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BALLTOL college; AMD MOW M.B.A.8. 



TEUBNEE & CO., 67 and 69, LUDGATE HILL. 


^^««^. y^^^^-O') 

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Pbeface ajsd Inteoduction 1 

i) grammatical elemeltrs op the libtan languages . 12 

2) TCabatt. Veebs and Veebals 38 

3) Kabail Notjns, not Veebals 78 

4) Shilha Veebs and Veebals 107 

5) Shilha Nouns, not Veebals 114 

6) Gleanings feom Ghadamsi 123 

7) TuAEix Veebs and Veebals 131 

8) TuAETK Nouns, not Veebals . . . . 182 

Naturally it is to be expected that among the Nouns not 
known to be Verbal, the chief mass of words imported from the 
foreigner will be found. 

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ON THE ^ ' ^«^v\C$/ 


Pbelihinaby Note, on tlie Alphabet here used. 

The Libyan Alphabet is preserved to us in the Tefinagh 
characters, which by reason of deficiency in Vowels are with 
difficulty read by the natives themselves. The consonants 
nearly respond to those of Hebrew ; though, by Gimel changing 
to Jimel as in Arabic, a double sound is obtained; also, the 
letter which responds to Hebrew Teth, is liable to take the 
sound of Arabic ^JO, sometimes of necessity. Thus we get 
two consonantal sounds more than in Hebrew. 

The consonants B D F G (hard) HJKLMNRSTWYZ 
are sounded as in English. Besides these attention must be 
paid to the accompanying list (see next page) : 

The letters H £ 2i seeni to be not properly Libyan, but 
introduced by the Arabs. They sometimes supplant the true 
sound even in native w&rda, Sayce (Assyrian Gr.) treats Hebrew 
f^ as ^ rather than ^. In Ghadamsi the £ constantly sup- 
plants the r. The Tuarik of Barth could not say Moilammed, 
but inevitably made it Mo£ammed. 

The sounds of J and of ^ seem to have some local diversity, 
which is the case also with T. 

I have several times put forward reasons for transcribing 
foreign languages by a B^manized alphabet. Especially for 
Maps, the foreigners must learn to read our letters. In this 
tongue, French experience finds it impossible to be satisfied with 


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the Tefinagh. Mj effort has been to get forms which will not 
be mistaken, even in small print ; this is my reason for ex* 
tending { and i^ below the line. Also I avoid two Boman 
letters for one native (as kh, th, sh), and accented letters. 




















wheezing Irish h, — an Arabic 

German rough ch. True Lib- 
yan, yet rare. 

rough jerk of the voice. 

English th in this, — Kabail. 

English th in thtn^, — Kabail. 

modern Greek Ghamma, 
Dutch ffh ? Northumber- 
land Burr; a favourite 
Libyan sound. 

thick if— palatal t ? 

thick A, a letter specially 

as in Spanish (and Oscan ?) 
for English sh. 

soft k formed at the root of the 

probably Tz orrather thick Ts. 

[N.B. In Arabic cl/ takes the sound of English Teh with 
the Bedouins and at Bagdad, but elsewhere that of English K. 
These are the two sounds of Italian C ; hence it seemed to me 
convenient to use C for CS in Arahto. There is no such 
reason in Libyan ; with Hanoteau I write k, and rather reserve 
C for our Teh, which yet in Libyan seems better written tx.] 

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The languages here named Libyan hare been collectively 
called Berber; but the word Berber is apt to be confounded 
with a people on the upper Nile. The Libyan language, as 
known to the B^mans, was but one, according to St. Augustine. 
Now there are at least four, the Kabail in Algeria, the Shilha in 
the mountains of Morocco, the Tuarik (or Tarkieya as some call 
it) beyond the Atlas, and the Ghadamsi at Ghadames, perhaps 
its eastern limit. The differences in these four is largely caused 
by Arabic superseding native words differently in different places. 
Ancient words retained in one district have been lost in another : 
and, as must happen, new special words have grown up : but 
the native grammar continues in all with very little change of 
principles. In the Kabail the letter T is constantly sounded as 
Ts, which may be called a local h'spy since it does not indicate 
any diversity of meaning : on which account it is here wholly 
neglected. Thus I write Neita, "he; this," not Netsa. The 
Kabail also in many words aspirates T, D into our twofold th ; 
Greek and A : but this likewise is matter of mere euphony, 
not affecting the sense, any more than in Hebrew. This aspira- 
tion drops off in the other languages. 

Only of the Kabail and of the Tuarik is our knowledge more 
than fragmentary. To the former the Prench Government has 
directed special attention, and through Brossehrdi's Dictionary 
of 1844 and General Sanoteau^s Grammar of 1858 we obtain 
knowledge both copious and solid. There are rustic dialects 
of little importance, which are here neglected. A distinction 
nevertheless must be named between the Zouave of the moun- 
tains, which Hanoteau sets before us, and the maritime dialect 

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of Bougie, the town of Sidi Samet, who was the only native 
in the Committee which compiled Brosselard's Dictionary. 
Here it suffices to say, that nearly every Zouave word pro- 
nounced with ^ has )o in Bougie; and the y or w oi 
Bougie is often a hard ^ or ^ in Zouave. Sidi Hs^et is 
the same who translated — ^inevitahly with great imperfection 
— ^the four Gospels and the Acts. These were my original 
sources of information. Mr. "W. B. Hodgson, an American 
consul, first engaged Sidi Hamet in this work, and used much 
effort to contribute to our knowledge of the Libyan. — The 
modern Eabail is our nearest representative of the KumniAN 
language. Volney was first to announce this. 

But the Shilha stands with us for the MATTBixAiTiAir. Our 
materials for it are very scanty. In my hands are only some 
lithographed pages by M. Delaporte, phre^ with French transla- 
tion and a mercantile letter by the same; a poetical dialogue 
between two plants (Henna and Spikenard), which I im- 
perfectly understand, and a narrative by Sidi Ibrahim. The 
last was obtained by the zeal of Mr. Hodgson, -who sent -with 
it a very vague Arabic version. Though uncertainties remsiio, 
this document is my best informant; unless I refer to Prof. 
Venture de Paradis. He was the first able investigator in 
this field; but Kapoleon I. commanded his services in Egypt. 
He did not know that the Shilha and the Eabail differ too 
much to be caUed one language; hence he confounded into 
one vocabulary the words and phrases furnished to him by. 
an Algerine and by a Mauritanian. While this is to be re- 
gretted, yet internal evidence often shows that words are or 
are not Kabail; so as to aid our separation. When a word 
is given by me on the authority of V. {ue. of Venture de 

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Paradis), the reader must remember that I have to decide 
whether it is Shilha or Xabail. The latter is often pointed 
out by the occurrence of or A. At the same time my error, 
if error I make, is of very small importance in the task here 
assumed, — of recovering whatever can be recovered of the 
ancient Libyan. 

The Tuarik seems to be the ancient Gatulian, I cannot 
willingly follow the new fashion of calling the people Imoshagh 
(Imuxac) and their language Temushaq or Temoshaght ; for the 
other Libyans also claim the word, which is believed to mean 
Freemen, Franks. In Ibrahim's Narrative we read, Elian gis 
ko5 Ama5i(» etyaran si tirra Ixla£in; "erant ibi quatuor (libri) 
Ama5ighani, scripti per scripturam Shilahium." (The 5 in 
Amasif is changed to x (= sh) in Tuarik, as often happens.) 
Thus Imoshagh is not a suficiently distinctive name : on the 
other hand Tuarik is old and well understood. Dr. Henry 
Barth observes that the word Tuarik is written by classical 
Arabs with soft T and soft K; so that in Arabic it means 
** those who quit or abandon " ; i.e. men who fled from their 
homes to avoid Arab conquest, — or more simply. Rovers. Be 
this as it may, there can be no mistake as to the word, as 
denoting those Libyans who live south of the Atlas Highlands. 
They extend over the Western half of the great African desert, 
as far as Timbuktu, and even beyond. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of Timbuktu three languages wholly foreign to 
the Libyan prevail, the Songhay, the Haussa and the Fulah : 
wholly foreign, I say, though certain pronouns of the Haussa 
have a notable likeness to the Libyan. The Songhay was once 
an imperial language, now the speech of Timbuktu and Aghades, 
a town in which the Tuarik tribe, Kel Air, have their centre. 

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Barth calls his Tuarik people Awelimmiden] and a document 
which he brought to England (published by the Foreign OflSice) 
shows that the people of Aghades entitle the Awelimmiden 
Serku, Hodgson has printed a short vocabulary of Surku or 
Sergooi no doubt they are the Awelimmiden or the South 
Western Tuarik. But Hanoteau, in his excellent Grammar of 
1860, teaches us the dialect of the Isaqqamaren in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tuatf a town which is the centre of power to 
their king or sultan, chief of the Xel Ahagger (populus excehus ? 
or nolilis), A Moslem people is sure to import religious and 
moral words from Arabic, yet in Tuarik the Arab element is 
comparatively small. Mr. H. Stanhope Ereeman, when British 
Vice-Consul at Ghadames, unaware of Hanoteau's studies in 
Tuarik, put together whatever he could glean up concerning 
the language of Ghat, where the Tuarik called Kel Azger are 
dominant. It is a very welcome addition to our knowledge, 
however much we may regret that he did not rather addict 
himself to the language of Ghadames, where he was residing. 
Hitherto, we find three dialects of the Tuarik, sensibly distinct. 

Concerning the G/mdamsi language, Gr§.berg de Hemso had 
given us some slight notion : also the traveller Br. Eichardson 
brought home scanty information furnished to him by Ben 
Musa, a native, who explains Ghadamsi words sometimes by 
Arabic, sometimes by Tuarik. GrS-berg de Hemso differs from 
these by exhibiting initial 9 in Ghadamsi nouns, a letter 
otherwise known in Xabail only. 

Mr. W. B. Hodgson, the American already named, gives 
short lists of words from the Beni Mo5ab, a white race, and 
from the men of Wergela, who are blacks ; but it is the same 
language. They have words specially Tuarik, as Aferim a 

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city ; but this may once have been Kabail, though it has now 
been driven out by the quasi-Arabic Gamdint. In the neglect 
of aspirates, these tribes differ from the Eabail; yet on the 
whole the specimens given are full as near to the Kabail as 
to the Tuarik. 

From the specimens of the Beni Menasser in a list of 
Duveyrier I conclude that they exhibit to us an old and 
corrupted Kabail, though their pronouns in De Slane diverge 
notably. No remark is here needed, except the tendency of 
this small tribe to write feminine nouns with 6 or T a^ the end 
only. Thus for Gamemt, honey, they say Amemt. In con- 
nection with the participle, it is beyond question that Wa, 
6a mean just o, 17 of Greek,— rDer, Die of German; but the 
modern Lybians have forgotten this sense when a noun follows 
close. Here therefore it seems that the Beni Menasser retain 
the antique nouns.^ 

Hodgson has a list of Tuarik nouns, besides his Serku list; 
differing in certain words from all other authorities; but he 
gives no distinct local reference. 

As to Hanoteau's Tuarik (of Tuat) it is convenient here 
to remark on his g g and z z, which with him represent 
Tifinagh consonants. His g is described as g peculiarly 
softened: one may conjecture, like gy (with English conso- 
nantal y) before a vowel. Thus some Englishmen (of an old 
or provincial school) pronounce Guide, Guilt as Gyide, Gyilt. 
But Barth, Freeman and Hodgson give us dj or English j 

* The Noun of Action sometimes begins and also ends with T, as from 
Irlai, he went round, Ta|«lit, rotation. Here it may be doubted whether 
initial T was once the feminine article; the more so, since the T which 
forms a present tense gives no feminine idea.— rl observe that in Assyrian 
nouns of action are presented to us, nearly of this form, as T-asmea-tu, 
hearing (Sayce, Comp. Gr. p. 110). 

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instead of this softened g, which I therefore conclude to be 
^ local peculiarity of Tuat. Consequently, I always write J 
for Hanoteau's G'. Again, with Hanoteau, H in Tuarik means 
merely our English Z ; but his simple Z stands for the douhie 
cross of Tifinagh, concerning the sound of which there is 
somer uncertainty. 

In Hanoteau's Kabail Grammar (p. 361) we find that 'Abd el 
Qadir Ben Bu Bekr accounts the Arab ^j^ to be the best equiva- 
lent of the Tifinagh double cross : but Mollammed el Uzani and 
M. Schousboe find no equivalent in Arabic for it ; and what 
is more, M. Delaporte's lithograph expresses it by an Arab ^ 
with three dots above ; a clear indication that the Arab Alphabet 
here fails. — In many words (as in Amazif itself) this z passes 
into an English Sh, and (stranger still) thence into an H, 
reminding us of Latin and Greek or Erse and Welsh, sus 
and hus, sal and hal, etc. . Considering that the Hebrew con- 
sonants agree in more than one point of euphony with the 
Kabail, and that the two consonants tD X correspond with 
Libyan, where the Arabic has four, it is allowable to con- 
jecture that *ji best represents the double cross of Tifinagh, or 
the triple-dotted ^ of Shilha. Gesenius's Dictionary interprets 
X as Ts, which accords with prevalent opinion ; or perhaps (as 
Sayce seems to think) a somewhat thicker utterance, denoted 
by T5. We know how readily the sound of Ts interchanges 
with that of English Teh ; — some Englishmen lisp Ch into Ts ; 
which may aid us in conceiving how in Tuarik, especially in 
Serku, Ts becomes Sh. 

It is to be regretted that in Kabail the distinction of z 
and z' is all but lost. Hanoteau indeed writes Ez^u, plant; 
where his 9 apparently denotes (j^. In this language the 

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imperatives A5U,* U5 (skin, flay), E5U (parch, fry, broil), £531 
(turn round), Ezzai (be heavy), E53U, E39U (plant), co-exist, 
and are deceptively alike. In Tuarik the z and 2f are not 
always well distinguished by the natives themselves ; but when 
we find a sound vacillating between z and sh, and much more, 
if also liable to become h, we may reasonably conclude that 
it is the Double Gross ; so also, if in Shilha the word be 
denoted by three-dotted ^ . Therefore when I find in Barth 
Oxe (flay) — {i.e. Oshe in English writing,) — which is Uz,* Azu 
in Kabail, I conclude that the true radical is y, and so write 
it, provisionally. Similarly of other words; as yer, (see), 
written with triple dot in Shilha. Again, if in Tuarik a Z 
be thus thickened, I infer, till better taught, that it is so in 
Kabail likewise, if the word be found there. 

The sound of our Gh (Tx) is sometimes met in Eabail, which 
generally brings a K in Tuarik: thus, £ah. Etx (eat thou), 
Itxa (he ate), Tuar. Ekx, Ikxa: again, J5^. Itxur (it was 
full), Tuar, Ifkar: Xiah, ItxaQ, Itxatx (?) (he was angry) 
EtxaH (anger), but in Tuar, Etkaf, Etkar and Edekar (wrath). 
Here a vacillation between the sounds f and r in Tuarik 
responds to an un-Libyan H in Kabail. Barth' s vacillations 
between k and r generally denote the f sound to be true. 
The combination {t (final) is retained by him ; but in the 
Tuarik of Hanoteau and Ereeman, this combination is cor- 
rupted into a mere q colloquially. Q is certainly rare in Libyan, 
so is £1 ; yet in some words the Arabic ^ becomes q k or even 
k for Libyan. . Thus the Arabic Wallx (wild beast) makes 
Awaqqas (lion) at Tuat, and Tawakast at Ghat. The Libyan 
A££u (wild animal) is perhaps a correlative of the Arabic. 
* [N.B. In these pages 3 and z denote the same letter.] 

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It may be convenient here to avow my estimate of the 
authorities quoted for words. Brosselard and Hanoteau are 
primary. When either of them distinctly assigns the meaning 
of a word, my business is barely to examine whether it is 
to be rejected from the Libyan as imported Arabic. Even when 
this may be suspected at first sight, I still sometimes retain 
'it as possibly native, especially if it be as near to Hebrew as 
to Arabic. — ^Dr. Henry Earth's authority as to the names of 
objects which he saw, is nearly decisive, except that he does 
not distinguish certain consonants from others, whether through 
defect of his own ear, or through the careless pronunciation 
of the rude people to whom he listened. Indeed he never 
trie9 to distinguish t from 'p, d from 2, k from q; and often 
so vacillates from r to k, as to bring conviction that both 
are wrong, and only f right. He seems to have had no 
practical aid from literary natives; hence it is requisite to 
criticize. In many sentences I fail to understand his syntax. 
Even in his list of nouns one cannot feel entire satisfaction ; 
from the fear that many may be recent importations from 
Songhay. Not that it can be assumed that when a Serku- 
word is found in Songhay or Haussa, it is not native Libyan. 
Por instance, a tame pigeon (rock pigeon) in Kabail is EObir, 
in Ghadamsi Adbir, in Tuarik, fern, Tedeberat: that these 
are native, is not to be disputed on the ground that the 
Songhay of Aghades has Tedaber and the Hailssa Tentabarai 
for a pigeon (Schon gives as the Haussa, sing. Tantaba, 
pi, Tantabaru. The plural retains radical r.) — Mr. W. B. 
Hodgson did very good service, but from the difficulty of 
verification one cannot accept his vocabulary without occasional 
doubt. — Mr. Freeman has made some errors in grammar, in 

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which no native was competent to instruct him; but at least 
they furnished him with the true consonants; which cannot 
be said of Barth, nor even of Hodgson.; — The lists written by 
Ben Musa in Ghadamsi and Tuarik, I trust as far as they 
go; likewise those of Duveyrier and of Delaporte. — I regret 
that I have to rely on my own analysis of sentences (which 
must lower the credit of a word), far too often; as, in the 
Shilha narrative of Ibrahim ; in Hamet's sadly imperfect trans- 
lation of the Four Gospels and Genesis ; in the short sentences 
of Barth, and last, not least, I am sorry to add, in the Eabail 
Ballads, of which Hanoteau in 1867 published a goodly volume. 
In so far as he definitely explains words in his notes, I accept 
his statements as authoritative ; and I have gleaned much from 
this volume, deep drenched as it is in corrupt Arabic. Yet 
his very vague, and (I must almost say) evasive, rendering of 
the poetry has constantly left for me a task too difficult. 
See the verb Izga and the noun Aguni in my Eabail lists 
as specimens.— The same complaint must be made, quite as 
emphatically, concerning M. Ken6 Basset's version of the 
Shilha poem " Saby," lithographed some thirty years back 
by M. Delaporte. From the new version I have not been 
able to hammer out a single piece of new knowledge. 

My abbreviations for reference are as follows: but when a 
word is beyond question, I often dispense with reference. 

Br. means Brosselard. 

Han. (orH. in Tuar) Hanoteau. 

H.P. Hanoteau's Kab. Poetry. 

Ho. Hodgson. 

Ham. Sidi Hamet in the Gos- 
pels or Genesis. 

H.K. G. Hanoteau's Kab. Gram- 

H.T. Hanoteau's Tuarik. 

Ibr. means Sidi Ibrahim. 
Del. Delaporte. 
B. Mus. Ben Musa. 
Moz. Beni Mozab. 
"Wadr. Wadreagh. 
Grb. GrS,berg de Hemso. 
F. or Fr. Freeman. 
B. or Bh. Barth. 

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In nothing do these languages agree more closely than in 
the fragmentary pronouns; for even the native numerals are 
lost in Kabail; and the comparison of these pronouns with 
those of Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, Galla and Haussa, suggests 
that they are even the most primitive part of the language. 
It almost suffices to exhibit the fundamental Tuarik system 
o^ily. In the first person there is no distinction of gender, 
nor indeed always in the third person singular. 

Accus, after Verb. 





rk, ke, ku — Samsa, 


k, kai 


1 Coptic, Arahic, Galla 
( and JDankali, 


kem, em 



t (0 Xah,) 



tet (t Xah.) 


Accus, after Verb. 


In Haueea, 




I, na 

You, m. 


akawen, awen 

Thou, m. ka, kai 

Kah, kon 

Kah, awen 





He, xi, sa 

Kah. kont 

Kah, akent 

She, ta, tai 

Them, m. 



We, mu 

Kah, 0en 

Ye, ku 



Kah, Gent 


They, sa. 

In the third person the h of Hebrew and Arabic becomes b 
in Libyan ; so it does in Amharic, in Galla (s or x), in Dankali : 
nay, it is now agreed that «, 8un in the Assyrian are all but' 
identical with « ff^n in the Libyan. We hence proceed to the 

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Most of these have the appearance of being elongated from 
the fragmentary, except indeed the first person singular. 






nek, nag (idaf ) 

nix, naxan, 

Thou, m. 


kai (daf ) 

xitxi, kiyyi, 
xaqqin, xak 

Thou, /. 


kem (da) 





neter (?) 








We. w. 



neknin, netxinin 




Ye, w. 






Ye, /. 




They, m. 







For emphasis -ni, -un, -unin, -da, -idaf are added to several 
of these forms. 

In Coptic Enok (also Anof) means I, i^hich seems to account 
for f final, in the first person singular of the Libyan verb; 
suggesting that Nek, Kag, Nix was once Nef. The syllable 
neQ is found in Coptic both with Thou and with He, both 
with Ye and with They. This may lessen our wonder that 
Enta in Arabic means Thou and in Tuarik means He. N,B. 
Sebrew Anoki, Coptic Enok, Aasyrmi Anaku, Libyan Nek, for I. 

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2 i 













1 — 1 

1 — \o- 

^ 1 











•^ 00 

1 — 1 d 








OS 05 







a a 

« g a 

>—• OS 



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•s < 










•3 a 


a "^ 




Cm Cm O O 








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60 bO 


2 3 
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'rt» So 

bo .^ 
















CO t2 


15 s s^ 


a; Q 


OQ CD '^ 

%^ ^-a 




bO OQ Cm ^ 



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S 08 
< C8 


083 ^NOOOO 









U bD O 




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.2 vS o 

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In Amharic, Sela means propter, prae, pro, and Tela means 
stne (without). The last has made me think it possible that 
Fila, Ula, without {sine), may be native Berber, not imported 
Arabic. But fuller knowledge is requisite. (Assyrian has Balu, 
without ; yet Arabic JBela is generally deemed modem.) 

After an interrogative particle or any true relative pronoun 
the prepositions become postpositions, as in Latin quihuscum ; 
so Mas, whereby; Wa def, Elli f, wherein^ etc. Yet in Ghadamsi, 
Eski, in quo ; Mat. 3. 

The preposition En, Ke (of) exists in Kabail as in all other 
Libyan tongues, also in Coptic, Haussa and Songhay; yet 
from a mischievous imitation of Arabic ill understood, Kabail 
constantly supersedes this simple preposition, as the follow- 
ing examples will explain. Because the Arabs say Dar et- 
tejir, "the house of the merchant," the Kabails give us 
Ar-Kabbi, of God; Am-Musa, of Moses; Ah-Hairidus, of 
Herod; Ay-Yollana, of John; Ammis aw-wargaz, Son of 
man. Also (apparently because in Arabic Min (from) some- 
times supplies the place of our Of) the Kabail uses Gi instead 
of Ne; under what limitations, I have not learnt. 

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3 S^ OS 
® OS 

5 fl 

as 08 

a a 






flM d a * '"S^, 

o ,jr 3 § rs 03 "^ 

13 - « .T2 flJ © 08 
to 03-5 OB'O'C'^'^ 

Q T^ OS 

^ g.:3 

til ** oo « 


3 *« 2- 


«G CO 

;55 §=S 2 i d 
^ ^ H -< f«f iZi O 

w ^ 

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The element a in Aa, Aayi (here) seems to hare been the 
basis of the pronoun This, of which the feminine is or T, 
reminding one of the Arabic Aelik, xlle^ Tilk ilia. The Kabails 
make a use of this letter a which seems to have no parallel 
in the other Libyan tongues; it may therefore reasonably be 
ascribed to imitation of Arab syntax. In both languages the 
present tense of the verb To Be is wanting. In a simple 
sentence where it is called by logicians the Copula, the Arabs 
habitually make Hu (he) Hie (she) Hom, Homma (they) do 
duty for it in all three persons. Thus in Arabic, as nearly 
in Hebrew, Se is used for Am, Art, Is. [In Hebrew, " Jehovah, 
he God," means "Jehovah t» God."] In Arabic, Ana hu melek, 
'< I am king." So, as I think, in Kabail, ITekki a agelliA, ought 
to be explained ^^1 am king ;" that is, the a or ca is inserted 
to mark the Predicate of the sentence. With a feminine, Et 
serves the same purpose. [In John iv. 26, vi. 20, Sidi Hamet 
translates "It is I" by Ea nekki, Ea nekkini, quasi oiro^ 
iyo)?'] Before a feminine noun which (exceptionally) begins 
with a vowel I find Ea, not Et; as John xix. 27 Gayyini 
CA yammak, "this is thy mother:" but in general we have 
A£l£am a amellal " the house is white " (m.), and " GagmarO 
et tamellelt" (f.), "the mare is white." 

K.B. — In Kabail, as in Hebrew, when a letter is doubled, 
the aspiration is dropped ; thus KeG6a (he) (whose plural is 
NuOni) becomes Netta ; E6 OagmarO becomes Et tagmarO. Also 

Digitized by 



nO is always changed into nt for euphony. Farther, (for 
increased emphasis?) the Kabail word Ayi (Agi) this, which 
has the same meaning as the a, is superadded to it, making 
AycA with the sense of Am, Art, Is, etc., as ITekki aycA 
Jibrili, **1 am Qtibriel." Hamet surfeits one with the a, as : 
Ea Baba, ayA amaqran, ** The Father, he is great, etc." This 
A is used to denote the indirect as well as the direct predi- 
cate, as in Hamefs I£Aam aman a axrab, ''he made water 
{to he) wine." 

AyeA, in masculine, entails Ayet in feminine. Thus : Netta 
ayA el-Mesiail, "He w the Messiah;" but Oamei^uG agi ayet 
tuzint, mulier haec est pulcra;" Ennasma ai/et tai;ezfant, ''the 
ostrich is tall." 

Thus far, the Ay is native Libyan ; but besides this, the 
Kabail borrows from Arabic, ayy«, fulcrum for suffix pronouns 
also Ayyi ? who ? interrogative and relative ; and its equivalent 
Ain in modem Arabic. [Axu for Aixu, Jb \J^ ,^] dominates 
in Kabail]. It may be doubted whether the natives themselves 
understand the triple use which they make of the element Ay, 
which Hanoteau rightly denotes as (in some cases) simply 
emphatic. Hamet, for instance, has Ayy-as-ak ay farllai;, 
"In thee have I rejoiced." The first Ayy is the Arabic 
fulcrum; the second is hard to explain; unless we translate 
it verily, behold/ S^ of old Greek. 

Digitized by 




H Id 

o 3 


.55 PQ 
2 5 " i-^ P^ P. § « -, gfM 2 -Ob, 


5 '2 ^ O 


w r 

2 ^«-. ' ^ 'S 

^3 .sr § -a 


3J •-% 

•^ «« 08 
03 ^ ^^ 

03 ^ ^^ 


^ I I 

.3 -Q O 

Digitized by 













3 « 



n3 O) 03 







• WO 

r« Oq" a .pH h " '^ g -^ OS g 

ooso oQpeSo OSes oS 




cS OS 






•^ P Ca^T^ 
g « P N 
o -»^ -^ <--i 


0) <x> 

p ^ 




<V P 




P Pi 
.P W) 


qj o 

> ^ 


§ S 
p p 


Digitized by 






'S fl 

a <^ 


"-• 'S 113 











^ ^ 




'E'S S-t^ S*^ H'^« gi Si '5 

o^ g:;:! 2.S 

<D .^ '*^ 

^5 ? 


s « 



O 2 a"©^ 

2 ij ^ '♦^ '^ 

OS cJ >*^to .S 12 T^ 

<t> a> €0 d 08 ^ fe 



Digitized by 







^ So- 
00^ y 

S ^ -M 




p « 











£ a 
« a 


OS .-§ 









^ a> S « 

tew-<(ga -5dg»s 

Digitized by 



^ ^ CO 

Digitized by 



Ekt in Ghadamsi means A UttUy ^d also means Nothing in 
reply to the question How mucli ? perhaps meaning " not even 
a little." Such omission of the negative particle is a constant 
obscurity in many modem tongues. Freeman explains Fan 
(Eo) to mean all; in Hanoteau it means '' None at all" But 
Eket for All, the whole, in Barth and Hanoteau, is further 
complicated by Hanoteau's rendering WTiile (Comme, H.T. 
p. 177) by Eket; also Eket di ur, avant que, H.T., p. Ill, 
Sekket (avant que), H.T. 208, and Man e ket {how much?), which 
Hanoteau explains " quoi de totality ? " [ Why not. What of 
quantity ?]. Eket, the whole, followed by a Genitive or Suffix 
Pron. is common in Barth ; but he also uses the word Eurret 
for it, which does not appear in Hanoteau or Ereeman. Nor 
does he use Imda, Emdan for tout, tous. Eket may seem to be 
three different words ; first, in Ghad. somewhat, a quantity, as 
Quidpiam, a whit; next, more like Quoad, for until or hefore; 
THTBDLT, to mcau Cuuctus or TO irav. In the last sense we 
may connect it with Ah, all or every ; in the two former with 
a Relative k. (But it must be remembered that in Greek and 
Latin iravr and cunct, cunque, are probably derived from 
Eelative Q, E, IT, as also the Latin Causa.) ^^S\^^>|^«l sense 
of Certain is probably imported from Arabic./ - A, \ '':. 

Digitized by 





I— I 






-bd ,14 H a o 

3 3 >e« c8 «« '^ 

•'^^ a a a .s 


.s:- .ssi^^aJ 







S o 
08 S fl: 

B 03 &if}^3 a 


rt of " OS .S 

s a- a ^ 



g C3 g 


Digitized by 




03 'C* 







I— I Oi 
08 « 


^ 08 08 

*- =? 

^ H 

03 08 'T^ 9 lU* C3 CJ 



tea « "0 £^ o «-i 
S 9 ^ S 'Si 

BQ 'pH 'M m 08 

P a> 03 




5 ^ 

^ « O O u S3 , 







































































































^»— N 












Digitized by 



Before a Participle the Libyan languages seem all .to, have the 
equivalent of the Greek article o, ly, to. This combination is 
hardly translateable in English, French| or Latin. German is 
nearly equal to it, except that it has not an organic Future 
Participle. I ask leave to liranslate this by Greek. 

.0, TO 

oi. h 



les (m.) 
les (/) 


wa, win 
0a, Gin 
ayan, wiAak 






Shilha. 1 Ghadamsi. 

ki, elli, a ki, wa 

ti 1 ti 
[In the Galla we find 
m. Kuni,/.Tuni,this.] 

In Shilha, A yiramelen seems to mean to ipx<ifJ'€Vov, quidqutd 
veniaty and A yizwareti, to wpOfioXop, quidqutd jpraecedat ; A 
for Wa. 

Eude as we may think the Ghadarasi, one may envy the 
delicacy of their formulas, Wa yurfen, 6 ypd'^ra^f he who 
wrote; Wa yeturfen, 6 ypd(f>a)V, he who writes; Wa yetidurf, 
6 ypdylrwv (?) he who will write or is to write, [In a few such 
phrases I find Ki for Wa.] In Shilhan poetry, K ayi d ifkan 
o €/Aol Sou9, he who gme to me. This is the idiom even in 
prose; but the longer demonstratives seem then to be oftener 
preferred. Win for Wa, WiAak or Ayydn for Wi. Thus 
Win ifkan, o Sou9, he who gave ; Win itekken {for Itef ken), 
o hiZov^y he who gives; Wa arayefk, 6 hdxrtov, he who is fo 
give. The languages here incline more to the Amharic than to 
the Arabic, in adding dependent pronouns as prefixes to the 
verbs. The pronominal syntax is quite independent of Arabic. 

In Shilhan prose the indeclinable relative Elli seems ordinarily 
to supersede both Wa and Ei before the participle, and even 
in poetry; — as, Iwelli k iddemin, rot? ae Tuaa-o/iivpi^, to 
those who beseech thee. 

Digitized by 



w g 

•? 2 ^ 


«> S S 
•'-' -^ .2 


IS P -Si — 1 

OS «0 I* a - -aj .a 

:ti 00 . rP © 

53 > ,^ p p P 

.Ih sb ^ 03 a> P 


P ^^ 



iri P 

. -^ ^. 

'S j§ "2 .^'fe -5 i2 s '^ 

-^ Ig S ^ -rS S "^ d 

•§ 2 g 

9 'a 




<x> P 







9 J. C8 ^ 0-. p '-3 


o P 5 

— J lO <3g C^ 

^ p ^ ^ g SsC,S^ 




-1 I '4i'i^'^'i^^'^ 

Digitized by 



In comparison to Arabic, the formation of the Plural may be 
called regular in Libyan. Ordinarily it is denoted by final -in, 
as in Chaldee and in Arabic participles ; also initial A ordinarily 
changes to I. Sometimes instead of final -in, we find a short 
vowel lengthened or other vowel change, as, Adaged, ape^ pi. 
Idugad {Tuar.). Final -n makes the 3rd p. pi. in verbs also, as 
in classical Arabic. — These remarks hold good with aU the 
Libyan languages. 

In all of these, proper Adjectives are very rare. Sidi 
Hamet, in translating Matt. vii. 26, renders **a foolish man" 
by " an ass man.'* Hanoteau justly observes that Participles 
in general do duty for Adjectives. Many Verbal Nouns may 
be either Substantive or Adjective, as AmeksuS, a coward, or 
cowardly. But Freeman seems to be right in contending that 
the languages have (in number very scanty) true Adjectives ; 
sometimes side by side with equivalent participles. Thus, 

Gezul, adf, short ; also Igezulen, partietple, short 
SamiS, cold, frigidus ; IsammiSen, do. 
Ixeggaf, adf, red ; Ixeggafen, do. ; 

nearly as in Latin ruber and ruhens, frigidus and frigens. 
Adjectives of colour and of geometrical dimension are chiefly 
prominent; but there are a few besides. In Shilha, Freeman 
will, no doubt, claim Ilha, koXo^;, handsome (physically or 
morally), fern. Telha, y^aX^, as adjectives ; yet the participle 
Ilban is equivalent. The simple adjective can always be used 
with ** is (m^)," understood ; as, Enta gezul, he (is) short ; and 
indeed in this one tense it is conjugated as a Yerb, but with a 
present meaning. This is Hanoteau's reason for calling it 
a Verb. 

A few remarks are now needed on the Libyan Verb, which 

Digitized by 



differs little in the four languages. The standard tense (the 
Aorist* of Hanoteau) is well exhihited in Tuarik. Let us take 
as a cardinal verh, with Preeman, Irgel, he fastened up, he 
locked up, imprisoned. [In Preeman, initial ya is not always 
ad libitum replaced hy I.] 

Sing. 3. Tergel or Irgel,/. TergeL 
2. Tergelad. 

1. Ergelaf. 

Plur. 3. Ergelen, /. Ergelenet. 

2. Tergelem, /. Tergelemet. 
1. Nergel. 

In the 2nd p. sing, the final £? is X or f in Kabail. Also the 
initial T in all four cases becomes in Kabail 6. Initial Y marks 
the 3rd p. sing, as in Arabic, Hebrew, Amharic, and Haussa. 
It is worth while to exhibit the Haussa tense, as given by the 
Rev. Mr. Schon. The root of To Love in Haussa is Soh. 

Haussa Aorist. 
3. Amavit m, Yasoh, Xisoh. /. Tasoh. v\'TT7 
2. Amavisti Kasoh, fern, Kisoh. Z^-' "~ 

1. Amavi Nasoh. t^Y 

8. Amaverunt Susoh. 

2. Amavistis Kusoh. 
1. Amavimus Musoh. 

Whether the Haussa Grammar has been re-made, since lEe 
Arabic religion and language began to act on it, we have no 
means of knowing. If we may believe that Ya, Ta and Su, as 
isolated Haussa pronouns, are primitive and of age co-ordinate 
with Arabic, they will throw light on more than one formation. 

* " Aorist'* here answers to what in Arabic and Hebrew 
is called the Perfect. ** Aorist" in Sayce's Assyrian is the 
Future, Present, or Imperfect of Arabic, 

Digitized by 



But to a superficial view, Haussa is a language of great sim- 
plicity, whicli has used up old materials from many more ancient 
languages surrounding it. For instance, the word What? is 
expressed by 1. Mi, Mek ; 2. Kaka ; 3. Wa ; 4. Ena lArahio ?J, 
Wohna. When we find a Haussa verb or noun in common with 
all the Libyan dialects, this does not at all prore that the 
Haussa was the origin: yet it is worth while to notice such 
cases, as well as in the Pronouns. In the first person singular 
the final f of course represents the k of Nek, I, ( Coptic Enok, 
Anof). Just so in Assyrian, Sakin, he made, Saknaku, I made 
{Sayce^a Gram,), 

The Future Tense of the Libyan (which serves also as a 
Subjunctive Mood) is formed by prefixing A a or Ed, as Ed- 
irgel, he will fasten; but dependent pronouns will then be 
placed between the tense mark and the verbal root, as Ed-a^- 
irgel, he will fasten thee. In Freeman we have Edi-nirgel, 
for, We will fasten, but in all my other authorities the d 
vanishes by contraction into Ennirgel. — This d often vanishes 
in Hanoteau's Tuarik before a dependent pronoun; as, [Han. 
T- p. 140] A as ekfef, for, Ad-a«-ekfej;, "I will give to him,^* 
— Such inaccuracy of pronunciation must, no doubt,/ occur in 
many other cases. ' 

Another tense, that' appears as a Future, may generally be 
rendered by Must or Shall, as opposed to simple futurity. In 
Hamet's Bougie it is formed by Ara preceding the verb or 
Participle ; nay, in the form of Arad it strengthens the Future. 
Thus Ara-k-haAraf, '*I must thee tell," Ara-kun-a&abraf, I 
must you inform; Winna addilulan, rb natum; Winna araddi- 
lulan, rb nascendum. I have ventured to render in Hamet, 
Aradyiskar faeturus est, as opposed to faeiet ; but it must not 

Digitized by 



be omitted^ that this Ara or Ar in Shilha makes the Present 
Tense, as if Ara meant now, even now. On reviewing the 
complex verb of Amharic, a language closer to Arabic and 
Hebrew, than is the Lybian, it does not seem superfluous to 
inquire whether the distinction Ara and Aradd as tense marks 
after Akkenni or some other vague Libyan conjunction may 
not be parallel to that of veniret, or to venerit in contrast to 
veniret. Interrogations to a native well and subtly devised 
can alone decide such questions- Hanoteau, as Zouave, and 
indeed as Tuarik, gives the harsher sound Fa (which he writes 
r*a) for Ara; and tells us that in the Tuarik it also passes 
into Ha. In Hamet one may sometimes put May and Can 
instead of Musty as a translation of Ara, — as, Akkanni ara-y- 
fuk, in order that it may be finished ; {so may it be . . . . ) ; 
Amek ara-yili, how can it be ? (how is it possible ?). While 
Ara (varied by Afa, Aha) is found at least in three of the four 
languages, its different sense in Shilha arrests generalization. 

The present Tense (which Hanoteau calls the Idea of Habi- 
tude) is formed in several diflerent ways, with no essential 
difference in any of the Libyan tongues; (I) by reduplication, 
as Ifiren, he chose ; Iferren, he chooses ; Ima, he added, Irennu, 
he adds. Exactly thus, the Assyrian had as normal method, 
(Sayce's Gr.) Iskun, he made, Isakkin, he makes. This form 
belongs in Libyan chiefly to roots that have only two conso- 
nants, and to those of three consonants in which the two 
former have no separating vowel: as Igzem, he cut, pruned, 
hewed, Igezzem, he cuts, prunes, hews. — (2) by prefixing T ; 
which in Kabail sometimes becomes a 8, sometimes takes the 
lisping sound Ts. This second method prevails so much, that 
it may seem to be the regular way: perhaps it is the most 


Digitized by 



modern. — ^(3) by adding long a or ai, especially with derived 
Causative verbs ; as Isgen, he caused to sleep, lulled to sleep, 
Isegnaiy he lulls to sleep. This also has analogy in Assyrian, 
Issakin, it was made, Issakan, it is made (Sayce's Comp. Gr. 
p. 77). — (4) by some other vowel change, which cannot be 
sharply defined, and therefore needs only slight mention here, 
as Issag, he looked, Issiggi, he looks. — The Causative verb, 
as in Amharic, Aramaic and Assyrian, is formed by prefixing 
S to the root. This is universal in the Libyan. 

The Imperative Mood has virtually two tenses, as in Greek, 
rypai^oi/, ypd<f>€, the one formed from the aorist, the other 
from the present tense, which (as in the Greek) yields the 
idea of Habit. I^othing is more regular than the termina- 
tion : Erwel, flee thou ; pi. m. Erwelet (ErweleG), flee ye, 
pL /., Erwelmet or ErwelemG. 

A passive Verb is formed in analogy to Aramaic, by prefixing 
Iki or Taw; or sometimes simple T; likewise a Reciprocal 
Verb by M prefixed, which also often expresses the passive 
idea. "No reason appears for doubting that the same formations 
exist with the same sense in the lees-known languages of this 
class. In ShUha various examples are at hand ; in Qhadamsi 
the materials are scanty, yet the Present tense formed by T 
is visible enough; so are a few formations by M and S for 
the reciprocal and causative verb. 

From every tense which in Europe we call the Indicative 
Mood the Libyan makes a Participle by adding -an at the 
end, and prefixing I or Ye as in the 3rd p. sing. In Kabail 
the Participle is indeclinable; but in Tuarik it varies with 
gender and number. The latter must be accepted as more 
ancient, as in the comparison of ancient and modem Greek, 
or indeed Latin with modem Italian. 

Digitized by 



Although in general derived forma of the Verb £(tipersede 
composition with adverbs or prepositions, two loccil adverbs 
play a part with verbs of motion very similar to that of 
the Latin ad and per. Thus Yusa, Yusa-d, may be rendered 
v^ity adventt; the final d is transposable in syntax. So from 
YewaJ, he reached, arrived, we get YewaL-in, it amounted 
to; it reached up to this; with the same slight change of 
sense as in Arabic Balaf, it reached, it amounted to; then in 
the Causative verb IseJan, he counted (an amount) the pro- 
nominal -an seems to become radical. — Certain Tuarik verbs 
are modified by adding -et to the root; [with what change 
of sense, seems as hard to explain as why certain Latin verba 
become " deponent."] Hanoteau thinks it expresses " transi- 
tion into a state,'* words which I interpret, as comparing this 
-et with the final -esco, of Latin Inchoative verbs. We know 
that this -esco often has no sensible force. So in Tuarik, Talfa, 
a command, co-exists with Illif^^, he commanded. Nothing 
transitional here appears. 


1. fw. Yin, /. Yet, Yat. 

2. m. Sin,/. Senatet. 

S. m. K!eraJ,/. KeraSet. 

4. m, Okkoz, /. Okkozet. 

5. m. Semmas, /. Semmuset. 

6. m, Sedis, /. Sediset. 

7. m. Essa,/. Essahat. 

8. m, Ettam, /. Ettamet. 

9. m, Tezza,/. Tezzahat. 
IQ. m. Merau, /. Meraut. 
20. Senatet temerawin. 
30. Kera£et temarawin. 

40. Okkozet temarawin. 
50. Semmuset ,, 
60. Sediset „ 

70. Essahat „ 

80. Ettamet „ 

90. Tezzahat „ 
100. TimiSi „ 

200. Senatet temiJi. 
1,000. Agim. 
2,000. Sin ig6man. 
100,000. EfeL 
200,000. Sin efeian. 

[Freeman writes SeSis, seven, with hard d, as the dialect of Ghat.] 

Digitized by 



The Kabail has adopted the Arabic numerals, and entirely 
disused those which are native to Libyan, except those for 
•One and Two. For Timiii (100), the Mozabi (Ho) has 
Tuwentst, pi. Tuwenisan. It is remarkable that in Sedis, «iar, 
the Libyan retains the original form which has been corrupted 
n Arabic and Hebrew. In the numerals 2, 5, 6, 8, 9 we see 
marks of a common origin for the three languages. 

In consulting the Dictionary, the Root must be looked for 
in the Yerbs, dropping such prefixes as have been indicated, 
and in general taking no notice of Towels as fixing the place, 
nor indeed of W or Y. With nouns it is chiefly important 
to drop the feminine prefix T or 0. Thus 0ala must be 
looked for under L, 0ayuga and 0iwaggewin, under G, 
Yiwan under N, but AuGul, AOemma under 0. The adjectives 
are so closely related to verbal participles, that it is natural to 
class them with the verbs. In general, the Yerbs carry with 
them the aspect of high antiquity. Beyond question the same 
is true of many Nouns here registered, which we cannot refer 
to a verbal root. But inasmuch as further knowledge is likely 
to prove that other Nouns come from Sudan or from Eastern 
Africa, it is thought more convenient to register apart from 
the Yerbs all the Nouns of whose verbal origin within the 
Libyan language we are ignorant. 

Digitized by 




Yowels I B, D A 2^, F, G J, r, H n, ^ K, L, M, N, Q, R, S, 
W, Y. ) T e, T, X, Z S. 

L and T seldom have distinction of sense, and may generally, 
if not always, be exchanged. The L sound seems to prevail, 
except in the Kabail of the Lowlands. 

Li looking out among Verbs, it must be remembered that 9, 
T, M, N are often added grammatically ; so S at the beginning 
of a Causative verb. 

Even in the list of Nouns, the feminine mark 6 or T at the 
beginning must be neglected in the search. Thus 9a|;anu8 
must be looked for under T, at Tos, and Gala, Awal under L. 

va verb active. 
vn verb neuter. 
vp passive verb. . 
vc causative verb. 
vr reciprocal verb. 
imp, imperative. 


aor. aorist. 
pr. present. 

na noun of action or gerund. 
pc, participle. 
adf. adjective. 
pi. plural. 

For Abbreviations of Names, in reference, see at bottom of 
p. 11, above. 

Digitized by 




Fbfvel Words. 

Tuwi, bring, {aor,) tmp.y 
AwwI-d, bring hither, pr, 
Itawwi, he brings, na Gawin, 
Giwin, the act of bringing. 
Tuwi, in Hamet's version of 
the Gospels, is yery com- 
mon and perplexingly vague. 
It means, not only hrtn^, con- 
duct, fetch, but take, ccmry 
away ; Awid anyar, let us 
see, ^kp IBcDfiev, 

Tuwa (Yuba), it is ripe, it 
was cooked, pL Uwen, fut, 
AAyu. Ewan, dressed, cooked 
(meat). Ho. 

ve imp, Seyu, cook thou, aor. 
Isuwa, pre%, Isuwai. 

Aiyau, come ye ! HP 124, his. 

[N.B.— The Kabails seem to 
have learned to use Arab ^ in 
their native words. Indeed in 
Ghadamsi it displaces c.] 

Sabir? Luke vi. 38. Awan 
isabra, to you it shall be 
measured. Gatsabbiram, pr. 
ye measure. 

vr Misabbaran(they measured 
themselves together ?) i.e. 
they wrestled, Han., Br. 

£udi,what is enough, Mat. x. 24. 

Ansud, we are satisfied, John 

xiv. 8. 
Isadzan, slothful, Mat. xxv. 26. 
Asaggun, dumb, Mat. xii. 22, 

Luke i. 20. Delaporte, jun. 

says, Asaggunt, stammerers, 

Agugam, dumb. 
Isaul ? Mat. xxii. 3. TJr isaul 

ara, non voluit (?). 
Isallag, he constrained? Mar. 

vi. 45. 
£amdawa, cheer up ! Mat. xiv. 

£aned, imitate, Br. 
Isansan, was imprisoned, Mar. 

i. 14. 
Esarra, to soil, Ho. 
Asrak, make ready. Gen. xviii. 6. 
Asraf, taste thou, Br., pr. 

Isarref . Israf, he tasted, 

tried, John ii. 8, Luke x. 

25 ; but, he tempted, Luke 

X. 25. 
Asf af, hem (linen). 
Sazeben, ils sont partis, HP 

Perhaps Aral. lAeb, he de- 
parted. If so, the £abail 

here outdoes Arabic in use 

of s. 
Asazzug, deaf, pi. Yesazzugen 

(or with Arabism),^^.£azazga. 
Aszag, Oasazzeg, deafness. 

Digitized by 





Ebbi, nip off, cut off, aor, Ibbi, 
pr. lOebbi, na Bubbia, 0a- 
wabbia. Wi ibbuin, *'the 
robber," HP 96. 

Yubba (see Yuwa), was ripe, 
well cooked. 

ve Isub, lie cooked, ripened, 
pr. Isebbu, pc, Isebbuan, 
who ripens, HP 377. 

Basbas, baa, bleat, Han., pr, 
Itebasbis. Esbaboh, bleat. 

Ibad, Ibbed, he stood, halted, 
ceased, i^i\^%mp. Ebbed, pr. 
Itbed, Br., Itadded (for 
Itabded ?), Han. Ibad, was 
stopt (by his horns). Gen. 
xxii. 13 ; Ibad affa, refrained 
from. Gen. xi. 6, 8, na ^ 
nbaddid, upright. Abaddid, 
an upright, a pUlar, Gen. 
xxxi. 13. 

ve Esbed, cause to stand, 
halt, stop, Br., Sebdid, do. 

IbbaX, he arrived. Zouave for 
YuwaJ, or rather Yuwaf . 

Ibaddal, it was divided, split, 
John vii. 43, nearly as Sehr. 
Hibdal. But in Arabic Badal 
means exchange, 

Ibder, he mentioned ; freq. in 
the Shilha of Sidi Ibrahim. 
Bederef, I mentioned, HP 
344, and elsewhere, for Re- 
membered. Compare Heb. 

Yebuf, Ibfa, he wishes, intends. 

is about (to do). In Tuar. 
Ibuk. Heb. HVi seek, en- 
treat ; also Arab. ^Jo in 8*** 

form. Ibfa, he wished, willed, 
would, liked, loved, pr. 
Ibaffu, po, Ibaffun, is very 
common in Hamet ; but the 
noun for Will (Yoluntas) 
with him is Lab(i, which 
shows that the word is felt 
to be Arabic. Indeed he 
has Ibfayak, oportet te, John 
iii. 7, and Ibfa iwanna 
aAizmer, oportet illi ut 
praevaleat, John iii. 30, 
with the sense of Arabic 
vii*** Yenbafi. 

Bejbaj, prate, prattle ? Abejbaj, 
prattler, B. 

Ebges, gird thyself, (esp. for 
for battle). In Tuar. trans- 
posed, Egbes]. aor, Ibges, 
pr, Itagges for Itabges, na. 
Abgas. Aggus, Abaggus, a 
girdle, sash, dimin. Gabag- 
gusO, ^?. Gibuggasitin. 

Abaffax, maimed, Mar. ix. 43. 

EbUad ? ImabHad, steep, Mat. 
viii. 32. 

Abejjafl, (lion) who bounds, 
springs, HP 149, 

Ibak, was astonished, Mark x. 

Ubku, bandy legged, V. 

Abiikux, dumb, Y. 

Bellaf, Han., Bellas , Br., imper, 
shut (the door), Ebelaf, Ho, 

Abulaq, striped, Gen. xxxi. 8. 

Digitized by 




Benin, savory (in taste), Br., 

fem, Beninet, pi, Beninit. 
TJr af banent, non nobis valeni f 

HP 25. 
Ebnan, " ont resolu,'* HP 38. 
BenaA, springing (water), Gen. 

xxvi. 19. 
Ibanda, (the sea) was excited, 

Mark viii. 24. 
Ibra, he set free, divorced, re- 
leased (from the yoke), with 
dative : imp. Ebru, pr, 
Iberru, na Aberru, ^^.Ibran, 
removed, John xx. 1. 
vo Isebra, (a judge) di- 
vp Inebra, he was divorced, 
na Inebnln ; also partic. 
S inabran, at liberty, 
Luke iv. 18. With pro- 
nom. d, Ibrad, Mat. xiv. 
22., pr, Ibarrud iyimu- 
raz, liberat captivum. Mar. 
XV. 6, and Innabrad. 
Ibar? it is veiled, covered, 
w. Ibar, coverlet, Gen. iii. 7. 
Abruf, I am hidden. Gen. 
iv. 14, pc. Ibran, hidden, 
Mat. xiii. 35. GabbarO, 
GawwarG, curtain ? door (of 
vp Ituabber? na Gawabra, 

concealment. See Effer. 
vc Isbur, he clothed, pr, 
Isburru, na Asburru, As- 
bur, clothing. 
Berrik, it is black, na Gebrik, 
blackness ; adj. Abrekan, 
vc Seberik, blacken thou, 

aor, Iseberik, pr, Isiberik, 

na, Aseberak. 

Ibren, he twisted, spun, turned 
right round [(oT/oec^) cf. 
Arab. Berem.J pr, Iberren. 
na Abran, po, adj, Ibranan, 
perverse. Mat. xvii. 17. 
Ubrin, braided, plaited, HP 

Ibraz, he cleansed, purified. 
Luke iii. 17, John xv. 2, 
he arranged, Br. under Grdre, 
Ibraz, devout, Luke ii. 25, 
pure (ointment), John x. 3, 
pc, Ibarzan, passive cleansed. 
Mat. xxiii. 27. 

Bessel? Itbessel, prattle, Br. 
Ambessel, prattler. 

Ibq^u, he rent, split, divided, 
pi, Baqwpun. Also passive^ 
Abfan, Gen. vii. 2, x. 18. 
nu, Alypuf , Baq^pu, division, 
schism; compare Arab. Ba£s 
— a piece. Heb. Badad. 

Bex, make water. Ebex, 
urine, Ho., pi, Ibexxan. 

Bexbex? Gibexbex, levity of 
behaviour, HP 246. 

Ibaxa, is visible, outside; 
opposed to Iddurgan, 
screened, hidden, Luke xi. 

IbzeA=Ibex, he made water, 
pr, IbezzcA, na Ibizdan, 
urine; also cours de ventre^ Y. 

Ibzeg, was wetted, va or he 
wetted, va Br. ; aUo^ is 
swollen, HP 175, 314, (for 
which sense Y. has Ibziq) 
and Br. pr, Ibezzag; na 

Digitized by 




Azzug, for Abzug, moisture, 


ve Isebseg, lie wetted; — 
washed, Luke vii. 44. 
AA-isabzaj, that he may 
dip, Luke xvi. 24. 

vp Ittezzeg, for Itebzeg. 

(2) Abazzug, a rent, Mar. ii. 

1, pc. Ibazgan, rending. 
Ibzaj, fern, 0abzaj it is grown 

up, Mat. xiii. 32; compare 

Ibizan, herbs. 
Ibzen, he paid a salary, Ho., 

Abzan, a cowrie, V. 
Ibzer, give. Ho., [but qu.] 

0ebzerO, tribute. Ho. ; [qu. 

a gift ?] from Arab. BoAer ? 

as MobAir, prodigal, Han. 

Gr. 264, has Garzef, a gift. 

DA A. 

[The Kabail often has a for 
d of the Tuarik or Sbilha, and 
A is apt to become Arab. ^ . 
Zouave also has the thick d or 
dh ^jo for thick ^ t of Bougie.] 
Idda, he walked, went [a native 
root, side by side with Arab. 
Isadda, he passed by.] imp, 
Eddu,^. iGedda, na Te wada. 
vc Seddu, cause to go ; aor, 
Iseddu, pr. Iseddai. Ak 
iseddan , te ire - f aciens. 
Mat. V. 41, 
Giddi, a march, i.e. the dis- 
tance walked without stop- 
ping. Gikli (a going) is also 
used for the na Tewada. 
Eui, approach, arrive. See 

Awef . In Han. Kab. Gr. 
p. 317, GeggoJ, ur eggiS, be- 
gan (quarrel). 

Yudu, he rolls or folds up 
(linen), V. Perhaps Shilha. 

Eddab, serve, Gen. xxvii. 29, 
Mat. iv. 10. See Idwam ; 
Iddab, laborious, Mat. xxiv. 
45 (akli iyallllan iddab, servus 
fidelis(et)laboriosu8). Comp. 
Earth's Adabab, expert, Tu. 
Also John iv. 38, Insaddaban, 
they laboured; which sug- 
gests that Arab l^S^ punish, 
torment, is the source. To 
increase uncertainty, four 
times in Hanoteau the verb 
is rendered Vanquish ; Edde- 
ben, HP 119, they have 
vanquished; Iddeben, van- 
quisher, HP 121, 127, 274. 

YuAcf, he entered : — this verb 
does not appear as ordinary 
Zouave, and may seem pecu- 
liar to the Ben. Men., Ben. 
Moz., and "Wergela. Yet 
Hanoteau in Kab. poetry has 
it, pp. 178, 189, 216, 413. 
It is also Shawia, i,e, low 
country Kabail. 

Eddef, feeling. Ho. touch ? Br. 
has S eddefen, a bout poHant, 
i.e. en touchant. 

Eddaf, hold, is probably the 
Efpaf of Bougie. 

Edaf, joke. Ho. (but qu.) 

IJfi, he is defiled, HP 197. 

ieffes, subjugate, HP 70, 

AAgal, ph lAgalen, widower. 

OaAgalt, OuAgalt, a widow, pL 

Digitized by 




GiAgalin. BiAgalt, widow- 
hood. See XJgil. 
Idegger, lie darted, Br., he 

flung, HP 191, 311, 313. 

But liegger, he flung down, 

HP 192, and lAegger, d**- 

HP 311. 
AA[;a, 8ont hahituSs, HP 33. 
lifan, pi. ipaisseSy HP 137; 

qu. Aifan ? 
Idafl, prefecit, defeett ? cast (the 

young), Gen. xxxi. 38. [Ibr. 

8hil. DaHind, drove out 

(enemies).] In Matt, icxiv. 

49. Iduflan seems to mean 

defeett sunt, evading the word 

drunken ; as by Ifq^al. 
lAhu, he amused himself. See 


vo IsoAha, caused to amuse 
Adhae, bravery, HP 26. See 

Tuarik. Aichan, brave man. 
Edj, leave, let, forgive, put 

forth. See under J. 
lAuk, it was shaken up, Luke 

vi. 38. [Ar. Dokk, to ram ?] 
Aukkel, Aekawel, Dekawel,— 

difficult roots. 

(1) Idakowel, he reposed, 
Ho., but qu, 

(2) lAekawel, vn he awoke, 
pr, ItcAekwel, Mar. xiii. 

vo IsAekul, he woke (an- 
other), imp, Sedekwel. 
GFen. xxi. vigilavit a lacte, 
for abstinuit; as if the verb 
were like the Greek v^ffxn). 

Edwakel, pi. secret parta 
of the body, HP 228. 

(3) Aukel, Aukkel, vn seems 
to combine the same ideas 
as French Stre uni: viz. 
to be joined, to be smooth 
or level. AAekel n ufus, 
the^^ of the hand, pL 
Idukal, Br. Ho. lAukel, 
it was even, flat ? Dukelen, 
they were united, agreed. 
na, Adukel, union, com- 
bination, mixture, Han. 
GaAukeli, d*>- Tidukla, 
friendship, Br. 

vc Sedukkel, assemble, com- 
plete. Gen. viii. 22, xi. 29, 
bring together, Br. collect 
(tribute). IzAukkel, he 
conciliated, combined ; he 
gathered (wheat). na 
AzAukel, Gaddukla; 6a- 
ZAuklaO, synagogue. In 
Tuarik, the verb seems to 
have the primitive sense 
of gathering. 

vr Imdukkel, be mutually 
united, be friends. Am- 
Aakkel, a comrade, pi, 
ImAukkal. Ameddakul, 
d^' Han. Aho AmAakkal, 
complete, perfect, Mat. v. 
48, John XV. 11. [Arab. 
Dakal, gather and flatten 
Duqax ? Amduqqaxan, they 

were angry, John vii. 23. 
Del, cover, aor. Idel, IaoI, pr. 

Iddal : (EAcla, Ho.) na 

GaAuli. [Gaddula, Lukei.9, 

Digitized by 




**liis tum;*^ from Perso- 

Arabic Daul. 

vp Imdell ?0imdellelt, cover- 
ing ; straw hat, Br. 
liil, fern, OeXela, HP 205, 

393, seems to be rendered 

** mounted," but HP 262 

Eilun, they besmeared. 
Kalled, he surmounted? HP 

Idles, va he thatched, na 

Adles, rush, stubble, thatch ; 

Amdellis, thatched, Br. 
EAum, have dominion. Gen. i. 

28. At-daum-af , thou shalt 

rule, Gen. iv. 7. 
Iddem, he lifted up, carried, 

carried off, swept away ; 

(Lat. tollo.), pr. IGeddem. 

tM Ouddema, Gawaddema, 


vp Ituaddem. 
Yudara, itfell? 

vc pr. part, issudumen, caus- 
ing (rain) to faU, HP 49, 

Idwam, he served, six times in 

Hamet. But twice. Gen. xv. 

14, 15, Iddiham in this 

From TJAem, «. face. 

vo IsuAcm, he kissed. Ho. 
But see SuAcn. 
Demmar, push, aor. Idemmar. 

vr Medemmeran, they 
pushed mutually, pr, Te- 
(2) Izzadmar, he replied. Ham. 

passim, na Azdamar, Mar. 

xii. 28. 

lAcn, Idden (the cock) crowed, 
pr. leeddin Y. 

Idenden, it resounded, Br. (Ar. 
Tan^en, Lat, Tinnio). 

lAwan, he blamed, accused, 
John xix. 4. na A a wan, 
accusation. Mat. xxvii. 37. 

Airi, bad,/. AiriO, pi. Airin, 
/. Airint. See Iri. 

AAer, come down, na OauAera, 

Also ra YuAcr, HP 235, 124. 
vc SiAer, let down. But Br. 
has Ter, come down, be- 
fall; which becomes Lev 
in Han. So we find Kri, 
befell. Wa iJran, what 
befell, took place, HP 124, 
345, ^r.? Iteiru,HP 419, 

Iddar, he lived [probably 
perverted Arabic, certainly" 
GaddarG, a village, pL Gudder 
or Gudrin, must be referred to 
Ar. Dar, a dwelling.] Am an 
idaran, aqua viva,.John iv. 10. 
GuddurO, life, Han. Gftener, 
GamaddurO ; also GaddurO, 
life, Luke i. 75, John iv. 36.' 
Ur addir, he will not live, 
Luke iv. 4. Akrayallan a 
ass adran, quotquot dies vi- 
vunt. Gen. iii. 14. 
vc Isidir, he made alive, John 
XV. 22, his. 

Redupl. Idardar, he lived and 
breathed ? Gen. i. 20, Adra- 
dran af u na OmaddurO, spi- 
rant auram vitaB. 

lAorr, he jumped. Ho., but qu. 

Digitized by 




Adrlya, eflfbrt of childbirth ? 

Gen. XXX. 9. 
Aderdur, deaf, Y. 
Aderfal, blind=Ider(ilan, 8id- 
. derfalt, blindness. 

ve Isdeifal, he blinded, na 

Asder[aL Adraflan, they 

were blind, John ix. 29, 

Mar. vi. 52. 

Iderem, it was in ruins. [Ar. 

Demmir, demolish.] 

vo Isedrem, he demolished, 
na Asedrem. 
Iderraq, he screened, sheltered, 

eclipsed ? Gen. iii. 1, pr. 

Itderriq. Idurqan, hidden ; 

GadarraqO, a shelter, booth. 

Adurruqan, overshadowing. 

Mar. ix. 7. 

vc IzAurraq, it hid, caused 
to vanish, Gen. ix. 11. 
Iderrer, he besprinkled. 
Ideras ? Ider ? he winked. 

Guderasite^, she winked (to 

(him ?) with the eye, HP 

ESres, thick, close, (secret), 

as irvKLvo^, HP' 13, 344. 

GemaXeras, thickets, 38. 
Edas, Eds, Des (Y.), laugh. 

[But Br. has Eit, with t 

lisped into tsJ] aor, Idsa, he 

smiled (graciously), Gen. 

xxxiii. 11 ; pr, Idis. na 

GaJesa, laughter, HP 56. 

na UseJsu, smiling, HP 75. 

Contrast Efqxas, sleep thou. 
Daswat ? E6edaswat, sail 

(thou?) Ho. 

Iddez, pr, lOeddez, crush, 
pound, na Guddeza, Gawad- 

Af, upon, concerning, on ac- 
count of. (F. in Shilba, 
jurantis, as /Is. in Arabic). 
Ufay, high. Mat. xvii. 1 ; 
Eayyi, over me, more than 
I, Mat. iii. 11; Mar. i. 7. 

Af, find thou, aor. Yufa, pr. 
leaf, hut Ettaf, with sound 
tSy Br. Gufam fallas, ye 
found against him, i.e, con- 
demned him, John xviii. 31. 
TJr yafi, he found not, TJra- 
faf, I found not ; tf/* becoming 
af after negative. AAyaf, 
he shall find, I0-yaf, eum 
inveniat. Mat. xxiv^ 26. 
Passively, Gafa, she was 
found, Mat. i. 18. Arayaf, 
he shall be found, Luke vi. 7. 
na Gufin, Gifin, the finding. 
GawaffiO, anything found, Br. 
[GawafiG, anger. Gen. xxvii. 
45, but quJ] 

If, excel thou, be thou better ; 
f. Gif, pi Ifen, f. Gifent, Br. 
[but in his examples Gif is 
not imperative]. Yuf, he 
surpassed, was better, Y., 
pr, Itif. [But Yuf may be 
Shilha, and If aor, Kab. ?] 

Iffi, he poured out ; imp, £ffi, 
pr, iGeffi. 

Yafa? or YafaO? dawned, 
shone. [Tuar.Yeffu]. GafaO 

Digitized by 




ettefaO, illuxit lux, John i. 
5. [But Oafuke and 0efuka 
(Ho.) light, suggests Afuk 
or Afuq for the root.] Hence 
A^u, Tefoit. In Hebrew 
Yafas illuxit, Yafa, formo- 
sus fuit. 
FaA, 8. thirst; EARIa, thirst 
thou, aor, IffuA, pr, ItefFaA, 
pc IfAan, Mat. v. 6. 
Ifif, va he sifted, HP 45. 
vn pr, Oetifif, it dribbles as 
through a sieve, HP 46. 
Also, (the heart) is sifted, 
searched, HP 40. See 
Afeg, fly ! aor. Ifeg, it flew, 
pr. Itafeg. na Afag, Br., but 
Affug, Han.=Perg, flight. 
vc Issifeg, he caused to fly, 
na Assifeg. (In Y. Ifif, it 
flew, ShHha?) wej Tufift. 
Efffef, come out, IfPef, it issued, 
he went forth. XJr addiflSf, 
non exiit. Gen. viii. 7, pr. 
I9.effe[;, na Oawaffa, issue, 
Br., also«<i9ufe(;a,0awaffa(;a. 
adv. Effof, outside, Ho. 
ve Isufef, he drqve out, 
drew out. pr. Isufuf, na 
Asufef. AssuffaS, exite ! 
Mar. vi. 11. 
Eefnen, snuffle, imp. Br. 
E^llm ? Innefellam, HP 235, 

in uncertain sense. 
Euk, end, finish, perfect, aor* 
Ifuk, pr. Itfuk. na Afuku, 
Han.y na Efkat, Perfection, 
Ho. Anfuk, vn we come to 

an end, we perish. Mat. viii. 
25. So in present tense. 
[Hamet has also Laf kak, the 
end. Mat. xiii. 39, with L 
as if Arabic, Fukk, pull out ! 
This would give the idea of 
deliver^ save, Mat. xxiv. 13. 
But more probably there is 
an error.] 

Efk, give thou, aor. Ifk, pr. 
Itekk for Itef k. w«0awa&a, 
also irreg. Gikxi. — In this 
verb the fk is apt to become 
kk, as TJrakkaG, for Ur afkaO, 
Ur attakkaG, ne date, frequent 
in Ham. In John x. 28, 
Attakfas, I give to him, for 
Attafkif-as, the f vanishes 

Ef ker, fasten ? Gef kerG, a lock, 

IfFal, he appeared on the crest 
of a high hill, (mark of a 
brave man), HP 248, 250 
[super eminuit ?]. 

Ifla, he pierced, bored, imp. 
Eflu, pr. Ifellu, na Fellu, 
Gifli. Yafli, a cave, John 
xi. 38. Gifli, hole, nostril, 
pi. Gefela, Ho., print (of 
nails). Amafela-8, his pas- 
sage? HP 105. 

Ifelali, pi. unsheathed, HP 86. 
[qu. glittering? piercing?]. 

Ifelles, he nailed up, pr. 
Itfelles,Br. Amafelas, '* pas- 
sage?" HP 105. Seem&. 

If alias, is shut, Luke xi. 7, 
perhaps incorrect for Iballaf, 
yet see Tefalwat in Tuarik. 

Digitized by 




Ihia, pi, Efnan. Ifena, it suits 
(me), je dois, decet me, HP 
344. Joined with iAammen 
blood, HP 52, it is rendered 
shed (versez), but in 137, 
145, iAammen fenan, ^* blood 
suits (you)*' appears more 
accurate. [In HP 1, Fenan, 
** are annihilated," must be 
referred to Arabic Tani, 

Ifnez? he split? 0ifenzi9, a 
cloven piece, cloven foot, 
pL Gifenziwin. 

Iff unzer, he bled at nose. Erom 
Iffi, and Anzer, nose, na 

Effer, hide ; aor. IfFer, pr, 

vp Ituaffir, na Bawafra, se- 
crecy. Also as vp Itaffer, 
Luke xxiv. 31, he 
vanished. Ifri, a lair, 
pi, Ifren. Gefert, cover, 

Efru, make reckoning. Mat. 
xviii. 23, estimate, arbitrate, 
aor, Ifra, pr, Iferru. Eerrun, 
they compromise, are recon- 
ciled, HP 220. Giferae, 
arbitration, peace, Han. 
Tifra0, a reckoning, Mat. 
xviii. 24;. wisdom, considera- 
tion ? Mat. xii. 42, xxv. 2. 

Aferdi, one-eyed, Del. jun. 

IfreS, he swept, pr. IferreZ, 
na Afra£. 

f?^ItuafreJ. AferraJ, sweeper, 
Es-ferfuS, rummage, HP 

Afrag, 8, court to a house ; 
fence ? ^pa/y-fio^ ? 
vc Sefreg, fence about. 
Asefrag, a hedge ; but As- 
ferig, pi, Esferiag, Ho. 

Geferef, fern, empty, HP 390. 
See Iferes. 

Ifren, he picked, picked (his 
teeth), chose out. Uferin, 
choice (figs), HP 353. Ti- 
femi,/, pi. *' belles,'' choice ? 
HP 143. Faman, they 
gathered, Mat, xiii. 48. Far- 
naf, I have elected, John 
xiii. 18, and, passim. 

Ifrir, climbed up, HP 239; 
yet Sefrur, vc shell beans. 

Ifres, vn it is empty, clear, 

HP 3. Tegunit Oeferes, a 

clear area, empty space. 

va Perres-ef, I clear off (je 

d6friche), Wafrasen, riib- 

bish, HP 376, clearings ? 

£ut Si ufares, with speed, 

HP 238, 

Ifsi, vn it is loosened, melted, 
pr. Ifessi [Hamet uses Ifsi 
and Sefsi m the wide sense 
of Latin solvo, deliver up, 
loose, let go; especially in 
Mat. xvi. 19; xviii. 18, on 
loosing and binding.] (Arab. 
Pesa, it is split) ; na Afsai. 
Gefsut, the spring (of the 

ve Sefsi, va loose, melt, pr. 
Isefsai, na Asefsi. 

Yufes ? WaniAa tufes, where 
has he put? HP 15 [perhaps 
not literal]. 

Digitized by 




Ifeski, he swathed, pr, Itfeski. 

Afsak, an eclipse ; Ifessa£, is 

. eclipsed, Br., seem to be 

transpositions of Arab. Kesef 

and ^esef. 
Ifser, he spread out (Arab. 

expounded) na Afser, Efser, 

itendsy Y. 
Afessus, light of weight, Gefsis, 

lightness, Fessus, is light. 

Anafses, a runner. Ho. 

vc Sefsus, lighten. 
IfaO, is past and gone, HP 

254. SeelM^. 
[IfTafl, in Luke, for Reverey in 

Gen. xvi. 5, for Do wrong. 

Probably Arab. PaXafl, out- 
Ifxal, he accused, Mar. iii. 2, 

but qu, 
Fazzi, my wages, Mat. xx. 2. 

[Perhaps Arab. PuiSa, silver, 

pronounced with thick z.] 
Iffez, he chased, pr. IGeffez, 

na 0uffeza. 

vp Ituaffez. 
Fazzi^, false, Mat. vii. 15. 

TJfazzif , falsehood, John viii. 


vc Isfazzef , be spoke falsely. 


(J is ranged separate.) 
Iga (in Tuar.), he did, he acted, 
pr. I0eg, HP 259, imp. Eg. 
(see Imug). This is clearly 
the old sense in Kab. also. 
Br. has, Ad ig Eabb, %Hl plait 
d Dim (May God do it !), and 
in the Kab. Poetry of Hano- 

teau this sense is frequent ; 
thus : Iga, he has done, 71 ; 
Ax ar-egef ? what shall I do ? 
142; Begam, ye have done, 
429; Aa yeg, he will do, 
281. So 309, 311, 326, 107, 
281. Indeed, Iga 1 ouker, 107, 
means, he has made his nest ; 
and Anwa igan, pc. What 
has made f 79. The number 
of these passages shows that 
this sense is purely native to 
Xabail, 259, iOeg, he makes 

(2) Yet, as in Latin rem habere 
(cum muliere), an impure 
sense has established itself. 
Br. and Han. so interpret Eg ; 
indeed, Br. gives it as "copu- 
late" (of animals). Hence 
also Bimegga, coitus, Han. 
Further, Hamet distinctly 
uses Ijja with -^ orj of illicit 
intercourse : as Awwuj, yen. 
" stupri," Gen. xxxiv. 7. 
Gattag, she commits adultery. 
Mar. X. 11, 12. Ijja stu- 
pravit, Ur etaju, ne stupra, 
Mat. V. both with French j. 
So Ur 6aj, Luke xviii. 9, 
Mar. X. 19 ; lOej, stuprat, 
Luke xvi. 18. In Mar. x. 
twice the MS. has k, perhaps 
by error for g. See further 
under Edj (J.). 

(3) Shilha, the verb Iga is 
neuter (Fio for Facio ?), and 
virtually means he is, like 
Sar of the Arabs. Hanoteau 
gives us as Zouave the verb 

Digitized by 




Yuqqem, he did; whicli 

Hamet does not exhibit as 

of Bougie, nor do I find it in 

Yauga, he refused, denied, imp, 

Augi, pr. Itaugi, na Bugin. 

GugiX, thou refusest, Han. 
Gubal? Itgubal, vn he paced, 

Ho. See Gorbal. 
Gedeha ! bravo ! honor to them ! 

YuggaA (YaoggaA, Han.), he 

feared, imp, TJggaA, pr, 


vo IsuggaA, he frightened. 
EggoJ? Han. Gr. p. 317, has 

for third fern. s. pres. Oeg- 

goX, TJr t teggiJ, which he 

renders, Be the aggressor, 

commence. This is perhaps 

an irregular present tense 

from EuX, but if so, it has 

the Causative sense; Cause 

(the fight) to arrive. 
Igguf, was swollen, HP 191 

(Arab. Juf, hollow). 
Iggull, was void and vast. 

Gen. i. ; compare Tuar.XJgig, 

Eggaj, migrate, aor, Igguj, 

pr, Itigajja [Arab. Hojj and 

Hojj]. na, Agajji. 

vc Isegaj, has expelled, HP 
344. Imeggiji, a nomad, 
wanderer, pL Imeggijan, 
HP. Almi iqqel igguj, 
until he again migrates (?) 
Gugul, giggle ? See Ingugul. 
Eggal, Gal, swear, aor, Iggul, 

pr, Itegalla. 

vo Iseggal [Isguli, he made 
me swear, Gen. xxiv. 37.] 
pr, Isegalla. 
vrpl, Mesgallen, they caused 
to swear mutually. Agul, 
testimony (?), Gen. xxviii. 
18. Mesgillen, the tender- 
ing of an oath, Han. Gr. 
Igul fel, he called upon, in- 
vited, Br. Ad i iggal, ut me 
invitet, HP 204 
Eglad? Gallid? reign thou 
[I do not find the verb.] 
Heb. Gadol, great : subs, 
"WagliAa, rule. Gen. Agul- 
lid, Aglid (Axlid, Ghad.) 
king. TJgalda, dominion, 
Gen. i. 28. Gegulda, roy- 
alty, a kingdom. 
TJgil, TJjil, orphanhood, be- 
reavement. Agellil,^/. Igal- 
lilan, poor. See A Aged. 
Gigelelt, poverty, Ar. 
Agojil, orphan, /. Gegojilt, Ho. 
TJgugil, HP 259. fAfugil, 
v., perhaps Shilha.J 
Iglif ? Amesgelif, imbecile, 

HP 223. 
Gelillez, wallow. 
Agem, draw (water), aor, Yu- 
gem, pr, Itagem, fut, Aa 
yagum, HP 443. JSenee 
Esagum, pitcher. 
Gem, come out ? [ A geme, out- 
side ; Gema, without ; Barth 

vc Isegem (a plant pushed out 
(leaves, buds), Han, Gr. 
na Asegmi. See Im(;a. 

