some in streams. They are all of 
very ceihilar structure; the leaves have parallel veins, ai d the fluwers are ineonspic- 
Qous. To this order belongs the Ponawcrd C^otowioflre-fon), of which a number of 
speides abound in the still watt-i'S of Britniu, and of wh ch some are found as 
for north as Icelauft. To thlrf order alro belongs the Gsasswrack (q. v.) of our 
shores, used for stuffing mattresses. The Lntt ice-leaf (q. v ) of Madagascar is one of 
the most interesting specii-s, and one of the few wliich attract notice as in any way 

iNA'IADS, in Grecian Mythology, the nymphs of fresh-water lakes, rivers, and 
fountains. They were' l»elieved to possess the power of inspiration ; hiiice, nocah- 
sayers and otlmrs are sometimes called nymphoieptm (wfzed by the nymph). 1 hey 
were represented as hulf-clothed maidens, and not niifrequently us companions of 
Pan, of Hercuk's. the patron of war ni springs, or of the Sileni and the Satyrs, iu 
whose jovial dances tin y join. 

NA'IANT, or Na'tant (Lat. tuitare^ to swim), a liemldic term applied to a fl>h 
when borne horizontally across the shield iu a sw.mming position. 

NAIGUE, or Naik, a native subaltern offi'^er among Indian and Anglo-Asintlfc 
troops, whose functions are somewhat analogous to those peifornu d among Emo- 
peaii troops by the drill-sergeant. 

NAILS are flattened, «'lastic, horny plates, which are placed as protective covrr- 
^r^^% < n the dorsal surface or the termiin»l phalanges of tne fingers and toes. Each 
Bail consists of arooi, or part conceahd within a fold of the skin : a hody^ or«x- 
posed part attached to the surface of the skin ; and a free anterior extremity called 
the edg^. The skin below the root and body of tiic n. il is t4rme<l the matrix, from 
its being the part from which the nail is pn'iducid. This is thick, and covered with 
highly vascular papillfe, And ilie oolor is seen through the transparent horny tls^ine. 
Kear the root, the papille are smaller and less vi'scular; lunce the portion of nail 
corresponding to tliis part is of a whiter color; from its form, this ))orlion ist»'rm< tl 
tbe lunula, -It is by the successive growth of new ct-lls at the root ai d under the 
body of the nail that it advances forwards, and n»aint«ins a due thickness, whilst at 
the same time its growth in a proper dinctinn is insured. The clumncal composi- 
tion of the nails is given in tiie article Horny Tissues, to which class of strnctarts 
tliey l>el(>ug. According to the observations of Beau, the fln;ier-i/ails grow ar the 
rate of about two-fifths of a line in a wet k, while tin; toe-nails only grow with about 
one-foui-th of that rapidity. When a nail has been removed by violence, or h.s 
been thrown off in cons^qticnce of the formation of nnitter (pus) beneath it, a new 
sail is speetlily formed, p:ovi(le<l the matrix has not buen st h(uisly injured. 

There is a vt^ry cnunon and trouhl some r.f[t'<tion popularly known a.B ingrowing 
nail. Its most usual s« at is l y the side of tljc gnat toe. Itd(.es not iu roalUy ai i ^e 
from any alteration of the nail, but from the adjacent soft parts being constaiUy 

{pressed by tiie use of tight slioes asrainst its edge. These parts become swo!l« n and 
uflanied ; suppuration lusu-s, auilan Intensflv sensitive ulcer is formed, in whicli 
the u»il iB embedded. Surgical advice should at onco be resorted to In tbeee eases. 

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Nailf ^Q 

Walodaya « ^^ 

as there is no probability that the nicer will heal ^pontaneonsly, especially if the 
patient coutintie to move about, and ttiaa keep up initAiioii. In obstinate cn^ea, it 
IB not un frequently necessaiy to remove u portion of llie uail, au opcratiou attcudid 
with much pain, althoogli quiclily pirforraed. 

NAILS, pointed pieces of metal, usually with flattened or rounded heads, used 
for driving into woo<t-w«irk, for f lie purpose of holding tlie piece;* to^jetlier. A va- 
riety, in wtiich the liead is very large, and tlie spike |»ortiou small, used l>y sliuc- 
makera for protecting the soles of lM>otB and sliotns from wear is culUd the hob-tuiU; 
anotlier, wiiich is made by cutting tiiin plate-iron into tJiin pointed pieces of vnriuus 
lengths, is called brada ; tliese aometimus are witliont heads, but are usually made 
wiin a aligtit projection by way of a he<id. When made sunill. wiiii flu heads, lor 
attaching cloth or hangings in upholstery-work, they are called tacka; and wheu very 
large for heavy carpentry, xpik>iH. 

AatZ-moiWiuf.— Formerly, all nails were hand-made, by forgiug on an anvil; and 
in lirit:iin and tlie north of Europe, va.>«t quant itiits are still nmde in this manner, 
being preferable, for nmny kinds ol carpenlAjrs' work, totho:«e made by machimrry. 
In France, the greuttu* part of tlie inuld used for light carpentry-work are made of 
soft iron wire, pointed with the hainin(;r; and iu order to Ivead them, Ineyarep'mhed 
in a toothed vice, which leaves the portion for the lii^ad projecting, and makes lie'ow 
it tliree or four grooves in the nail, whlcit iiicrcasj its hold on the wood when driven 
home. The heatl is beaten into a counter-sinking on the vice, wliicii regulates tho 
' size. 

The irOu used for hand nail-making in Britdn is sold in imndlea, and is called 
nail-ro(U\ itiseitlier prepired by rolling the malleable iron into rods or small l>ars 
of the required thickness— whicli process is only em;»loyed for very fine qualitie-— or 
by cutting plate-iron into strips by means of rollinv;-.'*liears; these shears consist of 
two powerful revolving shafts, upon wtiich an; ftxed disc^ of hard steel with squared 
edges. The discs of one shaft alternate with thor*e of tlieorher; they are otf tlu 
thickness of the plate to l)e cut, and the shafts arc so placd, that a small portion of 
one Set of the di!«c?4 are inserted between tliose of tlie other Sft. When the sliafia 
are revolving, a plate of iron is press»^ between the discs, and it is forcibly drawn 
through, the st«el discs cutting the plates into strips with great rapidity. The qua n- 
tity produced in tlii:^ way is euormou-, some mills taming out at the rate of ten miit'S 
per hour of nail-rods. 

S.rveral iuventions, in whicli A.m>inc>i took the lead, have l^een Introduced, and 
are successfully worked, for making nails direct from plate-iron, either by cutting 
them out cold or hot; and a very l.-irg^i proportion of th • nails in use arc made i.i 
tbia way. Nail-making by muciiiu ry was originated iu Massachusetts iii 1810. 

NAIN DE TILLEMONT. See Tillemont. 

NAIRN, iu the county of the same name, is a royal, parliamentary, and ranni- 
cipal burgh, and is 15 miles north-east by rail from luvernesft. It is situated at ihn 
mouth of the river Nairn, on the wei»t side, and for that reason ancienf ly called 
Inver-Naim. Lyiuir on the southern ahoro of the Mway Pirih, which is here about 
eit^ht miles across, it commands a gran I and extensive view of the coast of Ross- 
phire, iuciuding Cromarty Bay. nearly opposite. N. waa regal IsiMi by William the 
Lion. It has little historical iuterest^ and few olijects worthy of antiquarian 
attention. It is principally remarkal>le for the excellency of it'* aea-batliin^ nml 
artifl ial t>aths, in which refpoet it is equal, if not superior, to any town Tn tho 
iiortii of Scotland, as a resort in summer. The temperature is mild and < quable. 
The inhabitants enjoy a reiuarkahU' immunity from epidemic diseases. There is a 
com I. odious harbor. The town has a literary hociety, a museum, a newspapir, three 
branch banks, and a j-avings Iwnk. It is conspicuous for good and cheap education. 
Pop. iu 1871, 3761. N. uultea with Inverness, Forres, and Fortro^e in 8eudin;r a 
member to parliament. 

N.AIRNSHIRE is l>onnded on the n. by the Moray Firth, and on its other sides by 
thee muties of Invernct*8 and Moray, of tiie hitter of which it .inc (Mitiy formed a pni r. 
It extends north and xonth 22 miles, and 1-^ miles from east to west. Its area is SliS 

Suare miles, or 187.600 acres, of which about 26.000 are under cultivation. Fop. in 
71, 10,225, including the burgh of Nairn. Aloiig with Elglnshii'e, It returns ono 
nember to purliaineut. Constituency ^876— 1877), 868; iHJutal, ^£34,941. |Nairu ia 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


^^ Nalodaya 

the only royal biirffh in the comity, bnt there nro the villngefi of Cawdor aud Aald- 
eariiA The soil ii«lor the* luont jiarl 1 ght and sandy. Tliem is, how»?ver, coiipider- 
hhle a^ricaHuml activity, tiiongh th-.? c<»unry m peni»pa better known for lie Cuttle- 
l»rev-(hii«i:. An Importrfi'it cattle "tryst " i«» held at Cawdor once a month during the 
;rt:a'er part of the year. The ciimatc of this couuiry is distingni^hiHl for its wiUi- 
irity, and the teaipt-nmirc is reimirkably t-qufiblf. The thermoinctrr iu the shade 
has* uoi ri«jn above T8° 3', or fall n b.^luw 11' 2', dnnn^ the hist twenty years. Ac- 
c<.Td]ii;rto the iatest ob^n-valioiis, t!ie V' arly niinrall did not anuiur.t lo more than 
2t> ineJies, the jirenteft Jail bein^ in Ot tob«;r,":i»d the Ie:i8t iu April. At Bracklu ll»s- 
tilkry, wiiicliheloiigs to Ko'K'H Frat»or, Eaij., from 40,000 to 60,000 gallons of p]>irits 
are n.anufaetinvd annually. Tiie r.vor Nitini runt* tlirougli the county iu a beuuti- 
ful valley, wliicii (iresenl^ particularly ut ructivc and roninntic ticenery in tlie iicigh- 
boriiood of Cawdor C'a.-'tle, one oi ine residences of tlie Earl ot Cawdor. Tliis las- 
lle is of uncertain aniiqu;ty, .-.nd it» in an excellent Htnte ot prem:rvation. It wai* the 
residence of the ancient Thautsof Cawdor, tuie of wliom i» meittioned in "Mac- 
beth." About ti»e year 15'0, the e^t^itea belonging to the eurldom {Kissed by uiarriage 
from tiie old family OI Caldiu: into the JK^uds of a son of the Duke of Argyiu, and 
are still in the uos^ession of his di-Hcendunts. JSoi a few otiier objects of autiquariau 
intere^ are to be tonud in tlie county ot X^airu. 

NAISSANT, a term applied iu honddlc blnison lo an nniihal depicted as coming 
forth one of the middle— uoi like Jn«uarU or JetmttU (q. v.), out of tlie l)onudary 
hue — of an ordinary. 

NAKHICHEVA'N, on the Don, a thriving town of South Russia, iu the gov- 
enimeut of Elsuierinoslav, on the light b:<nk of the Don. and near the mouth of that 
river, two miUs east of Kostov. It was founded in 17T9 by Armenian settlers from 
liie Crimea, and has (1867) 16,584 inhabitants, mostly Armenians, belonging to the 
Greek-Armeuian Church. Tlie inhabitants are engaged in the inanufactiiro of sil- 
ver ornaments and woolleu goods, and an extensive tmdc Is caiTied on. 

NAK8HATRA (a Sanscrit word of doubtful etymology, but probably a com- 
)>onnd of an obsolete hm^e naksha^ night, and tra, protecting, i. e., literally night- 
])rotecting) means proprrly star, mid is u:<ed in this sense iu the Vedas. At a later 
period, it was applied to ihe a^terisms lying in the moon's path, or to the mansidns 
in which the uioon is piippo8< d to rest- in her, or rather, aecoiinir to Hindu notions, 
his[M\b. The number of these aslerisms was reckoned originafiy ut27, later at 28; 
and mythology transformed them into as many daught^^rs ot the pat.iiarch Daksha, 
who became tlie wives of the moon. Sm Moon. Blot, Ihe dis:inguiFed French as- 
tronomer, endeavored to ghew that the Uindn system of the Nakshatras was d«> 
rived fmni tlie Chinese tden ; bnt his theory, though mpported by very learned ar- 
guments, has been refuted by Proft S!«or Whitney, in his notes to Burgess's transla- 
lion of Ihe '• Sfii^a-Siijdh&rita " (New Haven, United States, 1860), and by Professor 
MiSller in his preface to 116 4111 volume of the ^ Kig-Veua" (Lond. 186*Z); for their 
argniiieuts leave iitilc doubt that the system of the Nakshatras originated from the 
HiiKln uiind. 

KALA is a legendary king of ancient India— a king of Nishadha— wboso love for 
Damayautt, the daughter of Biiiiua, king of Vidarbha, and the adventures arising 
from, or connected with, it— the loss of Ids kingdom, the abandonment of his wife 
and children, and their ultimate restoration — have supplied Fcvend Hindu poets 
witli the subject of their nmse. ■ The oldest poem relating to Nala and Damayanit is 
a celebrated episode ol the V MnhabharaUi " (q. v.), edited both in India j iid Eurqjx', 
and translated in Latin by Boppj in German by Kosegarten, B^pj), KQckert. and 
Meier; and in English by Dean Mdnnin. The two other n-nOwned poems treating 
of the same legenu. bnt with far less completeness, are thc"Nalodaytt" (q. v.) and the 
** Nalshadhachanta " of S'll-Harsha, 

NALODAYA is the name of a Sanscrit poi-m which is highly |>rlzc»d by the mod- 
eni Hindus. Its subject is the story of N:>la (q. v.), but more concisely narrated 
than in the episod<> of the •'Mah&bliaraJa," w'sence its contents are borrowed; and its 
reputed author is K&lid&?<a (q. v.). Great doubts, however, must attach to the attri- 
bution of this authorship, it by Kftlid&^a the author of *> S'&kuniala" is meant, and 
not some other poet bearing the same name ; for the merits of this poem consiyts 
neither in elevation of thought uor in richnusB of fiction : they are soi^ht for by the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

dtizeo bad three. The priftiomen, like oor OhriMlan name, waf personal to the 

iodividiial— OaiQn, Marcus, Ciieiiip; in wriliug ireuenilly abbrevtnted to uu iuitiul or 
two leiteri*, C, M., or Cu. It was ^\yei\ iu uarly times on the ntt^tlnnieiit of pti1>crtr. 
irad afterwards on the iiluth day after birth. There were al>out thirty recojjnisea 
prseiioiniua. Woiuen hnd no pi-seiionien till marriage, when tliey took the feminine 
form of that borne bv their Imsbund. Kvery Roman citizen bclouged both ^o a 
gena and to a/amilia included in tliat gene. The second name was the nomen gen^ 
iilictum^ generally ending in -ttM, -eivs, or -aiiis. Tlie thinl name was tlie lu;ro- 
ditary eoaiionim belonging to ilie familia. Cognomlna were often derived from 
some biKUly peculiarity, or event in the life of the founder of tlie family. A second 
cognomen, or agiwnun^ as It was called, was sometimes added by way of hojjorrfry 
diiftinctlen. In common intercourse, the pneno?neu and cognomen were used with- 
out thenomen geutilicinm,a3 O. Caesar for C. JnHiisC«sar. M. Cicero for M. IHillins 
Cicero. The Roman names were iatlteir origin less digniflcd and aspirin? thnu the 
Greek; some were derived from ordinary employments, as Porcins (swlneiien!), 
Cicero (vetch grower) ; some from personal peculiarities, Crassos (fatX Na^o (long- 
nosed) ; a few froin numerals, Seztus, Septimus. 

The Celtic and Teutonic names, like the Jewish and Greek, had beeu originally 
very sign iflcaui; but at an early period their exutierauce became checked ; people 
conteuFiHl tiiemt!>elves with repeating the old stock. While the speech of Enroiie 
was undergoing a transformation, the names in use remained the same; belonging 
to an ol>i<>olete tongne, their sij^niflcation by and by became unintelligible to the 
people using them. Many are tlerivcd from "QiKii^a* Gottfried, Godwin; some 
irom an inferior class of gods known by the title cui or ana, whence Ansel m, Oacar, 
SUmond; others from elves or genii, Alfrtd, Alboin, Elfric (Elf King). Bc^riha is 
the name of a favorite feminine goddess and source of light, fiom the same root 
as the word '' bright; " the same word occurs as a compound in Albrecht, Bertram. 
To a lars^e dab* of names indicating such qualities as pursonal prowess, wisdom, 
and nobdity of birth, t)elou^ Hildebrand (war brand), Konrad (bold in counsel), 
Hlodvvig (s;l irlou.^ warrior), called by us Clovls, and tha original of Lndwig and 
Louis. The wolf, the bear, the eagle, the Iwar, and the lion entered into the com- 
po^itioti of many proper names of men^ as Adolf (noble woif), Arnold (valiaiu etigle), 
0--«»)oni (God bear). Respect for femiiune prowess also appeared in sncli names as 
Mathilde (mighty araazon), Wolfhilde (wolf hei-oine). The spread of Christianity 
tnrew a number of the old names into comparative oblivion, and introtlnct'd u»'w 
on ;s. The uam-i selected ar, baptism was more fivquently taken from the history 
of tlie Bihle ur the church than from the old traditional r. pertorv, which, however, 
was n ver altoircthiT disus d. Many names, snppos(;d to be local and very ancient, 
p irticnlarly in the Scottissh Uighlan(U, Wales, ^nd Cornwall, are in reality bat cor- 
ruptions of names of Cln*i!*tlan origin which are In nse el:«ewhere. Owen, Evan, 
and Eoghan (the latter often Anglicised into Bector) seem all to I)e forms of Johauu 
or John. A chanite of name was sometime-^ made at conflrmation. 

Periods of rcligitms and poliiical excitement liave had a very powei-ful influence 
In modifying the Fashion in namc^s. Tne Puritans woiUd only aumit of two classes 
of name:*, those dir -ctly expressive of nligions se'>tim-'nt— -Praise-God, Live-well — 
and names which occur in Scripture ; thes ; latter IndtscriminHt-ely made nse of, 
however ol>scure their meaning, or however indifferent the diameter of the orFgl- 
nal bearer of them. Old Testament names were ustul in preference to liew, prob- 
ably because they did not convoy th«? notion of a patron saint. Old Tesiamejil uaiues 
siill prevail largely in AnnTica, where exist* a medhy of Christian names from a!l 
possible sources. At the French Revolntion, ran e^ su))posed to tavor of either 
loyalty or religion were abandoned, and I hosii of Greek and Ronnui heroes came 
into vogue Instead. The Augustan period of English literature gav;? a leniponiry 
popularity to such ferainin.i names as Narci.'*i«a, Uelia. Sablna, In Gernnuiy, tli«j 
names in use are particularly free 'from foreign admixture* ; they are almost all 
either of Teutonic origin, or connected with the early histoiy of Christianity. In 
Britain, the number of names has, pjiriicularly fiuce the Rifunnation, been moni 
limited tlian In most olh»^r countries. In some f:imilie8 of dii'tinction, nuuKnal 
names have been handed down from fatlier to son for centaries— e. g., Per-grine 
among the Barties, and Sholto in tlie Donghis faHiily. The accnmnlation of 1 wo or 
luoreCbristiuu uuiueaouiy bcciiuie cumuiuu in the present cvutury, and another 

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73 »— 

piACtlce vfh\r\\ hii? pvine<1 irronnfl hi BrJ!a!u \» th(> tiw? of pnrnnm(»8 as Chrlrtliin 
iiHujes*, Moiv reoetrtTy, ViiriouH old ii:imo!«, psrtlcuhirly femiijJiie imnu'F. as Mand, 
PKiitJMce, Bthirl, haVf h en wlilidrawn from their c)b:»cMiiiy. and ret«U!«clt!»t«^. 

Ttu* use of flxt?;i fwrnVy ftumaineH cmiior he iitir.fd niiieji furiher buck than fho 
Ittttfi* jmrt of the lOlh cfutniy. '1 h -y firnt viuw into nsc hi Fitmce, mid njirfJcnJarly 
in Norinniuiy. Ai the Conqii st, th'y were hitrtxhiced hito Enffhiid by tne Norinnn 
adventaitrs, and were general .n the Donu»rt3ny Vnlurt!ion. Mmy of Ibe folhiwtrs 
of VVilli.iin had hiktui nnni M from their paU'rind chalfunx or villa e« on the oth«T 
Bide of tlie Channel, names Which w re u^ed wirh th-- Frenth prejiofkioii de btforo 
th-m. Ilicir younger sou jy and oth rs :ii»;iM«.d tlie •*(1e*' to cj^tatep awarded to 
them as* fhi-ir portion of th-'. conquered coaniry, jiud calh d then Mves De Uaetings, 
Be Winton, &c., a prefix probably iievfr iu veruacniar u-e in Bngland, aud coni- 
pleiely dl«<taided wiih the dli^appearance of Norman-Frenc-h, ntdesj* tn a few caf«es 
where It Wa."* retain d for flu ^ike of enphony, or from ccalewhig wltli the initial 
vowel, as in De laH^che, Dinvers (d'Anver^), Dant'orfleid (d'Angerville). When 
Enirl sIj waj* nxetl in phice of J^rmun-Prench, the »*dc" \vh«« alway»» rendered imo 
'• of." The affectation of re»»itmii)}r it in recent tiinert is as nnuarrautabic in tlieory 
as in tJiere. Such a designalittn as Lord De 'I abley of 'J'abl< y House is an unmean- 
ing tantology. The Scotch Inive a more expn ssive dehignation when they say Col- 
quhoun of that Ilk. In France and Gen s any. a territorial snnnime (denoted iw 
**Ue" or "von") ovT^ie, when hurnamcs ppread to jiU classes, to I)e tlie mark of nobil- 
ity, 80 mn h so that in later times*, when any me was ennobled by the sovereign, 
the "de" was prefixed to his prevlou^'ly plebian and not territorial name. In Britain 
the "de" was never considered the test of nobijitj'; the names of some of the most 
distinguished familie:» were not territorial— e. p., Stewart. Butler, Spencer. In Scot- 
land, surname.'^ were hardly in use till tlie 12; h c, and were for a long time very 
varijible. The assumption of surnames by the conunon people is everywhere of 
much later dn^e than their use by noble (gentle) families. As yet they cuu hardly be 
8aid to be adopted by tha people of the wdder districts of Wales. 

Th«*re are many existing local Burnamcs in Britain besides those derived from the 
names of the manors of the gentry or landholders. Farms, homesteads, the natural 
features of the country, all gave their names to those who resided at or near th»m ; 
lieuce such nim ;s as wo xi, Mar<*h, Dale. The pr.positioii "at " is in a few cases 
retained, as in Atwootl, A'Court, Nish (atten-ash, i. e., at the ash). The tnivelling 
habits of the Scots account for such names as In^lls, Fleming, Welsh (the original 
of Wallace), applied to those who had visited foreign parts ; and sometimes a Scots- 
nuin, wandering into England, returned with the acquired name of Scott. 

A lai^e class of surnames are pati-onymics, often formed by " son," or its equiva- 
lent in the language of the country, added to the Christian name of the fj.ther. 
Names of this soit often fluctuate from generation togenenuion. Alan Walttrhon 
had a son, Walter, who called himself Walter Alanson. The genitive case of the 
father's name sometimes served the same purpose, as Adams, Jones ; and similarly 
in Italian. Dosso, Dossi. A fashion of using *• Fit 2," the equivaletit of " son,'' before 
the ancestml name, as in FItzherbert, prevailed tempoiarify in Normandy, whence it 
was imported Into Bngland. In the Hisjhlands of Scotland, the prefix " Mac " (Mac- 
douald) served the same '{^rpose, which, however, fluctuated far longer than the 
patronymic, surnames of England and the Lowlands; so also the "O" (grandson) of 
the Irish (O'Neil), and "An" of the Welsh (Ap Rhys, otherwise Apretce). The 
**de" of Prance had sometimes a similar ori-.'in, as in d'Andre, d'Hugues; and sti.l 
more frequently the " de," "d -i," or "degli " ot Italy — di Cola, di Giacomo. 

Office, occupation, or condition, gives lise to surnames — e. g.. Knight., Marshall, 
Pa«_'e, Smith. Brewsier, Shepherd ; Hi Germany and H(»lland, I&uImm- and dfe Rogver 
(robber) : and from such appellatives, patronymics may be auain derived ;fthU8, we 
have Smith»(on,de Maistre (master^s son).M*Nab (son of the abbot), M*I*lierson (sou 
of the parson), del Sarto (jion of the tailor), &c. So also in-rsonal qualities— Black, 
Wliite. Strong. Static, , Lang (long), Littlejohn, Cruikshanlct*; and nicknames have 
not unfreqnently been t>erpetnated as surnames. We have also surnames derived 
fn)m the signs and cognissunces which were borne In the middle aires, not onlv bv 
inns atid shops, but by private houses. John at tht? Bell became John Bell ; at Mia- 
dlelKfrg, in Holland, Simon, apothecary in the "Drake," or Dragon, bt^came Simon 
Dmek; benc6, probably^ the frequency o{ family utimus derived from animals, and 

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also of tko^e Iv^ginnini? with ** Saint;" tlioogii this Iflstclws may, perhaps, lome' 
lVni'8 li^ve imd its orljciu in the first owner of tliiMiuine d.dic.-itiiic hiiiiseif to tha 
HM'Vici^ o.' tlie sjd'.it lit qti 'Stion. lii SooJlund and Tr.'.land. **Th ^'' is* a dtPtnictive 
title i)ornt} by t le heads of sonio old fninilie.— — u;* •* Tli • Chisholih," ** Th.! O'CouUor 
Dm." In t'le Uigliia;ids of Sc itJand, th : chief of A cl in i» usually addrc."<tsed by tlio 
Druiui alone in a murlti'd niunuer: thUf«, " Mucl«-o.i " InipiifM a|H?cuilly Macieod cf 
Diinv^guu. in Sylct*, head of the cUtn MaoKod ; **Mak<ntotfU,"in liko iiiiiuuer, applies 
jsolely to Maclcin osh of Mt»y, in Inverneert-flhiic. 

In Bnghuid, the nuuibar of exiftiu^ purtiiinieM upproaclics to 40,000, or al)0ilt ono 
to every five hiiudrod individuala; in Scotland, there are far fewt^r mirtiames fii 
proportion to tlie poi)nhition. Th ; remarkable predominance of certain Buruumes 
in certain loc:ditie:«^aM Ountp')ell, Cameron, Maclean in Ari^ylesliire, Macdonald iii 
liiverneftg, Macluiy in Siitherhuidf Gordon aud Forbes in Aberdeenaliire, and Scott, 
K:;r, Elliot, Mrixwell, and Johnstone on the bordera -arises from tlie clan:4iueii hav- 
in:4 made a practice of takini? the name of their chit^fs, cousldcriug tben)8elvcs 
members of their family by adoption, if nototherwiso. Elsewhere than in Scotland, 
ya8Aals often adopted tlie names of their lords, and servants those of their masters. 
'I'wo or more surname--* are often borne by one individual^ in which case the paternal 
f nrnam * U som jtiinas placed first, som.stlmes lost ; and, in recent timps, it Is by the 
name which occurs lust that the bearer of the two suruauies is u^Ott frcquentj^ 
known. v 

The wife, wl!h us at least, changes her surname to tliat of tier hnsljand on mar- 
riage. In the continent, it is .tot unusual for (he husband to append his wife> naovs 
to his own ; aud in Spam, tlie wife reluina lur own name, while the sou is at libjrQr 
to use either piteruul or maiernal ifkuie^as he pleuso-^, the choice generally fulling on. 
the b ;st family. 

Cfumgc of ?uime.— Prior to the Reformation, surnam-'S w^re le?s fixed than they 
have smce liecouie. Oocasionally, younger sons, iusteud ot retaining tiieir pati*p- 
nymlc, adopted the name of their estate or place of residence. A great matrimonial 
aitiance was a frequ nt cause for adopting the patronymic of tJie wife. With this 
clefgy. ordinatiou was a common occasion of a change of nam;N the |)ersoual sur- 
name liiiuji: exchanged for the iiaaie of the place of birth—thus, William Longe be- 
came WilWam of Wykehan. In time of political troubles, a new name was ofteu 
assuaged for concealaient ; and In Scotland, tlie name of il'Gregor wijs proscribed 
in 1664 by an act of the privy council. In modern times, Injunctions in setUeinents 
of Imid, and d!^e<ls of ent^ail, are frequent grounds for a change of name, it being; 
made a co:idit on that tiKi devisee ordis|>one.^ s lall assuine a certain surname under 

f>emUty of forfeiture, a stipulation which thi; law recogni.-<eA as valid. Such 'an ob- 
igation is often combined with one relative to arms. In a Scotcii entail, it is a Very 
frequent conditio i that i^acU succeeding heir of entail, or husband of an helre^ oc 
oiitii!l, shall assum ; the entailer's name aud arms, or his name aiid arms exclm'iVfXy; 
\\\ the toriner case, he niay, if he pletises^ coulinue to use his pwu surname along 
witii the assuuied one. Ihe heir of entail is not held legally to take up any arms 
not otherwise Jiis Oivn, unlt^ss he have applied to the heraldic authorities for leave 
so to do. Where a Scotch entail contain iid an injunction to bear arms which had 
no existence in the official record of arms, tiie ctnulition has not b^eu held to be 
null; tht^heirof I'litail >nust apply to the Lord Lyon for a graut of arins bearing 
the desigr^ation of t iose disponed. It England, it used to be commou to obtain 
a private MCt of parliiuieut to authorise; one to change his surname ; and authority 
for such a propeeding has generally been given in later times by royal licence, 
which is grante^A only on a reasonable ground being established for the alteratiou, 
to the satisfaction of I he kings-at-arms, to wliom a remit is made. It has some« 
times been sup)H>:«ed that tids roy il licence is necessary to legalise such a 
cliange, but the hjighest legal authorities have laid it down that there is nothing 
in the luw of England to prevent any one, who may consider it foc'liis inter- 
est so to do, to change his suruhme, or even his Chrisliiui name, llie idea, 
lately prevalent to soma extent, is equally erroneous, that an advertisement in a 
gazette or newspaper, or the execution of some deed, is a necessary form in order Xo 
effect a change of name. There are always great Inconveniences in changing one*a 
name, which sufliciently account for the geuei al indisposition to do so, except frQm 
tt quwftiouuble ipotlve. As there is uo law to prevent a person from changing Ids 

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nnmc, so there i»«, on the other hand, no law to compel Uiir^ parties t>) nee the new 
liHuie, and Ulspuies aiid uiiiioyuuces arising fro:n t^uch n state of (bin^ are mntteri 
of coarse. Tlic cbaugu tends to n certain extent to dcetroy th^' means of ideDtiflca- 
t.a.1 aft«?r tlie hipseof years, wbich mayor nmy not l>e ilio nbjoci dei^ired. Not- 
vitlistaudiD; these difflctiltius and iuconveui^icqj^ there are many cxainptc» of i>er« 
sons who Iwve succct dcd ufier a few years' in b. ing jgencnilly known under a new 
name, and of Hie |>dt)lie as well ns his friends reco«;nt^u2 H. Tlie chnuee of Dnmet 
in zciiftrMl, prodaces no chauge wbat^er ou tlie legal stntns. A pnrfy Is oqnaihf 
puurshahle lot* swindling, hirccny, and other cojnmttt offences, Wlmterer name hs 
tildes; and, on the otiier hand, if lie is legat e, he in' not prevented from 
establishing and receivlnir his legacy, whatever inune he has adopted. It 
follows from wliat pri-cedt'S that no pi^r^u is pmtlsliahle for nring a new 
name, tliout^h it is sometimes an intrredieitt for a jttry to take isito con.^idera- 
tion when i hey are i-eqnred to infer a part<cnlHr motive of condnct. The royal 
liseuceispractiCiDy reqiiiritd to be obtained by Eu<;li8limcn (not Scotchmen) hold* 
in^ commissions in the army, as als« when tlie cliunse of i.siite Is to b ; htcomptt- 
iiiiul by :i change of arms,.ic b«>iug the practice of the English Ilernlds' College to 
r. fuse to ^ant arms corresponding ro sndi cliange, niiless the roytd lleenoe fiavs 
been obtained. In SootlaiHl, a bona fids changeof name reqnlns neither royal, judi- 
cial, nor p:irHamentary ant horitj-, the sole exception Ihtioj? thccMseof memlwrsof 
tne Qoflege of JtMticis who require tlic iiermission of th<i Court of St-HSion. A royal 
liceiice is not generally applied for by nativv^s of Bcothind. as it i.-* not required lo 
be prodaced to the h -rd Lyon on appmiig for a corres|x)iiding ciniiige of arms. Tlia 
arms will generally be granted wh< ii the Lord Lyon is 8ati>fl(tl thai the change haa 
b^en madeou some n^asonahle ground, and not from a niircly cipricions motive; 
and the fact of tlie cliangi; of name, with tlie reason why ft has been madi\ are nar- 
ratvd in the new patent of arms. When such change of snrinime and correspond- 
fti^ change of arnts has be«n made by a Scotsman who Is an olflcer in the army, the 
hnflMirities of the War Office are in the habit of r^^qniring u cert.flCiite from the Lyon 
OfflcH to the effi»ct tli:it tlie change Is rcc«)gni ed there. 

A'ainM 0/ jiiocwi.— Th'iHC, like names of p rsons. belong, in a groat meatinre, to 
the hins6asi:e of«t rtiH'S. All over Great Biit;; in, a veiy lar}:e projwrtion afe 
deriveajOfoni the Celtic names for nntural fen(urt»s of the comitiy. Fiom Oteynfff 
afow, ftiwt, taVy ^Inyd—w tlie Celt'c speeches <'qn5valent to trat^ or Hver — we hava 
E«k, Ai^n, Wye, Thiam's, Tnvy, Clyde. iVn or /?fn, hi!l, rivos ri*«c to the names 
of hills in England and Wales (l»enrhys, Penwii.cp). and stHl more In Scotland (Ben 
Nevis'). So, al*o, euym. eomft, valley— as Tn Cinnl)erlai;d, land of valleys. The 
memory of th» RmiHii III vatiion has been pi-eserved In tlie termhiation -cJfc^rfsr 
('lerived from mutra) In tlie fiames of towns, as Manchester. ITiongh surnames 
t*'fteii driglnatetl in local nam<»s, the revers<^ process also Occurred ; as win-re viUe^ 
ttm or in^tottj ham or hftrffk^ has been append*^ to the nann^ of the owner of the 
hind, e: g., Charleville, Johnston, Wymoncfbam, Edinburgh (t. cEdwInVbnreh), 

Srte Poft'M ♦< DiePrrs<meiinamim nnd ihiv Entstebnngj^ai ten " (2 vols., 1888 ; Id ed. 
ISW); Miss Yoiige ** History of Christian Karnes" (Lond. 18«3) ; Lower, " On Eug- 
IMi Snnntmes *» (fiOiid. 1849); Professor Iiines, "Concerning Some Scotch Stfr- 
jiamcs " (Edlii. 1880). 

NAMU'R, a urovinco of BclKinm, lH>nndefl on the n. by Brabant and Ll^ge, e. by 
Luxemburg, w. by Haiiiault, and s. by France. Area about 1400 Hiuare miles. Pop. 
f Decern i>ej* 1874) 319,3S6 Th^pnucipalriversaretheMcuse— which entirely intersects 
flic province — the Sambre, and the L<'S«e. N. presents g< iu*i-ally an alternation of 
fruitful valleys aud low hilly tracts ; but in soine parts, where the heights constitute 
offshoots of the Ardennes, and are deusely wooded, tinv attiiii a cousidernble eleva- 
tion. Wis h the except lou of the land in the south-west, wliere there are large tracts 
of bog and heath, the soil is extrniely rich, yielding almndant cro|>aa»idfii)e pa>*- 
ture. The chief products of N. are wheat, oat4>, hpiw, oil yielding plants, and fltix. 
^>)«kies iron, copp :r, lead, and co il mines, N. has mai'l>le and slate quarries, and 
yields snlplmr, ninm, csdmium, alumina, flints. Ac It. hf s good steel, iron, and 
smeitii^ works, breweries, paper-mills, &c. N. is divided iuto the three arondisse- 
inefits of Kanrar, Dinant.mid Phillppeville. At the close of the t%i\\ c, N. was 
united to Luxembourg, after having existed as nii ind^'pendent countship for np- 
^aMa of I5U jfears. Touiud^ the middle of the 13:h c, H>as&^ by l>orchaBe to (ba 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Vamor ht\ 

Nanking . '^ 

Ilonae of FlaJidcr?, wTifcli Trta!nct1 poe*<*s«IOn of It till 1420 : when, on tbo <fenth of 
CouiU John. III., wiThont direct heirs, the couiilsiiip» which was in u 8t:Ue of ex- 
tretiie finnncial etHb-airassineiit, was piircliabed fi>f 182,000 gold dncats, bj Piiilip 
Ihi: Good, Dulte of Burgundy, aud eubsequcutlj atmrcd the fate of the other 
Bui^aiidi;ii) states. 

NAMUR (Fiein. Ifamen). tlio chief town of tlie provhice of the ennic name, is 
ftiruiited }it tlie eonfineuce of the S(iinl>re* with tht* Meiise, and is a sti-ongly fortiiltHl 
town and tiie seat of a bishop. Popr in 1S76, 25 O661. Ainuug its serentceu chnrclien, 
the cathedra!, or St Anl>iH's, wiiieh was consecnited in 1772, is oue of tiie tti<»t 
beantifiil Rharclus of Belgiiinu M. has an ncadeniy of painting, a conserriitoire fur 
niosic. two ptibiic libraries, a mnseniiu and lionpital for aged puni^ern, a theolofpca) 
seminary, mid two coit^es, oi>e eonducte*! \>y Jesuits. The present citadel was con- 
struct d in i 184, but the city has been fortifl-d troin tl>c earliest iieriod of itt« history ; * 
and hi 1682, its defencHve works were repaired and streiigthuned by Cuehooro, only, 
however, to Iwtalten in the following year by Lous XI v. and Vaul>an, tlie latter of 
whom added conaidernbly to its original strength. The repntsilion of its citadel 
made N. a prieed stronghold in every war of later timet*; and after Iraving been 
pi llantiy defended by its Frencli conquerors, in 1816, against tite Prussians under 
Pircli, It was finally restored to th^ Netherlands after the battle of Waterloo, and at 
once put into tiioroit«;h rep.iir. K. is uoted for its cutlery, itn leather-works, and 
ltd iron ai:d bniss foundries. 

NA'NAS, a town of fluijgnry, in the midst of exten!»1ve morasses, about 110 
miles east-north-enst from Pefth. The popiilutioii, partly Protestant and pirtly 
Boinan Catholic, is employed iu cattle-husbandiy and agricultural pursuits. Pop; 

NANA SAHIB, a Hindu, one of the leaders of the sepoy revolt of 185T. He was 
said tol)e tiie tf>oii of a Brahman from ihe Docciin, and his real name was Dhniida 
Punt. He was i)oru about 1820, and was adopted as a ^»on in 1827 by Rijee Rao, the 
childless ex-peishwa of Pooua, thereby, accurding to Uiiidn law and custouu ac- 
quiring most of the right-" oc a legitimate son. He was educated as a Hindu noble- 
man— taiighi. English, and l)rou;;bt much iu contact with tlie Btmipean officers, in 
wliose aniuseiiieiiis he seemed toiid of participating. A decision was, howevtr, 
com ? to by the goveriimei»t of Calcutta, tiiat they shotild not I'ecognise riglits to 
pcuxious or indemuities acquired by adoption ; and iu consequence, N. 
». was refused the eontinuauee of a pension of eight lues of rupees, 

fiaid to his adopted father uudor a treaty inadv; iu 1818. This is )>e- 
ieved to have rankled in his mind, along witli f>lights he received from the supercil- 
ious Bnglish youth wiih whom he came in cont^ict. He was allowed to retain some 
of the statt; of a native prince— a reiinue of 200 soldiers, witli 8 fleld-piectis, 
and a fortifi-'d re^«idellce at Bithoor, 10 miles west of Cawupore. When tlie mutiny 
broke out in May 1867, he offiered to assist the English, but instead, he ti'earherously 
placed himself at the head of the mutineers. The Europ -an troops were induced, 
on tlie 26ih of June, to capitulate to N. S,, who proiniMeu tiiey should bitfentdown 
Ihe Q.inges in safety. They goi on board "boats provid d for tliem, but had no sooner 
done so, than two gnus were unmasked, and a murderou!' fire was opened upon them. 
The sepoys w. re ordered to slioot the men, but to spsre the women and children, 
who, when their hn-^baiids and parents had l>eeii shot, were removed to a house iu 
Cawnpore. On tlie 16th July, Sir H. Havelock, who had advanced to their assistance 
from Allahabad, defeated the sepoys in two engagements, one within 8 miles of 
Cawnpore; and N. 8. next day directed that \hi women and children should be put 
to deatli, au order carried out with unparalleled atrocity. A long series of engage- 
ments ajrainstN. S. followed. In whlcli lie was alway.'t the loser, and he was ulti- 
mately driven beyond the English frontier Into Nepaul. In 1860, his death was 
announced, but two years later, new movements were di»»covered, which were at- 
tributed to him, and it is not certainly known whethlt he Is dead or alive. Sevei*al 
Eersons have huen tirre-ted on suspicion of being N. S., but in all cases a mistake 
as l>een made^ A column has been erected at Cawnpore iu memory of those who 
perished in the masmicre. 

NANCY, a beautiful town of France, capital of the department of Menrthe-et- 
Hoeelloi 10 abated ou the left bank of the river Henrtbet at the foot of wooded 

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Jiiidvino-clad hills, 220 miles east of Paris, on the Purla aiwl Strnshurg Railway. 
Pop. (18'6) 6«,c03. li ts divldetl Into the o'd and new towns (the former irregnlar 
and with narrow street!*, the latter oi)eu and handsomOi Hud C(>nit>i'i.>e8 alno two 
Hubarbit. It contaiuH many hands^onie ^quart^^ and inipo>-ing edifiivM, and owes 
much of its architectnral ornanuntaflon lo S:anislau(( Lccsinbky. wlio, after al>«U- 
caring the crown of Poland in 1786, continued to reside lu-re as Duke of Lorraine 
li.l hi- death, in 1766. His statue ht:indj> in tiie Place Royale, a fine hquare, porrounded 
by ini)K>itant pnbiic buildlngp, a? the HOtel de Ville^ the.iti*e, &c. The gnli^.» of N. 
look more like iriumphal arches than the ordinary entrancet* of a to\Mi. Among 
the InHiiuiions are the univi-reity-nc^sdemy, the noruuil ^chool, the schoo! of nudl- 
cine, the lyceiun. the public lihrary, and uumerous art and Mrieniiftc pocieiiep. Cot- 
ton, woollen, and limn nmnufafiuveH are currie<l on; but the prhicipal branch of 
indusiri7 is the ouibroidering of cambric^ mH8lhi, and j lonel goods. N. is known 
to have ex!8t«'d in the lllli c. Two c-niuri' s Jaier, it bccanie ihe cjipital of tho 
Duchy of Lorraine (q. v.}* Charles the Bold was killed while befiegiug N. In 

NA'NDU, or American Ostilch (Rhea), a genns of Sonth Americ n birrlp allieil 
to the Oi'trich, cassawary, and enin, and nio^t nearly to the o.-trich, ironi which it 
differs in having the feet Ihree-tued, and each toe arn:cd with a cinw ; also. In )>oing 
more completely feathered on the In ad and neck ; in having no tail ; and in having 
the wings better d<veloiM'd and plpmod, and terminated ov a ho<.ked spar. The 
wings arc indeed bttter tieveloped tlian in any other of the Stnithioniditi, although 
still unfit tor flight. The neck h.-is sixlecn vertebra. There are at lefl>«t three hiKcies. 
The best known species {It. Avieiicana) Im con^lderJlbIy smaller than the osttich, 
standing about five^feet high. It is** of uniform iinsy coh)r, except en the l)ack, 
which ha.< a brown tint. The male is larger and daiker colored than the fenuiic. 
The back ai d rump arc furnished witli hmg feathers, but of a n;ore ordinary kii.d 
thnntho^'eof the osnich. 'Ibis bird inhabits the gre.*it gra9>y phuns of South 
Americ.i, southward of the equator, ab( undi> g on tlie i)}UikH of the La Plata and its 
more scmthern tribuiaries, and as far ^outtl as lal. 42^ or 4^°. Its r.-mge does not 
extend across the Cordilleras. It is geueniily seen in small troops. It runs with 
great cHtrity, using its wings in aid. It is iiolyganion.^, one male securinir poss'os- 
siou of two or more females, wliieh lay their eggs in a common ne^t, or drop them 
on the Kiound near the nest, to which the male rolls them. Contrary to the u^nal 
habit of birtis, incub: tiou is perfi rmed by the male. The N. is shv and w.iry, but 
is SQCccssfully hunted by the Indians, gentaally on hor^eback. The flesh of the 
young is not unph^asant. The N. is cap.ible of being domesticat* d.— A smaller and 
more recentlv-<fiscovercd species (/?. Darwinii) has liglit-browu plumage, each 
feather tipiied with white. It inhabits Patagonia. A third species (It. niocroT' 
hyneha) is distinguished by Its large bill. 

NANKEE'N CLOTH. Calico of the kind calVd "nankeen." or nankin, waff 
formerly imported extensively from China to Europe, and said to Imj the manu- 
facture of Nanking; the color, a yell(iwi>^i-huff, being a favorite one. It was sup- 
posed that the Citinese held a secret for dyeing this color, which was found to be 
reumrknbly durable; bntir became known that ir. w:is not an artificial color at :a II, 
the cloth being made of a colored vjirii ty of cotton, which was pn duced occasionally 
in China and India. Artificially dyed nankeen cloths now form a considerable ex- 
port from England to China. 

The color of artificial nankeen cloth is produced by an elaborate process, in which 
the yarn or cloth isflrs: dipped in a saturated solution of alum ; then hi a decoction 
of oak-bark; then in a bath of Itme-water; and next in a bath of nitro-mniiate of 
tin. Another, but K-as permanent, nnuk<en dye is product d by boiling annatto in a 
strong solution of pearl ashes, and diluting with water to therequir. d tint. 

NANKI'NG, capital of the province of Kingsu, formerly the capitnl of China, 
on thtf YauL'tse River. 90 jniles from tl-:e beginning of its estuary, n. lat. 82o 40' 40". 
c. long. 118° 47'. Its name frignifies the Southern Capital. Since tlic reinov. 1 
of the se:.t of irovernment to Pttking (Noriheru Capital), it has b -en ctilie.l 
by the Chinei^e Kian<.'ning-In. The walls enclosu an area of nearly 20 miles iu 
ch-cxinference, the g eater part of wiiich, iH;wcver. is entirely waste. They reach tu 
many places an elevatlou of 70 feet, and are fully thirty feet in thickness at tlie 

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Imse. According fo ChFnose ncconiiN. tlie |M>pnlAtioi) of N. ws» oiice 4,000,000, hut 
n more recent eAtiiniite itiade it 300,000. A» the city, howi ver. hap of l:i?e |>a»$t^ 
Ihvougit so mnuj vidsMimles, it ie iii)i>Of^8i>)]e to a-HCcrtain Ufi present iiBnibfr of iti- 
habitaiiits. Tlie inhabited partlon of thn irutled nrea lies toward the we^t, aud v^ev- 
eral miles from tlic bank of the river. It i?< do longer possible to ajM-ak of N. In the 
Jan<;n»ge which former travellers nwjd. Thtj barbaric dtst'olation^ to which it wns~ 
iu»jocied during Mie Taoping robelliou left it a sort of wnck, and one can only di*- 
Kiibe it as it wan, Ixtfore tlie victorious a.-'Snult of tbe rcl)el8, on tlur 19th Marcii 18.53. 
N. is the t»eat of tlie vlce-re^jal gov«rnmeDtfor th'^ |>rovinc«*t« grouped tcsriMhur under 
the name of Kiangiiau. Ht^rc, as elsewlirre in China, therl;~^vas, and again in, n ■ 
Hauchn garrison, or military colony, separated by a wall from that portion of th.; 
€ity whicli is occapiod by the Chine."<e. Some of the finest streets of N, were in ilii! 
TSiitar city ; sevt'ral beiui? nearly 10 feet wide, having n spare in tlie middle of almnt ' 
8 feet in width, flaggiKl with well-^ewn blocks of blue, and white marble, and on e:\ti\i 
side of this a brick pavement 14 feet or more wide. A deep canal or «litch runs from 
the river directly under the walla on the west, serving to htren'Mhen the defences" of 
the city ou tliat aide. The ancient i>alac«s have all disappeared. The offices of the 
public functionaries were ntinierons, but, like i he shops, presented the general fed- 
tnres common to all Cbiuesc towns. Tbe o''jjcts moi^t worthy the in^pectioD of tho 
traveller are fotnid,iii rains, outside the precincts of the modern ciiy. Among these 
Sa the summer palace of the Emperor Kienlung. Ir. consisted of a number of one- 
story buildings, wi:b spacious courts between, and fliuiked by snntiler buildings on 
the sides. Enough still remains to shew that tiie workmanship was of the mof t 
eIal>orate and tniiane character. Wlien under cultivation, the spot must have been 
exceedingly beautiful. The tombs of the kfngs are remaikable for their sepnlehml 
Rtatnes, which form an nvcnne leading up to the graves; they consit^t 
Of gigantic fl<rnre, like warriors c-tsed 'in a kiiKl of armor, standing on 
either side of, the i*oad, .-.cross widcli, at intervals, large stone tablets iiri 
ezteudi'd, supported by huge blocks of stone Instead of pillars. Amon^ 
the buildings totality destroyed by the rebels was tlje f n*-fained Porcelain 
Tower. It was erecte<l by the en>jieror Yungloh, to reward the kindness of UXa 
mother; the work was commenced in the lOtli year of his reign (14 8), at noon, oh 
the 15th day of the moon, in the six h moiitli of the year, and was completed in nine- 
teen year-*. The l>oard of works was onlered, acconllngto the plm of the tnnp<iror, 
to build a towe:- nine stories high, the biicks and tiles to be g1>iz<Ml, and of '*&ne 
colors ;" aud it wju* to bii superior to «dl othi-rs. in order to make widely the 
virtues of hi.-* mother. Its height was to he S22 feet. The ball on it* spire was t > he 
of brass, ov rlaid witli gold, so that it might last forever and never srrow dim. Prom 
its eight hooks as immy iron chains extended totheeigiit eorners of its highest roof ; 
and from each chain nine lielis, 8ns|>ended at iqnal distances apart ; these, toiretlnr 
with eight from the corners of each projecting roof, amomtted to 144 l)ells. On tlie 
outer face of each story were 16 lanterns, 138 in all; which, with 12 in the ins d % 
made 140. It required 64 catties of oil to fill them. On the top of the highest roof 
were two brazen vessel:', weighing together 1200 pounds, and a nrazen bowl l)esid<*^ 
Weigliing 600 pounds. Encircling the spire were nine iron rings, the large.-t lieing'OS 
feet in circumference, aud the smallest 24 feet, altogether weiL'hing nearly 5000 
pounds. In the bowl on the top were deposited one white shining pej»rl, one fire- 
averting pearl, one, wind-averting i>earl, one water-averting pearl, one du.-t-avcri in g 
pearl, a lump of ^o!d weighing .50 ounces, a box of tea-leaves, 10«)0 taels of silver, 
one lump of orpiment, ahogether weighing 4000 pounds; one precious stone-gem, 
JOOO strings of copper coin, two pieces of yellow satin, and four copies of Bnddlnj»t - 
classics. N. continued in possession of the Tae-ping rebels till the successes of tl:e 
troops under Major Oordon had crushed one nftt^r another all their o.itlaying forces, 
when at length, on the l»lh of July 1864, the city was stormed by the im'peralist sol- 
diers under the viceroy Tseng Kwo-fan. The last blow was thus d«alt to tlic Tae- 
ping rebellion, whose principal leader |>crished by his own hand amid the blazing 
ruins of the palace ho had occupied for eleven years. Since its recapture, N. has r.>- 
samed its former position as the seat of the v c -regal government, tnit shew.* few 
signs of revival from its desolation. It has, however, been made the headqnaj-t«*r«» 
of a large miiit.iry force, and also of an arse»ial for the manufactore of cannon and 
Other warlike stores ou tbe Enropeau model. Although speciiied, in the Treaty of 

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Ttoutrfu (1866) ftp a river-port to be opened, no steps hnve iwcn twken to procluini 
itoue.— Dr Macgowau, **Nortli China Henild," uud ••Treaty Ports of China aiid 
Japan " (18«7). 

NANTES, (anc. Kammtes, or yannttes)^ an Important 8ea]»ort town of France, 
ca)>ita1 of the department of Loire-Iiif^rienre, is sitnat^d on i he right hank of tho 
L»»ire, 30 miles from its month, and at the point of conflut nee witli it of the Enlio 
and t4ie Sdvre-Nantaisc, both navigable streams. Besides raihvays, there is com- 
mnnicntion wiih the interior by steamers on the Loin*. Tlie uutural beanties of 
the site have been much im]u*bved by art, and now. tJie noble river on whicli I hn 
town is placed- covered with craft of every si xe and description, tlie i.««land8 that 
stnd its chunnel, tiie meadows that t-kirt its hanks, and the bridges (npwards < f 16 
In number) that cross it and itt^ tribnlarles here, combine to nialvc the fcene a hi|;lily 
pksinresqne one. N. contains nnmerous squares and clinrches. Several dii^trT s 
of ihe town are nearly as flue as the bestdiftricts of Paris, the old town hav'ng he« n 
palled down between 1866 and 1870. Iliistown tH>ss<>SKes numerous strikintr and 
Deaiitifnl Ijuildings; among whicii the cathedral of St Pierre, containing the sph mild 
nionomeui of Francis II., the last 0ukc of Bn tiipnr, and of Margneritf, his* wif«' ; 
and the ()ld castle, the temporajy resid nee of most of the kinjjs of Fnince since 
Charles VIII., and bniliin 988, are the chief. Ihere is a pnblic lihrary ccHitaining 
60,000 vols. ; a imiseam of paintings; and a mnst'nm of natnr:il history. Thcquny^, 
lined on one side with houses, and in some cafes planted with tires, afford :n 
agreeable and inten sting promenade of ab( ut two miU-s in length. Tlie mosfbeonii- 
fnl pnnuenade. however. lonnod by tie Conrs St Pierre and the Ct)nrs St Andi6, 
extends from th.e Erdre to tlie Loire. It is ]>lanted with four rows of trees, boidered 
with lines of palatial honses^ end ornamented with statnes. The harbor, 1968 yards 
in length, is capable of accommovlating npwards of VOO vessels. Formerly, vi ssela 
of no more than 200 tons lon'd rciich the ptrt, all v< ssels of greater bnrdm un- 
loading at Pa:mb€enf, at the mouth of the river ; but within rec<nt yean-, much hab 
been done by dredging for the improvement of the river-bed, ai;d large vesj^els can 
now reach the hari'or. The chief manufactures of N. art^varielitsof linen and cotton 
fabrics, calicoes, flannels ; musical, matheroat'!cal, and optical instruments; n fined 
sugar and salt, chtmiral pro('ucts, cordage, Ac. It contains tanyauls. copper 
foundries, hnmdy distiUi-ries, &c., aid numerous establi>hm4nts engagid in thu 
▼arious nrannfacturcs to which a port giv« s rise, as slil|>-bnilding, the pn-TMirat on «'f 
preserved meats, &c. In 1872, the imports of N. w« re valued at 70,000,000 of francs, 
the exports at 55,000,000. Population in 1876, 116,093. 

NANTJES, Edict of, the name piven to the famous decree published in that city 
by Henry IV. of Franco, 13il» April 1598, wliich secured to the Protesiant poriion of 
his subjectt* freedom of reliuion. Among its more important provisions were— lib- 
erty to celebrate worship wherever Protestant communities already existed ; to es- 
tablish new churches, txcept in Paris and the suiTOunding district, and in the royal 
residences; and tomaintJiin uniycrsitieK, or theological colleges, of which they h;id 
four, those at Montauban, Saumur. Montpellier. and Sedan ; adherents of the Re- 
formed faith were al^o to be eligible to all civil cflices and dignities; bu»j on the 
other hand, they were. not allowed to print I ooks on the tenets of their religion, ex- 
cept In those places M'here it existed ; and they were obliged to outwardly celebrate 
the festivals of the Catholic Church, and to pay tithes to the Catholic priesthood. 
From this period tie Reformers or Huguenots ^who then counted 760 churches) 
bad a legal existence in France, but graduaify their political strength was crushed 
by the mighty genius of Hichelieu— who^ however, ut-vt-r dreamed of intrrfering 
with their liberty of worship. Neither did his succes^j^ors, Mazarin aid Colbert; 
but under Wut influence of a ** peniteiice," as corrupt and sensual as the sina which 
occasioned it, Louis XIV., aft( r a series of detistnble Vragoniiad^s (q. v.), signed a 
dicne for the rt-vocaiion of the edict, 18th Octt 'her. 1685. — ThciesuUol this dts- 
potic act was that, rather than conform to the establisln-d religion, 400,0<'0 Protest- 
ants — among the mos»t li;dustrious, the mo^t intelligent, and the most rcli«rions of 
the nation— quitted Fraic**, and to- k rt f uge in -Gnat Britain, Holland, rrnssia, 
Switzerland, ai.d Anvrica. The loss to France was immense ; the gain to other 
coun'ries, no le^s. Composed largely of merchants, maiiufac^nrers. .-.nd .-killed ar- 
tisuna, they carried them their kuowkdge, taste, and aptitude for basrness. 

Digitized by 


Nantucket qa 

Naphtha ^^ 

From them Bngland, in partlcnlar, learned the Art of manufacturing silk, ciyBtal 
glH88ef>, aud tile more delicure kiuda of jewellery. 

NANTU'CKB T, nii i!«laiiU aud town npou lt» on the 8onth-en»t coast of Maitsa- 
cluiaetts. The Island i»1ft miles Iou^j: niul an uvm'ugc o( 4 wide, with un ttrea of 50 
sqaure miles. It wtia l)ouglit from the ludiuus by Thomjis M.icy, lit 1669, for £30 
and two beaver-huta. N. was at one time a jrreut seat of tlie whale fisiiery, hnviiig 
ill 1775 had as many ns 150 whaling vessels ; bnt this brunch of indu!<try has dccliued 
since 1846, aud since the civil war has be< ome extiucr. The harbor is couuiKxiious 
and safe. N. has 2 uewspupera ; pop. (1870) 4128. 

NA'NTWICH, a small market-K)wn of Chrshire, England, on the Weaver, 2© 
miles south-east of Chester. Many of its hour's are interesting from their age ami 
coii«trnotion, l>eing built in many cases of timber and piaster, and witb overhanging 
upper «t or ie:i. The parish church, one ot thu li:jet<t cuuntry ciuitclies in En>rland, 
was thorou^Iy rostored in 1864 at great cost. N. was famous in formnr times for 
its briue-sprmgs and nalt'WorkiJL Slioex, jrloves, uud cottou goods are munul'actui I'd, 
and maltiug is carried on. Fop. (1871) WIB. 

NA'OS (Gr. a dwelling), the cell or enclosed cliamber of a Qreek temple. 

NA PHTHA is derived from the Persian word tuxfata, to exude, and was originally 
applied U> an iuflammable liquid hydrocjirbon (or rather a mixtuiti of neveral hydro- 
c irbons) which exudes from the ^oil in certain parts of Persia. (According to Pclie- 
tier and Walter, it consists of three hydroiiurl)ons— viz.,Ci^Hit, which boils at 190° ; 
CisHi«, which ooilB al839^; aud CgVUss. which l)oils at iii4^.) The term is, how- 
ever, now used uot only to di^signatd a MUiilar and almo^at idenlioil fluid, that issues 
from the gtiouod in many parts of thti world, aud in known as petroleum, rock-oil, 
Ac, hut is also applied to other liquids which resemble true naphtha in little else 
than in their volatility and infl nun ibiKty. Thnn, wood-spirit or methyllc alcohol 
is often spoken of is wood nap/UlMy aud acetone iHeomctimeH described as naphtha. 
Coal-tar yields i)y distillation u liquid which hai a heavier specific gravity aud a lower 
boiling-point than Persiau naphthi, but resembles it in guueral propcitiets aud cau 
generally l)e snl^stituted for it. See Gas-tah. 

Crude Naphtha, whether occurring as a natural product, or as obttiiued from 
coal-tar, is purified by agitition mtli strong snl|>liu!*lc acid ; after which it must be water (in which it is quite insoluble), and finally dlutilUd from 
gnicklime. Pure miphtiia is colorless, and of a peculiar taste aud odor; it is ^uble 
in auout eight limes it» bulk of alcthol, and diissolves in all proportions iu ether and 
in the esHeiitiai oils. Hot naplitlia disi^olve.s piiosphorns and sulpiuir, but deposits 
them on cooling. It. is an excelli-nt solvent for jriittapercha, caontchonc, camphor, 
and fatty and resinous bodies generally ; and hence it is ext^mslvely used in the arts 
for these purposci«, and it* employment tis a source of artificial light i» now becom- 
ing universal. In coiiHtquence of its containing no oxygen, it is employed by chenv* 
ista for the preservation of potassium and other metaln, whith Inive a powerful 
affiuity for oxygen. Owing to its vohitility and inflammabilfty, it must be handled 
with great caution, mriiiy fatal cases liaving arisen from its vapor catching fire qu 
the approach of a caudle. 

The principal kinds of naphtha known in commerce are native naphtha,^ conl- 
naphtha, Bogtiead naphtini (abo called paruffiu oil and photogen), shale uaphtha, and 
naphtha from caoutchouc or caoutcluue. 

Native naphtha, petroleum, or rock-oil, is foimd In many parts of the world, as In 
Japan, Burmah, Persia, tiie shores of the Caspian Sea, Siberia, Italy, France, and 
North America. It is of various degrees of con8i!«tency,froni a thin, Hght, colorlehS 
fluid found in Persia, with a specific gravity of al)out 0*760, to a substauce as thick 
as butter, and nearly as heavy as water. But all the kindfe wheu rectified have 
nearly the same constitution. They contain no oxygen, and conHsr of caii)on aud 
hydit)g«'n compounds only. Bitumen nnd asphaltum are closely alli'-d substances 
in a solid or semi-solid form. From a very early period in Persia nnd Japan, and at 
least since last century iu Italy, native naphtha lias iKjen used to bum in lamps. 

Coal-tar naphtha (see Gas-tar), as* state«l above, is of a higher specific gravity 
thau native naphtha—viz., from U*860 to 0*900, aud lias a moie disa^rettuble aud 
peuetratiug odor. 

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Parnffln of], for dome time known lO^o n? 0o?1iend naphtha, h:iB become, of late 
years, fo impovtimt a maunfactiire. iliar u brief history of it* orMn cnniiot be niiiii- 
terePtliig. In the year 184t, Mr» Jniiu'S Youug, now of llie Batligatc Chemical 
Works, hnd hip attention c.illed lo apelroleiim t*prhig Jit Alfretoii, ni Derbyshirf, 
from which he distilled a light iliiii oil for biirtiing in lamps, obtaining ut the Fame 
timo u thicker oil, wliich M'as neted for iubricuiiiiu machinery. After a year or two 
tiiu RUpply began to fail, bat Hi* Toimg, noticing Hint petioieam waH dropping 
fronrtite hnndstone roof of a coal-mine, conjeciur«Hl tliut it originated by the action 
of heaf on the coa!->enm, tlie viipor from wliicli had condensed in the sand- rone, 
and 8ap|>0Qe<l from this ^ iiat it might lie produced artificially, following up thin idea, 
he tri'-d a threat huiny < z|>erimeul«>, and nltiiu.iiely huccecded, l>y distilling coal at a 
low red-heat, in ol)taining a sultstance reaemblintf )>etroleum. wliich. when treated 
in the fame way as the u.-itaral petroleum, vieldeasunilar modaets. 'the ol')taining 
of tiiese oils and the solid sub^tuvcu paniffln from coal formed the subject of bis 
now celel)r:iled putent. dnt«d Octol^r 17, 1850. 

In the years 1860 and 1864. loi.g and costly litigationfi as to theTalidltyof Mr 
Young's patent took place in Edinburgh and London, reMilting in the main iu his 
favor. Many years ago, Reichenlmch had, by distilling 100 lbs. of pit-coal, obtained 
nuirty two ounces of an oily liquid exactly resembling natural nauntha; and various 
other cbemicul writers were api)ea]ed to, as pn)ving that methuas substantially the 
fcinic ax Mr Young's were previonsly known and pnictised. One thing seems to have 
been iidmitied, ttjit previous to his patent, no one had succeeded in prodacifg the 
oil on a commercial scale. 

The processes by whicii tlie oil ar.d parafSn are obtained ar»» simple. The mate- 
rial best jidnpted for the pur])ose was f(»r yv ars believed to tio Bog-heiid coal, a very 
rich g«s-co:il, occurring in a field of limited extent uenr Bathgate ir Linlithgowshire. 
All cannel coals, however, give the same products, and some of them in nearly as 
large quantity ; but, as stated below, sliale is now generally used and treated iu the 
same way. The coal la broken intofragmcn*» like road-metal, and gradually heated 
to rednet'B in cast-j>on rctMrts, which arc -similar lo those u^ed tor coa'-gas (see 
Oas). The retorts are most usunlly upright, about 10 f<Mst long and 14 Inches in 
diameter at the bottom, tai)ering to 12 inches at the top, and built in acts of S, 4, or 
d, so that one fi]*e may heat e.HCli set. The coal is fed by m( ans of a hopper on the 
top of the retort, and after passing throngl», it at a low red-heat, is drawn out aa coke 
at the Ijottom, \\ here there is a water lute to prevent the e?cat>e of oil or gas. There 
U a spherical valve in the hopper, counterpoised with a weight, which closes the 
retort at the top. The volatile matters distilled from the coal are conducted by a 
pipe to the condensers (similar to those used for coal-iras), where they are condensed 
mto a thick black oil, of a a|)ecific gravity of about 900, aloiig with a little water. 
Great care is necessary to pn.vcut the heat from becoming too high, bt^anse gas 
and gas-tar, and not imrafflii oil, are obtained when coal or f hale is distilled at a high 
temi)enttare. A ton of Boghead coal gave about 120 gallons of crude oil. 
• The crud ) oil from the fii-st diptillaiion is then distilled again in long cylindrical 
malleable-iron st lis. From this sccoid distillation a ** green oil " is obtained, and 
the residuK is removed as lokefrom the bottom of the still. This oil is then mixed 
with from 6 to 10 i)er cent, of sulphuric acid, and afterwards with about the same 
quantity of soda, the mixture being made iu circnlar tanks with revolving stiri-ers. 
Both the acid and the Bo<la mix with impuriiieSj%vhich fall to the bottom as heavy 
tarry matters, and are run off by a stop-cock, till only the clear ^nperuatant oil re- 
mains. After b<!iug so fai^nrified, the oil undergoes three ftirther distillations, be- 
ing at tlie same time treated with strong acid (I per cent.) and soda. 1 he final result 
is, that a small quantity of light naphtha is olttained in the later distillations, three- 
fourths of wiiat is left l>eing a light and nearly colorless oil used for burning in 
lamps, and the remainder a thicker oil containing pamflln. This latter portion is 
pressi'd iu a hydrnulic pn^ss, which f-qneezes out the greater portion of the paraflln, 
leaving an oil which is sold for Inhricitiiig machinery. 

The crude paraffin, after being subjected to hydrnnlic pressure three or four 
times is chiefly purifi d, ny n'pealed crystallisations, from naphtha. Steam is atter- 
j^ t-i .1 1. :* 1 ,.-1 _._. . -. J .....-_ ii....i,_ * — * J ^jjjj 3 p^^r cen» 

Ming the pure 
or even oxcol, j 

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w:.rds blown through it in a m* lt€«l state, and when finally treated with 3 per cent. 
of animal cliarcoal, it is an exquisitely beautiful substance, resemUling the purewt 
white wax. It irlaigely maniuactureu Into caudles, which equal, or even oxcol, m 

nppearaiice thof»e mnd« from wnx, nnd are only about half n« coptly. Para^iBn has 
uow a uumlvr of curious minor upplicatioii!». * 

Slialti naphtlm, or **r«li lo-oll,'* is a t«u'.).^tanc«? which has l)een innnufuctnrcd, for 
luuuy yeui"?, from bihimliioua shalea b«»th in Enjjlaud andou tlie ontineut. Partly 
l)^^!'!!?^ the Bagh ad Coal has l).!Coni •macticaliy crliauptcd, but chiefly l>ecau8e the 
Volatile products from H are more e}u«ify piirifl d tliaii from any coal, tjeds of bitum- 
hions shale found in the carhonif ran 9 formation are now iilmont eutln-ly used iu 
8c^»tla«d MS the raw material from which paraiBn oil and parnfBn are obtuiued. Pre- 
vious 10 1856, these shales were turned to no account. Sec 8hale^ 

Naphtha from caoutchouc, or caoutclnne^ Is obtained from caoutchouc by de- 
structive dit«tilIatiou. In cotuposition it consists mainly -of liydrocarbon^, having 
t!ie same proportion of caibo-i to hydrogen as i.idla-rhbt)er. Caoutohiue luis the re- 
patafiou of b«?ing one of tin* b 'st known solvents for Indla-rui^ber.t 

Until tlie discovenr of the Ponnsylvanian. tiie Burniese (Raii'rooiO p?trolenra or 
rock-oil was oue of thi best known. It Is obtained in a treacly stat(s by sinking 
wells al>out sixty teet in the soil, and couFists of several fluid hydrocarbons, witu 
about ten or eh^veu per cent, of the solid liydrocar1>on paraffin The different nuph- 
tias it contains are highly prized as Ijurning and lubricating oil?>, and for removing 
;?r.ra«y stains, on account of their apreeab'e smell. The naphtlia wliicli is fonud 
abundantly at Baku, on tlie shor ;« of the Caspian Sf^a, closely resembles tl>e Rau- 
jroou lu its qualities. The Persian naphtha Is frequently pure enough for burning 
without rectification. 

Prominent among the woud(Ms of our time, however, as rega'ds new fields of 
industry aud wealth, stand the disK-overies of tlie naphtha, or, as they are called, the 
petroleum regions of thM United States. Some of these sourcifi ot native naphtha 
were known to the ludians, 1)j' whom it was at one time collected for sale ; but it Is 
little more than twenty y«aira since, by sinking deep wells, the great extent of the 
oil-boaring strata became known. The princip I supplies are (»bta1ned in Pennsyl- 
vania. West Virsinia, and Oliio, a considerable quantity In-ing alro obtained In West 
(Jinaau Other region ■« in North America ji rod uco it, but the Penn«ylvanian yiel^ 
i < Six or seven times greater than all the rest i)iit togeillrr. Consul Kortrlgiit, in Ida 
report on the states of Peiinsylvania, Ohio, &c., for 1870 and 18T1. says S.** The oil 
ntglons are 100 miles in length by 80 to 50 iu brwadth, and the nnntber of wells to bo 
tapped eHo great, that the supply is considered to be sufficient for a ceutury tO tiome at 

Much curiosity exists respecting the origin of thej'e great natural soui-Wfl of petro- 
leum. It j*eems to be the giMierftl opinion of geoloi^lsts that it has in most cases been 
])t'oduced by the deconipoHiition of i>otli veiretahle nnd animal matters. In this re- 
spect it differs from coal, which has arisen from the deciiy of vegetabh; matter alone. 
Ii would appear th it the PeniMvlvanian oil proceeds from f hales of carlwiiifewus^ 
age; the Canadian, from those of Dev<mian age. In l>oth countries the oil i« found^ 
In cavities in sandstone, and has therefore been derived from sul)jucent rocks. It is 
now known that petroleum has fornn-d in rocks of nearly all ^reological ages. Pro- 
fessor Dana, the American mineralogist, says that the ccmditious favorable to the 
formation of native naphtha, as sliewn by the charact^riHtics of the deposits iu 
Which It Is found, are: (1) the cliff nsioii of organic material tlirout'h a fine mud' or clay; 
(2) the material in a ve.rj'fltiely div d»'d state'; and (3), as a consequence of the pre- 
ceding, the atmosphei'e exchnled as far as i)OS8ible from the mat rial undergoing 

In Penn ylvauia the first borings for petroleum took place iu 1859, and in that 
yejir 82,000 barrels (reckoned at43 gallons each) were obtained; in iSOl, the prtjdnce 
had reached 2 million barrels; and since then, as a rule. It has increased from year 
to year. In 18T2, the total produce of North America was 7,894 000 bairels ; Canada 

furnishing 530.000 barrels. In the same year the total exports from tin; Unitixl States 
Of refined petroleum amounted to 2.951,310 Imrrels, an enornuuis quantity, consider- 
ing the first ex|)Ort8 took i)lace so rwently as IS61. Of late years, the |)etroleuir 
trade is said to have employed iu Nortli Atnericii as many hands as coal-mining and 
the working of iron. 

In 18«2 and 18T1, acts of n.irliament were passed limiting the amount of petro- 
leum to be kept lu store, and regulating the sole of su.h kiud-i as give off au iuflaiu- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C Q Naphthalic 

©%) l^ 

piuble vapor below 100® F. There are special Trarchouses for the roceptiou of 
petroleum ut the Lou(tou and Liverpool docks. 

Teniblc accident)* have uowiuid lliou hnppeucd wUh Fome cf the more Inflam- 
mahle Aniericuu oiI<«, by reuhoit of their vapors cxi»lc ding in t'.ior'tervoinsof liinms. 
MotJt of these have, lio doubt, t^iktM) plac«! witli oils whomi vapor* fonn an cx|)lotiivo 
mixture with air at a teniperatnrub. low 10(P J*., but they can hardly bo conaiderod 
pafe if their vai»or« will take fire on the approach of a light at Icj^s than 18(P F. The 
v.ipor of the paraffin oil pre|>arcd f or ilhuulnatiug purpo«e« bv Young's Mineral Oil 
Company, and no doubt 1>y other finnis'f roni Scoich aiiah*, will not form au explosive 
inixmre t)eiow 1209 V.y and ic is therefore quite safe. Since this oil has to ronn>ete 
with |)etroleani. such a staudard cuu only oe kent up at a loss, and there is tberetoro 
a ^^t temptation to keep down the firing-point of tliese nurniug oils as low as 
I>of)^ible, with a view to greater profi^t; ana although accidents have Inippened with 
pampffin oil, ns well as with Americuu petroleum, rtiero is little doubt that the latter 
caHUOt be ho tH(»rouirhly relied upon for tafeiy. It could easily be made fo, how- 
ever, if tht^ lighter h'yclro>carbonH wtiich i( contains were caret uly removed. 

NAPHTHA'LIC GROUP OR SERIES. Tlw stnrtlng-iioint of the group is 
Haphthalin <C««llg). a ^ul>8taDce of great interest in the lii*»tory of organic chemis- 
try, from its being that upon which Diareiit chiefly founded his Theory of Substi- 
tatious. It may be obtained in various ways, but is im>Bt easily and abundantly pro- 
dac-d frQm the last portions of ihe distillate of coal-tar, which become semi-solid 
on cooling. The liquid part of this masa is got rid c f by pressure, and the uaph- 
thnHn isthcu taken up by hot alcohol, from which it is obtaiued iu a pure state by 
crystaUisatlou and sublimatloD. 

K.phthalln crystalHaea In large, tliiii, rhombic plates, which are nuctnous to the 
touch, and have a pearly lustre. Expos-ed to light under a ».'i'«BS covering, ii gradu- 
ally snbliines at au ordinary temperature iu splemlid cry^'tals. It has a eoujc- 
wliat tar-Uke odor, and a pniigent and someM-hat aromatic ta»te. It f usea at 174°, 
and l>oil8 ut 428<^. Its ppeclflc (rravity. in the polid state, is 1*1S, and as a vapor, 
4*528, It is not very *nflammable, and when ignited, burns with a white smoky 
flame. It is insoluble iu water, but dissolves readily iu alcohol, ether, and the fixed 
i.ud eescutial oils. 

By acting on naphtlmlin with an excess of sulphuric acid, we obtain 9ulpho- 
fiaphtfuUic acid (Ca.lIjSsOe + «Aq), from which, by t-ui slituilou pi-ocesscs, a large 
number of comi»ouiid»* are protluccd- Willi nttric acid, naphthaliu yields nltiO- 
imphthaliii [C,»Ht(N04)] binitrb-uaphthaliu LCa,H«(N04)a], and triniti-o-uaplrth- 
aliu CCj«U»(N04),j. the group (NO4). or its inui.iple»», being Kubstltuted for one, 
two, and iiiree equivalents of the hydrojien of the naphthaliu. The final pnkluctof 
the prolonged action of boiling nitric acid ou naphthaliu is a mixture of oxalic aiid 
ttapht^alio or phUialic acid^ the re-action being slieii'n by the equal iou : 

Naphthaliu. Oxygen. Oxalic Add. Naplithalic Acid. 

C»«'Jt + ^ = 2HO,C40. + 2I10,Cj4ll40e 
Tills acid is also obtaine<1 by the continued action of nitric acid upon alizarin, which 
U au imiiortaut fact, tiuce it indicatos a conuectiou between uapfathaliu aud the col- 
oring matter of wwlder. 

Laureut has discovered a very numerous series of substitution compounds 
formed upou the type of napthalin. Into the composition of which chlorine entei-s. 
They are of little practical importance alt hous;h their iiivestigatiou has exerted a 
remarkable influence upou the progress of organic chemistry. 

NAPIER, John, Laird of Merchistfin, was bom at Merchiston Castle, near Edln- 
bnrgli, in !6I», and died there on Ihe 4rh of April 161T. After attending the regular 
course In Arti* at the university of 8t Andn'ws, he travelled for some time ou the con- 
liufut. and rettirii«d to his native country highly informed and cultivated for the age. 
DecHuing all civil employmeuti*, for which ids many accomplisitments eminenily fit- 
Xtl him, he |»referred the seclusion of a life devoted to literary and scientific study. 
From this time Ids history Is* n blank till 159S, when he published his "Plalno 
DiiH»iiery (or * Interpretation ') of tlie whole Kenelatlon of St John " (Bdin. 6t.h «!. 
4to, HM6>, a work displaying great acirteueea aud ingenuity, but, it is scarcely neces- 

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Napier .. g^ 

Barj' to adfl, not In any P^n»e a ** plalne diMionery " of the apocalypse. In the dedt- 
cariou to \Liu^ Jsunos VI., he gavis his ni.ijesiy t*oiu» very plahi advice rfgarding ihe 
propri 'ty of n^fonuiiig his '* lions -, faiHily, and conrt;"aud on repabiinhiiig the 
work, ho add d a supplenu-iit, involving * cerlahit* donbt:* uiOoved by some well- 
aff cod bretli^'U.*' Ahout tula tune be .'*<;ems to liuve devotecl nmch of his time 
lv» the inv.'uHoii of wrirliku umchiuHa, Imt Iheso inventions were never 
p rfocted, prob ibly from motives of iiumaniiy. Like other eminent men of the 
li'in •, N., thougn a at net Presbyterian, j«oem»* to have bi*en a billever in astrology 
and divitialioii, but there is no natisfactory proof tnat he ever praciic(>d ttieee artt*. 
In 1696. lie proposed Ihe use of fall as a fertiliser of land, an idea which, though 
scouted at the time, is now generally received. Another lari^e blank in hie history 
here occurs, and tenniu ites in 1614, at wliich date he first gave to the world his fa- Jj 
mous invention of Lojmrithoiusiq. v.), iu a treatimsentiiled **Mtrillci Lo^riUiim>-^ 
rum Cauonis Descrlptio " (4to. Eilm.). This was followetl by another worK, *' Kal>< 
dolo.'lee, sen numurationis per Viigulas libri das " (Bdln. IfllT), detailing an inven- 
tion for simplifying and shortening tlie processes ot inaltiplication and division. Si*6 
Napibr's Bones. He also prepared a second work on Lugaritlnus, shewing tlieir 
mo le of construction and application, with an appendix containing several propo- 
sitions of spherical trigonometry, and those forniulie wliich are no v known by his 
name. This work was publi^hett alter bis death i>y his sou Kob<;rt, nuder the title 
of " Jtfirifici LoyarithinoriiRi Oanonis Ooiistructio, Ac<, qniltus accessere. Propoei- 
Tiones ad IManguia s hiericu faciliore calcalo resoiveuda, ^^" (Edin. 1619), and 
occurs along wiib the ^* Cauonis Dj^crlptio." The latter work is included in Baron 
Masere's extensive collertlon. the " Scriptorirs Logarithmici '•' (Loud. 1806). N.*8 
eldest son, Archibald, was raised to tne peerage as the first Lord N.ipier by Charles 
I. in 1627, and his de.^.Midant< still the title. Two lives of N. imve been put>- 
lisiie.l. the one bytlie Earl of Bnchan (1781), and the other by Mr Murk Napier (i884). 
NAPIER, Sir Charles James, G.C B., English general, one of several brothers 
distintruislhrd for their bravery, tnr.u; of whom— ClKirles. William, and George— 
were known in the Peninsular War as •* Welliusftou's Colonels.'* They were sons, 
by a second marriagN of Hon. Colonel George Napier, grandson of Francis, fifth 
Lord Napiei-, wlio was fifth in descent, but through two females in succession, 
from the inventor of Logirithms. Charles, the eldest was bom at Whitehall, West- 
minster, Au.'ust 10 1782. B fonihe had tlnished his twelfth yeir, young N. re- 
ceive<l a commission in the ttSd Foot. His first service was in Ireland, wiiere he 
assisted in patting down the rebellion. He commanded the 50th Foot dnrhig the 
retreat on Corunna; and at the fatal battle in which Sir J. MoorK te>l, he Was 
wounded in five places and made pi*ison"r. Marshal Ney dismissed iiim, with per- 
mission to go to England on parole. On his returu, he engag.-d in literary works, 
and even wrote an historical romance, in 1811, he returned to the Penmsula. At 
Coa, whore hefoaght as a voluuteer, he had two horses slkot under him. At Busaco. 
he was shot in the face, having his jaw broken and his eye injured. He recovered 
in time to be present at the l)atHe of Fucntes d'Oiioro and the second siege of 
Bad ijoz. After distinguishing himself in innumerable sklrmishi^s, tlie daring 
soldier returned to Enjrland. He next took part in a fighting cruise off the Chesa- 
peake, capturing American vessels, and intikiiig fn qn -nt descents upon the coasts. 
He did not return to Barop; soon enough for Waterloo, but was engaged in the 
storming of Cambray, and accompanied the army to Paris. After tbe peace he was, 
in 1818, made governor of the island of Cephalonla, the affairs of which he ad- 
ministered with great ener},'y and intelligence. Being, however, of an excessively 
c<nnl)ative disposition, he became embroiltd wiih tiiu authorities at home, lu 
1S41, he was ordered to Ind a to assume the command of the army at - 
Bombay. This was the most splendid period of his career, resulting in 
the conquest of Scinde asainst terribh; odds. His destrnction of a ^rti' 
fication called B.nann Ghur in 1843, wius descriiM>d by tiie Duke of Welliugiou 
as one of the most remarkable military feats he had ever li^rd of. The fearful 
battle of Meanee followed, where N., with 160) English and sepoys, defeated 4ieur 
80 UOO Biloochees, strouKly posted, with the loss of 6000 men. The Ameers snr- 
renden/d, except Shere Mahomed, who brought 2ft,000 men into line of battle at 
Hvdrabad. N. had only 6900 men, but in three hqurs Ids little army gained a d^ 
ciSire victory. A few days aften^'ards, N. was iu the pahice of the Ameers, and 

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maftfcr of Scinde. He was fortanate in posaessfog the entire ooiifldenoe of Lord 
Blleuboroif};h, who made him governor of Scinde. His civil admiuietratioii mih 
i*curce!y leas remaricahie or iexs i^uccemfnl thnn liis iniiitiiry operation!*. He gained 
the respect aiid reverence of the inhubiiantp, bat soon l>ecanie engaffcd in nn ncri- 
mooiouB warof despHtcheswith the directors. In 1847, lie retnrned to Enghiud. 
After at tending a series of festivals in his lionor, Ite lived in lelirtment noiil ilie 
disasters of tlie last Sikh war caused the eyes of his connirymen to bo inmed to tho 
her of Scinde as the deliverer of oiir Indian empire. He went tc» India, bnl found 
on his urrivai that the Siichn iniU t»een routed. He now turned his atieniiun, as 
commander-in-chief of tlie army in India, to the snbj cr of niiliiary reform. Ho 
baile a final adieu to the East in 1851, and returned to his native cortniry, where ho 
resided until his death, «rliicli took place at his seat, at O.iklands, near Portsmouth, 
August Y9^ 1858. He lt:id thou attained the rank of lientenauti^eneral, was G.C.B., 
and colonel of the 82d Foot It must l>e remembered to his honor that he waa the 
first Bngli(<h general who ever recorded in his despatches the uannrs of private 
e«>kliers >-ho had dietiugnishcdMliemselves, pide by side.wiUi thoi>e of ofl)ci-rs. 
Bnive to'ra.«hnc!*.*<, ready alike with tongue, |>eD, nud sword, qinirrelHome with h'S 
superiors, but beloved by his soldier?, and, to crown all, of a t>trnn}:cly wild yet noble 
and striking Hpi>earance, N. was one of the most rema:kable men of his time, and 
iu losing him the country lost one of its brightest military ornaments. His ftatao 
was, after his death, erected iu Trafalgar Square. The story of his ** Conqaef>t of 
Scinde" has l>e6n written by his brother, Lienteuant-Generul Sir William Fbancib 
Patrick Napier. K.C.B., born 17th December 1785, who servt d in the Peninsular 
cainiMiigu, and wan engaged from 1824 to 1840 in pri-paring his ** History of the 
PeiiHisnhir War," tho greatest military history in the £llg.'i^h languitge. He died 
February 12, I860, at Scinde House, Clfipham, and was f()lTo\v«hl in a few weeks to 
the totnb by his wile. Lntly Napier, niece of the great C. J. Fox. Her extraordi- 
nary skill in translating French doc^rmeuts written in cypher, and her indefatigable 
labors as her husband's amaiiueiiitis, are t.ou<-liiugly commemorated in the preface 
to the edition of tlie '* History of the Peninsular vvur," published in 1851. 

l^AFIBlt, Sir Charles K. C. B., Eii!;li.<'li admiral, was cousin to the hero of Scindo 
and thi! hi!«toriaii of the Peuiui*ular War. His father was the Hon. Captain Charleys 
Napier, R. N., second son of Francis, fifth Ix>rd Napier. He was born March 6, 
1786, at the family seat, Mcrchistouo Hall, iu the county of Stirling. At 18, he went 
to 8ca aa..4i naval volunteer. In 1808, he received the command of tlm lUervitj 18 
guns, and had his thigh broken by a bnilet. Ho kept np a running fight, in his IS- 
gnu brig, with the rearmost of three French line-of-batlle ships, flie D^HautpovJti 
which escaped frofti Qnndeloupe, and was I tins in!>trnmental iu tn r capture. This 
obtiiiiied him a posi-cnptaincy.; but b.ring thrown out of active serv'ce, lie served 
ashore as a volunteer iu the Peninsular army, and was wounded at Bui^aco. Com- 
manding the Th^nmes in 1811, he inflicted an inci*edil)le amount of damage upon the 
enemy in the Mediterranean, ami tilso condiict«*d several de.-poratt; land oiH-raiious 
with marked success. In 1814, he wns ordered to America, and Id the way in the 
lia«ardous ascent and descent of thu Potomac. He afterwards look an active part 
in tbe operntions Against Baltimore. In 1S29, he received the command of the 
OtUaUa^ a42-gun frigate, ahd was employed on '* particular service" on the coast of 
Portugal. Becoming acquainted wirh tlie leodei-s of the Constitutional party, ho 
accepted the command of thy fleet of the young queen ; and by defeating the Migue- 
Ilte fleet, he concluded the war, and placed Donna Maria on the throne. He was 
made adminil-iu-cliief of the Portuguese navy, and attemptod to remodel it; but 
official and corrupt influence was too strong for him, and he returned to England. 
Ill tlie war between the Port<; and Mehemet Ali, he organised a land fortte, with 
whicti he stormed Sidon, and defeated Ibrahim Pasha among the heights of Muunt 
Lebanon. He took part hi the naval attack on Acre, and did noihositaietodipregatd 
the orders of his chief. Admiral Stopford, when he paw the way to bring the battle 
to a 8|>eedy tenniiirttioii. He next blockaded Alexandria, and c« ntluded a couveniJou 
with Mehemet AH. In 1847, he received the coiumjuul of the CImnnel fl ei. When 
the Russian war broke out, he was sent out to command the Baltic fleet ; but the 
capia:-eof BouKin»iiud failed to realise the high expectations formed of N.'s exnloit?. 
He twice sat in parliament, aud, until his death, November 6, 18Uj, ho labored wliU 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

"Napier ot* 

Naples ^" 

sncceae to reform our navnl admii)if>tration. He was nt the time of his dtath a vU» 
admiral niid a kuijrht of pevenil Tureigii ordiTS. 