Digitized by 




Garni, Eggami, refuse, reject, 
forbid, reprobate, Ham. bin* 
der, Br. forbid. Mar. ix. 39, 
aor. Iggum, pr, Itgami; or 

. Iggumma, be refuses, HP 

Gen, lie in repose ; cula : sleep, 
a(yr. Igen, pL Agnan, pr, 
Igan. na Gaguni, 

repose. [Eggunin, tbey lie 

upon? HP 390.] 

vc Isigen, pr, Isigan or Iseg- 
nai, cause to recline, etc. 

vr Imigen, accubuit? con- 
cubuit ? na. Imuggan, 
concubitus, concubinage, 
Mat. V. 32, John viii. 
3, 41, also Br. So Gi- 
magniG, GigganiG, Gen. 
xix. 32, 33, 34. 
Ignunni, be fell down, Br. 
Ger, Ager, throw, cast, put 

forth, aor. Igra, Igrad, pr. 

Iggar. [With j for g in 

Mark] na Gaguri, Atguri. 

vp Imger, was tiirown, Br. 
[Also, root Imger, he 
reaped] so Hamet in 
Mat. and John. 

vr Miegger, Migger, meet 
one another, Br. Gam- 
yaggar, she comes to meet. 
Gen. xxix. 6. [ButEgerG, 
meet, Ho.] Yetlmyagran, 
casting (the net,) pc. Mat. 
iv. 18. Ar amyagr-af, I 
will cast, Luke xi. 49. 
Imyaggor, Luke vii. 9. 
Gamyaggar, she was tossed, 
Mar. iv. 37. 

Qeri, remain over, aor. Igera, 

pr. Itegeri. Ai d igeran, 

quod luc restat, HP 146. 

As bu igeran, "au dernier 

jour,'' HP 131, (Ass, day'i 

Bu for Wa ?) See Inger. na. 

Gaggara, Gawagra, the end, 

Br., last state. Ham. 

vo Isegera [ef, ends with, 
HP 358. 
Auger, exceed, aor. Tuger, 

pr. Ituger. 

ve Issagar, increase (family 
wealth), HP 310. 
G^rbal? Et gorbal, to pace. 

Ho. See Gubal. 
Es-Gebdi (Copt, and Berb.), 

to chew. Ho. 

ve l8guri<p, he swallowed. 
Mat. xxiii* 24. 
Es-gurp, to choke (Arab. 

Jara£?) Hence Em^ard, the 

neck, throat? 
Igerfa, he belched, Y., [from 

Ar. Tekerras ?] 
Egerfef, neglect, Han. E. Gr. 

318, 319. 
Gerger, coo as dove, Br. 
Agergar, one who squints, pi. 

Igurgaren, Del., jun. 
Igram,"^ he cut off, Mat., Luke, 

imp. Garmi. 

vp Attagram, fem.y is cut 
down, Luke iii. 9. 8e$ 
Igzam. Gr. KopiiL 
Egrireb, roll. 

* Perhaps by misprint, j of 
Arabic for J. Yet Kurmi, HP 
397, seems to mean mutiltu. 

Digitized by 




vn Gerurreb, d®- Br. aor. 
Igrareb, pr. Itegririb, na 
vo Segmreby na Asegrireb. 
Is-gef eguf, it chirps, warbles, 

HP 301. 
Igrarzan, perfect, HP 372. 

See Tuar. Igraz. 
Ig^^> 18 much, abounds ; 
YuguG, is increased, HP 
139. Bugut, plenty, John 
iii. 23, HP. 

vc pe. IssuguGen, who has 
made to abound, HP 128. 
Yuggiz, he alighted ; ofteuer 

Ijuz in Ham. 
Imegguyaz, novices, HP 198. 
Egez, watch [Gheez and Berber, 

Egzu, vn to pair (of quadru- 
peds], perhaps from modem 
Arabic Joz for Zoj. 
Agzif, broad, Gagzif, breadth, 

Gezil,Wezil? Dagazlan, short, 
Luke xix. 3 ; Gezzil, do. Br. 
Magazzil, rent, separation, 
Mat.ix. 16. Compare Shear, 
Short, and KclpoD, Curtus. 
vo Sugzal, interpret, Mat. 
ZY. 15 ; also shorten, pare 
down. Heb. Gazar, Arab. 
Egzem, pare down, va Br., also 
vn Igzem, it is split, it is cut, 
Han. Br. In Hamet, fre- 
quent for cut off, tear off ; 
as Gazm-it, cut it off. Mat. 
iz. 43. Egazim, sharp. Ho. 
TJgazman, the carpenter ! 

Mat. ziii. 55. Agazman, 
one mutilated. Mat. ix. 2. 
Agezzam, a slice, pL Igez- 
zumen. Ar. Ijzim. 

Edj, let, leave ; and Ejji, 
be thou healed; ought pro- 
bably to be written with a 
different consonant. Tu. has 
Ezzi, " be healed," with a 
peculiar z. 
Edj, Ejj ? leave thou, Idja, 
Ijja? he left ; indeed vaguely, 
reltquit, remisit, omisit, per- 
mtsttf ignovity in Hamet. 
Venture has Dji, "quit 
thou." Edjaia, pardon, Ho. 
Etz afus ik (for Edj), Luke 
vi. 10, put forth thy hand. 
(Also passively. Ad idj, is 
left. ) Pronominal d is added 
sometimes, as Idja d, Nedja d ; 
pr. Itadja, na Udji, Gudjit. 
vp Ituadj . Besides, the verb 
in Hamet certainly means 
also edtdtt, peperit, ffenuit, 
as Luke iii. 9, edit fructus ; 
Gen. iv. 22, 25, peperit. 
Gen. iii. 16, with Persian 
j ; also Gen. v. 3, he begat. 
Mistake seems here im- 
possible. The Tuarik cor- 
responding is Eyyi. See 
also Iga above ; an entirely 
different verb. 
Ejji (with French j) or Etxi, 
be thou healed. [But Etx, 
eat.] Itxi,. Itza, he was 

Digitized by 




healed, John iv. 51, 52. Ad 
atxin, they may be healed, 
Luke vi. 19. 

Iji, convalescent, Y. 

vc Sujji, heal thou, with 
French j, Br. Generally 
Sutxi, with ^ , (Hamet) 
in same sense, pr. Esujjai. 
na Gijji, GujjiO and Wujji, 
Luke xxiv. 

Eju, buy (articles for use), buy 
and sell, Han. Gr. p. 267. 
Ujuen, they bought, but 
Yuju, HP 342, was sold. 

, Anajau, buyer. 

ve Isiju, Iziju, he sold, na 
Aziju, sale. 

Ijusa, he brayed, as ass (Ijefa 
(a goat), bleated, Ho.), na 

Ijsar, he trembled, Luke viii. 
45. WflfJasr, palsy. Mat. iv.24. 
Casran, they were amazed, 
Mar. ix. 15. 

Ijeba, in HP, (apparently) he 
passed, traversed, 38, nearly 
as Tuar. Igele. So Jebban, 
204, *' ont travers6," Nejeba, 
207, we passed tn, Ijeba, 
325 (the sun) is risen. 

Ijbed, he set about, Br., under 
Parler; seems to be native. 
But besides we find 

IjbcA, apparently a transposi- 
tion of Arab. Je Aeb ; for, he 
drew to himself, Br. under 
Terer ; and HP 88, 89, 
he drew (the trigger). In 
Shilha, he towed. 

Yujad, ready, prepared (from 

Arab. Jc>-j find ?). 

ve Sujad, make ready, Br. 

Gassiujad, she prepared, 

cooked (food). Gen. xxvii. 


Yujah, he comforted, Br. John 

xi. 19, 31. 
Ajaja, remnant, HP 207, 

perhaps from Edj, Ejj. 
IjjaH? rather Itxall, he was 

Ej£er, sniff in, or snore, Br. 

na A.j£er. 8ee Ra£rej. 
Yujjeq, (a falcon) screamed, 

HP 154; (an infant) wailed, 

Br.,^r. Itijjiq, na Ijiq. 
Ejar, start, Ho. (begin a 

journey ?) 
Ijerrab, he crossed over. Mar. 

X. 1. 
Ejrah, play. Ho. 
Ijuz, he alighted (see Yuggiz), 

lodged, sojourned, abode, 

Luke i. 35, ii. 35, John iii. 

36. [Yet in Gen. xiii. 14, 

Ijuz fallas, passed away from 

him. This may seem to be 

Arabic J Is*- not Berber.] 


(1) Af, Awaf, take, take up, 
buy. aor, Yufa, pr, Itaf, Ur 
attaf 0amaffu9, ne capias 
uxorem, Gen. xxv. 1 . Annaf, 
Annawaf, capiamus(uxores). 
Gen. xxxiv. 16, 17. pe. 
Win yufen abriA, he who 
has taken the road, HP 199. 

Digitized by 




Gufat iwargaz, for, ** be- 
trothed to a man," Luke i. 
27, strictly, sumta est viro? 
Ittaf, lie takes, t.e, gets as 
heir. GufeX, thou hast 
bought, H.Gr. 271. Yenture 
under Afin gives the sense of 
catching by disease, na 
Gufin, Gifin. See also Saf, 
Suf, buy thou. 

(2) as Hvp from preceding. 

Ituaf, it is marred, Ham. fut. 
A A ituaf, Br. 

vc Isuaf, HP 303, spoil, 
ruin, na Asuap. 

Tufu, he cried, pa. Itu|Ti, Han. 
8ee Yufawas, 

IfiiA, he set off (on a journey), 
HP 238. 

IfaS-yi, has grieved me, HP 31, 
131, gave pain : pr. Ite^aS ? 

YufSaS, (a lion) roared, HP 

Afdar, limp, Afadur, lame, pr» 

\ Itafudur, he is lame. 
vc yafdar. 

Afogul, black, dark, Wadr. 

Efli, fall, aor, Ifla, pr, Tfelli, 
but Itafli, Luke xvi. 12, John 
xi. 9 ; also V. na Aneflui. 
GifaliuG, Luke ii. 34. TJfaliu, 
chance ? Mat. xiii. 26. 
vc Sefli, overturn, pr. Iseflai, 

na Assfli. 
vp Inneflai, he was beaten 
down, Br. {Niphal ?) 

Tawal, gobble ? jt?r.It[;awal, HP 

Ful, envy, pr. Iterul, Br. (from 

Ar. Till, spite?) 
Ifil, he imagined, pi. Tilen, 

HP 114, 106. riief, Efilef, 

I imagined, thought, 156. 

So Tuar. 
TJfal, vn turn, return ; aor. 

Yufal, pr. Itufal. This may 

seem a variety of Iqqal. See 

Muqal. na Tufalin, return, 

Tuilef, be vexed, pr. Itef wiluf, 

na ITfilef. 
rira, Qim, sit, abide ; cmt. 

Iqqim, pr. Itefim. na Ipmi. 

GifimiO, place of resort. 

vc Isfim, Isefim, he seated, 
pr. Isefimi. 
Tumm, bung, stop up. na 

Tama ? Itfama, he dares. Mat. 

xxii. 46. 
Ifem, he dyed, plunged, bap- 
tized, painted. Ipna, pass. 

it is dyed, na Ipemi. — pc. 

Ifman, painted, HP 227. 
Efmel, be mouldy, na Ajinal. 

Gufemilt, fustiness, dirt, HP 

I[maz, he made signs, Luke 

i. 62, V. 7, pi. Tumzan. 
Ter, read thou : Qar, call thou, 

are hard to distinguish; 

perhaps because the Arabio 

influences the Libyan. 
Ter, read, aor. Iqra, pr. Iqqar, 

Iqerra, Iqerri. na Gefura, a 

lesson. Amfar, a reader. Ho. 

wSefar, Seqra, na Asferi. (Ar. 

Digitized by 




Qar*a). But for Amfar, 
see also Mfr. 

IfTB, Iqqara, he called, pi, 
Aqqaran. 8eeQ;ar. Oamafra, 
an invitation, a solemn feast. 
Amyafran, were called to- 
gether, convoked, Mat.xxviii. 
12. See Amyagran, met, 
under M. 

I(ar, (a cock) crowed, Ho. 

Effel, totter, pr» Ifeq^fel. 
(Ar. JJa.^. be palsied ?) 
actively, IfeXelt, he has over- 
turned him, struck him to 
the ground, HP 166. Afaf- 
lan, intoxicating, i.e, causing 
to totter {see Dufl), is active, 
Luke i. 15. So I(;^al, he 
threw down, Luke iii. ix. 
xii. and Mar. viii., but vn 
(the net) sank deep, Luke v. 
6. From this verb is formed 
a sort of Niphal Innaf^al, he 
hastened, hurried, Luke i. 39, 
ii. 16, Mat. xxvii. 28; also 
seized, carried oflF, Gen. xxxi. 
34; but Luke xii. 45, it 
stands for was drunken :* 
perhaps it there means was 
vr. Mef [el, wrestle, Br. 

Yufawas, (a falcon) screamed, 
HP 88. See Yufu. 

Tux, fill thou. Gen. i. 22, but qu. 

* Hodgson has Enogtad, 
drunken; also Gen. ix. 21, 
Innafyan, drunken, perhaps 
mis written. 

Fez, dig, aor, Ifza, pr. Iffaz. 
na Gafuzi, a hole that is dug. 

Ifaz, grunt, Ho. but qu. 

Fezzif, was long, Afzif, long 
(broad. Ho.). Gefzif, pro- 
longation? length (breadth. 

H. n=j;^. 

The Tuariks cannot sound A 
and in the name of Moham- 
med change it to £. The 
Kabails have learnt to sound 
11, but their native words 
have it not as distinct from 
h. The Beni Menasser and 
Kabails alter native £. in 
some words to II. The 
Kabails change Arabic J^Jb 
to J-«»d-, and sometimes 
Arab. ^ to ^ . Apparently 
we must treat the two sounds 
of h as indiscriminate. 
Hodgson always gives h, 
but ^ predominates in Hano- 
teau, Brosselard, and Hamet, 
even with native Kabail 

JF)rom Hodgson, all needing 

[Ehwa, evil. So, so ; tolerable. 

Ehwaie, wish (Arab ?). 
Ahuhu, wail. 

vo Ishauhiu, yelp. 
Ehabex, to wound. 
Ehuk, doubt. 
Ahlau, wet. 

Digitized by 




Ehulif, good (Coptic and Ber- 
ber, says Ho.). 

Ahenuhy neigher. 

ve Isnahncdi, he neighed. 

Ahrau, be wide [Tu. Igerau]. 

Es-harhur, snore (Copt, and 
Berb.) Ho. 

Eheris, contract ; Ehsal, fjedl, 
but qu. 

Ehzar, assure. Perhaps for 
EhAar, talk, tell ; which is 
imported Arabic] 

Ihwa, it pleases, Han. (Arab. 

Hewieya, a whim). 
Ihwa, bad, evil (as Ho.), Br., 

Mat. xii. 5, 85. 
Hawal ? Inhawwal, he was 

troubled, John xiii. 21, Gen. 

xxxii. 7. Ar. flawwil, 

change ? 
Ihan, he claimed, Han. Gr. 317. 
Iwahhan, tending to ? Gen. 

XXV. 18. Winiwahan,hewho 

aims (a blow), Han. Gr. 316. 
Ihweh, violence, scandal. Gen. 

vi. 10, XXX. 23, John vii. 15. 

Ihwah as ihwah, Mat. xxi. 

41, ruined with ruin ? 
Allawi, impotent, HP 428. 
Allbek, plane down, 
mbir ? Gaflbir, oflFence, Mat. 

xviii.7. AOllabra^, thou wilt 

oflFend, do. 8, 9. 
Huf, search for, search over, 

traverse, roam, pr. lOlluf, 

Itlluf. na Alluf, a quest. 
Illgax, Illwax, he seized by 

force, snatched. Mat. vii. 15, 

John X. 12, 28. na Allaw- 

was (with s), venison. Gen. 
xxvii. 3. This sense of 
Yenison suggests as possible 
that this verb may be the 

modem Arabic 


. which 

at Aleppo is vulgarly Ilaw- 

wix, hunt after. 
AQkam, held, hold fast, £r. 

[A different sense from that 

m Arabic] control, restraioy 

Han. Gr. 318. 
Hakker, aim at, examine, pr, 

Itellakker, na Allakker. 
Aniu, imp, be thou healed, 

Illala, aor. f Ho. pr, lilallu. 

vc Iselllu, pr. Isalllai (from 
Ar. nil, set free ?). 
Hallel, caress thou, Br. 
Allmu, be hot, pr. Illammu 

tHeb. Ham, as well as Arab, 
lami, Hamm.]. 

vc Isaidmu, pr. IsaQmai. 
Hammel, love, cherish, appa- 
rently pure Libyan. Arab. 

Hamel is quite different in 

sense, and Heb. has Hamal, 

Illammel, poured down as rain, 

is simply incorrect Arabic, 

for J^ (Mat. vii.). 
Handeq, moan, Br. 
Hans, be ill, Br. H. ; also HP 

429. Gillaus, she was ill, 

Han. Gr. 255. 

vc Is-llass, he made sick, 
Han. Gr. 259. 
inaya,he understands, HP 346. 
Hasses, listen, Han. Br., na 

Allasses. Ehazis, d®- Ho. 

Arab. Hass, feel, perceive. 

Digitized by 




Hlza, Ihza, he put to shame, 
dishonored, John viii. 491, 
passively, Luke xiv. 9. 

llayuG, pray, supplicate, pr. 
ItAawa, na AJdayaS. 

[Yery few Kahail words open 
with ^.] 

E£hex, scratch, Br. 

I£a? Iti£il, entreats? HP 416. 

I£elal, it is defiled with mucus, 

HP 197. 
A£ammas, the labourer, HP 

38, 93. 
I£enunes, he wallowed (in 

blood), HP 239. 
IK.a'p, it is devastated ? 

vo Ise£af , HP 141. 
I£za, he cursed, Gen. xii. 3, 

Mat. XV. 4 ; but see lAza. 


Ek, go, also va traverse, aor. 

Ikka, jpr. I9ek. 

vo Essuk, cause to go, HP 
Yekka, for Tefka, Ifka, he 

XJki or U£i, Au£i, Han. wake 

thou, vn, na Gukin. 
Wiyak, beware, HP 33, 142, 

perhaps means, Wake up ! 

vo Saii£i, awaken (others), 
HP 78. 
Ikiu, (linen) was dried, dry; 

/. Gekiu, pi Kiwen. /. pi. 

Kiwent. (Contrasted to Iq- 

qur, parched, stiff, hard.) 

vo Sikiu, make dry, pr. 
Es-kiwiu, Eskezwiu, squeak 

as pig. He Bekwit, a cough, 

Kub, Kuj, push. 
Ikfa, vn is past way, vanished, 

perished, HP 4, 12, 108, 

109, 146, 283, 362. pi. 

Ekfan. Ikfa elmal, periit 

KufeG, froth, foam. 

vc IskufeG, na AskufeG. 
Ikfel, (sweat) ran down, Br. 

trickled. Ikffl, V. 
AkaHkuA, a cough, Br. Iskah- 

kal, he coughed, Ho. 
Es-kakai, cackle, Ho. 
Kuj, push ; see Kub. 

vr Emkuj, push mutually. 
Ikuker, he wavered, Br. ; he 

imagined, V. 
Kikef , also EskikeS, tickle, Br. 

na AskikeS. 
Akul, trample under foot, pr. 

Itakel ; na GakulG, Oukelin» 
Ikli, obsoletey whence Gikli, 

march, for Giddi: also in 

Tuarik, Sikli. 
Kelkel, trot, pr. Itekelkel (Ar. 

Leklek), but Eskalokel, Ho. 
Ikma, he hides, va HP 259. 
Kammil, is or was long. [Not 

Tuarik, yet unlike in sense 

to Arabic, perfect.'] Akam- 

lan, long; na Gekmel, length. 

ve Isekmal, lengthen. 

Digitized by 




IkmaD, lie was captive, Mat. 
xxY. etc. Kamnai;, Gakam- 
naf, Tkmana.n, pe, 
Ekmes, Ekmez, wrinkle, 
shrivel, become tough, Br. 
[Ar. £ennix.] 
vo Sekmex, make tough, Br. 
[Ekmex, pinch, Han. V. 
IS ArabicJ 
Ekmez, rub. Ho., scratch, V., 
pr. Ikemmez; na Akmaz, 
Eknu, bend [Arab. Hanu], 
bow, aor. Ikna, pr, Ikennu. 
vo Iseknu, pr. Iseknai, na 
Eknef, be roasted, broiled, 
pr. Ikennef. Ekenaf, roast 

vo Iseknef, pr. Iseknaf, na 
Kur, conduct thou, Br. 
Ekker, arise [softened from 
Enker, Shilha and Tuar .], 
pr. IGekker or Itenekker, 
Han. Gr. 139 ; na Bukkera, 

vo Sekker, raise. See Enker. 
Aker, steal, pillage, aor. Yilker, 
pr. Itaker. 

vp Ituaker was stolen, po. 

Itwakran, na Wakaran, 

Gen. xxxi. 32. Amaker, 

a thief, pi. Imakeran, Mat. 

vi. 21 (commoner, Amak- 

araJ). Umakra, deceitful- 

ness, Sumakri, deceitfully. 

Ikkerker [*' il se traina," HP 

409], "he tumultuated," as 

river waves. 

Ekres, knot, pr. Ikerres. 
vp Ituakres, tie the knot of 
marriage. Gen. xxxi v. 9^ 
na Bakersi, Gayirsi, a 
knot. [Tikerkas, subtlety, 
trickery, HP 253 ; also in 
Shilha? and Tikerrest, d*>- 
in Tuarik.] 
Ekref , rake up, scrape up or 
out; and vulgarly ^ pillage, 
steal ; Kar^p-it, scoop it out. 
Mar. X. 47. 

IkraT, he raked, Br., na 
Gakkurf, theft, Mat. xv. 19. 
Gawakarpa, booty, rape of a 
woman. AmekaraT, a thief, 
pi. ImakaraSen, popularly 
supplanting Amaker. 
B^arrex, bite, pr. Itkerrex, Br. 
also shave (head), yet Gekar- 
xit, tripe, pi. Gikarxetin, Br. . 
Ekrez (Ar. HaraG), till the 
ground, 'xapdaao). 
vp Ituakrez, na Gayirza. 
Gakurza, a plough with 
oxen. Amkeraz, labourer, 
Eks, feed (cattle), aor. Iksa, 
pr. Ikes. Amoksi, a steer, 
Ho. Amaksau, grazier, shep- 
herd, ^^. Imeksawen. Geksi- 
ut a flock, herd, compare 
Gi^si a ewe. 
Ekkes, take away, take off, 
pull out, pluck off; aor. 
Ikkus, pr. IGekkes, na Guk- 

vp Ituakkes, na Gawakkesa. 
8ee Eqqes, prick, sting. 
Eksu, braid (the hair); plait, 

Digitized by 




oar. Iksa (see Eks); 1 p. 

Eksif, jpr, Ikessu. 
EksJA, raise, Ho., but qu, 

Aksar, the lower part, Br., 

Ham. GauksarG, descent, HP 

297, suggests a lost verb. 
IkkaO, lie strikes, irregular 

present of AuG, pc, ikkaGen. 
Akufq^ef, mark of a pinch. 

ve Iskufq^ef, he pinched, 
stung. See Ejvpuf and 
Arab, ^a'paf, he seized, 
Ekei? think, pr. ItukGa. At- 

kaOayam, ye reason, Mat. 

xvi. 8. Axu tattukGam? 

what think ye? Mat. xxii. 

42. TJkGi, thought. Gen. xi. 

6, a(f ukGi ensen. 

vr ifekGi, remember, con- 
sider, ImmukGi-d, he has 
Remembered, pr. ItmekGai, 
na AmekGi, memory: (a 
souvenir. Ho.) 

vc of last. SemekGi, remind. 
Aketot, talkative, Ho. 
EkGut, buy. Ho., but qu. 
IkGul, he went across, passed 

over, Mat. xiv. 34; xxvi. 

42 — but do. 39, cause to pass. 

Also AkGul, beyond, across 

(Jordan), Mat. xix. 1. But 

V , has Ektil, measure thou : 

which suggests Arab. viii. of 

Ekxem, pass (as time), Gen. 

xxvi. 8, enter, pr. Ikexxem, 

na Akxam, Bawakexma, 

Anekxum. Ekxim, within. 

ve Isekxam, he welcomed, 
introduced, inserted. 

vr Miekxam. Also, Es- 
kexom, reproach. Ho., 
but qu. 

El, in Tu., have. In B^ab. it 
seems all but obsolete; yet 
Han. gives, Wi G ilan ? quis 
eum possidens ? Perhaps 
hence, Aila, Agla, property, 
and the Shilha Iwellan, be- 
longing to. [Possibly A^la 
is the true root.] 
Ili, be thou, exist. Hla, he is 
or was. A A yili, he will be. 
Ara yili, he is to be; na 
Ali, go up, aor. Tuli, pr, Itali 
(Arab. £ali). Aa ennali, 
let us go up, HP 228, na 
AUui, ascent; Wali, Mar. i. 
10. Yal, the prime, HP 

ve Sali, cause to go up, haul 
up, pr. Isalai. Issali 
eznad, he raises the steel 
(of the gun), HP 152. 
Wali, look at, turn towards, 
see {Hence Allan, eyes.) 
Walin, they look at, HP 
66. Iwala, he saw, H. Gr. 
253. Wi ki iwalen? quis 
te videt? Walaf, I saw. 
vr Emwali, see one another ? 
Amwali, seer, over- 
watcher, HP 17, 174, 

Digitized by 




Tal el*amer, the turn of an 
affair? Han. Gr., p. 320. 

Awal, an utterance, a report, a 
voice, pL Awalan, Wawalan. 
ve Isawal, Isiwel, Isiul, he 

vr Emsiwel, converse mu- 
tually, w« Amsiwel. After 
a negative, Es wawal, not 
a word. Mat. xxii. 46. 

Walla, come back, recur, Br., 
na Awalli, "retour" Br. 
Aa yuUi, will come back, 
HP 230. Wulll-d, become 
thou, Br. JSence GalliO, and 
Shilha Wal? fois. IweUa, 
(the time) is changed, HP 
67. Gallie, a (short) time 
or space. GalliG aArus, a 
little while, John xiii. 33. 
Gawala, Gaula, a fever (re- 
curring ?) G ami welt, cir- 
cuit, gj irepi'xtopo'i. 

Elli, open (Zouave) for Eldi, na 

Alwu, be feeble, (soft?) aor. 
Yulwa, pr. Italwu, Uluwan, 
are feeble, HP 229. Ilwan, 
luxurious, dainty (soft?) Luke 
XV. 13. [Itlawi, he luxu- 
riates? HP 220.] 

Ilusa, he addressed, (Heb. 
Lasa, Arab. Loffa,) fut. 
A A ilasi, pr. Itlasi, na 
Gulasa, a discourse, Mat. 
xiii. 13. 

vr Amlasan, they held alter- 
cation, John vi. 52. Amse- 
lai (omitting s?), parole, 

vr Imselai, he conversed, pr. 

Elsali, an anomalous word, ap- 
parently corrupt Arabic, for 
good. Hence Aekali, fern, 
AelaliO, like Airi, /. AiriG. 

Eldi, va open, aor, Ildi, pr. 
Ileddi. Also vn Ildi, it is 
opened, Mat. ii. 11, Luke 
i. 64, hut Ileddiwin, covered 
with spittle, HP 197. 

IlfeS, he was dirty, HP 315. 
Ilfa/p, dirty, Br. 

Ileflif, he became fat, pr. Iti- 
lefHf, HP 250. 

Ilfef, (an ulcer) burst, Br. 

LaMaq, prime (a gun) '* amer- 
cer,'* Br. [Not Arabic in 
this sense.] na Geliliq[. 
vp ImleMaq. 

Hue was turbid, na Alufu, 

vo Isluf, he made turbid, na 

Luaf, be smooth, soft. {See 
Elwu.) pr. irreg. Hluqqaf, 
is soft, etc. 
vc Selwef , polish, na Aslewef . 

Elhu, crawl. Ho. but qu. 

Elhu, be good, fair, handsome. 
\_8ee Yulaf, Tuar.] aor. llha, 
pr. Italha, pc. Ilhan, good, 

ve Selhu, make good, im- 
prove ; pr. Iselhai. 

Lekken, plane down. Amlek- 
ken, smooth. Alekkan, car- 
penter's plane. 

Lai, be bom. Hal, is bom, pr. 
Itlal, is being bom, or habit- 

Digitized by 




ually bom. AAilulan, 
about to be bom. na Milul, 
Galalil, birth. Imaulen, folk, 
is perhaps from this root. 
Ilellif ? Degma ilellif, '* a 
' travers champs," HP 222. 
Yulem, he was suitable, Br. 
Alem, hem (a garaaent). na 

Allum, a hem. 
Ellem, spin, aor» Yellem, pr, 


Alemmam, a slanderer, HP 233. 

Perhaps from Arab, lum, 

blame; else, as Gr. DaTrro). 

IlmoA, he learned (Heb. and 

Arab), pr, lOelnieA ; but 

lelemoA, Ho. [Br. 

ve IselmeA, he taught, Ho. 

Elqai, deep, Gilqi, depth, Br. 

Ilqa, is ruined, HP 58, 62, 104. 

[Arab, is paralysed ?] 
Ileqeq, be tender, soft {see 
Luaf). Geleqeq, softness, D 
aleqqaq, tender, soft, HP 392. 
Leqqem, graft, Br. 

vc Iselqem, '* travaille,'* HP 
300. [The context rather 
suggests an impure meta- 
phor.] Iselqara, tools of 
agriculture, HP 8. 
Els, vn dress thyself, aor, Ilsa, 
pr. Itelus, ph Elsen, clothes. 
vc Sels, clothe (another), pr. 

Iselus, na Aselsi. 
vp Mels, aor. Ituels. Gamel- 
siO, Gamelsiut, apparel. 
[GallisG, darkness, from 
covering?] Telset, mist, 
Ghad. Tillas, shades, dark- 
ness, Shilha. 

Elles, touch thou : seems in 

form identical with 
Elles, shear sheep : aor. Hies, 

pr. lOelles. GilisG, limit, 

border, strip, Br. His, a 

fleece after shearing, pi. 

Ilisen. Gilist, a fleece, pi. 

Gilisin. na Gawallesa, the 

being sheared ? 
[Yules, he repeated, Tu.] Aa- 

ales-ef,I will repeat, HP 232. 
Illaz, be hungry, aor. Illuz, pi. 

Itelaz, with negative XJr 

illaz ara. Lstz, hunger. 

vc Selaz, pr. Iselaza, famish. 
[Elfaxi, people, and Elwaxul, 

infants, are not known as 

Arabic, but show no Libyan 



Imai, was solicitous? pr. Ur 
Gatmaiyam, take ye no care. 
Mat. vi. 23. na GemauG, 
care, attention, V. 

Aimen, they crush, HP 99. 

Masi, Mayi, a mewing ? Is- 
masu, Is-maiu, (the cat) 
mewed, na Asmaiu. 

Imug, Immug, va he placed. 
vn it lay, was placed, Luke 
ii. 12, 16 [not in Han.] 
Imugan, posituSf John ii. 6. 
(The evening) immug, lay, 
i.e. came. Mar. vi. 47. 
Gumaggam, Luke vi. 35, 
posuistis for fecistis? Ho. 
has, "Emug, work;'* and 
the suspicion arises, that 

Digitized by 




this verb may be vr of !6g, 
which see. 

lyyum (far Kabbi), he prayed 
(to God), Gen. xxv. 21. 

Emger, reap ; gather crop; from 
Amger, reaping hook: {see 
also Ger.). aor. Imger, pr. 

vp Ituamger ; na Gamagra, 
harvest f differs from Oama- 
f ra, invitation to a banquet. 
Perhaps Amger, sickle, is 
connected with Iger, field, 
Latin Ager, and with Heb. 
Agar, gather crop. 

Imugar, va f Imigar, vn or vr 
he met. In Gen. and Mat. 
Imyagar, jpr, Itamyagar, as 
if vr from Agar. 8imugar-e0, 
she met him, Han. Gr. 

Imo:ot ? na Gamgot, protection, 

Imfa, it sprouted, budded, 
sprung up, fy. arose ; na 
6im(i, (of teeth). Imfi, a 
bud, a germ, seed, pi, Imfen, 
Mat. iv. 26. 

Immef, HP 299, he rushed. 
[In Shilha, fought, perhaps 
for Imnef.] 

Emmef, seize, pr. lOemmef. 
But qu. 

Em fed, beat to powder. 

Imfar, become old,' be ag- 
grandized, £r. Maqqar, (the 
boy) grew up ; /em. Maqra0, 
Luke ii. 36. Babas ilia 
maf(;ar, her lord was old 
[maqqar mof^fwwaZ]. Ampar, 
old, /. Gamfart, pi. Imfaran 

[different from Am far, a 
reader, from Qar, Tar]. Am- 
far, also a sheikh, a chief, 
Bam fart, a lady, pi. Gimfarin. 
Gemfur, authority, HP 266. 
Gemfar, old age. So Amfar, 
Gen. xxiv. 36 ; yet S amfar, 
in large quantity, much, 
Mat. XV. 28. Amaqqar, big, 
Amaqran, great, a chief. 
ve Semfar, make great, honor, 
magnify [Gamafra, festi- 
vity, is probably from the 
root Ifra, he invited]. 8ee 
Es-moferi, Copt, and Berb., 

bellow, Ho. 

Imken, va strike, hit (a mark). 

vn knock against, pr. Imek- 

kin: but prick, pierce lightly, 

Br. na Amekkun, a prick, 

wound by pricking, Br. 

MekGi, think over, remember. 

See EkOi. 
Mel, indicate, hint, tell, aor. 
Imla [Tu. Yumel], pr. Im- 
mal, na Gimmelin [Heb. 
Malal]. Gemelem, ye noti- 
fied, in passive Gemelam, 
Melil, vn assemble, aor. Imelal, 
he met, came across (va) pr. 
Itemlil. Amelili, company, 
intercourse, HP 30. 
vp TJr Ai» yummal (*»V), HP 
198, is not to he met with 
there : [for Yumelal ?] 
Imelal, a meeting-place [a 
la rencontre des chemins, 

Digitized by 




vo Semlil. va assemble, con- 
vene, pr, Isemlili, aor. pi, 
Eseinlalen, have caused to 
meet, na Asemlil. 
vcr or v<p Kemsemlal, we are 
assembled, HP 153 

Amellal, wbite ; MeUul, it is 
white ; Gamlel, whiteness ; 
Gamellalt, an egg, pi, Gimal- 
lelin (compare Arab. AbyaS, 
white, and BayXa, an egg), 
BimeUilt, white clay, Y. 
(Shilha ?).-earaella, Gimelli, 
adove,jp/.0imelliwin. Emel- 
lili, egg, Ben. Menasser. 

Imlelli, he swooned, was 
stunned [carefully contrast 
Imelal, also Isemlili]. pr, 
Itemlelli, Br. na Amlelli. 
ve Semlelli, stun, na Asem- 

Amanayan, riding, Mat. xxi. 5, 
and Amanai, a rider, Y. from 
Inay, he rode. So in Tuarik. 
But see Inig in Kab. 

Amanun, " non dresse," HP 
401, uncouth? 

Imsan, civil, polite, Br. 

Menna-f, je voudrai, HP 76, 
84, 280, pr, Itmenni, he 
meditates, 70. (Compare 
Bimenna, talk, from root 

ImenunaS, he tumbles down, 
vn HP 436. 

Muqal, look at (perhaps from 
Aqqal, turn.) na Gamuqli, 
view, sight, spectacle, HP 
130, 159, pass, Imuqqal, it 
has been examined, Br. 

ve Semaqqal, examine, Br. 
Esmuqulef , I looked upon, 
HP 401. 
Muqqer, it was great, pe. 

Imaqqaran^ See Im(;ar. 
Imar, it is poured, Br. it 

pours, vn, 

ve Semir, pour, aor. Ismar, 
pr, Ismiri, na Asemiri. 
MurAes, vn strangle one's self. 

ve SemurACs, strangle. 
Merref, it was salt. 
Is-emerif, (the ox) lowed. Ese- 

marlk, Ho. But see Eem- 

Merrik, (the eye) was dim, 

Gen. xxvii. 1. 
Mernaf, bawl, pr, Itmemef, 

Ames, be mouldy, aor, Tumes, 

pr, Itames, na Ammus. Te- 

mussa, insipidity, HP 246. 

But see the next. 

ve Simes, Sames, make dirty, 

Br., pr, Isimas. Esemsan, 

they have tarnished, HP 


Messus, vn fade, wither. Ames- 

sas, a simpleton, D amessas, 

silly, Br., Gemeses, disgust, 
^ HP 72. Temuses, insipidity, 

HP 246, TemessasG, do. 304, 
Imesilai, he conversed. See 

Im'pal, he buried. Amafal, 

Ama2al, earth. GimaMit, 

tombstone. GimiilG, burial. 

Amielt, graveyard, Ben M. 
ImmuG, he died. (Heb. and 

Arab.) fut, AAimaG, John 

Digitized by 




xi. 50. Br. ipr, ItmettaG, 

imp, EmmeG. 

ve SerameO, cause to die (?) 

EmGer, play the beggar, Han., 
na GimeGiriO. 

Amxum, guilt ; Imxuman, 
wicked. [Perhaps Arab. 
Maixum, of evil omen.] 

Emxafl, lick, na Amxafl, Han. 

Emzi, polish, pr, Imezzi. 

Mezzi {probablt/ with different 
z from the last) is little, 
young. Amazyan, young, 
younger, youngest, fern, Ga- 
mazyant, pL Imazyanan, also 
firstlings. But Gamazyant, 
youth? Aqxix Gamazyant, 
babe of youth, i,e. firstborn 

vc Isemzi, he abridged. 
Ilemzi, a young man; 
seems to have Arabic 
El improperly prefixed. 

[Emzia, goodness, Ho., seems 
to be only Arabic Mezzieya, 
distinction, superiority.] 

Mayz-an, they came across, 
Luke viii., 26, but qu. 

Amazwar, first. See Izwar. 

Amzalu'p, indigent, destitute, 
pi. Imzela/p, Ham., Ho., per- 
haps Arab. Zelaf , which in 
Kazlmirski ia nu et lisse, 


Ini, say thou, aor, Inna, pr. 
Itini,/w^ A A yini, Ara yini, 
vr na Gimenna, talk. 

Ani, "oter les poux" Han., 
pr, Itani. 

Enoya, grieve, Ho., but qu. 

Yawan, he has enough. (True 
root, Egiun?) Gawayant, 
satiety, Br. Gawant, d**-, 
HP 295. See Igiun in 
Tuarik verbs. 

Eina, to mount, Shaw, may be 
the Inay (he rode) of Tuarik 
and Shilha; but since Inig 
in Kabail seems to replace 
them, perhaps Eina is the 
same as the following : 

Iwwen (Yuwen ?) he went up. 
ve Asawen, what is aloft ; 
a steep ascent, HP 246, 
282. Desawen, adv. above, 
Br. Gesewint, an eleva- 
tion, hill, pi. Gisuwan. 
Yusawan, aloft, upwards,- 
the top or surface. Ham. 

Inebbeh, he rebuked, com- 
manded, Ham., Br. (Heb. 
Neba, prophesied.) 

Annuba, new, Luke, but qu. 

NaAi, Ohirej go one's rounds, 
search ; alsOj . traverse, se 
promener. [In like double 
sense Illaf, and Tuar. 
Immef.] aor. InuAa; KuAaf, 
I have traversed, HP 334. 
pr. ItenaAi, na Ana^i, Han. 
V. too has Yunad, he 
searched, but Br. Yunag. 
NaAif, HP 310, seems to 
be present tense. 

Endi, lay snares, pr. Ineddi. 

Inia s, encircled it, HP 83. 

Digitized by 




(Ennid, turn, V., probably 

Ennei, sweep, brush, Br., Y. 
Arab. Ka^a. 

End, vn curdle {qu, turn, vn? 
=Ennid of Shil.) 
vc send, chum thou, pr. 
Isendu, na Asendu. 

EnXall, battle. t;r Meniall, HP 
136, 139, 141, are probably 
Arab. Ne'paH, butt, as bull or 

luAel, (a building) is over- 
turned, HP 16. 

Inuddem, he slumbered, pr, 
Itanuddem, na Anuddam, 

Nif ? Gatnif, she was angry. 
Mar. vi. 19. Ar. *enef ? 

Anef, leave, quit, aor. Tunef, 
pr, Itanef, pc, Yunif abrid, 
he has quitted the road, HP 
199. So eannif, Luke vii. 
37, 39, she has quitted (the 
right road), t,e, is a sinner. 
vc Sinef, cause to quit. 

Inufeg, he rebelled, Br. 

Infel, HP 328, is rendered 
'' will cover," but '* wiU/a// 
on thee '' gives the same 
general sense (Heb. Nafal, 

Inig, imp, ride, travel [Tu. 
Inay], aor, Yunag, Han. Gr. 
p. 101, ^r. Itinig, na Inig, a 
journey. Iminig, a traveller, 
H. G. 271. 

Anguf, imbecile, pi, Inegaf, 
Iwungif, HP67,69, 107, 245. 

Yunag, he searched, Br. [Han. 

he travelled]. See Inig and 

EnugaA ? 8-ennugA-am, HP 9 

—doubtful sense. 
Ingugul, he mocked (Mat. 

Gen.), na Wangugal. 

vc Singugul, d°* 
Inger, it wasted, vn came to 

an end (see Geri), perished. 

A A negeren, pereant^ HP 38. 

na Aneggar, end, the last. 

Gangara, end = Gawagra. 

vc Senger, waste va, destroy. 

na Asengar. pc. Win isen- 

eggeren, he who destroys, 

HP 27. 

Enf, kill, aor. In [Sif pr, Ineqq. 

vp Itunef. 

vr Menf, kill mutually, pr, 
Itimenf. Amenfi, battle, 
Han. na GimenfiuO. 
Nuf, Ennaf, fight, aor. Innuf, 

pr, Itnaf. 

vr Imenuf. 
EngCA, crush (grain), Br. pr, 

IneffeA, Itneffid, na AnfaA. 

Amenfud, crushed, 
lufel, it spouted, spirted. SoTu. 
Ennofuin, are humiliated, HP 

Inoff al, he upset (intoxicated), 

he hastened. See Eff el. 
Enehlel, pain. Ho. but qu. 
Nallnafl, neigh, Br. 

vc Isnallnafl, d°. Ho. ; cough 
on purpose, Br. 
Inejjam, he is able, he can, HP 

194. So Ghadamsi. TJr 

nenjim, not understanding, 

HP 244. 

Digitized by 




Enker, rise, grow up, pr» It- 
nekker, HP 440. This word 
is generally corrupted into 
Ekker. In HP 162, 442, we 
have ITeqer with q, for rise 
as the sun. Genker, sunrise, 
HP 162. 

EneksiG, '* deceive," Ho. qu. 
he cheated him ? Arab. 
ITaqs, deficit. 

Insal, was ashamed, Luke xiii. 
17, but qu. 

Nulfa? Es-nulfa, HP 358, is 
rendered " improviser." 

Ennam, be accustomed, aor. 
Innum, pr. Itennara. "Wi 
innumen, he who has been 
accustomed, Han. 

Wanes, assist, HP 41, 50, 69, 
aor. Yunnes, 72, Aunis, 183. 

Ens, rest, pass the night ; ahOy 
be extinguished. Itnus ex- 
tinguit? Mat. xii. 20. Gat- 
nus, extinguitur. Mat. iii. 12. 
Ur natnus (partic) qui non 
extinguitur, Luke iii. 17. 
Additnusan, extinguuntur ? 
Mat. XXV. 8. aor, Inea, pr. 
Itenus. Imensi, dinner, Br. 
(supper ?) 

vc Sens, put out (flame) ; give 
hospitality, pr, Isenus. na 
Asensi. Isnasu, he ex- 
tinguished, HP 400. 
vr Emsens, give mutual 
hospitality. [In Tuarik, 
Sins, cause to rest, has the 
sense place; but in Kab. 
this is Sers. See Ers.] 

En^ eX, be joined, adhere. 

t?(fSenfeX, solder. waAsen'pei. 
vp ItusenfeX, was soldered - 

Intefl, it bellowed, pr. ItintaXl- 

vo Isin'pill, uttered war-cry, 

HP115, 5e>. See'EnLaa. 

En'pel, bury, pr, Ineffel,.HP 
109, forEmfel? 

Enxu, Entxu, be stript of 
feathers, fleeced. 
vc Senxu, pluck, strip, pr. 
Isenxau, na Asenxu. 

Kexxeb, turn on the lathe, na 
Anexxab, Han. [The lathe 
is worked by a bow: Arab. 
Noxxaba, an arroWy was 
mistaken for a bow?] Fr. 
Tenayabt, a bow. 

Enzu ? be in front ? Gawenza, 
forehead (Shilha ?) Amenzu, 
flrstborn, pi. Imenza, Br. 

Anez, bow, stoop, kneel, wor- 
ship, aor. Yunza, pr, Itanaz. 
Unzan, Luke i. they were 
in the decline (of years), na 
Gunaz, Annuz. 

Eny, be sold, be on sale ; 
aor. Inya, pr, Itanuy. na 
Gawenya, sale {also sneez- 
ing ! Br. See Inyer.) 
vc Zeny, sell, aor. Izenya, 

pr. Izenuy, na Azenyi. 
vp Ituzeny, was sold. 

Enzam, be unquiet, na Anezmi. 
Also w« irregular? Anezgum, 

Inyer, nose, pi. Anyaran ; Gen- 
yirt, nostril ; make a verb, 
Enyer, clean the nose, pn 
Ineyyer. Hence perhaps 
Gawenya, sneezing; flnal r 

Digitized by 




being cut off in pronuncia- 
tion. /S^Tu.Anjur(AM:ur), 
bridge of nose. 


Aqwi, wonder at, HP 262. • 

Qebbi, be fat, aor. Iqebba, pr» 
Iteqebbi, na Aqebbi. 

Iqbex, it is stript (of bark), Br. 
vc Seqbex, to weed ? Gaqa- 
bex0, a hoe, pi. Giqubax. 

Iqdar? split (wood), pr, Ite- 
qaddar, HP. 205. 

Eqdax? Qaddax? serve, min- 
ister (Heb. and Arab. holy). 
Aqeddax, minister, servant, 
pi. Iqeddaxen. 

Eqqel, become, return, do again, 
pr. Itaqqal. See Ufal. Also 
Iqqal, was shut, locked, 
closed, Luke iv. 25, viii. 33, 
John XX. 19, qu. turned? 
Eqqel (before another verb) 
expresses repetition in Ha- 
met: perhaps from slavish 
imitation of Arabic : as Beqqel 
eurau, iteravit peperit, she 
bare a child agatnf Gen. iv. 2. 

Eqlu, broil (Heb. and Arab.), 
aor. Iqla, pr. Iqillu. Imqili, 
dinner, V. [But else Amikli, 
as if from Heb. and Arab. 
Akel, eat.] 

Iqlillu, vn freq. rolls over, tmp. 

ve SeqluUi, roll away (the 
stoDc), Mat. xxviii. 2. 

Eqlaq, flash ; Qulqan, they 
flashed, Br. 

Qim, rim, sit. See Fim. 
vo Izaqqiman, pc. remaining 
as surplus, Mar. x. 21. 

XJqqem, do, make (only Han.), 
rather arrange, as Arab. 
Sewwi for do, pr. Ituqqem 
na Aweqqem ; S iqam, in 
arrangements ^2235. Nuq- 
qem imensi, we prepared a 
supper, 203. Koll xi yu- 
qem, every thing nice, 412. 
HaAur yuqemen, bonne pa- 
role, 413. 

Iqmas, he trembled, Mar. v. 33, 
Mat. xxviii. 4. 

Eqqen, bind fast, tie (to one- 
self morally), attach, HP 
230. na Gawaqna (moorage). 
Eiqan, a tie, bond, V. — pr. 

vp Ituaqqen, po. pass. Imaq- 
qan, tied fast, fem. Gimaq- 
qent, HP 295. 

Iqqur, it is or was dry, parched, 
stiff, pi. Quren, are ripe. 
GaqarO, GafarG, dry land, 
drought. Afurar, dryness. 
Qari, the solid earth. 
ve Isfer, make dry. 

Qar, call, avow, assert (Heb. 
and Arab.), pr, Iqqar, with 
dative, aor. Iqra. Aqqam-as, 
they call him. 

Iqerri, he reads. Br. has Eqra, 
as imperative. Ho. has Per. 

Giqaree, a kick, V., Shilha? 

Aqraf , calumniate, Br. (Arab. 
Qarrif , clip close.) 

Iqas, he went through, he cross- 
ed, Mat., John iv. 4, vi. 17. 

Digitized by 




Eqqes, prick, string,^. iGeqqes, 
na 8eqis6, a sting, stab ; 
Gawaqqesa, d°* 
vo GisiqisG, dart or sting of 
scorpion, etc. 

Qissen, " fais e8sayer,"HP 248, 
syntax obscure. 

Qayyar, pass the evening, Br. 
under Soir: pass the night 
without sleeping, Br. under 
Veiller. pr, Itqayyar. na 
Aqayyar [Whether a per- 
version of Arabic, is obscure]. 

Iqe^u, pr. he indicates, hints, 
expresses, HP 412. 

Iqqaz, he tramples down, HP 
6. [Iffaz, he digs.] 


Yir, bad, base = Arabic Su*. 

Yir (as a verb), is bad, HP 

330. Hence Airi, bad, fern, 

Ira, he wished (Tu. Irha), he 

entreated. Hence Etref, I 

entreat, 'SP passim. 
Eu, weep, sob, pr. Itru. Aaihi, 

he weeps, HP 428. Ma 0eru, 

if she weep, d** Itrun, pc. 


vo Isru, he caused to weep. 
Aru, write, aor. Yura, pr. Itaru, 

na Tira. "Win yuren, he who 

has enlisted (qui se conscrip- 

sit), HP 54. 

vp Ituaru, pr. pc. Ittarun. 
Aran, bring forth young ; aor. 

Yurau, fern. Gurau, Gura, 

pr. Ittarau. ITran, they be- 

gat, Gen. vi. 4. Arawan, 
were bom. Gen. vi. I. OIa 
ur nuriu (negative partici- 
ple), those women who have 
not given birth. Aran, child, 
progeny, J!?/. Arawan. Garwa, 
GarrauB, progeny. (SoArax). 
Garau, Garaut, Atarau, child- 
birth. ArguG for Arwu0, be 
fruitful, Gen.viii.l8,ix.l, 7. 

Wari? GewariG, disaster {re- 
verse ?) HP 35. In Shilha, 
Yewarri, rediit, revertit, see 
Err, below. 

Iran, he brays. Ho. 

Erwu, be glutted, aor. Irwa, 

pr. Irebbu, or Ireggu. Ter- 

wuJ, thou art satiated, pc, 

Irwan, satiated, na Garuya. 

vo Serwu, satiate, pr. Aser- 

wai, «« Aserwu. []Wemay 

comp. Arab. Irwi, quench 

thirst. See also Yawan 


Err, give or send back, make 
or charge (into), repay, re- 
place, vomit. (Comp. Arab. 
Rodd), aor. Irra, pr. Iterra. 
Err balik, err 0amau9, turn 
thy attention ; for Arab. Dir 
balak. TJr 9atarra, ne te 
avertas. Matt. v. 42. Err d 
aberkan, turn black, Br. Irra, 
** il se laisse m^ner," Br. na 
Iriri, the taking back a di- 
vorced wife, HP na Iriran, 
giving back, vomiting, Br. 
[Ar k etarraf d el mumen, 
while I regarded thee to be 
a believer, HP 383.] 

Digitized by 




Irabba, he nursed in his arms, 
Heb. Kabba ; yet it is treated 
as Arabic in El ulad el terab- 
bin, HP 64, children in arms. 
vp Itwarabba, Mar. ix. 36, 
X. 16. [ErbaG, embrace, 
Ho., qu. nurse him fl 

Ireb, is ruined, Y. Heb. Uarab, 
Ar. £arab : Win irebbun el 
Haq, Qui cache la v6rit^, 
H. Gr. p. 320. qu. corrupts ? 

TuraA, ( a garment) was washed, 
imp, IriA, pr. ItiriA, na 
GarcAa, HP 66. 
vo SiriA, wash, scour, pr, 

IsiriA, na AsireA. 
vp ItusireA. 

ErAa, gnash the teeth. Ho. 
but qu. 

ErA, *' p^ter," Han. na XJriJ. 

Yuref, is burnt, HP 418. 
Ref ref, be burnt out ? 
vc Serferef, extirpate, HP 

Ireffes, he furnishes food ? na 
XJraffes, forced hospitality, 
HP 70. 

Ireg, for Ireggu, Br. See Erwu. 
ArguG, see Aran. 

Ireg, Irej, he came out, it 
issued, imp. Erg, pr, Itrug, 
na Garugi, Er., common in 
Hamet. Gergam, yearecome 
out, Luke vii. 24 ; Ergif, I 
came out. Perhaps from 
Arab. Raraj. 
vo Sereg, bring out, drive out. 

Erf, (Ref, Br.) vn flame ; Heb. 
and Ar. Haraq. aor. Irfa, 
pr. Ireqq, na Irefa, HP. 

vo Serf, Esaref, Sif, kindle, 
burn, pr, Iserfa, Isifa, na 
Aserfi Asifi, Guserfa. 

Gerfit, a hot coal, pi, Gerfin. 
Argu, dream thou, aor, Yurga 

(Yuraf, Y.) pr. Itarga. 

GergiG, a dream, pi, Girga. 

[Tu. Ychorga, he dreamed.] 
XJrraf, was yeUow, pale. Uraf, 

gold. Auraf, yellow, fern. 

GiurafG, Ho. Latin Aurum. 
Ergeb (Beni Moz. see.) But 

Y. has Erfab, a spy. Ar. 

ReJAcl, limp, pr, ItireJAcl, na 


vc Serej Ail, [Arab. Rijl, foot.] 
Ergigi, tremble [Heb. Rasas, 

Ar. Rasax]. aor, Irgagi, 

^r.Itergigi, wflfArgigi, Argig. 
Iregle'p, he lisped, Br. Aregluf, 

a lisper. 
Ergam, insult, outrage ; Regu- 

men, they vaunt of prowess ; 

na Gawaregma, an outrage. 

[Possibly at bottom, Arab. 

Orjom, pelt with stones.] 
Ir£a, he hung down the head, 

Br. (Arab, was loose.) 
Ra£raj, snore, Y,pr, Iter£arij. 

See Ej£er. 
Irka, it is decayed, imp, Erku. 

Erkan, are foul, rotten, HP 

229. na Rekku, rottenness. 

vc Eserki, soil, make dirty, 

Y. Girke, the plague, V. 

Erkem, boil, vn pr, Irekkem. 

na Arkam. 

vo Serkem, boil; na Aserkam. 
Erwel, flee (Arab, and Heb. 

Digitized by 




J<allal),^. Ireggel. Ameri- 

wel, a libertine, Br., Y., vaga- 
bond ? 

iHf Serwel, put to fligbt, na 
Aserw«l. Biraula, flight, 

vr 3id pi. Emeriwalen, 
*' (they) go off,'' Ho. Pro- 
pably, ** they flee mutu- 
ally" — ue, part from an- 
other. Also, as noun, 
Ameriul, a loose vest. Br. 
Remmafl, bellow. 

vo Esarimmill, d°' Y, 
Ermel, dig (a hole) in : pr, 

Iremmel (Arab. Eaml, sand). 
Emu, augment, add ; aor. Ima, 

pr. Irennu. [Tu. Ima, he 

won, overcame.] 

vc irregular. Isn-emi, he 
adds, HP 304. 

I'P Imema? Gimema, sup- 
plement, Han. na Gimer- 
niu0, Br. 
Es-rirraH, roar (as cannon) — 

shout the war cry, HP 136, 

Irriq, it streamed in the wiud, 

pr, Itirriq. 
IJrar, play, na TJrar, pr. Iturar. 

Wurar, the feast, HP 341. 
Eririg, swim? Itseririg {i.e, 

Iteririg?, it swims, Ho.) 
Ires, it is placed, situate, Br., 

it is set down, written. 

Ham. Ers, come down, 

alight, aor. Irsa, pr. Items, 

na Garusi, descent, Han. 

Gers, Geres, basis, bottom, 

HP 13. 

vc Sers, set down, put, pr, 
Isems, Isrusai, Br. 
Isres (in the Gospels), he set 
down, i.e. wrote, 
vp? Teseres, he is over- 
thrown, HP 3. 
vp Itusera, it was set down 
or placed. Ara yarsen, 
dejected, abased, Luke 
xviii. 14. 
Aras, brown, HP 337, 347, 387. 
ErweG? ve SerweG, thresh 
(com), aor. IsserweG, Han., 
also has trampled, HP 310. 
Irsed? suppurate, na Arsed, 

suppuration, Br. 
Ery, va break: {also spend, 
Br.) [The z is the Tefinagh 
double croesrrHeb. X-] Ir^a, 
he broke, pr. Itruy, na Ginr i, 
Garayi. vn Irrey, is broken. 
vp Imery, d°* Ameryu, 
broken, Br., also Meryi, 
break one another, Han. 
nu Ameryi. 
vc Ismeryi, he caused to be 
broken. But Freeman 
writes Erz with soft z for 
the Tu. of Ghat. 
Arez, chain thou (Arab. Eezze, 
iron staple). Yurez, he 
chained, pr. Itarez. 
Amurez, a captive. 
vo Sirez, pr. Isaraz. 
vp Ituarez, he was chained. 
Irzaf, he bestowed? [Arab. 
Eezeq ?]. na GarzefO, a gift, 
Han. Gr. See Ibzer. 
Erzag, be bitter. Irzagen, 
bitter, na Gerzeg, bitterness. 

Digitized by 





As, come ; generally As-id, 
come hither, aor, Yusaf, Yu- 

; sad, 'pr. Itas. TJaan-d, they 
came ; na GiisiG, arrival, Br. 

XJsu, cough thou; aor. Yusa, 
^. Itusu; na GusuG, a cough. 

Essu, spread out, va^ esp. a 
carpet ; aor. Issa, pr. iGissu. 
Also as top Issa, (a place) was 
bestrewed; na TJsa, Oisi, a 
couch. IsiB, a vale. Gen. 
xiv. 17; Bussant, d°* Gen. 
xiii. 10. \Yet Issi, a spider, 
fern, Gisist. Bissa, terror, 
HP 169; iStftf Tssus. 

Siy, soak thou, Br. ; aor, Isiya. 

Sit, Eswtj, drink thou ; aor 
Iswa, 8 'pf. Suan ; pr, Isess, 
iBess, Br., Ham. na Biswi, 
a drink, pi, Biswi9in, Br., 
but BissiG, HP 345 ; Issau, 
Issi, a bottle, Gen. xxi. 1 4, 15. 
vc Seswa, irrigate. 

Essa, possess, aor, Issa, pr, 
Isassu. Peculiar to Kab. 
Perhaps from Arab. "Wessa, 

Subb, cook, dress food. 
ve from Yubba, Yuwa. 

Subb, for Zubb, alight (from 
horse or camel). 

Essayub, chatter. Ho. pr, It- 

Sud, rub the skin, Br. 

Sui, Suf, blow, from ASu, 
Afu, wind. Itsut, Ho., it 
hisses [cf. Arab. Sut.] na 
Asuiu ; Basuf , bellows. 

TJseiif,. black, HP 221, as Tu. 
Isaff ef, and Sa/f af, Kab. ? 

SuAen, kiss, salute, aor, IsuAcn, 

pr, lusAun, YM, AsuAcn, dim, 

BasuAcnt, little kiss. 

vp ItusuAcn. [Ho. has Isu- 

Acm, as if from XJAcm, 


Isfed (Br. under Mettre) he has 
taken (his sword) in hand : 
also, he transpierced. 

Isfef , he has rubbed, cleansed, 
wiped, furbished up (a wea- 
pon), Br. Wasfa/p, sack- 
cloth, clouts? Mat. xi. 21. 

Sif, 9ifty aor, Isif, pr, Itsif. Br. 

Sig, look at, observe ; Sigga9, 
beware ye ; aor, Isseg, Issej, 
pr. Issijji (Lukei. 48). na 
XJsig, aspect ; Aseggi, faculty 
of sight, observation. 

Assiggan, they expect. Mat. 
xxiv. 13. Winna ur nasseg 
ara Aagwan, he who regards 
you not, Mar. vi. 11. 

Sif {Bmi Menasser), give, pi, 
SifeG, aor, Issef. This is 
also used in Kabail poetry, 
HP 28, 313. 

Sif for Sirf, kindle. See Erf. 

Saf, buy ; perhaps vc from Af, 

Awaf . aor. Issaf, pr, Itisaf , n, 

vp Imsef, na BimesfiuO, a 

purchase. [In Gen. EsfuG, 

buy ye, Isafa, he bought.] 

Suf, cry aloud, ^r. Itsuf. 

Suaf, mar, spoil. 
vp Ituaf. 8ee under Af. 

Isegelef (a dog), barked, na 

Digitized by 




Aseglef: also Giseglif, KP 
225, dim. ? 

IsfareB, it screeched. From 

Isujuj (the bird), carolled, Ho. 

Suhurri, moan, as a dove. Latin 
Susurro ? na Asuhurri. 

Sekk, Sekkef, I have stayed, 
dwelt, HP 310. 

Skoa ? Emeskoa, foreign, Ho. 

EskcA, observe, gaze at; Se- 
kiAef, I see, HP 328. na 
EskuA, sight. Ho. na Asek- 
kuA, Br. SkiAaf, I observed, 
H. Gr. 261. FromAgud? 

Eskaf, draw up by the breath, 
suck in or up. 

Eskakai, cackle, Ho. 

Esken, show, point out, point 
at, denote, teach. Frequent 
in Hamet. aor. Iskun, pr. 
Isekken. Also vn appear. 

Esker, make, do, place, build, 
work ; aor, Iskar, pr, Isek- 
kar, na Askur, building, Gen. 
xi. 8. Askeri annaf, our 
work, Gen. v. 9. na Gasekra, 
an action. [This verb sup- 
plies the use of Eg, which 
suggests an unpleasant sense.] 
Ho. has Eskaro, a bargain, 
which, if correct, seems to 
be from this root. 

Isekker, Isukker, he raised, for 
Isenker. 8ee Ikker, Inker. 

Isekaf , he has devastated, HP 
141. Arab. ? 

Isul, he gained. Mat. xxv. 20, 
Luke xix. 16, 18. This 
seems to be the root of 

Shilha Sulj moreover, yet 
further, more. — Ho. has Isu- 
\id, gained. 

Isiwel, Isiul, he talked. See 

Sel, hear thou; aor, Isla, pr, 
Issel, Isell. Isli, HP 231, 
" mes paroles." Isel, faculty 
of hearing. 

Esleb, make a fool of; jpr.Issel- 
leb. Ameslub, silly, imbe- 
cile. [Arab. Seleb, plunder ; 
misused for Cheat ?] 

Eslef, va plaster, Br. 

Selwef, polish. 
vc fromLuaf? 

Asem, be envious, jealous, aor, 
Yusem, pr, Itasem. na 
Gisemin, jealousy, envy. 

Summ, Sum, suck; pr, Ite- 
summu, na Asummu, Asum. 

IsmeG ? pr, IsummeO, reposes 
on, HP 889. 

Semmum, sour, tart, Isemmum, 
was sour. [Arab, semm, 

Semir, pour out, spill. 
vc from Imar. Semaren, 
they poured out. 

Ismusus, importunate, Br. 

Ismutti, he rooted up, na As- 
muttie, Mat. xiiL 29, 28. 
Esmati, carry away, aor, 
Ismuti, V. {ahatulit may agree 
with Matth.) This may be 
a verb causative, from root 

Semmiq^, SemmiS, cold, fresh; 
Jiff, frigid. Esmef , freshen, 
Br. Asammcf , cold, coolaess. 

Digitized by 




EsmnzeguB, listen, attend, HP 
375. Ismuzekee, HP 231. 
[Compound of Arab, esmas ? 

Essen, Sen, know ; aor. Issin, 
pr, Itissin. 
vp Ituassen. 

vc Isisinna, he made known 
na Gemusni, knowledge, 
wisdom, science. Amu- 
senau, experienced, H. Gr. 

Esni, thread a needle, aor. Isna, 
pr, Isenni. 

Saqq-en, have disappeared, HP 

Isaqsi, he inquired, pr, Itsaqsi. 
na Gasaqsi, Arab. Qaya? 

Senq^cA, solder. 
-vo from EnfCA. 

Iseqax, he arranged (soldiers 
in Kne), HP 104, perhaps 
. vc from a root Iqax. 

Yusser, he is old. User (ITxer, 
XJzer), an old man, GusserO, 
GauserG, old woman, pi, 
Gusserin, Gauserin. Guser, 
old age. 

Serj-ent, 3 pi, f, (keys) are 
made, HP 65, are forged on 
the anvil ? 

Serrem, bridle (a mule), pr. 
Itserrem, Br. But HP 236, 
interprets Iseram, he has 
plotted. Ho. has Arse^, a 
bridle, with w., Arab, halter, 

Issus, bends, is weak. Iss, 
weakness, HP 370. Gissus, 
terror, 82, 85, but Gissa, d°- 
169. [Issisen, provider (!) 

HP 374, feeder? fix)m ve 

Setx ? or, giving us to drink ? 

from Seswa ?] 
Susi, weed thou, pr, Isusui, na 

Susef (Copt and Berber, Ho.), 

spit, pr, Isusuf, na Asuse^ 

Gasusfa, spittle. 
Susem, be silent, pr, Itasusxmi, 

na Asusem, a secret. Gen. 

xlix. 6. D asusam, taciturn, 

na Gasusemi. 

vc Issusem, he silenced, re- 
Isusuwiz, he chatted, gossiped, 

Suf , blow. See SuX. 
Isewetet, he smelt, Ho. 
Etsuat, address, Ho. (qu. Et- 

Isseq^, (a dog) was mad. 
Estabeh, sneeze. Ho. 
Saf af, black (Richardson). See 

Saff el, shave thou, na Asaff el. 
SuGer, beseech [Iter, Tu. Shil. ; 

Yetter, Ghad.] pr, IsuOur, 

na AsuBer GasuGra, a re- 
quest. Perhaps from EGred. 
Esf er, make lower. 

vc from Afar. 

T G. 

Etta, laugh; aor. Itta, pr, 
Itetta, na Getta. 
vc Setta, make to laugh. 

AuG, strike ; aor, YuwaG, pr, 
IkkaG. IJGif, I struck, na 
GiyiGi, a stroke, a shot, a 
plague. [IwaGa, matches 

Digitized by 




with; HP 31, 238, 295,299 

hiSf 300,/. 8ewa0a. Possibly 

from Arab. vi. Tewata.] 
Itu, he forgot. 
Etfu, yawn, aor, Itfa, pr, Iteffu, 

na Tefwa. 
6afaq? AmOafaqan, they de- 
liberated. Mat. zxii. 16. 
Itiif, he was (Ben Men. Moz.), 

also HP 391, AniAa if Guf, 

'U4 ou nous en sommes." 
Ettel, coil up, swaddle, pr. 

Eered (EGr-ed?), ask. [Iq^er, 

he asked, Tu.^ lAer, Smlha.] 

GimeGra, a petition. Hence 

SuGer ? 
Etayar, to dream. Ho. (qu. 

Arab, be flighty, fanciful ?) 
Etx, eat, aor. Itxa, pr. IGet, na 


ve Sets, pr. Isetxa. 

vp Ituetx, Imetx. 

vr Emsetxen, they gave mu- 
tual meals. 
Itxall, he was angry. naAtxaQ, 

anger. Tu. Itkar. 
Etxam, bleed, Ho. 
Etxar, be full, aor. Itxur, pr. 

Itxamen, it rung out, tinkled, 

Txetchau ? vr Emtxetxau, 

quarrel, na Amtxetxu, Br. 


Awef , Ewef , AweX, EuZ, ap- 
proach, arrive, aor. Yuwef , 
na 8awef a, arrival. 

PC Siwef , Siui, guide, join, 
bring close, accompany. 
Am^weq^, a guide. 

Tabiz, stoop, Br. 

Eff e2, suck the breast. 
vo Suf eS, suckle, pr. Isuf ui, 
na AsufeL 

Eff ef, catch, seize, hold. Heb. 
Hafaf, Arab. Ra/faf. {See 
Akuqvpef.) pr. iGe^af. 
r^.Itua^ef. Awa/pef, fisher- 
man. Ho. Gawaf fa, Guf e£a, 
game, booty. 

Epfer, ESfer, follow ; pr. 
Ifeffer, I^pfefer. na GaJ- 
furG, Han. 

vo Sef fer, cause to follow. 
vr Imsef far, d°* reciprocally. 

I^(ur, inHamet is quite opposed 
to I'p£ar. viz. vn I'pfar, he 
came nigh, Mar. xi. 1, John 
ii. 13, iv. 47, and va Gen. 
iv. 3, bring, offer. Also ve 
Isaf far, offer, produce, pre- 
sent, bring out, John xxi. 
8, Luke XV. 22. [I do not 
find this in Br. nor in Han.] 

Ti£er, vn keep aloof (ffore I 
gore /) push off from shore. 
But, with soft t, ve? Is- 
ta£er, he has transported, 
HP 137. EstiRar, escape, 
HP 57. But also : If far, va 
remove, drive away. Perhaps 
this should be If £.ar. 

Til, ponder, examine, Br., aor. 
If il, Iff al, pr. If ilH, If alaL 

Yufan, Yuian, he fell sick. 
Muf an, sick. 
ve Isaf en, he made sick. 

Digitized by 




Tayyir (often in Ham.), take 
away ; perhaps a variety of 

Tar, come down, aor. If ra, it 
came down, or va befel, Br. 
Teren as imeqvpawen, tears 
ran down to him. Hra, has 
befaUen, HP 345. 
vo Isaf ar, he brought down. 

Tarbeq, unsew, rip up, Br. 

Tapf eq, crackle (Arab. Taq'p iq). 
I/|vpeivjveq, it gushed (gur- 
gled?) forth, Br. 

Eff as, sleep thou, na If as, 

Eff ax, va sow. [Amf ix, sow- 
er ? Af !x, seed ?], but Af ix, 
sower, Amf IX, seed, Ho.* 

Teiix, for Yeakk (says Han.)=* 
yeafk, he gave (Moz.) ; also 
in the Eif Morocco. 

AxdaQ, dance. 

Xuff, Exuf, inflate, swell, na 

* [In Hamet I found If ay- 
yax, sevit? serit? Gen. iv. 2, 
i. 12; Tayyixan, they sowed. 
Mat. vi. 26 ; fuL A^if ayyax. 
Mat. xiii. 3; Afayyax, seed, 
lit, and fy,, Gen. xv. 3 ; Mu- 
f ayyax, a sower. Mat. xiii. 8 ; 
also XJfayyax, a sower, in 1. 
3; Attifix, seed, Gen. i. Iv. 
Brosselard does not seem to 
know the verb.] 

Axfu, abide, stay, aor. Ixfa, 
pr. Ixaffa, John i. 33; vi. 
57, etc. ; Mat. xii. 25. Fre- 
quent in Hamet. [Axeffa, 
a steep place, Luke viii. 33. 
Exxafa, Xafa, steep rocks, 
an abrupt peak, HP 358, 
209, seem related to Axfu, 
as Steep to Stop.] 

Ixxef (sweat), ran down, Br. ; 
under Suer. 

Exxeg, Exxef , slip, stumble, 
pr, iGexxeg, 
vc Sexeg. 

Xikk-ef, I believe, HP 318 
(Arab. Xukk, doubt). Ixuk- 
ka9, he thought, supposed; 
common in Hamet. 

Ixelwan, pc, sparkling, Han. 
So HP, 5. 

Xelwex, dazzle. 

Ixmet, it is cheap, Br. 

Xen-ani, they talk of me, HP 

Exena, blame, Ho. {qu, Arab. 

Ixir, he strikes (il frappe), 

HP 237 ; see Yuwa0. 
Ixrar, it hung over. Gexerur, 

adorned with pendants, HP 

Xerxer, drop, drip, HP 415. 

Axerxer, cascade, as Arab. 

Erxa, sweep, wipe off, pr, 

Ixerru, Br., HP 370. Ixran, 

pass, part.f swept. Ham. 
Xeriib ufilas, '* moucheture de 

panthere," HP 414. 
Xerreg, tear, rend ; Xerej, d*** 

Digitized by 




(Arab. Xeraf ), pr, Ixerrag, 
passweh/, na tlxarrigy a strip. 

XarRur, snore? [Esharhoor, 

Xerreq, to rest fixed, HP 435 
[gazing eastward ? Arab.] 

"Waxxit, %o&, to the touch, HP 

Xixen, Amxixu, a fray, Ho. 
Emxexaun, they were em- 
broiled in fray. 

Z 3. 

Z represents two Libyan letters 
(Z and 'S ?) ill-distingaished, 
probably answering to He- 
brew T and X* I think it 
clear that the Tuarik type of 
double cross corresponds to 
?. In Sergu it degenerates 
into /^ and h. I write z 
when I blow no better. 

Ayu, XJy, skin, flay ; aor, Yuya, 
pr, Itaya. [_8er^Uj Oxe.] 

Ezzu, fry, broil, parch, toast, 
roast ; aor. Izza, pr. iBezzu, 
na Uzzu. Gezzu, inflamma- 
tion, HP 108. 
vp Ituazzu. 

"Wiz, va aid, pr. Iwazyu, na 
Towizi, mutual aid, HP 437. 
The last suggests Arab. vi. 
the being side by side. 

Izwa, he went away, Moz. 

Kzzi, turn round, vn go round, 
aor. lzz&,pr. I9ezzi, vereatur. 

[Ezzi fel, surround ; adf. Ezzi, 
round. Gaziya, roundness, 

Gizi, circuit? territory. [But 
Gizi, notch in a mountain, 

Eyyu, plant, aor. lyya, pr. 
iGeyyu, na ITyyu. 
vp Ituayyu. 

lyai, was heavy, Gay ait, weight, 
Br., burden, Mat. xx. 11, 
xxvi. 43, incivility, Ho. 

Eyai (vir) gravis, serious ; 
Amayai, d** (man) of weight. 
ve Isayi, he overloaded. See 
Tu. lyyuy.] 

Ezwi, shake, va (Arab. Hozz 
and Zaszas), na GizwiG. na 
Azwai, a shock, pi. Izwain. 

fWesas, E35a£. Under Ke- 
pandre, Chasser, ficouter. Br. 
it looks like Arabic. 

Zubb, vn alight, dismount. 

Zebber, va drive afar, HP 38. 

D Aziibri (Lat. Sobrius) serious. 

Ezbeq^, act with address, Br. 
D azebbef , skilful. 

Sis, was sweet. GeyiS, sweet- 
ness. Soft d in Tu. 

ScA, grind (com), sharpen (a 
knife), Br., pound, mash, 
aor. lyAa, pr. lyyad, Br. na 

IzaA, he sinned (Heb. Zid, sin 
boldly; AzyaAa, sin; pt.Iza- 
Aan, sinning. [Arab, zid, 
excess, is also used. Ziada, 
excess, sin.] 

EyAU, rest the head (for sleep), 
recline at a meal, Luke vii. 
87 ; aor. lyAau, pr. lyeddu. 

Ezdi, pure. Ho. But see 
Eydig. Gezdi, purity. 

Digitized by 




EyAig, EyAij, be clean; pr. 
lyeddig. Yuydagen, cleaned 
(as wheat), Br. na GeyAig, 
purity. Zeddig, Izdeg, a^'. 
clean; Tizdegt^ cleanliness, 
decency, Br. 

vc Si^Acg, cleanse ; na Aziy- 
ACg. [Heb. and Arab. 
?adaq primitively meant 
Just : possibly might mean 
Pure ; and be identical 
with this root. If so, it 
was EyAig. Indeed in 
Sergu, the Z becomes X, 
EzACf, dwell, sojourn, pr, Ized- 
def. AmzeACf, encampment, 
temporary village, pi. Imze- 
Aaf. [Izzef or lyyef in 
Tuar.] GanezdufO, habita- 
tion, Han. 

vc Han. Gr. 818. IzzcACf, 

forlzezcACf? he harboured 

(a pauper). 

EzAcl, sit on eggs; na IzAal. 

GizAclan, women, Br. {qu. 

slang word ? h'ood hens ?) 

(1) EzAcm, cut faggots, pr, 

(2) EyAcm, rush on an enemy, 
swoop as eagle, HP 88, 104. 
[Kazimirski calls it African 
Arabic; /^tX-tf dash together.] 

na EzzcAma, the rush or 
charge of battle, HP 165, pr. 
Izeddem, HP 166. But Luke 
i. 1, xiii. 24, it has a moral 
sense, strive^ make effort,'] 
EzzeAmir, reply; common in 

Hamet. The Beni Men. have 

ScAcmer, speech, qu, vcfrom 

AAmar, bosom ? 
IzAin, he mingled, Luke xiii. 1, 

Mat. i. 18.— HP 318, 319, 

{some one) has mingled. 
Ezder, vn sink (in water), 

plunge ; na Azder. 

vc Sezder, drown, precipitate. 

(1) lyyef, has dropt off, HP 
208. Yuyaf, (punishment) 
has passed away ? HP 116. 

(2) Izif? pr, Itezzif, "he 
sounds the war cry," HP 42; 
Unless this z is d&erent, one 
might rather interpret it, — 
'* the combatants drop o/!" 

Ziju, Siju, sell ; see Uju. 

Eyyeg, milk (cattle), pr, I0ey- 
yeg. GamayyagG, udder, pi, 

Izga (common in HP), pr, 
Izuggi, HP 17, 85, 150, 168, 
212, 235, 250, 251, 327, 
329, 332, 416. Hanoteau's 
renderings are many and 
vague, but Ur izuggi, 250, 
* * it passes not, " t .^. it lasts for 
ever ; seems to fix the primi- 
tive idea. His shot hurries 
to (Gezga faf ) the mark. The 
honey runs upon (izga faf) 
the porridge. Ad ezge{ fellas, 
I will pass upon it, i,e, will 
invade it, take possession. — 
Denial runs upon (izga faf) 
her tongue. With a verb 
following, Han. explains izga 
to mean always ; as Izga yuli 
(yudi) is always lofty, always 

Digitized by 




raised, always ready (for 
fire). Cf. old English, "^a««- 
ing strange " for ** very 
strange." HP 416 izga usas- 

, sas, a patrol is always in 
motion ? [One would expect 
the present, i.e. hahtttial 
tense.] In 17, Izga d i0uk- 
kel, **are hecome" agents, 
qu. pass as agents ? [Br. 
under Moins, has XJr d izga, 
will not (8ur)pass. 

Azeggaf, red ; see Izwef. 

Iziju, he sold, vc from Eju.] 

Ezgel, miss a mark, pr. Izeggel, 
na Azgal. IzgeliO, he has 
failed of overtaking him, Br. 
vp Ituazgel. 
vr Miezgel. 

Eyger, go across (a river), pr. 

Izegger, pr. of Izwar. 

Zigzau, be green, fresh in vege- 
tation ; Azegzau, AzegzsL, 
green ; also blue, HP 211.' 

Izwef, it becomes red, pr. Izeg- 
gaf or Itzewef. Zuggaf , red. 
GigwefG, redness. 
vo Sezwef, redden. 

(1) Ezfel, make sign. 

(2) Ezfel, be hot, pr. Ezeqqel, 
fut A A yizefil. na Azfal, 
fiery heat. Mat, Luke. 
Hence perhaps Azal, ten 
o'clock, HP 198; noon, HP 
237. Deg uzal, at the hour 
of heat. Azal, sunheat at 
midday, Br. Compare Arabic 
Sa£an with Za.[sl. 

Zufer, trail behind one ; tow ; 

conduct, pr. Izzufur, fut. 
Aa izagger, Luke vi. 39. 
Ezhu, rejoice, na Ezhu, joy. 
A A ezhan, they shall rejoice, 
Luke i. 14. [Arab. Zehi, 
gay of colour.] See EAhu, 
amuse thyself. 
Zahur, big, aor. Izhar, pr. 

vo Suzher, make big, Br. 
Zu£, adorn, glorify, na a glory, 

ZekeG or ZegeO, an unknown 
root, seen in Ismuzeke^, Is- 
muzeguG, listen, with Arabic 
Sail, pray, jw-.Itey alia (Chaldee 

and Arabic). 
Wezzil, XJzzil, shortj Yuzil, is 
short; softened from Gezil, 
Egzil, to cut, as short from 
shear, Curtus from Kelpco. 
Ezlu, offer incense, sacrifice, 
slay ; aor. Izla, pr. Izella. 
vp Imzel {fern. Gemezal, HP 
237). n« GemzelwiG, alter. 
[Perhaps this is the Libyan 
root, to which Arab, and 
Chaldee t^ala is akin ; and 
?all above was introduced 
with Islam.] 
Ayyel, run; aor. Yuyyel, pr. 
Itayyal, na Giyla, speed ; na. 
Guyyela, course. 
vo Ziyyel. 

vr Mizayyel. [Sergu, Oxel.] 
This root is comparable to 
Ar. £ajel, hasten ; but not 
the less native. 
Zullel, pirouette, Br. 

Digitized by 




Ezmi, wring, squeeze, Br., hut 
Izmi, was deficient, John ii. 3. 

Eymir, be able ; pr. lyemmer, 
na GiymerG, ability, power, 
or GayemerO, strength. [In 
Shilha the cognate root Ez- 
mir has three dots over first 

Izen (in HP and Shilha), he 
sent, imp. Azen, HP 217, pr. 
Itazen, 413. Zenaf, Azenef, 
I sent, 152, 331. 

Izeny, he sold. 
vc from Eny. 

Ezinzinu, to hum. (Arab. 
Zinn ; but the word imitates 
the sound.) 

Azri, a debtor. Ho., but qu. 

Ser, see (Arab. Nal^ar and 
Bayar),, aor. lyra, pr. lyerr, 
na Oiyri, sight, power of 
sight, na GawayriuG, visage. 
Mat. xxviii. 3. 
vp Imyer, na GimayriuG, a 
vision, Luke i. 22. Meyref, 
I was seen ; pr. Itemyer. 

Eazer, loose, Ho., but qu. 

Zur, Uzur, be robust, Han., 
aor. Izwer? Izur, was in 
good health, Br. Gezwer, is 
difcult, HP 41 . See Zahur 

Sewir, precede, hold prece- 

dence, aor. Izwar, pr. Izeg- 
ger, Izegwer. Gazwara, be- 
ginning, lyegger affa, he 
shall retffn over, Luke i. 33. 
Barth has Ixexwer, he be- 
gan. Amaywer, first. Gim- 
azwarO, princedom, primacy. 
Mat. vi. 10. Geyewar, an- 
cestry ? princes ? HP 227. 
vi Reywir, advance (money), 
Br. Amzuaru, anterior, 
ancient; Han. 

Izreb, he hastened, Br. and HP 
(Arab, leak, flow, fence up), 
pr. Izerreb. Izerben Aaze- 
rab, " hurrying in haste" ? 
HP 117. va drove away. 
Gen. XV. 11. 

IzircA, it crawled, crept. Gen. i. 
IzirAi, a small rat, Han. ; a 
mink (sic) Ho. ; any creeping 
thing. Gen. i. 26, pi. Izir- 
Aawen. Compare Ar. Dabba. 

Azerqaq, blue, Br. (Arab. Az- 

Ez'p, weave ; aor. Izze'p, pr, 
Ize^a. Aziff a. web, tissue, 
woven fabric, pi. Ize^awen. 

f Eyyel, stretch out a limb, pr. 

Zuzzer, winnow, pr. Izuzzur, 
Br. part. pass. Izuzzeren, 

Digitized^ KjOOQIC 




A yaw, landed estate, pL "Waya- 
wan, Mark x. 29-30. 

Ai9, sons, folk. The singular 
was probably Ag ; see Agma. 

Gayet, shoulder, pi. Guya0, HP 

Twat, nightingale, Ho. but qu. 


Ibiu, Ibau, a bean, pL Ibawen. 
Tibsa, loins. 

Ibasax, insects, HP 214 (cor- 
rupt from Ar. Wallx ?) but 

see Abrux. 
Ablbu, gnat, mosquito. 
Ibibbi, porters, HP 183. 
Tebabla, ballad singers, HP 

AbiAi, hooded cloak, pL IbiAi- 

Abudid, stake or pile to be 

driven in, pi, Ibudlden, Br, 
IbaSniyen, ** the saints," HP 

318, but qu. 
Gebjut, rivulet, pL Gebjutin, 

Gibujajin, pancakes, Br. 
Ubajrar, peak of mountain, HP 

Abefli, mortar for building, Br. 
Ibahlul, silly, cracked. 

Buhan, much. 

Bullatuf, ant, B. Men. for 

GabaRsisO, a fresh fig. 
Ubku, a cripple, Y. 
Ibki, a monkey, pL Ibka, Ib- 

kan, Br. Y. 
Abukal, a pitcher, pi. Ibu- 

kalen, Lat. Poculum and 

Arab. ; also Abuqal. 
Abukar, flowers of the fig, HP 

Abliwin, eyelashes, B. Men. 

See Irgal and Axfer. 
GabulabaisG, whirlwind, Br. 
Dbilaf, property, wealth, Y. 
Gabelfet, a shoe, Br. 
Abelul, a fool, Shaw. [Tu. 

Ambiddel.] 8ee Ibahlul. 
Gablult, the shin, pi. Giblulan, 

Ho. calf of the leg. 
Abeliiin, bucket, pi. Ibelian. 
Abandayar, timbrel, Gen. xxxi. 

Abandu, sunbeam entering 

through a crevice, pi. Ibunda, 

HP 62. 
Gabanjal = Persian Badinjan, 

French Melong^ne, blue- 
bottle cucumber. 
Bank, HP 158, dwarf wall, par- 
tition in Eabail house. 
Gabanta, leathern apron, pi. 

Gabant, cassia tree, pi. Gibantin. 

Digitized by 




8ebaqlt, earthen plate, ^/.Geba- 

qitm, Y. 
GabqaxG, a plate, Del. jun. 
Abeqsi, porringer, pL Ibeq- 

BaberruiG, turnip (parsnip ?) 

Br, pi, Giberrum. 
GabburO (Zuave) GawwarG 

(Bougie), a door, pi, Gibbura. 

Perhaps originally a curtain, 

from Ibar, he veiled. In 

Tuarik Tahurt, also Tifal- 

wat. AgurG for AwwarO 

with Eeni Menasser. 
Burebu, silkworm, Br., Y. 

Ebardi, a rib, pi, Ibardiyin, Y. 
Abrid, a way, a process; une 

fots, HP 92 [Abriq, Shilha; 

Abarraqa, Tu.], pi, Iberdan ? 

(furrow, Y.) 
Abaref, fox, pi, Iburaf, fern, 

Abrak, a duck, pi, Ibraken, Br.* 
Abarku, pinnace, shallop, pi, 

Ibarkowen ; cf. European 

barque. See Abarqu. 
Abrim, Tijig,pl, Ibriman, Br. 
Aborqux, goldfinch, Del. jun. ; 

perhaps from Arabic. 
Abruri, hail; also Allabruii 

(Boruri, Shil.) 
Boruru, owl. Ho., HP 214. 
Gabrurur, goat or sheep dung. 

* Abrak is African Arabic, 
but is possibly taken by the 
Arabs from the Kabails. Yet Y. 
gives Libraq, with Arabic El 
before it. 

Abrux, hestioh, moth, worm, 

pi. Ibrax. 
Aibs, a horse, Moeat; hnro^? 

Ais, Tu. 
Busillan, salamander, pi, Busi- 

Ilanen. ^ in Br. 
Basaf, Hebrew tribe, Luke, 

Uae^, Ar. Sibq^. 
Abetof , a short dress, Ho. 
*Abboq^, Sabbof, /. Ga*bof, 

belly, womb. 
Abbux, memhre virily Han. pi, 

Ibbax, Heb. Buxa, shame. 
Gibbax, woman's breasts, also 

Gibbebax, Gibbuxin, HP 

321. 347. 
GabuxO, teat of cow, pi, Gib- 
bax, Br. 
Gabaxna, a pearl, Mat. xiii. 46. 
Abzu, sand, Ben Men. See 

Bizar (sic), herbs or pulse, HP 

99. Arab. ? 
Ibizan, herbs. Ham. Abazin, 

greens, Br. 
Gebuzu[a[t, measles. 
Gebzert, tribute. Ho. (Arab. 

Gebzezf uf , girl of tender age, 

HP 301. 
Ebziz, a morsel, Han. Gr. 257 ; 

perhaps grub of an insect. 
Abziz, locust, pi, Ibzaz, Y.,* 

pi. Ibzazu, Mar. L 6. 

Dand A. 

TlAi, butter, pi, TJAawen (Arab. 
Dau, buttermilk) ; melted 
butter, ghee, Y. /S^Temadet. 

Digitized by 




Iddu, ape, pi. Iddawen. 

"Wadda, vipers ? (Hamet, Luke 
iii. 7) but qu. Apes ? 

Gidi, sweat, V. 

GaiAa, pine tree, pi, GaiAiwin. 

GiAut, truth; adv, certainly, 
yes. Tu. Tidet. 

GudiG, gravel, Ho. See GudixG. 

TaAut, wool, Hoest. See Taiut, 
Br., and GaSuft. 

Addau, under, adv. S addau, 
below. Atad, bottom, Mat. 
xxvii. 37 ; root (of tongue), 
Mar. vii. 35. 

Awiyif , a servant, Mat. viii. 
6 ; xii. 18. 

Audiu, horse, pi. Yaudewin. 

AAbiu, a wolf, pi. lAbiwan, 
Ho. (Arab. Aib, Heb. Zeb,) 
but Aibiu in Tu. is Hysena, 
as nearly Arab, and Heb. 
See TJxxen. 

Idabalen, musicians, Y. Arab. 
J-»t, timbrel. 

Iddad, a lad, John vi. 9. 

AidiA, skinbag for water. Ho., 
pi. Aididln. 

AAif, marrow. 

Giwedfin, pi. ants, V. See 

Adfel, snow, Ho., Matth. 

Aaffir, the back, that which is 
behind. InTu.Aaffir. Com- 
pare Arab, jj^ Aahr. As 
preposition and conjunction, 
Az Aiffir, behind, Ag Aaffir, 
after. Tar Aaffir, backwards, 
Aaffir ma, Ag Aaffir ma, 
aprh que. 

Adgal, Adjal, widower, pi. 

Idgalin, Gadgalt, widow, 
pi. Gidgalin. also GidgelB, 

AAfa, prep, according to, HP 
196, 197. 

Adfaf, stone, stone wall, Br. ; 
flint, Idfafen, HP 144. 

AAfar, stone (r for f ?) Ho. pL 

Adfer, leech, pi. Ide^ra, Br. 

EdduII, a cradle, pi. Edwall, 
Br. Y.(Arab.?). 

Edehus, river, or river bank 
(qu.) HP 368. 

TJdek, gravy, sauce. 

GidekG, mastich tree. 

Adikel ufus, flat of the hand, 
pi. Idukal. 

Gedakumt, d***^?. Gidakumin. 

Dekir, steel, Br. HP 239. See 

Addula, one's turn {Lat. vicem), 
Luke i. 9 ; also Saddala, alter- 
nately, Br. (Arab, and Per- 
sian ?) 

GaAcla, Gadela, sheaf, ^/. Gade- 

Adles, a rush, stubble, pi. 

TlAam, human face, cheek, ^/. 
TJAmawen ; also Aqadum, 
which is nearer to Arabic. 

lAammen, pi. blood. In HP 52 
eing. lAim, as in Heb. and 
Arabic. But Tu. has Axeni, 
nearly as in Haussa. 

GiAma, women (?) HP 343, 
360. One might conjecture it 
meant ofiaificu, women akin 
in blood. 

Digitized by 




9udim9> bung, cork ; pan of 

knee, Br. 
lAmim, hawthorn, HP 308. 
AAmar, breast, pL lAmaran. 

ditnin, BedmerO, Ho. 
Damns, haycock, Er. 
Edemis, gap, Ho. 
YaAni, roof, Luke vii. 6 ; Gen. 

xix. 8. 
BaAyant, a history, HP 119, 
. 123,232. iSftf^Tu. Adawenni. 
Addainin, stable, pi, Idduinan, 

Adaqqis, honeycomb, V. 
6ideqqi6, a dish,/7/.6ideqqiyen, 

Br. ; also pi. GiAaqi, Ho. 
Airi, bad. See verb Yir. 
BeAerO, ear of wheat, pL 

BeddarG, village [but house, Mo- 

zab and "Wadreaghl (perhaps 

Arabic), pi. Buddir or Bud- 

darin (Arab. ?). 
BaddurO, life. See verb Idder. 
BederekO, linen tent. Ho. 
Adrum, frontier of a village ; a 

ward ?i?/. Iderman, HP 165. 
AArar, a mountain, pi. lAurar 

(more antique Urar), dimin. 

Tadrart, hill, pi. Tidrarin. 
Idis, side (delicate word for lap, 

bosom, womb). Y. has Adis, 

belly ; so Asaddis with Beni 

Menasser, and with HP 

Daxr, pi. Doxur, Arabic in 

form, and called African 

Arabic ; common in Shilha ; 

so in HP. It is explained 

by Gr&berg de Hemso, as a 

mountain Tillage of the Lib* 
Budix0, gravel, Ho. 

AiZi, dog, pi. lyiZan, Han. 
Eiehae, bravery, HP 26. [Tu. 

Eiehan, brave.] 
AXuft, wool, Ben. Men., but 

Ba£uft, BaSut in Eabail. 
Alil, grape, pi. Hillan, Ho., Y. 
Menaf, yesternight, Ben. Men., 

corrupt for IL enaZ. 
Alar, Afar, foot, forefoot, pi. 

AXraf, furrow, pi. ISerfan. 
Hergan, pi. droppings from an 

AJamu, thicket, HP 383. 
See also under T. 


Bafae, Bafat, light (from Tu. 

verb Yefu), dawn, morrow ? 
Tefl, see Tefthi. 
Bafa, straw, Han. 316. 
Tefowan, branches. Ho. Mozab. 
Afud, knee, pi. Ifadden, HP 

229. So Tu. See Begxerie. 
Bifedint, toe, pi. Bifedenin. 
Bififli, ** grain de beaute, Br. 

pi. Bififliwin. 
Tefihi, flesh, fleshraeat, Br. 

(Teftyi, Shil. Itft, Weft, 

Aifki, milk»Akfai, Agfai, and 

Tu. A£. 
Befuka, Ho. Bcfuk6, sunlight, 


Digitized by 




eifukal, subterfuges, HP 259. 
Kker, Ifkerum, tortoise (Ifqe- 

Iler, Beu Men.), pi, Ifkera(n). 
Befkere, lock, Ho. 
Bifekkarin, brains, Br. 
Afe£8i, acorn, HP 142. 
Gifilwin, dry seeds of bean, V. 

Gufamt, a reed, Luke yii. 24. 
Afunes, bullock, Ben Men. 

Moz. pL Ifunesan. Bafunes, 

heifer, pi. Bifunes, Gen. xv. 

9 ; xxxii. 15 ; also pi. BesiOa, 

BifenziO, cloven piece (as of 

apple), cloven foot. 
Afeqqus (Efkus, Ho.), melon, 

HP. 382. So in Syrian 

Arabic Taqus. 
Ifir, a leaf, a wing, a feather, 

pi. Ifriwen, Ifarrawen. So 

in Tu. Ifriu. Compare ttc- 

raXov aiid irrepov in Greek. 
Wafir, the king's yard, HP 

238, 339. 
Efru, a table-knife, V. 
Gufra, red spot in the face.^ 
Aferdu, a mortar for pounding, 

V. See Eyduz. 
Gisafert, wild white rose, pi. 

GefferO, starlight. [Also Gefert, 

cover, from verb Iffer.] [Also 

GiferaG, arbitration, from 

verb Efru.] 
Aferias, the mange, HP 403. 
Afrag, a fence, area of court, 

Gr. (f)pcuyfi6<;. dim. Gaferka, 

little garden, orchard. See 

Asferik. Perhaps g and k 

should be q, as in Heb. and 
Arab. Paraq, divide, split. 

Ufrik, a ram. 

Aferkus, a mountebank, pL 

Giferles, a swallow, Ho. 

Afarnu, brushwood for fire, pi. 
Ifuma, HP 55. [grape. 

Geferrant, vine of- Sultana 

Ifiraqis, murex, irop(f>vpe^ 
oyster for dye, V. 

[Efrur, bean pod?] vc Sefrar, 
shell beans. 

GafrarO, cream. 

Afrasen, pi. rubbish, ** clear- 
ings"? HP 183, 376. See 
verb Ifres. 

Gifersin, radishes, Y. 

GiferesG (Tifris, Y.) pear, pi. 
Gifiras, HP 346. 

Per'pu'pu, butterfly, Y. 

Geferax, unripe figs, HP 179. 

Afarez, yolk, pi. Ifaraz. 

Afus, Ufus, hand, pi. Ifassen, 
Ayyafus, right hand. 

Iffis, clover [for I£fis, Shilha]. 

Iffis, hysena, pi. Iffisen, Han. 

GifBilO, slice of lean meat, Br., 
Ho., qu. stringy ? Arab. 

Gififli, Gifieii, wart, callosity, 
pi. -liwin. 

Ifattamat, torches, John xviii. 
3, but qu. See Asafu. 

AfGis, river side, allmiumy pi. 
IfBisen, HP 192, 232> 375. 

Affis, AfXis, sledge-hammer, pi. 
Iffisen, dim. GeffisO, car- 
penter's hammer, pi. -sin. 

Gafza, sand on mountains, Br. 
See Abzu. 

Digitized by 



G. J. 

Agu ? smoke, soot (Aftiy Ghad. 

Ahu, Tu.). 
•^y"g> * steer, pi, Yugawen. 

Gayuga, a pair. Lat. Jugum, 

Arab. Zoj, Greek Zugon. 
Guga, Guja, herb, forage, 

fodder, Uam. Han. > 
Ettnji, cauldron, Han. 
Aga, (Ben. Men.), but Gega, 

(Kab.), artichoke. 
Goga, "cover," Ho. (stc) but 

qu. covert, i.e, thick vegeta- 
Gagu0, fog. 
Gauga, Ge*ukka, worm, pi. 

Awa*wij, a jargon, pL Iwa*wi- 

jen, HP. 
Gawejjaie, cheek, HP 317, 

345. Perhaps dim. from 

Arab. "Wejh, face. But see 

Gabit, garden, Moz. "Wadr. 

(Arab.Tabet, copse, thicket). 
Ajabub, reed, cane, (Moz. 

Wadr.) tube, telescope, HP 

Ejdi, sand. Ho., (Eab. Moz. 

Agudi, mien, countenance, HP 

341. [ForAqadum?] 
Agu AU, dunghill, pL IgUAawin. 

See Aqabux. 
Agdal, (prairie, Br.), meadow, 

pL Agdalen. 
Ageiif , Agq^if , small bird, pi. 

IgiaS> Igfaf ; also AjeieS, 

pi. Iju2a£, Moz. 

Ajeda*un, colt, pi. Ijda*ayan. 
Agadir, escarpement, Han., a 

steep slope, pi. Igudar. See 

AjaAur, a sorry nag, PP 192. 
Egeder, Ejeder, an eagle, pi. 

Igudar, Ijudar, dim. Gege- 

derO, pi. Gigudar. 
GagdurO, earthen cup, pi. Gig- 

IgCAerez, sleet. See Abruri 

and Adfel. HP 8 also 

Ageffur, heavy shower. 
Ijufar, skirts of petticoat, HP 

Agug, horsefly. 
Ajagu, Ajaku, faBUgium^ ridge 

of roof, HP 328. 
Gagejdit, wooden post, pi. 

Gigejda. See Gagejji6. 
Agugli, Aguglu, cheese, pi, 

Igugla, Igugalin, IgugliOen, 

dim. Gagugelit. 
Agujil, orphan. See TJgil, 

AAgal, among the Verbs. 
GagejjiO, GawejjiG, wooden 

post, pi. Gigejja, Giwejja, 

GegjaiG, cheekbone, pi. Gig- 

jain, Br. The hard g is pro- 
bably a corruption of w. 

This is a Zuave tendency. 

See GewejjaiG. 
AjaQlum, a tail, Br. See 

Ijujar, red spots on the skin; 

dim. Gijujar, HP 189, 251. 
Ajajill, flame, pi. Ijujall. 
Ai^JJ^g or Axejjig, flower. 

Digitized by 




Ajafu, rafter, pi. Ijefwa, Br. 

But see Ajagu. 
Aja(;ed, bowel, Ijefdan. 
Ajapf, Ujafif, a jay, pi Ijufaf. 
^ajufimO, a guzzle, pL Biju- 

AjaQanif, Ajanif, a tail, pL 

Ijanaf . [AjaniX, pL IjanaJ.] 

Shilha, Ejanajid. 
Ajahamum, Ajamum, a certain 

bird, Ho., blackbird, Ben. 

TJgla-n, teeth, Br. See TJful. 
Agla, Aila, property, one's own. 

See verb El. 
Tegalit, a mare, Wadr. 
Ajal, Ajjal, widower (see Ad- 
gal), Bajalt, for Gadgalt, 

widow, old woman, HP 224. 
Gagilla, oak tan. [Tagilla, Br.] 
Ajelwa, bullock (Ajelus), HP 

198. Bajlie, a cow, pi. 

Ajellab, man's gown, HP 116. 
Tejilbent, lupin (Arab. Jilban, 

A^JHa, a king, pi. AgalliAcn, 

Ugalda, dominion, Gen. i. 

Gegulda, royalty, kingdom. 
Agelaf, a swarm, pi. Igelfan. 
Agellil, poor. See Ajal. 
Ajeld, petticoat, HP 432. 
Tegellalt, ewer, pitcher, pi. 

Gagelalt, a ball or bowl, HP 

306. Heb. Galal, he roUed. 
Agelim, skin, hide, pi. Igeli- 

mun. Ar. Jild. 
Agulmlm, a lake, pi. Igulmiam. 

(Heb. Mim, water.) dim. 

Gagulmimt, apond,|?7. Oigol- 

Aglan, stuff, material, HG 71. 
See Agla. 

GagluxO, testicle, pi. Bigluzla. 

Agelzim, pickaxe,^/. Igelziam. 
dim. BegelzimG, hoe, pL 
Gigelzimin (pickaxe on one 
side, hatchet on the other, 
HP 216, qu.Latin Dolabra ?) 

Agma, brother (son of mother), 
pi. AiGma. Bagmat, brother- 
hood? In HP 31, 255, for 
brethren. But Bigemma, 
families, seems to be the 
plural of (Shilha) Tegemmi, 

Agemmat, further side of moun- 

Tegemut, rain, Moz, *See Geb- 
jut, small torrent. 

Gagaim6, muscle of arm. 

Egman, self. Ho. for Iman. 

Agemmun, knoll, round hill, 
pi. Igemmunen, dim. Tigem- 
munin, little knolls. 

Agmar, horse, /. AgmarO, Ben. 
Men. BagmarG, mare, pi. 
Gagmarin, Ho. Also Ajmar, 
GajmarO, in dialects. 

GagemurO, place, Ho. Bather 
GapnurG ? See noun Efmcr. 

GegmusG, hump on the back. 

Ejin, beginning, HP 123. TJr- 
jin, never, HP 402 ; not at 
all ? ouK apxhv ? 

Agenna, air, Ho. ; heaven ; 
Ajenu, Moz. fern. Ga^nan, 
hearen ; so Han. GigenuG, 
HP 46. .Geganu, Ho. pi. 

Digitized by 




Iganawen. The Libyans 
habitually say, " The heaven 
beats/' for, the rain falls ; 
hence Europeans are apt 
to identify Bagnau and its 
equivalents with Kain ; 
perhaps not rightly. The 
Arabic Jenna, garden of 
Paradise, %,e. heaven ; Dunia, 
world; Ela£ira, the other 
(world), etc., have been 
spread so wide with the re- 
ligion, that Agenna, Ajenna, 
Axinna, are likely to be only 
the Arabic Jenna. The true 
Libyan for Heaven, Sky, Air, 
may seem doubtful : Asigna, 
a cloud; Afu, Aiu, wind; 
may be thought of. It is 
singular, that when Anyar or 
Amyar (rain) is true Libyan, 
as well as nearly Arabic and 
Hebrew, the Kabail should 
corrupt Ar. El hawa, the 
air J into Lahwa, rain, 

Gegani, dates, Shaw. 

eagnit, footstool (?) Mat. v. 
35 ; perhaps, rather, resting- 
place ; but, a vale. Gen. xiv. 
8 ; xviii. 1 ; xi. 2 ; xiii. 10. 
So 6ajnit. Br. has Gagnit, 
a plaiD, pi. Gigniatin. 

Aguni, table land, plateau, HP 
228, pi. Igunan. Gagunit, 
a floor, area, ground {Js sol, 
H.), field of battle. Else- 
where Han. seems to me 
strangely to misinterpret it 
a8 a momentf and an hour^ 
HP. Gagunit Oefres, a clear 

space. Vent, gives (probably 
for Shilha) Tefunit, "globe '* 
of the earth; rather, perhaps, 
areay circle of the eartii. Pos- 
sibly Gagnit and Aguni both 
come from the verb Gen, 
repose, rest, nearly as in 
Greek vTrrirj yrj^ terra su- 
pina (a flat), and inrrLo^f 
supinuSf are related to v7n/09, 
sopor, somnus. Indeed Ga- 
guni is sleep, repose. 

Ajawani, heat of wind, pi. 
Ijawanin, Ho. So Hamet 
ia Luke xii. 53, only with 
C (Tx) for J. 

Aj6nowi, sword, pi. Ijenowin, 
dim. Gajenowit, cutlas, razor. 

AjanU, a tail, pi. Ijanai. See 

Agenduz, calf, Igendiaz, 
/. GagenduzO, pi. Gigendozin. 

GeganjuG, a spoon, pi. Gigenja- 
win. Ho. But Afenja, H. 
Gr. 24. 

Ajenjur, purple ^^^ HP. 

Agennur, skull, pi. Igennuren. 

Oguns, XJkuns, bottom, Del. 
Shilha, seems to be the same 
word as Waguns, A guns, 
HP 158, ground floor, base- 
ment, inhabited by a Eabail 
family, opposed to Addainin, 
the stable. 

Gagunsi, root (bottom ?) of cer- 
tain trees, HP 309, pi. Gi- 

Agnes, floor (nearly as Aguns ?) 
pi. Igensan. 

Tagannus, incisor tooth. Ho. ; 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




GegxeriG, knee, pL Gigexrar, 

Ham., Teguxerar, HP 314. 
Agazu, a bunch, pi. Iguza. 
Beguzi, a hole, Br. (a hollow ?) 

but GifllG, a hole bored. 
Agezzan, a fortune - telling 

gipsy, HP 11 (a priest! 

Luke V. 14.) 
Gigzelt, kidney, pi, Gigezzal. 
Egzer, river, oasis, Ho. See 

Efzer, and compare Arab. 

Jezira ; an oasis being like 

an island in the desert. 
GagzarS, soup, pi. Gigzarin. 


Afi, Ifi, sour milk. (Tu. A£, 

GafaG (AfaG, Ben Men.), she 
goat, pi. Glfattin. But pi 
Gefeiawin, HP 309, scurvy, 
mangy goats. 

Afbub, woodcock, pi. Ifbab. 

Efid, Efod, ashes, Ho. ; cf. Tu. 
Aqqed, bum ; and Ix!d. 

Ifid, a kid, Heb. and Ar , pi. 
Ifiden, HP 142. 

Efei, night, ■Wadr.=Eha2:, Tu. 
=n. If, Kab. 

Afadir, a fortification, (glacis ? 
slope?) Y. ISee Agadir.] 
dim. Gefadirt, a fortress, 
castle, V. GafeddarG, a 
pocket pistol, pi. Gifeddarin, 
Br. l^qtcasif a small defence ?] 

Iff, head, end, extremity, top, 
pi. Iffawen. Also Efaf and 

Gafifufe, a cup, HP 442. 
AfuggaA, a strip (of leather), 

HP 188. 
Gifliyin, eggs, Br. V. {sing. 

Teglai, Del. Shil.) 
Ifill, hrachiumy arm, ell, pi. 

Ifallen; also hill, crest of 

hill, Han. S ifill, by force, 

Br. dim. Gifilt, top of hill, 

V. ; village street, HP 299. 
Gifallin, mares, HP 341. {See 

Tegalit, a mare. Ho. Wadr.) 
Uful, front tooth, pi. TJflan, 

Br. V. See TJglan. 
Afyul, ass, pi. Ifyal, fern. 

Gafyalt, pi. Gifyultin. 
Tayola, seems to be used by 

Haraet (Gen. i. 24, 28) for 

cattle generally. 
Afalad, town wall (Moz. street.) 
Afelaf, Ho., swarm =Agelaf. 
Iflel, straw, Efallil, stem, Ho. 

(Arab. Talla, crop.) 
Gaflilt, jacket, doublet, pi. 

Giflilin, Br. 
Afelmi, sheep, HP 112; mutton, 

HP 267. (Ar. fanem.) 
Afilas, panther, pi. Ifilasen. 

(Also modern Arabic.) 
Gagelif , fig tree, HP 252, 346. 
Apeluz en Gamemt, wax, Ho. 

(case of honey?). (Tekir, 

wax, Shilha?). 
Efma, thigh, Ben. Men. Gapma, 

d°- Kab., pi. Gagmiwin. 
Efmer, side, comer, angle, HP 

42, etc. GegemurG, place 

(Ho.), perhaps ought to be 

Ufmas, back tooth, dim. Guf- 

Digitized by 




masO, pi. Gafinas. See TJfuly 

Gafant, jungle, forest, V.( Arab. 

A|;eDJar, the nose, HP 283 

(Anjar, B. Sergu, dim. Ga- 

fanjure, d*** Br.) See Inzer. 
Afenja, a spoon, pL Ifenjawen, 

Han Or. 24. See Gagonju9. 
GafanjauO, a trowel. 
Afanim, bamboo, tube, pi. Ifu- 

nam ; dim. Gaftinimt, cane: 
Gij;ri6, cudgel. 
Aferda, rat (jerboa, Ben. Moz.), 

pi. I(;erdayen, cf . Izirda, and 

At. JoraA. 
Gefirdemt, scorpion, J?/. Gifirde- 

mawin, Br. [Ho. and Y. 

have g for [.] 
Afaref, a grindstone, millstone, 

pi. Ifuraf. 
GiferfarG, floor, ground, Br. 
Afrom, bread, loaf, pi. Af roman, 
Afrur, the backbone. 
AferOil, large mat, Y., pi. 

Aferfes, artery. Ho. 
Gaferast, hive, pi. GijTasIn. 

See Gegerust. Geferasin, 

HP 68, the hives? the 

peoples? [but Han. renders 

it, "nos coeurs.*'] 
GefezzuG, river bank (often 

flooded), HP 6, 230, pi. 

Afezmar, jawbone, under\9.w*i 

chin in Ghad. pi. Ifezmaren. 

GefezmarG, pi. Gifezmann, 
* eheeh bone ? [niun. 

Awafzenio, ogre, pi. Iwafze- 

Efzer, small stream in valley, 
pi. Ifzeran or Ifzerawen. 
Also, pi. Ifezran, ravines, 
HP 176. See Amf, evLTgsLy 
and Egzer. 


Ahiyuiyi, a babe. Ho. 

Hala,' source, spring, Ben. Men. 

for Gala, Kab. 
Ahalu, wet. Ho. 
Gaharaut, cudgel, pi. Gihira- 

GahariG, pastry. Ho. 
Gahairuba, a swing. 
Herla, many, Ho. Probably 

forKirla. /S^ Killa. 
Gahasai0, gourd. Ho. [Taqslt, 

Hif , eye, "Ben. Men., for Gif , 

Haixt, mule, Wadr. 
Ehixur, wild herbage, Y. TJhi- 
xur, fodder, Gen. xxiv. 24. 

IHasb, a fox, Ben. Men. for 

Ikasb, £ab. 
nabi£tisur, madder, Y. 
AUbur, earthen vessel in form 

of a truncated cone, pL 

AQabruri for Abruri, hail. 
AHaAai, lad. GaQaAaiG, lass, 

pi. GiAaAayen. 
AHaddof, wool on sheep's back, 

pi. IHaddofen. 
Ailaddor, a pancake, HP 438. 

Digitized by 




AfllQa, a song, £r., liunting 

cry, Han. 
Alluli, he goat, pi. THuliam. 
Ilalllal, large lavender, V. 
AQallum, ape, pi. IHullani. 
inambul, velvety carpet, HP 

AQammani, high border of a 

flooded river, HP 6. 
Allaiqul, male partridge, pi. 

inoqal. [Ar. Ilajel.] 
AHarbi, cartridge box, Arab. ? 
Allured, a flea, E. Men. for 

Akured ; pi. Iflurden. 
AHarrad, small locust, pi. IHar- 

Allardun, Libyan lizard; so 

6allarras0, a pistol, pi. Giflar- 

rasin, Br., from Ar. Haras, 

guard, defend. See Bafed- 

AHarkus, old shoe, pi. Iflarku- 

sen, Br. but see Erkes. 
AHarqus, painted eyebrows of 

woman, pi. Illarqusen. 
Biflarxi, sagacity, tact [clever 

trickery, Han., savoir faire, 

Br. ; politeness. Ho. The 

Arab.root means roughness f]* 

Words in which the Beni Me- 
nasser introdwe H, especially 

Illems, a thumb, for Ikmex. 
Iflabor, elbow; Tafemirt, Tu. 
Buflaf uf, ant, for Teatuf t. 
IQurden, fleas, for Ikurden. 
inasb, fox, for Ihasb. 

Iflabet, foot, 
inf, head, for I£f. 
Illarri, ram, for Ikerri. 
Ifqaller, tortoise, for Ifker. 

At£a (Gefia?) a mote, atom, 

Mat. vii. 3. 
Ga£abi0, oil cruise,^/. Gi£ubai. 
A£edmi, dirk, dagger, pi. 

I£f, for Iff, Efaf, head. 
A£ej'piqN, a hole. (U£jid, a den, 

V.) {see) H. Gr. 32. 
A£a£ni, a smoker, HP 398. 
SiUa, many, HP 123, 125; 

probably for Kirla=Kiralla. 
A£ilwan, castor oil shrub, rid- 

nus. pi. I£ilwanen, 
Ga£lijt, B^abail village, pi. Gi£- 

A£al£al, fetter, pi. I£al£alen, 

dim. Ga£al£alt, anklet, pL 

A£elul, mucus of the nose, HP 

183, 433. 
Ga£lalt, buckle, clasp, pi. 

A££am, house, pi. I££amen. 

[Ar.£aime, tent.] dim. Ga£- 

£amt, pi. Gi££am, a hut, 

hovel, tent of hair, cave- 

TJ£na, rump, pi. Yu£nan, V., 

dim. Gu£na, pi. Gi£newa. 
A£enfux, snout, HP 312. 
A£nax, bark, cork, Br. 
A£erbux, inferior figs. 

Digitized by 




Ga£rif , ptirse (wealth, money), 

HP 390, 363. 
9e£si, ewe, [for Geksi? verb 

Kafi, few? HP 126. 
I£eeax, iron of spear, HP 214. 
A£iz£ax, brains, marrow, V. 
A£uxxim, fist, pi, I£uxzimen. 
9a£izrant, rod, wand, Br. 


Ga^ukka, worm, pi. Gi*ukki- 

win. Also Ga*ugga. 
GekiG, dew. Ho. Rather Geq- 

Ikasb, a fox. 

Akbal, maize, pi. Ikbalen. 
Akubri, brimstone, sulphur. Ar. 

GakebbusO, flowerb-ud, pi. 

Kebpa, handful ; hilt of sabre, 

pi, Kebafi, Br. probably 

Akidar, a nag, a hack, a road- 
ster, Br., j»/. Ikidaren. 
Akidar, a song, pi. Ikidran ? 
Akufi, great earthenware bin or 

safe, for grain and fruits, pi. 

Ikufan, HP 296-6, 433. 
Akefrir, anger, HP 237. 
Akakal, rook = Arab. Sakra, 

Luke viii. 6, al80=Azrar, of 

verse 13. 
Akal, ground, soil. [In Tu. 

landy pi. Ikallen.] 
Akli, negro slave, pi. Aklan, 

fern. Gaklit. 
Gikkelt, a turn 6r time (^w), 

pi. Gikkel. 

Aklil, thyme, Br. 

Gukkimt, fist, pi. Gukkimin. 

See A£uxxim. 
Akumkom, chin, Ho. 
Kan, only (seulement, HP 300). 
Iken, twin, fellow, pi. Ikniwen, 

fern. Gakena, pi. Gakniwin. 
Akentu, perch of a cock, HP 

Gakanna, bedstead, Y., hut, 

floor over the stable, loft, 

HP 168, often used as a 

Akinzar, nose, Duv. See Afen- 

jur and Inzar. 
Ikerri (Akerrar), ram, /k:/06O9, 

pi. Akraren. TakerarQ, a 

ewe, HP 310. 
Akerrawi, head, Kapa^pl-^^t- 

rawen, (Aqerrawi, Ham. 

alsojp/. Iqurra, HP 124.) 
AkurcA, a flea, pi. IkurAen. 
Gekaromt, roof. Ho. /S^YaAui 
Akermus, cactus, HP 382. 
Akerrux, oak, HP 312, /. 

GakerruxG [quere-us?] 
Ukerzi, HP 321 "ceinture" 

Eksum, flesh (meat), pi, Iksa- 

man. [Etsum, "Wadr., Aisum^ 

Moz. ShU., Isan, Tu.] 

Gdksume, cuticle, HP 201. 
Aksar, Auksar, lower part. 

GauksarG, bottom of slope? 

HP 296, 301. 
Aketot, a talkative person. Ho. 
Gak6unia, quince, Ho. (Lat. 

Xuxe, fdroace, oven, V., brick- 
kiln, Br. 

Digitized by 




Gake:$:kulty small wooden bowl, 

pL Gikexkulin. 
Akxelum, bran, Ho. 
Tikxeri, bark of tree, Br. (Ar. 

Akaxux, head-dress, Han. (from 

Akaio, bead, and Ar. Xax, 

muslin ?). 
Akuwex, baker; (corrupt for 

Arab. Kobbaz?). 
Akexwa/p, dead wood, pL Ikex- 

Akux, wheatworm, cMckseed 

(escayolle), V, 

. I-- 

Yal, tuni (?) of a cause in law, 

H. Gr. 320. 
Allen, eyes, perhaps from Wall, 

see. So lyeri, eyes, from 

Aila, for Agla, one's own pro- 
Ailu, cushion, Br. — leather- 

sack ; pi, II wan. 
Awal, an utterance, {vox of 

Latin). Hence verb Sawal. 
Yelli, lUi, daughter, pi, Issi. 
Illi, a sling, pi, lUawen, Y. 
tJli, heart, pi, Ulawen. 
Ulli, a flock, sheep, Kab. ; 

goats in Tu. 
6ala, fountain, spring. (Hala, 

Ben. Men.), pL Gilawin, 

perhaps as Ar. sain, it meant 

an Eye. See Allen. 
Geli, shade. 

eili, sheep, Y.=eefeli, Ghad. 
Gawala, fever : (recurring ? 

from verb Wal?). 

Gulawin, women, (interpreted 
little heartSf from TJli, by De 
Slane; but the Ghad. Tilta, 
a woman, seems a more prob- 
able source). 

Galaut, leaves of the plane* 
tree, winter fodder for cattle, 
V. [Tu. Ela, leaf.] 

GalowiG, peace, repose, HP 152, 

GalaG, a valley, space between 
mountains, Br. 

GalliG, a time? (properly, a 
month?) Gh. Tallit, a 
month; also Tu. Tallilt, a 

Gelebe, gown, dress, ; Gob of 
Arabs, V. 

Alu2, mud (Lat. lutum, Ar. 
lawaG), ^/. AluSen. 

Ildain, pi, foam. 

Elaf, Ilef, hog (V. explains by 
Ilaluf, as Arabic), pi, Ilfan, 
GilefG, sow, pi, GelfaGin. 

Ellaffc, mustard. Ho. 

GalafG, chagrin, vexation, ph 
Gilafa,. See in the Yerbs, 
Ujilif. Also Galufb, mStier, 
one's craft or trade, Y. 

Galefsa, horned viper, pi. Gilef- 

Alag, trouble, embarrassment. 

Gelfa, barley straw, Y. 

Elf5m (Alom, Moz.), camel, 
pi, Ilapmen (Ho. fern, Gel- 
femt, pi, Gilfemin. 

Luhi, season, HP 8, 198, 218 ; 
also hour of journey, 151, 
397, 400 ; and perhaps hour 
is as accurate, as ^t^r for &pa. 

Digitized by 




BilkiOy louse. 

Alekkan, carpenter's plane. [So 

Adj. and Alekkan, smooth.] 
Lalli, mistress, Gen. zvi. 9, 10. 

Lalla, d»- HP. [Br. 

Ilili, rhododendron, pL Uiuan, 
Alim, chaff. 

Alom, camel, HIoz. 8u Elfom. 
TJlmu, elm, Latin. 
GalumO, fine sieve for floor, pi, 

Alemmas, the middle, HP 328, 

(In Shilha, Ammas, fiia-ov.) 
Alemzi, bachelor, young man, 

/em, Galemzi, young woman. 

Also Mezzi, little, Kab. 

lis, tongue, pi, Bsawen ; dtm. 

Bilsit. Arab, and Heb. add 

an, dn. 
Ills, smoke. Ho. (steam ?) Gal- 

lis9, darkness. 
EUusi, butter, B. Men. Tills!, 

butter, Wadr. So Tu. JSee 

GilisG, limit, border, strip, pi, 

Gilas, Br. 
Gilitsen, gum-thistle, spike- 
head, Y. 
UleOma, Weltema, daughter of 

mother, i,e. sister; pi, Is- 

seOma, Gisma6in. 
Elwaxel, children. Ho., Ham. 
Elzaz, wedge for splitting logs, 
' pi, Elzaiz. 


Imma, mother, HP. 
Imi, mouth, pi, Imawen. 
Bum, freshet. Ho., river in 

flood. (Perhaps Arab, sum, 

Gama, side, part, coast, strip 
of land ; pi, Gimiwa. Gamak, 
thy part, thy duty, Matth. 
Ar tama, only (?). 

Ammi, Mammi, son. 

Omma, bat. Ho. (flying mouse?) 

Gimmi, eyebrow, pi, Gimmi- 
wen (Ammiwen). Gemmiut, 
d- V. 

Amemmu, pupil of the eye, 
KOfnj, Br. Temenunuxt, d*** 
Y. perhaps Shil. 

Gaumat, heifer, female calf. 

Gamau6, care, attention; Er 
GamauG, take care, Y. From 
verb Imaiya ? 

Gawumt, boat. 

Madden, men. ImAanen, d^* 
HP 161 (Haussa, Mutan, 

Amadiu, vulture, Br. 

GemAa, ffill, deep bed of stream, 
Han. pi, GimeAawin. But 
(with Ho.) marsh, pi, Gim- 
diwa : in Ham. John v. 7, a 
pool ; elsewhere, a well- 
watered place ; a garden, 

Temadet, fresh butter, Hoest. 

Gameddi6, evening. 

AmaAaf, trees, Mar. viii. 24 ; 
forest, Y., Ho. ; brushwood, 
HP 279, briars, jungle; pi. 

ImiAak, '* lentisque," HP 438, 
mastic tree. 

Amdelt, graveyard, B. Men.; 
verbal from Imf al. 

Digitized by 




JiLmdun, trough? trench? in 
Ham., Luke ii. 16; vi. 39 ; 
manger and ditch! ditch, Br., 
ditch or cave, Ho., reservoir, 
Han. pL Imdunen, Br. 
Yet ImAanen, HP 161, *' les 
hommes." See Madden. 

Amadun, earthen vessel, Br. 

Masadnus, parsley, Br. V. 

AmeSlus, restive, HP 402. 

Amdar, a foolish man. Ham., 
Luke, but qu. [HP 163 has 
Amiiar, of evif omen, from 
Arab. Taira.] 

Umadru, honour be to, HP 169. 

D Amdari, accustomed, Br. 

TemeZeras, forests, HP 38, 86, 
perhaps thickets, from E£res, 

Imej, ear, Br. dim. 0emji9,jp/. 
Gimjiwin, Wadr. 

Amaig, cheek, pi. Imuyag, H. 
Gr. 34. [Ghad. Temjaz? 
perhaps Temyaz.] 

Amgu A, branch of tree, HP 337, 
349, 355, pi. ImguAen, 368. 

Gemeggallae, neck, HP 357. 

Amger, sickle, pi. Imgeran. 

Imejjer, mallows, HP 314. 

Gamguf , peak of mountain, HP 
324. [Gamgot, protection, 
Ho., a verbfJ?] In Sergu, 
Barth gives Tigimxin, pro- 

TimegrafG, chest of horse, front 
neck of man. [Emparad, nape 
of neck, cervix? See verb 
Esgurf . Temrarad, neck, V., 
perhaps Shil.J 

GamefafB, small spoon. 

Gimplt, tusk of boar, j?/. Gimfi- 

Amfar, elder, chief, pi. Imparen. 

Oamfart, dame, lady, pL 

Amhaj, mad, Br. (from Ar. 

Amahre5, a bushel, tub, Mat. 

V. 15. 
Am£u£, sucking pig, pi. Im- 

£a£; hence, brat, child, Ho. 

See Abquq. 
Imekli, breakfast, Br. (So at 

Ghat, says Freeman.) Heb. 

and Ar. Akel, eat. 
Amoksi, a steer, pi. Imoksin, 

Ho. (Verbal from Iks ?) 
Gimiksimin, wild parsnips, Y. 
Amalu, sunless slope, Han. ; 

shade, shadow, V., pi. Imula. 
Umulab, lizard, pi. Imulaben, 

HP 344, 179, 209. 
Amlagef, forehead. Ho. See 

Gamella, Gamalli, dove, pi. 

Gimelliwin, Ho. 
Gamellalt, an egg, pi. Gimella- 

lin, Br, . Compare Arab. 

Gamli£6, sole of shoe, pi. 

Mel£ail, anemone, V. 
Amelal or Xemlal, chrysanthe- 
mum, HP 440. 
^amllq, robust man, hero, HP 

Amleqqeq, the groin, pi. Im- 

Amalus, scum, dregs; — slime, 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 




HP 430. Imessa'p, d*- pi 

Imessa'pen, Br. See Gapna. 
ImasAan, bricks, Gen. xi. 3 his. 
Emsel, stump of human body, 

from hip to foot, Y. 
Emsuluj, body, Y. {dead b. ?). 
Temsulest (Moz.), street, pi, 

Amsisker, a cauldron, HP 400. 
Ime^i, a tear, pi. Imiq^amen. 

(ei'p, eye.) 
Ame'pq^u, HP 137 ; — (Amto, 

Ho.) a vulgar or masculine 

Ame'pof, B. Men., a woman; 

Gama'pf u0, d°- Kab. 
Gemi'p, navel, Y. 
AmOifq^, possessed of an eye. 

Gamtunt, leavened paste, Y. 
MeGered, pi. MeOared, large flat 

dish (apparently Arabic). 
Imxellad, clasps ? ** agrafes,*' 

HP 191. 
Gimexeret, distribution, H. Gr. 

Gemxin, figs, Moz., Wadr. 
Amxix, cat, pi. Imxax, fern. 

GemxixG, pi. Gimxax. 
Emmexax, the haunch, hip, pi. 

Immexaxen, Br., Y. 
ImiGmen, pi. spittle, Y. 
Gam'put, GamGut, woman. 
Amezzuf, ear, pi. Imezzufen. 

See Imej. 
Im5in, B. Men. ; Gem5in, Kab. 

barley, pi. ? as IrAen. 
Am5ur, tress, braid of hair, pi. 

Imzaren, Br. Ime5ran, Han. 

Amu55ar, HP 43 L 

GamesarG, ribbon, HP 371. 

Amyar, rain, Wadr. (Heb., Ar. 
Ma'par). Anyar, Shil. d"* ; 
also HP 49. 

Ame55ir, lavender, HP 314. 
See Halllal. 

Imu5uren, cowdung. 

Ame5ru, quill of porcupine, pi. 

GamasirG (for GamasifO?) ot- 
Kovfiijnj = Arab. Rif, sub- 
urban cultivated land. Pro- 
bably a verbal from Tu. 
Izzef, he dwelt ;=IzAe(; of 
Kab. Also in Shilha of Ibra- 
him I find Gama5ir0 with r. 
GemezeriG, " belle rue," HP 


Ann, deep well. 
Yiwan, one, fern. TiwaG. 
Gunt, a part, pi. Guna. See 

Amur, Gama. 
Anebdu, summer. 
Inebgi, guest [personne que Von 

regoit, Y.], pi. Inebgawen. 
Anbu£an, soot, Br. 
Ginbalin, armlets, Y. 
EnAa, frost, Ho. (Nedi, dew, 

Ganudda, equals, HP 167. 
Aindur, forehead. 
EGnafa, dreams ? fancies ? HP 

Kefda, a stitch, pi. Nefadi. 

These Arahize, but in Ho. 

AnefAa, pi, InafAa. 
Anagi, Anaji, witness, pi. 


Digitized by 



Oanuga, crowbar, pL Ginuga- 

Unegal, brave warrior, HP 152. 

Anijel, a briar, pL InujeL 

Enajjil, blackberry bush, V. 

Injan, pi. ? dirt, Br. 

Anaggar, last — Gangar(9), end ; 
verbals from Enger. 

Gingef, tress of hair, pi. 

Inifman, dry figs, HP 133, 230. 

GanparO, a lot (sors), Br. — Ger 
OanfarO, cast the lot. 

Enehlel, pain, Ho. but qu. 

Genhi5, earthquake, qu. 

GankekG, neck. Ho. (Arab. 
Hank). See Anqekeb. 

Anawel, TJnawel, the kitchen, 
V. and Br. under Vedsselle. 

GanalS, luncheon, light dinner, 

TenemmarO, perseverance, HP 
314 [corrupt from Arab. Is- 
temrar ?]. 

Annar, threshing floor, pi. In- 
nurar, dim. GannarG, HP 

Genqer, sunrise, HP 162 (with 
GafukG, sun, understood, says 
Han.). He thus regards it 
as a mere variation of Genker, 
from Tuar. and Shilha.verb 
Enker, which the Kabail cor- 
rupts into Ekker. [Genqer 
may seem less accurate than 

Anyir,TJnyir, (?m.Ganyir, fore- 
head, HP 237, 403. 

Enisi, hedgehog, pi. Iniswen, 
V. HP 278. 

Enaf , En/|>, Nif , last preceding, 
pi. Nifnin. 

Enixt (Lat. instar), a size, a 
quantity: Anext, so much. 
Ho., as big as, HP 441. 

Ganixxa, flint, pi. Ginixxawin. 

Inexfi, a bodkin, a punch, pL 
Inexfiyen, Br. 

Enxema, a shoal (seabank ?)^ 

Inxux, mouth. Wadr. 

Gawenya, (a verbal, na) sale, 
from Eny. 

Gawenza, forehead, pi. Giwen- 
zawin. Ho. Br. (2) also 
sneezing, Br. So Tewinzi, 
Y. Perhaps for Gawenzar, 
with r final. See verb Knzar. 

An5iA, a hair. Mat. v. pi. In- 
zaAcn, crtnes (Amzad, Tu.). 

Anezgum, disquietude.. 

Anzel, a long pole, perch, pL 
Inezlen, Br. 

Genzilt, thunder, Br. Y. 

Anyer, rain, HP 49 ; also in 
Shilha. See Amyar. 

Inzer, nose, nostril, ;?/.Anzaren, 
Han. dim. GenzerO, Ho., 
Tenzer, Wadr. See Afenjur. 


Geq!9, a drop, (dew, Ho.), pi. 

Giqqa, Br. 
Gaqqa, juniper bushes, HP 362. 
Iqayen, dates, V. See Aqain. 
Isaqqayen, kernels, Y, 
GasaqqaiG, a seed (as of bean), 

fruit, a single apple, Br* 

Digitized by 




Aqabub or Aqamum, beak of 

Aqbabux, goldsmith. 
Aqebqab, sandal wood, ph 

Aqbur, temporary hut, pi. Iq- 

Aqabux, dunghill, pL Iqubax. 

See AgUAu. GaqabaxO, dung 

fork ? pi Oaqubax, HP 

214 (but Han. interprets it, 

hatchets)^ a rustic weapon of 

Giqqad, red spots on the skin 

=Ijujar, HP 189. 
Aqadura, visage, face, V., ph 

Iqudam, HP 269, apparently 

Arabic, for UAam Libyan. 
Aqadus, a tube, pL Iqadusen. 
Aqjun, a cur, pL Iqjan. fem, 

Gaqjunt, ph GiqjaGin. See 

AiSi, Aqzill. 
Aqjemur, dry trunk, pi. Iqje- 

muren or Aqejmur, HP 192, 

billet, log. 
Aqejjar, leg, hind leg, ph Iqej- 

jaren. GaqejjirO, dimin. foot 

of woman, HP 372. 
Aqelmun, cowl, riding cape, 

HP 261, 386, 400. 
Aqelqul, linnet, ph Iqelqal. 
Aqelwax, he-goat, pL Iqel- 

Aqamum, beak of bird, ph 

Iqamumen, Iqumam. See 

Aqammux, mouth, lips, ph 

Iqamuxen, dim. GaqemmuxG, 

osculum, kiss, HP. 
Aqain, berry (of olive, date. 

etc.), V. ph Iqayen, espe- 
cially dates, etc. dim. Giqa- 
yen, pearls. 

[Aqunnid, the rump, V. {See 

GaqandurO, shirt, pi. Giqan-' 
diar (of linen or cotton, Br., 
V.) ; (of wooUen, Ho.) 

Aqenyal, earthen pot, ph Iqen- 

Qari, dry land, Luke; (verbal 
from Iqqur?) GaqaxG, d*** 
Gen. i. ij ^pa. 

Aqerui, a grain tub, HP 7. 

Aqarrui, head. Mat. v. 36, with 
k for q, Han. 

Aqarum, trunk, stump, KOpfiL ? 

Gaqarunt, glass bottle. 

Gaqrint, keel (of ship), Lat, 
Carina,^/. Giqrinin. 

Aqerqur, river bank, river sand, 
ph Iqerqaren, Br., strand of 
river, HP 91 ;=Ixiqer of 
Zuave, says Han. 

Aqerqux, unripe fig, HP 414. 

Aqarras, trigger, HP 88. 

Aqarrax, rood, pole, ph Iqar- 
raxen, Br. 

Gaqarurt, snuflF-box, Y. 

Gaqsul, saucer, ph Oiqsalin. 

Aquten, joist, rafter, ph Iqu- 

Aqeff un, a truss of straw. 

Qexx, supelUXf vessels of kit- 
chen, Br. 

Qexxux, a cork, HP 313. 

Aqxix, little boy, babe, ph 
Iqxixen, fem. GaqxixG, ph 
Giqxixin. ^^ 


"'' A-rit 

Digitized by Cj<)0^iC '^^'v^ 



Aqaxux, woman's head-dress, 
pi. Iquxax, HP 181. 

Aqzlll, puppy, pL IqzaH, fern. 
OaqziHt, pi. Oiqzilltm. 


Iri, neck, Ho. Iriu, my neck, 
HP 298 ; also border, margin , 
pi. Iriwen. Both senses are 
joined in Tu. Iri, Sergu Er. 

Ayynr, moon (Aggur, Zuave ; 
Yarell, Heb.), month; pi. 

Ami, porcupine, pi. Aruin. 

Gara, a vine, pi. Giriwa. 

GewariO [GawarriO ?], disaster, 
HP 35, qu. reverse? See 
Wari and Err in the verbs. 

Ga*ayer0, earthen cup, pi. Gi*a- 

Ga*arit, bedstead. 

GawwarO, a door, ^/. Gawwara. 
[GabburO, Zuave; AugurO, 
B. Men.] 

Baib, curdled milk (Ar. Bab). 

GarbulG, table — dining table- 
dresser, ^^. Girbuin. 

Arabuz, small bellows, pi. 

EiraA (Uweirad, HP 278), pi. 
lyerden, there rendered the 
Lion ; which is Izim in Kab. 
Elsewhere Eirad, leopard; 
Afilas, panther. But there 
is great vacillation as to the 

ArAif, ''the tomh;' HP 40. 

(Han. may have good reason 
or so rendering : but it does 

not appear. To me the word 

seems Arabic ; and that * ' men 

in reserve " (for judgment) 

means The Bead J 
Gardast, a span, HP 304. 
*Arf, branch of a tree, pZ. 

Turaf, Br. 
Irifi, heat. Perhaps Shilha. 
Arayuf, the South, Luke xii. 55. 
IrafaAan, lambs, John xxi. 15 ; 

fatlings. Mat. xxii. 4. 
Gerga, a tribe, pL Guwerga, 

Ho. But qu. 
Garga, a conduit, a gutter of 

rain, a rill, pi. Giregwa. 

Perhaps from verb Ireg, 

issued. [genin. 

Ga^urga, ants' nest, pi. Gi^ur- 
GirgiG, charcoal, pi. Girgin, Br. 

Also Girgin, charcoal, V. and 

H. Gr. 267. If from verb 

Irfa, g is corrupt for f. 
Irgal, eyelash, HP 391, pi 

Ergalen, 377. 
Arga5, a man, afoot soldier, pi. 

Irgasen, ; from verb Ergaz, 

march. Compare Ar. Bajol. 
Urf, gold, Auraf, yellow. [Heb. 

Aur, light, Lat. Aurum.] 
Arallwi, miller, fix)m Ax. BaAa, 

Blllan xelmun, the myrtle, Y. 
Arakku, rust? Mat. vi. 19. 

But qu. 
Garuka, distaff, pi. Girukwi. 
GarikO, saddle, pi. Girikwi. So 

A*arek0i, dough, paste. 
Garekunt, steep mountain 

slope, pi. Girekinin, HP 223. 

Digitize'd by 




Arkas, sandal, Br., Ho. ; old 
shoe, Y. ; sandal of oxhide, 
with the hair on, Han. pi. 
Irkasen. Erkast, shoe, B. 
Men. dim, Terkest, a shoe, 
Moz. pi. Tirkesin, or rather 
with c (tsh) for k. 

Terallet, hill, Moz. 

Giremt, hour, Uzgen en Oiremt, 
half an hour, Ho. So in 
Mat. V. 41, Hamet uses it for 
an hour^ 8 journey. Elsewhere 
it seems to mean a moment. 
(HP has Zuhi for an hour.) 
pi. Biram. Giremt enni, 
** that instant," seems more 
urgent than Emir enni. 

Ermal, indigent persons, HP 

Auren, meal, Ho. coarse meal, V. 

Eend, laurustinus, Br. V. 

0urin, the spleen, Y. 

Geraqil, castagnettes. 

GiserqaxO, hiccup, Del. jun. 

TJrer, a mountain, Wadr and 
lowland Kabail. 

Arwuri, elder tree, pi. Irwuri- 
0en, H. Gr. 24. 

Amarus, snail, pi. Puras. 

Terist, a fountain, pi. Terisen, 

GarwasG, alder tree, Br. 

Giyersi, a knot; verbal for 
Gakersi ? But V. distin- 
guishes Giyersi, as a slip 

Arson, bridle, pi. Irsan, Ho. 
Verb Serrem, bridle, Br. 

TJrOi, garden, pi. UrOan; Lat. 

Errex, child, boy ; Errext, girl, 

B. Men. 
Arrax, pi. children. Ham., Br. 

See Ibrax. 
Gerxa, a crag, pi. Gerex. (But 

Girax, heaps, HP 214). 
Eriax, a wheel, HP 183. 
GawarixG, (pot of ?) fresh but- 
ter, V. under Pain. 
Irri3, knot in a tree. Ho. 
Gayerza, tilth, plough-oxen ; 

verbal for Gaker3a. 
A*urez, heel, pi. Purzan, Br. 

GawarziO, ankle. Ho. See 

GerzefQ, a small gift, Han. 
Arzigen, Warzigen, cricket, 

GuruazO, elder tree, Br. See 

Erzaz, wasp, Y. Br. pi. Irzazen. 

As, Was (rather Ass), day, pi. 

Ussan, perhaps for Asl. Assa, 

to-day ; for Assad, Ho. Br. 
Usu, Isi, Gisi, a bed; verbal 

from Issa. AsueO, bed, B. 

Men. . IsiO, Gusant, a vale. 
Issi, spider,/. Gisist. 
Issi, pi. or Yessi, daughters 

(«jny. Yelli, llli) ; also Su0, 

girls, HP 341. 
Wis, masc, Gis,/«»., prefix to 

mark Ordinals. 
Gasa, the liver, pi. Gisawin. 
GasuO, small be.llows, Y. and 

Br. [qu. rather Gasuq^, a 

verbal ?] see Arabuz. 

Digitized by 




Asabad, TJsabad, a shoe, Ho., 

but Sebba'p, Br. under Sa- 

vate. Is the French the 

same word ? 
Seibuse, sparrow, Ho. 
Asebsi, a pipe^ tube, ink-horn, 

ph Isebsiyen, dim, Tasebsit, 

pi Tisebsiyen (Shil. ?) 
OeseAuan, women, HP 146, 

from verb SuAon, kiss. 
AseZsu, HP 201, Gesiisut, 

HP 357, teeth {sic) : jaw ? 
Asafu (Asfawa, Luke ii. 32 ), 

a torch, pL Isufa, Br. 
Asif, a river, pi, Isaffen. 
GesfifO, woman's girdle, Ho. , Br. 
Asfel, HP 216, *' a remedy/' a 

substance ? 
Asfalu, flue, smoke-tube, ph 

Asfiri, earthen stewpot, ph Isfi- 

riyen, dim, 0asfiri9. 
Asefra, literature, pi, Isefran, 

Isefra, couplets of verse, HP 

75, 217, 226, 266, 340. 

Heb. Sefer. Usefru, compo- 
sition of verse 75. 
Ge^asfurO, thimble, V. 
Asferik, a hedge, pi, Isferiag, 

Ho. See Afrag, above. 
Gisagwa, the people, the folk, 

Luke, etc. 
GasegluO, theft of an animal, 

to eat it. 
Esagum, urn, pitcher; verbal 

from Igem. [Ho. 

Asigna, a cloud, pi, Isegnain, 
Isigni, packing needle, V. Gi- 

signiG, small needle, pi, Gi- 

segniOin, V., Br. 

Asger, wood, pi, Isgeran, Ho. 
(Heb. and Ar ), but Ay far, 
timber, firewood, Br. Asfar 
sif (tree of the river), alder, 
HP 315. 

Asageres, oat-bag, ph Isgerias, 
Ho. (Kosebag?) 

Asaggas, year, ph Isaggasen. 

Isfi, black eagle, ph Isfan. 

(Asefu ?) ph Isef wan, buckets, 
HP 228. 

Asafur, hay, dry fodder, HP 

Se£ab, necklace of beads, made 
of fragrant paste, HP 350, 

Asiiki, wild land. Tasiiki, fal- 
low land. 

Asakku,^/. Isakkan, or Isukka, 
hair sack, aaK/eo^, etc. 

Sekal, ** embrasure," V., win- 
dow recess ? 

Eskum, asparagus, Br. 

GiskerO, garlic, Br., leek. 

EskurG, partridge (female), B. 
Men. GaskurG, Ho., Gasek- 
kurG, Han. d"* ph Gaskarin, 

Asuksad, colander, Y. Asek- 
seon, a sieve, Ho. 

Ayal, Ham., only, except ; 
ir\r)v of Greek. 

Isli, bridegroom, j?^. Islan. Gis- 
lit, bride, ph GislaGin. Yet 
Gasilt, stewpot, V. and HP 

Gasila, a shoe, V., a sandal, Br. 
ph Gasilawin. 

GaselbaflG, eel, ph GiseballGin. 
See Asennur. 

Digitized by 




Aslugi; a hound. 
Aslam, fish, pi, Iselman. 
Iselnan, j[?/.? ashtrees, HP 268. 
Aselqem ? pL Iselqan, hoe or 

plough, HP 8. 
Asalas, top of edifice, pi. Isulas. 
Asellas, fog, darkness, HP 35. 

©asiUas, darkness. 
Aisum, flesh, B. Moz. (for Kab. 

GesimuO, arbutus. See Isisnu. 
©isemmumt, sorrel. See list of 

Gasumta (BasumOa, Ho.), has- 
sock for back, pi, Basum- 

Asammer, southern (sunny) 

slope, pi, Isummar. 
Essemmer, rushes, HP 42. 
Asiwen, kite (bird), pi, Isi- 

wanen [qu. flier alo/t?'\, 
Basawint, elevation, hill, pi, 

Besuwan, Ho. from verb I wen. 
Asennan, thorn, ^^. Isennawen; 

Heb. Sinnin. 
Asennur, an eel, HP 420. 
User, dwarf palm. 
User, Usser, old man. SeeYeihs, 
Bisri, aff'air, HP 144. 
Bassara, a plank (Lat. Asser), 

pi, Bissariwin. 
Basirt, handmill, millstone, 

molar tooth ,pl.&i siar . Isira, 

molar tooth, B. Men. 
Beserut, key, pi, Besura, Ho., 

HP 65, 314. 
Usurif, HP 46. 

Asersur, chain; chain of ver- 
tebrae? Br. under Vertebre. 

Arab. Silsile. 

Asurdi, a farthing, pi, Isurdien. 
AserAun, a mule, pi, IserAan 

e>r-Aian. fern. Baser Aunt, ^^. 

Aserjun, vine branch, pi, Iser- 

Isisnu, the arbutus, HP 317. 
BesiOa, cows, Br. [Tes, cow, 

pi, Tesita, Tu.J TesOan, 

cows, HP 310. 
Asu'pef, a covenant, Ho. and 

Gen. Ayu'paf, safe conduct, 

Br. a guarantee ? 
Basta, a tree, Shaw, Ho. pi, 

Bestoa, Ho. Rather with f, 
Base^a, a tree,^/ Baseff awin, 

Br. Hamet in Gen. i. 12, 

seems to distinguish two 

forms for Tree and Fruit, but 

V. 29 is not consistent. 
BistemG, a punch (to make 

holes), pi. Bistemin. 
SuOesrir, muskets ? HP 238. 
Asettur, goat's stable in the 

house, HP 431. 
Satxem, small shot, Br. 

T. B. 

AGaia, behold ! voteiy en tibi. 
Also for " is," and A9enaia, 

Ai0, sons, tribe ; stn^, Ag, son. 

BabuG ? holiness (AttabuG, 
passim in Ham.), literally, 
Fatherhood ? 

iGbir, rock pigeon, tame pigeon, 
pi. IGbiren. 

Tuggi, Ettuggi, Tuji, a caul- 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




points to Arabic Xi' a thing, 

with article repeated, though 

in Tuarik Exik is "Tree." 

See Ixig, below. 
Ixx, horn, pi. Axxiwen ; dim. 

Gixxi, pi. Gaxxiwin, HP 

321, 253. 
Uxxai, greyhound, pi. TJxxa- 

Ixiwi, lap of garment, pocket, 

HP 236. 
GaxuiO, earthen pot, Ho. 
GexubO, fork, pi. Gexub, Ho. 
IxebbuSen, pancakes, HP 380. 
Gaxxebbakt, rough wallet, pi. 

Axeban, green, Ho. (grey? 

Axebur, spurs, HP 12, 210 

(English word ?). Sabir, 

Axberla, shoe of woman, Ho. 
AxefaS? pi. IxifeS, HP 95, 

sandals of ox-hide with the 

hair. See Arkas. 
Exxafa, steep rocks, HP 358, 

a precipice. Ham., Luke viii. 

33 ; an abrupt peak, HP 209. 
Axfar, eyelash, pi. Ixfar, Ho. 

See Irgal. 
Exxefra, bayonet? HP 30, 104. 
Ixig, branch of a tree=Ixken- 

den, Y. ? pi. Ixkendawin. 
Axejig (Ajejig), flower, pi. 

Xm, wild thyme of desert, HP 

Exxoha, reproach, shame, Luke 

i. 25, but qu. 
Ixki, sweet milk, B. Men. 

GaxkimO, mule's bridle, pi. 

GixkimOin, Br. 
GaxkumO, long wand, rod, pi. 

Gixkumin, Br. 
GaxkarO, linen bag, pi. Gixka- • 

GixkerO, gap, breach in wall, 

notch in knife, Br.; stump 

of tooth ; also Gixxert. 
Axual, disquiet, discord, HP 

197 255 
Texilfukt, a pimple, Y. (Shil.?) 
Axelhab, an albino, /. Gaxel- 

habt, HP. 
AxluO, tent, pi. Ixlall. 
Ixlem, bark of tree, shell of 

tortoise, pi. Ixelman, dim. 

GixlemO, scale of snake. See 

Axulim, bran=Hilemmin of Y. 
Xela|;em, mustaches, HP 439. 
Axelllq, rag. 

XeluqlO, brackish water, Br. 
Axmaj, host of heayen, Gen. 

ii. 1. 
Axmu£, two-handed jar or urn, 

pi. Ixma£(en). dim. Gex- 

mu£t, pi. Gixmu£in, jug, 

Xemala, girdle, Ho. Gexemel, 

war (Ho.), qu. girding for 

Xemlal, chrysanthemum, HP 

fExena, blame, Ho. (Arab. 

Xanis, flagitious). 
Uxxan, jackal (also wolf), pi. 

Axennar, a brazier, a store, 

HP 94. 

Digitized by 




Axenafer, lip, ph Ixenfiren, 

HP 432. 
XJxaqur, hatchets, HP 104 ; dim. 

GaxaqurO, bill, ph 0ixuqar. 
Axxer, Ixxer, nail of finger or 

toe, pi, Ixxuran, Axxuran. 
Axerxur, cascade, ^Z. Ixerxaren 

(Arab. Xalxal), fountain, HP 

1 55, perhaps a fountain which 

Axeqvpub, side, flank, pi. Ixef- 

Axfid, rag, Br. pannus, any 

cloth, handkerchief, table- 
cloth. Axtot, Ho. 
Exixau, a capon, Y. 
0exuxai, leather caps, Han. 
Gixxixt, dung dried for ftiel, 

pi. Gixxixin, HP 299. 
Axeraqraq, woodpecker, pi. 

Ixeraqraqen, Br. 

Z (including Heb. ] and >{). 

Izi, fly, pi. Izen, dim, Gizit, V. 
Giziwit, a bee, pi, Gizizwa. — 
Azizwa, bee, B. Men. Giziz- 

W10, bee, pi. Gizizwa, Ho. 
Gizzi, notch in mountain, high 

pass, pi, Gizza, HP 250. 

[rather table land ?] 
Gezewa, a table, pi, Gezewin, 

Ho. but, 
Gaziwa, large wooden bowl, pi. 

Giziwin, from roundness ? as 

na GazTya ? 
Izzan, pi, dung, fsBces, Y. 
Sazib, a field hut, HP 46. 
Izebgan,^/. bracelets, HP 126 ; 

also Y, often with mottoes 

GezcAaiO, a date tree, HP 316. 

Tezdait, J?/, Tizdain, Wadr., 

EzAiQ, ''fracas,'' not, HP 114. 
GizAelan, women, Br. brood- 
hens ? See Yerb. 
Eyduz, a pestle, a thumper ? Y. 
Izga, blood, Ho. (but qu. issue f). 

See Yerb. 
Gizgi, natural jungle, of trees 

of same species, Han. — copse, 

pi, Gizagwa. 
£azzag, violence ? constraint ? 

Si sazzag, by force. 
Azegsabur, a redbreast, pi. 

Ezgaf, copper. Ho. 
Azaglu {^evyXrj ?), a yoke, pi. 

Izugla. Azugel, pi. Izuge- 

lain, Ho. 
Azgun, half, middle, a part, 

some, but Luke i. 73, a cove- 
nant ! quasi, a compromise ? 
Azgar, a steer, pi. Izgaren. 

[Asageri, ox of burden. 