NAPIER, ThH Righl Hon. Sir Rolwrt ConieUp, Baron Napier of Magilnla, was 
born in Ceylon, 6th Dv^ceiub^r 1810, and wnt^ educaifd at the Military College at 
Addiscoinbc. He entere<l tin; B Mijral Engiueera in 1826, wi-ved in tbe'Sntlrj cam- 


•aign, was wonnded while aciing as chief tn^net>r at rlic aUige of Moiiltau, and 
laa a prominent 8haro in the battl<' of Gujehit^ As cliiff eugiiieer of the Pa iijjib. 

with The rank of colonel, he greatly dev«'IO|M'd the resoni-ccs of tlie countiy. Daring 
the. Indian .mniiny, lu; was cim-f eugiuGer in Sir Colin Campbell's army, ana 
especially diptin»rnt5*hod hinis<'lf at thu siege of Lucknow. For his ferv.ces m lite 
Ohin«»se war of 1868, he was inade nr.jor-general and K.C.ft, As commander of tli^ 
expedition in Abyrtsiuia in 1368 he aohiovtd a brilliant snccefS,- both by his wholv: 
mauagenitMit of the short cainp.ign and. in the storming of Magduhi, wluci* ended 
It. On his rotaru he received the thflitks of parliament, an aunnity of X209O and a 
peerage. In 1870. he was appointed Connnander-in»chief of the fores in Ind a. and 
nominated a member of tlie Indian Council. In 1877 he was made govemur of Qib- 

NAPIER'S BONES, an invention of th» celebhited Napier (q. v.) of Meichfstdn, 
for the pin-pose of performing meclianically the opifrations of nmltiplication and 
alvision. The •' bones " were narrow slips of t)one, wood, ivory, or nn'tiil. abont S 
inches long by 3 lOlhs of an incli In breadth, and divithd hy tr:iusvert»e lines tbfo 
nine compartments; eacli of tiies'e compartments being dividitl into two portions 1)^ 
a diagonal line running from tljH uppi^r right hand to t1ie lowtr left iuind coniei*9. 
The *• bonus " were divid ^d Into sets, all tnor*e of gin ; set liaving thc-'anv; <?lirit occu- 
)yiug the lop compartment, and the several nniltipli-sof that digit occnpyii-g in ordet 
he eiirht lower compartmMjts; when tlie multiple consisted of two figures, these 
were plactid one on eac'.i sidj of the diagonal line. There was nt;C'/s3arily a set of 
bones for each digit. There was also another rod similarly divided into compart- 
ments, in whicii were placed th.) nine digits; this was called the index-rod. Miilti* 
plication was performed :is follows; e. g,, if 6793 is to be multiplied by 97834. four 
rods \Vhose top digits were 6, 7, 9, 5 are ."elected and arrangi-d m the order of the 
flgaros in the multiplicand, and the index-rod placed alongside them, as in th^ 
figare; the several ftirares of the mnltiplier are then sought for on the iud^x-ri&t, 
the two lines of figures opposite eich ftgur.; on the index are then addttd togettter 
diagonally, and the five sums tlms obtained are arranged as follows ; 



661782030 = the product required. 

Division is performed in an analogous itjianner. The conteittporaneona inretitioti 
of logarithms for the same purpose of converting multiplication and division into 
addinon and sub-raction, caused Napier^s bouei to be overlooked, aud they ai'e 
now scarcely ever used. 

NA'PLES (Ital. Napolij anc yeapolis)^ a city of Southern Italy, capital of the 
province of Naples, is built partly ai the base, partly on the slopes of two crescent- 
shaped acclivities on the fa'nous bay of the same name. Pop. (I87:i) 448.33.5. Ltd. 
40° 51' 8" n., long. 14<> 15' 5'' e. The wonderful Iwauty of the site aiid of the sur- 
rouudii^ prosp'-ct, the delicious softness of the climate, and the clear litmospliere, 
make NT famed among the cities of the world. It is one of the chief centres 6t com- 
merce and industry of Italy, possesses a very extensive mercantile shipping, and is 
one of the principal station^ of Mediterranean f^team-navifjation. 

The public buildings of Naples ar; numerous and grand, but are devoid of archi- 
tectural symmetry in cons-quence of tlie antiquity of their origin ami the in"e«j:nhir- 
ity of their site. Many of the old streets are paved with lava, and incouvenieuily 
narrow, with honse.s of great height. The modern streCti*, however, an; 8i>:iici0as 
and spl udid. The city fi divided into the Old and the New Town, or the Bast and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

0*f Haplsr 

Went Crescertp, by a lefser range of li<»i;jht3— vlz^ fhc CiipodomOnte, Jlie St £!mo. 
and ihe Pizjiofrtlconc, iiriniimtini? in the rocky proraoiiioiy c.illcd tlio CHHteil dell* 
Ovo. ill 1868^ a l.iiid-elip destroyed a umnbcr of lioiie'efl at ilic Toot of Pizrofalcouc 
The eaf-terii divipion of N. is tlie niofcf imclent and the most deiifvly iK?opIed ; it con- 
tains the priucipal public siructnreB, aiul is intfrwcted l>y tlio spknidul Via or Street 
di Toledo. The vvesterir, or modern section, contains «he fjinmns liivicra di Chinja, 
or the Quay, a fine road running alonj? the bay in a curved cour«je of tliree miles, 
flanked on th« right hy a row ofiinlnces, and bonhM-ed on llui left by tlie heautifnl 
pleasurcvgrounds of the Villa R'-iaPe, which lie botwifen It and the sea, and of wiiich 
Ihe natural beauty is heightened by the Intersper-ion of temples, fonntniue, and etnlu- 
nry ^oupsainids^tihe ac.icia, myrtle, and orangegroves. The public t*qua res, or largki, 
of N. are adorned with fountains and obelisk' ; and within the precinct?* of the cily, 
tl:ere are several hfghly-prized springs both of fresh an<l mineral waters. 'J'he for- 
lifted Qistlef* are numerous. Amongst the principal are the Cas^U!l Nuovo, cjdird the 
Basiileof Naples, somewhat himllar to the Tower of London, and adorned with a 
fine U'lnmpiKl^ arch, erected in honor of Alfonso of Araj^ou ; the Caatel d'»ll' Ov<i, hO 
Called from its oval or eg«r shape, standing on a promontorv, and connectetl by a 
bridge with the inainlan(r; the Castel Sunt' Elmo, counnancliiig a magnificent view 
from na ramtmrts, and formerly of immense strength; and the dismanthd Castle 
del Carmine Tlie churches are upwards of SCO, and many are rich In architeclund 
and urcbselogical interest. The catlxKlral dedicated toStGeniiHi-o (Jauaarius; q. v.) 
contains the celebrated phials in which the liquefaction of S' Gennaro's blood la 
alleged to take place on two annual festivals; it also contains the tombs of Ctiarlea 
of Anjon and of Pope Innocent IV., besides uuipcroua fine paintings and statues. 
The edncational insiitntions of N. embrace famous scliools of surgery, law, and 
g -nHral acieuce, A magnificent aquarium has i>een o|Xined since 1S71, with a zoolog- 
Ogicid laboratory in which many distinguished foreign naturalist* are at work. The 
uhilaiithropicid establishments are on an imnienso scale, and are richly endowed. 
Tliere are alao several theati-es in the city, of which that of San Carlo (devoted to 
Iht: OiRira) is one of the largest and moat celebrated in I aly ; but the characteristic 
theatre of N. is the Te-.tro di $an Car/i/to, the headqnartrrs of Fulcinella (-^ \ho 
jf'aii.'iii Punch." I'lmre are four^rand public iibrarie}' ; an<l in the Museo Boib^)nico, 
N. contains ap unrivalh'd co lection of art, coinprisiig fresi-oes, paintings, mosaics, 
sculptures, bronzes, antiquities, coins, nitdals, inacriptionH. and the renowned col- 
lection of precious obji^cts excavated from Uercnlaneum and Pompeii. 

The environs of N., apart from their extreme beauty of scenery, are higlily 
iiitej-estihg. The Jocality which contains the tomb of Virgil, the disinterred towns 
^f Herculanenin and Ponii)eii, Vesuvius (from an (ruption t)f which N. suffered In 
1872), and the Bpman remains, must po^'Ses*s an inexhanstible source of interest 
for >cient'.fic. antiquarian, and classical in vestigaiors: The modi rn villas of N. are 
spleiuiid and Inxuiiou:'. One of the most striking features of N. is its unique popu- 
lation and the universal publicity in which life is passt;d. The Inhabitiints forever 
swarm in the thoroughfares, where an incessant throng of vendors, purcha-ers, 
and idlers intermingle with asses, mules, han(l-carts, and conveyances, dazzling the 
eye with their brlliant variety of cos'.ume, and the ]>antominiic expressiveness of 
tiicir franiic gestures and attitudes ; while tiic ear is stunned by the siirill conflict- 
ing cries of the ambulatory vendors of ev«'iy conceivable commodity, by the pierc- 
ing notes of the improvi»»«tore'.s song, and the uprojirious hihu'ity and high-pitcln d 
patois of the ^otlntle^s masses, whose sole abode appears to stranjrers to be tiie 
thronged public square.* and stre ts. The popular language of N.. which is a cor- 
mj)t dialect of Iiallan and Spanish, i« in prevalent iisi; among all classes of society ; 
if lends it~elt esptcially lo the satirical and facetious squibs and compositions in 
which the Ne:ipolltans exc ;1. The popular Neapolitan songs in the naiive patois 
are exquiait<?ly naive and expressive in sentlmeni, and are set to popular melodies 
wliicli i'xert a nmd«loning charm over this sonthcni popniaee. The pliysicul condi- 
tion of the lower classes of N., and especially of ttie lazzironi (q. v.), has of late 
J ear* sensibly Improvi'd b«>th as regards raiment and lodging. 

The name Naples (Qr. ^Veapo/ta, new city) had reference to an older town in the 
neighliorhood. called originally Parthenope, and, after the foundation of the new 
town. Pal^poiis (old town), which was situnted most probably on the ridge c.-illed 
Poailipo, tliat separates t^o Bay of Pozzuoli or Bai» from that of Naples. Both 

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Naples ' Q Q 



towns were Greek settlement', apparently coloiilos from the 'tielghboring Cnmse. 
joined by iiimiignuits dinct from Grot-ce. In 827 B.C., Palaepolls was I)f0iei;ed and 
inkuii by tb« Komaiia. and thtiicefi>rth (lisap'.Mars from bistory ; Neapoliflsabmit- 
ted without resihtanci, aud I) cam ? a favor.Hl and faithful ally, or nitlier]>rQviiicial 
city of Rome. It long, bowfver, ret:iin.d its purely G eoli c 'aractcr and institu- 
tion!* ; and there Is eviilence t!iat \\h^ Gr.j.k 1-iugaage coiitiuiit-d to b • u-cd, even in 
pnbllc ducam'ints. as late as* tlic 2d c. of llie Christian era. N. wiw n fl >nrit*liiiig aud 
popnlou;^ city diirini? the Koiuan empire ; aud nutwitlit«taDdm;r t.ic vicissitudv-H of 
the Gothic conquest of Italy, and thu n^couqii.sts by the Byzantine emp«*rors, it con- 
tinued to be one of i!>e most import lut and opulent place.- iu Italy, .-vbont the Sili 
c, it threw off allegiatxe to tlie Byzantine emperors, remained indt'pt'ndent lill it 
fell into the h.mdd of tlie Normans in 114U a.d., and became the capital of tbekiug^ 
dom of Naples. 

NAPLES, B ly of, an indentation of the Mediterranean Sea on the soatb-west 
coast of Italy, oppo<*ite tite city of Naples, is 20 miles whie from CapeMiseuo ou ttie 
nortli-wext to Cape CampanelH ou the Houth-ca***, and from tidsiine extends iulaud 
for about ten miies. The scener.. i<* veiy iH'autifnI. Ou thesiioi-ep are laaur towns 
and villasres ; llie prosi>ect is l)ounded on the cast by Mount Yesavinb, aud ou the 
outskirt.'« of ihe bay are tlie islauds of Ischia and Citpri. 

NAPLES. The Italian provinces (formerly kinj^dom) of N. and Sicily, or the Two 
Sicilies, occupy the south end of th:; Iralian peuinsuia, aud con^ist of tlie continen- 
tal tern tory of N. aud the insular depf^ndency of Sicily. The distinctive physical 
features of N. and Sicily are noted und- r the names uf the different provinces of 
Italy aud in the article Sioily. Th;»y «ro favored by nature with a salubrious and 
almost tropical climate, unbounded fertility, and teendug popolntion; aud they pre- 
sent natural features of rare attractiveness. The rural population are an acute, fru- 
gal, and laborious race, imd form a strong contrast to their idle' and debased brrthreii 
of the towns. For statistics of product.^, exports, and populaiitm, see Ii'alt and 
Sicily. N., In ancient times, was divided i:ito nnmorous petty states independent 
of each other, and its Inhab.tjuita were of various races. Many of these states aro-e 
from Greek coloidrs, wliich had b ;en founded in the country previous to the 7th c. 
B.O. Th.! ancient historical importance of N. is attested by the splendor of its ritiee, 
and the warlike r-nown of its population. On its conquest by the Romans. tl»e 
great Neapoliiau cities soveral'y adopte<l the mnnicial, federative, or coloidst form 
of government, and gradoaily assimilated their laws and customs to those ol their 
couquerors. After the downfall of the West.irn Empire, N.wius seized by Odoacer, but . 
soeu afterwards, (490 a.d.) it was subjected by the Goths, and in the following ceu- ' 
tury by the Lombards, who established in it various independent duchies, as Bene- 
vento, Spoleto, S demo, Capua, Ac Mo-t of these were overthrown by iuvadini' 
bands tif Arabs. Saracens, and Byzantines, who were in turn cxitelled, and 
the whole country subdued by the Normans in the llth century. Tlie 
Normans subsequently erected N. and Sicily iuto a kingdom, and* est^iblish^d a 
new political, ecclesiastical, and militsry system. To the Norman dynasty 
succeeded that of tb<^ Ilotienstaufen, whose rule was mtuked by i\u immense 
intellectual and social advancement of the people; but the vindictive enmity 
with which the p.ipal seeregardctd this dyna.-ty, letl to the invasion of N. by Charles 
of Atijon, who. notwithstanding tlie heroic fesistanee of King Manfred (q. v.), by 
the battle of Benevento (1266) annihilated the power of the Hoiienstanten. The 
wsc-^ndeucy of Charles of Anjou was further effectually s<'cnred by the treacherous 
defeat and decapitation (Vi6S) of Konradin (q. v.). the last male heir to the throno. 
By tlie Sicilian Veapern (q. v.) the island of Sicily was, however, wrested in 12S2 
from his gr isp. and liecame an appanage of the Spanisii crown. Tlie predominance 
of the Neapolitan Gnelph or papal party during ihegit)rious reign of Uobert I., who 
w IS the patix>n of Dante and Boccaccio, the depraved libertinism of Ids heiress and 
granddaiightei- Joanim, the fearful ravages committed by )>redatory bands of €k;r- 
man mercenarie>» and by the plague, the futile attempts of the Anjou i^ovendgns to 
recover Sicily, and the en vent nn-d fends of rival claimants to the throne, ai*e tho 
leading features of tae history of N. during the nde of this dyn isty, which expired 
with tJio profligate Joanna II. iu 1435; and was followed lij'tliat of AragOH, wliicli 
had ruled Sicily from th« time of the Sicilhiu Vespers, faring the tenure of the 

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Azflgon race, yariona aDf>ncce8sfal attempts were made by the Honse of Anjoii to 
recover their loft 8)vereiffiity ; and rhe conutry. eppecitilly near the i-oant, wax re- 
peHtedly ravaged by tiie Turks (1480). lu facf, nfrtrthe denili of Alfonso, t.i« fli>t 
ruler of the Anigoii clynaHly, tho conutry groaiM d nnder a load of mittf ry. Wan*, 
dvfeut«ive and offensive, were iiitefsant, tho country was hnpovtrlnhcil, ami a 
conspiracy of the noblt-s to remedy tlie condition of .iffrtirs was product ive of the 
most luHicniahle results tH^th to I tie coui^pirators themselves, and to the oth> r in- 
flizentini NeapoliUtu fandiien. In 1495. Charles Vlll. invaded N., and ihoti;;1i ho 
wa^ compelled to withdraw in the same year, his tfacce^sor, Louis XII., wiili tho 
treacherous assistance of Ferdinand (the Cuiholic) of Suain, succerded in conquer- 
ing the country in 1501. Two year* afterwards, the Spaniards niuler Gonj«alvo di 
Cordova (q. v.) drove out the French, and the country from IniH lime hecavie u 
province of Spain. Sicily had pteviously (1479) been annexed to the same kinp- 
doni. Daring the two ct'Uturies of Spanish rule in N., the parliaments whcb had 
existed from the time of the Normans fell into desm'tude, the exercise of nupremo 
antliority devolved on viceroys, and to their ignorance, rapaciiy, and oppressive ad- 
ministration may be ►olely ascribed the unexampN d misery anti ahH>ement of thia 
period. In tlie wordtf of Sismondi, *^ no tax was imponed save with the apparent 
ohjecr of crushing commerce or destroying a«,'riculiure. and the viceregal palace and 
thetrilmnals of ja:>ticc became public offices in which the highest dignities and mo»>t 
BHcrcd interests of tlie stale were opi.nly Iwrtered to the wealthiest hidder." 
Dnriiig the Spanish rale, a formidable rebellion took place in 1647. headed fli-st by 
Hu&inielto (6. v.), and afterwards by Henry V., Dnke of Guise; the whole 
popn!:ition or the province j-enouuced tiKiir allcy;lHnce to their Spanish sov- 
ereigns, but the arrival of a new viceroy, wlio was equal to the occasion, resnlu d 
In the captnre of the Duke of Guise and the re-subjugatlou of the country. 
At length, during the war of the SimnUh Snccemon (q. v.), N. was wrested from 
Spain by Austria in 170T, and Sicily in the following year; but while 
«. wns secured to Austria by the treaties of Uti«-cht (1713) and Rasiadt 
(1T14), Sicily was handed over to Savoy by the former treaty. In 1720, however, 
both Sicilies were reunited under the Austrian rule, and in 1736 were, given to Don 
Carlos, third son of Philip V. of Spain, who a^CelKled tlse throne as Cliarle"* 1., and 
found«d the Bourbon dynasty. Hie reijjn wns nnirljed by equity and modernt on ; 
great reforms were efEi'cted in the admini>tratioii of piii)lic aftairs, science and liter- 
tnre were encourai;ed, ami splendid works of public utility were erected ihrou^'l^out 
the kinirdoui. It was during hi?* reijni tliat Pompeii and Herculaneum were ^li^c^)v- 
ered. His successor, Ferdinand IV., followed in ilie coui-se of legislative reform; 
hut on the proclanuition of the Freiieh Republic (1789), his states were invndcKl liy a 
French anny. and the kingdom of N. was en cted into the Partheuopean lit public 
(1799). Ferdinand retiretl with his court to Sicily, ai d for a biief period enjoyed the 
restoration of his sovereign rights in N. ; hut a second invasion by Naivdeon (18(>«) 
ended in u proclamation of liiti brother, Joseph Bonaparte, asking of N. ; and on 
this hitter assuming the Spanish crown in 1808. thai oi N. was awarded to Joiichim 
Hurat, brother-in-law of NaiX)leoi;. On the defeat and execntion of Murat i:i 1S15, 
the Bourbou monarch, Ferdinand IV., was restored. The lil)cral insurr<«tiOMjtry 
movements in N. in 1821 and 183(» were the forerunners of tlie revolut on of 1848; 
and in each case the party of progress was combated by the respctive Ulnars with 
ruthless severity, ifnd pei-fldious conce.«s*ions, to be cancelled and avenged wiili snn- 
guinary fury when the disjirnied and credulous patriots were at the mercy of tho 
sovereigns. See article Garibaldi for the ultiiunte overthrow of the lJ<inrhon 
dynasty in the kingdom of N., and its hubaequent annexation to tl»e kinjrdoin of Italy 
under King Victor Emmanuel; al»»o art icles. Ferdinand II. and Italy. For the 
history of Sicily previous to its annexation to and during its various separailons 
from N., see Sicily. 

NAPLES-YELLOW Is a pigment used by artists. It cousl-ts of antlmoniatc of 
lead, and is obtained by the direct combinaiiou of antiiuonic acid and ot Kud 
under the influence ot heat. 

NAPOLfiON BONAPARTE, Emperor of the French, vras born st Ajacc'o, in tlie 
island of CorsiC4i, 15th Augtist 1760. (For nn account of the family lowliwch he 
belonged, sec Bohapabtb, Family of). At the age of 10 he entered the Milltaiy 

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Napoleon qA 

School at Brienno, as n kliig^s penBlonor. Here lie romafncd five yonn and a haT£, 
During that period be di!«pluyed a irioat apiitndc hi d nrediliciion for mntbeinnticH, 
history, and ijeograpliy, jiiid an indiff-'rence to n»«nly vtnbal and literary »»indii't». 
His manner was :*onil)re and tacitnrn. luit as Bonrrieune (wlio wasliis Bchoolfellow ) 
Buys, this arose cliiefly from the circuni.*«t.ii!ce that l»e was a foreigner, poor and 
nnaccnstomed to tlie nan of Frtmcli, wldch he first learned at Briiime. In Octob'-r 
1784, he proceeded to tlie Military School to complete his stndies for the nrmy, and 
iu rather less than a year obtaniod his commission as snl>-lientei)nnt in theartilh^ry 
regiment de la Fere. When the Iti'VoUilion broke out, N. wms in garrison iit 
Valence. He took the popular side, but in a quiet and nudenionstrntive way, for he 
did not love the ^jisterous enthusiasm of UMmaiiageabU! mol)s. When the armed 
rabble of Paris poured out to the Tnilcries on tlie f;'mous20tli of Juue 1792, N., who 
was then in the city, followed the •'despical>!c wretches" (as lie called Ihcm), aloiiix 
with his friend Bohrrienue ; he saw them force the poor king to stick the red cap on 
his head, and smilu fatuously from the windows of his palace. ** It is all over liencc^ 
forth wi til that man," Haid the younj? officer, and returned to. Pilrie gniver and 
more thoughtful than Bonrrieune had over sefii him. After the scenes of thelntli 
August, he left for Corsica, where General Paoli held the cliief command. Tli»j 
excesses of the S iptembrist-* and Terrorist^ however, induced Paoli !0 ihrow off 
his allegiance to the Convention, and to set-k the assistance of England. N. waA 
active hut unsuccessful in Itis oppo-'itioii to the designs of the general, and wa^ 
obliged, along witn his relatives, to fle6 from the island. 

He now ixailioned the Convention for employment, and was sent to ai«isl in the 
reduction of Toulon, with llie rank of lientt naut colbnel of artlll<ry. The city wj d 
captured (Idlh December 1798) entirely through the strategic genius of N. ; and \:\ 
the following February he was raised to llie rank of brigaaier-genehil, and placed at 
the heud.of the ariilh^ry in the army of the south. L iter in the year, he was sent lo 
Genoa, to examine the state of the forliflcations of tlie city, and todisc-ovei* the poli- 
tical disposition of the inhabitants. In the l>eginniiig of .'795, l-.e was aitaln iu Pari^ 
seeking active employment and thinkinir, from slieer ennui, of transferring his ser- 
vices to the Sultan of Turkey. The Convention was now in great peril, on iiccount 
of the mutinous spirit of the arrondi.-'seraents of the capital, nnd,^on thesugsre^tion of 
Barras, Carnot, Tallien, and others, N. was made commander of The ti-oops provided 
for its defence. On the 13ih Vend^mlaire (4th October 1795), tl»e mitional guard, Sb,^ 
000 strong, attempted to force its way into iheTuileries, where the Convention was 
sitting, but was route:l and disperaed by a terrible cannonade diree.ted by the yonn«f 
artillery officer. N. was immediati^ly appointed lo the coinnuind of the army of tliu 
interior. About this time, he made the acqmiintance of Josephine S^anharnais. 
whom he frequently met at the bouse of Madame Tallien. Captivated l>y herelegaiit 
manners and amiat)le disposition, he pro]K)sed marria<je to the graceful widow, aii^ 
was accepted. The cere.nony took place 9tli Mar<th 1796. A few days before, 1^ 
had been appointed to the supreme co nmund of ttie army of Italy, and he \vaH 
obliged to leave his l>ride almost at the altar. On his arr.v I, he found the troops ia 
a wretched condition. He bad only 36,00t) av:ii:jible men, and even these were ba'f^ 
starved, and only half-clothed, to oppose to an Austrian and PiedmOniese force ot. 
76 000. Yet he was not afraid to undertake the conquest of XJp|>er Italy. I^eavimj 
Nice at the close of Mai-ch, he won bis first victory over the Ansfriaus at Mo- - 
tenotte (11th April), which opened the Apennines for him; tlu*ee, dnyi 
later, a second success at Millesimo separated the allied armies; and, final y, 
his victory at Mondovi (on the 22d) compelled Sardinia !0 implore peaeW 
He now hoped to utterly crusli the Austrian army under Beaulieu. nnd at the batilo 
of Lodi (on tlie lOtli May) nearly accomplished it. His < ppomni did not venture lo 
defend the line of the Mincio, but hastily throwing a pirnVoii info the city of Mantu:i, 
retreated into the Tyrol. N. immediately entore i Milan and took jmsse^sion besi(h«H 
of all the prineipa! cities of Lombanlv. Now began that Hysrera of enormous nnd 
unscrupulous plunder in Northern and Central Italy whicli gives something of a Imr- 
baric character to the conqae»»tj« of the French. 'I he Directory ^rave ordei-s that N. 
should levy coniriimtions from h'i the states which he had gVatuitons'y freed, aiul 
according to his own account, be sent to F- ance iit)t less than S't.OOO.OOO franco. His 
officers anil commissiries actually sejz d whatever they wish f<l, jirovisions, l!ors«'S, 
and all mauuer of stores; and because Pa via ventured \o make fome blight 1*06151- 


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ance to the Bharaefnt extortions of the Renubllcnns, N. gave It np to liavoc for 24 
lionre I A Iwxly of ^avaui- ^iucluding Monge, berthollet, and otlMJr^) were dei'p'tctied 
to Iialy to sniJeriuteiid the spoliatiou of iie nrtlstlc tr«««'nT«'8 ; mid boih ikjw mi d hi 
the *«ub»oqueut Iialian cuni)>iiigu», pictures, ntataes, va»i*», aud M88. wert; cun*ifd 
oft in gri'at uniiibers, to gratify the vnuhy of the ParWnn elglit-Reerp. lu tiiie wiiy 
L )iiibardy, Parma, Modcna, Bolojnia, and the States of the Churcli were sjiv.ifrt Iv 
bariied I>ffore the end of June— Pope Pius VI., in particuUir, bciug forced toti'ubnnt 
to conditions of ixticaie rigor. 

Mfauwhile, Austria lind resolved to inalse another effort for the recovvry of Lom- 
barcly. About iho close of July, Marshal Wurniher : dvanci d from Trent at tho 
lu-at! of 6U,000 men, forced Napoleon to i-ai^e tlie hicge of Mantnn, hnt wan hiiuhelf 
deftMitcd. with the h)H6 of all hit; camion, near CaHtighone (5th Angufit), and again at 
Bu88iiuo (8th September), in cons^t qmnce of whkh. lie was driven lo lake refrgo 
within the fortress of Mantua with iH>me 16.00J tioop>— tito shattered remnina of 
his 60,000. Austria, however, was not dishearii ned. A third army waB diHpalchcd 
in two divisions: 30.< 00 from Carinihia^ under Marclud Alvinzi ; and 20,00« from the 
Tyrol, niideir (general Davidowich. This was a terrible campaign for N. ; his veternns 
were exhausted, his new ^npportv^ had not arrived; he liiuiself was despond«iit, 
while the Anj^tii:ins were fresli aaid liopeful. At first, the latter were Qomplettly 
•nccessfnl ; hut the great victory of Areola, won by N, (17ih November), after thee 
days' fli-rce flighting, jn which he lost nearly all his general officers, decided the fate 
of the cunipulgn. His diiipatches to the Directory, penned about this pei'iod, shew 
how thoroughly he apprehended tho state of parties in Italy, and also how 
utterly indifferent he was to any considerations l>eyond those that advanced 
the interests of Prance. In January 1791, a fourth campaign Mas commenced 
by Austria. At the head of 60,000 fresh troopf, Alvlnal descended from tho 
Tyrol, but was completely, routed by N. at Kivoli, on the J4th of the 
month ; while not long after, WurrasiT was i^tarvetl into surrender at Mantua. 
A fifth army was assembled on the Tugliamento, under the command of the Arch- 
duke Charles: but his troo|)S were mainly ruw recruits, while those of N. were 
inured to war, and flushed with iumnuerable ttriumi>hs. In consequence, ho 
was forced to retreat, \yhich, however, he did I'lowly ai d in good order, hoping to 
»nrionnd his opponent in the interior of the country. N.'s desism was to maich 
on Vienna, and he actually jwneli-ftted as far as Judenhurg, in Upper Styiia, only 
eight days' march from the capital. 'Jhc Austrian government nt length was seized 
with alarm, made overtures of peace; and finally, on the ITth October 1T97, the fa- 
mous treaty of Campo-formio was signeil, by which Au>tria ceded the Netherlai.ds, 
Ix)inl)ardy, and ^ojne other smaller territories to France ; while she herself obtain<d 
in return, throu£;h disgraciful treachery on the part of the vic'or, possession of the. 
province of Venice. It is generally said that N.'s military genius was never more 
brilliantly displayed than in these early Italian campaigns. In ingenuity of j)lau,celer- 
ity of movement, audacity of assault, he far outshines all his adversaries ; it is, more- 
over, but jnst to liim to Ktaje further, that ho made desperate efforts to stop the ex* 
cesses of tho most scoundrelly conunis»'ariat in Europe ; and that while in the main 
he shewed no hesitation in carrying out the brlgancl-like orders of the Director}', 
be does not appear to l-ave appropriated a single penny to himself. It was power, 
not gold, that he cared for. 

In December 1797, N. retnrnrd to Paris, where he was received with the utmott 
enthupiasm. At this lime, there m'OS much talk, and probably some vague design, 
on the part of the Direeiory, of invading Enirland. and N. was jiMjKHUted coni- 
mander-in-cliief of tin* invading army. It ban h; en thought, however, iluit this was 
merely a feint to mask the real design ot the Directory, viz.. the invasion of Egypt, 
as perhaps a preliminary step to the conquest of British India. Be that as it may, 
an expedition against Egyijt was resolve<l on by the Directoiy ; and onihe 19th of 
May. 1T98, N. sailed from Toulon, with a fleet containing 80,000 Soldiei'S, ai d a body 
of savans to investigale the antiquities of the country. He readied Alexandria on 
tlie 29th of June. At this moniMut, France was ni peace with Turkey; the invasion 
of Egypt a T«rki:«h <le|)endeucy, was therefor.* an aet utterly unjustifiable, ami 
reminds us not of European warfare, but rather of the irruption of a horde of 
liarbarlc Tartars. N. having landed his troops, ca]>iured AUxaiidria, and marclud 
on Cidrb. The Mamelukes prepaivd resistance ; but on the 2Ut July, at the battle 

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Nmpo'eon GO 

of the Pyramids*, tlioy were completely defeated, and the French became, in a snr- 
fttr«-way, masters of Kgypt. ]N. now entered the cnpitn), and imnifdialely coni- 
ni«*nc('d 10 reorguuiso ibo civil and uiililary tiduiini?irjttion of tiiecuuiiir> — for ho 
took a grejit, hnt als'o au u(«teiitutiou!* plennnre in this port (»f work. Mt^nwl>ile. ou 
the 2(1 of Aueu!»t, Nelson had uiteHy dent roved the French fleet in Al)ouk:rBay, 
and M) cut ott N. from communication witli KuroiM). A montli later, the Kuitan di> 
clared war a2ain^t him. This w:ifl followed by ai«*turbBnce8 in Cairo, which wirc 
only 9nppre.Mtd by horrible nniHS'icres. It wa» oi>vion8ly necesHury that N. .should 
go somewhere else. He resolved to meet the Turkish loi-cee astf^eiubling hi Syiia; 
and in February 1799, crosaeti tne desert at tlie head of 10,000 men, storuK'd JaffA 
ou the 7th March, after a heroic resiatiiuce on the part of the Ttirks ; marched north- 
wards by the coast, and reachetl Acre ou the Ittli. Here his career of victory was 
stopped. All his efforts to capture Acre were foiled through the desperate and 
obstniate valor of old Djeszar Pasha (q. v.), a8»i^te<l by Sir Sidney Sraitli, with a 
small body of Bnelish sailors aud marine«i. On tiie 21st of May, he commenced his 
retreat to "Egypt, leaving tiie whole country on flro lieliind liim, and re-entered Cairo 
ou tlie Uili of June. It was daring his absence tliat the savaun made their vulunble 
researches among tlie monuments of Upper Bgypt. About the middle of July, the 
Sultan landed a force of 18,000 men at Aboukir, who were attticked hj N. on t>.e 
26th, and rpnted with immense slaughter. But tiie ponition of the victor wa^ far 
fi*om coroiortable, and ho theivrfore if680lved to ntiirn to France— eHjMJCial'y «« 
news had couiit to him of disasters in Italy and confusions in Piirif. On the 23d of 
August, he sailed from Alexandria, leaving his army beiiiud liim, under the com- 
mand of Kleber; and after narrowly eetcapnig capture by the JJhiiiiisii fleet, iandd 
near Frejns On tlie 9th October. He liMStenedto Paris, poon niantei-ed the htate of 
affairs, threw himself into the party of Sleyd*, and overthrew the Diivctoi-y (q. v.) 
on the famous 18»h Brumaire. A new constitution was drawn uo, chiefly by Sieyd^, 
nnder which N. i>ecamj First Consul, with tlie power of appointing to ; II pul>lic 
offlces, of pro|>osing all public measures in peace or war, and the entire coiniuaud 
of all administrative affairs civil and militaiy. In a woitl, ho was ruler of France; 
and thong^li far from sutiyfled with the clumsy machinery of Sieyes's plan, lie 
could afford to wait the ftiture. About the end of January 1800 he 
took up his residence in tiie Tnilerics. Tlie country was tired of revolutions, 
discords, and confusions; it was proud of its young leader, who seemed inspired but 
not enslaved by the id as of his age, and who knew how to enforce obedience, as 
well as^o panegyric principles. If therefore re^'ardeil liis assumption of sovereign 
power with positive satisfaction. N. displayed extraoitiinary vigor as an administra- 
tor, recruited the national treasury, by various itagacioas exiiedienis, reiiealed the 
more violent laws passed during the Revolution, such as iMinishinent for matters of 
opinion, reopened the churches, imd terminated by policy the Vendean struggle. 
Bathe knew well that his genius was essentially military, and that his most dasxling 
aud influential triumphs were th>>se won ou the battle-field. France was still at war 
with Austria, and lie resolved to renew the glories of his first Italian campaigns. 
Leaving Moreaa in command of the army of the Rhine, heassenibled, with wonderful 
rapidity and secrecy, an army of 8(t,0vjd men on the shores of tlie Lake of Geneva, 
and ou the 18th May (1800), began his m:<gn!ficent and daring march across liie 
Alps. Almost before the Austrl.iii general. Melus, wtis aware, K. hadeiitereil Milan 
(2d Junit). Twelve days aflerwanis, was foaght the fiercely contested yet decisive 
iNittle of Marengo, wiiich compelled the Austriaus to r<!sign Piedmont with all it.s 
fortresses, aud (lor the seconcl time) Loml)ardy to the Freiicii. Later in tiie year, 
hostilities were recommenced; but the Aiisirians, beaten Vy Morenn in (^rmany 
(at HohenUndeii, &c.), and by N. in IUi\y^ were at last forced to make peace; and 
on the 9th February 1801, signed the treaty of Lun6ville, ivhicn was maifily bast d on 
that Campo-furmio. In tlie course of the same year, France and Fnglaiid also 
nnide iieace, but the treaty (known as that of Amiens) was not definitively signed 
till thv;27tli of March 1802. N«)t le-« important for tiie conaolidation of nffaii-s in 
France was the lamous •* Concordat " (q. v.) between N. and Po|)e Pius VII., aiso con- 
cluded in 1801. In Jannary 1802, N. ovcame President of the Ois.-ilpine itepublic ; 
and on the 2d August following, was declare^! Consul for life liy a decree u£ tlie 
French senate. 

Meanwhile N. was busy saperiuteudlug the drawing up of a code of civil laws for 

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Q Q Napol«0n 

France. He assembled the^i-st lawyers in ilie nation, nndi.-r tl»e presidency of Cnni- 
ba(--6rd;t, un I trequenrly took priti in tlu-ir deiibcrutitaiM ; ihe rehultaof tliuir labors 
were the '* Code C.vll det« Frnig.iip,'' '• Code d«: Procedure," " Cixle Penal," und ** Code 
d'l 1 1 Si I ruction Cnnjiueile," heMdvS connnerci.-il and niililatycodeH. nil of which oflt-n 
go loosely under the i^Jtnie of tlic *• Code Nupoi6on.'' Tl>e first of these is an ndndrahie 
prooaction, and is in force to the prest ut day. Couniderable uitention woj* l)esided 
paid to sucli immclies of education as were likely to nrouiote efficiency in Ihe public 
service. 'Mathematics, physical science in all its departments, engineering, Ac, 
were us* vigoronsly encouraged as pliilosophy, ethics, anM political siMcnlatlon were 
discouraj^ud. But tne best proof thutN. wanted not an educaiecl people, hut only ac- 
tive and fzpert lools and agents, was the indifference that he nuiuifestcd to priniaiy 
and elementary education. lu a population of 32,000.000, the number of pupiin 
under teu years is given by Fourcroy at only 76,000 1 Tlie internal goverument was 
tlie acme of desi)otic centi-Alisatii»n. N. appointed ail prefects of di partments, and 
all mayors of cities, so that not a vestige of ))r(>vlncial or muuicipal freedom re- 
mained. He ruled France as he ruled the array of France, aud was already au 
Ciuperor in almost evt^rything but the name. 

Peace l)etween France and England did not last long. N.'s policy in Italy irri- 
tated tlie British government, and as remon^trance8 were ineffectual, war was de- 
clared against Frjaice.lSth May 1803. Tl»e English fleet scoured the seas, paralysing 
the commerce of France ; while N. threatened to invade Eugland, and assembled a 
large army at BoulO:,'ue. tso uJ tei ly did he misconceive I he character and condition of 
Euglish men, that lie felt sure (l)y his own statement) he should be welcomed as a 
lil)ci-utor by the peoplo I Wliile these warlike pr(M)aiations were going on, occurred 
the dauirerous conspiracy of the Chonau chief. George Catloudul (q. v.), Plchegru 
(q. v.), Moreau (q. v.), and others. Its discovery (Fithruary 1804) alarmed N. exces- 
sively, and led to what lias been considered one of the r)]acki"ht deede> in his 
catwer — the nmrde.r oj the I>nke d'Enghien (q. v.) on the 20th of Marcij following. 
lie now appears to have felt it necessary to assnme the title of emperor. Franci", 
be allege d, wanted an empire as n eymhol of perjnnnent security. An appeal wub 
made to the naiion. Upwards of 8,000,(00 votes were given in favor of tlie proposed 
diange in the torm of goveniment; only 80(1) or 4C00 against it. But where there 
Is no niunicipiil freedom, one docs not know what valne t<> put on votes. On the 
18th M.y, N. assumed the title of Empet or at St Cloud, and was crowned by, or 
ititiier in the presence of, the pope (for M. rndely crowned Idmself), on the 2d 
December. In the following summer (May 26) he was also crowned king of Itidy, 
in the great cahedral of Milan; aud Engine Beauharuais, liis step-sou, was af)- 
pojnied t^) lluj office of Viceroy. 

This policy of aggrandisenunt, which set at naught the conditions of the treaty 
of Lnn^vllle, alarmed the other nations of Europe, especi Uy Ansiria, who saw her 
Italian possessions seriously threatened. In 1805, a coalition was foimed between 
England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden, mainly through the pert<everiiig policy of the 
first of tliese countries; ?.nd war again broke out in the month of Sepiemher. N. 
actetl with amazing Celerity. Concentrating his w■idely-^caItcred forces at Mainz, 
he marched at once across Bavarta. compelled G*^ner;tl Mack to capitulate at Ulm 
with 2&,000 men (ITtii Octol)er) ; and on the 13th of November entered the capital of 
Austria. France was ele* trifled ; the rest of Europe was llmmler-struck. Bni a 
more glorious triumph was yet to come. The Russian arnjy was already in Moravia, 
undt r the immediate command of tlie EmiHMor Alexander I., and was there being 
joined by the scattered Austrian troops. K. did not lose a moment. Hurrying 
north, lie gave battle to the allies at Austerlitz, on the 2d of D« cember. The con- 
tent was tremendous ; but the victory was complete. N.'s opponents were utterly 
crashed ; and next day the Austrian emperor sought an interview, and sued for 
pt-ace. A treaty wa!* signe<l at Presburg on tlie 26th Deceml)«^r, by wluch Austria 
ced«'d to France all her Italian and Adriatic provinces; other changes effected by it 
were, the dissolution of the old German empire, and the formation of the Confedet'' 
tttitm of the JUiine (q. v.). 

In FeWniary 180tJ a Fi*ench army conquered Naples, and the crowu was conferred 
by N. on his brother Josep.j ; in the following June, another brotlier, Louis, was 
made king of Hollaud. Prussia now, when it was too late, assumed a liostile atti- 
tthe had bung off partly througli fear aud partly through eelflshness, from the 

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Mapo'eon Q 1 

great iiDti-Freuch coalitioo of tbo previous year, aud uow, when circumstances were 
ttlinost hopu'teiflly tidverse, she unully rui^lied a^Iuet h^ colu8t<al euuuiy. AnMria^ 
w'tUi luort; m:i}nm:iiinity than iirucKiuc, lent Iter help, bat tbe st^ir of N. was still in 
tl«e UBccndaiit. Th ; b ittK; of Jena (October 14) absolut 'Ay iiniihilMtc-d the power of 
Prussia ; Ave days later N. entered Berlin, whence lie issued (November 21) Ids cele- 
brated ** Decrees" against. Brili^b commerce, hoi)!Ug to ruin ln-r by Hliutting out her 
Hiips from every harbor in Europe. His expu*ctaJions, it need Imidly be sai'l, were 
disappointed. His policy well-nigh ruined the commerce of bis own and other 
countries, hut it only increased the prosperity of England. Her fl-ets and cruisers 
swefil the seas; nothing could begot from the colonies save through lier, and the 
merchants of the continent \vere oblig-id— in order to supply their customers as be- 
fore — to let her carry on a vast coutrabainl traffic. See Obdbbs in Council. 

After the ca|Ttnre of Berlin, N. proceedv'd northwards to encounter the Russians, 
who were advancing to ttie help of Prussia. On liis way, he summoned Poland to 
rise, but only witli jiartial snccesu. At Pultusli (Dcceuil)er 28, 1806), aud at Eylan 
(February 8, 1807), the French were beaten and driven back on the Hue of tlie Vis- 
tula; but after some months, he received heavy reinforcements, and on the 13th of 
June fought and wou the great battle of Friedland. which led to the treaty of Tilsit, 
signed on tbe 7th of July. By a secret article ot this treaty, Russia i>comised lo 
dose her ports to British vessels. It is important to ol)servc liere, that, as the 
military triumphs of N. increased, the civil and political liberties of his subjects 
diminished, i'onseqiient on the troa'y of Tilsit, a decree of the Imperitd senate 
al>olished the tribunate— the pnly political body in France that preservit^^-the sem- 
blance of national self-government. It Auirnst, N. create<l his brother Jerome sov- 
ereign of Westphalia— having patched up a Icingrdom fcir him in his usual nuscrnpu- 
lous way — ^imd soon atter, entered on a war with Portugal — the beginniug of the 
great Peninsular War. The occasion of the war was the rd[ of the Prince- regent 
of PortUi^al to carry out the Berlin decree in r^ganl to British shipping. In March 


1808, occurred that extraordinary Insrauce of trepanning at Bayonne, by which tlio 
whole royal family of Spain fell into the hands of N. ; and in the following July, 
his ** dearly Iwlovid brotlier " Joseph was ordered to exchange the throne of Napks 
for the *' crowns of Spain and the Indies.^' His successor was the *^ handsome 
swordsman "(2>eau8a6rtfur), Joachim Murat. Spain rose In insurrection, aud an 
English force, under Sir JoJin Moore, was despatched to its assistance. N. invaded 
the country about tlie close of October, defeated the Spanish forces, and captured 
Madrid (4ih December). But his presence wa*? urgently needed cltewhere, and he 
was forced to let Soult and other gencnds conduct the war in the peninsula. Aus- 
tria, again irritated and alarmed at his aggressive policy, especially in Italy (where 
he had seized Tusotny aud tiie States of the Church), once more prepared for war, 
which broke out in tite spring of 1809. Her array of Oermany, commanded by the 
Archduke Charles, was in splendid condition ; but still fortune was adverse. N. 
hurried iuto Bavaria, routed the Archduk-; at EckmiiUl (22d April), compelled him to 
retrrat into Bohemia ; and on the 12th of May, entered Vienna for the second time. 
But the struggle was not over. The Archduke rallied his scattered forces, worst (hI 
N. in ilie terrible conflicts of Aspv rn and Esslinir (21sr and 22d M.iy), and drove Idm 
to take refuge for a time on an island of the Danube. The battle of Wagram (6th 
July), however, once more prostrated, or at least intimidated Austria; and on the 
14tn of Octol>er, she signed the peace of SchOnbrnnn. 

N. appears to have now come to the conclusion, that he cotild only put a stop to 
the hosiile tnachinatlons of the old legitimate dynasties by intermarrying with'some 
one of them. Besides, his wife Josepliine haci no children — and he wasiimi^|;iou8 
of perpetuating his power in his family. Witli that cjdlon-ness to everything except 
his own interests, which is a prominent feature of his character, he imm-diutoiy 
j)roccfded to divorce her. The act of divorcement was solemnly registered on the 
16tli December. Less than three months afterwards, he married Maria Louisa, 
Archduchess of Austria. He was now at the zenith of his power, and so, ticeording 
to the old Greek l)eI1ef, Nemesis was on his track. What caused his ri^in wa« renl^ 
that outrage on civilisation— the Berlin Decrees. Russia found it impossible to carry 
it out. without permanent injury to her great Iandowni*rs ; Sweden and othen coun- 
tries were in a similar predicatnont. This led to evasions <)f tl>c decJve, and these, 
agtiiu, involved Russia particularly in further complications, until Anally, in M&f 

Digitized by VjOOQ ICL 

OR Nftpoleon 

1812, N. declared war agafnst her; and in spite of the advice of his most prndent 
couiiseilors, resolvetl to uivade the country. Every one knows the dreadfnl liit>tory 
of ilie Bnesi^iu cumpui^n. N., wriu^iug contingents frttmall his allies — 6ennain<, 
Aiistiiuus Itulians, Poles, uud 8wih6 — concentrated lietweeu tlie Vistulu uud th>! 
Nieuien an tumy of hulf a niiiliou of men. Tlie vnst horde crossed the lutier river 
~(24tii aiid 25tli Jone) in three divif ious, uiptun d Wilna (28ih JoDe), and iiiviiged 
Lithuania. The Rc><8iaii generals ntreated before tlie invading host, delib* rauly 
waiting the conutry, and carryinj^ off tlie snppliea. bnt avoiding as txr -. h 
possil)]^, all eDgagenieuts— t h( ir design being to surroaud N. in the heurt of the coun- 
try, jind by the hejpof fuminciind tlie r gors of a uortheru winter, lo anniiiihiiu iiiii 
in liis lioar of weakness. N. followed up ttse reireuting foe with recldess lesoluiion. 
He risked everything upon the chance 01 striking some overwiielmiiig blow. The 
liorrors of his march— iii Lithnuniu alone, 1UO,0<IO dropiied off (dead, sick, or cuyy- 
tured by the swarms of Cossaclcs that hung \x\)ou his flanks)~are too faiiiiliar to 
n quirt: description. When he leactud Smolensk (16th August), the Rusniaus had 
just U£l it — on fire I Three weeks or so later, ho made upon the enemy at Borodino, 
where an obstinate and blo<;dv battle was foutht (7lh KeptemlK-r). The Fni.cli 
reu uiucd in losses^ion of the field, but of noti.iug else. A week after, N. enter* d 
Woscow, hoping to find r«>t for a time in the ancient metropolis of the country. 
But the city wrs diserted by itsinliahitants; and on Ihe 16th a fire hrokeout, whJeU 
iag< d till the l»th, and left Moscow a heap of ruins. After five weeks' stay, N. wis 
obligtd to coimnence liiy retcettt (l»ih October). His army was i educed to IXO.WO 
men. The \vinter ^t in much earlier than usual, and lie had to retain thiough tlio 
v< ry dif^tricts wliich liad been wasted on his advance. Wlieii he left Smolensk (Uili 
>ioveinbtr), ho had only 40.C00fi<:i)lii.^-men ; vhen heirofStd the Berezina i2<iih 
and 27ili JJovemher), he had not more than 25.000. With the excuse— which wat» in 
itself no d ul>t tim — that lii» presence wts urgently needed in France, he now 
abfliidoDcd the mimrable ren ains of his anny ; ami, on the fiiii of December, letix- 
ing Mural iu couiinand, set out in a sledge for Paris, w here he aiTived on the ISih of 
the same mouth. Be inftanily Bit about a fresh conscription; and in tint 
spring of 1813 marched into Germany at tlie head of 360.060 men ; hut the Rnsr'ljiii 
canipuign had broken the hpell of tenor which his name had till llieii 
«x<rci8ed. The spirit of all Euroiie was thoroughly roused. A convictltiU wab — 
somewhat nnconii'ciously — seizing ev<iy n ind (at the close of the campaiizn 
of 1S14, even France shared it), that the world had bad **enongh of Bonn* 
parte" (OMsez de Bonaparte). Pru^sia, in particular, was burning to wi|>e out 
the disgnice of Jena, and all the bitter humiliations to which she had Ik* n 
snl)seqaeiitly subjected. The >ictorie8 of the British in Spain, the fame of 
which was spreading all over the continent, also proved to her that French 
so'dicrs cotUd be beaten, not once or twice only, bnt throngli whole c-mpaigns. An 
:iil auce wasfonnt d between the king of Prussia and theBuiperor Alexaider. At 
first, Austria remained neutral, but afterwards she joined the coalition. N.'s mi.i- 
txiry geiiins. It has l>een often remarked, never shewed to greater advantage than in 
this and the next campnign, which cost him his crown and his liberty. He was f < r 
some months successful in winning battles — at Liitzeu (2d May). Bautzen (2\>t 
M-.y), and Dresden (24th, 251 h, and 27ih August) ; bnt the invincible temper of the 
allies wiioknew that he was playing his last caid, made these victories almost fruit- 
less. They were convinced that one grand defeat would neutralise all his triumphs. 
This was inflicted, after several minor defeats,- at Leipzig — the great Battle of Saiions^ 
na it has been called (16th, ISth, aud 19ih Octoiier). The result juftified their ex- 

i>ectations — ^N. was hopehsssiy ruined ! He commeiieed his retreat towards 
''i.nsice. followed bv the allies. When he ncrossed the Rhine, he had 
only 70.000 or J«,000 men left out of his 360,000. All the F»-ench gan-isons 
in tlie Prussian towns were compelled to {surrender. N. appeared at 
i^.n* 9th Novemlier; aud though great discontent prevailed in the country, 
ai'd a spirit of op|)osiiiou shewed ilsTlf even in the legislative body, the senate 
decreed, flt IiIh bidding, another conscription of 300,000 men, with which N. began, 
in January 1814, lo attempt. lo drive the allies out of France. The skill and enerjry 
which lie displayed were extraordinary; but they only marked the intensity of his 
dsptilr. On the 30th of March, the allied forneB captured, after a severe engage- 
ueiit, the lortiflcatious of Paris j next day, the. Emperor Alexander and the king or 

^' ^' ^* ^ D git zed by GoOglC 

Napoleon qf* 

Narbonne *^^' 

Prnssia entered the city amid the ahmtts of the popidctee ; on the 4th of April. N. ab- 
dicated at Fontiiiiieblean. He was allowed to retain the title of einpen)r, with the 
sovereigDty of the ishiud of Elba, and an income of 6,000,000 f nines, to be paid by 
the French government. A Britii^li ship conveyed him to Elba, where he arrived on 
tlte 4th of May. 

After a lapse of ten months most of which wa? spent in intrigncs, N. made his 
e$tcape from ihe island, landc^d near Frcjus ou the 1st of March. 1815, and appe^iled 
again to France. The army wont over to him in a body, and several of his marshals, 
hut the majority remained fail hfal to Lonis XVIIL On thu 20th of March, he reiJcUed 
PaMs, reassiimed thesnpreme power, promisitd a liiieral consfitntion, and prepared 
once more to try the fortune of batile witti the allies. At tlic head of 125,000 men, 
h« marched (15th June) towards Charleroi, on the Flemish frontier, wliere the Eng- 
lish and Prussian forces were assembliuor. Tlie Duke of Wellington^ who, the year 
before, had completed the deliverance ot Spain, was appointed by tlie Congi-ess ot 
Vienna commander-in-chief of the armies ot theNetlv-rlunds. 'J be campaign lasted 
only a few days. On the 16th, N. dofeattd the Prussians, under Marshal Bluchei^ at 
Ligny, which compelled WeHmgton to fa;ll back on Waterloo, where, on the 18th, 
■was fought the most memorable and decisive battle of modem times. It resulted in 
the utter and irretrievnble ruin of Nnpoleon. The despot, who knew what awaited 
him — ^for Pnince had not recalled him from Elbti ; became at the desirt; of a faction, 
whose iutere.'ts were ideiitictil with his — ritamed to Paris. The House of Repre- 
ftt^ntatives fiercely" insinted ou his abdication. He did so (22d June) in favor of his 
son. Napoleon II. ; they further denninded that he should leave the country for ever, 
and ho retired to Uochefort, with the design of embarking for the United States. 
On the Tth July, the allies again entered Paris, and refused to acknowliidge the aicts 
of the French provisional government N., who saw that he could not escape either 
by sea or land, voluntarily siirrendere<i (15th July) to Captain Malt laud of the BelU- 
rophofiy clrtiraing the protection of British laws! It was, however, resolved by the 
British government to confine him for lifts on the islet of St Hel -na, a lonely roek 
in the Southern Atlantic, 1000 nnles from the coast of Africa. He was conveyed 
thither by Admiral Cockburn. and landed at St Helena, 16th October, 1815. Tlie re- 
mainder of his life was no iticidly insignificant. His clironic quarrels with hl:» gov- 
ernor— or jat7«r, as the French prefer it— Sir Hnd-on Lowe; his conversations with 
frltMids and visitors about his past career ; his deliberate attempts lo falsify history 
in his writinjis, are familiar to every one. After njore than a yepr of bad health, be 
expired, 5th M.iy, 1821. Ho was buried with milijary honors. In 18i0, his reuiahus 
were removed to France, and deposited in the HStel des Invalidcs. 

NAPOL^fiON II., son of Napol6oii Bonaparte. See Keichstadt, Duke of. 

KAFOL&ON III., nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. See Louis Napoleon. 

NAPOLfiON, or in full, Niipolfeon Jost-ph Charles Paul Bonaparte, is the son of 
Jemme, King of WestphUia, and >ya8 born at Trieste, in 1822. When the insurrec- 
tion broke out in the Romagna in 1831, he was staying in Rome with his gnmd- 
inother, Madame lietitia Bonaparte, but wns forced to leave the city for Florence on 
account of his cousins (.^ee Louis Napoleon) being injpHcaiedin thercvolutioniuy 
(lisrurbaiices. He was educated at a boarding-school in Geneva, and at the Military 
School of Ludwigsburg, in Wfirterabcrg, completing his stndie-* in 1840, after which 
he travelled for five years in Germany, England, and Spain. In 1845. he obtJiined 
permission to visit Paris under the name of the Comte de Monlfort; but his relations 
with the democratic party, and his advanced politiciil opinions, rendered him sus- 
pvtcted by the goveminent, who ordered him to quit the country. He, however, again 
made his apjM»m*ance on the eve of the n^volution of February 1848. After the fall 
of i^nis-Phiiippe, he offered hia services to the provisional govennnent, and was 
: electetl by the Corsicans a meml>er of the Constituent Assembly, where he 
■ voted with the moderate republicans. He held for a short time, in 1849. the 
office of miuister-plenipoientiary at Madrid. After the cwip delate he withdrew 
into privare life; but on tlie restoration of the Empire he reapiM'si'cd 
to share in the honors that now fell thickty on his family. Bv a 
decree of the senat.*;, 28d Decemher 185,H, he was pronounced a French prince, 
with the right to a place in the Senate and the Council of State; at the same 
time, he received the insignia of the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, and 

y Google 

0^ Napoleon 

^« ^ . Narbonae 

^tbongh he had not served— the rank of General of DiTision. In the Crimenii war, 
he coinmnuded adivisiou of infuiiiry-reserveB at the buttles of Almn and Iiiker- 
niaiiu, but 8<>on after returned to France, on the plea of ill-henlth. N. was Prfsl- 
dcut of the Imperial Commission of the Paris Exhibition \u 1865. In 1868. iie was 
appointed bend of tiie ministry for Algiers and tl»o colonies, bnl held the office only 
for a short time. Diu-ing the same year lie married the Princess ClotiUle, daughter 
of Victor Emmanuel, and in the Italian war of lBb9, commanded tlie Frvuch army 
of reserve in the south of Italy, but was not engaged in actual hostility. In 1861, 
iie made a speech in the senate, reflecting ou the Orleaus family, for which he was 
challenged by the Dae d'Anmale. 'J'he challenge was i»ol accepted, much to tl>c 
dif^ast of the French anny. N. was President of the French Commission at the 
London Exhibition of 1862. In 1866, he was appointed president of the commis- 
sioners for the Paris Exhibition of 1867, bat resigned this post and the vice-presi- 
dentsiiip of tiie privy council owing to a reprimand from the emperor auout a 
speech. Afterwards, however, be was inlrnst<d with many delicate miitsions, and 
ni^ed the emperor to a Mberai policy. He Iwd no command in the late war. In 
1876, he was i-eturued to tlfe French Assembly for Corsica; bat in the election of 
18T7 was n-jected. 

NAFOLEON-VENDfiB, Bonrbon- Vendue, or La Roche Snr Yon, a town of 
France, the capital of the dep. of Vendue, pleasantly situated on a hill on the right 
bank of the Yon, 37 miles south frtan Nantes. The town has no manufactures, and 
little trade, bnt derives its importance chj^fly from Ms being the seat of depart- 
mental administration. The town contained only 800 intiabitants when Niii)ol«H)n 
I. select efl it for fhe capital of the department, granted great sums for its improve- 
ment, and called It Na}>oleon-Vendie, changed to Botirbon^Veiulie ai the restoration 
of tiie Bonrboi:S, the former name coming again into use under Napoleon IIL It 
ie now known as La Roche mr Yon, Pop. (1872) 7110. 

NARAKA Is the hell of the Hindus. Manu (q. v.) enumerates twenty-one hells 
or divisions of N., and gives a general description of the tortures which await the 
imptons there. The Pur&n'as, however^ are more systematic. The Vislm'u-I'ui'ftn'a, 
for instance, not only names twenty-eight such hells, but dli«tinctly asfigns eacli t»f 
tliem to a particular class of sinners. Thus, a man who 1)ear8 false witness is 
condemned to the hell Raurava (i. e.,Feaifnl) ; the mniderer of a Bi&hnuin, stealer 
of gold, or drinker of wine, goes to the hell S'idkara (L e.. Swine), &c. Besides these 
tweuty-eiglit whi« h the Pur&n'a knows hy name, we are told of " hundreds and 
thousands of others in which sinners \my the penalty of their crimes." 

NARBONNE, a town in the sooth of France, in the department of Aade, 65 
miles soutli-west of Moutpellicr, on a branch (La Robine) of the Canal du Midi. It 
is tlie Narbo MarUw* of the Itomans; bnt there is reason to believe that it was well 
known to the Greeks 600 years before the Christian era. It was colonist d by the 
Romans 118 B.O., and probably got the dehignation Martius from Q. Marcius I^ x, 
one of the consols at the time. Situated only about 8 miles from the sea. on the 
direct road into Spain and into the liasln of the Garonne, N. was in early linuiS a 

SUice of great commercial prosjierity. It was the second settJemeut founded in 
ontb Gallia by theRonwus, and was considered by theih an important acquisiilon, 
both for its strength and as the key to the road into Spnin. Under Tilwrius, it flour- 
ishi d j^reatly ; the arts and sciences l)eing cultivated with success, and its schools 
rivalling for a long time those of liome. About 80i^ A.D., it l)ecanie the capital of 
Gallia Narbonensfs, and contained among other buildings a capitol, theatre, forum, 
fcquedut ts, triumphal arches, &c It was taken in 719 by the Sarncens, wIk) plantt d 
here a Moslem colony, and de^troyed the churches. In 869, it fell to the jirms of 
the Northmen. During the 11th and 12th centuries, it was a flourishing manufac- 
turing city, bnt subsequently it fell into compamtive decav, and is now entirely des- 
titute of any monnnunt of Its former splendor. A considerable number of archi- 

tectural fragments— as capitals, marble slabs with inscriptions^ friezes, Ac.— liave 
l)een found, and have been grouped into a collection of aniiquities. 

• • - *^ • - • -^ • ^'- — T Cathedral of g^ 

best in Franc< 
3nt. Pop. (18I< 

y Google 

ITie present very dirty town contidns one imposing building, the Cathedral of St 
Jnst, founded in 1271, but still unfinished. The honey of N. is the best in France, 
both for color and flavor. Mauulactures are carried ou to some extent. Pop. (18 i 6) 

NarciMiM QQ 

Nar»M *^0 

NARCI'SSUS, accordiDi; to a Greek fable, was the son of tlie river pod Cep- 
bi9«*u8 aud of tlie nymph Liriope or Lirioest^u o( The^pise, in Bceotia. Ue wus a 
youth of extraordiuary oeanty. of which ho was excewively vuiii ; aud for ibis he 
\va» paiiished by Nemeais, by being made to fail in lov« with himself on BtivUig tiie 
reflection of hia own face in a fountaiu. He died of ihiH love-fickneBs ; and on the 
place wliere he died, aitrun^ up tbe flower which betira his uame. The atory of N., 
finely narrated by Ovid* ia of comparatively late origin. 

NARCISSUS, a gcnnn of plants of tbe natoral order AmaryUidem, having n peri- 
anth of Hix equal petaUlike segments, and a IhjII shnpt'd corona of vurioas Tuagiii- 
ludo. 'Vhii species are natives of tlie south of Euro|ie, the ttortli of Africa, and tlie 
ti-mperate parts of Asia. ITie Comniuu Daffodil (q. v.) Is tiie only ono whifh c«i« 
be regarded u« truly a native of Britain. Many are cultivated in eardens, for tliu 
sake of their beantifal and often fragrant flowers, which in general appear early in 
tne Sfas<^on. Some of them are known b^ tins names of Daffodil (q. v.) aud Jonqnil 
(q. v.). The name N. is pounlarly restricted to those whicli have flat— not msh-like 
— leaves, and a short not bell-shaped coromu Of these, one of the lie^t known is 
the Poet's N. {N. poetums)^ with generally one-flowered sciipe, the flower white an<4 
fragrant, the corona witli a deeply-colored border; olhers, with one or two flowei-^ 
on the 8cai)e, are in coininou cultivation. — The Polyanthus Narcissus (N. T€ueUa) 
lias a unmber of flowers on the scape. It grows wild in stony places uiai* thu 
Mediterranean and eastwards to Chiinu Many varieties of it are in cultivation. It is 
not only grown in gardens and green-houses, but in water-glai^ses, like thehyncintli. 
It is very common in fi;ardens in India, Vhere it is higlily esteemed as a flower. 
The narcissi in general are propagated either by seed, or by offset bulbs. They 
succeed best in a rich light sou. 

NARCCTIOS (Qr. narki, stupor) are remedies which, in moderate doses, lessen 
the action of the nervous system. Their full operation is sleep or coma. Opium is 
the type from which most aescriptions of this class of medicines have been drawn ; 
but although most narcotics more or less resemble opium in their action, almost 
every one presents some pecnliurlly in the way in which it affect}< the system. 
These medicines are primarily stimulating, especially wheu given in praall or moUer-i 
ate doses ; but this stage of their action is comparatively short ; and when the dose 
is large, the excitement is scarcely perceptible. Their power of inducing sleep has 
procured for them the names of Hypnotics and Soporifics; while many of theiu are 
termed Anodynes, from their possessing the property of alleviating pain. Next to 
opium, Henbane, Indian Hump, and Aconite may be regarded as the^noat import- 
ant narcotics. It has been already mentioned that there are differences in the mode 
of operation of the ditferent members of this class. *' Some dilate, while others 
contract the pupil ; some appear to coucv^ntnite their sedative action more partLcn- 
larly upon the functions of the encephalou, others upon the con tractile power of the 
alimentary and bronchial tubes, while a strict distinction is to l)e drawn between 
those wtiich occasion constipation aud those which do not; all these tliin^rs being of 
great practical importance. Ballard aud Ganod's ^* Elements of Materia Medica," 
p. 18. 

Narcotics are usually administered either with the view of inducing sleep or of 
alleviating pain or spasm. As, however, their action is much modified by a variety 
of circumstances— such as age, idiosyncrasy, and prolonged use— they e>hould l»e 
administered with extreme caution ; and as a general rule, only under com|»eteiit 
advice. The various quack medicines for children which are known as Cofmina- 
tives. Soothing Si/rupg, &c., contain some form of opium, and are a fertile caus« of 
the great mortality tliat occurs in early life, especially among the poorer classi-s. 

It is almost uuueceasary to add, that all the narcotics when taken in exces are 

NA'RCOTINE (C48njBNOi4-|-2Aq) is one of the organic bases or alkaloids oc- 
curringju opium, in whic.i it usually exists in the proportion of 6 or 8 |>er cent . 
It is nearly insoluble in water, but dissolves readily in alcohol, eiher, and chloroform. 
Its ethereal solution, when submitted to spontaneous evaporation, yields it ci-ystitl- 
Used in col(frluss acicular groups or in rhombic prisms. A mixtur«;of concentrated 
sulphuric and nitric acids produces a blood- red color with narcotine and its com- 
pounds. Narcotine possesses very sli«rht alkaline pi-oiierties ; its salts do not roiulily 
crystallise, aud are even more bilier Ihaii those of morphia, although the substance 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

QQ Nardsfiui 

^^ . Narsos 

Itffelf 1« almoAt taBtelesB. When llrpt discovered ('n 1808>, it wn§ pnpncwed lo »)e the 
f»tiinulaiit principle of opium; but in reiility it poHwsKeH very lit lie lutiviiy. It 
biiB been pro6cril)ed in gnidually liicrejiwd doHes np to a pcniplc, witlioul tin- le.iht 
injury. Its snl[Aate hits be<ni ucetl In India uh a fubrttitutf for quiiiiuu; niid nearly 
800 cases of intermittent and reinitteDt fevers, treated by it witli fcuccesi<, have betu 
published by Dr O'Shan^hnessy. 


NA'RDO (anc JVerctttwi), a town of South Italy, in the province of Lecce, 8 inMes 
iu)rth-uortJi-e*i8t from Gallipoli. N. has manufacture!* of cotton good» and j^nnff, 
from cotton and tobacco ^-own in the neighbortiood. The sarroanding countiy 
abounds in olive plantiitions. Pop. about 8M0. 

NARDOO {MoTMlea quadrifida% a plant of the acotylednnons natnrni order S'aV' 
tnleiioece (q. v), the only plant of that order which i» nwjd in iiny way by man. It liua 
but recently become known to iKitanists. It is« found in Aui«traIiH, and jifford** im- 
portant supplies of food to the natives of some npions; it has also been of j^n nt 
nse to gome recent explorin^-))artie8. It grows in places Dccaslonnlly covertd with 
vrater; vej^etating whilst moisture nhounds, and then <'xhibiting abundance ol ^mii n 
clover-lilte foliage, the leavfS consisting of three lejiflcts at the top of a stalk .«oine 
inches in len^fth. When the water dries up, the remains of tiie phmts are olteu cov- 
ered with dri»d mud. It is then thjitthe spore-cases are gathered f(»r lood. Tluy 
are ovalf fl.tttene<T, about an eighth of an inch in length, hard and Iiorny, and re., 
quiring considerable force to pound tliem when dry, but heconiing soft and mncihigi- 
uous when moistened. Tlio spore-cases; pounded with their contents, are made 
into cakes like flour. 

NA'RDUS, a gonns of frrass'^s, having a simple spike, spikeleti* all on one side, 
no glumes; each spiki-let consisting; of one floret, which lias two ntilvse, tin? outer 
ending, in a long point. N. ntricta is one of the mo>-t common of British grasses, 
growing in diy elevated situations, and very characteristic of tliem. It grnws in 
tufts, and is often i ailed Mat-grass It is |')er«*nnial, purplish, short, rigid, and very 
'U'orthluss, as almost no animal but tlte goat will eat it. 

NA'EEW, a river o^ West, Russia, an affluent of the Bug, rises in the government 
of Grodno, and flows west-south-west to tiie main stream, whicli it joins at Sieiock, 
after a courst* of 2W milTO. The witters of the N. are aooiit as jrreat in volume as 
those of the Bug. It is navigable to Tykoczin, 150 miles from it« month. 

NA'RO, a town of Sicily, in the province of Girgenti, and 14 miles east of the 
town of that ntime. It has 10,253 inhabitants, who trade in oil, wine, and sulphur. 
Numerous toml)s, medals, and other antiquities have been found here. 

NA'RSES. a celebrated statesman and general, and almost the last stay of the 
old Roman empire in It aiy. was born towards the last quarter of the 6th century. 
The place of his birth is uncertain. His parentage was obscure, and he wasproljab y 
pold as a slave in childhood, having, according to the barbarous usage of the period, 
been previously emasculated. From some menial office in the imperial lionsehol(( 
at Constantinople, he rose by Bucc«-ssive stet>9 to the post ot cubiouktHua, or private 
chaml>erhun of -the Emperor Justinian, and ultimately to that ot ke per of the 
privy purse. In thrt d:flicult art of courtiersliip, N. long maintained a pre-emi- 
nence. More remarkable, however, considering bis conditioti, was the distinction 
which he att^'iiiied in inilitaiy affa rs. Jn 583ihe w* s sent to Italy in (omiiiand ot a 
body of troops, professedly to act in c 'Heert with Belisarins (q. v ), but in reality, it 
1-* conjectured, with asi-cret commission to observe and tocon'rol that general. 
After some successes, N. having disputed with B«'lisarins, assumed an iudcpeiident 
mithority ; but his separate command was unlortunate, and he was recall* d to 
Constantinople in 539. Atter some years, how<*ver, Belisarius was re- 
callefl, andN. was appointed to the chief command in Italy. His conduct of that 
expedition extorted the admiration even of his enemies. Not having Jhe 
command of a sufficient number of transports, he marched his army alone 
the WiiOlo circuit of the shore of the Adriatic, and while thb enemy's fleet were still 
in possi'ssion of the sea, was enabled to encounter ttiem in the plain of Sentagllo, 
near Tagina, wliere, after ti desperate engagement, the Goths were totally defeated. 
and their king, Totila, slain. N. took possestsiou of Rome, and after 

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scries of sacccsses both )ii Sonthern and Northern Italy, completely eztii>- 

faished the Gothic power iii that t>eiiinsnla. Jn^tiuiaii Hppoiiitcd N. «xurch of 
taly in 663. He fixed his court at Raveaua, and continued^ till the death of Jus- 
tinian, to administer the affairs of Italy witli a vigor and ability which did much to 
stay the prot^rens of that decay which bad long infected all its social, puliticiil. aud 
military lustitatious. The ouly blot on the character of bis administration is the 
avarice with which he is chariftHl by his coutemporarles. His exactions pressed 
heavily on the exhausted reRonrces of the i)opiilution ; though their severity niav 
be in some degree palliated by liie splendor and utility of the public worlss on which 
he partly expended the public ref>onrces. On the death of Juslinianf his Hsceudeucy 
came to nn end. The Romans, ou the accession of Justin, complained to him of 
the exactions of N., and that emperor deprived him, in 666, of his oflBlce ; a pro- 
ceeding to which a special indignity was imparted nyau insulting message froiu 
the empress, that it was time for him to ^' leave arms to men, and to spin wool 
among the women of the palace." To this bitter taunt (according to Paulus Diaco- 
DUB, '*De Gest. Long." il. 6), N. replied that he woald "spin for her a thread which 
she would find it hard to unravel;" aud he is accused of secretly intriguing vtilii 
Alboin, king of the Lombards, to incite a new invasion of Italy, at tiie same time 
submissively fCer ng his services to the emperor for the purpose of repelling tlio 
Invasion. This account, however, seems uncertain, and perhaps Improbable ; and 
as N. died at Rome in 568, just on the eve of the Lombmd invasion, no light i^ 
thrown upon this story by the actual events of the w ir. His age at the time of^bis 
death is a subject of much curious controversy. According to the popular account, 
it was no less than 96 years ; hut this is doubted by mo^t or the historians. 

NA'RTHEX, a part of the early Christian churches separate froni the rest by a 
railing or screen, aud to which the catechtunens aud penitents were admitted. 

NA'RVA, a Russian town in the gov., and 95 m. w. s. w. of St Petersburg, is sit- 
uated oh tlie Narova, 10 m. trom its mouth in the Qulf of Finland. It was tound> d 
in 1^ by Waldemar II., king of Denmark^ aud came into the possession of lins- 
sia in 1704. The navigation of the Narova is im|>eded by a waterfall near N., 14 feet 
high. In 1873, 168 ships, of 18,176 lasts (I last — 1 11-14 ton), entered the port; tho 
export!), chiefly flax aud timl)er, were jC160,693 ; the iuiportt*, ^£402,340. At the water- 
fall above the town there are sawmills, and an extensive cotton-mill, which employi^ 
1700 workmen. Though belouj^ing to the government of St Petersburg, N. is ruled 
by the!awsof the Baltic provinces. Here, in November 1700, Charles XII., with 
6000 men, defeated a Russian army of 60,0UO men, under Peter the Great aud the 
Duke of Croy. Pop. (1867) 61T6. 

NARVA EZ, Don Ramon Maria, Duke of Valencia, a Spanish general and states- 
man, was born at Loja, in Andalusia. 4tli August 1806, and when very voung, served 
in the war of Liberation against the French. He was an officer in 18dO, when coi»- 
stitutional government was ro-establlshed in Spain, and in 1882, when a reactionat^ 
party of the royal guard took up arms to clesiroy the work of the revolution, N. 
ranged himself on the side of the liberals, and contributed by his courage to tlie 
repression of the mutiny. Slioitly after, under the command of MIna, he made i he 
campaign of Cataluna aj^ain^nt the guerillas, wiio were asnisted by the monkp. The 
invasion of Spain by a French army in 1828 force<l him to retire fiVnn active life. 
He withdrew to Loja, and lived there in obscurity until the death of Ferdinand VII. 
Ill 1832. In 1834, as captain of cliasseui'tf, he maintained a hot struggle against the 
Curli!:>tsof the Basque provinces, and signalised himself in various engajfementH. 
In 1836, hu'coiiuna'ided a division under the ordert* of Espanero. and in Noveinl>er 
of that year, completely routed the Carlist leader, Gomez, near Arcos. This wan u 
decisive moment in his career. He now I)ecanie immensely popular, aspired to the 
highest offices of the state, aud was regarded tw the rival of Espartero. In 1888, by 
acts of terrible severity, he cleared the dintrict of La Manclia of hrlgandf, and 
was appointed in 1840 captain-general of Old Castile, and general-in-chief of the 
army of reserve. Wh-*u Espanero cave General Alaixa plac«iiitlie ininisiry, N, 
resigne<l his command. He took part In the insurrection airainst Espartero that broke 
out at Seville in 1840, but diat having failed, he waf* coiniH'lled to lletUo Fiance, where 
hewassliortly after joined by Queen Christina (see Mabia Chbistina), and coui- 
meuced those plots against the government of Espartero which, in 1848, effected Its 

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overthrow. In 1844, he was api>oinied president of coancil, nnd created Duke of 
Valt-ncitu Hie miniptiy wjis thoroughly reactionary. He re* ailed MuHu CbriPtina, 
Uiid revised the li1>eral conBtitntion of 1837. The progressiistji party was dii*Bntifrfied. 
niid petty iusurrections broke out, which the rigoroas soldier-ptiitesman repref^cd 
wiiii au iron hand. But his dictatorial nmnners finully alienated even his personal 
friend^S «"d '^'s nuuisiry was overthrown (10th Pebroaiy 184«). After a brief exile as 
epeciui unibaSMidor at the French court, he returned to power in 1847, l)ut soon arter- 
wjirds quarrelled with Queen Christina, and found it necessary again to retire from 
office in 1861. In 1856, on the overthrow of 0*Donnell*8 niini:iitryf he again became 
president of council^ and iinniediatclyconinieuced to sirengthen tiie niyal aulhority, 
and to restrict the liberty of the press. The intrigues cf the court con.pelled his 
nsigna'iou iu 1857. He returned to power in 1864, nnd (1866) was succeeded by 
O'Doiujell, with whom he suppressed, in 1866, a military revolt in Madrid. He re- 
placi d O'Donuell in the same year, and, despite the efforts of O'Douuell and Prim, 
retained power till his death in 1868. 

NA'h WHAL {Monodon or NdrtDhalU8). a geaius of Cetacea. of the family Delphi' 
nidcBj resembling Beluga (q. v.) iu form and iu the want of a dorwil fin. bui remark- 
aJ>ly cluiracterised by having no teeth at all, exca|>t two In the upner jaw, supiHisi'd 
to be canines, which sometimes remain quite rudimentary, even in the nniture animal, 
as they are in the young, and are sometimes developed into great spirally twisted 
straight tn^ks, passing through the upper lip, nnd projecting like horns in front. 
Only one species is ascertaiiied, M. nionoceros or JV. vulgaris; the other spoeicp whi<h 
have iHjen described by naturalists liavingbeen founded on exaggerations and un- 
trustworthy observations. It inhabits the Arctic seas, nnd is very rnrely found so 
far south as the Shetland Isles, although an accidental wanderer has reached the 
const of En<;land. Narwhals arc often seen in great numbers among the ice-fields, 
and in the creeks and bays of the most jiortiiem coasts. They commonly associate 
in snnill herds. The tUfks arc much more frequently developed in the male than in 
tlie female, but in the female also tliey sometimes attain a large size. It is but rarely 
that both tusks are largely developed, all hough they sometimes are so, and then 
diverge a little; one of them gem rally continues rudimentary, or attains a lenptli 
lOily of a few Indies, whilst the other becomes u great horn, projecting 
striljrijt in front, from which the animal has received the name of Sea 
Unicorn. A mature N. is generally about fifieon or sixteen feet in length, 
without reckoning the tusk, which is from 6 to 10 feet long. The body is less thick 
tb-m that of the Belujra; the head is small, the forehead rl^*es abrnpily. the muzzle 
ix veiT obtuse, the upp<^r jaw proj''Cts a little; the first half of the body is nearly 
cylindrical, the remainder to the tiil fin is conical. The tusk is hollow nearly to the 
point. Its use is rather conjectnred than kuo\n>. It is prolwbly a weapon of de- 
fence, but Seoresby hiis ^ugge8ted that it may be also used for breaking thin ice in 
order to obtain opportunity for respiraiion; and for killing fish, as be found re- 
mains of skates and other flat-fish in the stomach of a N., which it is not easy to 
imagine how a toothless animal, with rather small month and lips, could capture and 
swallow, unless the formidable tusk were first employed. Cephalopodous molluscs, 
howev»!r, are believed to constitute a principal part of the food of narwhals. The N. 
is a very active animal, swimminjr with great rapidity, lively, nnd playful. A group 
of narwhals playing together, proj-cting their great horns from the sea, nnd cross- 
ing them in their sport, is h very interesiing sight The N. is pursued by the Green- 
landers and otiier inliabittmtsof the north, for the sake of its blubber, with which its 
whole 1)ody is invested to the thickness of nbont three inches, ainounthig to iienrly 
half a ton in weight, nnd yielding a large proportion of excellent oil. The tuskf are 
also valuable, being of an extremely compact white substance— denser, harder, and 
winter than ivory — which is used as a substitute lor ivory. The jiings of Dennmrk. 
have long possessed a magnificent throne of this material, wliicli is preserved in the 
Cattle oi* Rosenberg. The flesh of the N. is used by the Greenlanders as food. 
Great medicimd virtues were formerly ascribed to the tusks ; but were merely im- 

NASA'LIS, or Proboscis Mrmkey (Nasalia larvatus)^ a monkey allied to tlie Doitea 
or Semnopitheci, but distingnished from all other monkeys by an extreme elongation 
of uose, that organ being nearly foui' inches iu length iu the mature animal. In thf 

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yonng. the nose ifl comparatively nndeveloped. The nostrils are placed quite at the 
extremity of the nose, aud are separated merely by a thin cartilusre. Of what n^e the 
magnitude of ita nose is to thenuimul, is niiknowii. The N. iuhabiis Borneo and 
neighboring inlands. It is gregarious. It Is au uuiinal of about tliree fuel in iieight, 
if placed erect, a position it dues not ofteu assume. It can leap ilfttieu feet or mure. 
Its fur is thick, uot long, uor woolly ; chestuat red, aud in soiue parts goldeu yellow. 

NA'SCENT STATE, in Chemistry. When an element or compound is liberated 
from 80ino chemical coinbinatiou in which it had previously existed, the element or 
compound so liberated is at the moment when it escapes pnid to be in a nascent 
Btite; and it is then often capable of exerting far more powerful combining action 
with other bodies than it can exhibit when brou^t in contact with them after it has 
be^jn liberated. Arsenic ami hydrogen will not directly combine if brought in con- 
tact With one another under ordinary circumstances, but the application of Marsh's 
test (see Absxnio) depends upon the direct union of the nai*ccut hydrogeu (liberated 
by the decompositiou of the water) with the arsenic, giving rise to arseniuretted hy- 
drogen gas. Again, if hyd rated protoxide of nickel (NiO, HO) be suspended in a 
BoUition of caustic potash (KO,HO), it will undergo no change if a current uf oxy- 
Ken gas be parsed througli the solution ; but if a current of chlorine be substituted 
for the oxygen, the whole of the metallic protoxide will be converted into the browu 
Besqnloxide (Ni^Ot), the resultinij decomposition being shewn in equation : 

ide of Chloride of 
Nlcki;!. Potassium. 

Protoxide of Solution of 
Nickel Putash. 

2(Ni0,H0r+^K0^H0'-|- C\ ='N5aO,.8HO'+'KCL' 

This change arises from the action of the chlorine upon the potash, during which 
cliloride of potassium (KOI) it* formed, while the nascent oxygen which is lilM^mted 
from the potash combines with the oxide of nickel. Again, cyanogen (C-N) and 
clilorine do not enter directly into combination, but if cyanogen at the insfcuit that 
it is liberated from one of its compounds (as, for example, cyaindo of mercury) com«*a 
in contact with chlorine, the two combine ; and many other examples of similar ac- 
tion might be adduced. 

NA'SEBY, a parish and village of England, in the county of Northampton. 12 
miles north of the town of that name. Pep. (ISH) 693. The battle of N., between 
Charles I. and the parliamentary army under Fairfax and Cromwell, took place 
bei-e, June 14, 1645. It resulted in the total defeat of the royalists, the king being 
compelled to flee, after losing bis cannon aud baggage, and nearly 6006 of his army 
as prisoners. 

NASH, Richard, better known by the name of Beau NanJi, a faphionable rliar- 
actw of the last century, who attained to a very remarkable notoriety, was the son 
of a Welsh gentleman, and was l)orn at Swansea, in GIamorgan«hire, October 18, 
1674. After studying at Oxford, he held for some time a commission in the armv, 
and subsequently took rooms in the Temple, but the dissipations of pocjety had 
more altractioiirt for him than the pursuits of law. He beeame a di- er-ont. a fre- 
quenter of good society, and contriv«>d to support himself bv gambling. But the 
grand turning-point in his fortunes was his visit, in 1704, to Bath— then a favorite 
Iwinnt of elegant invalids, and the scene of the gavest intrigues. N. undertook the 
management of the public balls, which he condncted with a splendor and decency 
never before witnessed. In this way he came t-o acquire an imp-rial influence in 
the fasldonable society of the place. It appears that he wns also distingui!>hed by a 
Bjiecies of sentimental benevolence. He played hard and successfully ; yet if he heat-d 
an individual sighing behind his chair: **Good Heavens! how happy wonid that 
money make me," N. would thmst his own winning!* into his hands, with tbeatrical 
generosity, and exclaim: *'Qo, and be happy." His own equipage at this periokl 
of his career was sumptuous. He u«ed, we are told, to travel to Tunbridee iu a 
post-chariot and six grays, with outriders, footmen, French-horns, and every other 
ppendage of expensive parade. He is prais<'d for the great care which he to<'k «»f 
9 moralts of the young ladies who attended tbe Bath balls, always^ ^ttipg them 

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on their gnard ngnlnst needy odventnrers— like himself. In his old age, Beau N. 
8auk iuto poverty, and often felt tlie want of th:it charity which he himsi'If had 
never refused. He died at Batli, February 3, 1761, ai the age of 87. 