Songhay of Aghades.] 
Azagur, back, pi. Izagar ; back 

of a beast, dorsum, HP. 
GazuggarO, dwarf jujube tree, 

HP 310. 
GezigraizeO, little shepherdess, 

pi. Gizigruyaz. 
Ezigzau, lead (metal), Ho. 

TazegzauO, the colour green ; 

also blue. 
Azfal, scorching heat, Mat., 

I4uke. See Yerb. 

Digitized by 




Azafar, TJzafar, a plain, KP 

88, etc., 100. 
Zu£, ornament, finery (Ze£raf, 

Sik, Sikka, quickly (in Tu. 

Xik, Hik), so, 
Ayikka, the early morning, the 

Azekka, Azekwa, a tomb, pi, 

Azikduf, nettle, Y. Azikf uf, Br. 
Zekkun, oats. 
Azal, sunheat at noon. {^Bee 

Azfal.) Ten o'clock, HP 

198, midday, HP 237. 
Azal, price, Br., Ho. 
ITzzal, Wezzal, iron. 
Ezwail, baggage cattle, HP 18. 
Tezalut, a tree, Moz. 
Gazult, Tiohel for painting the 

eyes, Y. 
Gizelagin, necklaces, HP 415. 
Kzlim, onion, pi, Izlimin, Br.Y. 
Azelma/p, left side. 
Ama5la^, poor, passtm in NT. 

Ham. Perhaps from Arab. 

Ze\f, nudity. 
Izim, a lion, pi, Izmawen. 
Azumbey, pine. See GaiAa. 

Azimba or Azumba, fruit of 

Conifers, HP 311. 
Zamel, horse, Wadr. 
Zeman, time. Perhaps a mere 

importation from Arabic : but 

the word is also Hebrew; 

and Emir does not seem to 

be used of long duration. 
Izimer, Azemar, sucking lamb, 

pi, Izemeren. 
TJzemhir, big paunch, HP 314. 

Azemmur, grafted olive trees, 

pi. Izemmuren. 
Zun, Zund, in Shil. and Tu. 

shape, likeness. In Kab. 

only ** Am zun," ad instar. 
Zen, oak, HP 268, but heech in 

Azenbus, citron, Br. 
Ezenez, raindrop, pi, Izenezan, 

Azeqqa, house, B. Men. (also 

village, Duv.). Gazeqqa, 

stone house, HP 72 (wail, 

Ghad.), pL Gizeqqawen. 
Azeqqur, chopping block, pi, 

Izuqqeran from verb Iqqur ? 
Eazer, looze (sic). Ho. 
TJzer, old man, Wadr. See 

Yusser among the Yerbs. 
Azar, root, vein, nerve (stock, 

souche, HP 309), pi, Izuran. 

Compare Ar. Ayl). 
Ayru, TJyru, stone, rock, (Heb. 

Sur), pi, lyra, dim, GayeruO, 

HP 360, 374. 
Azri, debtor. Ho., but qu. 
£azri, a servant. Ham., passim 

in Evang. But probably it 

is Arabic for a youth, as V. 

writes it SaAri. 
Gazara, collar of partridge, HP 

341, 344. 
Gazar0,^^«A fig, Ham., Luke ; 

yet dry fig in Br. and Han. 

pi, Gezerin. Strangely like to 
GezwerG, pi. Gizurin, grapes, 

Ho., pi, Gezaurin, Shaw. 
GezairG, vine, pi, Gezuyar, Han. 
Giziri, moonlight. ((Biyri, na 

power of sight.) 

Digitized by 




Tewazri, cloak, Luke, but qu. 
IzirAi, small rat, ^/.IzirAawen. 

See Verb. 
Azeraf, ditch, trench, Ho. 
Azarif, alum, HP 321. 
Azerg, street, pi, Izergin, Ho. 
Zarj with French j, skin bags, 

Azurkeqvpi^ blackbird, jp/. Izur- 

Azarem, a serpent,^/. Izerman. 
Zarura, sloe tree, Br. [but Sorb 

apple and White Thorn in V.] 
GizerzerO, gazellCi Han. 

Izarzuren, starlings, Y. 
Azta, honeycomb. Ho. 
Zastut, a monkey, pL Zastin, Y. 
ZasSer, the herb savory, Br.; 

Zasfer, green mint, Y. 
Ayazif , cock, pL lyuz5/p. 

Bayazi'p, hen, pi. 0iyuzaq». 
Giyef , sweetness. See Sli in 

the Yerbs. 
Azitta, woollen or silk cloth, Y. 
Azof u'p, woodpigeon, pl.Izu^B/^. 
Azezzu, thorny broom, cassia 

Izuzar, fringes, HP 361. 

Digitized by 




[Delaporte, Yenture de Paradis 
and Sidi Ibrahim chiefly fur- 
nish the words.] 

Awwi, bring thou, aor, Iwwi, 
pr. Ittawi. 


Ibbi, he lopt, cut off (the bead). 

Ibda, he halted, remained mo- 

Iblu, he divided, parted, vp, 
EmbeXun, they were divided. 

Ibder, he recounted, memoravit 
[Kab. meminit], Heb. De- 
bar ? — Addaren for Abdaren, 



Yuda, he folded (linen). 

a fold. 
Idda, he went, pL Addan, pr. 

pL Iddawin ? 
Iduf, he ruled, arranged ? 
IdaHi? BaHin, they cast out, 

drove out. 
Ufar, he followed, 
nia, it grew dark, black, Heb. 

Iddul, he taught. Arab. Doll, 

he pointed out ? 
Adordur, deaf, Y. 

Idar, he lived ? This is implied 

by GamaddurO, life. 
Edraf, relieve the bowels, Y. 
Idas, na sleep. (Kab. Iq^as.) 
Har, he came down, it befell. 

(Kab. Ifra.) Ar iteSar, jam 

cadit (nix). 


Fi, pr. over=Af, Taf of Kab. 
It seems to belong to v^rb 
IMfpr.fem. Ar tiffi, elle s'eUve 
Del., as though Ifi meant 
came up, came above, 

Yuf, it is better. 

Yufa, he found. 

Fau? {obsolete roof, light, (^009), 
vc Yesfau, it emits light. 

Iffuf, he came out, Fufan d, 
they went out, pr, Iteffuf, 
But Yefaf, his (back) is 
curved, Y. 

Ifif, it flew, pr. Addifif, na 

Fejut, brightness, clearness. 

Fak, give thou. Ifka, Ikka, 
he gave ; Tefkit, dedisti, 
l^ekka, dedimus ; Attekkam, 
dabitis. Yet Ar ak tikf (as 
in Tu. not Tifk) tibi dabit. 

Ifuk, he repelled, Del. 

Ifll, he quitted. [A cardinal 
verb of Shilha, that is Tu., 

Digitized by 




not Kab.] TJr filan, they 
left not. 

Tefulki, Yefuinal, it was bril- 
liant, day broke. 

Ifsi, vn it melted. 

Fist, be silent ! na Ifisti, silence. 

Iff u, vn it broke up, dispersed 
itself, pr, Ifeqvpu. (Ar. Fott, 
crumble. Heb.Patet, break.) 

Iftu, he set off, departed 
pL Afbin ; pr, Ar ifta, pL 
Ar fetun; subf. Arra yeftu, 
proficiscatur, Ibr. p. 7, 1. 2 
(Haussa Fitto), 

Ifzef?, it was wet, pr. JSezzeg 
(Kab. Ibzeg). 

G. J. 

Iga, va Gin, they made, placed, 
Ibr. p. 38. But in general 
this verb is neuter (Fio, not 
Facio) in Shilha. pc, Igan, 
being, Winna yegan, 6 &Vy 
he who is; EUi yeganin, 
oi ivre^y they who are : the 
last shows a^^wrflf^ participle. 
Ad gan, they are. 

Tawuga, he denied, refused. 

Ijbad, he hauled, towed; pr, 
Itijbad ; Ibr. p. 25. (Ar. 

JCACb ?) 

Ijder, it has burnt, va Del. 
Agugam, dumb, Del. (Kab. 

Iguf, it is far off, distant. 
Igellin, Tinhappy, unfortunate, 
y egulla, va he hung up, hanged, 

Galbat, vn return ye. Galban d, 

they went back, Ibr. 

Iglaf ? pi, Galfan, desunt, are 

wanting? Ibr. 
Igem, he drew water. 
Gummar or Gummaz {perhaps 

z), catch (fish). 
Ijujad, it was ready at hand. 

Perhaps Arab. Wejad. 
Junjim-an, they escaped, Ibr. 

p. 8, 1. 10. 
Iger {passive), was cast. Ma 

yeger fellaf, c^^qmAjactum 

sit in nos. 
Yegawer, he sat still, Ibr. [qu. 

Yefawer ?]. 
Yugger ne, exceeds, is greater 

Yeggut, vn was abundant, 

pc, Yegguten, multus. Ye 

ra iggut, f iet multus. 
Igayas? vc Isgayas, he wounded, 

pr, Adisigas. 
Iggur, is filled or full, Ibr. 

p. 21 (Kab. Itxur). 
Yuggiz, he got down, dis- 
mounted, pc, Igguzen, pr, 

Ituggiz, na TJguz, descent. 

EUi igguzen, 6 KarajScti:, he 

who dismounted. 

vc Izugiz, he caused to dis^ 

Uf, knead thou, Yufa, he 

Yufi, he took {sumsit). See 

Yawwi, he brought, and 

Yimza, he took {cepit), 
Ifli, he fell. IfH, feU as, fell 

upon him, attacked him ; 

Digitized by 




Ifli wass, the day fell, i.e. 

evening approached, Ibr. p. 

32. So in V. under Soleil, 

Tefukt tafli, the sun went 

down. In Ibr. men are always 

said to fall into a ship, for, to 

get on board. 
Pin, Tan, lie down, recline, 

sleep (Gran, of Kab.), aor, 

Ye[an, pr. ItSL^n ? 
A fnau, dumb, V. See Agugam . 
Ifra, he read, ve Isu[ra, he 

caused to read, 
rawer, sit down, V. Nafpur, 

we sat down. 
Ifarsa, he slaughtered, cut the 

I[zif, long, pc. Ifzifen. (Kab. 

Agzif, broad). 
Ifzam, he cut off, cut asunder. 

(Arab. Jezem.) I[zim wass, 

midday. Ifzim iX, midnight. 

Compare Kab. Azgan, half. 

H. n. 

Illdar, he narrated ; for IhAar 

of Kab. and probably Arab. 

he gossipped, chatted. 
Illargat, it burnt up, va Arab. 

Ilaraq. Purer Libyan is 

Hindu, vn bound, leap up, Y. 

A^bex, scratch, Kab. Akmex., 
I£xan, Itxan, was evil, base, 

hideous. Perhaps only Arab. 

Saxan, rough. 

Ikka, he went, (time) passed. 

pr, Ar itikka. 
Ikiu, (linen) was dried. 
Ikrez, he ploughed. Heb. 

Ilerex, Arab. IlereG. 
Ikuqil, he drove away. 
Iks, he fed (cattle). 
Ikkes, he teire, rent, rent open, 

rent away, pL Kessiu. 
Yeksud, he feared. 
Ikkat, he beats, pr. from Iwat, 
Ikxem, he entered. 
Kutuf ? vc Yes kutuf, has stung. 


Yuli, he went up. Yuli wass, 

it is full day. 
Ilia, (he) existed. 
Iwellan, pc. belonging to, 


nia, he wept ? na Tela, wailing ; 

fut. pe. Ar allan, Jleturw, 

(vc) Isilla, he caused to weep. 

Ma k isiUan ? quid te fiere- 

faciens ? 
• Ilusa, he talked ? Lusan, they 

talked, Ibr. (Heb. and Arab. 

Ilha, it is handsome, good. 

koXjov ; pe. Ilhan. Telha, she 

is pretty. 
Ilkem, it has arrived. 
Ilsa, it covers, envelops, Del. 
Yelas, it is daylight, day 

dawns, Del. 
Yules, he repeated, recounted, 

pr. I tales. 

Digitized by 





Mudi, taste thou, aw, Yumdi. 
Emdil, slap, smack, Y. 
Yemidel, he buried, na Tam- 

dilt. (AmaZal, humu^^ 
Mell, denote, tell. Mellif, in- 

Imigger, Imagger, he met ; pi. 

Ammiggeren, pr, Itemigger, 

1st ^7. Entemigger. 
Mun, vn assemble, with pronom. 

dy Immun d, convenit. vc 

Ismun, va he convoked, he 

brought together, he gathered 


Imyar, he was wont, accus- 
tomed. — This perhaps is the 
root of Gamurt, country ; for 
Shaw gives as Showiah (low- 
land Kabail) Gamurtai, thou 
hast dwelt. 

Muqal and Semukal are Kab. 
So in Shilha, Semuqlat, look 
ye around. See Irra. 

Immaf ? pi, Ammafan, they 
fought, Ibr. Perhaps for 
Am-nafan, v, recipr, from 
Kab. Enf, kiU, or l^uf, fight. 
See Infa, below. 

Mosso ? vn move, pr, Itmosso, 
Ar itmosso. vc Yesemmus, he 
moved (something). 

Imezzi, (he is) little, young. 
Mezzin, little. 

Immut, he is dead. Elli im- 
muten, o v€Kpb^, he who is 

Iraza, he took, captured, vp 
Yumiz, it was captured. 

Ini, say thou; aor. Inna, pr. 
Itinin, Ar tinin, they say. 
pass. pc. Elli muttinin, that 
which ib called. 

Inay, he rode (Kab. Inig). Wva 
iyesen, they rode on horses, 
Ibr. Amnai, a rider. 

Ennid, turn thou, Y. {of. Kab. 
End, vn and InSa, HP). 

Nef, behind. Hence perhaps 
the verb Senfi (hide, va Y.), 
conde, abde ? and Senfu, re- 
pose thyself, Y. 

Infal, it ceased, — dropped ? 
(Beb. Nafal, fell), Aiu ar 
yeniffid, le vent quitte, cesse, 

Engafuru, last, ultimuSf pi. En- 
gafura (Kab. Aneggar). 

Infa, he killed. Amenp, war. 

Infal, black, Y. 

Inker, he arose, vc Isenker. 

Inru, he conquered in battle ; 
N'inra, vicimuSy Ibr. 

Ins, he rested, passed the 

Inxef, he is insane, Y. 

Iqqal, vn he returned, he re- 
peated {did again). 

Qinn, tie, gird (my horse),^*.^. 
saddle him, Y. 

Qan ini, shut the mouth, Y., 
i.e. fasten ? Iqqan, he tied, 
fastened ? 

Iqqar, he declared, avowed. 

Digitized by 




Yeqram, lie rooted up, from 

Kopfily as in Arab. 
Iqra, he read, from Arab. pr. 

Ar yaqqar. 


Ira (for Irha), he wished, wishes. 
Ira yesuS, vult flare, it is 
about to blow, pr, Ittiri. 

Yura, he wrote, pi. Aran. ITri, 
write thou, pc, Iruan, writer. 
vp lyara, it is written. 

Irra, va he turned back, gave 
back. Arra semuqal, turn 
(thy) gaze, cast a glance. 
Am-as-ad, they sent back to 
him, Ibr. vn Yewarri, he 
came back. Ettiwarrit, redeas, 
ITr ad tiwarri, {sic) non redit. 

[Arran, progeny] pi. Terwan, 
young children. 

Irwa, {va Kab. it satisfied). — ^It 
satisfies — i.e. All right ! (in- 

Irgeg, he shivered, ^r.Itergigi, 
na Tergagait. 

Yuraf, he dreamed, na Tewarfit, 
a dream, V. 

Irfa, va it burnt, vn Terfi, ardet 

Irkan, pc. dirty, as in Tu. 

Irwel, he fled, pi. Arwalan. 

Irma, it ran down ? Terme-k 
tidi, sweat runs down thee, V. 

Irur, was restored? Ibr. See 

Iman, pc. more numerous ; pi. 
Irnanin, Y. [Kab. Emu, 

Erxel, " marie- toi," Y. from 
Arab. Rajol, a man. So Mari- 
ta/re in Latin ; inravBpeia iu 
Modem Greek, said of both 

Irzem, he opened, revealed, Y., 
laid open, broke open, Ibr. 
Erzem imi, open the mouth. 

Irrez, he broke, va. 


Yasi, he carried ? Yasin, pc. 
Ak yasin, teportans (Tale of 

Iswa, he drank, na Ittisi. 

Yesuwa yanaf, it has laid hold 
of us, Del. 

Sidaun, ** sit down" (but qu.). 
Bather, a comma is impro- 
perly added, and Fawer si- 
daun, means, sit beside, Y. 

Isud-ad, he climbed (into his 
boat or on to his horse), Ibr. 
pr. Tesudun f iyesen, they 
mount on horses, Ibr. En- 
suda, we ride (on woman's 
neck), poem on Spikenard. 
Also Isuda (sweat), runs 
down, Del. 

Isufled, he overheard, De Slane, 

Isegel, "il cherche," Y. 

Issa[, he bought. 

Iseflef, (the dog) barked, Y. (g 
in Kab.) 

Isek, he soaked, Y. 

Iskar [Kab. he made] — ^he did, 

Digitized by 




Iskur, he folded, creased. Is- 

kuT, a crease. 
Yesekkus, he rested motionless, 

Ibr., pr, Itsukkuyis. Tesek- 

kusim, requiescatis. 
Iskun, he indicated, as Kab. 

Sul, moreover, more, yet. Isul, 

as yet, not yet. As verb, 

pr, Yutisul, he surpasses, 

exceeds, Ibr. 
Esmati, carry off, aor, Yesmuti ; 

\8t sing, 8emuta[. 
Isnu, he dressed (food), pi, 

Sennan ; pr, Isenna, Isniinen ; 

mbj. Ax sanwan. Ibr. (Com- 
pare Ina, vc Isinna of Tuar.) 
Senfi, hide, Y. See Nef. 
Senfu, repose thyself, V. under 

Pen. So Ghad. ? 
Isaqsa, he inquired. 
Iser, he came suddenly upon. 
Israf, Isarf, he sent, Ar israf, 

mittat, Ibr. 
Iserkes, he hid (Rene Basset). 
Isersu, resedit (navis in portu), 

Ibr. p. 23. Compare Kab. 

Ires, also Arab. Rasiy moor, 

cast anchor. 
Isutul, versatus est? Ibr. p. 19. 

beat, struck, pr. 
Ennitx, (that) 

Yawat, he 

Itxa, he ate. 

we may eat. 
Aq^iyun, they repulsed? Ibr. 
Tayifen, they have caught, V. 

(Eq^faf, Kab.) 

X = 


Axet, come ye ! for Axket ? 

Axki-d, approach me here ; 
Exqad, approach ; Yuxka-d, 
he approached. AlsoYexki-t. 
pi, Uxkan-d ; N'uxka-d, pr. 
Ad uxkan, they approach ; 
may approach. [This verb 
seems to supersede Kab. 
Yusa-d, he came up. We 
here see the tense mark Ad 
for Kab. A a. In Del. it is 
generally Ar even for the 
strict present.] Also pr, 
Ittaxka. Manif ittaxka ? 
whence comes it? Further, 
Uxqaden, they are come ; as 
if d were radical. So 2nd pi, 

Ixatta, he eats.=Itetta. See 

Z and tS (distinguished in Del. 
not in Ibr.). 

Ziy-en, they disputed ; 1st pi. 

Nezey, na Tazeit. 
Uzze-n, vp they were sur- 
rounded. See Kab. 
lyai, it was heavy, Del. So Kab. 
lyde (Del. Saby), Iddiy, V. he 

pounded, crushed. 
Yezid, he advanced? Y. Ad 

ezzaid-e[, I advance, Del. 

Compare EzzaG, of Kab. 
Izdaf, he dwelt, pi, Ezda^an, 

pr, Itzedaf, Ibr. 29. 
Yeydar, he was able»Izmar of 


Digitized by 




ly gar, lie went across (a river), 
Ibr. as Kab. and I'u. 

Azzigzen, Ibr. p. 44, flowing 
(waters). But see Iggur, it 
is full, which may rouse 
a suspicion that the word 
should be Azz-igguren. 

Zif, deceive, V. (sponge Upon ?). 

Oazja, is rendered " eternal," 
fern, by Del. 

Tayla, na course, running. 

Tuyyumt, the middle (the 
half?), a common word. 
[Tu. lyun, he divided,] 

Izen, he remitted, despatched, 
frequent in Ibr. ^/. Azzan 

for Azzanen, Attuzen for 

Attuzenen. Yet Ittuzen, 

remittitur. The root in Kab. 

is given in HP with » radical. 
Izinjer, is moistened, V. under 

" Pain." 
Izri, it is past, Del. (Izri aSu). 

Compare Izga of Kab. 
Izwar (perhaps lywsir), as in 

Kab. was first, went in front, 

excelled, was prime, began. 

Amazwar, first ; also, prime 

in quality, 
lyra, he saw, as in Kab. 
Izerrifin, pleasant, agreeable. 
Izeny, he sold, as Kab. 

N.B. — "Spikenard" means a MS. poem, "Controversy of 
Spikenard and Henna," sent to me by Monsieur D'Avezac. 

Digitized by 





Tu, son, Yui, my son, Yus, his 
son. (This Yu is Au of Tu. 
also Ag.) 

Tuwayya, a negress. 


Baha, Iba, father. 

Abiba, mosquito. 

Abudrar, mountaineer, pi. Ibu- 

draran, from Arab. Abu, in 

its idiomatic use. 
Abu deqarunt, humpbacked 

Bufufa, wild potato, V. 
BafTir, honeycake. 
Ibki, small monkey. TJbku, 

bandy legged, Y. 
[eaba£sie, Kab.] fresh fig, pi 

Belllar, lion. 
Abluaz, mud, 
Abuqat, one-eyed man. 
Tabrat, a letter, a despatch 

(African Arab. Golius). 
Subru (for Ubru ?), clothes, 

dress, vesture. 
Berwar, an iris (flower). 
Burebu, caterpillar, silkworm ? 
Iberdan, furrow, Y. (ways, 
' paths, Kab.) 

Berdafiul, owl, Y. 

Burfibe, a pear, Y. 

Baruri, hail. 

Tebururt, globular dung. 

Berxeman, embroidery. 

Besbus, the herb fennel. 

Bisar, stew of grain and meat, 

Y. [Bizar, Kab. herbs, pulse.] 
Tabuxt, female breast. 
Bixna, large white millet. 
Tebuxixt, any forest tree, pi. 

Ibizzan, urine. 
Abzun, a cowrie. 
Abaziz, force, violence. 

D. L. 

TJdi, ghee, melted butter. 
Dadda, uncle (Spiken.). 
Diut, wild, of the wilderness, Y. 
A5u, Waiu, wind. 
YtX, night, pi. WaSan ; but 

£i£, Ibr. his. 
AlaS, finger, ^/. ISuSan. [Kab. 

Alif, marrow. [Kab. AAif.] 

Songhay of Aghades, Aduf. 
Adfel, snow. /S^^Xanu. 
Hegam? Id(;an, yesternight. 
Ad[;a[, flint, Y. 
Adfar, place, Del. Y. (Tuar. 

Edeg, Edej.) 

Digitized by 




Adfur, leech, pi, Idfuren. 
Aiil, WaSil, grape, pi. liillan. 
Edalit, a sprig. AdallaJd, a 

fruit (unknown). 
Idallalen, pi, sides of the female 

neck (Spiken.). 
TJdam, the cheek, face, pi. 

TJdmen, kinsfolk, V. (Compare 
' Idammin, hlood). 
Aduqal, a slipper. Also a 

cobbler, V. 
Tedert, a region. Arab. Bar, 

dwelling ?). 
Taidurt, prayer-rug. 
ASar, foot, pi, Haren. 
MaSraba, large mattress. 
Adrar, Wadrar, mountain. 
Edrus, a little, qu. Edru-s, a 

lit^e of it f 
Adis, U<Us, side. 


Tifaut, light. 

Ifidiwen, murrain in cattle. 

Efifar, serpent, pi. Ififaren. 

Tefmi, flesh meat. 

Aifki, milk (=Akfai). 

Tefukt, the sun. 

Eeliu, watermint. 

Ifelli, flat roof. 

Ifulan, ^?. ? thread. 

Afullus, a cock [Lat. pullus], 
male fowl, pi. IfuUasen ; Te- 
fuUust, a hen, pi. TifuUasin. 

Tefluf, a leek. 

Tifenza, cloven hoof. 

Ferjennis, cork. 

Ifru£., a boy (Arab, chick). 

Tafru^t, a girl. 

Teferrant, vine of Sultana grape. 

Ti^raqist, crab. 

Tifris, a pear. 

Tiflrsin, radishes. 

Farsade, felt. 

Tifa^iujin, sparks. 

Teftil, a cutlet. 

Tefza, sand. 

G. J. 

Ijwi, mud, De Slane. 

Atig, a price, Ibr. p. 25. 

Agaio, head (=Akai). 

Tagut, fog. 

Tuggut, a certain small coin ? 

Tejabubt, charge of powder. 

Ijesabub, intestine, pi. -buben. 

Tejisabubt, navel. 

Tejbukt, ring, seal='Tezbekt. 

Ijeddigen, flowers. 

Agag, Wagag, thunder, pi. 

Ijijid, the mange. 
Ejllud, small ass, pi. IjHidan. 
Ijka, rafter. 

1'eglai, egg, Del. See Teflai. 
Tegillabet, woollen gown of 

Tejilbunt, lupin, of pea tribe 

(Arab. Jilban). 
TJgallid, king. 
Tejlest, curdled milk. 
Teg^m, house, Tegammi, Te- 

(imrai, d*** (compare Kab. A£.- 

£am), pi. Togamma, Tegam- 

Ajur en tegemmi, flat top of 


Digitized by 




Tegmeirt, sofa, V. 

Tejemert, a mare, pL Tigeme- 

rin, V. 
Igenna, heaven, sky. 
Ejanajid, tail £Kab. Ajaflanif.] 
Teggirt, turnip, Y. 
Tijenent, a vine. 
TJgerram, a saint, pL Igurra- 

men (from Arab. Karam, 

honour ?) 
Tegerdumt, scorpion. 
Tigerfa, rook. 
Tegirtit, sofa, couch, Y. 
Tigxirirt, bottom of spindle. 

Also, ankle, Y. [knee, Kab.] 

A[u, sour milk. 

AffTi (sic) soot. 

I [id, cinders, ashes. 

Afdal, prairie. 

Afudir, a fort, a glacis. 

Affei, milk. See Aifki. Tu. 

Afufar, heavy shower, Y. 
Tefijda, a joist, Y. 
Tefijdet, column, pL Ti[ijda. 
Afujil, orphan. 
A^ufli, white cheese. 
Afiul, ass, pi, Ifial. 
Teflai, egg, pL Tifliyin. 
riwel, adv, quick ! V. 
AfuUal, oysters. 
Afelaf, a swarm. 
Afalim, skin, hide. 
A[;mar, a horse. 
Tufmas, back tooth. 
Tefinja, a drum. 
Tefunit, globe of earth, Y. 

rather flat circle, area ?). 

TJfri, a compact. 
YifTan, cultivated fields. 
TJfarda, a rat. Arab. JoraA. 
Afurad, tick, louse. 
Tafurfet, larder or safe (Arab. 

Tarfa, upper chamber). 
Aferlid, spear. 
Afarjun, throat, swallow. 
Ti[urmin, logs for fire, Gr. 


Afrom, bread. 

Fefarfart, floor, Y. 

Afaiim, town. 

rarnunex, cress, watercress. 

Tafrart, baggage. 

Afaras, road (specially Shil- 

Aferis, ice. 

Tafursa, ploughshare. 

Tefurest, honeycomb, pL Tifu- 

Tefirtit, mat-bed. 

Afurxal, bran. 

A[urez, heel and flat of foot 
(Kab. with g or *). 

Taftiusa, a thing. 

Agusim, walnut, colour of wal- 
nut juice. Tagusimt, hazel- 
nut. Ar. Joz. 

Afusmar, gums. 

Faxfux, bust, upper part of 

Afazu, bunch, pL Ifuza. 

Tafzin, afternoon. 

Ifezaren, " coteaux," slopes ? 

H. n. 

Hiyaden, musical instrument. 
Tehudixt, pegtop. 
Allajaju, a flame, Y. 

Digitized by 




Aflajamum, blackbird. 
Tellayalt, maiden. 
nalHal, lavender. 
Hilemmin, bran. 
Aflarbubu, large lizard. 
EHezau^ lad. TeJdazaut, lass. 


I£f, bead, top, beginning, end. 

IRfis, clover. 

TJ£jid, bole, den. 

Ta£niffc, rougb woollen cloak, 

striped cloak. 
I£8 (for E[as), bone, pi, IRsan. 
A£u8i, blanket, cloak ; woollen 

A£ix£ax, brains. 
Akai, bead= Agaio ; pi, Ikuyan. 
Toka, Takiut, worm, Y. 
Takat, family, pi, Tiketin. 
Tekwit, a cougb. 
Akbel, maize. 
Akud, time, Del. (Possibly 

for Arab. Waqt). 
Ikfil, squill, wild onion ? 
Akiker, cbickpea, German pea, 

Lat. Cicer. 
Akal, eartb, dust. 
Akilwax,be goat,pl, Ikil waxen. 
Teklilt, sillabub. 
Kemmia„ cimetar. 
Takenna, elevated bed, Y. 

(sleeping loft, HP). 
Kenari ? or Akunazi ? (some 

Okons, Ogons, the bottom, Del. 
Ker, a bit (of bread). 
Ikirl, lead (metal). 

Tekir, wax. Gr. Krjpd<:. Lat. 

Akarab, boats. Gr. Kapd^ui, 
Akurd, a flea. 

Tekerkas,Ikergas, trickery, Del. 
Tikir5a, an acre (Kab. verb 

Ukwas, baker. (Corrupt for 

Arab. Robbas ?) 
Eksum, flesh, skin=Aisum. 
Kuxe, furnace, oven, Y. 
Ikxuden, pi, firewood. 

Wal, turn or time,/>w. Kerat 
wal, tre8 vices , Ibr. p. 33 
[Kab. Walla, to recur ; also 
Gallit, vicis?]. 

Awal paroUy vox ; an utter- 
ance, as Eab. 

Talat, valley. 

WuUi, flock. 

Eilu, soft skin, fur; pi, Ilwin. 

Tiyilwin, skin bags, from ga- 
zelle or roebuck. 

Elbad, garment, Y. 

Libraq, gander: letter Ebrak. 
The L is the Arabic article. 

Elfix, folk, common people. 
(Kab. Elfaxi). 

Elafit, fire; in Ghad. Afa, 
which African Arabic bor- 

Likirfa, filbert. 

Hem, skin. See Afalim. 

Telament, turban of silk [Arab. 
Sumama ?]. 

Limarux, shovel. 

Digitized by 




Hindi, a year ago. Belli ilindi, 
beyond two years. 

Tiyilwan, bag for fruit. 

Telintit, lentil. Lat. Lentes. 

Laqurt, lucerne (grass). 

EUes, dinner, («V Y.). 

Tillas, pi, shades, darkness. 

Luslus, a stammerer. 

Elsus, sparte, material for cor- 
dage and mats. 


Aman, pL water. 

Temawat, heifer, female calf. 

Amaun, KN.E. 

TJmda, a marsh. GemAa, Kab. 

Mudden, men, Y. 

Temudit, fresh butter, Hoest., 

Del. See IJdi. 
Amdukkul, Mend, pi. Imduk- 

kalen, Ibr. 
Emdar, door-bar. 
Timduest, broom for sweeping. 
Majlr, mallows. 
Timgeraz, harvest time. 
Imufal, widower ; Temu(tJt, 

widow, Y. 
Timufaren, by chance, Y. From 

Imugger, it met ? 
Amfar, a chief, pi. Imfaren. 
Tamfwi, dame, lady, pi. Tim- 

Temfara, banquet (not of wed- 
ding only). 
Imfumin, chieftains, nobles. 

Inmaqquren, senators? Ibr. 

p. 34. See Maqum. 
Em[arad, cervix? dim. Tem- 

farad, neck, pi. Timfardin. 

MafUTfur, frog, toad. 
Amaddar, young man (Saby). 
Tem£.iflt, china dish. 
Imtk, a little, Y., paullun, 

Imkili, breakfast, dinner, Y. 

(common meal ?) 
Imuktub, pocket, Y. 
Amalu, shade, shadow. 
Imellul,/. Mellulet, white, 
Milsa, carpenter's plane. 
Temummuxt, eye-ball, Y. 
Maufala, a watch, horologe. 
Minfajuflan, snail. 
Ettamnant, money. Or. fiva, 

Ibr. p. 17. 
Amaqyas, bracelet,^/. Imuqya- 

Maqum, eldest,^/. Imaqquren? 

Temqurt, lady. 
-Amur, epilepsy? 
Temera, fatigue (Saby, Del.) 

Is temera, by force, in spite 

of, Y. qu. effort? 
Amarlr, a song. 
Mardaqux, marjoram. 
Murran, wild boar. 
Amerzo, S. wind. 
Ammas, middle, from fiiaop ? 
Timis, fire. 

Timissubbada, scorpion, Y. 
Temsad, thigh. 
Meskun, swooning, Y. 
Mux, cat (Kab. Emxix). 
Imxaxen, haunches. 
Tamzin, pi. ? barley. 
Imizlan, workers in iron, Ibr. 

— from Wezzal. 
Temazirt, country, territory, 

for Temazift, pi. Tamizar. 

Digitized by 




Amazir, cowdung (Spiken.), pi, 

Amzuf, bald-headed. (Kab. 

Amself , poor, stxipt.) 
Temuzut, silverling, Y. 

Wanu, deep well. 

Tini, dates (Gegani, Showiah.) 

Teni, this year. 

Ennaiit, tempest, Del. (Arab. 

Tunin, gum Arabic. 
Tanaut, ship, Gr. vav, 
Enbin, stable. 
Inebfi, guest (V. not host), ph 

Keden, another^ pL Nednin. 

AnfeX, camion, Ibr. (Arab. 

Nefea? Puff puff?) 
Nefsa, midwife. 
Iniga, Anafi? witness, index, 

[Enijjel, blackberry bush (Kab.) 

OP Enaijel, V.] 
Tangert, rust. 
Nekel, matter, pus, 
Tanepilt, copper kettle. 
Ennukla, any fruit tree. (Hence 

Arab. Nuqla, dessert?) dim, 

pi, Tinuklin. 
Tankast, poll tax taken from 

Jews, Ibr. 
Anwal, fire place, stove (Kab. 

Anawel, kitchen). 
Anemsir, a sheepskin. 
Numixa, heath. 
Naqarat, silver (Arab. ?) 

Tennawert, a spindle. 
InzaH, nectarine? medlar? 
Anyar, rain, Del. Heb. Ar. 

Tewinzi, sneezing, V., perhaps 

for Tewinzer. See Kab. 

Enzer, among Verbs. 


Wiq, a week, V., qu. English 

Weqqa, a pip, grain, hailstone. 
Iqayen, berries, dates. 
Isaqayen, kernels. 
Tauqlt, ounce, ^^. Tuqqin(Arab 

fioqqa ?) 
Taqbilt, tribe. (Arab. Qablla.) 
Taqdit, velvety carpet. 
Aqunnid, rump. (Kab. TJ£na.) 
Aqran, mackerel. 
Oi-qur, frog, toad. See Mafar- 

Tiqaret, a kick. 
Taqsit, a gourd. 
Qasabat, Ibr., evidently a castle, 

citadel; but in Arabic a 

Taqatsunt, a sheaf. 


Ayyur,'moon, month, pi, Ay- 

yuran, Uwayyuran. 
Uraun, pi, what two hands can 

Tarbut, earthen dish, pL Tir- 

Eired, leopard, pi. lyerdan. 
Tarafiqt, caravan, from Ar. 

Raflq, comrade. 

Digitized by 




Tergafet, d**- probably corrup- 
tion of the same ; as Barth's 

Irifi, heat. 

Wergele, a boot. 

Argaz, man, Del., Ibr. 

Wir[, gold-dust. 

Tirka, the plague. See Irka, 
it was foul. 

Terkem, turnip, V. 

Terkerzit, woollen turban. 

Terkest, prop to a plant. 

Irumi, a Christian {Roman), 

Aram, a camel, pi, Iraman, V., 
Ibr., cf. Elfom and Alom. 
Ibr. indeed has for pi, Irpa- 
man, implying that Aram is 
a corruption of Arfam. 

Buwina, fried barleycake. 

Araqqas, courier, pi, Iraqqa- 

Asrur, for Kab. Afrur, back- 
bone ; hence Tu. Aruri, and 
Ghad. Akurem. 

Asaris, fireplace. 

Ursel, hysena, pi, TJrselin. 

Werti, garden (Lat. Hortus), 
pi. "Wertian, V. 

Ass, day. T ass ellif, in die 
in quo— Asf an, yesterday. 
Asr an, dans ce jour, Del. 
[Ass appears to be a soften- 
ing of Asl; in Sergu Axel, 
and Asr corrupt for Asl. Asf, 
in Ghad. means full day. De 
Slane also gives Axef for 

Tissi, bed ; from verb Issa. 

Taseit, cotton or linen shirt. 

TJwIs, Ais, a horse, pi, lyesen. 
Ya wiyis, one horse. 

Sibt ( Ar. sibf ?) race, stock of 
horse ? 

Sebnit, silk handkerchief. 

Sabir, spur, — (English word ?) 
— Kab. Axeber. 

TJsTd, ostrich. 

Seidi, emerald. 

Asfad, to-day. Asfan, yester- 
day. See Ass, above. 

Usafu, flame (Saby); torch, 

Asiff, Wasiff, river, pi. Isaffan. 

Esfai, horse shoe. 

Tesgan — read Tezgan. 

Asuggas, year, pi. Isaggas. 

Asafum, pitcher. 

Esafun, rope, cable. 

Asafar, pestle. 

Weskif, stable, qu. Arab, shed ? 

Asaku, country (wild land ?) 

Sekal, port hole. 

Askumbek, white asparagus. 

Suksu, pilau, mush (cooked 
grain), cuscusu. 

IsU, bridegroom, Teslit, bride; 
also Di[ tislit, in the stew- 

AsilHam, cloak of black wool. 

Tisem, Tismi, small needle. 

TJsemmii, cold {frigus). 

Asamk, Asmif, a slave, pi. 
Isamken, Ismugan, Isamfen. 

Simaf, ink. 

Tesemmumt, sorrel. 

Tesint, salt (from Latin Sel?). 

Senger, millet? Ibr." p. 17. 

Digitized by 




Tesinsilt, a necklace (Ar. Sil- 
Bile, chain). 

Tisiqist, a scorpion's dart [Kab. 
Iqqes, he pricked.] 

Sarblk, silken sash. 

Sarjas, a window, Y. 

Sarime, halter. 

Serenbak, sea-mnssels. 

Asesnu, arbutus. 

Osutin, (Saby) ata/vi? genera- 
tions, according to Rene Bas- 

T. ^. 

Tata, chamaeleon. 

Tetibban, trowsers. 

Tabiq, armpit, pi, Tawabiq 

(Arab in form). 
Tuf falin, ants. 
Tuga, herb, grass. 
Tafar, front tooth, Y. (Kab. 

Taharfirfe, geranium. 
Tetewikt, nut tree. 
Tammina, grain cooked with 

honey and butter. 
Taitut, bagpipes. 


Wex, light. Wex en tefukt, 

light of sun, Y. 
Tuxi, sunset, the West. 
"Wexfu, a mast. 
Axebbub, lock of hair, Y. 
Tixxulad, skin bag for fruits. 
Tixilfuqt, tumor, pimple. 
XilafTim, mustache. 

Axlim, bran, Del. (Kab. Akxe- 

Texullef , panpipe ? 
Xanu, snow; sleet? 
Waxnaf, mustard (plant). 
Axruf, grotto, cavern. 
Tixirt, garlic. (GiskerO, Kab.) 

Izzu, flint, ph Izzan. [Perhaps 

lyyu, flint, for Ayru.] (also 

dung! Y.) 
Azawat, hot poisonous wind, Y. 
Ayuzen, semouline. 
Zebbuj, olive tree. 
Tezbekt, for Tezbegt, a seal, a 

ring. See Kab. Izebgan, and 

Tu. Ezbeg. 
lyuzad, cock. See Afullus. 
Izlfu, thistle, Y. 
Azgen, Del., half. Tezgant, 

side, half. 
Azafu nennai, bat (animal). 
Azfar, bull, pi, Izfaran. 
Ayikka, to-morrow. Sella ayik- 

ka, beyond to-morrow. 
Eziker, rope of hemp or horse- 
Azal, hair of head, Y. (Gh. 

Azal, about 9 o'clock a.m. 

(midway between sunrise 

and noon), Y. 
Wezzil, iron (Heb. Barzil). 
Tauzelt, dagger. 
Azafil, yoke, pi, Izufila. 
Tezleft, wooden bowl. 
Tezligt, collar of gold. 
Tazlamet, left side. 

Digitized by 




Tuzzumt, half, middle, for Tuy- 

yunt, from Tu. lyun, he 

Tezmaqalt, small mirror. 
Azemmar, olives. 8ee Zebbuj. 

Tizimrin, olive trees. 
Tuzint, clematis. 
Muzun, coin of about 3 sous, 
Tizzemn, girls, for Timzenln, 

Tiznint, island, Y. 
Ezenzu, ivy. 
Izenzaren, rays, beams. 

Tazuqi, sparrow. 

Zaqal, hot. Aman zaqalit, hot 

water. Arab. Sa£n. 
Ayru, stone, rock, pi. lyran. 
Tiziri, the moon. 
Zerudin, carrot. 
Tezermunit, small lizard. 
Tezurin, fresh grapes, V. 
Tezwamen, noon, Y. 
Zarur, (sloe ?) sorb apple, white 

thorn, Y. 
Tezerzeit, smallpox. 
Izizen« flames. 

Digitized by 




Ghadamsi substitutes s for f. Gr&berg de Hemso constantly 
begins feminine nouns with 6, while Ben Musa, a native, always 
gives T. Grb. means Gr&berg de Hemso. B. Mus. means Ben 
Musa. Han. means Hanoteau. 

Vowels and £. 

Ayyi, come thou. 
Tu, son. Yus, his son. 
6isaty Grb. Taisat, she goat, 
eiwl, what ? why ? Grb. Wa, 

this, also -Uy this, after a 

lyi, to for. 


Bibawan (Ibawan ?), beans, 

Aba dador, bat (animal). 
Abad, carry. 

Abid, cut off (Bl, Shilha). 
T-abi-d, comest thou, Grb. 
AbiX, breast, front. 
Tabdukt, cotton (Haussa). 
Abjeraz, thief. 

Yeb£al, lazy. [Ar. stingy.] 
Ibekkaden, sins(Lat. peccata r). 
Abebmaj, bile. 
Abrid, road. 

Abarid, bull ; Tabarit, cow. 
Abaral, young man, as Tu. 

(Tabara/f, young woman?). 
Tabrait, staff. 


Di, what? (also Ti, what?) 

See Din. 
TJdi, oil, ghee. 
TJda, faU. (YuX, Tu.) 
Adda, below, Grb. 
Idu, now. 
Iduwa, instantly. 
AIu, wind. 
AiJi, -Ki, dog. 
Wudat, fem. Tudat, this, pL 

"Waidet, these. 
Adablr, pigeon (Kab. lObir). 
Bad, father. 
Did, with. 

Audad, mouflon (wild sheep). 
Dudan, fingers. 
Yeddan, ilhid. 
Yedadanha, these, ceux-ci. 
Adif, hide thou, Grb. 
Idfit, aor. ? pres. Itedfit, he 

Tadeft, wool. Goddemt, Grb. 

Deffer, behind. 

Adifar, mist. cold. 

Tadeffot (Tadevvot), ring. 

Edfas, gown. 

Daj, house. Dij, with, Grb. 

Digitized by 




Adkar, fill up (Kab. Etxur). 

Perhaps rather Etkar, Grb. 

So Yetekar, rich. 
Adalis, lip. 

Dillain, yesterday, Grb. 
Awadim, £rieiid, Grb. 
Din, where? 
Adan, rend, Grb. 
Aden, cover thou. 
TuSan, he was sick. 
Alar, foot. 
Idar, he lived. 
Idurar, mountains. 
Tadrit, wild pigeon. 
Aderaf, white man, Grb. {rather 

free man ?). 
Idrafa, money — (Idrama?). 
Adran, overturn, Grb. 
I2as, he laughed. 
Tidest (Gedist, Grb. belly; 

Adsen, protect. 


£af, upon, for Taf. 

Afl, mouth (Heb. Fe; Arab. 

Afii, smoke (Tu. Aha). 
Yufu, proud. 

Tef. milk (=Aifki, Shilha). 
Ufai,Aufa,Afa,fire [Tu.Hght]. 
Tufet, the Sun. 
Afu, find, Grb. [Kab. Af.] 
A^s, take (==Kab. Af, Awaf). 
Fad, thirst. Afud, be thirsty. 
XJfed, knee, Grb. (SoBh.inTu.) 
Efai, Eyai, night (Tu. EhaJ), 

IfkSu, to-night, Grb. 
Tefdanin, toes. 

Ifadd, swear, Grb. 

Afdad, halt («=Ebdad, Kab.). 

Aiif, breasts. 

Ifel, he quitted (Tu. Shil.) 

Ennifel, let us depart. 
Gefeli, sheep, Grb. 
FoM, onions. 

Afina, fruit, dates, ^J. Finawen. 
Aina, Afenna, Efenfan, sunset. 
Afunas, bull. Tefiinast, cow. 
Afur, lion. Tafort, lione88(= 

Effer, (Afr. Grb.) shut (the 

door) — Alitor, turn? (=Kab. 

Err). See Err, below. Ta- 

furt, the door (=Kab. Taw- 

Afriu, fetch, Grb. 
Ifri, he loved; imper, Afro, 

Grb.(=Irhi). Di tefrid, quid 

XJfus, hand. 

Fist, be silent, pr, Itafist. 
Yefiflker, he set free, divorced. 
Afbad, seek, Grb. 
Yeftok, he demanded =c-*^. 
Taj^set, Oafa53at, large knife. 
Afa5an, porridge, firmity. 


^yagad, heat, Grb. /S^Yaqqad. 
Gadus, hour. 
Yeggei, it flew. 
Agal, wait, Grb. 
Tagelzimt, Tagerzimt, hatchet. 
Agrag, blue (Ar. azraq). 
Aggas, measure (Ar. Qls?)- 
Egez, descend (Kab. Ijuz). See 

Digitized by 




Aj, do tbou ; Itaj, he does. 
Aji, allow, let, aor, Yeji (Kab. 

Tuji, Gewaji, bread (Etxu, 

Jedai, early morning. 
Wei] id, Aujid, man [male ?]. 

Tewajit, girl, daughter [fe- 
male ?]. 
AjedlS, bird {See Teggei), 
Ejaj, launder. 
Jewajan, make water. 
Jejaq, laden. 

Tijaizimt, hatchet; so with g. 
Ojam, heart, Grb. 
Ejjam, pitcher. 
Ajmar, horse, /^w. Tejmart. 
Tajamrut, corner ? See Gafam- 

Ajan, half (=A5gan, Kab.). 
Ajenna, heaven, sky (Ar. ?). 
Ajnau, slave (Ajennau, Grb.), 

/. Tajnaut (Tajennaut, Grb.). 
Ejun, fill, Grb. (Tu. Egiun, be 

Ajur, he goat,/. Tajurt, Grb. 
Ajurir, kitchen, Grb. 
Ijrat, an occasion ? 
Enjerifu, the last ? 
Tajertlk, prayer rug. 
Jarasa, between. 
Tajerist, winter. 
Jasir, bad (Ar. bold). 
Tajutam, trunk,^ root. 
Yejjez, he alighted, imp. Wajiz. 

^ee Egez. 
Jezzel, low, mean (short ?). See 

Ye fez. 


Efaid, kid. 
Aifef, head. 
TafUfan, stone, Grb. (Kab. 

Afill, arm. 
Gapna, thigh. 
Tufinas, cutting tooth (? hack 

tooth ?). See Shilha. 
Gafumt, nape of neck. See 

Gakuremt, of which it seems 

a corruption. 
Gafamrut, comer, Grb. 
Tafnimt, reed, pen. 
Afras, kill, Grb. (butcher?). 
Afast, bone. 
Fusmar, chin, beard (Kab. Afez- 

mar, underjaw). 
Yefez, low. See "Egez. 


Aildam, deceive ? (Grb. under 

Bull and Lion). 
Yuilal, he is weary. AuHala, 

Ahum, army. 
YaHsed, he sported, joked. 
Yellkam, he took, Grb. (held ?). 

Ki, who ? who. Eski, in whom. 
Teki, wax, Grb. (Tekir, V. 

Ak, smell thou. Yetek, he 

smells, na Enteki (!). 
Ak, any, not any — ^not (!). 
Ekt (Iktu, Grb.), a little. 

Digitized by 




Aklt, how much? somewhat. 

Akit wawa ? how much is 

this here ? 
TekkeJ, IggeX, it flew. 
Aukads, cut, Grh. (Tu. Iftes). 
Yekfa, he gave, Akfiyi, give me. 
Kefis, belonging to. 
Akif, observe ! (garde !), Etkif, 

Akal, soil, mould, dust. 
Xlul, care thou. Tekulad, thou 

troublest thyself. 
Yekma, it burnt (Ilamm of 

Heb. and Ar.). [Tu. it 

pained, afficted.] 
Yekanas, he disputed, quar- 
relled, na Ekennas, feud, 

Yekker, he arose, pr. Yitekker 

(as Kab.). 
Ekri, return thou, Grb. repent. 

na Kerai, conversion. Yakri 

d, he turned himself about. 

(Compare Arab. Kerr.) 
Yetekar, rich. See Adkar, 

Tekard, paper (xaprl). 
Akurem, the broad of the back. 

Akrurjd"*- (Richardson), dim, 

Tekuremt, Tekremt, neck. 
Kara3, plump. 
Akus, heat. 
Eksum, flesh. 
Kuskusu, pilau, porridge. 
Akeskes, a dart. 
Yeksat, he feared. 
Yekiz, he climbed up (!). See 

Katwlda, here. 
Yuktidan, since. (Perhaps for 

Waqt (Ar.) idan, "time 
that " : as in Shilha, Akud, 
time : then Idan=Enni of 
£ab. ; rather ex qtto,) 


Awal, an utterance. 

Awel (Aval, Grb.), eye. 

EUiy, bring thou (Tu. Elwi). 

Yella, ready. 

Tallit, a month (Tu. Tallilt) 

(Eab. GuUit, a time). 
Lalli, mistress (as Kab.). 
Elbal, without (French sans). 
Yelafa, he attacked. 
Telafsa, serpent, pL -awin. 
Elfru, eat (munch ?). 
Lajallirb, cattle, Grb. 
Yellef, he licked up (Heb. Ar.). 
Lakuk, wicked. 
Hem, skin ; Illem, leather, Grb. 
Ulama, TJwalam, chaff. 
TJlema (for TJletma), sister, Grb. 
Elum (Allum, Grb.), camel, pL 

EUem for Ezlem, look ! see ! 
Ilmi3, he swallowed (as Tu.). 
Lemam, salt butter, Grb. 
GelHwIn, dwelling. 
Iturahuj, sing, Grb. 
Elis, tongue, 
lias, skin, Grb. (sheepskin 

cloak f) Temelset, clothing. 

Telset, mist. 
Telta woman {pi, Gulawin?). 
Lefud, cool, fresh. 
Lag, hunger. 
ElzizTn, lead ( ■» Reyay of Ar. ?). 

But see Ezzlzin. 

Digitized by 





Ma, what ? 

Imi, Im, mouth. 

Imma, mother. 

Tamiwin, eyebrows. 

Temmasan, they come out (from 
Imp, it sprouted ?), 

Temda, kitchen garden hem 
vrrigutMy pi. Temdawin (dis- 
placed in Kab. by Arab. 

Imaden, covering, veil, Grb. 
Erom Aden. 

Emdan, all (they are finished). 

Meddin, empty. 

Gamduart, leprosy, Grb. 

Amaj, paint, Grb. 

Emjar, praise. {See Maqar.) 

Amjar, harvest. 

Temjaz, cheek, qu. Temyaz? 

Am£aruf, mad. 

Imlk, how? (Kab. Amak). 

Imiklfan, angels, qu. watchers ? 
iS^ Akif. 

Amellal, white. 

Temallelt,sand. (Gimellat,Grb.) 

Tamiwelt,B.Musa, 7r6/)t;^a)/>09. 
Mat. iii. circuit. 

Amam, sweet. Tamemt, honey. 

Aman, water. 

Maqar, great. 

Mer, repay. 

Muit, market town. 

Gamurt, land, earth. 

Taodert, beard. 

Amasri, noon. 

Tiwamar5in, locusts. 

Timsi, fever [fever heat ?]. 

Ammas, middle. 

Amisi, supper (for Amensi). 

Masfl, dirty (Ar. WasaR?). 

Immet, he died. 

Metid, little, young, /. Metit, 

pi, Metltln. 
Matkan, a fig. 
Amtin, within ? 
Amazgal, a gold weight. 
Amzif, a sheikh (NB.). 
Am5um, a friend, fellow ? 
Ama5war, first (as Kab.). 


En, Ne, of. 

An (Ann), a well. 

Anwa? who? 

Yanu, winnowing shovel, Mat. 3. 

Iwan, he went up, mounted, 

Ennawen, the alofb, upper 

Innai, rub. 
Inna, he said. 
Wanet, that one, ille, /. Tanet, 

iUa, pi. Wainet, illi. 
Anus, Grb. kill, Enni-t, kill him. 
Tinet, full. 
Ed2, last (ultimus, proximus). 

EnX efa£, yesternight. 
Tenaddet, evening (Temeddet ?) 
Tenaddem, he slumbered, pr. 

Enfad, B. Mus. Anefdu, Han. 

Anefji, guest (Kab. Anebgi). 
Yet-anefred, it is wonderM. 
Infran, eyebrow : o(^pw. 
Ennig, above. 
Gengaz, leap, Grb. 
Enhab, catch (Ar. plunder). 
Ennij, up, aloft. 

Digitized by 




Yenajjem, pottiit, Yetenajjim, 

Enakads (?), bum, Grb. 
EnkaS, disperse, va. 
Eneli, millet (as Tu.). 
Genali, v/aiHl, 
Nalan (?), pen. 
Enar, forehead, Yanar, Grb. 

Neraj, rising ground, Grb. 
Enarar, barn floor. 
Wanas, brass, Heb. Arab. Neflas. 
Tuniset, key. 
Nitu, this thing. 
Nitta, brother, Grb. 
Entef, be sad. 
NetaH, thread. 
EnOadama, breech, Grb. 
Enza, the end. 
Tenzit (Ginzert, Grb.), the 

An5ar, rain (so Shil.Kab.). 

Qatib, sword. 

Yaqqad, it burns, is hot. Ar. 

Yeqqer, he avowed, cried aloud. 
Qjm, sit down, pr. Yetqim. 
Aqan, tie, bind. 


Ari, star, pL Iren, Grb. 

Err, shut, Grb., see Eflfer. 

TJr, open, Grb. 

Ara, untie. 

Yerwa, he hindered (satiated!). 

Teran, offspring, pL Teriwin. 

Auyor, month. 

Isra, he shaved, but more cor- 
rectly Asran, d**- Grb. — Efren 
of Ghat. Tu. 

Terwit, gruel. 

Irid, it is washed. 

vc Yeslred, he washed. 

Irdan, pL wheat. 

TJref, waraf, write. 

Gergest, Terkest, shoe. 

Erwel, flee, na Areggel. 

A raj, stone, pi, Irajan. 

Uraf, gold. Araf, green, Grb. 

Garikt, saddle, Grb. 

Arwama (Arrawma), child of 
one's mother, Grb. Arumua, 
(Kichardson) brother. 

Termet, maize porridge. 

Ermes, hold fast. [Tu. 

Emi, Ema, win, Grb.=lnra, 

Arnaf, more, add (Kab. Emu.) 

Erxel, marry, Grb. 

Yemuras (the heaven), was 
opened, Mat. iii. (was cleft?) 


Yesi, why? S, by, with. 

Awas, go thou. 

Iswa, he drank, pr, Yesas. 

A Bid, state? world? 

Sidu, Sidid, still, as yet — Not 

Tesadalt, egg, 
Sedmen, when. 

Sednakaya, spider, Z(^nakaya? 
Safa, sky, parasol, Grb. 
Asef, Azof, day. Asfii, to-day, 

Esuf, river. 

Digitized by 




Asef, twine, bend, fold, Grb. 
Etsef, sobbing (Aj. Te^assef ?). 

See Ezaf. 
Sifaf, kindle, Grb. 
Sufas, spit, Grb. (Susaf, Kab.) 
Ishaf, Ixaf ? beware, Grb. 
Aspr, living tree. 
Aseggas, Asufas, year. 
Asku, if. 
Asakis, negro. 
Eskar, make. 
Yeskar, already. 
Ayyal, Azal, morning. 
Sel, Asil, hear, listen, Grb. 
Asia, bridegroom. 
Isilef, streets. 
Selil, pasture ground, Grb. (flat 

ground? Tu.). 
Selila, call out. Islil, he called. 
Selsafl. (m'^j), I swept, Grb. 
Isem, ear. Arab, Semas ? 
Esmaji, talk. 
Semmem, sour. 
Siman, Latin num; asks a 

Semsid (Sem5id ?), sharpen on 

Issen, he knew. 
Asinn, tooth, pi, sinna, senin. 
Isan, flesh meat. 
Sen, cook thou, aor. Yesni (so 

in Shilha, Isnu). Compare 

Tu. Isenna, vc from. Inna. 
Tisinit, salt. 
Senfa, walk, Grb. 
Esnifu, rest (V. Senfu, Shilha ?) 
Esnet (?), speak falsely. 
Esqas, adj, cold (frigidus). 
Sara, from, Grb. 
Ausar, old (Kab. TJssar, etc.) 

Esfur, from (a person). 
Esuras, put: {yc from Kab. 

Taseria, lock of hair. 
Israfan, ways, roads. 
Tusersert, chain (Ar. Selsele). 
Yesas, conservavit (Ar. Sasas ?) 

[Fr. Ghat. Yoses, he assured] 
Astu, listen. 
Saf af, black, Tu. Kab. 
Esetnefes, needle. 
Sesten, inquire, consult. 
Yusta3, he withheld himself. 
Yusa5, he rested, vn Mat. iii. 

T. T. 

Ati, fern, this, Ti, what ? 
Ait, sons, tribe. 
Giwi, what ? why ? 
Gitwat, beat thou (so). 
Attewi, Et0i, forget, Grb. 
Yetet, he eats. See Etxu. 
Tef , eye. 

Etef, TJtef, enter, Grb. 
Afef, catch, take (as Kab.). 
Af far, follow (as Kab.). 
Etefrejnet, throat. 
Yetkel, sustulttf Grb. as Tu. 
Etqal, he hoped, Grb. 
Yetler, he asked (=E0er, Kab. 

Ader, Shil. 
Gutter, humble (?), Grb. 
Tets, evening. 
Yefq^as, he rested (slept ?), 

pr. Yeteq^as. Afas, sleep, 

Etxu, eat thou, pr. Yetet, Ye- 

tex, Grb. Etuxu, food. 
f Atax, he lay down, Grb. 

Digitized by 





Axed, cinder, Han. (Ixtd, Bh.). 

Ixad, grey : color cineretcs ? 

Axef, herbs (Ar. £uxb ?). 

Axfai, milk. See Ak. 

Ixaf (?), beware. Ar. Xuf, see ! 

Axek, horn. 

Xakum, a fork (Ar. Xakk, 

Axkar, nail of the hand, pi, 

Axlid, Axellid, a king. 
Waxxin, a wolf. 
Yaxqad, is at hand. 

Azau, hair. 

Tazut, mirror. 

Azid, flour. 

Izld, he cured, Grb. (Tu. 

lyyi, Kab. Ijji). 
Azii, ass, pL Iziia, fern, Tezl- 

iet ; Gezlf , Grb. 
Azid, hitter, keen (sweet I Tu ) 
Azdln, whence ? 
Yazaf, naked. 

Ezaf, weep (Ar. *asef). 
XJzzifan, long, ample (robe), 

Zafuf, smoke. 
Ezjem, lie awake. 
Zejaret, Zajrat, long, tall. 
Ayika, Ayekka, to-morrow. 
Gezaka, Tizeqqa, a wall. 
Wezel, iron. 

Azal, lengthen, Grh. (shorten ?). 
Ayyel, run, pr. Itayyel. 
Ezlem, look ! Yezlem, he saw. 
Ezmam, kiss, Grb. 
Azumer, young ram, /. Tezu- 

Ezan, divide, share (Tu.). 
Azinkal, gazelle. 
Eznay, sell (Ez-eny). 
Zeqas, red. 
Tezeqqa, a wall. 
Zur, Zewar, rough, clumsy. 
Tezir, Tezira, moon. 
Azret, before (from Zar, Za war ?) 
Izzaren, bams. 
Amazwar, first. 
Azit, a cock, Tazit, hen. 
Yeziz, he travelled. 
Ezzizin, lead. 

Digitized by 




Pr. means Stankope Freeman ; Bh. or B. means Barth ; Han. 
or H. means Hanoteau. Barth's consonants are often indistinct, 
and his syntax obscure. 

Vowel Hoots. 

Eiyi, Eiyu, let, leave, permit ; 
aor, Yuya (Yoya, Fr.), pr. 
Italy, Itye, Fr. na Teyaut. 
Oyaf, I leave, let, B. 95. 

"Wi, be born. Yuya (Yua, 
H. 141), he was bom. Wuef, 
I was bom. Wif, d°- Au, 
son=Ag, Ig, al8o=Yu of 
Shilha; also Au, daughter, 
Han. Auadem, sonof Adam, 
i.e. human being, pi. Ait, 
sons, tribe =^^1 of Arabs. 

Ay, Ei, male, pi. Ayen, Eien. 

Awi, bring, bear, Auyo, B. 95, 
Awid, bring hither, affdr, of 
Latin ; aor. Yawe, pe. I wiyen, 
pr. Itiwi, but Wauef, I bring, 
B. 95 (Fr. aor. Yeway, pr. 
Itiway). This verb seems 
to mean Latin dtico as well 
Asfero. Han. 150, they bore, 
i.e. endured : — B. 96, Yawe, 
duxit (uxorem) : — ^Fr. Ama- 
way, a leader, pi. Imawayen. 
This may suggest that Awi 
is a softening of Elwi, lead. 

Aiu, come thou, pi. Aiut. Han. 
and Fr. borrowed, it seems, 
from Songhay. 

Iwau, it boiled, Fr. ; it was 

red hot, B. pr. Igau, Fr. 
Awet, see Igat. 


Aba, Iba? is gone, vanished. 
Ur iba, will not vanish, na 
Iba, death, Fr. See Ibat 
and Ibeh. 

Iboyan, (the tree is) budding, B. 

Ibeda, vn is divided, dispersed, 
B. 103,137, 204, i?/. Abeden. 
Probably with i. Also Ne- 
bedud, va we divide, B. 193. 
[] Probably with i. This root 
in Shilha is very common, 
IbJu, he parted. Heb. Baded, 
separate oneself, Gesemtcs : 
also Arab. Ba2s, a piece or 

Ebded, stand upright, stop, halt, 
vn pr. Ibedded or Itebded. 

Ebdeg, be damp, moist (Kab. 
Ebzeg). naAbdug^F. Ti- 
bedgi, H. 

vo Sebdeg, moisten, na Aseb- 

Biddel, be foolish, crazy, na 
Tibedelt, folly. Ambiddel, 
fool, crazy. 

Digitized by 




Ebeg ? TJbegen, they gathered, 
rallied, H. 239. 

Ebeg ? pr, Ibeggeg, (a camel) 
growls, B. 217. 

Ibegbeg, is over and past, B. 

EbegeDgen, snuffle, H. 86, 196. 
Abgengan, a snuffler. 

Ibfar? Tabefurt, riches^ H. 
113. Anesbefurt, rich, pros- 
perous, 75, 106, 210. 

Ibeh, it failed, it deceived (Lat. 
fallit). Ibeh- as eberiq, fe- 
fellit eum via, he lost his way, 
pr. Ibahe, he misleads, B. 
Bahu, Bahut, a lie, falsehood. 
Yehad s baho, he swore 
falsely, B. Ambaho, liar, B. 
Eni-s'-bahut, liar, F. pi. 
Inisbahuten. Also Anes- 
bahu, celebrated ; qu. puffed 
off falsely? 

Ibu£er, "elle s* enfuira" (sic) 
H. Taba£tabe£, a dripping. 

Ibuk, he intended, wished, was 
about (to do) — ^nearly as Ye- 
buf, of Kab. suggesting 

. Arabic Bafa. Yebuk ad yut, 
he was about to strike, H. 
as the Arabs use Nawi (in- 
tending). So B. Abok tegaX, 
is about to fly ; as if Abok 
were adverbial and a tense 

TJbbok, na smoking (a pipe), 
B. Kabbakaf, "I smoke," 
perhaps for Ara abakaf. 

Ibek, m he hid, B. 81. Ibek- 
ket, m he lurked, H. 138. 
[Eb&ket, sin, B. 39, and B. 

114,^/. Ibakk&den ; see Gha- 
damsi.] na Tibekki, ambus- 
cade. Asibaket, sit with 
elbows on knees, B. (crouch, 
in ambush?), na Tasbikkit. ^ 

Ibekbek, he dispersed, scattered, 
H. 149. 

Ibeksi? na Tibeksit, a smile, 
B. 75. 
ve Asibaksa-f, I smile, B. 

Ibello, Ib6lxaxen, lazy, B. 

Belbel? vc Isbelbel, bleats aloud, 

Ibelaf, he broke through (an 
enemy, B. 

Ebelanbel, boast, vaunt, H. 66. 
but Ibelanbelet (the horse), 
rolls, B. 216. 

Abelanbak, moisture, B. 164. 

Ibumbay, (the boat) is cap- 
sized, pr. he lies on the face, 
pronus jacet, B. 44. 
vc Subumbe, va capsize (a 

Ibunket, is mouldy, B. 198, 
fern, Tebunkat. 

Ibenekway (the boat) founders, 
B. 210. 

Aber, boil, vn, 
vc Siber, boil. 

Ibarbar, is come out ; as a star, 
as a bud, or as a man from a 
boat, B. Barbar, adv. forth, 
out, B. (Arab. Barra), (Ebru, 
Kab.). Hence perhaps 

Simbara, set loose, B. 54, pi. 
Simbarit, set ye free, Asim- 
baraf, I set free, B. 157. 

Eborderit, start in one's sleep, 

Digitized by 




Ebruf? start up, but aor, 
Iberegged, H. 149, with g, 
lie sttuled up. 

Aberaf, proud, B. (upstart?) 
also Anasbarag, proud (with 
g), H., Tebarorit (for Te- 
bariifit ?), grandeur, B. Anes- 
baraf, a proud champion, pi, 
Inasbarafen, B. 

Biregwel, turn inside out, B. 
Si tebregwelt, in reverse. 
vc Sebregwel, turn (a corpse) 
over ; retrace(one*s steps, na 
Asibregwel, H. 

Ibrar, **prit son parti," H. 

Aburzazawerit, slide down, B. 

Iboriarak, is bearing (fruit), B. 
Qu. for Ibof (Ibuk), yarak ? 
is about to bear ? 

Buyis, be wounded, H. 107. 
[Aboyis, one wounded, B.] 
but Abuyis, a wound, pt 
Ibuyisen, H. pc, Abuyisen, 
wounded, H. War nebuyis, 
unwounded, B. Anbuyas, 
one wounded, H. 

ve Isbayas, he wounded, pr, 
Isbuyas. Sabdyasaf, I have 
wounded. Antisbayas, pass, 
part, wounded, B. Ansa- 
bayasen, they were wounded. 
[This seems to introduce a 
i^iphal form, not acknow- 
ledged by Han.] 

Ebsi, take down (a tent), B. 
178,^?. Ebsiyet, pr, Ibasse. 

Yet Ibse, vn is over and past, 
B. 620. 

Ibesay, vomit, B. 164. 

Ibsar, va dry, (a shirt), B. 164, 

pr, Basaraf, I dry. Tibserit, 

vn is become dry. 
Ibat, he died (was dead. Prod. 

Son in B.); Abaten, the; 

perished, B. 219 (comp, 

Bid), pr, Itibat. See Aba. 

D. i. 

Edu, go ? as Kab. B. Ned^K. 
we went. 

Edi? Wedi? B. 230, "give*' 
(or pay); War hi tawedet, 
thou hast not paid me. This 
is probably Arab. Eddi, mo- 
dern Weddi, present, pay. 

Yudu, he set off in the after- 
noon, B. TJduan, they travel 
late, H. na Taduit, starting 
late ; also the evening. For 
this, H. has Tadeggat, Tadej- 

YuSa, he fell (so Ghadamsi), 
pr, ItuSi,/w^. Ad yuSa. 
vc Isu2a, he caused to fall, 
overturned. (B. has o for u). 

Ad, bite? pr. Tad, bites, B. 
See Added. 

Idiu (not in B.), he went with, 
accompanied. Ediun, they 
went in company, pr, Iti- 
dau, fut, Idau. Annedaut, 
let us go together, na Tedi- 
wit, company ; also Teddiut, 
a married woman. Adiau, 
a herd (especially of camels). 
Amidi, a Mend, /. Temidi, 
pi, Imidawen, comrades. 

Digitized by 




Hence verb Imidu, he made 
friends with, he aided. War 
ilaamidi, (Qod)ha8 nofellow, 

vc Isdau, he gathered, brought 
together, H. F.hasYesdu, 
Yesdau, pr, Isaddu, Isad- 
^ dau, B. 161. Isdawaf, I 
gather round me (my wea- 
pons of war). 

From Aiu, wind, scent ; comes 
vc SuX, blow, cause wind, 
pr, Isuiu. 

Iddu? Kdduin, they rejoiced. 
Idiwet, he became joyful, H. 
138, 176 (See Illewet), na 
Tedawit, mirth, B. 

Eui, Ewa^p, AwaX, an important 
and difficult root. In form 
the w sometimes changes to 
g. The causative verb Seiii, 
or Sewai, is liable to confu- 
sion with the primitive verb 
SawaJ, '*lookat,'' "observe,'' 
Kab. Isked. — EuS, also like 
Arab. Balaf, from the sense 
of Arriving, passes to that of 
Maturity, and to that of 
Summation 'y as Balaf, he 
arrived; Balif, adult; Mab- 
laf, a sum. B. has f for 2. In 
the sense of summation, we 
generally find -in or -an at- 
tached to this verb; and 
some may prefer to treat 
Yewaiin as an independent 

(I) Eud, EwaJ, arrive, reach, 
pi, imp. EuSet,/<?m. Euiemet, 
H. WaSaf, I arrive, aor. 

YuX, /. TuS, 3rd pi. f. EuXe- 
net, EL., aor. pi. ^ewaf, B., 
pr. Iteui (ItewaS), H., 3rd 
pi. f. Teiiienet, na TuSut, 
H., Agai, F., arrival, pe. 
Wa d yuJen, he who has ar- 
rived hither (o icaTeKOiav). 
AmawaX, an arriver (?). adj. 
Awai,/.TawaS; or Amawai, 
fern. TamawaJ, adult; na 
Tawai, Tagai, B. Tamawai, 
ripeness of age. 
vc Seui, convey, convoy, send 
safe, add, aor. IseiiX, Ise- 
wei, pr. IsawaJ, fut. Ad 
iseuS, pr. EsewaJaf, I add, 
give more, B., imp. Se- 
waZahi, anXurren, add to 
me a little, B. [/S^^Esuai, 
under S.] 
(2) Yewaiin, he arrived, F. 
But in pr. the final -in is 
transposed, as if pronominal ; 
Eh in yewai; F. p. 46; 
likewise EwaSin, amount to, 
pr. Edauiin. (But this 
hardly seems correct.) 
Hence (?) vc IseJan or Yesa- 
ian, count (a sum), com- 
pute, pr. Isaian, na Asl- 
2en, H., pass. pc. Iselan, 
counted, B. 
Added, bite ; vp Ituadded, was 
bitten, H. F. has aor. Idet, 
pr. Idit. B. has Tad, bites. 
One may connect this verb 
with Aidi, a dog (which has 
soft d in H. and F.), or again, 
with Arab. £aiJ, bite. 
Idub (Idob, B., Yedobet, F.), 

Digitized by 




was able, is able (is become 
able?), pr, Iteddub or Idu- 
bet, H., na Adabu, ability, 
possibility, F. This verb 
takes an na for our infinitive, 
as Adabun iisesij possunt 
hihere. Amadub, Ameddub, 
strong. Anedabu, /. Ten^- 
dabu, capable, competent, pi, 
Iniduba, /. Ten6duba, F. 

Idabab, he is expert, B. (from 
the last ?) adj. Adabib, ex- 
pert, pi. Iddbaben, B. 

Idbel, he carried (a child) on 
his hack ; (a lion) carried (a 
woman) on his hack, H. 

Deben ? take a Tvife ? pr. Itide- 
bonaf, I take a wife, B. 
Eni8d6ben, a bridegroom, pi. 
Inisduban \fem. Tenisd^bint, 
bride, pi. Tinisduban, F. 

. l/\^hether this is an organic 
verbal, or a proper compound 
(Eni si deben, woo, promise 
marriage) may be doubted. 
Under Ibeh, 9e$ Eni s bahut. 

Ashel n edubu, day of wedding, 
B. 632, without final n\ 
perhaps by error. 

Edbar, vn ran ofi^, drained off? 
vc Isodebar, lessen, drain off 
(fluid), B. 94. 

Idebarah, '*he slaps the face," 
B. [perhaps for Ad yebaraf, 
he is insolent ?]. 

Tedefit, na flood, B. 209, as if 
from Edef. See Etaf. 

Adeg, Addeg, Addej, prick, 
spur (your camel), drive on ; 
(as Ar. Suq, beat, whip, for 

drive on) ; prick, sting, stab. 
[H. seems to have only Ad- 
deg for stab.] pr, Itaddeg, 
na Teddegi, vp Ituaddeg, vc 
Siddej, cause to drive on. 

Amdeggeg, doubtful, puzzled, 
B. [Arab. Moiayyaq ?] 

Idigdig, he was crushed, pi. 
Digdigen B. 130. Heb. Da- 
kak, contero. va Edigidaf, I 
break, destroy, B. 171. na 
Adigdig, corruption (destruc- 
tion ?), B. 238 [Heb. and 
Arab. Baqaq, crush, pound]. 

Idagak, he knocked (at the 
door), B. [Arab, and Heb. 
just noticed.] Perhaps the 
truer consonants are Idiqdiq 
and Idaqaq. But Arabic has 
Dehek, crush, as well as 
Daqq, knock, and Heb. 

"Digmad-en, they made ropes, 
B. 182 (twined?). 

Adegindigi, stop the holes (in 
a boat) well, B. 192. 

Ideh, he folded (a shirt), pr. 
Iteded, B. 184. 

Idah, he hammers, pounds, for 
Idax, pr. Edahaf, I pound 
(rice), B. 188. 

[Idhun, he cheated ?] Amedde- 
hun, a dupe, a cuckold, H. 

AZehan, brave (man), hero. H. 
F. pi. ISehanen. EShenu, 

Dehel -ahi, help me, pr. Ede- 
helaf, I help, B. 

Idek, he pierced (with spear), 
na Tidik, a stab, B. 129, a 

Digitized by 




dim. of Idaqaq ? as in Arab. 
Bakk of Daqq. 

Idek (rather Ideg? Compare 
Edeg, Edej, a place), he 
dwelt? lodged? B. has Ir- 
han adedekken ad edeggen ?) 
BosebaDgo, they wished to 
dwell at Bosebango. Compare 
Ghad. Daj, house, dwelling. 

Iddukel, was collected, pi. Ed- 
dukelen. Tadukalt, a heap, 
pi. TidukaliD. Edikel, a 
double handful, H. 217. 
(Comp. Kab. lAukkel, not 
identical in sense.) 
ve Isdukel, he collected, va. 

YeJkal, he lifted, carried, car- 
ried away ; with F. so writ- 
ten. Yetkal in H. 

Adekar, H., E. ; elsewhere Ad- 
kar, Etkar. B. has Etkar 
and Etkaf. The word repre- 
sents Xab. IkxaQ and Arab. 
Ajj, he was angry. Etkar 
seems the prevalent spelling. 

"War dikkSra, "no stopping," 
so B. 19. Uncertain root. 