NASH, John, an architect, was honi in London in 1752. He underwent the 
usual course of training for his profession, but soou entered into some building 
speculations which enaolfd liiin to buy a small propertv in Caerniartlien. Here in 
fresh sjMiCulaiions Ije lost much money; tlierefon?, in 17M, returned to London and 
architi'Cture, in which he speedily rose to enduence. On the str^-uglh of hnviug 
obtained a patent hi 1797 for improvements in the coustrnctiou of the arches and 
piers of l)ridges, he whs in the habit of claiming a great part of the credit of intro- 
ducing the u«e of cast-Iron girders. A lai-ge part of his time was occupied in d«- 
signing and coustnicting mauslou-houfres for the nobility and gentry in England 
aiid Ireland, bnt he IschTeflv celebrated in connection witli tlie great street improve- 
menis in London. From Fubruary 1816, when l»e was appointed ** architt^ct, valuer, 
iiud agent to the Board of Woods and Forests," down till near the end of bis pro- 
ft»f ional career, he was bui«ily engaged in the planning of routes, grouping of 
buildings, and fixing of sites. Regent Street, Hayniarket Tlieatre, Langham Plnce 
Church, and the terraces in Reg«nt*s Park, are specimens of his designs. The 
Pavili«m at Brighton wan another of his works. He retired from his profession iu 
1834, and died May 13, 1835. N., not witlist a tiding his many defects, i>otse>sed great 
power of effective grouping, as is well shewn in his works. In the architecture of 
mausion-bouses, the desijiuing of ** interioi-s " was his /ort<. 

NA'SHUA, a rannufncturing city of New Hampshire, U. S.. at the junction of 
the Merriniac and Nashun Rivers. The falls of the fatter afford water-power to six 
large manufacturing companies, which have extensive cotloi -mills, innchine-shope, 
Ac- It has ten churches, 8 Imnks, 2 newspapers. Pop. (1870) 10,648. 

NA'SnVILLE. a city, port of entry, and capital of Tennessee, U. S., on the Cum- 
berhmd Riv -r, 200 miles above the Ohio, avd a little north of the centre of the slate. 
The river is navigable by steara-1>oats oi 1500 tjns fifty miles above Nashville. Five 
railways connect It with a vast and fertile conntry. It is a handsome, well-built 
city, with a state-house, which cost a million of dollars ; conrt-lionse, 3 niiivcrsities, 
hospital, cnstom-honse, theatre, penitentiary, free academy, Protestant and Catholic 
orj>haii asylums, 34 chnrche:-', with numerous daily, weekly, and monthly pnblica- 
tions. It has a lai-ge commerce, flonr, saw, and phming iiiillp, a large cotton factory 
(with 400 looms and 13.640spindle8 in 18'5). inannfaeto'les of engines and machinery, 
&c. The vjiln« of the wholesale trade in 1873 was 61.261,670 dollars. Near the ci^ 
lire the. State Lnnitic Asylnuh and the *' Hermitsige," once the residence of Presi- 
dent Jiukson. N. was occupied by the Federal troops In 1862, and here the Federal 
General Thomas gained a victory over General Hood. Pop. In 1870, 26,866. 

NA'SSAU, formerly a German duchy, now Wiesb.iden, a district of the Prussian 
province of Hesse-Nussau, In 49° 50'— 50° 60' n. lat, and 7<^ 80'— 8° 45'e. long., is bound' d 
w.and s. by the Main and the Rhine, the Pmssiau-Rhenish provinces, and the grand- 
duchy of Hesse; e. by the Hesse and Frankfort territories; and n. by Westpha- 
lia. Area, 1802 square miles. Pop. (1876) 680,215. Wiesbaden |)0S8'6se8 very great 
physica advantages. In its sontheiii districts, lu arly the whole of its area is occu- 
pi«rt by the Tnnnus Mountains, whose highest point, the Great Feldl)erg, attains an 
elevation of about 276 ) feet. This range includcrs witliln its boundaries the fertile 
valleys known as the Rhelngau. The northern part of the district includes the bar- 
ren riigblands of the Westerwald, whose iiiOist (onsidenible p<>ak, the Salzburger 
Head, is iiearly 2000 feet high. Besides the Rhine and tiie Main, which are the 
bonndary-rivers, Wiesbaden is traversed from enst. to west by the Lahn, which be- 
comes navigable at Wielbure, and Is augmented by the confluence of nuinerous 
other streams, as the Weil, Einbs, Aar, Dill, and Elbe. The pix)dnctiveness of the 
Boll Is proved by the excellent quality of the numerous vegetable |irodncts, which 
iuclndecom, hemp, flax, tobacco, v^etables, and fruits, incln(linggnipes, which yield 
f«ome of the most highly esteemed Rhenish wines. The hills nre well woode<l. and 
abound with game of various kinds, and the rivers yield an alMindance of fish and 
crustnccius. In the more mountainous districts, iron. lead. cop|)er, an<l some silver 
are obtained, together with good bnilding-stone, marble, and coal; ti»e chief niineral 
•wealth is, however, derived from the numerous springs, whicli, directly and iudirea- 

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ly, bring the government it clear annanl gain of more than 100,000 gnlden. The 
ino:«t iiotoil of tiiese t>priiij£8f of which there nre more than 100, are Wieinjadcu, W*dl- 
bncli, Luiigen-Scliwalbach, 8chlani;eiibad, Eiua, Selterd, and Qeiluao, the majority 
of which were ihe nro|Mjrty of tl»e diike. 

\Vle.*baden, which l« divided into 12 circles, has few towns of any commcrcinl 
import ince, but it boat^ls uf mnny fastiioutible wateriuir-places, which are unnuaily 
cix)\vdrd witli vinltora from every pm t of the world. Of these, the mort consider- 
able t>ri! VViosbadeu (q. v.), Mie capital of the district— pop. (1876) 43,6T4— Sclm'.-il- 
bacU, Schlani^enbad, Fachiu^eu, Seltei*s, and Geiinan. UOclist, au active little placo 
on tiie M:unt is the only manutucturing town of the duchy, but a brifk trade is 
carried on ut many small ports on tlie llhine, Main, and Lahn, from whence Mie wtiters, wines, and other nataral products of tiie country are exported. Tim 
exports Ant wine — including some of the clioicest kinds, as Ilochheimer, Joliannleu 
berg«*r, Rudeaheimer, Markobrnnner, Asmannsh&nser— iniuend waters, com, Iron, 
nuuigiinese, cattle, &c : while the imports embrace colonial products, manufactured 
goods*, Mill, jfwellery, Ac. 

N. Iiad a representative form of government, based on the constitution of 1814; 
and the duice, who was also a Connt-Palatiue of the Rhino, Ck>uui of Sayn, Kuiii^- 
stein, Kalxonelienbogeu, and Dictz, Ac., was assisted in tlie government by acounc.t 
of Slat*.', presldeil over l»y a prime-minister. The legislative assembly consisted of 
an npjHjr chamt)er, com|)Osed of 24 representatives, chosen for fix years, and ii 
second chamber, chosen annually. More than one-third of tint population belon^t-d 
to the Catholic Chutch, which was nnder the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishop 
of Limburg, who was assisted by a bo.ird of commissioners, locvted at Eltvillf, on 
tite Rhine; and excepting about 19,000 persons who lKlont;cd to the Jewish uud 
other per»«uasion!», the remaiudcr of the people, including t!ic tlien reigning house, 
profei*si'd the "evangelical" form of ^jrman Protestantism, and were con.pre- 
Iiended in one episcopal see under the bishop of Wi sbaden. Ample provisions 
were nnide in the district for popular education, in furtherance of which there were 
upwards of 700 elementary schools, wiih about 1000 teachers, 10 normal schools, a 
Kymnasinm, various trtduing, theological, polytechnic, military, and other educa- 
tional iusiitulions. In accordance with a treaty with Hanover, GOttingen con- 
stitutes the university for art's! fur Wiesbaden, which has also a Rtmnin Catholic 
theological faculty in conjunction with Hesse-Cassel at the university of Marburg. 
Wiesbaden, which is the principal seat for all national institutions of literature, 
science, and houevolunce, h:is a good public library, containing 60,000 volumes, a 
mysenin, &c, 

N. occupied, In conjunction with Brunswick, the thirteenth place In the limited 
council of the diet, but it had two votes in thoplenum^ or full coiinciL Itfurnis«h' d 
a c )ntingent of 4279, with a reserve of 1833 men, to the army of the old confeder- 

The receipts, according to the budget of 1866, were 4,461,410 florins derived fram 
the crown domains and indirect taxes, and 317,935 florins from direct taxation, 
while the expenditure was estimated at 6.804,975 florins. The national debt it thu 
close of 1844, represented a capital of 6.088,300 florins. The duke, who was in pos- 
8e:>siou of very extensive domains, ranked as one of the richest princes of Ger- 

In tracing the history of N. to its earliest origin, we find that the districts now 
known by that name were anciently occupied by the Alenianui, and on the suhjugn- 
tiou of the latter people by the Franks, became incorporated first with thePranldsh, 
and next with the German empire. Among the various chiefs who raised themselvt-a 
to independent power in this |>ortion of ttie Frankish territories, one of the modt 
influv.ntial was Olio of Lanrenburg. brother of King Conrad I., who l»ec4ime the 
founder of two distinct lines of prlnc(^. The heads of these lines were Walram 
and Otto, the sous of Count Henry I., who, in 1255, divided the land between them. 
Walvani II., the elder, was the progenitor of the house of Lanrenburg, which, to- 
wards the close of the 12lh c , assumed its present name of N. from the name of its 
chief stronghold ; while Otto, the younger, by his marriage with tlie heiress of G Id- 
crn, founded the Hue of Nassau-Gelders, whose la!»t male representative died in 
1423, but which still surviv^'S through a female branch, in the family now occupyin|r 
the thi-onc of the Nutherlunds. This junior branch of the house ot Nassau, by 

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Inberifance fro.m a collateral rcprwtMitatlve, ncqnired po^aeBsion, in 1644. of the 
principality of Orauge;. and siuce that ix^riod. the repre^eiitniivea of the Otto line 
I'.ave been known hs Princes of Ornuge (q. v.)- The Walrain line, which iu liW 
tave an emperor to €K'nnaDy, in the person of Adolf of N., wan aniKlivided hy the 
deecendants of that prince into several branchep, until, by the pnccowive extinction 
of the otlier lines, I he Nat«8Ha-Wei)hnrg fmni'iy, which at present reigne over tlie 
dnclty, was left, in 1816, the cole heir and reprcf«eututlve of the Wtilrani dynai^ty in 
Gerniaiiy. N. had been declared a dncliy in 1806. and in 1817 the reigning Dnke 
\Villiam granted a new conetiiniion ; htit daring tlie flr»t sittings of the i.ssenibly, 
dissenbiouK arose between the dncal government and the representntives, thetormer 
having attempted loe^t-ahlish the pro|)OHition that the ducal domains were the un- 
coiiditional pro])erly of the royal house, and that all the cz|>eusv8 of the state would 
cojise^uenily have to be met by taxation. 

This proved a fruitfnl sonrce of dissension between the dnke and his people, and 
the opposition atid discontent to which it gave rise, were not Anally allayed (ill 1884, 
when a more liberal mioisiry, under Count Walderdorff, succeeded the unpopular 
cabinet which had hitherto directed public : ffairs. Concessions were made hy the 
duciil government, which met the requirements of the chaml)ers. and a satisfactory 
compromise was effected in regard to the crown revenues. In 1886, N. joined the 
Gennan Zoll-Verdn, and siihfeqnentlv to that jieriod, It has continued to advance 
iu material prosperity. The reiging l>uke Adolphus William, who succeeded his 
father, Duk ; William, In 1889, slicwed the same consei^itive teiideneies a»«hi8 pre- 
decessor. The revolutionary crisis of 1848 fonn<i the people, who had been har- 
ass^ed by over-government and by a jealous dread ol liberal s< ntimeiits, ripe for 
insurrection. The peasantry rose en rnoMtie in the rnral districts, ai.d revenged 
themselves for the severity of the game-laws, and other obnoxious restrictions, by 
i>crpetratiug the most wanton destruction of game and w()Od in the foresta 
belongin|^ to the crown and nobilitv. These disoracrs were speedily put dowi» by 
the aid of federal troops, bat notwithstanding the concessions made by the govern- 
ment, the relations between the people and th<lr ruler continned for many years to 
be nn.atisfaetory. For the events which led to the incorporation of Nassau with 
Prussia, see Gebmakt. 

NASSAU, the capital of New Providence, is the centre of the trade of the 
BnhnmaA (q. v.). It is pleasantly situated on the face of a hill, in lat. 26^ 5' n., long. 
71° 21' w. Pop. 9 00. The town is well laid out, has several handsome pul>iic 
buildings, and an excellent and well-shelter etl harbor. The climate is very 
Balnbrlous, and N. is a great rcFort of invalds fiom the i:orth. Ii las exti nslve 
Imtel accommodation, n lanatic asylum, and a leper-house, and is def(!nded by two 
forts. N. exi>ort8 cotton, i>imento and salt. Daring the civil war in the United 
States, it became notorious in connection with the blockade runners. 

NASSI'CK, or Nashik, a town of British India in the district of the snme nam»», 
In the presidency of Bombay, 95 miles nortli< ast ol Bon»lniy, on theriverGodavery, 
jiot far from it* sonrce. It la a town of great sacredness in the estimation of the 
Hindus — more revered than even Ben;ire8 — is a great place of pil^rinmge, the chief 
seat of Brahmanism in thcDeccan, and the r'sidence of ntany families of Brahmans, 
some of them living in great affluence. It contains many tenmles, which are built 
along both banks of tbe Godavery, ai;d on rocks in the river. They are all of black 
Imsalt, and dedicat«d to Siva. Of far greater interest, however, are the Buddhii't 
caves, about 6 miles from the town, which are situated in a conical hill at a height 
of about 100 yards from its base, 'i'liey are rudely executed. The figures which 
they contain are in a state of good preservation, and the leading figures are those of 
Buddha ; but the whole character of the remains is thonglit to indicate Buddhism in 
a state of transition or compromise with Brahmanism. One c&vv is 45 feet square, 
and its flat rooris wholly uusup{M)rted. Notwithstiiuding Hie Buddhist origin and 
character of these caves, the Brahmans of N., for the sake of gain, encourage the 
]>opahtr reverence for them. N. contains a resident pop. of (1872) 22,486. 

NASTU'RTIUM. See Cress and Tbop^bolum. 

NATA'L. The region now forming the colony of Natal derive? Its name from 
Its being discovered by the rorfigueee on Christmaa-day 149T. It wua vteited about 

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1822 by several white traders from the Capo, who found the conulry in posaession of 
the Zulu chief Chaka, who ruled in a nioHt puniruiunry manner Dver nil the tribes, 
from the Umzinicuhi to the 8t Lucia Rivt-r. He wjia kihed and sncceedfd by his 
brotht^r Din<rtuiu in 1838, but Ihe hitter having treacheront^lv ninrdered a ])arty of 
emigrant Dutch Doers, wlio Imd paid liini a friendly visit by iiivit^lion to buy land, 
lie was attacked and finally destroyed by the Boer», who at that time had cmigratfcl 
from the Cape Colony in large numbers, and who made hin brother Panda paramount 
chief in his stend, aiid then settled thenn^elves dowu iU the country as iiia lords and 
masters. The Brilis<Ii government, however, now interfered, and after a severe 
struggle on the i>art of tlie Boers, Ihe country was formally proclainied a British 
colony on the 12th May 1*43, since which time it hus progressed very Hatisfactorily. 
In 1866, it was erected into a distinct and separate colony, free from the control «>f 
the governor of the Cape. The att'Mition of our colonial office has recently b;?en called 
to the rehitious iHJtween the European and native population of N., by the case of 
Langalibalele, a Zulu chieftain, who, on slight grounds of suspicion, was treated vt?ry 
j'ummarily by Uie colonwl government, some of his people slain, and hinh«»eif ban- 
ished. Tiie colonial secret^ny informed the government of the colony tlnit their pro- 
ceedings were illegal, and in 1875 Sir Garnet Wolseley was despatched to N. as tem- 
porary governor, and passed a Reform Bill likely to secure a more satisfactory stale 
of at&irs in rtrgnrd to Ihe {K)sition of the two races. 

The w)lony of N. looks out on Ihe Indian O'-ean, being sitinited on the s.e. coast 
of Afiica, alK)ut 80'J ra. e.u.e. of the dpe of Good Hope, between the 29th and 81st 
parallels of south latitude. Its u.e. bouudary is tl>e Tupela or Buffalo River, which 
divides it from Zululand, and its s.w. boundanr is the Umzimcnlu and Umtamonn;i 
Rivers, separating it from Kaffraria proper. A lofty and rugged range of mountains 
calU^ the Quuthlamba» or Drachenberg, divides it from the Free State and Basutu- 
land, and it contains a well defined area of 20,212 square miles. 

Tliese mountains are composed of a confused nnisa of granite, gneiss, sand- 
stone, basaltic veins, and shale, and present both the fl it top and serrated Bumniiu 
of the chain, of which they are a continuation, so well known in the Cape Colony 
ns the Sneeuwberg and Stormbcrgeu. About hit. 28° 30', these mountain?* 8*em lo 
readi their culminating iK)int, and probably rtttjiin a h<;ight of 10,000 feet, forming 
a summit line of waterslnid, from whlcli fljw to all points of the compass the waters 
of the Orange, Umzimvoobo, Vaal, Tuirehv, and other large South African stre:ims. 
Towards tlie coast, these mountains present a scarped and almost inaccessible fac4* ; 
towards the interior, howev(^r, they gradually die away into the immense rolling 
plains of the Free State. Many oiBfshoots from these mountains travei-se the col- 
ony, dividing it into a series of steps (n- plateaux, gradually rising from the coast 
region to the foot of the mountains, and forming so many zones of uathral pro- 

The coast region, extending about 25 miles inland, is highlv fertile, and has a 
climate almost tropical, though perfectly healthy. Sugar, coffee, indigo, arrowroot, 
ginger, tobacco, and cotton thrive annizinirly, and the pinn-apple ripens in the open 
jdr with very little cultivation. The midland terrace is more fit for the cereals and 
usual European crops ; while on the higher plateau, along the foot of the moun- 
tains, are immense tracts of the finest pastur.sge for cattle" and sheep. 

The climate is very salubrious ; the thermometer ranges between «0o and 88°. but 
the heat, even in summer, is seldom oppressivft. The mean annmd t -mperatui-e at 
Pletermaritzburg, tlie capital. Is 64° 71'. The winter bedns in April and ends in 
September ; the average number of rainy days being 13. In the summer season the 
thunder-storms are very frequent and severe. The annual rainfall on the coast is 
a!)Our 86 mches. Inland, it varies a good deal in different' districts, and is greatest 
in summer. Tlie south-east is the prevailing wind here in the summer months, as 
in the Cape Colony. Occasionally the sirocco or hot wind from the north-west is 
felt, which generally terminates in a thunder-storm. ^ 

■N. has but one harbor on its coast, and that is D'Urban, or Port Natal, in lat, 27® 
53 . It is completely landlocked, but a bar prevents vessels above a certain tonnage 
from entering. There is, however, generally a depth f)f water on it vailing from 9» 
to 18 feet. There is secure holding ground 'in the outer anchorage. Tlie harbor of 
D'Urban is of great importance to N., .is It is the only nn<« worthy of the name on the 
south-east coast. Many extensive engineering oijeratious have 'been carried on with 

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Hiuporpose of improving the harbor and Incrfianiiig \ho depth of watpr nt tlie cntmnce. 
The principal rivers'arc the Tugvlii or Buffalo, iTie Uniioinnnz'u Dinjiaiii, und Uin- 
sinicnln ; like the inujority of Sontli African rivt-ri*, iney are of no use fur pnrpop<-s 
of inhiud uavi^utiun ; btit tlieir streunia are )>crn)aneni, and ofnn uvatni1>]e for 
irrigating purposes, thus giving N. iu one very ettsentiul point u decided superiority 
over tlie Cape Colony. ^ 

CoaU cop|)er-ort', iron, and other minerals are found In eevernl places, and tliere 
Ss no doui>t that, when the great uiountain-rauge is properly explorid, it \vill be 
found very rich iu mineral w«aith. Large forests of valuable limber abound in ti»e 
kloofs of all the monntaln-rangeH, and many tracts alone the coast are also well 
\vo<>d»'d. N. is divided into the following countries : D'Urhnn, Victoria, Alexandra, 
»ud Alfred on the const region ; Pieterniaritzburjr, Umcomanisi, and Uiaroti, central ; 
«nd Klip Kiver and Weenen at foot of the nionntains. Tlie tapiial is Pieterniaiitz- 
burg, with :ibont «800 hihabitauts, on a tributary of the Umgaui River, alwnt 60 
milvs inland. It possesses a lai^ military Establishment, and many substantial 
public buildings, its name is a compound of the Christian name of P'iefter Rietief, 
and tlie surname of Gert Maritz, two celebn»ttd leadeis of the emigrant Boers who 
were murdered by Dingaan. D'Urban, or Port Natal, is also a very flourishing 
town, having a railway connecting the lunding-place at Point Natal with tlie town, 
and a population of (1878) 627S. It has 2 newspapers, and several banks and ot Iter 
public instltntious. Verulam, Weenen, Ri<*hmond, Newcastle, and Ladysmith are 
also flourishing towns, and several other new villages have l>een recently formed. 

N. is governed by a lieutenant-governor, aided by a legislative connefl, consisting 
of thirteen members appointed by the colonial oflB«*c, and fifteen electtd by the con- 
stituencies into which the colony is divided. Municipal institutions have been 
granted to the principal towns. It forms the diocese otf a colonial bishop, and many 
stations of the Wosleyan, American, Norwegian, and Berlin missions exist. Edn- 
cadou is receiving much attention, and schools are multiplying. 

The De Beeir and Beznidenliout Passes are the only practicable roads across the 
mooDtains, and lead by very circuitoas routes across the Free State into Cape Col- 
ony ; and tlie numerous mountain streams wanting bridges reitder internal commn- 
nicjition very diflicnlt 'J hree lines of railway, of a total length of 104 miles, are in 
course of construction ; the chief to connect D'Urban with the capital. 

The principal articles of export from N. are wool, sn$rar, ivory, and hides. The 
wool exported 10 Great Britain in 1ST6 was va!ned at £614310. jmd weighed 8,828,624 
lbs. The total value of exports for the same year was je986,695. The exports com- 
prise cotton, ivory, sugar, coffee, arrowroot, wool, hides, feathers, molasses, and 
'Thinoceros horns. The value of imports iu 18T5 was XI ,268.838. Tiie revenue of the 
colony in 1875 was i;260,271. principally raised from cut-tom-duties, transfer dues, 
and taxes on native hnis, &c. In 1843, the viUne of imports was jC11,712, that of 
exports jC1261, while the revenue was only £12,000. N. productions were very 
Tesf>ectiib1y represented in the Givat Exhibition of 1862, and formed one of the most 
interesting of our colonial compartments. The population consists of Dutch Boers, 
who remamed in the country after it became a British colony ; of English and Ger- 
man settlers ; and the remains of the Zulu tribes, who originally possessed the 
country. It numbered, in 1877, 395 512. of whom 22,664 were whites. The Datives, 
. the most iiiiustrions of the EafBr races, possess hordes, cattle, sheep, &c., valued 
at jC1.600,000. and properly managed, make excellent servants. 

The total tonnage of the vessels that entered and cleared the port of N. in 1875 
was 187,227 tons, of which 121,322 were British. The discovery of diamond-fields 
on the Vaal River is an event in which the colony is deeply concerned. 

The large aninnils are gradually disappearing, althouffh elephants are still occa- 
sionally met with in the dense bush of the coast region. Lions, leopards,Volves, and 
hysenas still hang on the outskirts of civilisMtion. The smaller antelopes are plenti- 
ful, and allig:itoi*s are met with in nearly all the rivers north-east of the XJmzimciilu. 
N., besides several poisonops snakes, produces a small species of boa, which eome- 
timc"* attains a length of 16 feet. The hippopotamus is still found near the months 
of the rivers on the eastern frontier. 

The botany of this retdon resembles that of Kaffraria proper, although generally 
of a more tropical character. All the timber-trees of the Cape Colony are found here, 

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Natal 1 AQ 

National * J-^O 

besides many new ones. The climate of the coast region, however, is too warm for 
the grape, at. least for the purpose of wine^uitiking. 

Broolc's " Natal," by Mauu (1869) ; Hall's »• South Af ricnu Geography ; '» »» Natal 
Alumnae " (18T6) ; **The Cape aud South Africa," by John Noble {1818). 

NATAL, or Rio Grande do Norte, a fortified seaport of Brazil, cjipital of the pro- 
\ji)cc of Bio Grande do Norte, aud bnilt on low lauds about three miles from the 
luoulh of the river of that name, 100 m. n. of Parahiba. Pop. 10,00a 

NATAL, John William Coleuso, D.D., Blsiiop of, a divine of the Cbnrch of 
£ui;land, was bom in 1814, aud educated at St. John's College^ Cambridge, where 
be graduated as Second Wrangler and Suiith's Prizeman in 18S& From 1838 to 
184-i, he was one of the masters of Harrow School, and for the next four years, 
tutor of St John's College. In 1846, he was appointed rector of Forncelt St Mary, 
in the county of Norfolk, and in 1864, first bishop of N., South Africa. The works 
by which he was, nntil recently, most widely known were his two treatises on Alge- 
bra and Aiithmetic. The treatise on Algebra was first published in 1849, and that 
on Arithmetic in 1853. They soon acquired great popularity, and have been adopted 
as text'books in many of the principal schools aha colleges in Great Britain. He 
iias also pablished other educational works. He first attracted public notice, how- 
ever, by the dedication of a volume of Sermons to the Rev Mr Maurice (q. v.), at 
the moment when that gentleman was in disgi-ace with the "orthodox" section of 
, the religious world. His affection and respect for Mr Maurice were further sliewu 
by his edition of the ^* Communion Sei-vice. with Selections from Writings of the 
Rev P. D. Maurice " (1855). In the same year appeared his ** Ten Weeks in Natal ;" 
fn 1861, his ** Translation of the Epistle to the Romans, commented on from a Mis- 
sionary Point of View ;" and '* A Letter to his Grace the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, upon the Question of tbe Proper Treatment of Cases of Polygamy, as fonnd 
already existing in Converts from Heathenism," in which he recommends, on 
grounds both ofreason and Scripture, that Converts to Christianity, already pos- 
sessing several wives, should »m>< be forced to put them all away, except one. He 
nd'Jiits that monogamy is most in liarmony with the genius of Christianity, but 
would enforce it only m the case of those who married after their convers«ion. Tbe 
outcry raised hy his professional brethren against the •* Letter" was sufficiently 
loud, but it was nothing to the tempest of disapprobation that burst forth in the fol- 
lowing year (1862), when he published *'The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Criti- 
ically Examined," in which he endeavored to prove that, as they stimd, these books 
are not the products either of the age to which they are usually assigned, or of the 
authors whor^e names they bear; and that they are not entirely historical, but in 
many most important passages are overlaid with legendary ,'niytliica], aud symbolical 
incidents. Part VI. of this work was published in 1872. TheBishop of C.ipo Town, 
the metropolitan bishop, d< dared Colenso deposed from bis see; but on an ap|>eal 
to the Privy Council in 1865, tlie deposition was pronounced null and void. In 1874, 
Colenso visited England to plead the cause of Langalibalde (see Natal). Other 
works by the bishop are ** Natal Hcrmons" (1866); and "Lectm-es ou the Penta- 
teuch and the Moabite Stone " (2d ed., 1873). 

NA'TANT. See Naiant. 

NATATO'RES (Lat. swimmers), the name given by Illiger, and Tnany other 
ornithologists, to the order of birds called Palmipedes (q. v.) by ()uvier. 

NATCHEZ, a city and port of entry in Mississippi, U. S., on the east bank of 
the Mississippi River, 280 miles north of New Orleans. It is finely situated ou tlie 
bluff, 150 feet high, winch here forms the bank of the river. A portion of the 
town at tl»e bottom of the bluff is calU^ Natchez-under-the-Hill, ana was formerly 4^ 
the resort of the river gamblers, pirates, and otlier desperate characters. The city 
has eight churches, a court-house, jail. United States Marine Hospital, a daily and 
two weekly papers. It is the shipping port of a large aud fertile cotton district, aud 
has steam-boat connections with the whole Mississippi valley. N., which derives 
its name from a noted tribe of Indians, was settled by the French in 1T16, and de- 
stroyed by the ludians in 1729, who were subsequently defeated, aud banished to 
the VVest Indies. Pop. in 1870, 9057. 

NATION (Lut. iuUiOf from nattut^ bom), a word used In two distinct senses. 1* 

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i VV National 

ABtnte-or independent society nnited by common politicaliiislitatlons ; S. Au ng* 
fijegate ma^ of persona coUtroeil by tie«» of blood aiid lineage, aud Bonxutimes of 
ItHigoagt'. The modern dogma of uatimialittui, us maintained by ar.laM of continental 
politicinnt*, starts from au assamptiou that a nuiiou in the latter sense onglit necei*- 
Btirily to he also a nation iu the foriiMtr, and endeavors to asnlxn limits to the several 
ra6^ of Europe, with the view of erecting each into a diMiuct state, separated from 
other stated or nationalities. The extiemu poUiiciaus of the national reboot 8<m m 
to consider the ^apposed rights of nationalities as paramount even to the obligations 
of treaties, and the political coujauctiou of one nutiouuliiy with another is looktil 
on by them as an adequate ground for a revolt or separatioi), apart altogether fr(nii 
the question whether tlie nationality is well |r ill govemud. In point of fact, tho 
different races in Europe are so commingled, Tnat any reconstruction of tlie political 
map of Europe, on ethuolo|(ical princlplet^, would lie impossible, even if desirabU . 
The blood of uiDe>teuthsof flnrope has l>een mixe<l within tl)e historical period. The 
test of language, on which uatioualily has sometimes been based, is a d<>ceptive one, 
in so far as it is indefinite and per)>etually fiuctnating. The people on the fron- 
tier between two rsices, an in the South Tyrol, g nerally speak two languages. Then 
we have dialects, like tlie Walloon, tlw GiOdiierii^ch of the Tyrol, and the Komansch 
of the Orisons— a^i also the Breton, Wel^h, Gaelic, and Irish languages, which could 
hardly be made the basis of independent communities. The weillwing of the people 
governed is properly tlie end of all government, and it has practically not lieen al- 
ways touiid that a slate is better governed when it coufists of one race only, than 
When it includes an aggregtite of races. Highly diversified nationalities nniy bo 
united in One t>olitic»l sy^teu», provided only that the government leppects aud con- 
sults the peculiariiies of the several races, a id doe« not attempt to force the usages, 
liabits, or language of one ou the rest. See Ethnology. 

NATIONAL C0NVENT:T0N, an assembly of deputies of the people, which as- 
Burasdthe whole government of France on the overthrow of the throne in 1792. 
When the National Assembly (!«ee Assembly National) had decreed tho suspen- 
sion of thekhig. 10th August 1T92, it appointed the election of the N. C, wlilcU 
commenced its sittings 2l8t September. Its first act was to declare France a repub- 
lic, 25th September. Upon this followed the tr al and condemnation of the king. 
Thi*ough the support of excited mobs, the oxti*emo Jacobin jmrty became predomi- 
nant in the Coi»vention ; where, from the elevated S'-ats on whlth its memlwrs sat, 
it received the name of the Mountain party. The Revolutionary Tribunal was es- 
tablished ; the chief adminiistration of afitairs was intrusted to the Committee of 
Public Safety, which exercised the most despotic powers. The Girondists (q. v.)f »t 
first a powerful jmrty in the Conveni ion, were destroyed, many of them p. rlshin«? 
by the guillotine; and a" new constitution, thoroughly democratic, was adopted, 
10th Ang^ust 1798 ; but its operation was suspendecTuntil pence should be restond. 
Meanwhile, the actual rulers, of tlie country displayed marvellous energy ; ahnost a 
million of citizens beiug placed under arms, and immetise provision of all warliko 
stores made by means of requisitions. They al!<o proceeded with merciless feveriiy 
against their poUticiil opponents, dealing with them as traitors; btindreds of thou- 
sands were thrown into pripon, and the number who died by the guillotine increaned 
daily both in Paiis and throughout France. The N. C. itself latterly became sub- 
ject to the dictatorial |)Owerof Robespierre; many of its members were guillotined 
iHthin a few weeks ; and independent opinion was no longer expressed. The over- 
throw of Robe-pierre was followed by a great reaction ; the Jacobins were sup- 
pressed; and finally the N. C, after concluaing {)eace with Prussia and Spain, dis- 
eolved itself 26th Octol)er 1795 (4th Brumaire of the year IV.), leaving to the nation 
a new crmstitution, which placed the government iu the hands of a Directory (q. v.). 


NATIONAL DEBT. See Dejjt, National. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION. The general subject of Educotion lins been already 
treated under th: t Jiead. By the term •* National Education " is understood (1) the 
means taken by the IxKly of any natitni, either through the state or other organisa- 
tions, for edncAiing the people ; (2) the ohjet^ts which the nation pnght to place be- 
fore itself in its educationiU measures. These questibns involve thfe whole inner and 
outer history of education, and are fiif too large aud impoitaut to be capable of sucli 

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treatment here as woiild convey accnrjite notfons to the render. All we can do in to 
glunce slightly at the hi»lory of the two hraiiclies into which tho -ubjeirt divide^ it- 
t«elt'. Among ancient nntioufi, and among not a few nations now existing. odnciHioii 
in any definite »ent«e did not, and doeft* not, exiht for the ma^nes of the |>;oj>le. Tn« 
children grow np in refli^ciive or unreflective iinitatiou of tii«ir futliers. Bnt at nil 
times, nations wl»ich Inive quite en»erg«d from tite ravage state, liave liad soiiie nior.? 
or less orgauli«ed scheme of edncarion for the leisured and governing classes. TIk* 
])nrpo8e kept In vit-w in such education lias l>een to fit the pupils to discharjLTH c t- 
tAin duties of w:ir or goverinnent. In addition to this, thepriiwthood h.-id theedaua- 
lion which their traditionary liynnis, laws, and customs afforded. That man as 
snch, apart from any siwcial practicai*ind8, should be edncated, uas an Idea \nte of 
})elng recognised, and occurred first to the Greeks, to whom tlie world owes so much.' 
But neither amoi^ tliem nor their imitators, the Konians. was thee<lucaiiun <»f Ute 
masses of the people ever conten)plate<l. Education, proi>crly ho calle<l, was confin.d 
to a few. In the centuries which succec^detl the introilacti«>n o^ Ohristmniiy, the 
church was tlic great educating bwly— -tiidning those intendtd for the st-rvice of I he 
altar, not only m Christian doctrine, but in nU the learning of the prist. This, 
at least, was the general tendency of education in Iho church. But it was 
not till the Itcfonnalion in tlie 16th c. that learning, eveu to th ; limited extent of 
reading and writing, was considerttd a worthy object rf pursuit by any save those 
who. in sonic form or other, were destined to be drawn witlUu the clerical ruuka. 
The Kefonnation introduced the idea of educating the masses of the p.'0|>le— tho 
leadi?r8 of this movement being, no doubt, forced to this conclusion by the necessity 
which tlieir view of man's |>ersonal reli|;Ious obligations Imp )«pil on thent It wa» 
manifestly a corollary from th^ position they took up that epery viands ii»lellect 
should !>:; so trained as to l)e able lO risad, and inquire, and think for itself. It was 
only vei^' slowly ihat so large a conception of the sphere of education could hj 
given effect lo. Gradually, however, popular schools arose in many parts of thi 
continent of Europe, especially in Gernmny, and the unuibar of gymnasia or grani- 
nnir-schools w;is. during the same period, incre^i^ed. In Scotland, »o early as 1<596, , 
the government took up the matter, and ordained that there should be a sctU)ol aa 
well ns a church in evei*y parish, at the same time providing for their nmintenano 
by a tax on laud, and for their mainigemeut by ))uttiug them undt*r u certain numb r 
of tliose who |uud I he tax conjoined witli the minister of the parish — all being sul)- 
j-ct to the presbyt»'ries witliin wliosfi bounds they were situated. The exiwnpKi of 
Scotland cannot b'! said t.o have been followed on a lything like a uationnl sc de by 
any country till after the French H -voliilion had exUau-ited its.:l£. Since 1815, tho 
distinguishing idea of government adaiinistratiou may be said lo be the necessity 
f)f educating the people^ atuicUl the people— e\en the outcast and the criminal. Dur« 
ing th '■ last fifty years, all the German titates, and more especia ly Prns.>Hu and Sax- 
ony, hav • dcVido'p d excellent national systems of education, and France has fol** 
lowed their example. Ilussia and the new Kingdom of^ialy are also now organic 
ing primary instructicm ; and at tlie same time, as in all Enro|>ean comitrles, they 
are making pr()vision f-n* the instruction a<id professional training of the teachers 
in Normal Scliools (q. \X T&e schools for insrrucring the liiidd e classi's, and 
grammar-schools (French, /^c^e« ; German, ^ym»WMtttww»). whose object isio pre- 
))are pupils lor the univrrsities,^ have received increased attention. Uniyersitiog 
ttieinselves, too. have been further develo|)ed, their curriculum extended in range, 
their objwts elevated, and th ir number increa-'ed. 

To return to primary iiistructi(m. In E-igltuid there was no national syst-tnn, 
properly so called, before JSTii, but volunt^iry effort4S were largely aid d by the .<fcite 
in tlie form of Privy Coundl grants. The-'e grants were also extended to Scotland^ 
us it became necessary to supplement the ))arochlaI schools there, owing to the in- 
crease of population. The principal conditions on which these trrants were made 
were, that they were only to supplement local efforts, that the schools should pa:^ a 
satistactory e;cainl.n«tion I>ef04-e a goveniniinit inspector, and that tlie Bible be rtv-ni 
in them. As much additional religious instruction migiit Ih; iriyeii as tiie sdiool- 
managers pleased, but no schools were admitted to Privy Council aid from which 
the Bible was excluded. Under the stiinnhis afforded 1^ these graut«», the educa- 
tional wants of England were, after 1839, to a great extent supplied : but matiy dis- 
tricts were left anprorided with schools, and many more very badly^^upplieo. In 

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1870, np ImpoHnnt menwiv, pnfitlW! "An Act to provirle for PnW!c Elonientanr 
Sdiication in Eiitrhiiid mid Walft»," wj»p iviH^ed by ]»arl1iiineiit, accorditifr to which ft 
is enacted tliat ** there shall be provided for every pchool di-trlct n pufllcioiit ninonnt 
of ac<^oinm<Mhitioii hi public clemeMtairy t«choo]8 avnilahle for all tin* < hik!re1i rohl- 
dent in snch district, for whooe elementary ethication Lfflcient luid suitable pn-vii»foH 
ii* not otbi'rwise made." It i» enacted further, that all rliildren att<'ndtng tliefe 
schools, whofe parents are nnaWe,fron» poverty, to p:iy anythiug towardt< lliHircdn- 
catiou, shiiU l)e admitted free, and the ex|K'ns«-8 so Incurred be diHCharjrcd from loc; 1 
rates. The new schools are phicetl ill each district under *• school-bo.-irds " Inveht d 
with great powers — among; oth^^rs, that of coraiM-lIing (mrents to seinl their cliiUlrt'U 
to Hchool. An act in most respects similar U) the abovt> was passed iu 1872 for Scot- 
laud, whose educational wants had previoiwly been well supplied. 

Id Ireland, a njil^ional sy.-tem instituted and maintained by the state existp, and 
one of its main features is the separation of the religious from the f ecuhir teachinj;— 
at least iu theory. The extent to which this principle has In^eu cncronched upon iu 
the course of working out the scheme, is not accurately known, but is won by of 
Bpecial inquiry. 

In the British colonies, as in the United States of America, adequate state sys- 
tems of education have V.een provided on the basis of the sociihir principle. 8<ie fhe 
articles National Education, and Privy Council, Committee of, on Edu- 
cation. "• 

NATIONAL EDUCATION, Systems of, the provision made by vnrlons sfafea 
for the idncatlon of their cifzeiis. In England, the term national education Is 
commonly used as implying only a provirfon made for the instruction qf children of 
the i>oorer classes. But it is capable of a much more exteissive application, and 
ill most of the conutri('8 in which the state provides for the edncatfon of tlie people, 
the state regulates, more or len?, all instruci ion, from tliat of the primary echonl 
to that of tile univer-'ity. -In EnL'land national education has no existence. The 
pjirish Schools (q. v.) of Seotl.ind at one lime made a near approach t^j being 
national, but the alt-nd religions ci renin stances of tl»e connti-y liave made them 
case to be so. The lni|)erfect means : donted to supply the deficiency in both parts 
of the kingdom, are de^crib^•d under the head of Privy CotJNOiL, Committee or, 
ON Education. See also Schools, Public akd Grammar ; Industrial Schools ; 
Reformatory Schools, &c. In Ireland the foundation of a reahy national sy^t.-m 
AvasJaid in 1S33 in the *' National Schools " (snpplenienti'd since by the (^mreii's Col- 
leges and University), the piiiuiple of which is briefly stated under Ireland. 
These schools have exhibited a steady and even snriili>Ing proKresa, when we con- 
piderthc determined opposition they have inet with fnun pcwerfnl ecclesiastical par- 
ties, l)oth Catholic and Protestant. In several of the British colcmies the local leg- 
islatures have boldly dealt with the question on the national i)rinctpie, ill apposition 
10 the denominafl(.nal. See Victoria. As this is hkely to be one of the firi-t im- 
portant subjects to come Iwfore the reformed parliaim'i.t, it may be optpoitnije to 
give our readers a sketch of what some neighboring naticiie have done in regard lo 
it. B-foro entering npon the dcf'cription which we propose lo give of the piincijial 
systems of national education, if will be proper to giv« fome account of the obt'ta- 
cles which have hitherto prevented the et-lablishment of anaiiornl system among 
oni-selves, and to indicate some of the matters as to which we have to look fur in- 
struction from foreign experience. 

And. first, in Great Britahi the establishment of a national system of education, 
and of all interference with education on the part of the s'ate, has until lately been 
opposed upon principle by a numerous and respectable body of politicians. Th< y 
for the most part connstVd of Dissenters of the inidd*e class, wlio, Iieglnning with 
Volnntaryism in ecclesiastical matt'-rs, had passed on — at least the loaders had- to 
the docirine of tot«««-2/ai#'c in politics. The others were chUfly speculative per- 
' Sims, deeply imbued with the same doctrine, who, profoundly (lisbelieving in the 
wisdom of st itesmen, and the cap icity of officials, and upcarently in the po-sibil- 
ity of foresiaiit In laree affairs, heW ihat tlH' state should undertake as little as pos- 
sible, and leavei things to what they railed their natural course. The arguments 
used by these two chisses were not always alike. Individuals of the former 
were apt to go back to the reliurious ground from which they started, maintaining 
that education ought to be religious, that the suite ought not to teach religion, that 

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thorefore edDcation was out of the province of the Btate. Bnt what the spokeflroen 
of both dasBesi most iusisted on wim thiis that education ehoald be left to the law 
of supply and demand, or ratlier, to the voluntary action of iudividnaia, single 
or combined. It was iu tiiat way, tliey declan^, that 'the edacation of the 
people couid be most beneficially carrieii on ; for so carried on, it would arwa5-s Ix?, 
i>otli in kind and iu exientt what, on the whole, the circnmstauces of the people 
required. In the liands of government, they said, au educational system must be. 
more or less, au instniment of state. And at the besi, the extent and thaquaiity of 
the iustruction provided must deiiend upou the will of persons who might be very 
ignorant of the wants of the people. They used declamatiou about the bad way 
iu which governments did everytliing they attempted ; about the dat^ger of creating; 
a host of new officials; and about the impropriety of interfering with natural laws 
and of discouraging voluntttry agency. Theu they enlarged upou the great progress 
which education had made iu Biigland since the beginning of this century, Inde- 
pendently, as they said, of the state— miiintaining not only that it had l)eeu as great 
as the circuuiKta;»c»8 of the country pcrmittid, but that it was almost as much as 
the state had accomplished in any country^ and that it proved (hat in Bnglaud, 
supply and dcmautl, or the voluntary principle, would soou provide for tlie ^uca* 
tioii of the whole people. The greater part of tlie increase in the supply of educa- 
tion, so far as it was uot due to the actiou of the state, had come from 
the benevolent exertions of individuals. But their chief reliance was U|>ou 
the ag»'ucy of iudividuals or societies inspired by beuevolence or religions 
zeal. They held that the same objections did not apply to voluntary organisations 
which lay against the state ; they declared that it was the great glory oi Eugland to ac- 
complish by ^uch means things which elsewhere were attempted only Iiy tiie state. 
Combined voluntary action, they said, was consonant witii the national habits and 
institutions; it was a part of the system which had made the English a (ree, self- 
reliant, and euterpiising race; it should be fosterid, not discouraged ; and it was 
worth our while to pay a price if necessary, rather thau let it be superseded by the 
action of the state. 

It wao answered, first, that tlie commercial principle of supply and demand,nuless 
suppK-mented by tlie benevolence of iudividuals, could not be expected to educate 
the people except by very slow degr^'es ; that education mustj^reate tlie demand for 
education; that children of the lower classes in large towns, unless assibionce or 
stimulation came to them from without^ had at present no more chance of receiv- 
ing iiiHt ruction tliau if they were living iu Africa. And tiie nation would lose' in- 
calculably by delay in educating the masses; for nothing would so greatly increase 
its power and prosperity, so materially improve the condition of the humbler classes, 
as the education of tlie whole people. The importance of voluntary agencies was 
admit ted; but why was the state to be precluded from at least co-operating with 
tliem? The states it was said, had a greater interest in educating the people than 
any of her citizens could have; and, moreover— this was the real question — could 
undertake it more successfully. Voluntary agency, it was maintained, was too slow, 
toouiicei'tAiii. loo spasmodic in operation, to l)e permanently and solely relied upon 
in a matter of such great national concern. The friends of stiile actiou coiiftdenily 
a|)|>ealed to the experience of foreign countries as shewing the superior efflcieucy 
of state education, and pointed to the effects wliicli government stimulation on a 
limited scale, had had at home. It is now several years since this controversy was 
at its height. The Voluntaries have since that been acquiescing in the interference 
of the state with education ; and recently, several of their foremost men have frank'y 
admitted that they had been mistaken, and that the state, by what it has done for 
education, has made good its claim to the regulation of it. The course of poilticjil 
events has recently added gre^itly to the importance of popular education ; and at 
present it may be said that tliere is practically no opposition upon principle to the 
control of education by the state. 

Ttiere have always, however, been obstacles to the establishment of a national 
system more formidable thau the opposition of the Voluntaries, and these appear to 
remain unabated. 

The most important of tliem are those which are concerned wiih the place, if 
any. to l)e assiinied to religion in the school instruction. Upon this nmiter, tlien^ ia 
a conflict of opiuiouB which seems ulmost irreconcilable. A iiaity, which is growing 

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\n nnmbers, and which in renpectable from it? nctivlty ami iutHHj^ence, hold? that 
the ^tati; slionld give iiorhing bnt secniar iimtrnrtion'; iluit rellifloii is lH*yoiid Ita 
province, :iud Mhtmid not be taoght withiu its schooln ; tti:it, iiid<-ed, with a |K)pala- 
tiuii divided into UMuierons secti«, a practicable eclienit» of sta!e edacati(»D, 
embracing ri'ligion cannot l>e devij*ed. To this party, a portion of the Knij:li>h 
Vulnut-aries now setMns di.xposed to ally ihielf. Tlnre are others who believe it 
possible to teach an nndenoniinatioual Ohristiauity in schools; who desire that the 
state schoolmaster crlionld coDflne himself to this; and that dotnnatic teaching 
shon Id I>tih*ft to the religions bodies. A third party hold tliat dogmatic teaching 
shuald be gi^eu in state schools ; that religions teaching, to have any value, nin!*t oe 
dogmatic; hut that arrangements miglit he made for the religions instrnclion of 
f'ltiidren by persons of tlieir own iiersuasions ; and, at anyrate. that childrt^n should 
be exempted from the religions instnictlon given in a school, if their i>arents should 
so desire. The most niimerous l>ody of all are satisfied with the system of aiding 
denominational fchoois which now exists; because they approve of schools l)eii;g, 
as for the most pan ihey now are, under clerical supervision, and fear that by any 
change the inflncnre (»f tin* clergy npou education would be weakened. Among ibe 
managers of Chnruh of £n>,'land schools, fault is scarcely found with niort> limn 
onepoii4 in the present system ; there ia nn incessant agitation ngainst the ^* Con< 
science Clause," which the htate has placed among the conditions of lis aid, by which 
is stipulated that religions instruction shall not Iw given contrary to the wish of tiie 
parent. Between tho Beuominationalist and the Secularist there is a difference 
whiciiscarcolv admits of compromise; and until they agree, a national system is 
lirirdly possible. The former woald most probably oppose any scheme for supple- 
meniing the Denominational system— for the pur|>08eof educating the clashes 
wiiich this sysiera does not educate — unless it were to include religions teaclimg. 

The question of reliffions instruction has been found a troublesome one in nearly 
every country where tlie stale regulates c<lncation, and tliere is nothing more iu- 
strnctlve, in loreign experinice, than the ways in which, In different systems, this 
. difliculty has been disposed of. Next to this, the most important thing to l)e ol)- 
servcd Is, tlie parts which, in different systems, are assignea to the state and to the 
locHliry res|)ectively ; for it is unquestionable that there are some dangers attaching 
to state education, when the influence of the state is predominant, and that, the 
function of theslate in education must l>e carefully defined. By the mere seicctiou 
of ttcbool-books. the state could powerfully influence the rising generation; and In 
Austria, and, it is said, in France also, the school has been mnae use of as an iustm- 
juent or state policy. With a popular government, however, there is not much risk 
f f it being ns d for sinister jmrposes; and in this country, we are in more danger 
of having recourse too little to the powers of the state thap of trusting it too much. 
Mhrt possibility of making education compulsory, is another matter u|M>n which for- 
eign systems of education throw much light : we are perhaps more interested in 
noting how far indirect methods can l)e resorte<1 to for comiielliug attendance at the 
schools.' Upon the limits of the instruction which should be attempted in sch( ols 
for the ]K)orer classes — a suliject which has l)een much d.scussed in connection with 
I he Revised Code of 1861— and upon the results of government regulation of the 
middle and upper schools also, there is much to be learned from the foreign ednca- 
liouui systems. We begin with 

StaU-education in HollancU 

There nre several cotmtries in which — if school statistics conld be taken as a 
test — popular instruction is more widely diffused than it is in Holland; but In no 
European countiy is it so uncommon to meet a man who cannot easily rend i nd 
write. The primely schools of Holland have a hi^'h i*epntation for the solidity of tho 
instruction they impart, and have, by competent ob^eivcrs, been declai-ed to be the 
l>est in Europe. A small and wealthy state — rich, t« o, in the public spirit of its citi- 
zens — with a populatio'n singularly docile and ortletly, the task of educ^tintr the peo- 
ple has l>ecn for Holland exceptionally free from ilithcnlty. It had the start of most 
other Eurof>cau nations in the work of pofralar education. So far back as 1811, its 
p»1n»ary rchools had been celnhnited in a Report by the famous Cuvier. It has had 
an educatiouttl law since 180«; atid of this lttW| though it underwent modillcatiou in 

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1867, it is necensAry to ^ve somA accoant. Its anther waa M. Van Bon End^s who, 
from 1S06 till 1883, had tUe Buperhiteiideuco of popiilnr ediictuioii iu the cunutry. 

Ou the face or it, this law seemed far from inakiug a complete provisiou for the 
educatiuu of the people; it left mucti— in any other courttry, it wonlil have l)een a 
grejit deal too much — to the public spirit of locjil unthorities. It did uot make edu- 
c ition coinpnlsory ; it did not even enforce tlie estiiblislimeut of pnblic schools ; but 
it provided for two things l)eing done tlioronirhly — the inspection of tlie schools and 
the exauiinatiou of ttie teacliers — and to this seems to liave been chiefly dne ila 
eminent success. Bach province of Holhind was formed into a certain number of 
school-districts, aud over each school-district wtis placed an iu8]>ector. ; Tiie in^iector 
was m:ide supreme over primary instruction in his district, He was a memiier of 
every scliool-committec, and school-committees could be mmied only with his con- 
currence; no teticher, pnlilic or private, could exercise his calling witiiont hit> ])er- 
iQis.«ioii ; and be iu8|)ected every school in liis distriet twice a year. The united iu- 
si>ector8of the province formed ttie provincitU commission for primary education. 
This commission met three times a year, and received from each of its members a 
report upon his district ; once a year, it sent a deputy to tlie Hague, to form, witii 
the deputies from other proviuces, a commission to discuss and regulate scliool- 
matters, under the direction of the Minister for the Home Department and his In- 
spector-general. The inspectors in the various provinces were appointed by tlio 
Home Office, on the presentation of the provincial commission. It has heeu said 
that iu Holland public spirit is very strong. St4ite-eniployments are tiins deemed 
very honorable ; and the inspectors gave their services gratuitously — ^receiving only 
an allowance for expenses. It was one of tiie duties of the provincial commission 
to examine teachers for certificates. First, the teacher tmd to gt^t a genercU admission 
— a certificate of competency, admitting liim into the teaching profession; 
he iiad^ to got a special admisftionj alno. before he could cxeixjise his 
profession. Tliere were four grades of certificates — the first or second gnide I«ad 
to 1)6 obtiiined l)y a school-master, public or private, in the to\^ns; the third 
grade qualified for a village-school ; the f(mrth grade was lor nuder-masters 
and assistants. To the ingliest grade were adn'iitted tliose candidates only 
who gave signs of a distinfruished culture. For public mastership^*, wlien ihey 
fell vacant, a competitive examination was held; the successful candidate received 
Ids special admission — his appointment to exercise liis profession in. the school. For 
special admission as a piivate t(>acht!r, there was no second examination ; it was in 
the pow^'r of the municipality, with tiie concurrence of tlie insptKirtor, to grant it 
upon application. Although there were no obligatory provisions in tiie law, the pro- 
vincial and commuual administrations were charged by ttie government to provide 
the means of instruction iu their localities, to insure a comfortaiile subsistence for 
teachers, and to obtain a regular aitendniice of the children in the sdiools; and they 
did all this to the i)e8t of their ability. Free schools for the poor were provided iu 
the towns; in the villages, schools to which the poor were admitted gratuitously. 
Svery effort was used, botli by the lay authorities and the clergy, to dniw poor ; 
children into the schools ; and the schoelmasters were provided with incomes much 
su|)erior to what is nsuully paid to schoolmasters in any other £nro])eaii country. To 
tills M. Cuvier attributed much of the success of the 'Dutch school-'. Some of the 
best scholars were kept in the school to assist in the teaching; they became 
^Tinder-masters, and eventually masters ; and thus, even before tlie institution of 
normal schools, an efficient Iwdy of teachers was provided. In the normal schools 
which were afterwards establisiied, sciiool-methods and the practice of teaching 
formed a more prominent part of the in8tJ*uction than in tltose of otiier countries. 
It soon appeared, tliat the free schools for the poor in towns were giving l)ettt*r iu- 
sinictiou than could be obtained by the lower middling elaoses;. and intermediate 
schools had to be established In the towns {tusschen-schoolen), in which, foi* a small 
fee, an excellent education was provided. Aliove tiie intermediate school was the 
French school, in which, besides a sound commercial educalion, inod<'rn languages 
were tanglit; above thiit w»isthe Latin school, giving a classical I'ducntiou. and pre-* 
]>ariug for the universities. Tiie classical schools and the univt'i-sitieM of Holland 
do not receive from foreign observers the commendation so fi-eely bestowed upou 
the other parts of the e<lucatioual system of the country. 

Under this law, the public schools were uou-deuominatloual ; no dogmatic in- 

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Natloiul Education 

ptmction was to be piven by the teachor or in the pcliool ; bnt tlic Iiwtmctioii wns 
to Iwj fcoch as to ** train it« rwipleiitJ* for the fxerciw of uil FOcitU and C'hrit*tiuii vir- 
tues. Tlie relisrioua etlncatioii of Ibe cliildreii, hnwever, was not ovtrlook* d. The 
pdVt-rHiiieut rxlj(»rted the clergy of the differeot coinmuuioiis to take upon them Ihc 
religions iiistrnctioii of children of their own i)er8uai*ion8 ; niul this tlie clerjry wil- 
linjrly <lid — giving no a portion of every Snnday to this duty. The wihoouna-ter 
iiiSlrncted the ciiiklren in the truths common to all religious, and on Sntnrthiys, 
when the Jews were ahsi'nt, in the New Tesfamcnt and t\w Life of Clirist. M. 
Cavier, in 1811, stated tliat lie found the education religion.*', thongli not dognratic ; 
and in 1836. high satisfaction with it was expresMtl bv M. Ckinsin, an earnest advo- 
cate of vrerigiousedaeation. It was thought thnt the Dutch sclioola had proved the 
possibility of teaching in sclioots an nusectarian Christianity. Bnt it was chiefly 
upon this )>oint that tlie controversy arose which led to the ennctiueut of 1867 ; and 
as ngards it, it cannot be said that tlie controversy is yet ended. 

There were oilwr inattors which excited a dennind for tlie alterntions tlien made 
hi the law. The constitntion of 1S48 l«ad granted the lilx-rty of in»»trnction. and was 
tiierefore in conflict witli the law of 180«. Thefchool attendance had In-eu falling off. 
Some of tlKj mnnicipalities had been evading tlieir dntv to tlie schoolmasters and 
the schools. It was thought desir.-iiile that the dnties of the coininone In regard to 
edn ation should be carefnlly defined by law. Tlie changes made, however, M'ero 
not of much practical Importance. 

^he law of tf67 pranird " liberty of instrnction ; " ptill requiring from the private 
teaclnr the eertificate of competency, it rid him of the veto of the mnnicipality and 
tlie inspector. It expressly prescribes thtit primary schools, in each commune, 
shall be at the communc^s charge; they are to be in sufllelent nnml>er ; and t lie 
slates' deputies and the eupjjemc government are to judge whether, in any commune, 
they are in sufficient number or not. If tlic charge of its bcIjooIs is too heavy for a 
commune, it receives a grant in aid, of which tin; state and the province each con- 
tributes half ; but there is no fixeil i>oint at which the (omniune can demand this 
aid. The law fixes the minimum salary for a schoolmaster at 400 florins (al)out jG34) ; 
for an under-master at 200 florins. (The schoolmat«ter'8 salarv, however, is usually 
much higher; in towns, not uufrrqumtly four times as much.) It provides that 
when the number of scholars exceetls TO, the master is to have the aid of a pupil- 
teacher; when it exceeds 100, of an under-master; wlien it exceeds 150. of an 
an under-master and pupil-teacher ; for eyery 60 scholars above this last number, be 
is allowed another pupil teacher; for every 100 sclio1ai*s, anotlier undfi-inaster. 
School-fees are to be exacted f»uly of those who can afford to pay tin m ; and the 
municipalities are enjo'ned to "provide as far as possible for the attendance at 
e<*hool of all children whose parents are in the rec(i])t of public relief." The law 
defines tlie subjects of primary instruction as follows : Retiding, writing, aritlimetic, 
the elements of georaetiy, of Dutch grammar, of geography, of history, of the 
natural Miiences, and singing. Tliere is still a competitive examination for the 
office of public schoolmaster ; a list of those who have acquitted themselves best is 
made up l>y the inspector and a committee of the communal council, and from this 
list the selection is made by the whole body of the council. For the provincial 
commission, consisting of the inspectors of the province, there has been substituted 
a salaried provincial inspector; and tlie provincial inspectoi-s are assembled once a 
year to devbenite uj>on the state of tirimary instruction. The Minister of the Home 
Department, assisted by a referendary, is the supreme authority in matters con- 
nected with education. 

Upon the subject of religloua instruction, the law was left unaltered. The enact- 
ment of 1857 provides as fiillows: *♦ Primary instruction, while it impart? the iulor- 
matloiv necessary, is to tend to develop the reason of the young, and to tndn them 
totbeexerciseof all Christian and social virtues. The teacher shall abstain from 
teaching, doing, or ptnmitting anything contrary to the resjiect duo to tlie convic- 
tioiisof Disst^nters. Religious instruction is left to the different religious commu- 
nions. Tlie Bchoolrooni may be putat tlieir disposal for that purpose, for the benefit 
of children attending school, out of scliool-hours." This was the conclusion arrived 
at, after much excited discussion. 

Iji 1848, all religions were, in Holland, placed by the law on a perfect equality ; and 
immediately tbefeuf ter, au attack was begun by the Roman Catholics on the rtli- 

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Natoaal Education 


plona iiiPtrnctlon of the scliooU. Professedly neutral, they maintained ihat ii was 
reully Protestant, and probably they were rigiit. The schooniiastera, on tht* demand 
of the Roman Catholics, were eujolned to comply more strictly with the law; and 
tliereupou titere began amou^ the orthodox Protesunit bodies a violent tigitatiou 
ngainnt the law — a movement for connecting every public school with some religions 
cumtnaiiion. The Roman Catholics, believing that in Holland nculral schools ma?it 
be Proteslnnt, desired that, the instrnct:on shuald be purely secular; and u consider- 
able party among the Prot(}st>ints contended for the sjime obj -ct. The only iMirty iii 
favor of J he exi>tiiig law were the Rationalists or New-school Protestants, who 
attach more ini|K)rtance to the moral and civilizing side of Christianity than to its 
dogmatic aspects. Between tlio Denominutionalii^td on one hand and the Secularists 
on the other, the victory fell to this last party. Of course, the dinnsion was a cont- 
promise; and neither the liigii Protestant narty nor the Roman Catholics regard it 
with satisfaction. The conr^equence has been that, advantage l>eing taken of the 
newly-conceded freedom of in>trnction, there has been a great incretise in tlie num- 
ber of private ebmv'nt.;iry schools conducted on tlie denominational basis. The noii- 
denonnnational school in Holland Ciinnot be considered entirely succe^'Sfn]. since 
the opiK>sition to it sinims to b<! leading to primary educatiou being to a cousiaerable 
extent taken out of tbe control of tlie state. 

State-editcation in Switzerland. 

In no part of Europe has the edncsUion of the people \yeeu more successfully prose- 
cuted than ill Swiizeiland. In all the cautonn, French and Qennan, it has been 
carefully attended to by the governing iKxlies; and for small communities, provided 
th > rulers have iutt^lligeuce and pnbhc spirit, it is comparatively a simple and easy 
task. To those who arv! interesttMi in school-methods and* school-inanagemeut, 
nothing can I>e more instractive than the education of 'the G.innan cantons. Their 
primary schools are unsurpassed ; those of tlie canton Aargan have the reputation 
of bciing the best in Europe. The experience of the French cantons tlirows liglil 
upon more than one of the questions vkIiIcU occur in the constructiou of a national 
svHtem. It is with th; latter clasM of quef>tions that we are concerned; and to the 
French cantons— Geneva, Vaud, Freiburg, Neufchatel, and the Valais — the following 
stattiiuent is confined. 

In thjse Ave cantons, the school-system was, until recently, the same in Its main 
outlines; it was a system designed to put public education in harmony with the 
di'mocratic ccmstitniions establisheil after the war of the Sonderbnud. In Vaud, it 
wastonndedin 1846; iu Geneva and Freiberg, in 1848; in the Valai", In 1849; and 
in Neufchatel, in 1850. In Freil)erg, it underwent niodiflcation in 1866. Its nmiu 
features wre as follows: The communes were required to provide and maintain 
public scliools, tlie state a.^sisiiiig ihem wlieu the charge became too heavy. In gen- 
eral, every place with more than 20childr n of school-age was required to have its 
school ; every place with more th in 60 or 60, a second school ; and so on. Infant- 
schools were recommended andaidt^ liy the state, but their establishment was nut 
nude obli«jatoi-y. The council of state — the supreme executive — of tlie canton ap- 
^ointiHi a Board of Public Instruclion to exercise the government of education ; but 
n import^mt matters, an appeal lay from this body to the council ; and by the 
council only could a master T>e dismissed. The municipality appointed a coiiimn- 
nal school-coininitree, which had the local su|)erintendence of the schools. Ministers 
of religion were eligible for tiiis l)ody, lint were not memlKTs of it by virtue of officii 
It was the duty of the school-committee to visit the schools of its commune not lew 
than once a fortnight, besides holding a public geuenri examination of them o::ce 
a year. Tne teacher reouired to get a certificate of capacity ; the examinationri for 
tlie ceitiflcate I)e!ng under (lie management of tlie Boaixi of Public Instruction. Iu 
Vand. however, five years' service in a public school exempted a teacher from the 
obliiraiion of a certificate; and In other cantx>ns, it does not seem to have 1)ee]i 
rigidly in^'isted on. For vacant masterships, tliere was a coni|>etitive examination, 
to winch |)er8ons qualified by certificate or service only were properly admitted; iu 
Vaud, however, failing quatitied {lersons, other ciuididatcs might be admitted to 
examination, and nrovisionally appointed. In Geneva, Freiburg and the Vulais, 
there were hcIiooI insiiectors who periodically reiK)rted to the Board of Public In* 
Biruction ; Vaud and Neulchatvl had no inspector; the duty of iuapectiou iu thes^ 


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Kattonal Edaeation 

cantons devolved upon the Pchool-commUtee. Tlie tnbjccts tnngbt were religion, 
reading, wntliig, grmnmnr, aritlimetic Hwd book-keeping, geogniphy, HwiHS 1111*1017, 
andf^Jngiug. Th»* instnittion given Imd two ornioi-e degroes (in Geuevji, aix do- 
greHi). according as these Bnbj>.;ctt> weretaii<;ht with more or lesH extension ; instnu- 
lion in botli degree b l)eing nnanily given iu tlie same scliooU and by the snmc n)u»rer. 
Btlaciition was 10 l)e based upon the •* principle of Chrisiianity and dcmo<Tnry.*' 
Hours were to be set apnil for religions in»trnction ; from tlie ordinary sctiool- 
]*'8pons do<,nna was to bo strictly exclnded ; and it was regarded as the province of 
tile minister of religion, not of the schoolmaster, to give religions instructiun, 
thongli the latter was not prevented from giving it in the rooni of, and nnder ilu) 
rei«pon9il»ility of a minister. In all the cantons, except Oeneva, edncation wns 
niHde compnisory; nttendauce at school was required from the seventh to the tif- 
teenth, or from tlie eighrl) to the sixteentli year. It children were privately ediicati d. 
the state must he satihfii-d that their edubution wus sufficient ; such children cinilu 
be called np for examination with the scholars of the public scliools, and if found 
inferior, mighi be transferred to a public school. A certificate of emancipation whs 
panted when tlie obligatory course bad been fullllled. 'I'he luw contemjilated tlnit 
roe instruction should oe gratuitous, and in Geneva and tlieValals it was grutnitoiis. 

In Freiburg, the school-system was fnmied in no small degree for the purpose of 
strengthening the democratic purty against the clerical party. It providetl that no 
religions society should be allowed to teach ; that persons educated by the Jesuits 
should be incapable of holding any offic<^ iu church or state ; it Jmposed a political 
oath upon the schoolmaster ; U prohibited children from l)eing sent to a private 
school, except with the sanction of the inspector and the school committee ; and if 
sent, required that tiiey should come np for examination everv half-year. At the 
same time, it establie^hed an excellent programme of primary instniction. At the 
elections of 186«, tlh^ clerical party regained the ascendency iu Fn^Ibnrg ; and iu 
January 1S68, the council of state made a considerable alteration in the school-law. 
It reduced the programme of primary instniction ; it made the clergyman a necen- 
sary member of the local school -commit tee. freed the teacher from the necessity of 
taking an oath, aifd relaxed the obligation of attendance at the public schools, giv- 
ing parents liberty to t^uc^ite their children at home or at private schools. In other 
respects, the system, as above described, has been maintained in Freiburg. There 
has been no change in the other Clintons. 

The law as regards religions instruction seems to work with tolerable smooth- 
ness. In Vand, it appears that the laxity which prevails as to the requirement of a 
certificate sometimes leads to the admission of nnqualifled persons as teachers ; and 
ill Vaud and Ncnfchatel, complaint is made of the incapacity of the school-commit- 
tee to make op for the want of professional inspection. 

In the four cantons in which education is by law compnisory, the school-atinid- 
ance is found to l>e no l>e1ter than in Geneva, where it is not compulsory. In these 
cantons, tlie law provides tlial parents not sending tlieir children to school are to be 
warned ; if the warning l>e neglected, that they are to be summoned before the tri- 
bonats, which can punish them by flue or imprisonment. But it appears that, in 
point of fact, the tribnnals are never resorted to; and that the authorities are care- 
inl not to insist noon more than the people are easily able and willing to comply 
with. Ill the Valai's, the school-year need not last for more than five months. In 
Freiburg, the vacation may last for three months ; and the ins|>ector may exempt 
from attendance at school chik.reu who are sufficiently advanced, andchihlreii whose 
Ittlior their parents cannot do without. In Vaud, the local school-committee may 
4iraut to children above twelve yeai-s of age, whose labor is nec<'ssary to their pa- 
rents, dispensations which in a great measure exempt them from attendance at 
school ; the master may grant the scholar leave of abf^ence for two days in the week ; 
the president of the school-committee may srraiit him leave for a week at a time ; the 
iK'.hool-committee itself for a month at a time. It at)pearsthat in Vaud, the attendance 
at the Bchools had been steadily falling off from 1846, the date of the law, up to 1868 ; 
tud the attendance ai the children whose names were on the books was then re- 
ported to be by no means regular. New brandies of industry which gave tmjjloy- 
■ Bwnt to cliildren had been introduced into the canton ; and the Council of Public In- 
Btrnctiou seems to liavebeeu compelled to sacrifice the law to the interests of families. 

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The experiment of conipnigory ecIncatioD cniiiiot be said to ba^e succeeded, becaii8» 
it has not really boeu made, in Frcueli Switzcrlaud. 

State-education in France. 

At the head of the edncntioii of Frnnce is the Mhiister of Pnblic InBtrnctioii ; h«« 
ip advisKjd and assisted by the Imperial Conncil of Public lust ruction, a body iUa 
nie.nbers of which are appointed by tlie crown for the period of a 3rt*iir. The min- 
ister if lie thinks fit, brings before the council for discussion pi*0} -cted laws and 
decrees on public educntiou ; he is bound to consult it resiiectjng the proj^auinirg 
of study, methods, and l)opk8 to be >idopted in all classes of nublic schools. Tin; 
minister has succeeded to the functions in respect of education which, under the 
flr^t Empire, were conferred upon the University of France ; he is head of the uni- 
versity, the officials of which still perform a couciderabLe part in the niuun^^euirnt 
of education, but do so under his control. 'As respects the higher and the prufc— 
siouMl education, the university is both a4«acliing and an examining body, granting 
degrees under conditions pre8cril>ed by the minister and council. The :.dmini8tn^ 
tion of the secondary iustj'uclion is committed to it. and it shares in the super- 
vision of the pnnniry instruction. It is composed of 18 Academies, each of which 
comprehends several departments. These academies are so iwiny local centres of 
the Department of I'ublic Instruction. "At the head of each if* a rector; the chi*f 
officials nnder iiiin are called Academy inspectors. Tlie Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion is olt*o rector of the Academy of Paris. 

The Acad(!my oracjials, under the emit rol of the minister, have the superintend- 
ence of secondary instruction in the departments within the Academy's jurisdiction ; 
there is an inspector for each department The instruction is minutely regulated, as 
to the quantity to be provided, as to the subjects to be comprehended in it, and as to 
it«» cost; it is the chief duty of the Academy inspectors to st^e that the requirements 
with respect to it are complied witli. The inspection iff said to be highly efficient. 
The lyceum is the principal seminary of secondary instrocl ion; in general, the chi'f 
town of ev«ry French department lias its lyceum. There is. besides, the cotnnmnal 
college. Every town of considerable population has its commimal college. Tha 
lyceun^ is founded and maintained by the state, with atd from the department and 
the communes; the communal college is founded and maintained by n»e commune, 
with occasional aid from the state. The instruction given in the communal college 
and in the lyceum is substantially the same in character; in the lyceum it is the 
more extensive. To the lyceum there is usually at tjiched a preparatory school for 
the youns^er boys. In both lyceurait and comumnal colleges, there are Iwarders and 
day- scholars. French, Latin, Greek, and mathematics are the principal 8nb}-;ci8 of 
instruction ; arithmetic, history, geography, modern langunges, and the natural sci- 
ences are also taught. The couree at the lyceum lasta for six years, and qualifies for 
the degree of Bachelor of Letters. Keligious instruction is given — to the Koniau 
Catholic boys, by chaplains attached to the school ; to the Protestants, by a Pro- 
testant minlT'ier, specially appointed to this duty ; and the N^v Testament In 
Greek or Latin is read daily by every class. . In the lyceums, the average charge for 
day scholars is from 110 francs {£4, la. 4d.) to 180 francs i£188.4d.)& ye:u*; the 
charge for boarders from 800 francs (^£32) to 90J fnuics (jCSS), according to their aire 
and advancement. In Paris, the charges are higher — from £Z8 toX60a year for 
l)oarders, and from £6 to ^12 a year for day scholars; on the other hand there are 
lyceums where the highest charge for botirders is je22 a year. There are pnblic 
scholarships (bourses) founded by the state to l)e obtained by competition, the hold- 
ers of which are relieved from all (tost. The educatiOH given is in no respect much 
inferior— and in some respects it i8sui>eiior— to that which is to be had at an enor- 
mous cost at the best English public scl^ools; it is far superior to tlnu. which, at a 
far higher cost is ordinarily given to children of the middle classes in England. A 
private secondary school c:innot be opened without notice to the pnblic anthoriti's: 
they must l>e satisfied that the premises are suitable; and the director must have a 
certificate of probation— shewing that he has served five years in a secondary school 
— and a certificate of competency obtained at the public examination for secondary 
teachers. The Academy inspector in8|>ects private secondary schools, but only to 
see tliat the pupils are properly lodged and fed, and tltal the teaching contains 
nothing couliary to morality and the laws. The mliiisler may, however, dispense 

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with the ccrtiiicate of probation, and holy orders are accepted in lieu of the certifl- 
Ciite of coiiipetenry. 

A hvjy, dated 21ht June 1865, founded a new conrse of stndy in secondary schools 
— a special secondary instruction. The object of the special secoudnrv iiisi ruction is 
declared to be to *• foun<l the sub-offlcei-s of Indtistry ;" int*trnctioii in fivinij lungunga 
\» Hubstiinted for the classical int«lruction of the secoiid:>ry schools; the elements of 
science and its applications receive great attention — particular regard htiup had to 
the t('nchiugof agriculture and the sciences which boar' upon it. The teaching, 
moreover, is intended to impart what may be called a sound French education. A 
normal school has been founded at Cluny for the preparation of masters for this 
spei'ial secondary instm<5tion. 

For primary instruction in France, an excellent basis was laid by M. Guirot's 
law of 1833. of which, indeed, the more imi)ortant provisions iiave been rutainetl. 
The body of legii^lation actually in force consists of the law of Marcli 16, 185u, the 
organic decree of Marcli 9, 1852, the law of June 14, 1854, and the law passed during 
the year T[867. The law requires ttiat every commune shall maintain an elementary 
school, eitlier by itself, or in combination with other communes t in founding and 
maintaining its schools, it is to be aided, if necessary, by the department and hy the 
state. It must have ttixed it«elf specially for the schools three centimes per franc of 
rental before it can claim aid ; the depart ment mu>t have taxetl itself specially two 
centimes for the communal schools l)efore the state is resortt d to. Up to the pre- 
sent year, a certain number of i»oor children— ^he numlier det rmiiud for each 
school by the prefect of the department— were admitted to the school gratuitously ; 
for others, a fee was charged, whicli was collected every month by the tax-cathere/. 
llie stiite contributed whatever was necessary in addition to the coinmunarand de- 
IMirtniental taxation and the school-fees. The law of tlie present year, however, 
pmvides that all children are to be admitted gratuitously whose parmts would have 
difficulty in payinjr the school-fee : and that a commune whose taxation amounts to 
four centimes additional may dispense with the school-fee altogether, the detlciency, 
if any. so aiisin^ being made up by the state. In the large towns, the schools hnve 
long been gratuitous— the communes often taxing themselves, for school-purposes, 
beyond the amount required by law. Up to tiie year 1867, the law did not oblige the 
comninues to maintain separate schools tor girls, though a lan/e proportion of them 
contributed towards the maintenance of tucli schools. The law of 1867 provides for 
the establishment of girls' schools ; the cost of them — the communal and the de- 
partmental t;ixntlon being in most places previously exhausted— will fall in a great 
measure upOM the >-tate. 

Religious instruction is given in every school. In France, the Roman Catholic, 
the Protestaiit, and tlie Jewish forms of worship are subsidised by the state ; and it 
Is ptxjvidei' that, in comnmnes where more than one of these is publicly professed, 
each form is to have its separate school. The depar: mental council, however, has 
power to authorise the nnnm, in a common scliool, of children belonging to differ- 
eni communions. For such cases, jt is provided that ministers of each commnniou 
sliall have free and equal access to the schiol, at separate limes, to attend to the 
religious instruction of meml)ers of their own flock. To a school appropriated to 
ouf denomination, no child belonging to another is admitted, ejfcept at the express 
demand of his parent or guardian, signified in writing to the teacher. Denomina- 
tional schools are now tlie ^-ule, common schools the exception. Previously to 1850, 
niider M. Qnizot's law, common schools were the rule, but it was found that in them 
the religious instruction presented grave practical difficu ties. All the religious 
l>odi<?s appear to be satisfied with the present system, Tlie schools, though denomi- 
national, are communal schools ; the denominations have not the management of 
them ; and they are all subiect to the same inspection. 

The mayor and the mmlster of religion in each commune have the supervision 
and moral direction of the primary school ; iu practice, they are strictly confined to 
matters connected with its morality. Cantonal delegates are ap))ointed by the de- 
Iiartinental council (the canton is a division larger than the commune), who inspect 
the primary schools of their canton ; but they have no real authority over tlio 
schools; they are only allowed to make rtpresentations as to the state of the schools 
to tiiedep:irtmental council, or to the insp^'Ctor. The departmental council has the 
Chief pait iu the regnlatiou of the primary schools ; moreover, no private primary 

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National Edacation 1 * 1^0 . ^^^ 

school can be opened wllhont ife pcrmlsnion ; nnd If !t refnsc permission, there l« 
no appeal. It i» the prefect, however, who haH the ^>o\ver of iiomiiiatiui.% easpeud- 
iiig, and disniissiug pnhiic primary teachers. Hib auttiorKy Us u?'iial!y cxeix'imd 
ui)On the report of the Academy insiKJCtor — ihe nuivci"«ity ofllcial whose importniU 
function?, in respect of secondary iustrnction, have alrt:ady l>eeu described. Tiie 
acadenueH have the charge of the normal schools of prinmiy instrnction, and ttm 
euperviaion of the prinnu-y schools tis resrardt* the methods of te:iching and cour-e 
of study. Under them are the primary inspectors, who re|>ort to the Acadeuiy in- 
spirctors; ahove the latter, as rejjarda primary instruction, there are fonr rnspectoi- 
geiienils, attached to the office of educjiliou at Paris* It is tlie primary inspector 
who really superintends the instruction ot the schools ; hi» labors arc ance-ising, his 
insp'.^ciiou in a reality, for lie is not n-quired to give notice of his visit**. The private 
primary schools are subject to' ids iunpection, but only as regards tlie provision 
nnide for the bodily health and comtort of the pupils and ihe maintenance of 

The fubjects whish mast bi; taui^ht in every primary school, in addition to moral 
and religious teaching, are reading, writing, aritlimetic, ilie elenientsmif French 
grammar, and ilie French system of weiglits and measures ; there are other subj'cts 
which are f.-tcultative— wliicli, in wliole or in part, may be taught, that is, if the 
council of tliecominnne should so desire, and the departmentnl council g>ve its 
consent. Th r»e farulbitive matters are tlie applictuions of arithmetic: 
the elements of history and of Geography, the elements of physics and 
of ualnral history; elementiii'y instruction in agriculture, the arts, and 
hy-jfiiiie; survc^yiug, levelling, drawhig, singing, and gymnastics. For girls, 
there are superior priinai'y sciiool-* whicli ttmcli the faciiltitive matters only, and in 
giris'schools. instruction is usually given in needle-work for ai)out three hours a day. 

For the preparation of male teacliers the law reqninw every deimrtment to main* 
t'liii a nornud ^'Cho<)l; in some cases, however, two departments are allowed to 
maintain one jointly : theie^are now 70 of these schools. Tliere are se|Mirate nor- 
mal schools for female teachers ; of these, the n u in i>er was recently 34; now tliat 
the law is al)oul. to add largely to the number of girls' schools, it will proimbly lie 
incr(!ased. The memhers of the religious orders devoted to teaching, which 
perform a great part in prim iry educ-iiioii, are tiair.ed for their duties in tlie 
e.-itahlishments of their respective orders. (Of these orders, the most important U 
that of the Brethren of the Oiiristiun School?*). The iiisiruction of the nor- 
mal schools is meagre; it scarcely exceeds the siibj cts of primaryNnsti'uctiou; 
a considerable proportion of the students, indeed, acquire only un im- 
perfect knowledge of tlu facultative 8ai>j.K;t8. School-mei hod is what in the 
normal schools, it is deemed most important to teach. The examination for primary . 
sell olunisters— which is condiict'd by a commission appointed by the d^partiueu^ 
tal council — is limited to the subjects taught in the schools. Tli re are two classes 
of ceriificates, according as the teacher pa-^ses in the obligatory siibj cts only, or m 
the whole or part of the laciillative subjjcts also. Every m;di} teacher, public or 
private, Is required to have the cert.ftcatuof capacity granted after an examination; 
also, excepting in ihe case of religious p;'it<on8. a certificate of morality. The law - 
recognises a certificate of stage to be granted to assistants who have served as such 
for three years, as a substitute for the certificate of capacity; but this provision 
hiM been unpopular, and the qualification of stage is practically unknown. Female . 
lay teaclKtrs require t »e certifljate of capa ity ; f«;male teachers of tiie religious or- 
d rs are exempt from it. No person can b.i ai)poin!ed a regular coramanal teacher 
unless he be twenty- four years old, and has served for three years since his twenty- 
first year as an assistant, or as a «»*pp/yi7»f7 teaciier. The supplying teacher g»-ta 
a lower salary, and may be employeil in the poorer communes. The salaries are 
low even in the towns: in many of the country communes, the Ic^ral minima are 
not exiteeded : these are— for an ordinary communal teacher, ^€24 a y«ar ; for a fe- 
male t*!aclier, or a supplying teacher, £20 a year. The commune pays jGS a yeiur, 
besides the school-fees ; whatever is require« I to mnke up the legal minimum, ihe 
government supplies: and, since 1862, the government has, upon certain condi- 
tions, made slight allowances iu addition to the minimum. 

It is ill secondary instruction that the education of France has a dmded sn^.Ti* 
ority over thai of JSuglaud. The primary iudiractiou is scarcely equal to thai givttii 

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Jn English ec^ool8 of the «ime ^d". Mr Mtittheiv Arnold hns reported tli:jf in lsft9, 
he ioaitd in Freiicli primary eciioolt) the writing fftir, bin nau-cely soKuod h8 in lu t- 
lish echools; tl>e reiidiug better, the itrtth luetic much better tiiiiii iu Bnti^iifiii hcIiooIs. 
Of hi»»tory and geogrupiiy, t lie pupils w«re far more igiiorunt tlinu Eii);)ii«li tcln»«»l 
childreu of the emiie ui;e. 'J*t)e uiiuintry of M. Dumy, however, bii^ been iiii eia4»f 
impFOTenient ; mnch nU)re attention is given totbefacnltnlivemnttersiiow ; e^|H•ci;tl 
attention to agi-icnlture and tite Bul>ject8 connected with the daily life of the |>e}iBaiit. 
Mr Arnold came to the conclnsion, that even in the preat towns there Wf rc no 
m»M>e8 of children left atiOKfther nneducat«d^ that almost all passed at some lime 
tiirotigli the schools. Adult classes', t^msrht ni the evenings, have greatly increased 
in numbers of late years, and are now aioed by the state. 

In 1834— just after the p^issiiigof M. Gnizot's iaw-4he nnmber of primary schools, 
pnblic and private, was lU 816 ; in 1867, It was 66.1(K) ; in 1872, it was 70,180, of which 
3S,S60 were boys' or mixed schools, 17.460 girls' schools, and 11.000 wore fw*: schools. 
In the primary schools alone tliere were, in 1872, 4.722.000 scholars— 3,600.000 more 
than tlie nnniDer of scholars In 1829. In 1872, tli« year of the census, a cart-fnl iiiquliy 
was made into tiie condition of the French people with regard to prinniry education. 
Of the totiil population al)Ove llie years of childhood, it was foui'd that 80-77 |>er c<iit. 
conid neither rea<l nor writc^ 10*94 could niUy read, and but 68-29 could do both. 
1'here was a most extraordinary difference between one department and another in 
thix respect, the ))ercentageof utterly illiterate persons ranging from 6-9 |>er cettt. in 
Bonbs, to 61-8 in Haute-vitfime ; the most favorable figures Indiailing universally 
the north-eastern departments. In 1872 tlie stat« and the commaues exiieuded 
85,000,000 of francs on primary education alone. Tlie item of puliiic iustructioii 
stood ftt 40,211,000 in the budget of 1877. For the means of higher edacatiou iu 
France, see Univebsitt of France. 

StaU-education in Prussia. 

In all the^^tostant states of Germany, the school-system In its main features is 
the same. Th« Prussian system — more celel)ruted, more extensive, more practical 
and thorough than tlie system of the minor states— alwaj'S powerfully inflnenciiig 
tb«ise, and now likely to influence thein more than ever, is that wliich must l)e 
selected for description. AtK)nt tiiis system, M. Cousin, l»y a strange confusion Im-- 
tween it and a project of law — a mere scheme drawn up by tlie educiilion mini^tt r. 
Von A]t4-nstein, never even proposed for legislation — spread misconceptions througli- 
out Europe, which have scarcily yet been disi)elled. It has been greatly changed, 
greatly improved since Counin wrote in 1881 ; out it does not yet In tymmelr}' and 
completf iie-^s approach to what ho describ -d. 

In P*ms«ia, there is a Minister of Public Worship and InstmctioD ; but the offi- 
cials who under him carry on the government of education are the officials of the 
Department of the Interior. At the head of the government iu each province is ii 
president ;vover each of the deiNirtuieuts into wliich the province is divided there is 
a prefect ijbezirk) ; each of these officers is assisted by a council, of which one sec- 
tion, called Sehnlcollegium^ forms a separate council for deliberating upon the local 
scbool-affiiirs. One member of the school-council, called provincial nchool-councillor. 
is assocfatHJ with tlie president for administrative purposes : the prefect has atl.ach< d 
to him two de])artinent4il school -conncillops, one Protestant, one Catholic, to advise 
with him, and to .administer the scliool-affairs of their respective commuiiioiiH. 
There is practically a division ma/le of ednoitional affairs between the offlcialn of 
tiie province and those of the department. The provincial schooKcouucillor takes 
the charge of secondary education within the province; the departmental school- 
coimcillors the charge of the primary scliools of the department 

Over each of the arcles into which the department is divided is nn officer, termed 
a Landrath, who reports \o the prefect of tlie department. With tlie luiidrath, ^*n 
tiie management of primary schools, is associated the aiuperintendent^ ihe chnrcli 
dienitary of the circle. The siiperinteudeut is ex-ojicio inspector of the primary 
schools wit iiin the district. The parish clergyman i»eX'Ojffieio local inspector of 
primary schools within his parish. There is also for the school or schools of each 
paristi a board of managers, the composition of wliich varies in different provinces. 
I'he clergyman is always a member ot it : he is usually chairman. In conutry places, 
tht iHiok: powers of the board are often left in his hauda. 