Del, cover? darken? (Kab. 
cover). Not in H. or F. 
Tafok todal, the sun has set, 
B. B. has also Yodal (the 
moon), sets ; Ijedal (sic), 
will set. [True root may 
be Igodal ?] (Tafok) tabok 
egedal ( =a yedal, ad yedal ?), 
the sun is about to set. {See 
Ibiik.) . Also na Agadel ne 
tafok, setting of the sun, B. 

Dill, grow. Not in B. aor. 

. Iduel, Idawel, he is full 

grown, H. Hence (?) Idalen, 

blue or green, F. 

i)e Isdul, he reared, brought 

up into full growth, na 

Asdul, rearing, education. 

Eddel, play, sport, aor. Idel, 
H., pr. Itaddel, F. ; but 
pr, Adellaf, I play, B. na 
Adela, amusement, F. Hence 
frequentative na. Dellul, pr. 
DeUillaf, I dance, B. Kab. 
Zellel, pirouette. 

Yodel, he denied, refused, B. 
(But in F. it is Yekudel, pr. 
Itakudel.) See Del, above. 

Dalam? Inadelemet (is be- 
come?), dark, B., from Ar. 
Adlam or ASlim ? 

Idem? na Tidara, dripping of 
rain, B.y pr. Itadem, it leaks 
(drips?), B. 199. 

Damu? plant. Ademef, I plant, 
B. Anesdamu, a planter, hus- 
bandman, pi. Inisdama, B. 

Demendem-en, they hurried. 

. Demendemet, hurry thou. 
Idimendemet, he hurried, sie 
H. 56, 176, 178. 

Dan (be near? Arab. Donu, 
nearness), m^Dannit, distance 
(nearness ?), B. Menikite ha 
dannit? Ma dar uge dan- 
nit? how great is the dis- 
tance ? B. 

Aden-ahi, grant to me, extend 
to me, B. 80, qu. from Arab. 
I An, leave, permission. 

AJen (fais paltre, Han.), feed 
(cattle). Hence probably Ar. 
A an, sheep, aor. ISan, pr. 

Digitized by 




nan, B. 218. AmaZan, 
grazier, shepherd, na Tama- 
Mnt, tending of a flock. 

(2) TuAaned, thou hast lost, 
H. 160. 

Adawenni, suhsL tale, story, H. 
vc Sidawenni, relate stories — 

YewaJin, he arrived, it amount- 
ed to, r. See Ewai. 

Edunke, bow, stoop, na Edun- 
ket, religious bow, B. 632; 
pr. let sing. Edunkeaf, B. 42. 

Idenkai : in Han. 274 we shall 
pass (near); Ur nedenkai, 
275, we have not passed 
(close) ; but 176, Edenkif, 
I attack (!). One may rather 
conjecture Edenkif, I close 
with, and see in the verb a 
compound : TJkai, peiss, and 
Ben, nearness ? Idenkai and 
Ikaiyetan look like the same 
combination of elements. 

Dm, a little, little, Kab., seems 
to be the root of AmaJruin 
and Iniurren, which see. 

Aider, adj. deep, F. Idir, the 
bottom, H. 'Edxr^prep. under, 
B. S edir, ach. beneath, be- 

Eddar, live. Iddaren, pc. adj. 
Amudar, a living man, a 
wight. Tameddurt, life. 
[This root, in this sense, is 
m all the Libyan languages, 
even side by side with 8ed- 
darO, village or house, im- 
ported from Arab. Dar.] 

Idar, mhst. olive, F. Hence 

Idarin, fat (oily ?), B. Idarat, 
he is fat, F. 

Aderif, a freedman, B. 96, pi. 
vc Sideraf, set free (a slave). 

Aderfal, blind. 

ve Isderfal, he blinded. 

Idrar, calm, F. 

Iderez? banged, rattled? pr. 
3rd^/. Etederzen, B. 135. 

Edis, side. S ides, at the side, 
H., B. Ides, he placed, ar- 
ranged, pr. Itades, F. 

lies. If es, sleep. Eies, sleep 

EJay, laugh, iazzen, they 
laughed. B. has pr. Dazaf, 
Tedazaf, I laugh. Ameiiay, 
laugher, mocker, na Taieyya, 
H. 102; Tadis, Tadesit, Ta- 
dazit, B. {ue. Taiiy, Ta- 

vc SeSy, cause to laugh. 
vr pi. MiseJyan, they caused 
mutual laughter, pr. Te- 

Idet, he bit ; see Added. 

Idex (=Ideh?), he hammered, 
thumped, ^r. Idahaf, I pound, 
B. 185, 188, 191,ji?r.Itadex, 
B. Tad^xaf, I hammer. 

(2) Idix, he felt with the hand, 
na Tadixa, B. 12^ pr. Itedex. 

Iderez, he beat (rattled), the 
shield, pr. Itiderez, B. 


Yufai, it is better (imp. If, 
Han.), pc. Yufan, excelling, 
better. Yufe, he surpasses. 

Digitized by 




Nufet, we surpass him, B. 35. 
vc Isufe, he preferred. 

Tafu, day dawned. Tufai (the 
sun), comes out [unless this 
is from the next root]. Tu- 
fat, the mom, morrow. Afa, 
light. Tafaut, F., light, sun- 
light. Efeu, fire, B. (Afa, 
Aufa, fire, Ghad.). Hence 
the word passed into African 

Iffl ? aor, ? pr, Ifai,>m. Tufai, 

gushes out ; also pr, Iteffai, 

pc. Ifayen (hail), gushing 

out, B. 620. Also va Teffai, 

she spills, empties, H. 161. 

So Kab. Effi, pour out. 

ve Siffi? Tasiffem, ye have 

driven out, B. In B. also 

I taf, gushes, streams, i.e. is 

full of water, 209 ; and va 

Esattef, 174, pour out, 

which seems to be present 

of the ve Siffi. 

Fad, thirst. Iffud, he was or 
is thirsty, imp. Efiad. Anaf- 
fud, thirsty, H., but Anas- 
fad, B. 

Fedijdij , rigediddig,«Vw^. hurry, 

Afdarfaddar, a hissing, B. 199. 

Afeg, fly thou. Yufeg (the 
bird), has flown. 

Ifaf, it came forth, (seems the 
same as Xab. Iflef ; but the 
f in B. runs into k and r), 
pr. Itfaf, also IfSfat ? Itfaf, 
(the cup) overflows, runs 
over, 174; (the boat) leaks, 
210. Texe tafofat, the herb- 

age comes forth, (sprouts), 
and Eneli ifo(;at, the millet 
sprouts, 207. 

vo Isfaf, he emptied (the 
tents), i,e, he plundered, 
126. Isfakket, is hatched, 
215, of a bird. 

Fukku ? pound, crush. Itafuk- 
ku, he pounds (rice), B. 188. 

Fekk (Arab. Fukk, pull out?), 
Teffek " elle a sauv6," H., 
qtcasi Iffek, eripuit, rescued. 

Effukeren, are certain, are con- 
firmed, H. 182. 

Iful, he was first (to do a 
thing), he began (a quarrel), 
H. 231. See Ifuled. Te- 
fiilt, a part, pL Teful, Tefu- 

Yufel, he is tawny ; imp. Mel, 

Ifel, va he came away from, he 
quitted, he left off (very com- 
mon in Tu. and bhil.). Ass 
tefeled asikel, when you 
quit travel. 

Ifuled, he made salute, with 
prep, full before the person 
saluted. Also Ihul, Ihuled. 
Ifuled tinaut, he be^an speak- 
ing, H. Kab. Gr. 349. This 
seems to identity Ifuled with 

Eflis, believe, trust, confide in, 
aor. Iflis, pr. Ifelas, F. B., 
Iflas, faithful, F. Eflisef, 
I believe, H. Efelasaf, I 
trust, B. na Tefelsi, H., Te- 
felist, B. TifiUas, confidence, 
pi. Tifelas, F. Anafelaset, 

Digitized by 




honest, B. Ihe Teflis, inest 

probitas ;** trustiness ^^ and 

" trust" being confounded. 
Ifenas, decreases, B. 94, 204. 

aor. Ifnes? vn Nekafenis 

tennet {sic), I lessen, B. 94. 
XJfur, imp. va hide, F. aor, 

Iffer, H. Yufur, T"., he hid. 

pr. Ifar, B. Itafur, F., he 

hides, na Ufur, secrecy, H. 

Nearly as Kab. See also 

Har (cover). 
Nefur, we have tracked out. 

Afuri, the track. See Ahur : 

f for h, as in Ghadamsi. 
Iferat, pr. Itaferat, (the millet) 

is ripe for harvest, B. 208. 
TJfure? Teferten, salary, B. 


r<j? Isufure imanis, hired 

himself, Prod. Son. Tifert, 

a price, H. Kab. Gr. 349. 
Ifarad, chewed the cud, B. 

IfraX, is swept. Aferral, Anas- 

feraX, sweeper, H. 

vc Tasefrui, broom, pi. Tisa- 

fdraiin, F. 
Ifraf, was crooked, pr. Itafraf, 

na Afaraf, F. 
Ifarkikan, pe, light (of weight). 

(1) Efren, shave [Ghadamsi 
Esran), aor. Ifren, pr. Iferan. 
pe. Wa iferaren, the barber, 
F. (Ghat dialect). Also 

(2) Ifren, he picked, chose, 
picked (his teeth), as Kab. 
vc Isnafran, he chose, F. 
Isenniferen, d^- H. 47, 177, 

[Aferas ft ras, piecemeal. Per- 
haps from Arab. Fariese, a 
creature torn in pieces by 
a wild beast ; game from 

Efsi, melt, vn Taf sit, the spring. 
vc Sefsi, va melt, pr. Isefsai. 

Ifasusen, pc. light of weight 
(as Kab.). 

Ifessusa, idle, cowardly? 

[Ifta or Iftak, Ifta£., spread out, 
with vc Isifta, pr. Itesifta, 
and nouns Ifter (Iftull?), a 
mat, Tesuftaxt, a carpet, — I 
regard as derivations from 
Arab. Fetall, opened, al- 
though Hebrew also has this 
very root.] 

Iftal, is indiscreet, H. 222. 
Imik iftal (perhaps literally 
thy mouth is wide open). 

Ofateni, barren (land), B. 

Iftes, he rejoiced, H. 

Ifax, he carded (cotton), pr. 
Itafax, B. 183. 

Effez, chew. 
vp Ituaffez. 

G. J. 

[The sound of J in Barth and 
Freeman is that of the English. 
But in the dialect of Tuat, set 
before us by Hanoteau, it is 
" something peculiar." He 
would not thus speak of French 
j. I imagine it must be our 
hard g closely followed by a 
consonant y ; as some English- 
men sound Guide as Gyide. < 
In general G and J seem to in- 

Digitized by 




volve no diflference of meaning, 
being often interchanged.] 
Iga, he did or made, he 
acted, performed, constituted. 
Egahi, do for me. [It is 
generally a moral verb. He 
made (mechanically) is rather 
Ikna.J Passively, Iga, it 
was done, H. 186; also it 
became, f>r. Itage, F. So 
habitually in Shilha for It 
is. Egen, they form (a 
line), B. 136. Egef, I have 
performed, have done. imp. 
' Age (Ghadamsi Aj ), pr, Itag, 
po, Igan; na Tigant. Ti- 
megget, deed, action. F. 
has also Ige, an action, pi, 
Igitan. Tug, a value. But 
see Yugda. [F. distinguishes 
Iga, he acted, pr. Itag, from 
Ige, he became, pr. Itaga.] 
^gei, Ujei, refuse, aor. Yugei, H. 
— B. Prod. Son, v. 28, Yunge, 
he refused. F. gives Igiwe, 
he disappointed, pr. Itigewa. 
TJgaraf, I refuse, B. 105, 
perhaps for TJg^waf. TJjjan, 
" they remained on camel's 
back through weariness," 
Han. I look to the old 
Greek to explain ^ATToehre^ 
he refused, by ellipsis meant 
** he refused to continue the 
fight y^ renunciavit(pugnam); 
hence, he was outwea/ried. 
Thus Ujjan in Tu. they were 
worn out; too tired to dis- 
mount and remount. See 

Ejeu, Egewa, cry of a camel in 
distress, pr. pi. f. Egewanet, 
pi. m. Igewanen {stc), B. 
See Inju, Ingu. 
Wege ? [Arab. Wajih, specious, 
comely ?] "War tawege, fern. 
verb, is unbecoming, B. 74. 
A war inituegi, which is 
impossible, B. 36. But see 
Ihage. Pom^/yWarituhage, 
Initiihage, are more correct. 
Igbas, Ijbas(Kab.Ibgas), girded 
himself, pr. Igabbas? sing. 
Egebessaf, B. 160. na Aga- 
has, H. Agbas, girdle, girth. 
dim. Tagebist, belt, B. Te- 
sigebist, shawl thrown over 
the shoulders, B. 
Egged, Ejjed, leap, bound; 
start up, B. {See Ageder.) 
Igged, he leapt over, cleared, 
i?r. Itajjed, Itagged. [Ti- 
gedit, the direct road, B., 
hence Tidit, truth, right?] 
For Ijjed see also Yugda. 
vc Segged, cause (a wild ani- 
mal) to start up, i.e. hunt, 
chase, H. (But Segged 
may be a corruption of 
Arab, yayyed, hunt.) With 
B. this vc is neuter or de- 
ponent: Taiokteseffedeix- 
innawen, the sun has 
mounted the heavens; /«». 
verb. But B. 216 Isu- 
gedit, has mounted. 
EgeS, it flew, na TegaZ, B. 
EgeM, Ajlil, a bird, B. 
TeseggaS, a feather, pi. Te- 
seggaien, B. 

Digitized by 




Igeded, (the egg) is addled, B. 

215 (qadid?). 
Egod, Eggut, Egen, involve 

much difficulty of separation 

and analysis. 

(1) Egod, multitude, quantity, 
B. Perhaps better Eguf . 

(2) Yugda, it is equal; he 
equalled, H. 141,^r. Ijjed, it 
amounts to. {See EwaX.) na 
Togdut, Tofdut, equality, F. 
vc na Esugdu, argument, F. 

[Tug, a value, may belong 
to this root.] 

(3) Yuggeda, B. Igda, Ijda, 
H., it suffices. Ugeda, adv, 
very, B. Ma igede? how 
much? B. [what suffices?]. 
Ma der ugeda? for how 
much? B. 

vc In poetry, H. 219, Tezuj- 
dahet, elle suffit. Also 
F. has yezugdah, adj con- 
tented; Azigda, content- 
ment. Perhaps this root 
should be written always 
with final h : Yugdah, 
Izugdah, etc. 
God-ef, I praise, glorify (God), 
B. pr, Negodai, we glorify, 
H. 227. 
Agadel, Ejadel, Odel, setting 

(of the sun), B. ; see Del. 
Gaddelen, Jaddelen, H. 133, 

190, they hunted after. 
Egdem, cut thou. (South Tu., 

£gedemma(*, I drive on, B., as 
{{present. Perhaps it is only 
Arab. Qaddim. 

Igeder (obscure in Barth), 
"Egedarit fell tarik,*' he 
jumped down from his camel, 
B. 70, surely rather, he 
jumped upon the (drome- 
dary's) saddle. The final tt 
(superflous in the verb, as 
elsewhere) we must call de- 
ponent Again, "Agederaf 
ateras atukkek, I spring over 
a ditch,'' B. 70. Ateras 
(B. 622), as a noun means 
a plain. Possibly here, as 
an adverhf it suggests hori- 
zontal leaping. Atukkek (a 
ditch ?), is found here only. 

Igfel, he '*took away," B. 
126; perhaps ''padlocked" 
from Arabic, as in B. 159. 
But see Ikfel. 

Ogig, adv. afar. Igig, distant, 
F. (Kab. Iguf). Yugig, was 
distant, pr, Itugeg, imp. 
Ageg, na Tugegi, distance, 
H. A yugegen, pc, the 
distant, to iroppto. (In many 
instances, Wa, A before a 
participle seem distinguished 
as 6 and to in Greek.) 

Igag, Ijaj, aor. heap a load on, 
lade (a camel), pr. Itageg, 
See Izzuz. Ageggi, j»^. Igeg- 
gan, camel's load. Ghadamsi 
Jejaq, laden. Possibly Ijaq 
or Igaq may be the older 

Ejaj, thunder, B. So in Gha- 
damsi ; Egag, Shil. hence 
aor. Ijaj, j?r. Itajij, it thun- 
ders, B. 

Digitized by 




Ijujab, is plentiful, H. 224. 

Igagger, he insulted, H. 73, 
104. na Tageggart, insult. 
vr Enimgeggeren, they in- 
sulted one another. Ehe- 
gogSre, calumniator, with 
Ehe, an unusual prefix. 

Igeh (H. and F.) for Igex of 
B., he entered, pr. Itageh, 
r. Oguh , entrance, access, F. 
Also (instead of ve Segeh) 
F. has, Igehe-d, he ad- 

Geh-ahi, bear me witness, B. 
[Kab. Anagi, a witness.] 
Egehaf, I testify, B. ; XJge- 
hef, I certify, H. 224. Ta- 
gohi, witness, pi. Tigohar^w 
{sic), B. 629, whether testis 
or testimonium is not clear ; 
perhaps the latter. 

Eghel for Egzul, short. 

ve Zeghel for Zegzel, shorten, 
H. 166. 

Egel, Eglu, Eggil, Ejel, depart, 
migrate, Ajlet, go ye, H. 183. 
Ijla, H., Iggele, B., he de- 
parted, went, pi, Eglan, H. 
pr, Ijelle, H. Itigele, B., 
also Egeleaf, I go, B. Ijla 
6 wen, the state (of day) is 
gone ; that is, it is late, H. 
na Tegilet, migration. Hence 
perhaps as a new verb with 
tinal -et radical, Annigelet, 
we will migrate. 

Igelai, has permission or right ? 
Egelayef, I am authorized, 
B. 114. Form of the aorist 

Tegillelauet, with four edges; 
needs explanation. Perhaps 
Tegilla is a square cake. 

Eglef ? Tagallfet, a deposit, B. 
Perhaps from Arab. Salf, a 
thing left behind. See Seglef 
under S. 

Igelmam, it stagnated, pr. Iti- 
gelmam. The final m re- 
minds one of Heb. Mim, 
water, and suggests that both 
in Aman, water, and in Agel- 
man, a pool, lake, the fin^d n 
was once m. (Indeed Heb. 
final Im of the plural became 
In in Chaldee and Arabic.) 
The element Agel may seem 
to mean a collection. L-^'^" 
mIm is a pool, in Kab.] 

Igelas ? vc Isagelas, he escorted. 

Ijulez, Igulez, he was left be- 
hind ? Wi ijulezenin, those 
who remained, H. 184, and 
/. Ti tigulezenin, al \oinraX. 

Ageme, see Egmai. 

Egmi, H. Egmay, F. peiiit, 
in widest Latin sense ; seek, 
search, entreat (claim, F.) 
Egmiyen, Ejmiyen, they 
sought, pr. Igammai, he 
seeks, na Agamei, a claim, 
F. ; Agamai, research. Anag- 
mai, a searcher. 

Igem (Yogem, F.), he drew 
(water), hausit. pr. Itag- 
gem, F. H. 

EgemaS, go out, come forth, 
(appear, come out, as sun, 
F.) aor. IgmeZ, IjmeS (Ige- 
maS, F.), pr. IgammeS, H., 

Digitized by 




Itagema2, E. na Egemu£, 
appearance, F. 
ve SejemeS ; aor. IsejmeS, 
pr. Isajmai, H. This root 
in B. is generally superseded 
by his Barbar. B. 118 has 
Itegmad axeni, the blood 
comes out, and in Prod. Son, 
v. 21, Igma^, came out. In 
138 he has, "Let the cham- 
pions step forth," Siggemet 
etid inasbara^en ; which pro- 
bably ought to be Sigge- 
me'f et-id inasbarafen ; ** cause 
ye to come forth ;" with id, 
(hither). It must be added 
that B. has Agema, Dagemn, 
outside ; Gema, without^ as 
if from a verbal root Egema, 
Gema. Also Ajema, the 
desert, thn8=Arab. Barriya. 

Agimekk-ahi, teach me, B. 89. 

Igamanna, barren, B. ; but qu. 

Tigimxin, na protection, B. 
(Igmex, he protected ?). 

Egen, much, multua, f, Teget, 
multa, B. Taiazit teget, 
much laughter, B. Awagin, 
most (men) o ttoXu? ? B. 
Eggen, adv, much, as Ijjat 
eggen, ** frappe beaucoup," 
H. 80. Participial also, A 
yeggen, to ttoXu, the much, 
the greater part. This, and 
Teget may suggest a root 
Ege. iS^^ also Eggut. Egen, 
Ejen, an array, H., might 
mean simply a multitude, a 
host ; but in B. we find 
Egehen, a military expedi- 

tion. Dim. Tajent, a small 
army, pi, Tigenin. 

Igen, he lay down, (the camel) 
knelt, pr, Itigen. 
vc Isigen, he made (a camel) 
to kneel, H. na Tesugenet, 
blame, F. (qu. causing a cul- 
prit to kneel in contrition ?) 

Eggup, play the beggar, pr. 
Iteggun, H. 

Egan, sing? B. From Arab. 
Fanni ? Nek iganan dsehak, 
I (am) singing a ditty (?) 

Igiun, lyiun, be satiated. Eg- 
giunef, Eyunef, H. 257, 
69. Tiyunawaf, thou hast 
enough, B. Fem. Zrd pi. 
Iwanet for Egiunnet, (the 
cows) are satiated, and Xst pi. 
Naiwen for Negiun, we are 
satiated, B. na Tegawent, 
satiety, H. 235. So in Kab. 
Gayawant (Luke Gawant), 

Igeny ? Igney ? Tegenyit, 
misery, H. 211. 

Ager, throw, cast (javelin). 
Iger, he flung, pi. Eggeren, 
pr. Igar, B. 

m Anemiggeren, they flung 
mutually, B. Hence perhaps 
the noun Amger, combat, and 
from it a new verb, pr. Itam- 
gar, he combats, H. 238, 
265. Carefully distinguish 
this from Amagar, a guest, 
and from Kab. Amgar, a 
sickle. [Amger, ** an en- 
counter," may also be re- 

Digitized by 




ferred to £ab. Imugar, he 

Yuger, Tujer, he surpasses; 
(j?r^«^^iiithe aorist ?) Yu- 
jerin, excellent, H. Ugar, 
ad/D. more, H. 

Tigrawin,j»/. (superiorities, H.) 
the substitute for English 
"fold in threefold, fourfold, 

Egru, Igrau, unite the ideas of 
finding^ and finding out or un- 
derstanding. Perhaps more 
correctly Igrahu, na Ugere or 
Ageruhet, knowledge, B. Ig- 
gero (rather Igrahu ?) he 
found, B. Igere, Iguru, he 
understood, F. Igrau, he 
has found, pi. Egrawen 
(Egruhen ?), H. pr, Egera- 
hef, I understand, B. 87. 
Probably the cardinal idea 
of Igrahu is prehendit, as the 
phrase, ** Igrahu i teneda, 
fever has caught me," sug- 
gests. As with Gr. KareKa^e 
and Lat. apprehendit, the 
idea of "understand " follows. 
ve Isegra (Isegrah ?), he 

caused to understand, H. 
vr Enimegeran (Enimege- 
rahan ?), they understood 
one another, H. 

Igerau, Iherau, it is wide, spa- 
cious ; easy, loose ? Egrauf, 
I am easier, B. na Ejiwer 
(Egiower ?), breadth, pi. 
Ijoweren (Igioweren ?), F. 
Iharauen, wide, easy. Also 
va Igeriu, he caused (his 

horse) to gallop, B. qu. he 
loosened ? pr, Etegeriu-ef 
aisini, B. 63, do habenas 
equo meo. 

Igered ? pr, Egeriddaf, I praise, 
B. 29 (Arab. Fered, warble.) 
Megered, a speech, B. talk ? 
vr Imegered, he talked, ha- 
rangued, B. Zrd pi. pr. 
Timegarden, they chat, 
H. 176. 
[Erkod, eloquence, B. needs 
explanation. So Orad.] 

Ijjur, Ijjuret, was angry, H. 
110, 188 ; a softening of 
Ktkar, Edkar, Edekar. Com- 
pare Kab. Etxall. 

Egrah ? 8ee Isagrah, under 

Jerjex, tremble thou, pr. Ita- 
jerjex, H. 

Igras ? na Tamegragt, remorse, 
H. 140 (perhaps Arabic). 

Egetaroren, (the cock is) crow- 
ing, B. 215. (qu. the true 

Igerex, he warbled? B. 73. 
fut. 3 pi. ad ig^rSxen. 

Igray, it pleases, H, 148, fern. 
3 aor. Tegrayet, H. 133, is 
pleasant. Ejrayen, pleasant, 
157. With A for y, B. has 
ve Isagrah, he looks at with 
pleasure. [But consider 
Kab. Issag and Irha.] 

Agas, see Agay. 

Ijaserin, pc. ? penetrating, B. 
page 620. 

Ijasal, B. 234 (Ijazal?), is 
shallow. See Igzal. 

Digitized by 




Bggut, H., Egot, Egod, B., 
multitude, the most part, 
quantity. S egod, by multi- 
tude, by numbers, B. Egeut, 
abundance, F. {See Egen.) 
Awagot, many, Agoteni, too 
many, too much, B. {sic) 
.218. Iggutenin,j9/.j9(?.many, 
H. Eggetenet, 3rd pL fern, 
are numerous. [Kab. sup- 
plants this word by Arabic 
Xaff , perhaps akin to it.] 
Agit, often?— B. 235, has 
"War agit, seldom. 

Igewaf, he shunned, fled, na 

Egewat, flight, B. ; also Ehe- 

wet for egewaf , beware of, 

. B. Amag^wat, humility, B., 

perhaps shyness. 

Igat and Awet (a root in B. 
needing fuller explanation), 
pr, Egat-af, I make (a fence, 
pots, etc.), B. 186, 193. 
Aw^taf, I build (a house, a 
boat), 191. I make (a fire), 
and imp, Awet, 168. XJwe- 
taf, I spread (the carpet), 177. 
To me it seems that Awetaf 
, is Latin Btrw>^ I arrange in 
layers; hence I build (a 
house, a fire). **Ayor yu- 
wdt afarak, the moon has a 
halo," B. 619, afarak being 
a (circular) fence; is more 
naturally identified with Igat 
aralad of this root, than by 
rendering Yuwdt, ** has 
struck," though Tuwat in 
H. is "«A« struck." Whether 
Igat and Awet belong to the 

same verb, also with which 
t we must write, remains 
uncertain. Of course, hoot 
(he struck) is a totally 
different root. Igat may be 
a development of Iga (he 


Iggat (Kab. IkkaG), he strikes, 
from aor, Iwat. Ijjat, il 
frappe, H. 80. 

Igetarit, he sprang, B. See 

Igex, he entered, pr. Itagex, 
na Ogix, B. ; but na Teg- 
gexi, H. Iggex, the in- 
terior. Anaigex, the inside, 
B. imp, Eggix, enter thou, 
B. 53. See Igeh. 
vc Seggex, bring in. 

Agay, Ajey, watch, guard, keep 
safe. Agaz idalen, watch 
the baggage, B. Agay, be- 
ware. UgS-zaf, I take care. 
Yogay, watchful, F. pr. 
Itagay. Itagazan, careful, F. 
Also pr, Igyai, Ijay, Itajay, 
indeed Igzai, he reflects, re- 
putat, H. 279. 

Igza? pr. Agozeaf, I limp 
{sie) dso, I get down, B 71. 
Has '* alight" been read as 
"limp"? Compare Kab. 
Juz, alight. 

Gezul, short, F.=Wezil. Ige- 
zulen, d®' H, Igzul, was 
short or shallow, pr. Igazel, 

Agazar, feud, war, B. or Ajez- 
zar, pi. Ijezzaren, H. Prob- 
ably from Arab, butchery. 


Digitized by 




Yufi (Orea! B.), he has 
strangled, H. 61. 
vp Ituafi. 

I(;a, be dug a hole, pr* Iqa, E. 
Bather Ifha, pr, Iqqah, 
which see. 

Yuef, he stopped, va checked, H. 

Ifeb, he was drowned, »(»Tifebi, 

Ifagg, it bleated (Kab. Ijefa), 
na Tefaggit. 

Ifha, he dug, pr. Iqqah, for 

Ifhad, he corrupted, pr. Itaf- 
hed. P., for Ifxad, which see. 

Ifhel, he needed, pr. Ifhal, H. 
99, 242, also Kab. Gr. 349, 
perhaps for Ifxel, to repre- 
sent Agellil, poor, of Kab. 
andShil. Bar^ has Ahuxel, 
it is necessary, i.e. Afnixel ? 
But see Ihuxel. 

rujjer, take breakfast, H. 276. 

Iflai, he went round, patrolled, 
made circuit, pr. Ifallai, 
(circulates, E.). Also Iflei, 
he mingled, pr. I[alley, F., 
seems to be the same verb. 
na Aflai, circuit, Tafeleit, 
F., circulation. Si tafelit, 
in rotation, in turn, H. B. 
heard the { as an r, and writes 
Aralle, wall of court yard, 
Terlaite, around ; E^leyen, 
they have surrounded, B. 1 36 ; 
Aralad, a fence (with d, B. 
186). [He has also Aralay, 

work, suhs. and Arelen-an, 
they work, 178.] 
Yafil, he thinks (Arel, B.), 
perhaps from Arab, saql, 
intellect. B.6 ifilen, what- 
ever they may think, H. 
Compare Kab. Ifil, he im- 
agined, rilen, they believed. 
S oril, by heart, by memory, 
B. 156 for S ppl. 
Tufil, he came back, returned; 
(connected with Iqqil ?). 
Aman abuk yurel {rather 
yufil?) is about to go back, 
i.e. to sink lower, B. 209. 
ve Isufil, he replaced, re- 
stored, brought back, re- 
paid, H. 92, 99, 141, pr. 
Isaffil, F., who also has 
l8U[il, he closed \ perhaps 
accurately he turned hack 
(the door), as Err taw- 
wort, na Tafala, a pecu- 
liar trot, B., amble ? 
Eflaf? vr Imseflaf, he took 
leave, bade farewell, H. 160. 
Iflil, he continued, pr. Ifallil, 
F. Aflal, he continued, F. 
rim, Aqqim, sit down, stay, 
rest, pr. Itpm, na Tafimit. 
vo Isifim, he seated, etc.,/?r. 
Isfimi, H. 79. 
Ipna he dyed, (it is dyed? 
See Kab. Ifem). Temif, I 
dyed, tinted, imp. Pem. 
Ifna (he is) contented, F. {See 
Ikna.) na Tafanaut, content- 
ment. Compare Arab. Iqnas, 
he was contented. 
Fan, Iqqan, he tied, fastened. 

Digitized by 




{See Iqqan.) Afan, a tie, 
band, cord, jp^. Ifunan. TJfun, 
a ligature, F. B* has. Shall 
I tie the horse or loosen him? 
Agiaf ais, mer aref ? Agiaf 
(I think) ought to be Afnaf 
from Pan. 

Afer, read thou. Ifera, he read, 
na Tiferi. "Wi ifemin, those 
who read. From Arab. Qara*. 

A[;er, Per, call thou, Feret, call 
ye. Faren, they call, Tefe- 
rim, ye mention, H. 214. 
Aferef, I call for, B. 89, 
101. This root is pure 
Libyan; but to distinguish 
from* the preceding is hard. 

Itafar, pr. (from Iqqur), it 
dries up, it is parched, na 

Tafara, good behaviour? F. 
See Yaqerat. 

Yefored, he is in good health, 
valenSy validm, F., pi. Imfu- 
rad, intelligents et forts,. H. 

Afaras, butcher thou, pr* Ifer- 
ras, na Aferas. (Akin to 
Ar. Jezar? See Agezzar, 
above). Amferras, a cut- 

vp Ituageres, Yemifares. 
t?r^?. Enmifaresen, H. B. 
123, Suggoras, for vc Su- 
faras ? cause to decapi- 
tate. [In Shilha Araras 
means a road or way.\ 

Efsar? rather Arab. Qasra, a 
deficiency ? 

vp Isefser, he fined, H. 269. 
Probably not true Libyan. 
See Eqquser. 

Iftes, he lopt, dipt, hewed 
(Arab. Qatas), pr, Ifattes, 
na Afatas, Aftus. vp Ituaftes. 
"With Freeman, the sense of 
eut seems to pass into Decide^ 
and hence Settle, Fix. 

Ifxa, he dug (a well), B., for 
Kab. Ifya, but F. has I [ha. 

Ifxad (I£xet, B., Ifhad, F.), 
corrupt, spoil, waste ; break, 
violate (one's word), B. (also 
Irkxed, maU, B.). Ma£iat, 
wasteful, na A£.axat, spoil- 
ing; for Mafxad, Afaxad. 
Also Ama£xed, unhappy. 
Ifdx^idet? it hurt? "War 
tfr^adet," lest it hurt (the 
horse's back), B. 227. Yet 
€ee Ixxad. 

Ifezzu, it is deep, H. 263. 
(Kab. Ifza, he dug). 


Eh, be in. Ihe, Lat. inest ; 

Ehan, insunt. 
Ihayen, pi, they travel early, 

H. 210. The h represents 

X ; but B. has Inxaya for 

this verb. 
Ihewai, he besmeared, H. for 

Ixewai. See Ixau, Ixag. 
Ahuyye, na sporting, B. Ama- 

hayen, a sportsman, pi, 

Imahoyen, B. 
Ehad, in B. looks like the future 

tense mark ; as Ehad ifoket, 

Digitized by 




he Trill come forth, 215. 
Eher ehad ixek, the lion will 
attack, 221. 

OhuS, misdeed, crime, F. pi. 
OhuSen ; for Oxi^. See 

YehaS, he swore, H. ,Yohad, 
B. 109. pr. Yehad, B. 

Ihaddigen, pc. clean, pure, H. 
Hedig, clean, F. {h for x, y), 
B. Ixedigen, clean; Kab. 
Ezdig. F. has also pr, Izizig 
(sic). Compare Heb. and 
Ar. ^adaq. 

Hedenden, stammer, H. gabble ? 
rattle, B. (Lat. tinnio; Ar. 
fan^^an, Engl, tinkle). Te- 
hadendan, gossiping, B. 

• Yohag in B. seems to be Yuhaf 
of H. He caught, B. he par- 
ried (a blow), 140. Ohagen, 
they captured (cattle). See 
also Yohak, Yuhaf. 

Ehiag, limp, B. 72. See Ehiak. 

Iheggaf, is red. Iheggafen, 
for Ixeggafen, or Ixeggaren, 
which see. 

Ihuh&r or Ixuxar,.is big; pr. 
H. 113, Kab. Izhar, pr. 

Iheger, Ixeger, Izeger, is long, 
tall, lofty. Ihegeret, is grown 

[Ahafer, mountain-tops, H. 
.218, in poetry.] 

Hegeris, it is credible, B. 

Ibage-t, he reposes. Ad ehagef, 
I repose, B. "War tuege 
(ituhage?), it is not agree- 
able, War inituegi (initu- 

^^0 ?), incompatible, im- 
possible, B. Yenihage, agree- 
able, F. Enhegi (perhaps 
na) agreeableness. H. has 
Inhaggen (Inihagen), plea- 
sant. Quietude seems the 
radical idea. Niphal n (in- 
stead of mf) is added to the 
Yuhaf (passim in H.), he plun- 
dered, pillaged, captured. 
Yuhafenin, plunderers, pr, 
Itahaf. na Tuha[i, pillage. 
vp Imihaf, has been pillaged, 
fern. Temihaf, she has been 
carried off. na Ahafena 
{sic)y pass, the being pil- 
laged, H. 265. 
tr pi. Enimahafen, they pil- 
laged one another. This 
verb seems to be Kab. 
Awaf, take ; which in Kab. 
means either sumo or capio: 
while Yuhaf has the mili- 
tary sense of capio, 
Yohak, he attacked, pi. Ehokan, 
B. 126. This may seem to 
mean only Yuhaf. Indeed 
the double form Yohag and 
Yohak in Barth may seem 
both to point at Yuhaf. But 
B. has also Ixak, attacks 
(which see), and the sense 
** captured *' ill suits the 
series of sentences in B. 126, 
127. He begins by Ehokan, 
they attack, and ends by 
Ohagen, they capture. There- 
fore I am inclined to identify 
Barth's Yohak with Ixak. 

Digitized by 




Ehiak, (the horse) is lame, B. 
216, 72. Also Ehiag. 

Ihul, has saluted, H. 188. 
Tehuletin, salutations, F. but 
Ham. Kab. Gr. 369 has root 
Ihuled, and Tahulet for Ta- 
huledt. See Ifuled, 

Halhal? seelYAe. 

Ihal, he weeps, B. and H. Me- 
fel tehalid? why weepest? 
"War telhet, weep not, B. 75, 
as though from Ilhe — rather 
Ihle, Ihele ? 

Tubal, for Yuxal, he ran. 

Ihle, busy, industrious, fem. 
Tihle, P. Yemihal, he is 
active, F. Yemihalhal, he 
has been very busy, F. Ima- 
halen, Inmazalen, domestic 
servants, H. 257. Tanma- 
halt, servant maid. [The 
change of A to 2 suggests 
Yuhal, Yuxal, Yuyal, he 
ran; as the root. See also 
under Imexal.] 

Ihuled, tee Ihul above. 

Tehalgi, the left side, for 

Heligle, (the fire) revives, B. 


Ihillelet, (the he-goat) bleats, 
B. 220 (Heb. and Arab. 

Eheni, see! (also Enhi, H. 
Endya, F.) tta Ahanai, Taha- 
nait, sight, faculty of sight. 
Amanai for Amhanai, the 
Sees, Oveeseee, epithet 
of the Most High. Enhef 
(Ehenef), I saw ; Ini (Inhi, 

Iheni), he saw, pr, Ihenni, 
Inhai, pi, Enhaien ; also Ite- 
henni, It^nhi, It6nhai. (The 
idea of Find is often substi- 
tuted for See,) na Tahanait, 
finding. Thus in " Prodigal 
Son/' Nolis tahanait, we 
have repeated the finding,^ 
ue, we have again found. F. 
has not only Enaya, see, but 
Tenaya, authority, dominion, 
perhaps rather Tehanaya, 

vr Yamenai [avve&e P), he 
compared? Ameni, com- 
parison, pL Imenitan, F. 
also Itamenaiy^ (?)iw*- he 
compares. (In these h 
seems to be dropt, as in 
Ira for Irha.) 

Ehen, chamber of tent, home ; 
pL Ih6nan. Hence verb 
dim, Tehent, pi, Tehanin. pr. 
Ihon, he changes his abode, 
B. 67. [Indeed B. renders 
ijoenit ahonenit, ** they have 
transferred their encamp- 
ments ; " Ijoenit is a puzzle.] 
Ihone, is domesticated ? Prod. 
Son, B. Tulis ihone, again 
he is at home ? (is alive, B.). 

Ihinnit, he neighed (Lat. hin- 
nio), pr. Itahinnit, B. 

Tehen^fet, moan, B. 75. na a 
moaninpf ? 

Tehanit, Tehaninet, na pity, B. 
(Hann, Heb. and Ar.) 

Yuhar, he is old=Yuxar, Ye- 
waxar, B.=Kab. Yusser. na 
Tuheri, old age. 

Digitized by 




Ihar, he <M)vered, B. H. 269 
has Entahar, tpe close up 
(the mouth of a well). B. 
81 perhaps contrasts E^raf; 
imani, I hide myself; with 
HUraf idemin, I cover my 
face (with my hands). 

Ahar, he associated (perhaps 
not Libyan, but for Arab. 
Saxar). Yuhar, he was com- 
rade, pr. Ituhar. Amaher, 
comrade, H. 61, 106, 248. 

Iharau-en, pc. wide, easy. See 

Eheri, property, (Arab, mal, 
pecus and pecunia, cattle and 
chattel), a herd, money. 
Tahore, a matter, affair ? 
husiness, B. Yehereyd (%ic 
E. with d\ occurrence ; also 
^(fihereyen, as if partici- 
pial, circumstance, accident, 
event. To what roots these 
belong, is not clear; the d 
of E. is embarrassing. 

Ahrai, seems to be the same 
root as Heb. Allar, Arab. 
A£.ar. In. vr Enimahray, 
mutually different, na An- 
mahray, difference, E. 

Tehur=Yefur, he tracked out. 
Yoher, he keeps the track. 
Ihuret, Han. 147. 2nd pL 
Tehurem,H:. 160, 187. War 
tehorit, thou keepest not the 
track, B. 

Enharben, they are sharp 
pointed, H. 214. qu. Arab, 
of vii form from ILarba, a 
bayonet ? 

Yehareg, adjacent, E. Imharag, 
a neighbour, B. 

Ihereg (=Ixereg of B.), he 
watered (the flock), jpr. Ite- 
harag, H. 147, 268. 

Ihorga, he dreamed, na Tehor- 
get, B. (Kab. Yurga). 

Ehereldaf, bessa, I gird my 
loins, B. 160 (doubtful root). 
Compare Aralad, a fence. 

Iharek, he strayed, na Aharak, 
H. (Ar. ^araj ?). 

Ihama, snarled, B. 222, pr, Ite- 
harna, but (B. seems to inter- 
pret) Ihernen, pc. crouching, 
221. Aineme-harnaAin, 139, 
mutually growling or crouch»- 
ing (said of two Hons). 

Ihusi, was pretty, elegant, pc. 
Ihusin, na Tehusit, Tehusai, 
beauty, H. But B. has only 
Ihos^n for Ihusin. Texe 
tehoske, flne grass, B. 231. 

Ihasar, (the- ostrich) runs, B. 
223— strides ? 

Ihuxel, is necessary, B. So in 
H. 217, if we may interpret 
u (as elsewhere) for IJr, not. 
See Ifhel. 

Ahaz, be near, approach, Yu- 
haz, pr. Yahez, B. na Ehaz, 
Tuhazi. In Prod. Son. Ine- 
haz (as if Niphal), he ap- 
proached. Also ** opposite 
each other," In6hezan gere- 
san, B. 232. 

I£.ast, he gave up, pr. Ita£.ast, 

Digitized by 




F. Ama£soty one surren- 

deriBd, a devotee. 
I£.xed, 8ee Ifxed. 
IRxem? TaRxamxam, very salt. 
Yi£ta, bristleB, B. 207. 


[In a few cases it may be 
doubtfnl whether Earth's K 
means Q ; but Q, as ^, is rare 
in Libyan. Each is Hable to 
be absorbed by T.] 
Ek, go thou, Akket, go ye. 
Ikka, he went; also as va 
he went to; he traversed. 
Ad ikkan, they will go. na 
Tikaut. [Y6ken ten, they 
drive them back : tic B. 143.] 
vc Isuk, Isok, he caused to 
go, he sent. Annasuk, we 
will send ; Ad yesik, wiU 
send upon. Amassuk, en- 
voy, pi, Imassuken, Em- 
saken, they deliberate, B. 
Tukai, it passed, it missed, it 
is past. XJkaien, they have 
passed, Wa yukaien, the past 
(time, etc.). Yaki, he passed 
at the side (H. 143), Tesawa 
toke, the ball missed, B. 
ve Isukai, he caused to pass, 
H. 209. See Denkai and 
Tokai, he awoke, vn f pr. 
Itakkai, F. XJkif, I woke 
up, m H. 124. In Kab. 
Xnd, pronounced U£i, wake 
thou. . 

Yoku, it blazed, pr, Ituku, F. 
na Tukut, a blaze. Tekaya, 
bread baked in the oven, F. 

Eki, take thou, mme.^Qn Musa. 

(2) At^ki, chip, square (planks), 
B. 191. 

Xau ? Yekaukau, (bird in Q^g) 
pecks, B. 215. 
vc Iskaukau, he knocks at, 
H. 99. 

Yekudel, he denied, pr, Itiku- 
del, F. See Odel. 

Ikedim, he peeled (fruit), pr* 
Itekedim, B. 

Ikdemet, it stung ? 

vp Itwakedemmat, has been 

Ikafayen, pc. fresh and sweet, 
epithet of milk, thus, A£ 
wa yekafayan, milk which 
is fresh. Also Takafet, scum 
of milk, B. (clotted cream ?) 

Ikfa, he gave (Kab. Ifka), 
imp. Ekf , pr. Itkef ; fut. or 
8ubj. Ad yekf. Ad ikef, ^(?. 
Ikfan; Wa ikfan, he who 
gave, o Soi}?. Also B. 197, 
Ikaf, it gives (?), pr. for 
vp Itukef, or Imakfa, was 

vr pi Enimekfan, they gave 

Ikfel?j»r Itikfal? Atikfalen, 
"they ransacked," B. 130, 
perhaps rather diripiunt. 

Ikfar, he is valiant. Akfor, 
valour, B. 

Ikukel, he stept, trod, H. 147. 
Kukelen, they chased, H. 

Digitized by 




231. But in Shilha, Ikuqil, 
he drove away. 
Ikal, he came ? Akel, go thou, 
£.232. (There is nothing to 
suggest that he means this 
as imperative to Igele, he 
departed.) Prod. Son. v. 30, 
Tezar ikal, the afternoon he 
came. (But this may mean, 
Iqqal, he returned ?) na 
Tikli, going, march, travel, 
H. Tekeli, starting on 
march, B. 125. But the 
causative form seems to be 
deponent, and supersedes the 

ve Sikel, cause to travel ; 
also travel thou ; pr, Isa- 
kel, he travels ; na Asikel, 
a journey. Am^sakal or 
Amasokal, pi, Imasukel, 
a traveller, hence a mer- 
chant, as ^fiTTopo^ in Greek. 
Hence further (F.) Imis- 
kal, he bartered, pr, Ita- 
miskal; and na Amiskal, 
Tukel, he lamented, pL XJke- 
len, H. 212. 

vo depon, Sikel, sob, moan, 

H. 181. Frequentativein 

F. Iskalal, he wailed, pr, 

Isakkalal. Yet see under 


£kel, pass the day ; opposed to 

Ens, pass the night, especially 

avoid the heat of the day ; 

as Arab. Qayyil. 8 fern, pi, 

Eklanet, H. 136. aor. Ikla, 

pr. Ikella? na Takellant, 

H. B. has Ut pi fid, Aden- 
ikkel, aor, \st pi, Nikkela, 
aor,2nd8ing,TQ\^\e^, Hence 
perhaps Amikli, dinner, F., 
as Amensi, supper, from Ens. 
Ikkul, he heeds, cares, H. 205. 
Ekkulec H. 183 (Ekolaf, B.) 
I care, na Takedt, care, pi, 
Tikalin, F. [This verb is 
also Haussa, Ktda, care ; 
Schon.] Barth also has Ekul- 
lefas, ** I embrace him ; " qu. 
I care /or him, cherish him ? 
More strangely still, " Kulet 
aisini, take my horse through 
the river : " qu. from a root 
Kulet? From Ikkul, he 
heeded, perhaps is derived 
through a form Isuyakal, the 
complex verb Simisuyakal, 
remember thou, in B. 84. 

(2) Takalt, in F., a foot mea- 
sure. One may conjecture 
that it comes from the Arab. 
Xil, a (dry) measure, mis- 

(3) Takalt, talk,— twice in B. 
27. Perhaps formed from 
Arab. Qal, he said ; Qaul, a 
saying ; and Taqalt was 
meant by B. It may be 
noticed that Shaw gives 
Aqual in place of Awal {vox) 
in Eabail. 

Ekkel, deventr, become, H. 60. 
Ikawelen, participial, dark of 

colour. Arab, yellow dun, 

or tan, tawny. 
Akli, a black, a negro, pi, 

Iklan; fern, Taklit, pi, Tik- 

Digitized by 




letin. Venture de Paradis 
spells it with q not k ; per- 
haps for Shilha.) Amana- 
kli, possessor of a slave. 

IklelFnaAsiklel, insult, H.217. 
This must be the dialect of 
Tuat, while for that of Ghat 
see Yukel. 

Iklokalo, pr. Itiklukala, it con- 
tains, F. 

Akelis, mince (the meat), £. 

Ikom ? pr. Itikom, he roots up, 
B. 186. 

Ikma? pr. Ikme, it hurts, 
afflicts, E. Ikmahi, it pains 
me, £. Ikman, painful; 
Ikmiman, d*- F., tia Tikma, 
F. (Ghadamsi Ikma, he 

Ekeminkem, roll up, B. 184. 

Ikemaret, (the gun) is loaded, 
B. 145. Possibly for Arab. 

Ekmas, pack together, H. 214. 
Arab. Kebbix. 

Ikmet, pr. Ikemmet? pick, 
vp Itukemmet, H., ter. 

Ekmex, itch, na Okumax, B. 
See the next. 

Ekmey, scrape, scratch, na 
Akamay, H. (Arab. Ekmex, 
pinch.) Okumax, itching, 
B. 197. 

Ekni, make, do, work, mend, 
make up, B. 166 ; aor. Ikna, 
pr. Ikanna, Ikann, H. pr. 
Itdkan, F. But pr. Ikna, 
Ikkena, it makes, B. 38, and 

p. 621. Politically, Ikann, 
he works, yj>r, he administers 
the government. Wa ye- 
kannan, the workman; cdso 
Wa tiknan, F. d°- Ma d 
iknaf, what shall I do? B. 
So with future sense, F. — 
Md kanaf ? Md nekan ? 
vr Emmeken, mutual deal- 
ing? an arrangement, joint 
action, ** a transaction," a 
compromise; ?ienee peace, 
Ekni, make, appears in Barth's 
Serku as a factor in some 
compound verbs. Thus B. 
194, "I join, Nek asmokas- 
akkanet ; '' \^that t«, I make 
to meet, from Imokas, it 
met, and Ikanna, he makes] : 
B. 169, " The fire is going 
out, Efeu tismaket, Efeu 
tismakit ; efeu war (?) iken- 
asmaket ; akkenes asismaken 
efeu." JOn the third ren- 
dering I can say nothing. 
In the second if we omit 
war as an error, we see Iken 
compounded with Asmaket, 
however superfluous.] B. 
168, 1 kindle the fire, Aken- 
asserafefeu. [Aserraf alone 
seems to suffice. Aken is so 
superfluous, as to suggest 
that the Serku was here 
spoken by some one who 
mingled foreign idiom.] 
Ikna 7according to H.), "it 
does, i.e. Enough ! Enough ! 
But Fw calls Ikna a superla^ 

Digitized by 




tiveformy by wMcli lie seems 
to mean the English very^; 
also he interprets it, Yery 
well I All right ! 8ee Ifna, 
it contents, it suffices; 'of 
which it may be a corrup- 
tion, or indeed of Arab. 
Iqnas. As in Negro English 
'Aplenty good" is said for 
' * very good, " perhaps at Ghat 
the form '* enough good " 
may pass for the same. — 
Indeed, Ugeda enough means 
also very with Barth. 

Yakun, he admired,^. Itukan, 
F. na Tukunt, admiration, 
Yekun, Akunen, inquisitive, 
F. TakSnit, a wonder, B. 

Iknef, it is roasted, na Akanef. 
vo Seknef, roast thou. 

Eknes, dispute thou, quarrel, 
etor. Iknas, pr. Ikannas, na 
Akanas, qusirrel, Amkannas, 
quarrelsome, a wrangler. 

Ikintihe (refat), he winnows, 
B, 188. (Eefat is for Arabic 
reHat, wind. Ikintihe may 
mean, he fans, or he invites.) 

Aker, steal, aor, Yuker, pi, 
()kS,ren, B., pr. Itiker, pe. 
Yukeren, na Tikera, stealth, 
Tokar, theft, B. 
vp Ituaker, or Imiker. Ad 
imiker, it will be stolen. 
Timaken, they are habitu- 
ally stolen, surripiuntur. 

Tekerat, complaint? censure ?F. 

Ikeru, Ikerukeru, he gnawed, 

Ikanu, Ikaurau, it was rent, 

B. With final -et, Eixaba 
karrawet, the skirt is torn, 
B. 198. Ikauraww {eit^.) 
it breaks asunder, B. 214, 
perhaps the participle : also 
pr. irregular, or frequenta- 
tive, Itc^tarau, it is shattered. 

Ikrebbet, he tastes, H. 217. 
aor, Ikerbet? 

Ikrel, he shaved or scraped (a 
pen), B. 173, he shaved on 
a turning lathe, H. 60 (Heb. 
Karat, Arab. QaraS, nip off, 
pare, cut close). Hence, 
probably in slang, AmakaraX, 
a plunderer, na TukerSi, 
plundering, theft. See Aker. 

Ikeref , he picketed (his camel) 
H., but passively Ikerafen, 
are picketed, B. Hence (?) 
quasi Mphal? Tinekeraft, 
** sitting with bent legs," B. 
squatting ? 
vc Sinekeraf, squat thou, B. 

Ikreh,^r. Ikerrah, he obtained, 
acquired, F. Ikerh6, he has 
espoused, H. 35, perhaps as 
Nactm est (uxorem), cepit, 
duxit. So in Kab. Yufa 
Gama/pf u9. Yet see Ikres. 

Ikeruked, he was overmodest, 
H. TJr tekerukedem, be not 
timid, Tekraket, H. Teke- 
raket, B. bashfulness. Pro- 
bably for Tekrakedt, Teke- 

Karkar ? 

Si tekrikert, " de travers," H. 
125, crosswise, perversely. 
Kerker, imp. go across ? 

Digitized by 




perhaps with a how or other 
xnachme, card and comb 
across. Hence, clean (cotton) 
B. pr, Itekarkar, B. 165, 
and fl, Tikerukaren, cleansed 
cotton, B. Tekarkaraf, I cut 
(a pen), B. 173, perhaps, I 
scrape. Bee IkreL 

Ekeral, put on, fasten on (lug- 
gage), B. (Eregel?) 

Ikaram, fem. Tekeram, (a cow) 
lies down, B. 

Ikeres, (Xab. he knotted, na 
Tikerest, a knot). In Tu. 
an unendurable ambiguity is 

(1) Ikres, he espoused (a wo- 
man), as in Kab. ipr. Ikerres, 
H. 95, 96, 159. 8ee Ikreh. 

(2) Ikerres, pr. he deceives 
(entangles in a noose, in- 
veigles ?) BE. 47 ; pr, Itdka- 
ras, he seduces (a woman), B. 
117. »« Tikurrast, trickery, 
H. Compare Tikerkas of 

vo of wr f Simikerisset, tinp. 
pi. ** fold ye (knot or en- 
twine ye)" your fingers 
" religiously," B. 92. 
Ikret? {l)pr.9 Ikurret, goes 
astray : (the ball) swerved, B. 
vo Sikerret, lead astray, H. 
(2) pr, Akerittef, I tickle, B. 

Ikeruzen, pe. narrow, H. 216. 

Amekrez, a defile. 
Ekkes (Fr. ote), take away, 
pull off, pxill out, rescue. 

Ikkes, Lat. ademit, exemit, 
pr. Itekkas, H. F. take off 
(clothes), lay down (arms), 
B. 162. na Okus, F. In 
B. 99 perhaps Etagozaf, I 
take off (a load) ought to be 
Etakosaf;, from this root. 
vp Akasen, are stript off, B. 

Yekus, it is hot, F. pc. Ikktisen, 
hot, BE. Wakusen, hot, B. 
na Tukkese, H. Tuksi, F. 
Tak5s, B. heat. 
vo Isekkus, he heated, H. 

B. 167 has Iksahi aman, 

heat for me the water; 

less accurate than Sekkus- 

ahi aman. 
IksuX, he feared, pr. IteksoX, B. 
IteksaS, F. «a TuksoJi, Tuk- 
8e2a, alarm, danger. Amek- 
su2, timorous, a coward. 
vo Seksu2, frighten thou, 

raise alarm. 
vp ImseksuS, he was alarmed. 
vr EnimseksuJen, they 

frightened one another. 
Iksen, he hated, pr. Ikassen. ' 
vr Enimeksenen, they hated 

Ika86as, splintered? pierced? 
B. 2 1 1 . (Kab. Iqqes, prick, 
Iket? Ikti? hence pr. Ikaten 
enSli, they buy millet, B. 
150, and '^ Ekataf erelan, 
I measure, B. 193.'' [B.'s 
"erelan** means " ifellan," 
yards, ells. Thus we may 
in both places render Ikat, 

Digitized by 




he measures, if ''measuring 
out grain" may mean "buy- 
ing" grain; then "yards" 
or "ells" is added, to show 
when lonff measure is meant. 
— Else, in both places, Ikat 
may mean "he takes," not 
eapit, but sumtt Just so, in 
Turkish, take (at the market) 
for hut/, and in Latin Emo, 
which originally meant/ ^a^tf, 
has trans^rred that sense to 
Demo, Adimo, Eximo, and 
suggests only, I buy.] 

Whether Ikaten is of the 
same root as the following 
Ikti, is a new question ; just 
as whether Latin Metier, 
Mensus, is allied to Mens; 
and Greek fiirpov (with Ho- 
mer's afWTov for a/ierpov) 
is of the same root as /jltjti^;. 
Here we can only say. It is 
possihhy that if Ikti means 
he measured, it is the source 
of Amekti, mind, memory. 

Ikted, he remembered, H. 141 
(Kab. Ekei, AmekGi), the 
final d is pronominal ? 
vo Isimikta, he calls to mind, 
B. 84. 

Iktal, he tied up sheaves — he 
sheaved (the fields), pr. Ya- 
kittil, B. 189. 

Kayetan, pass near, chse to f 

l^okedten, we pass, Kayetannaf, 
I pass. See Denkai and 

Ekx, eat thou (Kab. Etx), aor. 
Ikza, pr Itatt. Taten, they 

eat, Ikzan, having eaten, 
Itatten, eating. Wa 
ikzan, he who ate. 
vp Inekxa, Imekxa, is eaten ; 

(the money) is spent. Also 
vp Ituekxa, pr, Itmekxa, H. 

Awakxi, H. Axekxu, B. 

food, na Tit^ti, eating. 

El, have thou ;pc, Ilan, hating, 
Ur, ili, he has not. Ma 
ilan ? qms hahet ? Ma ila ? 
quid hahet iUe ? Ma k ilan ? 
quis te possidet ? H. a rare 
verb. F. does not notice it. 
B. once has Lan, 73, which 
must mean hahent. From 
his lips I learnt that Ha in 
composition means Having, 
as Ilehan, having a home, 
i,e, married. B. Prod. Son, 
V. 11, ilaroris, having chil- 
dren. In F. p. 37, WdteUd 
{sic) seems to mean Quid 
habes ? 

Ili, be thou. Wa illan, who- 
ever or whatever exists. 

Ilia, he is or was. na Ilaut, 
existence. [In Tuarik, it 
seems that Hla, as the copula 
of logic, is superseded by 
Temiis ; Hla meaning There 
is, There was.] 

Yola, he granted, accorded, pr* 
Itulu, F. 

lyyel, he divorced, set free, 
Ben Musa. 

Awal, utterance, saying (Lat. 
vox). Amawal, crier, herald. 

Digitized by 




vc Isiwel, Isiul, he spoke, 

pr Isawal. 
vr Imsewalen, they, talked 
together, pr, Timsawalen. 
Amsawal, an echo. 
Hiu ? he was merry, pi. Ele- 
wen; Elewef, I rejoice, Ut 
pi IN'elewet (with et final). 
adf Olewet, happy. 
vc Teslawit, thou hast given 
joy. — ^AllfromB. (iS^^^also 
Iddiwet or Iddu.) Com- 
pare the two following 
Yelwa, it is broad, ample ; adv, 
amply, F. B. too has Olua, 
/. Tolua, spacious. [The 
connection of Width with 
Ease is not rare ; see Igerau : 
and in Greek hidyxxnf; is 
used for relaxation, merri- 
ment. Also in modem Greek 
from x«wo9, loose, flabby, 
. comes 'xavv(0(n<;, relaxation. 
Therefore this root Yelwa 
may be the source of Elewen, 
Olewet. But here the root 
Iddiwet perplexes us.] See 
Yelu, he was strong. Elwan, 
they are powerful, numerous. 
Nelwa, we are strong. Elu, 
elephant, pi, Mwen, all from 
H. [The likeness of Elu to 
Heb. Elef and eX,6<^9, can 
hardly be accidental. Hodg- 
son would connect Elephant 
with Kabail Ilef, hog ; which 
in Venture is Arabized into 

Elwi, lead, lead away. [Awi, 
Awwi, looks like a corrup- 
tion of this root.] drd pi, 
aor. Elwiyen; pr, 2nd pi, 
Teluyem, H. 188, again, pr. 
Itilui, 158,^ but in F. pr. 
Ilawwi. Elwined, H. 230, 
for Elwiyen id, they have 
led hither. 
Yuli, in Kab. he went aloft. In 
Tu. perhaps rather. It was 
aloft. Yulai, is is suspended, 
H. 185, pendet, 
vo Suli, lift up (the heart), 
B. as in Kab. Likewise 
Selik (Suli(;?)I hung up 
(dishes), B. 178. 
Yulehe, B. Yule, H. (the 
longer form seems to be the 
older) was alike, pc, Yulan, 
being like ; Ulan, they are 
alike, H. 53, 133. 
vo Isula, he assimilated, H. 
205. Amalehen, similar, 
B. Tolam («»V), a like, F. 
[This verb seems allied to 
lulafen (below), and to 
Ilha, of Shilha. The ideas 
of likeness and of beauty 
are connected in Old Eng- 
lish Likely, also in Seemly; 
so too in Greek.] 
Alihe, cut (rice stalks), B. 187, 
pr, It61ihe, Telihaf, I cut 
(rice), B. 187, I shear (a 
fleece), B. 180. 
Ilbak, was lean, po, Bbaken, BE. 

Habas, he was ugly, it was 
base : pc. Ilabasen, na Tela- 

Digitized by 




bast. Taliy lebaset, risus 
pravus, B. 74. 
Ilbad ? ve Islebbat, he will 

maltreat, H. 184. 
"ElKelf suck the teat; said of 

brutes, H. 60. See I^eq^. 
Telaudat,/w».B.201, tends to ? 
Ildex, he was weary, pr, Ilad- 
dex, H. Ildax, B. na Teldexi. 
Ilap, he tasted (sipped ?), Heb. 
Las ; pr. Italaf, B. na Talaf, 
B. 14. /8fdtflkrebbet,Yunidi, 
Yulafen, pc. handsome, good, 
na Tulefi. F. has Tolaf, na 
Tuloq for Tuloft, Olafan 
{pL) good. Harret ulagen 
(ulapen?), a good thing, B. 
Yolfut, fern, Tolfut, difficult, 
F. (weighty ?) m, pi. Olfein, 
F. Talfat, dear of price, H. 
233 (compare Ar. fali.) 
vo Silcet, difficult, F. p. 29, 
^w^difficulty, p. 45. (Per- 
haps rather in both Sil(;et, 
make difficidt.) Also in 
p. 29, Asilgi, perhaps diffi- 
culty. [Not in H., nor 
Ulifet, he charged, exhorted, 
H. 176, 187, 278. na Talfa, 
a command, 'F.,pl. Tilfiwen. 
Alihe ; see after Yule, Yulehe. 
[Ilqay, Kab. deep.] Telak, 
deep channel of a river ; deep 
water, B.fem. verb Telkayat, 
(the boat) dipped under, i.e. 
foundered, B. 211. va Elka- 
waf, I scoop up (dip into) 

water? B. 175. Possibly the 

k in B ought to be q, as in 


1^.B. Telak and Ilkau are 

here related in sense nearly as 

in English deep and dip. 

Alii, free, B. (but qu. rather 
Alelli ?), /em. TeleUit, a free 
woman, a high-bred she- 
camel, H., pi. llelliyen, free 
men, H. Elulif, I am free. 
!N"elu^^, we are (become?) 
free. Akeli nellll (for Eli 
Ian ?), a freed slave, B. 96. 

Ilal, H., Yelil, F., he aided, 
pr. Itilal, F. na Telilt, aid. 
Ilala, pi. Il^len, baggage, 
B. Emiyelel, auxiliary, F, 
vr pi. Enimalalen, they aided 
one another. 

Alii, a follower, one obedient, 
a vassal, H. [in strange con- 
trast to Free. ; see above]. 

Elilal (sic B. 105), obedient, 
and Elilaf, I follow, pe. Ili- 
len, following ; but taking a 
direction, B. 204. - 
vcf Isellilet, straight. 

Iselilen, even, flat, also Ne- 
sauel (?), d<»- B. 

Jluela? went wide? SeeYelwa. 
vc Sellelue irriwi, let go the 
cord, B. ; also Sellelueraf, 
I let go (with r), B. 

Elek inek, welcome to you! 
H. 157. {Mek seems to be 
a noun.) 

Yolekwial, he hastened, B. 
(trotted ?) Arab. Leklek. 

Elk? Elked? Elken, they de- 

Digitized by 




spisedy H. 181. na Telkedi, 
contempt. Yet B. Ill, Ha- 
kad, seems to be, He praises. 
See Ulifet. 

Ilkem, he followed, H., B. 
(attended, F.), pr, llkam, 
(Uekkam, E.) also Itelkam, 
pi. Telkamen, H. 261. past 
pe, Ukemen, pr. pc. Ilka- 
men. Noun llkam, the fu- 
ture, H. 205. 

IluUen, (a vulture) hovered? 
B. 226. 

111am (Lat. torsit), he twisted, 
twined, turned on a lathe; 
(YeUim, Y. Shilha ? he 
spun), pr. Itellem, B. Tel- 
lemin, they twine (ropes), 
B. pc, lUamen, " bien tour- 
n6," H. 219, i,e. cylindrical. 

limed, he learned (Heb. Arab.) 
pr. I lammed, na Elmed. [Te- 
lamld, pupils, from Arabic] 
Alemmad, Analmad, learner, 
H. 106, 107. 

vo Iselmed, he taught, pr. 
Isalmad. ["I will teach 
him, or make him learn," 
is used for, I will subdue 
him, break him in.] na 

LemiS, supple, elastic, F. na 
Telmuii. Yet 

Lemma£an, pi. poor, H. 214. 

Ilmar, went away, B. 224; 
but qu. 

Ilamisli, (the bird) carols, B. 

Ilmez, he swallowed, pr. Ilem- 
mez, H. 

vp Ituelmez. Alemmaz, 
Analmaz, a glutton, H. — 
F. has "Ilamuz, deep," 
i.e. no doubt, "it swal- 
lows," as a gurges or 
swamp. Alemmuz, fod- 
der, H. 

Yelimzagen, pe. cool, F. 

Iwilingwal, he fanned, B. 194. 

Ilenet? pr. Itellent, he ban- 
dages (wounds), B. 142, but 
see Illam. 

Elluq, be poor, EUupet, lecome 
poor; (so H. 67) aor. Illu- 
qet. pr. Itilluqet. No light 
is thrown on the change from 
f toq. 

Hare or Har, he acquainted, 
informed, B. 89. Alaret- 
ahi, B. 112, confession to 
me ? (Very obscure.) 

Ills, the tongue, may be the 
source of the verb, 

Yules (Yolis, B.) he repeated, 
iteravit. Olis, repeat thou, 
B. 156. Tules, she re-com- 
menced, H. 134, ^(j. Yiilesen, 
having re-commenced, B. 2 1 4, 
pr. Itules. (Kab. HP 232, 
A A alesef, I will tell again.) 
In B. Prod. Son, Tules, Nolis, 
(verbs) supply the adv. again. 
Also Smalis, repeat thou, B. 
156. F. has "Telsedas, 
again," in which -edas is 
unexplained. B. Prod. Son 
V. 21, Dar tulis (sic), in 
repetition, over and above. 

(2) This verb takes a second 
sense, as Recount j in which 

Digitized by 




the idea of Ee, a^ain, is 

lost. Talesen, "onraconte," 

H., they tell, relate, report. 

So XJlesen, they narrated; 

Tules, she recounted. Ale- 

saf, I reported, H. 178, 182, 

(3) Tilist, sloumesa of tongue, 

£. 632, from His, tongue, 

the diminutive expressing 

Els (Elsu, B.), dress thyself, 

aor, Ilsa, pr. Ilass, na Te- 

lessi. Iselsa, garments, B. 

633; Ilexxan, (sicB., 219), 

d"- Isilsahin, d°- F. 

vp Imelsa, it has been worn. 
In Ghadamsi, Timelsit, 

vc Sels, clothe (another), pr, 
Laz, hunger; Ellaz, be hungry, 

aor. lUuz, pr. Itellaz, BE. 77. 

Amelluz, a starveling. 


Em, die, H. (Coptic Mu). Im- 
ma, he is dead. pc. Wa im- 
man, 6 Oavoiv, the dead 
(man). . See Immut. — Barth 
has this verb in metaphor 
only, Alan amin, the leaves 
are dead (?). 

Emay, the living (God), B. 
Perhaps from Arab. Hay, 
come EmUay, Emay. 

Temayet, na gratitude, B. 

Imbek, (the water skin) is 
pierced, B, 199. 

Ember, travel by night. See 

Imda (Imeda, B.), is finished. 
Ur imdi, it is not finished. 
TJr mada, no longer. Ur 
madef (with another verb), 
none the more, K. 188. Imda, 
pL Emdan, for all (ira^f 
7rdvT€<;, tout, tons), F. pr. 
Imaddu, F. 

vc Isemda, he completed, he 
annihilated ; as Lat con- . 
fecit, Engl, despatched, 
finished, made an end of. 
Simdef, I fini^, B. 155, 
3 p. Isimde. 

Amidi, comrade, etc. See Idiu. 
AmawaS, see EwaX. 

Yumdi, he tasted, B. 

Yumad, pray to God, na Tu- 
rn ad, Timad, solemn prayer. 
[Moslem addresses to God 
are pratsey Ar. Hamad. 
Hence perhaps Umad.] 

Medan, account, F. 

Madanes? Danes? Ismadanes, 
(the goat) bleated, B. 

MaSruin, small [young, Ben 
Musa] {See InSurren, and 
Kab. £dru-s). Ama£arai, 
younger (brother). ImaSray, 
he despised (be-littled), F. 
pr. Itamairay, Timaierit, 
smallness?. F. ImaZroInen, 
feWyfem. TimaSroinen. [In 
strange contrast, EmeSer, 
important, F.] Also Ama- 
drui, stranger, H. Kab. Gr. 
p. 349, with soft d. 

Imogen, he dined, H. (Eme- 

Digitized by 




genen, pi, H. 141), rather 
he took a meal? Amagin, 
supper, F. (a meal?). 
ve Isemgen, he fed (horses), 
H. 69. 

Emger, vn receive hospitality, 
H. 106. In Kab. gather 
crop. fM Temegeri, hospi- 
tality, 261. 

Amagar, a guest, ^/. Im^areu, 
H. 73, 106, 249, 256; also 
B. But H. 250, host, not 
guest. In Kab. Gamagra, 
harvest, Gamafra, festivity. 
For Amgar, a contest, see 
under Ger. 

Imfa, he went up and down, 
pr. Itamaf, B. TJr abuk imki 
(imp?), will not go down, 
B. Yummaf, he searched, 
sought, pr. Itammap. Imfa 
and Yummap seem to belong 
to the same root, though 
slightly distinguished. (So 
eiSov and oiBa in Greek. 
Yunaf and InaAi in Kab. 
combine the ideas of Search- 
ing, and Traversing. {See 

vo Yesummaf, he asked for, 
sought. [In Kab. Immef, 
he rushed, seized : in Shilha 
he fought.] 

Imfunen, Impanen, he disputed, 
pr, Itimfunen, na Tamfunant, 
Tam(;anent, F. 

Ampar, a chief, an elder, pL 
Im(tiren. Perhaps a variety 
of Amuqqar, great. Temfart, 
lady, dame, woman, pi. Tim- 

farin. nrtTeme[;eri,Tem|;erin, 
greatness, grandeur (but 
Temper, ability, F. perhaps 
authority ?). Amparin, fa- 
ther, F. (a respectftil name, 
as in English Governor for 
Father ?) See Maqqar. 
ve Isemper, he honored, B. 

Yemfut, artful, skilful, F. (If 
it be from Yummaf, Im(;a, 
one might expect rather 
Active or Inquisitive. 

Imhai, he met, pr. Itimhai, H. 
(For this B. has Yemokas.) 

Imhal, a doubtful root. 

(1) Yemihal, F. he is busy, 
active, which I have referred 
to Ihle.— Dialect of Ghat. 

(2) Imhal, he thrust, drove, H. 
126.— Dialect of Tuat. 

(3) B. 147, 195, dialect of 
Serku, seems to give to the 
root the sense oi straight and 
worthy. War esin isineme- 
hel, he knows not to aim. 
Isnemehel, he directed (his 
gun) well. Sinnemehel, 
^traight on, B. 195. £s 
inemehel, directly, straightly, 
na Tanemahla, vis d, vis, a 
confronting. Also Isimehal, 
he is worthy, he deserves ; 
but in Prod. Son, v. 19, War 
issimmemdhalaf; {sic\ and v. 
21, War issimmahalai;, I am 
not worthy. Again, Anim- 
mehel dirs, it is worthy : 
Wadaf animmehal ahastau- 
yet yewalafen, this is worth- 
less, B. 195. 


Digitized by 




Imahwar, lie conyeyed, pr. 
Itamahwar, F. Possibly for 
Imaywar, which yet will not 
well yield this sense. 
Imehex, is spent, has yanished, 
B. 196. 

ve Ixmahix, by attraction for 
Ismahix, he destroyed, B. 
221. Compare the first 
letter in Barth's Xirgex, 
Xikerax, Xinkex. 
Imiklo, he dined, F. from 
Amikli, dinner ; which sug- 
gests Heb. and Arab. Akel, 
eat ; but rather is likely to 
be from Ekel, which see, 
Yemiklulu, it is bright, F. 
Imukkan, it is certain, H. but 
Imdkan, it may be, B. The 
latter suggests Arab. Yomkin, 
it is possible; the former 
guides to Aqqan, bind, and 
Arab. Taqin, certain. The 
Kab.yerb Imken, he reached, 
throws no Hght. 
Emmeken, compromise, etc. See 

Imaket, a root peculiar to 
Barth, 169, which much 
needs clearing up. Imaket, 
(the fire) is gone out. Ite- 
mekatit, it is going out (?). 
vc Ismakket, he put out (the 
fire) ; and deponenty Tisma- 
ket, (the fire) is going out. 
Also Akkenes asisma^^ 
and War ikenasmaket in 
B. apparently without 
translation. [^See Iken- 
asser, under Irra.] 

Imokas, he met, pr, Itimokas, 
B. as Kab. Imugar. — ^But 
F. gives Yemukus, he die- 
missedy pr, Itimukus. From 

Mell, come (as in Songhay), 
pi. Mellit, B. Emmalef, I 
come; Malen, they arrived, 
H. 179, 250. 

Mell, be white, H. Anulel, 
white, F. pc. adj. Imellen, 
pi. Imellulnin {eic). na Te- 
melli, H. Timella, ^ekd^ 
spender ? H. [Fd^ Si tame- 
lilt, in turn, H. which re- 
minds us of Kab. Gallit, and 
verb Walla.] 

Amel, denote by word or ges- 
ture. Amelahi, tell me. aor. 
Yumel,^/.TJmelen, they told. 

Melea, geld (a male animal), B. 
Perhaps only cut, slash ; for 
B. has also 

vc Ismellu, draw back (the 
throat) to cut it. 

Mulet, kiss thou, H. Temulit, 
a kiss, B. 

vr pi. Enimmulaten, they 
kissed each other, H. Also 
Emoleraf (Emoletaf), I 
kiss, B. 

Ameni, comparison, F. etc., see 

Yeman, he appeared (on sum- 
mons ?), F. pr. Ituman. 
Compare Shilha. 

Manna, year of dearth, Ege- 
manna, barren, Emunnet, 
fertile, B. (A strange triplet.) 

Iminda, he finished, F. {J&ee 

Digitized by 




Imda) pr. Itaminda. na 
AmindU; conclusion, E. Also 
as vn confectm eat, he was 
worn out ; hence with F. 
old. Imende, vn or vp, (food) 
is all gone, B. 196; also (a 
tribe) is extirpated ; (a dress) 
is torn to shreds. B. indeed 
giyes a passive sense to the 
vo Isimende, (the tribe) is 
scattered; also has Asimande, 
a man with a torn dress: 
qtuisi a ragamuffin. 

Emauna, Emanomau, shut the 
eyes and have a vision, B. 

Imendaf, vn he took lodging 
for the night, B. 

Iminak, see under Inak. 

Amenokal, military leader, im- 
perator,=Agallid, Axlid. na 
TamenSkal, government, in- 
vestiture with power ? the 
chief officers. Enim5kal ? 
pr. Itinm5kol (stCy B. 125), 
invest with authority. 

Imunxaf, he envies, B. 116. 

Maqqar, large, great, pe. Imaq- 
quran, fern, Tamaqquret, pi. 
Imaqumen. This form seems 
to express rather physical 
greatness, and Am|;ar, moral 

Imere, /. Temere, is eclipsed, 
B. p. 619. [Atamar, hope? 
F* p. 41. Tamara, violence ? 
mal gri ?] Also Imira, it is 
open, from verb Ar. — Ame- 
re, thing written ? from An, 
write thou. — Ameri for 
Amerhi, friend ; root Irha. 

Margar ? vc Ismargar, he started 
early, B. See Inxaya, Ihaya. 

Mormor ? Ismormor, he took a 
ride, B. 63. pr. Ut p.s. Ad 

Mus, go thou, B. so in Shilha. 
B. 235, has, " That is a dif- 
ferent thing, "Wadef amus 
harret ;" which seems to 
imply, Yamus, alters fOhaages, 
the affair. Har amos {i,e. 
yemos), until it become, be 
made, B. 143, is perhaps 
the following. 

Yemus, in H. and F., is the 
logical copula is ; Ilia mean- 
ing, He exists. Musen, are, 
Ur tumas, she was not. Ye 
musen, pc. being. Ma temu- 
sed kai ? who art thou ? Ma 
yemus enta ? who is he ? F. 
— ^Barth twice in Prod. Son, 
has d amusaf, "be called" 
— perhaps **be.^* 

Amiskal, na barter ? See Ikal. 

Imsel, it touched, H. 217, de- 

Emmet, die thou {See Em), 
aor. Yemut, Immut, pr. Ite- 
metti, fut. Ad immet. na 
Tamettant {sic), H. Ta- 
mantant (sic), B., Tamu- 
taut, F., death. 

Amawat, adult, see EwaX. 

Imsan ? 
vc Isamasen, he holds back 
(his horse), B. 

Metan, genuine, Duv. (Ghat). 

Amutesa, cowardly, F. (full of 
liver, T6sa?). Yemutased^* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' 

■, ' n:-- 



a&aid, F. Amutso, coward- 
ice, B. TamuttiS; danger 
(alarm?), B. 

vr pL Anemettesen, they 
were mutually afraid, B. 
Imexal, he travelled, na Ta- 

mexalet, B. 195, Also, 
Anamaxal, a messenger, en- 
voy, pL Inimixalen, B. See 
also Inmazalen under Ihle ; 
which suggests that Yuyal, 
Yuxal, Yuhal is the root of 
Imezzi, he parted from ; Ime- 
zey, he decided, pr. Ita- 
mezey, F. ; also 
vo Izimze, he distinguished, 
pr. Izdmize, F. These 
appear to be developments 
of Arab. Miz, distinguish. 
But B. 96 Izimm^ze, he 
has divorced (his wife), 
qu. caused her to part 
from him? This sense 
goes very wide of the 


In (Ena, F.), say thou, oar. 
Inna, pr. Igenna. Ad yini, 
he will say. Wa innan, 
6 ehrwVf he who said or 
told. Gennan, they say, for, 
they call or entitle, na Ti- 
nant, sayiug. 

Endya, see, etc. LooktoEheni. 

Yenay, (it is) new, F. pc, adj. 
Yainaiyen, new, H. 237. 

Ehe inayna, new tent, B. 
Compare Greek v^o. 
Inay, he rode (Kab. Inigi). 
Aniyet, mount ye! Nayaf, 

1 ride, (^r. B.) also Itinne, 
he rides, B. [Itenhi, he 
sees, under Eheni.] Enin, 
they rode, H. 210. Amnay, 
a rider, pi, Imnayan. Ine- 
menniyen, cattle for riding, 

ik» Awan, reserve, modesty, 

H. 222. 
iki? Ewen, state, condition, 

H. 237. 
Iwan, Yun, he ascended, 
climbed up, B. H., imp, 
Eun, H., Awen, B. ; aor. 

2 f.B. Teunad, H., 1 p.», pr. 
Tewinaf, I mount, 3 p.%. 
Itewin, he mounts, B. Ama- 
wen, a mounter, i.e. a rider. 
{See under Inay.) 

ve Isiwen, il fit monter, H. 
Kaiwen, we are satiated, etc. 

See Egiun. 
Inbi, he tasted, sipped, H. 256. 
Enbel, bury thou, H. 78, pr. 

Inabbel, na Anabel. Anab- 

bel, burier, sexton. 
Inbej? pr. Inabaj, beats (as 

hail), B. 620. 
Enber (Ember), travel by night, 

pr. Inabbar. [Also, feed by 

night, H. 71, which is very 

confusing.] Anenbar, night 


vo Senber, cause to travel by 
night. [Yet Simbara, set 
loose. See Ibra.] 

Digitized by 




Inidet, he heated, B., pr, Ina- 
det. na Tinedet, B., Tinedi, 
H., febrile heat, fever. 

IneS, [InheS?] he consulted, 
pr. ItineS, H. 255. na Ta- 
na'p, counsel, H. (Tanhad, 
B.) Frequentative. Imindu- 
dan, meditations, B. Ager 
tanhad, give advice {cast ad- 
vice), B. 32. 

Inuddem, he dozed, was sleepy 
(as Kab.), pr. ItenedSm, B. 

Inder, he refused, B. he balked? 
Tinderas, (the camel) refused 
{to him ?) B. But Ham. 147 
renders Inder, **he was 
stronger or braver than'*; 
(where **he balked him*' 
would satisfy the context.) 
vo Isindar, he threw down, 
B. 144, rejecity dejecit. 

fEnnadir, oftener; Sennadir, 
frequent ; (strange, while in 
Arabic, Nadir means rare,) 

InZurren, little; A indurren, 
TO jULiKpov, a little, a few; 
for a little while. Prod. Son. 
[The form is participial ; from 
root Iniurr. See Ameirui]. 
F. has An£uran, a little; 
Ayen26ran, small, pi. Ima- 
Xroinen. Taliad andurret, a 
young girl, B. 96. 

TJnef, subs, desire, H. IwTnefi, 
he desired to see, H. 223. 

Infu, it suits, BE. 184; it pro- 
fits, B. Probably this is only 
the Arabic Kefas. 

Nefren ? Isnefren, F. Isenni- 

fren, H., he chose. Possibly 

a compound of Isen, he knew 

and I&en, he chose. 
Infel, he hurt, harmed ? pr. 

Ineffel. XJr ten neffelen, 

they will not have hurt 

them, H. 237. 
Infer, he rolled? pr. Inafar, 

(the horse) rolls, B. 216. 

Inafar toraft, he rolls the 

boat, B. 210. 
Tanfost, na a fable, a story. 
Inueiffem. Tinnft, it is cooked, F. 

B. H. pr. Itenan, F. pc. Innan 

(IgnaD,B. 167), ripe, cooked. 

na Tinena, cookery. [The 

n in this fiEunily must be 

sounded, if not as n^ in 

English Eing, then as gn in 


vo Isinni, he cooked, baked, 
pr. Isaniia, F. Asinni, a 
cook or baker, pi. Iseniiin, 
Wa yesennin, pc. d**' Com- 
pare Shilhalsna, he dressed 
Tisenanit, baking, i.e. heating 

power (of sun's rays), B. 
Ingu, Inju, it bellowed, pr. 

Inejju, B. na Tenegeut, a 

roaring, F. See Egeu. 
Ingay, it gushes. See Infel. 

Angi, Enji, a torrent, B. 

Angi, abundance, H. 39. 
Ingad, he veiled himself, pr. 

Inaggad, H. 258. 
Engel, explain thou, H. 60. 
Nef, behold! (a particle like 

Latin En, Ecce ?) Nef win, 

Digitized by 




behold him, Nef tin, behold 
Enf, kill thou, aor, Infa, pr. 
Inaf Enfif, I killed, Wa in- 
fan, tcreiva^^ he who slew- 
t;^ Itunef, Ituenf ; pi. Tuen- 
{on, they have been killed, 
vr pL Enimenjien, they killed 
one another. AnemaD[;a, 
B. Anemenfi, H. battle. 
Ayet ademan^an, let them 
fight, B. 138. 
Infel, gushed out, (so Kab.), 
pr, leaks, B. 210, frequenta- 
tive. Iniialnafel, leaks dan- 

vc Sinfel, pour out ; (Isinge, 
leaks, B. 199) hut SuDfel 
aman, cause (water) to 
gush, B. 175, bale out 
water, B. 192. [B. 172 
has " Sanahel, throw ; '* a 
word which seems to mean 
"facilitate." One might 
correct it to Sanafel, if 
Sunfal can be fitly ren- 
dered ^/»^ out (water).] 
vo Isinfal, he ploughed, F. 
but we may suspect that 
it means he watered ; this 
being the chief need in 
Enfem ? pr, Srd pL Enefmen, 

they aflten, H. 223. 
Enhi, see. Refer to Eheni. 
Eiihi, worship, do homage ? H. 

Inhaggen, pleasing, H. 219. 
See Ihaget. 

Enhil, be easy, H. 60. Nahll, 

easy, fern. Tenahlleti F. tta 

Tenheli, ease. 

vo Yezinhel, he aided, F. 

(facilitated?) na Azinhel, 

[Esanahel, throw, B. from 

some other root.] 

Inka ? Isinkawen, boued meats, 

H. Isinka, he boiled, stewed? 
Nakk? (Heb. Naka, he smote) 

Enakkan, they smote. Inak- 

kahi, has overpowered me, B. 
Inak [struck (a bargain) ?]. F. 

has vr Animinak, (mutually) 

convenient. Inminak, he 

accommodated, pr, Anminak 

(sic), qu Inmanak ? na 

Ameknu, accommodation, F. 
Enked, teaze, torment. (Arab. 

Nekkit, teaze ; !N^ekkid sala, 

deal severely with.) 

vr Imenkad, he tormented 
himself, H. 212, 241, pr. 
Itamenkad, ItamanSkit 
(aic\ it hurts, B. 227. na 
Temankid, exhaustion, B. 
See the next. 
Inka£, he mutilated, pr, Inek- 

kaX. na TinkeXi. AnekkaS, 

AmenkaZ, a cutter. 

vp IminkeX, he was mutilated. 
Taminket, a cutlet, B. p. 
633. AmenkaZ, one cir- 
cumcised, B. War ite- 
manakit, lest it cut (or 
gaU), B. 227. 
Inikkal, moisture, B. 164. 

Tenfkelwa, rich, F. 
Inekamaf, he lay in bent form, 


Digitized by 




Enker, arise (primitiye of Kab. 
Ekker), aor. Inker, pr. Inak- 
ker, na Tenakrat, B. 
vo Sinker, cause to rise ; ex- 
plode (a mine), fire (a gun). 

ilnkas, he sucked the breast, 
^. Inakas, B. 
ve Tesankas, she suckles. See 
Ifef, ElieX. 

Enhex? vo Izenkex, he ad- 
vances, H. Xinkixin felle, 
make place, B. 107. 

Tanemirt, fM benediction, H. 
259 (Root Inemar ?). 

Inin, he confessed, pr, Ttinin, 
F. (Not in H. nor B.) na 
Tannunt, education, H. 218. 

Taneqqist, fable, tale, pi. Ti- 
n^qqes, H. 146. (Arab, sar- 
casm, reviling.) 

Enner, na honte, shame, H. 

Inra-hi, overpowers me, B. 21, 
as in Shilha. See Irna. 

Enrer teq^, wink thou the eye, 
B. pL Enar6ren ni tafok, 
dawn of day (viz. winkings 
of sunlight ?) . H. has Afura 
for the Dawn. 

Aunar5naf, blink thou, B. na 

Eos, rest thou; eep. pass the 

night, aor. Insa, pr. Inass. 

Amensi, supper, B. p. 633. 

(But see the next root.) 

ve Isens, he caused to rest, 

he placed, put, applied, 

adjusted ; he encamped ; 

pr. Isenus, H. 78. Isens, 

Isensa, Isensi, has closely 

the senses of Arab. Ilof^ ; 
one more meaning is, he 
omitted, H, 183, quasi, 
Ense, eat largely ? Tenseat, 

thou gobblest, B. possibly 

hence Amensau, dinner^ of 

H. 256, and Imensau, he 

dined, H. 38, 256-7. 
Enseg, wink thou, B. 45, See 

Enrer, Aunarooaf. 
Insakal-af, I put on, (induor 

vestem) B. 160. [If we 

render it, I change, and look 

to root TJfil, and B.'s Sokal, 

the In remains to be accounted 

Inses, it soaks in. Possibly 

vp for Imses, from Iswa, he 

^ank. But see Inxex. 
Eneti, na beginning, E. (From 

Latin Initium ?) 

vc Isinti, he began, pr. Isanta, 
F. na Asinti, commence- 
ment, F. aor. Isint, Asin- 
taf, B. 154. 
Ten6t^ket, na moan, B. 75, 

from Entik ? 
Enx-ahi, pardon me: Enxaf, 

I pardon, B. 113. 
Inxaya, he started early, B. 

See Ihaya. na Tanxit. 
Inxam, he betrayed? na Ta- 

naxxemat, treason, H. 222. 
Inxar, vn it blossoms, B. 206. 
Inxex, it soaks in. Probably 

from Arab. !N^axx, Naxxix. 

But see Inses. 
Eny, be saleable, aor. Inya, pr. 

Inayya, pc. Wa inyan, what 

Digitized by 




has been sold. Wa yenasf. 
yan, what is on sale. [B 
strangely has, Nazaf, I buy.] 
vo Izeny, he has sold, pr, 

vp Ituzeny, it has been sold, 

pr. Ituzenya. B. has 

Xinx for Zeny. 
Anazgum, sorrow (as in Xab.)] 
vc Tsenezjum, he is sorry, B 



Qub? Xuben fal-asen, they 
make a circle round them, 
B. 136. (Heb. and Ar. Qubba, 
arch, vault.) 

Aqqed, burn, va (Heb. Yaqad, 
Ar. "Waqad), aor, Iqad, pr. 
It^qad, E. na Tiqqedi, com- 

Ikdom (Iqdem ?), he drove (his 
horse) on B. perhaps from 
Arab. Qadam. 

Iqqal (1) he waited, H. 141, 
181, 205. 

(2) he returned, vn akin to 
Yufil, which in B. 109 ap- 
pears as Yurel. pr. Itaqqel, 
pc. Iqqelen. (B. does not 
distinguish X from Q, and 
writes Kalahi, come back to 
me; Ekalaf, I come back, 
i.e. pr. Iqal ?) 

vo Suqil, fais revenir, H. 99. 
Sokal (Soqal ?) B. 25, re- 
cover, get back, cause to 
go back, repay, replace, 

restore. [The ambiguity 
is awkward, if '* I recover 
money,*' and "I repay 
money," are both ex- 
pressed by Soqal.] Sokal 
tefalwat, shut the door, B. 
{i.e. turn hack the door : 
Err tawwort of Kab.) — na 
Asokal (B.) "utterance," 
as in Latin, Yoce refert, 
and Asokal (B), copying 
(of a book). 
Eqqim, Aqim, Fim, sit thou, 

stay, remain : pr. Itaqqem, 

na Tafimit, pc. Iqqimen. 

vc Seqim, seat (a person). 

[War aUmu har, B. 128. 

Nothing remained but ? 

Qu. No residm until. . . ?] 

Iqqan, he tied, bound, fastened, 

girded (the saddle), pr. Iqan 

or Itaqqen,— Ituqan, F. 

vp Ituaqqen. (Also Iqqan , 
passively, H. 181). B. 
seems to mean Aqnaf {tie 
the horse), where he has 
Agiaf. E. has also IJfun 
or A fan, a tie, cord, mesh, 
and pi. Tiwof newen, liga- 
Iqqur (Yaqor F.), it was dry 

and hard, stiff, pr. Itofar, B. 

Itafora, F. Aqqar, dry, 

hard, solid, na Teqqerit, 

hardness ; Tafart, F. dryness. 

See Ibsar, dry, of things not 

rigid, as a shirt. 
Yaqerat (see Yefored), he was 

well behaved, F. Aqeri, F. 

(probably na) civility ? Ta- 

Digitized by 




fara, care, conduct, F. To 
separate this root from the 
preceding, is not easy. To 
be sound in body and mind 
may seem the cardinal sense. 

Iqas, he clapt (hands), pr, 
Itaqas, F. na Tiqast, F. 
Tekast, B. 

Eqquser, pay a fine. 

vc Iseqqeser, he imposed a 
fine, H. 50, 165, 18, pro- 
bably from Arab. Qayar, a 

Iqqaseas, pierced ? B. 211, with 
h, (Kab. Iqqes, prick.) 


Yuar, Iwar, he was upon, H. 
vc Suar, place upon; aor, 
Isiwar, B. 99. 

(2) Itawar, he collects; also 
he hides, B. ; qu. as Latin 
condit ? (Needs further ex- 

Ar, open thou, H. Ar hai, 
untie me, H. 163, aor, Tura, 
1 p, Urif, fut, 1 p, Adaref, 
pr, Itayer, B. 123. Perhaps 
he opens, begins. 
vp Imira, it is open. 

Ari, write thou, H. (Ghad. 
XJraf), pr, Itari, aor, Yuri, 
Turld, Urif, Urin, fut. Ad 
yari, na Tiraut. 
vp Ituari. Amere, writing? 

thing written ? 
ve Isiri, cause to write. 

Eray, it is swollen, B. 

Ira, Bee Irha, he wished, loved. 

Irwu? perhaps moaned. 8ee 

Irikku. [Eu, Kab. weep, 


vr Emerauen, they wailed 
together, B. 128. 
Iru, it is long since, H. Yeru, 

ad/o, already, some while ago, 

F. Arut, ancient, F. 
Arau, offspring, ph Irawen, 

H., ph Araten, fruits, B. 

fern, 3 aor, Teru, peperit, pL 

3 pr, Terunet. Kui, son 

(Hodgson's Sergu). In B. 

Eur, son. 

vo Iseru, fecit par^re, H. 
for pretended a birth. 
Iran, he cuts out (a shirt), B. 

184, he shapes? Compare 

Ghadamsi Ira, he shaved. 
Iraurau, frequentative, he rent, 

tore (compare Ikaurau) cleft 

(wood), B. 190. 

t;(?Israurau, he broke through, 
B. 136; spHt,B. 190. Ix- 
marauran, he tears in 
pieces, B. 221. Edid irar- 
rawet, the waterskin is 
torn, B. 199. fern, Anzar- 
rawet, or Karrawet, is 
torn, B. 198. Isarara- 
wen, (hail) tearing (the 
tents), B. 620. 
Esiraurawen, B. 135, "they 

raise the war cry," qu. they 

pierce (the air) ? 
Irra, it is hot. Heb. and Arab. 

Ilarr. Irrar, it burns, vn 

B. 130. Tarrut, heat of 

the day, hour of heat. 

vc Iserra, he heated, burnt. 

Digitized by 




B. Iz^ruran, beams (of 
sun), B. p. 619. Iken- 
asser, he kindled, B. 168. 
(Compound of Ikna, fe- 
Irbar, (the horse) stamped: 
(the river horse) kicked 
through (the boat), pr. Ira- 
bar, B. 216. Ad irabar, 
will tread under foot, B. 
Irbaz, he shampooed, B. 194. 
Orad, was eloquent, B. 29. 
vc Israd, he made (his 
tongue) eloquent, fluent. 
(But see Yurid ; also Ege- 
red, Erkod. [More ex- 
planation needed.] 
Yurdi, was ignorant? heedless? 
H. 223. Irda, dirt, B. 
Yerden, dirty, F. 8ee Irtay. 
Yurid, it is washed (said of 
clothes) ; •'.«. it k no longer 
new, B. 

vo Isarad, he washed, scoured. 

Wa isaraden, o irXvpcov, 

the fuller, washerman. He 

has washed his tongue? 

i.e. he is fluent of speech. 

Mi, he was pleased, H. 118, 

Yurad (i ?), he accepted, H. 

234, aor, Jrla, pr. IraiSa, F., 

he assented, complied, na 

Tira2aut, compliance. (This 

verb may be imported from 

Arabic, although Heb. has 

also Ray a in this sense.) 

Irdeb, he washed (his face), B. 

163, pr. Iradeb. 
Yoraf, he sweats, B. 22. 

Tarawafeni, it is credible, B. 
Irgad? cobble? sew? patch? 
wa yeraggaden, he who works 
or patches (sandals). 
Ergeh, walk tiiou ; for Ergex ; 
(Kab. Ergaz.) na Tere^t, 
horse's trot, B. Tereggehit ? 
Irgel, he fastened up, F. B. 
^. Iraggel. »w Eregel, im- 
prisonment, B. 
Irgex, he walked, pr. Irag^x. 
Hence Axirgix, cavalry, B. 
(perhaps first a frequentative 
verb Ixirgex, he made pro- 
menade, parade.) See Irgeh. 
Ir|;a, it flamed (also Kab. Arab. 
Haraq, Chald. Hirak), pr. 
Iraf, glows, is brilliant. 
ve Iser(;a, he kindled (Soka, 
B. by error ?) 2nd p. Te- 
serfsid. But Teserrad from 
Irha, he wished, liked, loved, 
(Ghad. Ifrau). imp. ErhL 
H. 74, 104. na Terhaut, 
Tarha, affection. Amerhi, 
a friend, pi. Imerhan, — 
Imarawen, B. 84, Anemarhi, 
Anemri, d°' pr. Iterha. Ma 
terhid ? quid vis ? War 
terhaf, I like not, B. 33. 
vr Enimerhan, they loved 
mutually. [The h of this 
verb disappears in Kab. 
and very often in Tu. as 
must happen in careless 
pronunciation. Since ? is 
so liable to pass into X and 
thence into H, it may seem 
possible that an older form 

Digitized by 




was exactly the Hebr. 

Irahaf, he despaired, B. bis, 
130, viz. aor. Zrd pi, Ara- 
hagen (Bio\ pr. latairig. Ehe- 
raharaf {sic), 

Irhin, he was ill, pr. Iterhan ; 
(corruptly Terin, Itiran, F.) 
na Turhena, disease ;— cor- 
ruptly? Tuma, ph Tuma- 
wen, F. and stranger still, 
Tolhinne, B. 
ve Sirhen, cause to be ill. 

Irikku, (the lion) roars, B. 
221. <Mr, Irku ? or perhaps 
Irwu ? moaned ? howled ? 

Irka, is foul, base, — stinks ; 
(so Kab.), H. 248, pe, Irka- 
yen. Ark, foul, base (man), 
H. 156. 

Iwarkay, duty, F. (As to the 
form, compare Awaylu.) 

Irkab, he drew — in wide sense ; 
drew (sword), drew (a bow), 
B. drew (water), H. 269 ; 
plucked (feathers), tore away, 
arrested, B. [Yet the Arabic 
Eekab, he rode, appears in 
B. and derivatives.] 

IrkaX, he danced, H. 64. (Arab, 
he ran. Contrariwise, Arab. 
Raqqis, dance, makes in Tu. 
Araqqas, a courier.) Erkod, 
B. 29, also p. 632, eloquence, 
qu. Arab, running, fluency? 
{See Igered, Orad.) Yet : 
vc IserakkaZ, he yawns. 

Araqqas (or Arakkas ?), a 
courier. [Eakax, a peculiar 
horse, Heb.] 

Aralay, mla, work, B. 178 ; 
also Arelenan, they work ; 
as if from Irelen. (Only in 

Yarel, it sank, became lower ; 
Yebuk yurel, (the river) is 
sinking, B. qu. Yufil, re- 
turns, goes back ? 

Irwal, he fled (so Kab. ; Arab, 
and Heb. Raflal), pr. Ireg- 
gel, na Tarula, flight, fuga. 
Amarwal, a runaway. Hence 
new verb, Emeriwalen, they 
acted the runaway. 
vc Serwal, put to flight. 
vr pL Meserwalen, they re- 
pulsed each other. Teme- 
riwelt, a hare (fugitive 
animal ; as Greek irrd^). 

Tarlillet, Tirlelak, na "hum- 
ming of women," B. trilling 
high notes. 

Aralad, a fence, B. 186. £h- 
ereldaf bessa, I gird my loins, 
B. 160. [Initial Eh in B. 
sometimes is found for Ad ; 
indeed in Hanoteau for Kab. 
Ara, A[;a, as tense mark.] 
But "bessa" for loins does 
not recur. 

Yoram, he tried, attempted, jpr. 
Itaram, F. 

IrmaS, he hurried, na ArmaS, 
hurry, F. Termeii, H. 118. 

Termadet, thou art impatient, 
unsteady, B. 81. S? 

Ermep, start up (as a gazelle), 
be alarmed (be anxious, F.), 
pr. Itermef, H, na Terimiq 
(for Terimift), anxiety, F. 

Digitized by 




TJr termii;, H. TTr termafa, 

B. be not alarmed. [F. also 

gives Ermef as va, xermaf, 

he frightened, pr. Irammaf .] 

vc Sermef; alarm (game). 
(2) Strangely different in B. 

44. Teramme[et, na resting 

of the head. 

vd Iserammaf; pr. he rests 

the head. Terammert, 

comer, B. p. 638. qu. ft ? 

Ermar? vo Tesirmarad, thou 

dissemblest, B. 78. 
Irmes, he caught (fish), he 

arrested (a felon), H. pr. 


vp Iturmes, it was caught. 
"Wa yeturmasen, he who 
was arrested. 
Terin, Turna. See Yerhin, 

Irna (Shilha, Inra, so indeed 

B. 21), win, overcome. [Kab. 

Emu, add, augment.] pr. 

Irne, B. 110, Irunu, F. pc. 

Iman, surpassing. Taroa, 

supremacy, permission of 

God. Amimi, victorious. 

vp Ituama, he was over- 
Erar? goes backward ? Eraren, 

B. 216, (a horse) jibbing, pr. 

Itarar, (the rain) soaks in, 

B. 209. 
Ireray, he spun. Rereinat, (the 

women) spun, pr. Iteraray. 
Tarereyap, I twist in, B. 177. 

Tarerayap, I spin, 184. 
Irured, he is in haste, H. na 


Irras ? pr. Irars, he shaves 


vc Sars, shave thou (another), 
B. 105. 
Ers, — aor. Irs (pr. Irras, F.), 

has gone down, has fallen 

upon, is situated : (but, has 

declined, decreased, F.). 

Eris, adv. below, F. Hence (?) 

Insirs, he assailed, B. 
Iroas? pr. Iteroas, is barking, 

B. 222. 
[Ra*s mal, capital, Ar.] Amar- 

was, debt. 

t;(jl8marwas, he lent on credit. 
B. 153. 
Ersellad, trip, stumble against, 

B. 72. Also kick, stamp, B. 

122, pr. Itersellad. 
Irsem, washed hands, pr. Iras- 
sen, B. 163. 
Irsan, it ran (ashore), touched, 

ran upon, ^.Itarasan,B. 64. 
Irser, it is unfolded ? Asarsar, 

an unfolder, H. 219. 
Erti, aor. Irtay, it is mixed, 

joined. {See Ipley of F.) na 

Aratay, mel^e of battle, pc. 

Imirtayen, mixed. 

vc Isirti, va he mixed. Sir- 

tayaf, I gather (frait), B. 

188. Isartayen, (the troops) 

gather, rally, B. 131. 
Irtay, dirty, F. ; perhaps as 

turbid water. 
Irtem, he has finished, B. 155. 
Irexauxau, (water) is boiling, 

B. Spl. Erexauxawen. 
Ery, F. va and vn break, pr. 

Irayye, aor. Irye, F. 

Digitized by 




ve Sery, break thoui pr. 
Iseruy, H. 

vp Imerya, it was broken. 
fern, Turzar, it was broken ? 
B. 211, perhaps rather 
Ituanra (without final r). 
So B. 225, Tarzar(Tary?) 
"has shattered," masc, 
actively ; if so, initial T 
is not the fern, mark, but 
denotes present time. 
Tarezek, na singing, B. 73. 


As, come, go, with -d (hither), 
aor, Yusa-d ( Yosed, F.), pr. 
Itas, Itas-ed; pe, wa d 
yusen, 6 i\0i)V^ he who 
arrived; wa d ittasen, he 
who is coming. Madyusan? 
who is come ? Ma d yasin ? 
who is to come ? 

Iswa, he has drunk, pr, Isas, 
imp, Esu, H., Eswa, B. Esa- 
win, they have drunk, na 
Tisesi. Amsui, a drinker, 
H. Tasis, a drink, B. 
vo Sesu, Seswa, cause to 
drink, irrigate, aor, Isesu, 
Iseswa, pr. Isaswa, 3 pi. 
fut. Ad sasawin, na Aseswi. 
vp Imsua, pr. Inses ? B. 

Usu, cough, aor, Tesu, pr. 
Itusu, F. na Tisut, coughj 
pi. Tisuten, P. 

Issu, he spread out (a carpet) 
So Kab. 

Yuwas, it is red hot, B. 199 
Iwas, it boiled, pr. Igas, F. 

Asid, join, sew close? B. 192 
(mend, make sound, repair.) 

Ised, (the ostrich) hides (his 
head), B. 223. 

SewaS, add thou, ve from 

Suei, EswaS, look at, aapioe; 
(akin to Sejed, expect a, and 
Kab. Isked), pr. IsaggaX, he 
beholds, F., examines, B. vr 
pi. Enimsueien, they looked 
at each other. Nek asija- 
danak, I (am) listening [to 
thee], B. 11. See Isigei. 

IsiXegenin, pi, * * bien portants, " 
H. 214, root unknown. 

Isdak ? he lay hid, lurked, pr. 
Isiddak, B. SI. 

Isdal, he dyed ? pr. Isadal, na 
Tesadalit, B. 185. 

IseXan, TesoSan, count, ac- 
count, F. IseSan , pc. counted, 
B., na AsiSen, the count, ac- 
count, H. See EuS and Ye- 

Sifet, see; Hodgson (South Tu). 

AsfSken, " they plunder," B. 
126. qu. shed blood? Arab. 
Sefek. But perhaps it ought 
to be Asfe(;en, they empty. 
See Ifaf. 

Sifel, tan thou, H. 107. Am- 
sufel, a tanner. 

Asufar, a remedy (Songhay), 
Isefra, B. Isufer, he treated 
a patient, pr. Itasufer, F. 

Isufare imanis, '* he hired him- 
self," B. Prod. Son. Root 

Isafarad, snorted, B. 224. 

Digitized by 




IsegeX, IsejeX, he listened, ex- 
pected, waited. {See SueX, 
above.) "War hanaf tesja-^ 
det, thou listenest not to us, 
B. 11. 

IsgaSel (cr/cafo) P), Isgadelet, 
he limped, became lame. 

Isageh? j9r. Isaggeh, B. 165, 
he looks at (Kab. Issag ?). 

Seglef, bark as a dog. na Aseg- 

Asgen, pounce as an eagle, B. 
226, but qu. 

Siggeniugix, bright, B. 185. 

JSaggarehe, scan, contemplate, 
B. 11. Isiggerehe, he con- 
templated, B. Prod. Son, 
Esagrahaf, I look at unth 
pleasure (B. sic). See SewaX, 

Saf, buy thou. Zak in H. 

Isfit, pr, Isfayyat, call out, — 
seems to me vc formed from 
Arab. Sayyaf. But H. p. 
180, has Safin, they called, 
Isajit, he called, as if Sa|;i 
were the root. 

Isufil, he closed (so F.), pr. 
Isaffil. But see Yufil and 

Issuhi, Issuhet, was strong, 
sound, participle Issahaten, 
strong and brave, H. 54, 
Essahet, violence, 126. In 
Kab. Sallat, health, is com- 
mon. It may seem that even 
the Tuarik words are corrupt 
Arabic, firom ^aM, safe and 

Sohad, kindle, pr, Isahed, B. 

168 {sie)y perhaps for Soqad. 
See Aqqad. 

Sok, light, kindle, B. 170, 
perhaps for Serf. See Irfa. 

Suk, send, Adyesik, will bring 
on. vc firom Ikka. 

Yeska (Yeyka), he built, pr, 
lyak, na Teyakaut, building, 

Iseksek va cram, press, knead, 
B. 189; load (a gun), B. 145 ; 
also vn it is loaded, pr. Ita- 
saksak. B. also has Izeksak. 
Compare Greek 5*07. 

Sikel, sob, H. 181. Perhaps 
from Yukel, Also (frequen- 
tative ?) Iskalal, he wept, 
pr, Isakkalal, F. 

Sikel, travel thou. See Ikal. 

Suyakal ; see Ikkul, above. 

Siken, show, point out, point 
(a gun), aor, Iseken, pr, Isa- 
kan, [as Xab.]. Isakkan 
imanis, he shows himself, i.e, 
does not dissemble, B. 7S. 
vr Emsaken, deliberate. 

Yoskar, (the horse) prances, B. 

Isukta, pr, he digs (a sta^e) 
down, B. 187. 

Isaket, pr, (the horse) kicks, 
B. 216, flor. Iskat? 

Iskar, (the rain) oozes through, 
B. 53. [perhaps oulj forces 
itself through. See the next.] 

Iskarat, he compelled, F., pro- 
bably vc from Arab. Qaharat, 

lB£ar, aor, f — pr, Isa££ar, he 
snores, B. na A8a£adu (sic, 
B. 47). 

Digitized by 




Suli, lift up (thy heart), B. vo 

from Tuili. 
Esel, H.y Eselu, B. hear thou, 

aor. IbIsl, pr. Iselli. Amisli, 

voice, B. pi. Iselan, news 

Isiul, Isiwel, he talked. See 

IsHef, it bleated, B. 220 ; he 
rattled in the throat, H. 211, 

(2) Iseluf, he is smooth, polite, 
H. 212, which suggests con- 
fusion of a consonant. £ab. 
Iseluaf, polish. 

Silret, Asilji. See OljTit. 

Sehk, hang up, B. 178. (Arab. 

Tesolaq, he adopted, pr. Isa- 
laq, F. 

Asem, be jealous, envious, H. 
aor. Yasem, pr. Itasem, na 

vr pi. Enimusamen. Com- 
pare lyyem, he was in love. 

Simem, bitter; na Tesimmi, 

Simbara, set loose, B, 54, Com- 
pare Kab. Ebru. 

SemiS, E. Isammilen, H. cold, 
frtffidm. Asammif, cold, 
frigui. Tesemla, a cold, B. 

Ismekas, change, alter, pr. 
Isammekas, E. 

Samasan, hold back (a horse), 
B. 63. Root Imsen ? 

Ismetert, he ordered, pr. Isam- 
metert, E. (His final t is 
often the mere accus. pronoun 
him^ it.) The apparent pri- 

mitive, Imeter, reminds one 
of Arabic viii*^ form, Ittemer, 
he obeyed orders. 

Sen, know thou, aor. or pr. 
Isan (else aor. Isen, pr. 
Isan), na Tisunet, B. Also 
Temasna, intelligence. (But 
E. says : — Isan, clever (know- 
ing). Isan, he acquainted 
{a% if for vo Isisen). Isena, 
he knew, Issen, he considered, 
pr. Itassen. So F.) 

Isnet, he was sad, sorrowful, 
Ben Musa. 

Isinna, he baked, cooked. See 

Isinge, (the waterskin) leaks, 
B. 199=Ixinke, B. 200. 

Isin(;al, "he ploughed," F. See 

Isnas ? na Tasannist, swelling ? 
B. 197 has Ekaf tasannist, it 
is swollen. [Ekaf is un- 
known ; unless it mean It 
gives a swelling ; being a 
new present from Ikfa.] 

Isinti, he began. See Eneti. 

Sanixlam, look around, B. 
frequentative or compound 
from Ixlam^Ghadamsi Iz- 
lem, look. 

Surfi, pardon me, E. [Perhaps 
Suffi ? from Arab. Asfu, for- 

Esrug, sneeze, H. 61. na Tes* 
vo Sesrug, cause to sneeze. 

Isorek, he hangs up (clothes), 
B. 164. But SeUk, B. 178. 

Isaraf, he took a sniff. (See 

Digitized by 




Esrug.) Isaref, he smells, 
Ben Musa. Insaraf, he smelt 
at; it smelt (bad), B. 13, 

Sars, va shave. See Irars. 

Yoses, pr, Itasas, " assure " (so 
F.). XJsesan agazar, *'they 
fought hard " (so B.). The 
latter I render, " they made 
battle obstinate," a render- 
ing suggested by Arab. £asi, 
tough, obstinate. F. has 
also Tusist, distress; and 
(strange to add) Yoses, alone. 
— If weight be the funda- 
mental idea, Yoses, ?ie made 
weighty, might mean, He cor- 
roborated, and so account for 
*' assure " of F., and " make 
obstinate," the sense needed 
by B. ; also Tusist might be 
" aggravation.*' 

Sassahar, wear (clothes), put 
on, wrap round them, B. 161. 

Susim, keep silence, na Asusim. 
In B. 76 Susin, pr, Isosan, 
with n final. 

Isisen, he washes, Ben Musa. 

Issit, he added, H. (possibly 
vc from Yote), na Asiti, sur- 
plus, excess. S asiti, in ex- 
cess, too much, H. — adj\ Asi- 
ti, additional, pi, Asuten, F. 
B. 150 has Esataf eneli, "I 
provide myself with millet," 
perhaps only, '* I add millet." 
Then Isat is^. of Issit. 

Isuta, he amassed, H. 122. 
Probably vc from F.'s Yote. 

Esattefit, pour out. See Itaf. 

Istedaf, he laid ambush, B. 143, 

Istef, pr. Istaf, draw (sword), 
puU out, H. 141, 148. na 
Asataf, Astuf. See Irkab. 

Isa<pf afan, black, /. Tisa'pq^afat, 
B., F. In Kab. Useiif, H. 
In B. Isaqvpafen ia plural, 

Esteg, pr. Isittig, Istejj, is a 
merchant. Estegap, I ex- 
change, B. 148, Amsittig, a 
broker. Imsetteg, he ex- 

Estej;, slap, smack, H. pr. Isit- 
tef. (B. 122, Asittef, I box 
the ear, as if from aor. Iste, 
^."Isitte.) Also Istak, smote, 
B. perhaps for Istaf, na 
vp Ituaste[. 

Yestik, empty, F. na Tistak. 

Isten ? root not found : perhaps 
it meant, He answered. Amis- 
ten, (seems to mean) defen- 
dant in a lawsuit, B. But in 
F. Amistan, courage. 
ve Isisten, he interrogated 
(caused to answer ?) often 
with Fell before accus. as 
in Scotch, " speer at him," 
for Inquire of him. Am- 
sesten, an inquirer. 

Ester, sharpen thou, pr. Isat- 
tar? SS-taraf, I sharpen,, B. 

Istaras, B. 226, " Asgen fellas, 
istaras," seems to mean, 
* ' pounced upon it (and struck 
it down) ;^^ which suggests 
that it should be '* Istaf as." 
Se^ Estef. The f is often 

Digitized by 




alternately made k and r in B. 
[Bat the sense of Asgen 
needs corroboration.] 
T-istaurat, she has a full bosom, 


Tote, he added, pr. Itat, F. 

[Also Itat or Itatt, he eats, 

from Ekxe.] 

vclButsL, he amassed, H. 122. 
Itai, pr. Itai (Itaihi), stings, 

pricks, B. 222. 
Iwat, he struck, ^r. Iggat (Kab, 

Ikkae). Tuut, Tuwat, she 

struck. Ad kai eutef, ut te 

feriam ; Ur kai eggitef,.non te 

feriam; H. 138. na Tiwit, 

B. 129 (stroke of sword). 

«?r/>Z Amawaten, (they struck 
one another,) •' they fight 
hand to hand," B. 139. 
Itet, he eats, na Titeti, H. 104. 

See Ekx. 
If eq>, he sucked the teat, pr, 


ve T-esuf eq^, she suckled. 
Tawet (in B. 168, 177, 191) 

seems to mean, Lat. struscit, 

he laid in rows, arranged, 

built. See Igat. 
Itu, he forgot (as Kab.). na 

Tetat, forgetftilness, H., B. 

But Tetawa, pr. Itatawa, F. 
Taiti, intelligence, wisdom, H. 

Itab, it dripped, na Tetebt, a 

drop, F. 
Itebo, beat (a shirt), pr. ItitSbo, 

B. 185. 

Itbat, good ! all right ! already, 
F. Qu. from Arab. Gebet, it 
is firm ? 

Itaf, is full of water, B. 208. 

Tedgfit, flood, B. 209, for Tete- 
fit ? See Iffai. 
vc Esattefit, pour out, B. 174. 

Tatuf, na. a stumble ? B. 72. 

I'Pf af, grasp, hold firmly, seize 
(Heb. Hafaf, Ar. fiafaf); 
retain in memory, B. 88. pr. 
Itafaf, "I seize," B. 104. 
vp Itua'fvpef, Imeff ef. 

Takat, noise (in Shilha, a 
family). Amattekat, a noisy^ 

Itaher, it is closed. Ent: 
we close, H. 269. Henc 
Tahurt, a door ? 

Tik? frequentative, Tiktik.^';;-^^;- 
vr Simetiktik, whisper, B.\/ • 

Etkel, Edkel (Eikel, F.), tolle / " 
lift up, carry off, aor. Tetkal, 
na Atakal, ( pr. liakkal, F.), 
also na Atkel, empire, su- 
premacy, B. p. 632, adminis- 
tration (carrying on ?). ES- 
kal, excellent, F. (qu. elatmf 
uplifted). Yitkal, the Ruler, 
B. p. 618. 

vc Satkel fell, impose as a 
load upon. Ax. EOqil, 

Etkar, anger (also Etkef, B. 
632). i8f(9tf Kab. Atxall. Et- 
karaf, I am angry, B. Also 
Edkar, Edekar, H. F. 

Etkar, fill (Kab. Etxur). Hano- 
teau writes Ef kar. na Afa- 
kar, Epkur, pc. Ifkaren, 


Digitized by 




Ite^kor, it is full, B[.=Tet- 

kar, B. 103. 
Ta£tak, aor. split, B. p. 620, 

pr. B. 173. 

ve Suttekaraf (sic), I slit a pen. 
Ital, he swathed, wrapt up (as 

in Kab.), B. 26, i?r. IteUe ? 

B. 142. Wui tellenin, B. 

1 82, those who twist (ropes) ? 
Ifar, he sought, besought, 

(Shilha, Idder ; Kab. IsuGer, 

I8r-ed), pr. Ifar, Ita^ar, 

Eta^ llraf elmud, I am seeking 

to learn, B. 88. But also 

I>faraf, I seek, look for, B. 

100. Md teq>urret? what 

seekest thou? 
Itarak ? It&rakat, he dropt 

down, Itarakatet (sic), he 

fell, B. 71. Isetrik, d**- his 

71. Yet vc Satarak, throw 

down, B. 71. 
Ye'pf es, he slept, pr. I'pf as, na 

Ifas, sleep. Ameffas, a 


ve Seffas, luU to sleep. Am- 
sei^pas, one who lulls to 
Yetaitai ? he drove in pegs ; 

pr. Tetaitayaf, I hare driven 

the pegs in, B. 176. See 

Itai, above. 

Oxe, skin, flay, B.=Kab. XJy. 
Ixau, Ixag, he smeared, B.= 

Ihewai of H. 
Ixburdel, (the camel) threw 

up his nose, B. 217. 

Exxad, be bad. Ixxaden, pc. 
evil. Ixai, bad, F. Ohud 
(=Oxud), misdeed, crime, 
F. H. has i, not d, pp. 93, 
38. Compare Ifxad or I£- 
xad, also Ar. Xe^a, nocuit. 

Ixedlgen, ctdj. clean, B.=Hedig 
of H. and F., Sedij of Kab. ; 
Heb. and Ar. Sadaq ? In 
vc Izdzig, pr. he cleanses, F. 

Yexef, he swam, pr. Ixaf, B. 
68 also, (as printed) na 
Elfxaf. But I think, Ke 
tezay elfxaf, ought to be, Ke 
tezayet 6xaf, tu novisti na- 

Yuxef, he gave, Tu. of Hodg* 
son. Yux also in some dia- 

Yuxf efar ? pr. XofeiGaraf, I sUt 
(a pen), B. 173. 

Xegerin, high, deep, Ixegga- 
ren, red=Ihaggaren. (Kab. 
Azeggaf, Arab. Axqar, pink.) 

Ixihar, thick (=Kab. Izhar). 
/. Ixiharet, B. pi. Ixohamin 
(B. p. 620, epithet of hail; 
therefore means Lat. creber, 
close crammed). 

Xik, quick, early (Hik of F., 
Zik of Kab.), perhaps primi- 
tively, sharpj o^v. For B. 
has 221, 225 Ixek, (the lion) 
attacked ; Ixaket, (the river 
horse) arose. Ixak ebak, the 
wolf attacks, B. 137. Com- 
pare Eh5k. 

Yuxikambax, he covers, B. 

Izikantat, he shivers, trembles, 

Digitized by 




Ixekarax, he tilled (the ground), 
B. 186. Exekarax, a field, 
garden, from Xab. Ekray. 

Ixikatkat, he is indolent ? Axi- 
katkaty nnenergetic. 

Xil, adv. by force. Xil, va 
disturb. Texled, thou dis- 
turbest, B. "War xil-ahi, 
disturb me not, B. Ixelan, 
troublesome. Also Axeliu, 
unable, B. 

Ixwalet, (storm) gathers, vn B. 
p. 620. 

Oxel, Axel, run, = Ahel= AyyeL 
See Ayyel. "War tixlet, do 
not run, B. [Mexal, travel?]. 
fTemexalit, a (quick) jour- 
ney ? B. 195, or, thou 
shouldst travel ? 
vr Anemaxal, a messenger, 
B. pL Inimlxalen. 

Texebd^je, brilliancy, (B. 38, 
and p. 62 1 ), fine weather, na ? 

Xelkikan, wrangling, B. 123. 

Xelag, va sling (the sword) 
round left shoulder, B. 162. 
Texilgen, the left side. 

Ixlem, for Ghadamsi Izlem, he 
looked; found in frequent. 
Sanixlam, look around, B. 

Im-xelarlag, is melting, B. 

Ixinke, (the roof) admits water, 
B. 200. See Isinkawen, 
boiled meats, H. Axink, 
Asink, porridge ? hasty pud- 
ding, B. p. 633. 

Xinhexin felli, make place for 
me, B. 107. See Enkex. 

Xinx, sell thou, B.=Zeny. See 

Xinxan, nostril. Xinxor, imp. 
clear the nose. See Anjur, 
bridge of nose. Kab. Anzor. 

Yuxer, he is old (Iwaxar, B.== 
Yuher). Tiuxeret, fern. old. 

Also Ixwar, he was wont, B. 
85 ; he begins, he is about, 
B. p. 621 . So Texwar toren, 
she is about to bring forth. 
See Izzar. Frequentative Ix- 
exuar, he begins, B. 154. 
Xexuaref, I begin (Kab. ly- 

Ixrag, carry water=Ihereg, pr. 
Ixarrag. Amxarrag, water- 
carrier,^^. Imxsuragen, B. 

Xerexeran, (work the pump, 
B. 175, draw the leathern 
strap) backwards and for- 

Xixeriwu, trot one's horse, B. 

Yuxirgex, he took a ride, B. 
frequentative from Irgex. 
Ixirgex, cavalry, B. 

Ixarlarlar, is boiling, B. 213. 

Ixirarakrak,Ixibar£^rak, hisses 
(as iron), B. 198. 

Xut ? pr Itixut, it is barking, 
B. 222. 

Axixilwak, a bright twinkling, 
B. p. 620, »a? Compare 
Texeldeje^ and Ar. Xasl. 

Z soft and Z hardrrts ?=S. 

Izzi, it is healed, pr, Itezzi, it 
is healing, vn H. 138. Eab. 

Izzi, he knew, recognized, pr. 

Digitized by 




Izzay, H. and B. (qu. Isen, 
seivity Izzi, novit), 

lya, acid, F. (Izay, was heavy, 
Kab.). Ayezayen, trouble- 
some, F. 

Ezob, Ezubb, vn alight, dis- 
mount (=Zenbu, Songhay)^ 
H"., B. also Kab. Izubbet for, 
he alighted to lodge with, B. 
Izebbet, he dismounted, vn 
H. 115, 161. 

ve Izozeb, he dismounted 
(luggage) va B. 

Azubbi, learn by heart, H. 214. 

Eyed, grind, pound (as Kab), 
H. 70. Amzed, grindstone. 
Imzed, he ground a knife or 
tool, B. 190. 

vp Ituyed. Ezzad, provisions 
(meal, flour), ammunition, 
H. 160. Arab. Zewad ? 
Yet, H. 233 Nezed, we 
measured out (a different 
verb ?). 

Yeyid, sweet, F=Iyyiden, H. 
— na Tiyudi. 

Seider, endure, have patience. 
;Seider fell, wait for, H. 104, 
180. B. 83, pr, lyedar, na 
Teyeider, endurance. See 

Eyyef, strip naked, H. 95, 239, 

Eyyeg, milk (a camel), na Tay- 

Izzij;, he dwelt (soft z, F.), he 
dwelt, sojourned (IzAef of 
Kab.), pr. Itezzaj;, Itazaf, F. 
na Tamezzuq, H., Tamazuq, 
F. (the q for ft). ^Tet Ta- 

inlzuq, absence! F.] Tim- 

xaf, former encampment, B. 

(x for z). Amezzaf, an en- 
campment, pL Imezzagen. 
lyger, he crossed (a river — a 

Tizeggaret, greatness, tallness. 

See Iheger. 
Zegzan, bear patiently, H. 103. 

na Azegzan, patience, H. 

Iziha, he bought, pr. Izaiha. 
Tazet, thou hast bought, B. 

150. /S^Saf. 

vp Ituzih. Kab. Zlju, Siju, 
from TJju. 
Izukmah,^. he scratches him- 
self, H. 149. 
Eyli, be different, distinguish, 

na Ayalay, difference, H^ 

148, 279. 
Ayel = Oxel = Abel, run, pr, 

Iteyyel, na Ayyel, a run, H. 

177. Ayel, current, F. See 

Awaylu, an affair, business, F. 
Ameyyal, a runner. {See 

Imayalen, Imahalen, domestics, 


vc Zizel, cause to run, %,e, 
(as Arab. Ajri) promote, 
push forward (F. advise), 
H. 70. Yey6yul, he ap- 

vr pi. Enimeyelen, they con- 
curred, agreed, na Ani- 
meyyal, concurrence, re- 
Ezel, exact payment, pr. Izal, 

Digitized by 




na Tamazilt, B. 118, from 
Kab. Azal, price. 

Izelebb, he stript (his hand) of 
skin, B. 72. 

Izlaf, he took a wife, Ben. 
Mnsa. See Bebon. 

Izmu? pr. Izymmo, B. 168, 
wring out (water from). 

lymi, he sewed (with needle),. 
na Aifamai, pr, 1 «. A^amay- 
af, I sew, B. 184, 192. 
Anaymi, sewer, tailor, pi, 
pc. pass. Izmainin, sewn, 
sewed. Amayemmaya, tailor, 
vp Imeymi, was sewn. 

Izem ? he slighted, pr. Itezem 
fell, B. 81. na Tizemit, a 
slight, an affi*ont. 

Iznmm, he fanned, B. 194. 

lyyem, be in love, pr, lyyam ? 
na Ayyam, Tiyyemi, love. 
Ameyyam, a man in love. 
(Compare Asem.) 

Izimm^ze, see Imezzi. 

lyun, he divided, apportioned, 
H. 135,^r.Ituyan,F. n^jTay- 
yunt, distribution. (Shilha, 
Tuzzunt, division, i.e. half.) 
Tazunne, the division, i.e. the 
middle (of night), B.p. 621. 

Ayen, near, H. 209. 

Izinka, F. (he evaded), pr. 
Izanka. na Azinka (eva- 
sion ?), delay, F. 

Izenkex, pi. Izinkahan, he ad- 
vances, H. See Enkex. 

Zeny, see Eny. 

Izzar (soft z in F.), he preceded, 
(Kab. Izwar). pr. Itizar, pro- 
gresses, F. Wa izzaren, the 
past, opposed to "Wa ilkamen, 
the future, na Teyyar, H. Si 
teyyar, " d'avance," before- 
hand. Ezzar, (Eyy^r, H. 
113), previously, aforetime. 

EzSwer-ap, I have been longing 
for you, B. 114. 

Tuzar-ahi, it pains me, B., 
perhaps only a corruption of 
Arab. Yujas. 

Azaraf anu, hmld a well, B. 

Izarag, he lay outstretched, B. 

Tazernait, force, violence, H. 
261, root Izerna ? Izeran ? 

Zat-af, pr. I weave, B, 182, 

Izitxa, gave, pr. Izatxa, F. 
Perhaps this strictly means 
he caused to eat, i.e. caused 
to enjoy, if it be 
vc from Ekxu, making Itxa, 
for Ikxa, as in Kab, 

Izzuz, (the camel) is over- 
laden, H. 289. Compare 
Ijaj, Igag. 

Ezezau, saw (timber), pr. Ite- 
zezau^ Tezezawaf, I saw 
(timber), B. 191. 

Digitized by 




Au, son. 

Ei, male. Also, steel. 
Ewuit, market, B. 103. 
Ewu, prey, booty, B. 134. 
Tiyat,. handcuff, B. 


Aba (Oba B.), father. 

Tabuit, flower, B. 

Tabeut, rainstorm, B. 

Ababah,H. Ababax,B, cousin. 

Bedi, smallpox. 

Abid, bran; also soup (gruel ?) 

Ibiddawen, apes or monkeys, B. 
Tabdug, cotton, F. Tabeduk, 

pi. Tabddoken, cotton 8trip8y 

B. 184. (Abduga, cotton in 

Tabiddixt, the multitude, B. 
Abegge, jackal, ph Ibeggan. 

(Also Ebeg, Ebak, B.) fern. 

Ebegau, nag, galloway, common 

Tibegaut, mare,^. Tibegewen, 

Bugu, interior of tent; shop, 

pi. Bugoten, B. 
Abayuj;, water-skin, pi. Ibiyaf, 

Abagug, young ram. Taba- 

^gt, young ewe. 
Abogeli, son of a freedman, B. 

Tabgena, head, Ho., South 

Tu., and Mozab. 
Tabegurt, riches, B. (Tabefurt, 

Abag5r, hair pad, B. 
Bahu, a lie, false, B. Bahut. 

See verb Ibeh. 
Tebuhagin, boots. {See Ebu- 

xage.) Tibuhajin,I)uv.Ghat. 
Abaihar, mountai negro, H. 
Abekan, wild ass ? 
Tibbaken, crows, B. 
Ibekkebek, worm, B. 
Ibiker, male lamb (from Arab?). 

Tebekert, female lamb. 
Abaikur, male greyhound, pi. 

Ib^yekar, /. Tabaikart 
Ebakeq^, B. 39, sin. pi. Ibekka- 

den, B. 114. (Ghad. Bekka- 

den, Lat. Peccata ?) 
Ablal, stone, Ben Musa. 
Abel, mind? heart? B. Arab 

bal? War inehi abelu, non 

videt mensmea(?). But Bal, 

Bel means eye in Coptic. 
AbelbuX, wallet, leather bag, 

pi. IbelbaX; also purse, B. 

Fr. Abalbof .) 
Abelfeten, rude stones for 

building, B. 
Abilhud, eyelid, B. 
Abelanbak, moisture, B. 164. 
Abilolo, pilau {i.e. rice with 

butter and salt). 
Tablelt, lead, Duy. Ghat. 

Digitized by 




Si bil6as, with a bucket? B. 

fBambaro, saddler, B. [Song- 
Eben, waterpot ; bowl of pipe, 

B. Habbaka[ eben, I smoke a 

pipe, B. 
Tebawent, skin for baggage, B. 
Abeng, swamp, marsh, B. 
Ebooin, buttons, B. 
Ebenkor, source, spring, B. 
Abenneg, fog, B. 
fBenesib, danger, Fr. 
fBangoru, bundle, pi, Ban- 

goruten, B. 
Abro, garment, dress, Duv. 

Ghat. ; from Kab. Ibar, it 

is covered. 
Eberu, long sword, B. [yiu. 
Taburit, crookstick, pi. Tibar- 
Berabera, large cucumber ? B. 
Tabarde, rags, B. 
Abaral, young man, ph Iba- 

raSen, H. /. Tabaraf . 
Abardawil, monkey, B. 
Aberjen, hair tent, pi. Iber- 

jenen, H. 
Aberig, squadron of horse, B. 
Aberui;, blanket, ph Iberufen 

(Aberuk, carpet, Songh.), 

used as a wrapper, F., pL 

Tibergentin, blankets, 182. 
Aborak, white maize, B. 
Aberkau, calf, B. 
Abarkot, "paunch?" B. Per- 

haps kidney, p. 630. 
Aberaqqa, H. (Ab6rrika, Ebe- 

rik, B.), route, road, course 

(Kab. Abrid). Abareqa, pi. 

Ibareqetan, F. 

Eberin, side, H. 
Abarteg, whip, B. 
Berix, all the same, B. 
Tebbist, handful, H., pL Teh- 

Absag, sapling, shrub, B. 
Ab^sar, knife, B. 
Abetul, quarry, salt mine, H. 
Ibtalen, steps down to a deep 

pool, H. 
Batolt, a screaming? B. 214. 

(the hen) is screaming, tega 

Abatol, dimple in lip, B. ; also, 

resting place of gazelle, B. 
Tabutut, stomach, B. (8a*bof , 

Aboxit, curds, B. 
Ebuxege, a shoe, ph Ibuxigen, 

B. See Tebiihagin. 
Abexau, species of antelofi 

Ibexawen, B. 

fDu, bran, B. 

Ad5^ Md mice, B. 

Aidi, dog, pi, lyidan [with 

simple d Kan. and F. But 

Aiii in Kab. and Shilha]. 
IJdi, butter — salt butter, H. 
Tide, sweat, B. page 169. 
Tidi, dirt in pipe; brand in 

the arm, B. 
Tidet, truth, for Tigedid, 

straight? B. 236. 
Adiau, camels collectively, H. 

a herd? drove? from verb 


Digitized by 




AlvL, wind, pL Aluten. Hence 

verb Sui, blow. 
AXwi, jerboa, pi. Kowan, fern. 

A2biu, hyaena, as in Heb. and 

Arab.: [Taburi is foreign. 

B. has Aridal]. There are 

two species. 
Tedebut, bedstead, pi. Tideba, 

AdS,bag, hamlet, dim. Tadabag, 

Debara, advice, H. 157. Heb. 

Dabar, word. Ar. Dabbir, 

to plan. 
Adbir, tame pigeon, pi, Idbi- 

ran (Kab. lebir), /. Tedebe- 

rat, B., pi. Idebe[;en, Duv. 

Edid, waterskin. 
TJdad, wild sheep, mnflon. 
ASa2, a finger, pi. HoSan, B. 

rSoSonghay). Idoduen,Duv. 

Ghat. See Asukkod. 
Tidebin, woman, B. Tffleien, 

Fr. (Heb. loves). 
Dediani, arm ring, Duv. Ghat. 
Adeddel, a reed. 
Aduf, marrowbone? marrow: 

a pipe, B. (Aduf, marrow, 

Taduft, wool, 
i^dafor, pillow, pad saddle, pi. 

Ideforan, B. 
Ad&ged, ape, pi. Idugad, H. 
A2egal, socerf TaZegalt, soerus. 
Edeg, Edej, place. 
Tadegget, evening, H. Taduit, 

B. Verb Adu. 
Adeggar, part, portion. 

Adaf? stone, Idafan [Adpif, 

d°. Kab], but Idafin, Duv. 

Ghat., for Karen, feet. 
Adehik, large red ant, B. 
Tedek, stubble field,^/. Tedken, 

Tadakt, hill, B. 
Edikel, palm of hand, pi. Idu- 

kal. (So Kab.) 
Ad^k, head ornament of 

camel, B. 
Edkar, Edekar, anger. See 

verb Etkar. 
Adalol, lip, B. 

TJdem, face, pi. Udemmawen. 
Au adam, son of Adam, man, 

Ted^mbat, horsetail, B. 
Admar, breast, pi. Idmaren, F. 

Idemafen, I)uv. Ghat. 
Adan, intestine, pi. Adanen, 

Edin, back (of shirt), B. 
Adawenni, history, H. 
Tedawanet, matting round a 

tent, B. 
Adanda, place of former cattle 

pen, B. 
Idunet, H. (Idinet, B.), world, 

people. Arab. I)unia(t). 
Tadent, grease, H. TaSont, 

white fat, B. 
Adonki, old male ass, B. 
Tidennekt, angle, B., comer? 
A2ar, the foot, pi. Haren. 
Idir, the bottom, H. Aidir, 

deep, F. Edir, pr. under. 

Sedir, adv. at bottom. 
Eder, excrement, B. 
Tudrit, woodpigeon, Ghad. 

Digitized by 




Adar, mountam, pi, Idaren, 

Adaren, B. 
Adrar, mountain,^/. Idraren, H. 

i^f m.Tadrartyhill, j?^.Tidrarin, 

H. [But Idrar, calm, Fr.] 
Tadrut, air, F. {m). 
Tederit, a swift wild animal, 

wild ass B., rather Nylghau ? 

oryx, B., pL Tederaten. 
Tedirdaf, armpit, B. 
Daruf, copper, B.F.H. 
Aderih, trace, track. 
Aderial, toothless, pi, Iderialen. 
Edis, side. Hence verb Ides. 
Audis, pack-ox, pi, Audisen, B. 
Tadest, mosquito, B. 
Desin (some noun), Tafok (ye) 

berber desin enis, " the sun 

rises," B. qu. Sol exit domum 

suam (?) or iter suum, cpus 

suum (?). 
DSzar, " shoulder," B.^fl^tf 598, 

Also Tegirgest. 


Afa, light. See verb Yafu. 
Tefit, winding sheet, H. 
Afud, knee; also (straight) 

line ; pi. Afedden, B. 
Afuda, a strong camel, pi. 

Ifuden, H. 
Tef(§dit, ulcer of horse, B. 
Afedus, minister, officer, pi, 

IfedwateD, also pi. Ifud^ten, 

Tafi^dele, sandal, j?/. Tifedalen, 

Afedd&ven, "kidneys?" B., 

rather, paunch ; for Ilafed- 

dS,ren is corpulent, qu. au 

Afaddis, hammer, B. (Kab. 

Efef, female breast, pi. Ififian, 

Ifaffar (Ifaffan ?), teat of cow, B. 
(Afofore ?) retail dealer, pi. 

Ifoforeten, B. 
Tafefat, rice, H., B. (Taf&kat, 

B. 188.) 
Afeggagen, branches, H. 
Tefok, sun, B. Tafuk Duv. 

Afakkerem, nag, B. 
Afakkos, carpet, B. 
Afelle, North : front (of shirt) ; 

desert (to Southern Tuarik), 

B. Upper part? 
AfelMya, leaves? trees? B. 
Tafult, a part, pi. Tef ul, Tefii- 

lin, H. 
TafiUewit, cord on the buckle 

of a girth, B. 
Tefalwat, door, pi. Tifalwaten, 

B. See Tafanit. 
Fema, coal pan, B. 
Tefinaft, character of the Al- 
phabet, pi. Tefinaf, H. 
Eflilan, bulb, onion, Duv. Ghat. 
Tafanit, city gate, H. 
Afaneor, Duv. Ghat, the moon, 

qu. mhu f 
Afunes, steer, bull, pi. Ifune- 

sen, Ho. TefGnest, cow 

(heifer ?) 
Fenoten, monkeys, B. 
Afer, strip of cloth, B. 
Airiu, a feather, a pennon, pi. 

Afarewen, B. 

Digitized by 




Tiffart, fetter, H. footcord, B. 
Tifert, a maxim ; also a price, 

H. Kab. Gr. p. 349,^?. Tifer, 

Tiferin. See Yerbal root, 

Tifamiwen, black mud, B. 
Teferfarawin, swords, B. 
Afarak, a hedge, dim, Tafarak. 
fFarkasuba, barley, B. 
Tifarketen, large leaves, B. 
fFaranfo, basket, B. 
Efaranfar, forked stick for stir- 
ring milk, B. 
fFarMifaro, large vessel for 

honey, B. 
Afarar, cream, B, 
Tafarast, H., Tafarant, B. flint. 
Teferten, sciary, B. Yerbal 

root TJfure ? 
Afus, hand, pi. Ifassen [for 

Arm, Duv. Ghat.] dim. Ta- 

fust, pi. Tifassin. 
Tafusit, a favor. 
Tefest, a seed, ph TifSsin. 
Afisk, forked pole, B. 
fAfasko, Tifisko,Fatafet, spring 

of the year, B. 
Fasgnit, cotton, B. 183 (raw 

cotton ?). 
Aftenten, curds of milk, B. 


Ag, Aj, son {see Au), pi. Dag 

(Ig, son, Fr.). 
Aga, leathern bucket, pi. Iga- 

ten [but Ige, action, pi. 

Igitan, Fr.]. 
Teg^it, night. Ho., but qu. 

[with >[ final ?]. 

Tegawet, hair of man, B. 
Taglber, green and black snake. 

Tagebuzzit, a handful, B. 
Egedi, Ajedi, sand, pi. Igedan, 

Han. Ho. Tejldet, sand, 

Ben. Musa. 
AgXlI, AjiiX, bird, pi. IgSaS. 
Ajdit, water-skin. Ho. See 

Edid, Aidld. 
Agadel ne tafok, sunset, B. 
Agidelsit, full day, B. 
Tagedunfist, sort of carpet, B. 

Arab. Tanfase, Gr. raTrry;. 
Agadir, a wall, Ar. Jedar, Heb. 

Giderah). AgSjIr, town wall, 

Agadir, Ejedar, an eagle (vul- 
ture, B.), pi. Igderan (so 

Igidirxan, pi. hail^Igederez, 

of Han. Poet. 8. 
Ag^des, country, region, De 

Slane. rA|;adez, name of a 

town talking Songhay, on 

S.W. comer of Tuarik land.] 
Agadiz, family, B. 
Egef, sand hill, pi. Igefan 

S mountain, Songhay], dim. 
?egeft, dune, pi. Tigefln. 
Egefk, date stone, B. 
Ejaj, B. (Egag, Shil.), thunder, 

thunderbolt. Ajijei, thunder, 

Duv. Ghat. 
Agojil, Agohil, orphan, heir. 
Agagonil, rainbow, B. 
Tag6ih, fiddlebow, H. 
Tagohtr? *' witness," pi. Tigo- 

haren, B. {fern. ? does this 

mean testimony ?) 

Digitized by 




Giak, a Kttle (powder) pauhtm, 

fAgel, place, B. 228. See Edej. 

Ajekar, shepherd's crook, B. 

Egil, gunpowder, B., qu.= 
Akal, pulvis ? 

Igillan, womb, B. 

Gelguttan, pelican, also spoon- 
bill (mcB.), pi. Gelgutteten. 

Tagela, Tegilla, bread baked in 
file ground, a scone? F., pi, 
Tigellawin, H., B. (Takelit, 
Songhay). See Tekaya. Te- 
gilla, perhaps, a sqtiare cake ; 
for TegiUalauet, is inter- 
preted, with four edges. 

Agelmus, black veil, pL Igul- 
mas, H. 

Aj^ma, the desert, H. ; but 
" Ageme," in B., is merely 
the outside. So in Arab. 
Barru, outside; Barriya, the 
country outside. 

Agamba, river horse, pi. Igam- 

Tagemt, camel's nose ring, B. 

Agamek, alphabet, B. 

Tagumast, molar tooth. 

Egen, army, pi. IgSnan, H. F. 

EgShen, warlike expedition,^?. 
Ig-hanen, B. ; dim. Tegent, 
pi. Tigenin, H. 

Agana, die smallpox, H. 

T^genit, ear of com, B. 

TaJDit, sword, Ben Musa, 
— razor ? 

Agenna, Ajenna (Axinna, B.), 
heaven, pi. Ijennawen, etc. 
(Aigini, E.); eginan, rain, 
F., but qu. 

The Libyans, instead of It rodns^ 
are apt to say the heaven 
heats ; hence Europeans may 
easily mistake the word 
heaven for rain. Yet if 
Freeman correctly has " Ye- 
mus akal en eginan," for, 
**It is a day of rain," we 
seem forced to render Eginan 
rain, much as it looks like 
the plural of his word Aigina, 
heaven. Barth gives Axinna, 
heaven, and Ajinne, rain ; 
for which he also hasAkonay. 
Arabic Jenna^ ** garden (of 
Eden)," gives the moral sense 
of Heaven; but Agenna, 
Ajenna, seem only to take 
the physical sense Sky. Yet 
since in Haussa Heaven is 
Alitxana, evidently for JEl- 
ienna, I conclude that the 
^Libyan Ajenna is an Arabic 

Tiganbalin, heavy javelins, H. 

Agangera, wild boar, H. (dia- 
lect of Tuat),/<w». pi. Tigan- 
geratin, wild sows. 

Agingera, species of antelope, B. 

Aginena, bank of a stream, F., 
pi. Igenanaten. 

Agor, spear, also eunuch, pi. 
Igorawen, B. 

Ger, between. 
Tagar, joint ? B. 

Agora, s^n bag for meal, pi. 
Igerawen, H. 

Ageru (figar, B.), frog, pi. 
Igeruten, H. 

Agerui, scabbard, pi. Igeruin. 

Digitized by 




Agarayan, small black lizard, B. 
Egeriu, sea, great riyer, pL 

Tegardammat, kite (bird), B. 
Tegergerit, long chain for 

catching fish, B. 
Tigirgest, shoulder, pi. Tigir- 

gas, B. Tigirges, breast, B. 
Ag^rik, skin for baggage, B; 

dim, Teg^rik, nose bsig, B. 
Tegeruk, heavy cloud, Fr., pi. 

Tigerukin, B., F. 
Girrim, covering (of boat), qu. 

awning? B. 
0*egerrar, a peg, B. 
Tagerest, winter (also, old age, 

Ajais, bastard, pi, Ijuyas, H. 

Ag-ais, son of horse, i,e. horse- 
man ; pi. Kel-iyesan, B. 

Agus, the South, B. 

Tagese, Tagexe, sister's son, 
B. (sic), 

Tegias, tattooing, B. 

Agent, abundance, F., na from 
verb Eggut. 

Agit, pole (for boat or tent), 
pi, Ig€tan, B. (cf. Ar. 
Saidan), dim. Tegittewen, 
legs of bedstead, B. 

Agox, ankle bone, B. 

Agezzar, war, pi. Igezzaren,H. 

Agazar, B. (Ar. butchery ?) 

Gozema, long dagger, B. 

Tigezan, the spleen, B. 


Tacat (Tifsi), she goat, pi, TJUi. 
Tafait, a bottom, a dell, H. 

A[aba, bridle, pi, I(;dbataii, F. 

(Erraba, B.), so Songhay. 
A [id, kid, pi. I(idan, Heb. and 

Tafeda, spear, pike, pi. Tifeda- 

win, H., Duv. Ghat. 
Fadile, a packet, B. 
Afaddr, town wall, B. (see 

Todn, pistol, Duv. Ghat. 
Ifef, head (jce<\>'aK7i) , pi. Iffa- 

Afufa, garden, Ben Musa, pi. 

Ifufen. [Gabi'f, in Mozab 

and Wadreng.] 
I(;efednan, entrails. 
iSfefutin, platters, H. Tafa- 

hut, pi. Tifa, dish, F. 
Tafahamt, house, H., F. (Ta- 

raxam, B., r male). 
Afahar (Efaxar, B. Efzer, Kab.), 

valley with stream, H., river, 

A(il, arm, side, half; ell, yard ; 

right side, hiWstdef (right 

arm, F.), pi. Ifillan. 8ee 

Tafala, a peculiar trot, B., an 

amble ? 
Afaleg, raven, pi. I[;algiwen, H. 
Ta|;lamt (Tolamt, B.), a riding 

she camel, H., pi, Tolemin. 
Afilas, panther, leopard? /. 

Ta(ilast. See Anaba. 
Tafma, thigh. (TarSma, Song- 
hay, B.) 
Tafemirt, elbow, pi. Tifamir, B. 
Ta|nimast, eyetooth, B. p. 630. 
Tafenaut, dysentery, B. 
Afan, Ufan, cord, tie, mesh, pi. 

Digitized by 




Ifunan, H., F. (from verb 

Ta(;aiiat, a basket, F. 
Afer (Afere, B.), shield, pi, 

Iferan, H. 
Afurem, back, dim. Tafiiremt, 

Aferessil, inferior shield, B. 
Efair, copper, F. 
Afura (Enarar, winking, B.), 

the dawn. 
Efirreu, the sea, great river, 

B., pi. I(irriwan (see Egeriu). 

Efirreu wa yesimmen, the 

salt river, i.e. the sea, B. 
Tdfara, good behaviour, F. 
Tifara, a body, pi. Tifarawen, 

F. ? But see Tafasa. 
Tafaraut, catarrh, pi. Tifera- 

Afarabu, a bier, H. 
Aferef, travelling bag, valise, 

Tafuraffaft, full female breast, 

B. SeelMet 
Aferiwal, noon. 
Aferem, city, pi. Ifinnan, dim. 

Taferemt, town, pi. Tifer- 

Ta^arlnit, condition, pi. Ta^a- 

riwenit {eic) F. 
Tafarinit, character, pi. Tafarl- 

nesan {sic) F. 
Taferar, jLc, camel sacks, H. 
Eferrer, small torrent, B. See 

Igerragen, ^?. camel's dung, H. 
Afaras (Shilha), road, way (of 

life), pi. (Tu.)Ifuras, forests, 


Efas, bone, limb, pi. If^san. 
Taj;asa, pi. Tifasawen, a 
living body, F. See Tifara. 

Afatim, shoe, pi. Ifatimen, H. 
See Ebuxege. 

Ehi (=Izi), a fly, pi. Ihan 

(Ixan, B.), dim. Tehit, pi. 

Ahu (Afu, Ghad.), smoke, pi. 

Tehi, a defile? H. (Gizi of 

Kab. ?) 
Tihai, dusk, darkness, Fr. 
Tuhi, foot of camel, B. 
Tahau, chameleon, B. 
Ehebeg, man's bracelet, pi. 

Ihebegen, worn above the 

elbow, H., for Ezbeg. 
AhiS, ass, H. AxiS, B., H. 

AziS, Ghad., pi. IhiSan, Ixi- 

San,/. Tehii (TexeS, B.). 
Tihid, a fathom, B. 
OhuS, misdeed, crime, pi. Ohu- 

Sen, F. (A for x to root Xad, 

Ehai (EfaJ, Ghad.), night, pi. 

Ahayud, the mange. 
Tehadadait, swollen eye, B. 
Ehedel, calf, B. (Prod. Son.) 
Ahador, full moon, B. 619. 
(Ahufal ?), hair of sheep or 

goats, pi. Ihafilen. 
Ahogi, a foal. Tahogit, a filly. 
Ahegim, cold on the chest, B. 
Ahafer, tops of mountains, H. 
£hakit, skin tent, H. Ehikten, 

pi. f flesh of the heart, B. 

Digitized by 




Tehak, mouthful, B. 
Tehakkein, articles of glass, H. 
Ehikomaren, cheese, B. 
Tehali, ewe, H. pi. sheep, B. 
Ahalu, dimple, B. 
Tehellumt, a bridle, Duv. Ghat. 
Tehalgi, left (hand), F. K. 

Texalgi, B. 
Hildake, large ant, B. 
Ahellun, solder, B. 
Ahulaf, he-goat (Exolak, B., 

Asolak, Songhay). 
Tahal6halai, long lasting rain, 

Ahulil, wild ass, H., young 

ass, B. 
Hulan, greatly : but in F. 

mostf futKurra. Hence, Yes! 
Halis, Alis, a man, vir, 
Hamis, dromedary, Duv. Ghat. 

But see Kamis. 
Ehni, blood, F. (for Axeni), pL 

Ehan, chamber of tent, home ; 

pi, Ihenan, dim. Tehant. pi. 

Tehainawi, gum of the teeth, H. 
Ihankarayen, stones for a fire- 
place in cooking, B. 
Tehaninet, compassion, B. F. 

H., pi. Tihunan, F. (Ar. 

Hannis, wife, partner, B. 
Tehunit (Tahdnit, B.), rock,^?. 

TihuD, said of the material, as 

Tehunt, anvil, B. 
Ehinaq, army, Ben Musa. 
Ahenka2 (Aiienkaz, AxinkaS, 

Azenkaz), gazelle. 

Eheri, flock, property, ph Ihe- 

riwen, money, B. 196. 
Ahir(Afir, Ghad.), the lion, B. 