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National Bdaoatioii 


In the *♦ exterior" affafra of t!»« Pchool>-pa8.<*{Dg school -Acconiits, vIsitaHon of 
achool-premisea, control of the fKshool-eatatea. adjntftineot of the echool-ratc^'&c.— 
the hiiidmtli ia aaaociated with the Hnperhiteudenu Ka *Mnterior " affuinn, ull tiiat 
conceriiB its teaching and ita dit*cipliue, are, 8iibj(>ct to the eatablialied re^alntions, 
under tlie aaperinfa^udent'a control; bnt, in practice, they arc more nouer t lie lu- 
flaeuce of tlie de|)artmental acliuol-coniicillor. Tt>e att|)erintend(*Ht, howevt^r, ia 
roqaired to visit the achool:*, and to wntcii over tlie conduct of the local iuapector, 
and lie reporta annaaily to rhe government of the d^^ttinent The iocti inapoctor'a 
province la tiie interior afEaira of tlie school. He is expected to vii<iit the ^chooitt • 
diligi*ntly, and to be active in the anperviaion of them. The religiona teaching of 
the children ia almost entirely done by hint, it being his duty to prepare them for 
confirmation, which comes at the end of tlie school-period. To qualify thciro for the 
duly of sclkool-inspection, the candidates of theolo^ are required to attend for fix 
weeks as auditors at a normal school, and to have attended a course of Pddagogik 
at the univei-sity. Nevertlieless, it appears that many clergymen are very ill dtted 
for this work, and th<>ir powers of interference are often exercised in ways annoy- 
ing to tlie master, and detrimental to the school. The ** exterior" affairs of the 
schools of a parish belong to the board of managers. 

This lK)tir«t is usually composed of representatives (1) of the patrons, if any, of 
the school ; (S) of the parochial clergy ; (8) of the municipal l)ody ; (4) of the house- 
holders. It has a iitated meeting once a quarter ; it meets whenever it is summoned 
by the chairman. It manages the revenue and expenditure of the school, in respect 
of which it is responsible to the laudrath; it is the irnsiee of tlie school-buihlings 
and property. It is it« duty to see tliat tlie Ft>gular scliool-liours are kept ; tliat no 
unauthorised holidays are given ; to it application must lie made, for dispensalionB 
for periods exceeding a week. Its members should be present at nil exiirainatiuns 
and other public solemnities of the pchool. In tite large towns, there are school- 
delegacies appointed by the Magixtrat^ whose powers are more extensive, and are in 
practice the greater, because in the large towns the pastors \m,y little attention to the 
schools. The school-delegacies have control over the higher as well as the primaiy 
schools whicli their constitueots niainiaiu ; two paid meml)er»-«ohool-delegatea — 
who must be members of the Magistraty exercise the greater part of their auuiorily. 
Under the delegacy, for every school there is a school-board, consisting of the cler- 
gyman and two lay memliers, whom the delegacy appoints. The delegacy itself is 
accountable to the nia>;tstrat, aiid both are suhordhiate to the provincialcouncil. 

Every commune is bound to find scliool-room and teachers for all the children of 
school-age belonging to it. The amount of the teacht^r's stipend in in every case 
fixed by the departmental government; tliere is no legal minimum ; the salaries are 
usually very low. Some parishes possess endowments ; but, iu general, the coet of 
maintaining the schools is defrayed by means of (1) school-fees, (2) a local rate, (8) 
a grant from the national treasury. As children are only oxpecte<l to pay what tliey 
can, and as the state srants aid only after tlie strictest proof of the incapacity of 
the cx)mmune. the weiglit of the burden falls upon the local rate. The maintenance 
of the schools ranks with the first chai'ges ui>on the local purse. The teacher is 
appointed by the departmental councillor; in a few towns, however, a certain power 
of choice is allowed to the municiiMilAiitiioiities— they may select one from a num- 
ber of candidates presented to them by the government. 

School-attendance is by law coinpuls^orv Kir eight y^'ars ; the school-age beginning 
at the completion of the flfih year. But in most parts of Prussia, children, thongh 
allowed, are not compelled to attend till tlie completion i,t their sixth year. Ttie 
school-period closes with confirmation. A re^i!*ter of all children of school-ogc is 
made U)) — usually at tlie police office ; every child is registered for a {laiticnlar school ; 
there, whatever his rank, he must attend, nnless a dispensaiion i>e gr)t for him from 
the landrath. Whei\a di$>pensation is applied for, tlic parents innst state the motives 
of the application, and tlie provisions to lie made for the child's education. All per- 
sons ofllcially connected wit ii sclioo Is are expected to use their influence to secnre 
regular attendance; but failing moral suasion, there are other means of enforcinir it. 
The schoolmaster keeps a llKt of ansences, excused and inexcused. When a cliHd'a 
attendance is irregular, tiie lioardof nian:igcrs admonishes its parent. If admonltiou 
— which in general is repeatedly resorte<l ti) — has no eifi-ct, a fiateinent is sent to the 
police-office; the pui-eut is fined a email sum for each day of ihu child's 

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Natioaal Edocat'oa 

ptnce the lust admonition ; and the fine can be levied by execution, enforced by im- 
j»ri8oDniei»t, or t:»ken ont iu iNirish Inlior. It seenia that veiy few cliildix'ii fMoapt) 
legietratioii ; but i lie regularity of Uic attendance — in general it is very rt»vnlar—varl»*« 
ciuiBiderabjy in different diMrict^ ; tlie execntion of the law being Pirlct or otlur- 
wise acconllng to the tenter of tlie people, their circninMuncea, and tlie vigiltnico 
of tlie Bi-lKiol tiaiboritieB. niere are no 8tati9tic8 by whicb the succeas of tin* l:i\v 
c:mi i>e exactly tej*ied. In pouie of tlie larger towns, tlie demand for child-labor and 
the growth of panperipm are 'adding to the difflcnlty of enforcing it. FmcBia has* a 
fuctory-law requiring ttiat every child employed in a factory skall attend acliooi lor 
three hoiira a day, and tliis law is strictly enforced. 

'lei.chers of every class, pnblic aud private, have to pass two examinations. Certi- 
flcatt'H att'. of tliree d»*grees of merit — tliey may be marked ** very well qnalifled," *• v ell 
qualified," or "snfflcieutiy qnalified." The beads of exanilnntion are** religion, tlie 
German langnagts the art of schoul-^eeping, geography of Prussia, arithmetic :ii)d 
geometry, knowledge of natural objects, writing, drawing, singing and the theory of 
iiiosic, organ." After the first examination, the candidate is eligible as an assistant 
or provisional master ; he must serve in this capacity for three years before taking 
the second ; he must pass the second within five years. The second examination is 
In tbe same subjects ; but now most u-eight is given to tlie art qf S(*.hool-keepiiig. Of 
the subjects taught in primary schools, the principal is religion; the others are 
reading, writing, arithmetic, singing, and tlie elements of drawing. Incidentally, the 
te.-tciier may communicate information about natural phenomena; alKiut geography, 
beginning with that of the locality and the history of Prussia. 'J'he teaching was much 
more ainlntions before 1864; Iiefore 1854, alsi>, he normal schools, now limited to a 
jiiengi-e programme, were universities on a small scale, aiming at the mental trnining 
of their atU'ients, rather than at fitting them to teach elementary schools. 'J he change 
is often ascribed, lioth in Prussia and out of it, to politiciil motives. h:iving lieeii made 
by a part^' unfriendly to jiopular education ; hut eminent educationists defend and 
approve it. Tlie sciiOols, they say, are now attempting as much as can be thoroughly 
dune in llie time allotted for primary education, and are doing it thoroughly ; while 
the showy teaching ot former tiixes, with its endeavor to develop tlie faculties, and 
to commniiicate knowledge, neglected the indispensable elementary instruciioii, and, 
us jfg irdc^ the gr«'ater number of the scholars, was in no respect successfu'. The 
normal school training, it is said, now fits the t<aclier for his duties and his position 
in life; fonnerly|it rather unfitte<l btm for them, while fitting him |>erhaps lor some- 
thing l)etter. It is, however, admittedly a defect in the Prusaian system that it offers 
lo tint humbler classes no oppoi tnnity of carrying their education heyond the point 
ut which the elementriry schools le tve it. In some of the lovviis there are improveniei.t 
institutes, M'hero younir persons are taught in the evenings or on Hnndayj* ; bui they 
attempt little, are badly organised, and are neglect^'d by tlie school administrationt«. 
Ii should be st:<ted that the town schools often teacbsomewhat more than istau^iit in 
country places—more geography, histoi-y, and uatumi knowledge— but lhi>*. though 
permitted, is not encouraged oy the authorities. Grammar is entirely exc luded from 
piiniary instruction. The only part of the teaching which is less than cxceihsnt is 
the writing: it has been stated that upwards of 50 per cent, of the recruits are un- 
able to write — the art, never perfectly mastered, being lost, it must be supposed, 
through want of practice. 

As regards religious instmction, the rule is. that the primary school is denoini- 
natioual— public schools are set apart, that is, for children of each of the religious 
iKidies; the clergyman who has the charge of the school is the clergyman of ilie 
body to which ft is appropriated. Besides the *' Evangelical Establihhinent," in 
which Lutherans and Caivinisis are combined, there are the Koman Catholici* aiid 
the Jews to be provided for ; of other sectaiies, there are not 10,W0 iu all l*rii«Bla. 
The Lutherans and Caivinisis are combined in the svhool as in the church. Dis- 
senters are allowed to withdraw their children from the religious instruction, and 
have it given by their own pastor. Any commune may establish a mixed school, If 
if so desire, and if the authorities permit ; but, in practice, mixed schools are only 
to be found. where it would lie very inconvenient to establish a school for each bofly. 
Ill mixed schools, the teachers are chosen jiroportionately from each of the two 
groat religious booiee; if there be only one teacher, it is, in some dlMricts at leas't, 
costomary that he should be alternately a Protestant and a Catholic. The expen- 

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National Education 


xnent of mixed Bcbools liad along trinl in Prumia, and wm fonnd to be nnsatifffac- 
tdry, leadiug to utteni;it0, or mittuected utteiupis, at pronelyfiKiii, uud to parish 
squabbliug. It has beeu nbundoueti, not so iiiucU from the wish of tiie jp^veriiiaeiit, 
us in deiereitce to llie ftH>liii^s of tiie ptM>plo, and to the demands or the Roiiiau 
C itholic hierarchy, lint the denoniiuatioual system is ntoM in accord with the najt 
which the state assijj^ns to religion in the scliuol. 'J'he scliool, it is said, shoa'a Ix 
tlio' organ of the choircli for training children to chnrcb-menibersiiip ; school and 
church are expected between them to form tho cJiikt into a man contented with hi-* 
position in life. Religious teaching must be given by the master for uu hour eveiy 
day. lu thij Protcstaut schools, tlie master tcaciies tlie Lutheran cateciiism lo 
Lutheran children ; the Heidell}erg catechism to tlie Kefurnied children. Scriptme 
liistorv is also taught ; and hymns, from a prescribed collection, have to bo <-X)tn- 
luitted to memory. TIic master is not allowed to expound the catechism ; iiis duiy 
is to S"e that ihe cliildrtMi learn it^ and understand tlie words in wliich it is expresseil. 
It is the clersfymaii who explains its doctrines to the elder chUdreu iu preparing 
them for couflrmaiion. 

Any one may open a private school of any class in Prussia wlio can obtain a 
licence for the purpose from the goveniinent ; l>ut iu tlie city, it must be sliewn ttint 
the district in wiiich the school is to be placird is insnffleieiitly supplied witti school.^ ; 
and ev(5ry private teacher must have passed the two examination!<. Private schools 
are subject at all times to the inspection of the school-councillor, and are bound 
strictly to follow the regulations e!*tablished for private schools. The larger towns 
in Prussia are not yet adequately supplied with public priinaiy schools; private 
pri.nary schools ai*e therefore common in such places: iu Berlin, they educate 
nearly half tiie children who are in primary schools. 

Of the secondary and higher education in Prussia, a brief and general notice 
must sufflc.'. It has already lieen stated that the superintend. -nee of the Si coudary 
schools i-* undertaken by the school-couiiciilor of the province ; it is indei>Aiideut of 
ecclesiastical control. The larger communes and the tuwni are re^uirfd ta inaln- 
taiu middle schools, giving instruction of a higher ordi-r thnn is iriveu iu the ele- 
meutiu-y scIiojIs, n sound G.Mnian education, and preparing boys tor the gymna>ia. 
These niu!*t bs provid "d to the satisfaction of theantliot-ities,accoi*diugtothe wants 
of the population. They are maintained, like the primary schools, by school-fees, 
local taxation, and these failing, the state treasury. Some of the'larger towns 
maintain also sec(uidary schools of a liigiier class ; tnese are of two kuids — the resd- 
school, and the gynuiafium or grammar-school. In such towns ns stated already, 
tlio looU management rests with the school-del -gacy. There in, besides, a consideV- 
uble unmi)er of n'al- schools aud gymnasia which are entirely ni the bauds of the 
govemniont. Noun of tlie real-s-hools take l)o.-irders; very few of the gymiia^^ia 
do so. The gymnasium is a classical school pr.'paring for the universities. In tii«) 
real'Schoo!, mathematics, scientific studies, and modern languages are sui^stituted 
for the classics, and the insti'ucfion is designed t> prepare tlie pupils, us far as 
possible, for tlie pursnits of life. The re:U-Pchools irrant certificates to their pupils. 
The royal real-scliools and the gymnasia (o;her than those luaintained by the lar r ^ 
towns) ari! under tiie management of th ? provincial school-councillor. Some of tlie 
old<n' of those gymnasia, have endowments, but the money neoessaiy for their sup- 
port is ccmtributed by the state. Appointments lo tie schools are made by the 
school-councillor; he appoints the teachers, or nominates the leet out of which local 
anthoritl -s have to clioos-, in all the secondary scUools. Teachers for all the 
schools have to pass two cxa mi nations. There are boards of examiners, ap{>ointed 
by the provincial government, which conduct the examinations; these bruirda also 
ex imine the students of the gymnasia, to test their fitness for the university. The 
tmiv'-rsity in Prussia is a tcacldng (or rather a leclurinL'), as well as an examining 
body, and grants degrees in four faculties — Theology, Jurisprudence. Medicine, and 
Phiio.-»opliy. There are seven universities within the territory hehl l>y Prufsiu. l»cfo;o 
the w^ir of 1860; in two of these— Breslau and Bonn — there Ik a Iloman Catholic as 
well as a Protestant institute of theology. The univer.«iiy affairs are administer* d 
by a commissioner appointed by the crown ; ail Uicir regnlatious are prescriovd, and 
ail the appointments in them made by the state. 

Statc-edticati&n in the United States, 

Iu the United States, the education of the people is out of the sphere of the 

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1 c) ;^ ^ National Education 

cpntrnl govpinmciit ; it ranks among the domestic affafns of the several states, and 
it is chi'-fly in Jlie Northern States — those from whicli, i>efore the hue war, slavery 
was* exclndfd — that systematic attempts have been made to promote it The centrnl 
^overnmeiil has, liowevt-r, in moretlian one Instance endeavored lo assist edncation 
in lUc states, by providing for it endowments. In the states which contain waste 
lauds, it puts aside, in every newly-snrveved township of six miles squan', one 
sqnare mile, for the sup^wrt of schools within the township. Tlie stat« btKiomes 
trustee of this laud, or of the price oi)tained for it, whicli is usually called the'lown- 
f^hip Fund, and pays over the yearly income to the township when it has tieen set> 
tied. The central government, about 1886, had accnmulated in its treasury n con- 
siderable J)alance, the suriiJus of^ Its income over its exi>onditure during sevtsral 
years : ^hi«t it apportioned pro ra^<z among the states, reserving the right to reclaim 
ir. This right has not l)een, and is ?io! nicely to be exerciseo; and in niost of the 
Northern States, the income of the '* United States Deposit Fund " is appli d to the 
^npport of education. Since 1864, by what is called the " Agricultural College Act." 
tl'C central government has made a liberal offer of allotments of land to the nUWvts 
upon certain conditions, for the endowment of one or more institutions in every 
state, in which — whatever the other instruction nuiy be — special attention shall he 

§ivt«ii lo I hose branches of learning related to agricult ure and the mechanic arts. 
• veral states are preparing to avail themselves of this off r. 
Every one of the Northern States has its common schools. Before the war, Ken- 
tucky, Mi:<f>ouri, and Louhtiana had each some kind of school-svstem ; at various 
pointd throughout the South, particular towns had establlghed schools, always after 
the model set in the Noiiheni Statt^s. The new stjite of Western Virginia has 
past«ed a ctchool-law since the conclusion of the war. In the Northern Slates. Imv 
sides the endowments above deK<!ril)ed— both of which are possessed by most or the 
states — every state i)Osse:»8eB a sctiool-fund arising from various sources — sale of 
landit, taxation, p^maltJes, and forfeitures — which is usually vested either in the 
Ftjite legislature or in a Board of Edu< ation. In one or two of the states, the income 
of this fuud is considerable, but in general it is small. It is usually, but not in all 
the st:»te«. applied solely to the support of public schools, or of the normal schools 
which luHp to provide them with lenchers. Apart from ll»e influence exercised by 
tj-eans of this fund, the state usually pnjmotes public instruetion only by its leels- 
iation, by which it requires orei abloj* local^bodies to make certain provision for the 
f-dncMtiou of children within their juriMliction. Ev«rywhere, the law haves much, 
and usually the practice leaves everything, to the local bodies; and these come short 
nf. or exceed the legal requirements according to the local interest in education nnd 
ai)iliiy topay for it. It is through the interest of the municipalities in education that 
very ample provision is made in the towns ; it is thiough the foice of exninple, ai.d 
in deference toeducational^expcrienco, that a certjiln uniformity of system pi-evails. 
There is a close. approach to uuilormity both in the law and in the practice ot the 
Several st-ites ; and a description of the system of one stjite will be approxinnitely 
true of that of other states. The Massac^tUfetts system is fittest lo be selec.ted for 
de:«cription, as l)eing the oldest, the ntost celebrated, that which on our side of ihe 
Atlantic is mo>«t identified with the common schools, and perhaps on the whole the 
nio8t successful*- Sdme of the principal variations from it will oe noted. 

In 1642 — ^twenty years after the landing of tl»e Mayfowef—ihe Mashachnsetts col- 
onists pnssed a hiw rt-quirlug every citizen, under a penaltyof 208., to te.ach his cliil- 
dn^n and apprentices, or have them taught, to read perfectly the English language. 
Five years later they passed another law, requiring, under penalty, every township 
eontruning 50 householders to support a teacher to teach their children to read and 
write; reqtdring every townslrip containing 100 householders to nuiintain a gram- 
I ar-school capable of fitting youths for the university. The present law is difter« nt, 
if not less liberally conceived. The cl»ange was made by numerous steps, and was 
p Mhably forced on by the circumstances of the community. T\\e hiw. as it now 
>tands in the revis«l statutes of the state, provides that in ev( ry township the inhab- 
itants shall maintain for at leai«t six months in the y<'ar a sufficient nnnd)erof 
scliMols f'.ir all the children of the township. The teachers are to be of competent 
nhjlity and good monds, and they are to teach orthographv, reading, writing, Eng- 
lish grammar, geography, anthmetic, the hi.>*lory of the United States, and good he- 
h.jvior. Other subj'Cts— algebra, vocal music, drawinir, physiology, and hygiene-- 
ore to be taught or not at the discretion of the local comuiiilec. Every township 

Digitized by 


'National Edacation _ ^ 1 OA ^ 

Tiitty, and every towship coiitalnlnff 500 liouReholders malt, afpo maiirtitlu for ten 
months iu the year a ocliool wliicTi eball jrive iiimniction in jreuerul Itiniory, hook- 
keoplnjj, enrveying, geometry, nalurul }>liilo8oplty, ciieuiii'try. boUtuy, the civil polity 
of Mas^achnsettf* and of th^; United 8t:itft<, una tlie Latin iauginii^e. And in cvcrv 
township containing 4000 intiabitaiis, the leiiclicr must be cuni|>e!teut to inRtruct. iii 
the QreeKaud French languagoB, in astronomy, geolajry* rliotoric, logic, 
a'.id moral sciences, and political ecouonii'. Aibrtfover, any lowntdiip may 
ei(ta')Hsh schools for children ovtr 16 years of ago, dertirniiniittc the inHiriicriua 
to be given, and appropriate money for tiieir sapport The compulsory purt of the 
law is Hopported by penalties, but it is said that there would l)e difficnhy in enfoix>- 
ing them ; at anyrare, they are not enforced. It is also provided th it every cluid \w^ 
twf en 8 and 14 mast be Pi:nt to scliool for at least 18 weeks in a year : tue penalty 
for breach of this provision is 20 dollars, bnt the idea of enforcing it seems ni-ver 
to liave been entertained ; its existence even is not generally known. Tim Inw do.-i* 
not permit school-fee^, or, as they are called in America, rat^: bills. There Het'iiis 
to be no fand arising from waste lands in Msssachusetts ; and the township raiseif 
the necessary f unite ny a lax upon property — the personal property of the inhabi- 
tants and the capitalised value of their real projjerty siluatt^ within the towoMhip. 
The amount of the rate is! by the law left wholly andetermincd : it is dftermined ly 
the householders at their annual meetinj?. The state endeavors to inflneuce tht> 
townships to maike a liberal provision by means of the school-fund, a sharo of 
which is given to every township which has imtde its returns to the Board Of Bda- 
cation, and has spent not less than at the rate of a dollar and a half per head for 
all the children of the township. The school-fund contribution is very small-^less 
th:tn a quarter-dollar for eyjery child ; hut it is said to have an excellent influence 
npon the rural towudhips. No doubt, the publication of the returns made to tlia 
Bo irdof Education tends t^ ppar on the backward districts. 

The mana<;ement and control of all the public schools of a township are placed 
In the hands of a school-committee, cousistini^ of any number divisible by three; 
the members of this committee hold office for three years, and one-third of theui 
are elected annnually at the anual meetnigof the township. The commiUee have the 
superviHon ot the schools ; and it is among their duties to see that no book oilcn- 
laiert to favor the teuetd of any particular sect of Ohrit*tians hhall be used in the 
schools, and to require the daily Heading of some jiortion of the Bible in tlie common 
English version. Any township, by.its public, or a city, by its citv-conncil, 
may require the committee to appoint a paid superintendent of schools : when this 
is not done, the me!nl)er8 of the committee receive a small allowance for tlie 11 mo 
during which they are en^a^ed upon the rchool-affalr.^. But, moreover, any town- 
ship may, at a meetiutf called for the purpose, resolve to divide itself into districia 
for the support of its pchools. If this be done, the township named for each district 
a " prudential committee," consisting eitlier of one or of three |>ersons, resident 
within the district, wl»icl» is charg d witli providing and keeping in repair the scliool- 
honse, at the expense of the district, and, if the towusldp so determines, with the 
duty of selecting and contracting with the teachers. Tlie district determines tho 
amount to bo raiped by it for the building, or repair or furnishing of it-s school ; this is 
collected by the town^^hip collector, and handed over to the district-committee, 'j'lm 
school-committee retains, its functions of maihigement, except so faras they have 
been made over to the districts ; and hence, there is a double management of the 
pchools. which is found to he attended vvith Inconveniences. The division into dis- 
tricts, too, is said to have led to an unnecessary multiplication of schools In conntiy 
plac(5s ; people scheme to have the township so divided iliat there may be a school 
in tlK'ir neighborhood— there are therefore more schools than are needed, and more 
. tlian can be maiuttdned in efficiency,- Tho school-committee — ^In cities, the school- 
I superintendent — examines the teacher before his appointment, and ^ttiijts bhn a 
t certificate which remains in forc^ for a cei'ttiin time. There are three classes of 
c Ttiflcate— one valid for six months, another for twelve, a tliii-d for two years. 
The common schools of a township are open to all children resident therein l)eiweeu 
five and fifteen years of age : none are to be excluded on account of race, color, or 
religious opinions; and it has been held t hat a child unlawfully excluded may re- 
cover damaffMs thcn^for in an action of tort. 

lu New Yoi-k, iu Peuusylvouia, and iu most of the Westeru States, large nmni* 

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If ational Ediication 

cipal powers are posst'srad by the connty, and the conoty shares with the township 
the iii:ii»ag«ineut of K:hoo]-nff»ir8. Nev York has a state superfutendeutt whose 
power over the sHiools la considerable. lu that state, it is the srlKioI-couiinissioDer 
<>f th»i ** AsscinWy Districi '* in wliich the township lies who dlridee the townsliip 
into sohool-districts : nnd it is the district which determines the scbool-taz: the 
township is ahnost completely ignored. In New York. Ohio, and Illinoia. it is by 
cnniitv officials that teachers are examined and cerJllcated. In New Yon, Rhode 
Inland, and Connecticut, *' rate-bills "—tliat is, school-Cees— are allowed, and are nso- 
»!ly levifd. Several states besides Massachasetts mJ^e schooi^t tendance compnl- 
Kory : in most of the states, tliere appears to l»e sonie proTisiou against *• truancy ;** 
bnt it appears that attempts are not made to enforce the law except occasionally, 
HI the case of homeless, wandering children, who aft liabh:, in lien of a line, to be 
■ sent to reformatory schools. It has been Ciilcniatid that in tlie city of New York 
(pop. »40,000) there are al)oat 100,000 children who do not go to school— thoogh in 
no city is there a l>etter or ampler provision of common schools. 

As mfght be expecied, the t chool laws work badiv in Ci nntry districtju The bonse- 
lio'd'-rs are disposed to be satisfied wit h any kind of school, pi-ovided It Ix-chwip, and 
\%ithin easy re:tch of them ; and the malt iplicai ion of schooli* by the district system, 
m-ikes it almost unavoidable th:it an insufficient sura should be s))ent upon e:ich school. 
The t»*achers— -« vast majority of whom are women— being wretchedly paid, are badIv 
qualified ; th(;y are constantly changing; scarcely any intend to make teaching their 
uccnimtion for life. Pew of them have been trained for their work — the normal 
schools which eximt beinj^ utterly inadequate to supply the dennind for teachers ; 
and the examination by a rural schooUommlttee affords bnt a slender guarantee 
of comiietency. The teacher is usually '* lioardrd round " among the farmers of the 
district, and is said to be treated by them with nmch olwervan^; but his income- 
putting a money value upon the board — has l)een estimated at an average of about 
50«. a mouth, and that only during the time that the school is openl In 1864, in 84 
^ttiwiiships or MassachuseUs— more than a fourth of all the townships in the state — 
tlieschools were kept open for less than the statutory period of ^Ix months. The 
teaching is said to be wonderfuUy^ood, considering tlie scanty pay given ; but where 
the vacations last for more tlian six months, and the teacher is changed almost every 
term, thoroueb and systematic instruction is scarcely {lossible. It is in the towns 
that the workinsr of the school-laws has 1)eeu crc>ditablc and successful. Tiirongh the 
high pDl>lic spirit of the munici{uii bodies, and the great importance attacheil to edu- 
cation, the support of the common schools is in general most liberally provided for. 

In the towns, there is usually a superintendent of schools, by whom, und-rand 
iu co-operation with the general and district scliool-commiitees, the schools are 
Inspected, and the character of the instruction determined; by liinitheexammatiou 
of the teachers also is conducted. Of the schools, there arc four classes — primary, 
intermediate, ^ammar, and liigh-schools or a&idemies. Children ucually enter the 
primary school alwnt 5 or 6; the grammar-school between Satid 9; the hiich-school 
iM-tween 12 and 13 years of age. They are not promoted from one class of school to an- 
otlier without undergoing an examination : the intermediate^scliools, where » hey exist, 
are intended for those wMio are too old to be at the primary school, and too backward 
to enter the grammar-school. To be admitted to a gmmmat-school, a child must l>e 
able to read at first sight eaf»y prose, to spell common words of not more than three 
syllables, and to have acquired a slight knowledge of arithmetic For admission to 
the high sclTooI, the usual requirements are ability to read con-ectly and finently, an 
acquanitauce with the Sfinlple rules of arithmetic, and some knowledge of geography 
and grammar. From these tests may be inferred the average proficiency expccled 
to be attained by children leaving the primary and the grammar school respeciively. 
Iu the gramntar-schools of Boston, the programme of studies consists of spelling, 
reading, writiiig. arithmetic with book-keeping, geography, English grammar, the 
hii»:ory of the Ijnited States, natural philo>«ophy, drawitig, and vocal music: this !« 
nearly the usual programme; bnt in New York and one or two other states a little 
more is attemptefl. Between the hiKh-schools or aaidemles in the variotis state**, 
there are considerat>le differences. In the city of New York, for example, tlie Free 
Academy has pretentious to the rank of a uuivet:sity, and grants decrees in arts 
and sdeoce (Bachelor of Arts. Bachelor of Science, Master of Art?) to 
stndeots who have completed with credit the curriculum of five years. But, r 

U. K., X, 5. 

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5:s:r*^-^^« vjs 


U.-iu-nu. the hi...,-iK:hoor« nro w^^o^^'? *'• f <'0|l'^«''y /"^^'nctipn, iotcnded A 

cla-^Ycal Iain/««g."! tn „hei atics the bcieuces, hiMory, antV tlie EugUah « t 
limsW'»i:e mid Zu^Xi^^U nun-utncc. The usual cumculnm w one of iuor \\ 
rearj* ; aud tlie fcitud.-iits are lioi n-qHiied Xa eludy all the snlv)ect8 taugltt i,i the kI 
icliooL At Bos-tou, wiiere boys ure adtiiissiiilti to trie Latin liigii-school at 10 yeure W 
of iii^e. ttie cmrit uUiiu Ja.H|8 for six yeans. Tlicre uru high-schools for girls aa wnil ■[ 
t^ fur boy«*, the proi;rumnu; of iustructioii being the same in b.>th. At Boston, tlui ■ 
cunicnliim at the girl**' iiigh-school lastis for turue yours; and pupils at udmisiAiou Wk 
niusl be botweou 15 mid 19 yeara of age. Bo?<tou possesses, b^'sidcs its Latin liijju- * H 
bChool, and itsgiilrt' higlischool^an Enjfiish high-scliool, .^:>id Jo be admirably pUmu 'd ■ 
4iud couducted. The iustr action iu it clo8ely resembiea that given iu ihe r aU ■ 
acliuoU of Germany, including French and German, aud various sciences, withtUeic fl 
application ; being intended to enable boys to complete a sound Euglidh educiitiuii, S 
and to prepare tluunselvee for conunercial iife. Great complajuts are nhiioal every- ■ 
where maJe — Bosion soemm to be except ionut in thi« respect — of the irregularity of '9 
the atreijdance at the primary schoil;*. It is estimated that in most stuert not umcU. \ 
nioi'e than half of the children pifs from these to the griumnar-scliools ; but a trlflibx 1 
proportiou of the gram mar-school pupils enter tlie higli-schools, aud of these, o dy 1 
a small fraction i>er8i8t to tiie end of the ctirriculum. All high-scl»ools t;™nt cur- -j 
tlflcates of graduation to pupils who have creditably gone throuLjli the course of ' 
study. The study of the clas^if.s doeft not, even in the uioiit pretentious iustitatioua ' 
of this class, seem to be carried very far, much more attention Iwiug given to 
luatliematics and natui'al science. In Boston— in many resp/cts the most tuvorahl'-j 
example that could be taken— there were, in 1S64, 32,SU children of school-age— be- 
tween 5 and 15 ; of tliese, 26,960 were in school, the averau'e attend iucebjing2-l,61i. 
Tlie number enrolled at tiie throe high-schools was only iiiS, and the ave age attend- 
ance 691. The Dumber of students who complete the Ave years' curriculuta of the 
New York Free Academy seUlom exceed.'* flity. Among the wealthy, there in gaid 
to l)e a growing disinclination to make use of the common-schools: their cbildri-n 
ai^ Udually sent to private academies. Th»5 only serious opposition to the non- 
religiotis character ot the common-schools com 'S from tho Roman Catholic clergy; 
but it is stnted that there Is a gi'owing feeling upon this snbj ^ct among nonio of the 
other religions bodies. In many of the New York schools, in wlitch tiie majority of 
tlie children are Roman Catholic, clerical iutlueiiee, insnffleient to impress tipouthe 
education the ndigioua character which it would approve, tias ohtjiined, witli tlie 
tacit assent of tlie school-authorities, thj disuse of the daily Bible r. -ad ing which thj 
law prescribes. 

The primary and grammar schools are most frequently mixed pchoos — that is, 
they admit boys aud girls ; in the teaching, however, the sexes are kept ajxirt. The 
teachers iu primary aud grammar schools, eveu in tlie towns, ure iisualJy wunieii ; 
but in Boston the priuci|)al of a gramniar-sctmol is always of the other sex. Tho 
schools are iu towns always graded — divided, that is, inio classes composed of those 
who are at the same stage ; each grad.; forms a Siq)arate department of the t^chool, 
aud is tangJit by a separate m;ister. The usual number of pupils allotted to a teachiir 
is iu the primiry schools about 50 ; in the grammar-schools about S5. I'iiia j'ystL-m 
of grading is a cheap syste.n, h. 'cause it enables a teacher to take charge of a bii'i^e 
number of pupils ; but it is ^aid to lead to u want of thoro.ighne.'is in I he Instrnctitiu, 
the teaching lieing addressed to the class rather than to the individual ^nemb -rs of 
it. \V;»nt of thoroughness seems, indeed, the besetting sin of American t^'uclii 11^9 
wliich aims too much at communicating knowledge, not ^ufflciently at d-velopiiit; 
cup:icities. In the primary and grainnmr schools, tne iducatiou costs froiu 25^. to 
3i)i*. per head ; in the high-scliools, from £6 to XIO per head. 

StatUUca of National Education. 

ThepropoitioD of clilldren attending scliool—i. e., enrolled Iu «chool-re'.fisten5» — 
to the whole population of the couutriea under mentioned tuay he approzimattrly 
BUiteil as follows: Englaud 1 in 7*7; Scotland, 1 iu 6*5; Prussia, 1 iu 6*2; ; Fraiic^i* 
1 in 9 ; Holland, 1 iu 8*11 ; Belgium. 1 iu 11 ; Northeru States of the American UniQU* 
1 in 4-5; Switzerland, 1 in t ; tiic minor ProtestiUit states of Germany, 1 in 6*7. 
TbcBu figaiea, however, muat iiut be takeu aa iudicalui^ the comuurative diftu^&iuu 


Ion National Edncatioa 

-*^ Native 

of edncalion In the coantriea named : nor are thev to be relied on an indicating witli 
anything KIceezactueBe. the comparative pmporijiouM of cliildreu actuuHy aitctidhig 
pclioo! ; for tlie proportion of Un- cliildreii enrolled which on the average 5? in acinul 
attendance varies in diffiiinrnt countries. It shonld also be liorne in inTnd tiiut aver- 
fi^*8 conceal the condition ot the worrt parta of u coantry : in Scotland, for Inpt-unce, 
whore the scliool at'endance varies from 1 in 4 of the population in the t>t:st dis- 
tricts, to 1 in 15, 1 in 90, and even to 1 in 80 in tlie worst 

Sec tlie ReiK>rts of tlie attsist.iut-connnissionors appointed to inqnire Into the 
Slate of Popular £dacatiOD in Englnud, voL iv.. biinj^ vol. xxi. part iv.sess. 1861 : 
the r«t-on(l Iteport of the Scottish Educational ComniiHsiOnerH, 1867 ; the Statistical 
S(>cieiy':i Qimrterly Jonrnal for March 1867; Horace Mann on Kdmation in Euro- 
p<'un Countries; Fraser's ltt>port on A merican (U. 8. and Canada) Sciiools; Cousin 
on German and Dutcli Education ; M. Block's A Instruct of Puhiic Documents relate 
inj; to Edncatlon in Franco ; *' L'lnHtruclion du Peuple," par Pierre Teniiteis (Brnx- 
eiles, 1865) * ** Statistiche Nachrichten &ber das Elcuieutar Schulweseu,*' ^n oIHc(hI 
ret nni. which ^ives a complete survey of elemeutory education in Prn6»<iA to tlie 
end ot 1864; "Congr6s Inleniutiouurdc Bienfai^aiuedel^ndres, Session de 1862;** 
and * Uapport et Discussion sur riiistruction Ol)U^ui«ire." 

[Since the preceding accx>aut was written, the claima of national rdncatiou 
have been more fully recognised, mid, w ith let<H opposition iboU might have l>eeii 
expected, a untional sysleni has l>een esl»I)]it>hed in EnglaiMl and Scotland. The 
Elementary Education Act for Enghind, 1870, enacts that eveiy district in which the 
exist int! schools are found deflcieutalmll have a popularly elt-cled school-lK>ard. to 
manage its rale-supported schools, levy school-rates, appoint teaclu-rs, Ac Ele- 
liieutury » bools are to be supported, and the expenses of school-botirds pai<l, out of 
funds called S4:hool-fnndB. The local rate form.« the nucleus of « ach school-fund ; 
but every school under the act is likewise entitled to an annual grant from paiiia- 
ineut not exce< ding tlie- income of the sdiool from other sources, and varying iu 
nmount according lothe nuinl>er of ptipils and their proficiency as tested by different 
Btauclanls of examination. Schools are to be open at all times to government iu-- 
e>l>eetiou. R«]igions instruction, if given at all — ai:d this is left to each l)oard to 
decide — is to he given at ^ed times other than ttic ordinai-y school-hours, wlien no 
(thild is compelled to attend. It is furtiier left to the discretion of school-l)Oards to 
make education compulsory — The Scotch Education Act, 1872, differs materiallv 
from tile Biiglisli acton three jmints only: first, by providing iluit a Kthool-boara, 
under the Scotcli Education Department, is to l>e elected in every parish and bnrgh; 
secondly, by making it illegnl for purents to omit educating their children l>etween 5 
and 18 m reading, writing, and iu-ithmetic; and ibiitilv. by comprehending higher- 
eltiss scliools. Otherwise, the acts «re much alike. Every school is to l)e open to 
children of all denominations, and religious intii ruction is only to l>e given iH'fore 
or after ordumry scliooi-hours. Provided they (Onforin to the ** conscience clause,** 
school-boards may make any provision they pleiii-e for n ligiiius iostrnction. School- 
bounle are enjoined to relieve the teaclicrs of higher-class schools, so far as may be, 
from ekmentary work.] 

NATIONAL GUARD, an organization for local defence, differiitg from the 
British Mililia and Vi.iunt^^ers. in Ming at the disposal of the municipairiies, not of 
the crown. Italy, Gret'cc. and other nations have maintained this civic force; but 
the country whence it derives historic funn*, is France. The French Nw G. was in- 
stitate<I in Paris iu 1789 wlieii the government had an army of 30.000 at the gat* s. 
'J'he municipality ariui^d 48,000 men, and their example was followed hy the chief 
towns of Fmnc«'. These coipt^ ol)taiiied the name of N. G. and assumed tlie fainons 
tricolor as their ensign. Iu 1795, 30,000 of the P. ris N. G. attacked the Tuileries, 
and were repulsed by Napoleon Bonaparte' with 6000 regular troops. In 16S0 tliey* 
were leoipinised under the command of Lafayette, their original chief; and be- 
tween 1843 and 1851 a luw was pu6.>od by which all males above 20 not oihtrwise 
employed under government were included in the N. G. After the coup d'etat in 
DiH'^ 1851, they were reduced to the condition of an armed police. In the war of 
IS70-TI, they shewed some signs of vliality in sympathy with tiie Coiniiinne, but 
effected nothing for Franca. After the fall of the Commune they were disbanded. 

NATIVE, a term mostly applied to metals, and employed to designate sub- 


^.^ * 

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Natron 1 QA , 

Natural ±0\J ^ 

Ptaiicos, (U3 minerals, whicli are moftt of them more nWindantly obtained fi-om other 
minerals by chomicul processes. Tims silver found pure, or nearly so, is Ciilled ya- 
tioe Silver, whilst luorft of the silver iu u«5e is procured froui ores in which it ezivts 
Yiiriously combined. 

NA'TRON, or Trona, nn impure 8P8qnicarl>onat« of soda (2NaO,nO,3CO,+3Aq), 
wliich always conliiins sulphate of hcmIu and chloride of sodium. Ii ii« obtaiiMta 
f roui tlie margins of hikes in Egypt, Siberia, Tibet, &c., and from the borders of the 
Black and Caspian Sous. 

. NATRON LAKES. Natron wjis one of the snbstjmcifs employed by tlie ancient 
Eiryptiaus in cmbalmhig mnmini^s. They called it heatnen, and, 'Oirethcr witli rh 5 
hike:* from wlience it was derived, it is mentioned in tt^xts of the 12th dynnsty. drca. 
1800 BC. Tlieselakes, eight In number, arc in thw vicinity of Zake-k, a village Wv;dt 
of the Damietta Iwancli of tlie Nile. They sire below the level of the mm, au<! tho 
natron U obtained bv evaporation. The locality K* also nniownetl for four mona:»- 
teries, Deyr Stiriana, St Malarhis, Amba Bishol, Devr B:mimo08. from \vhor*e 
libraries of Ambic, Coptic, and Svriac M^S. thts national collections have been en- 
riclied. In the time of St Pachomins, 5000 anchorites dwell liere; they at present 
number about 300. ~ ^ « , 

LefMlus, ^•Todt. Taf.** vil. c. 17. 1. IT; Wilkinson. "Mod. Ejrypt," i- 882; 
Brugsch, " Wandernng nach Natron K (J.-tern » (12mo,-tierl. 1S55). 


NATU'NA ISLANDS, The, lie to tl»e north-west of Borneo, between V> SS* and 
40 56' n. lal., and 101° 51' and i08*> 15' e. long. Tliey ar.? d nis jly wooded and moan- 
tainons, Ranay, i>ii Gretit Natuna, rising to a height of 3500 feet. Tue largest of 1 he 
islands is aijout 600 square miles. Pop. of the whole ab.>iit 1S»MJ. who grow ric.*, 
maisK), aigo> cocoa-nuts, &c^ and exchangj tho produce of their fishings, tiieirs:iffo 
and cocoa-nut oil, for rice, iron, and cottons, at the Eui-opeou settlemeuis on tha 
Strait of Malacca. 

NATURAL, in Music, a note b"lon£;in«r to th'» diitonic scalo of C, and neither 
elevatetl by a shiirp nor dopresse<l by a flat. When a note has bten so elcva'etl or 
deim*8sed, the natural sign JJ prefix 'd to it on its recurrence restores it to it-* plact* 
on the scale. When music is wriJt.n on a kjy with a signature of sharps or fliits, it 
is the oflSct of tlie natural sign to countei*uct the signature :ui regards the note to 
which it is prefixed. 

NATURAL HISTORY, in the widest Bcn8(% includes all natural science, and has 
the whole of creation for its suhiect In this nense the t€»rm was emiMoyed by th » 
philosophers of antiquity. But it is now limited to those branches of science which 
relate to the cnist ot the eartn and its producMo is. Of thests geolc^^'^ and miner* 
alogy have for their subject inorganic portions of creation ; botany and zoology, tiie 
varioQH branches of which are often pursued m sep irate sciences, with physiology, 
have for their subj^tct orgjniiz'^d civatures. Naturtd history tak«'S cosfniztnice of T»i« 
productions of nature, and of th -ir relations to each other, with all the chan<r6s 011 
the face of t le earth, and all the plienoniena of lite, ly)th aiitmiU and veg<ttablo. It 
derives assistaiuH; from ot her sciences, particularly chemistrv and nat uiHl philosophy ; 
and some of tiie brandies of chemistry may also b«^ i-egarded as branches of natni-al 
history. When man himself is considered as a subject of scientific study, psycho- 
logy must be addi'd to the branches of natural history, but in tlie terra asconiniuniy 
etuptoyed this can 8cai*cely be said to l>e included. 

In every depzirtnumt of natural history, cla<s?flbation is of the utmost import- 
ance, and scarcely less iinportmit is a scientific nomencl.-ttnre snited to the classifl- 
catiim. The subjects of study are so incalculably nnmerons. that an arrangement 
of tliem in well-defined groups is m^cessary to any conk'idenible aitainment in tht 
knowledge of them ; and it is only by systems of cla8.-ificati(ni which arrange smaller 

{groups in larger, and these in larger «\'h\ lai^^er again, that history has lv»en 
>ronght to its present state. The very division of natural history into difft^nnit 
sciences is a refudt of snch a ol&**8iflcation, and implies a n'tO::niiion of the larg<^t 
and highest gron|>s. It is not always in the establishment of these gron|>s that the 
trrrnt^tdifiAculiy is ez|)eiienced. Tlie primary distinction of all the subjects of 
iiaturid Idstory into organised and unorganised, or into those having hfe aud tnuse 

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m Natron 


not having life, pr^Henrg Itwlf vorj readily to every mind. And rqnally nntural and 
> i)ectt.>-8tn*y 1» tbu tJi-^tiucMon of or};fluir<ed being into Plants and Aninialt, how- 
ever difficult It has b<'e« found to draw the pn-ciHe limit between the low* sr of 
plants and tlie. lowest of tinimal^. Another di^tinction readily preiients itself to the 
stndi-ut ot Tving beings, In the kinds which retain the snme cliaructers from one 
generation to another. But here arisM's one of tlie most Important of nil the qnes- 
flont« of natural history, wlmt :i species Is, and how it differs from a variety. For 
this wu refer to tlie article Species. But mucii difference of opinion as there Is on 
thii« i)oint, the common and long-prevalent notion nmy be afsnmcd, as rnitablc 
enough for guidance in ail that relates to claHsiflcatlon, tliat those are distinct 
species which cannot by any change of circumstances— or, let it be said, by 
any ordinary cliange of circnnistances, and within any moderate period of 
time — be po modiii>'das to be trausmiited one into another, whilst tttose are only 
varieties oi y:\vq\\ the modiflcaiion and tranhmutation can bie thoseffectea. Thus, 
in botany, Bfosonca olera^a is a species, of which kale, cabbagts cauliflower, broc- 
coli. Brussels si)routs. &c, are varieties. Spe<i<s, grouped tog< ther, according to 
their natural amuilies, form getieta; but a genus does not necessarily consist of 
more species th: n one; for, whilst some contain hnndreds of species, others, 
appannily very distinct^ coutaiu only one as yet known to naturalists. The dis- 
tinctions by which genera are separated are of courstt arbitrary, and are admitted to 
be so i>y those wtio deny that the dit^tinctions between f>pecics are arbitrary, or that 
there is any unCert4nniyal)ont them but wluit aris>e8 from the imperfection of our 
knowledge ; for, at present, it must l)e admitted on all hand^, that the uncertainty 
is* in iininnieral>le instances very yreat, what are ppecles and wliat are varieties. 
IMie ;ireat object, however, in the formation of pettera is that they shall be accordant 
with the facts of nature; and f^o in regard to tne larger or hisher groups which are 
composed < f asHOclated genera, as tribes, families, orders, classes, Ac. But in all 
tliis, ihe^'rent dlfiicuhy istliat affinities exist on many sides; and that groups can- 
not be satiffactorily arranged in the order of a series, but often rather as if they 
Ti dialed from a coniuon centre; whilst otherwise viewed, the same {groups might 
set'iu to radiate very difffrently from auothes common centre. A natural systeva 
Is one framed with the utmost- pos^iule regard lo all these facts ; an artifitial system, 
fixes on one class of facts and proci^eds uikmj H, in disregard of all oihers. See 
BuTANT.— In the inoi^unic dt^partments of nature, a species is of course something 
differ* nt from what it is in the organic. But clnssiflcaiion still proceeds on the 
recognition ol facts in nature itself, wliich it is sought to exhibit in the groups that 
are formed. See Minebaloot. 

The nomencl.-tture of natural history. In po far as it relates to organic beings, con- 
tinues essentially as it was e^tfll)Iished by Linusens. See Gbnus. The names have 
in many ca es bvren changed, but not the^node of nomenclature. 

NATURAL OBLIGATIQN, In Law, means an obligation which Is supposed to 
be prescribed by tlie law of Da in re, us the obligation of a parent to maintain his 
child. In England, such an obligation is not recognised by the common law, and 
therefore it wns necessary in the Poor-Law statutes to puni.>^h by a penally parents 
who, being able, refused or decllmid to maintain their children. In Scotland, the 
natural obligation of a parent to maintain his ebild is, however, recognised by the 
common law, though It is also enforced by the Poor-Law statute. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY is a term frequently employed In Great Britain to 
de»'1gnate that branch of phyi^'lcal science which has for its subject those properties 
and phenomena of bodies which are unaccompanied by any essential change in the 
bodies theniselves. It thus includes the various sciences which are classed under 
Physici (q. v.) in the limited sense of that term. 

NATURAL THEOLOGY is the name given to that branch of moral science 
which concerns itself with the evidences for the existence of God, drawn from an 
inquiry into the constitution of the universe. It Is l)*'lieved by the majority of phi- 
lo.-ophic:il thinki'rs, that these evidences warrant the belief in a Being of inflnito 
power, wisdom, benevolence, and justice. There are, however, philosophers of great 
eminence who deny that tliere is such a thing as Natural Theology, who say that 
nature, at tbt- b(«t, gi,v«!8 forth an uncertain sound regarding the existence of a 
Supreme Beinir, and that a logical demonstration of t»uch existence is l>"t>o*'-^''^^ 
and hm always broken down. This view is held, for example, by at heibts hke David 

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NataraVsat'on 1 QC> 

Nature LO^ 

Unme, And the recent Scoto-Oxonlun school of metflphysicfane, of whom the prfo- 
cipal repnaseutative is Dcaij Mansel. Tlie stuiidanl EfnglUh work on the snhject baa 
Ioiiij: been Pal -y'B *' Natural Theology " <L()D(). 1802; new edition by Lord Broagham 
niia Sir Cliarle8 Bell, 1836). The Bridgewater uud Bnruett Treatises are also coniri- 
bntious to tliis brunch of science. 

NATUKALI8A"l'ION,the act of placing an alien in the porition, or investing 
liim with the rights, of a natnnil-bom citizen. The present arrangements with re- 
ference to natnralisation, l)y which the old rule tliat Britisli nllegiance is Inihtlibl**, 
lias been changed, are eiulKMlie«l In the Nutumlisation Act (1870), d3 Vict. c. 14, aiKl 
tlie Natnraiiifanon Oath Act (1870), 88 and 84 VIcf. c 108. By the fonner of the>*e 
statutes it is provided, That an alien who has resided in the Uuiied Kingdom for a 
term of not lean tnnn five years, or has been in the s«?rvice of the crown Tor a term of 
not le-^s than five years, and intendis when natonUiBed, either to reside in tlic UuiteU 
Kingdom or to serve nnder the crown, may apply to one of Her Mnjoirty's Principtl 
Secretaries of State for a certificate of naturalisation. Tlie applicaint it» bomid to 
«idduce such evi<lence of his residence, or service, dud intention to reside, or serve, 
asiihall satisfy the Secretary or State, who mav, with orwitliout reason fkssiinie*!, 
give or withhold a certificate. No appeal lies from his decision, bnt liis certificate 
tatcos no effect until the applicant ints taken the oatli of allegiance. An alien, to 
whom a certiflcaie of natur.:lisation has l)een grtuited. is entitled to all political and 
ofhor rigliti^ powers, and privileges ; and>f>ubiect to all obligations to which a natnrnl- 
born stiT>ject is entitled or subject in the United Kingdom, with this qnalificatioti, 
that he, when within the limits of the foreign stat« of which he was previously a 
snbject, is not deemed a British subject, nnieifis he Ims ceased to be a snbiect of tho 
foreign state by the laws therdof, or by a treaty to that eflfect. Snch acertiftcat'! may 
l)e granted to any person with resi)ect to whose British nationality a don lit exi»«u» ; 
aiida grant of snch special certificate for the puqwsaof quieting doubts shall nor b^ 
d«.'emed jui adniission that the person to whom it whs granted was not previonsly 
a British Bubji>ct. Aliens previous y naturalised may, on application, ontain cer- 
tificates. A Briti^li subject who has bt^ome an alien, in pursuance of thi8 act (see 
Alibn), may apply for a certificate of reodinission to British nationality on the saino 
Ijoiiditioiis its an alien by birth. The Secretary of State has, in this case, the same 
discretion ; and jui oath of allegiance is likewise required. The privilege of read mis- 
sion, like that of admission to British nationality, ruqnireii tlial the recipient sinill 
have cetufied to be a subject of the foreign stiite. In the colonic*, tiie powers of tho 
Seeretaty of State are conferred on the governor. By the Oaths i^aturolisntion Act, 
83 and 34 Vkt. c. 132, any person making or subscribing a false declaration is de- 
clared to *)e guilty of a misdemeanor. 

In Fr;uict!, •* La grande Naturalisation " confers political privileges ; ** Li |»6tito 
Naturalisation" gives all tlie private rit^lits of a French citizen, and it Iras l)eeii 
doubted whether even public rights are not included in it In 18d7, the term of re>*i- 
deuce 'vas reduced from ten years to three. A subject of France losses his iiaiiv.) 
character by naturalisation in a foreign country, or acceptance of office nbro:id witlk> 
out permission of the ntate, or even by establishing liiiuhelf t>erMtafienUy out of 
lii.i country. He may recover his rights by renunciation of his foreign ofliv^e or 

Ill Prussia, the higher administrative autlioritles can naturalise any stranger who 
salistles thom as to Ins conduct and means of subsistence. Nomination to a public 
office confers naturalisation. Prni»8ian nafionalliy is lost— (a) by di^ciuirgenpon the 
eu!»ject's request ; (6) bv sentence of the competent antiiority ; (c) by living ten yeara 
in it foreign country ; (a) l)y mirrlage of a female subject with a foreigner. 

In Au?»tria, Hie authorities may confer the rights of citizenship on a persoti, after 
ten years* residence within the empire, who has been allowed to exercise a profes- 
sion. A public functionary l>ecoines thereby invested with rights of citizenship ; 
but adinission into the army has not this effect.— In the kingdom of the Nether- 
land-, the power of uatnralisiin; ro^ts in tlie crown. — In Russia, naturulisatiou 
is eifected by taking an oath of allegianci! to the em|)erof; 

III the American States, five years' i-esidence, and a dt^claration of intention to 
l>eroine a citizen, emitied before a magistrate, is r« qiiisite to naturalisation. See 
**R-p(ntof Itoyal Oommi>sioners on Naturalisation'^ (1869). 

NATUHALl'SED. In Hie language of lM>tanii't9 ana e<miogists, those plants nncl 
animals are i^id to be naltii'ali»iU in uny country, which, having been introduced 

Digitized by 


IQQ Hat«rallaat1oii 

-i^«* Nat«r« 

into It by man, tiAve eiitabH^«*<l Ummselves so as to exff^ wllhont his ctire. A piniit 
or animal is uercr naid to be Hatitrali»Ki so loug as it vx\nt» merely iu a etMtc of rnl- 
tivatiOD or domesticatiou, bat ix so wbeii it bticomes truly wild, aiid, niiai4i<^, com- 
petea sncGessfnlly for a pince among tlioae wliicb are iiidigcDons lo tite coniitry. 
Tlina, the lionte is not natnrali!«6d iu Brittiin, or in ntost of llie coantries in wliieli 
it is most )ii$;bly rained ; bnt l>otli the hor»«e and the ox may i>e said to be nntorul- 
i'^ed in Sontli America. Haay of the plants now most ctianicteriatic of Southern 
Bnrope. are sometimea said to have been ori^tnnlly introduced from ilie East ; niid 
some tiiat are abannnnt in many'pnrts of Brittiin t\ere in all prolwbflity bronvrlit 
from tlie continent of Earope. Some of tliese iilmost evince their forei)ru origin by 
growing chitilv near mini*, or in places which have long been the renisof hiinuin 
h»biiati~on. Many plants now naturalistnl iu Britain appear to liave tn^n urlginally 
bronght for me<licinal use, although now disregankKi. Ju insuy cjtses, lowever, 
uatoraliimtiOii baa taken place witliont any attempt having «'ver l>een made by mnn 
to introdiica tins plant even for cultivation ; and thns many EnrepcMn weede nre 
itoir common iu America, the seikbi having found tlieir w^y tidtlier with those of 
more valuable plants, or in some such aecidcnial iminner. The siiroe thing hns 
taken plnce as to animals. Thns, mice and rats find their way from om* country to 
another; thus the bed-bug found lis way at no remote date to Britain ; otiier iiinects 
hnve been even more recently introduced with foreign productions of different 
kinds; and a mollusc (see Dbeissbma;, pre\ion8ly unknown, has eslablishefl ilsilf 
in some British riven* and canals. The |>hea«>ant inav l>e mentioned as nn instance 
of nut'nndisntton in Brititiu, designed and succes^fally accomplished by man. An 
Aeclimatiiiatwti Society has recently been formed in London, which has for its ol>- 
j ct the naturalising, rather than what may more strictly be calU^I tlie acclimati^iitg, 
of animals detuned snitiihle and desirable. It is unquestionable that much nisiy he 
done by naturalisntion of animals, not only lo i-ender rural pcenes moie nttrjittive, 
but also to increase tlieir economic^il prod net ivenesi*. Perhaps nothing of this kind 
l>as received f>o little of the attention due to its iniportuoce as the naturalisation of 
fidbet*. See Fiscioul'Tdbb. 

NATURE- PitlNTING. This is a process by which engravings or i)Jat«8 
answering thereto are produced by takui^ impreSHioiisuf the objfctr* tlieniHlves, 
and printing from them. There is i-ome dispute as to the original inventor or this 
art; D-ninnrk claims it for a native of Copi>nha^en, Peter KyU-, a goldsmith, who 
died about 1833, l<<^ving tin; MS. description of his inviniion ni the archives of the 
Koyal Colliction of Engravings iu that canital. It is, however, admitted that no use 
was uuule of hisinvuntton. In 1853, Alois A ner, director of the Slate printing 
establisliment of the Austrian empire, ]>nblit'h«-<l his pro* e^s, and als<» some vi ry 
beautiful works illostratetl by this art. Alwut the same time, in this country, Mr 
O. W. Aitkin made known his discove ry of an exactly similar process, and shewed 
some very beautiful plates <)f feathers, ferns, ^. Bnt whatever other claims may 
be ad%'anced, it is <iertain tbat Alois Aner holds nndifnuted right to the title of 
original inventor and practical applier of ihe invention. The process is very simple 
aapmctised byAuer; but it cannot be applied to any obiects except those with 
tolerably flat surfaces, such as dried and presse^l plants, embroidery and lace, and a 
very few animal pnMluctions. ITie object is placed between a plate of copiier and 
another of lead, l>oth worked smooth, and puli!=>hed ; th<-y are drawn through a 
pjiir of rollers, under considirabic pr»'8j»ur • — M. Aner Fays lorty to fitly tons; then, 
when tiie plates are separated. It is foimd tiiat a nlo^t beautiful and peifect inipit s- 
sioii of ihe«»bject has been made in the le:i(len plate. This may l>e us^ed dirtctly as 
an engnived pl:>te, if only a very fewinipre^sions an? wnnied ; but as il is too ^o(l to 
resist the nction of the press for practical purposes, a fac-siiiiile of it Is obtained in 
copper by the electrotype process, which is u.-ed as the printing>plate. The iH-s-t 
practical n«*e to which natnre-pri siting has yet been applied is the ninltiplicalion of 
pattt'niH of lace and other fl^ure<l surfaces, either in textile materials or metalp, for 
trade purposes. Lace-piint.s especially are ^o exactly like the originals, that the 
most fastidiiHis can require nothinjr more ; henct; the cutting up of valuable pieces of 
hicc for patterHB has heen saved. Henry Bradbury, of the then existing firm of 
Bradbury and Evans, Lomlon, made natu'e-printing his special stndy, and prmlnred 
tlie exquisite work«, '*Natur«?-priuted Perns," and "Nature-printed Sea- Weeds?," 
iu two vob. cticU (Loudoiu Bradbury and Evans). 

y Google 

Naamach'a 1 0A 

Nautilas -» ^* 

NAUMA'CHIA, a Greek word, nlgiiifying litenilly a naT«l battle, afterwnrdis 
ainoug: the Koinaus, a spectacle which coiisiated in tlie imilattoii of a naval bHttlu. 
Juiiiid CTsesar was the flrnt lo iiitrodnce a naniiiMchin into Roine, 4<b.c., cniiniiz a 
portiou of the Campos Martias to be da^ to form a lake, on which the ** sptHStacl^ " 
cnine off. Ao^stiis made an artificial lake {stagnum) near the Tiber for the same 
pnrtiofle, which wai» afterwards fre^enUy u»ed for nanmacbiie. OiaBdius :il8o ex- 
liibiied a splendid one on Lake Kncuinn. Nero, Domitian, and others w«rc likewise 
fond of snch arao^meuts. The comlMitants wttre termed NaumaeharH; tlwy were 
for the mo»tp:irt either captives or condcmnt^l criminals; and the rival fleeto took 
their names from the famoiii* maritime nations of antiquity; Tyrinnn and ^gy}>' 
tians, Khodlans and Sicilians, Persians and Aihenians, Curcyrseaos iiud Corinthians, 
Atlienium* and Syracnsaus. The mtigniflcence of tlie^e spectacles may Ixs estimated 
from the faet^ that in the one exhibited on Lake FuoinnH, 19,i)00 men were en^rasn-d. 
Ttietie naHtiMoklas were not 9ham-Jlg/U«, any more than ordinary i^Udiatorial com- 
bats. Both sides foaght on iu real earnest for dear life nnifl one w:is ntterly 
overpowered ; and as a rale, maltitndea were ** batchered to make a Roman 

NAU'MBURG, a town of Prnsslan S:ixony, in the govemm<n>t of Mersabm^, 
situated 17 m. s.-s.-w. of the town of that name on the Saale, in the mid^^t of a 
striking amphitheatre of vlM«i-cl;»d hills. Besid^>s its cathedral—a noble Gothic 
strncture, completed in 1349, with two choirs, and containing many beautiful scni|>- 
tnres—there are several other churche:^ The m-innfactnres ar«: cott-on and woollen 
fabricts leather, and chemical products. Wine is grown hi Uie vicinity in consider- 
able quanlity— 11 000 gnllous yearly. During the Thirty Yetirs' Wnr, and in tlie 
campaigns of 1806 and 1813, N.. in whicLi ttie Prnsslan magiisln^s were lodift^l. was 
a place of great im|>ortance. Five annual fairs are held here. Pop. (1675) 16,327. 

NAU'PLIA, a sm:dl fortified town and 8eni>ort iu tlie Morea, Grvec«v nt tim 
iiortiiuru extremity of the Gulf of Argo3 orNaupiia, and 7 miles south-ea-'t ot tlie 
town of Argos. It. is laid out in the m inner of a European town. Its ro »d:^tead Is 
one of the best iu Greece. In the CImrch of Si Spiridion, C i)>o d'lstria was as- 
sassinated iii 1881. N. is of high antiquity. At an early p 'Hod it was the port and 
nrdenul of Argos. In the 18th c, it wa^ occupli'd hy tlie Ven ^tians, and was.t«k mi 
by the Turks ill 1640. From 18U to 1835, it was the caiiital of Greece, and had a 
population of upwards of 12,0u0; baton tho removal of the court to Athens, it fell 
into decay. Pop. ahout 4000. 

NAU'SEA is a distres.<«ing sensation alwavs referred to the stomaclu It is un- 
attended by pain, but is usually accompanied by a feeling of general languor or 
debility, a small and oftm irregular piiltfte, a pale, cool, and moist skin, e •iieral 
muscubir relaxation, an increase<l fiow of saliva, and a sensation that voinitmg will 
supervene. It is most common!y a direct symptom of disease or disont-T of ttie 
stomach, but sometimes it is >i very important indirect symptom<of dhtca<<e of simm 
part at a distance from the stomncli — as, for uxstmple, ttie brain or tlie kidney. 
The nausea which is so troublesome to pregnant \^oinen is due to the in-itiition 
excited by the enlarged uterus being reflected by nervous agency lo the Btoninch. 

NAU'TJBi, Canpo'nes, Ac. These word-* are the commencemimt of an edict in 
Roman law, which made sliipmii^ters, innkeepera, and stablers liahlefor the Siifety 
of the goods brought into the ship, hiii, or stable. The same doctrine is adopted 
by the common law of England and Scotland, Subject to variation^ producetl hy the 
Carriers* Act, and Railway and Canal Trafllc Act, so far as regards carriers and i-ail- 
way and canal companies. 

NAU'TICAL ALMANAC, a work projected for the special behoof of astrono- 
mers and navigators. See Auianac. It is chiefly vahiable to the latter class from 
its containing tables of the ** lunar distances " — i. e.. distances of the moon from a 
few (5 to 7) of the more prominent stars, «iven for every three hours tlironghoat the 
year— by whiph, at the present day, loiigitmlei* {m-o Latitude and Longitude) are 
moat conveniently and accurately determined. To the :u*trouonier, the *^ Nautical 
Almanac" furnishes a gre:>t ma^s of important data; it gives the |K>sition of the 
moon in right ascension and declination Cor every hour, and the sun's latitude and 
longitude tor every day iu the year ; it eliews ihc obtiquity of the ochptic, the sou's 

y Google 

1 QX Hamnach'm 

A«5^ NanUins 

and moon*s parallaz, aberration, Ac, at different thnes ; ft rapplkM the neceeaary 
data for the aeteisaiinalion of the nmi or aitpareut »lse, position, nud motion of the 
planets taul their mtelMtes; it Axes accnrately tlie phicea of abontlSO fixed star*, 
and givuti full details coiiceruiu); eclipses, occoltntioiit, tmnnit^, and otiier celestial 
piieiioineua occnrriug during tlte year. It is geueruliy tssued loor yiturs hi advance, 
for the siike of umiiners going on long voyugc^^. 

NAU'TILUSj a jrenus c>f tetra branchiate Otphalapoiia (q. v.)» extremely Intor- 
eetiug tis tiie fziftiug representatives of im oidtT ot uiolius< s now reduced to a vrry 
few 8|>ecie8, bo of which the fusKil remains attest the great abnndnuce in furiner 
gtM)lo!£ical periods. The >])ecies of this gomis are found only in the seas of wurni 
cl'.maies. One or more of tiieni must have l)een known to AristotU-, as appeai-s 
from his description, which, liowever, is not minute. Yet it is hui recently that 
f lify CJime niider Uie oi)t>ervatmn pf modern naiurali^ts ; and Ihey were very imper- 
fectly known, till a specimen, obtained hy Dr B< nn<tt in a hay of the I*iew Hi bndes 
in 1829, wus submittMl to the examination of Professor Owen, and i)ecarae the snt>- 
i ct of a valuable memoir by him. I'lie shell, indeed, luts long been common enough 
In colIectionH, being plentifully footid, fntire or in fragments, on many tropical 
Bitores; liut from the shell alone, little could be learned conceiidng the aniui'tl to 
which it belonged. The sliell is spiral, tlie spire not at all elevated; and thus, in 
external form, resembles the shells of many sp* cies of snail ; but hiternally, it is 
eamerated^ or divide<t into Ghaml)ers, by iransverse curved partitions of shelly mat- 
ter. In a very young state, this structure doeii ut t exist ; but us the auinml increns<-8 
ill size, it d«serts its first habitation. v\hich then becomes an empty ci amber, and 
so proceeds from one taanoiher still larjrer. occupying the outernK>st only, but re- 
taining a coniiectiou with all by means of a nn lubniuous tube {m'phunele) which 
passes through the cent re of each partition. Th^ use of this connection is not 
piown ; but the most probable suppo.^ilion it«, tluit The animal is eniible<l, by throw* 
iiig air or some kind of gas into the ejnpty chambtrs of the ^1^1, or by < xhausiing 
them of air, to change the total weight, n) that it n:ay rise or sink in the water at 
pleasure. Jt connnonly inhabits the bi)ttom of the pea, where it creep? aliont, 
probably like the gasteropojls, by means of a hii-ge muscular disc with whicii the 
jiead is furnished ; but it soinetimes rises to tiie surface, and is to be seen floating 
there. Dr Bennett states that the s|)ecimen which he fortunately captured., ut- 
tr:icted his attention when thus floating, as an object reseniMIng a dead tortoise- 
shell Ciit The story of its spreading a sail is as fabulous as the similar story re- 
garding the argonaut The head and arms can be protrudt^l from the shell, and can 
uIho Incompletely retracted within it. There are numerous arms attached to the 
jK'ad, nineteen in the l)e»r known sp( cies ; there are also numerous other tentacles; 
bat none of these oi-gans are furnislwd with suckers, and they are feeble in com- 
purition with thf corres]>oiidlng organs of nmny of tlie higher or dibranchiate 
cephalopods. The mouth Is of the p?»rrot'8 bill form, as in the other cephalopods ; 
liut Ihti mandibles are not entirely couiposed of horny matter, their extremities be- 
ing r^ilcareoiis and of a hm'<lnefs apparently adaptt d for breaking shells. Their 
edges are ala<j notched, and shew an sidaptation for crushing rather than for cutting. 
Tiie U)ugne is large. The giezard is muscular. The food appears to consist, at 
lea.«t in great part, of crustaceans. 

Only three species of N. are known, of which the best knowu and apparently the 
most aonndant, is the Pb^bly JJ. (xV. ixmiptWtar), wliicli is found in the Indian and 
the Pacific Oceans. It** shell is beautiCully nacreous within ; and is externally por- 
celian-Uke, wliit<*, and streak^*d with reddish chestnut The shell, being large, thick, 
and strong, is used for a variety of purposes by the natives of the Bast Indies and 
South Sea Islands; it is also made nito ornaments of various kinds in China and 
elsewhere. The animal is eaten by the Fijinns and other South Sea islander;>, and 
is much esteemed as an article of food. The Fijians capture it by means of a basket- 
trap, somewhat like those ujaed for catching lobsters, baited with boiled crayfish. 
Tlie name Paper N. has sometimes been given to the Argonaut (q. v.) 

Fo6Hl NatailiM.—A\)Out one hundred and fifty species of fossil shells have been 

fofeaeiX to this genus. They occur in all the strata from the Upper Silurian to the 

t recent deposits. Numerous forms, however, which exhibit very wide differ- 

~, haye beeij iocongrnonsly associated under this generic name. Thepalaeozo 

* B so remarkable, thai they must certainly be referred to one^* more sept 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

Nantrui i ox* 

Naval ^"J^ 

ate genera : aome of the cnrbonlferonfl anecies have a pqnare back, and the whoris 
either compact or opeu in tlie ceiitr**, wuile tlie lartchamiiefis moreor leradiatuated 
from tlie shell; and the DevuuiHii Clviueuia hue angular fiatnres aud an internal 
Biphiiucle. Until a carefnl reviMOu of tliie section of the Cephalopoda is made, it 
will bti better to consider tlic species as belongmg lo titc family NatUUidm^ and not 
to the genus yaxUiltia. 

NAU'TILUS PKOPELLBR was long the bt»Pt known amonsr many nnmes given 
to u mode of proDiilling ttreuni-ves^'els by me:ins of a horizont4il wheel within Imard. 
iiisttead of a paddle or a ncrcw ou the ontside. Hydraulic propeller has latterly more into U!*e. Etigintt^rs thought of this mode of propulsion generations 
nifi), and patents have beun taken out for inventions feiatin;; to it by Toogood, 
HiyaK, liiimaey, Liintker, Hall, and others; hut tl^ mos*t snccesHfnl attempts to 
realr<(4i it have Been thoi^c of Mr Ruthven. ^e constructed a small boat, 9 feet lon^Tf 
ii 1839 (tried on the tJniou Canal), audavensel 40 feet long, in 1844 (tried on the 
F^irMi). to te»t the principle ; each was worked by a smtUl steam-engiue, and pro- 
vided with the hydraulic apTuiratus. lu 1849. MrRnthveu made improvemeuta in tho 
app irntus aiid introduced them in a vessel, SO feet long, tried upon the Thamefi. 
Ill 185t, he placed a bo:it in the Great Exhihition. In 1853, a vessel ou this prln- 
cinle, called the Albert^ wa;* built iu Prussia by M. Sydel, the machinery being sup- 
lilicd by Mr Ruthven. She plied ou the Oier as a passenger-steamer for mauy yearei, 
and illustrated favorably some of the chamcteristic features of the nautilus system. 
'IMie term Of Mr RuMiven's pitentezp1r(*d, however, before the invention had worked 
its way Imo use in England ; and the Privy Council, in 1863, gave a farther term of 
ten ye ir.-*. He afterwanls bv*gan building a vessel to be called the NatUUtu: whilo 
the Admiralty authorised the commencement of the gnu-vessel Watencitehf both to 
be work>*d on the Itnihven prin#ple. 

The Nautilus wjis first tried ou the Tharaoi* in April 18M. It is fitted with two 
steam-enghie:* of 10(nomin:il) horse-power eacli, with cylinders of IT inches d.ani- 
eter, and 2 feet stroke. Water U iidmitted throu<;h apertures in the bottom of the 
vesetv;! into a water-tight irou case or compartment. In this case is placed a bori-> 
zunta) so-cailed turbin i-wlieH, 7 feet in aiameter, acted on f fom a vertiod shaft 
connected with tlie steam-cylindera. The wheel is divided in cmipartmeuts by 
)>lates or radii of pecalhir ciirvatnrt;, and is placed below the water-line of the vessel, 
no as to be always immersed. Two pipes extend from the wheel-case, one to either 
side of the vessel, where they emerge nt^rly at midship. Each pipe terminates with 
nozzles, 10 inches in diameter, placed outside tiie vessel at right angles to the pipes; 
iiisoamch that each side of the vessel has a nozzle pointing ahead and another point- 
ing astern. A valve is fitted to each pipe, at its junction witli the nozzlt^s, to open 
the passage to one nozzle and close it against the otiier ; and the movement I)oth of 
the starboard and the port valves ciui be governed from a niised deck built over ttie 
engine-house. The whjel-case is always full, or nearly full of wnier, whicii enters 
thriwgh the apertures iu the bottom of the vessel. When the wheel is made to rotate 
horizontally by the steam-engines, warer is drawn !n throiigh the hollow axin, and 
expelled at the periphery by centrifugal force; it can only find an outlet through the 
two pipes, and then tlirongti the nozzles which terminate tliem. Supposing the nos> 
zies iM>inting astern to be open, aud those pointing ahead to be closed, the vessel is 
propelled forward by the resistance of the water of the river or st»a to tliat rnshing 
out of the nozzles ; when the forward nozzles are open, and the hinder ones closet^ 
the vessel Is propjllcd backwards or driven astern. The captain, standing on the 
raised deck and commanding both valves, can close the fore-nozzles i^nd open tlte 
aft, wli ch makes the vessel go ahead ; he can open the fore aud close the aft, which 
makes her go astern ; he can open one fore nozzle and close the other, which makes 
h -r turn. The exit of ttie water from the nozzles is a little above sea-level, a plan 
found to be better than actually immi'fslng them. In one of the tr{al-trii)S of the 
Nautihut^ with strons wind and tide urging her on, and gohig at full speed, she was ' 
f>topped dead in less than 10 seconds, and lu about a quarter of her length, by simply. 
reversing the valves. 

The iierformance of tlio Nautilus was satisfactory enough to lead the Admindll^ 
to ex{>v>aite the fluishing of the iVcUerwitchj an iron-clad gun-vessel Of 778 tons and 
IttO horse-power. Tlie wheel is rotated by an engine having three separate cvUn* 
ders, each 8S>^ inches diameter by 3 feet 6 inches stroke. The vessel was bunt at 


Nau Uuf 

the Tharacs iron-works, and englnert bv Messrs J. nnd W. Dndgoon of Biackwall. 
lt» tiirbim;- wheel w 14 feet h\ diameter ; il rotate** (at full engine-power) 89 times 
I>er iniunte. The hniKs discUarge-nozBle>, wiiich measni-e 24 hichef* oy 1»3<, are lon- 
tinaed along Uio ontoideo: the vessel 8 feet on each side of the centre ; ti»e lower 
lips of the dlscliarge-tiozzlHS are 8 Inchet* b<'luw water-line, the remainder of the 
opertnre beiui; iilwve water. The Watertoiteh is flat-bottomed and double-ended, 
j. c., she has a ruddfrat each end. ho thai 8he can steer equally well when going 
ribead or astern. Her total cost was XtfU,U0O, of which uo lesa than X18,60U was 
for the enghies. 

As regards her speed and the efficiency of her machinery, tlie Watcrwiteh did 
not do all that was ^xpected of her ; t>he wa§ neither more nor less sncce sful than 
her sister shiiw, the Vtper and TtVcen, and they tUI three belonged to tlHf slowest cla^s 
of gnu-boats. As iter machiu<-ry was much more expensive thnn that of tlie others, 
nothing has as yet been done in the way of adding to the number of liydn^ulic engines 
ill tlie uayy. They possess many advantages in regard to manoeuvring the ship, hut 
these are to ai^eat extent al^«o possessed by twin-screw engines, which can he made 
at a less cost; while sorn^ ot the advaottiges originally claimed for tbem, such as 
freedom froih slim have not ^^^ realised in actual work. In sucli exceptional 
▼eeseht^as ibose of the Fiper^lass, a fair compari^K>u of the merits of the hydraulic 
propeller with thOi<e in common use cannot lie made. The nett result of the experi- 
iiients hitherto made it, that while the ad<lition of one additional part to the 
machinery between the engiues and the actual propellers (which iu this case 
are the columns of water) is open to grave oi>joctiou8 ; still, with a *Murbine'* 
less faulty iu design, and puder more favorable circumsttuices as regards the 
vessel iu which it is placed, the hydraulic pro|>eller may be found useful hi men- 
of-war. The Waterwiich has chiehy been employed iu harbor work as a tender 
to larger vessels. 

NAUVOO', a town in Tllinois, United States of America, on the east bank of the 
Mississippi River, 220 miles above St Ixmis. It was built by the Mormons in 1840, 
aiid in 1846 contrfim-d a population of 16,000. Its principal feature was a great 
temple of polished marble, original in style, and imposing in ap))earaiice. After the 
mnraer of Joseph Smith, the Mormon'^roi>iiet (see MoRifOMS), and the expulsion of 
his foUowens the temple was burned. 'J'he town was afterwards bought and occu- 
pi<^d by a Fi'euch Socialist coinmnnity, under the leadership of M. Calm. This 
experiment having proved, like others, a failure, the once famous city has been re- 
duced to an inconsiderable village. 

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. See Ship-building. 

NAVA'L CADETS are the youths training for service as naval officers. Every 
admiral on hoisting his Qig may nominate two, every captain one cadet. The boy 
11 1 nstlw between 12 and 13>^ years old. He is exaniinea at the Royal Naval Col- 
lege at Greenwich, and if he passes, is sent for two years to the Britamn'a training- 
fibip, tt^ Dartmouth. At the end of that time, if he has progressed t^atisfactorily, he 
irt put into a scu-goiug ship, and becomes a midsbipmau at once if he has gained a 
first-clafs certificate. 

NAVAL CROWN, in Heraldry, a rim of gold round which are placed alternately 
iMTows of galleys and s<}uare sails. The device is said to have originated with the 
Roman emperor Claudms, wlio, after the conquest, of Britain, instituted it as a re- 
ward for maritime services. He who flr«?t l)oarded the enemy's ship, and was the 
occasion of its being captured, was entitled to a naval crown. A naval crown sup- 
porting the crest iu place of a wreath, occurs in various grants of arms iu the early 
part of thepresent century, to the.naval heroes of the late war. The crest of the 
Barliof St Vincent, bestowed on him after his victory over the Spanish fleet iu 1T9T, 
islaeuing out of a naval crown or, enwrapped by a wreath of laurel vert, a deini- 
p^asus argent maned and hoofed of the firdtaud winged azure, charged iu the wiug 
with a fleur-de-lis or. 

NAVAL RESERVE, Royal, is a sort of militia auxiliiuy to the roynl 
navy. It is a force hekl in high esteem by naval men ; and is con- 
Mtked an extremely valuable reserve of trained men ready to man the fleet in 
^a9« of emergency. The force was instituted in 1869, under the Act 22 and 23 Vict. 
f^m. That act authorizes the engagement of 30,000 men, each fov a^J^o^ <f "^° 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Navan 1 QQ 

Navarre ^ ^^ 

yearn, and provides that, each Bball he IfMiiied, for 28 drt.rp In «vory yonr, to flic T\M 
of Jiriua and iiavul tactics, elth -r in H^t Maj<**ij'*R elups or on ffhure. In cnuw* of nn- 
tioual einergeiicy, tliese men can. hy roynl proclan»«U«»n, Ihj called ont for 8«;rvlcf in 
the uuvy in any imrt of tlio world, for pvriod* not exceeding Avh yarp. Wlil e 
training and wliflo called ont for actaal mirvic*-. ilie men receive tlio wime wajrei* fis 
corru8)K)ndnig ratinj^ in the royal navy ; 4n aduition, they fa-h receive. n» retiiiniug 
fee, a sum of six ponnds for every year iu whicli the regtriated training bus h<H-a 
completed. Ou actual nervlce. after Miree year*— whether of uninT4irriipicd wrvice, 
or at l)r>>ken inlervala— tlin volunteer becomes eutitljtni to twopence exra per diem. 
The man can terminate hix engagement at the end of five years, uid(tsi< on actual 
service, when tlie (^neeu nniy require liim to complete Ave yi-ars of snch service be- 
fore discharging him. Daring the continaance of M» engagement, lie must not eni« 
imrk on voya«j:e8 which shall entail a longer absence from tlie United Kingdom than 
His months, nuiess with special i)ermisst<>n of ttie Admiralty. Tlieiii*riods for train- 
iui; are m tde as far as practicaole to poit the sailor's convenience: lie may break 
the 28 days into sliorter ^riods, none beiuj? I 'ss than seven d.iyj*. lie is drilled as 
near as practicable to his own iiom«^, the drilliiiK 1>eine iutnisted to the officers of 
the Co:ust-guard. While drilling, if on hoard a Qneru> ship, hn has flie regnlaiion 
victuals; if hiileted on shore, while training for gresit-gnn exerci:«e in batteries, he 
la allowt>d U. 4d. a d-ty for v(ctnal9. It is optional witli the volunte*»r to renew his 
engai^ement. from time to time, as tlie respt;ctive periods of Ave years expire ; and 
at about the age of 45, he i)ecame.4 entitled to a ))ension of XI 2 or upwards for the 
rest of Ills iife, sal)] ;ct to tlie usual obligation of nervlce lu certain circnm^talK■«8 in 
the navy, which all pensioners are nnder. This pension m:y be comiunted. if de- 
sired, into one of less amotiut, to lust until the death of the longest liver of the vol- 
unteur and his wife. 

To ba eligible for the Royal Navy Reserve, a mnn must be a Brilisli subject, 
under 86 years of agi?, In fioitd Iiealth, and, within the precedinjr ten yiarf, must 
have served at least five years at sea, of which one year siiatl liave been as able sea- 
man. Soldiers, militiamen, and Coast Yolanteers are ineligible, and snhject to a 
penalty if they join ; bat a member of the last force nniy obtain his dischar^ 
titerefrom for the purpose of joining the Navad Re^ene. JPenalties are enacted in 
case men fail to attend : and failure after proper notice to come up for actual 
service is lield eqnivaient lo desertion. While training or on duty, tlje men are 
liable to all the punishments, as they are entitled to nil tlie rights and privileges 
of regular seamen. The men considered mOist desirable are (l)'tliose having fixed 
residences; and persooallv known to tJie sliippiug-niaster or his deputies; and (2) 
men iiaying regular employineut in the coasting-trade, or in vessels the business 
of which brings them Imu;k to the same porti> at frequent and known intervals. 
In 187T. about 20,000 men belonged to the Naval RusoiTv', and were in a fitate of 
great efficiency 

In 186L the system of the Reserve was extended— by the Act 24 and 86 Vict c. 
129— to officers of the merclmnt-service, certificated masters and mates \yelutt re- 
spectively granted commissions in the Naval Reserve as lieutenants and su lieu- 
tenants. The holders are required to train for 28 days annually ou board Uer M;i- 
J3sty's ships, and are liable to oe called ont for actual service when required. Wlieu 
training, or ou actual Bei*vice, lieutenants receive 10«. and snb-lleutenantsT*. aday, 
with all the ptivile^es. pensions for wounds, pensions to widows, nuifurms, Ac., 
of naval officers of corresponding rank. Thenninl)erof these officers allowed by 
regulation is IHO lieutenants, and 270 snb-Heutenants : of these, in 1874, commis- 
sions had l)ecii grant^^ to 117 Hentenauts, 78 snb-lienteuants, and 2 enghieers. 'ilie 
total cost of Uie Naval Reserve, cheers and men, for the year 1876^1877, was 
estimated at jfi2i0,l09. 

N A'VAN. a market town of Meath County, Ireland, situated at the junction of the 
Boyne ami Blackwater, 38 n.-w. of Dublin, with which city it is connei'^t^ by two 
railways. Pop. (1871) 4104. of whom 3868 were Catholics, 203 Bpiscopalian-Protes- 
T^uts, and the rest Protestants ot other denominations. N. is one of the most 
ancient boroughs iu Ireland, and returned two meml)era to the Irish parliament It 
possesses couslderai)le Inland trade, a flax-mill, several flour-mills, and two paper- 
mills, besides a tannery, a brewery, and two distilleries. Tliere are also an endowed 
school, a Roman Catholic seminary (one of tlie flrst opened iu lijslaud after the re* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1«>0 Naran 

**^ NavajM 

pea] of the penal l^w). niift fonr ualioiial ecliools coiitHiiiing (1871) 1304 pupii^ of 
whom e99were Jw^yg, and 606 irirl>». Tlurtwo prlH'tK'.litioldtirvattHchoU lo Hie Komim 
Gatliuiic I'oii Vi lit ik'vcnil iuterestiug reuuiiua, both Celtic aud Normuu-Eiiglitf h, ara 
foniid ill N. and the vicinity. 

NAVAHI'NO, or NtH>-Ca?tro.n pwiiwrt and citadel on the 8ontli-we#>t coast of tho 
Mort^a in Gret-c«\ conUiinp only SiHK) inhahitantSf bat is of importance from iti« posi- 
tion, comnmndiiig the (Mjlran(x> of ilic Bay of Nuvarino, at tlie soutlieni eztremity of 
which it Is sitnated. On the ishuul of ^pliairin or Sphacterla, which closes tlio bay's 
month, was fornn'rly situated Pylus Mepseuiuca, tlie town of Nestor, in n spot win ro 
now stands Old Navarino or Paiseocastron. The Bay of Navarino was the scene of 
a «:reat 8en-fl«;ht i>etween the AtiimhiM!* under Cleon. and the Spartans (425 B.C.), in 
wnidi the latter were defeated ; guidon the 20ili OctoWr 18«7, it saw the annihilation 
of the Turkish and Egyptian navitts by the combined British, FreLch, and Kussiau 
fleets under Sir Edward Codringt.on. 

NAVA'RRB, a province, and formerly n kingdom of Spain, is bonnded on the n. 
by France, on ihe s. and e. by Aratron, and on the w. by tlie Biscays ; and is sitn- 
att'd in 42° 20'--43o 16' n. lat.. aud DO 60'— 2° 30'.w. long. Area aliont 40u0 sgnare 
miles, t'op. (1S70) 313,687. Tbe coantry is mountainous, being l)onndfd and tra- the Pyrenees, spurs of which occupy alinost the wliole of the province in 
its northern and eastern ])art8. The highest (teaks are Altovisear, Adi, AK orrunz, 
and Knfi.-i. N. is watered by the Bidassoa, tlie Aiiczo, and by the Ebro, together 
with its iribataries, theEganud Ara^ou, on the level shores of which corn, wine, 
aud oil of good quality are iwoduced. »onie of the valleys which intersect the 
mooutaiu-Qinges, as those of Roiicesvalles, Lescon, Bastan, and Roncal, have a 
fniitrul soil, and yield goo<l crops; but in the mountain dirtricts, husbandry is im- 
practicable, and the inhabitants nearly all follow the chase, as much from necessity 
as inclination ; and wliilea lari^e numlxr of Ihe Navarri?se are soldiers, a still lurirer 
proportion are smngglei-s — tbe proximity of the province to France, and the dan- 
}:erou8 character of the almost inacc(>ssible mountain {tasses which alone connect 
ttie two countri(!8, holding oi^t many inducements and facilities in tlie way of smug- 
gling. The mountain forests still harlntr iHsars, wolves, wild-cjits, goats, deer, and 
au abundance of game of every other kind. Iron and salt are the chief mineral pro- 
ducts of the district, but these are obtained in sufficient quantities to Ikj exportet!. 
The people of N. are a hardy, bra\'e, and hospitable race, loyal to tiie sovereign, at- 
tentive observers of the forms of their religion, and, except in the matter of smug- 
gling, bonest and moral ; but they are passionate and distrustful, pi*oiie to anger, 
a*jd keen in avenging an insult^ real or imaginar}'. Although not industrhm;*, the 
people follow a few branches of industry, aud manufacture glass, leather, soap^ 
chocolate^ Ac, of good quality. 

nieNavarrese, with few exceptions, are meml>er8 of the church of Rome, to 
whoso tenets they cHng witli superHitioiis devotion. They have always intermar- 
ried chiefly among their own compatriots, and are a nearly nnre Bnt-que race. In 
the mountainous districts, Basque is still spoken, but in the plains, the modern Cas- 
lilian form of Spanish is rapidly supplanting the ancient language of the conuliy. 
The chief town is Pamplona (q. ^.). 

The territory known an early period of Spanish history under the name of 
N., was occupied iu atieient times by the Vascones, who were subdued by Ihe Goths, 
ii) the 5tli century. After having become gradually amalgamated with their con- 
querors, the 1>eople continued to enjoy a species of turbulent independence uudtrr 
millitary leaders until the 8ih c, when they vri've almost annihilated by the hordes 
of Arabs who were rapidly spreading tlieir dominion to all parts of I lie peninsula. 
The Gothic Vascones of N., who had been converted to Gliristianity, offered a gal- 
lant resistance to their iuftdel invader*, and althoui^h repeatedly »»eaten, they were 
not wliolly subtlued. The remnant which escaped the sword of their Moslem ene- 
mies took refuge in the fastnesses of the mountains, and choosing a knight of their 
number, Garcia, Xlmenes; as their leader or king, they ^'allied fort h, aud by their 
gallant resistance, compelled tlie Arabs to leave them In the enjoyment of an Inde- 
iwiideuce greater than t hat of the neighboring states. On the extinction of the race 
of Hmeiies, fn the middle of the 9th c, the Navmrrese elected as their king lingo 
Sslichoa, Co^nt of Bigorre, in whose family the sdccesslon remained till the mar- 
. Hage of Philip the Fair with Queen Joanna I. of N. ; aud the accessiumof thefpnner 

* *^ ^ • Digitized by VjOOQLVS- 

to the throne of Frtince in 1286, rendered N. an appnnago of the crown of Prance. It 
coiiiiiiiuid a part of that kiii);doin during the snccetwive rnigiis of Loiis X., Philip V., 
and Charie." the Pair ; bnt oii the dwith of thia la-t in 1828, Prince M\ lo the 
family of Valois, and the daughter of liouis X., ihe riglitfnl heir, siiccefdrttl to N. as 
Jo:niiin II. The eveutt) of the kingdom present no feainrea of iutctrest during the 
iK^xt hundred year9. The marriage of Blanche, dunghter of Charles III. of N., with 
John IL of ^ragon, in 1442, did not proiluceau annexation of N. to Aragon,a)» Jiihn 
sufferod his Wife to rule Iter own kingdom us she pleased, and even after lier dearli 
and his subs quent re-m.irriagtN lie resigned the govern ni«nt entirely to his son \rf 
Blanche. Thi:* son, known as Charles. Prince of Yiano. having attempted to remain 
iieiitrui in his father's Quarrels with Castile, John expeiled him and his eldor sister 
Blanche, who sided with hiui. from N., and ctmferred the kingdom on Leonora 
Countess de Foix, his younger daughter, by Blanch", whose misrule completed tJie 
di!«ori;aiii.''ation which these family quarrels had couunenced. Her son, Friiucii>, 
called Phoebus, from his beauty, succct;ded in 1479, and his sister Catherine in 14S3. 
Ferdinand and Isabella sought to marnr the young queen to their son and heir, the 
Prince of Asturlas, bnt. her mother, a French princess*, married her to Jean d'AIbrct. 
Ferdinand, however, was not willing to let the prize escape him, and on some slight 
pretext he siMzed N. In 1512. After this act of 8|)oliation, there remained nothing of 
ancient N. beyond a small territory on the northern side of the Pyrenees, which wag 
subsequently united to the crown of France by Henri IV. of Bonrboh, King of N., 
whose niothi^r.Jemni d'Albret, was gmnddanghter of Queen Catherine; and hence 
the history of N. ends with his access^n to the French throne in 1589. The Navam*.se 
were, however, permitted to retain many of their ancient privileges, after their iin 
corporation with the other donndns of the Span sh crcnvn, until the reign of Qneen 
Isabella II.. winnj the active aid which they fumishid to the pretender, Don Carlos, 
id the rebellion of 1834 — 1889. led to the abrogation of their /tte/'os, or natioind as- 
semblies, and to the amalgamation of their nationality with titat of the kingdom at 
large. In the Inter Carlist i?trnggle of 1872--1876, N. was again a principnlseat of 
the war, the Inhabitants being stimulated in their assist'Uice of the representative 
of the claims and title of Don Carlos by his promise of restoring their Jkteron, 

NAVB. See Church. 

NA'VEW (Fr. navetW), a garden vegetable much cultivated in France and other 
parts of the continent of JBurope, although litile used in Britain. It is by some 
Dotanists regarded as a cultivated variety of Bra^aica naptM, or Rape (q. v.), whilst 
others refer it to B. eamipestris^ sometimes called Wild N., the siiecies wiiicii is also 
supposed to b-a the original of the Swedish Turnip (q. ▼.). The p irt used is the 
swollen root, which is rather like a carrot in shape. Its color is white. Its flavor is 
much stronger than that of the turnip. It succeeds best in a dry ligiit soiL The 
seed is sown in spring, and the plants thinned out to 6 Inches apart. 

N AVI'CULA (Lat. a little ship), a genus of DiatcmaeecB (q. v.), receiving Us name 
from the resemblance of its form to that-of a boat. Some of the species are very 

NAVI'CULAR DISEASE, in the Horse, consL«ta in strain of the strong flexor 
tendon of the foot, at the point within the hpllow of the fetlock, where it passes over 
the oavicnlar bone. It is most common amongst the lighter sorts of horses, and 
especially where they have upright pasterns, out-turned to/s, and early severe work 
on Imrd roads. It soon given rise to a short tripping yet aiutious gait, nndne wear ' 
of the toe of the shoe, wasting of the muscles of the shoulder, and projecting or 
'* pointing " of the affected limb whilst sttuidiug. When early noticed, and in horses 
with welt formed legs, it is often curable; but when of several weeks' standing, it 
leads to so much inflammation and destruction of the tendon and adjoining parts, 
that soundness and fitness for fa^t work are again impossible. Re^t shouUl at once 
be given, the shoo removed, the toe shortened, and tlie foot placed in a large, soft., 
hot poultice, changed every few hours. Laxative medicine and bra IT masliet* should 
l>e ordered, and a soft bed made with old short litter. After a few days, and wh«n the 
beat and tenderness abate, cold applications should supersede the hot; and, after 
another week, a blister may be applied round the coronet, and the aninnil placed for 
two mouths in a good yard or in a grass field, if the ground be soft and moist ; or» 

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1 J 1 Kavd 

if snfSclently strong, at slow fann-work on reft land. Division of the nerve gofug 
to ttie foot removes BciisniTon, and consequently lumeneM ; and bence is iiseiol in 
relieving auiinats Intended for breeding purposes or for slow work. The operation, 
however, is not to be recom mended wfrere fust work is required; for the auimnL in- 
sensible to pnin, ases the Ifmb as if nothing were amiss, and (he diseate rapidly 
becomes worse. 

NAVIES, Ancient and Me<lievnl. The ancient method of naval warfare consisted, 
in ^ri'ut part, in the driving of beaked vessels against eacli other; and therefore skill 
ntul citlerity in munoeuviing, so as to strike tlie enemy at the greiitept disadvantage, 
w< ic of tlie utmost importance. The victory Ihns usnaUy remained with tlie best 
sailor. This mode of conflict has been attempted to be revived at the present time, 
and vessels called ** steam-ranjs " are specially constructed for this spttcies of con- 
flict. The earli< St p^owers having efficient fleets appear to liave been the Phcenicians, 
C;irlhauin4un><, Persians, and Greeks; the Greeks had fleets ascarly as the beginning 
of the 1th c B.C.— the first sea-flght on record l>eing that l)etween the Corinthians 
aiid their colonists of Corcyra, 664 B.C. The earliest great battle in which tactics 
r:p|M>ar to have dlstiuctlv been opposed to superior force, and with sacceas, was that 
uf Saiamis (480 bo.V. where Themisiocles, taking advantage of the narrows, forced 
the Persian fleet of Xerxis to combat in such a manner, that ^^^^ '^"® ^' battle bnt 
little exceeded in length the line of the mach inferior Atlienlan fleet The Peiopon- 
iiesian War, where ^^Greek met Greek," tended nmch to develop the art o( naval 
warfare. But the destruction of tlie Athenian marine power in the Syracusian expe- 
dition of 414 B.c , left Carthage mistress of the Meditttrranean. The Roman power, 
however, gradually asserted itself, and after two centurits, became omnipotent by 
the destruction of Carthage. For several following centuries the only sea-fights 
were occasioned by the civil wars of tne Romans. Towards the close of the empire, 
the system of fighting with pointed prows had been discontinued in favor of that 
which had always co-existed— viz., the running alongside and l>oard{ng by armed 
men, with whom each vessel was overloaded. Onagers, balisUe. &c., were ultimately 
carried in the ships and used as artillery ; but they were little relied on, and it was 
n:>nal, after a discbarge of anows and javelins, to come to close quarters. A sea- 
fight was therefore a liaud-to-hund struggle on a floating base, in which the van- 
quished were almost certainly drowned or slain. 

Tlie northern invaders of the empire, and 8ul)sequently the Moors, seem to have 
JDtrodnceil swift-sailing galleys, warring in small hqunclrons and singly, and rav- 
niring all civili>ed coasts for nlnnder and slav<s. This — the break-up of the 
empire — was the era of piracy, when every nation, which had more to win than lose 
by freebooting, sentoat its crai^ei-s. Foremost for daring and seamanship were 
the Norsemen, who peneinited in every direction from the Bos)>oru8 to Newfonnd- 
hiiid. Combination being the only security a^ainht these marauders, the medieval 
navies gradually 8t>rang up; the^inost conspicmnis being — in the Mediterranean, 
those of Venice. Genoa. .Pisu, Aragon ; on the Atlantic sea-hoard, England ana 
Franco. In the Medstorranean. Venice, after a long struggle with the Genoese, and 
Bobsequetitly with the Tmks, t>ecanie the great naval nower. The Aragonese fleet 
grudually developed into the Sptmierti navy, Mhich, hy the epoch of Columtms, had 
a rival in that of Portngal. Many strnggkss left, in the 16ih and 17th centuries, the 
principal naval power in the hands of the English, French, Dutch, Spaniards, and 
f*orlugnese. The present state of these and other existing navies will be briefly 
given under Navies, Modern. 

NAVIES, Modem. Paling the modem navies of the world from the 16th c, we 
fivid the British navy rising from insignificance by the de.'*truction of the Spanish 
Armada in 158S ; a bkJtv which Spain never recovered^ and which the Dutch, whoso 
iiavtil force had acquired tremendous strength in their struggle for independence, 
increased the weight of, by their triumph in 1607, in the Bay of Glbralfar. At this 
lime, there was no decisive superiority of the fleet of England over that of France; 
t*nt each was inferior to the Dutch navy. Tlie Comnmuwealth and reign of Charles 
II. were signalised by the struggle for mastefy l)etween the Eoglish and Dnteb; 
wireii victory, after many alt«'ruations, finally sided with the former. ThrongU the 
18ib<v^ihefiiiglisbaud French were the principal fleets; ImM^uis XVI. ginre a 
dectdM superiority to the navy of France ; and at the period of tl»e American War, 

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Karlga ton 


the naval power of Englaiul wm Rcrlonply tbreotcnf'ck Spain, Hollandt and Rassia 
(nuw for tue Qrift time n uavni power) itaU mean while acquired con»iiIerahle fleets* 
and the "armed neqtnility," to wliich tlic noriliern pow<ni gave tlieir adhereucti, 
rendered the Britinh popition mont criticnU However, tlie slowly roaeed energy of 
hertrovernmt'nt, tlteinvincihje conrajjfe of tier seamen, and the genins of her ad- 
n1iral^<, brought Britain ihrou^li all her trials. Oamperdown broke the Dutch power ; 
many buttles weuki ned the French navy ; and at Trufal^ur, in 1806, it, with tlie 
Spuniflh power, was swept from U\6 oc<mn. I'he United States had in the mcati- 
time angmented tlteir fleet, and in the wtir of 1812 — 1814, maintained a glorious 
struggle. During the American War of Seoeeaton, many gnn-lwat8, ** moniti»n»," 
and iron- dads of all classe.*, were created; Imt chiefly adapted for river and c<wiMt 
service. The growth, in recent times, of the Britisli navy will be found uiul r 
Navy, BRlTiaH. The Emperor Napoleon III yreatlyeni rgeil and Improved ihe 
French navy, yet in the war of 18T0— 1871 it had no opportunity of proving ita effec- 

The contef*t between the attack and defence which has been going ou for 8on)e 
time appears to' have attained itm limits in the 100-ton guns of4hi^ Italian fvavy, anil 
the 24-inch armor plate of the British ;^nd a new departure seems already to have 
been taken which points in the direction of steel-piatea and s|»eed, and a more 
special adaptation of whips for particular services. The torpedo system has iiiiro- 
dnced a new element Into naval warfare, particularly in harbors, rivers, and inland 
waters', which Cun hardly be said to lie yet fully developed (!«ee Torpedo); and the 
ealacitroplvft of the Vanguard of the Britich navy, and the Oi(n*ser Kurfurst 
of the Ocrman, have pointed out dangers connected with the ram system Hiut hud 
not been calculated upon. 

The following table givei» a fair estimate of the comparative strength of tho chief 
navies of the world. Comparison by the numb' r ol giinf» i;* of little account now ; 
that of armared uteaniers and horae^powef is more to the point : 



Austria-Hungary ... 





Great Britain 






Spain . .. 

Sweden and Norway 
l^irkey...... ...• .. 

United States* 




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NAVIGA'TION, tii»'tory of. In its widest sense, this subject is divisible into 
t)tr«;eseciK)ns-r^lhe history of the prognssive improvement in the -const ruction of 
sltlps, the history of the growth of naval powers, and the history of the trradiial 

. •The hoi»e-powf*r aud runs of the armored steamers oidy are given, 
ber of wen iuclad(j8 the Royal Naval Reserve. 

The imm- 

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^protid nnti increase of the BClence of nRvigation. Although there three trclioiiB Are 
to j»oin« extent Interwoven, the pn^ent article will l)e irHiitc'd to a coii^iderution 
of t\ie lust, the ftrsi two being sufficieiitly described ouder Shjp-buildimo, nud 

Th*! flrpt nee of ships, aa dir»tiii|:nlphed from bouts, appears to have been by the 
tarly Egyptiuuft, who nre Iwllevid to hove reached the wei«teni coui«t of India, lie- 
^id<'S nHViKating the McditeiRineiin. Little, however, is known of tlifir prowt-fs 
on tlte witycK; uud* wimtever it inay have l)eeii, Ihev were soon eclipsed by tho 
citisens of Tyre, who, to niake lunends/or tlie nnprudnctiveiies:< of their stiip of 
t-<»rritory, laid the sens nnder Iribnte, itnd made their city the ^.'rent eniiMiriuni of ^ 
£as'<*m and Earopean trade. Thi y ppreud their uiercluint fli'ets throughout tlie^ 
Mi'diterninean. n.-ivigiited 8olomon'H nqnudronr* to tite Pereiun Gulf and Iu<li:iu 
OeeiiH, «u<l planted colonies everywhere. Priuciiml among tliese colonies was 
Carthage, whvch soon outslione the patent state in \i^^ niarltiine daring. The Cartha- 
jirinian fleets passed the Piliars of Hereules', and, w ith no btttter guide than tlw: slarn, 
arebetievid to liave t^pread northward to ihe B itii»h IMe»», and ^OlllhwaId for 8on»e 
distance alon^ tlie westcoaHi of Africa. From the 6ih to tlie4ili centuries B.C., the 
Orvek iitati'Sgriiduaily developed the nrtof nuvii:ution, and at the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war tlie Atiientansapp'ar to have been skilful tacilclans, capable of concerted 
inanoeuvno. The Greeks however, were rather warlike than commercial in their 
naiiiical affairs. I« ttie.4th c B.C., Alexnodcr destroyed the Tjrian power, trans- 
ferring its commerce to Alexandria, which, having an adroirahie h- rlior, Ih> 
came the centre of trade for tiie ancient world, and far t-nrparsi d in tlie magnilndu 
of iti> marine transactions any city whieii had yet exihted. Rome next wre»te<i from 
ICnrthage its naval |)pwer, and to(»k its vast trade into the. hands of the Iiali u 
suUora. After the battle of Actiam, Egypt became a Uomnii province, and An}fu>tiis 
wfts master of tlie enormous commerce both of the Roman and tlie Alexandrian mer- 
cimutt. Dnrine all tlijs period, the size of Che ves.'-els liad lM*en continually incre:is* 
ing, but probably the form was that of the galley*, still common In the Medi terra neiin, 
t .ougl: a more cliimHy craft tiien than now. Sails went known, and pomt; knowledge 
was evince<l even of i>eating up against a foul wind ; 6ut oars were tlie great motive- 
])Ower; speed wa-* not thoujrht of, a voyage from the Levant to Italy being tlie work 
of a season ;,and so little confidence had the sailoi-s in their skill or in the stability 
of their ships (>«iill steered by two oars' proj-cting from the stern), that it was cus- 
tomary to haul tlie vessel's np on shore wtien win er set in. During the empire, no 
great prc^ess seem^ to have been made, except in the size of the ves-els; l)ut 
regular fleets were maintained, botii in the Mediterranean and on the coast of GaxI, 
for the protection of commerce. Meanwhile the barbarinn nations of the north 
were advancing in quite a different sciiool. Tlie Saxon. Jntish, and Non^e prows 
begait to i^am the ocean in every direc Ion ; in snnill ves«»el!«, they trusted more to 
tlie winds than to oars, and, cailiii^ sitiyly, gradually acquired that hardihood and 
daring which nlt.imat«-ly renderetl tltem nnisters of the sea. Tlie Brjtons were no 
mean seamen, and wiien Caran^ius assumed tlie purple in their island, he was able, 
for several years, by his flcvts alone, to maintaiii his hidependence against all the 
power of Rome. 

The art of navigation became almost extinct in the Mediterranean with the fall 
of tlie empire ; hut the barhan)U8 conquerors popn perceived its value, and revived 
StB practice with the addition of new inventions sugge.-tetl by their own energy. 
The iiAiinders of Venice, the Genoese, and tlie Pisans, were tiie carriers of that great 
inland sea. Tbeir merchants tradi'd to the furthest Indies, and their markets be- 
came tlic exchanges for the produce of the world. Vast fleets of merchant galleys 
from tl:ese flourishing republics dand the storm, while their constant rivalries gave 
occasibn for tiie gniwtli of naval tJictics. So ricli a comiherce tempttd piracy^ aiui 
the Moorish corsairs penetrated everywhere on lioth sides of the straits of Gibral- 
tar in quest of prey; evincitig not less skill and nautical audacity than savage fury 
and iniiutnan cruelty. Tut the Atlantic powers, taught in Ptormy seas, were rejirinir 
a naval might that 'should outrival all other pretenders. The Nor^iemen extended 
Hielr voyages to Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, while tliey first ravag<Hi 
and' then coloniseil tlie coarta of Brifain, Fnince, and Sicily. Tlie sea had no 
terrors for these hardy rovers ; their exploits are imperisbably recorded in the 

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Icelnudic Snga», and iu the nnmerona Islands and promontories to which thej ba;t« 
given names. 

Enrly in the I5th c, the Introdnctioo of the niMrfner's compass rendered the sea- 
mau inrt«|xndoiit of sun jind stars— au incalculable ijaJu, as was soon shewn mi the 
ocean- voyajjes of Colnmbus, Cat)ot, and others*. In 1492» Colanilms rendere*! 
navigation more secure by the discovery of the vaHatiun of the coiHi>a«s. Between 
ihat and 1514. the •• cross-staff" begtm to l>e n'*fd ; a rude inHtm intent for apcertain- 
in^ 'ht? autrle between the moon and a fix«d star, with the coiifequent longitude. 
E.trly in the 16th c, tiiblus of dfclinutiou and ascension became common. In 1637, . 
'^ Nufioz (Nonius), a Portuguese, iuveuted various methods of coin|)uting the rhumb- 
liiicrt and sailing on the trreat circle. In 1545, the two first treatises on systematic 
nnvigntiou appeared in Spain, one by Pedro de Medina, the other bv Martiu Cones. 
Til •»« works were speedily trau!«l:ited into French, Dutch, Ensnsh, Ac, and for 
mriny yejus served as the text-iM)uks of practical navigation. Iwards the end of 
tiie century, Bourne, in England, and Stevin iu Holland, improve the astronom- 
ical portion of the art, while the iutrodnciion of time-pieces and the Log (q. y.) « 
fendcr^d the computation of distance more easy. 

II would be tedious to enumerate the successive Improvements 4)y which the 
science of navig>ition has been brought to its present high perfection ; but as con- 
spicuous points \u tlie history of the aVt^ the following stand oat: The invention of 
M.?rcafor*8 chart in 156» ; the formation by Wright of tables of meridional parts, 
1597 ; Davis's quadrant, about 1600 ; the npplicailon of logarithms to nautical calcu- 
lations, 1620, by Edmund Onnter;.the introduction of middle-latitude salting ia 
1623; the measure of a degree' on the meridian, by Richard Norwood, hi 1631. 
Uadley's quadrant, a century later, rendered observations easier and more accurate ; 
while Harrison's chronometers (1764), rendered the computation of longitude a 
marter of comparativeiy small difflcu tv. Wright, Bond and Norwood wtye the 
authors of scientific uavigaticm, and their science is now made available iu practice 
by means of the ** Nautical Almanac,'* published annually by the British Admiralty. 
The more important points of- the science of navigation are noticed under such 
head-* as Dkad-Ueokoninq, Latitude and Lomqitudb, Gbeat-CibcIa Saiuno, 
Sailinqs, «fcc. 

NAVIGATION, Laws as to. By the law of nature and of nations, the naviga- 
tion of the open sea is free to all the world. T|ie open sea means all the main ^aa 
and oceans bevond three miles froin laud. The sea within three miles from land ia 
called the turrftorfal sea, and each ^tat^ has a kind of pro|>erty iu such fea, and has 
a rigitt to regulate the use thereof. Hence, it was natural that in early times, be- 
fore the laws of commerce were properly understood, each state should endeavor to 
exclude foreigners from ttiat part of the sea so as to secure to its own subjects tlie 
l>enefits of the carriage of goods in ships, which has always been an increasing 
source of wealth. In England, however, as in most countiies, the first care seema 

to have been bestow«!d on the navy, as the great means of defending the realm 
against enemies, and trading-ships came to be firat subj^'Ct to statutory regulation 
only as being in some way ancillary to the interests of the navy. The Taws of 

Oleron were the first code of imiritime laws which obtiiined notice as well as general 
acceptance in Eurojie, in the time of Edward I., and the authorship of those laws is 
claiiiu d by Scldon and Blackstone for Edward I., though the point is disputed by 
the French writers. By a statute of Richard II., in order io augment the navy of 
England, it was ordained that none of the liegeS should ship any merchandise out 
of the realm except iu native shi()s, though the statute was soon varied and seldom 

followed. At length, in 1650, an act was passt^d with a view to stop the gainful trade 
of tht? Dutch. It prohibited all ships of foreign nations from trading with anv Eng- 
lisli plantation without a licence from the Conncil of State. In 1651, the prohlbitiou 

was extended to the mother-countryj aiKi no goods were suffered to be impr>rted 
into England or any of ita dependencies in any other than English bottoms, or in the 
ship:4 of that Euro|>ean nation of which the merchandise was the genuine growth or 
man u fact ure. At the Restoration, these enactments were repeated and coutiuoud by 
the Navigation Act (12 Char. II. c. 18>, with the further additiou, that the mast^^rand 
three-fourths of the mariners should also be British subj«H;ts, The object of this 
act was to encourage British shipping, and was long believed to be wise and saftttary. 
A.dum Smith, however, has the sagacity to see that the act was not favorable to fc«^ 

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elfrn comtnerce or \o opnlence, nnd it was only on the gronnd thnt defence was 
ntore Important tlmu opnieuce, that he paid it was ** perhaps the wif^est of hJI the 
conimerttiiil regnlutions of £ngland." In 1820,^he statnte 4 Geo. IV. c. 41 repealed 
the Nayigatiou Act, and establiRbed a new syatem of reflation?, wbicli wtre fnr- 
ther varifd by pnbseqnent 8tatate8. till, under tlie inflaei^ce of tlie free-trade doc- 
trines, new statutes were passed, which reversed the ancient policy. By the law, as 
now altered, foreign vessels are allowed free commercial intercourse and eqality with 
the ships of this country and its dependencies, except as reeards the co:i«ting- trade 
of the BritiBb poscssious in Asia, Africa, and America, for the conMing-tnide of ihe 
United Kint;dom is now entirely thrown o|>en to all comers. The advantages of 
equality and free trade are, however, f^ofar onalified, that in the case of the ships of 
tliopc nations which do not concede to British ships like privileges, prohibitions and 
restrictions may be imiH)«ed by order in council. 

As regards those laws of navigation which effect the property and management ' 
of ships, a complete code of regulations is contained in the Merchant Shipping Acts, 
which are IT and 18 Vict. c. 104, 18 and 19 Victc. 91, 25 and 26 Vict c. 63, 84 and 86 
Vict, c 110. 86 and 87 Vict, c 86. 1. As to ownwshlp, rogistnition, and transfer of 
merchant siiips. No ship is deemed a British ship unless she belong wholly to natu- 
ral-born subjects, denizens, naturali<*ed persons, or bodies corporate, having a place 
of business in the United Kingdom or some British posM^^slon. Every British ship, 
with a few exceptions as to old ships and small vessels, must he registered, other- 
wise, it is not entitled to the protection of the Britinii flag. The Commisnioners of 
Customs indicate at wliat port in the United Kin^'dom ships may he registered by 
their officers, and when registered, the ship is held to belong to that port. The 
name of the ship and its owners must be stilted ; and as regards joint-ownership, a 
ship is capable only of l>eing subdivided into sixty-four shares, and not more than 
tliirty-two owners shall own one ship. These registered owners are deemed the 
legal owners, and so long as the register is nnclianged. the shi|) is held still to belong 
to them. The only way of trantiferring the property is by a bill of sale under seal ; 
or if a mortgage is made, it must he made in a particular form, and duly registered, 
and the priority of title as between several mortgagees is regulated by the date of the 
entry in the register. 2. As regtirds the laws concerning merchant seamen, there is 
established in every such seaport a superintendent, whose bisiness it is to afford 
facilities for engaging seamen, by keeping rtgisters of seamen, and superinten- 
ding the making and discharging of contracts. No person is allowed to be employed 
in a foreiffii-going ship as master, or as first, or second, Or only mat**, 
or in a home-trade imssenger-sbip as master, or first or only mate, 
nnless he lias a certificate of competency or a certificate of service, ij*sned 
by the Board of Trade only to those who are .deemed entitled thereto. The 
master Of every shipAbQve 80 tons burden shall enter into an agreement, of a certain 
form, with every seaman lie carries from the United Kingdom, and in which the 
names of the seamen, wages, provisions, capacity of service, &c., are set forth. The 
seamen are not to lose their wages though no freight is earned, or the shin lost 
The men are also to have a berth of a certain s-.zt^, and tlie ship to be supplied with 
medicines, log-book, &c In order to secure general information, every master of a 
fomigu-going ship js bound, within 48 hours after ariiving at the final port of desti- 
nation in tlie United Kingdom, to report his ship. Unseaworthy or overloaded ships 
may be surveyed by Uie Board of Trade and detained. 8. As regards the liability of 
shipowners for loss or damage, it is provided by statute that no owner of a sea-going 
ship shall be liable to make goodmiy loss or damage occurring without his actuul 
fauH or privify, to goods or things on board, by reason of fire on board the ship ; or 
to any gold, silver, diamonds, watches, jewels, or precious stones on board, by rea- 
son of robliery or enibeEslement, nnless the true nature and value of sucn articles 
have been inserted in the bill of lading. And in cases where loss to goods occurs 
without his actual fault or i)rivity, the owner shall not be liable in damases to an 
aggregate amount exceeding X8 per ton of the ship's tonnage. In case ot k)ss of 
life or personal injnry^an8t;a.^y misinanagement of the ship, out without the actual 
fault or privity of the owners, they shall not lie h&hlv beyond jG15 per ton. In case 
of accidents, whereby a large nniiiber of iiersims have been killed or injured, and to 

firevewt a mult4plicity of actions, the sheriff of Ihe county is to empaunel a jniT.imd 
Mqoire into the question of liability. If the owners aie found liable, then £30 is to 

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be assessed as the dnmngep for each case of death or per9on:il Injury. In case of 
denth^encli enm ij* to be jwiid to the hn*band, vife, (uirent or child of the deceaned. 
If any person considt^r tins in not «>irfficient dnmagef*. then ou rctnruing euch »uni, 
he niny conunence an action ; bnt nnlft^s he recover doable thai aaui, he must paj 
costR. See »l?o Pilotb and LiaHT-HOUdE«. 

NAVIGA'TORS', or Sanioan Inlands, a gronp of nine Wands, with porae ieletn. In 
the Pacific Ocesin, lying north of the Fri.udly Inlands, iu lat. 13° SC— 14030' a. and lonir. 
168o~lT3° w. The fonrprincipat inlands of thegmap areM:inna,Tntuila, Upolu, and 
Siivaii. Of thene, Siivaii. 40 nii^ea in 1-ngth by 20 miles broad, and having a iiopnlH^ 
tlon of 20rf>00. is I he largest. Area of thu group estimated «t 2650 ^qn.tre miles ; 
popnlaiion about 66.000. With the exception of one (Ro^e Island), the N. I. .-ire 
ail of volcanic origin. For the most part titey are lofty, and broken nud 
rugged in ap|>earance, rising In some cases to upwards of '2600 feet in heiglit, and 
C(»vcred with the richest vegetation. Tin- coil, formed chiefly by the decomposition 
of volcanic rock, is rich, and the clin;ate is moist. 'I he forests, which Include the 
bread-fruit, tlie cocoa-nnt, banana and palm-trees, are remarkably thick. The orange, 
lemon, tacca, (from whlcli a kind of sago Is made), coffee, jjweet potatoes, pine- 
apples, yams, nutmeg, wild sugar-cane, and many other important plant-s, grow^ 
luxuiiantly. Until recently, when swine, horned cattle, and horses were iutroduct-d, 
there were no traces among these islands of any uativn mammalia ezce})t a species 
of bat. 'J'he natives are well formed (e^pecially the males), ingenious, and. affee.tloii- 
ate. The women, who superintend tiie indoor work and manufacture mats, are held 
in high respect. There are^Eng'ish and American mission stations on the isl:uHl;«, 
as well as several Roman Catholic eslablisimients, and mnny of the natives have 
embraced Christianity. The government is hi the liand<4 of the hereditaiy chiefn. 
In 1875, Col. Stcinl)ergcr, from theUuiK'd States, established himself at« (virtually) 
dictator of the N. 1.^ hut was removi'd by the commander of a British war-ve&>cl iu 
1876. Trade is carried on with Sydney. 

NAVY, British. Owing to the Insular positiou of Great Britain, her navy haB 
long l)eeii considered a matter of vital ini|M)rtancp, and Is the service in which eveiy 
inhabitant tnkes a pec'uliar pride. In consid.»ring the history of the B itisli navy, Itia 
convenit'Ut to divide the subject into matiriel ami persomm. The latter had no dis- 
tinct organisation till the time of Heni-y Vllf.; bnt of the former, we recognise m 
the earliest tlnies ihe g«^rui of subsequent glories. Caransius, a Roman genera] wiio 
had thrown off his depend" nee ou the empire, maiutaiued himself In Englmid &>r 
SI' vera) yeare by his flret, with which he prevented the Imperial forces from reaching^ 
the island. The Saxons brought nniritline prowesw with tliem to tliit British shores, 
bnt appiar soon to have lost it amid ihe rich provinces in wliicb they settled. Some 
organ i^al ion for tlie defence of the coast whs, however, maintained, and Alfred the 
(jrent availed himself of it to repulse the Danes; he at the same time raiseii the ef- 
ficiency of his navy by increasing the size of hisjealleys, some being built which were 
capable of being rowed by ililrly pair of oars. Under his successors, the number of 
vessels increased, and both E<lwnrd and Athelstan foughl many naval batthiS with the 
Danes. Eklgar asph-ed to be loi-d of all thte northern seas, ana had from three to five 
thousand galleys, divided into three fleeta on ihe western, Boutticrn, and eastern 
coasts respectively ; but the size of most of these sli1|>s was very lusigniftcant, and 
the greater part were probably mere row-boats. Ethelrcd IL formed a sort, of naval 
militia, enacting that every owner of SIO hydes of laud should build and furnish 
one v»s8fl for the service of -his country. 

William the Conqueror established the Cinque Ports, with important privileges, 
in reiurn for which they were Itound to have at the seiVice of the crown for 16day8 
in any emergency. 62 ships carryine 24 men each. Richard I. took 100 large ships 
and 60 galleys to Palestine. John claimed the sovereignty of the seas, and required 
all forergners to strike to the English flag; a pretension which lias been tlie cause 
of some bloody battles, but which England proudly upheld In all dangers. (Thi6 
honor was formally yielded by the Dutch in 1673, and the fVonch In 1704 ; and, 
alihougli not now exacted in its fulness, the remembranceof the right survives iu re- 
quiring foreign vessels to salute fhst). In the same king's reign, a great 
naval engagement with the French took place (1298) in mid -channel, wh;;n 260 French 
vessels were captured. The Edwards and the Henries maintained the glory of the 

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Brifiyh flag; Edwonl III., in i^oreon, wilh tUe.BI.ick Prlnc**, nt flie battle of Shiy% 
111 1S40. defeated a uroatly i*npcrioi' Pivncli fl<!ef, with 40,IH)0 inuii on h<tiird. Uenry 
V. had **^reie slnppes, currnkt'P. iMirgep, ami biillyiigen* ;'* and at one linie collected 
vessels enough t4> iransiHirt 26.^)0 men into Normandy. Il«n.ry VII. was the 
fii>t monarch who maintained a tleet dnring {M-aoit; he built, ihe Great Harry^ 
Mrbich was the earliest war- vessel of any size, and which was barued at Wool- 
wich iu 1663. 

To Henry VIII.. however, belongs the honor of having laid the foundation of the 
Briti^ navy as a distinct service. Besides bnildinir srveral lai-ge vo?sel>», of which 
the Uenry Chaee de Dien. of T2 pnns, 700 men. and probably alw>ui 1000 ions, was the 
' HKjst cons'iderable, he constituted a |)ennaneiit personnel, defining the my of ad- 
' inirals, vice-admirals, captains, and 8e4tmen. He ul^o estnWished royal dcickyanls 
Ht Deptford, Woolwich, and Portsmouth; and for the government of the whole 
Bttrv ce, instituted an Admiralty and Navy 9oard, the latrer being the forerunner of 
thi' pn sent lYiuity Board. When this king died, he left 60 ships of various ^Ie s, 
manned by nl>oui 8000 hands. 

Under Edward VI., the navy fell off, but was sufficiently important in the puc- 
ceedlug reign for the English admiral lo exact the salute to his flag from Philip II. 
■with a larger Spanish fleeL when tlie latter was on his way to e>pouse Queen Mary. 
Elisabeth liad the struggle wilh the Spanish Armada to try her navy, and left 42 
ships, of 17,000 tons in all, and 8846 men— 16 of her ships being upwards of 000 tm»s. 
From this period the tonnage of the ships »<teadily increased. Under James I. and 
Cliarles I.. Mr Ph^.neas Pett, M.A., the first scientlfi<' naval architect, remodflled the 
navy, abolishing the lofty forecastles aird i)oo|>s, which had made earlier ships n- 
8<MiiiYle Chinese junks. In 1610, he laia down the Pri^ice-Royal.^ a two-decker, 
carrying 64 lars^e gnus ; and tn 1637, from Woolwich, he launched the celeltrated 
Soceretf^no/ttc fiteos, the first three-decker, and certainly the largest ship hitherto 
con.sfructed on moaern principles. She wna 232 feet in leiigth, of 1687 tons, and 
c'lnied at first 130 pieces of cannon ; but l)cing found unwieldy, was cat down, and 
then |>roved an excellent ship. She was burned in 16.Mi. 

Pritice Rupert's devotion to the crown was Iwid for the navy, for he carried ofE 25 
large chip?* ; and Cromwell, on acceding to power, had but 14 two-decktrs. His 
energy, however, soon wrought a change, and in five years he had 160 fhips, of 
which a third were of the line; his crews amountwd to 20,000 men. Duriut; the 
Pnrtectorate, Peter Pv't^, son of Phlneas, bni.t the Con«ton< Warvriek. \\\e earliest 
Brili8h frigat<', from a French design and pattern. Cromwell first laid navy e^sti- 
nnites before parliament-, and obtained jC400,000 a year for the service. The Duke of 
York, afterwards James II., assisted by the indefatigable Mr. Samuel Pepys, <lld 
much for the navy, establishing the syst-i-m of Admiralty government much on its 
present tooting. In his time, Sir Anthony Deane improved the model of ships of 
war, again after a French design. James left, in 1688, 108 ships of the line, and 65 
otiier vessels; the total tonintge of the navy, 101,892 tons; the armatneiit, 6930 
•cons ; and the ))er6onnel, 42,00i» men. Williaai III. sedulously augmented the foiv«', 
foreseeing its importance lo his adopted country. When he died, there were 272 
ships of 169,030 Ions, and the animal charge for the navy had risen to jei.066 916. 
Gleorge II. paid much attention to his fleets, and greatly augniented the size of the 
ships ; lie left, in 1760, 412 ships of 321,104 tons. By 1782, the navy had rimn to 617 
sail of 600,000 tons; and by 1802 to 7uO sail, of which 148 were of the line. In 1818, 
there were 1000 ships (266 of the line), meai>uring about 900,000 ions, and carrying 
146,000 seamen and marines, at an annual charge of about jei8,0iK),000. Since the 
l)^ce in 1815, the number of vessels has been gix*atly diminished, although their 
power has vastly increased^ 

The progresslre angmeutution of sijte In vessels may be jndgi'd from the increase 
in first-rates. In 1677, the largest vessel was from 1600 to 1600 tons; Wy 1720, 1800 
had been reached ; by 1745, 2000 tons; 1780, 2200 tons; 1795, 2360 tons; 1800, 2600 
tons ; 1808, 2616 tons ; 1858, 4000 tons. From 1841, a gradual substitution of steam 
for sailing vessels be^an, which was not completed, Imwever, till 1869. Since 1860, 
another reconstruction has taken effect, armor-plated frigates, impervious to ordi- 
nary shot, armed cither as broadside vessels or m turrets, beintc substituted for tini- 
l)er Tcssels. At the ^ame time three and two deckers have ceased to be employt^d, 
cootinoos frigat(;s and turret shiiw replacing them of a tonnage far exceediuji the 

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largest threc-deckerfi of former times; they mount fewer funn, bnt tfioM they carry 
nre of etnpendoiiR calibre, imd of rifletl bore. Tlie JSorthnmberland, oue of ttie 
lurgest frijiates of tliis new class, is of 6621 toiip, 1360 bori*o-)K>wer, and 88 hin^e 
gniiH, wbile the DivastcUion carries 4 ffrear. gnus iu turrets of the most imtesive 
armor. Tlie Tnjlexihle (turret-ship) carries four 81-tou guns, aud is supposed to be 
the most powerful war-ship in the world. 

On tlie Ist of April 1874, the effective vessels of the iinvy were as follows : 83 
armor- plated frigates (8 building); 14 turret vessels (2 bnildintr); 3 annor-nlated 
corvettes, and two sloops ; 8 floating batteries ; 8 armored gnnbonts; 37 fhip«t of 
the line (10 without steam) ; 48 frigates (7 without steam) ; 42 corvettes, (7 build- 
ing, 5 without steam) ; 46 sloops (8 building and 4 witliout steam) ; 48 gnn-vi'ssel^ ; 
69 smaller steamers (10 Iwiilding) ; 71 gunboats; with 17 transports,^ yachts, and 5 
schooners; giving a total Of 424 vessels. At the end of 1877 there were in all 249 
ships iu commission, exclusive of Indian troop-ships. Th^ personnel of the uavy 
amounted in 1877 to 60,000 men, including 14,000 marines. iHit excluding artificers 
aud laborers iu dockyards ; the armament being about 5000 guns, mostly of beavy 
calibre. The annual charge for 1874-6 was esiinintv>d at ^610,179,485, which may l>e 
thus broadly subdivided (iu 1878-9 it was ^611,063,091) : 

Wages, Victuals and Clothing Of Officers aud Men jC8.667,021 

Admiralty Office 118,066 

Coast-Guard aud Naval Reserve 163,31 1 

Scieutific Branch (Sui-vey ing. Hydrography, Ac.) 111,170 

Dockyards and Victualling Yards, ,.. 1,253,211 - 

Stores for Building aud Repairlug Ships. 1,851,068 

Hi-^cellaneous Services. : 964,117 

Half-pay aiid Pensious. .., 1,816,926 

Conveyance of Troops. 175,600 


Information on the Various points of detail connected with the navy, will be 
found under the respective heads, as Admibal, Captain, Halt-fat, Shif-build- 
INO, Signals, &c. 

NA^XOS, the largest, most beautiful, and most fertile of the Cyclades, is situated 
In the Mgeauy midway betwe^^n the coasts of Greece aud Asia Minor. Exti-cme 
length, about 20 miles; breadth, 15 miles. Pop. about 12,000. The shores 
are steep, and the island is traversed by a ridge of mounttiius, which rise iu the 
highest summit, Dia, upwards of 300O feet. The plains and valleys are well watered : 
the priucipal products aud articles of export are wine, corn, oil. cotton, fruits and 
emeiy. The wine of N. (the best variety of which is still calleain the islands of the 
JSgcau, Bacchue-wine) was famous iu ancient as it is in mo<lem times, and on tliis 
account the island was celebrated in ttie legends of Diouysins, ana especially in 
those relating to Ariadne. Among its anti(}ditie8 are a curious Hellenic tower, and 
an unfinished colossal figure, 84 feet long, still lying in an ancient marble quarry iu 
the uorth of the island, and always called by the natives a figure of Apollo. It was 
ravaged by the Persiaus, 490 b.c., and after the conquest of Constantinople by the 
La<iui>, 1)ecame the seat of a dukedom, founded by the Venetians. It now forms a 
portion of the kingdom of Greece (q. v.). Naxos, theCapit^l^ vvMYx a population of 
about 5000, is situated on the north-west coast, Contains 16 Greek, ana 4 Catholic 
churches, aud 3 convents, and is the seat of a Greek and a Latin bishop. * 

NAZARE'NE (Gr. Nazarmos and NazaraioBj an ''inhabitant of Naxareth ") waa 
used by the Jews as one of tlie designations of our Lord, and afterwards became a 
common appellation cf the eiulv Christians iu Judeea. Although, originally, it is 
bnt a local appellation, there can d<^ no doubt that as Nazareth was bnt a second-rate 
city of the despised province of Galilee, it was eventually applied to our Lord and 
his followers as a name of contempt (John xviii. 5, 7 ; Actsxxiv. 5).— Fortbe Jnd»* 
Isiug sect called Kazarenes, see Ebionites. 

NA'ZARETH, a small town or village of Palestine, anciently in the district of 
Galilee, and in the territory of the trilie of Zebulon, 21 miles south-east of Acre, It 
lies in a hilly tract of country, aud is built partly on the sides of some rocky ridgosi 

Digitized by 




partly !n some or the ravines by irh!ch they are soamed. It fa celebrated as the 
scene of the Aniinuciatlon, and the place where the Bnvfour spent tht greater part 
. of his life In ol>8cnre labor. Pop., according to Dr Robiuson. 8120. of whom H»40 
are Grt^eki^, 520 Greek Catholic^*, 4S0 Latinf>, 400 Muronitet*, and '680 Mohammedans. 
Por:er thinks 4000 a moderate esftiniate. In the earliest ages of Christianity, N. was 
qu'xtv oviTlouki-d by the clmrrh. It did not contain a Hingfe Christian resident l)efore 
the time of Coiistantine^ an^-ttie tinit Christian pilgrimage toil took place in the 
6th ct-nlnry. Tiie principal ImiUling is tiie Ltitin convent^ reared, according to plons 
tradition, on the ppol wliere the aneel announced to tlie Virgin the birth of her 
Savionr-son ; bnt tlie Greeks have afro encted, in anotlier part of N., a cimrch on 
the scene (»f the Annnitciation. Besides thehc rival edifices, tlie traveller Is t>hewn a 
Irfitin cha|)el, affirmed to l>e l)uilt over the *' workshop of Joseph ;" also tlie chajM;! 1 1 
*-The Table of CiiriHf {Menm Christf), a vanlted chamber, containing the v«^rital)le 
tal)le at wliich onr Lord and liis discif Us used to eat ; the synagogae, oat of which 
he was tlirust by his townsmen ; and *' the Mount of Precipifation," down which lie 
narrowly esenped Ix'ing cast headlong. Ttie women of the village have been long 
famous for tlieir beauty. 

^A'ZAHITBS (from Heb. nazar, to separate) denoted among the Jews those 
persons, male or female, who had consecrated themselves to God by certain acts of 
al)stinence, wliich marked them off or ♦* separated '* them from tlie rest of the com- 
munity. In particular tliey were proliil)ited from using wine or strong drink of any 
kind, ^apes, whether moist or dry, or from shaving their heads. The law in regard 
to N. IB laid down in the Book of Nnmbera (vi. 1— St). The only examples of the 
class recortled in Scripture ara Samson, Sanmel, and John the Baptist, who were 
devoted from birth to that condition, thotigh tlie law appears to contemplate tempo- 
rary and voluntary, rather than perpetual ^azaritesh1p. 

I9EAGH, Lough, the largest lake of the British Islands, Is situated in the province 
of Ulster, Ireland, and is surronnd< d by tlie counties of Armagh, Tyrone, London- 
derry, Antrim, and Down. It is 18 niilet< (English) in length, and 11 miles in breadth, 
contains 98,255 acres, is 120 feet in irreatest deptli, and Is 48 feet above sea-level at 
low water. It receives the waters oi numerous streams^ of which the principal are 
the Up|>er Bann, the Blackwater. the Moyola, and the Main ; and its suiplus waters 
are carried off northward to the North Channel by the Lower Bann. CommunicJi- 
tlou by meiins of canals subsists between the Lough and Belfast, Newry, and the 
Tyrone coal^eld. In some portions of the Lough the waters shew remarkable )>etri- 
fyiug qualities, and petrified wood found in its \«aters is niauufactared into hones. 
The southern shores of the Lon^h are low and marshy, and dreary In appearance. 
It is well stocked with fish, and its shores are frequented by the swan, heron, bitterUf 
teal, and other watei-fowl. 

NEAL, Daniel, a dissenting minister and author, was bom in London, December 
14, 1678. He was edncatid first at Merchant TayIo»s' School, and afterwards at 
Utreclit and i^yden, in Holland, and in 1706 succeeded Dr Singleton as pastor of a 
congregation in his native city. N.'s first work was a " History of New England" 
(1720), which met with a very favorable reception in America. Two years after- 
wanls, he published a triH-t entith^d, >* A Narrative of the Metbod and Success of 
Inoculating the Small-pox in New England by Mr B' ujamin Colman," which 
excited considerable attention'; but the production on which his reputation rests is 
his ** History of the Puritans" (4 vols. 1732-1788), a work of great labor, and invalu- 
alrfe as a collection of facts and characteristics both to churchmen and dissenters^ 
though, of course, written in the interest of tlie latter. It involved its author in 
several controversies, which failing health rendered it impossible for him to prose- 
cute. N. died at Bath, April 4, 1748. 

NEAL, John, an American author and poet, of Scottish deJ»cent, was bom nt 
Falmouth, now Portland, Maine, August 25, 17l>8. His parents belonged to the So- 
ciety of Friends, of ,wlii<jh he was a member until disowned, at the age of 25, l)e- 
cau^e lie failed to live up to the rule of "living peaceably with all men." With the 
scantv education of a New-Enghnid common school, he became a shop-boy at the 
age of 12 ; but learned and then taught penmanship and drawing. At the age of 81, 
he entered a luiberdashei-y trade, first in Boston, and then in New York ; and a year 
after, became a wholesale jobber in this business at Baltimore, in partnership with 

y Google 

Nebraska - J *^" 

AiHtther American Jlterary flii4 palpit wiebrlty, Juhn Pienpont. They faflod in 
1816^ a d N. turned blt« alteniioii to tiie Ptudy of law. With the ciKTjry wliirb 
a<!(|nired for him the sohriqust ot **Je!ia 0'Cnt.iract«" Hfflxrd to his jKKMn, ** Tiie 
BnttUt of Niugara," a*' went tlnoHjfh the uBnal srven yeine' law-coiirhc in uiie, be- 
t«idei»p mlyin^ i»everal ))ni)rn>i>^efs and writing for a Bul)fiii*ience. In 1817, lie pub- 
ii-h«d *'Koru Cool,'* tt novel; tlin n x\ year a vohi i e of poems; in 1819, **Otln>,"» 
a flve-.icttrftin^y; and in 18i8, four novdn — ** S«v«*nty-i*Ix," " Logan,** •* Raudt»lph," 
and '* EiTijtji.'* These impctnouH worlvH were each written In from twenty-Heveii^to 
thirty-nine days. In 1824, he came to Eni^laud. witere he lM;cume a c(mtrIluitor to 
"Bluckwood'i '• and oJlu-r nniga/'mee aniireviews. and enjoved the friendship mid 
)n)tt(>italiiy of J<'rontv Bentham. On his reinrn to America, he settled in his native 
town, pfttcti.«<*d lj«w, wroii'j editrd new»»4Mip«Ms, gave iircturop, and occnpied liis 
li^ibure lK>ars in teaching l>oxniir,fcncing iMid gymnastics. Among his nnmenms works 
are *• Brotlier Joi athan." "Rachel Dyer," •*Benfham*s MoihIs and Lcgislai ioit," 
** Anthorsliip," ** D«>wa^aster!«." Ac AtUtr a long ««ilenc •, <levored to profeeaioual 
business, he iMihJu^hed, in 1854, '• One Word More;" and ip 186»,»*Tnie Woninn- 
liood." The latierwork, thongh n • ovc-l, emhodies the more herions r»lig'on8 con- 
victious of his later years. In 1870, apiwarcd his *• Wandering Ke<ollectionv of a 
Somewhat Busy Life." N.*h volnmiuons writings, with ail iheir glaring fual0l of 
haste and inexperience, are fnll of genius, fire, aim natiimnlity. 

NEANDEK, Jotiann Augimt Wiiheim. by far iliu grealiist of $cclesi:Mitical hi^' 
torians, was i)orn atGOdin^'cn. I6t.h January 1789, of Jewish paieutage. His unuie 
prior to baptism wa-*" David Mendel. By the mother's si«le, lie was related to tli » 
eiuiiient pnilosoplier and piiilantliropift Mendelssohn (q. v.) H'? received his tuirly 
edactition at the Juhanneum, in Hamburg. :.nd iiad for conm.-imons Varnhagen voii 
£nse, Cliamisso. tin; poet, Wilhelm Neumann, Noodt, and Sieveking. Already the 
abstract, lofty, and jmregenius of N. was beginnintr to shew itself, Plato and Ptn- 
tjirch were his favorite classics rfs a ^Yi^ »ud he was profonndly strrred by 
SUilelwrm.icher's frtinou* *• D scour.-^es on Religion** <I799). Finally, iir 180d, ha 
pnl>Iicly renounced Judaism, and was bripiiz-d. adopting, in allusion to the religions 
change which he had experienc»'d, the imme of N. (Or. tico«, new ; rt»i«r, a man), 
and taking his I'hrlstlaii names from several of his friends. His sisters and bro- 
thers, and later his mother also, followed his example. He now proceeded to Hall<*, 
where he studi' d theology with wonderful ardor and success turner Schleiermaclier, 
and concluded his aaidi niic course at Ins native town of 06 thieen. where Planck 
was then in th(; z nilh of his reputation asa'chnrch historian. In 1811. he took up 
his residence at Heidelberg University as a privat-docent ; In I8l2, he was* 
ap)K>iDled there extraoi-dinary professor of theology ; and in the follow ng year, w- a 
called to the newly establinh. d univer-ity of Berlin as Professor of Cnnrch Hhjtory. 
Here he labored till his death, July 14, 1850. N. enjoyed immense celebrity at* n 
lecturer. Students flocked to him not only from all p?irts of Germany, but ftiivn tbo 
most distant Protestant cfmntrles. Many Roman Catholics, even, were among liia 
auditors, and it is ^aid find there is hardly a great preacher in Ghtrmany whp is not 
more or less p iietraii d with his ideas. His chnraeier, reKgiimsty considen*di is < f 
so noble a CnHHiiau type that it odls for special notice. Ardently ahd profoundly 
devotional, sym|>flthetic, glad-hearted, pmfasely beiiev(tleni, and without a 
shadow of selfishness resting on his S(ml, lie inspired nniTers:d revereuc<', 
and was himself, by the mild and attractive sanctity of his life, a more powerful ar- 
gument on behalf of Christiatdty than even his writif^s themselves. Perhaps no 
professor was ever so much lovtnl by his stndcnts as Neander. He used to give the 
jxiorer ones tickfts to his ie<ttnres, and to supply them with clothes and money. 
Mhe grtniter portion of what he nnide by his books, he bestowed upon missionary, 
Bible, and other societies, ami upon hospitals. As a Christian sdudar and thinker, 
he ranks aiiK>ntr the Arst uautes in modern tinu^s, and i^ l)elieved to have conlribnte<l 
more than any other shigie individnal to the overthrow, on the one side, of that 
anii-ldstoricai Rationalism, and on thr* other of that dead Lutheran formalii'ni, 
from both of which the religions life of Germany had so long suffered. To the de- 
lineation of tlie devi iopment of hisiodcal Christianity, he brings one of the broad- 
est, one of the mo?t safnicioas fin r gard to religions matters), one of the moht ini- 
piirtial yet geHert)U8 and sympathetic intellects. His conception of church history 
aa the record aud porlraUqre of all forms of Christian thought and life, and Ibo 

Digitized by 


1 ?; 1 Nepnt'rr 

^"^^ Nebraska 

pklll wHb which, by mcnwi of hlp pyinpnUiy with nil of the^e, and hie cxfraoitliTinry 
ermiitioii, he elicitPj In his i* Kircheiige.<chichrc" the surfed phHiioineua of 9 airJctly 
Chrietiati luitnre, hnve plnced hiiri fjir iihove hut of hin pnileccMutrn. N.'s u-orke, 
ill tbeortlerof time, nre: "Utberden Kjiiser ^n]1ai>n» nird »ein Z'^tulfer" (Leip. 
1S12); '*Der Heil. Benil.ard und-HMii Ziftjilii-r** (Bt-rl. 1818); **G«'nettachHKntw)ric- 
Hmijrder vorDehmdreji OtioHf lichen 8yt«ttnii«** (Bcrl. 1818); *• D«r Hfll. Chrv^oj*- 
toinus* mid die Klrcthn, b«'80iidon? dw« Orient*, in (le!«fu>n Z hiilt<»r" (8 vols. B«tI.* 1821 
— lS2a; 3d ed. 1849); •' Deiikwftrdi. IcHt'ii am* <Vr G«»-ciiiclrt« de* ClirirtenthnnM 
iiDd d«-8 Ch Leb<mj«" (3 voIb. Bcrl. 182»; 8d etl. 1845— 184«) ; ** AntiifiiOB- 
ticHJ*, G ift d«»» TertnllljinnB nnd EU^WMime in diWe?. 8<'hrift4U** (Berl. 1826); 
•* Allgetiifiiie GwchicJite dor ChripJUchen Ke%ioii niid Kirchu" (5 voln. HHmh. 
1825— IS62) ; " GefchichtH dir Pflanznnp and Lelhiiig i\er KJitIm; dtirch die A|>o«lel '» 
<2 vols. Hainb. 1882— 188S; 4th ed. 1847); "Dns Lebeii Jtwu Chrihti in Kehieni jrc- 
Mhiclitlich«ii Zn'-HinnieiibaiigH,'* wiilteu J* a re\iiy to StrftiiPB'e work (Hnnib. 1837; 
5'h td. 1863) ; " Wips'cnw.liaflliche Al)h»ud'uu|j:ou,'* published by Jarobi (Berl. 186) ; 
** O-.tiicbichte dor Cbriat lichen Doginen,^ also pul>lii!ilird by Jucobi (1866). The ina- 
iiir.ty ot tlies* workn, including the n»ot»t impi)rtant, have been tianslnted iuio Eny- 
Jii»b, jind form more thau a dozen vo)iuues of^Bohn'ti '*8taudard Library." 


NEA'KCHU8, tlw» comuMindir of the fleet of Al«aandor the Great in his Indian 
oxiM-diiion, 827— 326 b o..u-aB thr i-oii oJ one Adri.tiniufi, and w.ia born in Cnte, bnt 
«Jtii«'d iu An pld|)oiiH, In 829 B.C., he joimd Abxanjler in Bnctiia with a body of 
Gn'«k imrcenarie9, and when tlje lait^r ordend a fleet to be bnill on th«' Hv(lH^pi a, 
N. rfH.'eived the c-onunand of ir. He conducted it f^pni the month of theindn^to 
the Pendaii Gttlf. in >«pite of groat obntaeKg, reuniting p-irtly Jrom ihe weath'rand 
l»:irily from t'n* nintinons disposition of hij< crewi*. N. h:ft the Indnn on the Slat of 
^Sept«•lnb^'r 825, and arrlv«d at Snea. in Pi rpia. in Fibrnarv 3 '4. shorty aft«r Alrx- 
aiidrr hintffolf, who had mnroh- d ov<'rhjnd. Fr:ignioiit.«» of his own namilive of his 
voyagf iiave bettn i>re»^erv« d in the ** Ind'ca" of Arritin. — See Dr Vinrei t's *• Coniinorre 
and Navigjition of the Ancienta in the li diau Seaa " (vol. i. pp. 08— 71, Loud. ISuT), 
ittid GeierV *• Ah'xandri M:>gni Hiatoriaruni Scriptores" (pp. 108—150). 

NEA'I!H, a parliauMntjiry and municipal borough nnd nvcr-|M)rt of the county of 
G1aiiiom.ui. South Waloa, on a nnvirable river of tl»« winie name, peven niilej* foutii- 
*a.«t of Swatmia. It in built on tlio site of Ihe Uonian ptaliou yidwn. and it contaius 
the ronniiiiH of an aciont caatle, burned in 1281. Iu tlie iniinedate vicitity are tlie 
iin)>otnng niins of Nonf h Abixy, defcribed by Leland a?' " the lairt* »t abljey in all 
"Walop," but now t«ad"y decayed and begrimed by the pmoke and coai-dui*t ot the 
I'liblic woikp of the diatrlct. There aro at N. nevenU oxicHnive cooper and tin worka. 
Coppr. 8|M'lter, i'on and tin platea, and flue bricka are extenaiveiy exjwrted, ^tone8 
art* quarrird, and coal and cuHn arc rai»d. The tnide of the port hfte largely iu- 
en a»'od within late yeara. Pop. (1871) 10,060. 

NEB-NEB; or Nib-Nib, the dried pods of AKaeia Nihh'cay one of the apeciea of 
Acricia (q. V.) which yield gum-arabic, and a naiiveof Africa. Thete pods arc much 
used in Bgypi for tanning, and have been im|)ortod into Britain. 

NEBRA'SKA, one of tin- Unite<l States of America, lying in hit, 40"— 43© n., and 
loner. 950-1040 w. ; bounded <»n the w. b^ Wyoming, and 11. by Dakota, Ixdng partly 
pcjmrated from the latter by the Mi8!>ouri River, and its branch the Niolirani; o. by 
I»WM and MiBtfOiiri, from wliich it ip H«pnrat« d by the Minsonri River; a. by Kansa's 
and Colornda. Tlile Bt.vte i« about 426 milea fnmi <w»t. to west, and from 138 10 208 
Irom noith to south, and hanau area oslimated at 76.995 Fonare miles. Origiually, 
wlien this stale w" " - - -'" — =' _... .. j -j x .1.. %.i.._- — ^ t*: — ._ .. .. •• 

MonntaiuB, and 

wlieii this stale was a territory it oxtoudod from llie MigBOuri River to the Kockv 
from lat. 44JO to the boundiuy of what was, at ttie time, Briti.^fi 
Anii-ricai. The chief towns aro Onwiha City, tlio Htaitinc-polnt of the Union Pacific 
Jtiilway, Nebraska Cilr. and Lincoln, the capital. N. Is a vast plain rlsjiiff gradu- 
ally toward the Rocky Mountains, with immense prairies, the haunts of vast henls it 
boftilo, and with fertile and well-iimbored river-b-ntoins. Tlie chief rivers are the 
Missonrl on its eastern, and the N ot)rara. parf^ tm ttie northern Ijoundary, the 
Platte or Nebraska, and the R<pnbl can Fork of tlie Kansas, and their branches. 
The Piatttt Valley, running through the whole centre of the. territory, is broad and 

y Google 

SISS?" 162 

fertile. There are qnaniea of fan^otooe, a soft limcutone wh!ch h.'irdi'ns on expo- 
sure, uud thin beda of cool. Id Uie uioautaiiionH westeru r^ioii are luiuca of gold, 
silver, co|>per, and cinnabar. Between the fertile lauds of tl>e eaoteni and Cf nrnti 
i>ortion uud the moantains is a IT^t desert va'.Iey of 90 by 90 mile^. 8i»0 feet (Iih-;', 
luil of roclty pinnacles, and rich in fossil reniains. The climate is dry and snlnbrion:', 
witli an ttlmndance of clear sanny days. The country produces wheat, niaix-.*, 
hemp, tobacco, and frn its in abundance', while the rolling prairies affoi-d niu'qn.tliotl 
pasturage. The Oinalias, Pawnees, Otoos, Siuux, and other wild Iribea hunt over 
the nnoccupird territories, bat the ininiigratiou is progressiiie rapidly. Er •cted uh 
a tenitory In 1894 it had, in 1860, a ()opnlation, exclnsive of ltidiaii'<, of 29,836; an I 
in 1870, witii tlie same exclaslon, it was 1^1 17. N. became a »tate in I6v7. Soe 
*' Nebraska,'' by BUwiu A. Cnrley (Lond. 1876). 

NEBRASKA, or Platt«, a river of Nebraska, one of the United States of America, 
rises in the Rocky Mountains, lat. 42° 80' u., long. IW w.. nnd flowing e;n»t r!y 
600 miles through the entire territory, watering its groat valley, falls into tiie Mis- 
souri. ^ * 
NB'BULiB, a n:inie given to indistinct patches of light in the heavena, supposed 
to proceed from aggregations of rarely distributed matter b<ilongiiig to distant worlds 
... I of for " "^ * .... - - . 

in the course of formation. By the gradual improvement of iel«!SC0p<'8 in itower 
and distinctness, these nebulfle have, one after anotlier, become resolved hitoclustera 
of distinct stars, and it is now genenilly supposed that such a resolution of all 
nebnlie #hich have been o'»served is only limited l»y tUe nower of the tolescopf?. It 
is nrol)abIe that tlio group of stars with which our sy.<<tem U immediately sarronnded, 
and whicli forms to our eyes the gahixy which studs the flrmnmeitt^ would, if lookt>d 
upon from the immeasurable distances at which tliese so-cnlled nebnlie are situated, 
itself assume the appearance of such a nebula; and that in the Kitervals there exiHt 
spaces as void of sarry worlds as thesu are comparatively full of them. 8 « Stabs. 
Some uebuliB are of a round form, presenting a gnidu.»l condensation toward the 
centre; oth ts consist of one star surrounded by a nebulous haee; while a third 
class present just the same app^mnince as would l)e exhibited by tiio solar system if 
seen from a point immensely d staut. These and other phenomena suggested to 
Laplace tite idea, afterwards develoi)ed into a theory, and known as the nehulaf 
htfjxfthesU, tliat these nebulffi were systems hi process of formation ; the flrst staee 
presenting an agglomeration of nebulous matter of uniform density, which, in the 
second st^, showed a tendency to gredual condensation toward the centre ; and, 
finally, the nebulous matter round the now-formed centre of the system, separated 
itself into distinct portions, each portion becoming condensed into a planet. The 
same opinion regarding the formation of planets from nebulse was put forward by 
Sir William Herschel in 1811 ; but the subsequent discoveries made by Lord Rosse 
were supposed to expose a fallacy in tliis theory. Tliat wonderful instrument, tlie 
81)ectrodCope, lias, liowever. recently reinstate the nebular tlieory, by shewing that 
among these appeanmces there are real nebnlse devoid of solid or liquid matter, 
and consisting or masses of glowini; gas — apparently nitrogen and hydrogen. 

NE'BULY, one of the partition lines in Heraldry, which runs out and in, in a 
form supposed to represent the uneven edges of clouds. 

NBCE'SSITY. This word occurs in connection with two different philosopliical 
subjects, namely, the freedom of the will (see Free- Will), and the nature of our 
belief in fundamental truths, such as the axioms of mathemaUcs, It is allegwl by 
some philosophers, that the truths held by us as most certain are the result of ex- 
perience, and tliat the degree of certainty is but. a measure of the universality of the 
experience. Others contend that such first principles as tlie axioms of routhematica 
are not only true, but n<^cex«art/j/ true. Such necessity, it is a r^'ued. cannot como 
from mere experience, and therefore implies an innate or intuitive eourcf. HiMicii 
tlie theory of necessary truth is only another name for the theory of instinctive or 
intuitive trutli. 

Necessity is a word too vague in its signification to serve as a leading tertn in 
philosophy. Tliere are sevenil ineanines attaching to it, which should be cK«nrly 
set forth before entering ou the diacussTou of auch questions tis those above uicu- 

Digitized by 


1 e; Q Neb a«ka 

lOO ' Neckar 

1. Necesflffy, In the flr^t pince, means ihaf! one fact or statement is implied fa 
onotlii-r. Thus, if we say tliar all flu* ajjipsrles were Jews, it follows necessarily tlint 
Peter was a Jew Lthis is not a new fact, but merelv a re-assertiou of a portion (»f 
the t^iime fact. We are not at-in)erty to siffirm a tliini^ in one form, and tlien deny 
the same tiling when oxprei»8i d in a different form. If we say this room is hot, it is 
repeating the assertion hi another M'ay, to say that It is not cold. I'hi-se trnlhs fol- 
low by necessary inference. Hence the general axiom of the sylloLn^m, that what 
is trne of a whole class mast be true of e-ach indWidnal, is a nt c»'Shai7 tiuth iu this 
f>eiise. Tn affirndng snch a truth, we merely dt clnre that we shall bt* cQitsisteut, and 
tliar win n, we luive ufilrmed a proposition in company with other pn>poiiil1< ns, we 
are prepared to affirm it when taken apart from the others. This k.nd of necessity 
is sometimes called Lo^cal necessity, and sometimes Mathematical necessity. We 
nii^ht c»ill It Dednctive nectssity, or necessity by Implication. 

\ A H<'Cond meaning is Inductive certainty ; or the certainty that arises from a 
\rell-^ronnded exi)erience. That lead will sink in waUr; that animals ne»d fowl 
and air lii order to live ; that warmth promotes vegetation ; are truths that we call 
iivcessarj', in tliC sense of being so certain that we may alwavs conn^ ni>ou ihem. 
We presume with the highest confidence, that an nnsnp).orted f^ody will fall to the 
ground, not because the fact, of falling is implied iu the fact of matter, but because 
nature has uniformly conjoined the two facts. We can speak even of m- ral lu ces- 
hity ; by which we mean only nnilorm sequence and cons« quent certainty. Wh«n 
we di^lare that children, whose education has been nejrlcct. d, nmst fall into evil 
courses^ we declare what experience has shewn ns will happen Iu relation to the 
human mind. 

3. When necessity means neither deductive implication, nor Inductive certainty, 
it refers us to a peculiar test suppponed to apply to the truths iu dispute— namel.\ , 
the iucpnceivableness of their opi>osite. It Is said that, not only can we not believe 
iu tlie opposite of the aidom, that *Mhe sums of equals are equal," but we cannot 
even conceive^ imagine, or picture to ourhclves the opposite of it. This impossibility 
of conceiving^ the contr.diction of any srritement. Is regarded by many as a peculi- 
arly cogent circumstance in its favor. Il distinguishes the axiomatic flrst principles 
from the trntiis of inductive science, these having, It is said, an inferior order of 
certjilnty. To this it m.iy be nplied, however, that meirs power of conceiving is so 
much afflicted by tlieir etincatiou and habits, that many things, whose opposltes 
Were at one time iuconciivable, have since been found to be talse. For examnie, 
the notion that nun could live at the antipodes was once refkoncd Inconceivable, 
and we now know it to be a fact. An unvarying association will olten produce u 
disability to conceive anything different. 

In commencing a discussion as to tlie neci^ssary character of any truth, the dis- 
putants should agree lM!foi*ehand which of the three meanii gs ti.ey intend. In the 
controversy on the Mathematical axioms, maintain* d betw* en Dr Whewell (ju the 
one hand, and Sir John Hersch 1 ai d Mr J. S. Mill on the otie r, the third meaning 
is more particularly Involved, The doctrine of Inconceivability, a^" the test of truth, 
has been put foiwanl by Mr Herbert Spencer, under the title ot the Univci*sal Pohtu- 
Jate (** Priiiciples>of Psychology," l*art I.). 

NE'CHfiS, a river of Texas, U. 8., rises In the central eastern portion of the 
state, and flt)WH souUi by ent<t. 20Q miles. Into Sabine Bay, where it^ waters, 
with those of the Sabine Hiver, tlnd their way, by Sabine Puss, lulu the Gulf of 

NE'CKAR, one of the largest tributaries of the Khiiip, and the principal river of 
Warieiiiljerg, ri-es near to ike hource of ihc Danube, oti the eahtern declivity of the 
Black Forej»t, and close to tlie village of Schweningc n. It has a winding course of 
240 miles, first nortli-east to its junction w til the Fils, then north to its juiiCtion 
W!fh the Jaxt, and finally north- we^t to MUnnheim, where It joins the Rhine. The 
nrinci))nl plac«'8 0u Its banks are TtVblngen, Ileilbron, Heidelberg, and Mannheim, 
Itf c«)arse, leading first through a deep and narrow dale, l<*ads aiiei-wards through a 
HKcecsio . of wide aid fertile tracts, enclosed by soft vine-clad hills. The scenery 
cf its banks Is, In gt-neral, very Iwantiful, and in many places highly I'omantio. 
FiOm Cannstadt, alwui midway in its course, the N. is navigable ; steamers ply 
ri-gnlarly to JIeld(!lb<«rg. Gootl winen m-e g own on its banks*. Chief atfiuents, on 
the left, the Enz J ou the r^ht, the Fils Itciub, the Kocher and the JaxU 

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Necker 1 P\ J. 

Necropolis l Ort 

NECKER, Jocqnes, a famons flnnnrler and minlator of Prance*, ^ras horn 30th 
Sojiteiiil)er 1782, at Geneva, where Ins father, a native of Braudenbnrt;, bnf of Aiiirlo- 
lrl.«*h de-cent, was prof«;K8or of Q'Tinaii law. He l)ecanie a bunker in Paris, and 
acqulrt'd a large fortnne during the SevtMi Years* War. After retiring from hnf^inet-fi, 
he i)ecaniH the reprnsentafve of his native city at the French CDnrt, and jil^o ac- 
quired a high hnt not exactly a solid ri*niitation by his niilMicationi* on political 
ecouomv an. I flnmce, particularly his ''Basal pur la L6>dHl:>tiou et le Conuncrce <le 
Grains" .Par. 1775). In this essay he appears as the opponent of the wise Tnr«rot*H 
li'KMal measures In regard W the traffic m gndn.aud claims for the st^ite the right of 
flxinjr its priCe. and if he think-* it necessary, of prohibiting its export-ation. On fh«j 
r.Muoval of Turgot from office in Jnue 1776, N. was called to assist inftnanrial nffnin'. 
and after the brief admiuii^tration of Clugny. he was made General Director of 
F nances in June 1777. N. could not conceal his elation. Itils was his weak )>oiiit. 
He iiHd all the vanity, eirotism, and love of show that marked his brilliant but stip r- 
ficial dauglitcr. Nevitrtheluss, he succeeded not only In meeting the exigeneies or the 
American war, but in restoring to some degree of order the general financial aftairs 
of the country, though mainly by the jH^rilous expedi«'nt of lK>rrowiug, which he was 
enabled to do to an almost unlimited extent, owing to the confidence reposed in his 
financial dexterity. Some years he Iwrroweid as much as 4W millions of francs. His 
Protest autism, howev-r, ami some r<*tn;nchment« which he made in the royal house- 
hold, with ilia publication on the financial affairs of Franco (**Comi)te llendu," 
which produced an imtn-'nse si.-nsutioi), unide him 4in object of great dislike to the 
queen and t ourt, aud on l*h May 1781 he was suddenly dismissed. He redreti to 
Geneva, where he was visited, fr un motives of symoathy and respect, by the highest 
personages in tiie n^alm, the Prince of Cou'16, the Dulces of Orleans and Chartres, tlie 
Prince o( Bt^auvau, the Duke of Luxeniboin-g, Marorfial de Richejieu, the Arch- 
bishop of Palis, ^c., but reuirned tx) Paris in 1787, from which he was soon 
btnislied on account of an attack which lie pabli»hed un the financial nianaiie- 
nu:nt of the reckless and ignorant Oaloune. In the financial and political crisis, 
however, which followed upon the fl:jancial admhiistration of Loni6nie de Brienne, 
Loiiis XVL found himself under tlie n cossity of calling N.iii November 1788, to 
t ■M)ffic,e of Compu-o ler-Qeneral of Fiimnces and Miidsterof State. N. recom- 
m id d tlie ca ling of the State-' G ni'ral, and thereby acquired the greati^sl popii- 
li He fuled, however, in the difficulties which ensued, havhigno capacity for 
» illtical aff-drs in other than t leir m i^e financitd asp cts. When flie court, on the 
ikl June, 1789. determined upon nullifying the resolution of the third estate, N. 
hesitated, and tlie king therefore dismissed him on 11th July, and required him to 
leave the French dominions imm-'diately. He obeyed, but the disturbances of the 
12tii, 18tli,.and 14th of July (on the last of which (lays the Bastille was t^iken) were 
the result of his dismissal, and the king was under the necessity of recalling him. 
He now allied himself with Mounier ami oth.-r ministers for the introduction of a 
conatit.ution like thitof Britain, with two chambers or Houses of ParUament; but 
this caused a gr -at diminution of his popularity, and he was unable to contend 
in <lel)rite with Miral)eau and other great leaders of the National Assembly. On the 
rejt^ctlon by iheassjinbly of his scheme of a loan, and the adoption in tead of it 
of Mirabeau's scheme of assignats, he resigned his offlw in Septeml)«»r 1790, and re- 
tir d to Ills estate of CopjuH. nenr Geneva, where he died, 9th April. 18'»4. JE^idiis 
the works already inention«'d, he published several on political and on relig oiis 
siibji'Cts, particularly a work on the Frencii R<;volntion (4 vols. P;ir. 179«), which 
has been frequently reprinted. His daughter was the celebrate d Madame de 8t::Sl. 

NECK- MOULDING A moulding at the junction of the capital and shaft of a 
column. The p'aiii space between tlie astragal of the shaft and the mouldiugs of the 
cap of the lloinan Doric or<U.'r is called the iiecJk 

NE'CltOMANCY (Gr. nekron. dead, and wantexa, divination), a mode of divina- 
tion by the conjuring up of the dead to question them concerning the fufuiv. It 
originate I in tlie Esi^t, and in times of tlie nio> t remote antiquitv. It is coiidemned 
in tile OM I'tislam-'iit; and the story of the witch of Endor affords a remarkable 
ilUistratioii of it* which has not a little perplexed interpreters of Scripture. The 
eleventh book of Homer's ** Odyssey " bears the title of NexgopiavTSta, and hi 
it the ahttde of Tircieias is represented as brought up aud consulted by Ulysdes. lu 


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mo t pnHi» of Oreeca, nocromancy was practif<od hy pripulii or con«ocnit«d p<'rw)ii8 
in the tonipicH : in Tlit?R«aly. it was the iirofesKioii ut a dit^tinct clang oC p«Tsoim 
caWed Ppychjurogoi ("Evokera of Spirit**)." The i)rnctice of if in tiu.t cnnntrr wnn 
nltlniatfly connected with many hoirid ritoa, in which hnman b!<od, hMlf-hiniiod 
p4)rti*)ni« of iKxlite from fnneral pilvB, the itnnuitnre fcetne cut ont of the won U, &«•. 
were employed, and nometlmes Imnxtn beings were Plain, tliat tiielr spiritB nilplii bo 
conHtdt^Ml ere ihey Unaily pimfcd iuto the lower world. The estahli^hnient of ( -lirlr- 
tluniiy under Constantine caiiM-d necromancy to 1)e phiccd under the ban of iho 
church. There are evident trace.-* of necromancy in Fome of the old* r Norpe and 
Ti utonic poems*. The medieval belief in the evocation of pplrirn be'ongs rethrr to 
Porc<ry than to in cromancy. See Peucer's *• Commeutarius ue Freecipais Divhiatio- 
num Geiieribii:) '* (Zerbst, 1591). 

NEGRO' PHFLISM. np unnatnral and revolting lore or appetite for the dead which 
Ihih manifested it*«elf in vanon« ways. Con^'orthigor livliisr with the dead ha** be<n ob- 
served as a cbaractcMistic of m<hincholiu. IndiridnalB have inhabit d graveyard?, prc- 
ferrinir the proximity and ^so(*1atlon of corjJ es with which they hv.d no tie, to I ho 
eluferfulnese and comforts of Itoine; and theri» is recorded one notorions case, iu 
which a gentleman, ahlK>UL'li on bad terms with his wife while alive, carrie<l her body 
with him through India, «c»ndalieinfftho ntitivis, and outraging the feelings of yll 
by placing the coffin nnder his bed. This hideous t<ndoncy may enter into certain 
deveiopnients of cuunibalism, where the feast ie celebrated'in memory of a depail^^cd 
frie>iid, ratber than in trinniph over a flain foe. If is affirmed tli- 1 there were 
-anthropophagous epidemics m 1436 and 1500; aid the history of v.impirism con- 
nects that ddusion with tho moral perversion now dcscrilvd. Patients in asylumn, 
especially in contiuentid asylums, are j-till often enconntercd wholh -moan the crime 
of having devoured the dead, and violated chMrnel-houBcs. The niost extra- 
ordinary exiiibition of necrophilism is where individuals, i ot ii» f incy but In reality, 
have exhnmed corpses to see them, to kiss them, to carry them away to their own 
homes, or to mutilate rnd tear them to pieces. It i»» woV hy of notice that, so far 
i!8sncii cases have been »l»j»erved in tliis coantiy, tluy have been confined to 
commiraiiies living fn ft'mote places, of rude pnd unenlightened character, and 
«'in;rishing the superstitions of ages and stjites of Focietv wtlh which, tbey have no 
oilier connection, and of wh'ch they bave almost lost the recollect ioa. — '^Annales, 
Hedieo-PsychoIogiqucF, t. viii." p. 472. 

NECBO'POLIS, a Greek term, meaning the city of the dead, and npp'f«!d to the 
cemeteries In the vicinity of ancient ciries. It occurs in clapsical antiquity only as 
applied tea suburb of Alexandria, lyinerto the west of tiint city, having many hIu ps 
and gardenfi and placea sahable for tbe reception of the dean. The corpt^os were 
received and embalmed in it. Here Cieop.itra. IIk' la^t of the Ptolemies, appli< d the 
anp to Iter breast^ to avoid the ignominy of being led in triumph by Augustus^ Tho 
Hte of tlie necropolis of anrtem Alexatidria scenes to have Imhmi where are now the 
catacoml)8, consisting of galleries and tombs hollowed ont of the ><oft caloin oua 
stone of which the city is built, and lying at tlie extremity of the city. The t4frm 
necropolis is now. however, U"*! d in a much more extended st-nse, and applied to ail 
the cemeteries of tliie ancit-nt world. These consifted either of tombs, coitstruetetl 
in the ainipe of houses and temples, and arranged in sfr«ets,like a <ily of the d ad ; 
or else of chambers hollowed in the rock, and ornament 'd with fao:ides, to imitatu 
bonS'-B and temples. Such cemeteHes are to >>e distingnished from the colnnibariay 
or snbt«'rran**on8 chambers of the Rotiians, In which th<'ir urns were de|K>sited ; or 
the rows of tombs along the Via Appla; or the cemeteries of the Christians, wIioho 
bodies were deposited in the ground, 'l^e most reinarkable neci*oi)olisei» are that of 
Theltesin Ejrynt, sftnafed at a place called Gournah, on the left hank of the Nile, 
capable of holding 3000 persons, and which it is caienla^'tl mnst at least have con- 
tamed 5000 mnmn\ies; those of El-Knb or Eilelfbyia; of Beni-Hassan, or the Speos 
Art-niidos; and of Madfnn <ir Abydon; of Siwali or the Oa^ls of Ammon. S'-o 
Oasis. In Africa, the n«cronolls of Cyren** is a'so extensive; and those of Vnlel, 
«' rnefo, Tarquinii. and Capua «vo distintruislk-d for their painted tombs (see Tomb). 
as'd the nninerons v Fes and other objects of »ncient art wliich have been exhumed 
from tUeui. Ltirge ncc^opoli^ea have aUo been found iu Lyciu, Sicily, and else- 

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Needles • ^^^ 

Strabo, xvlli. p. TO5— 799; Plntarcb, vit Anton ; Xictronne. ** Journnl den SftTaiw,'' 
1823, p. 103; Demiid, *" Cities aud Cemeteries of Btraria," i. 412, i. 276—358. 

NECIIO'SIS (Gr. nekron^ dead) is a term emploj^ed to denote tlie dentil or mortifi- 
Ciitiou of i>oiie, but often restricted to the c-iBes in wbicli tlie shaft of a long bone 
diet*, eitlier directly from injury or from violent infliiiumation, and is encIos<^ by a 
layer of new l)one ; the death of a thin snpSerfioial layer, which is not enclosed iu a 
Bliell of new l)Oue, being nsnally termed exfoliation. 

The bones of tlie lower extremity — the feninr and tibia — are those which are 
most frequently afftfcted by n«crosi8. The lower jaw is, however, extremely often 
affecteti by it, in per:<>ons engaged in makiui< Incifer-matclies ; the disease being set 
np by the pemieions action ot the va[K>r of phosuhorus. The dead bone, known as the 
sequestrum, generally consists of the ciecnmterence of the shaft only, and not of 
tlh) interior, and the inside of the dead )X)rtiou presents a rotigh appetirauce, as if 
worm-eaten. If the membrane iuvq^ting the bone {\lw perlostenni) remain healthy, 
it deposits lynip, which S|ie«>dilv ossiflv*8« forming a she 1 of healthy bone, whicti 
completely invests the dead iiortfon. .. 

'Phe ed.oeiitial point in the treatment is the removal of the aequestrum, which is 
too purely a surgical operation to be' described in these pages.* 

NE'CTAR, the name given by Homer, Hesiud, Pindar, afid the Greek poet« arener- 
ally, and by the Komaus, to the beverage of the god^ their foot! Iwing call, d AmbiOfmi. 
(q. v.). But Sapplio and A Icman make nectar the food of the goods, and ambrosia 
their drink. Homer describes nectar as ri'sembliiig t*h\ wine, and represents itn con- 
tinued Ui'e as causiug inimurtality. By the later poets, nectar ajiii ambrosia are n>- 
preseuted as of most delicious odor ; and sprinkling with nectar, or anointing witli 
anii)r()sia, is spoken of as conferring i>erpetnal youth, aud they are as^umcd as the 
symbols of everything most delightful to the taste. 

NE'CTARINE. See Pbaoh. 

NE'C TARY, in Botany, an organ in the flowers of many phanerogjimons plant", 
d 'voted either to the secretion o'ir the recimtioii of honey. Of tlie former kind' aro 
nect^iriferons glands, scales, and port^; of the latter, tubes, cavities. &<i. Bnt tho 
term was for a long time very vaguely employed by botanl ts, and s-emi-dtoba 
found convenient for the designation of any p irt of a flower for which ito orlier 
name was known. Thus amou^:«t the parts Cidl d niH'tiiries liy the bldvT t>ot*iui8T>s 
nifiy be found those uow culled Diae (q. v.), aud that which bears the name of 
Coroiia (q. v.). 

NEEDPIRE (Ger. nothfeuer; alli<;d to Sw. gnida, to rub; Eng. hnead), flm ob- 
tained by tho friction of wood u|>on wood, or tiie friction of arot)eo-< asiakeoC 
wood, to which a widespread superjitition aM><igns iXMUiliar virtues. Witli varietie^it 
of detail, the practice of raising needflre in cases of calamity, particalariy of^isease 
among cattle, ha« Ixien found to exist amontr most nation^ of tiie Indo-European 
race. It ha:* t)eeu sup]>o<4ed effectual to defeat the sorcery to which the disease in 
assigned. Wiien the incantation is taking place^ all the Area in the neigh borliood 
mu-^t be extinguished, and they have all to i>e relighted from the sticred spark. In 
vations parts of the Scottish Highlands, the raising of needfti*e was practised not 
long ago, and it is |>erhapM still Inid recourse to in some very remote localities. Thn 
sacr.flce of a heifer was thought necessary Xo insure Its efHciency. The ways of 
obtaining fire from woo<l have been vurionr> ; one i?* i)y an apparatus which has b<!«'u 
culled the ^* ftre-ciiurn," a cylinder turuhig on a p!vot,*and furnished with s)K>kes, by 
menus of whioh it is made to revolve very ra|>idlv, and fire is generated by the fric- 
tion. Fire struck from met:il has been supposed not to |K)8siess the same virtue, and 
in some instances tho |)ersons who pei-fornietl the ceremony were required to divest 
themselves of any m('U\\ which might be alK)ut them. In its origin, the flre-churn 
was considered a model of the apparatns by which the fires of heaven were d-iily 
rekindled. It is still in daily u.-<ein the temples of tlie Hindus. The same super- 
stition was doubtlifss the origin of the story of Prometheus (q. v.). See Qriuini's 
"Deutsche Myihologie;" Sii|)plenient to Jamif son*s ** Scottish Dlctlomiry." 