F. (leopard, H.), pL Eheran, 

B. 139. Tahirt, lioness. 
Teher, small torrent, Ben Musa 

Tahere, eye water, B. 
Tahore, business, B. See Yerb 

Aheret (Harret, B.), thing, pi. 

Tehrey? an affair, (F. has 

Yehreyd (sie) p. 38. 
Tahuri, the (lai^e) hyaena, H. 

(Tasori, Songh., B.) 
Ahwar, carpet, B. dim. Tah- 

wart, pi. Tihuwaren, F. 
Tahurt, door, H. F. (perhaps 

Curtain f), Zab. Tawwort, 

Ahara2, a contract, pi. Iha- 

raien, F. (from Arab. Xara^p.) 
Tehardenit, guitar, B. 
Aharak, rope passing over tent 

poles, B. 
Hargita, harpoon with 3 or 4 

barbs, B. 
Aharrer, salt incrustation, B. 
Ahis, moderate rain, B. 
Tahist, flame, B. 
Tihaten, pi. sheep, B. 
Ahatem, oil, Ben Musa( = zeit ?) 
Tah^tamfla, compassion, Fr. 

(or Tahd tam61a inest mise- 

cordia ?) 
Tehetint, box, pi. Tibetan, Fr. 
Ehixk, a tree, B.,' for Ixik 

Tahizzak, duckweed, B. 

Digitized by 




A£i, milk, pL I£awen, all sorts 
of milk, B. A£ ordinarily 
means sour milk. To dis- 
tinguish it as fresh the 
epithet Wd yekafayen is 

A£at, ostrich, Ho. See Anz. 

A££a, an animal, (especially 
wild) pi. A££uten, perhaps 
connected with Heb. Ilaya, 
life, animal. 

Ta£far, onion, j??. Te£faren, B. 

TeRsa, a ewe {[for Tekse ? verb 
Iks], pi, Tifsiwin, sheep or 
goats, H. 

Ta£xit, secrecy, B. ^J*^ ob- 

ARxinxur, beetle, B. 

ARurhi, the fenek (fox), /. 
Ta£hurhit, H. 

Eke, root, B., Aim, pi, Tekwin, 

Takoy, echo, B. Also Amsa- 

Ta*ukki, worm, H. 
Tekaya, loaf baked in wen 

{Verb Toka?), pi, Tikaya- 

wen, F. (So Ghad.) See 

Takat, a noise, H. 
Takia, eggs, — Ben Musa. 
Takot, a gift, a treat, a pension, 

a funeral feast, H. 181, but 

with De Slane a flower. 
Takiiba, sword, pi, Tikubatin, 

H., B. (Songh.). 

Akabar, caravan, pi. Akwabir, 

Ikeberan, B. See Terekeft. 
Akabor, sparrow, B. 
Eebbis, handful in closed flst, 
. B. 
£kedi, rock, pi, Ikediwen, H. 

Ikaduwen, stones, Duv. Ghat, 
Tekedimmety a pinch (as of 

snuff), B. 
IkaSen£en, Ika£ka2en, H., blue 

Ikafayen, milk fresh and sweet : 

shortened from A£ wa ika- 

Takafet, scum of jnilk {sic, B.), 

not cream, which he calls 

Akfor, valour, B. 
Tikefren, charity upon some 

one's death, B. 
Kogeri, stalk, reed, cane, B. 
Ek^hi, cock, pi, Ik^han, F., 

H. See Ikez. Takehit, hen, 

Duv. Ghat. 
Kekka, outside of tent, B. 
Akaikai, a weaver, B. 
Takukait, cocoa nut, B. 
Kekkaben, peel, husk, B. 
Kaukauna, water melon, B. 

(Kank^na, melon, Songhay. J 
Kokoro, a nag, B. 
Kel, people, folk, Arab. *Ahl. 
Akal, land, a land, pL Ikallen. 
Akala, a string or row. 
Tekelt, a foot measure, pi. 

Tekel, Fr. (from Arab. Keile, 

a dry measure ?). 
Tikli, na march, gait, going. 

(verb lost ; see Akel : a de- 
rivative is Sikel, Sokal.) 

Digitized by 




Akli, negro slave, or simply 

domestic ; pi. Iklan, /. Tak- 

lit, pi Tiklatin. 
Kildeka, large black ant, B. 
Ealokalo, the lotus, B. 
Ikulamen, sheep without wool, 

£alenki, red maize, B. « 
Tukemet, leather worm, B. 
Takambut, red cap, B. Ti- 

kumbut, Duv. Ghat. 
Ekimdal, worm whose bite is 

Akamkom, beak of bird, B. 

(chin in Kab.), perhaps here 

Aqamqom = Aqamum of Kab. 
Tikammerin, cheeses, H. 
Kamis, a camel, Duv. Ghat. 

See Hamis. 
Tikemsin, gowns, shirts (Ital. 

and Arab.). 
Ikmex, thumb (or Egemex), 

B. Arab. Ekmiz, he pinched. 
Akon, hoe for sowing, B. 
Akonay, rain, B. 
Ayakin, the multitude, B. 
Ak^yun, small (land ?) tortoise, 

Akokehat, full moon, B.,p. 619 

(also Ahad5r). 
Ikni, twin, pL Ikniwen, fern. 

pi, Tikniwin. 
Ikewen, guinea worm, B. 
Tekwina, a pipe, H., Duv., 

Tekindemen, woolly sheep, B. 

See Ikulamen. 
Tekenesit, squirrel ? B. 
Akor, mouse, B. See Akuti 

and Irallen. 

Ekkor, four, Duv. Ghat. 
Akirt, young bird, B., pL 

Akoreu, dense (forest), sic B. 

It looks like a participle 

Taqoren, dry. 
Akerwa, H., Kiruwan, B., 

young ram, pL Kiniwaten. 

See Abagug. 
Karbindu, bench, B. 
Tekarda, paper, Gr. ^afyrl, 

an amulet ? 
Tekardafen, knots in a cane, B. 
Karkora, head, B., dim, Tekdr- 

korit, crown of head, B. 
Takarokarit, cleansed cotton (a 

verbal?), B.^pL Tikurtikaren. 

See Fas^nit. 
Akurem, the back, Ghad.= 

Aruri, B.=A[;urem. 
Takarambet, skm, B. 
Akorunkayen, fisherman, B. 
Ikararen, whiskers, B. 
Akrar, ram. Ho Sergoo. See 

Tikroriyen, upper room, B. 
Akurs, throat, dim. Takursit, B. 
Tikeroast, copper cup, B. 
KirtSbe, trowsers, B., Duv. 

Ghat. Kerteb, trowsers, Ben 

Akes, cock, pi. Ikesan, B. 

(Ekez, H., better. See 

Ekehi,>w. Tekazit, T6kahit, 

H., hen ; Tekaxit, Tekaxilt 

(Hc)y B., pl. Tikdhatin, etc.) 
Akus, dish, milkpail, pl. Ikas- 

sen (Heb. Kus, cup ; Arab. 

Kuz), dim. Takust, drinking 

cup. Ikesan, dishes, B. 178. 

Digitized by 




Ak^, ramy sefason, B. 

Ek^se, wax. 

Tikist, a patch? B. 185. Ta- 

gaf tikist, " I mend," B. 
Akilsisy calabash for holding 

water, B. 
Akuti, rat, or mouse, pL 

Ikutiyen, H. 
Takuti, H., Takot, B., gift, 

alms, fdneral feast. 
Tekatkat, smock &ock, B. 
AkS,tel, crocodile, B. See 

Arati. [One may suspect 

that Ara,tel, A^ate is more 

AkS,t6s, fainting, B. 
Ekex=Ekey, cock. 
Akxal, muscle, B. 
Akxar, upper arm, B. 


XJl, heart, H. (XJlhi, B.), pi 

TJlli, flock, esp. goats. 
£le, fata morgana, B. 
Bi, black pepper, B. 
Alawa, a purge, B. 
Ila, a leaf, pi. Ilaten, H., pi. 

Alan, B. 
Teli, shade (shadow, H., p. 148), 

Tilawin, H., B. 
Illi, met. Hit, daughter, pi 

Set, Xet, B. 
Elu, elephant, pi. Eluan, H., 

B. ( Verb Ilu, he was strong.) 
Aliwen, soup, B. 
Eli wen, hair of the eyelash, B. 
Wallya^ stork, B. 

Awal, Lat. vox, utterance, 
speech. Root of verb Siwel. 

Tela, cattle, herd ; also Tela or 
Aitli, chattels, H. 

Tallit, a month (Ghadamsi). 
See Tallilt, below. 

Talla, God. Probably Arabic. 

lUebek, mud, B. 

Awal, eye, Ghadamsi, j?/. Awe- 
Ian, eyes (Tuarik of Ben 
Musa). Alkn, eyes, Eab. 

Aliad, boy, child, pi. Iliaden : 

1^^and*^!> Taliad, girl, B. 
Aledax, lion's cub, B. 
Talefaat, pod, hull, pi Tilfasin, 

B., H. 
Ilji, sheep. Ho., South Tuarik. 

Tolug, goat. Ho., Sergoo. 
Al^ges, son-in-law. 
Telegest, skin on nail, B. 
Ileggan, eyebrows, B. 
Allaf ? iron lance, pi AUafen, 

H., dim. Telaft (Telaq H.), 

dagger, pi Tilefin. (Song- 
hay, Txelak.) 
Alafod, young camel, B. 
Til(;edi, trickery, H., na of a 

Tila(;la|;en, gillsofacock; lobes 

of the ears, B. 
Tllihin, outside, H. (Ag^ma, 

Eloki, a calf, pi. Ilokian, B. 
Telak, lime, B. 
T61ak, deep place in river, B. 
T61ik, louse, pi Tilkin, B. 
Telakat, bit (of bridle), B. 
Ill^ket, branch of Ixee, pi 

Illiktan, B. 


Digitized by 




Tewallakaten, pL ? the palate, 

Elaklf, saddle B. (Songhay), 

pi Ilekfan, H. See Tarikt. 
Tdekkenit, cooking pot, B. 
Elel, rhododendron, H. 
IMen, baggage, B., from verb 

Hal, aid. 
Tallilt, month, i?/. Tillal, Talill, 

Tillilen, H. (not in B.) But 

Telilt, aid, F. from Yelil. 
Lemu, coloc3rnth, B. 
Allm, shore, margin? B. 
Hem, skin, pi. Uemawen (Kab. 

Aglim). Telemsut, skin, 

Ho., South Tu. 
Lumet, measles, B. 
Talemt, Tolamt, she camel (of 

burden), pi, Tillemin, To- 

lemin, Tullemin, for Taflemt 

or Talfemt. 
Alimnu, young of antelope, 

mohr, B. 
IlemmaXen, poor people, H. 
Hm^sen, reeds, H. 
Telumxa, basin, pL Telumx- 

awen, F. 
Almaz, sunset, H. (Afenfan, 

Ohad.) Almos, time of 

prayer after sunset, B. 
Alemmuz, herbs, fodder, H. 

(anything to ewallow ? verb 

Alun, grain of all sorts, B. 
Awllen, summer. [B. 

Ilingeya, calf, pi, Hingeyaten, 
Telaq, dagger, H. See Telaft. 
lies, tongue, pL Hsawen, H. ; 

dim, Tilist, slowness of 

tongue, B. 

Yules, pi, Yulesan, cheese of 

sour milk, H. 
Telsak, a fleece, B. 180. 
Husin, brother-in-law, pi. 

Ilusenan, B., fern. Telusln. 
Teltak, earwax, B. 

Ma, mother (in composition, as 

Agma, etc.). 
Em, price, B. (Em, when? Fr.). 
Imi (Em, B.), mouth, pi. Ima- 

wen, H. 
Yuma, large (sea ?) tortoise, B. 
Amaway, leader, from Yerb 

Awi, bring, lead. 
Tamai, young of ass, B. See 

Tamaya, barb of spear, B. 
Temit, navel. 

Amidde, ink, B. (Arab. Mi^d). 
Midden, men, viri, H. Meden, 

B. (Mutan, Haussa). 
Meddan, children, H., F. 
Amidi, companion,. from verb 

AmidI, mountain of sand. Ho. 
Muda, asmall measure : modiue f 
Amdar, giraffe,^/. Imide^an. 
TimiZi, a hundred, pi, TimaZ, 

Temedent, herd of 100 head, B. 
Amadol, place of pasturage, B. 

Verbal? place of rearing , if 

from Dul. 
Tamedlelt, antelope, baqar el 

waUx, Huv. 
Amadel, halter of camel, B. 
Ama£al, ground, soil, area, 


Digitized by 




Temacl3,let, gale of wind, B. 
Amedrui, stranger, H., Kab. 

Gr. p. 349. 
MedaXy saddle, B. 
Mag6dar, lizard, pi. Imig^da- 

ren, B. 
Temagelait, large company, B., 

from ofyiXrj ? 
Imeggel, kind of snake, B. 
Amgar, combat, H., encounter? 

See the Yerb Ager. 
Am agar, guest — also host ; pi. 

Imagaren, H., from verb 

Amagur, old camel, pi. Imugar. 
Am(id, vassal, pi. Im[ad (said 

especially of the vassal tribes 

of Tuarik). 
Tamafedart, pistol, B. 
Amfar, a chief, old man, alder- 
man, pi. Imfaren, H. Tam- 

fart, dame, lady, pi. Tim[arin. 
Ama|;ar, a guest, pi. Ima(tu*en, 

B. [H. has g, not f; more 

correctly. From verb Emger.] 
Amafri, afternoon, Fr. 
Amaferas, the itch, B. 
Mahellen, the milky way, B. 
Imahalen, Ima5alen, domestics. 

From Ayal, to run ? 
Temaket, a bottle, F. 
Amikli, dinner, Fr. See Yerb 

Ekel, also Imiklo. 
Amekkelu, sorcerer, B., /. Ta- 

Amalu, bullock, B. 
Timulatin, wooden ladles, H. 
Amelejji, a flower, H., dim. 

Tamelejjit, pi. Timelejjatin, 


Amdlakis, the liver, B. 

Amellal, antelope addax, H. 

Tamellolot, moonlight. 

Temelilt, sand, B. (Talamme- 
det, Songhay). 

Si Tamelilt, in turn, H. 

Mulul, com worm, B. 

Amulas, spotted grey horse, B. 

Temulast, a mare, H. 

Mimi, spur, pi. Mimltan, H. 

Tamemt, honey, H. 

Iman, self, soul, selves. 

fiman, barrel of gun. 

Aman, pi. water, pi. of pi. 

Amen, fish, B., pi, Im^an, H. 

Amaina, the East, B. 

Manna, dearth, scarcity, B. 

Amnai, rider, pi. Imnayen ; 
from verb Inai, Kab. Inig. 

Amawan, rider, from verb Iwan, 
he mounted. 

Tamainuk, young of ass, B. 

Temankayt, middle pole of 
tent, pi. Temankayan, B. 

Amenokal, king. Tamenokela, 
chief officers, the Govern- 

Amanun, dromedary, H. 

Amanar, the Gross (constella- 
tion), B. 

Am^nls, Amnis, baggage-camel, 
pi. Im^nas, Imnas. 

Amensi, supper — ^verbal from 

Temannas, copper cup, B. 
Wanas, copper, brass, Ghad. 
Temanast, a cup, pi. Time- 
nasen, F. — ^Ar. NeHas, cop- 

Digitized by 




Temantest, spark, pL Teman- 

tesin, B. 
Amqaren, aged, Ben Ifusa. 
Emir, season, crisis, epoch, time. 

Emir enni, at that crisis, just 

then. Anemir, still, yet. 
Ameri (Amerhi), Mend ; from 

verh Erhi. 
Amarau, father, gmitor. See 

Aran, among Yerhs. 
Tamart, heard. 
Tamarait, porcupine, B. 
Tamarrowani, heads, B. 
Temaregext, wild heasts (prow- 
lers ?), B., from verh Ergex, 

Ameriggiz, footman ( ped^Sy 

foot soldier), B., from verh 

Marakafe, rice hoiled with 

meat, B. From Ar. Maraqa ? 
Amaruwas, deht in trade, B. 

(capital advanced ?) 
Timarzet, shroud, B. 
Mas, paternal uncle, B. 
Mess, H. (MesI, F.,B.), master, 

ph Messan, H. Hence the 

names Massinissa, Massiva, 

Massa, mistress. 
Am^si, the rectum, B. 
Ammas, Amas, the middle 

[also Elemmas, as (f Arahic] 
Ames, camel, for Amenis. 
Timsi, fire, pi, Timsawin, H. 

(Ef;§u, B.) Timesi, hell fire, 

Tamsigenaut, heavy rainclouds, 

B. (from Kah. Asigna). 
Amselai, hridegroom. — Kab., 

IsH, /. Gislit. Temaselait, 

hride, B. 
Timsennawan, small barbs, B. 

8ee Asennan. 
Amasur (Amaziir, B.), lower 

arm, F., pi. Imausar, F. 
Ams6ras, degree, step, pi. 

Imseraran, F., perhaps from 

verb Irs. 
Tamasroit, damsel, ph Tamis- 

royati, JB. 
Timistdkaten, pi. ? amber, B. 
Amistan, a defendant in law ? 

B., but courage, F. 
Tamaq^, Tamaqvpuf, woman. 

[Tamot, Duv. Ghat.] 
Imeqvpawen, pi. tears. 
Ametlaki, a poor man, H. Kab. 

Gr. p. 349. 
Timetant, splinter, B. 
Timetut, money, H., Kab., Gr. 

p. 349. Timetawin, moneys, 

Amawaq^, adult youth, B., from 

verb Ewaq^ ? fern. Tamawaf . 
Timetralin, coins, * * douras," H* 
Tamxit, a small skin, B. 
Emma5, distrust, difi, H. 
Amzad, a hair, a violin string ; 

violin of one string; pL 

Im5aden, tresses. 
Timzagot, fist, B. 
Temd5ug, ear, B. Temexek, 

Ho., South Tu. 
Amezzaf» encampment, from 

verb Zaf, lodge. 
Tamsak, fattened cow, B. 
Tamzint, barley, Duv. Ghat., 

[Farkasubu, B.] 
Amazur, lower arm, B. 

Digitized by 




Ann, a deep well. 

Anna, mother. 

Yenai, new, /. Tenai, F. 

Tenaya, authority, F. Perhaps 
for Tenhaya, oversight. Verb 

Anaya, song, B. (Ar. Fan- 
nay a ?). 

Ini, hue, colour, pi, Tniten, H. 

Tenl, this year, B. (Arab. 
SSne ?). TeninSa, last year, 
B. SeeEnK. 

Teini, H., Teheni, B., dates. 

Awan, image, aspect? B. 165. 

I wan, kine, B. 

£)waD, state, H., state of day. 

An§,bay, hole in a boat? B. 192. 

Anaba, panther, pi. Inabaten, 
H., according to the Ifufas 
{i.e, dialect of Ghat). 

Anubi, Aniba, bastard, pL 
Inuba, H. (Anobe, B.), /. 
Tanibut, pi. Tinuba, H. 

Anabag, pan of gun, B., pi. 
Inabagen, windows, B. 

AinaS, blacksmith, farrier, Fr. 

EnS, last ? latest ? pron. other, 
alter. So NeS. EnMxel, 
EnSixel, yesterday. Eni^- 
haS, EnioJ, yesternight. 

Tundl, mountain. Ho. Sergoo. 

Tinder, mortar for pounding, 

Anderba, arrow, pi. Inderba- 
ten, H. 

Tendirbut, trap for gazelle, B. 

Ennefet, steel for flint. 

Tinefek, victuals, H. 

Tanfost, a tale, narrative, pi. 

Angi, abundance, H. An^i, a 
torrent, B. 

Anagud, shawl for the face, B. 

Anjur, bridge of nose, B. 
(Anxur? Anzar?) 

Tinhar, nose (for Tinzar), Duv. 

AngaOman, paternal uncle, B. 
See Mas. 

Neggor, brown (of horse), B. 

Tenegeut, na roar, roaring, F. 
(Kab. Inijju?). 

Inf^las, tender herbage, B. 

Tenfarbit, dish, F. 

Tonafrift, a small box, F., pi. 

Enhad, smith, worker in metal, 
pi. Inh&den, B. fern. Ten- 
had, pi. Tinhadin. 

Enehel, ostrich, pi. Inihal. 

Enhar, gazelle, fern. Tenhar, 
pi. Tinharin. 

InhS,ren, eyelashes, H. 

Tindharen, goodness, protec- 

Anukman, a crowd, F. 

En^li, guinea corn, millet. 

Tinelli, thread, pi. Tinelwa, H. 

Anmiger, a degree, step, pi, 
Anim&geren, Fr., seemingly 
a verbcd of vr 

Anamehal, Aname5al, a do- 
mestic, from verb Ayal, run ? 
See Ihle in the Verbs. 

Tanemmirt, benediction, H. 
(muttMl wishes, from Irha, 
he loved, wished ?) 

Animaf^aden, foster brothers, 

Digitized by 




B.; rather Anima^afen, 
from verb If ef , he sucked. 

Anaina, a bell, pL Inainan, F. 

Taneqqisty tale, story, H. Arab. 

Enur, light ; Ainlr, a lamp ; Fr. 

probably both mere Arabic. 
Teneri, pi. Tin^rewin, the open 

country, rus, the hedu of 

Arabic. Han. and B. render 

it "the plain"; F. "the 

country '*; Faidherbe "the 

Enner, honte, shame, H. ; also 

Enner — enner, if — then. 
Tannert, skin bag, H. 
Teneroit, boa, huge serpent, B. 
Inirkeb, stirrup, B. (from Ar. 

Rekeb, ride). 
Anirkeben, rivals, B. 
En^rer, dawn, B. Enareren, 

winkings, gleams (of light). 
Tensit, leg, Ho., South Tu. 
Tinsi, toe, pL Tinsawen, B. ; 

also cloven hoofs, B. 
Enisd6ben, bridegroom, pL Inis- 

duban, F., like Enisbahut, 

seems to be a compound. 

See Deben or Debon under 

the Verbs. 
Anasdamu, husbandman; pL 

Inisduma, B. 
Tainust, gum (of tree), pi. Ti- 

nusin, H. 
Ansan, meat, flesh, F. See 

Tanast, lock, pi. Tinasin, H. 

See Asaru. 
Tunis, key, Ben Musa. Tu- 

nest, key, Oh ad. 

Tawinist, buckle of horse's 

girth, B. 
Eneti, beginning, F. (Lat. Ini- 

tium), hence verb Asinti. 
Tunti, female, H., Tunta, Fr. 

(Arab. OnOa), pi. Tuntawen, 

Teawent, a ford, B. 
Tanaf , counsel, H., Tanhad, B. 
Tenxit, bow. Ho., Tu., cf. Ar. 

Noxxaba, arrow. 
In^xan, agony, death struggle, 

Inxeran, pi.? mucus of nose, B. 
Tanexromi, backbone, B. 
Tanasrufet, desert plain, B. 
Tinezemmart, wave, B. Its 

plural seems to be Tinezam- 

mer, rendered oar, by some 

slip of the pen, perhaps. 


Euqi, bracelet. At Tuat, wo- 
man*8 bracelet, H. 


Er, branch of river, B. 

In (Eri, B.), neck, nape, pi. 

Irawen, H. Iran, stars, 

Duv. Ghat, as Ghadamsi. 
Am, dense (forest), B. 
Era, debt of blood, B. 
Ara ? pi. Araten, fruits, B. 
Awara, young camel, B. Aura 

6!"' pi. Ymm, H. 
Arewi, a cord, pi. Iriwan. 
Tara, affection, F. for Tarha, 

verb Irha. 

Digitized by 




Taraya, archer's bow, B. See 

Tarrait, the street, K. Kab. Gr. 

p. 349. 
Turawen, lungs, B. 
Tarut, heat of day, ten o'clock, 

H. See verb Irra. 
Taraut, honey, B. (=Taniemt, 

with all others). 
Ayyor, the moon {aUo a month, 

B.), pi, Ayyoran. 
Eribbe, pupil of eje, pi. Iraben, 

Erd, pL Irden, wheat. 
Ered, ox leather, B. 
Aridal, hyena, B. {See Ifis in 

Kab. and Tahuri.) 
Iredem, cold, fri^us, Ben Musa, 

and B. p. 620. 
Ireddixan, ribs, B. 
irrda3, thunder, F., also Shil. 
Toraffc, boat, pi Torefi, B. 

(Turiffc, pi. Turifen, F.) 
Yerlfl, N.E. wind, B., hot wind, 

Oreg, corner of the eye, B. 
Arg^, tail, H. 
Areggan, active camel (Errigga, 

B.), pi. Iregganen, H. 
Arajut, goblet, B. Awellim. 
Tarahod, heat of the d,ay, B. 

for Tallarut. See Tarut. 
Aruku, camel's saddle, for bag- 
gage, B. dim. Tarik, rider's 

saddle, pi. Tirikin, H. So 

DuT. camel saddle, j?/. Tirek- 

kin, B. 
Turik, female antelope, B. — 


Arkit, wilderness, forest, B, — 
Aruk, d°- B. p. 625. 

Iwarkay, duty, F. 

Erkod, eloquence {sie B.). 

Tarakeft, caravan : TaraJiqt in 
Shilha (group of travellers 
with pack-animals), pi. Tire- 
kifin. Heb. and Arab. jSayE;^^. 
The word has found its way 
into Songhay [or inverse 
from Rafiq ?], B. Duv. Ghat. 

Aril, half, B. p. 621 for Afil. 

Oril, memory, B. 158. See 
verb Yafil. 

Arekkun, packsaddle of ass, 

Ar^lad, a fence ? B. 186, 

Taralgi, rahmi {sic B.), carrion- 
kite? vultur percnopterus ? 

Irammedan, tongs, B. 

Arammin, ant hill, B. 

Terammert, angle, B. comer? 

Arinmin, nerve, B. 

Aran, leathern rope, ji?/. Ironan, 
B. dim. Tarant, pi. Tironin, 

Turna, disease, F. H. for Tur- 
hana? from Erhin. pi. Tur- 
nawen, F. 

Aranib, a pen, B. 173. 

Arm, B. 201, direction ? It is 
singular, arin toa n afll. 

Rur, a son, B. pi. Daj. Terert, 
nation, B. ; aUo a cup, B. 

Aruri, the back, B. and Ben 
Musa, Duv. Ghat. (Akurem, 
Ghad. As rur, Kab. and A(Tur. 
backbone). Asrur, V. 

Eurret, the whole, all, B. Not 
in Han. 

Digitized by 




Baret, sudden death, B. (of 

horse ?). 
Tdrari, boiled rice, B. 
Ararlby kind of flute, B. 
Ararkob, crest (of cock), B. 
Erdrar, glen, valley, B. dim. 

Terarart, cavity, B. 
tTrer, mountain, Ho. (South 

Tu. and Wadreag.) 
Taras, dew, B. 
Tiris, shallow well, B. 
Arasuwe, shawl for the shoul- 
der, B. 
Iwursakka, ceiling, B. 
Tarassalumet, skin for butter, 

Arata, crocodile, B. But see 

Bixaba, a shirt. 
Taraxam, Taraxamt, a house, 

pi. Tarixmin, B. See Ta£a- 

hamt, for Tafaxamt. 
Tarazzut, goblet, B. dim. of 

Arajut ? 
Erezigen, tame animals. B. 
Targzek, a ditty, B. 


Ais, horse, pi. lyesan. 

Esu, bull, pi. Esuan, H., hut 
Asau, pi. Isuanen, B. 

Tes, cow, pi. Tisita. 

Ansa, liver complaint, B. Tesa, 
liver, vitals, womb. 

Asawa, iron hammer, B. Te- 
sa wa, lead; a bullet, shot, 
pi. Tisawaten. 

Tasit, grindstone. 

Tesit, glass, spy glass, mirror, 
pi. Tisatin. 

Tausit, a tribe, pL Tuyijsi, B., 
also Teusit, tribute, B. Tau- 
sit, mat of reed, B. 

Tasuwit, one strip of a shirt, 
pi. Tfsuwat, B. 

Saba, maize, B. p. 633. 

Sibi, black maize, B. 

Is^ban, Isabbaten, earrings, B. 

Tasubbadar, great holiday, B. 

Asabor, white foot (of horse), 

Isabaren,. mats, H. 

Asiddi, rope for securing the 
calves during night, B. 

Esid, cooking place, B. 

Tesedut, fresh butter, B. 

Tesddin, sweetmeats, B. 

Tesedain, palm trees, H. 

Tesadalt, egg, pi. Tisadalin, B. 

Tisdant, mouthpiece of pipe, B. 

Tis^das, the ends of the tar- 
paulins, B. 177. 

Asaf, nave of mosque, B. 

Isuf, gifts, H. 

Tisifuft, bark of tree, B. 

Asufar, medicine, B., pi. Is4- 
faran, F. [In Y. Isafir; 
perhaps Shilha.] 

Tasuferit, water skin, B. See 

Tasege, haunch, B., pL Tise- 

Tasugit, young tree, bush, B. 

Tesaggad, feathers, B. 

A siggefi, funnel, B. 

Isiguge, poles of bedstead, B. 

Asaggim, bowstring, B. 

Segimgim, breakfast, B. 

Digitized by 




Asgen, pL Isgan, resting place 

of camels, H. 
Asgin, hurdle of cattle pen, B. 
Tasgint, chest of camel, B. 
S^geni, indigo, B. [B. 

Tesagenit, wooden butterpan, 
Tesugenet, na, blame, F. 
Tasuggonist, a chain, B. 
Asgar, iron spear, B. 
Tasgirt, tinder, B. 
Tesiggert, string of beads. 
Tasfalt, necklace, B. 
Asfar, a stick, pi, Isfaren, H. 

Esa^er, wood, B., pi. Isa- 

faran, F., Duv. Ghat. 
Asahek, a song, ballad singer, B. 
Esek, a calf, B. 

Isek, horn, pi, Iskawen, H. B., 
Tisek, a ring, H. 
Asnkkod, finger, pi, Iskad, 

p. 630, pi,, Isikkaden, B. 92. 
Asaka, yearling camel, H., pi, 

Tesokalt, spoon, B. Sukalt, 

d°. Duv. Ghat. 
As&k5k,nest,B.p.627. Esarek, 

"eggs," 214; perhaps then 

it is Asafok. 
Tesakkanat, a brooch or buckle 

for the dress. [B. 

Asikarkar, mouthpiece of pipe, 
Silla, sour milk, B. Esilla wa 

yesimmen, very sour butter 

Iseli, bare rock, H. Tiselit, 

grotto, H., pi, Tisulai. 

Iselsal, flagstone, H. Isailel, 

the desert, H. 
Tesali, ear-hole, B. YerbEsel? 
Teselat, mat of grass. 

Is^an, news ; perhaps reports^ 

Taswilt, sheet of paper, B. 
Taselufet, camel's louse, pi. 

Teselftn, B. 
Asilka, drinking spoon, B. 
Isulmi, fish, pi, Isulmin, H. 
Asellum, writing table, B. 
Asalte, oar, B. 
Isem, name, footprint, pi, Is- 

mawen, Heb., Ar., but an 

ear (!), Duv. Ghat. 
Asama, cushion, pi, Isumaten, 

E. Oasum6a in Kab.) 
Tis^mi'p, salt, B. See Tisint, 

adj. Isimmen, salt or sour? 

rather, bitter. So Simem, F. 
Isimbo, a bee, pL Isimbawen, 

Isamban, pi, seeds, B. 
Asamme^, cold, frigvs (Tesa- 

murdi, d°. Ho., South Tu.) 
Senn, tooth, B. (Arab, and 

Heb. Xen). 
Asin, tooth, pi, Isinen, Duv. 

Ghat, and Ghadamsi. Bee 

Asennan, E., Isinnan, B., a 

Esin, broth, B. 
Isan, flesh meat, H.,B. (Ansan, 

F., Aisum, Ghad., Aksum, 

Esan, lighting, B. 
Tesint, salt. Ho., South Tu. 

and Sergoo. Also Mozab., 

Shilha, and Ghad. See Tise- 

Tdsenit, favourite horse, B. 

(mare ?) 

Digitized by 




Tesennity white star on horse's 

forehead, B. 
Tesennot, belly, Duv. Ghat. 
Tesindert, joint of hand, B. 
Tesinsak, bugle, B. 
Soro, tower ? pillar^? B. (Song- 
Esar, iron spear, B. (See 

Aserwi, krge stirring spoon, B. 
Asaru, a key, pi. Isura, H. 

Asayar, a key, B. Tesera- 

rift, d\ B. 
Isuraf, the ways, roads, Ben 

Tiserrifin, loins, H. 
Serhu, victory, glory, H. B, 
Asurka, fisherman, B. 
Esarek, *'egg8," B. 214; but 

see Esakok. 
Aserake, buffalo, B. 
Isara^ (sic, B.), snuff. See 

verbs Esrug, Isaraf. 
Iserkowen, tanned hides, H. 

(of buffalo?). ^ [B. 

Esarim or Esalim ? river bank, 
Serer, red beads, B. (coral ?), 
Isarsar, a chain, F. (Ar. 

Selsele). Asersar, Kab. 
Tesirsan, horse's bit, B., qu. 

chain curb ? 
Isaraiteg, a comb, E. 
Asis, earwigs, B. 
Tusist, distress, F., pi. Tisesin. 
Asoso, carpet, B., see Ahwar. 

(Kab. verb Issu.) 
Yesiska, chief, ^/. Isiskiwen,F. 
Tasiskart, pole for hanging up 

skins of milk, B. [B. 

Sasangun, a fin, pi. sasanguten. 

As^sar, chain, F. chain or collar 

for neck of captives, B. See 

Asersar above. 
Asissdrake, snapping with the 

ffngers, B. 
Astik, donkey saddle, B. 
Asetaktik, ramrod, B. 
Astel, cock of gun ; also a nail, 

pi. Istelen, B. [H. 

Asatel,coverture,upper blanket, 
Tisota, spittle, B. 
Tesotsin, evening prayer, B. 
Sawat, any animal for riding, 

pi. Isawoten, B. 
Isuwiten, chicks of guinea hen, 



Ti, father, pi Ityan, H. Tis, 

his father, is often used where 

we expect ^*. So Baba-s in 

Awatay, year, pi. Iwutien. 
Ewod ! ho lad ! pi. Iwidet, ho 

lads! fern. Etad! ho girl! 

pl. Etidet! all imitating 

imperatives, H. 
Tidet, truth — an isolated nonn. 

Perhaps from Tijedit,8traight 
Itidim, people, folk, B.(=Idu- 

Teatuf, small black ant, B. 

[Teaiivufe, Kab.] Bead Tea- 

Tetuk, an object, a thing, B. 
Tettuk {sic B.), expense. 
Atamar, hope? "Okus n ata- 

mar, despair," F., i.e. taking 

away of hope ? [B. 

Ateb, black shawl for the face, 

Digitized by 




Autel, island, B. 

Aitli, property, H. See Teli. 

Atar, star, pi. Itaren. 

Ataram, tlie "West, B. 

Etaras, a plain, B. 

Tisita, a sheep, Duv. Ghat, 
(cows ?). 

Tef , eye, source, pi. Tiffewen 
(oftener pL Allan), Tattaui, 
eyes, Dnv. Ghat. 

Taiti, sagacity, counsel, atten- 
tion (Songhay). 

Titar, case, scabhard, sheath, 
H., B. 

Tatari, morning star, B. 


Xi, father, B.=Ti. 

Texe, fre8hherbage=Kab.Tuja. 

Axiyut, dry scab, B. 

ExeS, an ass, pi. Ixiian(= 

AhiI=A2lS),>»». TexeS, B. 
Taxdait, date tree. [From this 

word Hodgson derives our 

European word date."^ 
Texigwalet, a whirlwind, B. 

p. 620. See verb Ixwalet. 
Axek, tree, bush, H. (Ehixk, 

B. Exke De Slane), pi. 

Ixkawen, shrubs, H. [also 

herbs, H. p. 149], but qu. 

Kab. Ixig, branch. 
Ixkan, grass, Duv. Ghat. 
Axku, negro child, pi. Ixkawen. 
Texikkat, women's curls, B. 
Exikkerax, field, garden, B. 

(Kab. verb Ekrez.) 
Axakal, pestle, B. [H. 

Taxakalt, spoon, ^Z. Tixukalin, 

Tixekkinet, mouthM. [eat. 
Axekxu,food; from verb Ekxe, 
Axel, day («=Ahel=»Azl) pi. 

Ixilan, B. 
Xil, by force. 
Taxxelt, a viper, H. 
Texalat, tusk of elephant, B. 
Axolaq, he goat, B=Ah5laq = 

Es'olak of Songhay. [B. 
Axulaq, horse of peculiar color, 
Texilgen, left side=Tehalgi. 
Axelrohera, shabby garments, 

B. 161. 
Auxim, young of gazelle, B. 
Exam, antelope urik, B. 
Texim, fetters ? ankle cuflfs ? B. 
Iximjel, slave. Ho., South Tu. 

[Shilha Isimif.] 
Aximmelex, evening star, B. 
Exin, pi. Ixinan, teeth, H., as 

Heb. IK^. 
Axeni, blood=Aheni, Ehni. 

Hausa Xini. 
Ixennen, house (houses ?), 

Duv. Ghat. 
Ixinnawen, pi. heaven, B., for 

Axengi, enemy, pi. Ixenga, Tixenga. 
Axink, Exink, pi. Ixinkawen, 

porridge, B.«=Isinka of H. 
Axawenk, a gallop, B. 
Xunkot, a mongrel, B. 
AxinkeX, gazelle ( =■ AhenkeZ = 

AzinkeX), pi. IxenkaS. 
Xinxar, nostrils, B. 
Texori, sparks, B. 198. 
Axirgix, cavalry, B., from verb 

Axerik, sorcery, B. 

Digitized by 




Xet, daughtersj B. [B. 

Xettahat, Pleiad (constellation), 
Xitan, cows, B. Ixitan, B. 126. 
Xeterjenne, little red bird, B. 
Tixoxoen, grey hairs, B. p. 630. 
Taxixwart, piece of cloth, B. 
See Ahwar. 


Azzai, male flower of date, pi. 

Izzaien, H. 
Auz, ostrich, Duv. Ghat. 
Ezet n efeu, remains of fire, 

cinders, ashes, B. 
Tez, hindquarters, rump. 
Azau, hair, Duv. Ghat. 
Tagbit, chojpelet, H. rosary ? 
Tazabat, ring (seal ?) B[.=Tez- 

bekt, V. (Shil?) Tasobut 

iron ring, B. Ezbeg (Exbeg, 

Ehebeg) bracelet, H., pi, 

Azfbara, wild boar, pi. Izi- 

baraten (dialect of Ghat.), K. 
EziX, cock, H. (Kab. Ayazl'p). 

See Akes, Akehi. 
Azad, provisions (of journey ?) 

Ezzad, provisions, H. [Either 

from AJab. Zawad, or from 

Libyan verb Zed, to grind, 

Zaden, hairs, H. p. 1 38. [Ghat. 

Azau, hair, Xab. Amzad. j 
Tagegga, herd of elephants. 
Azaf, full grown ass, fern. Te- 

gaft, Tegaut, B. 

Ayil, bough, branch, pL Yay- 

lan, F. 
TJzel, iron, Tazuli, iron weapon, 

Taguli n ei, steel weapon. 
Tdgelit, caterpillar, B. Izo- 

llten, worms in the body, B. 
Tez61ader, rainbow, H. 
Azelulan, swollen face, B. 
Izilman, tonsil, B. 
Tezomit, bread. Ho. Sergoo. 
Azimsur, boatman, B. 
Tizzein, palm tree, Duv. Ghat. 
Azinka2, gazelle, Ho. Sergoo, — 

Han. B., also Songhay, B. 
Tezanin, grains of corn, B. 
Azaren, veins, B. 
Teyar, a certain hour of the 

day, about 2 p.m., B. (He 

identifies it with Arabic £ohr, 

which is certainly Noon. So 

Shilha Tezuamin, which is 

Heb. yeharim, noon. 
Tezerdemt, scorpion, B. 
Agref, silver, H. B. 
Agaruwal, horsefly, B. 
Igereran, (Iserreran ?), beams 

(of sun), B. 
Tegitan, navel, B. See Temit. 
Ezehza, gazelle, Ho., qu. Ezer- 

zer ? See BizerzerO in Xab. 

See AzinkaX. 
Egig* eagle, H. 211 (vulture?). 
A5U5, crow. Ho. Sergoo. 
Tegogan, fire coals, B. 
Taugegit, heel, B. 
Igegeran, beams of sun, B. 


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BRENTANO.— On the History and Development op Gilds, and the Origin of 
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BROWNE.— A BiNGlLi Primer, in Boman Character. By J. F. Browne, B.C.S. 
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BRUNTON.— Map of Japan. See under Japan. 

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BUNNELL.— A Classified Index to the Sanskrit MSS. in the Palace at 
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BURNEY.— The Young Seaman's Manual and Rigger's Guide. By Commander 
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BUTLER. — The Spanish Tracher and Colloquial Phrase- Book. An easy and 
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BUTLER.— Hungarian Poems and Fables for English Readers. Selected and 
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BUTLBR.— The Legend of the Wondrous Hunt. By John Arany. With a few 
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CAITHNESS.— Serious Letters to Serious Friends. By the Countess of Caith- 
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CALLAWAY.- -Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories op the Zulus. Iu 
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CALLAWAY.— The Rblioious System op the Amazulu. 

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CAMPBELL.— The Gospel op the World's Divine Order. By Douglas Camp- 
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CANDID Examination op Theism. By Physicus. Post 8vo, pp. xviii. and 198, 
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CAXTON.— The Bioorapht and TrpoaRAPHY op. See Blades. 

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GAZELLES.— Outline op the Evolution-Philosophy. By Dr. W. E. CazeTIea. 
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CHAMBERLAIN.— The Classical Poetry op the Japanese. By Basil Hall 
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CHAPMAN.— Medical Charity : its Abuses, and bow to Remedy them. By John 
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CHAPMAN.— Sea-Sickness, and how to Prevent it. An Explanation of it« 
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CHAPTERS ON Christian Catholicity. By a Clergyman. 8vo, pp. 282, cloth. 

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CHARNOCK.— Prcenomina; or. The Etymology of the Principal Christian Names 
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CHILDERS.— The Mahaparinibbanasutta op the Sutta Pitaka. The Pali Text, 
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CHINTAMON.— A Commentary on the Text of the Bhagavad-GitX ; or, the 
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COLEBROOKE.— The Life and Miscellaneous Essays of Henry Thomas Cole- 
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COLENSO.— Natal Sermons. A Series of Discourses Preached in the Cathedral 
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COLTMBIA. Crown 8vo, pp. 260, cloth. 1873. Ss. 

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COMTE.— A General View op Positivism. By Auguste Comte. Translated by 
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COMTE.— The Catechism op Positive Religion : Translated from the French of 
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COMTE. —The Positivb Philosophy op Auguste Comte. Translated and condensed 
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CONOREVE. —The Roman Empire op the West. Four Lectures delivered at the 
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8vo, pp. 176, cloth. 1855. 4s. 

CONGREVE.— Elizabeth op England. Two Lectures delivered at the Philosophi- 
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CONTOPOULOS.— A Lexicon op Modern Greek-English and English Modern 
Greek. By N. Contopoulos. Part I. Modem Greek-!£lnglish. Part II. English 
Modern Greek. 8vo, pp. 460 and 582, cloth. 1877. 278. 

CONWAY.— The Sacred Anthology : A Book of Ethnical Scriptures. Collected 
and Edited by Moncure D. Conway. Fifth Edition. Demy 8vo, pp. viii. and 480, 
cloth. 1876. 128. 

\ CONWAY.— Christianity. By Moncure D. Conway, M.A., Minister of South 
Place Chapel, and at the Atbenseum, Camden Road. 18mo, pp. 146, stitched in 
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CONWAY.— Human Sacripiobs in England. Four Discourses by Moncure D. 
Conway. 18mo, pp. 64, sewed. 1876. Is. 

CONWAY. — Idols and Ideals. "With an Essay on Christianity. By Moncure D. 
Conway, M. A., Author of "TheEnstem Pilgrimage," &c. Crown 8vo, pp. 352, 
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COOMABA SWAMT.— Thb Dathavansa : or. The History of the Tooth Relic of 
Grotama Buddha, in Pali verse. Edited, with an English Translation, hj Mata 
Ooomara Swamy, F.RA.S. Demy 8to, pp. 174, cloth. 1874. lOs. 6d. English 
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COOMABA SWAMT.— SUTTA Nipata ; or. Dialogues and Discourses of Gotamt 
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Introduction. By Mutu Ck)omara Swamy, F.B.A.S. Grown 8to, pp. xxxvL and 
160, cloth. 1874. 6s. 

CORNELIA. A Novel. Post 8vo, pp. 250, boards. 1863. Is. 6d. 

OOTTA.— Geoloot and Histoby. A popular Exposition of all that is known of the 
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fessor of Geology at the Academy of Mining, Freiberg, in Saxony. 12mo, pp. 
iv. and 84, doth. 1865. 2s. 

COUSIN.— The Philosopht of Kant. Lectures by Victor Cousin. Translated from 
the French. To which is added a Biographical and Critical Sketch of Kant's 
Life and Writings. By A. G. Henderson. Large post 8vo, pp. xciv. and 194, 
cloth. 1864. 68. 

COUSIN. —Elements of Pstouologt : included in a Critical Examination of Locke's 
Essay on the Human Understanding, and in additional pieces. Translated from 
the French of Victor Cousin, with an Introduction and Notes. By Caleb S. 
Henry, D.D. Fourth improved Edition, revised according to the Author's last 
corrections. Crown 8vo, pp. 568, cloth. 1871. 8s. 

COWELL.— Prakrita-Prakasa; or, The Prakrit Grammar of Vararuchi, with the 
Commentary (Manorama^ of Bhamaha ; the first complete Edition of the Original 
Text, with various Headings from a collection of Six MSS. in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford, and the Libraries of the Boyal Asiatic Societv and the East India 
House ; with Copious Notes, an English Translation, and Index of Prakrit Words, 
to which is prefixed an Easy Introduction to Prakrit Grammar. By Edward 
Byles Cowell, of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, Professor of Sanskrit at Cambridge. 
New Edition, with New Preface, Additions, and Corrections. Second Issue. 
8vo, pp. xxxi. and 204, cloth. 1868. 14b. 

COWELL.— A Short Introduotion to the Obdinabt Prakrit of the Sanskrit 
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Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Cambridge, and Hon. LL.D. of the 
University of Edinburgh. Crown 8vo, pp. 40, limp cloth. 1875. 3s. 6d. 

COWELL. -^The Sarvadarsana Sanoraha. See TrUbner's Oriental Series. 

C0WLE7.— Poems. By Percy Tunnidiff Cowley. Demy 8vo, pp. 104, cloth. 
188L 5s. 

CBANBBOOK.— Credibilia ; or, Discourses on Questions of Christian Faith. By 
the Bev. James Cranbrook, Edinburgh. Beissue. Post 8vo, pp. iv. and 190, 
cloth. 1868. ds. 6d. 

CBANBBOOK.~Thb Founders of Christianitt; or. Discourses upon the Origin 
of the Christian Religion. By the Eev. James Cranbrook, Edinburgh. Post 8vo, 
pp. xii. and 324. 186a 6s. 

CRAWFORD.— Recollections of Travel in New Zealand and Australia. Bv 
James Coutts Crawford, F.Q.S., Resident Magistrate, Wellington, &o., &c. Witia 
Maps and Illustrations. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 468, cloth. 1880. 18s. 

CR08LAND.— Apparitions ; An Essay explanatoiy of Old Facts and a New Theory. 
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CROSLAND.— Pith : Essays and Sketches Grave and Gat, with some Verses 
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CUBAS.— The Befublic of Mexico in 1876. A Political and Ethnographical 
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graphic Families, and several Specimens of Popular Music. 8vo, pp. 130, cloth. 
1881. 6s. 

CUMMINS.— A Grammar op the Old Friesic Language. By A. H. Cummins, 
A.M. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 76, cloth. 1881. 38. 6d. 

CUNNINOHAM.— The Ancient Geography op India. I. The Buddhist Period, 
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Alexander Cunningham, Major-General, Royal Engineers (Bengal Retired). With 
13 Maps. 8vo, pp. xx. and 590, cloth. 1870. £1, 8s. 

CUNNINGHAM.— The Stdpaof Bharhut : A Buddhist Monument ornamented with 
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Dir.-Gen. Archseol. Survey of India. Royal 8vo, pp. viii. and 144, with 67 Plates, 
cloth. 1879. £3, 3s. 

CUNNINGHAM.— ARCHiBOLOGiCAL Purvey op India, Reports from 1862-76. By 

A. Cunningham, C.S.I., CLE., Major- General, R.E. (Bengal Retired), Director* 
General, Archseological Survey of India. With numerous Plates, cloth. Vols. L- 
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CU8HMAN.— Charlotte Cushman: Her Letters and Memories of her Life. 
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With Portrait and Illustrations. 1879. 12s. 6d. 

CU8T.— Languages of the East Indies. See Trubner^s Oriental Series. 

CUST.— Linguistic and Oriental Essays. See Triibner's Oriental Series, 

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B. N. Cust, late I.C.S., Hon. Sec. Royal Asiatic Society. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 
346, cloth. With Maps. 188L 7s. 6d. 

DANA —A Text-Book op Geology, designed for Schools and Academies. By James 
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DANA— Manual op Geology, treating of the Principles of the Science, with special 
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DANA— The Geological Story Beieply Told. An Introduction to Geology for 
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DANA— A System op Mineralogy. Descriptive Mineralogy, comprising the most 
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DANA— A Text Book op Mineralogy. With an Extended Treatise on Crystallo- 
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DATES AND Data RsLATiNa to Eelioious Anthbopoloot and Biblical Abohj- 
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DAUDBT.— Lbttbbs pbom my MrLL. From the French of Alphonse Daudet, by 
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DAVIDS— Buddhist Bibth Stobies. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

DAVIES— Hindu Philosophy. See Triibner's Oiiental Series. 

DAVIS.— Nabbative op the Nobth Polab Expedition, U.S. Ship Polarisy Cap- 
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DAT. — ^The Pbehistobio Use op Ibon and Steel ; with Observations on certain 
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xxiv. and 278, cloth. 1877. 12s. 

DE FLANDRE.— Monoobams op Thbee ob Mobe Lettebs, Designed and Dbawn 
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DELBPIERBE.— Histoibe IjITTEBAIBB dbs Fous. Par Octave Delepierre. Crown 
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DELEPIERRE.— Analyse des Tbavaux de la Societe des Philobiblon de Lon- 
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DELEPIERRE.— Revue Analytique des Ouvbaoes I^cbits en Centons, depuis les 
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DELEPIERRE. —Tableau de la LfttAbatube du Centon, ohez les Anciens bt chez 
LES MoDEBNES. Par Octave Delepierre. 2 vols, small 4to, pp. 324 and 318. 
Paper cover. 1876. £1, Is. 

DELEPIERRE.— L'Enpeb: Essai Philosophique et Historique sur les L6gende8 de 
la Vie Future. Par Octave Delepierre. Crown 8vo, pp. 160, paper wrapper. 
1876. 63. Only 250 copies printed. 

DE T2IYS.— A Handbook op the Canton Vbbnaoulab op the Chinese Language. 
Being a Series of Introductory Lessons for Domestic and Business Purposes. By 
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DENNTS.— A Handbook op Malat Colloquial, as spoken in Singapore, being a 
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DENNYS.— The Folk-Lork of China, and its Apfinitibs with that op the 
Aryan and Semitic Races. By N. B. Dennys, Ph.D., F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S. 
870, pp. 166, cloth. 1876. lOs. 6d. 

DE VALDES.— XVII. Opuscules. By Juan^De Valdes. Translated from the 
Spanish by John T. Betts. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 188, cloth. 1882. 5s. 

DE VERE.— -Studies in English ; or, Glimpses of the Inner Life of our Language. 
By M. Scheie de Vere, LL.D. 8vo, pp. vL and 365, cloth. 1867. lOs. 6d. 

DE VERE.— Americanisms : The English of the New "World. By M. Scheie de 
Vere, LL.D. 8vo, pp. 685, cloth. 1872. 20s. 

DE VINNE. — ^Thb Invention op Printing: A Collection of Texts and Opinions. 
Description of Early Prints and Playing Cards, the Block-Books of the Fifteenth 
Century, the Legend of Lourens Janszeon Coster of Haarlem, and the Works of 
John Gutenberg and his Associates. Illustrated with Fac-similes of Earlv Types 
and "Woodcuts. By Theo. L. De Vinne. Second Edition. In royal 8vo, elegantly 
printed, and bound in cloth, with embossed portraits, and a multitude of Fac- 
similes and Illustrations. 1877. £1, Is. 

DEWEY.— Classification and Subject Index for cataloguing and arranging the 
books and pamphlets of a Library. By Melvil Dewey. 8yo, pp. 42, boards. 
1876. 5s. 

DICKSON.— "Who was Scotland's first Printer? Ane Compendious and breue 
Tractate, in Commendation of Andrew Myllar. Compylit be Robert Dicksou, 
F.S.A. Scot. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 24, parchment wrapper. 1881. Is. 

DOBSON.— Monograph op the Asiatic Chiroptera, and Catalogue of the Species 
of Bats in the Collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. By G. E. Dobson, 
M.A., M.B., F.L.S., &o. 8vo, pp. viii. and 228, cloth. 1876. 12s. 

D*OESEY.— A Practical Grammar of Portuguese and English, exhibiting in a 
Series of Exercises, in Double Translation, the Idiomatic Structure of both Lan- 
guages, as now written and si>oken. Adapted to Ollendorff's System by the Rev. 
Alexander J. D. D'Orsey, of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on 
Public Reading and Speaking at King's College, London. Third Edition. 12mo, 
pp. viii. and 298, cloth. 1868. 7s. 

D'ORSEY.— Colloquial Portuguese ; or, "Words and Phrases of Every-day Life. 
Compiled from Dictation and Conversation. For the Use of English Tourists in 
Portugal, Brazil, Madeira, &c. By the Rev. A. J. D. D'Orsey. Third Edition, 
enlarged. 12mo, pp. viii. and 126, cloth. 1868. 3s. 6d. 

DOUGLAS.— Chinese-English Dictionary op the Vernacular or Spoken Lan- 
guage OP Amot, with the principal variations of the Cbang-Chew and Chin- 
Chew Dialects. By the Rev. Carstairs Douglas, M. A., LL.D., Glasg., Missionary 
of the Presbyterian Church in England. High quarto, double columns, pp. 632, 
cloth. 1873. £3,38. 

DOUGLAS.— CHI5BSB Language and Literature. Two Lectures delivered at the 
Royal Institution, by R. K. Douglas, of the British Museum, and Professor of 
Chinese at King's College. Crown 8vo, pp. 118, cloth. 1875. 5s. 

POUOLAS.— The Life of Jenghiz Khan. Translated from the Chinese. "With an 
Introduction. By Robert K. Douglas, of the British Museum, and Professor of 
Chinese at King's College. Crown 8vo, pp. xxxvi. and 106, cloth. 1877. 5s. 


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DOUSE.— Grimm's Law. A Study ; or, Hints towards an Explanation of the so- 
called ** Lautverschiebung ;" to which are added some Bemarks on the Primitive 
Indo-European K, and several Appendices. By T. Le Marchant Douse. 8vo, 
pp. xvi. and 232, cloth. 1876. 10s. 6d. 

DOWBON.— Dictionary op Hindu MrrHOLOOY, &c. See Trtibncr's Oriental 

DOWSON.— A Grammar op the Urdu or Hindustan! Language. By John Dow- 
son, M.B.A.S., Professor of Hindust&nT, Staff College, Sandhurst. Ciown 8vo, 
pp. xvi and 264, with 8 Plates, cloth. 1872. 10s. 6d. 

DOWSON.— A Hindustan! Exercise Book ; containing a Series of Passages and 
Extracts adapted for Translation into Hindust&ni. By John Dowson, M.H.A.S., 
Professor of Hindust&ni, Staff College, Sandhurst. Crown 8vo, pp. 100, limp 
cloth. 1872. 2s. 6d. 

DUNCAN. — Geography op India, comprising a Descriptive Outline of all India, 
and a Detailed Geographical, Commercial, Social, and Political Account of each 
of its Provinces. With Histoiical Notes. By (Jeoi^e Duncan. Tenth Edition 
(Bevised and Corrected to date from the latest Official Information). 18mo, pp. 
yiii. and 182, limp cloth. 1880. Is. 6d. 

DUSAB.— A Grammar op the German Language ; with Exercises. By P. Friedricb 
Dusar, First German Master in the Military Department of Cheltenham College. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 208, cloth. 1879. 4s. 6d. 

EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOdETT.— Subscription, one guinea per annum. Extra 
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EASTWIGK.— Khirad Aproz (the Illuminator of the Understanding). B^ Maulavi 
Haffzu*d-din. A New Edition of the HindCistanl Text, carefully revised, with 
Notes, Critical and Explanatory. By Edward B. Eastwick, F.RS., F.S.A., 
M.B.A.S., Professor of Hindustani at Haileybury College. Imperial 8vo, pp. 
xiv. and 319, cloth. Beissue, 1867. 18s. 

EASTWIGK.— The Gulistan. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

EGHO (Deutsches). The German Echo. A Faithful Mirror of German Oonver- 
sation. By Ludwig "Wolfram. With a Vocabulary. By Henry P. Skelton 
Post 8vo, pp. 130 and 70, cloth. 1863. 3s. 

ECHO FRAN^AIS. A Practical Guide to Conversation. By Fr. de la Fruston. 
With a complete Vocabulary. By Anthony Maw Border. Post 8vo, pp. 120 and 
72, doth. 1860. 38. 

EGOITALIANO (V). A Practical Guide to Italian Conversation. By Eugene 
Camerini. With a complete Vocabulary. By Henry P. Skelton. Post 8vo, pp. 
vi., 128, and 98, cloth. 1860. 48. 6d. 

EGO DE MADBID. The Echo op Madrid. A Practical Guide to Spanish Con- 
versation. By J. E. Hartzenbusch and Henry Lemming. With a complete 
Vocabulary, containing copious Explanatory Bemarks. By Henry Lemming. 
Post 8vo, pp. xiL, 144, and 83, cloth. 1860. 5s. 

EDDA SiEMUNDAR HiNNS Froda. The Edda of Saemund the Learned. Translated 
from the Old Norse, by Benjamin ITiorpe. Complete in 1 vol. fcap. 8vo, pp. viii. 
and 152, and pp. viii. and 170, cloth. 1866. 7s. 6d. 

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SDKINS.— China's Place in Philologt. An attempt to show that the Langnages 
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EDKINS. — Introduotion to thr Study of thr Chinbss Charaotkrs. By J. Edkins, 
D.D., Peking, China. Royal 8yo, pp. 340, paper hoards. 1876. 18s. 

EDKINS. — Religion in China. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, 
Vol. XIII. 

EDKINS.— Chinese Buddhism. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

EDWARDS.— Memoirs of Libraries, together with a Practical Handbook of Library 
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EDWARDS.— Chapters op the Biographical History op the French Academy. 
1629-1863. with an Appendix relating to the Unpublished Chronicle ** Liber de 
Hyda.** By Edward Edwards. 8vo, pp. 180, cloth. 1864. 68. 
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EDWARDS. —Libraries and Founders of Libraries. By Edward Edwards. 8vo, 
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EDWARDS.— Free Town Libraries, their Formation, Management, and History in 
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EDWARDS.— Lives op the Founders of the British Museum, with Notices of its 
Chief Augmentors and other Benefactors. 1570-1870. By Edward Edwards. 
With Illustrations and Plans. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. xii. and 780, cloth. 1870. 30s. 

BOER AND GRIME.— An Early English Romance. Edited from Bishop Percy's 
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of Trinity Hall, Cnmbridge. 4to, large paper, half bound, Roxburghe style, pp. 
64. 1867. lOs. 6d. 

EGOEUNG.— See Auctores Sanskriti, Vol. IV. 


Provinces of the Equator : Summary of Letters and Reports of the Governor- 
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1877. 5s. 

General Report on the Province op Kordopan. Submitted to General C. P. 
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Obeiyad (Kordofan), March 12th, 1876. Royal 8vo, pp. 232, stitched, with 
6 Maps. 1877. 10s. 6d. 

Report on the Seizure bt the Abtssinians of the Geological and Mineralo- 
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of the subsequent Treatment of the Prisoners and Final Release of the Com- 
mander. Roytd 8vo, pp. xii. and 126, stitched, with a Map. 1878. 7s. 6d. 

EGYPTIAN CALENDAR for the year 1295 a.h. (1878 A.D.) : Corresponding with the 
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EHRUCH.— French Readeb : With Notes and Vocabulary. By H. W. Ehrlicb. 
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EITEL.— Buddhism : Its Historical, Theoretical, and Popular Aspects. In Three 
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1873. 5s. 

EITEL.— Feno-Shui ; or. The Rudiments of Natural Science in China. By E. J. 
Eitel, M. A., Ph.D. Royal 8vo, pp. vi. and 84, sewed. 1873. Cs. 

EITEL.— Handbook for the Student op Chinese Buddhism. By the Rev. E. J. 
Eitel, of the London Missionary Society. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 224, cloth. 
1870. 18s. 

ELLIOT. —Memoirs on the History, Folk-Lore, and Distribution op the Races 
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ELLIOT.— The History of India, as told by its own Historians. The Muhammadan 
Period. Edited from the Posthumous Papers of the late Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B., 
East India Company's Bengal Civil Service. Revised and continued by Professor 
John Dowson, M.R.A.S., Staff College, Sandhurst. 8vo. Vol. L o.p. — Vol. IL, 
pp. X. and 580, cloth. 18s.— Vol. III., pp. xii. and 627, cloth. 24s — VoL IV., 
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VoL VIII., pp. xxxii.-444. With Biographical, Geographical, and General 
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ELLIS. — Etruscan Numerals. By Robert Ellis, B.D., late Fellow of St. John*8 
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I. to III. — A History of Materialism, and Criticism of its present Importance. 
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pp. 3.50. 1878. 10s. 6d.— VoLir., pp. vm. and^98. 1880. lOa. 6d. 
—VoL IIL, pp. viii. and 376. 1881. lOs. 6d. 

IV.— Natural Law : an Essay in Ethics. By Edith Simcox. Second 
Edition. Pp. 366. 1878. 10s. 6d. 
V. and VI. — The Creed of Christendom ; its Foundations contrasted with Super- 
structure. By W. R. Greg. Sixth Edition, with a New Introduction. 
In two volumes, pp. 280 and 290. 1879. 15s. 
VII.— Outlines of the History of Religion to the Spread of the 
Universal Religions. By Prof. C. P. Tiele. Translated from 
the Dutch by J. Estlin Carpenter, M.A., with the author's assist- 
ance. Second Edition. Pp. xx. and 250. 1880. 7s. 6d. 
VIII.— Religion in China; containing a brief Account of the Three Religions 
of the Chinese; with Observations on the Prospects of Christian 
Conversion amongst that People. By Joseph Edkins, D.D., Peking. 
Second Edition. Pp. xvi. and 260. 1878. 7s. 6d. 

IX.— A Candid Examination of Theism. By Physicus. Pp. 216. 
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X.— The Colour-Sense ; its Origin and Development ; an Essay in Com- 
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XI. — The Philosophy op Music ; being the substance of a Course of 
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XIV.— Edgar Quinet : His Early Life and Writings. By Richard Heath. 
With Portraits, Illustrations, and an Autograph Letter. Pp. xxiii. 
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XV. — The Essence op Christianity. By Ludwig Feuerbach. Translated 
from the Second German Edition by Marian Evans, translator of 
Strauss's " Life of Jesus." Second English Edition. Pp. zx. and 
340. 1881. 7s. 6d. 
XVI. — AuGUSTE Comte and Positivism. By the late John Stuart Mill, 

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XVII. — Essays and Dialogues op Giacomo Leopardi. Translated by 
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ETHERINGTON.— The Student's Grammar op the Hind! Language. By the Rev. 
W. Etherington, Missionary, Benares. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xiv., 
255, and xiiL, cloth. 1873. 128. 
BYTON.— Domesday Studies : An Analysis and Digest op the Stappordshirk 
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&c., with Tables, Notes, &o. By the Rev. Robert W. Eyton, late Rector of 
Ryton, Salop. 4to, pp. vii. and 135, cloth. 1881. £1, Is. 

FABEB.— The Mind op Mencius. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

FALKE.— Art in the House. Historical, Critical, and iBsthetical Studies on the 
Decoration and Furnishing of the Dwelling. By Jacob von Falke, Vice-Director 
of the Austrian Museum of Art and Industry at Vienna. Translated from the Grer- 
man. Edited, with Notes, by Charles C. Perkins, M.A. Royal 8vo, pp. xxx. 
356, cloth. With Coloured frontispiece, 60 Plates, and over 150 Illustrations in 
the Text 1878. £3. 

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22 A Catalogtie of Important Works^ 

PARLEY.— Egypt, Cyprus, and Asiatic Turkby. By J. Lewis Farley, author of 
"The Resources of Turkey,** &c. 8yo, pp. xvi. and 270, cloth gilt. 1878. 
lOs. 6d. 

FEATHERKAN.— The Social History of thb Races op Mankind. Vol. V. 
The ARAMiEANS. By A. Featherman. Demy 8vo, pp. xvii and 664, cloth. 
1881. £1, Is. 

FBNTON.— Early Hebrew Life: a Study in Sociology. By John Fenton. 8yo, 
pp. xxiv. and 102, cloth. 1880. ds. 

FERGUSON AND BURGESS.— The Cave Temples of India. By James Ferguson, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., and James Burgess, F.R.G.S. Impl. 8vo, pp. xx. and 536, with 
98 Plates, half bound. 1880. £2, 28. 

FERGUSSON.— Chinese Researches. First Part. Chinese Chronology and 
Cycles. By Thomas Fergusson, Member of the North China Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 274, sewed. 1881. lOs. 6d. 

FEUERBACH.— The Essence op Christianity. By Ludwig Feuerbach. Translated 
from the Second German Edition by Marian Evans, translator of Strauss*8 ** Life 
of Jesus." Second English Edition. Post 8vo, pp. xx. and 340, cloth. 1881. 
7s. 6d. 

FICHTE.— J. G. Fichte's Popular "Works : The Nature of the Scholar— The Voca- 
tion of Man— The Doctrine of Religion. With a Memoir by William Smith, LL.D. 
Demy 8vo, pp. viii. and 564, cloth. 1873. 15s. 

FICHTE.— The Characteristics op the Present Age. By Johann Gottlieb Fichte. 
Translated from the German by William Smith. Post 8vo, pp. xL and 271, cloth. 
1847. 68. 

FICHTE. — Memoir of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. By William Smith. Second 
Edition. Post 8vo, pp. 168, cloth. 1848. 4s. 

FICHTE.— On the Nature of the Scholar, and its Manifestations. By Johann 
Gottlieb Fichte. Translated from the German by William Smith. Second Edi- 
tion. Post 8vo, pp. vii. and 131, cloth. 1848. 38. 

FICHTE. — The Science of Knowledge. By J. G. Fichte. Translated from the 
German by A. E. Kroeger. Crown 8vo, pp. 378, cloth. 1868. lOs. 

FICHTE.— The Science op Rights. By J. G. Fichte. Translated from the German 
by A. E. Kroeger. Crown 8vo, pp. 606, cloth. 1869. lOs. 

FICHTE.— New Exposition of the Science of Knowledge. By J. G. Fichte. 
Translated from the German by A. E. Kroeger. 8vo, pp. vi. and 182, cloth. 1869. 6s. 

FIELD.— Outlines op an International Code. By David Dudley Field. Second 
Edition. Royal 8vo, pp. iii and 712, sheep. 1876. £2, 28. 

FIOANIERE.— Elva : A Story of the Dark Ages. By Viscount de Figanidre, G.C, 
St. Anne, &c. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 194, cloth. 1878. Ss. 

FISCHEL.— Specimens of Modern German Prose and Poetry; with Notes, 
Grammatical, Historical, and Idiomatical. To which is added a Short Sketch of 
the History of German Literature. By Dr. M. M. Fischel, formerly of Queen's 
College, Harley Street, and late German Master to the Stockwell Grammar SchooL 
Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 280, cloth. 1880. 4b. 

FISKE. — The Unseen World, and other Essays. By John Fiske, M.A., LL.B, 
Crown 8vo, pp. 330. 1876. 10s. 

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FISKB.— MrTHS and Myth-Makbus; Old Tale^ and Supersfcifcioas, interprefced by 
Comparative Mythology. By John Fiske, M A , LL.B., Assistant Librarian, and 
late Lecturer ou Philosophy at Harvard University. Crown 8vo, pp. 260, cloth. 
1873. lOs. 6d. 

nrzaSBALD. -Australian Orchids. By R D. Fitzgerald, F. L . S. Folio. —Part L 
7 Plates.— Part IL 10 Plates.— Part lit. 10 Plates.— Part IV. 10 Plates.— 
Part V. 10 Plates.— Part Vl. 10 Plates. Each Part, Coloured 21s.; Plain, lOs. 6d. 

FOBJETT.— External Evidences op Christianity. By E. H. Forjett. 8vo, pp. 
114, cloth. 1874. 2s. 6d. 

FORNANDEB.— The Polynesian Race. See English and Foreign Philosophical 
Library, Extra Series, Vols. III. and VI. 

FORSTEB.— Political Presentments.— By William Forster, Agent-General for 
New South Wales. Crown 8vo, pp. 122, cloth. 1878. 4s. Gd. 

FOULKBS.— The Daya Bhaga, the Law of Inheritance of tlie Sarasvati Vilasa. 
The Original Sanskrit Text, with Translation by the Rev. Thos. Foulkes, F.L.S., 
M.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Fellow of the University of Madras, &c. ' Demy 8vo, pp. 
xxvi. and 194-162, cloth. 1881. 10s. 6d. 

FOX. — Memorial Edition op Collected Works, by W. J. Fox. 12 vols. 8vo, 
cloth. £3. 

FBANKLYN.— Outlines op Military Law, and the Laws op Evidence. By H. B. 
Franklyn, LL.B. Crown 16mo, pp. viii. and 152, cloth. 1874. 3s. 6d. 

FBIEDBICH.— Prooressivb German Rbadbr, with Copious Notes to the First Part. 
By P. Friedrich. Crown 8vo, pp. 1^6, cloth. 1868. 4s. 6d. 

FBIEDBICH. — A Grammatical Course op the German LANauAaE. By P. Fried- 
rich. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 102, cloth. 1877. 3s. 6d. 

FBIEDBICH.— A Grammar op the German LAnanAOB, with Exbroisbs. See 
under DusAR. 

FBIEDEBICI.— Bibliotheca Orientalis, or a Complete List of Books, Papers, 
Serials, and Essays, published in England and tiie Colonies, Germany and 
France ; on the History, Geography, Religions, Antiquities, Literature, and 
Languages of the East. Compiled by Charles Friederici. 8vo, boards. 1876, 
pp. 86, 2s. 6d. 1877, pp. 100, 3s. 1878, pp. 112, 3s. 6d. 1879, 3s. 1880, 3s. 

FB(EMBLINO.— Graduated German Reader. Consisting of a Selection from the 
most Popular Writers, arranged progressively ; with a complete Vocabulary for 
the first part. By Friedrich Ottb Froembling. Sixth Edition. 12mo, pp. viii. and 
306, cloth. 1879. 3s. 6d. 

FBCEMBUNO.— Graduated Exercises por Translation into German. Consist- 
ing of Extracts from the best English Authors, arranged progressively ; with an 
Appendix, containing Idiomatic Notes. By Friedrich Otto Froembling, Ph.D., 
Principal German Master at the City of London School. Crown 8vo, pp. xiv. and 
322, cloth. With Notes, pp. 66. 1867. 48. 6d. Without Notes, 4s. 

FROUDE.— The Book op Job. By J. A. Froude, M. A., late Fellow of Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford. Reprinted from the Westminster Review, 8vo, pp. 38, cloth. Is. 

FBUSTON.— Echo Franpais. A Practical Guide to French Conversation. By F. 
de la Fruston. With a Vocabulary. 12mo, pp. vi. and 192, cloth. 3s. 

FBTEB. —The Khteng People op the Sandoway District, Arakan. By G. E. 
Fryer, Major, M.S.C., Deputy Commissioner, Sandoway. With 2 Plates. 8vo 
pp. 44, cloth. 1875. 3s. 6d. 

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FEYEE.— PXli Studies. No. I. Analysis, and P41i Text of the Subodh^ankara, or 
Easy Bhetoric, by Saogharakkhita Thera. 8vo, pp. 35, cloth. 1875. 3s. 6d. 

PURNIVAIi.— Education in Early England. Some Notes used as forewords to 
a Collection of Treatises on " Manners and Meals in Olden Times," for the Early 
English Text Society. By Frederick J. Fumivall, M.A. 8vo, pp. 4 and Ixxiv., 
sewed. 1867. Is. 

GALLOWAY.— A Treatlse on Fuel. Scientific and Practical. By Robert GhIIo- 
way, M.R.I.A., F.C.S., &c. With Illustrations. Post 8vo, pp. x. and 136, 
cloth. 18b0. 68. 

QALLOWAY.— Education : Scientific and Technical; or, How the Inductive 
Sciences are Taught, and How they Ouglit to be Taught. By Robert Galloway, 
M.R.I.A., F.C.S. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 462, cloth. 1881. lOs. 6d. 

3ARBE.— See Auctores Sanskriti, Vol. III. 

OARFIELD.— The Life and Public Service op James A. Garfield, Twentieth 
President of the United States. A Biographical Sketch. By Captain F. H. Mason, 
late of the 42d Regiment, U.S.A. With a Preface by Bret Harte. Crown 8vo. 
pp. vi. aud 134, cloth. With Portrait. 1881. 2s. 6d. 

GARRETT.— A Classical Dictionary of India : Illustrative of the Mythology, 
Philosophy, Literature, Antiquities, Arts, Manners, Customs, &c., of the Hindus. 
By John Garrett, Director of Public Instruction in Mysore. 8vo, pp. x. and 794, 
doth. With Supplement, pp. 160. 1871 and 1873. £1, 16.s. 

GAUTAMA.— The Institutes of. See Auctores Sanskriti, Vol. II. 

GAZETTEER op THE Central Provinces of India. Edited by Charles Grant, 
Secretary to the Chief Commissioner <»f the Central Provinces. Second Edition. 
With a verv large folding Map of tlie Central Provinces of India. Demy bvo, pp. 
clvii. and o82, cloth. 1870. £1, 48. 

GEIOER. — A Peep at Mexico; Narrative of a Journey across the Republic from 
the Pacific to the Gulf, in December 1873 and January 1874. By J. L. Geiger, 
F.R.G.S. Demy 8vo, pp. 368, with Maps and 45 Original Photographs. Cloth, 

GEIGER.— Contributions to the History of the Development op the Human 
Race : Lectures and Dissertations, by Lazarus Geiger. Translated from the 
Second German Edition, by David Asher, Ph.D. Post 8vo, pp. x.-lo6, cloth. 
1880. 6s. 

GELDART. — Faith and Freedom. Fourteen Sermons. By E. M. Geldart, M.A. 
Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 168, cloth. 1881. 48. 6d. 

GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE (The) : OR, Monthly Journal of Geology. With 
which is incorporated "The Geologist." Edited by Henry Woodward, LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S., &c., of the British Museum. Assisted by Professor John Morris, 
M.A.,F.G.S., &c., and Robert Etheridge, F.R.S., L. & E., F.G.S., &c, of the 
Museum of Practical Geology. 8vo, cloth. 1866 to 1880. 20s. each. 

GILES.— Chinese Sketches.— By Herbert A. Giles, of H.B.M.*8 China Consular 
Service. 8vo, pp. 204, cloth. 1875. 10s. 6d. 

GILES.— A Dictionary of Colloquial Idioms in the Mandarin Dialect. By 
Herbert A. Giles. 4to, pp. 65, half bound. 1873. 28s. 

GILES.— Synoptical Studies in Chinese Character. By Herbert A. Giles. 8«"o, 
pp. 118, half bouud. 1874. 15s. 

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GILES. ^Chinese WITHOUT a Teacher. Being a Collection of Easy and Useful 
Sentences in the Mandarin Dialect. With a Vocabulary. By Herbert A. Giles. 
12mo, pp. 60, half bound. 1872. 58. 

GILES.— The San Tzu Ching ; or, Three Character Classic ; and the Ch*Jen Tsu 
Wen ; or, Thousand Character Essay. Metrically Translated by Herbert A. Giles. 
12mo, pp. 28, half bound. 1873. 2s. 6d. 