NEEDLES are instruments of met^il, or other material, for the purpose of carry- 
ing tlie thread In sewing, embrold-ry, knitting, netthig, and other similar optf rations. 
Tiiey are guueraily made of metal, bat bone, ivory, and wood are also used ; 

y Google. 

for ordinary needlo-work, called p«wlng, tlM»y ore made of flno efrel, niui iirp |4K) 
well kiiowu to nev6 dt>Mcrjptioii ; for oilier kinds of work, they fire often innrli 
laricer and differently formed, according to to the requiremeots of the work to 
be done. *^ 

Needle-inaking la nn important iH'anch of induotflHl art, and it lias of lato yenrs 
attniiied to extmordtnary perfecrioiL Small bara of 8teel. uoi thicker than a good- 
hixedbrlMle, cau l)e made perfectly ronnd, |>oiiited at one end with wonderfnl ac- 
curacY, pierced attheotlierend wiili atroval hole, llie aides of which are po 8inootl>ly 
roaoded that there ia no friction npon the tiir^ad, and the whole of encli iii»triiiuent. 
not more than an inch in length, lieantifnily polialied. and pold at loa.^ than ti shilling 
per handred, iiotwitlistandiiig that a large port of the 0|M'ratlonB requirt^ in their 
inannfactiire are iiiannaL The tint op<>ratioii, >ifter the wire hua been selected, and 
its HiickufHs accnrately-ganged, ia to cnt it into eight-feet lengtha ; this \f duiu> by 
winding it in a coil of !• feet circnmrereiice, and then cutting this cuil inio exact 
halves with powerful cotiiug aliears. The coiling of tlie wire is so maiiag<;d, tl»it 
there are 100 pieces in each half when cnt ; the biiudle>* of 100 wires are again cut 
into the necessary lengths for two needles; and so well arranged are the cnttliig 
shears, that a man can easily cnt enongb for 1,000,000 netdles in a day of 12 lioiiif<. 
The pieces cnt from a coil, although now ndtfced to the length of two (tinall 
needles, are nevertlu'less somewhat curved; tliey are therefore coJlccted into hnndh's 
of abonr 60GO, und placed in two iron rings, which hold them loosely together; they 
are then slightly softened by firing. ai>d are laid on an iron plate or b.neh, hihI are 
pressed with a small curved l>ar in two or three positions, by which the 0|>cratur 
manages to make them all perfectly stniigbt. They are now t ken to the grind r, 
who sits in front of'fiis grindstcme ufion a seat which is hollow, and forms uit iiir- 
shaft open towards the stone ; through tiiis a blast of air is forced when the wheel 
is in motion, i^hich carries away from the grinder every partxle of ihe subtle dn^t 
from i lie needle iK)int8 and the stone. B<^forc this humane invention, which linn 
rendered the op-ration quite innocuons, tlie loss of life in this mannfaclnre was 
niOre serious tliaii in any other iudtistrial mcupation. The operator, witli ;:ieat 
Tact, hokis al)0ut Sft of the wires, by means of his thiiinb. pressed ngciiiiM the iiipido 
iff his flngen*, the wir«'S, which arc held straight and applied to the uriiidftone, l>eiiig 
dexterously turned round on the iui«ide of tlie hand by means of the thumb, in til 
thr-y are ground sharp atone end; thi-y arc then rcver.-e*!. and the other e-nds 
are Fiinflarly siinrpeued. They are next t:ikeh to the rmprexttivg inactiinc, 
wbidi in i)rinci|He consists of a weight banging to a block, which is 
raised by .the band and let fall at pleasure ; the wires are plaeetl in 
su'-cesslon under this, so that tlie falling weight strikes each wire ex- 
actly in the middle, and there flattens it. The haidiiiing of the flattened part by 
the blow is removed In the annealing own, and the holes are next nnnched, two in 
<'ach flattened portion. These are either done by hand-punches worki'd by children, 
W'iiO }icqnlre gnait nicety in the 0)>eration, or by a machine on the same principle as 
the impressing machine ; this not only punches the two hoK'S, but also formsa sniall 
cross-cut between them, which is otherwise made by a fll»*. At this cros^^-Cllt the 
wire is br«)ken in two. and may now be regarded as two rudely-formed needles, each 
bavin? a flattened and pierced head. A number of these are now threaded {spitted) 
on a thin m ire, atid are phiced in a vice, which holds tliem ftrm and straight, so that 
the workman can file the beads on the top and sides, so as to remove all the burred 
td«:e. The next process Jh oil tetvpering. for which tliey an* made hot. and imiiievped 
in snfflcient oil to coat them thoroughly ; the oil is then burned off, an operation 
which renders the needles brittle. They are then weighed out into Ioti» of about 
500,000 each, and aft<r l>eing shaken so that they He sidi^by side, they are laid on a 
Fqnare piece of strong canvas, and a quantity of aand and emery-jwiwder being 
mixed with them, they are conh^d up very cecnrely inio a long roll, from IS 
inches to 2 feet in l«-iigth. A numher of these rolls or bundles are placed on a 
movable wooden slab, in the scouring machine, and over them is placed another 
heavily weighted slab. The action of the machiiu*, of which these slabs form )>art, 
is to move tliein batrkwaids and fort^ards in oppo!*ite dlrectiom*, the bundle's of 
needles acting as rollers, the pressure umm which works the enclosed needles, sand, 
Ac., together, so that after eight to ten iionrs, which this ojieration occupies, I nsteiu I 
Of tiie blackened appearance they had when it commenced, they arc white and 

y Google 

Negative /«^<5 

pllvery-1 >olciii|^. They are now removed to an exactly Mrollnr mnchlne, where they 
tiro polifihud. Ht-re tlioy ar«» i>ep<trated from the aaiio and rmtTy. and- are rsimived 
to other canvaM Hqutire^ : and wlKtu imzed ui» with a punte of yuUy'fwwder and o!l. 
iire Hgahi corded up, aita made to roll backward-* alid rorwiirdtt u<idur the weighted 
woodbn ehil» of the poliMhiiig fiiaehine for four lioorH more. The i»ext iiroceaa i« 
to remove tlieni from the canvaHf uud nxitate tliem iu a vewel with aufr-Hoap and 
water, to remove the oil and patty >|iowd<?r. and next to dry them in aMi-v^^ood auw- 
duHt. Tli(«y are now hi,'hly polished and well ieiu|M're<l, hnt not all of ezm-tiy tlie 
pame lengtli, nor are tlie eyee poi-fect ; thoy are tlierefore pansed to a iM-ruon wlio, 
by u\w. management of a small gange, porta them verv qnickly into certain lengtlta 
(eoening), ^iid arrangea them all lu oni; directiuii {keadv^). 'J hey tiien pneo ou to 
I) : <lnlh)fl, ail op^TaiJou requiring great nicely, us the vinall oval bolca have to he no 
imliAhed all round, ap n<»t to cause any friction on the ttircad in seizing with tliem; 
a clever workman will drill and polinh the h(»lesii of 70,U00 tiendles p«* week. The 
ne -die i^ now practfoilly fiuishjo, hnt many minor oper tiona are considered mcee- 
Mry to produce liigh-fluinh ; theao we pun>ot#«ly omit, lo avoid complicating our 
dencrfprion. It ia. howeyer, wortliv of renuirl^. ilntt this little inptrnmeur, which 
coKtj* ao nmch labor for ita formation, ha« by llnfie operatioiin acquired imnieuae 
vnlnti. 'Hie wire of which the ordiuary-Hiz (t needlea are made w po thin, that A^ 
pounds go to form 74,000 needles. Of ordinnryHBieed ne«-dles, 2)^ niilHom' weigh S 
c\vr«, and are worth rutiier more than £200, although the Ptt^l win* ot which they 
wer<i nnide was oulv worth £IA at the coinni'-ncement of the nmnnfacturc. Bnglmli- 
nindt; nt^dien are the best iu the world, and are ihiefly made in Ri*d<liteh and the 
n<M<;hlK>rhoo(l, where, aiid in otJier parts of the county of Worcester, this luauv- 
fucture employ** a lai-ge numbi^.r of iieraons. 

NEBUU'CH. or Nimac'i, a town of In<lla, !n the territory of fiwaPor, (q v.>, 
n 'ar the nonh-wefterH lionler of Ma'wa. 820 miles soutli-wesr from Ddiii, on a 
^ ightly-elevai«d ridge rising from a we.l-cnltlv.ited plain If in 1476 feet al>ov«' the 
se:u 'ilie native population of the town is only about 4000 : hnt N. has aeqnirfd 
importance o I accoairt. of a Briti!*h cantonment «stahlished here in 1817. Priiir to 
the sepoy mutiny of 1851— 1859, the officer •>' qmirters coin|Hri8<!d al>out 80 bungalows, 
t><matifully situated among trarduns; but all* exeept a single bungalow, were 
d !}4troyed in 1857 by the mutineers, who massacre<l the Enropeaus, and kept pos- 
session of the fort for some time, till it was captured by Brigadier 6tuartf>if tor a 
siege of fourtmm days. Th^ situation of N< is regardtnl as one of the most healthy 
in India; the climate is agreeable, the nigiiti* cooreveu in theboiseasou, ilie winter 
sohlom so cold as to make flres reqiitnite, and frobt very rare. 

NKBM-TREE. 8ee Meuacejs. 

NEE'RWINDEN, a small village of B«'lsrlnm, in the north-west corner of the 
proviuc.'.of Liege, is celebrated inhi-to-y for the gnat victory gained by the Fren«h 
umU'.r Luxembourg* ov.r the English und-r William III. (29tirjuly 1^3} ; and also 
fmihe defeat ot the French uM r Daniourics by tlic allies under the Prince of 
Cobarg (I8th March 1793). 

NB EXEAT REGNO is the title of a writ issued by the Court of Clianc^ry to 
))revent an individual from leaving tiie kingdom, nnlens he gives security to abule a 
dj<"ree of that court The writ w»s orh^mally resorted to iu c:ises of attempta 
agiinst the safety of the sfafe, but i» now is.«<ued in cases where an equitable debt or 
dinand is sought to l>e substantiated l)y a bill or proceeding in Oiiancery. The 
writ, is only grantedwhere the party usually n*s{des within t lie jurisdiction. It 
res*'ml>l(ts t le proc 'ss wiii(4l Is known in the common- law-courts us arresting and 
holding to bail, and in Seotlaiid as arresting a persoii in rtuS^itaiitme ftitfCB, 

NBCIAPA'PA'M, a town of BHiisb India, in the pra«*idency of Madms» and district 
of'Tanjore, 124 miles south-soul h-vve8t from Madras, on a small estuary ol one i»f 
the mauy snuill soutiiern mouths of the Canvery. The manufacture of cotton and 
silk fabrics was, in forni'-r times, extensively carried oti here, but hj>8 g»*eatlydtv 
dined in consequence of tlie cheapness of British goods. A chief biancli of Indus* 
try is the expression of oil from the cocoa-nut and front oil-?»efd8. There is a con- 
siderable t.raile witli C'-ylou. The harbor is suited only tor stuall cossting-vesRi-lH; 
but muasurus arc iu progress for Its iiuin'ovemeut. N. is a tenuiuus of the Grvuft 

y Google 

1 ^Q Neemach 

SotitberQ Kailway of India. It woe the cnpilal of the Dutch pOMessions iu luditt, 
but was takeu by the BriUsh iu 1T81. Poi'. (I8T1} 43,526. 

NR'GATIVE, in Photography, i« thnt kind of pholo?rnphlc pictnre In which the 

lights and ebadowH of the niitnnil obj'.:ct are tmui*|»0M^d ; tl«c liijjli ligiits* IveUm bl;ick, 

and tlie deep pliadows transparent,' or nenrly ko. Negatives are taken on gl .m 

. and paper by various processep, and shonld iudi-ute with «'Xtren»e delifticy, and i»i 

. , r.vHvsie order, tiie various irradations of light and shade whici occur in a hindeoiixj 

or iK)rirait. A negative differs from a po*'iiive innt>ninch a:» ni tlie latter case it in 

• \ieqnirfd to prmluce a deposit of pure metallic silver to l>e viewed by rejleetcd Hjjiil ; 

while in the latter, densiry to transviitted lifht is the cidef desideratum ; according:!/ 

iiiorsrnnic re<lucing and retarding agents are employed in the development of a 

jwisidve, while thos»e of oi*j;auic origni are used in the production of a negative. 

Adoptinir the collodion process (which ha** almost comphstely rei>laced every other) 

U8 a tyjK? of the rest, the condUions bestiula|>t< d for M^curing a good negative may 

Im* briefly indicated, leaving it to the reader to apply the priuciplca iuvolvcd to any 

process he may desire to practice. 

The possession of a g(X)d leus and camera bein? takeji for granted, and favomblo 
conditions of weH-directcfl light being secured, all that is necessary is to establish a 
proper and harmouions relation between the bath, deveio|)er, and time of 
exposure. A recently-iodised collodion will generally be tolerably neutral, in which 
cai«. if the developer l>e at all >-t«ong, and the weather warm, the bath should be de- 
cidedly acid, or fogging will bo the result Should the collodion, however, l)e re<l 
with free iodine, a mere tra<-eof acid iu the bath will rnffiee, while the develonment 
may be much (H-oionged, even in waru» weather, without fo^rging. If the simple fact 
be boiTie iu mind that the presence of acid, eilher in the bath c()l!odion or devil(;p<^r, 
retards the reducing action of the developer, it wiU suffice to guide, the opevj«tor iu 
many difBcultiej*. The value of a negative consists in the power It'gives of uiulti> 
plying positive proofs. See Positive Printing ; also Photoorapuy. 

NEGATIVE QUANTITIES are generally defined as quantities the opposite of 
•• positive " or "niim«.ric:»l" qmmtities, and form the flret and gi-ear point of dii- 
fcreiice between algebra as a separate science, and arithmetic. In the oidist tre:> 
tiscs pn algebra they are rucoffni«;d as distinct nnnliflcaiious of quantity, and exist- 
ing apart from, and inde])endeiit of ]>Oi<itive quantity. In later times, thit^ opinion 
was idgoi-onsSy combated by many mathematicians, amonij whom Vieta occupied a 
prominent idnce ; but the ntore eminent analysts rettiined the old opinion. Newton 
and Enler distinctly assert the existence of negative quantities as quantities less 
than zero, and the latter 8uppoi*t«. his opiniou by tiie well-known illustration of a 
man who has no property, and is £50 in debt., to whom £50 rc(inireB to be given in 
order that he niay have nothing. After ail, this discussion is little more than a ver- 
bal quibble, though intereisting from the prominent position it for a long time held. 
It had its ri.-e in the difflcnlty of satisfying the requirements of a constantly pro- 
gressinir science by the use of signs and forms retaining their original limited sig- 
nifiiatiou. It was soon felt that the limited interpretatiou must 1m; given up; and 
accordingly an extension of signitlcaiiou was allowed to signs and modes of opera- 
tion. + aud — ^, which were formerly considered as merely symbols of the aritli- 
luetical operations of addition and subtraction, were now considei*ed as "general 
cumulative symbols, the reverse of each other," and could signify cam and 
loss, npwai-ds and downwards, risht an<l left, same and oppO!*ite, to and from, Ac. 
Applying this extended int^erpretation of sicns to a quantity such as — 4, we obtain at 
once a true ideii of a negative quantity; lor if + 4 signifies 4 inches above a 
C(-rt4iiu level, — 4 signifies 4 inches below that level, and therefore, thongli a posit ivo 
quautity in itself (a negative being, strictly speakings an impossible existence), ii 
liiny l)e fairly considered to be less than zero, as it expresses u quantity less by-L 
than inches libove the level. Keeping this id^a in view, it has been conventionally 
agreed to admit the exiv^tence of negative qualities as existing jMir se. The oidy 
vrrorss which can flow from this aiise from inisinterpretaiion of results for the four 
fnndiniciital operations of addition, subtraction, multiplica1»on, and division aro 
unaffected by the extended interpretation of signs. The following is an illusi ration 
of the value of an extended Intenjrctation of the negative Sign, sliewing at the same * 
tluie how niuch more general are the idaus conveyed by algebraic oxprcesious than 

U. K., x.«ft. 

Digitized by 


^T^s: . 160 

by ordinary lani^tiajro : If at Ihe prt^sent time a father is 50 yenrsVanrl 1»i5 son fO 
years old, wlicn will ilio fntber be tljroH limes ne old a« his so •. - This pro»>ciii, 
when solved, givt-r* — 5 as the unmber of years which must eiapiw l)€forf the father's 
a.i?!i is ihive times the hoii'.-. Now, at first sight, tiiis re>uU api>e;lrs to b<» ab."^rd. 
bill when we CO). aider the t ;rms of tlie problem, \t* explnuation iis» ea^'y. Tb«' qii'*5- 
tioii ;isked p'>iiitt'<l to a luimhtir of years lo cin»«, and liiid llici-esuit tuincd out to be 
positicey HHCIi would h;iv.; been tlic case, and I lie fact of its l^'injj negative din-cis na 
to look in a** contrary" dir.ctioii, or backwards to time past; and this is found 
to scJtisfv iho prohleui, as 5 year:* •' ago " the father was 45 and ids son 15. 

Nsjjalive quantities our, of Um ns-; of jreueral symbols in aubtraction, as in 
the formula a — &, where we may afterwards find that b is greater than a. See Sub- 
traction. , . 

NEGRl'TOS, or Nogrnioa (Spanish, diminutive of Negroes)^ ts the name given 
by the Spaniards to certiiin negro-liUj tri^uis inha>>itii)^ tUt: inleribr of some of the 
riiilfijpine Inlnndri, an<l differing essentially botb in featmes and manners from tho 
Malay inhabliants of the Eastern Archipelago. 'J'hey buar a very strous^ ywuMii- 
blanceto Ihe ne^jrotis of Guinea, but are mncii smalliT in j«tzft, averjigius hi hfiglit 
not more than four feet eight inches*, whence their ap?)ellation of N., or Ktile 
Neg[nie:». They are also called by t!ie Spaniards Acflmfos dW Mtmtts from I heir iu- 
hH!)iring the moniitahtons di-tricta for the most part; and one of tlie islands where 
tit-y are mo:*t nnmerou!*, bears the name of Ma de loiNtgros. Tlieee N. i»realeo 
known by the names Aeta, Aiirta, Ite, Inapra. and Igolote or Igorore- 'Jh^y are de- 
scribed as a si K)rt, small, but well-made and active peoide. the lower part of tlie 
frtce proj 'Ctnig like that of ti»e African Negrowa, the hair either woivlly or frizzed, 
«nd the coraoh-xlon «x(ie :dlngly d«rk. if not quite so black as that qf thel^egroes. 
'J'h«? Spaniards dtwcribe ti»em as Kss Wack and nmch le!»8 ngiy than the ne^ztOfS^-i/CTiot 
2ierjros y nienosfeoa. All writers concur in sp-mkinj^ of ihem us sunk m tlie lowest 
depths of savageilom. wandering in the woods and monnt.nins without «nv fixe<l 
tlweilijigs, and witli only a strip of birU to cover their uakrdnpss. Tht-ir only 
weapous Jirrt the bow nud arrow* and tlK-y live upon ruois, wild fruits, and nuy 
sort of animals that they can surprise in their haunts, or conquer in the chase. 
By the Malays, they are displsrd ^« 1 hatvid; aud ih? bjifaTo-hnntei'S in Urn 
woods, when they meet with ihem, do not scruple to shoot them doAvn like wild 
beasts or «;aine. '* It nas not com'» to my knowledg ■," !-a.vs a Spanish writer, "that 
« f imily of ih«;se NegroiS ever took np their -.bode in a village. If the Mo5)amnji»* 
dan inha'>l:ants mtUjtj slave" of lhen>, they will rather submit to be bwtten to death 

* " .... " "^ either by force or j)en»na-i6n, 

lastlc, hpeaks* of thiin as pente 
If can>e in coniact with ihe;u> ; 
and although informed that sou'ie of thfui were cinnii^ais, he wa.< not inclin d to 
bi'liisVivtheH'ejwrt. BrCart 8ch Tzar, the historian of the circnmnavlgatiou of t)jo 
Movara, when at Manilla, had an opportunity of }»e»;ing a Nogrlta girl whom he ihns 
de-crlbe-* : *"This was a girl of a'jont twelve or fourteen years of age. of dwarf-lfke 
fiiOire, with woolly hair, hroad no<ftrils, but without the dark skin and wide « verted 
lips which characterise the Ni'jrro tyt»e. 'J'his pleasing-looking, symmetrically- 
fornu'd ^irl had bisen bnnigbt up in the hons^ or a Spaniard, app.-irefitly with the 
pious ol^jct of rescuing her foul from heathenism. Tlut poor little Negrilla hardly 
und rstood her own niother-tougue, bi'sides a very little Tagal, fO thatwe had cou- 

• Bidi-rable diflicnliy in nn<ler<ta»Khng each other." 

i According lo Soanifh statemtMits, :h« N. are found only in five of the Philippine 
Islands.— naui-lv, Luzon, Mindofo. P ma y. Negi-03. and Mindanao— and are t^siun- 
ated at about 25 000 souls. Kemnants of them exl:-t, howewr, in the interior of 
pome of the other island.-* in the ICastern Areiiip<lttgo : and they ar • 8catt«n'd, also, 
though in small numbers, through certain islaude of Polynesia. T»iey are alto^^tlnr 
an island p -ople, and are iienix- ireated of hy Pricliard under the' designation of 
J'elatjian Ncffro s. By l)r Pickering thev are treated of as a distinct race, resemhiiug 
tin; Papuan, but differing frous It in the diminutive srature, the gtMmjjil-ahSKtR't^ of u 
beani, jiK! nroj»H:iiug nt tne lower part of the face or the incline^! profile, andtrte 

■ er igverated Ni-uro fi'ai nn^. Ttns hair, al?'0. is more M-oolly than that of the Papuans, 
thou'/h far froin f*q!uilllng that of the N<gr<>e*.?n kiujtty clo.-'enrys. Ky Latham^hd 

K. ai'O cluosiJied uuder tho i»abdiviaIuQ of '^ Oceanic Mongolids, C>" wliich eiibalvt^ 

than undei^ any boddy fatigue, and it is iu>po3sible^ either by force or j)en»na-i6n, 
to bring them to labor." The same writer, nn ecclesiastic, speak? of thiin as gentls 
and Inoifenslve in thtir mannerr*, whenever he himsilf cau>e in coniact with lhe;u> ; 


161 Negroe* 

flon Is fntllier modfiled by him Into the de^fenttfon of **Ainnhlnef»l»08»» and 
*♦ KetoBuoueHlaiis." The N. out of tlie Pliiilppiiie ts):uid:» nn- fo-M.d tor the m(»»t part 
111 thu ishuifis embracca niiJer the hitter desigiiutioii, u«Ni'W Qiiliu-ji, Now In'!a! d. 
Solomou'8 WcH, Loui««inri»', New CnL*(lonhi, and Tmsiujujui or V;in D eim n'i Laid. 
Excci>t in the hi.-t-u»i nt!0Mf<l i.-laud, however, th^ N. strictly j»iKjakiiij?—ihnt Ir, tln» 
hhickif»h ptople wiili wnoHy hair — do not prepoudenit* ovi r the other nniive irii'es 
le:»s t«trouirlv nuirk<-<l with Ne;jro (en'ures»; while in Tafuuiiiin itnilf, th<' rare luw 
tthnot't cnfmlv d'.pjippe.ired, nmoniint? ut prentut to not more tliun two or ti.n*o 
dozt'u Honlj*. t)v Pii kerhijr if of (jpiuion, that the Nejrriio ruce ** onc«* occnpk'd moro 
Ppnct! than it dojus at tiiit* time, and that u has* in many intjiamcj* i»r«T' ded ilie di-^- 
P'minution of other r.icep." Wt- con« hide wiih a de>rrlptlon ot a N«irrito iiMtiv*- of 
BrromnD^o (tluj inland winre the miiiBionai-jr Williainp was* mimU-re*!), enppMrd to 
Dr Plckeriiig hy Horatio Halep, hit^ ass'ficlat'' in liie United Stated explorii g exepdi- 
tion. *• He w.u» above five feet hijjh," pays Mr Halec, " slend' r and long lindnd ; he 
bad C40f«e woolly liair, and retrt* atin^; archid forehead, pbort and sciinty eyt:brow9, and 
BniaU pnnb dom, thick i{i>a (cfijecially the npi)er), a rctretiiiiii: cidn. and tlnit projec> 
tion of the jawd and lower part of the face, which is one of the distinctive character- 

istica of tlitf N'^ro ract Plicitd iu a crowd of African b'ack<s there waa 

nothing al)ont him by which be could have been diatingaiabed from the reat." 8co 
Pafuanb and Poltnesiass. 

NE'GUO,Rio. »ee Hid Niaiio. 

NEGRO MINSTRELSY, a pncclcs of finging which orldnnted nmoniif the nejrro 
filavcK of the United States, and is now popular at piil>lic entertainments. The Si-n* 
timeut of tb(^ earlier of tbc^e negro nielodiet* was of the mo^t slntplu kind, tlic words 
niOHtly broken En^lisii, and the barmoniet* confined chit-fly totwocbords—'tho tonic 
and dominant How the airs were composed has been a matter of curious inquiry. 
Some of tlicm nre believed to l>e broken down and otherwise altered old psului innes, 
which had i>ecii cunght up by the more musical of the ne^ro race. In some instan- 
ce^, the singing of the melodies is accompanied wiili grotefqac geytores ; iht effect 
bting to give the idea of good-tiatnre and love of fun in the dark-skinned minsirels. 
STegro roelotliei* may l)c aaid to iiave b-eii made known by Mr D. Kice, who first in 
I7<;w Yoikf iu 1891/ and ufterwards in London, created a Sensation by his singint; of 
**Jim Crow." Otiier son«;s fullo»ed, such as '* Jim along Josey." and "Buffalo 
Onis;" and'from lo!«s to more, there was created a very cb.iracteristic4llT national 
nin-ic, if the Americans will allow ns'to call it so. Becoming extensively pop Inr 
and addressed to fashionable sudiences, this negro nTiii.«irelsv now comprelnuds a 
large I'ariety of rongs, with airs of a pleasing kind, the wlioje mncli iu advame of 
the original negro compositions. For these improvements, the world ie iiidehi«d, 
among oiiicn'f to Mr B. P. Chrif>iy, wlio began a« conductor of a lamd of minstrels at 
Buffalo hi 1842, and who established himself iu New Toik iu 1846. At first, hia 
troupe were called tlie ** Virginia Minstrels," Init afterwards they wire known as iho 
"Christy Minstrels.** Mr Chrisiy's grvat surces* in this species of enterijiinmcnt 
brought otiier leaders and troupes icfo the field. In moat ca^es. the niembirs of 
the negro minstrel tronjNS arc orwv negroes in name, with faces nud hands black- 
ened for t lie purnoflc. Sec ** Ciiri!*ty*s Miuatrela' New Songs, with Music," edited 
by J. Wade ; and otiier similar collections. 

NEGROES (from the Snanisb word negro, black ; Lnt. niger) is the nnme given 
to a CQUHiderahle hnrach vt the Iiaman family, possessing certidn physiad ehar- 
ucterisMc:*, which d'atirguish it In a very marked degree from tiie ottier branchea 
or varieties of n-.anWn<i--more especially the po-calie<l whites or Euif)))eans. In 
Blameiib:icli'9 fivi'fold division of mankind, the Negroes occu])y the first idace nnder 
tlieTuriety J^hiopiatt^ which likewise embraces the Kafirs, Hottentots, An-«traliuns. 
Alforiaus, and Oceanic Negroes. In Latham's threefold dlvisl'^'n, they are placed 
among tlie AtUvnlidm. and form the niiinory suMi vision of Negro AtlantidcB iu 
that anthor'a cla-siflcation ; while in PlekiVing's elevenfold division, they occupy 
the last place iu his en n me rat ion of tlie races of mankind. 

Botli PrUchard and Latliain strongly protest against tlie common error of look- 
ing Mon tbe^^erra Negro us synonvmous wiiU African. "It onght to be ro- 
lOemMred," says tlie former, "^ that the word Negro is not a r.atjona oi^lie latlon, 
bot danotea the ideal type couatituted by the aaaembluge of certaip^hysical char 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ftcteri«tlc«, wlilcli \» exemplHlM In the natives of OoIiM^ In Western Africa, and In 
their descendants In America and the West Iitdiefl." And Latham hi like munuur 
obsei-ves : '* No fact is more ueceesary to ]>e remember(>d. than the diflfereuce be- 
tween the Negro and African ; a fact whicli is well verified by reference to rtie 
map. Here the trne Ne<^ro area— tlie area occupied by men of the black skin, 
thick Up. depressed nose,- and woolly hair— Is erceedingly small ; as small in pro- 
portion 10 the rest of the continent, as the area of the district of tlie stunted Hyper- 
boreans is in Asia, or thnt of the Laps in Buroi)e. Without goint; so far as to main- i 
ialu that a dark complexion is the exception ntther than the rnle in Africa, it mny \ 
safely be said that the hue of the Arab, the Ind^n, and the Australian is the preva- 
lent color. To realise this we may aslc. what are the true Negro districts ? and 
what those other than Negro? To the former belong the valleys of the Senegal, 
the Gambia, the Niger, and the Intermediate rivere of the co:i8t, parts of Sndanid, 
and parts about Sennaar, Kordofan, and Dai-ffir ; to the latter, ii»e whole coast of 
tht! Medllerr.niean, the Desert, the wliole of the B^afir and Hottentot areas sontJi of 
the line, Abyssinia, and the Middle and Lower Nile. Tliis leaves but little for the 
typfcal Negro." Bearing in mind this limitation of the primitive area of tlic Negro, 
M'e »*hnll next proceed to Speak Of his prominent phvsiail cliaractei istics. 

The Nfgro has a black skin, unctuons and softr; woolly hair; thick lips; the 
lower part of tlie face prognathic, or projecting like a muzzle: the skull long and 
narrow; and a low, reireuiing forehead. The skull of the Negro is remarkably 
solid and thick, so that in ftifhting tliey often butt apiinst each other lilc<*. ram;*, 
without mnch damage to either combatant; and it is likewise so flat that biii dens 
are easily carried npou it According to Camp»ir'8 lateml adnieasuremeut, tlie head 
of the Negro shows an angle of 70<3, while thnt of the European shews one of SQo, on 
which difference of 10<^, as be considered, deiicnds the superior beauty of the latter. 
There is not much de|)endence, however, to f>e placed on such a mode of admeasure- 
went ; and the same may be said of Blumenbaclrs vertical method. According to this, 
a considerable difference would appear to exist between the skull of tiie Negro and 
that of the Euroj»ean. ** But," says Dr Prichard, " I have carefully examined th« 
situation of the foramen magnum in many Negro skulls ; in all of them its position 
may be accurately described as beine exactly behiud the transverse line bisectins 
the antero-posterlor diameter of the oasis cranil. This is precisely the place which 
Owen has i>ointed out as the general position of the occipital hole In the human 
skull. In those Negro skulls which have the alveolar process s'ery protul>erant, the 
anterior half of the line above described is lengthened in a slight degree Xiiy this cir- 
cumstiince. If allowance is made for It, no differenctf is perceptible. Tlie difference 
is in all instances extremely slight ; and it Is equally jjerceptlble In heads l)elonging 
to other races of men, If we examine crania which have ])rominent upper jaws. If a 
line Is let fall from the summit of the head at riyht angles with the pluue 
of the basis, the occipiuti foramen will be found to l>e sitaatcd imme- 
diately behind it ; and this is precisely the case in Negro and Euro- 
pean headH«." There is, In fact, neither in this respect— the cOMformatiou 
of the Negro skull— nor in any other, solid ground for the opinion ha»- 
arded by smne writers, ^nd supported either through Ignorance or from inter- 
ested purposes, by many persons— that the Negro forms a coiniecting link betweeti 
the higher order of npes and the rest of mankind. The difference is cert »lnly c<m- 
sideraole between the highest European and the tj'pical Negro, but the gulf bi*tween 
them both and the highest of the Simiee is so nearly of the same width, that, the 
difference Is scarcely distinguishable. But the skin, hair, skull, lips, maxillarv 
profile, an*general facial appewance of the Negro, are not the only features that 
distinguish hiniiu a great degree from the Europ»*an, and seem to sbimp hin» us a 
distinct variety of the human race. " In the Negro.*' says Prichard, •* the lionus of 
tint legs are bent outwards. Soemmering and Lawrence have observed chat the 
tii)ia and fibula in the Negro are more convex in front than hi Euro))emis; tht* 
calves of the legs are very high, so as to encroach npou tlie hams: the feet 
and hands, but particularly ihe former, are flat; and the os calcis, instt^d of 
b.'ing arched. Is continued netirly In a straight line with the other bones 
of the foot, which is remarkably broad.** As to the supposed excessive lengtJi of 
llie forearm in the Negro, a circumstance also dwelt upon as shewing :m 
'^ppiotich to the authroi)oid apes, facts are altogether, vtigainst jLbe btate^ 

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168 tfagtoe^ 

incnr; thisre" being no greater cTiff|»reiioe than la observable In l-.clIvMnf?ls 
of faiy other variety of mankind. KfMutirrc, tJie N^»gl o is very iiincli on a par uirU 
the Eiiro^iean, often reachfnj? sir fc-et, mid nirely d -cllnlnK below five and a half. 
Into tUe discnPBiou as to the canse ofthe bhicknes.n of the pkiu In Hie Nc^io we have 
not sfKice to enter. It is generally pnpp0!«ed to depend npon the greater anumnt 
of pi^inont eel 1^ !n the Bete 3fahHgkn\ and in the greater nnnibcr of cutanewn? gliind-, 
as compared with the Pkfu of Enropeans.. In the skiu of the Negro there In nnich oily 
matter, and l»« perspires pmfupefy, which serves to keep min in heakh, while it 
diffn!»es a pmell far from agieeable to bvptanderM whose olfactory nerves are at all 
sensitive. Of the hair of the Ni^ro, Dr t*ritchai"d remarks: *' I am convinced that 
tlie Negro has hair properly so-calletl, and not Wool. One differeiice bctwetn tl.o 
hair of a Negro and taat of a European, consists in the more curled and frizzled 
condition of the former. This, however, is only a difference In the degree of crispn- 
tiou, some European hair l)ein«j likewise verp crisp. Another dltterencc is the 
greater quantity of coloring matter or pigment in the hair of the Negro. It is very 
probuble that this quality is connected with the former, and is its causae, though wo 
cannot detemine in what manner one depends upon another ; bnt as these proper- 
tics vary simnitmeously. and are hi proportion one to tuiother, we may inu-r that 
tuev do not depetid upon iii(le|)en.dent causes." 

I'he Nei:roei», in their nativ<' seat, comprjse various Indrnondent tribes, which aro 
thus ciasi^lfied and enumeratetl by Dr lijif ham : 1. Wefteni Nemo Atlaniidce, embacing 
the VVoloffs, Sereres, Serawolli, Mandins;o?, Pelups, &c.; Fantis, &c.; the GliA, ilie 
Whidali, Malm and Benin tribes, the Grebo. &c. 2. Central Negro Atlantid^yOAxy" 
braciiig the Yarriba, the Taj)nn, Hnussa, Pnlahs, Cunjbri, Suugal, Kii'^6r, Bornu, 
&c.: Begharmi, Mandnra, Mobba. Furians, KoldagI, Z. Eastern Negro A tlaniid<»j 
embracing tlte Shlll6k, Ac; Q&inamyl, Dallas, &c.; Tibhoo, Gongas. This list 
might, of course, be still further enlarged by reference to the works of Earth, 
LiTingstouo, Spekc. and other travellei-s, whose researches have been publisljcd 
since the anpearjince of Dr Latham's •* Varieties of Man," In 1S50. 

While these sevcitil tribes have their distinctive peculiarities, they yet benr a 
strong genenil resemblance to each other, not only In their physical appearance, but 
ill their intelleoinal capacities, nioral Instincts, customs, and manners. The Negro 
intellect Is generally acknowle<lged to be Inferior not only to the European, but to 
that of many pritnitive races not as yet brought within the pale of civilisation, 
while it Is superior to that of the Australian, Bushmen, and Esquimaux. Soma 
tribes are sunk In the lowest depths of barbarism, and are either ferocious savages, 
or stupid, sensual, and indolent. This Is the case, for the most part, according to 
Prichnrd, where the exaggerated Negro type is discernible, as amoug the Bulloins, 
Papals, and other tribes uu the coast of Western Guinea; also among the tribes 
Dear the slave coast, and Iti the Bight of Benin, where the slave trade has b;en 
carried on to tlie greatest extent. In other parts they shew a capacity lor i)ractis;ng 
thenils of life. They are ingenious in the construction of their dwellings, they have 
pome knowledge of tiie worklj;g of iron and other metals, they manufacture arms, 
dres8 and prepare the skins of animals, weave cloth, and fabricate numerous useful 
iionsehold utensib*. Neither are they altogether deficient In a knowledge of 
agriculture. These marks of clvivilisatlou are, for th© most part, apparent iu 
the districts either wholly or partially converted to Mohammedanism. Muniro 
I'rnk. in hi** account of Sego, the capital of Bambarra, describes it as a city 
of 30,000 Inhabirants, with houses of two stories high, having flat roofs, ino^q^iies in 
« ve»y quarter, and ft-rries conveying men and horses over the Niger. '* The view of 
tbi^ extensive city,". be says, "the numerous canoes upon the river, the crowded 
]M pniation, and the cultivated state of the surrounding comitry, formed altogether 
!i proMpert of civilization and nuigniflcence which I little expected to find Iji the 
bo^Miii of Afriea." All tribes of negroes appear to be passionately fond of music, 
iii;d slnw no Httle skill in the manufacture of musical insti-uments. They also es- 
pr«*8s their hop' •* and fears In extenjporary songs. Where Moharamedanisnr has 
not l>eeu introduced, the religion of the negroes Is nothing but a debased fctiiih 
win-sht}). They make fetishes of serpents, elephants' teeth, trgers' cla\V8, and other 

EariB of ajilinals, at tije dictation of \he]v fetish man, or priest. They also maim- 
tcture idols of wood and stone, whicJj they worship; and yet, under all this, 
tiiey have some Idea of a Supreme being. They believe lu good and evil spirits, 

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tSSS^ 164 

aud ure perpetually practii^lnt^ incantMtloDs to ward off the banefnl lallflence of 
tli'jir pplnrnul epBinies. Their rel gion, iu fact, la oue iittOi^eUit^'r of ft>;ir; and hs 
this geueraily leuda to crneLty, wu Aud tliein lor tlie iitust p^irt liidiffereDt to tlic stic- 
rificu of liutuau Hte. In soiue purtp tlify even offer up liainuii victims to pix>piti:ife 
their deities. They are cruel tu tiieir enemies aud priBouertii. und ofteu i«hud bluod 
f>r (lie mere savuj^u dellglit tiiey experience iu iK^eiug it llow from their vitt.mi*. 
We IK ed only a'.lude to tiie inhuman customs^ as they nre callfd, of l>i|ljomc.v, and 
the Yam a^ Adai cutitoma of the Asliuntees, a» degciibtd by Bowdich, in ^lippuit 
ot this Htaremeut. 

This fame indifference to human suffering, conplt>d with the pti99ion of nvaric<*, 
has douhtless beeu ttie niaiuHpring of the slavo-tradi*, carried ou during so many 
centuries between tlie Negroes aud Enropejtu tniders iu tlie western coast <if 
Afiiia. Bu'j^un by tlie Portuguewj as early as 16(^, when negro slaves were fil^t 
imported into thn West Indies, sanctioned by Ferdinaud of Aragon in 1511, and e>ub- 
sequeutly l)y Ctiarle^ V., leguIiziHl in Enghtnd uuder Elizabetli, and eveutnally 
practised by every maritime nation of Europe, tliis iufamuus trade fl nirisbed uud^r 
the sanction of law as late as thf year 18j7, when it was liappily ai>o)i^hcd by act of 
Purliamcut iu Great Britain, and U now treated as piracy by almost every civili.-ed 
nation, fiveu still, however, it is practised by lawless nten, iioiwithstauding llie 
humauc efforts of (ireat firit:iiu, France, and the United Stutez* to suppress it ; and 
the encouragement which it has ^iven to the {)etty chielt:tius ou the slave coast, und 
the country behind it, to enrich llnrmsilvea at the expense of tlieir fellow-country- 
men, has contributed more than anything else to retard the progress of clvUisatloa 
in that part of Africa. " Tlie region mcuiioned," says Pritchard, "• has boiii the gruat 
scat of the exportttlou of Nejjro slaves, and th(! tribes on the coa-ft have been rc- 
dnced to the lowest state of phvj*ical and moral degradation by tlie taaniitica 
and vices attendant on that tratnc Throughout Negroland, and e.'pjcialiy tills 
part of it, the inhabitants of one district iu the interior, the uwt.llcrs ou 
oue monutaiii, are ever ou the watch to seize the wives aud childrcu 
of the ueighl)oring clans, and to sell tlieai to strangers ; many sell their own. Every 
recess, and almost every retired corner of tiie land, ha'^ bi-cu the ftceue of haiefiil 
raipinc aud shiui^hter, uot to t>e excused orpiliiated by the spirit of warfariv but 
perpetratetl in cold l)Iood, and for the Idvj of gain." 

The custom of polygamy prevails anu)ug alt the Negro tribes, aud where thefteara 
constituted into nations or kingdoms, as in Dabomey, the sovereign has often iu« 
many as two or three thousand wives, whom he occasionally disposes of aspreseuti* 
to his chief officers aud favorites. 

The languages of the various luxtious and tribes of Negroes are very nnmeroufi. 
Vocabularies of nearly 200 languages h.iv»? heen brought from Africa by the Kev. 
Dr Koelle. "A slight examination of tnese vcKabnlaries," says Mr Edwin Norris. 
** See. us to shew that there are amung tlie Negro idioms a dozen or luure classes of 
languages, differing from each other at least as much j:s the more remote ludo* 
G rtnanic huiguag s do.'' To these Negro idioms I)r Krapf bad glvtu the uame of, 
Nigro-Hamitie Langtiages. These may perliai>8 have affinities with some of the 
other Afr.cui tongues, hut not with any of the great well-deflned families of lau« 
gU)ige.'*. For furtlier lufOQiuatiou upon this subject, we imist content ourselves with 
referring to Dr Pilchard's *• Natural History of Man," and especially fo a learned 
note by Air Edwin Non is, in vol. i. of t.iat work, page 323. 

Of the condition aud prospects of the Nej^roes in tlie various conutries into which 
they have been imported during the prevalence of the sUive-trade, we have scarcely 
room to speak. Tliey are found iu all the West India Islands, to the number of 
about 3,000 000; in the Uuited States, bnusil, Peru, aud other iMits of South 
America ; also iu the Cape de Verde Islands. Arabia, Morocco, &c In ttie British 
West India Islands they were emancipated iroiu slavery iu 1884, and iu those be- 
longing to France in 1^. Indeed, shivery now exlst.>« nowhere iu the West Indies, 
witii the single exception of Ouha. In the Uuited States, the Negroes amoanled in 
ISTa to 4.830,009. Many of these were emancipated in the ooiirse Of tiie late un- 
happy civil war, all the Negroesi of Secusssion masters l)eiug didctred euuuicipatod 
by proclamation of Pre»'ideut Lincchi aud act of the Federal con«re6s ; at 
the same time that indemnities were promiiMHl to such loyal states aa of thdr 
own accord decreed emaudpatiou. Ne|;ro toluv**i-y iu the uuited State* has be«a 

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165 if.Tgr!? 

utleriy destroyed, and tbe groftt nroblera which nwsd to exerci«« pliilantropUic 
]nii)di«, has been solved— the Nfgro hrtving become a Uuited States citiaeu at & 
fuorfal cost of blood uud treasnre to both their posaeAsors aud their liberators, 

NE'GROPONT. See Eubosa. ^ 

NE'GROS, Is'.ii de. See Philippine Islanps. 

NEGU'NDO. a gtnns of trees of the uataral order Aceraceas (see Maple), diflFer- 
ing from the niupfes cliiefly iu the dice ious flowers being destitute of peiul^, aud in 
the piiiiiuied ash-like leaves. The Common N. or Ash-leaved Maple, is n uative 
of North America, and not now uufrequent iu Britain us uu oi namcntul tree. 

NE'QUS, a GOinponiid of either port or sherry wlue and hot water sweetened with 
sngar and flavored with lemon-peel and spices. It is a favorite beverage in England, 
aud derives its name from a Colonel Negus, who claimed to be the inventor. 

NEHEMrAH, son of Hnchaliah, probably of roynl descent, is first mentioned In 
tite Bil)Ie as cupbearer to Artaxerxes Longiumuus in hli* palace at Siiuslinn about 
444 B.C. Having learned the sad fate of the retunied colonists in Jeriisalent, lie pi-e- 
vailed n|x>n tho King to send him to his brethren there with fnll powers »*to seek 
their welfare." For twelve years (444—432) he Avas ni.tiringly engapd as •'Gov- 
ernor" iu works for their safety from within aud without; reforttlying the city 
walls, notwithstaudlogthe hindrances aud claugers that beset him on all sides ; iudiic* 
ing i>eople from the country to take up their permanent abode in tlie city, thus i)ro- 
nioting its prosperity; and flually, and above all, rekindling the flame of aucl<nt 
piety and the enthusiasm for the cbaervance of the Law in the heartt« of the rough 
Immigrants. He theu retunied to Persia, tiupting to the new vitality which his 
reforms had, as he tiiongbt. iufust^d into the Jewish comnionwealih. But not long 
nfterward:*— vviililn a period whith it Is extiemely difficult now to fix— he hud n«;ain 
to obtain leave from the king, for tbe puipose of aboilhhiug the unuiy abuses that 
had ^rept iu during his brief absence from Jeru?ulem. His eneigies now were 
chiefli' dincted against the foreign elt-ment 8 mixtd up with the people, l)olh pri- 
vately and publicly. He enforced the rigorous observation of Feast and Snbhuth, 
and rearmnged the Temple 6cr\*ice in nccordancc with lt> primeval purity, procuring 
at the same time the means for its proiwr support by Inducing the people to offer the 
tithes as of old. His second stay pi Jerusalem f-eems to have la^ted between ten 
and fifteen years; but the dates, as gnthertd from circumstantial evidence only, ai*e 
<xceedlngly vague. He seems* to have livi d to an old age, but the place and year of 
his death are unknown. What was the part he took in the formation and redaction 
of tin' biblieal canon, cannot be investigated in this* place. But theie can hardly be 
n doul)t, that among the reformatory works undertaken I y him, the collection, and 
jK-rhaps the edition of some of the books of the Old Testament nmst be included. 

The Book known under his name (iu 13 cliapters) is believed only partly liisown 
work. Kecent investigation ascribes to him only the first six chapters, part of the 
scveuthj and the laj^t chapter and a half; the rest being a compilation by other 
liands. Its style and character ara veiy simple, free Irom anything supernatural or 
prophetic Its language resembles much that of Chronicles and Ezra, and is replete 
with AraiRaisms and other foreign, partly Persian words. Originally considered a 
mere continuation of the Book of Ezra, It was by the Greeks and Latins at first 
called '*The Second Book of Kzra." Gradually, however, it assumed its pre.- eut 
Independent position iu the canon after JEzra. It is tupposed to have been written 
or compiled towards the end of N.'s life. 

NEILGHE'RRY (properly Nilgiri) Hills (Skr. nlla, blue, and giri, mountain), 
a remarkat}le ^'roup of mount^iins in the south of Hindustan, entirely isolated, 
with the exception of a precipitous granite ridge, 15 miles in width, which connects 
It with tbe iiigh table-laud of Maisur on the north. Lat. ll® 10'— 11° 88' n., long. 76* 
SO' — 77° 10'; 'J'he sluipe of the group is that of a trlan^ile, of which one side faces 
the district of Malatmr on the west. Greatest length, al)Out 40 miles; average 
bnmdth, about 15 miles. The base of the ujountains is covered by a dense and un- 
liealthy forest, swanning with wild anlmalH, among which tarv the eJephiini and 
tiger; but In tjiejiiglier regions of the UiIIh, wood is comparatively scanty. The 
surface of the group is undulating, rising, iu tiie pi-ak of Dodabetta, near the c<.-ntrc 
to the height of 8760 feet, the greatest height, as yet ascertained, iiMudia, south 

^ _ ■ Digitized by VjO'OQIC 

S»-^ ■ 166 

tho Himalayas. Th« Hills for the rnont part consist of granite, covered often to tb© 
d.n>tl» of upwards of ten feet by a richly prodacttve black i*oil. There are mrveral 
morasses yiekliug peat, which is n>*ed for f ncJ. The higher lauds form a fine open 
gr:l5^ coiiMtiy, covered with the vegetation of the temperate zone, and inhufoited Ivy 
n mo»t r(;maikable tribe, the Tudas or Toruvars (herdsmen). Tl»i8 tribe nniiibirs 
ou!y about 2000 persons. Tlie men are tall and handforae, with Boman nosen. fii»c 
teeth, jujd large expressive eyes ; tl»e women are singularly beaatifnl. Their rt-ligion 
is Theism; they Imve no idols. Owing to their great elevation, the N. H. have » 
dilightfully cool climate, and are much resorted to on this acconnt by invalided 
Enropt-ttiis. The principal station, and the only place on the Hills that deserves the 
iianu! of a town, is Utakamand, situat-ed in the centre of the Hills, at au elevation of 
7300 feet above sea- level. Its climate is cokl and damp during thQ monsoon ; at oiher 
times it is intensely dry, and the mean annual temperature is 58*. • 

NEILGHERRY NETTLE {Oirardinia Leschenaultii)^ a plant of the natnral 
order llitice(x, nearly allied to the true nettles, and |>088t'ssing in a high d-.-gree the 
BtlH}jln<x |>o\ver whicli is common in them. It ha fi-eqneut on all the higher ranges 
of the Neilghen-y Hills. The bark yields a valuable fibre, wliiclj the natives obtuiu 
by first boiling the whole plant, to destroy Its stinging properties, and then peeling 
ti»e stalks. Tlie fibre is of great delicacy and strength, and is wortji JC200 a Ion iu 
Eiii^iuiid. The cultivation of tiie plant is therefore thought likely to be remunera- 
tive.— Markham's " Travels.'* 

NEI'RA. See Moluccas. 

NEl'SSfi, a town of Prussian Silesia, and a fortress of the second rank, is slt- 
nntfid ill a broad valley on the Neisse, an affluent of the Oder. 80 miles south west 
of 0:)p3in. It consists of the town proper on the right bmik, of the Fiiedric»i*8 
Toww, and of tlie Preiissen Port on the l«ft hank. It contjiius two great squares, 
has eight Catholic and two Evangelical chnrchef, a hospital, theatre, Ac. It carries 
on manufactures of arm*, chemical products, and tobacco, and esitai»li»hmftnts for 
spliHiiiijj and weaving are in operation. The en ire population in 1871 was 19.3TC 
N.. formerly the chief town of a principiillty of the same name, and the residence of 
a piiiice-bishO|), has frequei»tly been the scene of conflict. 

N'ELLO'RE, a town of British India, capital of a dlstrlr-t of the same name. In 
tho presidency of Madras, situated on an elevation on tlie riglit bank of the Northern 
P^nnar, 20 miles iroin its> month, and 95 miles uoith-north-we»t from Madraa. I^ is 
Irroi5ularly built, and the population in some places much ci-owdod; but tliere aro 
some good streets. Th«! abundant supply of water contributes to the health of tho 
town. N. wjis formerly an imi>ortant fortress. It is a curious circumstance » bat, 
in the end of last century, apotfilled with Roman gold coins and medals — chiefly of 
Trni m, Adrian, and Faustina— was found nuder the ruins of a small Hindu temi>le 
at N.'.llore. Pop. 30,000. 

NEJI'N, an ancient town of Little Rnssin, in the government of Tchernigof, on 
the Oster, an aflEluent of the Dnieper, about 80 niilfs nOrfh-ea^t of Kiev. It fell into 
the hands of the Lithuanians in 1320, ami of the Poles in 1386. but was annexed to 
Russia in 1654. N. is an industrious town of (1867) 20.616 inhabitants, many of whom 
are descendants ot Greek immigrants who settled here in the reUrn «f Catharine II. 
Tlie principal branch of indnstrv Is the cultivation of tob' Great qnaniities of 
ieaf-tobaecj are sent hence to l^t Petersburg, Riga, and Mittau. The chief iustiin- 
tiosis are two monasteries, 25 churches, and a lycciim. 

NELSON, Horatio, the createst of Britain's admirals, was bom on the 8»th Sep- 
tember 1768, at Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, of which place his father, Edmnnd Nel- 
son, was rector. His mothf-r's maiden name was Suckling, and through her heconld 
claim a collateral kinship with the celebrated Sir Rol>ert Walpole. As a child, lie 
M'as feeble and sickly; and thro'ighont life his small, frail, ^md atfenuoted frame 
Seemed to consort bnt poorlv with the daring and Impetuons spirit which " stirred 
and lilted him to high attempts." At the age of 13. he entered the roynl navy, com* 
mencing hi« career in the Rai«onnable^ 64 guns, commanded by his uncle, Captnin 
Suckling. Thi'O, even more than now, promotion In the first stages of thff itrofcsslon 
was determined by Admiralty Interest; and fortunately for him and for England, his 
tiucle, eliortly afterwards becoming comptroller of the navy, waa able-to facilitate bis 

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1^7 N el then r 

rlJ»«. His promotion wa» nearly as rspld ne itconld bo, and before h«» wa^ qnlte 21, he 
had nttuiued ihe rank of post-cupiuiii, which fairly opened thewny for hiui to ihu 
higher honors of the service. Up to tiiis time, no opp<»rtnnity bad been afforded 
bin) of acliieTiu}; any marked distinction, bnt to all who wave bronght into 
contact nitli him, he had already approved himself a bold :uid cap)it>le officer. 
Henceforward, for some years, he was nearly coustatitJv employed in a variety 
of harassing services; and in till hi» conduct \ru» such, that in no long time 
he had made tor himself a brilliant reputation. His growing fame was as yet, l)OW- 
ever, chiefly confined to professional circles, no VC17 t-igital exploit having brought 
his name proiniuently before the public. Bnt with the advi ut of the war with revo- 
lutionary France, tlie time bad come when he was to ^' flume amaEement *' on the 
world i>y a series of noble deeds, in the lustre of which all other naval glory looks 
paJe. In bis obscurer years, he seems to have been cheered onder what paiiad Inm 
a? unmerited neglect by that prescience of a grand destiny, which ha** so often pre- 
luded to a career of exceptioual splendor. 11 u^, oi\^ue oi-( asion, he writes : ** 'i hey 
have not done me justice. But never mind. Oi^e day III have a (.azette of my 
own." And subsequently the same confidence ii« exi)rtfs« d with something like the 
depth rif a religions conviction : *'*One.dMy or otitr I will have a longg.'zciteto niv- 
wflf. I feel ihat such an opportunity will be given me. I cannot, if I am in the ^« Id 
of g!ory, be kept out of s)t:nt ; wherevtr th<re is anvtbiog to he done, /*<?»c /*;ptt*- 
tiefice us sure to direct my steps." In 1793, appointed to \1\g Aaawe^nnov, C4 guns, 
betook a diHinguished part, among otberi servic« s. In Ihe H<g<s of Bastia aid 
Calvi, in Corsica, losing an ^e at Ihe laft of these; and In the eeUbraUd 
liction of Sir John Jervis on Cape St. Vincent with the Spanich fleet, lo 
a manoeuvre of extreme and ma^terly daring, executed by NeUou in 
defiance of orders,- that officer was nairJy indebted lor the splendid huccess obtained 
and the peerage with which it was rewarded. Though in the ijiterval an ex)M'dition 
which he commanded itgainst Teuerifie had failed disastrously, with loss to himself 
of hisrigiit arm in the assault^ it was on ail bands admitted thai everything vas 
done on ibe occasion whieb skill and valor in their highest combinatioir could efftct, 
and N., on liis nturn to England in 1797, was received with general acclamation. 
He was invested witli the Order of the Bath, and a pension of iilOOO a year w as voted 
to him. Beine next year intrusted with a fleet, be sigiuilised this lis fii*st ii.depen- 
d- nt command of any magnitude by the stupendous victory of ihe Nile, memorable 
Ji; naval annals as the complelest annihilation of an enemv on record. See Aboukib. 
Finding the French fleet— to which 4i is own wi's considerably ii.ferior in foice — 
skilfully moored so as to defy oi3diuary isttack, he adopleil the novel exptxlient of 
doubling on the enrmv.*« ships, and was rewarded with success the most consum- 
niate. Of the French line cf battU*. two f=hips only ( sc-ped to be aftei-ward captured ; 
«i:d it was considered that solely to a wound in the head, which in the heat of the 
action prostrated N., did even these owe their temporary safety. Honors were 
now from all quarters showen'd upon him; and in particular the gratitude 
and enthusiasm of bis conntrym.n were signified by the title bestowed 
on him of Baron Nelson of the Nile, and a grant of £2000 a year for his own life, 
and the Jives of his* two imme<Hate successors. For his sei-vices immediately snb- 
Si'quent, in effecting the expulsion of the French fiom Naples, the Neapolitan king 
rewarded him with the Dukedom of Bronie and a domain of X.«tOOO a year. These 
last bonorf, however, were In one senfo dearly purchased. T he sinjile suspicion of 
a blot on his public fame is In regard of his relations with the corrupt court of 
Naples, and (tf certain questionabl" acts into which by thest^ he was led. The only 
flaw in his ]>rlvate chanicter was his infatuated attachment to Lady Hamilton, the 
wife of the English ambassador, a woman of questionable antecedents, but perilous 
ftscinatlon, with wham he waa here thrown in contact. The influence which she 
iTow obtained over him, she continued to the end to exercise. Early in life he had 
married, and manied happily. If to the charms of an impure adventuress he sacri- 
flced, on his return to England, the wife to wl)om before he bad been tenderly de- 
vofa'd. it is not necessary to indulge in comments Let us compassionate the one 
cruel frailty of a man iu all elae and in his proper nature, as gentle and generous aa 
he was brave. ... 

Hie next jnagnlflcent exploit waa the battle of Copenhagen in 1801, in wnien, 
after a atrn^le of terrible aeverUy, be shattered the naval power of Denmark, and 

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He' son -i ^o 

nJong with it the drt^adnt conlition ngaiiist Ku^lund of the thive northern kfns:' 
(I01118. N«ver were tfee chiifticfceristic and h**roic qnnlitiep of the man luore bril- 
Htintly drnplnyttd thun on tlfis most trying occjiston. In tlic moral connige to ftccwpt 
ruHpoiiHibility ut .ill hazards, no m.'\n ever 8nn>n»s'6<l him. In the heat of the bat- 
tle, his chief, Sir Hyde Parker, in deadly anxiety a« to the issne of what »t a 
di-taiu-c seemed to be a hopelej** conflict, 8igwall»'d him to diwontjime octton, 
**D;imn tlie sij^iial 1 " paid N., wImmi this was report^td to him. ** Keep mine for 
i eloner battle fft/in^. That't* the wav I answer i»uch piguals. Nail mine to the mast." 
^ And witii the certainty of nrofeHsional disgrace and ruiu Bttiriug him in the face in 
cas*^ of failure, lie worke<i ont his grand triumph. 

Haul N.'s services liere ceased, bis fame wonkl still have been assared an the 
greateait of England's naval heroes. But a crowning glory awaited him. In the 
earlier pnrt of 1805, glowing with flerce ardor and impatience, he had chased iialt 
round the world a French fleet of neiirly double the force of his own, sAired by the 
very terror of hii» name ; and oiKthe morning of the memorabk? 21st October of tliat 
vear, the desire of his eyes was satisfled, when in the Bay of Trafalgar he saw 
neforc hlni the combined navies of Prance and Spain moving to meet t^im in frank 
fight. Of the glorious consnnimatioii which followed, we need not speak in detjili. 
Ere night, the power bf France upon the seas was annihilated, ond her threatened 
invasion of England bad t)ecome an abortive dreatn. But N. was no more. He 
dle<l as such men wish to die, amid the thunders of his mightiest victoiir. 

ITie character of M. was, for a mair of his greatnes:*, nmisually simple and trans- 
parent. A more ab!«61ute sinirleness of aim and aspiration than his, it ii< difficult 
even to conceive of. Literally on Are with that ardor and passion of enthHsiaam. 
without some tincture of which scarce any man |>erhaps h:is ever jet achieved dt»- 
tiuctiou, he was driven by it imperiously in one direction. The greatest of sailon 
— he was a sailor and. little -^Ise. Of his genius for command, n wouid be idle at 
lai^^e to s|)eak. In coolness, fd'esight, promptitude, instant intuitive deciaioiu, and 
a daring whidh, even when it seemed at times to touch temerity, was yet regulated 
throughout by the nicest culcnlatlous of reason, he luis perhaps never been quit-j 
equtilied on the clement. His nature was tuo^t noble and tnimuue. His heart was 
as soft as a woman's, and overflowed with all liberal i^onerosities. He had but to 
be known to be beloved; and of tlie tender chivalry of bis relatioixs with bis gallant 
bretlireu in arms, it is touching to read. 

NE'LSON. the capital of a province of the same oame, in New Zealand, ifl situ- 
ated at the north end of South Island, at tbenooath of the Haitai, a small river, au.l 
at the head of a large bay called Blind Bay. The situation is very beautiful, un a 
flat, hemmed in by rugged hills, and amidst almost tropical luxuriance. The Inirbor, 
however, only admits vessels of 600 tons at high water, and this circumsiuuce has 
nmch retar<lt d the process Iwth of the town and the settlement. The pentre of the 
town ii* a hill rising 40 feet above the surrounding streets, and Taid out as a sqnar ? 
with an Episcopal church in its centre. N. is the seat of a bishop. The city wa* 
founded in 1841. The population in 1871 was 5-34. Three newspapers are puWishisl 
here. The manufactures of the town comprise cloth and leather. Steamers saii to 
the neighboring potts. 

NELU'MBO (yeluftibium), a genus of aquatic plants similar to Water Lilies* aiid 
often included under that name, as well as by some botanists In the uatttral order 
NympJuEOc^ai (q. v.) ; although by others constituted into a distinct order, Neh^m^ 
hiacecey differing in the want of albumen In the »eed. and in the distinct carpeld, 
which are one-see<led, and buried in tl»e cavities of a large fleshy receptacle; wbi^ 
eventnally becomes a broad tiard bed, fnll of holes, with the large seeds half buried 
in them. The flow(;rs and leaves are very similar to tfaOse of water-lilies. The s|m- 
ciesare few, and are found in the warm psirts of Asia, in tlie north of Africa, and in 
North America. They arc all distlngnlehed by the beauty of their flowers. N. «jwe- 
cioaumU the Eotpti'an Bean of Pythagoras, the Lotus (q. v.) of the Hindus, held 
sacred by them and by the people of TIiTIxjL It is also much esjeemcd and culti- 
vated in China, and elsewhere in the East, for its seeds, roots, leaf-stalks, and flower- 
stalks, all of which are eaten. It has been used as food by the Egyptians from n*- 
mote antiquity, llie seeds are in size and shape like acorn^, with a tai»te more deli- 
cate than that of almoiids. Tlie root cdiitains much starah, and Ckxneie hHow-tooi 

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I-AQ ITeUoa 

, -l"^ >. KTem^ 

is ea!d to be oMalned from it. Slices of it nre often tterved np fit tiiblo in CliiDs. 
Grutit qnnntitioB ai-e picktod wsith palt tiud vinegiu". :wm1 vatt-u with rice. TJie ])0\v- 
dered root nmjies <'XC«llent Boup with water or milk. Tlu; flowers nre generally rose- 
colored, tieldoni white. The aucieut Egyptian mode of t'owiin; thia plMit, by enclos- 
ing each seed iu a ball of clay, and throwruc it into the water, is piactimd at tlve 
prerteiit day In India.— A', luieum l< a North American ^]^ecil*al, extendini; nlmo8t as 
Jar uorth as Phi adelphia ; \vith yellow flowers. The nettls Mre«<*u»;lit afser by 
children and by Indian?,, and the farinaceous roots are agreeable when boile<l. 

NJSMATE'LMIA (derived from the Gr. words neniOy a thread, and helming an 
iiitet>iinal worm) is the tenn given by recent soologintHto a huge and imiioitautchiss 
of the subdivUiou Vermes of the Artienlata, 'i'he wornin bctui ging tu this claso are 
of a more or less elongated cylindrical furm. Tlteir hkin \b thick uiul ptrong, and ic 
n-ually wrinkled in siicii a manner as to give lite body an auunlaied appearance, 
wbich, liowevtT, disappi^ars if the auinnil is placid In water. " 'J he u* nous Byl^teQl 
iu the higher forms (a^ the Aacarida) ci iinistB of two lateral ganglia at Ibe anterior 
extremity, whit h are united by a slender nervoos ring, and (lom i\hich two lateral 
iHirvottit trunks prt>ceed to tiie posterior part of the booy ; while in the lower forms 
DO dii^tiiict nervous system cau be recoguiord. No sptciai orirann of the senHCs are 
met with ; but a general sen^e of touch is probably pieH< nt. 'I he dige^tive •rgunt 
«re extn-inely simple. Iu one order (the Acanthocevha<'a), no trace ot an iuteetinal 
canal can be detected; iu another order (the Ocraiacca) there is a mOuth. Intt uo 
auna; white the higher forms are providen with mouth, intestinal canal, and auuB. 
Id tlie liigher form^<, a kind of vapcular system ib develop* d in the skin, in the nhajw 
of ctiuals, ill which the uutiient fluid is ]iropeIled by the niuvements of the Inxly. 
Ko distinct respiratory organs cau be dett!cted;^ but in some geneia there areghinils 
mtaose Oiijoci is not Clearly known. These worms are nni^excal ; but the males are 
comiwratively rarely found, and are always smaller than the females. With tlie 
exception of two lamilies'-the Urolabea and AnguillulitlfK, or paste and vinegar 
ceis— all tho oui^alB of this class arc parasitic; indeed, Cams, in hin **tiandbuch 
der Zoolope" (1863), vol. il. p. 468, ^tocs so far as to say that '*prol>ably all the 
uemaielmlu live as pafaeiteB, eiilier during their whole lives or during certum stagea 
of their ejdsteuoo." 

The N. are sometimes termed Hofrnd-voormSf just as the Plafyelmia (tape-worros, 
flukes, Ac.) are called Flnt-xvorme, Most comniorly, however^ the teini round-woini 
is restricti'd to the Ascaris lumbriwides, the nwst common of the i nman ei tozoa. 

This class Is dlvlsn)ld into three Very distinct Orders — vxz.^Ww A (^inthocejyftala^ 
which are destllttteof ftii intestinal canni ; \\\Q.Oordiac€a. which pot'cet'iK au inteFtinnl 
canal, but no anus; and the Nematoidea, which possess a perfect iutcbtiual canal, 
provided with two oiiflces. 

NEMATOrDEA constitute the highest order of the Neraatelmia, and indeed of 
intestinal worms generally, inasmuch as they present a distinct nervous system, a 
complete intestinit provided with mouth and anus, and distinct sexual oi*gaus. The 
history of their developnvnt ia not fully known ; but there Is no rea?on to believe that 
these animals imdergo any remarkable metamorphoses, although fome perforate the 
intestinal wallef and become cncyetcd in parenchymatous organs. The great majority 
of the N.. are parasitic 'i'he N. are divided by Carus into twelve families, all the 
mentbera of which are known only in a parasiac state of esdstence, excepting certain 
genera of the first and s<7Cond family. 

Althotigh the intestinal canal istiie most common reeddence of these worms, some 
as T/iekina^raii*^ are found chiefly iu the muscles; otheri<, as Fiiatia tnediitennitiy 
in the suboataneoas cellular tissue ; and others in the kidneys, lungs, <&€, See £m- 
TOZOA. For farther information regarding these worms, the reader is referred to 
JSberth's ^ Uptersacbnngen fiber Nematoden " (4to, 1868;, 

NS'MBA, anciently the name of a deep and well-watered valley of Aroolis, in the 
Peloponnesus, between Cleonse and Phlius. It lies north and south, and is from two 
to tliree miles long, and more than half a mile broad. It possessed a saored gi-ove, 
with a maguificent temple of Zeus, and was celebrated for* the games culled the 
SemM,n Oanies^ which took place four times in two Olympiads in an adjacrnt woody 
talley. This was one of the great national festivals ot the Greeks, and, awoi-ding to 
U)e %eQ4t was foimd^ by the ecven princes who were coiubincd aguiuet Thebea; 

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je?*^ '170 

according to another, by Hercnlefi after his Yictonr over the Nemean Lion. TbB 
games consisted partly of exerdses of bodily skill and etren^ — such as chaxickf 
raang, quoit-throwiug, wrestliug, raunlqg iu armor, borse-niciug, boxing, tbrovriog 
theBpear, and archery, and partly o£ musical and poetical competitious. The prize 
was originally a crown of olive twigs, after^vards of parsley. We have eleven odes 
by Pindar in honor of victors in the Nemean Games. 

N£!M£'RT£S, a gen as of marine Annelidg^ the type of a family, Nemertidce, re- 
markable for the prodigious length which soiij^ of the species attain, which, in tiieir 
most extended state, is 30 or 40 feet But the animal which stretches itself out to this 
leu^tli, is capable of suddenly contracting itself to three or four feet The stmctnre 
is similar to that of leeches, bntthere is no sucker. These annelids feed npon moUnscs 
by sucking them out of their shells. They generally lurk in the mnd or sand of the 
searcoast, and are sometimes drawn up niitti the nets or lines of Ushermeo. They 
twine themselves into knots and coils^ apparently inextricable, but without any real 
entanglement The Jlfe-hlstory of the yenufrtidas is curious. ITie embryo has at 
first a ciliated, uoii-coutractile, oval body ; from which there issues a small actively 
contractile worm, leaving iKjhfaid it the oval skin, and this worm ^ws to the size 
aheady mentioned. The larval state, however, exhibits a cleft with raised ttdges, 
whlcQ becomes the month of the perfect animaL 

NB'MESIS, according to Iledod, the daughter of Night, was originally the per- 
■onllicatiou of the roorai feeling of right and a just fear of criminal actions— in othw 
words of the conscience. Afterwards, when au enlarged experience convinced men 
that a Divine will found room for its activity amid the ottle occurrences of human life. 
N. came to be regarded as the power who constantly preserves or restored the moial 
equilibrium of earthly affairs— preventing mortals from reaching that excessive pro»- 
perlry which would lead them to forget the reverence due to the Immortal gods, or 
visiting them with wholesome calamities in the midst of their happiness. Hence 
originated the latest and loftiest conception of N., as the Neing to whom was intrusted 
the execution of the decrees of a strict retributive providence— the awful and mysteri- 
ous aveujger of wrone. who punishes and humbles haughty evildoers in pai-ticular. 
N. was thus regarded as allied to At6 (q. v.), and the Knmenides (q. v.). She was 
sometimes called AdrastSa and Kbanmosia, the latter designation being derived from 
Khanmus, a village of .Attica, where she had a temple. She was represented in the 
older t mes as a young virgin, resembling Venus ; in later times, as clothed with 
the tunic and peplus, sometimes with swords in her hands and a wheel at her foot a 
grlflfln also having his right paw upon the wheel ; sometimes in a chariot drawn by 
griffins. N. is a frequent figure on coins and gems. 

NE'NAGH, a market town of Tipperary cousty, Ireland, distant 95 miles south^ 
west from Dublin ; pop. (1871) 6C96, of whom the Koman Catholics were twelve times 
as many as the Protestants of the Episcopalian' Church, and there were fifty or sixty 
Protestants of other denominations. N. is the assize town of the North Hiding of 
'IMpperary, and is a place of more than ordinary pretensions in its public buildings. 
The ancient keep, called Nenagh Round, is a striking object, ftQd the court-house, 
jail, barrack, and union workhouse are im|)08iug edifices. There is a free school, 
ana tliree national schools. Among the not very numerous articles manufactui-ed at 
N., are woollens, tobacco, soap ana caudles. It is, however, a place of very consider- 
able inland trade. 

NE'OPHYTB <Gr. nMvhutos, from now, new, and phuo^ to crow), the name 
privtjw III early urcle»iustic:u language to pt^r^-oiis recently coiivirted to Christianiiv. 
T li word is u^ed in tlii-* senne by St Paul <l Tim. ill. 6). and is ex|>lj»iued hv St 
•Gr.;goiy lu* Git'ur. as un allusion to **thoir b.^int^r newly p'nntwl in Ibe falih " (Ep|>. 
i>. V. cp. 61). It diff red from Catedinmen (q. v.), inasmnch «« it snpmised the p -ly 
foil to have not only umbrae d tbe doctrines uf the chuicli. but also to nave reccivi*d 
ba|»li.«*in. St Paul, In the pussajje refnn-ed to, dir-cts Timothy not to prnmutH n 
n 'pj^hyte^ to tlieepit«co!>ate; and this prohibiii xi wasi^uH'^rally maintained. uUliough 
occasionally disivgarded in very extraordinary cinmin^tanc h^^ Hicii m \UOf^ of St 
Ambrodu (q. v.). The duration of tills exclu.xlon was left for a tim« to «lie discro- 
tion of bisliO|>s ; but several of the ancient synod-* legis|jit«Ml regarding it. . The 
tliird cunncil of Aries, 524, and the third of Orange in 688, fix a yi-af as the least 
Uiuit of probaiiou. lu the iuoUy;ru So.uau CaiUouc UhorcU' th^ same dLi^liue is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

W©o ^ 

otxierved, apd ejctfDds to persons convrrted not njone from heathenism, bat from 
• auy sect of Ubriatiaiw uepanit^d from the coinmnnioii of Roine. The tirae, how- 
evjT, it* left to be deleiniliu'd by circumstance^'. Tlje luuiie ueopbvtc is alfto appiitd 
in UoiiiMn nroige to tiewly-ordaiued priesU, uud Bometimcs, tbou;;b more rare&, to 
the nojoice* of a rel){rioa8 order. 

• ME'O-PLA'TONIS'l'S, the name given to an illnstrions rncceMioo of ancient pbil- 
oMopbcrs wbo cluimed to fonud their doctriues and ppecnhitioiis on those of Fhito. 
•Strictly fpoukinj^, however* tlm-Platoiiic philosoplty — that it*, in its original and gen- 
nine torm— expired witli Phito^s immediate disciples, Spensippns and Xtuocr:tt«-8. 
Arcmlans (a. v.), tlie fQtnider of the New Acjideniy, and at a luier |)eriod Carnt-ades 
(q. T.). iutruauced and diffused a sceptical Probabiiisni, wliicli gradnaliy destroyed 
llitrt earnest and reverent spirit of inteliectnal inquiry t-o cliuractcristic of tlie great 
pap!l of Socrates. Tiie coarse of political events in the ancient world also htrsely > 
asshsted iu bringing alx)nt tnesame result The triumphs of the Homon power hud 
been accomplished at the expense of national libeities, and had issued in a general 
doterioratiou of inonii character, btjtb In the Sast and the West. Public men* es- 
pecially, nought, above all things, material cratiflcations, and came to look lipoii 
pliilosupiiy Itself as only a more exquisite kind of tuxory. It was quite ontural, 
therefore, that Scepticism and Eclecticism shonid become the prevalont forms of 
pliit<>eophy. , Besides, the ppeculations of the older philosophers were felt to be nn- 
patlsfactory. When men beiran to review the long soccessioM of contradictory or 
diven;eut systems that had prevailed since the time of Thalea the MiKsiun, 
in the gray duwn of Greell history, a snspidou appears to have sprnug 
up tlmt reality, certainty, troth, was eitlier not attainable, or could only 
be attained by pelectinj? something from every system. Moreover, the Im- 
mensely extended intercourse of nations, it^lf a result of Roman conquest. 
.Jiad l>r6nght into the closest proximity a crowd of conflicting opinions, beliefs, auu 
practices, which could not help occasionaliv uudergijing a confused nuialeaination, 
and in this way presented to view a {)i-acticai eclecticism, less refined auu philoso- 
phical htdeed tlmu tiie e>poculative systems of the day. but not esscntiall^r different 
from them. Tliis tendency, to amalgamation shewed hself most prominently in 
Alexandria. Placed at the junction of two continents, Asia and Afrii^ and clo^e to 
the most cultivated and intellectual regions of Europe, that celebrated city naturally 
became a focus for the chief religions and philosophies of the ancient world. U<-re, 
tlie East, and the West, Greek cuhure and Oriental enthusiasm, met and mhigled ; mid 
here, too, Christianity sought a home, and strove to quell by the libei ality of its 
sympathies, the mvriad dif'cords of Paganism. *• Greek Scepticism," says Mr Lewes, 
*• Judaism, t'V'toinsnj, Christianity— all lind their interpretei-s within a small tUMance 
of the temple of Berapis." It is not wonderful, therefore, that a philosophy, which 
BO disthictly combines the peculiar mental characteristics of the Bastand the West, as 
that promnfgat«jd by the Neo-Phitonists, slionld have originated io Alexandria. Yet, at 
thesame time, it is but right to notiC(% as does M. Matter in his '* Hictoire de TEcole d' 
Alexandiie," tiiat it soon censed to have any local connection with the citv. Its 
most illustrious representatives were neitlier natives of Alexandria, nor members of 
the famous Museum, and they had their schools elsewhere— in Kome, in Athens, and 
iu Asia. 

" It is not easy to say with whom iVeo-Ptotoniam commenced. Scholars differ as 
to how much should l>e inchuied under that term. By some it is used to designate 
the whole new Intellectual movement proceeding from Alfxandrla, comnrising in 
this bro-.d view, j he j)hilosophy, 1st, of Philo-Jndseus and of Nnmenius the Syrian ; 
9il, of the Christian JP*atiiers (Clemens Alexaudrinns, Origen, &c.) ; 8d, of the 
Gnostics ; and 4th, of Ammonius Saccas and his successors. Others, again, would 
exclude tli6 second of these (though the Alexandrian divines frequently Platonin ) ; 
while a third party ie disposed to restrict tiie applicitiou of the term to the fourth. 
The hist of these modes of regarding Neo-Plntonism is the one most cnrrent. and 
1« perhMps the most convenient and definite ; yet Bouterwek. Tennemann, Lewi-n, 
Ac, agree iu connidering Philo-Judsens (q. v.), an Alexandrian Jew, an<i (in part) 
contemporary of Jesus Christ, as the first of the Neo-Platonist:*— that is to sny, as 
the flr*t wriio endeavored to unite the mysteries of Oriental belief with the dialectics 
and apecalatioiiff of the PhiiotoiPts. A similar course was at least partially pnn»uf d 
^ih»€Liui»^Usiitt%oi AjAssaudxi^ partijtfrou a prv4ikctifQ4i. for il^i»UllQeo- 

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phy in which tbsy had been reared, and partly from a desire to harmonlee resf«tt 
aiHl falti), uud to iniku tiieir reli)j:iou acceptable to tlioughtfal and eiincnted pkgatiff; 
het)C«»« they tuo may, not without ruocoii, be classed aloirg with Phila, tboitifh ibefr 
ppirit and aim are distiuctively and even atronsjrly Christian. In Qiiostici-ra, on tlia 
other liaiid, spealcin*: genemlly, ti»e Iawl€i»8 mystlciam of tite Kaht predoiuinmed, 
and we aee little either of the pplrit or logic of Plato. They n«»y therefore Iw 
<1ianiis8ed from the catei;ory of Neo«Platbiiit«ta. Ret;ardint( Phiio-Judeoe aitd 
the' Alexaiidt'lan divines, ir nmr^t he notlcfd that ttiev wrote and taiij^hr iu ib« in- 
tereifta ot tuelr own reli^Mon, and had no idea of d^^endin*; or propajmtiug a 
iicathen piiilo40 >hy. It ia thia which atrikingly diet ii iff aiahes tliein fnnn the 
8cho:)l fotiiided by Aninionins i^acca^, and also from an independent group of pit}!un 
ti'ach.'ra and anthora who likewiae flonriahud in the flrar |tnd i«eisond ceutnries after 
Chri^r» and whone main object was to popuiariae and diSn?>e the ethics and 
rcii};:io-piiiloa()pliic pyatem ot Pinto, by aileforicaify ezphiiniuf tite ai}ek*iit mya- 
teriea of tlie p ipniar belief lo hamw>iiy with the ideaa of their mnater, imt, at the 
aame time, blending with these many Pythagorean and Aristotelian notions. The 
best-known names of this ffi^im are Plotarch (q. v.) and Apputeiw (<}> tO* The!»e nseft 
have a better claim to the title <x Neo-Platouists than our of the others.^ They adhered 
far more closely to their geeat master, and were, in fact*-to the best of their «bUity-^ 
simply popular expoimders of his philosophy, living at a time wbe&pagaxiism was 
in a mod band condition, thev eonght t<f revive, purify, and elevate the wbieh 
thdr fathers had lived. Cbriatiaiiity. a yoaug, vjgoroas, and boetiie system^ 
was rooting itself iu the hearts of men deeper sbd deeper every day, and these 
disdplea of Plato— tenderly attached to their ancestral religion— f^ that something 
TOQi^t be done to preserve from going out the fires that were fedl>ly burning oS 
the altars of the ancient irods. 

Bat these commentaton and expositors of Plato were not remaiieable for tbefr 
philosophical power ; a fresh eticam of life was first ponred into the old ciiannels q(E 
Platonic speculatidn by Ammonias Saccas (q. v.) and Plotiuos (q. t.), and it is this 
fact which gives the school which they established its best claim to the ^^dnaiv* titte 
of yeo- P:alam,UL ^ In no species of grandeur was the Alexandrian sdiooi-d^ftcie^* 

, as M. Saisset jastly observes : ** genius, power, and doratlon have consecrated it B^ 
animatiug dating an epoch of decline the fecmidity of an aged civilisation, it created 
a whole &raily of illastrioas names. Plotinas. its real founder, resascitated Plato t 
Proclui g^ve the world another Aristotle ; and in the person of Jalkui the Apostate, 
it became master of the world. For three centuries it was a formidable rival to the 
greatest power that ever appeared op eartii— the power of OfarlstiaDity : and if it suo 
cdmbed ill the struggle, it only feU with the civliisatioa of which it aad been the last 
rampart " (Lewed s -'Biog. Hist. PhiL" pi 260^. The essence of aU the Alssandrjan 
speculations, we have stated, consists iu the blendhig of Platonic ideas with (^iental 
mysticism ; the peculiarity of the Neo-PiatonisU^ strictly so-called, lies simply in the 
novelty, audacity, and ingenuity of their reasonings. They .-ilnKa at constructing a 
relieiou on the basis of dialectics. They strove to attain a Imowledge of the Ui^<Mt, 
an Aha way iu wiiich they endiavored to accomplish this was by assuming the exist- 
ence of a capacity in man for passing beyond the limits of his personality, oud acqniiv 
ing an intuitive loiowledge of the absolute, the true— that which is b^ond and above 
the fluctuutions and dubieties of ^^ opinion. " This impersonal faonlty is called ifiesfOM^. 
Bv means of it, man—ceasing, howeTer, it should be observed, to beicdi^dnal man, 
1. e., himMlf—caik identify himself with the Absolute (or Infinite). Plothsos, iu fad, 
set put from the belief that *^ philosophy" (1. e. ** Absolute truth '*) is only possible 

< through the identity of the thinker, or rather of the subjective thought, with the thing 
thought of, or the objective thought This intuitive grasp or ^^ vision '' of the Absokite . 
is not constant: we can neither force nor retain It by an effort of will^ itspriugsift 
from a diviue ipspiration and enthusiasm, higher and purer ttian that ot poet 
or prophet, and is the choicest *''• gift of Qod,*^ 

The god of Plotiuus and the other Alexandrians Is a mystical Trinity. In the expo* 
sitiou of which they display a dialectioal snbtlety that even the most'ii<genioiis of the 
schoolmen never reached. .The Divine Nature contains within it three hypostases 
(Subatances); its basis, if we may so speak, hi called nnity, also poetically irlmitive 
Xight. &C The Unitt is not itself any thinot bat the prinetole (tf «il tUnos; H if 
libiMitetood, obtraiMepeM^ctlat; And th9J^ «ttirlyiiiQ^^*btedll»dit,ti»iM>ivji 

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by the miflerfttait^iifl;, them is that in innn that AMnmn him that lt~ihe Incompreii^ii- 
Bible, ttaeliteffable, ta. *'It baa iieii tier qnaiitity uorqnalify ; neither reiipon norronl ; 
it cxipttt neiiber 111 niotioii nor re{>ot« ; iicither'iD spiice nor time ; U ii* not n nnmeric 
unity nor a pointy ....It i« pure Besewithont Accident; .... it i«» exenipr from 
all want or<lepeDdency, a;* well us from nil tliomrht or will * it is not a thinking BeiujTi 
bntTbnnght fl^if^^thepiriuclple andcanseof all thing-." O'othe hcepric iUh •*Prinii- 
tiTe LigiJi," wt" arc afiaid. will not ?€em very luniiimna. ' Froni " Unity," aa the pri- 
mord al soiirc<!pf all things, emanateR ** t'ure lutelllgence " (yotw— the Vemnt\/tiit 
modern German metaptiyeics); it*« reflection andinjige, that l»y wliich it \» intuiiivfly 
apun-liended ; from pnre IiitelIigonc<-, in inrn, entaniiteH tin* *• Soul of the World " 
iP^yehe Uni pantce). whose •creative aciivlty pnMlnces tiie ponla of nn-n and anlninls, 
and **N»iture ;** and flualiy from nutnrepruccodt^** Mjitt<r/' which, lioweve*-, is subject- 
ed by Plotinos to »i(cJi refluement of deAnitlon that it loses all its frrussnt i<is. Unit>-, 
Pnru Intelti^nce,a:id the World-Soul thasconstituttttimPlotinian Triad, witlu^hicli 
l8 connected, as we have seen, the doctrine of an eternal Emanation, tiie necessity of 
wuicli he'-idoi^vors to deinouKtrato by the most strin^rent logic. Hnman H>a]s. 
wi)08eM)nrce is' tlie Piuv Intdligence, are — by some my^terion8 fate— imprii>ooid 
hero in perif halile iKKliee, and the higher sort arc everiitriTing to reascend to their 
original home. So Pimijms, xi:hvu intlie agonies of deatif, eaid calmly to his fi-ici.ds t 
*•! am striigglii>g to lHwnite the divinity witliin nie." 

The m<Si»t dtsinignished pnpil of Ploiiniis was Pbrj^Iw^rlns to. v.), who mainly de- 
Tcted hiui^elfta expoundii« and qualifying the philuttAhy of his mat*ter. In him 
we see, foe the first Hine, iTie pretsence of a distinct! vWy aiiti-CliriPtian teiidency. 
Nco-PIn ton ism, which can only bo proiwrly nndi n*tood when we regard it as an at- 
tempt to place Pag:>nisu» on a. philosophical ba?is— to naketheOreetc nrliglon philo- 
sophicaL and f^reek philosophy religions— did not coiuteiowUy set out as the antago* 
uit<t of Christianity. Neitiier Ammonins Sacois nor Plotinus assailed tiie new faith ; 
but IIS the hitter coutinned to grow, »nd to attract many of the mo^'t powerful intel- 
lects of the aipe into its service, this latent aut1|Mithv l)t>L'ai) to shew )U>elf. Porphyry 
wrote against ltj:Iaml)lichus (q. v.). tin* most nott^d of his pnpiis. did i lie same. 'J'he 
1 tteraiso introdoctdajheut^c or *' magical " element into Nco-Platouisro, leaching, 
among otlier tldngs. that ctfinain mystenons practices mid symbols exercised a 6U)h r- 
natarui iuflaence over the divinities, and made them L^ant our desires. Magic is 
aiwiiys popular, and it is therefore not wonderful th.'it lamblicba!* sliould have had 
nomerons followers, ifidvsios succeeded to his master's <hair, and appe:irs to have 
h^td also a considerable niuuher of disci pl-s. To tiie school of one of them the 
]£inpeit>r Jniiiu bcloitgid. whos<' patronage for a moment shed a gleam of splendor 
over Neo-Platoni/rai, and seemed to promftc it a nirfversal victory. After a snecession 
of aide, bnt not always consistCitt tnchers, we reach Proclus (q. v.), the Inst great 
Neo-Phitonlst, who In-longs to the 5th c, a nnui of prodigious learning, and of an 
enthaf4astic temperamoir, in whom the pagan-reli|(10us, and consequently auti- 
Clirixtian, tendency of the Nco- Platonic plIilo^ophy cul]i)inated. His ontology was 
biscd on the Triad of Plotinns, but was conKiderahly modified In detail ; iie exaltt'd 
** Paitli " above ** Science " as a means of reaching tiie Absolute Unity ; was a be- 
liever in Theurgy, and so naturally Initl great stress upon the ancient Chaldiean ora- 
cles, Orphic tiyinns. mvfeleries, Ac^ VFhlch he regarded as divine revehitions. and of 
wiii<?li l»« con^idej^ed hImself-HW, indeed, lie was— the last great '* iut«rpretcr." Hl^ 
hostility to the Oiiristian religion wimkeen ; in its success he saw only the triuiniih of 
a vnlgar f^og^l:rifsnt>erstitiou over the refined and beantiful theories of philosopliy ; 
It WM!- as^itlie beiield ii horde of barbarian!* defacrng the statues and rectjrds oi the 
.Panibeiin. - The disciples of Proclus w»re pretty numerous, hut not remaikahle for 
hi:rh talent. Perhaps the ablest of his successors was Bamascins, in whose time the 
Emp<*ror Justinian, Ivv an nrHtrarv decree, closed the schools of the heath(>n philoso- 
phers. *< 'file victimes** «iys Cousin (" Cours d'Histoire de la Philosopliie Modt-rn. "), 
*^"0f fierce retiiliation, and of an obstinate |»ersecution, these poor Ai«xandrinns. 
afrer liaving sought an asylum in their dear Biuof, at the court of Cbosroes, re<urne<l 
to Europe ^583 AD.), were diBper^'ed over tlic face of the eartii, aitd the most part 
extingnislifd in tbe deseits of Bg^pt, which were converted forihem into a philo- 
fopHlc 'l*hebais." See Pichte, '^t>e Philosophise Nov« Platonic© Oritrinc " (Berl. 
18fS) ; Bout^rwelt, •♦ Phllosophorum Alex.»ndrinorumac Neo-Platonjcoriim, recensio 
•ccuratSOr " (GOlt. 1821) { MAlt^, " EsSiii Historique sur I'Bcole d»Alexaudrie (8 vols. 

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Neozoic l^A. 

NebiUddah * « ^ 

Par. 1820); 81mon, "Hlatolre de I'Ecole d' Alexandrle " (« vote. Par. 184^- ilartb4. 
lemy St Ililalre "l)e I'Ecole d'Alexaudrie " (Par. 1846); Lewea, ** Biographical Ute^ 
toryoi Philoeophy'' (1857); aud Ueberweg's " Hiatory of Philosophy '^ (I'raufilatioii, 
Hodd^r aud StCHighton 1S78). 

NEOZOIC (Gr. new life), a term iotrodticed by Edward Forbea tainclncle aH the 
fltrata from the Trias to the most receut deposits. They are geucrally divided into the 
two great m>nps of Secondary and Tertiary Kocks. This division is, however, quite 
arbitrary— I'he chief point of dlffei-ence depending on the occurrence in the Tertiary 
deposits of species snpposed to be the same as some still living. There is no pakeou to- 
lo^cal nor petralo^cal break similar to that which exists between the Penman »ud 
Tnas. Forbes, accordingly, suggested the obliteration of the division between the 
Secondary and Tertiary series, and the division of all geological time into two epochs 
•—^e Palseozoic and the Neoxoic. 

NE'PA AND NEPIDiE. See Wateb-ScoSpion. 

NEPAU'L, or NIpal, an Independent kingdom of Hindnstan, ^yingon the BOnthF* 
cm slope of the Hinudayas, is bounded on the n. by Tibet, on the s. and w. by Brit- 
ish Itfdia, and on the e. by SiWm, a protected state. Long. 80° 15'— 88° IS' e. tt to 
600 miles in length, by about 109 milop in average breadth. Area, 66«745 eq. m. : popL 
estimiited (1878) at 8,000,000. The kingdom is separated from the plains of India by 
the long narrow strip of land resembling an English down, but unhealthy, called ths 
Terai; which extends along the whole southern border. North of this, and munfxie 
parallel with it, is the great forest of N., from 8 to 10 miles broad. North of tlifl 
strip is a tract of WUy countrv, and above that are two tracts of greater elevation, 
the first of which may oe called mountainous, while the second might appropriate]^ 
be called Alpine, if it'did not comprise among its mountains, peaks, which like Mount 
Everest and Dhawalagiri, attain almost tmce the elevation of Mont Blanc The 
principal rlvera are the Kumalli, the Gk>gra, the Rapti, the Qunduk with its trilmta'^ 
ries, and the Kosi. The climate, most unhealthy In the Teroi, is healtbr and pleas- 
ant in the hilly and mountainous districts, suggesting that o^outhem Europe. la 
the V^alUy of ^T.— the district surrounding the capital— the he<it of Bengal wuteh to 
felt ill the hollows, may be exchanged for the cola of Russia by ascending the akmes 
of the hills which enclose it The soil to extremely ridi and fmitf nL Barley, minet, 
rice, matoe, wheat, cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, piue-apple, and various tropical fruits 
are ctdtivated. Gold bus not been found, but iron and copper mines ore workedr 
The inhabitants consist mainly of two tribes— the Ghnrkas, whose ctiief occupatidli 
is war, and the Newai*8, who are principally artisans. The capital of the cckmtry to 
Khatmauda (q. v.). 

NEPE'NTHfiS, the only known genus of a natural order of exogenous plants 
called NepenthacMiy constoting of herbaceous or half-shrubbv plants with dioecioas 
flowers, natives of swampy ground in India and China, chiefly remarkable lor th<^ 
leaves: Each leaf consists of a dilated f oliaceous petiole, prolonged beyund ita foUn- 
ccons part, as if it were the prolonsatioii of the nndrib of a leaf; and terminating in 
a pitcher {attciidium)^ from wnich the name Pitchsb Vukint has been very genenUly 
given to the species of this order. The pttclier to terminated by a lid, which to ro* 
i^arded as the true blade of the leaf. The fluid found in these pitchers is a secretion 
of the plant itself.' Insects often enter the pitcher, and are appai^itiy iYvste dissolved 
and absorbed ; so that the N. would rank amongst the plantH called '*' InsectivorouB ** 
by Mr Darwin. Pitcher plants {N, distilUUoria) are not nucomraon in our hothouses. 

NEPHE'LIUM. See LiTcni. 

NE'PHRITB, a mineral which to not unfrequently called Jade (q. v.), and of which 
Axestone (q. v.) to very generally considered a variety. It Is composed of silica, 
magnesia, and Hme ; is compact, with a coarse splintery fracture, very tenacious^ 
sometimes translucent, greasy to the touch, and of a green or greentob color. It to 
found in granite^ gneiss, greenstone, &c., in many ^rts of we world. Very fine 
specimens are brought from Persto, Siberia, and China, and are Imown as Ortental 
JcuU, The kind called Indian Jade is olive green, and strikes fire with steel ; that 
from China it whittoh, and does not strike fire. TS, to used for ornaments. 11m 
U'arks make it into handles for sabres and daggers. Many imaghiary viituss wers 

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once ascribe to It. such as the cure of eplJeptlc fits aud of DPpbrltic (Gr. ^uyhra 
kiduey) coniplaiiitii ; heucf itB name. 

NEPHKI'TIS (Gr. liepkroe, kidney), Inflammation of the Kidneys, (q. -v.). 

NEPOMUC. See Johh op Nijpomuk. 

NE'POS, ConielinH, a Boman histonan, bom in the first c B.C., hut the place 
and. precise time of his birth are nuknowu. lie was the friend of Cicero aud Catul- 
lus. The only work of N.'s which has survived (if indeed it be bie)» is a peries of 
twenty-five generally brief biographies of waniors aud statesmen, mostly Gioekp. 
llieee.biographies are distiucmshed by the purity of their Latinity, the coucieencsa 
of tlieir style, and their admirable exhibitiou of character, but enfllcieut care has not 
been exercised in the examination of authorities, nor In the relative importance of 
things duly regarded. Untjl the middle of the 16th c these b|ograpniep, on the 
tfrreiJgth of the titles given. in the various 31 SS., were generally ascribed to Jiniilins 
Probus, a writer who lived in the latter prt of the 4th c ; but in 1669, fin edition was 
put out by the famous Dionysius Lambmus, who pronounced the so-called " Lives " 
of ^milfus Probus to be in reality the lost work of Cornelius Nenos, " De Viris llut«- 
trtbns." His weightiest argument is drawn frdm I he excellence ot the Latin, and the 
chastity of the style, so nnnke the cx)mipt aud florid language of the "Decline. Many 
critics bold that these Lives ought to be regarded as an abbreviation of the work uf 
If. by Probus. I'his hypothes^ is not without its diflicnlties, but it is perhafMi the 
feast objectionable of any. There are many editions, amcug which may be mentioned 
tboB^ of Van Staveren (Leyd. 1778), of Tzschucke (Gott. 1804), and of Bremi (Zor. 
1820) ; and the book is in general use as a school-buok. It has been very frequently 
translated into Euglisli aud other languages. 

NE'PTONE, an ancient Italian god. It was doubtful whether he'was originally a 
marine deity at all, for the old Italians were the very opposite of a maritime peoplfl. 
et hiB name is commonly bonnected with vato, to swim ; hence at an earlier penoq 
_je may have borne another designation, afterwai'ds f orgottoui When fee Komans be- 
came a maritime nower, and had ^wb acquainted with Grecian mythology, they, in 
accordaiice with their uBiwl practice, identified him with the Greek god whom he 
ixK>6t resembled. This waa Fosetdiin^ also Poteidan (connected with potoe^ a drink, 
ponton, the seo, and jwtanioa. a river). Poseidon appears in bis most primitive my- 
thological form as the god of water in general, or tne fluid element He was the son 
of Cronos <Saturii) and Khea, and a brotner of Jupiter. On the partition of the uuiveree 
amcmgst the iormoi Cronos, he obtaiited the eea as bis portion, in the depths of which 
be had bis palace near Mgs&, in Eubcea. Here also he kept his brazen-hoofed and 
golden-maned steeds, in a chariot drawn by which he rode over the waves, which 
grew calm at his apprc ach, while the monsters of the deep, recognizing their loi-d, 
made sportife homage ftund his watery path. But he sometimes presented iumself at 
the a«#embly of the goda on Olympus, and in conjunction with Apollo, built the walb* 
of TiOy. In the Trojan war he sided with the Greeks ; neveriheless he subsequently 
Bbewed himself inimical to tt»e great sea^wanderer Ulysses, who had blinded his son 
PolyphemuB. He was also believed to have created the horee. and taught men its use. 
The symbol of his power was* a tiident, with which he raised and stilled storms, 
broke rocks, Ac. According to Herodotus, the name and worship of Poseidon came 
to the Greeks from Ubya. He was worshipped in all parts of Greece and Southern 
Italy, especially in the seaport towns. The Isthmian games were held in his honor. 
Black and white bulls, boars, and rams were offered in sacrifice to him. N. was com- 
monly represented with a trident, and with horses or dolphins, often along with. 
Amphitrite, in a chariot dra^vn by dolphins, and surrrounded by tritonsand other sea- 
monefers. As befitted the fluctuating element over which he ruled, he is sometimes 
l^r^ asleep or reposing, and sometimes In a state of violent agitation. 

NERBU'DDAH, a river of Hindustan, ri»e8 in the Vindhya MonnTains. at a 
height of from 300<) to.4000 feet above sea-level, in lat. 22o 40' n.. long. S1° fi2' e. Ir. 
flowd west, past Jnbalpur (190 miles from its souico), where the great depression 
between the Vindhyn Mountains on the north and the 8iitpur:i Mountainn oi» the 
sontlu known as the Valley of the N., begins. The other principal towns on ttj» bunks 
STK HoalMmpahad, Burvvanl, aud Barnch. At HoshangaOnd it Is 900 yard^ wide, nnd 
' I 4t© to elx feet in depth. At BumeU It begins to expai»d Into a wide eatuary. 


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and ntter flowing 80 nillefl fnrlhor, it falls Into the Oalf of CamhuT. Entire length 
about 800 miles, of which 66 miles are iiaviguble for sbips of considerable »i«e. 

HBUOHrNSK, an important mining town of Raesis, Bastem Sibttria.ln the 
Traiii*-BHilc;il Territory, on the Nerclja, a tributary of the Shilk«, in l«t 6lo 58' «., 
long« 1160 86' e..4707 miles from 8t Petershnrg. It was funudtKi in 1658, nud h.d. in 
1867, 8988 inl)abit.iint& The di>tTict of whicli^. is the centre yields a good deal of 
gold yearly, together with large quantities of silver, lead, and iron, and preciona 
stone-. The only tin-mines in the enipiro are worked here. The soil in the vicinity 
is fertile, and the climate mild and agreeable. 

NG'RBIS, a genus, and Nerei'dse, a family of Anttelid<iy having a long slender 
body, a distinct heau, wiih trntncles and eyes; the whole body covered witb 
tubercles, and the gills lobed and tiltttd. They are all marine, and generally hide 
under rocks or in the sand. TIxy swim actively, by rapltl and nndnlatnig inflections 
of the body, and by the aid of nuineroui* oars arranged along t lie sides ; «aeh formed 
of a stout footstalk, numerous bristles, uud a flap. The proboscis is thick, strougi 
and armed with two jaws. - v 

NB'REITES, the name given to noimals which hove left their improsA on the 
Silurian Hocks, and wiilch exhibir a form similar to the modern Nereis, 'llieyoccar 
on the surface of the !amin» of fine shales over whicli, when it was soft, the creature 
moyt'd, leaving a long and tortnouslmil. which is geneniliy fonud tu terminate in a 
mofe defined representation prodnced apparently by the body itself, althoagh ^very 
truce of il has dii^appeared. See Ichnologt. 

NEBI, Philip de, a saint of the; Roman Catholic Chnrch, and founder of tho 
Congregation Of the Oratoiy (q. v.», was born bf a distinguished family in Florence, 
July 21i 1616. His cliuracter, even in boyhood, foi&iliadowed the ctireer of piety and 
benevolence to wliich he was destined, and he was commonly known iiisong^iis 
youthful companions by the name of " good Philip." On the death of his parenti*, 
he was adopted by a very weultiiy uncle, with whom he lived for some time at Sail 
Qerinauo, near Monte Casino, hm\ by whoui^Rs was recoirnised as his destined heir. 
But he reiinqnislted all these prospects, for a life of piety and charity, and hai»iug 
come to Route in 1684, he there completed bis philosopliioil and tlieological studits, 
and won the esteem and reverence of all by hia extraordinary piety, and his l)ettevo- 
lence and activity in every good work whetlier of charity or of religion. Although 
he did not receive priest's orders till 1661, he had already been for years one of tne 
most earnest and devoted in ail the pious wo k^of Rome for the instrnctiuu of the 
poor, the oire of the sick, and the reclamation of the vicious; and in 1560, in nnisou 
witli several of his friends, he established a coufrateniity for the care of poor pilgi'ims 
visiting Rome, and other houseless persons, as well as of tiie sick generally, which 
■till snuaisis, and which has numbered among its associates many of the most dis- 
tinguished members of the Roman CatiioUc Cliurcii. This confraternity, however, 
is cliiefly note wortliy as having been the germ of the far more celebrated CoNdK^ 
OATioN or THB Oratobt (o. V.), whicii was founded by St Philip in concert with 
bis friends Baronius and Tarugio. both afterwards cardinals, Subriati, and 
some others. Besides the general objects above indicated, and Hie spirit- 
ual duties designed for the personal sanctification of the members, the 
m.tin object of this association was the moral instruction and religions 
training of the yomig and uneducated, who were assembled in chapels or oratorios, 
tor prayer and for religious^ and moral instruction. As a further nieans of with- 
.- drawing youth from dangerous amusements, sucred musical entertainments <tlienc6 
f called by the name of oratoi'io) were held in the oratory, at first consisting solely of 
• hymns, but afterwards partaking of the nature of sacred operas or dramas, except 
that they did not admit the scenic or dramatic accompaniments of these more secu- 
lar compositions. Religious atid literary lectures also formed part of his plan, and 
it was in the lectures oiTijinally prepared for the Oratory tlmt, at tlie instance oi N., 
. the eigaiitic ** Churcli History *' of Baronius had its origin. The personal character 
of N., the unselfish devotedness of his life, his unaffected piety, his genuine love of 
the poor, his kindly and cheerful disposition, and, periiaps, as much as any of the 
rest, a certain quaint linjnor,auda tinge of what may almost be chilled drollery which 
pervaded many of his sayings Jiiid doings, contributed to iwpiihlrise h1s1fi$titut(*,and 
to engage the public favor for iiimself and his fellow-hiboters. He himself enjoyed 

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t!ie reftttatfon of ?«f»cti^ an^ c^ m1t«d«s amon« b!« feUoW-rstiglaolstt alina««t h«r 
yoiid-aiijr of the modern paints; and ho may etill be described as em|)bati(^ally tlie 
popiilHi* sal lit of tbt» Romau people. He lived to an extreme age In the fuU enJoy«> 
pieiit of nil his faculties, und in the active diecharire to the laett of all the chariruhle 
duties to which Ills life hud been devoted. He dieid at tJie ago oi Stf, Mi»y 26, 3IJ95. 
He Avpp caiK>nifted by Gregory XV. In 16W. His only literary remufiis are hi? *' Let- 
ters" (8vo, Padua, 1751); the "Constitnfioiis*' of hia congregatiou, printed In 1612; 
some short hpintuftl treatises, and a fe\r aouneta which are printed in the collection 
ot *'"RiineOneSte.»' 

NERIA'D, a town Of British India, In the presidency of Bombay and diftrirt 
of K:«iru. on the ronre from Barodn to Abmedabnd. 88 miles north-west from BHrodn, 
on a fei'd^r ot tl»e Sabrtrmati. It is the chief town of an extensive and well-cnlti- 
vuted tract, which produces much tobacco, and contains many prosMrous towns 
nud villages. Pop. (IbTl) 25,620. 

ITO'RIITM. See Olsandeb. 

KB'RO, Roman einperor from 64 a.ix to 68 a.B., waa l)om at Antinm. on the 
coa^t of Laiinui, 15th I)ecember 37 a d., and wa» the aon of Cn. Doniitiiis Ahenc^ 
biirbu»tti:d of AgripiHnn. the da^iieUter of Oermanicu'* CsSiUir, and sister ot Oiiligiilat 
His mother lK*coming the wife of the Emperor Clandiui*. Claudius adopted him (60 
A.l>.). and his nam ', originiilly L. Dojuitius Ahenobarbus, was changed to Nero 
CInaditi? Csesar Drnans Qermanicas. After t)ic death of Chmdins (^4 a.d.), the Pne- 
toriaii Guards, at the instigation of Afranina Burrbu^. their prefect, declared him 
emperor, iii8te:id Of Clandins' eon Britunnicns, and their choice was acknowledged 
both by the feu&te and the provinces. His reign bejian with the semblance of 
luoderntion and good i)romi?e, under the guidai/Ce of Burrhus and his tutor Seneca 
ti:e pbiloeophcr; but the biilefnljnfluence of his mother, together with his own 
moral uetiknefis iind Sen.^u:i1ity, frustrated their efforti*, and he f>oon plunged heiid- 
Ibng intodebauciiery, extravagnnce, nud tyranny. He c»u?«'d Britanuicup, the soii 
of Claudius, to be n'enclurpusTy jjoiponed at the age of 14, because he dreaded him 
asa rival, nndafterwnrds (59 A.D.) <aiwed lii^ own mother Agrippina (with whom 
Jie was latterly on bad terms) to be assapsinated, to please his mistress Poppiea 
Snbiua (the wife of his principal boon-companion Otho, afterwarda emperor). In or- 
der-to many whom he also divorced and acterwards put to death his wife tHtavia 
(a^ed 20), the sister of Britaunicns. The low servility into whi< h the Roman senate 
had fitmk at this time, may be ettimated fit)in the fact that it actually issued an ad* 
dress con^ratnlatin^ithe hateful matricide on the death of Agrippina, N. himself 
on the otiier hnud, confessed that he was ever hauuted by the uhost of hif mnrtlered 
motlier. The affairs of the enipire were at ihi5 time far from tranquil. In 61 a-d?, 
«it liVflurrection broke out in Britain under Q>ieeu Boadicea, which was. however, 
f upprepsed by Suetonius Paulinus. The following year saw an unsncc<'SJ«ful war 
against the Parthians in Armenia. At home, matters were not much better. 'J'he 
eiiipenorwiis lampooned in verse; the senate and priesthood, alike venal, were also 
satirised by audacious malcontents; Burrhus, a valuable trieud, died; and even 
8eneca, though not a great moralist, out of his books, thon^rlit it onlj decent to re- 
move from court In July 64. occurred a great coufla^ralion In Rome, by w hich 
two-third!< of the city were reduced to ashes. N. himself is usually believed to have 
been theincendiary. It is said that he admired the spectacle from a distanc**, rt>cit' 
jng verses about the burning of Troy, but many scholars are doubtful whether he 
really had any hand in It. At all evi nis he laid the blame on the Christians-^that 
mysterious sect, who, like the Jews in the middle ages, were the cause of all other- 
wise iucxplic^ble caUimities, ai:d persecuted them with greai lury. Moreover, he - 
rebuilt the city with creat magniflcence, and reared for himself on the Palatine Hill 
a splend:d palace, called^ from th6 Immense profusion of its golden ornaments the 
Aurea Dvinus^ or Golden House ; and in order to piovlde for this expenditure, and 
for the }^ratiftcutiou of the Roman populace by spectacles and (listrihntionsof corn, 
Italy and the provinces were unsparingly plundered. A cotisplracy agaitist him 
failed in the year 66, and Seneca and the pmit Lucan fell vi tims to his vt ngcaiKe. 
In a fli Of pai'siou he murdered his wile Poppeea, by kicking her when she Wa« preg- 
fiaQt He then proposed to Antouia, the daughter of i;iandius, but was refiisjd, 
WWaret^ h>s catUTcU the too fiistidJolw h»dy to be ptit to dcftth, atid u»«rrted »«triU 

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N«iVoiu ^^ ,^ , 

MeBsallinaf fif tor kiH!ng her hoeband. lie also executed or iMoiftbed maoT persoDS 
liighly diBtiDgnished for iutegrity and virtue. His vanity led him to feek distluction 
as a tx^t, a^ pbilosopber, au actor, u mnsician, aud a charioteer, mid he received 
evcopltaiitic am>)au8ei», not ouly in Italy, but iu Grct-ce, to whicli. upon invitation of 
the GrtJek cilid^; he made a viwt iu 67. But iu 6S, the Gallic «ud Spuuish legiot)Js 
and after tiiem.the Prsetoriun Guards, rose again&t him to make Gaiba emperor, and 
K. fled from Rou>e to the house of a freedman, Piiaou, about four miles distant. 
Tlie senate, whicli had hitherto beeu most subservient, declared him au enemjr of 
his country, nud the tyrant ended hie life by suicide, *lHh June 68. One is sorry to 
learn tlmi such a wretch had a taste for poetiy, aud was skilled iu painting aud 

NE'RVA, M. CJocceius. a Roman emperor, elected by the senate after the mur- 
der of Domitiau, ISib September 96. Htf was born 82 a.d., of a family belonging to 
Narnia, in Umbria, and twice held the honor of consulship before his election to 
the dijrnify of emixjror. Hedisplajred great wisdom and mpderatiou, rectifltni the 
administration of justice, and diminished the taxes; but finding himself, upon ac- 
count of his advanced age, not viporons enough to repress tlie Insolence of the 
Praetorian Guards, ho adopted M. Ulplns Trajanuf*, then at the head of the army of 
G(>rmanv, who succeeded iiim on bis death, 27th January 98. After his decease, he 
ot)tained an apotheosis. 

Although the most iniportantaffections of the nervous system, as chorea, convulsions, 
epilepsy, hydrophobia, hypochondriasis, hysteria, neuralgia, paralysis, spasms, and 
tetauus, have been considered in special articles, there is an in flnite variety of (often 
evanescent) forms which the di:5eaaes of the nervous system assume, some of wbrch 
we propose now to consider. 

These nervous affections are almost solely confined to women, and most c* tbera 
may be regarded as modified forms of hysteria. Simuletted Pteffnanejf^ or, as the 
French physicians term it, Nervous Ib-egnancf/j U an affection of not very rare occur- 
rence. The abdomen generally enlarges, I lie cutanienla are suppressed, aud sick- 
ness, enlargement of the breasts, with the other symptoms of pr -gnancy, supervene 
(as far as they can be recognised by the non-professional observer), and it is onlvthe 
;)on-appeanujce of the infant at the expected period that leads to a sn*«pidon of the 
true nature of the case. Tlie diagnoMis of such a case is extremely difficult, and the 
jnost celebrated accoucheurs have been deceived. We commence with this extreme 
instance, as being singularly illustrative of the power whicli a perverted action of the 
nervous system nniv impress npou certain persons. The somewhat allifd cases iu 
which patients persist in fancying themselves pregnant in opposition to tl«e opinion 
of tlieir medictil adviser (as the well-known case of (^aeen Mary, so admirably drawa 
by Proude), ai-e far more numerous. The intestines are often implicated in cases of 
a deranged condition of the nervous system. The excretioti of gas frou» the intesti- 
nal mucous membrane is often much increased in the class of patients commonly 
called nervous. The rat! ling sounds produced by the movelnent of the gas — scien- 
f-fically known as boniborygml — are sometimes so loud aS to prevent the patient 
from entering into society with comfort; and sometimes the mere f^rof the occur- 
rence of tliese ^<Ol^lds is sufficient to induce them. A depraved Hppetite, scietitifl- 
cally known asjn'cc^isa common symptom of derangea nervous system both in 
chlorotic young women, in whom tlie catamenial discharge is not well established, 
and iu pregnant women. See Morbid Appetites. The not very rare cases of fast- 
ing women and girls belong to the same categoiy. All these cases, however, ulii- 
mately undergo detection. 

Dr Parry and other physicians have described cases^ of morbid sensibility of the 
mucous muMnbrane of the pharynx, iu which the muscles-of tlie larynx are cjilled 
Into violent action if the patieut takes a sip of wat^'r or other fluid. Such cjis* 8 so 
Btrons^'ly simulate hydropliohia, that they are described as hysteric hydrophobia. 

Passing on to thtf special modifications wliicli au abnormal state of the nervous 
system impresses on the organs of circulation, we have nervous palpitation of the 
liu'irt, which may readily be distinguished from palpitation deijendent on change of 
atructure by due attention to symptoms." There is a peculiar form of alidoininal 
j^\fi^Ajfnx, jdi^u sK>Iuly to nervous iuflu<^uce, which ma^ not very aufi'equeutljr te 

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-^ « ^ Nervoni 

f«*H on pre^sfng the hand on the patient's abdomen. It has in many cases buen 
niis'tiikeii for ai)enri<»ni. 

The nervous symptoms implicating Wie respiratory or^rans are not only the most 
common of any, but arc alarming aud nrpentt and may be readily mfstakcn for 
iudications of gerious inflammatoiy o»" organic dit«ea8e. Nervous anthma. which is 
pnpposed to depend uposi a spasmodic coin*truction of the bronchial tnb^^s, is too well 
kitowti to require comment. Women suffering from a derang<'d condition of the 
nervous pystxan sometimes ]»rcftcut symptoms of what may be termed nervous 
• crttarrh — srich as a copious now of tears, free dlscliarge from the nostrllis and 
coil ?tiitit. sneezing. Such cases are often |)crio(1ic. They raa^ he treated with pr«- 
]>:«raT.lon.'* of irou, and are sometimes at oncecheclced by a pmch of bnuff. There 
are vnrions forms of cough due mainly to nervous irritation, tiie difference In the 
cbfjracter of the congh pi-obably depending ou the spot which is the seat of lirlia- 
tioii. Tlius, we hear of jsjmsmodic cougli, wluch is often accompanied by mncb 
fit raining aud convulsive agitation, and somewhat resembles hoopii>g-cough ; ring- 
ing cou«rli, accompanied by dyspncea and hoarscuefs, or loss of voice; barmng 
congii, often arising^ from irritation of the ovaries, &c. 8Dcb couffhs as Uicfe are 
aegrnvated by depleting measures, oi^iuary cough medicines, «€., aud usually 
disappear under the use of tonics. 

The aervous affections of the motor system are conveniently grouped by Dr Lay- 
cock ninkjr three lieads—^l) the fir.-t including those cases in which their is paralysis 
or spasm without distortion ; <2)thpse in which distortion follows cessation of mus* 
cnlar eqnilibrinm, as in the various form of club-foot; aud (8) paroxys<nnil affec- 
tions. Tl»e best example of the Jlr»t class is hysterical patalyfls of the lower 
extremities, of which Sir Benjamin Brodie long ago wrottj as follows : ♦• I have 
known not a few, but very numerous instances of young ladies being condemned to 
the Uorizontal posture, and even tdthe torture of aiustic issues and netons, for s»ev* 
erul successive years, in whom air and o^Xercise, aud cheerful occupations would 
prolmbly have procured a cure in the course of a few months." A notice of Bnch cases 
as ttiese may be found in the article Hysteria. Paralysis of a lateral luilf of the 
body, or of one linib oiily, may also be merely a manifestation of liysteria. The 
secttnd clasi* Is well illusitrated by the following case, which is reported by Mr Shaw. 
A 3^irng lady who had suffered from a tniin of symptoms indicative of a disturbed 
nervous system, had jtheanlsle so turned round that she wnllced on one side of the 
foot, 'ihe Isnec \xa8 also l)eut outwards, and the spine was becoming distorted. Sir 
Charles Bell, who ^aw her in consuliation, i-egardtd the case as one of wilful decep- 
linu, and iu a year's time his diagnosis was completely established, scarcely any 
tjatee of lameness l>eh»g apparent Many of the joinfj*— as the knee, hip, &c.— may 
be the seats of purely neuralgic symptoms, which so closely simulate orgauic disease ' 
of . tlie , cartihiges, as to lead to the removal of the limb. Oarmichael, Brodie, and 
others have lecordi-d cases in wliich this terrible mistake has been made by experi- 
enced snrgeons. Spinal irritiition, or spinal tenderness, is a mysterious affection, 
whose diagnostic value is not very definite, as it may arise from a large number of 
distinct conditions, as, for exam])i<', d sease of t-ome part of the spinal cord, utetfhe 
disease, chronic di>ease of the intestinal viscera, Ac 

One of the mof»t anomalous affections of the nervous system ever recorded is 
describeil t>y Mr Holdeu in the *'8i Bartholomew's Hospibil Report*," 186T. voL 
iii.. pp. 299-306. The patietit was a bright-looking l>oy about 12Xi who, as he lay 
rcjdingin t>ed, presented every appearance of perfect health: all that hecomplained 
of was what he called his*bnihp," which was about the size of a hen's egg, and 
l:iy on the right side of the neck, ju»»t above the shoulder. If the *' bump " were 
toarh'-d- eVen niont gently^ the boy ins'tantly lost all consciousness, and became 
d-jif, dumb, jind blind, while his body Ix-came arclied like a bow, and was supportni 
OM.y by the back of tlie head arid the heels, while his arms were rigidly extended. 
Ho miiihr bt; pinch«d or pricked, but shewed no sign of sensation. After remaining 
in tln»slal« for homewhat less than a minute. Ins drew a deep long breath, which 
wsfoih>Med by adtsep sigli. Inftanily the Hpasm Ceased, and the body fell, seem- 
ingly iifcless. on the btd. After two Other similar sigiis, whicli occurred in a few 
Seconds, the boy awoke as if from profound sleep, aud in a few minute? was non.* 
tlie A\orse. for what he luid gone through. Wlienever the bump was touched—even 
wteu ttiu4)0y was fast asicei>-^QJe eaine phououi«iia occurred. ^It was fotuil thai. 

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on toacliins: the backbooe fn the dor»Al rrg^rm, the snme seriet of erento happened.) 
By coutiimoiis gemie manipniatloi) of the bninp, tho boy waai kept uucoiisi-ious {or » 
tvv«:nty mimitcs. Another and even more remarkatjle phase of the boy'** aCEectiwi 
wua liis crowing and barking lit, which took place every day at the same toine, 
Almost to !i mhinte. See the K'porrs abovu cfred. 

Witli this illustration, we close oiu" remarks on M'hat may be termed Anomalous 
KervoUH AJ^Uotis. With rejrard to NcrvovAUMH^ which alto ntandf at the cad of 
thit« arifcle, we may obsei've, tliat it is a word prrtaining rather to the vocalnilary of 
tlj" patient (and pe-eminenily of tlie female patient) tnan of the pliysicinn. ft is 
Usually fuiders«rood to indicat' a condition ot which a rt'j»t]ef»8 niobiiity, wirii or 
withont an undue excitability of the nervii» of seuHatton, is the chief chai-act eristic 
For furtiier information on thi^ subject, the reader i:^ refern-O lo Dr Lnycock's 
various works, and to Komb^rt; "Ou Diseases of the Nervous System/' 2 vul&, 
tran.-*lat«<d t»y Dr Sievtrking. 

NERVOUS SY8 TEM, The, iscompo'ed in all vertebrated animals of two distinct 
portions or system? — viz., the «v«frjo-»p<nai and eympathetio or ganglionie. 

Th ' (ferebrO'Spinal »ifjftem inclndes ihu brain and spiual cord (trhich form the 
ecrebrO'spiTUil axin), and tlte cranial and spinal nerves, it was termed by Bxliat the 
nervous synteni of animal life, and coniprit<es all the uervoaa organs cuucurued hi 
Sensation, volition, and mental action. 

The a^//ipat/ie^8y«t0m consists essentially of a chain of ganglia conoected 1^ 
nervous cords, e^tt ending from the cranium fotbe pelvis, along each side of th^ 
vertebral column, and from which nerves with large ganglionic masses proceed to 
the viscera and nlood-vessels in thn cnvitii-s of the c\wsl, abdomen, and pelvis. It 
was termed by Bichat the nervous system of organic life, wince itseema to reirnlate 
— almost or quite independently of the will— the due perfornuuice of the functions 
of the organs of respiration, circulation, and digestion. 

The essential parrs of the c&rebro-9pinal axis are described in the articles BBlllT, 
CEBEBB171II and Cbbebelluu, and SPINAL OoRD. The brain and spinal cord are 
covered and protecleil by three menibranes or •meninges, as they^re freqaffut'y 
ternied— viz., the dura rnater, the arachnoid^ and the pia mater, Tlie dura - 
mater is a strong flbn»usmeml)rane, which supplies the cranial bones with blood 
In early life, ami adheres fli'mly to their inner surface. It is less closehr 
atiuclied to (he bony walls of tie spinal canal. Insid; the cranium itcivea off 
processes (such n^thefalx cerebri, tentorium eerebeUi, and/aCx cerebeUi) whk^h divide 
and support diffrent parts ot the brain; it gives a strong fibrou<* sbsath 
to every nerve ; aid by splitting into rwo layers at certain points, it forms recep- 
tacles for venous b:oo<l, which are termed ISiNUSSs (q. v.). The arachnoid {^ 
called from its being supposed to be as tliin as a Bpi«ler*'8 web) Is a serous membrane, 
and. like all serous membranes, is a closed fac, consisting of a parietal and a vis- 
ceral layer. The pari -tal layer adheres to the inner surface of the dura mater, to 
which it gives a smooth polished appearance ; while the vit>ceml layer somewhat 
loosely invests the brain and spinal cord, from direct contact with which, however, 
it is sitparated by (he intervention of tne piatnater and some loose areolar tisane. 
In most regions there is an interval between the visceral layer of the arachnoid nlid. 
t he ;)ta mater, which is called the stib-araehncrid cavity^ and is filled during life by 
tho cerebrChspinal fluid. This fluid, which varies in quantity '.from two to ten 
ounces, keeps tiie opposed surfaces of the arachnoid in close contact, and affords 
luechanicai protection to tite nervous centres which it surroitnds, and guards thcai 
ag tinst extermil shocks. It 1^ accumulated in considerable quantity at the base of 
the brain, where It serves for the protection of (lie hirge vessels and nerves situated 
tlii;re. In fracture of the b:ise of tiie skull, the draining away of this fluid, often iu 
very large quantity, through the external auditory meatus, is often one of tho most 
si«;nlticant symptoms. It is doubtless secreted by the «na rnater, which is tiie im- 
mediate inve.'<ting membrane of the; brain and spinal cord. This menibrane4;ons^4a 
of minute blood-Vttssels, held together by an extremely fine areolar tissue. It dips 
down between the convolutions and fissures of the brain, and is prolonged in^o the 
inter;or, forming the w/um «7it<Jr2>o«tf«m and the choroid plexuses of the fourth 
Vintricle. It is by meana of this membrane that the blood-vessels are conveyed iotd 
the nervous sunstance. . 

W« uow {M*otte«d to notice tkM nerves connected with thecerebro-vpiualoeatriof 

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•axis. These are aftualty describe<) in two claiwes— the tpitiai and (he cranial or 
enfifj^niic The former cIrsh contiifits of all tUoae wiiicii ar!»e from ihu spinal cord, 
and e^ergp from the spinnl caiml through the iiilorvertebral foramina ; while tlie 
' lattor^incmdeB tboiKe which Hrieefroni ^omu part of the cerebro-ephial centre, and 
emerge i hrongh foraminn in the cranium or BknlL 

The Spinal Jferves (ezclnaive of the »piuai accewsory nerve, which, from the fart 
that it emerges from the skull, ia usually nmked among the cranial nerves) are 
thirty-one on ciUit-r side, ilicrc being a wiir for each pair of intervertebral fonnnlua 
{\rh03*e formation i? de»cril)ed in the article Yebtebra and Vxbtebbal Colgiin), 
and for the foramina between the atlas (the first or iiitihcpt vertebra) and the oeci* 
pital bone ai. Uic liase of the sknlU Kvery spinal nerve arises from the cord by two 
roots, an anterior uud a p>osterior, of which the latter is dictinctly the larger. Each 
root p:i8se8 out of the ppinal canal by a disthict opening in the dura mnter. Im- 
mediately after its einergei]C<^, a ganglion is seen on the posterior root, and in the 
anterior surface of this ganglion the anterior root lies iml.edded. Just beyond the 
fraitgiion, but not at all previously, t-be nervous fibres of both roots intermingle, 
and a compound nerve results. The trunk thus formed Separates immediuteiy 
after it has p:u»sed through the intervertebral cmnil into two divisions — the anterior^ 
and posterior — each of which contains filaments from t>oth roots, and poss* sninir. 
a9 win be immediately shown, perfectly different functions. These divisions, ot 
whidi the anterior is considerably t4ie larger, proceed to the anterior and posterior 
pans of tl)« body respectively, and are distrihuted to the skin and the muscles. 
The anterior branch communicates witli the sympathetic nerve. The mode of 
eonnection of the roots of the nerves with the cord is noticed in the nnicle Sfinal 
Cobs. These nerves are arranged in classes, according to the regions of the spine 
in which Uiey originate, and we thus spea^ of eight cervical, twelve dorsal, five 
Inmbtir and six sacral nerves on either side. 

TUe discovery of the separate functions of the anterior and posterior roots of the 
^nnl nerves, which Ims been characterised as the first important step towards a riglit 
nnderstauding of the pl»ysiology of the nervous system, wjis maae by our disun- 
gaisbed countrj'man Sir Ch:u'le8 Bell, although there is reason to believe that Mh- 
geudie, without any knovvledge^of Bell's experiments, arrived at similar conclusions 
at nearly the same time. The original experiments consisted in laying open the 
•piual C4inal in rabbits, and irritating or dividing the roots of the spinal nei-ves. It 
was observed that irritation of the anterior roots caused muscular movement, and 
that the posterior roots migiit be irritated without giving rise to any muscular 
action ; while division of tl^ posterior roots did not impair the voluntary power 
over the mascies. Hence it was inferred that the anterior roots were motor (or con- 
Ysyed motive power to muscles), and the posterior roots not motor; but it was not 
fully determined what degree of sensibility remained in parts supplied from the 
divided roots. Non»erous physiologists arrived at similar results to those of Bell ; 
but the most conclusive experiments are those of MUller, who operated ou 
frogs; in which, from the great width of the lower part of the spinal canal, the 
roots of tiie nerves cau be exposed with great facility. In these experiments, it 
was found that irritation of tiie anterior root always excited muscular contraction, 
wiiile no such effect followed irritation of the posterior root ; that section of the 
anterior root caused paralysis (or loss of power) of motion, while section ot the pos- 
terior root caused paralysis ol sensation ; and that when tlie anterior roots of 
the nerves going to the lower extremity were cut on one side, and the posterior 
roots, ou the otlier, voluntary power without sensation remaineo in the latter, and 
•ensation without voluntary motion in the former. The obvions conclusion to be 
derived from tliese experiments is, that the anterior root of each spinnl nerve is rnotw, 
and the posterior iensitive. (In place of the terms sensitioe and motor^ the terms 
mftrent and efferent are now frequently used. The functions of the nerves being to 
4siMabtish a communication between the nervous centres and tlie various p:irt>« of the 
kody, and nice oersa ; 9Mafftreni nerve comnuinicates the impressions made upon 
the pieripheml nervous raniifications to the centres, while an efferent nerve conducts 
the impnlsesof the nervous centres to the periphery.) 

The Cranial NerveSy although twelve in number ou eitlier side, were arranged by 
WSUis<** Cerebri Au&tome ; cui accetsit Nervorum Descriptio et Usns," t6«4), whose 
^stem is still generally adopted, in nine polrs, which, taken from before backwards 

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in The oi'Aer In wlild) th<*y arc tmnsTnitted throiigh the foramina at the hai>o of the 
Bknll, stand as follown: let, Olfactory; «tJ, Optic; 3d, Motores Ociilomm ; 4iK, 
Pathetic ; 5ih, IVifailal ; 6th, AlKliicentet*; 7th. Purt.m Dora or Facial, Portro lilollft 
or Auditory ; 8th, Glosaopharyiij^ea), Par Vugiiui or Pueuiuogaatric, Spiual Acc^* 
Bory ; 9th, HypogloB^]. 

Tliey may be suWivided" into thi-ee pronpp, according to their functiona— viz. 
Nerve* of Special Scnae—flie Olfactory (See NosB). Optic (pee £ts), and Auditory 
(q. V.) ; Nerves of Motion or Afferent A>rt>e»— thf Motorea Ocaloriim, Patiietic, Abdu- 
ccnti^a Facial, and Hypojjlosfud ; and Compoutid MeTt>e«— the Trifacial, Qlossopharyu- 
geal Pirt;nin()j?a»trlc, and Spintil Acce^-Bory. 

The reason why uo nerve of Tnate is iiicladed in the above arran^'ement amongst 
tlie nei-ves of special sense will bo subsequently seen ; aud we proceed briefly to 
uotice tlie fnnctions of the motor crauial nerves. 

Tlie 3d. 4tli, and 6th paired — the Motores Oculorum^ PtUhetie. and Ahdtusentes—^O' 
gether make up the apparatus l)y which tlie nmscles of the orbit (the four Kecti, the 
tinpeiior and inferior Oblique, and the Levator palpebrsB) are calkxi iuio luutiou, and 
are cnfflciently noticed in the article Etb. 
# The Facial Nerve, or tlie Portio Dura of the 7th pair, is divisible into three stuees. 
The first sta^uis thfe intercranial. from \U origin ti> its exit from the cranial cavTly, 
in nssociatlon witli tlie Portio Mollis or AxuiUory Nerne (q. v.), at thi iuteriuU 
auditory meatus. The second stage is coutuiued iu the Aqvedttet qf Falhpi^u^A 
bony canal lying in the petrous portion of the temporal bone. In this sr^itre it 
anastoinises with other nerves, ana tlins sensory fibres are introduced into it fro a 
the 6th pmir and other sources whicli muke irritation of some of its branches to 
cause p.iin. Ttie tiilrd stage commences with the eiAergeuce of the uervu throuiiri 
the sivlo-mastoid foramen. The nerve now lies in the i>arotid gl:ind, and after >:iv- 
Ing oft tlie posterior aurictdar^ and a few smnlier branehes, finally divides into the 
temporal. fadcU^ and cervical brunches. This di\«rgiiig distribution of the uervons 
branches over the fnce forms ihe pc* anseriniis of the older uuatomis»«, from tlw 
supposed resemblance to the ex])anded foot of a goose. Careful di^seftion of tliia 
iierve shews that the great majority of its fii>res arc distributed to mu!«cics ; and 
indeed, if we except the mirscles of mastication, whicli receive their iisotor pow«r 
from tlieSd division of the 5ih pair, thia may be regarded ha the getieral iiiot'tr 
nerve of the face. ** The muscles whieh are supplied by ilie facial uewe are chieflf 
those upon which the aspect of tlw countenance and the balance of the features 
depend. The power of clawing the eyelids depends upon Ibis nerve, as it alone 
8upi>lies the orbicuhiris pa'pebrarum ; and likewise tliat of frowning, from its iiiflu* j 
ence upon the corrngator siipeit^itii. Anatomy indicates that this* uerve is tlie ^ 
motor uerve of the superficial muscles of the face aud <*ar, and of ihe deep-sented 
muscles within tiie ear. Tliis couclnsion is abuiKlantly confirmed by comparative 
anatomy. For wherever the Biipei-ficial muscles of the face are well developed, and 
the play of the features is active, this nerve is large. Iu moukeye it is especially vo. 
That extremely mobile instrument, the elephant's trunk, is provided witli a largo 
branch of the facial as its motor nerve. IU birds, «u the otht^r baud, it is very 
small."— Todd aud Bowmau, "Physiological Auaiomy and Physiology of Man, 
vol. ii. p. 107. 

Before Sir Charles Bell commenced his experiments on the functions of the 
nerves, ft was believed that the facial was the nerve of seusibility of tlie face, and it 
was on several occasions divided with the view of relieving tic-doaioureux, of which 
it was supposed to be the seal. But the operation, of course, yielded uo relief, aud 
always inflicted a jiermauent injury, since it was succeeded by ptunlysia of the facial 
muscles, with totiil loss of control over tlie fentures and over the closing oi the eyOi 
ou the side on which the operation M'as (lerformed. 

Tlie treatment of facial palay, wiiich is otten, especially if it arises from cold, a 
very tempomry uft'ection, attiioiigh usinHiy a very alarming one to the patient and 
his friends is described iu the article Paralysis. 

The Hypoglossal Nerve (deiived from the Greek words hypo, under, and gloUa. the 
tongue) escapes from the cavity of the skull by the aiiterJor condyloie foramen, and 
parses outwards aud forwards around tlie pharynx to the interior surftkce of the 
tongne, where it breaks up into its terminal branches, which sapply the ronscohur 
sti'uctiire uf that organ with motor pow^. This nerve oommauiciitea with Uie 

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... V ;- - - • _ f 

mogttBtrlc nerve, with the sympathetic (hy branches deriv<»d ftom the snpcrior cer- 
vical ^rau^lion), and with the cervical piexns, soon after its emerireiice from the 
cniiilnfii ; and »nl>»eqnently, as it cui-ves round the occipital artery, it gives off tlie 
loiig unMStomds'ing branch known us'the Veacendens 7wni. 

Experi«iient8 on living nniniali>, compumtive tinaroniy, and pathological invrsti- 
gatiout*, alike iudicaie that Wiis is the motor nei-ve of the ton<;nu. In cas'es of pa- 
ralysis of this nervt', tl»o power of articnialion is much injnnd or totally destroyed : 
and this* Is often one of the first symptoms which lend the physician to apprehend 
serions cerebral lesion. 

We liow proceed to the consideration of the Compound Xerves, l>eginnimi with 
the Trifacial or Fifth Nerve. This nerve, as was first point^'d out by Sir Cliarie.-* Bell, 
prest^nts n remarkable resemblance to the spinal nerves in its mode of origin ; for it 
arises by two roots, one large and the other small, and on its larger root, as on the 
posterior ai.d larger root of liie spinal nerves, is a distinct ganglion ; the two roois 
being qnire distinct until after the formation of the gangfion, when (he kssef one 
coalesces with tlie lowest branch, which emerges from the ganglion to form the In- 
ferior niaxillary nerve. This ganglion, which isknown as the Gassertau Ganglion, and 
whieti is fonned upon the larger root of the nerve, lies upon the upper >urlace of the 
petrous iMirtion of the temporal bone, and is of somewhat tiian^nlar form, wiih its 
base directed fortwirdsand outwards. From this base there proceed three nerves — via., 
tbeonhtnalniic, on the insldef; the superior maxillary, in the middle ; and the inferior 
maxillary, externally. The first two of these nerves coisist exclusively of fibres 
from the ganglionic root, while tlv third— the inferior maxillaiy— is coinponed of 
fibres from both roots, and is therefore a compound nej-ve. From the mode of dis- 
tribution, as well as/rom tliat of origin, it is inferred that the ophih.ilmic and 
BU{>erior maxillary are purely sensory, wlulethe inferior maxillary is a motor and 
sensory nerve. Experiments on living animals confirm the inference that have been 
drawn on anatomical grounds. Division of the ophthalmic or of thesujwrior nnixil- 
lary nerve^ induces loss of aenaibility wliliout any serious impalrnu;nt of mnsinlar 
power; but when the inferior maxillary nerve, on either 8ide,viH divided, the power 
oC miieticatioit is destroyed on thai sidtf, and tfie sensibility of the tongue and of tlte 
lower imit of the face on that, i^ide is'^^ldst. 

The lingual or gustJitory branch of tl»e inferior maxillary is distributed to tlie 
mut ons membrane and papillte at the fore part and sides of the tongue, Aviiere it acts 
Ixith as a nerve of common sensibility and of taste. (The co-»ideration of the re- 
spective parts which this nerve and the glossophaiyngeal play in the sense of taste, 
is considered in the articles Tongue and Sbnsi or Tastk. 

The trifacial nerve Is the seat of the affection known as tic-douloureux, and de- 
Bcriiied in the article Neuralgia. It is In the denutl branches of this nerve that 
tootitaChe is situated; and in me process of teething in young children, the irrita- 
tion of these branches, cour'eqnent upou the pressure of the teeth, oft^u gives rise 
to convulcions, by being conveyed to the medulla oblongata, and exciting motor 
nerves by reflex action. 

The Gimsopliaryngeal Nerve is principally an afferent or sensory nerve, but has a 
small motor i-oot. It escapes from the cranium in association with the pueumogas- 
tric and spinal accessory nerves, through the same foramen as that througli which 
the jugular vein emerges. It then descends l>y the side of tl»e pharynx, and after 
anastomosing with the facial and pneumogasttic nerves, and giving off a branch to 
the tympanum of the ear, terminates in branches to the mncous membrane of the 
base of tlie tongue, of the palate, tonsils, and pharynx, and in twigs to the digastric 
flud stylopharyngeal muscles; so that its distribution is admost entirely to sentient 
surfaces. From a careful examination of the investigations of Dr John Reid and 
oilieri* regarding the functions of this nerve, Todd and Bowman^ arrive at tiie fol- 
lowing conclusions: 1. *• It is the sensitive nerve of the mucoirs membrane of the 
f nces and of the root of the tongue^ and in the latter situation it ministers to taste 
«ud loiich, as well to common sensibility ; and being the'sensiiive nerve of the fauces, 
it Is probably concerned in the feeling of nausea, which may be so readily excited 
bystininialing the mucous membrane of this region." 2. **Such are its peripherarl 
otSuuisatiOn and central connections, tluit stimulation of any part of the mucous 
aiMibntne fu wtildt it randfles, excites instantly to contraction all the facial mua- 
^tetfcap pOed by the pueumogastric and the facial nerves; and the permanent irrilu- 


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tioH of its peripheral ramlflcntioofi, as in the case of sore thrnat, will nifect otber 
muscles supplied by the faciul n«rve likewise. It is therefore an eicilor of tbs 
movemeiiU iiecessnry to pliaryiigeal deglutition."— ** Op. cit." voli ii. p. 119. 

The Pneumogastric A'ei-ve or Par Vagum, is distributed to so many important 
organs (the Ijiryux, htmrt. lungs, stomach, <fec.), and is of such great pliylsiologioii 
importance, that a special article is devoted to its colisideratlou. 

The SpinaX Aece8>*ory Nerve is more remarkable for its peculiar course than In 
any otiier respt^ct. It rises Irom the spinal cord at the level of the fifth or sixth 
cervical nerve, passes upwards between tlie anterior and pt)sterlor roots of tlie 
cervicjtl nerves into the skull, and emortjes from the cranial cavity witli the two 
preceding nerves. It is chiefly distributed to the trapezius muscle. 

In the above remark** on the cranial nerves, we have omitted all notice of their 
points of origin, as that subjact is sufficiently noticed in the article Brain. 

We sliall now briefly notice the mode In wliich the extremities receive ttieir 
nerves. These nerves are derived irom the spinal nerves, through the intervention 
of what Is termed in anatomy a plexus. Pour or five nerves proceed from tlie 
spinal cord for a certain distance, withont any communication with each otber. 
Tliey theu divide, and from the conjunction of the adjacent branches new nerves 
result, wlilch again subdivide and interchange fibres. JProm the net-work or plexim 
thus^ormed nerves emerge, each of which Is composed of fibres derived from 
several of the original branches. The most important of these plexuses are found 
in the regions of the neck, the axltia, the loins, and the sacrum, and are known as 
the cervical, brachial, lutnoar, and the sacral plexuses. 

The Brachial Plexus is formed by comnmnlcation between the anterior roots oC 
the last four cervical nei-ves and the first dorsal nerve. Those nerves are nearly 
equal in size. The branches emerging from this plexns supply the Bboalder audlbi- 

The Lumbar and Sacral Plexwies, with the nerves of the lower extremity. In* 
elude the first four lumbar nerves which, with tlie branch from the Inst dorsal, 
form the lumbar plexus; the four upper sacral nerves, which, with the last lumbar, 
form the sacral plexus; the anterior crural or femoral nerve; its branches; its 
terminal branch, the long or internal saphenous; the ^luteftl nerve; the le«sur 
l^•chiatic nerve; the greater ischiatio or sciatic nerve (the uirgest nerve in the body), 
dividing at a>>out the lower third of the thigh, the popliteal nerve, the peroneal 
nerve; muscular branches of the popliteal,, given oft in the posterior region of 
the knee ; the posterior tibial nerve, dividing Into the internal and external j^tiDtar 
nerves, which are distributed to the sides of the toes, in precisely the same man u6fr 
as the median and ulnar nerves are distributed to the fingers; the external sapbt^noiis 
nerve; and the two terminal branches of the peroneal nerve— viz., the auten'of 
tibial and tlie musculo-cutaneous nerves. 

The general arrangement of the sympatJietic system, or, as it is sometimM 
termed, the sympathetic nerve, has been already noticed at the beginning of Ibis 
article. Its cephalic portion consists of four ganglia on either side— viz., (1) tiiS 
Ophthalmic, or Licnticular Ganglion ; (2) the Splieno-palatine, or Meckel's Qaiigliou ; 
(8) tljeOtic, or Arnold's Ganglion ; and (4) the Submaxillary Ganglion. They are flU 
closely connected witlt the branches of the trifacial nerve. The cervical portion 
contaius tliree ganglia, the dorsal twelve, the lumbar four, the sacral five, and tlis 
coccygeal one, wliich, instead of lying on the side of the vertebral column, is placed 
in front of the coccyx, and forms a point of converjreuce for the two gaugliouated 
cords which run from the cervical to the sacral region parallel to one another. 
Each ganglion may be regarded as a distinct nervous centre, from which branches 
pas^ off in various directions. In addition to the cords of coniinunlcation between the 
ganglia, certain sets of nerves may be nsually traced— viz. (1) visceral nerves, which 
[enerally accompany bitmches of arteries to the viscera (the lung.-*, heart, kidneys^ 
Iver, spleen, and intestine, &c. ; (2) arterial liranches, d!Strii)uted to arteries in 
the vicmity of the ganglia; and (8) branches of communication with the cerebml 
and spinal nerves. 

The only nerve that our limited space will permit us to notice is the great aplandl^ 
nie. This nerve arises by separate roots from the 6th, 6tli, 7th, 8th, imkI 9tb tboruc^ 

ganclia. These roots unite to form a large round cord, which passes obliqw^Qr 
ownwards and forwards, and after entering the abdomen by piercing tJ^e-^iiK 

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I^hrn^ni, endj^ln n lar^^ and complex gnncnoo, the semilunar gtn/tgllant which lies 
npoti tlie side and front of the aoriu, at the ori{!in uf ihti c-oeliuc ftxi;*. The Beml- 
lunar gantflia, wiih the nerves euteriug and «'inci"ging from thwni. couiUine to form 
th'; aolnr piexvfi^ which, from the mnssof nervoiin matter which itconiainff, habl>- eu 
tcrmeii ^^' abdomiual brain. It iff in couseqnenc*- of the t'xihtcncc of thi^ gn>nt 
nei-vous conire, that a biow ht tlie region in which it lies ulwuys iuAictsu severe 
ncrvoHM ffhoclc, and not nnfreqacMitJy CAnsen dt^atlu - 

ExiM^rimcnt.^ :ind clinical obscrvn'tious lead to the eonclnnion, that the fympa* 
theiic i<ys!em Mippilcs motor power 10 many of rlie internal vi^ceni, et*p<!cially iho 
hwirt !Mid the iiifestinnl canal ; that It alt-o contains sinsitive fibres, as is sln-wn by 
the sufferiui^s of patients dnring the passiige of a gall-Htoueor a renal c.-ilcnins 
tlirrsiijli !» dnct. wiiosc sole nervous energy is* derived from tliift syi^tem ; that it pn- 
sideii over the process of secretion in theroo:«t important ifland.>; and that it oper- 
ate:^ on the blood-ve.«self* in canslug them to contract, while thecerebro-spiunl nerves 
produce the opposite effect. 

On jBxamining different parts of the nervous system under the ralcroscope, 
we find that the nervous matter Is distributed in two forms*, the vesieular and the 
fihrotuL The vesicular matter is gray in color, and granular in texture, cont^iina 
uncehited nerve cellf , and Is hirgely supplied with bloo<l ; ii is immediately associated 
with mental aetloHS, and Is the seatJu which the force manifested in nervous action 
oriirJnates. The fibrous matter is. In most parts, while and composed of tubular 
tbres, though in some paits it is pray and consists of solid fibres; it is less vascular 
than the lornKT, and is simply the conductor of impressions made upon it When 
tliese two kinds of matter are united togtther into a tnass they form a nervous centre^ 
snch as the brain or spinal cord, wliile the iM^-vtfA p.issing to and from them ara 
eomposed of threads of fibrous matter. The nervous matter of both kinds is a soft, 
nnctnons substance, with very slight tenacity ; tiie softness being in a great mcus- 
nre «'ue to thclai-ge qnnnlity of water whicli It contains. 

The fibrous form is the most extensively diffused thronghont the liody. It forma 
alar^e portion of th© nervous ceutres, and is the main constituent of all the nerves. 
It occnrs ill two vjirieties— viz. as the tubular fibres or the nerv4 tiube, and the gela- 
Unous fibre, the latter being of comparatively rare occurrence, and being found 
chiefly in the syntpathetic system. 

When a fibular fibr^ is viewed by reflect-ed light, it presents a beantiful pearly 
lustre, and appears to be homogeneous. But if viewed by transmitted licht, wirii a 
sufficient mngnifying power, indications of structure become visible. Externally, 
there is the tubular membratie, a homosreneous a'^d probsibly very delic-ite elastic tis- 
■ne^ ac<*ording to Todd. Within the edge of the tubular membrane, on either side, are 
seen two thicker and darker lines, which appear to mark the outer and inner 
limits of the structure known as the white fxibstance of Schwann^ which forms a 
tube within the tubular membrane ; and within the whiie substance of Schwann is 
a transparent material occupying the axis of the neiT© tube, and commonly known 
M&iXk^ axi9 cylitider. By the application of reasrents, it is seen that the chemical 
composition of the white substance is different from that of the axis cylinder, 
and hence the functions of these two parta are doubtless different ; the latter is in 
general soft and pulpy. The nerve-tubes tu'e cylindrical in form, and lie pnrallel 
to one another, without any inoscnlaUou, if we except their frequent terminations 
la loops. Their average diameter is alK)at l-3000ih of an inph. 

The gelatinous fibres are flattened, soft, and homogeneous in appearance, and 
contain numerous round or oval nuclei. Their diameter is about l-5000th of an 
inch. In appearance they much resemble the fibres of nnstrii^ed muscle. 

The vesicular form of nervous matter Is of a dark reddish-gray color, is found 
only in the nervous centres, is always well supplied with capillaries, and consists 
etseutiaTy of nucleated cells or vesicles, which are most commonly globular or 
Ofoidal, bat often preseiit one or more tail-like processes, when they are termed 
cMnZate. These caudate vesicles present great difference In shapti and siae. 'J'ho 
mticessifff are very delicate, and readily break off close to the vesicle. They prob- 
uly eit&er serve to connect distant vesicles, or else l>ecome continuous with the 
nS» <7Hnders of the tubular fibres. , 

We may now ponslder the way in which th© norves and nervous centres are maae 
. «p.o£ thestf anatomical elements. r^ ^ ^ r^ T ^ 

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A nerve to cdmnosed df a lnin<11e of tiiMlnr flbre* forronnded and eoniKHrted hr 
areolar tissue, which forms n shetith known n&the neurolemma^ yifUo^ ofBceintb 
protect the delicate tnbee, aud tusnpport the capillaries from which tbey derive 
their iionrishmeitt. 

The nervous eentree exhibit a niilon of the veRlcnlar and flTirons textnrep. which 
may be varlonsly arranged. lu the Braiu (q. v.) the vesicular matter lies cxtertially, 
torminzthe gray or cineritioas substance; Inthusphiul cord, on the other li.ind, 
tlie vetjTcnlar or irray matter lies in the central jmition, and the flbrotii* or wiiitj 
matter is externa! to it ; while iu the ganglia the two structures ai^e more or leM * 
uuiforiHly dissociated. 

Prom the observations which have been made In an earlier part of this article o^i the 
functions of iudividnul nerves, it is anfilciently obvions that it Ia through theinstm- 
mentality of the nervous system that the niiml influences the bodily orgmu*, as wheti 
volition or emotion excites them to action ; uud that^ conversely, impi-e^ions made 
on the organs of the body affect the mind, and excite mental perceptions through the 
Slime channel. " In this way," to quote the words of Dr Todd, " tlie nervous system 
becomes the main agent of what h:isbeen called the life of relailon ; for witbout'some 
channel for the ti'unsmission of the maudbtesof the will to the organs of motion, or 
some provision for the reception of those impressious which external objects are 
capable of exciting, the mind, thus completely isolated, could hold no commnuion 
with the external world." Tlie nature of the connection between the mind and 
nervous matter is, and must ever be, the deepest mystery in physiology, and ooe 
into which the human intellect can never hops to penetrate. There are, hoivever, 
many actions of the body in the prridnction OC which the mind luis no share. Of this 
kind are the nervous actions, which are associated with tlie functions of organic 
life, snch as digef^tion, respiration, and circulation. Again, there is another daes 
of actions for which two nerves (an affei;ent or cxcitor, and a motor) and anervoni 
centre are necessary. These are the actions known as reflex or exdto-motory. for 
the full investigation of which physiology is esp^'cially indebted to the labors o£ the 
late Dr Marshall Hall. For example, the movement of the oesophagus in propelling 
the food onwards to the stomach, is c;insed by the sttimilns of the food acting on tlie 
excitor or afferent nerves, which, through tlie spinal cord, excite the motor or eSat' 
ent nerves, aud thus give rise to the necessary muscular fiction. When the edge of 
the eyelid is touched, the excitor nerve (a branftli of tlic ophthalmic division of the 
fifth or trifacial nerve) convey* the impression of the stimulus to the nervous «9iitre, 
and the eye is at once closed by the motor influence, which is transmitted by a branch 
of the facial nerve to the orbicular mnsete. In such cases as these— and they fortu 
a very numerous class— the mind takes no part In some of them it la coiiBcions 
of the application of the stimulus, as well as of the muscular act which follows ; but 
even In these cases no effort of the will could modify or interrupt the sequence of 
the phenomena. 

It has been already shewn that the stimuli, by which the action of nerves is 
commonly excited, are of two kinds, mental and physical, and the change which 
these stiinitii produce in a nerve develops the power kfiown to jihysiologisia as ttw 
vis nervosct, or nervous force. *' The nervou** force," says Dr Sliarpey, In bis *• Ad- 
dress on Physiology "in 1862, "has long been likened to electricity, bnt rather 
through a vague perception of analogy than ii^>m aiiy rigorous compansoii. It Is 
true that electric force is developed in the nerves, and even exhibits niodiflcations 
connected with different conditions of iieiTOus action. must bo l>orne in 
mind that tiie evolution of electricity Is a common accompaiilmeut of various pro- 
cesses^ involving chemical change, whether within the livlutr body or in external na- 
ture ; and the tendency of recent speculation is not towards the identification of tlie 
nerve force with electricity, but rather to suggest that the two stand related in the 
same way as electricity ancf other nhysical forces are related to each otiier— tiiat is, 
as manifestations of a common force or ei»i"gj', of which they, sevenillv, are the 
special modifications." The velocity with whloii impressions are tninsinitted by tlie 
nerves has been recently made the subject of investigation, but it is donbttlul how 
far the olwervations are to be defieuded on, in consi*quence of the yarions sonroes 
of fallacy by which such experiments are heaeU According to Hirsch. tiie velo^y 
is 84^ inetr>'H, or al>oni lit feet per second in man ; while ifelmholtx fixes H ftt IN 
f set per second iu the frog. ^ . 

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Tho d**ciiptlicHi of tlH^ nervoifM* >y^t«n jrUeii In the forepofncr peg«8 i#» ApplUahl**, 
with j*Hghr. luodiflcatiofiis to all the VertebrHien ; the mulu dlff< reiices being in tlie 
d^rcet) of tho developmcut of the hrnin— a point which has hoeii tilr^mly iioii(H>d at 
theconuneiicemeiit of rh^ article Brain. For a snfiScieut notice of thti plnu of the 
nervous ftystein lu the Invertebrate unimnlff, the n^ader in referred to the nrticlet 
ABTtciTiJkTBD Animals^ Mollcsoa, and Radiata. It is only in the lo\ve:<t nnb- 
diTi»iou of the Animal Kingdom, the Pboi*ozoa, that no traces of u uervons syt^tein 
can be detected. 

For f nrtlier infornlation on the Pnbjt-ct of this article, the reader la refom«d to Dr 
Carpenter'ii works on *'Hninan" and **Coinpnraiive Phypioloj^y," :to Dr Todtl'a 
article on ** The Nervoijs Syatem " In*' The Cyclopfedia of Anatomy and Phy^l- 
oiogy," to Todd and liowinnn'8 ** Phys»iological Anatomy and Physiology of Man,** 
aoa lo Fanke's ''Lehrbach der Physiologic." 

NESS (identical with Bn^. nose, A.-S. ncese, Ger. nase^ Ice. ties, Lat. rnnnta. Fr. 
n«z), a Ideographical termination, pi^nifying nioniontoiy. Namt^a in .-n««« abound 
among the Orkney nnd Shetland Islands, ana on the Const of Caithness ; and they 
occm', thoagh less frequently, aJong tiie oast coast of Q»*eat Britain, as far as Dtnigc- 
iiess in Kent As the corresponding Scandinavian termination -nae« prevails in the 
names of j)romontories in Norway, Sweden and Denmark (e. gi, Lindesnaes, in 
south of Norway), the existence of names in -ness in Britain is held as an evidence 
of Scimdinavian and Danish colunisatiOQ. Qrisnes, on the north coast of France, 
points to the same source. 

NESS, Loch, a long narrow lake in InvemessHBhIre, Scotland, extends north-eapt 
and sontb-wejit, and is 23 njiles in lengi Ji and 13i iwlle in average breadth. Its north- 
enet extr«mity raaches a point 6 miles south-we>t of the town of Inverness. It 
rec<!ives tho Morriston, ibe O ch. the FoytTS, and othtr streams, and its surplus 
waters are carried off to the Moray Firth by the Uiver Ne?s. It lies'in tlie valley of 
Glesmon*, and is enclO!^ by moiiniain masses averaging 1000 feet in height ; but 
the sc^'Wery on its banks is not srnkiHirly pictnresqne. In many places it isainrnt 
180 fathoms in depth, and owhig to tlw length of time which this immense body of 
water takes to cool down to the freezing-point, ice never forms to any cousi'iderable 

NEST-BUILDING APES. Reference was made, but with some hesitation in the 
article Gobiixa, to certain new species of apes of the same genus witii tlie chimpan- 
»eo and gorilla, Siiid to have l>een discov. red by M. du Chailln in .Western Afiic^u 
The compler.e vindication which has since taken place of that traveller's reputation 
as a truthful and trust worthy observer, makes it necessary to give some further no- 
tice of tSiese now unquestioned discoveriei*, exceedingly remarkable on account of 
ti»e habits of some of tlie animals. To protect themselves from the rain, they con- 
Btrnct nests, or nither umbrella^, among the branches of^ie trees, of long branches 
and leaves laid one over the other very carefnlly and thickly, bo as to be '^^capahloof 
aheddliig water." The hi-anclies are listened to the tree in tlie middle of the slruc- 
tnre by portions of the stenis.of twining shrubs, abundant in these forests. When 
the leaves dry, so that the structure no longer keeps oul the rain, the owner builds 
another shelter; and Du Ohaillu says this happens once in ten or fifteen days. The 
nest-building ape {Ti otjlodytes calmia^ called Nshiego Mbouve by the initiveR) is 
nearly four feet in len;^th. Du Chaillu supposes lhi^^'ape toivst all night oli a pro- 
jecting branch" under its nest or jjmbrella, with an arm round the siem Oi the tree 
for security. The nests are generally const rucled about 15 or 20 feel from the 

Konnd. and invariably on a tree which stands a little apart from others, and wiiieh 
ts MO limbs below the one in which the nest is placed, probably in order to s-afety 
from serpents and other :mimals. 'i'hese apes inhabit the most loqely parts of the 
foreRt^. The nests are iiev<;r congregated tOirethor, so that this ape does not seem 
to be gregarious. It feeds on fruits. — Du Chaillu discovered a second species of 
neat^biilldifjg ape, on his second visit to the Ogobai, very similar to the Troglodpte^ 
COlviM, but which constructs Itsniest in ii somewhat diffei-ent fashion. It is calle<l , 
Kshi^o Mketigo by the natives. It makes its nost or ylwilter at the height of about 
S>or TO feet from the ground, bv bending over and intertwining a number oi the 
tVCBker boughs, the folnige of wliich forms its protection from rain. 

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NBSSSLBODBi RnrI Rob, OoQDt, oi)« of the mdfft eminent diplbmaH^t? of 
modem timesv wuB l)ori), 14th Deceml>er 17S0. at Li»l)un, whei-e bis father, n de> 
sceiidaiir of till uiicieiir noble fuiiiilv on tlie Lower Rhine, wua tii(>n Rusjiinn aniba^- 
•ador. He Huly d<iv<>ted himself to a diplonmiic career, gained in a liigh d«>rrtH' ilie 
«9t<>em and coiifldcMice of the Emperor Aicxaudor, and in 1818 wai* one i>f ili« ropr-- 
*<*uhiliv«fS of Rn'<t«ia in the important uegotiuti«)n8 which look place betweru the 
powers who cotnblned ajiCMinst France.- In 1814, he accompanied tlie Riis-iuii 
Emporor to Prance, and on 1st March signed the trenty of th'^ Quadruple A])ianc<'>tt 
Cliauinoiint. He waft also one of tlioee who c-oncludud tiie treaty with Marebai 
Marnumtjfor the puirender of Paris. Ue continued lo t^lce a principal \u\n in all 
tlie nejjjotiiitlonB which ended in the Peace of Pari-* ; imd wa« one of tlie most prouii- 
nent aod active of the pieni|)Oienti}iries in theCougnms of Vienna. Ho wjik ojjc of 
the iuo8t active diplomatists of the Holy Aliauce, and accompanied the Eiutierur 
Alexandria to the Congreases of Aix-hi-Chapelle, Troppau, Laihach, ami V»roi»a. 
TtieEm|>eror Nicholas reposed In liim the eaine conftdeuce, aiid*nitder his reign ho 
conducted the Rnssi lu policy in tiie affairs of Greece and Turkey. Amidst tlw 
Buroptum convulsions of 1S48 and 1849, RustiA, under his guidance, rafrained from 
intertereuce, till opportunity occurred of dea Hug a deadly blow \o the revolofiouary 
cause in Hungary ; and at the same time, of bHugiu}' Austria very mndi nndcr 
Rusmjin influence. Being one of the chiefs of the German or moderate party iu 
Russia, N. in supposed to have exerted himvelf Ptrennonsly to preserve poace with 
tlie Western Powers* ; and after 'the war had broken out in 1854» and the ill success 
of Russia was inanifest, he undoubtedly strove for the re-establishment of t)cace,aitd 
ior the asseuibling of a congress to settle all disputes. After the accession of Alex- 
ander II. he retired from the direction of foreign affairs, and was sncceetied in that 
department by Prince Alexander Gortchakov, but retained the dignity of chaii- 
ceiior of the empire, and a seat iu the mini:iterial council. He died at St Petersburg, 
28d March 1362. 

NE'STOR, according to ancient Grecian legend, the son of Nelens and Cliloris, 
born iu the Messenian Pylos, escaped destrnctiou when Hercules slew till hlsbrotk- 
erfit beine then a dweller among the Geronians, with whom he was brought np. He 
married Eurydice, by whom he became t be father of a numerous family* In bis 
youth he was distinguitthed for valor in war with the Arcuidians, Eieiann, and tlie 
Centaurs, and in his advanced age for wisdom. Although he was an old man wiicii 
the expedition against Troy was undertaken, he jointKiit with bis Pylians in sixty 
ships. Homer make;* him the !;reat counsellor of liie Grecian chiefs, and extols his 
eloquence as superior even to that of Ulysses. His authority was even Coitaidered 
equal to that of tiie immortal gods. N. returned in safety to his own dominions 
after the fall of Troy, along with Meneiaas and Diomedes, and continued for long 
to rule over tlie p<ople of PylOs. 

NES TO'RIANS, n sect of the 6th C, so-called from its founder KBSTomtJS, 
nuder wliic i head their aisflnciive doctrine, as well as their history up to the time 
of its coudeMmation. are suftiiiiently detailed. Of the later history it wiM be enough 
to say that, oven after the Council of Ephesus, Nestorianism prevailed in Assyria 
and Poreila, chiefly tlirougli the influ Mice of the well-known school of Edessa. 'AI- 
tliongh vigorously repressed in the Roman empire, it w&a protected, and probably 
the more on that ucconut, by thePer^ians, and nlliniately was established by King 
Pherozes as the national church, with a patriarch resident at SeUncfa; its 
fundamental doctrine, as laid down in the synod of Seleucia in 496, being the 
existence of two distinct per>on9 as Christ, united solely by a unity of will 
nnd affection. Under the rule of the califs, thi; N. enjoyed considerable pro- 
tection, and throughout the countries of the East their community extended itself. 
Of their condition in Central Asia dnrtnir the nudieval period, some account 
will be found under the head of Pbo^eb John. In the middle of 
the 12tli c, their cluirch reckoned no fewer than 9a bishops under regular 
metropo'itans, together with 66 others, whose special dependencies are 
ttiiknown ; bur in the destructive career of Tamejlaire, tUvj shared the common 
fate of all the repre.-entitives of the eastern civilisation. In the 16th c.\ a grent 
sehlsm tooK place in tliis »)ody, of which a poi tion renounced their di.-^tincllve doc- 
trine, aud placed tUemsblveft under the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff, to wliom, 

Digitized by 


1 OQ NesMlrod* 

under tl»e title of Chnldenn Christlant, they have plnce remninfsd faittifiil. Tb« 
others etUI iiiaiiitalu their oW creed and their ancient orgyuisation. Their cliief 
Feat is iii-ihe nionntain ranges of Kurdif^tan. They are at pre!»ent a poor and llllter- 
»!•; race, Dambering al)Oiit 140,000, and subject to a patriarch residing at Dis (who is 
ahviiys choseD from the same fuiuily, and takes invnriably the uamo ot Scliainnn, 
or Simon) nud 18l)i6hop5. All ilie?e are bound to ohserve celibacy, l>iii marriajre is 
p rniititd t« the priests ai d inferior clergy. Their litnrgical books recognis'e seven 
hucrarac^s. bnt confession is iufreqiient, if not altoj^ether disused. Marviaire is 
dissoluble by the sentence of the patriarch; communlou is aduiinistere<l in both 
kinds; and altliough the language of the liturgy plainly iuiplitrsthe Itelicf of transul)- 
siaiiiiatiou, yet, acconling to La\artl, thai doctrine la not popularly lieUt among 
Ihein. Tlic fasis arehtrict, and of very long duration, ainoiii'tiiig to vt-ry nearly one 
lialf of tlie entire year. They pray for tlie dead, but are said to n-jecl the notion of 
ijur^uory, and the only sacred image wlijch tliey use or reverence is that of the cross. 
The K. t>f Kurdistiiu, like the Christians of tlie Lebanon, liave snflei-ed nuicli from 
tinio to time tliroagti the fanaticism of the wild ti i))es amotig whom Utey reside. In 
a nins.«acre in 1848, and again in 1846, many fell victims, and even still they owe 
much of their t^t^urit]^ tu the influeuce cxi-rcised iu their favor by the foreign repre- 
aeutjitives at theTurkisli and Persian courts. 

Tliere is another lx)dy of N. who iuivc existed in ludia from tlie period rf the 
early mirations of the sect, and who are called by the name of Syrian Chrir-i ans, 
Tlieir chief seat is in Travaucore, where ihey cumber about HiO.OOO. Among both 
bodies of N., Buropean missionaries, Cntholic and Protestant, have of late yenra 
CI doavored to eifect an entrance. See Perkins's '* Residence of Eight Yejn-s In 
pi r?ia, among the Nentorian Cliristians" (Andover, 1848); ''Anderson's Oriental 
Churches*' (1S72} ; and Dcau Stanley's ** History of the Eastern Church." 

NESTO'RlUS,a n:itjve of GermjMii(ia,a cify of Northern Syria, iu the patriarch- 
ate of Aiiiioch, Mu< probably a disciple of the celebnited Tlicodore of Mopsne^tia ; 
and having received i)rle6>t'8 ordi'rs at Antioch, became so eminent for hif flneucy, 
If iiol eloquence, as a preacher, and lor grave demeanor and exemplary life, that oi) 
occ:ision of a dispute about th^ election of a patriarch at Coustaniiuople he was 
Feivctcd by the emperor, in 428 A.D., to fill the vacant see. Soon after his conseaa- 
tioii a controversy arose as to the divine and human nntures iSf our lx)rd. In whith 
>l. took a leading part One of tlie priesU', who followed N. to Constantinopie. 
Aiiastasius, having iu a sermon, wliieh was by some ascribed to N. himself, denied 
ihat-tiie Virgin Mary could be truly called tlie '* AJoiher of God," being only iu 
tmth the moiher of ihe man Christ, N. wannly defended Anustiisius, espousid this 
view, ,ai}d elaborated it into the theory wliich has since been known by his 
linnie, and which t quivalently, if not ju formal terms, ex:iggenit('d the distinction 
of two nutnres hi our Lord into a distinction of two persons — tlie hnuiau 
person of Chriht and the Divine Person of the Word. An animated coutro- 
vi-rsy ensued, wliich extended from Couslantiuople to the other patriMrcliates, and 
drew fjom Cyiil, patriarch of Alexandria, a formal co.demnation of the doctrine of 
> twelve anathemas still preserved, and a similar condeiuualion.accomiwiied by 
n threat of deposition and excoinmunicatiDii, from Celesline, blsliop of Rome, 
nnlebs he would withdraw tliu obnoxious doctrine. N. remaining firm iu his opin- 
ions, a «reneral council wasconvened at Eplie^us iu 481, at wliich Cyril took Ihe most 
lictive and prominent part, and iu which, notwithstanding the absence of tlie patri- 
arch of Antioch and his uishops, N. was condemned and deposed. Considerable 
op(K>9ition was offered to this judgment for a time, but ultimately N. was confined 
iu a monasfery u« ar ConstantlnopTe, whence, after four years, siilfpersiKtlug in his 
vieyi'*** he was banis-hed to the Greater Oasis in Upper Egypt, and after several 
chaii£re>i of his place of confinement, died in exile. 'J'lie account uiveu by Evagelns, 
tlutt his death was caused by a disease iu wii ch his tongue was enteu by worms, rents, 
attcording to Evagt^ns himself, on a single andunmiuud auihoiity. . 'i'hemore prob- 
a)>le narratives ahcribe his death to the effects of a full. The date of this event Is 
Biicenoiii. It was after 489, wlien Socmtes wrote his history ('* Hist. Ecc." VJi. 84), 
but Hiere is little doubt that he was already dead iu 460, when the Eatychlau coutro- 
Tvray first began to attract notice. 

K^TS (Lat nidutt Gael, nead ; allied to Ger. ndhmy Sax. nutat^ LuU neeUr$^ 

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^etlwrlanda 190 

to sew, hind, or tie) nr« tl»« j»trnctiircj« which auimnis prepare for the rcnrlngof thdr 
yoniiK. TlK'.y ar.j very ditferent, not only when the creaturus which rouMtmct tirm 
l)elon«r to widaly seimrjited dJviHJons of thi; liiiiniul kin- dom, hut oft«-ji when Ibc 
auim ds are of thelbaine class, t)r i-ven when they arc Tic.irly allied ; and whilst poiiw 
conhtruct v^ry wmple no5t«, and thoi»<) of others .nre very cnrioiip and e'a'v)ratt'ly 
frain:»d, raaka no u '^nt Mt al!. Ami»n<r Mammals, the on!y nr.««t-bniUkr.-* oro 
certain rodents, as mice, dormice, squirrels. «fcc The sirncturw of sonn; cf tl)« 
Bpecies are as arttfi'ly contrived and as Vanf^fn' as the nests of birds. It js-anioi:!j 
Birds ihat nest^making Is mostgener.d ; allhougli there are not a tew pp;'Cje« which 
int^rely scrape a hole in the ground, and many soa-fowls l.»y their eggs on ledges of 
naked rock. The situations chosen by birds for their nest« are very various, oadi 
species affecting some particular kind of situation, as each species also exhibits a 
nnifurmity in ciioice of materials and in form and mode of 'structure ; thest? par- 
ticulars, however, being all liable to modification — within certain limits — ^siccordnig 
to circumstiinces. Souve birds' nest;* consit?t merely of a few stmws or leavca 
collected together; some, of such materials as twigs, straws, moss, hair, &c., 
viM-y nicely interwoven, and often wiib a lining finer than the framework ; some, 
as those of swallows, are made of clay or other soft material, which hardens as 
it dries. Bjrds' nests are generally open at top, but some, as those of swailousi, 
are so placed under a projection of rock or of a building, as to l)e covert.d, aud 
have tlie opening fit the side; whilst othfis are vaulted, and have the opening at 
tlie side. Some are situated in holes exciivated in clayey, loamy, or sandy banks. 
The nests of trouplals, baltimores, wcaver-hii-ds, &c., are remarkable for the inge- 
nious contrivance displayed in them ; and a very singular nest is that of llm 
tailor-bird, made by sewhig together the edges of leaves. 'J'hese are noticed in the 
articles on those birds. Many birds are as solitary as possible in their nidlfi- 
cation ; wliiit^t others, as rookn and herons, congregate in large comnuuiities. 
No l?BPTiLE8 are known to construct nests ; their utmost approach to it bein^ lo 
mal^a hole for their eggs in sand, or in sora-! oth*y sniiabJe suuation. — The nests 
of FisHBS'hiive recf-ntly attracted nmch attention of nott)raliets. It is supposed that 
thi! ancients were acquainted with the nest building iiistrnct, of some fishes: hut it 
was inikiiown to nn idem naturillsts till 1S38, when Mr Edwards discovered itiu a 
species of Stickleback (q. v.). It now gives interest to many a fresh-water tiqnariuta. 
Not many fishes are yet Icnown as nest-builders. Among them are gobies and the 
goramy. Many are known not to construct nests. The SJihnon and otheis exhibit 
an approach to the nest-building habit, in n:aklng a place for their eggs in the saud 
or jrravel which they choose for a spawning-bed.— Mdny. Insects— a small propor- 
tion, however, of the whole number, and mostly Hj/vieiwpt^a—consirnct nests, as 
bees, wasps, and auts. The nests of the social b^es and wasps are also their ordinary 
habitation?, but the nests of solitary l>ees are entirely devoted to their young. A fvn* 
insects, not hymenopteroiis, as some weevils, may also be said to nuike nests; hat 
among insects provision for the wants of the young is usually made in very differei t 
ways. Certian spidtirs, amongst which may l)e inuned the water-spider, cousimct 
nesisr- The instinct of nest-nn«klng, connected as It is with the Instinctive care for 
their young which the Creator has made so Important a p:irt of the nature of so many 
animals, is by no nieans an inde;c either of that care or of the affection with wlilch, 
In many cases, it is conjoined; and some of the animals which construct no nestsare 
among tliose in which affection for their young is exhibited in the highest degree.— 
The nest-making instincts of aninmls seem to be a yery essential pait of their con- 
stitution ; and even in the most perfect doujesticatlon are still retained and exiiilnted; 
although the acconnnodation to circumstances which is also manifested shews souie- 
I thing— and that not inconsiderable— of reason. 

) NES'I'S, edible, an important article of commerce between the Eastern Islnuds 
i and Cliiua, and of luxury in Cidna, are the nests of several species of Swallow (q. 
V ), of the K( nus Collocalia. The best known of these, birds, C. esculentOj is about 
4X inches in length, U inches In expanse of wing, dusky black above, pale ash-color 
beneath. The nest is shaped like that of the common swallow, and adheres to a 
rock; vast numiiers being found together— often in absolute contiiruity— in caves of 
the Eastern Archljielago; as those of the same and allied species are in other i*«- 
hnidsof the East Indies. The ueets themselves are formed of grass, seji-ww'd 
ioree, small leaves, &c., and are attached to the rOck by a sort of bracket, made of a 

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Nethe. lands 

selatinoTiB snbetance, which is the part really eaten. This was fonnerly thousrht to 
be mode of sea-weods, bnt Is now known to consi.nt of siillva, which the swallow ex- 
udeB from the salivary glands under the tongue. The net*ts jire collected by means 
of laddere, and often by- means of ropes, wnich enable the gatherers to descend 
from the summit of a precipice, like the rock-fowlers of the North. The gathering 
of the nests takes place after the yonng are fledged, thrice in a yeai*. In the Chl- 
i»eee market the nests are sold for from jC2 to £7 per lb., accoming to the qualiiyy 
and they are of coarse used only by Uie most wealthy, chiefly for thickening rich 
sonps. The imi>ortK at Canton are reckoned at 12<i0 picals, or 168,000 lbs., repre- 
peutiug ntx)ut 8,400,000 nest«. The nests are very wholesome and nourishing, bat 
qnite devoid ot the peculiar properties which tl«e Chinese ascribe to tliem. Five 
caverns at Caning Bolloug. in Java, contain 830.000 swallows, and yield annually 
u>>oiit 500,000 nests. The Butch export them to China. The nests weigh about 
half an ounce each. 