GLASS.— Advance Thought. By Charles E. Glass. Crown 8vo, pp. xxxvi. and 188, 
cloth. 1876. 6s. 

GOETHE'S Faust.— See Scoones. 

GOETHE'S Minor Poems. See Selss. 

€K)LDSTUCKER.— A Dictionary, Sanskrit and English, exten<led and improved 
from the Second Edition of the Dictionary'of Professor H. H. Wilson, with his 
sanction and concurrence. Together with a Supplement, Grammatical Appen- 
dices, and an Index, serving as a Sanskrit-English Vocabulary. By Theodore Gold- 
stucker. Parts L to VI. 4to, pp. 400. 1856-63. 63. each. 

GOLPSTUCKER.— See Auctores Sanskritt, Vol. I. 

GOOROO SIMPLE. Strnnge Surprising Adventures of the Venerable G. S. and his 
Five Disciples, Noodle, Doodle, Wiseacre, Zany, and Foozle ; adorned with Fifty 
Illustrations, drawn on wood, by Alfred Crowquill. A companion Volume to 
" Miinchhausen ** and " Owlglass,'' based upon the famous Tamul tale of the Gooroo 
Paramartan, and exhibiting, in the form of a skilfully-constructed consecutive 
narrative, some of the finest specimens of Eastern wit and humour. Elegantly 
printed on tinted paper, in crown 8vo, pp. 223, richly gilt ornamental cover, gilt 
edges. 1861. lOs. 6d. 

GOVER.— The Folk-Sonos of Southern India. By C. E. Gover, Madras. Con- 
tents : Canarese Songs ; Badaga Soogs ; Coorg Songs ; Tamil Songs ; The Cural ; 
Malayalam Songs; Telugu Songs. 8vo, pp. xxviii. and 300, cloth. 1872. 
lOs. 6d. 

GRAMMAT06RAFHY. A Manual of Reference to the Alphabets of Anciknt 
AND Modkrn Lanouaoes. Based on the German Compilation of F. Ballhom. 
Royal 8vo, pp. 80, cloth. 1861. 7s. 6d. 

GRAY. — Darwiniana : Essays and Reviews pertaining to Darwinism. By Asa 
Gray. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 396, cloth. 1877. 10s. 

GRAY.— Natural Science and Religion: Two Lectures Delivered to the Theo- 
logical School of Yale College. By Asa Gray. Crown 8vo, pp. 112, cloth. 1880. 5s. 

GREEN.— Shakespeare and the Emblem- Writers : An Exposition of their Simi- 
larities of Thought and Expression. Preceded by a View of the Emblem-Book 
Literature down to a.d. 1616. By Henry Green, M-A. In one volume, pp. xvi. 
572, profusely illustrated with Woodcuts and Photolith. Plates, elegantly bound 
in cloth gUt, 1870. Large medium 8vo, £1, lis. 6d. ; large imperisil 8vo. £2, 12s. 6<1. 

GREEN. — Andrea Alciati, and his Books of Emblems : A Biographical and Biblio- 
graphical Study. By Henry Green, M.A. With Ornamental Title, Portraits, 
and other Illustrations. Dedicated to Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Bart., Rector 
of the University of Edinburgh. Only 250 copies printed. Demy 8vo, pp. 360, 
handsomely bound. 1872. £1, Is. 

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OREENB.— A New Method of Learning to Read, Wkite, and Speak the 
French Language; or, First Lessons in French (Introductory to OllendorflTs 
Larger Grammar). By Q. W. Greene, Instructor in Modern Languages in Brown 
University. Third Edition, enlarged and rewritten. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 243, cloth. 
1869. 3s. 6d. 

OREO.— Truth versus Edification. By W. R. Greg. Fcap. Svo, pp. 32, cloth. 
1869. Is. 

OREO.— Why are Women Redundant ? By W. R. Greg. Fcap. Svo, pp. 40, cloth. 
18C9. Is. 

considerably enlarged. 2 vols, crown Svo, pp. 310 and 288, cloth. 1877. 158. 

OREO.— Mistaken Aims and Attainable Ideals of the Artisan Class. By W. 
R. Greg. Crown Svo, pp. vi and 332, cloth. 1876. lOs. 6d. 

OREO.— Enigmas of Life. By "W. R. Greg. Thirteenth Edition, with a postscript 
Contents: Realisable Ideals. Malthus Notwithstanding. Non -Survival of the 
Fittest. Limits and Directions of Human Development. The Significance of Life. 
De Profundis. Elsewhere. Appendix. Crown Svo, pp. xxii. and 314, cloth. 
1879. lOa. 6d. 

OREO.— Political Problems for our Age and Country. By W. R. Greg. Con- 
tents: I. Constitutional and Autocratic Statesmanship. II. England's Future 
Attitude and Mission. III. Disposal of the Criminal Classes. lY. Recent 
Change in the Character of English Crime. V. The Intrinsic Vice of Trade- 
Unions. YI. Industrial and Co-operative Partnerships. YIL The Economic 
Problem. YIII. Political Consistency. IX. The Parliamentary Career. X. The 
Price we pay for Self-government. XI. Yestryism. XII. Direct v. Indirect 
Taxation. XIII. The New Regime, and how to meet it. Demy Svo, pp. .342, 
cloth. 1870. lOa. 6d. 

OREO.— The Great Duel : Its true Meaning and Issues, By W. R. Greg. Crown 
Svo, pp. 96, cloth. 1871. 2s. 6d. 

OREO.~The Creed of Christendom. See English and Foreign Philosophical 
Library, Yols. Y. and YI. 

OREO.— Rocks Ahead ; or. The Warnings of Cassandra. By W. R. Greg. Second 
Edition, with a Reply to Objectors. Crown Svo, pp. xliv. and 236, cloth. 1874. 

OREO.— Miscellaneous Essays. By W. R. Greg. Crown Svo, pp. 260, cloth. 
18S1. 78. 6d. 
Contents :— Rocks Ahead and Harbours of Refuge. Foreign Policy of Great 
Britain. The Echo of the Antipodes. A Grave Perplexity before us. Obli- 
gations of the Soil. The Right Use of a Surplus. The Great Twin 
Brothers : Louis Napoleon and Benjamin Disraeli. Is the Popular Judgment 
in Politics more Just than that of the Higher Orders? Harriet Martineao. 
Yerify your Compass. The Proplietic Element in the Gospels. Mr. Frederick 
Harrison on the Future Life. Can Truths be Apprehended which could 
not have been discovered? 

OREO.— Interleaves in the Workday Prose op Twenty Years. By Percy Greg. 
Fcap. Svo, pp. 128, cloth. 1875. 2s. 6d. 

OREO.— The Devil's Advocate. By Percy Greg, Author of " Interleaves.** 2 vols, 
post Svo, pp. iv., 340, and 352, cloth. 1878. £1, Is. 

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OREO.— Across the Zodiac: The Story of a AVrecked Record. Deciphered, 
Translated, and Edited by Percy Greg, Author of ** The Devil's Advocate," &c. 
In 2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. vL-296, and vi.-288, cloth. 1880. 2l8. 

ORIFFIN.— Thb Rajas of the Punjab. Being the History of the Principal States 
in the Punjab, and their Political Relations with the British Government. By 
Lepel H. Griffin, Bengal Civil Service, Acting Secretary to the Government of the 
Punjab, Author of "The Punjab Chiefs," &c. Second Edition. Royal 8vo, 
pp. xvi. and 630, cloth. 1873. £1, Is. 

ORIFFIN.— The "World under Glass. By Frederick Griffin, Author of **The 
Destiny of Man," **The Storm King," and other Poems. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 204 
cloth gilt. 1879. 38. 6d. 

OBIFFIS.— The Mikado's Empire. Book I. History of Japan, from 660 B.o. to 
1872 A.D. — Book II. Personal Experiences, Observations, and Studies in Japan, 
1870-1874. By W. E. Griffis, AM. 8vo, pp. 636, cloth. Illustrated. 1877. 

GRIFFITH.— The Birth op the War God. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

GRIFFITH. —Yusup AND Zulaikha. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

GRIFFITH. ^Scenes from the Ramatana, Meohaduta, &c. Translated by Ralph 
T. H. Griffith, M.A» Principal of the lienares College. Second Edition. Crown 
Svo, pp. xviii. and 244, cloth. 1870. 6s. 

CoHTKNTS— Preface — ^Ayodhya— Ravan Doomed— The Birth of Rama— The Heir- Apparent — 
Manthara's Oaile — Dasaratha's Oath— The Step-mother— Mother and Son— The Triumph of 
Love— Farewell f- The Hermit's Son— The Trial of Truth— The Forest— The Rape of Sita— 
Rama's Despair— The Messenger Cloud- Khumbakama— The Suppliant Dove— True Glory — 
Feed the Poor—The Wise Scholar. 

GRIFFITH.— The R^mItan of VALMfKi. Translated into Enclish Yerse. By Ralph 
T. H. Griffith, M.A., Principal of the Benares College. Vol. I., containing Books 
I. and II., demy 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 440, cloth. 1870. 18s. — VoL II., containing 
Book II., with additiomil Notes and Index of Names. Demy 8vo, pp. 504, cloth. 
1871. 18s.— VoL lU., demy 8vo, pp. 390, cloth. 1872. 15s.— Vo£ IV., demy 
Svo, pp. viii and 432, cloth. 1873. 18^. — VoL V., demy 8vo, pp. viiu and 360, 
cloth. 1875. Iba. The complete work, 5 vols. £4, 4s. 

OROTE.— Review of the Work of Mr. John Stuart Mill entitled *' Examination of 
Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy." By George Grote, Author of the *' History 
of Ancient Greece," " Plato, and the other Companions of Socrates," &c. 12mo, 
pp. 112, cloth. 1868. 38. 6d. 

GROUT.— Zulu-Land; or. Life among the Zulu-Kafirs of Natal and Zulu-Land, 
South Africa. By the Rev. Le^is Grout. Crown 8vo, pp. 352, cloth. With 
Map and Illustrations. 7s. 6d. 

GROWSE.— Mathura : A District Memoir. By F. S. Growse, B.C.S., M.A., Oxon, 
CLE., Fellow of the Calcutta University. Second edition, illustrated, revised, 
and enlarged, 4to, pp. xxiv. and 520, hoards. 1880. 42s. 

OUBERNATI8.— Zoological Mttholoot ; or. The Legends of Animals. By Angelo 
de Guhematis, Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Xiiterature in the Instituto 
di Studii Superorii e di Perfezionamento at Florence, &c. 2 vols. 8vo, i>p. xxri. 
and 432, and viL and 442, cloth. 1872. £1, 8s. 

This work is an important contribution to the study of the comparative mythology of the Indo- 
Germanic nations. The author introduces the denizens of the air, earth, and water in the vari- 
ous characters assigned to them in the myths and legends of all civilised nations, and traces the 
migration of the mythological ideas from the times of the early Aryans to those of the Greeks, 
Romans, and Teutons. 

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OITLSHAM L BAZ : The Mtstio Rose Gaedbn of Sa'd ud din BIahmud Shabis- 
TARI. The PerriAn Text, with an English Translation and Notes, chiefly from the 
Commentary of Muhammed Bin Tahya Lahiji. By E. H. Whinfield, M. A., Bar- 
rister-at-La\r, late of H.M B.C.S. 4to, pp. xvi., 94, 60, cloth. 1880. lOs. 6d. 

OUMPACH.— Treaty Rights op the FoREiaN Merchant, and the Transit System 
in China. By Johannes von Qompach. 8vo, pp. xviii. and 421, sewed. lOs. 6d. 

aUTHBIB.— On Mb. Spencer's Formdla of Evolution as an Exhaustive State- 
ment OF THE Changes of the Universe. By Malcolm Guthrie. Post 8vo, pp. 
xii and 268, cloth. 1879. 6s. 6d. 

GUTHEIB.— On Mb. Spencer's Unification of Knowledge. By Malcolm 
Guthrie, Author of ** On Mr. Spencer's Formula of Evolution as an Exhaustive 
Statement of the Changes of the Universe.'* Crown 8vo. [In preparation, 

HAAS.— Catalogue of Sanskrit and Pali Books in the British Museum. By 
Dr. Ernst Haas. Printed by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum. 
4to, pp. viii. and 188, paper boards. 1876. 2L8. 

HAFIZ OF SHIBAZ.— Sblkotions from his Pobm^. Translated from the Persian 
bv Hermann BicknelL With Preface by A, S. Bicknell. Demy 4to, pp. xx. and 
384, printed on fine stout plate-paper, with appropriate Oriental Bordering in gold 
and colour, and Illustrations by J. B. Herbert, B. A. 1875. £2, 28. 

HAFIZ.--See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

HA6EN.— NOBICA ; or. Tales from the Olden Time. Translated from the German of 
August Hagen. Fcap. 8vo, pp. xiv. and 374. 1850. 58. 

HAHN.— TsUNi-IiGOAM, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi. By Theophilus 
Hahn, Ph.D., Custodian of the Grey Collection, Cape Town, &c., &c. Post 8vo, 
pp. xiv. and 154. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

HALDBMAN. —Pennsylvania Dutch : A Dialect of South Gennany with an Infusion 
of English. By S. S. Hiddeman, A.M., Professor of Comparative Philology in the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 8vo, pp. viii. and 70, cloth. 1872. 36. 

HALL.— On English Adjectives in -Able, with Special Befebence to Reliable. 
By FitzEdward Hall, C.E., MA., Hon. D.C.L. Oxon; formerlj^ Professor of 
Sanskrit Language and Literature, and of Indian Jurisprudence in King's College, 
London. Crown 8vo, pp. viiL and 238, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

HALL.— Modebn English. By FitzEdward Hall, M. A., Hon. D.C.L. Oxon. Crown 
8vo, pp. xvi and 394, cloth. 1873. 10s. 6d. 

HALL.— Sun and Eabth as Gbeat Forces in Chemistry. By T. W. Hall, M.D., 
L.R.C.S.E. Crown 8vo, pp. xiL and 220, cloth. 1874. 3s. 

HALL.— Arctic Expedition. See Nourse. 

HALLOCK.— The Sportsman's Gazetteer and General Guide. The Game 
Animals, Birds, and Fishes of North America : their Habits and various methods 
of Capture, Ac, &c. With a Directory to the principal Game Resorts of the 
Country. By Charles Hullock. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth. Maps and 
Portrait. 1878. 15s. 

HAM.— The Maid of Corinth. A Drama in Four Acts. By J. Panton Ham. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 65, sewed. 2s. Cd. 

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HABDY.— Christianitt and Buddhism Compared. By the late Rev. R. Spence 
Hardy, Hon. Member Royal Asiatic Society. 8vo, pp. 138, sewed. 1875. 7s. 6d. 

HARLET.— The Simplification op English Spelling, specially adapted to the Ris- 
ing Generation. An Easy Way of Saving Time in Writing, Printing, and Reading. 
By Dr. George Harley, F.R.S., F.C.S. 8vo. pp. 128, cloth. 1877. 2s. 6d. 

HARRISON.— The Meaning op History. Two Lectures delivered by Frederic 
Harrison, M.A. 8vo, pp. 80, sewed. 1862. Is. 

HARRISON.— Woman's Handiwork in Modern Homes. By Constance Cary 
Harrison. With numerous Illustrations and Five Coloured Plates, from designs 
by Samuel Oolman, Rosina Emmet, George Gibson, and others. 8vo, pp. xiL and 
242, cloth. 1881. lOs. 

HARTIN6.— British Animals Extinct within Historic Times : with some Ac- 
count of British Wild White Cattle. By J. E. Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S. With 
Illustrations by Wolf, Whymper, Sherwin, and others. Demy 8vo, pp. 256, 
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KOHL.— Travels in Canada and through the States of New York and 
PmfNSYLVANiA. By J. G. Kohh Translated by Mrs Percv Sinnett. Revised by 
the Author. Two vols, post 8vo, pp. xiv. and 794, cloth. 1861. £1, Is. 

KRAPF.— Dictionary of the Suahili Language. Compiled by the Rev. Dr. L. 
Krapf, missionary of the Church Missionary Society in East Africa. With an 
Appendix, containing an outline of a Suahili Grammar. Medium 8yo. 

[Nearly rtady. 

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KRAUS.— Oablsbad and its Natukal Healing Agents, from the Physiological 
and Therapeutical Point of View, By J. Kraos, M.D. With Notes Introductory 
by the Eev. J. T. Walters, M.A. Second Edition. Eevised and enlarged. Crown 
8vo, pp. 104, cloth. 1880. 5s. 

EBOEGEB.— The Minnesinger of Gebmant. By A. E. Kroeger. Fcap. 8to, pp. 
290, cloth. 1873. 78. 

KURZ.— Forest Flora op British Burma. By S. Kurz, Curator of the Her- 
barium, Boyal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta. 2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. xxx., 550, 
and 614, cloth. 1877. 30s. 

LACERDA'S Journey to Cazembe in 1798. Translated and Annotated by Captain 
R. F. Burton, F.R.G.S. Also Journey of the Pombeiros, &c. Demy 8vo, pp. viiL 
and 272. With Map, cloth. 1873. Ts. 6d. 

LAHARL— Collection op Italian and English Dialogues. By A. Lanari. 
Fcap. 8vo, pp. Yiii. and 200, cloth. 1874. 3s. 6d. 

LAND.— The Principles of Hebrew Grammar. By J. P. N. Land, Professor of 
Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Leyden. Translated from the Dutch, 
by Reginald Lane Poole, Balliol College, Oxford. Part L Sounds. Part XL 
Words. With Large Additions by the Author, and a new Preface. Crown 8vo, 
pp. XX. and 220, cloth. 1876. 7s. 6d. 

LANE.— The Koran. See Trttbnei^s Oriental Series. 

LANOE.— A HiSTORT OP Materialism. See English and Foreign Philosophical 
Library, Vols. I. to HL 

LANGE.— Gbrmania. A German Reading-book Arranged Progressively. By F. K. 
W. Lange, Ph.D. Part I. Anthology of German Prose and Poetry, with 
Vocabulary and Biographical Notes. 8vo. pp. xvi. and 216, cloth, 1881, 3s. 6d. 
Part n. Essays on German History and Institutions, with Notes. 8vo, pp. 124, 
cloth. Parts I. and II. together. 58. 6d. 

LANOE.— German Prose Writing. Comprising English Passages for Translation 
into German. Selected from Examination Papers of the University of London, 
the College of Preceptors, London, and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, 
arranged progressively, with Notes and Theoretical as weU as Practical Treatises 
on themes for the writing of Essays. By F. K. W. Lange, Ph.D., Assistant Ger- 
man Master, Royal Academy, Woolwich ; Examiner, Royal College of Preceptors 
London. Crown 8vo, pp. viii and 176, cloth. 1881. 4s. 

LATHE (the) and its Uses ; or. Instruction in the Art of Turning Wood and Metal, 
including a description of the most modem appliances for the Ornamentation of 
Plain and Curved Surfaces, &c. Fifth Edition. With additional Chapters and 
Index. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. iv. and 316, cloth. 1878. 16s. 

LE-BRUN.— Materials for Translating from English into French ; being a 
short Essay on Translation, followed by a Graduated Selection in Prose and Verse. 
By L. Le-Bmn. Fifth Edition. Revised and corrected by Henri Van Laun. 
Post 8vo, pp. xiL and 204, doth. 1874. 4s. 6d. 

LEE.— Illustrations of the Physiology of Religion. In Sections adapted for 
the use of Schools. Part L By Henry Lee, F.R.C.S., formerly Professor of 
Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons, &c. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 108, cloth. 
1880. 3s. 6d. 

LEES.— A Practical Guide to Health, and to the Home Treatment of the 
Common Ailments of Life : With a Section on Cases of Emergency, and Hints 
to Mothers on Nursing, &c. By F. Arnold Lees, F.L.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 334, 
stiff covers. 1874. 3s. 

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LEGOB.— The Chinese Classics. With a Translation, Critical and Exegetical, 
Notes, Prolegomena, and copious Indexes. B7 James Legge, D.D., of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society. In 7 vols. Boyal 8vo. Vols. L-V. in Eight Farts, 
published, cloth. £2, 2s. each Part. 

LEOOS.— The Chinese Classics, translated into English. With Preliminary Essays 
and Explanatory Notes. Popular Edition. Reproduced for General Readers from 
the Author's work, containing the Original Text. By James Legge, D.D. Crown 
8vo. Vol. I. The Life and Teachings of Confncius. Third Edition. Pp. vi 
and 338, cloth. 1872. lOs. 6d.— VoL IL The Works of Mencius. Pp. x. and 402, 
cloth, 128.— Vol. III. The She-King ; or, The Book of Poetry. Pp. Ti and 432, 
cloth. 1876. 128. 

LEGOB.— Confucianism in Relation' to Chkistianitt. A Paper read before the 
Missionary Conference in Shanghai, on May 11th, 1377. By Ber. James Legge, 
D.D.,LL.D., &c. 8vo, pp. 12, sewed. 1877. Is. 6d. 

LEOOE.— A Letter to Professob Max MOlleb, chiefly on the Translation into 
English of the Chinese Terms Tt and Shang Ti, By James Legge, Professor of 
the Chinese Language and Literature in the Uniyersity of Oxford. Crown 8yo, 
pp. 30, sewed. 1880. Is. 

LEIGH.— The Religion of the World. By H. Stone Leigh. 12mo, pp. xii. and 
66, cloth. 1869. 2s. 6d. 

LEIGH.— The Story op Philosophy. By Aston Leigh. Post 8v6, pp. xii. and 
210, cloth. 188L 68. 

LELAND.— The Breitmann Ballads. The only authorised Edition. Complete in 1 
YoL, including Nineteen Ballads, illustrating his Travels in Europe (neyer before 

Srinted), with Comments by Fritz Schwackenhammer. By Charles G. Leland. 
rown 8vo, pp. xxviii. and 292, cloth. 1872. 6s. 

LELAND.— The Music Lesson of Confucius, and other Poems. By Charles G. 
Leland. Fcap. 8vo, pp. viii. and 168, cloth. 1871. 3s. 6d. 

LELAKD.— Gaudeamus. Humorous Poems translated from the German of Joseph 
Victor Scheffel and others. By Charles G. Leland. 16mo, pp. 176, cloth. 1872. 
38. 6d. 

LELAND.— The Egyptian Sketch-Book. By C. G. Leland. Crown 8vo, pp. viii 
and 316, cloth. 1873. 7s. 6d.. 

LEULND.— The English Gipsies and their Language. By Charles G. Leland. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi and 260, cloth. 1874. 7s. 6d. 

LELAND.— English Gipsy Songs in Rommany, with Metrical English Translations. 
By Charles G. Leland, Professor E. H. Palmer, and Janet Tuckey. Crown 8vo, pp. 
xii. and 276, cloth. 1875. 7s. 6d. 

LELAND.— Fu-Sang ; or, The Discovery op America by Chinese Buddhist Priests " 
in the Fifth Century. By Charles X>. Leland. Crown 8vo, pp. 232, cloth. 1875. 
7s. 6d. 

LELAND.— Pidgin-English Sino-Song ; or. Songs and Stories in the China-English 
Dialect. "With a Vocabulary. By Charles G. Leland. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 
140, cloth. 1876. 6s. 

LEOFARDI.— See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Vol. XVII. 

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LEO.— Four Chapters op North's Plutarch, Containing the lives of Cains Mar- 
cins, Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Marcus Antonius, and Marcu{^ Brutus, as Sources 
to Shakespeare's Tragedies; Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, and Antony and Cleo- 
patra ; and partly to Hamlet and Timon of Athens. Photolithographed in the 
size of the Edition of 1595. With Preface, Notes comparing the Text of the 
Editions of 1579, 1595, 1603, and 1612 ; and Reference Notes to the Text of the 
Tragedies of Shakespeare. Edited by Professor F. A. Leo, Ph.D., Vice-Presi- 
dent of the New Shakespeare Society ; Member of the Directory of the German 
Shakespeare Society ; and Lecturer at the Academjr of Modem Philology at Berlin. 
Folio, pp. 22, 130 of facsimiles, half -morocco. Library Edition (limited to 250 
copies), £1, lis. 6d. ; Amateur Edition (50 copies on a superior large hand-made 
paper), £3, 3s. 

LERMONTOFF. —The Demon. By Michael Lermontoff. Translated from the 
Russian by A. Condie Stephen. Crown 8yo, pp. 88, cloth. 1881. 2s. 6d. 

LESLEY.— Man's Origin and Destiny. Sketched from the Platform of the Physical 
Sciences. By. J. P. Lesley, Member of the National Academy of the United 
States, Professor of Geology, University of Pennsylvania. Second (Revised and 
considerably Enlarged) Edition, crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 142, cloth. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

LESSINQ.— Letters on Bibliolatrt. By Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Translated 
from the German by the late H. H. Bernard, Ph. D. 8vo, pp. 184, cloth. 1862. 6s. 

LESSING.— See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Extra Series, Vols. I. 
and XL 

LETTERS ON THE "War between Germany and France. By Mommsen, Strauss, 
Max Miiller, and Carlyle. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. 120, cloth. 1871. 2s. 6d. 

LEWES.— Problems op Life and Mind. By George Henry Lewes. First Series : 
The Foundations of a Creed. Vol. I., demy 8vo. Third edition, pp. 488, cloth, 
12s.— Vol. XL, demy 8vo, pp. 552, cloth. 1875. 16s. 

LEWES.-7PROBLEMS OP Life and Mind. By George Henry Lewes. Second Series. 
The Physical Basis op Mind. 8vo, with Illustrations, pp. 508, cloth. 1877. 
16s. Contents. — The Nature of Life ; The Nervous Mechanism ; Animal Auto- 
matism; The Reflex Theory. 

LEWES.— Problems op Life and Mind. By George Henry Lewes. Third Series, 
Problem the First— The Study of Psychology : Xts Object, Scope, and Method* 
Demy 8vo, pp. 200, cloth. 1879. 7s. 6d. 

LEWES.— Problems op Life and Mind. By George Henry Lewes. Third Series. 
Problem the Second— Mind as a Function of the Organism. Problem the Third— 
The Sphere of Sense and Logic of Feeling. Problem the Fourth— The Sphere of 
Intellect and Logic of Signs. Demy 8vo, pp. x. and 500, cloth. 1879. 15s. 

LEWIS.— See Juvenal and Pliny. 

LIBRARIANS, TRANSACTIONS AND Proceedings of the Conference op, held in 
London, October 1877. Edited by Edward B. Nicholson and Henry R. Tedder. 
Imperial Svo, pp. 276, cloth. 1878. £1, 8s. 

ings of the Annual Meetings of the. Imperial 8vo, cloth. First, held at 
Oxford, October 1, 2, 3, 1878. Edited by the Secretaries, Henry R. Tedder, 
Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, and Ernest C. Thomas, late Librarian of the 
Oxford Union Society. Pp. viii. and 192. 1879. £1, 83.— Second, held at Man- 
chester, September 23, 24, and 25, 1879. Edited by H. R. Tedder and E. C. 
Thomas. Pp. x. and 184. 1880. £1, Is.— Third, held at Edinburgh, October 
5, 6, and 7, 1880. Edited by E. C. Thomas and C. Welsh. Pp. x. and 202. 
188L £1, Is. 

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LILLIB.— Buddha and Eablt Buddhism. Bj Arthur lillie, late Begimeni of 
Lucknow. With numerous Illustrations drawn on Wood by the Author. Post 
8to, pp. xiT. and 256, doth. 188U 7s. 6d. 

UTTLB FBBKOH READER (The). Extracted from <' The Modem French Beader." 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. 112, cloth. 1872. 2s. 

LLOTD AND Nbwton.— Pbussia's Bepbesentatite Man. By F. Lloyd of the 
UniTersities of Halle and Athens, and W. Newton, F.B.G.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 
648, doth. 1875. 10b. 6d. 

L0B8CHBID.— Chinese and English Dictionabt, arranged according to the Badi- 
cals. By W. Lobscheid. 1 toI. imperial Syo, pp. 600, cloth. £2, 8s. 

L0B8CHEID.— English and Chinese Dictionabt, with the Punti and Mandarin 
Pronilnciatlon. By W. Lobscheid. Four Parts. Folio, pp. viii. and 2016, boards. 

LONG.— Eastern Pbovebbs. See TrUbner's Oriental Series. 

LOVETT.— The Life and Stbuqgles of William Lovett in his pursuit of Bread, 
Knowledge, and IVeedom ; with some short account of the different Associations 
he belonged to, and of the Opinions he entertained. 8vo, pp. tl and 474, doth. 
1876. 5s. 

LOVELY. —Whebb to 00 FOB Help: Being a Companion for Quick and Easy 
Beference of Police Stations, Fire-Engine Stations, Fire-Escape Stations, &c., 
&c., of London and the Suburbs. Compiled by W. Lovely, B.^*. Second Edi- 
tion. 18mo, pp. 16, sewed. 1881. 3d. 

LOWELL. —The Biglow Papebs. By James Bussell Lowell. Edited by Thomas 
Hughes, Q.C. A Beprint of the Authorised Edition of 1859, together with the 
Second Series of 1862. First and Second Series in 1 vol. Fcap., pp. lxyiii-140 
and lziT.-190, doth. 1880. 28. 6d. 

LUGAS.~The Childben's Pentateuch : With the Hephterahs or Portions from 
the Prophets. Arranged for Jewish ChUdren. By Mrs. Henry Lucas. Crown 
8yo, pp. viii and 570, cloth. 1878. 5s. 

LUDEWIG.-— The Litebatube of Amebican Abobiginal Languages. By Hermann 
E. Ludewig. With Additions and Corrections by Professor Wm. W. Turner. 
Edited by Nicolas Triibner. 8vo, pp. zxiv. and 258, cloth. 1858. lOs. 6d. 

LUEDf .— The Bot Engineebs : What they did, and how they did it. By the Bev. 
L. J. Lukin, Author of " The Young Mechanic," &c. A Book for Boys ; 30 En- 
gravings. Imperial 16mo, pp. viii. and 344; cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

LUX E TENEBRIS ; OB, The Testimony of Consciousness. A Theoretic Essay. 
Crown 8yo, pp. 376, with Diagram, cloth. 1874. lOs. 6d. 

MAOOORHAO.— The Convebsation of a Soul with God : A Theodicy. By Henry 
MacCormac, M.D. 16mo, pp. xvi and 144, cloth. 1877. 3s.. 6d. 

MACKAT.— Qaelio Etymology of the English Language. By Charles Mackay, 
LL.D. Boyal 8vo, pp. xxxii and 604, cloth. 1878. 42s. 

MADDEN.—CoiNS of the Jews. Being a History of the Jewish Coinage and Money 
in the Old and New Testaments. By Frederick W. Madden, M.B. A.S. Member 
of the Numismatic Society of London, Secretary of the Brighton College. &c., &c 
With 279 Woodcuts and a Plate of Alphabets. Boyal_4to, pp. xii and 330, cloth. 
188L £^ 2s. 

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M ADKTiUNQ.— The Causes and Opebativb Treatment op Ddputtren's Fingeb 
Contraction. By Dr. Otto "W. Madelung, Lecturer of Stirgery at the Univer- 
sity, and Assistant Surgeon at the Universily Hospital, Bonn. 8yo, pp. 24, sewed. 
1876. Is. 


KAHA-VIBA-CHABITA ; or. The Adventures of the Great Hero Bama. An Indian 
Drama in Seven Acts. Translated into English Prose from the Sanskrit of 
. BhavabhtitL By John Fickford, M.A. Crown Svo, cloth. 5s. 

ftALET.— Incidents in the Bioorapht of Dust. By H. P. Malet, Author of 
** The Interior of the Earth," &c Crown Svo, pp. 272, cloth. 1877. 6s. 

AaLET.—The Beoinninos. By H. P. Malet. Crown Svo, pp. xiz. and 124, cloth. 

1878. 4s. 6d. 

MALLESON.— EssATB and Lectures on Indian Historical Subjects. By Colonel 
G. B. Malleson, C.S.L Second Issue. Crown Svo, pp. 348, cloth. 1876. 5s. 

MAHBLEY.— Woman Outside Christendom. An Exposition of the Influence 
exerted by Christianity on the Social Position and Happiness of Women. By 
J. G. Mandley. Crown Svo, pp. viii and 160, cloth. 1880. 5s. 

KANXPULUS YoOABULORUM. A Bhyming Dictionarv of the English Language. By 
Peter Levins (1570). Edited, with an Alphabetical Index, by Henry B. Wheatley. 
Svo, pp. xvi. and 370, cloth. 1867. 14s. 

MANCEUVBBS.— A Betrosfect op the Autumn Man(euvres, 1871. With 5 Plans. 
By a Becluse. Svo, pp. xii. and 133, cloth. 1872. 6s. 

MARi tfrrc-BBY.— The Monuments op Upper Egypt: a translation of the 
'* Itin^raire de la Haute Egsrpte ** of Auguste Mariette-Bey. Translated by 
Alphonse Mariette. Crown Svo, pp. xvi. and 262, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

Iff ARKHAH—QuiCHUA Grammar and Dictionary. Contributions towards a 
Grammar and Dictionary of Quichua, the Language of the Yncas of Peru. Col- 
lected by Clements B. Markham, F.S.A. Crown Svo, pp. 223, doth. £1, lis. 6d. 

UABEHAM. — Ollanta : A Drama in the Quichua Language. Text, Translation, 
and Introduction. By Clements B. Markham, C.B. Crown Svo, pp. 128, cloth. 
1871. 7s. 6d. 

MARKHAM.— A Memoir op the Ladt Ana de Osorio, Countess of Chincon. and 
Vice-Queen of Peru, a.d. 1629-39. With a Plea for the correct spelling of the 
Cinchona Genus. By Clements B. Markham, C.B., Member of the Imperial Aca- 
demy Natune Curiosorum, with the Cognomen of Chinchon. Small 4to, pp. xii and 
100. With 2 Coloured Plates, Map, and Illustrations. Handsomely bound. 
1874. 28s. 

MARKHAM. -—A Memoir on the Indian Surveys. By Clements K. Markham, 
C.B., F.B.S., &c., &c. Published by Order of H. M. Secretary of State for India 
in Council. Illustrated with Maps. Second Edition. Imperial Svo, pp. xxx. 
and 481, boards. 1878. 10s. 6d. 

MARKHAM.— Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, and of the 
Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. Edited with Notes, an Introduction, and 
Lives of Mr. Bogle and Mr. Manning. By Clements K. Markham, C.B., F.B.S. 
Second Edition. Svo, pp. clxv. and 362, cloth. With Maps and Illustrations. 

1879. 21s. 

XABMONTEL.~Belisaire. Par Marmontel. Nouvelle Edition. 12mo, pp. xii. 
and 123, cloth. 1867. 28. 6d. 

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HARTIN AND Tbubner,— The Current Gold and Silver Coins op all Countries, 
their "Weight and Finenesg, and their Intrinsic Value in English Money, -with 
Facsimiles of the Coins. By Leopold C. Martin, of Her Mstjestj's Stationerj 
OfiBce, and Charles Triibner. In 1 yoL medium 8vo, 141 Plates, printed in Geld 
and Silver, and representing about 1000 Coins, with 160 paj^s of Text, hand- 
somely bound in embossed cloth, richly gilt, with Emblematical Designs on the 
Corer, and gUt edges. 1863. £2, 2s. 

MARTIN.— The Chinese : their Education, Philosophy, and Letters. By W, 
A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D., President of the Tungwen College, Pekin. Svo. pp* 
320, cloth. 1881. 78. 6d. 

HARTIMEAU.— EssATS, Philosophical and Theological. By James Martineaue 
2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. iv. and 414— x. and 430, doth. 1875. £1, 48. 

MARTINEAU.— Letters prom Ireland. By Harriet Martineau. Reprinted from 
the Daily News, Post 8vo, pp. viii. and 220, cloth. 1852. 6s. 6d. 

MATHEWS.— Abraham Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Canticles after the 
First Recension. Edited from the MSS., with a translation, by H. J. Mathews, 
B.A., Exeter College, Oxford. Crown 8vo, pp. x., 34, and 24, limp cloth. 1874. 

• 2s. 6d. 

MAXWELL.— A Manual op the Malay Language. By "W. E. Maxwell, of the 
Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law ; Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula. 
With an Introductory Sketch of the Sanskrit Element in Malay. Crown 8vo, 
pp. viii. and 182, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

MATER.— On the Art op Pottery : with a History of its Rise and Progress in 
Liverpool. By Joseph Mayer, E.S.A., F.R.S.N.A., &c. 8vo, pp. 100, boards. 
1873. 5s. 

MATERS.— Treaties Between the Empire op China and Foreign Powers, 
together with Regulations for the conduct of Foreign Trade, &c. Edited by W. 
F. Mayers, Chinese Secretary to H.B.M.'s Legation at Peking. 8vo, pp. 246, 
cloth. 1877. 25s. 

MATERS.— The Chinese Government : a Manual of Chinese Titles, categorically 
arranged and explained, with an Appendix. By Wm. Fred. Mayers, Chinese 
Secretary to H.B.M's Legation at Peking, &o.,&c. Royal 8vo, pp. viii. and 160, 
cloth. 1878. 30s. 

M'CRINDLE.— Ancient India, as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; 
being a translation of the fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes collected by 
Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the first part of the Indika of Arrian. By J. W. 
M*Crindle, M.A., Principal of the Goyernment College, Patna, &c. "With 
Introduction, Notes, and Map of Ancient India. Post 8vo, pp. xi and 224, 
cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

M'CRINDLE.- The Commerce and Navigation op the Erythrjean Sea. Being 
a Translation of the Periplus Maris Erythraei, by an Anonymous Writer, and of 
Arrian's Account of the Voyage of Nearkhos, from the Mouth of the Indus to the 
Head of the Persian Gulf. With Introduction, Commentary, Notes, and Index. 
By J. W. M*Crindle, M.A., Edinburgh, &c. Post 8vo, pp. iv. and 238, cloth. 
1879. 7s. 6d. 

MECHANIC (The Young). A Book for Boys, containing Directions for the use of 
all kinds of Tools, and for the construction of Steam Engines and Mechanical 
Models, including the Art of Turning in Wood and Metal. Fifth Edition* 
Imperial 16mo, pp. iv. and 346, and 70 Engravings, cloth. 1878. 68. 

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MECHANIC'S Workshop (Amateub). A Treatise containing Plain and Concise 
Directions for the Manipulation of "Wood and Metals, including Casting, Forging, 
Brazing, Soldering, and Carpentry. By the Author of "The Lathe and its Uses." 
Sixth Edition. Demy 8vo, pp. iv. and 148. Illustrated, cloth. 1880. 6s. 

BIEDITATIONS on Death and Eternitt. Translated from the German by Frederica 
Rowan. Published by Her Majesty's gracious permission. 8vo, pp. 386, cloth. 
1862. 10s. 6d. 
Ditto. Smaller Edijiion, crown 8vo, printed on toned paper, pp. 352, cloth. 
1863. 6s. 

MEDITATIONS ON Life and its Religious Duties. Translated from the German 
by Frederica Rowan. Dedicated to H.R.H. Princess Louis of Hesse. Published 
by Her Majesty's gracious permission. Being the Companion Volume to *' Medi- 
tations on Death and Eternity." 8vo, pp. vL and 370, cloth. 1863. 10s. 6d. 

Ditto. Smaller Edition, crown 8vo, printed on toned paper, pp. 338. 1863. 

MEDLICOTT. — A Manual op the Geology of India, chiefly compiled from the 
observations of the Geological Survey. By H. B. Medlicott, M. A. , Superintendent, 
Geological Survey of India, and W. T. Blanford, A.R.S.M., F.R.S., Deputy Super- 
intendent. Published by order of the Government of India. 2 vols, ovo, pp. 
xviii.-lxxx.-818, with 21 Plates and large coloured Map mounted in case, uniform, 
cloth. 1879. 16s. 

MEGHA-DUTA (The). (Cloud-Messenger.) By Kalidasa. Translated from the 
Sanskrit into English Verse by the late H. H. Wilson, M. A., F.R.S. The Vocabu- 
lary by Francis Johnson. New Edition. 4to, pp. xi. and 180, cloth. 10s. 6d. 

. MENKE,-— Orbis Antiqui Descriptio : An Atlas illustrating Ancient History and 
Geography, for the Use of Schools ; containing 18 Maps engraved on Steel and 
Coloured, with Descriptive Letterpress. By D. T. Menke. Fourth Edition. 
Folio, half bound morocco. 1866. 6s. 

MEREDYTH.— Arca, a Repertoire of Original Poems, Sacred and Secular. By 
F. Meredyth, M.A., Canon of Limerick Cathedral. Crown 8vo, pp. 124, cloth. 
1875. 5s. 

METCALFE.— The Englishman and the Scandinavian. By Frederick Met- 
calfe, M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford; Translator of "Gallus" and 
** Charicles ; " and Author of "The Oxonian in Iceland." Post 8vo, pp. 612, 
cloth. 1880. 18s. 

MICHEL. — Les Ecossais en France, Les FnANgAis en Ecosse. Par Francisque 
Michel, Correspondant de I'lnstitut de France, &c. In 2 vols. 8vo, pp. vii., 547, 
and 551, rich blue cloth, with emblematical designs. With upwards of 100 Coats 
of Arms, and other Illustrations. Price, £1, 12s. — Also a Large-Paper Edition 
(limited to 100 Copies), printed on Thick Paper. 2 vols. 4to, half morocco, with 3 
additional Steel Engravings. 1862. £3, 3s. 

MILL.— Augustb Comtb and Positivism. By the late John Stuart Mill, M.P. 
Third Edition. 8vo, pp. 200, cloth. 1882. 3s. 6d. 

MILLHOUSE.— Manual of Italian Conversation. For the Use of Schools. By 
John Millhouse. 18mo, pp. 126, cloth. 1866. 2s. 

MILLHOUSE.— New English and Italian Pronouncing and Explanatory Dic- 
tionary. By John Millhouse. Vol. I. English-Italian. Vol. 11. Italian-English. 
Fourth Edition. 2 vols, square 8vo, pp. 654 and 740, cloth. 1867. 12s. 

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MILHE.— Notes on Obtstalloorapht and Cetstallo-phtsics. Being the Sub- 
stance of Lectures delivered at Yedo during the years 1876-1877. By John 
Mihie, F.G.S. 8vo, pp. viiL and 70, cloth. 1879. 3s. 

][INOCHOHBBJI.~PAHLAyi, GujIrati, and English Dictionabt. By Jamashji 
Dastur Minochcherii. VoL I., with Photograph of Author. 8vo, pp. cbudL and 
168, cloth. 1877. 14s. 

HITRA.— Buddha Gata : The Hermitage of S4kya Muni By Bajendralala Mitra, 
LL.D., CLE., &c. 4to, pp. xvi and 258, with 61 Plates, cloth. 1879. £3. 

MOOATTA.— Moral Biblical Gleanings and Practical Teachings, niastrated 
by Biographical Sketches Drawn from the Sacred Volume. By J. L. Mocatta. 
8vo, pp. viii. and 446, cloth. 1872. 78. 

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PIOCIOTTO.— Sketches of Anolo- Jewish History. By James Picciotto. Demy 
8vo, pp. xi. and 420, cloth. 1875. 12s. 

PIESSE. —Chemistry in the BrewiNO-Room : being the substance of a Course of 
Lessons to Practical Brewers. With Tables of Alcohol, Extract, and Original 
Gravity. By Charles H. Piesse, F.C.S., Public Analyst. Fcap., pp. viii. and 62, 
cloth. 1877. 5s. 

PIRY.— Lb Saint Edit, Etddb de Litterature Chinoise. Pr^par^e par A. 
Tli^ophile Piry, du Service des Douanes Maritimes de Chine. 4to, pp. xx. and 
320, cloth. 1879. 21s. 

PLAYFAIB.— The Cities and Towns of China. A Geographical Dictionary. 
By G. M. H. Playfair, of Her Majesty's Consular Service in China. 8vo, pp. 
506, cloth. 1879. £1, 5s. 

PLINY.— The Letters of Pliny the Younoer. Translated by J. D. Lewis, M. A., 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Post 8vo, pp. vii. and 390, cloth. 1879. 5s. 

PLUMPTRE.— Kino's College Lectures on Elocution ; on the Physiology and 
Culture of Voice and Speech and the Expression of the Emotions by Language, 
Countenance, and Gesture. To which is added a Special Lecture on the Causes 
and Cure of the Impediments of Speech. Being the substance of the Introduc- 
tory Course of Lectures annually delivered by Charles John Plumptre, Lecturer 
on Public Reading and Speaking at King's College, London, in the Evening 
Classes Department. Dedicated by permission to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. 
New and greatly Enlarged Illustrated Edition. Post 8vo, pp. xvi. and 488, cloth. 
1880. 15s. 

PLUMPTRE.— General Sketch op the History of Pantheism. By C. E. 
Plumptre. Vol. I., from the Earliest Times to the Age of Spinoza; Vol. II., 
from the Age of Spinoza to the Commencement of the 19th Century. 2 vols 
demy 8vo, pp. viii and 395 ; iv. and 348, cloth. 1881. 18s. 

POLB.— The Philosophy op Music. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library. 
Vol XL 

PONSARD.— Charlotte Corday. A Tragedy. By F. Ponsard. Edited, with Eng- 
lish Notes and Notice on Ponsard, by Professor C. Cassal, LL.D. 12mo, pp. xi. 
and 133, cloth. 1867. 2s. 6d. 

PONSARD.— L'HONNEUR BT L' Argent. A Comedy. By Francois Ponsard. Edited, 
wifch English Notes and Memoir of Ponsard, by Professor C. Cassal, LL.D. Fcap. 
8vo, pp. xvi. and 172, cloth. 1869. 38. 6d. 

Digitized by 


52 A CatcUogue 0/ Important Works, 


Fbanoi, Bbloium, Holland, and the Rhine. Ig.— Italian Lakes. Is.— Wnr- 
TEEiNO Places of the South. 2i.— Switzerland, Savoy, and North Italy. 
2i. 6d.—GKNERAL Continental Guide. 5s.— Geneva. Is.- Paris. Is.— Ber- 
nese Oberland. Is.— Italy. 4s. 

PBATt!— A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Lanouaok By Rev. 
George Pratt, Forty Tears a Missionary of the London Missionary Society in 
Samoa. Second Edition. Edited by Bev. S. J. Whitmee, F.B.G.S. Crown 
8vo, pp. viii and 380, cloth. 1878. 18s. 

QUnfET.— The Religious Revolution of the Nineteenth Century. From the 
French of Edgar Quinet. Fcap. 8vo, pp. xL and 70, parchment. 18SL Is. 6d. 

QUIMBT.— Edgar Quinet. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, YoL XIY. 

RAM BAZ.— Essay on the Architbcture of the Hindus. By Ram Bar, Native 
Judge and Magistrate of Bangalore, Corr. Mem. R.A.S. With 48 Plates. 4to, 
pp. xiv. and 64, sewed. 1834. £2, 28. 

RAMSAT.— Tabular List of all the Austrauan Birds at present known to 
the Author, showing the distribution of the species. By E. P. Ramsay, F.L.S., 
&c., Curator of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 8vo, pp. 36, and Map ; boards. 
1878. 58. 

RAND, M*NALLY, ft CO.'S Business Atlas of the United States, Canada, and 
West Indian Islands. With a Complete Reference Map of the World, Ready 
Reference Index, &c., of all Post Offices, Railroad Stations, and Yillages in the 
United States and Canada. With Official Census. 4to, pp. 212, cloth. 188L 
£2, 12s. 6d. 

BABK.— Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Tongue, from the Danish of Erasmm 
Rask. By Benjamin Thorpe. Third Edition, corrected and improved, with 
Plate. Post 8vo, pp. vi. and 192, cloth. 1879. 5s. 6d. 

BASK.— A Short Tractate on the Lons^evity ascribed to the Patriarchs in the 
Book of Genesis, and its relation to the Hebrew Chronolo^; the Flood, the 
Exodus of the Israelites, the Site of Eden, &c. From the Danish of the late 
Professor Rask, with his manuscript corrections, and large additions from hii 
autograph, now for the first time printed. With a Map of Paradise and the 
circumjacent Lands. Crown 8vo, pp. 134, doth. 1863. 2s. 6d. 

RATtON.— A Handrook of Common Salt. By J. J. L. Ratton, M.D., M.C., 
Surgeon, Madras Army. 8vo, pp. xviiL and 282, cloth. 1879.* 7s. 6d. 

RAVENSTEIM.— The Russians on the Amur ; its Discovery, Conquest, and Colo- 
nization, with a Description of the Country, its Inhabitants, I^oductions, and 
Commercial Capabilities, and Personal Accounts of Russian Travellers. By £. 0. 
Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. With 4 tinted Lithographs and 3 Maps. 8vo, pp. 500, 
cloth. 186L 15s. 

RAVENSTEIM AMD HULLET.— The Gtmnasium and its FnTiNOS. By £. G. 
Ravenstein and John Hulley. With 14 Plates of Illustrations. 8vo, pp. 32, 
sewed. 1867. 2s. 6d. 

RAVEMSTEIM.— On Phtsioal Education : with special reference to our Elemea* 
tary Schools. Prize Essay. By E. G. Ravenstein, F.S.S., F.R.G.S., &c. Crown 
8vo, pp. 20, sewed. 1874. 6d. 

Digitized by 


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RAVEETY.— Notes on Afghanistan and Part of Baluchistan, Geographical, 
Ethnographical, and Historical, extracted from the Writings of little known 
Afghan, and Tajyik Historians, &c., &c., and from Personal Observation. By 
Major H. G. Raverty, Bombay Native Infantry (Retired). Foolscap folio. Sec- 
tions I. and II., pp. 98, wrapper. 1880. 28. Section III., pp. vi. and 218. 

1881. 5s. 

RBADE.— The Mabtyrdom of Man. By Winwood Reade. Fifth Edition. 
Crown 8vo, pp. viii and 544, cloth. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

RECORD OFFICE.— A Separate Catalogue of the Official Publications of 
TEDS Public Record Office, on sale by Triibner k Co., may be had on application. 

RECORDS OF THE HEART. By Stella, Author of "Sappho," **The King's 
Stratagem," &c. Second English Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 188, with 
six steel-plate engravings, cloth. 1881. 3s. 6d. 

REDHOUSE.— Tub Turkish Yade-Mecuh of Ottoman Colloquial L^vnguage: 
Containing a Concise Ottoman Grammar; a Carefully Selected Vocabulary 
Alphabetically Arranged, in two Parts, English and Tiurkish, and Turkish and 
English ; Also a few Familiar Dialogues and Naval and Military Terms. The 
whole in English Characters, the Pronunciation being fully indicated. By J. 
W. Redhouse, M.R.A.S. Third Edition. 32mo, pp. viii. and 372, cloth. 

1882. 6s. 

REDHOUSE.— On the History, System, and Varieties of Turkish Poetry. 
Illustrated by Selections in the Original and in English Paraphrase, with a Notice 
of the Islamic Doctrine of the Immortality of Woman's Soul in the Future State. 
By J. W. Redhouse, Esq., M.R.A.S. 8vo, pp. 62, cloth, 28. 6d.; wrapper. Is. 6d. 

REDHOUSE.— The MesnevL See Tnibner's Oriental Series. 

RBEMEUN.— A CRITICAL REVIEW of American Politics. By C. Reemelin, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Demy 8vo, pp. xziv. and 630, cloth. 1881. 14s. 

RENAM.— An Essay on the Age and Antiquity of the Book of Nabatha^n 
Agriculture. To which is added an Inaugural Lecture on the Position of the 
Shemitic Nations in the History of Civilisation. By Ernest Renan. Crown 8vo, 
pp. xvL and 148, cloth. 1862. 3s. 6d. 

RENAN.— The Life OF Jesus. By Ernest Renan. Authorised English Translation. 
Crown 8vo, pp. xii and 312, cloth. 2s. 6d. ; sewed. Is. 6d. 

RENAN.— The Apostles. By Ernest Renan. Translated from the original French. 
8vo, pp. viiL and 288, cloth. 1869. 7s. 6d. 

REPORT OF A General Conference of Liberal Thinkers, for the discussion 
of matters pertaining to the religious needs of our time, and the methods of 
meeting them. Held June 13th and 14th, 1878, at South Place Chapel, Finsbury, 
London. 8vo, pp. 77, sewed. 1878. Is. 

RHODES.— Universal Curve Tables for Facilitating the Laying out of 
Circular Arcs on the Ground for Railways, Canals, Ac. Together with 
Table of Tangential Angles and Multiples. By Alexander Rhodes, C.E. Oblong 
18mo, band, pp. ix. and 104, roan. 1881. 58. 

RHTS.— Lectures on Welsh Philology. By John Rhys, M.A., Professor of 
Celtic at Oxford, Honorary Fellow of Jesus College, &c., &c. Second Edition, 
Revised apd EnUrged. Crown 8vo, pp. xiv. and 467, cloth. 1879. 15s. 

Digitized by 


64 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

BIOB.— Mtborb and Cooeo. A Gazetteer compiled for the Government of India. 
By Lewis Kice, Director of Public Instruction, Mysore and Goorg. Vol. I. 
Mysore in General. With 2 Coloured Maps. VoL IL Mysore, by Districts. 
With 10 Coloured Maps. Vol. III. Coorg. With a Map. 3 vols, royal 8to, 
pp. xii. 670 and xvi. ; 544 and xxii. ; and 4^ and xxvii., cloth. 1878. 25s. 

BICE.— BItsobe Insoriftions. Translated for the Government by Lewis Rice. 
8vo, pp. xcii. and 336--xxx., with a Frontispiece and Map, boards. 1879. dOs. 

BIDLET.— KiCMiLABdi, and otheb Australian Languages. By the Bev. William 
Bidle^, B.A. Second Edition, revised and enlarged by the author; with com- 
parative Tables of Words from twenty Australian Languages, and Songs, Tradi- 
tions, Iaws, and Customs of the Australian Bace. Small 4to, pp. vi. and 172, cloth. 
1877. 10s. 6d. 

lUO-VEDA-SANHITA. A Collection of Ancient Hindu Hymns. Constituting the 1st 
to the 8th Ashtakas, or Books of the Rig- Veda ; the oldest authority for the Reli- 
gious and Social Institutions of the Hindus. Translated from the Original San- 
skrit. By the late H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.B.S., &c., &c. 
Vol. I. 8to, pp. lit and 348, cloth. 21s. 
VoL II. 8vo, pp. XXX. and 346, cloth. 1854. 21s. 
Vol. IIL 8vo, pp. xxiv. and 526, cloth. 1857. 218. 
Vol. IV. Edited by E. B. Cowell, M.A. 8vo, pp. 214, cloth. 1866. 14s. 
Vols. V. and VI. in the Press. 

BILET.— MEDI.EVAL Chronicles op the Citt op London. Chronicles of the Mayors 
and Sheriffs of London, and the Events which happened in their Days, from the 
Tear A.D. 1188 to a.d. 1274. Translated from the original Latin of the **Liber 
de Antiquis Legibus '* (published by the Camden Society), in the possession of the 
Corporation of the City of London ; attributed to Arnold Fitz-Thedmar, Alder- 
man of London in the Beign of Henry III.— Chronicles of London, and of the 
Marvels therein, between the Years 44 Henry III., A.D. 1260, and 17 Edward IIL, 
A.D. 1343. Translated from the original Anglo-Norman of the "Croniquesde 
London,*' preserved in the Cottouian Collection (Cleopatra A. iv.) in the JBiitish 
Museum. Translated, with copious Notes and Appendices, b^ Henry Thomas 
Biley, M.A., Clare Hall, Cambridge, Barrister-at-Law. 4to, pp. xii. and 319, cloth. 
1863. 12s. 

BIOLA. —How TO Learn Russian : a Manual for Students of Bussian, based upon 
the GUendorffian System of Teaching Languages, and adapted for Self-Instruc- 
tion. By Henry Riola, Teacher of the Russian Language. With a Preface by 
W.R.S. Ralston, M. A. Crown 8vo, pp. 576, cloth. 1878. 12s. 
Ejsy to the above. Crown 8vo, pp. 126, cloth. 1878. 5s. 

BIOLA — A Graduated Russian Reader, with a Vocabulary of all the Bussian 
Words contained in it. By Henry Biola, Author of " How to Learn Bussian.** 
Crown 8vo, pp. viii and 314, cloth. 1879. 10s. 6d. 

BIPLE7.— Sacred Bhetorio ; or. Composition and Delivery of Sermons. By 
Henry I. Bipley. 12mo, pp. 234, cloth. 1858. 2s. 6d. 

ROCHE.— A French Grammar, for the use of English Students, adopted for the 
Public Schools by the Imperial Council of Public Instruction. By A. Boche. 
Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 176, cloth. 1869. 3s. 

ROCHB.— Prose and Poetry. Select Pieces from the best English Authors, fw 
Beading, Composition, and Translation. By A. Boche. Second Edition. Fcap. 
8vo, pp. viii. and 226, cloth. 1872. 2s. 6d. 

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BODD.— The Birds op Cornwall and the Scillt Islands. By the late Edward 
Hearle Rodd. Edited, with an Introduction, Appendix, and Memoir, by J. £. 
Harting. 8vo, pp. IvL and 320, with Portrait and Map, cloth. 1880. 148. 

BOGEBS.— The Waverlet Dictionary: An Alphabetical Armngeraetit of all the 
Characters in Sir Walter Scott's "Waverley Novels, with a Descriptive Analysis 
of each Character, and Illustrative Selections from the Text. By May Rogers. 
12mo, pp. 358, cloth. 1879. 10s. 

BOSS.— Alphabetical Manual op Blowpipe Axaltsts; showing all known 
Methods, Old and New. Bv Lieut. -Colonel W. A. Ross, late R.A., Member of 
the German Chemical Society (Author of "Pyrology, or Fire Chemistry'*). 
Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 148, cloth. 1880. 3s. 6d. 

BOSS.— Pyrologt, on Fire Chemistry j a Science interesting to the General Philo- 
sopher, and an Art of infinite importance to the Chemist, Metallurgist, Engineer, 
&c., &c. By W. A. Ross, lately a Major in the Itoyal Artillery. Small 4to, pp. 
xxviii. and 346, cloth. 1875. 36s. 

BOSS.— Celebrities op the Yorkshire Wolds. By Frederick Ross, Fellow of the 
Royal Historical Society. 12mo, pp. 202, cloth. 1878. 4s. 

BOSS.— CoREAN Primer : being Lessons in Corean on all Ordinary Subjects. Trans- 
literated on the principles of the ** Mandarin Primer," by the same author. By 
Rev. John Ross, Newchwang. 8vo, pp. 90, wrapper. 1877. 10s. 

BOSS.— Honour or Shame? By R. S. Ross. 8vo, pp. 183. 1878. Cloth. 3s. 6d ; 
paper, 2s. 6d. 

BOSS.— Removal op the Indian Troops to Malta. By R. S. Ross. 8vo, pp. 77, 
paper. 187a Is. 6d. 

ROSS— The Monk op St. Gall. A Dramatic Adaptation of Scheffel's **Ekke- 
hard." By R. S. Ross.. Crown 8vo, pp. xu. and 218. 1879. Ss. 

BOUGH Notes op Journeys made in the years 1868-1873 in Syria, down the Tigris, 
India, Kashmir, Ceylon, Japan, Mongolia, Siberia, the United States, the Sand- 
wich Islands, and Australasia. Demy 8vo, pp. 624, cloth. 1876. 148. 

ROUSTAING.— The Four Gospels Explained by their Writers. With an 
Appendix on the Ten Commandments. Edited by J. B. Roustaing. Translated 
by W. E. Kirby. 3 vols, crown 8vo, pp. 440-456-304, cloth. 1881. 15s. 

BOUTLEDOE.— English Rule and Native Opinion in India. From Notes taken 
in 1870-74. By James Routledge; 8vo, pp. x. and 338, cloth. 1878. 10s. 6d. 

ROWLEY.— Ornithological Miscellany. By George Rowley Dawson, M. A., F.Z.S. 
Vol. I. Part 1, 15s.— Part 2, 208.— Part 3, 15s.— Part 4, 20s. 
Vol IT. Part 5, 20s.— Part 6, 203.— Part 7, 10s. 6d.— Part 8, 10s. 6d.— Part 9, 
10s. 6d. -Part 10, 10s. 6d. 
Vol. III. Part 11, lOs. 6d.— P;.rt 12, lOs. 6d.— Part 13, lOs. 6d.--Part 14, 20s. 

BOTAL S0CIET7 OF LONDON (The).— Catalogue op Scibntipic Papers (1800- 
1863), Compiled and Published by the Royal Society of London. Demy 4to, 
cloth, per vol. £1 ; in half-morocco, £1, 8s. Vol. I. (1867), A to Clueel. pp. 
Ixxix. and 960; Vol. II. (1863), Coaklay— Graydon. pp. iv. and 1012; Vol 
IIL (1869), GreAtheed-Leze. pp. v. and 1002 ; Vol. IV. (1870), L'H^ritier de 
Brutille— Pozzetti. pp. iv. and 1006 ; VoL V. (1871), Praag— Tizzani. pp. iv, 
and 1000 ; Vol. VI. (1872), Tkalec— Zylius, Anonymous and Additions, pp. xi. 
and 763. Continuation of above (1864-1873) ; Vol. VII. (1877), A to Hyrtl. pp. 
xxxi. and 1047 ; Vol. VIII. (1879), Ibafiez-Zwicky. pp. 1310. A List of the 
Publications of the Royal Society (Separate Papers from the Philosophical 
Transactions), on application. 

Digitized by 


66 A CcUalogue of Imj^orlant Wo7'k8y 

RUNDALL.— A SHORT AND East Wat to Write English as Spoken. Method* 
Rapide et Facile d*Eciire le Franfais comme on le Parle. Korze und Leichte 
Weise Dentsoh za Schreiben wie man e« Spricht. By J. B. Kundall, Certificated 
Member of the London Shorthand Writen Association. 6d. each. 

RUTHERFORD.— The Autobioorapht of Mark Rutherford, Dissenting Minister. 
£dite<l by his friend, Reaben Shapcott. Crown 8\ro, pp. xii. and 180, boards. 
1881. 5s. 

fliMAVIDHiHABR&HlIANA (The) (being the Third Brihmana) of the S&ma Veda. 
Edited, together with the Commentary of S4yana, an English Translation, Intro- 
duction, and Index of Words, by A. C. Bamell. VoL L Text and Commentary, 
with Introduction. Demy 8\ro, pp. xxxviii. and 104, doth. 1873. 12s. 6d. 

SAMUELSON.— History of Drink. A Review, Social, Scientific, and PoliticaL By 
James Samuelson, of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law. Second Edition. 
8vo, pp. xxTiii and 288, doth. 1880. 6s. 

SAND.— MoliArb. a Drama in Prose. By George Sand. Edited, with Notes, by 
Th. Karcher, LL.a 12mo, pp. xx. and 170, cloth. 1868. 3s. 6d. 

SARTORIUS.— Mexico. Landscapes and Popular Sketches. By C. Sartorins. 
Edited by Dr. Gaspey. With Engravings, from Sketches by M. Rugendas. 4to, 
pp. vi. and 202, cl(»th gilt. 1859. 18s. 

SATOW.^An Enoush Japanese Dictionart of the Spoken Language. By 
Ernest Mason Satow, Japanese Secretaiy to H.M. Legation at Yedo, and Ishibashi 
Masakata of the Imperial Japanese Foreign Office. Second Edition. Imperial 
32mo, pp. XY. and 416, cloth. 1879. 12s. 6d. 

SAVAGE.— The Morals of Evolution. Bv M. J. Savage, Author of *' The Reli- 
gion of Evolution," Ac. Crown 8vo, pp. 192, cloth. 1880. 6s. 

SAVAOB.— Belief in God; an Examination of some Fundamental Theistic Pro- 
blems. By M. J. Savage. To which is added an Address on the Intellectual Basis 
of Faith. By W. H. Savage. 8vo, pp. 176, cloth. 188L 5s. 

8ATCB.— An Asstrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes. By A. H. Sayce. 
M. A., Fellow and Tutor of Queen s College, Oxford. Crown 8vo, pp. xvL and 
188, cloth. 1872. 7s. 6d. 

SATCE.— The Principles of Comparative Philology. By A. H. Sayce, MA 
Crown 8vo, pp. 384, cloth. 1874. 10s. 6d. 

8CHAIBLB.— An Essat on the Ststematio Training of the Bodt. By C. H. 
Sohaible, M.D., &c., Ac. A Memorial Essay, Published on the occasion of the 
first Centenary Festival of Frederick L. Jalin, with an Etching by H. Herkomer. 
Crown 8vo, pp. xviii. and 124, cloth. 1878. 58. 

SCHILLER.— The Bride of Messina. Translated from the German of Schiller in 
English Verse. By Emily Allfrey. Crown 8vo, pp. viii and 110, cloth. 1876. 2m, 

SCHLAOIkt w JSiT. —Buddhism in Tibet : Illustrated by Literary Documents and 
Objects of Religious Worship. By Emil Schlagintweit, LL.D. With a folio Atlas 
of 20 Plates, and 20 Tables of Native Print in the Text. Roy. 8vo, pp. xxiv. and 
404. 1863. £2, 2s. 

SCHLEICHER.— A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo- 
European, Sanserit, Greek, and Latin Languages. By August Schleicher. 
Translated from the Third German Edition, by Herbert Bendall, B.A,, Chr. 
Coll., Camb. 8vo. Part L, Phonology. Pp.184, cloth. 1874. 7s. 6d. Part II., 
Morphology. Pp. viii. and 104, cloth. 1877. Cs. 

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SJHULTZ.— Universal Dollar Tables (Complete United States). Coyering all 
£xchauges between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, 
Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and Germany. By C. W. H. Schultz. 8vo, cloth. 
1874. 15s. 

SCHULTZ. —Universal Interest and General Percentage Tables. On the 
Decimal System. With a Treatise on the Currency of the World, and numerous 
examples for Self-Instruction. By C. W. H. Schultz. Svo, doth. 1874. 10s. 6d. 

SCHULTZ.— English German Exchange Tables. By C. W. H. Schultz. With » 
Treatise on the Currency of the World. Svo, boards. 1874. 5s. 

SCHWENDLBR.— Instructions for Testing Telegraph Lines, and the Technical 
Arrangements in Offices. Written on behalf of the Government of India, under 
the Orders of the Director-General of Telegraphs in India. By Louis Schwen- 
dler. VoL I., demy 8 vo, pp. 248, cloth. 1878. 128. Vol IL, demy 8vo, pp. xi. 
and 268, cloth. 3880. 9s. 

8C00NE8.— Faust. A Tragedy. By Goethe. Translated into English Verse, by Dalton Scoones. Fcap., pp. vi and 230, clpth. 1879. 5s. 

SCOTT.— The English Life of Jesus. By Thomas Scott. Crown 8vo, pp. zxviii. 
and 350, cloth. 1879. 2s. 6d. • 

SCOTUS.— A Note on Mr. Gladstone's ** The Peace to Come.** By Scotus. 8vo, 
pp. 106. 1878. Cloth, 2s. 6d ; paper wrapper, Is. 6d. 

SELL.— The Faith op Islah. By the Rev. E. Sell, Fellow of the University of 
Madras. Demy 8vo, pp. xiv. and 270, cloth. 1881. 6s. 6d. 

SEL8S.— Goethe's Minor Poems. Selected, Annotated , and Rearranged. By Albert 
M. Selss, Ph.D. Crown 8vo, pp. xxxL and 152, cloth. 1875. 3s. 6d. 

SERMONS NEVER PREACHED. By Philip Phosphor. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 124, 
cloth. 187a 28. 6d. 

SE WELL. —Report on the Amaravati Tope, and Excavations on its Site in 1877. 
By Robert Sewell, of the Madras C.S., &c. With four plates. Royal 4to, pp. 
70, boards. 1880. 3s. 

SHADWELL.— A Ststui of Political Economt. By John Lancelot Shad well. 
8vo, pp. 650, cloth. 1877. 18s. 

SHADWELL.— Political Economy for the People. By John Lancelot Shad well. 
Author of **A System of Political Economy.*' Reprinted from the "Labour 
News.'* Fcap., pp. vL and 154, limp cloth. 1880. Is. 6d. 

SHAKESPEARE'S Centurie of Pratsb ; being Materials for a History of Opinion 
on Shakespeare and his Works, culled from Writers of the First Century after 
his Rise. By C. At Ingleby. Medium 8vo, pp. xx. and 384. Stiff cover. 1874. 
£1, Is. Large paper, fcap. 4to, boards. £2, 2s. 

SHAKESPEARE.— Hermbnedtics ; OR, The Still Lion. Being an Essay towards 
the Restoration of Shakespeare's Text. By C. M. Ingleby, M.A., LL.D., of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Small 4to, pp. 168, boards. 1875. 6s. 

SHAKESPEARE.— The Man and the Book. By C. M. Ingleby, M.A., LL.D. 
8vo. Part I. 6b. 

SHAKESPEARE.— Occasional Papers on Shakespeare ; being the Second Part 
of ''Shakespeare: the Man and the Book." By C. M. Ingleby, M.A., LL.D., 
V.P.R.S.L. Small 4to, pp. x. and 194, paper boards. 188L 6a. 

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68 A Ciilaloijue of Im^ orUini JForks, 

8HAKB8PBABB.— A New Variorum Edition of Shakbspeark. Edited by Horace 
Howard Famess. Royal 8vo. Vol. L Komeo and Juliet. Pp. xxiii. and 480, 
cloth. 1871. 18a.— VoL II. Macbeth. Pp. xix. and 492. 1873. 18s.— Vola. 
III. and IV. Hamlet. 2 vols. pp. xx. and 474 and 430. 1877. 368.— Vol V. 
King Lear. Pp. vL and 504. 1680. 18^. 

8HAKB8PBABB.— Concordance to Shakespearb^s Poems. By Mrs. H. H, Fur- 
neM. Royal 8vo, cloth. I89. 

8HAX3PERB 80CIBT7 (The New). — Subscripfeiuu, One Guinea per annum. List of 
Publications on application. 

8HEBBIN0.— The Sacbed Citt of the Hindus. An Account of Benares in 
Ancient and Modem Times. By the Rev. M. A. Sherring, MA., LL.D. ; and 
Prefaced with an Introduction by FitzEdward Hall, D.C.L. With Illustrations. 
8vo, pp. xxxyL and 388, doth. 21s. 

SHKRItlNQ.— Hindu Tribes and Castes; together with an Account of the 
Mohamedan Tribes of the North- West Frontier and of the Aboriginal Tribes of 
the Central Provinces. By the Rev. M. A. Sherring, M.A., LL.B., Lond., &c 
4to. VoLII. Pp. Ixviii and 376, cloth. 1879. £2, 88.— Vol. IIL, with Index of 
3 vols. Pp. xii and 336, cloth. 1881. 328. 

8HERBIN0.— The Hindoo Pilgrims. By Rev. M. A. Sherring, M.A., LL.D. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 126, cloth. 1878. 58. 

SHIELDS.— The Final Philosopht ; or. System of Perfectible Knowledge issuing 
from the Harmony of Science and Religion. By Charles W. Shields, D.D., Pro- 
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Essays on the Sacred Language, Wbitinos, and Religion of 
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A Sketch of the Modern Languages of the East Indies. Accom- 
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The Birth of the War-God: A Poem. By K41ida8&. Translated 
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A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and History, Geo- 
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The Life or Legend of Gaudama, the Buddha of the Burmese. With 
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The MbsnevI (usually known as the Mesneviyi Sherif, or Holy MesnevI) 
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of Characteristic Anecdotes as collected by their Historian MevlanS, 
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Eastern Problems and Emblems iLLUSTHATiNa Old Truths. By the 
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The Quatrains of Omar Khayyam. A New Translation. By E. H. 
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T6suF AND ZULAIKHA. A Poem by JamL Translated from the Persian 
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TsUNi— IiGOAif : The Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi By Thecphihis 
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154. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

Sale's Preliminary Discourse, with Additional Notes and Emendations. 
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Buddhist Bbcobds of the Westebm World, being the Si-Yu-Ei by 
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sor of Chinese, University College, London. In 2 vols. 
Obiental Bblioioks in theib. Bblation to Univebsal Belioion. By 
Samuel Johnson. First Section — India. Second Section — China. Id 
The Odes of Haifz. Being a Complete Metrical Translation of the 
Works of the Great Lyric Poet of Persia. By E. H. Palmer, M.A, 
Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. 
Indian Tales fbom Tibetan SouboeS. Translated from tiie Tibetan 
into German, with Introductions by Anton Schiefner, of the Imperial 
Academy of St. Petez«burg. Bendued into Rnglish, with Notes, by W. 
B. S. Balston. 
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VATTANA SUTRA.— See AuCTORBS Sanskriti, Vol. III. 

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WATSON.— Index to the Native and Scientific Names of Indian and othee 
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WEDGWOOD.— On the Development op the Xj^jderstanding. By H. Wedewood 
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WBDOWOOD.— The Geometry of the Thbeb Fibst Books of Euclid. By Direct 
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WEDGWOOD.— On the Obioin of Lahouaqb. By H. Wedgwood, M.A. 12nio, 
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WEDGWOOD. —A DiOTiONABT OF English Bttmoloot. By H. Wedgwood. 
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WEISBAOH.— Theobetioal Meohanios : A Manual of the Mechanics of Engineer- 
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WELLER.— An Impeoved Diotionabt ; English and French, and French and Eng- 
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WEST and BUHLEB.— A Digest of the Hindu Law op Inhebitance and Parti- 
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and J. G. Biihler. Second Edition. Demy 8vo, 674 pp., sewed. 1879. £1, lis. 6d. 

WETHERELL.— The Manufaotubb of Vineoab, its Theory and Practice; with 
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WHEELDON.— Angling Rbsobts neab TjONDON : The Thames and the Lea. By J. 
P. Wheeldon, Piscatorial Correspondent to " Bell's life." Crown 8vo, pp. viii. 
and 218. 1878. Paper, Is. 6d. 

WHEELER.— The Histobt of India fbom the Eabliest Ages. By J. Talboys 
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III. Hindu, Buddhist, Brahmanical Revival. Pp. xxiv.-i500. With 2 Maps, 
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IV. Part 1. Mussulman Rule. Pp. xxxii.-320. 1876. 14s. Vol. IV., Part II., 
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WHEELER.— Bablt Recobds of Beitish India : A History of the English Settle- 
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and other Contemporary Documents, from the earliest period down to the rise of 
British Power in India. By J. Talboys Wheeler, late Assistant Secretary to the 
Government of India in the Foreign Department. Royal 8vo, pp. luxii. and 392. 
cloth. 1878. 15s. 

WHEELER.— The Foeeignee in China. By L. N. Wheeler, D.D. With Intro- 
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WHERRY.— A Compeehensive Commentabt to the Quean. To which is prefixed 
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WHINFXELD.-Ste Qulbhah L Baz. 


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WHRHBT.— LAKauAOB and the Study of Lakouaoe : Twelve Lectures on the 
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Grown 8yo, pp. zxii and 318, cloth. 1880. 5s. 

WHITNET.—Oriental and Linguistic Studies. By W. D. Whitney. First Series. 
Grown 8vo, pp. x. and 420, doth. 1874. 12s. Second Series. Grown 8vo, pp. xiL 
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WHITNET.— A Sanskbit Grahmab, including both the Glassical Language and the 
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of Sanskrit and Gomparatiye Philology in Yale Gollege, Newhaven, &c., kc. 
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WHITWBLL.— Iron Smelter's Pocket Analysis Book. By Thomas Whitwdl, 
Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, kc. Oblong 12mo, pp. 152, 
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WILKINSOK.— The Saint's Travel to the Land of Ganaan. Wherein aro dis- 
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B. Wilkinson. Printed 1648 ; reprinted 1874. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 208, cloth. Is. 6d. 

WILLTAMB.— The Middle Kinodobl A Survey of the Geography, Government, 
Education, &c., of the Ghinese Empire. By S. W. WiUloms. New Edition. 
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WILLIAMS.— A Syllabic Diotionart of the Ghinese Lanouaoe ; arranged ac- 
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heard in Pekin, Ganton, Amoy, and ShanghsuL By S. Wells Williams, LL.D. 
4to,pp. 1336. 1874. £5.58. 

WILLIAMS.— Modern India and the Indians. See Triibneiis Oriental Series. 

WILSON.— Works of the late Horace Hathan Wilson, M.A.. F.B.S., &c. 

Vols. I. and II. Essays and Lectures chiefly on the Beligion of the Hindus, by 
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Vols. VI., VII., VIIL, IX., and X. (2 parts). Vishnu Pur4ni, a System of Hindu 
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Vols. XI. and XIL Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus. TransUted 
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WITHERS.— The English LANauAas as Pbonounobd. By G. Withers, Royal 
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WOOD.— Chbonos. Mother Earth's Biography. A Romance of the New School. 
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