T^'THERLANDS, The Kingdom of, lies between 60° 40' and W© M' n. lat., and 
3° 22' and 7° 16' e. long., is bonnded on the n. by the North Sea, e. by Hanover and' 
the western part of Piissia, s. by Li6ge, Belgian Limburg, Antwerp, Eftst and 
West Flanders, w. hy the Nortii Sea^ Its greatest length from north to sonth ia 195 
Bn^ish mHes, and its greatest breadth from the west, on tlie North Sea. to the ex- 
tremity of Overysseiy on the east, 110 English miles. It contains 12,597 sqnare 
miles. Pop., including the grtmd dncUy of Ltixembnrg, 8,836,111. The following 
table gives the popniaiion, Ist Jannni^ 1872, the area of the provinces, including the 
reclaimed Haarlem Lake, aiid the provhicial capitals : 


Kortii Brabant. 


South Holland., 
Korth Holland. 

Zeeland , 







Grand Duchy of Luxemburg., 

Area in 
Sq. Miles 

Pop. 1872, 

Pr<^ncial Capitals. 



's Hertogcnbosch. 


436 029 

The Hagtie. 








Middelburg. . 





300 25. 

I^enwarden. .■ 











225 352 



3 687,583 






^ 8,835,111 

The pop. (Jan. 1, 1875) had, exchisive of Lnxembnrg, increased to 8,715,676. 
averaging 295 to the square mile. In Drcnihe it is 105, and in 8. and N. Holland 
nses to ^3 and 591 ; Utreciit, Limburji, and Zeeland being the next densely peopled. 
In 1871, the births amounted to 128,306, of which 4599 were illegitimate. The aver- 
age %va8 1 to 27 90. In N. Brabant, 1 to 44*38; Geld«»rland, 1 to 8004; S. Holland, 
1 to 22-78; N. H.-Hand, 1 to 24-28; Zeeland, 1 to 2680; Utrecht, I to 21 -48; Fries- 
land, 1 to 36-24 ; Overyssel, 1 to 4607 ; Groningen, 1 to 22*54 ; Drenthe, 1 to 82-03 ; 
Limhnrg, 1 to 87-44. 

The leadin<4 places are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Dordrecht, Alkmaar, Middel- 
burig, Schiedam, lieyden, Delft. Gronda, Utrecht. Anien«fort, Gionifigen, Meppel, 
Zwolle, Kanipiii, Deventer, Arnhem, Nymegen, Tiel, Gorinchem, 's flertogenbosch, 
Tillmi-g, a»id Breda. 

Phyncal J «p<v.(.— The land is generally low, much of it being under the level of 
the sea, rivers, and canals, especially in North and South Hollfuid, Zeeland, the 
Sonthem ]mrt of Gelderland, and Friesland. Along the west eouft, iln- low lands 
are prptectwl from the sea by a line of sand-hills or dn>i«'s; and wln-re that natural 
deftmce is wanting, strong dykes have been cons: ructiil, and are mniiituiued at 

U. K., X., 7. Di 

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grcflt expense, to keep Iwck the waters. The preatei»t of these dykes are those oi 
the Uelder and of West Kapelle, on the east coust of Walchereu (q. v.), whicli re- 
qnire, ench, upwards of JUMOO auuaally to keep them In oitler. Engineers, called 
tlie officers of the Waterstnat, take special charge of the dykes and national 
bydraniic works, the expense of which is reckoned at about half a million sterling. 
A hilly district stretches from Prnssiu through Drenthe, Overyssel, the Veluwe or 
Arnhem district of Gelderland, the eastern part of Utrecht, into the Betuwe or 
country between the Maas and the Waal. This tract of country has many pretty 
spots, is of a liffht sandy soil, well watered, and when not cnltirated, is covered 
with heath or oak-coppice. The greatest part of the N. is very fertile, the low lands 
and drained hikes, called Polders (q. v.), being adapted for pastnring cattle, and the 
light soils for cereals and fruits ; hnt in some districts there are sandy heath-^lnd 
plains, extensive peat-lands, and uudrained morasses, which industry is rapidly 
briiiging under cultivation. 

^landSf RiverSt Ctenate, rfrc— The islands may be divided into two" groups, of 
which the southern, formed by the mouths of the Schelde and Maas, contains Wal- 
cliercn, South and North Bevcland, Schonwen, Dniveland, Tliolen, St Philii^iand. 
Qoeree, Voorne, Pntten, Beyerland, Yeselmonde, Hozenbnrg, and the island of 
Dordrecht. The northern group contains the islands at the entrance of the Zuider 
Zee and along the coasts ot Groningcai and Friesland, as Wieriugcif, Tf xel, Vliuland, 
Tert*chelling, Ameland, Schiermounikoog, and Kottum. lu the Zuider Zee lurc 
Marken, Urk, and Schokland. 

The chief rivers are, the Rhine, Maas, and Schelde. Important branches of 
these are the Wajil, Lck, Yt*sel, Roer, Ac. 

Water-ways are more numerous than in any other Enrox>ean country, the \m» 
mense, tracts of raeadoyr-land and the fertile polders beinz girdled by lanre canals, and 
cut in' all directions by smaller ones for orainage ana communication. Those of 
most importance to the national trade are, tht; North Holland Canal, constructed 
1819—1825, to connect the port of Amsterdam with the North Sea; the Voorne 
Canal, from the north side of Voorne to Hellevoetsluis. which shortens the outlet 
from Rotterdam; the South Willemsvaart, through North Brabant, Dutch and Belgium 
Limburg, from 's Hei-togenbosch to Maastricht, being 71)4 English miles in length, 
and having 24 locks. Besides these, there are numerousimportant canals, connecting 
rivers, ana cutting the kingdom into a net- work of water-courses. To improve the 
entnuice to the Maas, the Hoek of Holland has lately been cut. * A new canal 
through the Y and peninsula of Holland, was opened, Nov. 1, 1876. It is nowhere 
less than 80 yards broad, with sluices nearly 400 feet in length, and a depth of nearly 
23 feet. This has reduced the distance from Amsterdam to the sea to about 14 
miles, and provides a saf ; way for large ships. The harbor, in 52° 29' n. hit, and 
4° 36' e. long., is formed by piers of concrete l)nilt into the North Sea. The expense, 
including the recovery of ld,000 acres of laud from the Y, amounted to al)out two 
millions sterling. 

Railways have l)een constructed to the extent of abont lOOS milos, forming lines 
of communication between the principal cities of the N., and with Prnssia to Iho 
south-east, and Belgium to the south-west. The receiptjj of the three main lines in 
18T2 amounted to je696,585. These belong to companies. The state railways real- 
ised i;445,966. and Ciirried 3,188,443 passengers. The two oldest companies gave 
dividends of 6)4 and 8^ per cent. 

Clitnate, Agric^Uture, Prodticet tkc. — ^Tho climate of the N. is variable, chilly colds 
often closely succeeding high temperatures, indnciug various furms of fever and 
ague, and requiring peculiar care as to clothing, &c- In summer, the thermometer 
sometimes rises above 80°, and even to 90° F. in the shade, and a winter of 
great severity usually occurs every fifth year, when carriages and heavily-ladeu 
wagons cross the rivers and the Y on the ice, and thousands enjoy the national past* 
time of skating. 

The farms are generally small and well cultivated, though the implements are old- 
fashioned and clumsy. Aluch progress is being made in reclaiming the samly wastes, 
in Drenthe and Overyssel, by planting them with flr and oak, and sowing buck- 
wheat, oats, and rye. Thfe best, implements are also being gnulnally introdnced from 
Eugluud, and the steam-plough was, in 1862, put in operation on the lauds of tho 

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•drnlned Tlnarlem T^kS. The follmviiig^ table shews the agricnltnral products, with 
their vulues, fur 1872, accordiiig iu goverumeut retorus: 

Wheat to the value of. iC2,848.500 

Rye 4,422,150 

Barley 1,092.883 

Oats 2,217,500 

Beans 650,250 

Pease 436,416 

Buckwheat 815,583 

Colza '. 676,666 

Potalo<w - 4,30»,»16 

Madder 277,583 

Cliicory 69,666 

Flax 903,0(0 

Hemp 46,883 

Beet 398,066 

Tobacco 169,153 

Vailoufl 21,849 

Total jei9,840,164 

Id 1874 the total value of agricnltnral products was abont ^£17,500,000. In 1872, 
wheat occupied 211,960 acres; rye, 493,639 acres; barley, 111,811 aci-es; oatt>, 246,- 
651 acres ; potatoes, 812,329 acres ; flax, 46,846 acres. 

In 1872, the N. poss»es9ed 247,000 horses, 1,377,000 head of cattle, 855,800 sheep, 
139,600 goats, and 320,100 pigs. The leading agricultural products of Zeelaiid 
are wheaji and madder; iu South Holland, madder, hemp, butter and 
cheese; in North ilollaud, butter and cheese are extensively made, and 
cattle, sheep, and pigs reared and exported. The horses of Friesland, 
Zeelaud, and Gelderlaiid are of firi»t-rate quality, 'i'he exporbition of butter 
from Holland and Frieslund, amLpf Edam, Leyden, Oonda, and Frisian cheese is 
large; in 1873 tlie value of the exports of cheese was jei,013.238, of butter, Xl,453,- 
876. Fruit is abundant, and In several provinces, as Geldcriiind, Utrecht, and 
Dreuthe, much attention is paid to bees. In Haarlem and neighborhood, tulips and 
hyacinths are mucli cultivated, realising a lar^e annual amount. In 1874, the foreign 
trade in bulbs reached, in tlie district, X37,500. The inland sales realised jG47,833. 
Wild ducks, snipes, plovers, and hares are plentiful ; and there are also conies, par- 
tridges, pheasants, and deer — ^game forming an article of export. 

Geology^ Minetalogy^ «fe<5.— TIiq N. are of recent formation, and consist of an 
alluvial deposit, chiefly of a deep, rich clayey soil, snpenmposed on banks of sand, 
marine shells, aiid beds of peat and clay. It appi-ars tiiut at some distant period 
there had been a depression of the land below its fonner level, enabling the sea to 
burst throu>;h its saiid-banks, submerge the landi and form new deposits. The 
higher districts are comi)Osed of sand-diift, mingled wiih fertile earths', and resting 
on a bed of clay. Coal is worked in Limbnrg ; and a soft sandstone, whicli becomes 
fit for 'building purposes alter havhig beeu some time exposed to the atmos- 
phere, is quarried in the southern part of that province, which has also pipe and 
other clays. Valuable clays for iK>ttei-y, tile and brick making, abound iu t he various 

Manufactures, Iiidustriea, <fcc.— The chief manufactures ai-e linen, woollen, cot- 
ton, and silk fabrics ; pap^r, leather, glass, &c. Leyden and Tilbni^ are famed for 
woollen blankets, wool-dyed )>ilot, mie cloths, and friezes; 's Hertogenbosch for 
linens and rich damasks; calicoes, shirtings, drills, tablerloths, striped dimities are 
made at Almelo, Amersfort, and in the leading towns of Ovei-yssel. Good imitation 
Smyrna and Scotch carpets, and carpets ot hair and wool, are manufactured ni Di>- 
veutcr, Delfr, Arnbem, Hilversum, Utiecht, and Breda ; Tnrkey-red yarns, dyed 
silks, and silt stuffs at Boerjnond, Utrecht. Haarlem, &c.; leather, glass, fireurmsj 
at Maastricht and Delft; iron-fouiding, rolling and hammering of lead and copper, 
cauJion-founding are carried on at the Hague, Ac; and powder-mills at Muiden : 
Oudenkerk, Mi<^d^•lbarg, 's Herlogenbosch, Amnterdam, Nymegen, &c., have ir 
porlaut breweries, those of 's Hertogenbosch and Amsterdam mauuiacturlng v 

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large quantities. Wnalwyk, Henpdon, and siirroundincr districts, mnDnfnctnro bnnf a 
and chues, of wliicli Hennduu Bends to Nortii and Huntti Uoliaiid 1,000,000 pairs 
Yearly. Gin is distilled at Scliiedaiii, Dclfi, Hotterdam, aud Wet'sp. AmsterJnm 
has the largest diamoud-cuitins: trade in llie world, 10,000 persons depending ou that 
branch of ludastry. Si]gar«refining is largely carried on at Amsterdam, Rotterdam, 
and Dordrecht, from all of whicii sugar is exported to RusHia, the Levauf, aud coun- 
tries of Europe. Paper is chiefly made in Uollnud and Gelderlaud. The leadiuj; 
letter-type founders are at Amsterdam and Haarlem. Mauufuctures of every kind 
are beiug rapidly increased in number, and adding to the material prosperity of the 
Netherlands. The chief motive power is the windmill, which forms a never-failing 
element in tlie scenery ; but of late years, steam is becoming more general. lu 1S64, 
the steam-t'ngines employed in fact oii«B were 464, with 7980 horse-iwwer ; and iu 
1872, they amounted to 1828, of 2^,403 horse-power, and the increase lias since been 
going on. 

Many people are employed in the immense inland shipping-trade which the canal 
network has fostered, there being, when the previous census was taken, 6,CS4 ships 
inhabited by families, or one inliabited ship to 81 houses. The houses were 542,295 ; 
families, 668,911. Pishhig, not only in the inland waters, the coasts, and bays of the 
Noi-th Sea, but also on the coast of- Scotland, is vigorously pursued. In 18T3, the ioUd 
value of the herrings taken in the North Sea was jGI 27,660, 102 vessels having been 
employed; on the N. coasts, to the value of je77,784: and in the Zuider Zee and 
coasts were taken 87,331,950 herrings. The anchovy take, almost excluavely In the 
Zuider Zee, amounted to 30,030 ankers, valued at about £58,1)60. There are produc- 
tive oyster beds, besides extensive fUhiugs of cod, ling, tiurbot flounders, boles, 
shrimps, haddock, &c; and from the rivers, salmon, eels, perch, &c. 

Exports, Imports, Shipping^ <fcc.— The N. ia peculiarly a mercantile as wey as 
agricultural country ; its mercimnts not only importing and expoitiug the producta 
of their colonies and the surplus of their own country, but also those of other lauds. 
The general imports (1875) were 6,520,217 tons ; ex|>ort8, 8,200,941 tons. The valuo 
of goods imported for use wus ^£59.320,520. and of exports, je44,9l4,242, home pro- 
duce; both l&iS than in 1878. The leading ejyyrtsare: cheese, butter, roflued 
sugar, flax, cattle, sheep, pigs, |^, garancine^^cc; the imports, manufactured 

goods, unrefined sugar, ccrffee, gram, iron, yams, cotton, rice, goUl, silver, tin, tea, 
idigo, Hilk and woollen fabrics. The trade wiUi Great Britain is large and varied, 
and carried ou chietty by steam vessels. 

In 1875, the laden ships which cleared iu-^)Ouird amounted to 11,093, bavins^ a 
tonnage of 4,762,381 ; those in ballast 1)eing 571 ships, of 204,166 t<nis. Ot the laden 
vespels, 2877 were Dutch, of 1,119,547 tons. Cleared out-bound, laden, 8029 ships, 
o£ 3,389,580 tonnage ; iu i)ullasi, 3779, of 1.661,012 tons burden. The trade along the 
riveiV, by Belgian and German ships, is large. In 1873, the goods passing up the 
Rliine amount^ to 844,191 tons, 4ind from Germany down, 1.638,680. This trade 
cuu.-'ists largely of grain, timber, and coaU Wheat carried up, 110,263 tons, and rye, 
116,774 tons ; down, 4854 ions of wheat, and 10.865 of potatoes. Timber, upwards, 
66,042 tons ; dowuwarda 56,037 totis. Coal. 1.026.119 ; and iron, 81,119 ions. 

Religion, Language, Educatimiy Ac.—Ai the last census (1869) there were 2,193,281 
Protestants, 1,313,052, Roman Catholics, 68,003 Jews, and 6193 to small sectrf! There 
were (Jan. 1, 1876) 2034 Protestant ministers, of whom 1698 were Dutch Reformed ; 
2062 Roman Catholic priest« ; and 168 Jewish congregations. The budget of 1875 
contained £118,979 for the Dutch Reformed Clmrch ; for the Roman Catholic, X49.- 
879; and the Jews, £2966. 

'niere are Ave dialects spoken respectively in Groningen, Priesland, Gelderlaud, 
Holland, and Zeeland. These differ considerably from each other, and the Frisian 
is not at all understood by natives of the other provinces. The written laugaage is 
the Dutch, that branch of the great Teutonic stock which preserves more of its 
original character than the rest of the same family. It possesses numerous wonis 
the same as Lowland Scoteh, and bears a stiong aifluity to the Old Suxou iBuglish, 
^ the following Dutch proverb shews: 

Als de wyn is in den man, 
Is de wysheid in de kau. 

The kingdom of the N. has produced many great names In all branches of Utera* 




Inro and pcionce. Coster (q. v.J, nccorcliiig to his conntrymen, iiiTeiitpd printiiifr, 
Leeuweiilioek the inici'oacope, and Huygeua applied the pendulum. Out of a h)iiij 
liPt of distinguished unmos, luny be meiitioued those of Erasinuf*. Bailiger, Hc!n- 
8iu8, Hugo de Groot (Grolius), Hnygeus, Leenweniiock. Vitiinga. Boerhave, and tlio 

B)et8 Hooft, Voudel, lind Cuts; whilst the writings of Van der Paiui, Van Ltuurp, 
es Amorie van der Howen. Haafner, Stuart, Van Kamp<-u, and tliose of tlie poetri 
Biiderdyk, Da Costa, De Bull, Van den Bvrg, ter Daar, and Hofdyk, hlicw tluit 
literature is uotwauing. Exclusive of uewppapers, there are i26 mjiguzlnes m.d 
]MTiodical8 pnblislied iu tiie N., of whicli 67 are religious. 42 on art,}*. 
and general lilerature, and T on antiquity, liistory. &c. Loading jminters of tlie old 
Dutch school were Kenibrandt, Gerrit (Gterard) Dou, Gabriel Alelcn, Jan Sti'(i», 
Paul Potter, Rny»»ijial, Viiu der Hdst; and among those of the present century, 
Ary Scheffer, Kuekkoek, Sclielfhont, Pienemun, Kruseman, Van O.-, Cnicyvangir, 
ten Kate, Isrueln, Blus, Louis Meyer, lioelolf, iSpriugur, 4&c., have distingui&Tuu 

There are universities at Leyden, Utrecht, and Groningen ; athenceums or col- 
leges at Amsterdam, DeveUter, and Maastricht, tlie sludentw uttfiiding which must 
be exiuiiiued for degrees at one of the uuiversilies. Latin sdiools are in all tlio 
leading towns. The universities and athenaeums hnve faculties of tiieology, mtdi- 
ciue, pliilOB(^hy, law, and letters. There are also tlie Royal Military and Navnl 
Academy at Breda, and that for engineers and the India civil service at Delfi ; 
seminaries iu several places for the training of the Koman Catholic clergy; ai<d 
otiters, especially iu Auibterdam, for those of tlie e^maller Protestant sects ; and 
many literary, hcientific, and agricultural iustitntes. 

Each commiiuity or parish must must have, at least, one elementary school, sup- 
ported from the local public funds, in which reading, writing, arithmetic, history, 
geography, &c, are taught A higher class of schools includes mso foreign languages. 
All are under government inspectors, and the teachers must undergo stnugcnt exaiu- 
inatlons on allthe branches before obtaining permission to teach. Many society or 
subscription schools are being erected all over the land, with a normal school at 
Nyinegen, not under government surveillance, and inclucJiug religious instruction, 
wmch IS excluded from the national public schools. 1 he members of these societies 
pay a yearly subscripticm and a small fee for each pupil sent by them to the school, a 
select number acting as managers. There are national nonnal schools at 's Herto- 
genbosch, Haarlem, and Gromngen, the pupil- teachers boarding themselves, and re- 
ceiving, at *8 Hertogenbosch, £21 a year, and at Haarlem, £24. The attendance at 
flchooTiB about 1 to 8 of the population iu winter, and 1 to 10 in summer. In Janu- 
ary 1872, 253,489 boys and 226,779 girls ; in July. 237,685 boys and 218,728 girls were 
at public and private elementary schools, with 8838 male and 2261 female teachers. 

Amipy Naoyj c&c.— -The strength of the army, in Europe (1878) was 2060 ofHcers 
and 60,850 men ; of the Indian aimy, 1480 oflacers and 87,800 men. It is composed of 
volunteers, and of one man for eveiy 600, drawn by lot for five years' sei-vice. There 
is also a local force, caUed the Schuttery, drawn by lot from those between 25 and 34 
years of age. to assist in keeping order in peace, and in case of war, to act us a mobile 
corps, and do garrison duty. If attacked on the hmd-eide, 90,0(i0 men are required 
for the defences, and if by land and sea, 106,000. The firet, or Maas line of defence, 
if formed by Maastricht, Venlo, Grave, 's Hertogenbosch, Woudrichem, Geertmiden- 
berg, Willemstad, Breda, and Bei-gen-op-Zoom. The second line is formed by Nyme- 
gMi, Ports St Andries and Loevestein and Gorinchem. The inner line of Utrecht is 
Sunned by various forts from Naarden, Utrecht to Gorinchem, which, by inundations, 
can make the provinces of North and South Holland into an island. 1 nere are many 
'other forts, batteries, and strengths at the months of the rivers and along the leading 
ways, and a new line of defence was agre^ upon in 1874. 

The royal navy consisted (July 1, 1878) of 99 steanu-rs carrying 400 guns, and "16 
sailius vessels with 103. The sailors and marines nnmlu-rfd 8470 officers and men, 
iuclaoing 701 native East Indians. A large donble-tnrret ship, with four 36-tou 
Aruastrong guns, warsiddud in 1876 to the iron-clads. Prince Frederic, uncle of the 
king, is admiral ; the Prince of Orange, vice-admiral ; and liis majesty is commauder- 
iu-cliief of the hind and naval forces. 

Revenue, Eospenditure, &c. — Th« revenue of 1878 was estimated at ^8,589,630, and 
tbe ^^penditiire at je9.849,941, the difference to be utbt from accumulated surpluses 
.««& the regular iiacreuse. The principal receipts arc from direct taxes, excise, iu* 



direct tiixep, import an(l export dne«. Among itein» of expendiinre nre jC383,300 
for pnlTlic workt), chiefly railways ; £2.250,0vi0 for interest of the naiiouul debt; uud 
^£333 300 to improve the defences. Tlie India reviuue for 1878 wna estimated at 
jei2,000,47S ; the expenditure eqiuUa the revenue. The East ludia colQuies, whicii 
wcro a burden iu the earlier years of the k'ngdom, liave lonjj been a source of profit. 

From 1860 to and witlj 18T4. there lias beitii paid off ^25,376,218 from tlie uatioiial 
debt, leBseuing the tinuual interest i>y the sum of jC784,709. Ttie interest payable on 
ttie debt amounted in 1879 to X2,226,000. The mutcrial prosperity of the N. is 
rapidly increasing, and a sum of probably not less than 300 uiilliun pounds is in- 
vested by N. capitalists in the fuudn of other nations. 

The chief colonies arc Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, the Spice Islands, and 
Papua or new Guinea, in the East ; and Surinam. Curacao, and lis depcndiHicic!*, in 
the West Indies', with factories ou the coast of Guinea. Uolouial pop. estimatca at 

Gooernment, Franchise, rfcc— The government of the N. is a limited constitational 
monarchy, hereditary in the male line, and by default of that in the feniale. The 
crown-prince bears the title of Prince of Orange, and attains his majority at 18, when 
he takes his seat iu the council of state. The executive is vested iu the king, with 
a councU of state composed of twelve members, nominated by his majesty, and the 
ministers of the Intenor, Foreign Affairs, Finance, War, the Colonies, Marine, and 
Justice, the last-named taking charge of ecclesiastical amiirs through two administra- 
tors, or under-secretaries of state, for the Protestant and liomau Catholic Churches. 
The legislative power is shared by the king and the two chambers of the Stato&^en- 
eral ; the first chamber having 89 members, elected for nine years, by the provincial 
states, one-third of their number retiring every three years. The secdud chamber 
has 80 members chosen by electors numbering, in 1874, 10S,8!3, above 23 years of age, 
who pay from £\, 14m. to jCIS, 128. of direct taxos, according to the si^e and import- 
ance of the electoral district These are elected for four years, one half of the chamber 
retiring every two years. For members of the town-councils, the electoi'al qoallfica- 
tion is naif the above sums. The members of both chambers must be 30 years of 
age before the day of election, and those eligible for the first chamber are the nobility. 
This exceedmglv high franchise, which, in Amsterdam, is a higher direct tax than the 
rental qualification of Great Britain, makes an election a thing of no interest except 
to a few. In 1871, only 30*2 per cent of the electors of North Holland gave their 
votes, and the maximum in any place was 66 9 per cent iu limburg, 62*5 iu North 
Brabant, the average being 4S'6. 

The king nominates the governors of provinces, the bargemcesters of every city, 
town, or village, and a host of other oflicials. The cities, towns, and rural paristics 
are governed by a council, burgemeester (mayor or provost), and wethoui^ers (alder- 
men or bailies). The council consists of from 7 to 39 members, according to the 
population, who arc chosen for six years, one-third part retiring every two years. 
The council selects out of their number from S-to 4 wethouders lor six years, one- 
half retiring every third year. These with the burgemeester, form the local execu* 
tive. The law departments are the High Council, the provincial courts of justice, 
those of the arroudissemeuts and cantons ; appeal iu many cases being open from 
the lower to the higher courts. 

Hiatory. — Nothing is knowu regarding the original inhabitants of the N.; but 
about a century and a half before our era, the people known ns the Batavi came out 
of Hesse, where they were living iu hontility with their neighbors, and settled down 
between the Rhine and the Waal. At this time, ttie Frisians occupied the country 
north of the Khine to the Elbe. The Batavi and Frisians differed little in appear* 
auce, manner of life, and religion, lliey clothed themselves with skins, liv^ by' 
fishing, hunting, and pasturmg cattle, possessing horses, cows, and sheep ; were 
faithful, open-hearted, chaste, and hospiiuble. The songs of the bards coiupo3e(,l 
their literature and history. Warlike and brave, they selected their leader for bin 
courage and prowess, were armed with the bow and a short spear. They worshipped 
the sun and moon, and held their meetings in consecrated woods. 

The Homans having subdued the Belgae, next attacked the Frisians, who agreed to 
pay a tribute of ox-Tiides and horns, but continued restless and rebellions. The 
Batavi l>ecame allies of Rome, paying no tribute, but supplying a volunteer contin- 
gent, chiefly of cavalry, which oecldeu the battle of Pharstuia iu fturor ufCtesar, au4 

Digitized by VjOO^, 



formed a gallaiit band of the Eoman armies in all parts of the empire. About 
70 A.D., Clandins Civilis, a BataviaDj whose original name has not been preserved, 
made a bold effort to overthrow the Koman power in Rhenish or Germanic Gaul, but 
he was finally compelled to sue for peace. Towards the close of the 8d c began the 
inroads of the Franks, followed by the Saxons and other races ; and in the 5th c, the 
Batavi had ceased to exist as a distinct people. The Franks continued to spread, 
and with them the Christian religion, Dagobert I., one of their princes, erecting a 
church at Utrecht, which, 695, becam* the seat of a bishopric. The Frisians 
were opposed to. and the last to embrace, Christianity, to which they were forcibly 
converted by Charles Martel. At the end of the 8th c, all the Low Countries 
submitted to Cbariemagne. who built a palace at Nym^en, on the Waal. The feudal 
system now began ta develop itself and expand into mikedoms, counties, lordshlFS, 
and bishoprics, which the dukes, counts, and bishops, especially the counts or 
Holland and bishops of Utrecht, endeavored to enlai^e and to rule over with as little 
submission to their superior ub possible. ITie Crusades weakened the power 
and drained the resources of the nobles and priesthood, so tliat, during the middle 
ages, cities b^an to assume Impoi'tance, strengthen themselves with walls, choose 
their own rulers, and ap];)ear in the state meetings. In 1384 the county of Flanders 
passed, through marriage, to the Duke of Burgundy, whose grandson, Philip the Gocd, 
made it tiis special life-effort to form the N. hito a powerful kingdom. He bonght Nu- 
«ur, inherited^Brabant with Limburg, and compelled Jacoba of Bavaria to i-esign Hol- 
land and Zeelaud. Charles V.. as heir of the house of Burgundy, inherited and united 
the N. under Ms sceptre, and the country attained to prosperity, through the encour- 
agements which he gave to commerce and shipping. Philip II., who succeeded his 
father, 1555, by his harsh government and i)ersecution of the Reforihers. excited the 
N. to rebellion, which, after a struggle of 80 years, resulted in th« fli-m establishment 
of the Republic of the United Piovmces. The founder of the independence of the N. 
was Wilham of Nassau, Prince of Orange, called in history the Silent, who freely 
sacrificed his own property, and put forth every effort to unite the discordant states 
of the South with those of the North in resisting the Spanish yoke. Retiring to Hol- 
land, and banding together several provinces for mutual defence, by an agreement 
made at Utrecht, 1579. he perseveilngly opposed the efforts of Spain ; and in 1609, 
the independency of tlie United Provmces (the boundaries of which nearly coincided 
v.ith those of the present kingdom of the N.), was virtually acknowledged by 
the Spanish king, an armistice for twelve years being signed at Antwerp, April 9 of 
that year. The struggle was renewed and carried on tul 1648, when all the powers 
acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces by the treaty of Munster, 
while the Bclgic provinces, divided among themselves, remained submissive to Spain 
and to the Roman Catholic Church. 

' Prince William the Silent did not live to see his efforts for freedom crowned vrith 
success. Excited by religious fanaticism, and the hope of a great reward, Balthazar 
Gerard or Guion, 1584, shot the prince in his house at Delft, from a narrow passage, 
as he was stepping from the dining-room to ascend an adjoining stair which led to 
the second floor. With the 17th c, the United Provinces began to advance in power 
and wealth, their ships visiting all parts of the world. Meaji while, the contest 
between the Armininns and Calvinists broke out, and raged with fury for many 
years J Grotius and others fleeing to other lands, and the statoeraan Oldenbarneveld 
saffenhg on the scaffold at the age of 72. The United Provinces were presided over 
by the Princes of Orange till the troubles at the end of the 18th c. began the long 
European war, which the battle of Waterloo brought to a close. The National Con- 
vention of France having declared war against Great Britain and the Stadtholder of 
Holland, 1793, French armies overran BeMum, 1794; and being welcomed by the so- 
called patiiots of the United Provinces, William V. and his family, January, 1795, 
were obliged to escape from Scheveniugen to England in a llsliing junk, and the 
French rule began. The United Provinces now became the Batiiviau Republic, pay- 
ing eight and a half million* sterling for a French array of 25,000 men, besides giving 
up important parts of the country along the Belgian frontier. After several changes, 
Louis Bonaparte, 5th June, 1806, was appointed king of Holland, but, four years 
later, was obliged to resign because he refused to be a mere tool in the hands of the 
French emperor. Holland was then added to the Empire, and formed st'ven dcpart- 
mmtB, The fall of Napoleon I., and dismemberment of the French Empire, led ' 

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K otherTandt . 1 AC 

the recall of the Orange family, and the formatioii^ of the Sonthem and Northern 

Provinces into the iJl-aaeorted Kingdom of the N.. which iu 1830 was broken up by 
the secession of Belgium. In 1889, jpeace was flimlly concluded with Bel^nm ; but 
almost immediately after, national discontent with the government siiewed itself, and 
William I., in 1840, abdicated in favor of his son. The N. bdne moved by the revo- 
lutionary fever of 1848, King Williaiu 11. granted a new consntntlon, according to 
which new chambers were chosen, but had scarcely met when he died, March 1849, 
and the present long, William III., asceude4 the throne. The nation is prosperous, 
and on the 11th May 1874, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the present king s reigu 
was celebrated with great rejoicings. 

A bill for the emancipation of the slaves in the N. West India possessioDS passed 
both chambers, 8th August 1862, and received the royal afsent. It decreed a com- 
pensation of 800 guilders for each slave, except those of the island of St Martin, who 
were to be compensated for at SO guilders eacb. The freed n^jroes may choose the 
place to labor, but must be able to satisfy the government ofBcers that they are em- 
ployed somewhere. This surveillance to contmne during ten years. The law came 
into force 1st July 1863, tod in Surinam and all the other colonies the day passed 
quietly over. Those, however, interested in agriculture have sent an address to the 
minister of the colonies, protesting against the nigh-wages tariff as hostile to the suc- 
cessful carrying on of their operations. The rate, however, is not higher than the 
flauters in the neighboring British colony of British Guiana are accustomed to pay* 
n the budget for 1863, provision was made for the extraordmary ^jxpenses connected 
with the emancipation to the amount of jei,065,366, of which jeS6Z,000 as compensa- 
tion for the slaves of Surinam, and je21,250 as premiums for fi*ee labor. For Curayao 
and its dependencies, jei66,090 of compensation money, fully jei2,00J being for vari- 
ous other outlays connected with the change. The number of slaves set free may be 
stated in round numbers to be 42,000, of whom 35.000 are iu Butch Guiana. 

On 1 6th July 1863, a treaty was signed at Brussels by all the naval powers for the 
buying up of the toll levied, under treaty arrangementSj by the king of tlie N., on 
vessels navigating the Schclde (q. v.), the king of Belgium binding himself also to 
reduce the harbi^r, pilot, and other charges on shipping within that kingdom. 

The N. have suffered much from floods, either caused by the breakhig in of the 
»ea. or by the descent of masses of water from Gerinajiy, while the rivere of the 
lihine delta were blocked up with ice. The Zuicler Zee (q. v.)» which contains 
1365 square miles, was of trifling extent till the flood of All Stints' Bay, 1247, when 
the North Sea swallowed up a large tract of couutry. In 12T7, the Bollart Gulf, iu 
Groniugen, was formed at tlje mouth of the Ems, by floods in the spring and 
antumi. of that year, which destroyed 33 tillages and 100,000 people. The immense 
waste of waters, known as the sunken South Holland Waarde, or Blesbosch, arose 
out of the breaking of one of the dyke*, 1421. by which 72 villages were laid under 
water, only 34 of them rertp|>eariug. In modern times, great floods, but fortunately 
with only temporary results, have occurred in 1809, lS2o, and 1855. That of 1855, 
which placed the town of V.-enentlaal, in Gulderland, and an extensive tract, of couu- 
try under water, was* caused by a rapid thaw in tlie high lands of Germany pouring 
down torrents of wat<!r into the N. while the rivers were ice-locked aftor a winter 
of unusual severity.— See the *' AUgomeene Stati!»tiek van Noderland;" *• N(;d«uland- 
Geographisch-Historisch Overzlgt," by Luit. L.G. Beausar; "SUiti.^tiek Jaarboek" 
(Witkamp, Amsterdam), an excellent hook of reference, which is published-yearly 
up to the present time ; the '* Provincial Annual Reports," Ac 

NETHKRLANBS TRADING COMPANY, a chartered joint-stock assoeiotion, 
with limited liability, formed to aid in developing the natural resources of the 
Butch East Indian possessions. The Company possesses peculiar privilegjes, acrhtg 
exclusively as the commii^sjon-agents of the Netherlands government in imjjorting 
and selling the produce of the colonies, as well as doing a large business as mer- 
ch ints. Private enterprise having failed to develop the tnuie of Java, after that 
island was resiored to the Netherlands, King William I. ♦»! 1824, erected the Trading 
Company, with a capital of npwards of 3 millions sterling, not only becoming a 
large shareholder, but guaranteeing an interest of 4 per cent on the paid-up capital* 
The early transactions were luiprofitable, and in 1827 the king h:»d to pay a p«rt; 
and In 1330 the wholn of the guaranteed interest. From th:it date^ it has prospered 
and handed over, from the trade ot Java (q. v.), large surplus balances into tha 

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igO ITetheiflanda " 

natloual reTenne. The head office of the directors is at Amsterdam, witb agents at 
Hotierduin,Middelburg, Dordrecht, and Schiedam ; tlio priucipul fnctoiy at Batuvla, 
with ageucies at tlie chief port.H in Java and the other I^i-tberiands poeseesious lu 
the Eastern Arcliipelago. Formerly the company »eut large quantities of goods to 
the coloniid markets for the account of tl.e Dutch government; but since tlie begin- 
ning of 1875, the bus«iue88 for tlie government lias l>een confined to colonial pro- 
duce, wliich is placed 1u factories, forwarded to Uoiland, ai^.d disposed of at the 
company's sales in A^nsterdam, Rotterdam, &c In 1S76, they HoUi for the govern- 
inent T56,959 l)ales of coffee, which realised jC4,3T8,2»2 ; 136,7C8 blocks of Banca and 
2956 of Billiton tin, at jC3T6,548; 432 packages of cincliona bark and powder at 
JC5977. Ou the company's account, colonial produce was sold to the value of 
je761,267; and calicoes, yams, woollen stuffs, various^ goods, precious stones, and 
money, to the value of jC2l4.688, were sent to Netherlands-India, Biusiapore, British 
India, China, Japan, and Siiriiiam. The company also advance money to planters 
«nd mauufacturei-s in the colonies, who bind themselves for a number of years to 
consign their produce. They are also owners of a large sugar plantation. Resolutic, 
in Surinam. The present capital is 86,140,000 guilders, or je3,0l 1 .066. TUe commih- 
eioii paid by government is a chief source of profit. For 1875, the net gain was 
jei80,354, from which the shareholders received 6 4-5 per cent. 'Jhe result would 
have been more favorable hnd not heavy los-* l>een sustained in t*ie Japan trade. 

The success of the Trading Company de^ionds mainly on tlie culture system, 
"which was introduced into Java in 1830. Under the native rule, ihe land belonged 
to the princes, and the cultivators paid oue-flf ih of the protluce, and one-fiftJi of tljeir 
Jabor as ground-rent. The Dutch, by conquest, are now the propri^-tors of tlie 
greater part of the island, and exact the old produce rent, relaxing the labor to one- 
seventh, and causing the holders of crown-lands to plant one-fifth of their cultivated 
fields with the crop l)est adapted for the soil and required for the European market. 
The goviu-nment also has supplietl, free of interest, enterprising young men with the 
capital necessaiy lo erect and cany on woi'ks for the preparation of the raw mate- 
rials, to be repaid in ten yearly instalments, beginning with the third year. The lantl- 
iolders of a ceitaiu district allotted to a sugar-mill were bound to supply a fixed 
quantity, receivino; advances upon the crop lo enable them to bring it foi-ward. 1 ho 
rule of fixed quantity was relaxed in 1860, and has caused great dlscontenJ ment among 
the contractors. Ihe European residents and their asfistimts, the native prince^, 
chiefs, and village head-men, receive a percentage accoruing to the qnantlty which is 
luanumctnred from the produce delivered, so that all are interested in taking care 
that the lands are cultivated and the crops cared for. Sugar, tobacco, and tea are 
prepared hy contractors ; indigo, cochineal, coffi*e, cinnamon, and pepi)er by the 
natives under European surveillance, all passing into the Trading Company's facto- 
ries for shipment to the Netherlands. The objections to the system are, that it does 
not leave the labor of the nativ< s free, and that the pasi^ing of so nmch of tjie export 
and import ti-ade through one favored company injures the general merchant. Ou 
the other hand, it nmst be said that the Dutch government only carries out the old 
law. and it is therefore not regarded by the peasantiyas an infringement of their 
rights ; and the merchants and capitahsts of the Neihorlands did not of tliemselven 
put forth sufficient efforts to work out the natural capabilities of Java when it returned 
under Dutch rule. 

NE'TLET, Koyal Victoria Hospitiil at, is a superb building, on the shore of Soul) - 
amptt;)n Wat«r, for the reception of invalids from the army on foreign service, and 
from amoilg the troops serving in the adjoining military districts. In times of 
peace, it is only necessaiy to upe a portion of the vjist structure ; but in the event of 
a European war, in which the British army should take part, the exigencies of ihu 
service would probably tax its acconmiodation to the utmost. There is provision 
for 1000 patients, with power to increase the number if necessary. Tlie medical 
f taff of course varies in proportion to the work to be done ; but at present it consists 
of a governor* an adjutant, a paymaster, an assistant-connnarrdant, and medical 
officers, and officers of orderlies of various ranks. The total cost of the constnic- 
tiou of this hospital, which was commenced in 1855, has been about £350,000. 
Attached is the Medical School for candidates for the army medicjil department, the 
students having the best means of practical instruction in the wards of the hospital. 
N. is also the I^adquarterB of the female nurses of the army, whx) are under the cou- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

sr.t. 200 

trol of a liidy Btatloned here ns sn{5?^rlnfendent Complete arrang^menta bave been 
made for the lauding of wounded men in front of the hospital, and fur couveyhig 
them thither wirh I ho least disturbance. There Is no doubt as to the convenience of 
this great hospital for Us purposes ; bnt eome qaestious have been raised, uiidM* 
high sanitary authority, as to the salnbrily of the site, adjacent as it is to the wide 
banks of mud which Southampton Water uncovers at low tide. 

NBTS are fabrics in which the threads cross each other at right anglep, leaving a 
comparatively large 0|)en space between them ; the threads are also knotted at tiie 
intersections. In this respect, netting differs essentially from weaving, wliere the 
intersecting threads simply cross each other. The open spaces in nets are called 
meshes, and these correspond in size with an instrument used in net-making, con- 
sisting of aflat |>iece of wood or otiicr hard subs^tauce, usually abont the ^hal»u and 
Biz'i of a coratuon paper-knife. In addition to this, a peculiar kind of needle is used, 
upon which a large quantity of the thread is placed, by winding it from end to end 
between the forked extremities ; tlie holes are used to insttrt tlie end of the thread, 
to prevent it slipping ofE at the cemmeucement of the winding. The art of net- 
making has been unictised from the earliest times by the most savage as well as the 
most civilised nations. Bven where the art of weaving was quit« unknown, as iu 
some of the South Sea Islands when first discovered, tlnit of netting was weU under- 
fitood ; and it is eaity to see that the human race could not help learning the value of 
this art from beeiug how frc(]^uently laud and water animals get entangled iu the 
fihrubA and weeds through which they attempt to pass ; hence we find amongst sav- 
age tribes, almost universally, nets are used not only for fishing, as with us, but also 
for entrapping land animals. We have ample illustrations ot tbe uses of nets for 
both purposes in the bas-reliefs of Assyria, Greece, and Hojue, and in the murut 
paintiuirs of Egypt 

Un in recently, nets have been always made by hand, and generally the thread 
has been a more or less thick twine of hemp or flax, the thickne:4S of the twine and 
the size of the mesh depending upon the kind of fish for which it was made; 
recently, however, great improvements have been made iu the manufacture of nets, 
and machinery of a most beautiful automatic kind lias been introduced by Messrs 
Stuart of Musselburgh, whose manufactory is of vast extent This establishment 
commences with the raw materials, which are hemp, flax, and cotton, the last hav- 
ing been extensively employed for herring and sprat nets of late years. Hemp, bow- 
ever, is the chief material for net-making ; and iu order to prepare it, it is first 
passed iu long rolls through a macliine consisting of two rollers with blunt ridges, 
the upper of which is kept down on the material by means of a hanging weight, 
consisting of a loaded box suspended to a chtdu from the axle of the rolh-r. After 
the fibre has passed through this, it is much more supple than before, and is then 
hackled; this process is also done by machinery, which was first introduced into 
tills manufactory for hemp hackling, and succee<l8 admirablv. It subsequently 
passes tlirough thecardiug, roving, and S])inning processes, as in all other knids of 
yarn, and is fiually twictted into threads or twines of the required ihickndss. Messrs 
Siuart have in oue room 4000 spindles at work, besides the carding and twist ma- 
cliiues. Of their uatent loom ihey have 200 dt work, the lai'gestof which makes nets 
430 meshes iu width. It would be useless to attempt to describe these ingenious 
I'luoms, which are worked by hand, otherwise than by sayiug that their leading fea- 
I turus are like the stocking-frames ; a series of sinkers push forward, pull down, and 
T pass in and out the thread, wliich i« carried from one side of the web to the other 
by long irou needles, whlqji act as shuttles passing not over-quickly ffom a long 
box on each side of the loom. This simple yet most effective contrivance is worked 
by wheels and jointed rods, and might be advantageously applied to many 
other purposes. After the net comes from the loom, it goes to the finishers, who, 
by hand, make the addition of a kind of selvage, consisting of several thicknesses 
of twine, to give strength to the edges. The nuts are then ready for use, and are 
sent iu vast numbers to all parts of the world. Machine net-making is now becom- 
ing general. 

A great variety of nets are in use amongst fishermen, bnt the principal are. the 
Seine, trawly and arift-neU. The seine is a veiT^ long bnt not very wide net, one side 
of which is loaded with nieces of lead, and cousegnently sinks ; the other, or upper, 
is buoyed with pieces ox cork, and consequently is kept up to tlie surface. Seiiiea 

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nre eomptimes ns mnch as 190 fathoma in lonpth. When stretched ont, t1?ey consti- 
tnte walls of network in llie water, and are made to enclose vast shoale of flsli. Tho 
trawl is dragged along the bottom by the fishing-btiat ; and the drift-net is like tho 
seine, but ie not loaded with lead ; it is nsually employed for mackerel fishing. 

Various kinds of nets are used iu bird-catching, one of which is noticed in tho 
nrticle Clap-net. Nets are n^ed iu catching q^adl•n|)ed^, chletly for the purpose of 
enclosing spaces within winch they are, but Bumetimesalt^o for throwing upou them 
to confuse and entangle them. 

Nets are used by gardeners to protect crops from birds; also to protect the blos- 
Foms of trees from frest, and it is wonderful how well this object is accomplished, 
even wheu the meshes are pretty wide, and the suu*si rays have very free access. 

NETTING, Naval. A hoarding-netting is formed of strong rojK), and stretched 
alHJve the bulwarks of a ship, over the i)ort-holeH, Ac, to a considerable height, for 
the purpose of ])revei:ting the entrance of boarders from hostile boals. In positions 
where I)oat attacks are feasible, ships are thus protected at night, and ut other times 
when attempts at boarding are anticipatd. 

The /lammock-tutting is in the bulwarks of a ship, usually in the waist, and its 
pnri)08e is to keep the hammot ks of the crew when stowed there during the day ; 
thus netted together, the hammocks form a valuable barrier against bullets. 

Hatchway-nettings are of inch rope, and arc placed over the open hatchways dur- 
ing fine weather, to prevent persons from falling tlirough. 

NfiTTLE {Urtlca), a genus of plants of the natural order Urtieece^ having uni- 
eexnal flowers, the ra.-ile and female on the «?ame or separate plant* ; the male flowers 
with a 4-parted perianth, and four stamens; the female flowers with a 2-parted 
perianth and a tufted stigma; the fruit an achcuium. The si>ecie8 are hcrbacKons 
plants, shrubs, or even trees, many of them covered with stinging hairs, which pierce 
the skin when touched, and (!mit an acrid juice, often causing much inflammation 
.ind pain. When a N. is grasped in such a way as to press the hairs to the btem, no 
f tinging ensues; but the slightest itiadvertent touch of some of the species produces 
\ery severe pain. The ftinging of the native nettles of Europe is trifling in com- 
parison with that of some East Indian species. U. erenulata is particularly notable 
for the severity of the pain which it produces, without either pustules or apparent 
inflammation. The first sensation is merely a slight tingling, but within an hour 
violent pain is felt, as if a red-hOt iron were continually applied, and the pain ex- 
tends far from the original s|>ot, continues for about twenty-four hours and then 
abates, but is ready to return in its original intensity on the application of cold 
water, and does not cease for fully eight days. Cold water has a similar effect in 
incrcas'Ujg opWenewing the pain of all kinds of nettles. Still more formidable than 
this species is U. urentiaeinta, the DeviVa Leaf of Timor^ Of British spt'cles, the 
most venomous, but the most rare, is the Komam N. (IT.pilnlifera) ; next to it is tho 
' SatALj^ N. (U. uren8)t frequent about towns and villages, and in waste and cultivated 
ground ; whilst the least venomous is the most common and only perennial species, 
the Great N. {U. dioica)^ everywhere abundant, but ])ai1icularly near human habi- 
tations, or their former sites, the desolation of which it may be said to proclaim. 
The roots of nettles, boiled with alum, afford a yellow dye ; and the juice of tho 
etalks and leaves has beejj used to dye woollen stuffs of a beautiful and permanent 
prtieii. The young shoots of IT. dioica are ust d in some parts of Scotland and 
other countries as greens, and their peculiar flavor is much relished by some, 
although, iu general, the use of them is conflined to the poor; which, however, is 
probably the result of mere prejudice. Whatever it is that gives nettles their sling- 
ing i>ower, is dissipated by boiling. The high value of nettles as food for swiue 
is well known to the peasantry of many countries ; the Great N. is cultivated iu 
Sweden for fodder of aomestic animals ; nettles are also highly esteemed as food for 
jjonltry, particularly for turkevs. The seeds are extermely nutritious to poultry ; 
and are given to horses by jockeys, in order to make them lively when they are to 
be offered for sale. The stalks and leaves of nettles are employed iu some parts of 
England, for the manufacture of a light kind of beer, calh d N. beer, which may be 
soen advertised at stalls, and in humble shops iu Manchester and other towns. The 
bast fibre of nettles is useful for textile purposes. Yarn and cloth, both of the coars- 
est and finest descriptions, can be made of it. The fibre of U, dioica was used by 

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Noufchatel -'^-^ 

the ancient Egyptians, nnd is etill uped in Piedmont nnd other conntrien. When 
wanted for fibre, the plnntjs cut in the middle of summer, and treated like liemp. 
The names N. Yarn aiuKV. Clotfl iire, however, now commonly given in most parts 
of Enrope to i>arricnlar linoti and cotton fahrics.— 'i'he fibre of V. cnnnabfyia, a 
native Of the ponthof Silwria and olber middle parts of Apia, is much nstxl; and 
from that of U. Whitlawi^ i>oth fine lace and strong ropes ctin he maim facta red. The 
fibre of U. Jajwnica is much used in Jap.'iu, and that of U. argentea in tht; Sonth Sen 
Islands; that of (T. CatiadeiuiA is u seel in Canada. — Tl»e seeds and herba:^ of V. 
vievibra'*iacea are used in Kg.vpt as enimenagogiie and aphrodisiac; and somewhat 
similar properties are ascribed to V. ditiica. — CLtuberosa pnuyici's tnbei-s, which are 
nutritious, and are eaten in In'dia, raw, boiled, or roiV'«ted. — Australia prodnces a 
maijuificent tree-nettle, 17. gwan, abundant in some parrs of New Sonth Wales, 
ordinarily from 25 to 50 feet high, but sometimes 120 or 140 feet, with trnnlcof great 
tliickness, and very larse green leav«^s, which, when young, sting violejitly. In some 
places, it forms scrub forests, *und its stiugin;; leaves form a great impediment to 
the travclU-r. 

NETTLE-RASH, or Urtica'ria (Lat urtica^ a nettle), is the term applied to a 
common form of ernption on the skin. The eruption consists of wheals, or liJtle 
B«ilid eminences of iiTcgular outline, and either white or red, or most commonly 
both red and white, there being a white centre with a red margin. The rash la 
accompanied with irreat heat, itching, and irritation ; the appearance on the skin 
and the sensation being very much like the appearance and feelmg produced by the 
slinging of nettles; and hence the origin of its names. 

The disease may be either acnte or clironlc In the acnte form, fevcrishness 
usually preceded the rash by a few hoars, although sometimes they commence to- 
gether. The disorder 1b always connected with some derangement of the digestive 
organs, and it may often be traced to the imperfect digestion of special articles of 
food, such as oatmeal, tlie kernels of fruit, strawbcn'ies, cucumbers, mushrooms, 
and especially oysters, mussels and crabs, whicli are eaten with perfect impunitj' by 
most persons. An hour or two after the offending substance has been swallowed, 
there i>* a feeling of nausea, with oppression about the pit of the stomach ; the 
patient often coinplaine of giddiness, and tiie face frequently swells; the skin thtm 
Degins to tingle, and the eruption breaks fortli ; vomiting and diarrhoea often super- 
vene, and act as a natural cure ; but even when they do not occur, the violence of 
the rash usually subsides in a few liours, and the disorder altogether disappears In a 
day or two. 

The chronic form is often very troublesome, and frequontly comes on ]>eriodIcally 
in the evening. Cases are reported in which persons have l)een afflicted for t<*n 
years continuously !)y this form of the disease. Patients have left off all their cus- 
tomary articles of di«*t, one by one, without in all cases nieeting with relief; and 
hence it may be infeiTed, that although the disease depends in all ca^es on adisor- 
di'ri*d condition of the digestive organs, it is not always ttie consequence of some 
special offending article having been swallowed. * 

The main treatment of the acnte form consists in expelliug the offending matter 
by an emetic and by purgatives, and the cure is thus usmilly completed. In the 
chronic form, the patient slionld, in the first place, determine whether the rash is 
caused by any particular article of diet, and if this seems not to be tlie case, an at- 
tempt must be made to improve the state of tli«? digestive organs. A few grains of 
rhubarb taken daily, just before breakfast and before dinner, will sometimes effect 
a cure. If this simple remedy fafls, Dr Watson recommends the trial of a dranglit 
coin|)Osed of the Infusion of scrpent.aria (about an ounce and a half), with a scruple 
each of the carbonate of magnesia and soda. He adds, that although external n\)- 
plications are usually of little avail, he has found that ducting the itching surface 
with flour sometimes affords temporary relief ; and that a still more us-'ful nppllcji- 
tion Is alotion composed of a drachm of the carbonate of ammonia, a drachm of the 
acetate of lead, half an ounce of Jandanum, and eight ounces of rose-water. 

NETTLE-TREE (CeUis)^ a genus of decidnons trees of the natnral order Ulmaeeop, 
with simple and generally serrated leaves, considerably resembUng those of the Com- 
mon Nettle, but not stinging. The genus is distingnished chiefly by its fruit, wliich ' 
i.H a fl(»shy, globose, or sun-globose 1 -celled drupe. 1'he Common or European N. T. 
<C AiiMralis) is a native of the south of Europe, the west of Asia, and the north of 

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Africa. It arrows to the height of 80—40 foot, nnd w a very hnndsome tree, ofteii 
planted along public walks in the ponth of France and north of Itiily. The woc^l is 
very coir.ijact, very dnrable, and takes a high {>o]i«th. It M-as formerly nnich imported 
into Britain for the nse of coachniakers. It is used in Italy by umsical-iuBtrnnicnt 
makers for flutes and pipes. The flowers are hiconspicnoiis. axillary, and solittiry ; 
the f mit black, resembling a small \^ild cheriy, not eatable till after the first frosts, 
and then very sweet. The kernel jrields a useful fixed oil. The ti*ee succcetls wt-ll in 
the south of England. — C occidentalia, is a native of North America from Canada to 
Ciuolina. sometimes there called the N. 'I\, sometimes the Suoab Berry. Iti* leaves 
are much broader tlian those of C. AttstrcUis. its fruit very similar. It is a nmcli 
larger tree, attaimng a height of 60—80 feet. — ^Another American speclep, C. crassi- 
/<>/?«, often called Hackberrt or Haoberrt, and HoOP Ash, is very abundant in 
the basin of the Ohio and westward of the Mississippi. It grows to a great height, 
but the trunk is not very thick. The wood is not much valued, but is said to make 
very fine charcoal- The fruit is black, and about the size of a pea. — The Inner bark of 
C. orientalU, consisting of reticulated fibres, fonns a kind of natural cloth, used by 
some tribes of India.— A number of other species are natives of the warm parts of 
America and of Asia. 

NEU-CHWATSG, orTing-Tsze, atown of the ehine«»e Empire, in Manchuria. 
It stands on the left bank of the river Liaou, alwut 26 miles from \\» moaili, and iu 
hit, 410 n., and long. i22o 30' e. The Liaon, which falls into the Gulf of Llaou-tong, 
at the head of the Yellow Sea, is navigable for sea-going vessels to N. ; and N. is 
therefore regarded as a seaport, and Is one of tho^e opened to foreigh trade by tho 
treaty of Tientj*in. A Bntish consul resides here ; but the trade is as yet incon- 
Biderable, and only to Chinese ports. 

NEU-BRA'NDENBURG, a town of Mecklenburg. Strelitz. the prettiest nnd, after 
the capital, the largest in tho duchy, is situated on Lake Tollens, 17 miles north- 
north-east of Neu-Strelitz. It is regularly buJlt. contains two churches, a castle, 
4fcc., is the centre of a picturesque district, and the seat of considerable industry. 
Pop. (1871) T245.— About half a league from N., on a rock overlooking Lnko 
Tollens, stands the ducal pleasure-cast le of Belvedere, commanding, it is said, the 
most l>eautiful prospect in Mecklenburg. 

NEU'BUT?G, an ancient town of Bax-aria, Is picturesquely situated on the right 
bnnk of the Dnnube, 29 miles norih-north-east of Augshui-g. It coutjiins a hand- 
some pa'ace, the chftt-an of the Dukes of Bavaria of the line of Pfalz-Neuhurg, who 
r«»sided here from 1596 to 1742. The pnlrce contains a collection of ancient armor. 
Br«-.ving \m\6. distilling nrr cnrrirdon, and there is a considerable commercial trade 
on the Danube. Vo\\ (1871) 6390. 

NETPCHATE'L, or Neuchatel, known also as Nenenhurffy a canton in the west of 
Switzerland, between liafee Neufchatel and the French frontier, in lat 46° 62'— 47° 10' 
n., nnd long. 6*^ 26'— 7° 5' e. Area, 304 eq. miles. Population, 97,284, at the close of 
1870. N. Ues in the midst of the Jura Mountains, four chains of which, running 
from north-east to Bouth-weet, travei-se the canton, and are separated by elevated 
longitudinal valleys. The most easterly of these is a broken chain, running parallel 
to the lake of Neufchatel, on whose banks, and on the second and lower ranges be- 
yond It, the vine is carefullyVultivatcd. This second chain has five principal passes, 
the highest of which, La Toume, has an elevation of about 4000 feet 'ITie third and 
fourth ranges, abutting on Prance, consist for the most part of barren hills, separated 
by elevated valleys ; but here and there these h'gh lands are well wooded and fruitful, 
producing com, good pasture, fruits, &c The greater number of the numerous 
streams which water the canton flow into the Rhine. Among these mountain tor- 
rents, the principal are the Reuse, the Seyon, and the Seniere, the two former of 
which, together with the rivers Orbe and Broie, are tlie feeders of the Lake of Neuf- 
< hatel, known also as the Lake of Yvei-dun. The Thiele serves as its outlet, and car- 
ries its waters into the neighboring lake of Bienne, and into the river Aar. The lake 
is 25 miles long, and from 3 to 5}^ miles wide. Its level above the sea is 14'J0 feet, 
and it has a depth of 400 or 500 feet. , 

The natural products are iron ores, coal, asphnlt, fruit, including grapes— from 
wl icli L'ood r«'d nnd white wines are made— timber and com, although the lattt-r is 
M>t t;rowu iu sufficient quantity for the deinauds of the home consumption. ine 

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Hfettfchatef OA I 

Nearalgia -^^^ 

roaring of cuttle constitateft an important branch of indnBtry. and large qnantitiesof 
clieese are exported; Wut thu specialty of the caiituu is wjuch-inakiug, wUicb oci*a- 
))iea from 18,000 to 20,000 persons, and is prosecuted in detail at the homes of th€t 
work-iieople in the rural districts, where some families manufacture oidyspc'cial 
parts of the nmchluerj', while others are entragetl solely in puitinj; t-oirether the sep- 
arate portions that have been manufactured by others ; and the watches thns pre- 
pared are exported in larijeqnantitiea to every part of Europe and Americji. Muslin 
])rinting employs upwards of 10.000 persons, and lace U extensively made by the 
country-women ot the Val ae Tnivers. 

The climate of N. varies greatly wilh the locality, beinj* temperate on the shores 
of the lake, cooler in the valleys, and severe on the mountain-sides. The popula- 
tion, with the exception of between 9000 and 10,000 Catholics, belongs to varioua 
Protestant denominations. 

The history of N. was identical with that of Bnrp:nndy till the lltli c; and after 
the principality had l>«en for a time incorporated wish the territories of thcConuts 
of Chalou:*, to whom it had been granted in 1238 by Ri:do)pli of Hapsburg, it passed 
to the House of Loiigueville. In 1707, on the extinction of the N. branch oCthe lat- 
ter family, 16 claimants came forward to advance niorejor less valid pretensions to 
the N. territory. Frederick I. of Prussia, who based his claim to the princiiMiiity of 
N. on the ground of his d.-scent from the firj*t Prince of Onuiffe, a descendant of the 
House of Ciialons, was the successful candidate ; and from liis time it continued 
associated with Prussia till 1806, when Napoleon bestowed it upon General Berthier ; 
but in 1814, it was restored to the House of Brandenburg. This connection with 
the Prussian monarchy has been wholly dissolved since 1857, and N. is now a mem- 
bjr of the Swiss Confederation. 

NEUFCHATEL, or Nou'enburg, is the chief town of t!:o canton, and occupies a 
magnificent sit-e on the north-west shore of the Lake of Nenfchaiei, and is noted for 
iismauycliaritjibla institutions, and tor the beauty of its cjarmiugiy situated en- 
virons. Pop. (1870) 13,821. 

NEU'HAUS, a town of Bohemia, on the Nescharka, about 70 miles sonth-soath' 
cast of Prague. Its palace, belonging to Count Czerny, is a sp)(>ndid edifice. Cloth* 
paper, and chemical products are manufactared. Pop. (1869) 8620. 

NEU'HAUS EL (Hung. Ersek-Ujpdri^ a town of Hungaiy, on the right bank of 
the Neiitra, 74 miles north-west ot Pesth, by the Vienna and Pesth Kailway. It 
was formerly strongly fortified, and played an important pjirt in the Turkish wars. 
No traces of ils fortifications now remain. Pop. (1869) 9483, chiefly engaged in ag- 
riculture and the rearing of cattle. 

NEUILLY (sometimes cjilled Neuillt-sur-Seine, to disttngnish it^rom several 
much less important places of the same name), a town of France, in the dep. of 
SeiUL', on the right bank of the river Seine, immediately to the north of the Bois dc 
Boulogne. N. may now bo regarde*! as a suburb of Paris, with which it is connected 
by several streets, or roads, lined with numerous villas. Here, near the Seine, and 
In a large and beautiful park, formerly stood the Ctmteaa de Neuilly. built by Louis 
XV., and the favorite residence of Louis Philippe, which was bumea at the revolu- 
tion in 1843. The i»ark was also then divided into lots for sale, the consequence be- 
ing a rapid increase of the number of houses in NeiiiHy. N. has manufactures of 
porcelain and starch, chemical works and distillerie.«?. Pop. (1872) J5^466. When 
Louis Philippe abdicated, and took refuge in England, he assumed the title of Count 
de Neuilly. 

NEU'MONSTER, a propperons manufacturing and market town of Holstein, on 
the Schwale, one of the head-waters of the St^cr, and on the railway between 
Altona and Kiel, 19 miles. S()uth-by-W(^st from Kiel. Tiiere are large woollen and 
linen factories, tanneries, dye-works, and breweries. Pop. (1875) 10,124, 

NEURA'LGIA (Qr. neuron, a nerve ; aJffoa, pain) is a term employed to desiprnate 
pain of a purely nervous character, usually tiuaccompanied by infiatnmatioii, fever, 
or any appreciable change of structure. The pain, which occnra in paroxysms, 
nsujilly followed by coini>lcte remissions, is of every possible degi*ce and character, 
bjing descHbed in different cashes as piercing, tearing, burning, &c. These par- 
oxysms may occur at intervals of a few second^ only, or they may lake place wtHy 


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OAK Neufohatel 

^^^^ Neuralgia 

or on alternate days, or they may be separated by much longer intsu'vals, which are 
often, bat. by no n>eanB alwayp, of a regular length. With the paiu, there is fro- 
5[ueutly8pa.«modic twitching of tlie adjacent mubcle^. The duration of the disease 
Is very uncertain. The patient may Inive only a single attack, or he may be liable 
to recurring altacks for months, years, or eveu for his whole life ; it is, however, 
very seldom that the disease occurs but once. Death scarcely ever results* directly 
from this affection, but the pain may, by its severity aud persisteute, gradually 
undermine the constitution. 

The disease may attack any part of the l>o4y where there are nerves ; but in no 
pan does It occur so frequfintly as in the face, when it is po)>ularly known as *»c 
£huloureux; its S' at. being in the facial braijches of the fifth pair of nerves (tlie irl- 
facial nerves). The following graplilc de««crlptiou of the ordinary varieties of ibis 
form of neuralgia is borrowed from Dr Watson's ** Lectures on the Principles and 
Practice of Physic:" "When the uppermost branch of the trifacinl nerve i«» rlie 
seat of Ihe con»plaint, the pain generally shoots from the spot where iho nerve 
ii<saes through the superciliary hole ; and it involves the parts adjacent, upon which 
the fibrils of the nerve are* distributed — the forehead, ihe brow, the upix.r lid, 
sometimes the eyeball itself. The eye is usually clo-ed during the p.jroxysni, and 
the skin of the forehead on that side corrugated. The neighboring arteries throh, 
and a copious gush of tears take place. In some instances, the eye becomes blo6d- 
shotten ateach attack; and when the attacks are frequently repeated, this injection 
of the conjunctiva may become permanent. 

" When the pain depends uiK)n a morbid condition or morbid action of the mid- 
dle branch of the nerve, it is somtimes quite sudden in its accession, and sometimes 
comes on rather more gradually ; being preceded by a tickling or pricking sensation 
of the cheek, and by twitches of the lower eyelid. These symptoms are shortly 
followt^d by pain at the infra-orbitary foramen, spreading in severe flashes (so to 
speak) over the cheek, aff -cting the lower eyelid, ala nasi, and upper lip, and often 
teruiiuating abruptly at tiie mesial line of the face. Sometimes it extends to the 
teeth, the antrum, the hard and soft palate, and even to the base of the tongue, aud 
induces spar<modic contractions of the neighboring muscles. 

'• When the pain is referrible to the inferior or maxillary branch of the fifth pair 
of nerves, it dai-rs from the mental foramen, rauiaiing to the lips, tlie alveolar pro-^ 
ceases, the teeth, the chin, and to the side of the tongue. It often stops exactly at the 
symphysis of the chin. Frequently it extends in the other direction, to the whole 
cheek and to the ear. Durhig the paroxysm, the features are liable to be distort<d 
by spasmodic action of the nniscles of the jaw, amounting sometimes to tetanic 
rigidity, aud holding the jaw fixed and immovable. 

"The paroxysm^? of suffering in this frightful disease are apt to be broueht on by 
apparently trivial causes — by a slight touch, by a current of air blowing upon the 
face, by a suddt-n j t or shake of the bed on which the patient is lying, by a knock 
at the door, or even by directing the patient's attention to his malady, by speaking The necessary niovements of the face in 
6|>eaking or eating are often snfilciont tQ provoke or renew the paroxysm. At the 
sajiie time, firm pressure made upon the painfnl part frtiquont y givi's relief, and 
causes a sense of numbness to take the place of the previous agony " (vol. i. pp. 
723, 724). 

Tic douloureux is the form of severe neuralgia which is by far the most commonly 
met with ; the reas«m probably being, that the trifacial nerve, lying supei-ficially, and 
being disMbuted over a part of the surface whicli is usually unprotected by any arti- 
flcialcovering, is very liable, for that reason, to be affected by exposure to atmos- 
pheric influences, which are undoubtedly to be im luded among the exciting causes 
of this disease. Amongst oth<'r seats of neuralgia may be mentioned the arm, 
especially the forearm, the spaces between the ribs, especially between the sixtli and 
ninth, and the lower extremity, where it most frequently affects the sciatic jjerve, 
giving rise to the affecticm known as Sciatica, which, however, not always being 
pure neuralgia, will be noticed in a separate article. 

The causes of neuralgia are various. Excluding inflammation of the nervous 
trunk Or »i«trrti«, the pain may be excited by a tumor pressing on the nerve, or origi- 
nating in its substance; or by roughness of a bony suitace with which the nerve may 
!» iu contact, as when it passes through a foramen ; or it may be due to tumors 

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ir.»ralBla 206 

witliiiA;ho craiilnm. or a morbid state of the epina! cord. Sometimes, again, irrita- 
tion applied to o»ie nranch of a uervu will give ri'^e to paiu at the extrei:iity otcutother 
l)rauch of the Bame nerve, the seiisatiou being reflected along the brunch whicb isuot 
directly expoped to the irritation. In this way we may explain Iho pain in tbe 
Bhonlder which often accompanies disease of ilie liver; the pain in the thigh, wliich 
is often associated with irritation of the kidney ; tiie i)aiu in the left arm, wiiich is 
often coincident with disease of the heart, &c. Persous suffering from debility, 
aniemia, aud a gouty or rheumatic coustitutiou, are so espi^ciaUy liable to nenralgia, 
tliat these conditions — ^aa also exposure to malarious iufluences— must be pkSt4 
tftuong tlie predisposing causes. Amongst the exciting causes, exposure to cold aud 
wer, or to a cold dry east wind, is tl»e most frequent ; but fatigue, strong mental 
emotions, the abuse of tea, coffee, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, a wound or bruise, 
the retrocession of gout, rheumatism, or cntaneous ernptious, &c., occasionally 8nf« 
fice to excite the disease. 

The resources of tlie materia medica have been exhausted iu searching for r«n- 
edies for this cruel disease. Dr Elliotson believes that " iu all cases of uenralgia, 
whether exquisite or not, nnaccon)paiiicd by inflammation, or ev.deut existing 
cause, iron is the best remedy ;" and tliere can be no doul)t lliat when Uie disease is 
accompanied witli debility and paleness, no remedy is likely t^ be so sei-viceable. If 
the digeftive orpins arc out of order, the neuralgia may not unlnqueutly be 
removed or allevuited by correcting their mihealthy state. •* Dr Rigby tells us that 
having suffered iu his own person an intense attack of tic doulouriux, 
which opium did not }u<8uage, he swallowed some carbonate of soda 
dissolved in water. The effect was almost immediate; ou-bouic acid 
was erucied, and the pain quickly abated. In this ca:<e, the pain de- 
pended upou the mere presence of acid iu the stomach. More often the cause 
of offence appears to lie iu some part of the jntestinea ^ *i"d purgatives do good. 
Sir Chades Bell achieved the eure of a ])atieutQpou whom nmch previous treatment 
hiid been expended in vain, by some pills composed of cathartic extract, croton oil, 
and galbanum. He mixed ono or two drops of the croton oil with a drachm of the 
compound extract of colocynth ; and gave Ave grains of this mass, with ten grains 
of the compound iralbauum pill, at bedtime. -Other cnses have l>eeu since reported, 
both by Sir Chaih^s and by others in wliich the same prescription was followed by 
the same success." — Watson, op. cit. p. 727. 

When the disease occurs in a rheumatic person, iodide of potassium (from three 
to five grains taken in solution three times a day before meals) sometimes ^ivcs groat 
relief. When the paroxysms, occur periodically — as, for example, with an interval of 
24 or 4S hours — sulphate of quinine m doses of from 10 to 20 grains between Vas 

Saroxysms, will usually effect a cure ; aud if the disease resist comparatively sniall 
OSes, the quantity may be increased to half a drachm, or a di'achm if necessary. 
Arsenic acts in the same manner :is quinine in these cases, but less effectually. 

The inhalation of chloroform will sometimes give permanent relief , and always 
gives temporary ease, and shortens the period of suffering. 

The iujection of a certain quantity of a solution of muriate of morphia, by means 
of a sharp-pointed syringe, into the cellular tissue benea^ the skin over the painful 
spot, very often gives immediate relief. For the discovery of this mode of treating 
neuralgia, we are indebted to Dr Alexander Wood of Edinburgh. At one time — 
about naif a centmy ago— it was a conmion practice to divide the tiimk of the pain- 
ful nerve, with the object of cutting off the communication between tlie painful spot 
aud the brain ; but in many instances the operation signally failed, and it is 
now never resorted to. A much simpler operation, namely, the extraction of 
a canine tooth, has often been found to give permanent relief in cases of facial neu- 
ralgia, and in such case a careful examination of the teeth should usually be made. 

Local applications can be of no permanent service in cases where the pain results 
from organic change, or from general constitutioual causes ; they will, however, 
often give considerable temporary relief. Amongst the most important local 
applications may be mentioned laudanum, tincture ofaconite (or aconituia ointment, 
in the proportion of one or two grains to a drachm of simple ointment or cerate), 
belladonna-plaster, and chloroform (wliich shoiUd b6 applied upon a piece of linen 
saturated with it, and covered with oiled silk, to prevent evaporation). 
< Lastly, utiui-algia being a pmcly ucrvuua affection, is often influenced bj means 

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OA'r Neuralgia 

calcnlntcd to mnke a Ptrong Impreraioii on the mind of the pnlicnt; and hence it is 
tiiat gaivnuic rhigSf (^U'Clric chniu^, mesmeric p:i88ei>, homoeopathic globules, nn<l 
other iippUcatiouB, which, liiie tbexc, act more apou the luiiid thtui opou the body of 
the patient, ocoueiouully effect a cure. 

NETJRI'TIS is tlie term applietl lo Iiiflammatiou of the nerves. The disease is 
mre, and not very well dcfliieU. The syuiptoms closely renenible those of ueuiulgia. 
libeanmtism seems, in most ciises, to be the cuiitie of tl>e disimse, which must be 
treated bv bleeding, lt;eching, purging, and lo«vr diet. Anodynes are aUo required 
for the relief of the puiu ; ana of tltese, Dover's Powder, iu tolerably fall dooes, is 
perhaps the best. 

NEURO'PTBRA (Gr. nerve-winged), an onler of mandibnlnte insects, having 
four nearly equal and membranous wings, all adapted for fliglit. divided by th«ir 
nervures into a delicate net-wotk of little sfmces, and not covered with fine scalen, 
us in the Lepidoptera. The wings are often extended horizontally when at rent, 
nearly as in flight; bat the nosiiion Is various. The lorm of the wnig is ffeuenilly 
somewhat elongated. The body is generally much elongated, particnhirly the ab<lo- 
men. The bend is often large, the compound eyes very large, and there are ottiu 
also simple or stenimatfc eyes. The fiabiis are i)redaceo<i8, at least In llie larva 
state; often also iu the pupa and perfict states, the food consisting of other in- 
sects, often caught on the wing. The power of fl:ght is accordingly great in many. 
The larvae and pu^oe are often aquatic. The females have no sting, and only a few 
liave an ovipositor. The mut;inior^)ho8is is complete in some, iucomplete in others. 
Dragon-flies, Muy-fllee, scorpion-flies, ant-lions, ;iud termites, or white ants, belong 
to tills order. 

NEU'SATZ (also Neoplanta or Uj-Videk), a town of the Austrian empire, in the 
Hungarian province of Bdcs, is situated on the left bank of the Danube, opposite 
Peterwardein. Its origin dates from the year 1700, and by the year 1849 it numbered 
nearly 20,000 inhabitants. A bridge, 840 ft^et iu length, extends between N. and 
the w)wn and fortress of Peterwardein. N. fs the seal of the Greek nou-nniied 
Bishop of Bdcs. On the 11th June 1849, it was tnken from the Bnngariau iin-nr- 
ceuts oy the imperial troops, and was almost wholly destroyed. It has been rebuilt 
fn excellent style. N. is a stiiriou for nte^miers ou the Dauube, and carries on an 
important and active trade. Pop. (1869) 19,119. 

NEUSE, a river of North Carolina, United States of America, rises near tJie 
middle of the northern boundary of the state, and. after a south-easterly course 
of 250 miles, falls -by a broad channel into Pamlico Sound, which communicates 
by several inlets with the Atlantic Ocean. It forms the harbor of Newhem. 

NEU'SIEDL, Lake (Hung. Ferto-tava)^ a small lake ou the north- wes' frontier of 
Huugnry, 22 miles south-east of Vienna. It is 23 miles iu length, and about 6 miles 
iu average breadth, with a mean depth of 13 feet. Its waters are llehi-greeu in a}>- 
peanmce, and are brackish in taste. The slopes of the Leithu Mountains iu the 
▼icinity i)roduce excellent wine. 

NEU'SOHL (Hung. Beaztercze-BAaiya), a beautiful and thriving town of Hungaiy, 
the chief place of the richesit mining district in the counti^, is situated in a hill- 
enclosed valley on the right bank of the Gran, about 85 miles north of Pesth. N., 
consisting, as it does, of the town proper and five suburbs, contaius a population, 
iu all. of (1869) 1],T80, who are employed iu the copper and iron mines of the 
vicinity, in the smelting houses, and iu the manufacture of beet-root sugar, 
paper, colors, dbc It is the seat of a bishop, and contaius a beautiful cathe- 
dral, a bishop's palace, aud two evangelical churches, and several other handsome 

NEU8S, a fortress and flourishing manufacturing town of Rhenish Prussia, near 
the left bank of the Rhine, with which it is connected by the river Erft, 4 miles south- 
west of Dus^ldorf. Its church of St Quirinas, a beautiful edifice, and a notable 
specimen of tiie transition from the round to tlie pointed style, is supposed to have 
been bpilt iu 1209. N. is the principal grain-market of the province, aud carries on 
manulaciures of woollen and other cloths, ribbons, hats, vinegar, &c. It »» supposed 
to be the Hoomum of the Romans, sacked by Attili^ in the year 451. Pop. (isio) 

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Nenstadl' OAQ 

Neutra.» ^^^ 

NEITSTABT (Polish, PrudnUz), a towu of PrnMian Silesia, 29 miles «)ntli-*Tcst 
of Oppeln. It is the seat of cousidurabiu uiaunfuctiiriug iiidnmry, woolleii aiidiiiifu 
fabrics beiuR the staple goods uinimfactiired. Dainask- weaving aloue emplo/s 680 
bauds, and 880 looms. Pop. (1875) 1«,615. 

NBU8TADT, or Wieuer-Nenstadt, oue of the most beautiful towns of Lower 
Austria, called, from Its loyalty, ** the ever-faithful towu " {ewig aetreue Stadt). is 
situated 28 miles south of Yiuuiia, oii the Vienna and Gloegniiz lijHiway, aud is also 
connected with the capital by a canul. It is surrounded by a broad and d|^p ditch, 
and by a fortified wall pierced by four gates. The town is overlooked by the large 
old castle of the Dukes of Babenber^, now a military academy for tlie preparatoi-y 
iustructiou of officers of the line. It accommodates from 400 to 600 pupils. The 
castle contains a line Gothic chapel (date, 1460}, rich in painted wiudowo. It is the 
burial-place of the Emperor Maximilian 1. On the 14tb September 1834, tlie whole 
town, with the exception of fourteen houses, was destroyed by a dreadful conflngrii- 
tiou, which involvea tlie loss of many lives. Tlie new town has been hud out witli 
great taste and regularity. The canal (40 miles in length) aud the railway to Vienna, 
aud the con ve);Kiug roads from Styria aud Hungary, are the sources of the prosperity 
of the town. In N. luachinery is extensively constructed; and sugar-reHuing ana 
manufactures of silk, velvet, and cotton fabrics, fayeuce, leather, &c., are carried oo. 
Pop. (1869) 18,070. 

NEUSTADT AN DER HARDT, a small town of Rhenish Bavaria, charmingly 
situated on the Speyerbach, at the foot of the Hardt Mountains, 12 miles north of 
Landau. Its church, with several curious monuments of tlie Coimts Palatine, and 
with some ancient fresco-paintings, was finished in the 14th century. It carries od. 
manufactures of paper, clotii, oil, orandy, &c Pop. (1875) 10,224^ 

NED'STADT-E'BERSWALDft (since 1876 caUed officially Ebetuwalde only), a 
town of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, 28 miles north-east of Berlin. It 
is well known on account of it« mineral springs, and cai'ries on extensive uiauufac- 
tm*es in steel, iron, copper, brass, paper, aud porcelain. Pop. (1875) 10,069. 

NKU'STADTL AN DER WAAG. a towu near the north west frontier of Hun- 
gary, S3 miles north-north-west of Neutra. Here excellent red wine is grown, and 
there is a good trade in grain, wool, sheep- skins, and wax. Pop. (1S69) 5451, uearly 
lialf of whom are Jews. 

NEUSTETTI'N, a town of Prussia, in the province of Pomerania, 92 miles south- 
west from Danzig, on the southern shore of the Vilm Soe. It is the capital of a circle, 
aud a place of some importance. Pop. (1875) 697L 

NEU-S TRE'LITZ, the capital and the residence of the court of the grand dncby 
of Mecklenburg-Strehtz, pleasantly situated in a hilly district, between two lakes, 60 
miles north-north-west of Berlin. It was founded in 1733. is built in the form of an 
eight-rayed sttu*, aud oon tains the diical palace, with a library of 70,000 vols., and 
having magnificent gardens attached. Pop. (1875) 8525, support©! chiefly from the 
expenditure of the court, and by brewing and distilling. A mile south of tlie town 
is Alt-Strelita, with the largest horse-market in the duchy. 

NEU'STRIA, or West France {Francia Oecidentalis), tlie name given in the 
imes of the Merovingians and Carlovinglans to the western portion of the Frank 
'*.'mpire, after the quadruple division of it which took place in 511. N. couttiincd 
l^three of these divisions. It extend<d orijjinally from the mouth of the Scheldt to the 
Loire, and was bounded by Aqultauia on the s.. and l>y Burgundy and Auatnisia 
{Francia Orientalis) on The e. The principal cities were Soistfong, Paris, Orleans, aud 
'i'ours. Bretagne was nlways loosely attached to Neuatria, of which the strr-ngth lay 
in the Duchy of Franco. After the cession of the territory afterwards callea Nor- 
mandy to the Normans in 912, the name Neastria soon fell luio disuse. 

NEU'TITSCHEIN, a small manufacturing towu of Moravia, on .the Titpch, 80 
miles north-east of BrQun. It contains an old castle, and carries ou'manufactnros 
uf cloth and woollen goods, dyeing, and wagon-making. Pop. (1869) 8645, 

NEU'TRA, a town of Hungary, the capital of a county of the same name, oo a 
river of the same name, 72 nules north -north-west from Peath, N. is a very old 
town, having been the residence of a Moruviuu prince iu Uio tth c./ before Ura 


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-^VT7 Neutra.8 

Maj^yar invasion. Weftvinff is carried on to some extent^ and N. boing not far 
from' the Moravian frontier, has a couBitlerable transit-trade. Pop. (ISOy) 10,683, 

NEU"I"RAL AXIS, tlie name given to an inniirinary line through any l)ody 
which is being snbjected to a transverse stmiu ; and separating tli«* forces of exten- 
sion from those of compression.' If the ratio of resistances to extension 
end impression were tlie same for all snbstanccs, and depei.ded nterely 
on the form of tlie body, then in oil bodies of the same form f lie m-unal axis 
woald have adt'flnitegeometricMl position; Imt it has been s.ilisfactoriiy proveii, 
by Mr Eaton Hodgkinson, that ti»is ratio has a separate value for each snl)s».ince. 
In wood, where the ratio is one of equality, the neutral axis in a beam supported nt 
both enas, whose section is rectangular, passes lengthwise through the ccntn* of tlie 
beam; while in cast-iron, in whlcii the resistance to compression is greater ilum 
that to extension, it is a little above, and in wrought iron, in whii h the contrary is 
the Ciiso, it 18 a little below, the centre. 


NEUTRALS, nations who, when a war is being carried on, lake no part in the 
contej»l, and evince lio particular friendship for, or hostility to. any of the Ixlliger- 
cnt-s. As a general rule, neutrals should conduct thems<?lve8 with pei-fect impar- 
tiality, and do nothing which can be considered as favoring one ])eiligerent more 
than another. 

The duties and obligations of neutrals at sea have given rise to many complicated 
qn'jstions. It is allowed on all hands tbat a neutral state forfeits her character of 
nentrality by fiinushiug to either belligerent any of the articles that come under the 
denonuuation of Contraband of War (q. v). If she does so, the other belligerent is 
warrant4?d in intercepting the succors, and confisc^iting them as lawful prize. C'on- 
tralMind of war, besides warlike stores, has sometimes been held to include various 
tjther articles, a supply of which is necessary for the prosecution of the war ; and it 
his been doubted now far, income circumstanceu, com, hay, and coal may not come 
under that category. 

An important question regarding the rights of neutrals is, whether enemies' goods 
not contraband of war may be lawfully conveyed in neutral bottoms. The principle 
that free ships make free goods, was long resisted by this and other maritime coun- 
tries, and the general uuderstandii-g has been, that belligerents have a right of visiting 
and searching neutral vessels for the purj>ose of ascertaming — 1st, whether the ship 
is really neutral, as the hoisting of a neutral flag affords no absolute security that It 
is eo ; 2d, whether it has contraband of war or enemies' property on board. Neutral 
sliips have therefore been held bound to provide ttjemselves with passports from their 
government, and such papei-s as are necessary to prove the property of the ship and 
cargo, and it is their duty to heave to when summoned by the cniisers of either belli- 
gerent. It has been considered that a neutral ship which seeks to avoid search by 
crowding sail or by open force, may be captured and confiscated. When a merchant- 
ship is sailing under convoy ot a vessel of wai*, it has been said that the declara- 
tion of the officer in command of the convoy that there is no contraband of war or 
belliger. ut property on board, is sufficient to bar the exercise of the right of search. 

A declaration having Imjiortanl bearinirson the rights of neutrale", was adopttd by 
the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Ilnssia, Sardinia, 
and Tprkeyj assembled in congress at Paris, on April 16. 1856. By its provisions, 
1. Privateenng is abolished. 2. A neutral flag covers enenues' goods, with the ex- 
ception of contraband of war. 3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband 
of war, are not liable to capture under the enemy's flag. 4. Blockades, in order to 
l>o binding, must he effective, that is, maintained by a force sufficient really to pre- 
vent ac^^ess to the coast of the enemy. 

It has sometimes been , propoped ti) exempt private property at sea from attack 
during war — such a project, however, seems inexpedient. 1'here may be a propriety 
in resi»ecting the property of individuals on land, in a time of war, because its de- 
strncti<Hj, lunvever injurious to the persons Immediately concerned, can have little 
influence o«i the decision of the coiifest. But at sea, private property is destroyed 
l»e«"aa>c lliohc from whom it is taken, being purveyors or carriers for the community 
at larjxe, its must seriouply affect the public, and have no small influence in 
bringing the contest to an end. See Blockade, Pbivateer. 

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New Brunswiok ^ l\j 

NEU'WIED, a town of Khenish Prussia, on the rijrhf hank of the "Rhift;. S miles 
bolow Cobli uz. It is tli« CMpitiil of the priiiclpulity of Wied, now mediatised «tid 
nttached to Prnssin, and is the seat of the princes of Wied, witli a beautifni castle. 
It was founde